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Sample records for trifluoride etherate a convenient

  1. A convenient procedure for the synthesis of allyl and benzyl ethers ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Allyl and benzyl groups are commonly employed for the protection of alcohol and phenol moieties for ease of synthesis and convenient deprotection. Allyl and benzyl ethers are also intermediates in sigmatropic rearrangement reactions such as the Claisen and the. Cope rearrangements. Allyl ethers can be prepared from ...

  2. A Convenient and Efficient Method for Demethylation of Aryl Methyl Ethers with Magnesium Iodide in Ionic Liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwan Soo; Kim, Kee D.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a new and efficient method for the demethylation of various types of aryl methyl ethers using readily available, stable, and easily handled magnesium iodide in [BMIM]BF 4 ionic liquid. Owing to its simplicity and mild reaction conditions the protocol reported herein may serve as a useful alternative to the existing methods for the deprotection of aryl methyl ethers to the corresponding phenolic derivatives. Demethylation of aryl methyl ethers to the corresponding phenols are very important reactions in organic synthesis. A number of methods have been reported for the cleavage of highly stable aryl methyl ethers utilizing strong acids or bases such as aluminum chloride, boron tribromide, cerium chloride, alkaline thiolate, methyl magnesium iodide, and L-Selectride. However, all of these methods invariably suffered from one or more drawbacks such as harsh reaction conditions, long reaction times, difficulty of manipulation, use of exotic reagents, and low reaction yields. Furthermore, in the most of known methods for demethylation of aryl methyl ethers, use of large excess amounts of demethylating agents have been generally required. Thus, it is highly desirable to develop an improved convenient and efficient procedure for demethylation reactions of aryl methyl ethers

  3. A Convenient and Efficient Method for Demethylation of Aryl Methyl Ethers with Magnesium Iodide in Ionic Liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwan Soo [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kee D. [Sangji University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    We have developed a new and efficient method for the demethylation of various types of aryl methyl ethers using readily available, stable, and easily handled magnesium iodide in [BMIM]BF{sub 4} ionic liquid. Owing to its simplicity and mild reaction conditions the protocol reported herein may serve as a useful alternative to the existing methods for the deprotection of aryl methyl ethers to the corresponding phenolic derivatives. Demethylation of aryl methyl ethers to the corresponding phenols are very important reactions in organic synthesis. A number of methods have been reported for the cleavage of highly stable aryl methyl ethers utilizing strong acids or bases such as aluminum chloride, boron tribromide, cerium chloride, alkaline thiolate, methyl magnesium iodide, and L-Selectride. However, all of these methods invariably suffered from one or more drawbacks such as harsh reaction conditions, long reaction times, difficulty of manipulation, use of exotic reagents, and low reaction yields. Furthermore, in the most of known methods for demethylation of aryl methyl ethers, use of large excess amounts of demethylating agents have been generally required. Thus, it is highly desirable to develop an improved convenient and efficient procedure for demethylation reactions of aryl methyl ethers.

  4. Conversion of dimethyl ether--boron trifluoride complex to potassium fluoborate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, A.R.

    1957-06-18

    A method of preparing KBF/sub 4/ from the dimethyl ether complex of BF/sub 3/ is given. This may be accomplished by introducing the dimethyl ether complex of BF/sub 3/ into an aqueous solution of KF and alcohol, expelling the ether liberated from the complex by heating or stirring and recovering the KBF/sub 4/ so formed. The KBF/sub 4/ is then filtered from the alcohol-water solution, which may be recycled, to reduce the loss of KBF/sub 4/ which is not recovered by filtration.

  5. A convenient procedure for the synthesis of allyl and benzyl ethers ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    (scheme 1). Even though benzyl protection on a carbohydrate substrate was previously carried out with benzyl chloride in the presence of potassium hydroxide pellets 9, the scope of the reaction was not fully explored. While our work was in progress, Bogdal and coworkers recently reported 10 solvent-free allyl and benzyl ...

  6. Conjugated and fluorescent polymer based on dansyl-substituted pyrrole prepared by electrochemical polymerization in acetonitrile containing boron trifluoride diethyl etherate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Andresa K.A.; Dias, Jéssica M.M.; Silva, Ana Julia C.; Santos, Diego P.; Navarro, Marcelo; Tonholo, Josealdo; Goulart, Marília O.F.; Ribeiro, Adriana S.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A fluorescent pyrrole derivative bearing a dansyl substituent (PyPDG) was synthesized. • PyPDG was electropolymerized onto ITO in (C 4 H 9 ) 4 NBF 4 /CH 3 CN/BFEE mixed electrolyte. • The resulting polymer (PPyPDG) films displayed electrochromic behavior. • PPyPDG is a good green light emitter material. - Abstract: A fluorescent pyrrole derivative bearing a dansyl substituent was prepared by a simple synthetic route and electropolymerized onto Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) electrodes. The presence of the dansyl group in the monomer precursor prevents the electropolymerization in usual systems, such as (C 4 H 9 ) 4 NBF 4 in acetonitrile (CH 3 CN). For this reason, it was added 20% boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BFEE) to this system, to achieve electropolymerization. The resulting poly[3-(N-pyrrolyl)propyl dansylglycinate] (PPyPDG) films displayed electrochromic behavior. Their color varied from greenish-yellow, in the neutral state, to greyish-green, in the oxidized state; moreover PPyPDG is a good green light emitter material. Therefore, PPyPDG films might be potentially applicable in displays and optoelectronic devices

  7. Chlorine trifluoride (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, L.M.; Gillardeau, J.

    1963-01-01

    This monograph on chlorine trifluoride may be considered as a working tool useful in gaseous diffusion research. It consists of data gathered from the literature and includes furthermore a certain amount of original data. This monograph groups together the physical, chemical and physiological properties of chlorine trifluoride, as well as the preparation and analytical methods. It has been thought wise to add some technological information, and the safety regulations governing its use. (authors) [fr

  8. Pricing a Convenience Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Andre

    1980-01-01

    Discusses a study undertaken by the Nottingham University Consumer Study Group to determine market operation for popular convenience foods in England. Information is presented on distribution of purchases, brand loyalties of respondents to a questionnaire regarding convenience foods, and market fluctuation due to inflation. (Author/DB)

  9. An Improved Plutonium Trifluoride Precipitation Flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, H.D.

    2001-06-26

    This report discusses results of the plutonium trifluoride two-stage precipitation study. A series of precipitation experiments was used to identify the significant process variables affecting precipitation performance. A mathematical model of the precipitation process was developed which is based on the formation of plutonium fluoride complexes. The precipitation model relates all process variables, in a single equation, to a single parameter which can be used to control the performance of the plutonium trifluoride precipitation process. Recommendations have been made which will optimize the FB-Line plutonium trifluoride precipitation process.

  10. Two-stage precipitation of cerium trifluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luerkens, D.W.

    1984-04-01

    Cerium was used as a surrogate for plutonium in studies of the solubility and precipitation of the trifluoride salt. Cerium trifluoride was precipitated using a two-stage precipitation system. A series of precipitation experiments were used to identify the significant process variables affecting precipitate characteristics. A mathematical precipitation model was developed which is based on the formation of cerium fluoride complexes. The precipitation model relates all process variables, in a single equation, to a single parameter which can be used to control particle characteristics. 11 references, 9 figures, 8 tables

  11. Nitrogen Trifluoride-Based Fluoride- Volatility Separations Process: Initial Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, Bruce K.; Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2011-09-28

    This document describes the results of our investigations on the potential use of nitrogen trifluoride as the fluorinating and oxidizing agent in fluoride volatility-based used nuclear fuel reprocessing. The conceptual process uses differences in reaction temperatures between nitrogen trifluoride and fuel constituents that produce volatile fluorides to achieve separations and recover valuable constituents. We provide results from our thermodynamic evaluations, thermo-analytical experiments, kinetic models, and provide a preliminary process flowsheet. The evaluations found that nitrogen trifluoride can effectively produce volatile fluorides at different temperatures dependent on the fuel constituent.

  12. Using a Premade Grignard Reagent to Synthesize Tertiary Alcohols in a Convenient Investigative Organic Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Michael A. G.; Pointer, Roy D.

    2007-01-01

    A commercially available Grignard reagent (3.0 M solution of phenyl magnesium bromide in ether) was used in a convenient Grignard synthesis in a second-year organic chemistry laboratory without any of the typical failures associated with the Grignard reaction. The reaction setup used oven-dried glassware and no extraordinary measures were taken to…

  13. Discovery of 4-tert-butyl-2,6-dimethylphenylsulfur trifluoride as a deoxofluorinating agent with high thermal stability as well as unusual resistance to aqueous hydrolysis, and its diverse fluorination capabilities including deoxofluoro-arylsulfinylation with high stereoselectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, Teruo; Singh, Rajendra P; Xu, Yong; Saito, Norimichi

    2010-12-29

    Versatile, safe, shelf-stable, and easy-to-handle fluorinating agents are strongly desired in both academic and industrial arenas, since fluorinated compounds have attracted considerable interest in many areas, such as drug discovery, due to the unique effects of fluorine atoms when incorporated into molecules. This article describes the synthesis, properties, and reactivity of many substituted and thermally stable phenylsulfur trifluorides, in particular, 4-tert-butyl-2,6-dimethylphenylsulfur trifluoride (Fluolead, 1k), as a crystalline solid having surprisingly high stability on contact with water and superior utility as a deoxofluorinating agent compared to current reagents, such as DAST and its analogues. The roles of substituents on 1k in thermal and hydrolytic stability, fluorination reactivity, and the high-yield fluorination mechanism it undergoes have been clarified. In addition to fluorinations of alcohols, aldehydes, and enolizable ketones, 1k smoothly converts non-enolizable carbonyls to CF(2) groups, and carboxylic groups to CF(3) groups, in high yields. 1k also converts C(=S) and CH(3)SC(=S)O groups to CF(2) and CF(3)O groups, respectively, in high yields. In addition, 1k effects highly stereoselective deoxofluoro-arylsulfinylation of diols and amino alcohols to give fluoroalkyl arylsulfinates and arylsulfinamides, with complete inversion of configuration at fluorine and the simultaneous, selective formation of one conformational isomer at the sulfoxide sulfur atom. Considering the unique and diverse properties, relative safety, and ease of handling of 1k in addition to its convenient synthesis, it is expected to find considerable use as a novel fluorinating agent in both academic and industrial arenas.

  14. Meal box schemes as a convenient way to avoid convenience food?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Frej; Halkier, Bente

    2017-01-01

    to categorize meal box schemes as a new form of convenience food called convenient food. In addition, results suggest that meal box schemes reduce leftovers from dinner. Meal boxes also influence dinner related activities such as planning ahead in time and grocery shopping, which require less physical...... design consists of thirteen individual interviews, four focus groups and some observations of cooking practices. We combine the empirical findings with a particular definition of convenience food by Brunner et al. (2010) and selected practice theoretical concepts. This particular combination enables us...

  15. Fluorination of uranium compounds by gaseous bromine trifluoride and a bromine-fluorine mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Tsutomu

    1976-03-01

    This report summarizes the studies of fluorination of uranium compounds by gaseous BrF 3 and a Br 2 -F 2 mixture, which were carried out in Fluorine Chemistry Laboratory of JAERI in connection with the reprocessing method of nuclear fuels. Although thermodynamically more stable than F 2 , BrF 3 has higher reactivity at relatively low temperatures: fluorination of uranium compounds can be carried out at 100 0 -- 200 0 C by using gaseous BrF 3 . This fluorination temperature is lower than those of F 2 , BrF 5 , ClF and SF 4 , and close to that of ClF 3 . The usage of BrF 3 has however the drawbacks that it requires additional devices to heat the corrosive liquid and to remove Br 2 produced as a byproduct. In order to eliminate the difficulties indicated, a new method of fluorination was developed - the use of a Br 2 -F 2 mixture. Addition of small amounts of Br 2 to the fluorine flow (about 6% in relation to the fluorine concentration) gives marked effects on the rate of fluorination. (auth.)

  16. How convenient!? Adolescents’ vistas on food competences in a convenience context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahlen, S.; Horst, van der Hilje; Pothoff, Roosje

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – Adolescents are at a stage in their life course in which they increasingly become choosers, buyers and preparers of food. Hence, they develop and employ required competences. Current food-related competences of adolescents are shaped in an environment with an abundance of convenience

  17. The Binary Boron Trifluoride-Hydroxylamine Molecular Complex: N ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    Hydroxylamine represents an example of a base containing two potential sites of electron donation, the nitrogen and the oxygen atoms. Predictions based on our earlier investigations of systems of this type suggest that hydroxylamine would bind to boron trifluoride preferentially through its nitrogen atom. Whether such a.

  18. The Binary Boron Trifluoride-Hydroxylamine Molecular Complex: N ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Chemistry ... Recent computational results on a number of complexes with some oxygen and nitrogen bases have indicated relationships between the properties of the adducts, such as the interaction energies and the wavenumber shifts of some of the modes of the boron trifluoride sub-molecule, ...

  19. A construct analysis of meal convenience applied to military foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Sara R; Cardello, Armand V

    2007-07-01

    The present research investigates the concept of food convenience within the institutional framework of military feeding. The approach views food-related convenience in terms of two broad dimensions: "type of convenience" and "timing of convenience." A discrete choice experiment was conducted with US military personnel (n=179) regarding their perceptions of the (in)convenience associated with the use and consumption of low-preparation, all-in-one, military meals (MREs-meals, ready-to-eat). The obtained data strongly suggest that perceived (in)convenience, time and effort are separate constructs. A food provisioning process perspective was captured in the "timing of convenience" dimension, and the contribution of different stages in the consumption process to the perceived convenience of the meal situation was empirically demonstrated. The latter result has important implications for the study of food convenience outside this specific population and context. As opposed to the product perspective that is currently predominant in the literature, it demonstrates the necessity of adopting a meal perspective in analysing food-related convenience.

  20. A CONVENIENT THREE-COMPONENT SYNTHESIS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    1College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Food Safety, Bohai University, Jinzhou. 121013 ... Most reactions are performed within a short reaction time. ..... Shaterian, H.R.; Hosseinian, A.; Ghashang, M. Chin. J. Chem. 2009, 27, 821. 7. Heravi, M.M.; Tavakoli-Hoseini, N.; Bamoharram, F.F. Green Chem. Lett. Rev.

  1. Chlorine trifluoride (1963); Le trifluorure de chlore (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, L.M.; Gillardeau, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    This monograph on chlorine trifluoride may be considered as a working tool useful in gaseous diffusion research. It consists of data gathered from the literature and includes furthermore a certain amount of original data. This monograph groups together the physical, chemical and physiological properties of chlorine trifluoride, as well as the preparation and analytical methods. It has been thought wise to add some technological information, and the safety regulations governing its use. (authors) [French] Cette monographie sur le trifluorure de chlore doit etre consideree comme un instrument de travail dans le cadre des recherches sur la diffusion gazeuse. Il etait necessaire de grouper les donnees eparses dans la litterature. Elle comprend en outre un certain nombre de donnees originales. Cette monographie groupe les proprietes physiques, chimiques et physiologiques du trifluorure de chlore, ainsi que ses methodes de preparation et d'analyse. On a juge utile de joindre des indications technologiques et les consignes de securite concernant son emploi. (auteurs)

  2. Meal box schemes a convenient way to avoid convenience food? Uses and understandings of meal box schemes among Danish consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Frej Daniel; Halkier, Bente

    2017-07-01

    The term convenience food is subject to diversification, lack of clarity and moral ambiguity. In this paper we address these issues and critically discuss convenience food by using empirical findings from a Danish study that deals with practitioners' uses of meal box schemes. The methodological design consists of thirteen individual interviews, four focus groups and some observations of cooking practices. We combine the empirical findings with a particular definition of convenience food by Brunner et al. (2010) and selected practice theoretical concepts. This particular combination enables us to categorize meal box schemes as a new form of convenience food called convenient food. In addition, results suggest that meal box schemes reduce leftovers from dinner. Meal boxes also influence dinner related activities such as planning ahead in time and grocery shopping, which require less physical and mental effort. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A convenient synthesis of pyrandione derivatives using P ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -pyran-2,4(3H)-dione) derivatives (3c-e) has been synthesized by the convenient ultrasound-mediated condensation of a diamine with dehydroacetic acid in the presence of a catalytic amount of p-toluenesulfonic acid. The structure of all ...

  4. A convenient thermal decomposition-co-reduction synthesis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    (Hojo and Ishizaka 1997) can also prepare WSi2 powder. In this paper, nanocrystalline tungsten disilicide has been synthesized by a convenient thermal decomposition- co-reduction route via the reaction of metallic potassium with sodium fluorosilicate and tungsten hexachloride in an autoclave at 650°C. This reaction can ...

  5. Ether modified poly(ether ether ketone) nonwoven membrane with excellent wettability and stability as a lithium ion battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Wang, Wenqiang; Han, Yu; Zhang, Lei; Li, Shuangshou; Tang, Bin; Xu, Shengming; Xu, Zhenghe

    2018-02-01

    In this study, poly(ether ether ketone) is first chloromethylated to improve the solubility and is later used for nonwoven membrane fabrication by electrospinning. Finally, the chloromethyl group was converted to the ethyl ether group and dibenzyl ether group in a hot alkaline solution. The abundant polar groups endow the membrane with excellent wettability, reducing the contact angle to 0°. The polymer matrix is crosslinked by dibenzyl ether group, endowing the membrane with excellent stability (insolubility in many solvents, and ultra-low swelling in the electrolyte at 80 °C) and good anti-shrinkage property (0% at 180 °C). The electrospinning-fabricated membrane remains stable until 4.812 V (vs. Li+/Li), meeting the requirement for use in lithium ion batteries. The interwoven structure of the nonwoven membrane effectively gives rise to the high electrolyte uptake of 215.8%. The ionic conductivity of the electrolyte-swelled electrospinning-fabricated membrane is 51% higher than that of the electrolyte-swelled Celgard membrane. As a result, the lithium ion battery with this nonwoven membrane exhibits an enhanced rate performance (up to 42.5% higher than the lithium ion battery with a PP separator) and satisfactory cycling performance.

  6. Etch rate and surface morphology of polycrystalline beta-silicon carbide using chlorine trifluoride gas

    OpenAIRE

    Habuka, Hitoshi; Oda, S.; Fukai, Y.; Fukae, K.; Takeuchi, T.; Aihara, M.

    2006-01-01

    Etch rates of polycrystalline beta-silicon carbide (SiC) substrate in a wide range from less than one to more than 10 mu m/min are obtained using chlorine trifluoride gas in ambient nitrogen at 673-973 K and atmospheric pressure in a horizontal reactor. Over the chlorine trifluoride gas concentrations of 10-100% used in this study, the etch rate increases at the substrate temperatures between 673 and 773 K. Additionally, the etch rate at temperatures higher than 773 K is independent of the su...

  7. Convenience in white-collar crime: A resource perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petter Gottschalk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available White-collar offenders have access to resources that make financial crime convenient. In the rare case of crime suspicion, resources are available in terms of professional attorney work, control over internal investigations, and public relations support. Hiring private investigators at an early stage of potential crime disclosure enables the organization to control the investigation mandate and influence the investigation process and the investigation output. Getting an early start on reconstruction of the past in terms of a fraud examination makes it possible for the suspect and the organization to influence what facts are relevant and how facts might be assessed in terms of possible violations of the penal code. Convenience aspects of private investigations are discussed in this article in terms of five internal investigations, two in the United States (General Motors and Lehman Brothers and three in Norway (Telenor VimpelCom, DNB Bank, and Norwegian Football Association. The aim of this research is to contribute insights into convenience associated with internal private investigations.

  8. Exploring Convenience Food Consumption through a Structural Equation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Botonaki, Anna; Natos, Dimitrios; Mattas, Konstadinos

    2007-01-01

    In this study the model of convenience orientation suggested by Scholderer and Grunert (2005) is applied in order to examine consumer behavior in the context of convenience food usage. The empirical results indicate that socio-demographic characteristics affect behavior both directly and indirectly through perceived time resources and convenience orientation towards meal preparation and clearing up. Findings seem to be important for all the bodies involved in the marketing of convenience food...

  9. A unified approach for the synthesis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical dibenzyl ethers from aryl aldehydes through reductive etherification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sembian Ruso

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe a simple and convenient conversion of aryl aldehydes to symmetrical dibenzyl ethers through reductive etherification. Similarly, unsymmetrical dibenzyl ether was obtained from aryl aldehyde and TES-protected benzyl alcohol. Triethyl silane with catalytic amount of InCl3 was found to be an efficient condition for the reductive etherification. Moreover, it exhibits remarkable functional group compatibility with yield ranging from good to excellent.

  10. Convenience food with environmentally-sustainable attributes: A consumer perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranieri, Stefanella; Ricci, Elena Claire; Banterle, Alessandro

    2017-09-01

    The use of chemicals in agriculture poses risks on both human health and the environment. Regulatory measures, both mandatory and voluntary, have been introduced to promote a reduction in the use of pesticides. The proliferation of such standards is related to the gradual shift of consumer preferences towards food with reduced negative health and environmental impacts. Beside consumer demand for sustainable food products, convenience food is also assuming an increasingly important role in developed countries. Among such products, minimally-processed vegetables are showing a growing positive trend, but their production has also negative effects on the environment. The goal of this study is to investigate the interaction between environmentally-friendly and healthy convenience food, and to investigate the determinants behind the purchase of healthy convenience food products with environmentally-sustainable attributes, focusing on minimally-processed vegetables labelled with voluntary standards related to integrated agriculture. To do so, we started from the Theory of Planned Behaviour and tested the efficacy of an extended model by considering also other variables which were found to affect significantly food choices. Data were collected by means of face-to-face interviews with 550 consumers in charge of grocery shopping in the metropolitan area of Milan, in northern Italy. Structural equation modelling was performed to analyse the relative importance of the constructs on consumer behaviour. Results confirm the relations of Ajzen's theory and reveal positive relations with consumer food shopping habits, food-related environmental behaviour, gender, income and knowledge. A negative relation with agricultural practices concern also emerges, highlighting that the most concerned consumers may prefer other more stringent environmental certifications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The hydrolysis of geminal ethers: a kinetic appraisal of orthoesters and ketals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia L. Repetto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach to protecting jet fuel against the effects of water contamination is predicated upon the coupling of the rapid hydrolysis reactions of lipophilic cyclic geminal ethers, with the concomitant production of a hydrophilic acyclic hydroxyester with de-icing properties (Fuel Dehydrating Icing Inhibitors - FDII. To this end, a kinetic appraisal of the hydrolysis reactions of representative geminal ethers was undertaken using a convenient surrogate for the fuel–water interface (D2O/CD3CN 1:4. We present here a library of acyclic and five/six-membered cyclic geminal ethers arranged according to their hydroxonium catalytic coefficients for hydrolysis, providing for the first time a framework for the development of FDII. A combination of 1H NMR, labelling and computational studies was used to assess the effects that may govern the observed relative rates of hydrolyses.

  12. Poly(aryl-ether-ether-ketone) as a Possible Metalized Film Capacitor Dielectric: Accurate Description of the Band Gap Through Ab Initio Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Poly(aryl-ether-ether- ketone ) as a Possible Metalized Film Capacitor Dielectric: Accurate Description of the Band Gap Through Ab Initio...the originator. Army Research Laboratory Adelphi, MD 20783-1138 ARL-TR-7160 December 2014 Poly(aryl-ether-ether- ketone ) as a...REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) December 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Poly(aryl-ether-ether- ketone ) as

  13. Male coercion and convenience polyandry in a calopterygid damselfly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cordero

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Copulation in odonates requires female cooperation because females must raise their abdomen to allow intromission. Nevertheless in Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Odonata males commonly grasp ovipositing females and apparently force copulations. This has been interpreted as a consequence of extreme population density and male-male competition. We studied this behavior at two sites on a river that had different densities over three years. As predicted, at high densities most matings were forced (i.e. not preceded by courtship, but at low density most were preceded by courtship. Courtship matings were shorter at high density, but density did not affect the duration of forced matings. Females cooperated in forced matings even if they had very few mature eggs. Furthermore, females mated more times if they experienced higher male harassment during oviposition, and at low density second and subsequent matings were more likely to be forced. We interpret these results to mean that females engage in "convenience polyandry", because they gain more by accepting copulation than by resisting males. The results also suggest that females might trade copulations for male protection, because under extreme population density harassment by males is so intense that they can impede oviposition.

  14. A Convenient and Direct Route to 1,2-Dichlorovinylphosphine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient, convenient and inexpensive CuI-catalyzed method for the synthesis of 1,2-dichlorovinylphosphine oxides from substituted phosphites, diphenylphosphine oxide and 1,2-dichloroethyne has been developed in moderate-good yields, and the reactions provided mainly regioselective anti addition products.

  15. Assessment of the Use of Nitrogen Trifluoride for Purifying Coolant and Heat Transfer Salts in the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.

    2010-09-28

    This report provides an assessment of the use of nitrogen trifluoride for removing oxide and water-caused contaminants in the fluoride salts that will be used as coolants in a molten salt cooled reactor.

  16. A sulfonated poly (aryl ether ether ketone ketone) isomer: synthesis and DMFC performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liu, Baijun [JILIN UNIV.; Hu, Wei [JILIN UNIV.; Jiang, Zhenhua [JILIN UNIV.; Robertson, Gilles [CANADA NRC; Guiver, Michael [CANADA NRC

    2009-01-01

    A sulfonated poly(aryl ether ether ketone ketone) (PEEKK) having a well-defined rigid homopolymer-like chemical structure was synthesized from a readily-prepared PEEKK post-sulfonation with concentrated sulfuric acid at room temperature within several hours. The polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) cast from the resulting polymer exhibited an excellent combination of thermal resistance, oxidative and dimensional stability, low methanol fuel permeability and high proton conductivity. Furthermore, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were successfully fabricated and good direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) performance was observed. At 2 M MeOH feed, the current density at 0.5 V reached 165 mA/cm, which outperformed our reported analogues and eveluated Nafion membranes.

  17. Exploring the relationship between convenience and fish consumption: A cross-cultural study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Svein Ottar; Scholderer, Joachim; Brunsø, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explore cultural differences in the meaning of convenience and the relationships between convenience, attitudes and fish consumption in five European countries. The results suggest that the meaning of meal convenience is not culture specific, whilst the abso...... some earlier findings that fish is generally perceived as a relatively inconvenient type of food. This study suggests that convenience orientation can be crucial to understanding food choice or behaviour only when critical mediating constructs are explored.......The purpose of the present study is to explore cultural differences in the meaning of convenience and the relationships between convenience, attitudes and fish consumption in five European countries. The results suggest that the meaning of meal convenience is not culture specific, whilst...... the absolute levels of convenience orientation and the perceived inconvenience of fish differ between cultures. Convenience orientation was highest in Poland, followed by Spain, and was lowest in the Netherlands. The relationships between convenience orientation and attitudes towards fish, and convenience...

  18. Thermolysis of phenethyl phenyl ether: A model of ether linkages in low rank coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III; Malcolm, E.A.

    1994-09-01

    Currently, an area of interest and frustration for coal chemists has been the direct liquefaction of low rank coal. Although low rank coals are more reactive than bituminous coals, they are more difficult to liquefy and offer lower liquefaction yields under conditions optimized for bituminous coals. Solomon, Serio, and co-workers have shown that: in the pyrolysis and liquefaction of low rank coals, a low temperature cross-linking reaction associated with oxygen functional groups occurs before tar evolution. A variety of pretreatments (demineralization, alkylation, and ion-exchange) have been shown to reduce these retrogressive reactions and increase tar yields, but the actual chemical reactions responsible for these processes have not been defined. In order to gain insight into the thermochemical reactions leading to cross-linking in low rank coal, we have undertaken a study of the pyrolysis of oxygen containing coal model compounds. Solid state NMR studies suggest that the alkyl aryl ether linkage may be present in modest amounts in low rank coal. Therefore, in this paper, we will investigate the thermolysis of phenethyl phenyl ether (PPE) as a model of 0-aryl ether linkages found in low rank coal, lignites, and lignin, an evolutionary precursor of coal. Our results have uncovered a new reaction channel that can account for 25% of the products formed. The impact of reaction conditions, including restricted mass transport, on this new reaction pathway and the role of oxygen functional groups in cross-linking reactions will be investigated.

  19. "Convenience Food."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Colette

    1980-01-01

    Defines the meaning of the American expression "convenience food," quoting definitions given by dictionaries and specialized publications. Discusses the problem of finding the exact equivalent of this expression in French, and recommends some acceptable translations. (MES)

  20. Contraceptive convenience with a price - a case of missing implants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Advances in contraception has resulted in the development of a long acting reversible contraceptive implants which is user friendly, with good contraceptive effectiveness . This contraceptive advantage however has promote the question: has “convenience” come at a price? with the recent findings that it may ...

  1. Vapor intrusion risk of fuel ether oxygenates methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE): A modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Xiong, Desen; Li, Haiyan; Ding, Yi; Xia, Xiangcheng; Yang, Yongqi

    2017-06-15

    Vapor intrusion of synthetic fuel additives represents a critical yet still neglected problem at sites contaminated by petroleum fuel releases. This study used an advanced numerical model to investigate the vapor intrusion potential of fuel ether oxygenates methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME), and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE). Simulated indoor air concentration of these compounds can exceed USEPA indoor air screening level for MTBE (110μg/m 3 ). Our results also reveal that MTBE has much higher chance to cause vapor intrusion problems than TAME and ETBE. This study supports the statements made by USEPA in the Petroleum Vapor Intrusion (PVI) Guidance that the vertical screening criteria for petroleum hydrocarbons may not provide sufficient protectiveness for fuel additives, and ether oxygenates in particular. In addition to adverse impacts on human health, ether oxygenate vapor intrusion may also cause aesthetic problems (i.e., odour and flavour). Overall, this study points out that ether oxygenates can cause vapor intrusion problems. We recommend that USEPA consider including the field measurement data of synthetic fuel additives in the existing PVI database and possibly revising the PVI Guidance as necessary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A novel sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) and cross-linked membranes for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hongtao; Zhang, Gang; Wu, Jing; Zhao, Chengji; Zhang, Yang; Shao, Ke; Han, Miaomiao; Lin, Haidan; Zhu, Jing; Na, Hui [Alan G MacDiarmid Institute, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Qianjin Street 2699, Changchun 130012, Jilin (China)

    2010-10-01

    A novel poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) containing pendant carboxyl groups has been synthesized by a nucleophilic polycondensation reaction. Sulfonated polymers (SPEEKs) with different ion exchange capacity are then obtained by post-sulfonation process. The structures of PEEK and SPEEKs are characterized by both FT-IR and {sup 1}H NMR. The properties of SPEEKs as candidates for proton exchange membranes are studied. The cross-linking reaction is performed at 140 C using poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as the cross-linker. In comparison with the non-cross-linked membranes, some properties of the cross-linked membranes are significantly improved, such as water uptake, methanol resistance, mechanical and oxidative stabilities, while the proton conductivity decreases. The effect of PVA content on proton conductivity, water uptake, swelling ratio, and methanol permeability is also investigated. Among all the membranes, SPEEK-C-8 shows the highest selectivity of 50.5 x 10{sup 4} S s cm{sup -3}, which indicates that it is a suitable candidate for applications in direct methanol fuel cells. (author)

  3. Aromatic polymers obtained by precipitation polycondensation, 2a) Synthesis of poly(ether ketone ether ketone ketone) (PEKEKK)

    OpenAIRE

    Zolotukhin, Mikhail K.; Rueda, Daniel R.; Baltá Calleja, Francisco José; Bruix, M.; Cagiao, M. E.; Bulai, Anna; Gileva, Natalia G.

    1997-01-01

    A high molecular weight, linear aromatic poly(ether ketone ether ketone ketone) (PEKEKK) has been synthesized by electrophilic Friedel-Crafts acylation condensation of 1,4-diphenoxybenzophenone with terephthaloyl chloride. The syntheses were performed as precipitation polycondensations, and the polyketones were obtained in particle form. The viscosity (molecular weight), shape and size of these particles were found to be strongly dependent on the reaction conditions. For low monomer concen...

  4. Interactive Video and Artificial Intelligence: A Convenient Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midoro, V.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes the theoretical framework of a research project aimed at exploring the new potentials for instructional systems offered by videodisc technology and artificial intelligence. A prototype of an intelligent tutoring system, "Earth," is described, and types of interactions in instructional systems are discussed as they relate to the…

  5. Mannich reaction: A versatile and convenient approach to bioactive ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The development of new drugs and target specific delivery agents with enhanced efficacy is essential to counter the multi-drug resistant (MDR) tumours1a,b and microbial strains. The modification of an existing drug molecules offers a cost and time effective conve- nient strategy to achieve new bioactive skeletons. Man-.

  6. Fine Needle Aspiration: A simple and convenient alternative for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nine patients followed up to hospital for other medical problems unrelated to ganglion cysts and only one patient had to undergo surgical excision due to the large size of the cyst. No patient returned with a recurrence. Conclusion: Fine needle aspiration is a simple, non traumatic, inexpensive and low risk alternative method ...

  7. Convenient contrast enhancement by a hole-free phase plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malac, Marek; Beleggia, Marco; Kawasaki, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Decrease of the irradiation dose needed to obtain a desired signal-to-noise ratio can be achieved by Zernike phase-plate imaging. Here we present results on a hole-free phase plate (HFPP) design that uses the incident electron beam to define the center of the plate, thereby eliminating the need f...

  8. ω-iodophenyl fatty acids: a convenient method of radioiodination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otton, C.A.; Lee, H.; Mangner, T.J.; Wieland, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    A solid-phase radioiodination technique for ω-iodophenyl fatty acids using ammonium sulfate is described. The radioiodinations are (1) regioselective, (2) high in yield (95%), (3) short in reaction time (1 h) and (4) capable of yielding high specific activity products although at lower yields. Purification is exceptionally simple: a single passage through an ion exchange column to remove unreacted *I - is all that is required. Syntheses of several ω-iodophenyl fatty acids are also described. (author)

  9. PyNEST: a convenient interface to the NEST simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen M Eppler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The neural simulation tool NEST (http://www.nest-initiative.org is a simulator for heterogeneous networks of point neurons or neurons with a small number of compartments. It aims at simulations of large neural systems with more than 10^4 neurons and 10^7 to 10^9 synapses. NEST is implemented in C++ and can be used on a large range of architectures from single-core laptops over multi-core desktop computers to super-computers with thousands of processor cores. Python (http://www.python.org is a modern programming language that has recently received considerable attention in Computational Neuroscience. Python is easy to learn and has many extension modules for scientific computing (e.g. http://www.scipy.org. In this contribution we describe PyNEST, the new user interface to NEST. PyNEST combines NEST’s efficient simulation kernel with the simplicity and flexibility of Python. Compared to NEST’s native simulation language SLI, PyNEST makes it easier to set up simulations, generate stimuli, and analyze simulation results. We describe how PyNEST connects NEST and Python and how it is implemented. With a number of examples, we illustrate how it is used.

  10. a convenient synthesis of pyrandione derivatives using p ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    N. Benosmane

    2016-09-01

    Sep 1, 2016 ... Keywords: Dehydroacetic acid; Schiff base; Condensation; Catalyst; Ultrasound irradiation;. Tautomerism. ... now constitute an important group of organic products, which are used as food additives [1], .... pyran-2,4(3H)-dione) derivatives (3a-e) under ultrasonic irradiation with p-TSA as catalyst. Hence, the ...

  11. A new convenient access to highly functionalized (E)-2-arylvinyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    routinely used transformation in organic synthesis. While this method was applied in the synthesis of. 4-acyloxy-(E)-2-arylvinyl bromides, the yield was poor mainly due to the formation of by-product un- der condition of acid or high temperature. In order to avoid the formation of by-product, a mild reaction condition should be ...

  12. A convenient two-dimension readout method for MWPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Cheng; Chen Hongfang; Le Yi; Zheng Hai; Wang Jing

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of induced charge of MWPC's W-S cathode was calculated in detail. A 100 x 100 MWPC prototype with W-S cathode was made. The localization resolution of MWPC was measured with X ray and the two-dimension image of incident X ray was obtained

  13. A Convenient Synthesis of Amino Acid Methyl Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaowu Sha

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of amino acid methyl ester hydrochlorides were prepared in good toexcellent yields by the room temperature reaction of amino acids with methanol in thepresence of trimethylchlorosilane. This method is not only compatible with natural aminoacids, but also with other aromatic and aliphatic amino acids.

  14. A convenient thermal decomposition-co-reduction synthesis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nanocrystalline WSi2 was synthesized by a thermal decomposition-co-reduction route via the reaction of anhydrous tungsten hexachloride and sodium fluorosilicate with metallic potassium in an autoclave at 650°C. X-ray powder diffraction pattern indicated that it was tetragonal WSi2. Transmission electron microscope ...

  15. A Convenient and Direct Route to 1,2-Dichlorovinylphosphine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Alkenylphosphine oxides are an attractive class of compounds useful in organic synthesis. For example, they are used as biological active compounds,1 are the key intermediates in the preparation of palladium ligands2 and have been identified as common building blocks in constructing a broad variety of compounds ...

  16. a convenient synthesis of pyrandione derivatives using p ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    N. Benosmane

    2016-09-01

    Sep 1, 2016 ... p- toluenesulfonic acid. The structure of all synthesized compounds was elucidated by IR spectroscopy,. 1. H NMR spectroscopic spectra, elemental analysis, and mass spectroscopy. A tautomeric form for the derivatives species is also proposed. Keywords: Dehydroacetic acid; Schiff base; Condensation; ...

  17. A convenient enzymantic preparation of specifically-labelled geraniol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banthorpe, D.V.; Branch, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    Geraniol was formed in high (up to 36%) yield when equimolar quantities of isopentenyl and 3,3-dimethylally pyrophosphates (1 mmole) together with inhibitors of the isomerase that interconverts them were incubated with a strictly defined cell-free extract from flowerheads of Rosa dilecta cv. Lady Seaton. The C 5 units were incorporated in toto with essentially (> 98%) complete position specificity. A simple route is thus available, given the appropriately labelled C 5 precursors, for the preparation of geraniol and thence by standard chemical routes of its isomers nerol and linalool and their pyrophosphates with any chosen carbon atom specifically labelled at isotope abundances suitable for biosynthetic studies. Similarly, any desired 2 H or 3 H labelled geraniol or its relatives could in principle be prepared with both regio- and stereo-specificity. (author)

  18. A convenient method to synthesize specifically labelled cholesterol with tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, S.; Kenny, M.; Ahmad, S.; Washington Univ., Seattle, WA

    1992-01-01

    A simple method is described to label cholesterol with tritium. Cholesterol was first oxidized to 5-cholesten-3-one which was then purified by HPLC. Its structure was established by electron impact (EI) mass spectrometry and 1 H-NMR spectroscopy. The ketone was reduced with NaB 3 H 4 to give specifically labelled cholesterol (C-3 3 H) at low specific activity. (author)

  19. Strategy development for improving competitiveness of a Chinese local convenience store Case of Suguo Co., Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiang; Ju, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The topic of the thesis is improving the competitiveness of the case company. We will regard Suguo as the case compamy. We focused on a Chinese local convenience store, and compared it in four perspectives with an international convenience store which has already entered the Chinese market successfully. The four perspectives are market perspective, customer perspective, management perspective, and decorative style perspective. In addition, we created a strategic map on the basis of the consum...

  20. A novel chlorinated diphenyl ether from Byrsonima microphylla (Malpighiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, João H C; Cardoso, Manuela P; David, Juceni P; David, Jorge M

    2006-11-01

    The isolation is described of an unusual chlorinated diphenyl ether named methyl 3,5-dichloro-6-(6-hydroxy-4-methoxy-3-methoxycarbonyl-2-methylphenoxy)-2-hydroxy-4-methylbenzoate that was obtained from the trunk of Byrsonima microphylla (Malpighiaceae). The structure was elucidated by a spectroscopic data analysis, and the presence of this compound in heartwood was confirmed by HPLC and HPTLC analyses.

  1. Determination of bisphenol a diglycidyl ether content in foods from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to avoid migration issues of chemical compounds from tin cans to foods, covering internal surface of the tin cans with epoxyphenolic and organosol resins is widespread. However, monomers like Bisphenol A Diglycidyl Ether (BADGE), number among the constituents of these resins capable of migrating to foods.

  2. High Resolution Rotational Spectroscopy of a Flexible Cyclic Ether

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez, F.; Martínez-Haya, B.; Blanco, S.; López, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.

    2011-06-01

    Crown ethers stand as one cornerstone molecular class inhost-guest Supramolecular Chemistry and constitute building blocks for a broad range of modern materials. We report here the first high resolution rotational study of a crown ether: 1,4,7,10,13-pentaoxacyclopentadecane (15-crown-5 ether,15c5). Molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy has been employed. The liquid sample of 15c5 has been vaporized using heating methods. The considerable size of 15c5 and the broad range of conformations allowed by the flexibility of its backbone pose important challenges to spectroscopy approaches. In fact, the ab-initio computational study for isolated 15c5, yields at least six stable conformers with relative free energies within 2 kJ Mol-1 (167 Cm-1). Nevertheless, in this investigation it has been possible to identify and characterize in detail one stable rotamer of the 15c5 molecule and to challenge different quantum methods for the accurate description of this system. The results pave the ground for an extensive description of the conformational landscape of 15c5 and related cyclic ethers in the near term. J. L. Alonso, F. J. Lorenzo, J. C. López, A. Lesarri, S. Mata and H. Dreizler, Chem. Phys., 218, 267 (1997) S. Blanco, J.C López, J.L. Alonso, P. Ottaviani, W. Caminati, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 880 (2003) S.E. Hill, D. Feller, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 201, 41 (2000)

  3. Diethyl Ether Production as a Substitute for Gasoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alviany Riza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diethyl ether is one of alternative fuel that could be used as a significant component of a blend or as a complete replacement for transportation fuel. The aim of this research is to produce diethyl ether through dehydration reaction of ethanol with fixed bed reactor using nanocrystalline γ-Al2O3 catalyst. Nanocrystalline γ-Al2O3 catalyst was synthesized by precipitation method using Al(NO33.9H2O as precursors and NH4OH as the precipitating agent. Dehydration reaction was performed at temperature range of 125 to 225°C. The result shows that synthesized γ-Al2O3 catalyst gave higher ethanol conversion and diethyl ether yield than that of commercial Al2O3 catalyst. The use of synthesized γ-Al2O3 catalyst could reach ethanol conversion as high as 94.71% and diethyl ether yield as high as 11,29%.

  4. 40 CFR 721.10017 - Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... diglycidyl ether polymer (generic). 721.10017 Section 721.10017 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (PMNs P...

  5. Convenience foods, as portrayed by a consumer organisation. Test-Aankoop/Test-Achats (1960-1995).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degreef, Filip

    2015-11-01

    Food choice, both today and in the past, is driven by a broad range of interacting factors, in which culture is centrally placed. This paper will assess convenience foods by means of a qualitative analysis of comparative product tests done by Belgium's largest consumer organisation Test-Aankoop/Test-Achats, and will focus on the influence of socially and culturally normative values between the years 1960 and 1995. The tests provide a unique insight into attitudes to convenience foods within an organisation that saw its role in Belgian consumer society as being both educator and guide. The organisation's views on health, food safety, modernity, tradition, control over ingredients and content, gender roles and taste shaped its attitude to the role and meaning of what food is supposed to be. The organisation thereby both guided and re-affirmed normative values with respect to convenience foods. Values, which are culturally constructed, have always played a key role in the acceptability of products. Cultural and social inhibitions and fears over control of convenience foods, which persist today, were central in the consumer organisation's representation of convenience food. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A mild and efficient procedure for the synthesis of ethers from various alkyl halides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosstafa Kazemi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A simple, mild and practical procedure has been developed for the synthesis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical ethers by using DMSO, TBAI in the presence of K2CO3. We extended the utility of Potassium carbonate as an efficient base for the preparation of ethers. A wide range of alkyl aryl and dialkyl ethers are synthezied from treatment of aliphatic alcohols and phenols with various alkyl halides in the prescence of efficient base Potassium carbonate. Secondary alkyl halides were easily converted to corresponding ethers in releatively good yields . This is a mild, simple and practical procedure for the preparation of ethers in high yields and suitable times under mild condition.

  7. Reframing convenience food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Peter; Viehoff, Valerie

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides a critical review of recent research on the consumption of 'convenience' food, highlighting the contested nature of the term and exploring its implications for public health and environmental sustainability. It distinguishes between convenience food in general and particular types of convenience food, such as ready-meals, tracing the structure and growth of the market for such foods with a particular emphasis on the UK which currently has the highest rate of ready-meal consumption in Europe. Having established the definitional complexities of the term, the paper presents the evidence from a systematic review of the literature, highlighting the significance of convenience food in time-saving and time-shifting, the importance of recent changes in domestic labour and family life, and the way the consumption of convenience food is frequently moralized. The paper shows how current debates about convenience food are part of a longer discursive history about food, health and nutrition. It discusses current levels of public understanding about the links between convenience food, environmental sustainability and food waste. The paper concludes by making a case for understanding the consumption of convenience food in terms of everyday social practices, emphasising its habitual and routine character. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Structural study of chlorine tri-fluoride and bromine penta-fluoride in liquid and solid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousson, R.

    1973-01-01

    This research thesis reports the structural study of chlorine tri-fluoride and bromine penta-fluoride between 20 C and about -265 C. After some generalities on these compounds and a presentation of the experimental technique, the author reports and discusses results obtained with these both compounds: Raman spectrum for the liquid and for the solid phase, infrared spectrum for the solid phase, calorimetric measurements. In the case of chlorine tri-fluoride, the author studies the evolution of the liquid spectrum with temperature, shows the existence of an intermediate solid phase, and compares results obtained by Raman spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. He also applies to bromine penta-fluoride an analysis of normal coordinates of a XF 5 molecule: relationship between force constants and vibration frequencies, application of Wilson method, resolution of the molecular equation, determination of normal vibration modes [fr

  9. Normalising convenience food?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente

    2017-01-01

    The construction of convenience food as a social and cultural category for food provisioning, cooking and eating seems to slide between or across understandings of what is considered “proper food” in the existing discourses in everyday life and media. This article sheds light upon some...... of the social and cultural normativities around convenience food by describing the ways in which convenience food forms part of the daily life of young Danes. Theoretically, the article is based on a practice theoretical perspective. Empirically, the article builds upon a qualitative research project on food...... habits among Danes aged 20–25. The article presents two types of empirical patterns. The first types of patterns are the degree to which and the different ways in which convenience food is normalised to use among the young Danes. The second types of patterns are the normative places of convenient food...

  10. Crown ethers as size-selective synergists in solvent extraction systems: a new selectivity parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinard, W.F.; McDowell, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Mixtures of macrocyclic polyethers (crown ethers) and organic-phase-soluble liquid cation exchangers have been found to produce a synergistic effect in the extraction of metal ions. The synergistic effect is size selective; that is, it tends to be greatest for those ions that best fit the crown ether cavity. The mixtures of a liquid cation exchanger and a crown ether also allow metal ion extraction from common mineral-acid anion systems (NO 3 - , Cl - , SO 4 2- ) that would be impossible with the crown ether alone, because of the difficulty of solubilizing those anions in nonpolar solvents. This cooperation makes the use of crown ethers as size-selective coordinators available for process applications. Size selectivity of compounds such as crown ethers may thus become a useful new parameter in designing selective solvent extraction systems. Results are reported for alkali (including Cs) and alkaline earth (including Sr) extraction by HDEHP mixed with various crown ethers. (author)

  11. Enhanced response of microbial fuel cell using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone membrane as a biochemical oxygen demand sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyaru, Sivasankaran; Dharmalingam, Sangeetha

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane in SCMFC used to determine the BOD. • The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm. • This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion ® . • SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion ® . • Nafion ® shows high anodic internal resistance (67 Ω) than the SPEEK (39 Ω). - Abstract: The present study is focused on the development of single chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC) using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane to determine the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) matter present in artificial wastewater (AW). The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm when using artificial wastewater. This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion ® . The most serious problem in using MFC as a BOD sensor is the oxygen diffusion into the anode compartment, which consumes electrons in the anode compartment, thereby reducing the coulomb yield and reducing the electrical signal from the MFC. SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion ® , resulting in low internal resistance and substrate loss, thus improving the sensing range of BOD. The system was further improved by making a double membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with an increased electrode surface area which provide high surface area for electrically active bacteria

  12. Enhanced response of microbial fuel cell using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone membrane as a biochemical oxygen demand sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayyaru, Sivasankaran; Dharmalingam, Sangeetha, E-mail: sangeetha@annauniv.edu

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane in SCMFC used to determine the BOD. • The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm. • This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion{sup ®}. • SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion{sup ®}. • Nafion{sup ®} shows high anodic internal resistance (67 Ω) than the SPEEK (39 Ω). - Abstract: The present study is focused on the development of single chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC) using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane to determine the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) matter present in artificial wastewater (AW). The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm when using artificial wastewater. This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion{sup ®}. The most serious problem in using MFC as a BOD sensor is the oxygen diffusion into the anode compartment, which consumes electrons in the anode compartment, thereby reducing the coulomb yield and reducing the electrical signal from the MFC. SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion{sup ®}, resulting in low internal resistance and substrate loss, thus improving the sensing range of BOD. The system was further improved by making a double membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with an increased electrode surface area which provide high surface area for electrically active bacteria.

  13. Investigation of Volumetric Properties of Some Glycol Ethers Using a Simple Equation of State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, M.; Goharshadi, E. K.

    2006-09-01

    In this work, a simple equation of state (EoS) has been used to predict the density and other thermodynamic properties such as the isobaric expansion coefficient, α P , the isothermal compressibility, κ T , and the internal pressure, P i , of six glycol ethers including diethylene glycol monobutyl ether (DEGBE), propylene glycol propyl ether (PGPE), diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (DEGME), diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (DEGEE), triethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TriEGDME), and tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME) at different temperatures and pressures. A comparison with literature experimental data has been made. Additionally, statistical parameters between experimental and calculated densities for the GMA EoS and four other EoSs (Soave Redlich Kwong, Peng Robinson, Soave Redlich Kwong with volume translation, and Patel Teja) indicate the superiority of the GMA EoS.

  14. Mannich reaction as a key strategy for the synthesis of benzoazacrown ethers and benzocryptands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastushok, V.N.; Bradshaw, J.S.; Izatt, R.M. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Bordunov, A.V. [IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc., American Fork, UT (United States)

    1996-10-04

    A convenient method for the synthesis of mono- and polycyclic azacrown macrocycles containing aromatic fragments using the Mannich condensation of phenols and secondary diamines has been studied. This new approach allowed the synthesis of bisphenols connected by oligoazaoxaalkane units in good yields without the need to protect the phenolic OH groups. These bisphenols (13-16) were alkylated with ditosylates of polyethylene glycols to give benzoazacrown ethers 25-30. Intermediate bisphenols 13-15 were also treated with three bis(methoxymethyl)-substituted diamines to form benzoazacrowns 10-12 containing internal phenolic functions. Phenol-containing mono (11) and bicyclic (3, n = 1) compounds, which were synthesized via the Mannich aminomethylation process, were used as building blocks for construction of bi- (32) and tricyclic (33) ligands. 11 refs.

  15. Landau theory and giant room-temperature barocaloric effect in M F3 metal trifluorides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales-Salazar, A.; Brierley, R. T.; Littlewood, P. B.; Guzmán-Verri, G. G.

    2017-10-01

    The structural phase transitions of M F3 (M = Al, Cr, V, Fe, Ti, Sc) metal trifluorides are studied within a simple Landau theory consisting of tilts of rigid M F6 octahedra associated with soft antiferrodistortive optic modes that are coupled to long-wavelength strain generating acoustic phonons. We calculate the temperature and pressure dependence of several quantities such as the spontaneous distortions, volume expansion, and shear strains as well as T -P phase diagrams. By contrasting our model to experiments we quantify the deviations from mean-field behavior and find that the tilt fluctuations of the M F6 octahedra increase with metal cation size. We apply our model to predict giant barocaloric effects in Sc-substituted TiF3 of up to about 15 JK -1kg-1 for modest hydrostatic compressions of 0.2 GPa . The effect extends over a wide temperature range of over 140 K (including room temperature) due to a large predicted rate, d Tc/d P =723 K GPa-1 , which exceeds those of typical barocaloric materials. Our results suggest that open lattice frameworks such as the trifluorides are an attractive platform to search for giant barocaloric effects.

  16. Caregiver Reports of Sleep Problems on a Convenience Sample of Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronk, Rebecca; Dahl, Ronald; Noll, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Caregivers reported on sleep in a convenience sample of 90 children with fragile X syndrome utilizing a standardized assessment tool, the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), and a 14-day sleep diary. CSHQ data indicated that 47% of participants had sleep problems at a level that suggested referral and further evaluation. Sleep diary data…

  17. A mild and efficient method for the selective deprotection of silyl ethers using KF in the presence of tetraethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hailong; Oh, Joong-Suk; Song, Choong Eui

    2011-12-07

    A mild and efficient protocol for the deprotection of silyl ethers using KF in tetraethylene glycol is reported. A wide range of alcoholic silyl ethers can be selectively cleaved in high yield in the presence of certain acid- and base-labile functional groups. Moreover, the phenolic silyl ethers were cleaved exclusively, without affecting the alcoholic silyl ethers, at room temperature.

  18. A Framework for Collaborative and Convenient Learning on Cloud Computing Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepika; Kumar, Vikas

    2017-01-01

    The depth of learning resides in collaborative work with more engagement and fun. Technology can enhance collaboration with a higher level of convenience and cloud computing can facilitate this in a cost effective and scalable manner. However, to deploy a successful online learning environment, elementary components of learning pedagogy must be…

  19. Cost of eating: whole foods versus convenience foods in a low-income model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Andrew J; Stephens, Mark B

    2010-04-01

    Financial limitations in low-income populations, those at highest risk for poor health outcomes, may preclude adherence to recommended dietary guidelines. We examine the financial burden of shopping for foods to meet national dietary recommendations in a supermarket compared to eating primarily in a fast-food restaurant. Using a single-parent, low-income model, we obtained whole food costs (healthy) from local supermarkets and from fast-food outlets (convenient). Using cost per calorie as a metric for comparison, we used estimated single-parent, low-income living expenses to determine the relative costs of meeting national dietary guidelines. Average food costs for healthy and convenience diets accounted for 18% and 37% of income, respectively. Dairy products and vegetables accounted for the largest cost percentages of diet costs (36% and 28%, respectively). The cost per calorie of a convenience diet was 24% higher than the healthy diet. Both models resulted in net financial loss over the course of a year for a single-parent, low-income family. Food costs represent a significant proportion of annual income. Diets based heavily on foods from convenient sources are less healthy and more expensive than a well-planned menu from budget foods available from large supermarket chains.

  20. Occlusal wear and occlusal condition in a convenience sample of young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, A. van 't; Kreulen, C.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study progression of tooth wear quantitatively in a convenient sample of young adults and to assess possible correlations with occlusal conditions. METHODS: Twenty-eight dental students participated in a three-year follow up study on tooth wear. Visible wear facets on full arch gypsum

  1. The Prevalence of Gambling in College: A Review of Literature, Convenience Sample, and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifried, Chad; Krenzelok, Ann; Turner, Brian A.; Brett, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This project examined the level of gambling exhibited by a convenience sample of 155 college students at a large Midwestern university and compared it to previously completed work. The researchers found most college student gamblers engaged in the most popular form of gambling like casino games, card games, and betting pools for money. Gambling on…

  2. CAN MONEY BUY CONVENIENCE: A STUDY ON INCOME AS A MOTIVATOR OF ONLINE SHOPPING?

    OpenAIRE

    Pallabi Mishra

    2016-01-01

    The fast and hectic life of professionals has created an essence of convenience and urgency in their activities and behavior. With the advent of technology and the swift internet era online activities are on a growing trend. This growing trend in online shopping has led to the consideration of this paper which aims to explore the role of individual income as a motivator of online shopping behavior. This study is descriptive in nature. It consists of primary survey of customers belonging to di...

  3. A convenient criterion under which Z{sub 2}-graded operators are Hamiltonian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussin, Veronique [Departement de Mathematiques et de Statistique, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, succ. Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Kiselev, Arthemy V, E-mail: hussin@dms.umontreal.ca, E-mail: A.V.Kiselev@rug.nl [Mathematical Institute, University of Utrecht, PO Box 80.010, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-03-01

    We formulate a simple and convenient criterion under which skew-adjoint Z{sub 2}-graded total differential operators are Hamiltonian, provided that their images are closed under commutation in the Lie algebras of evolutionary vector fields on the infinite jet spaces for vector bundles over smooth manifolds.

  4. Synthetic methods and reactions. XVII. Uranium hexafluoride, a convenient new oxidizing agent for organic synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olah, G.A.; Welch, J.; Ho, T.L.

    1976-01-01

    A study was made of reactions of the highly covalent UF 6 with organic compounds. Oxidative cleavage was observed for ethers and hydrazones; oxidation or oxidative fluorination for alcohols and aldehydes; and oxidation for carboxylic acid hydrazides and N,N-dimethylalkyl(cycloalkly)amines. Reaction products and yields were tabulated for several organic compounds. The limited fluorinating ability of UF 6 did not interfere with most reactions; and inter alia, ketone, ester, amide, nitrile, and nitro groups were unaffected under the given reaction conditions

  5. Synthetic methods and reactions. XVII. Uranium hexafluoride, a convenient new oxidizing agent for organic synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olah, G.A.; Welch, J.; Ho, T.L.

    1976-10-13

    A study was made of reactions of the highly covalent UF/sub 6/ with organic compounds. Oxidative cleavage was observed for ethers and hydrazones; oxidation or oxidative fluorination for alcohols and aldehydes; and oxidation for carboxylic acid hydrazides and N,N-dimethylalkyl(cycloalkly)amines. Reaction products and yields were tabulated for several organic compounds. The limited fluorinating ability of UF/sub 6/ did not interfere with most reactions; and inter alia, ketone, ester, amide, nitrile, and nitro groups were unaffected under the given reaction conditions. (DDA)

  6. A new catalyst layer based on in situ pore generation of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) for PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Wan-Keun; Sung, Kyung A; Oh, Keun-Hwan; Choo, Min-Ju; Park, Jung-Ki [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and WCU Energy Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea); Cho, Kuk Young [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kongju National University, 275, Budae-dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 303-717 (Korea); Cho, Ki-Yun [Fuel Cell Vehicle Team, Hyundai Motor Company and Kia Motors Corp., 104, Mabuk-Dong, Giheung-Gu, Yongin-Si, Gyunggi-Do 446-912 (Korea)

    2009-08-15

    A new concept of in situ pore generation to reduce water flooding in cathode catalyst layer (CCL) of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is proposed with the introduction of water soluble poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as a porogen to CCL based on sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK). In this new type of CCL, PEG is directly removed by water produced during the cathode reaction. The new CCL exhibited much higher cell performance especially in mass transport limitation region compared to the pristine sPEEK-CCL. In addition, the presence of PEG in the new CCL lowered the glass transition temperature of the sPEEK binder, and it could improve the transference of catalyst layer onto the polymer electrolyte membrane. (author)

  7. The breakdown of vinyl ethers as a two-center synchronous reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokidova, T. S.; Shestakov, A. F.

    2009-11-01

    The experimental data on the molecular decomposition of vinyl ethers of various structures to alkanes and the corresponding aldehydes or ketones in the gas phase were analyzed using the method of intersecting parabolas. The enthalpies and kinetic parameters of decomposition were calculated for 17 reactions. The breakdown of ethers is a two-center concerted reaction characterized by a very high classical potential barrier to the thermally neutral reaction (180-190 kJ/mol). The kinetic parameters (activation energies and rate constants) of back reactions of the formation of vinyl ethers in the addition of aldehydes or ketones to alkanes were calculated using the method of intersecting parabolas. The factors that influenced the activation energy of the decomposition and formation of ethers were discussed. Quantum-chemical calculations of several vinyl ether decomposition reactions were performed. Ether formation reactions were compared with the formation of unsaturated alcohols as competitive reactions, which can occur in the interaction of carbonyl compounds with alkenes.

  8. Poly (ether ether ketone) membranes for fuel cells; Membranas de poli (eter eter cetona) sulfonado para celulas a combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero, Jacqueline C.; Gomes, Ailton de S.; Filho, Jose C.D., E-mail: jacquecosta@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Hui, Wang S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Vivianna S. de [Escola Tecnica Rezende-Rammel, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Polymeric membranes were developed using a SPEEK polymer matrix (sulphonated poly (ether ether ketone)), containing hygroscopic particles of zirconia (Zr) (incorporated by sol-gel method), for use as electrolyte membranes in fuel cells. SPEEK with different sulfonation degrees were used: 63 and 86%. The thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) was carried out to characterize the membranes and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was carried out to evaluating the proton conductivity of the membranes. Additional analysis were underway in order to characterize these membranes, which include: X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in order to evaluate the influence of zirconia and sulfonation degree on the properties of the membranes. (author)

  9. A smartphone-optimized web site for conveniently viewing otolaryngology journal abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Justin S; Sharma, Arun; Samy, Ravi N

    2014-12-01

    Access to the medical literature has not kept pace with the mobile revolution. We aimed to (1) gauge interest in a smartphone-optimized Web site for conveniently accessing otolaryngology literature and (2) create an easy-to-access and convenient Web site that displays otolaryngology journal abstracts in a format optimized for smartphones. A survey was sent to physicians of a major US academic otolaryngology-head and neck surgery department. Demographics, literature-browsing habits, and barriers to staying updated were assessed. The response rate was 87%. Ninety-one percent of respondents used a smartphone, and 85% wished they could stay more up to date with the otolaryngology literature. Most respondents believed a convenient smartphone-optimized Web site could help them achieve this goal. A Web site was then developed in collaboration with a university creative department as a proof of concept. The site uses a simple RSS aggregator to display journal abstracts formatted for smartphone-sized screens (www.otosurg.com). © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  10. A simple and convenient sticky/blunt-end ligation method for fusion gene construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Zhang, Jiannan; Miao, Tianjin; Ma, Di; Su, Ying; An, Yingfeng; Zhang, Qingrui

    2015-04-01

    Here we present a simple and convenient sticky/blunt-end ligation method for fusion gene construction. The fusion gene is constructed by seamless ligation of 5'-end phosphorylated blunt ends instead of by overlap extension PCR (OE-PCR). Therefore, the challenge of amplifying large DNA fragments (e.g., the large bifunctional enzyme gene constructed by fusion of two monofunctional enzyme genes) by PCR can be avoided. In addition, synthesis of the inner primers for OE-PCR is not necessary, indicating that this method should be especially convenient for construction of fusion genes with various combinations of multiple fragments (e.g., chimeric gene libraries, fusion gene libraries). As a modification of the commonly used fusion gene construction technique, this method may find a wide range of applications in bioscience and biotechnology.

  11. Selective catalytic dehydration of furfuryl alcohol to 2, 2'-difurfuryl ether using a polyoxometalate catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaoxiang; Hao, Yanfeng; Wang, Jialin; Wang, Hao; Zheng, Yimeng; Tian, Hongyu; Liu, Yongguo; Sun, Baoguo

    2017-10-11

    The spice flavour compound 2, 2'-difurfuryl ether (DFE) is widely utilised in the food industry as it has a coffee-like, nutty, earthy, mushroom-like odour. However, despite intensive research efforts, to date, an environmentally friendly and practical synthetic preparation technique for 2, 2'-difurfuryl ether is still unavailable. Here, we investigate a new approach using polyoxometalate catalysts to selectively catalytically dehydrate furfuryl alcohol to 2, 2'-difurfuryl ether. We have successfully applied this methodology using the polyoxometalate (POMs) catalyst {[(CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 ) 4 N] 2 [SMo 12 O 40 ]} to produce 2,2'-difurfuryl ether in a 30.86% isolated yield.

  12. A convenient synthesis of deuterated leukotriene A sub 4 methyl ester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bestmann, H.J.; Roeder, T. (Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Organische Chemie); Meese, C.O. (Fischer-Bosch-Inst. fuer Klinische Pharmakologie, Stuttgart (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-11-01

    2,2,3,3-({sup 2}H{sub 4})-1-Iodopentane was prepared in four steps from propargyl alcohol and used in the C-alkylation of the THP-protected 3-butyne-1-ol. Subsequent protective group removal, semi-deuteration of the acetylenic alcohol and further transformation by known methods afforded the labelled key reagent 3,4,6,6,7,7-({sup 2}H{sub 6})-(Z)-(3-nonen-1-yl)triphenylphosphonium iodide. Wittig olefination of epoxy dienal with the ylide generated from the latter completed the convenient synthesis of hexadeuterated leukotriene A{sub 4} methyl ester. (author).

  13. A convenient and rapid method for genetic transformation of E. coli with plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Guo, P; Xie, Z; Shen, P

    2001-12-01

    A convenient and rapid method for the genetic transformation of Escherichia coli with plasmids is proposed. By mixing the recipient cells and plasmid DNA and spreading them directly on selective medium plates containing Ca2+, the so-called 'plate transformation' could achieve almost the same transformation efficiency as the classical transformation method with calcium. The whole protocol takes only about 2 min, its simplicity compared favorably, not only to the usual protocol, but also to all other documented modifications.

  14. Exploitation of convenience food in view of a diet diversification for better nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghofer, E

    2005-01-01

    Social and economic changes as well as technological innovations in recent years, have caused dramatic changes regarding the kind of nutrition supply observed. The provoking question now is, if a recommendable nutrition and diet diversification is possible with the convenience products available on the market at present. Depending on the degree of cooking or preparation the following convenience steps can be differentiated: initial grade--ready-for-kitchen processing--ready-to-cook--ready-to-mix--ready-to-heat--ready-to-eat. Various preservation strategies can be applied to the food products of each step. In order to keep the nutritional and sensory quality of the food product, these necessary preservation methods should, of course, be as gentle as possible. On each convenience-step a large variety of products exists. By separation of preparation from consumption and the therefore necessary preservation methods, these products are available throughout the whole year. Seasonal limitations are less important, which enhances diet diversification. On the other hand, an impoverishment in raw materials occurs due to the existing concentration tendencies in food production and especially in food trade.

  15. Consumers' purchase of organic food products. A matter of convenience and reflexive practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelmar, Ulf

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the purchase of organic food products by consumers and to explore the main factors driving this process. This paper uses evidence from 16 in-depth interviews with consumers in Denmark carried out in 2008-2009. On the basis of the analysis two broad concepts are suggested: convenience behaviours and reflexive practices. Convenience behaviours are characteristic of pragmatic organic consumers. This type of shopping behaviour requires organic foods to be available in the local supermarket, they have to be clearly visible (preferably with an eco-label), and the price differential vis-à-vis conventional products have to be minimal. The analysis also showed that politically/ethically minded consumers have reflexive practices when purchasing organic food products: health considerations, ethical considerations (animal welfare), political considerations (environmentalism) and quality considerations (taste) play an important part for these consumers. Reflexive shopping practices can be sparked by life events (e.g. having children), "shocking" news about conventional food products and similar events, and news capable of creating a "cognitive dissonance" among consumers. The Danish case illustrates that the government needs to actively implement reforms and promote activities which make organic products a convenient choice for the pragmatic oriented consumer if their market share is to increase substantially. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. AIRBORNE POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN A COMPUTER CLASSROOM OF COLLEGE IN TAIWAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. H. Chang ، C. R. Yang ، C. Y. Tsai ، W. C. Lin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study characterized the airborne exposure of students to thirty polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners inside and outside a computer classroom in a southern Taiwan college. Arithmetic mean values of total indoor and outdoor polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations were 125.0 pg/m3 (89.8 to 203.9 pg/m3 and 110.3 pg/m3 (83.5 to 157.0 pg/m3, respectively. Total indoor polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations were one order of magnitude lower than those detected in homes in Birmingham, United Kingdom and in Ottawa, Canada but were several times higher than those measured in the ambient air in Ottawa, Canada and from the Bohai Sea to the Arctic. The five highest indoor concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners were decabromodiphenyl ether (23.0 pg/m3, 4,4’-dibromodiphenyl ether (15.9 pg/m3, 2,2’,3,4,4’,5,5’,6-octabromodiphenyl ether (10.6 pg/m3, 2,4-dibromodiphenyl ether (10.3 pg/m3 and 2,2’,3,4,4’,5’,6-heptabromodiphenyl ether (10.0 pg/m3. Although indoor and outdoor total polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations did not significantly differ, the indoor concentrations of 2,4-dibromodiphenyl ether, 2,2’,4-tribromodiphenyl ether, 2,4,4’-tribromodiphenyl ether, 2,2’,4,5’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether and 2,3’,4’,6-tetrabromodiphenyl ether were significantly higher than their outdoor concentrations. This study suggests the following measures: 1 to increase the air exchange rate and open classroom doors and windows for several minutes before classes to reduce indoor PBDE concentrations; 2 to reduce polybrominated diphenyl ether emissions from new devices, it’s better to use computer-related products that meet the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive adopted by the European Union.

  17. Entropy Generation Minimization in Dimethyl Ether Synthesis: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Diego; Razzitte, Adrián César

    2018-04-01

    Entropy generation minimization is a method that helps improve the efficiency of real processes and devices. In this article, we study the entropy production (due to chemical reactions, heat exchange and friction) in a conventional reactor that synthesizes dimethyl ether and minimize it by modifying different operating variables of the reactor, such as composition, temperature and pressure, while aiming at a fixed production of dimethyl ether. Our results indicate that it is possible to reduce the entropy production rate by nearly 70 % and that, by changing only the inlet composition, it is possible to cut it by nearly 40 %, though this comes at the expense of greater dissipation due to heat transfer. We also study the alternative of coupling the reactor with another, where dehydrogenation of methylcyclohexane takes place. In that case, entropy generation can be reduced by 54 %, when pressure, temperature and inlet molar flows are varied. These examples show that entropy generation analysis can be a valuable tool in engineering design and applications aiming at process intensification and efficient operation of plant equipment.

  18. Ether-Directed ortho-C–H Olefination with a PdII/MPAA Catalyst**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Leow, Dasheng; Wan, Li; Yu, Jin-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Weak coordination is powerful! A PdII-catalyzed olefination of ortho-C–H bonds of arenes directed by weakly coordinating ethers is developed using mono-protected amino acid (MPAA) ligands. This finding provides a method for chemically modifying ethers, which are abundant in natural products and drug molecules. PMID:23239120

  19. UHT PROCESSED CHICKPEA LIQUID MEAL: A NOVEL CONCEPT OF A CONVENIENT LIQUID FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Hosken

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea liquid meal (CLM is a new concept of a convenient liquid food. It is a complex colloidal system, which is composed of dehulled chickpea flour as the major ingredient and with the addition of other ingredients (protein, fat, sucrose, dried glucose syrup, maltodextrin, vitamins, minerals, etc. The product is expected to have a balanced nutritional composition; acceptable flavor, taste and thickness; homogenous and smooth texture; stable colloid; and can be stored for a long of period (commercially sterile. This paper presents an overview of the literature information on the production, nutritional quality and functional properties of the chickpea, and the technology of liquid meal, which is applicable to CLM. It also outlines possible problems that influence consumer acceptability of the product. Some preliminary results of our study are also reported.

  20. Pareto law of the expenditure of a person in convenience stores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Takayuki; Toriyama, Masahiro; Terano, Takao; Takayasu, Misako

    2008-06-01

    We study the statistical laws of the expenditure of a person in convenience stores by analyzing around 100 million receipts. The density function of expenditure exhibits a fat tail that follows a power law. Using the Lorenz curve, the Gini coefficient is estimated to be 0.70; this implies that loyal customers contribute significantly to a store’s sales. We observe the Pareto principle where both the top 25% and 2% of the customers account for 80% and 25% of the store’s sales, respectively.

  1. Laboratory tests using chlorine trifluoride in support of deposit removal at MSRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.F.; Rudolph, J.C.; Del Cul, G.D.; Loghry, S.L.; Simmons, D.W.; Toth, L.M.

    1997-04-01

    Experimental trials were conducted to investigate some unresolved issues regarding the use of chlorine trifluoride (ClF 3 ) for removal of uranium-bearing deposits in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) off-gas system. The safety and effectiveness of operation of the fixed-bed trapping system for removal of reactive gases were the primary focus. The chief uncertainty concerns the fate of chlorine in the system and the potential for forming explosive chlorine oxides (primarily chlorine dioxide) in the trapping operation. Tests at the MSRE Reactive Gas Removal System reference conditions and at conditions of low ClF 3 flow showed that only very minor quantities of reactive halogen oxides were produced before column breakthrough. Somewhat larger quantities accompanied breakthrough. A separation test that exposed irradiated MSRE simulant salt to ClF 3 confirmed the expectation that the salt is basically inert for brief exposures to ClF 3 at room temperature

  2. Wisely Designed Phthalocyanine Derivative for Convenient Molecular Fabrication on a Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Wataru; Hirahara, Mana; Togashi, Takanari; Ishizaki, Manabu; Kurihara, Masato; Haga, Masa-Aki; Kanaizuka, Katsuhiko

    2018-01-30

    An axial-substituted silicon phthalocyanine derivative, SiPc(OR) 2 (R = C 4 H 9 ), that is soluble in organic solvent is conveniently synthesized. This silicon phthalocyanine derivative reacts with a hydroxyl group on a substrate and then with another phthalocyanine derivative under mild conditions. The accumulation number of the phthalocyanine molecules on the substrates is easily controlled by the immersion time. On the basis of AFM (atomic force microscopy) images, the surface of the phthalocyanine-modified glass substrate has uneven structures on the nanometer scale. ITO electrodes modified with the composition of the phthalocyanine derivative and PCBM show stable cathodic photocurrent generation upon light irradiation.

  3. STRAF-A convenient online tool for STR data evaluation in forensic genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouy, Alexandre; Zieger, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Population data in forensic genetics has to be checked for a variety of statistical parameters before it can be employed for case work. A lot of very powerful statistical tools are available for this task, most of them developed by labs having their research focus on population genetics or evolution. However, most of these programs require a substantial amount of experience. In addition, to our knowledge, none of the freely available programs calculates all the common parameters for a population study in forensic genetics at once, based on a single input file. We present here a convenient online tool that fills this gap. STRAF (STR Analysis for Forensics) provides an intuitive interface and input file format and computes all the relevant parameters for a classical population study based on autosomal STR data at once and in a convenient way. In addition, STRAF includes a PCA module that can be used for population substructure detection or quality control. The results generated by the program were verified by recalculating parameters from an already published population study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Convenience, food and family lives. A socio-typological study of household food expenditures in 21st-century Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Sarah; Glorieux, Ignace

    2015-11-01

    This article aims to uncover the extent to which convenience foods have become embedded in today's diets. The paper focuses on households' food expenditures, collected by Statistics Belgium in 2005. The results show that households' reliance on (semi-) convenience food items and away-from-home consumption clearly differs over the life-course and amongst different social groups. Findings show that single-living households (single men in particular) look for more convenience in their food preparation patterns compared to couples and households with children. The consumption of semi-convenient meal components seems to be more closely related to the conventional definition of home-cooking, with older-generation, lower-educated, non-working and 'traditional' nuclear households being more likely to spend a larger share of their food budget on non-convenient and 'shortcut' ingredients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Associations with dental caries experience among a convenience sample of Aboriginal Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasena, N; Kapellas, K; Skilton, M R; Maple-Brown, L J; Brown, A; O'Dea, K; Celermajer, D S; Jamieson, L M

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have examined dental caries experience in Aboriginal adults. The objectives of this study were to describe the dental caries experience of some Aboriginal Australian adults residing in the Northern Territory, and to determine associations with dental caries experience. A convenience sample of Aboriginal adults from Australia's Northern Territory was dentally examined. Self-reported oral health information was collected through a questionnaire. Data were available for 312 participants. The per cent of untreated decayed teeth (per cent DT >0) was 77.9 (95% CI 73.0 to 82.1), the mean DT was 3.0 (95% CI 2.6 to 3.4), the prevalence of any caries experience (the per cent DMFT >0) was 95.5 (95% CI 92.6 to 97.3) and the mean DMFT was 9.7 (95% CI 8.9 to 10.5). In multivariable analyses, unemployment and not brushing teeth the previous day were associated with the per cent DT >0. Problem-based dental attendance was associated with both the mean DT and the per cent DMFT >0. Older age, residing in the capital city, being non-incarcerated, last visiting a dentist caries experience among this convenience sample of Aboriginal Australian adults was very high. Most factors associated with dental caries were social determinants or dental service access-related. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  6. Enhanced response of microbial fuel cell using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone membrane as a biochemical oxygen demand sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyaru, Sivasankaran; Dharmalingam, Sangeetha

    2014-03-25

    The present study is focused on the development of single chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC) using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane to determine the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) matter present in artificial wastewater (AW). The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm when using artificial wastewater. This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion(®). The most serious problem in using MFC as a BOD sensor is the oxygen diffusion into the anode compartment, which consumes electrons in the anode compartment, thereby reducing the coulomb yield and reducing the electrical signal from the MFC. SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion(®), resulting in low internal resistance and substrate loss, thus improving the sensing range of BOD. The system was further improved by making a double membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with an increased electrode surface area which provide high surface area for electrically active bacteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A subchronic dermal exposure study of diethylene glycol monomethyl ether and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether in the male guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, D W; D'Addario, A P; Bruner, R H; Uddin, D E

    1986-02-01

    Diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (DEGME) has been selected as a replacement anti-icing additive for ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) in Navy jet aircraft fuel. This experiment was performed to determine whether DEGME produced similar toxicity to EGME following dermal exposure. Male guinea pigs were dermally exposed to 1.00, 0.20, 0.04, or 0 (control) g/kg/day DEGME for 13 weeks, 5 days/week, 6 hr/day. Another group of animals was similarly exposed to 1.00 g/kg/day EGME. Body weights as well as testicular and splenic weights were reduced as a result of exposure to EGME, DEGME-exposed animals exhibited decreased splenic weight in the high- and medium-dose (1.00 and 0.20 g/kg/day) exposure groups only. Hematologic changes in EGME-exposed animals included mild anemia with increased erythrocytic mean corpuscular volumes and a lymphopenia with increased neutrophils. Similar hematological changes were not observed in any animals exposed to DEGME. Serum creatine kinase activity was increased in animals exposed to EGME, and serum lactate dehydrogenase activity was increased in EGME and 1.00 g/kg/day DEGME-exposed animals. In general, DEGME produced minimal toxicological changes following dermal exposure, whereas the toxicological changes observed following similar exposure to EGME were much more profound.

  8. Novel sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) with pendant benzimidazole groups as a proton exchange membrane for direct methanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yang; Shao, Ke; Zhao, Chengji; Zhang, Gang; Li, Hongtao; Fu, Tiezhu; Na, Hui [Alan G MacDiarmid Institute, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Qianjin Street 2699, Changchun 130012, Jilin (China)

    2009-10-20

    A series of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)s bearing pendant carboxylic acid groups (C-SPEEKs) have been prepared and subsequently react with 1,2-diaminobenzene to obtain sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)s with pendant benzimidazole groups (BI-SPEEKs). The expected structures of the sulfonated copolymers are confirmed by {sup 1}H NMR. The resulting copolymers all show good thermal and mechanical properties. It should be noted that the introduction of benzimidazole groups into the copolymer improves its thermal and oxidative stability obviously. Meanwhile, compared to C-SPEEK, BI-SPEEK membranes show much lower water uptake and methanol permeability with the same sulfonation degree (DS). In order to study morphological changes of C-SPEEK and BI-SPEEK membranes, hydrophilic domains sizes from an atomic force microscopy (AFM) are investigated. (author)

  9. Interaction of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes with dienes in the presence of boron trifluoride etherate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gramenitskaya, V.N.; Golovkina, L.S.; Orach, V.S.

    1975-01-01

    The products of the acrolein reaction with divinyl, isoprene and chloroprene catalized by BF 3 xEt 2 O are corresponding 3-cyclohexenaldehydes trimerized under the catalyst influence. Mixtures of substituted 3-cyclohexealdehydes and Δ 3 -dihydropirines were produced as results of the reaction of croton aldehyde with 1,1,3-trimethilbutadiene at high temperature as well as at 20 deg C in presence of catalyst

  10. A Rich Client-Server Based Framework for Convenient Security and Management of Mobile Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badan, Stephen; Probst, Julien; Jaton, Markus; Vionnet, Damien; Wagen, Jean-Frédéric; Litzistorf, Gérald

    Contact lists, Emails, SMS or custom applications on a professional smartphone could hold very confidential or sensitive information. What could happen in case of theft or accidental loss of such devices? Such events could be detected by the separation between the smartphone and a Bluetooth companion device. This event should typically block the applications and delete personal and sensitive data. Here, a solution is proposed based on a secured framework application running on the mobile phone as a rich client connected to a security server. The framework offers strong and customizable authentication and secured connectivity. A security server manages all security issues. User applications are then loaded via the framework. User data can be secured, synchronized, pushed or pulled via the framework. This contribution proposes a convenient although secured environment based on a client-server architecture using external authentications. Several features of the proposed system are exposed and a practical demonstrator is described.

  11. Patients' demographics of a convenient clinic located in a large railway station in metropolitan Tokyo area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Kenji; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Sakaue, Saori; Sato, Tomohiko; Kouno, Kaduki; Hamaki, Tamae; Hosoda, Kazutaka; Ohnishi, Mutsuko; Komatsu, Tsunehiko; Kami, Masahiro; Kusumi, Eiji

    2018-01-01

    Hidden barriers to visit a medical facility especially for young busy workers have been neglected in the aging society. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to analyze demographics of patients who had visited the first known convenient clinic located inside a railway station, which is adjusted to the lifestyle of working generations.We analyzed de-identified data of patients who had visited the department of internal medicine of a clinic, which is located inside a railway station building and offers primary care with after-hours accessibility in Tokyo, between August 2013 and June 2016. Data were collected on patients' sex, age, time of visit, waiting time, presence or absence of an appointment, diagnosis, and patients' addresses using the electronic health and billing records.Overall, 28,001 patients visited 87,126 times. Number of visits increased in winter season compared with the other seasons. Sixty-one percent were women and the median age of all patients was 38 years (range, 0-102). The number of visits on Mondays was the highest in a week and the most frequent visiting time was between 6 and 7 p.m. The number of visits of working generations (from 15 to 65 years old) and men increased after 6 p.m. and on weekends. The 3 most common diagnoses were upper respiratory tract infection (22,457), allergic rhinitis (20,916), and hypertension (4869). The number of individuals who were referred to other medical institutions was 1022 (1.2%). The median waiting time was 748 seconds (range, 2-5344). The number of visits from within 2-, 5-, and 10-mile radius from our clinic was 41,696 (50.6%), 63,190 (76.7%), and 75,015 (91.1%), respectively, and patients' addresses were mainly located along the railway network.The locational and temporal convenience of our clinic has attracted the unmet medical demands especially for young workers who have difficulty in visiting conventional medical institutions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health

  12. CAN MONEY BUY CONVENIENCE: A STUDY ON INCOME AS A MOTIVATOR OF ONLINE SHOPPING?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallabi Mishra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The fast and hectic life of professionals has created an essence of convenience and urgency in their activities and behavior. With the advent of technology and the swift internet era online activities are on a growing trend. This growing trend in online shopping has led to the consideration of this paper which aims to explore the role of individual income as a motivator of online shopping behavior. This study is descriptive in nature. It consists of primary survey of customers belonging to different individual income levels. The researcher has classified respondents on the basis of their individual income earned per annum into low, medium and high category. It investigates the influence of demographic factor income on shopping experiences of users of the major shopping websites of India. Data has been collected both from primary as well as secondary sources. The sampling technique used is convenience with a sample size of 755.The research results reveal that there is no significant effect of income on product categories purchased online. The effect of income on frequency of online shopping is not significant. There is no significant effect of income on payment mode in online shopping. Further there is no significant relationship between income and satisfaction in online shopping.The managers can benefit immensely from the results. Customers are offer driven in case of all items except necessary and emergency goods. The necessary items would sell even if there is no discount and offers on them. For other items offers and discounts influence the shopping behavior. The higher the offer the better the sale. Moreover to gain competitive advantage online marketers need to provide products and brands of higher value to customers. The cash on delivery facility should be applied to all product categories across the country so that every customer benefits from it. Care should be taken to manage reverse logistics as there should be a pick up facility from

  13. Gender, trauma type, and PTSD prevalence: a re-analysis of 18 nordic convenience samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, D. N.; Elklit, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to examine a possible trauma type related variance in the gender difference of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) prevalence. Methods: An analysis was conducted on 18 convenience sample studies including data from a total of 5220 participants. The studies all...... applied the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire - part IV to assess PTSD. Cohen's d was used to measure variance in gender differences. Trauma types included disasters and accidents, violence, loss, chronic disease and non-malignant diseases. Results: The results showed an overall gender difference in PTSD...... prevalence similar to previous findings. Thus, women had a two-fold higher prevalence of PTSD than men. Besides categorical analyses, dimensional analyses of PTSD severity were also performed; the latter were associated with twice as large effect sizes. Females were more vulnerable to PTSD after disasters...

  14. A convenient synthesis of lepidimoide from okra mucilage and its growth-promoting activity in hypocotyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Katsutoshi; Endo, Keiichiro; Hasegawa, Koji

    2004-01-02

    The total synthesis of the unsaturated disaccharide, lepidimoide 4-deoxy-beta-L-threo-hex-4-enopyranuronosyl-(1-->2)-L-rhamnopyranose sodium salt, has been carried out from D-glucose and L-rhamnose (Tetrahedron Lett. 1993, 34, 2653), but the process is very long and complicated. A method for more easily producing this compound and in large quantities is necessary for further research. We have succeeded in conveniently synthesizing lepidimoide from okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) fruit mucilage. At the same time, the isomer (epi-lepidimoide) was obtained as a byproduct. The structure was determined as the 4-deoxy-beta-L-threo-hex-4-enopyranuronosyl-(1-->2)-6-deoxy-L-glucopyranose sodium salt by spectral analysis. We found that lepidimoide easily epimerized to epi-lepidimoide in alkaline media. Both lepidimoide and epi-lepidimoide exhibited the same high activity in the cockscomb hypocotyls elongation test.

  15. Masters of convenience: competition, including a rising star from Quebec, improves the service station breed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laverty Wilson, K.

    2002-06-03

    After a decade of extensive dismantling and reconstruction, changes in the downstream refining and marketing side of the petroleum industry have progressed to the point where downstream assets are once again considered to be among the strongest and most vital parts of the industry. Merchandising has become a way of life in gasoline service stations to the point where the service station of the 21. century will likely carry mass-consumption items from panty hose to sandwiches in addition to gasoline. Petro-Canada is in the forefront of rolling out the new-image service stations, while high traffic Esso locations are adding cafes serving doughnuts, muffins, bagels, soup and sandwiches in partnership with the Tim Horton's chain. In Canada, Quebec is way ahead of the other provinces in setting the high tone in the business of catering to consumers on wheels as demonstrated by the 1,932 retail sites of 'Couche-Tard', a name synonymous with gas pumps, fresh coffee and the myriad items offered in traditional convenience stores. With a total of 1,693 stores in Canada, 239 in the United States, 13,000 plus employees and more than 800 gas pumps (80 of them branded to in-house gasoline) Couche-Tard is the ninth largest convenience retailer in North America. The article describes the rise to prominence of the Couche-Tard empire, explains why circumstances in Quebec were ripe for this type of development, and offers a glimpse into the future of the likely further development of the retail gasoline market in the rest of Canada.

  16. Occlusal wear and occlusal condition in a convenience sample of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van't Spijker, A; Kreulen, C M; Bronkhorst, E M; Creugers, N H J

    2015-01-01

    To study progression of tooth wear quantitatively in a convenient sample of young adults and to assess possible correlations with occlusal conditions. Twenty-eight dental students participated in a three-year follow up study on tooth wear. Visible wear facets on full arch gypsum casts were assessed using a flatbed scanner and measuring software. Regression analyses were used to assess possible associations between the registered occlusal conditions 'occlusal guidance scheme', 'vertical overbite', 'horizontal overbite', 'depth of sagittal curve', 'canine Angle class relation', 'history of orthodontic treatment', and 'self-reported grinding/clenching' (independent variables) and increase of wear facets (dependent variable). Mean increase in facet surface areas ranged from 1.2 mm2 (premolars, incisors) to 3.4 mm2 (molars); the relative increase ranged from 15% to 23%. Backward regression analysis showed no significant relation for 'group function', 'vertical overbite', 'depth of sagittal curve', 'history of orthodontic treatment' nor 'self-reported clenching. The final multiple linear regression model showed significant associations amongst 'anterior protected articulation' and 'horizontal overbite' and increase of facet surface areas. For all teeth combined, only 'anterior protected articulation' had a significant effect. 'Self reported grinding' did not have a significant effect (p>0.07). In this study 'anterior protected articulation' and 'horizontal overbite', were significantly associated with the progression of tooth wear. Self reported grinding was not significantly associated with progression of tooth wear. Occlusal conditions such as anterior protected articulation and horizontal overbite seem to have an effect on the progression of occlusal tooth wear in this convenient sample of young adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Proton-Ionizable Crown Ethers. A Short Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-30

    Triazole’Subcyclic Unit 14. Proton-Ionizable Crown Ethers Containing Sulfonamide Groups 15. Miscellaneous Proton-Ionizable Crown Ethers 1. INTRODUCTION. ""Since...the diaza dinitrile crown. Subsequent hydrolysis produced the diacid 33 (Procedure E). 27 Monoaza-crowns 35-38 (Figure V, Table 5) were obtained by the...followed by hydrolysis of the cetidi to f the acid.3o Complextion by th~eam crownsJ hasJ boon extensively castudieon and transportat es of thos ecaions have

  18. Dimethyl ether. A fuel for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleisch, T.H.; Basu, A.; Gradassi, M.J.; Masin, J.G. [Gas Transportation and Upgrading Division, Amoco, Exploration and Production Technology Group, Naperville, IL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    For several years Amoco has been involved in research and development work on the synthesis of liquid fuels from natural gas. In a recent collaborative work with Haldor Topsoe S/A, AVL LIST GmbH and Navistar, Amoco has identified Dimethyl Ether (DME) as a new, ultraclean alternative fuel for diesel engines. DME can be handled like LPG, an important alternative transportation fuel. Preliminary engine test data for DME, showing emission levels better than the California 1998 ULEV standards, were recently reported at the 1995 SAE conference in Detroit, Michigan. DME is today manufactured from methanol and is primarily used as an aerosol propellant due to its environmentally benign characteristics. Haldor Topsoe has developed a process for direct production of DME from natural gas, coal or biomass. The process can be used for large scale (about 40.000 BSD diesel equivalent) manufacture of DME from natural gas using predominantly single-train process units. In this paper, we will provide an overview of the attractiveness of DME as an environmentally and customer-friendly diesel fuel option. 14 refs.

  19. How rural and urban parents describe convenience in the context of school-based influenza vaccination: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Candace; Russell, Margaret L; Collins, Ramona; MacDonald, Judy; Frank, Christine J; Davis, Amy E

    2015-01-22

    Seasonal influenza vaccine uptake among school-age children has been low, particularly among rural children, even in jurisdictions in Canada where this immunization is publicly funded. Providing this vaccination at school may be convenient for parents and might contribute to increased vaccine uptake, particularly among rural children. We explore the construct of convenience as an advantage of school based influenza vaccination. We also explore for rural urban differences in this construct. Participants were parents of school-aged children from Alberta, Canada. We qualitatively analyzed focus group data from rural parents using a thematic template that emerged from prior work with urban parents. Both groups of parents had participated in focus groups to explore their perspectives on the acceptability of adding an annual influenza immunization to the immunization program that is currently delivered in Alberta schools. Data from within the theme of 'convenience' from both rural and urban parents were then further explored for sub-themes within convenience. Data were obtained from nine rural and nine urban focus groups. The template of themes that had arisen from prior analysis of the urban data applied to the rural data. Convenience was a third level theme under Advantages. Five fourth level themes emerged from within convenience. Four of the five sub-themes were common to both rural and urban participants: reduction of parental burden to schedule, reduction in parental lost time, decrease in parental stress and increase in physical access points for influenza immunization. The fifth subtheme, increases temporal access to influenza immunization, emerged uniquely from the rural data. Both rural and urban parents perceived that convenience would be an advantage of adding an annual influenza immunization to the vaccinations currently given to Alberta children at school. Improving temporal access to such immunization may be a more relevant aspect of convenience to rural

  20. A superconcentrated ether electrolyte for fast-charging Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuki; Yaegashi, Makoto; Abe, Takeshi; Yamada, Atsuo

    2013-12-11

    We have found ultrafast Li(+) intercalation into graphite in a superconcentrated ether electrolyte, even exceeding that in a currently used commercial electrolyte. This discovery is an important breakthrough toward fast-charging Li-ion batteries far beyond present technologies.

  1. Modeling of a Reaction-Distillation-Recycle System to Produce Dimethyl Ether through Methanol Dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muharam, Y.; Zulkarnain, L. M.; Wirya, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    The increase in the dimethyl ether yield through methanol dehydration due to a recycle integration to a reaction-distillation system was studied in this research. A one-dimensional phenomenological model of a methanol dehydration reactor and a shortcut model of distillation columns were used to achieve the aim. Simulation results show that 10.7 moles/s of dimethyl ether is produced in a reaction-distillation system with the reactor length being 4 m, the reactor inlet pressure being 18 atm, the reactor inlet temperature being 533 K, the reactor inlet velocity being 0.408 m/s, and the distillation pressure being 8 atm. The methanol conversion is 90% and the dimethyl ether yield is 48%. The integration of the recycle stream to the system increases the dimethyl ether yield by 8%.

  2. OCT as a convenient tool to assess the quality and application of organotypic retinal samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gater, Rachel; Khoshnaw, Nicholas; Nguyen, Dan; El Haj, Alicia J.; Yang, Ying

    2016-03-01

    Eye diseases such as macular degeneration and glaucoma have profound consequences on the quality of human life. Without treatment, these diseases can lead to loss of sight. To develop better treatments for retinal diseases, including cell therapies and drug intervention, establishment of an efficient and reproducible 3D native retinal tissue system, enabled over a prolonged culture duration, will be valuable. The retina is a complex tissue, consisting of ten layers with a different density and cellular composition to each. Uniquely, as a light transmitting tissue, retinal refraction of light differs among the layers, forming a good basis to use optical coherence tomography (OCT) in assessing the layered structure of the retina and its change during the culture and treatments. In this study, we develop a new methodology to generate retinal organotypic tissues and compare two substrates: filter paper and collagen hydrogel, to culture the organotypic tissue. Freshly slaughtered pig eyes have been obtained for use in this study. The layered morphology of intact organotypic retinal tissue cultured on two different substrates has been examined by spectral domain OCT. The viability of the tissues has been examined by live/dead fluorescence dye kit to cross validate the OCT images. For the first time, it is demonstrated that the use of a collagen hydrogel supports the viability of retinal organotypic tissue, capable of prolonged culture up to 2 weeks. OCT is a convenient tool for appraising the quality and application of organotypic retinal samples and is important in the development of current organotypic models.

  3. Reducing elevator energy use: A comparison of posted feedback and reduced elevator convenience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houten, Ron Van; Nau, Paul A.; Merrigan, Michael

    1981-01-01

    The effects of two different procedures for reducing elevator energy use were assessed using a multiple-baseline design. In the first procedure, feedback about the amount of energy consumed by the elevators each week was posted on each elevator door. Later, signs advocating the use of stairs to save energy and improve health were posted next to the feedback signs. In the second procedure, the time required to travel between floors was increased by adding a delay to the elevator door closing mechanisms. Results indicated that neither feedback alone nor feedback plus educational signs reduced the amount of energy consumed by the elevators. However, use of the door delay reduced consumption by one-third in all elevators. A second experiment replicated the effect of the door delay on energy consumption and, in addition, demonstrated that the door delay also produced a reduction in the number of persons using the elevator. The second experiment also showed that, following an initial period during which a full delay was in effect, a gradual reduction of the delay interval resulted in continued energy conservation. Reduced convenience as a general strategy for energy conservation is discussed. PMID:16795648

  4. A convenient method for synthesis of glyconanoparticles for colorimetric measuring carbohydrate-protein interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yen-Jun; Zhou, Xichun; Pan, Zhengwei; Turchi, Craig

    2009-01-01

    Carbohydrate functionalized nanoparticles, i.e., the glyconanoparticles, have wide application ranging from studies of carbohydrate-protein interactions, in vivo cell imaging, biolabeling, etc. Currently reported methods for preparation of glyconanoaprticles require multi-step modifications of carbohydrates moieties to conjugate to nanoparticle surface. However, the required synthetic manipulations are difficult and time consuming. We report herewith a simple and versatile method for preparing glyconanoparticles. This method is based on the utilization of clean and convenient microwave irradiation energy for one-step, site-specific conjugation of unmodified carbohydrates onto hydrazide-functionalized Au nanoparticles. A colorimetric assay that utilizes the ensemble of gold glyconanoparticles and Concanavalin A (ConA) was also presented. This feasible assay system was developed to analyze multivalent interactions and to determine the dissociation constant (Kd) for five kind of Au glyconanoparticles with lectin. Surface plasmon changes of the Au glyconanparticles as a function of lectin-carbohydrate interactions were measured and the dissociation constants were determined based on non-linear curve fitting. The strength of the interaction of carbohydrates with ConA was found to be as follows: Maltose > Mannose > Glucose > Lactose > MAN5. PMID:19698698

  5. A convenient method for synthesis of glyconanoparticles for colorimetric measuring carbohydrate-protein interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Yen-Jun [Faculty of Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Zhou, Xichun, E-mail: xichunz@adatech.com [ADA Technologies, Inc., 8100 Shaffer Parkway, Ste 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107 (United States); Pan, Zhengwei [Faculty of Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Turchi, Craig [ADA Technologies, Inc., 8100 Shaffer Parkway, Ste 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107 (United States)

    2009-11-06

    Carbohydrate functionalized nanoparticles, i.e., the glyconanoparticles, have wide application ranging from studies of carbohydrate-protein interactions, in vivo cell imaging, biolabeling, etc. Currently reported methods for preparation of glyconanoparticles require multi-step modifications of carbohydrates moieties to conjugate to nanoparticle surface. However, the required synthetic manipulations are difficult and time consuming. We report herewith a simple and versatile method for preparing glyconanoparticles. This method is based on the utilization of clean and convenient microwave irradiation energy for one-step, site-specific conjugation of unmodified carbohydrates onto hydrazide-functionalized Au nanoparticles. A colorimetric assay that utilizes the ensemble of gold glyconanoparticles and Concanavalin A (ConA) was also presented. This feasible assay system was developed to analyze multivalent interactions and to determine the dissociation constant (K{sub d}) for five kind of Au glyconanoparticles with lectin. Surface plasmon changes of the Au glyconanoparticles as a function of lectin-carbohydrate interactions were measured and the dissociation constants were determined based on non-linear curve fitting. The strength of the interaction of carbohydrates with ConA was found to be as follows: maltose > mannose > glucose > lactose > MAN5.

  6. A convenient method for synthesis of glyconanoparticles for colorimetric measuring carbohydrate-protein interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, Yen-Jun; Zhou, Xichun; Pan, Zhengwei; Turchi, Craig

    2009-01-01

    Carbohydrate functionalized nanoparticles, i.e., the glyconanoparticles, have wide application ranging from studies of carbohydrate-protein interactions, in vivo cell imaging, biolabeling, etc. Currently reported methods for preparation of glyconanoparticles require multi-step modifications of carbohydrates moieties to conjugate to nanoparticle surface. However, the required synthetic manipulations are difficult and time consuming. We report herewith a simple and versatile method for preparing glyconanoparticles. This method is based on the utilization of clean and convenient microwave irradiation energy for one-step, site-specific conjugation of unmodified carbohydrates onto hydrazide-functionalized Au nanoparticles. A colorimetric assay that utilizes the ensemble of gold glyconanoparticles and Concanavalin A (ConA) was also presented. This feasible assay system was developed to analyze multivalent interactions and to determine the dissociation constant (K d ) for five kind of Au glyconanoparticles with lectin. Surface plasmon changes of the Au glyconanoparticles as a function of lectin-carbohydrate interactions were measured and the dissociation constants were determined based on non-linear curve fitting. The strength of the interaction of carbohydrates with ConA was found to be as follows: maltose > mannose > glucose > lactose > MAN5.

  7. Convenience Store Workplace Literacy Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duzer, Carol; Mansoor, Inaam

    The Convenience Store Workplace Literacy Curriculum was developed for English-as-a-Second-Language classes offered by the Southland Corporation, 7-Eleven stores, through a national workplace literacy grant. It is based on an analysis of the tasks and interactions common to a convenience store worksite. Store employees, managers, field consultants,…

  8. Valuation of pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus health states: a convenience sample experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rencz, F; Brodszky, V; Stalmeier, P F M; Tamási, B; Kárpáti, S; Péntek, M; Baji, P; Mitev, A Z; Gulácsi, L

    2016-09-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in pemphigus has been widely investigated; nevertheless, utility values for economic evaluations are still lacking. To estimate health utilities for hypothetical pemphigus vulgaris (PV) and pemphigus foliaceus (PF) health states in a general population sample. Three health states (uncontrolled PV, uncontrolled PF and controlled pemphigus) were developed based on a systematic literature review of HRQoL studies in pemphigus. Utilities were obtained from a convenience sample of 108 adults using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and 10-year time trade-off (TTO). Lead-time TTO was applied for health states regarded as worse than dead with a lead time to disease time ratio of 1 : 1. The mean VAS utility scores for PV, PF and controlled pemphigus were 0·25 ± 0·15, 0·37 ± 0·17 and 0·63 ± 0·16, respectively. Corresponding TTO utilities were as follows: 0·34 ± 0·38, 0·51 ± 0·32 and 0·75 ± 0·31. Overall, 14% and 6% judged PV and PF as being worse than dead. For both VAS and TTO values, significant differences were observed between all health states (P pemphigus might result in significant utility gain (0·24-0·41). These empirical findings with respect to three health states in pemphigus may serve as anchor points for further utility studies and cost-effectiveness analyses. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  9. A stable and convenient protein electrophoresis titration device with bubble removing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Fan, Liu-Yin; Li, Wen-Lin; Cong, Feng-Song; Zhong, Ran; Chen, Jing-Jing; He, Yu-Chen; Xiao, Hua; Cao, Cheng-Xi

    2017-07-01

    Moving reaction boundary titration (MRBT) has a potential application to immunoassay and protein content analysis with high selectivity. However, air bubbles often impair the accuracy of MRBT, and the leakage of electrolyte greatly decreases the safety and convenience of electrophoretic titration. Addressing these two issues a reliable MRBT device with modified electrolyte chamber of protein titration was designed. Multiphysics computer simulation was conducted for optimization according to two-phase flow. The single chamber was made of two perpendicular cylinders with different diameters. After placing electrophoretic tube, the resident air in the junction next to the gel could be eliminated by a simple fast electrolyte flow. Removing the electrophoretic tube automatically prevented electrolyte leakage at the junction due to the gravity-induced negative pressure within the chamber. Moreover, the numerical simulation and experiments showed that the improved MRBT device has following advantages: (i) easy and rapid setup of electrophoretic tube within 20 s; (ii) simple and quick bubble dissipates from the chamber of titration within 2 s; (iii) no electrolyte leakage from the two chambers: and (iv) accurate protein titration and safe instrumental operation. The developed technique and apparatus greatly improves the performance of the previous MRBT device, and providing a new route toward practical application. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. The Retinal Pigment Epithelium: a Convenient Source of New Photoreceptor cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Zhen Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent success in restoring visual function through photoreceptor replacement in mouse models of photoreceptor degeneration intensifies the need to generate or regenerate photoreceptor cells for the ultimate goal of using cell replacement therapy for blindness caused by photoreceptor degeneration. Current research on deriving new photoreceptors for replacement, as regenerative medicine in general, focuses on the use of embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells to generate transplantable cells. Nonetheless, naturally occurring regeneration, such as wound healing, involves awakening cells at or near a wound site to produce new cells needed to heal the wound. Here we discuss the possibility of tweaking an ocular tissue, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE, to produce photoreceptor cells in situ in the eye. Unlike the neural retina, the RPE in adult mammals maintains cell proliferation capability. Furthermore, progeny cells from RPE proliferation may differentiate into cells other than RPE. The combination of proliferation and plasticity opens a question of whether they could be channeled by a regulatory gene with pro-photoreceptor activity towards photoreceptor production. Studies using embryonic chick and transgenic mouse showed that indeed photoreceptor-like cells were produced in culture and in vivo in the eye using genedirected reprogramming of RPE cells, supporting the feasibility of using the RPE as a convenient source of new photoreceptor cells for in situ retinal repair without involving cell transplantation.

  11. A Convenient Ultraviolet Irradiation Technique for Synthesis of Antibacterial Ag-Pal Nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuai; Zhang, He; Kang, Lianwei; Li, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Chong; Dong, Yongjie; Qin, Shenjun

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, palygorskite (Pal) was initially subjected to an ion-exchange reaction with silver ions (Pal-Ag+). Subsequently, Ag-Pal nanocomposites were assembled by a convenient ultraviolet irradiation technique, using carbon dots (CDs) derived from wool fiber as the reducing agent. The obtained nanocomposites were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The XRD patterns and UV-vis absorption spectra confirmed the formation of the Ag nanoparticles (NPs). Meanwhile, the TEM images showed that the Ag NPs, which exhibited sizes in the range of 3-7 nm, were located on the surface of the Pal nanofiber structures. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of the nanocomposites was evaluated against Gram-positive ( Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative ( Escherichia coli) bacteria by applying the disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration test. Owing to their good antibacterial properties, the Ag-Pal nanocomposites are considered to be a promising bactericide with great potential applications.

  12. Establishment of a Simple and Convenient Method for Folic Acid Enzyme Chemiluminescence Immunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Zeng, Ling; Yu, Zhengwei; Yang, Yanfei; Qu, Yunhuan

    2018-01-01

    The enzyme chemiluminescence new immunoassay for folic acid (FA) was established by competition model. Add FA samples to a microtiter plate precoated with the goat anti-mouse IgG firstly, then add enzyme abled FA and FA monoclonal antibody (McAb). The values of CLIA were measured to reflect the quantity of FA. The limit of detection(LOD) of assay is 0.37ng/mL. The assay shows good correlation during 1∼30 ng/mL with correlation coefficient 0.9976. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation are 4.8 % ∼ 7.3 % and 6.1 % ∼ 12.2 %, respectively. The recovery of folic acid in serum is 90.4 %∼113.2 %. Compared with determine value clinically in chemiluminescence immunoassay kit from Roche company, the correlative equation is y = 0.9689x + 0.0228, and correlation coefficient is 0.9780. Various components and kit overall show good stabilities. This method is simple and convenient, and has low LOD value. The method has overcome the shortcomings of the present references. It is easy to apply and has broad clinical application prospect. It lays an experimental foundation for the preparation of Mc Ab against folic acid and the development of domestic kit.

  13. Development and quality evaluation of quick cooking dhal-A convenience product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Shruti; Samuel, D V K; Khan, Islam

    2014-03-01

    Owing to rapid urbanization and more women joining the workforce, use of ready-to-eat and ready-to-use convenience foods is gaining increasing popularity. Women require dhal that cooks fast and increases in volume when cooked. In an attempt to prepare quick cooking dhal from pigeon pea, variety UPAS 120 was milled, pre-treated with sodium chloride solution (1%), flaked and dried. The quick cooking dhal was packed in three packaging materials, namely, high molecular weight high density polyethylene (HMHDPE), high density polyethylene (HDPE) and laminated pouches. The quality evaluation of the prepared flakes with respect to the cooking quality attributes, changes in proximate composition, free fatty acid (FFA) and peroxide value (PV) were carried out during storage at ambient temperature (8-36°C) at regular intervals for a period of 10 months. During storage, quick cooking dhal packed in laminated pouches performed better than samples stored in other pouches with respect to the changes in the overall quality and acceptability of the product.

  14. Convenient synthesis of protiated and specifically deuterated secondary azoalkanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grizzle, P.L.; Miller, D.W.; Scheppele, S.E.

    1975-01-01

    A convenient synthesis of secondary azo compounds is reported. The method involves addition of chlorine to the azine or hydrazone in CH 2 Cl 2 followed by reduction of the dichloro- or chloroazoalkane with LiAlH 4 or LiAlD 4 in ether. The preparation of a variety of symmetrical secondary azoalkanes demonstrates the applicability of the technique. The procedure is applicable to the synthesis of (sec-alkylazo)alkanes and presumably of (sec-alkylazo)-2,4,6-trichlorobenzenes. The isotope purity of the azoalkane is fixed by that of the azine or hydrazone precursor and of the LiAlD 4 . (U.S.)

  15. Convenience on the menu? A typological conceptualization of family food expenditures and food-related time patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Sarah; Glorieux, Ignace; Minnen, Joeri; van Tienoven, T P; Weenas, Djiwo

    2015-05-01

    One of the most fundamental, but also controversial, food trends of the past years is convenience food. This article investigates the underexplored relationship between the heterogeneity in (convenience) food consumption (a feature of a food culture's cuisine) and meal patterns (characteristics of a food culture's structure). This study hopes to illustrate that convenience food can be interpreted both as a means to maintain a food culture's structure and as a means to overturn it. Latent Class Cluster Analysis is performed using data from the HBS 2005 survey on families' food expenditures to conceptualize convenience-orientation and to examine the relationships with families' meal behaviors. Whereas outsourcing cooking is most prevalent among single-person households; two-or more-person households are most likely to buy unprocessed and natural foods and to spend most time cooking and eating in. A higher consumption of convenience food is also more likely to affect individuals' kitchen than table habits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychological distress and self-rated oral health among a convenience sample of Indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasena, Najith; Kapellas, Kostas; Brown, Alex; Skilton, Michael R; Maple-Brown, Louise J; Bartold, Mark P; O'Dea, Kerin; Celermajer, David; Slade, Gary Douglas; Jamieson, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to: a) estimate the frequency of poor self-rated oral health as assessed by a summary measure; b) compare frequency according to sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychological distress factors; and (3) determine if psychological distress was associated with poor self-rated oral health after adjusting for confounding. Data were from a convenience sample of Indigenous Australian adults (n = 289) residing in Australia's Northern Territory. Poor self-rated oral health was defined as reported experience of toothache, poor dental appearance or food avoidance in the last 12 months. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate socio-demographic, behavioral, and psychological distress associations with poor self-rated oral health (SROH). Effects were quantified as odds ratios (OR). The frequency of poor SROH was 73.7 percent. High psychological distress, measured by a Kessler-6 score ≥8, was experienced by 33.9 percent of participants. Poor SROH was associated with high levels of psychological distress, being older, being female, and usually visiting a dentist because of a problem. In the multivariable model, factors that were significantly associated with poor SROH after adjustment for other covariates included having a high level of psychological distress (OR 2.74, 95% CI 1.25-6.00), being female (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.03-4.78), and usually visiting a dentist because of a problem (OR 3.57, 95% CI 1.89-6.76). Poor self-rated oral health and high levels of psychological distress were both highly frequent among this vulnerable population. Psychological distress was significantly associated with poor self-rated oral health after adjustment for confounding. © 2014 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  17. Radiation-induced grafting of vinylbenzyl chloride onto a poly(ether ether ketone) film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Mi-Lim; Song, Ju-Myung; Ko, Beom-Seok; Sohn, Joon-Yong; Nho, Young-Chang; Shin, Junhwa

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effects of various irradiation conditions including solvent, monomer concentration, total dose, and dose rate on the radiation grafting of a VBC monomer onto a PEEK aromatic hydrocarbon film for the preparation of a PVBC-grafted PEEK (PEEK-g-PVBC) film were investigated. The results show that the desired PVBC-grafted PEEK film can be prepared using a simultaneous irradiation grafting method, and that the degree of grafting (DOG) of the film is largely influenced by the irradiation conditions. Among the applied solvents, halogenated solvents, dichloromethane and chloroform, were found to be suitable for grafting. The successful preparation of the grafted film was confirmed using analytical instruments such as FT-IR, TGA, and SEM-EDX.

  18. Radiation-induced grafting of vinylbenzyl chloride onto a poly(ether ether ketone) film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Mi-Lim; Song, Ju-Myung; Ko, Beom-Seok; Sohn, Joon-Yong; Nho, Young-Chang [Radiation Research Division for Industry and Environment, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-Dong, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Junhwa, E-mail: shinj@kaeri.re.kr [Radiation Research Division for Industry and Environment, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-Dong, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    In this study, the effects of various irradiation conditions including solvent, monomer concentration, total dose, and dose rate on the radiation grafting of a VBC monomer onto a PEEK aromatic hydrocarbon film for the preparation of a PVBC-grafted PEEK (PEEK-g-PVBC) film were investigated. The results show that the desired PVBC-grafted PEEK film can be prepared using a simultaneous irradiation grafting method, and that the degree of grafting (DOG) of the film is largely influenced by the irradiation conditions. Among the applied solvents, halogenated solvents, dichloromethane and chloroform, were found to be suitable for grafting. The successful preparation of the grafted film was confirmed using analytical instruments such as FT-IR, TGA, and SEM-EDX.

  19. A simple and convenient method for the simultaneous in vitro study of metformin and glimepiride tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rehan

    2014-11-01

    A simple and convenient method was developed for the simultaneous determination of metformin HCl and glimepiride in tablet dosage form of different pharmaceuticals companies. This method was validated and proved to be applicable for assay determination in intermediate and finished staged. More over a single medium dissolution of metformin HCl and glimepiride was established and the media was evaluated for comparative studies for different formulations. Reverse phase HPLC equipped with UV detector was used for the determination of metformin HCl and glimepiride. A mixture of acetonitrile and ammonium acetate buffer 0.05M pH 3.0 was used as mobile phase at flow rate of 1.0ml/min. Promocil C18 5µ 100Aº 4.6 x 100mm C18 silica column was used and detection was carried out at 270nm. Method was found to be linear over the range of 4ppm to 16ppm for glimepiride and 170ppm to 680ppm for metformin HCl. Regression co-efficient were found to be 0.9949 and 0.9864 for glimepiride and metformin HCl respectively. Dissolution was performed in 500ml 0.2% sodium lauryl sulfate at 37°C for 45min using paddle apparatus. Dissolution of glimepiride was found to be 98.60% and 101.08% in Orinase Met1 tablet and Amaryl M tablet respectively whereas metformin was found 99.41% and 98.59% in Orinase Met 1 tablet and Amaryl M tablet. RSD for all the dissolutions was less than 2.0% after completion.

  20. Exogenous ether lipids predominantly target mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuerschner, Lars; Richter, Doris; Hannibal-Bach, Hans Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Ether lipids are ubiquitous constituents of cellular membranes with no discrete cell biological function assigned yet. Using fluorescent polyene-ether lipids we analyzed their intracellular distribution in living cells by microscopy. Mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum accumulated high...... amounts of ether-phosphatidylcholine and ether-phosphatidylethanolamine. Both lipids were specifically labeled using the corresponding lyso-ether lipids, which we established as supreme precursors for lipid tagging. Polyfosine, a fluorescent analogue of the anti-neoplastic ether lipid edelfosine...... in ether lipid metabolism and intracellular ether lipid trafficking....

  1. Effects of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties and emissions in a diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Cuenca, F.; Gomez-Marin, M. [Compania Logistica de Hidrocarburos (CLH), Central Laboratory, Mendez Alvaro 44, 28045 Madrid (Spain); Folgueras-Diaz, M.B., E-mail: belenfd@uniovi.es [Department of Energy, University of Oviedo, Independencia 13, 33004 Oviedo (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Effect of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties. {yields} Effect of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel engine specific consumption and emissions. {yields} Blends with {<=}4 wt.% of oxygen do not change substantially diesel fuel quality. {yields} Blends with 1 and 2.5 wt.% of oxygen reduce CO and HC emissions, but not smoke. - Abstract: The effect of ethylene glycol ethers on both the diesel fuel characteristics and the exhaust emissions (CO, NO{sub x}, smoke and hydrocarbons) from a diesel engine was studied. The ethers used were monoethylene glycol ethyl ether (EGEE), monoethylene glycol butyl ether (EGBE), diethylene glycol ethyl ether (DEGEE). The above effect was studied in two forms: first by determining the modification of base diesel fuel properties by using blends with oxygen concentration around 4 wt.%, and second by determining the emission reductions for blends with low oxygen content (1 wt.%) and with 2.5 wt.% of oxygen content. The addition of DEGEE enhances base diesel fuel cetane number, but EGEE and EGBE decrease it. For concentrations of {>=}4 wt.% of oxygen, EGEE and diesel fuel can show immiscibility problems at low temperatures ({<=}0 {sup o}C). Also, every oxygenated compound, according to its boiling point, modifies the distillation curve at low temperatures and the distillate percentage increases. These compounds have a positive effect on diesel fuel lubricity, and slightly decrease its viscosity. Blends with 1 and 2.5 wt.% oxygen concentrations were used in order to determine their influence on emissions at both full and medium loads and different engine speeds. Generally, all compounds help to reduce CO, and hydrocarbon emissions, but not smoke. The best results were obtained for blends with 2.5 wt.% of oxygen. At this concentration, the additive efficiency in decreasing order was EGEE > DEGEE > EGBE for CO emissions and DGEE > EGEE > EGBE for hydrocarbon emissions. For NO{sub x}, both its behaviour and the

  2. Rrhizogenesis in vitro is a convenient model for studying the root graviperceptive apparatus formation in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordyum, Elizabeth; Sarnatska, Veresa; Ovcharenko, Yulia

    A root graviperceptive apparatus is known to form in microgravity but does not function in the absence of a gravitational vector, that has been shown in many spaceflight experiments with seedlings of different plant species. In statocytes, which are differentiated in microgravity, a nucleus is localized in the proximal part of a cell as at 1 g. Unlike control, amyloplastsstatoliths do not sedimented in the distal part of a cell in microgravity, they group in the cell center more often, sometimes they localized in the different part of a cell. In all these experiments, the objects of investigations were embryonal roots formed in seeds at 1 g. There is only single report that columella cells in roots, which developed de novo from callus in space flight, did not differentiate in statocytes. Therefore, we call to attention to rhizogenesis in vitro as a convenient model for studying the influence of microgravity on differentiation of a root graviperceptive apparatus. Two methods for obtaining of Arabidopsis thaliana roots in vitro are proposed: the first-from the primary callus of leaf origin and the second - from leaf fragments. Callus initiation and growth are successful on MS medium supplemented with vitamin B5, glycine, inositol, 2,4-D, kinetin, glucose and agar. For induction of rhizogenesis calli were transferred to medium without hormones or medium which contained one to ten of MS mineral salts and microelements, without vitamins and hormones. Rhyzogenesis was obtained without added growth substances, but considerably higher number of calli with roots and number of roots per callus are on MS medium diluted tenfold. Rhizogenesis in A. thaliana leaf segments should present no problem, but the most intensive root formation is obtained when culturing them for three day on diluted MS medium supplemented with salycilic acid and then on diluted MS medium only. The low temperature treatment for three days increases the number of roots formed. A role of both plasticity

  3. A Convenient In Vivo Model Using Small Interfering RNA Silencing to Rapidly Assess Skeletal Gene Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    Full Text Available It is difficult to study bone in vitro because it contains various cell types that engage in cross-talk. Bone biologically links various organs, and it has thus become increasingly evident that skeletal physiology must be studied in an integrative manner in an intact animal. We developed a model using local intraosseous small interfering RNA (siRNA injection to rapidly assess the effects of a target gene on the local skeletal environment. In this model, 160-g male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 1-2 weeks. The left tibia received intraosseous injection of a parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (Pth1r or insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (Igf-1r siRNA transfection complex loaded in poloxamer 407 hydrogel, and the right tibia received the same volume of control siRNA. All the tibias received an intraosseous injection of recombinant human parathyroid hormone (1-34 (rhPTH (1-34 or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1. Calcein green and alizarin red were injected 6 and 2 days before euthanasia, respectively. IGF-1R and PTH1R expression levels were detected via RT-PCR assays and immunohistochemistry. Bone mineral density (BMD, microstructure, mineral apposition rates (MARs, and strength were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, micro-CT, histology and biomechanical tests. The RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry results revealed that IGF-1R and PTH1R expression levels were dramatically diminished in the siRNA-treated left tibias compared to the right tibias (both p<0.05. Using poloxamer 407 hydrogel as a controlled-release system prolonged the silencing effect of a single dose of siRNA; the mRNA expression levels of IGF-1R were lower at two weeks than at one week (p<0.01. The BMD, bone microstructure parameters, MAR and bone strength were significantly decreased in the left tibias compared to the right tibias (all p<0.05. This simple and convenient local intraosseous siRNA injection model achieved gene silencing with very small quantities of

  4. Inhibition of germinal vesicle breakdown in Xenopus oocytes in vitro by a series of substituted glycol ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Douglas J; Mathis, Michael B; Guiney, Patrick D; Weeks, John A

    2018-05-01

    A 24 hour in vitro Xenopus oocyte maturation (germinal vesicle breakdown [GVBD]) assay developed by Pickford and Morris (Environmental Health Perspectives, 1999, 107, 285-292) was used to screen a series of substituted glycol ethers (GEs). Substituted GEs included: ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME); EG monoethyl ether (EGEE); EG monopropyl ether (EGPE); EG monobutyl ether (EGBE); EG monohexyl ether (EGHE); diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (DGME); triethylene glycol monomethyl ether (TGME); ethylene glycol monophenyl ether (EGPhE); EG monobenzyl ether (EGBeE); EG diphenyl ether (EGDPhE); and propylene glycol monophenyl ether (PGPhE). The GEs inhibited progesterone- or androstenedione-induced GVBD with the following relative potency: EGPhE > PGPhE > EGME > EGEE ≥ EGBeE > EGPE > EGBE >EGHE > EGDPhE > DGME ≥ TGME, or EGPhE > PGPhE > EGBeE > EGDPhE > EGEE > EGME > EGPE > EGBE, EGHE, DGME and TGME, respectively. Further, [ 3 H]progesterone or [ 3 H]androstenedione binding affinities to the oocyte plasma membrane progesterone receptor (OMPR) or classical androgen receptor (AR) were: EGME > EGPhE ≥ PGPhE ≥ EGEE > EGBeE > EGPE > EGBE ≥ EGHE > EGDPhE, TGME, and DGME, or EGPhE > PGPhE > EGBeE > EGDPhE > EGEE ≥ EGME > EGPE, EGBE, and EGHE > DGME and TGME, respectively. Binary joint mixture studies with the GVBD model using flutamide (AR antagonist) and EGPhE indicated that flutamide/EGPhE mixture acted in a concentration additive manner. The effects of substituted GE series, however, may be mediated through the OMPR; the potency of EGPhE may be the result of bimodal inhibition of both the OMPR and AR pathways. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Extraction and [superscript 1]H NMR Analysis of Fats from Convenience Foods: A Laboratory Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartel, Aaron M.; Moore, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    The extraction and analysis of fats from convenience foods (crackers, cookies, chips, candies) has been developed as an experiment for a second-year undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory course. Students gravimetrically determine the fat content per serving and then perform a [superscript 1]H NMR analysis of the recovered fat to determine the…

  6. Cation permeable membranes from blends of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) and poly (ether sulfone)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelm, F.G.; Punt, Ineke G.M.; van der Vegt, N.F.A.; Strathmann, H.; Wessling, Matthias

    2002-01-01

    Sulfonated poly(aryl ether ether ketone), S-PEEK, is blended with non-sulfonated poly(ether sulfone) (PES) to adjust the properties of ion permeable and ion selective membranes. In this study, membranes are prepared from blends with (i) a S-PEEK content between 10 and 100 wt.% using one S-PEEK batch

  7. Indoor air guide values for glycol ethers and glycol esters-A category approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangelsdorf, Inge; Kleppe, Sara Nordqvist; Heinzow, Birger; Sagunski, Helmut

    2016-07-01

    The German Committee on Indoor Guide Values issues indoor air guide values to protect public health. For health evaluation of glycol ethers and glycol esters in air, the entire group of substances with data for 47 chemicals was analyzed in order to gain a consistent assessment. For some glycol ethers reproductive and hematological effects are of central interest, whereas for others effects on liver and kidneys are crucial. Moreover, some glycol ethers have also been shown to cause irritation of the respiratory tract. For 14 chemicals, suitable inhalation studies were available for deriving specific guide values, or analogies to closely related substances could be drawn. For these chemicals individual indoor air guide values were derived, the respective guide value I ranging from 0.02 to 2mg/m(3). Guide values were derived according to the procedures issued by the Committee, considering the exposure duration in indoor air compared to animal studies or the situation at workplaces, the duration of the respective study, species differences, and interindividual variability including special sensitivity of children. For glycol ethers with insufficient data default guide values II and I of 0.05 and 0.005ppm, respectively, were recommended based on statistical analyses of the available data on all glycol ethers and on evaluation of single studies. For evaluation of combined effects additivity is assumed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. When are stockpiled products consumed faster? A convenience-salience framework of postpurchase consumption incidence and quantity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandon, P.; Wansink, B.

    2002-01-01

    When people stockpile products, how do they decide when and how much they will consume? To answer this question, the authors develop a framework that shows how the salience and convenience of products influence postpurchase consumption incidence and quantity. Multiple research methods¿including

  9. Estimation of the fraction of biologically active methyl tert-butyl ether degraders in a heterogeneous biomass sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waul, Christopher Kevin; Arvin, Erik; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2008-01-01

    The fraction of biologically active methyl tert-butyl ether degraders in reactors is just as important for prediction of removal rates as knowledge of the kinetic parameters. The fraction of biologically active methyl tert-butyl ether degraders in a heterogeneous biomass sample, taken from a packed...

  10. Absolute configuration determination and convenient asymmetric synthesis of cis-3-(9-Anthryl)cyclohexanol with proline as a catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, Jędrzej; Kwit, Marcin; Gawronski, Jacek

    2012-10-01

    cis-(3R)-(9-anthryl) derivative of cyclohexanol was conveniently obtained in enantiomerically pure form from 2-cyclohexenone using asymmetric Michael addition of anthrone catalyzed by l-proline in a key step. The absolute configuration of the addition product was unequivocally determined by means of electronic circular dichroism measurements combined with calculation of the circular dichroism spectrum by using a density functional theory method. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. LACK OF ALTERATIONS IN THYROID HORMONES FOLLOWING A SINGLE POSTNATAL EXPOSURE TO POLYBROMIANTED DIPHENYL ETHER 47.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are commonly used as commercial flame retardants in a variety of products including plastics and textiles. There has been a rapid accumulation of these chemicals in the environment and high levels of PBDEs have been found in the adipose tiss...

  12. The effects of convenience and quality on the demand for vaccination: Results from a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Na; Zhang, Guojie; Zhu, Dawei; Wang, Jian; Shi, Luwen

    2017-05-15

    Vaccination is an effective way to prevent infectious diseases. Most studies analysed people's vaccine decisions, but few studies have analysed the effects of convenience such as immunisation schedule and distance and the quality of vaccination service on vaccination uptake. The aim of this paper was to investigate adults' preferences for convenience and quality of vaccination service, calculate the private economic benefit from convenience (vaccination schedule and distance) and quality, and predict the uptake rate for different vaccine scenarios. In our study, we interviewed 266 adults in 2 counties of Shandong province in China. The discrete choice experiment (DCE) was employed to analyse the preference for hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination, and a mixed logit model was used to estimate respondent preferences for vaccination attributes included in the DCE. The protection rate against hepatitis B (HB), duration of protection, risk of side effects, vaccination cost, schedule, and vaccination sites were proved to influence adults' preferences for HBV vaccination. The estimated willingness to pay (WTP) for 1 dose schedule instead of 3 doses and for a third-level vaccination site instead of a first-level site was almost equal (19 RMB). However, if the protection duration of the vaccination programme changed from 5years to 20years, the adults were willing to pay 35.05 RMB, and WTP for a 99% protection rate instead of a 79% rate was 67.71 RMB. The predicted uptake rate is almost 43% for the base case of HBV vaccination. Adults made trade-offs between vaccination schedules, vaccination sites, and other characteristics of HBV vaccine. The impact of attributes of the vaccine itself, especially protection rate against HB, duration of protection, and risk of side-effects, is more dramatic than convenience and quality of vaccination service. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. A convenient method and numerical tables for sample size determination in longitudinal-experimental research using multilevel models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Satoshi

    2014-12-01

    Recent years have shown increased awareness of the importance of sample size determination in experimental research. Yet effective and convenient methods for sample size determination, especially in longitudinal experimental design, are still under development, and application of power analysis in applied research remains limited. This article presents a convenient method for sample size determination in longitudinal experimental research using a multilevel model. A fundamental idea of this method is transformation of model parameters (level 1 error variance [σ(2)], level 2 error variances [τ 00, τ 11] and its covariance [τ 01, τ 10], and a parameter representing experimental effect [δ]) into indices (reliability of measurement at the first time point [ρ 1], effect size at the last time point [Δ T ], proportion of variance of outcomes between the first and the last time points [k], and level 2 error correlation [r]) that are intuitively understandable and easily specified. To foster more convenient use of power analysis, numerical tables are constructed that refer to ANOVA results to investigate the influence on statistical power by respective indices.

  14. Large-scale production of graphitic carbon nitride with outstanding nitrogen photofixation ability via a convenient microwave treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Huiqiang [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, and Environmental Engineering, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001 (China); College of Environment and Resources, Key Lab of Groundwater Resources and Environment, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Shi, Zhenyu; Li, Shuang [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, and Environmental Engineering, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001 (China); Liu, Na, E-mail: Naliujlu@163.com [College of Environment and Resources, Key Lab of Groundwater Resources and Environment, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Microwave method for synthesizing g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} with N{sub 2} photofixation ability is reported. • Nitrogen vacancies play the important role on the nitrogen photofixation ability. • The present process is a convenient method for large-scale production of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. - Abstract: A convenient microwave treatment for synthesizing graphitic carbon nitride (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) with outstanding nitrogen photofixation ability under visible light is reported. X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption, UV–vis spectroscopy, SEM, N{sub 2}-TPD, EPR, photoluminescence (PL) and photocurrent measurements were used to characterize the prepared catalysts. The results indicate that microwave treatment can form many irregular pores in as-prepared g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, which causes the increased surface area and separation rate of electrons and holes. More importantly, microwave treatment causes the formation of many nitrogen vacancies in as-prepared g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. These nitrogen vacancies not only serve as active sites to adsorb and activate N{sub 2} molecules but also promote interfacial charge transfer from catalysts to N{sub 2} molecules, thus significantly improving the nitrogen photofixation ability. Moreover, the present process is a convenient method for large-scale production of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} which is significantly important for the practical application.

  15. XRD and VCD: a marriage of love or convenience? Honeymoon around a cyclic urea derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherase, Dragos; Naubron, Jean-Valère; Roussel, Christian; Giorgi, Michel

    2012-07-01

    The structures and absolute configurations of the enantiomers (3aR,8aR)-2,2-dimethyl-4,4,8,8-tetraphenyl-4,5,6,7,8,8a-hexahydro-3aH-1,3-dioxolo[4,5-e][1,3]diazepin-6-one 0.33-hydrate, C(32)H(30)N(2)O(3)·0.33H(2)O, (Ia), and (3aS,8aS)-2,2-dimethyl-4,4,8,8-tetraphenyl-4,5,6,7,8,8a-hexahydro-3aH-1,3-dioxolo[4,5-e][1,3]diazepin-6-one 0.39-hydrate, C(32)H(30)N(2)O(3)·0.39H(2)O, (Ib), have been elucidated unambiguously using the complementary power of single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD). The enantiomers crystallize in the Sohncke space group P2(1)2(1)2 and pack as dimers stabilized by two symmetric hydrogen bonds involving one amide group each of the cyclic urea moiety. This double interaction is capped by a water molecule that partially occupies a site lying on the twofold axis and forms an uncommon hydrogen bond between the two monomers. A comparison between the solid-state VCD characterizations and the Bayesian statistics on Bijvoet differences determined from the XRD measurements reveals a tendency towards the correct determination of the absolute configuration by this latter method.

  16. A Rapid, Multiplexed, High-Throughput Flow-Through Membrane Immunoassay: A Convenient Alternative to ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo J. Domingo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a rapid, high-throughput flow-through membrane immunoassay (FMIA platform. A nitrocellulose membrane was spotted in an array format with multiple capture and control reagents for each sample detection area, and assay steps were carried out by sequential aspiration of sample and reagents through each detection area using a 96-well vacuum manifold. The FMIA provides an alternate assay format with several advantages over ELISA. The high surface area of the membrane permits high label concentration using gold labels, and the small pores and vacuum control provide rapid diffusion to reduce total assay time to ~30 min. All reagents used in the FMIA are compatible with dry storage without refrigeration. The results appear as colored spots on the membrane that can be quantified using a flatbed scanner. We demonstrate the platform for detection of IgM specific to lipopolysaccharides (LPS derived from Salmonella Typhi. The FMIA format provides analytical results comparable to ELISA in less time, provides integrated assay controls, and allows compensation for specimen-to-specimen variability in background, which is a particular challenge for IgM assays.

  17. Electrospray tandem mass spectrometry of a novel series of amphipathic functionalized ether-linked di- and trisaccharides and cyclic oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banoub, J; Thibault, P; Gouéth, P Y; Ronco, G; Villa, P

    1997-01-01

    Electrospray mass spectrometry (ESMS) has aided the structural characterization of a novel series of amphipathic functionalized ether-linked di- and trisaccharides, composed of units of alkyl derivatives of glucofuranose and either units of glucofuranose or diacetylgalactose. The structural elucidation of a novel eight-membered macrocyclic ether-linked disaccharide and an 11-membered macrocyclic ether-linked trisaccharide was also effected using ESMS. Low-energy collision-induced dissociation MS/MS analysis of the [M + H]+ precursor ions confirmed the characteristic fingerprint patterns obtained in the conventional electrospray spectra and proved to be a specific and very sensitive method for the detection and characterization of these novel amphipathic molecules.

  18. Vaccinations Administered During Off-Clinic Hours at a National Community Pharmacy: Implications for Increasing Patient Access and Convenience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goad, Jeffery A.; Taitel, Michael S.; Fensterheim, Leonard E.; Cannon, Adam E.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Approximately 50,000 adults die annually from vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States. Most traditional vaccine providers (eg, physician offices) administer vaccinations during standard clinic hours, but community pharmacies offer expanded hours that allow patients to be vaccinated at convenient times. We analyzed the types of vaccines administered and patient populations vaccinated during off-clinic hours in a national community pharmacy, and their implications for vaccination access and convenience. METHODS We retrospectively reviewed data for all vaccinations given at the Walgreens pharmacy chain between August 2011 and July 2012. The time of vaccination was categorized as occurring during traditional hours (9:00 am–6:00 pm weekdays) or off-clinic hours, consisting of weekday evenings, weekends, and federal holidays. We compared demographic characteristics and types of vaccine. We used a logistic regression model to identify predictors of being vaccinated during off-clinic hours. RESULTS During the study period, pharmacists administered 6,250,402 vaccinations, of which 30.5% were provided during off-clinic hours: 17.4% were provided on weekends, 10.2% on evenings, and 2.9% on holidays. Patients had significantly higher odds of off-clinic vaccination if they were younger than 65 years of age, were male, resided in an urban area, and did not have any chronic conditions. CONCLUSIONS A large proportion of adults being vaccinated receive their vaccines during evening, weekend, and holiday hours at the pharmacy, when traditional vaccine providers are likely unavailable. Younger, working-aged, healthy adults, in particular, a variety of immunizations during off-clinic hours. With the low rates of adult and adolescent vaccination in the United States, community pharmacies are creating new opportunities for vaccination that expand access and convenience. PMID:24019274

  19. Vaccinations administered during off-clinic hours at a national community pharmacy: implications for increasing patient access and convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goad, Jeffery A; Taitel, Michael S; Fensterheim, Leonard E; Cannon, Adam E

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 50,000 adults die annually from vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States. Most traditional vaccine providers (eg, physician offices) administer vaccinations during standard clinic hours, but community pharmacies offer expanded hours that allow patients to be vaccinated at convenient times. We analyzed the types of vaccines administered and patient populations vaccinated during off-clinic hours in a national community pharmacy, and their implications for vaccination access and convenience. We retrospectively reviewed data for all vaccinations given at the Walgreens pharmacy chain between August 2011 and July 2012. The time of vaccination was categorized as occurring during traditional hours (9:00 am-6:00 pm weekdays) or off-clinic hours, consisting of weekday evenings, weekends, and federal holidays. We compared demographic characteristics and types of vaccine. We used a logistic regression model to identify predictors of being vaccinated during off-clinic hours. During the study period, pharmacists administered 6,250,402 vaccinations, of which 30.5% were provided during off-clinic hours: 17.4% were provided on weekends, 10.2% on evenings, and 2.9% on holidays. Patients had significantly higher odds of off-clinic vaccination if they were younger than 65 years of age, were male, resided in an urban area, and did not have any chronic conditions. A large proportion of adults being vaccinated receive their vaccines during evening, weekend, and holiday hours at the pharmacy, when traditional vaccine providers are likely unavailable. Younger, working-aged, healthy adults, in particular, a variety of immunizations during off-clinic hours. With the low rates of adult and adolescent vaccination in the United States, community pharmacies are creating new opportunities for vaccination that expand access and convenience.

  20. 2-Chlorophenyl Zinc Bromide: A Convenient Nucleophile for the Mannich-Related Multicomponent Synthesis of Clopidogrel and Ticlopidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Aillaud

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A methodological study devoted to the Mannich-like multicomponent synthesis of the antiplatelet agent (±‑clopidogrel (7 and the ethyl ester analogue 6 is described. The process involves the formation of 2-chlorophenyl zinc bromide (2 and its subsequent reaction with an alkyl glyoxylate and 4,5,6,7-tetrahydrothieno[3,2-c]pyridine (3. We demonstrate that the organozinc reagent 2 also constitutes a very convenient nucleophile for the multicomponent synthesis of the benzylamine core of ticlopidine (9.

  1. Ether space-time & cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this first volume of papers is to examine the different paths by which the modern ether concept has been developed and to highlight the part it plays in major departments of 21st century physics. The evidence for its existence is reviewed, and it is hoped, widespread misconceptions concerning ether are corrected. It is anticipated that the emerging modern concept of ether will play a fundamental part in the development of 21st century physical science.

  2. The influence of propylene glycol ethers on base diesel properties and emissions from a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Cuenca, F.; Gómez-Marín, M.; Folgueras-Díaz, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of propylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties. • Effect of these compounds on diesel engine performance and emissions. • Blends with ⩽4 wt.% of oxygen do not change substantially diesel fuel quality. • Blends with ⩽2.5 wt.% of oxygen reduce CO, HC and NOx emissions, but not smoke. • These compounds are helpful to reach a cleaner combustion in a diesel engine. - Abstract: The oxygenated additives propylene glycol methyl ether (PGME), propylene glycol ethyl ether (PGEE), dipropylene glycol methyl ether (DPGME) were studied to determine their influence on both the base diesel fuel properties and the exhaust emissions from a diesel engine (CO, NOx, unburnt hydrocarbons and smoke). For diesel blends with low oxygen content (⩽4.0 wt.%), the addition of these compounds to base diesel fuel decreases aromatic content, kinematic viscosity, cold filter plugging point and Conradson carbon residue. Also, each compound modifies the distillation curve at temperatures below the corresponding oxygenated compound boiling point, the distillate percentage being increased. The blend cetane number depends on the type of propylene glycol ether added, its molecular weight, and the oxygen content of the fuel. The addition of PGME decreased slightly diesel fuel cetane number, while PGEE and DPGME increased it. Base diesel fuel-propylene glycol ether blends with 1.0 and 2.5 wt.% oxygen contents were used in order to determine the performance of the diesel engine and its emissions at both full and medium loads and different engine speeds (1000, 2500 and 4000 rpm). In general, at full load and in comparison with base diesel fuel, the blends show a slight reduction of oxygen-free specific fuel consumption. CO emissions are reduced appreciably for 2.5 wt.% of oxygen blends, mainly for PGEE and DPGME. NOx emissions are reduced slightly, but not the smoke. Unburnt hydrocarbon emissions decrease at 1000 and 2500 rpm, but not at 4000 rpm. At medium load

  3. Validation of the coin rotation test: a simple, inexpensive, and convenient screening tool for impaired psychomotor processing speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, B D; Barkemeyer, Charles A; Jones, Glenn N; Santa Maria, Michael P; Minor, Kyle S; Browndyke, Jeffrey N

    2010-07-01

    The Coin Rotation Test is a simple, convenient, and cost-effective measure of psychomotor processing speed that has been used in neurologic examinations at the Louisiana State University Health Sciences system for almost 20 years. On the Coin Rotation Test, participants rotate a coin through serial 180 degree turns using the thumb, index, and middle fingers for 10 seconds. In the current study, we sought to validate the Coin Rotation Test on a hospital-based sample by determining the task's sensitivity and specificity in detecting psychomotor processing speed impairment on a well-established criterion measure, the Grooved Pegboard Test. Participants included a sample of 161 participants obtained in a hospital setting (86 neurology clinic, 79 waiting area family practice clinic) who volunteered to complete several tasks of motor functioning and the Coin Rotation Test. The Coin Rotation Test was found to be significantly correlated with a number of measures of motor functioning, suggesting a high level of convergent validity. Using a binary receiver operator characteristic curve analysis, the Coin Rotation Test predicted fine motor and psychomotor processing speed impairment with 0.80 sensitivity and 0.62 specificity for dominant hand performance and 0.83 sensitivity and 0.43 specificity for nondominant hand performance when a cut-score of 13 or fewer coin rotations was used. These results support the utility of the Coin Rotation Test as a convenient and inexpensive psychomotor processing speed screening tool in clinical settings.

  4. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell for cooperating households: A convenient combined heat and power solution for residential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappa, Francesco; Facci, Andrea Luigi; Ubertini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we compare the technical and economical performances of a high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell with those of an internal combustion engine for a 10 kW combined heat and power residential application. In a view of social innovation, this solution will create new partnerships of cooperating families aiming to reduce the energy consumption and costs. The energy system is simulated through a lumped model. We compare, in the Italian context, the total daily operating cost and energy savings of each system with respect to the separate purchase of electricity from the grid and production of the thermal energy through a standard boiler. The analysis is carried out with the energy systems operating with both the standard thermal tracking and an optimized management. The latter is retrieved through an optimization methodology based on the graph theory. We show that the internal combustion engine is much more affected by the choice of the operating strategy with respect to the fuel cell, in terms long term profitability. Then we conduct a net present value analysis with the aim of evidencing the convenience of using a high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell for cogeneration in residential applications. - Highlights: • Fuel cells are a feasible and economically convenient solution for residential CHP. • Control strategy is fundamental for the economical performance of a residential CHP. • Flexibility is a major strength of the fuel cell CHP.

  5. Preparation and DMFC performance of a sulfophenylated poly(arylene ether ketone) polymer electrolyte membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Baijun, E-mail: liubj@jlu.edu.c [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Hu Wei [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Electronic and Electrochemical Materials and Devices, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Zou Haifeng [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Robertson, Gilles P. [Institute for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology, National Research Council, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Jiang Zhenhua [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Guiver, Michael D. [Institute for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology, National Research Council, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    A sulfonated poly(aryl ether ether ketone ketone) (PEEKK) having a well-defined rigid homopolymer-like chemical structure was synthesized from a readily prepared PEEKK by post-sulfonation with concentrated sulfuric acid at room temperature within several hours. The polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) cast from the resulting polymer exhibited an excellent combination of thermal resistance, oxidative and dimensional stability, low methanol fuel permeability and high proton conductivity. Furthermore, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were successfully fabricated and good direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) performance was observed. At 2 M MeOH feed, the current density at 0.5 V reached 165 mA/cm, which outperformed our reported similarly structured analogues and MEAs derived from comparative Nafion membranes.

  6. A convenient method for simultaneous quantification of multiple phytohormones and metabolites: application in study of rice-bacterium interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hongbo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simultaneous analysis of multiple functional-related phytohormones and their metabolites will improve our understanding of interactions among different hormones in the same biologic process. Results A method was developed for simultaneous quantification of multiple phytohormones, abscisic acid, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, jasmonic acid (JA, and salicylic acid, hormone conjugates, IAA-aspartic acid, JA-isoleucine, and methyl JA, and phytoalexins, momilactone A, naringenin, and sakuranetin. This method combines a convenient procedure for preparing filtrated crude extracted samples and a sensitive quantification assay using ultra fast liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-ESI-MS. With this method, we determined the dynamic profiles of defense-related phytohormones, hormone metabolites, and phytoalexins in the interaction of rice with Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo, which causes bacterial blight, one of the most devastating diseases of rice worldwide. Conclusion This UFLC-ESI-MS method is convenient, sensitive, reliable, and inexpensive for quantification of multiple phytohormones and metabolites compared to current methods. The results obtained by application of this method in studying rice-bacterial interaction provide a basis for understanding the molecular mechanisms of rice defense responses.

  7. Robotic voltammetry with carbon nanotube-based sensors: a superb blend for convenient high-quality antimicrobial trace analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theanponkrang, Somjai; Suginta, Wipa; Weingart, Helge; Winterhalter, Mathias; Schulte, Albert

    2015-01-01

    A new automated pharmacoanalytical technique for convenient quantification of redox-active antibiotics has been established by combining the benefits of a carbon nanotube (CNT) sensor modification with electrocatalytic activity for analyte detection with the merits of a robotic electrochemical device that is capable of sequential nonmanual sample measurements in 24-well microtiter plates. Norfloxacin (NFX) and ciprofloxacin (CFX), two standard fluoroquinolone antibiotics, were used in automated calibration measurements by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and accomplished were linear ranges of 1–10 μM and 2–100 μM for NFX and CFX, respectively. The lowest detectable levels were estimated to be 0.3±0.1 μM (n=7) for NFX and 1.6±0.1 μM (n=7) for CFX. In standard solutions or tablet samples of known content, both analytes could be quantified with the robotic DPV microtiter plate assay, with recoveries within ±4% of 100%. And recoveries were as good when NFX was evaluated in human serum samples with added NFX. The use of simple instrumentation, convenience in execution, and high effectiveness in analyte quantitation suggest the merger between automated microtiter plate voltammetry and CNT-supported electrochemical drug detection as a novel methodology for antibiotic testing in pharmaceutical and clinical research and quality control laboratories. PMID:25670899

  8. Analysis of Oxygenated Component (butyl Ether) and Egr Effect on a Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Hun; Oh, Young-Taig

    Potential possibility of the butyl ether (BE, oxygenates of di-ether group) was analyzed as an additives for a naturally aspirated direct injection diesel engine fuel. Engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics were analyzed by applying the commercial diesel fuel and oxygenates additives blended diesel fuels. Smoke emission decreased approximately 26% by applying the blended fuel (diesel fuel 80 vol-% + BE 20vol-%) at the engine speed of 25,000 rpm and with full engine load compared to the diesel fuel. There was none significant difference between the blended fuel and the diesel fuel on the power, torque, and brake specific energy consumption rate of the diesel engine. But, NOx emission from the blended fuel was higher than the commercial diesel fuel. As a counter plan, the EGR method was employed to reduce the NOx. Simultaneous reduction of the smoke and the NOx emission from the diesel engine was achieved by applying the BE blended fuel and the cooled EGR method.

  9. Convenience of achieving a software platform leading to increased travel safety for disabled persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Simona TECĂU

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a qualitative marketing research, achieved by the focus group method, one of a series of marketing researches proposed with a view to determining the extent to which it is opportune to achieve a software platform containing a database with safe tourist routes and images, accessible for disabled persons, which may tested/ visualized by virtual reality.

  10. Optimal conditions in direct dimethyl ether synthesis from syngas utilizing a dual-type fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousefi, Ahmad; Eslamloueyan, Reza; Kazerooni, Nooshin Moradi

    2017-01-01

    Concerns over environmental pollution and ever-increasing energy demand have urged the global community to tap clean-burning fuels among which dimethyl ether is a promising candidate for contribution in the transportation sector. Direct dimethyl ether synthesis from syngas, in which methanol production and dehydration take place simultaneously, is arguably the preferred route for large scale production. In this study, direct dimethyl ether synthesis is proposed in an industrial dual-type fluidized bed reactor. This configuration involves two fluidized bed reactors operating in different conditions. In the first catalytic reactor (water-cooled reactor), the synthesis gas is partly converted to methanol after being preheated by the reaction heat in the second reactor (gas-cooled reactor). A two-phase generalized comprehensive reactor model, comprised of the flow in three different regimes is applied and a smooth transition between flow regimes is provided based on the probabilistic averaging approach. The optimal operating conditions are sought by employing differential evolution algorithm as a robust optimization strategy. The dimethyl ether mole fraction is considered as the objective function during the optimization. The results show considerable dimethyl ether enhancement by 16% and 14% compared to the conventional direct dimethyl ether synthesis reactor and dual-type fixed bed dimethyl ether reactor arrangements, respectively. - Highlights: • Dual-type catalytic fluidized bed reactors for dimethyl ether synthesis is studied. • A two-phase comprehensive model comprised of flow in three regimes is used. • Probabilistic averaging approach is applied for smooth transitions between regimes. • Differential evolution method is employed to determine optimal operating conditions. • Production capacity is remarkably enhanced compared to conventional reactor.

  11. A Simple and Convenient Method of Multiple Linear Regression to Calculate Iodine Molecular Constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Paul D.

    2010-01-01

    A new procedure using a student-friendly least-squares multiple linear-regression technique utilizing a function within Microsoft Excel is described that enables students to calculate molecular constants from the vibronic spectrum of iodine. This method is advantageous pedagogically as it calculates molecular constants for ground and excited…

  12. Adaptive Multicarrier Modulation: A Convenient Framework for Time-Frequency Processing in Wireless Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, T.; Hanzo, L.

    2000-01-01

    A historical perspective of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is given with reference to its literature. Its advantages and disadvantages are reviewed, and its performance is characterized over highly dispersive channels. The effects of both time- and frequency-domain synchronization errors are quantified, and a range of solutions proposed in the recent literature are re-viewed. One of the main objectives of this review is to highlight the recent thinking behind adaptive bit a...

  13. A convenient method for observation of electrical signals obscured by background noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurakado, M.; Katano, R.; Mazaki, H.

    1982-01-01

    To make precise observation of the shape of small and rapid electrical signals obscured by background noise, a measuring system which consists of an amplifier (150 MHz), a sampling oscilloscope (1 GHz), a multichannel analyzer, and some commercically available components has been developed. By the use of this system operated condition, small (> 2 μV) and rapid (rise time > 3 ns) signals can be effectively brought out of the noise level. (orig.)

  14. The disgrace of commodification and shameful convenience: a critical race critique of the NBA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Rachel Alicia

    2012-01-01

    This essay positions sport as a pedagogical social institution from which people learn about race, gender, power, and privilege. The National Basketball Association is examined closely with a critical race lens with regard to the commodification of Black masculinity. A critical race analysis reveals the sharp contradictions between the league’s progressive image as an “industry leader” of racial diversity (Lapchick, Bustamante, & Ruiz, 2007, p.1) and the actualization of league discourse, policy, and practice.

  15. Sex differences in glucose levels: a consequence of physiology or methodological convenience? The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Vaag, A

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether sex differences in fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h post-OGTT plasma glucose (2hPG) and HbA(1c) could be explained by differences in body size and/or body composition between men and women in a general non-diabetic Danish population. Moreover, we aimed to study to wha...

  16. A Convenient Synthetic Protocol to 1,2-Bis(dialkylphosphino)ethanes

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, Laurence R; Heath, Alex; Low, Choon Heng; Ashley, Andrew E

    2014-01-01

    1,2-Bis(dialkylphosphino)ethanes are readily prepared from the parent phosphine oxides, via a novel sodium aluminium hydride/sodium hydride reduction protocol of intermediate chlorophosphonium chlorides. This approach is amenable to multi-gram syntheses, utilises readily available and inexpensive reagents, and benefits from a facile non-aqueous work-up in the final reductive step.

  17. short communication a convenient and efficient one-step method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    study and possible applications are limited by their complicated synthetic procedure. The original method [9] requires nine consecutive steps to produce I with total yield of about 7% to obtain ligand II. In 1998 Busch and coworkers provided a simple route to the synthesis of ligand II by a Mannich reaction [16]. Although, this ...

  18. A convenient dichotomy: critical eyes on the limits to biological knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Catherine

    2011-06-01

    In The Secret Identity of a Biology Textbook: straight and naturally sexed, Jesse Bazzul and Heather Sykes conduct a case study of a biology textbook as an oppressive instructional material. Using queer theory they explore how the text of the biology textbook produces "truths" about sex, gender, and sexuality. Their analysis is complemented by the Forum papers by Jay Lemke and Francis Broadway who broaden the analysis examining the way that what counts as knowledge in science is a political decision while also encouraging authors, including Bazzul and Sykes, to also look critically at their own theoretical lenses. In this paper I pull together their ideas while exploring cultural contexts for a more nuanced representation of biological knowledge and the politics of what it means to know science.

  19. Avian embryos and related cell lines: A convenient platform for recombinant proteins and vaccine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzaneh, Maryam; Hassani, Seyedeh-Nafiseh; Mozdziak, Paul; Baharvand, Hossein

    2017-05-01

    Chick embryos are a significant historical research model in basic and applied sciences. The embryonated eggs have been used for virus inoculation in order to vaccine production for nearly a century. Recently, avian eggs and cell lines derived from embryonated eggs have found wide application in biotechnology. This review will discuss about the unique characteristics of avian eggs in terms of safety, large scale and economical production of recombinant proteins. This system also provides the human-like glycosylation on target proteins and therefore can be considered as a suitable host for biomanufacturing of humanized monoclonal antibodies and therapeutic proteins. Avian derived cell lines are an alternative for rapid vaccine manufacturing during a pandemic. Based on the latest knowledge in cell and animal transgenesis, the currently available germ cell-mediated gene transfer system provides a more efficient strategy in gene targeting and creation of transgenic birds that lead to advancements in industrial, biotechnology, and biological research applications. This review covers the recent development of avian fertilized eggs and related cell lines in a variety of human biopharmaceuticals and viral vaccine manufacturing. Copyright © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Landfill wall revegetation combined with leachate recirculation: a convenient procedure for management of closed landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Moro, G; Barca, E; Cassano, D; Di Iaconi, C; Mascolo, G; Brunetti, G

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for a reliable sustainable option to effectively manage the landfill leachate generation. This study presents a simple procedure for the revegetation of the walls of closed landfills, employing the leachate as a fertirrigant. The native plants Lepidium sativum, Lactuca sativa, and Atriplex halimus, which suit the local climate, were chosen for this study in Southern Italy. The methodology was structured into three phases (i) early stage toxicity assessment phase (apical root length and germination tests), (ii) adult plant resistance assessment phase, and (iii) soil properties verification phase. The rationale of the proposed approach was first to look at the distinctive qualities and the potential toxicity in landfill leachates for fertigation purposes. Afterwards, through specific tests, the plants used were ranked in terms of resistance to the aqueous solution that contained leachate. Finally, after long-term irrigation, any possible worsening of soil properties was evaluated. The results demonstrated the real possibility of using blended leachate as a fertigant for the revegetation of the walls of closed landfills. In particular, the plants maintained good health when leachate was blended at concentrations of lower than 25 and 5%, respectively for A. halimus and Lepidium sativum. Irrigation tests showed good resistance of the plants, even at dosages of 112 and 133.5 mm m(-2), at maximum concentrations of 25 and 5%, respectively, for A. halimus and Lepidium sativum. The analysis of the total chlorophyll content and of aerial parts dried weight confirmed the results reported above.

  1. Ionic liquid catalyzed convenient synthesis of imidazo[1,2-a]quinoline under sonic condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Devji S.; Avalani, Jemin R.; Raval, Dipak K., E-mail: dipanalka@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Sardar Patel University Gujarat (India)

    2012-10-15

    An efficient protocol for the synthesis of imidazo[1,2-a]quinoline from aldehydes, enaminones, and malononitrile using 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]-undec-7-en-8-ium acetate ([DBU][Ac]) as a catalyst under ultrasound irradiation is described. Compared with other methods, this new method has the advantages of easier work-up, milder reaction conditions, high yields and environmentally benign procedure. (author)

  2. A Marriage of Convenience: Arab Capital and Western Expertise, The Recent Growth of Arab Airlines,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    to award crig I nec t ’ l u g di ’ g i O O S Soc Sect ion I I 1 1 t w i t I p a r t l v meet t h e nude t l y t u g need I or ma jot mat ~t t...According to one report , f i f teen defe cts , three of wh ich were considered major and dangerous , were found during a technical inquiry ; 1 Soviet

  3. The convenient truth LPG: clean energy for a low carbon world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolland, M.

    2008-01-01

    In the context of climate change, no one solution is future-proof. It is going to take a coordinated worldwide effort to find the right mix of energy policies while balancing diverse and sometimes competing priorities. The WLPGA Climate Change Working Group (CCWG) seeks to demonstrate that the technologies needed to continue current rates of development while mitigating climate change already exist and that LP gas can be a major part of today's solutions to this challenge. LP gas is not a zero-GHG fuel. However, in most cases it can make major and immediate contributions to delivering real GHG emissions reductions. In some ways LP Gas can claim to be ahead of its time, for its clean-burning, low-carbon advantage is available at once, so that even using today's technology, most industries can exceed Kyoto GHG reduction targets by switching to LP Gas. The fact is that LP Gas produces lower GHG emissions compared to conventional energy supplies in virtually every application it is used, from stationary applications such as water heating, space heating, cooking and industrial boilers to transportation applications. There are opportunities to switch to clean burning LP gas for virtually every industry as a means meet GHG targets. LP gas is also portable, making it a perfect complement to distributed renewable energy source such as solar, wind and wave energy (and soon the fuel cell), thereby reducing our reliance centrally produced electricity. LP Gas used in combination with these renewable sources also can improve energy reliability while reducing the overall life-cycle costs. The portable and clean burning nature of LP Gas also makes it an ideal substitute for solid fuels in domestic cooking and heating applications. Household solid fuel use, overwhelmingly concentrated in developing countries, accounts for up to 30% of black carbon emissions worldwide according to some statistics. Switching to LP Gas could lower global GHG emissions as well as help to diminish

  4. Convenient, rapid synthesis of silver nanocubes and nanowires via a microwave-assisted polyol method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dapeng; Qiao, Xueliang; Qiu, Xiaolin; Chen, Jianguo; Jiang, Renzhi

    2010-01-01

    Silver nanostructures have been synthesized via a microwave-assisted polyol method by adding sodium sulfide (Na2S) into the solution. An interesting morphology evolution can be observed by adjusting the concentration of Na2S and the heating power. It is found that the ideal concentration of Na2S is 31.25-500 µM for the fast reduction of Ag+ at 300 W under optimal conditions for producing monodispersed silver nanocubes. When the heating power is increased to 400 W, 62.5-250 µM is the ideal concentration of Na2S for the synthesis of silver nanocubes. On increasing the concentration of Na2S (>500 µM), a mixture of silver nanowires, nanocubes, bipyramids, and irregular/quasispherical particles is synthesized at 300 and 400 W. In particular, an increase in the concentration of Na2S to 750 µM at 400 W leads to the production of a quantity of silver nanowires. In addition, silver nanocubes with controllable sizes can be obtained by changing the concentration of Na2S and the heating power. Compared to traditional wet-chemical methods, this method has the advantage of a marked decrease in reaction time to 3.5 min. Finally, our work provides a simple strategy for fabricating silver nanostructures with controllable morphologies and sizes.

  5. Convenient, rapid synthesis of silver nanocubes and nanowires via a microwave-assisted polyol method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Dapeng; Qiao Xueliang; Chen Jianguo; Jiang Renzhi [State Key Laboratory of Plastic Forming Simulation and Die and Mold Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074, Hubei (China); Qiu Xiaolin, E-mail: dpchenhust@yahoo.com.cn [Nanomaterials Research Center, Nanchang Institute of Technology, Nanchang, 330013, Jiangxi (China)

    2010-01-15

    Silver nanostructures have been synthesized via a microwave-assisted polyol method by adding sodium sulfide (Na{sub 2}S) into the solution. An interesting morphology evolution can be observed by adjusting the concentration of Na{sub 2}S and the heating power. It is found that the ideal concentration of Na{sub 2}S is 31.25-500 {mu}M for the fast reduction of Ag{sup +} at 300 W under optimal conditions for producing monodispersed silver nanocubes. When the heating power is increased to 400 W, 62.5-250 {mu}M is the ideal concentration of Na{sub 2}S for the synthesis of silver nanocubes. On increasing the concentration of Na{sub 2}S (>500 {mu}M), a mixture of silver nanowires, nanocubes, bipyramids, and irregular/quasispherical particles is synthesized at 300 and 400 W. In particular, an increase in the concentration of Na{sub 2}S to 750 {mu}M at 400 W leads to the production of a quantity of silver nanowires. In addition, silver nanocubes with controllable sizes can be obtained by changing the concentration of Na{sub 2}S and the heating power. Compared to traditional wet-chemical methods, this method has the advantage of a marked decrease in reaction time to 3.5 min. Finally, our work provides a simple strategy for fabricating silver nanostructures with controllable morphologies and sizes.

  6. Convenient, rapid synthesis of silver nanocubes and nanowires via a microwave-assisted polyol method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Dapeng; Qiao Xueliang; Chen Jianguo; Jiang Renzhi; Qiu Xiaolin

    2010-01-01

    Silver nanostructures have been synthesized via a microwave-assisted polyol method by adding sodium sulfide (Na 2 S) into the solution. An interesting morphology evolution can be observed by adjusting the concentration of Na 2 S and the heating power. It is found that the ideal concentration of Na 2 S is 31.25-500 μM for the fast reduction of Ag + at 300 W under optimal conditions for producing monodispersed silver nanocubes. When the heating power is increased to 400 W, 62.5-250 μM is the ideal concentration of Na 2 S for the synthesis of silver nanocubes. On increasing the concentration of Na 2 S (>500 μM), a mixture of silver nanowires, nanocubes, bipyramids, and irregular/quasispherical particles is synthesized at 300 and 400 W. In particular, an increase in the concentration of Na 2 S to 750 μM at 400 W leads to the production of a quantity of silver nanowires. In addition, silver nanocubes with controllable sizes can be obtained by changing the concentration of Na 2 S and the heating power. Compared to traditional wet-chemical methods, this method has the advantage of a marked decrease in reaction time to 3.5 min. Finally, our work provides a simple strategy for fabricating silver nanostructures with controllable morphologies and sizes.

  7. A convenient truth? The spectre of global environmental catastrophe and sustainable development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Arsel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Through a critical point of view, this article analyses the debates on the sustainability of China’s development. Specifically, it tackles the dual argument that development in China is not sustainable, and that it represents a direct threat to the environmental security of the rest of the world. Thus, the study argues that calling for “sustainable development” as a solution to theenvironmental problem being faced by China (and, by implication, the whole world is being used to de-politicise what is essentially a very controversial political issue that reflects certain very old concerns linked with the sustainability of modern capitalism and North-South relations. Significantly, the article does not claim that China is not facing grave environmental problems which are intensifying quickly in terms of both scope and magnitude, and that these problems do not have regional and global consequences. Instead, it attempts to unravel the underlying reasons why China has become the paradigmatic example of unsustainable development, and what implications this has for China’s future economic development. Studying China in this context is instructive, given that China is not only the country leading the pack of a large group of Asian economies that are developing very quickly, economically speaking. China is also one of the most important of the developing nations, and its stance on policies for sustainable development marks – in many cases – the guideline that other developing countries will have to follow.

  8. Convenient, rapid synthesis of silver nanocubes and nanowires via a microwave-assisted polyol method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dapeng; Qiao, Xueliang; Qiu, Xiaolin; Chen, Jianguo; Jiang, Renzhi

    2010-01-15

    Silver nanostructures have been synthesized via a microwave-assisted polyol method by adding sodium sulfide (Na(2)S) into the solution. An interesting morphology evolution can be observed by adjusting the concentration of Na(2)S and the heating power. It is found that the ideal concentration of Na(2)S is 31.25-500 microM for the fast reduction of Ag(+) at 300 W under optimal conditions for producing monodispersed silver nanocubes. When the heating power is increased to 400 W, 62.5-250 microM is the ideal concentration of Na(2)S for the synthesis of silver nanocubes. On increasing the concentration of Na(2)S (>500 microM), a mixture of silver nanowires, nanocubes, bipyramids, and irregular/quasispherical particles is synthesized at 300 and 400 W. In particular, an increase in the concentration of Na(2)S to 750 microM at 400 W leads to the production of a quantity of silver nanowires. In addition, silver nanocubes with controllable sizes can be obtained by changing the concentration of Na(2)S and the heating power. Compared to traditional wet-chemical methods, this method has the advantage of a marked decrease in reaction time to 3.5 min. Finally, our work provides a simple strategy for fabricating silver nanostructures with controllable morphologies and sizes.

  9. A Convenient Method for Manufacturing TiO2 Electrodes on Titanium Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Qin

    2011-01-01

    solution with the micro-plasma oxidation method. The thin TiO2 films were sensitized with a cis-RuL2(SCN2⋅2H2O (L = cis-2, 2′-bipyridine-4, 4′-dicarboxlic acid ruthenium complex, and implemented into a dye sensitized solar cell configuration. The influence of current density on the surface structure and photoelectric performance of the TiO2 films was investigated. The results show that the thin TiO2 films are porous, and the dye-sensitized solar cell based on the film prepared at 14 A/dm2 has exhibited higher overall light-to-electricity conversion efficiencies of 0.095% under the illumination at 40 mW/cm2.

  10. A convenient method for the determination of moisture in aromatic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimentel Flávio A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method is proposed for the determination of the moisture content of aromatic plants. This method is based on the co-distillation of the starting material in a modified Clevenger apparatus with four organic solvents (toluene, cyclohexane, dichloromethane and carbon tetrachloride. The results were compared with those obtained by oven drying at 105 ºC and steam distillation of the essential oil. The efficiencies of the methods were shown to be equivalent. The solvent distillation method was more practical, especially with respect to operating time (2 h.

  11. A Safer and Convenient Synthesis of Sulfathiazole for Undergraduate Organic and Medicinal Chemistry Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Jeff; Otty, Sandra; Sarojini, Vijayalekshmi

    2012-01-01

    A safer method for the synthesis of the sulfonamide drug sulfathiazole, for undergraduate classes, is described. This method improves upon procedures currently followed in several undergraduate teaching laboratories for the synthesis of sulfathiazole. Key features of this procedure include the total exclusion of pyridine, which has potential…

  12. Preparation of tritium- or deuterium-labeled vitamin D analogs by a convenient general method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paaren, H.E.; Fivizzani, M.A.; Schnoes, H.K.; DeLuca, H.F.

    1981-01-01

    The three-step conversion of vitamin D analogs to 6-oxo-3,5-cyclovitamin D derivatives followed by reduction with a tritide or deuteride reagent and subsequent cycloreversion gives 6-tritio(deutero)vitamin D derivatives and corresponding 5,6-trans-analogs. The method is general and affords the 6-labeled-vitamin D analogs in approx. =20% overall yield

  13. A convenient procedure for the solid-phase synthesis of hydroxamic acids on PEGA resins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandurkar, Nitin Subhash; Petersen, Rico; Qvortrup, Katrine

    2011-01-01

    An efficient method for the solid-phase synthesis of hydroxamic acids is described. The method comprises the nucleophilic displacement of esters immobilized on PEGA resins with hydroxylamine/sodium hydroxide in isopropanol. The hydroxyaminolysis protocol is compatible with a broad range of PEGA...

  14. Private management and public finance in the Italian water industry: A marriage of convenience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarutto, Antonio; Paccagnan, Vania; Linares, Elisabetta

    2008-12-01

    In many countries, reforms of water and sanitation utilities have favored private sector participation. The drivers of this trend are the need to improve efficiency, professional capabilities of service operations, and willingness to relieve public budgets of the heavy burden of investment. Scant attention has been devoted to the great impact this strategy can have on water bills because of the higher cost of capital that is implicit, given the economic risk that the private sector is required to accept. Since it is a capital-intensive industry with a long economic life of its assets, the water industry is particularly vulnerable to the cost of capital. This creates the case for publicly-supported financial schemes in order to keep this cost as low as possible and guarantee long-run viability as well as affordability. The Italian water industry is an excellent case study to investigate the importance of this situation: in the last 15 years, a far-reaching reform has been introduced with the aim of substituting a financing model, based entirely on public spending, with one delegating financial responsibilities to operators through full-cost recovery. Our simulations show that delegating all responsibilities and risks to the private sector can lead to unsustainable price increases once replacement of existing assets are required. The solution is not to give up full-cost recovery, but rather to search for risk allocation patterns that are more coherent with the risk profile of the water industry and help keeping the cost of capital low.

  15. Dry influenza vaccines : towards a stable, effective and convenient alternative to conventional parenteral influenza vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomar, Jasmine; Born, Philip A.; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.

    2016-01-01

    Cold-chain requirements, limited stockpiling potential and the lack of potent immune responses are major challenges of parenterally formulated influenza vaccines. Decreased cold chain dependence and stockpiling can be achieved if vaccines are formulated in a dry state using suitable excipients and

  16. A video processing method for convenient mobile reading of printed barcodes with camera phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckström, Christer; Södergård, Caj; Udd, Sture

    2006-01-01

    Efficient communication requires an appropriate choice and combination of media. The print media has succeeded to attract audiences also in our electronic age because of its high usability. However, the limitations of print are self evident. By finding ways of combining printed and electronic information into so called hybrid media, the strengths of both media can be obtained. In hybrid media, paper functions as an interface to the web, integrating printed products into the connected digital world. This is a "reinvention" of printed matter making it into a more communicative technology. Hybrid media means that printed products can be updated in real time. Multimedia clips, personalization and e-shopping can be added as a part of the interactive medium. The concept of enhancing print with interactive features has been around for years. However, the technology has been so far too restricting - people don't want to be tied in front of their PC's reading newspapers. Our solution is communicative and totally mobile. A code on paper or electronic media constitutes the link to mobility.

  17. A convenient and efficient one-step method for the synthesis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hydroxy-5-methyl benzaldehyde with a mole of N,N'-bis(2-pyridyl)dopamine in THF at ambient conditions in high yield (75-80%). KEY WORDS: Dicompartmental ligand, Synthesis, Phenol-based ligand, Acyclic ligand. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2010 ...

  18. Delivering Food to the Front Door: A New, Or Very Old, Convenience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Muller

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A century of commercial competitive conflict between the grocery (food at home or “FAH” and restaurant (food away from home or “FAFH” distribution channels is now being fought on an unexpected but previously contested battlefield: who will own the “convenience” of delivery in the consumer’s mind.

  19. A convenient diagnostic function test of peripheral blood neutrophils in glycogen storage disease type Ib

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, A.J.; Visser, G; Van Zwieten, R; Gruszczynska, B; Poll-The, DWEET; Smit, GPA

    Neutrophils from patients suffering from glycogen storage disease type To (GSD-Ib) show several defects, one of which is a decreased rate of glucose utilization. In this study, we established experimental conditions to show the stimulation of the neutrophil respiratory burst by extracellular

  20. Human hair follicles, a convenient tissue for genetic studies on carcinogen metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hukkelhoven, M.W.A.C.; Vermorken, A.J.M.; Vromans, E.; Bloemendal, H.

    1982-01-01

    Basal levels of benzo(a)pyrene metabolism were measured in hair follicles of seven monozygotic twins, eight dizygotic twins and ten pairs of unrelated individuals. Organic soluble metabolites were separated by thin-layer chromatography, visualised by autoradiography and quantified by scanning of the films. Activity was expressed as pmol 7,8- and 9,10-dihydrodiol metabolites of benzo(a)pyrene per μg DNA per hour. Intra-twin differences in benzo(a)pyrene metabolism for monozygotic twins were smaller than for dizygotic twins and intra-pair differences for dizygotic twins were smaller than for pairs of unrelated individuals. The results clearly suggest that individual differences in benzo(a)pyrene metabolism in hair follicles are partly genetically determined. Thus, hair follicles my be used for investigations on the suggested relations between genetic predisposition to carcinogen-induced cancer and individual differences in carcinogen metabolism. The relevance of these findings to research into the induction of neoplasms by carcinogens in epithelial tissues is discussed. (author)

  1. A convenient method for lactonization of α-allyl esters using iodine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple method for the synthesis of α-γ-disubstituted-γ-butyrolactones by cyclization of α-allyl esters using iodine in dimethylsulphoxide is reported. This method is efficient and operationally simple in comparison to methods using transition metal complexes. KEY WORDS: γ-Butyrolactones, α-Allyl esters, Iodine, Dimethyl ...

  2. Urethral and periurethral dosimetry in prostate brachytherapy: is there a convenient surrogate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucci, Joseph; Spadinger, Ingrid; Hilts, Michelle; Sidhu, Sabeena; Smith, Clarke; Keyes, Mira; Morris, W. James

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To assess and compare two models for a surrogate urethra to be used for postimplant dosimetry in prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Twenty men with a urinary catheter present at the time of postimplant computed tomographic imaging were studied. Urethral and periurethral volumes were defined as 5-mm and 10-mm diameter volumes, respectively. Three contours of each were used: one contour of the true urethra (and periurethra), and two surrogate models. The true volumes were centered on the catheter center. One surrogate model used volumes centered on the geometrical center of each prostate contour (centered surrogate). The other surrogate model was based on the average deviation of the true urethra from a reference line through the geometrical center of the axial midplane of the prostate (deviated surrogate). Maximum point doses and the D 10 , D 25 , D 50 , D 90 , V 100 , V 120 , and V 150 of the true and surrogate volumes were measured and compared (D n is the minimum dose [Gy] received by n% of the structure, and V m is the volume [%] of the structure that received m% of the prescribed dose) as well as the distances between the surrogate urethras and the true urethra. Results: Doses determined from both surrogate urethral and periurethral volumes were in good agreement with the true urethral and periurethral doses except in the superior third of the gland. The deviated surrogate provided a physically superior likeness to the true urethra. Certain dose-volume histogram (DVH)-based parameters could also be predicted reasonably well on the basis of the surrogates. Correlation coefficients ≥0.85 were seen for D 25 , D 50 , V 100 , V 120 , and V 150 for both models. All the other parameters had correlation coefficients in the range of 0.73 - 0.85. Conclusions: Both surrogate models predicted true urethral dosimetry reasonably well. It is recommended that the simpler deviated surrogate would be a more suitable surrogate for routine clinical practice

  3. Better infrastructure: industry-academia partnerships--a marriage of convenience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Edward

    2009-01-01

    The successful design and completion of clinical trials often requires participation of both industry and academia. Although there may be differing priorities for academic and industry participants, both bring important insights and resources to the clinical trial effort. Although industry generally is primarily responsible for preclinical development and funding of the study and academia for patient recruitment and participation in the data safety monitoring board and clinical coordinating center, there are also a number of important areas, including protocol design, data analysis, and manuscript preparation where both academia and industry can supply important insights. Inherent tensions may exist in the academic-industry relationship, including important issues relating to conflict of interest for both academic and industry participants. Nevertheless, the academic-industry partnership, if appropriately organized, can perform in a synergistic fashion, allowing exploration of novel therapies, elucidation of important mechanisms, and greater understanding of critical illness through using combined approaches that generate insights unable to be provided by either partner alone.

  4. A Convenient and Templated Method for the Fabrication of Monodisperse Micrometer Hollow Titania Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and widely applicable methodology was presented to synthesize monodisperse micrometer hollow titania spheres (HTS based on the templating method. It was performed by using the preformed poly(styrene-acrylic acid (PSA as template spheres which was mixed with tetrabutyltitanate (TBOT in an ethanol solvent under steam treatment. The HTS which were obtained by the calcination of PSA/TiO2 composite core-shell spheres had a narrow particle size distribution and commendable surface topography characterized by SEM. The calcined HTS at 500°C displayed crystalline reflection peaks that were characteristic to the anatase phase by XRD. Moreover, some key influencing factors including TBOT concentration and reaction time were analyzed. As expected, the diameter of HTS could be readily controlled by altering the size of PSA template spheres. In addition, the approach was also applied to fabricate hollow zirconia spheres and other inorganic spheres.

  5. Biodegradable liposome-encapsulated hydrogels for biomedical applications: a marriage of convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalvo, Santiago; Mayr, Judith; Eritja, Ramon; Díaz, David Díaz

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogels are hydrophilic three-dimensional networks with demonstrated potential for medical and pharmaceutical applications. Specifically, biopolymer-based hydrogels offer certain advantages over synthetic polymers in terms of biocompatibility and biodegradability. Because of their inherent properties, hydrogels are able to efficiently encapsulate and liberate in a controlled release manner, different hydrophobic and hydrophilic therapeutic molecules, including nucleic acids, proteins and antibodies. Several strategies have been reported in the literature to minimize the potential burst release of encapsulated drugs, thus preventing their local accumulation and consequent toxic responses. Within this context, liposomes embedded in hydrogels have emerged as an attractive strategy to reduce this undesirable effect. This tutorial review covers a selection of the most promising cationic, neutral and anionic biopolymer-based hydrogels containing liposomes, niosomes or vesicles for drug delivery or tissue engineering applications.

  6. A convenient synthesis and screening of benzosuberone bearing 1,2,3-triazoles against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajja, Yasodakrishna; Vanguru, Sowmya; Jilla, Lavanya; Vulupala, Hanmanth Reddy; Bantu, Rajashaker; Yogeswari, Perumal; Sriram, Dharmarajan; Nagarapu, Lingaiah

    2016-09-01

    A series of benzosuberone bearing 1,2,3-triazoles were rationally designed and alkyl/aryl groups appended on 1,2,3-triazole derivatives 5a-o were synthesized using click chemistry and evaluated for their in vitro antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (ATCC27294). Compounds 5h (MIC: 3.125μg/mL) and 5l, 5m, 5o (MIC: 6.25μg/mL) exhibited promising hits. This is the first Letter on the synthesis and in vitro antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv of benzosuberone alkyl/aryl groups appended on 1,2,3-triazole derivatives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Marriage of Convenience or Strategic Alliance? A Case Study on Renault and Nissan

    OpenAIRE

    Nkrumah, Sharon; Strand, Jenny

    2005-01-01

    Background: Recent trends in the world of business notably globalization and advanced technology have had significant effects on most companies irrespective of size and operations. A major consequence of these trends is increasing competition. This has consequently, increased the need for broader and more comprehensive strategies capable of ensuring the long-term survival of companies. One such strategy is strategic alliances. Strategic alliances provide companies with wider access and utiliz...

  8. A convenient method for rapid determination of proteins in rices and rice products

    OpenAIRE

    光永, 俊郎; 安藤, ひとみ

    1990-01-01

    [Author abstract]In the biuret determination of protein in rices and rice products, starch and lipids extractable with an alkaline solution such as biuret reagent were found to interfere with the biuret method. Comparative evaluation of their effects revealed that starch, a major component of rice, has the most significant effect on the biuret method. In the presence of starch, the correlation between Kjeldahl protein and the optical density of biuret was poor. It was found that several perha...

  9. Analysis of the Preferences for a New Convenient Seafood Product: Empirical Application for Spain and Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Dopico, Domingo Calvo; Olsen, Svein Ottar; Tudoran, Alina

    2007-01-01

    Fish and seafood products represent a very healthy food, low in saturated fats and offer an excellent source of protein essential for our health. However, very often, consumer behaviour would seem to infer that seafood products do not rank particularly highly in terms of preference, this being due to the perception of various physical and psychological costs, which represent barriers to consumption. Consequently, there is an opportunity to develop new tailor-made seafood products more adapted...

  10. A convenient tool to profile patients for generalized cardiovascular disease risk in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, S Rasika; DeFilippis, Andrew P; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Blumenthal, Roger S

    2009-04-15

    The early identification of and intervention in patients with increased risk factors for generalized cardiovascular disease greatly reduces their long-term mortality from hard coronary artery disease (CAD) events and other related co-morbidities. Thus, a number of multivariate risk factor analyses based on large-scale population studies have led to various risk-scoring models aimed at screening for those at high risk for CAD. These assessment systems, by virtue of novel diagnostic markers and better population data, have become increasingly adept at accurately predicting CAD risk in individual patients. Nevertheless, their practical application in the setting of primary care has lagged, because of a reluctance of many primary care physicians to adopt these methods. An effective risk assessment system should not only encompass the risk for hard CAD events but also include risks for related co-morbid conditions, such as stroke and heart failure, and be simple and accurate enough to be efficiently used in primary care clinics. In conclusion, in an attempt to simplify 1 of the more effective risk assessment devices for generalized cardiovascular disease risk that meets all these requirements, the investigators strongly support the model proposed by D'Agostino and colleagues and provide here a commentary on its utility in identifying patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease.

  11. A convenient and general expression platform for the production of secreted proteins from human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Halil; Azimi, Farshad C; Cook, Jonathan D; Lee, Jeffrey E

    2012-07-31

    Recombinant protein expression in bacteria, typically E. coli, has been the most successful strategy for milligram quantity expression of proteins. However, prokaryotic hosts are often not as appropriate for expression of human, viral or eukaryotic proteins due to toxicity of the foreign macromolecule, differences in the protein folding machinery, or due to the lack of particular co- or post-translational modifications in bacteria. Expression systems based on yeast (P. pastoris or S. cerevisiae) (1,2), baculovirus-infected insect (S. frugiperda or T. ni) cells (3), and cell-free in vitro translation systems (2,4) have been successfully used to produce mammalian proteins. Intuitively, the best match is to use a mammalian host to ensure the production of recombinant proteins that contain the proper post-translational modifications. A number of mammalian cell lines (Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK) 293, CV-1 cells in Origin carrying the SV40 larget T-antigen (COS), Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO), and others) have been successfully utilized to overexpress milligram quantities of a number of human proteins (5-9). However, the advantages of using mammalian cells are often countered by higher costs, requirement of specialized laboratory equipment, lower protein yields, and lengthy times to develop stable expression cell lines. Increasing yield and producing proteins faster, while keeping costs low, are major factors for many academic and commercial laboratories. Here, we describe a time- and cost-efficient, two-part procedure for the expression of secreted human proteins from adherent HEK 293T cells. This system is capable of producing microgram to milligram quantities of functional protein for structural, biophysical and biochemical studies. The first part, multiple constructs of the gene of interest are produced in parallel and transiently transfected into adherent HEK 293T cells in small scale. The detection and analysis of recombinant protein secreted into the cell culture

  12. A convenient and highly efficient synthesis of one kind of peptide nucleic acid monomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Tang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available S-Thyminyl-L-cysteine methyl ester hydrochloride (compound 1, a non-classical peptide nucleic acid monomer, was synthesized through the key intermediate, N-tert- butoxycarbonyl-S-thyminyl-L-cysteine (compound 3, which afforded from the reaction of S-thyminyl-L-cysteine hydrochloride (compound 2 with di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (Boc2O. This was followed by the esterification and deprotection of compound 3 at an overall yield of 82%. The mixture of thionyl chloride and methanol was found as an efficient reagent for simultaneous deprotection of tert-butoxycarbonyl (Boc group and esterification of carboxy group of compound 3. This high-yield two-step method was also applied to other analogues of compound 1 successfully. The chemical structures of four new compounds (5a-5d were confirmed by 1H NMR and 13C NMR.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v26i3.10

  13. Transport velocity transformation - A convenient method for performance analysis of multilayer solar cell structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M.

    1981-01-01

    It is noted that in the case of low-level injection, space-charge quasi-neutrality, and spatially constant material parameters (including an electrostatic field), the individual layer can be treated analytically and the basic solar cell performance parameters can be evaluated from three equations. The first equation represents the transformation of the transport velocity across the layer from the other layer boundary. The second establishes the light-generated current output from the layer interface, under the influence of the transport velocities and minority-carrier density at both layer boundaries and of bulk recombination. The third equation describes the flow of these carriers across other layers. The power of the approach is considered to lie in its facility for analysis of the solar cell's performance layer by layer, giving a clear picture of the individual layer's influence on cell efficiency.

  14. Mortality in Transition: Study Protocol of the PrivMort Project, a multilevel convenience cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Irdam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research using routine data identified rapid mass privatisation as an important driver of mortality crisis following the collapse of Communism in Central and Eastern Europe. However, existing studies on the mortality crisis relying on individual level or routine data cannot assess both distal (societal and proximal (individual causes of mortality simultaneously. The aim of the PrivMort Project is to overcome these limitations and to investigate the role of societal factors (particularly rapid mass privatisation and individual-level factors (e.g. alcohol consumption in the mortality changes in post-communist countries. Methods The PrivMort conducts large-sample surveys in Russia, Belarus and Hungary. The approach is unique in comparing towns that have undergone rapid privatisation of their key industrial enterprises with those that experienced more gradual forms of privatisation, employing a multi-level retrospective cohort design that combines data on the industrial characteristics of the towns, socio-economic descriptions of the communities, settlement-level data, individual socio-economic characteristics, and individuals’ health behaviour. It then incorporates data on mortality of different types of relatives of survey respondents, employing a retrospective demographic approach, which enables linkage of historical patterns of mortality to exposures, based on experiences of family members. By May 2016, 63,073 respondents provided information on themselves and 205,607 relatives, of whom 102,971 had died. The settlement-level dataset contains information on 539 settlements and 12,082 enterprises in these settlements in Russia, 96 settlements and 271 enterprises in Belarus, and 52 settlement and 148 enterprises in Hungary. Discussion In addition to reinforcing existing evidence linking smoking, hazardous drinking and unemployment to mortality, the PrivMort dataset will investigate the variation in transition

  15. Mortality in Transition: Study Protocol of the PrivMort Project, a multilevel convenience cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irdam, Darja; King, Lawrence; Gugushvili, Alexi; Azarova, Aytalina; Fazekas, Mihaly; Scheiring, Gabor; Stefler, Denes; Doniec, Katarzyna; Horvat, Pia; Kolesnikova, Irina; Popov, Vladimir; Szelenyi, Ivan; Marmot, Michael; Murphy, Michael; McKee, Martin; Bobak, Martin

    2016-07-30

    Previous research using routine data identified rapid mass privatisation as an important driver of mortality crisis following the collapse of Communism in Central and Eastern Europe. However, existing studies on the mortality crisis relying on individual level or routine data cannot assess both distal (societal) and proximal (individual) causes of mortality simultaneously. The aim of the PrivMort Project is to overcome these limitations and to investigate the role of societal factors (particularly rapid mass privatisation) and individual-level factors (e.g. alcohol consumption) in the mortality changes in post-communist countries. The PrivMort conducts large-sample surveys in Russia, Belarus and Hungary. The approach is unique in comparing towns that have undergone rapid privatisation of their key industrial enterprises with those that experienced more gradual forms of privatisation, employing a multi-level retrospective cohort design that combines data on the industrial characteristics of the towns, socio-economic descriptions of the communities, settlement-level data, individual socio-economic characteristics, and individuals' health behaviour. It then incorporates data on mortality of different types of relatives of survey respondents, employing a retrospective demographic approach, which enables linkage of historical patterns of mortality to exposures, based on experiences of family members. By May 2016, 63,073 respondents provided information on themselves and 205,607 relatives, of whom 102,971 had died. The settlement-level dataset contains information on 539 settlements and 12,082 enterprises in these settlements in Russia, 96 settlements and 271 enterprises in Belarus, and 52 settlement and 148 enterprises in Hungary. In addition to reinforcing existing evidence linking smoking, hazardous drinking and unemployment to mortality, the PrivMort dataset will investigate the variation in transition experiences for individual respondents and their families across

  16. Electricity generation and removal performance of a microbial fuel cell using sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) as proton exchange membrane to treat phenol/acetone wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Fu, Yu; Guo, Chunyu; Li, Yanbo; Jiang, Nanzhe; Yin, Chengri

    2018-04-03

    The microbial fuel cell (MFC) has emerged as a promising technology for wastewater treatment and energy recovery, but the expensive cost of proton exchange membranes (PEMs) is a problem that need to be solved. In this study, a two-chamber MFC based on our self-made PEM sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) membrane was set up to treat phenol/acetone wastewater and synchronously generate power. The maximum output voltage was 240-250 mV. Using phenol and acetone as substrates, the power generation time in an operation cycle was 289 h. The MFC exhibited good removal performance, with no phenol or acetone detected, respectively, when the phenol concentration was lower than 50 mg/L and the acetone concentration was lower than 100 mg/L. This study provides a cheap and eco-friendly way to treat phenol/acetone wastewater and generate useful energy by MFC technology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A facile approach to prepare self-cross-linkable sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) membranes for direct methanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hongtao; Zhang, Gang; Wu, Jing; Zhao, Chengji; Zhang, Liyuan; Zhang, Yang; Han, Miaomiao; Zhu, Jing; Shao, Ke; Ni, Jing; Na, Hui [Alan G MacDiarmid Institute, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Qianjin Street 2699, Changchun 130012, Jilin (China); Jia, Qiong [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130022 (China); Lew, Christopher M. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) containing hydroxyl groups (SPEEK-OH) has been prepared for use as a proton exchange membrane (PEM) by reducing the carbonyl groups on the main chain of the polymers. With the goal of reducing water uptake and methanol permeability, a facile thermal-cross-linking process is used to obtain the cross-linked membranes. The properties of the cross-linked membranes with different cross-linked density are measured and compared with the pristine membrane. Notably, SPEEK-4 with the highest cross-linked density shows a water uptake of 39% and a methanol permeability of 2.52 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}, which are much lower than those of the pristine membrane (63.2% and 5.37 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}, respectively). These results indicate that this simple approach is very effective to prepare cross-linked proton exchange membranes for reducing water uptake and methanol permeability. (author)

  18. Luminescent Lariat Aza-Crown Ether

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard König

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Lariat ethers are interesting recognition motifs in supramolecular chemistry. The synthesis of a luminescent lariat ether with triglycol chain by azide–alkyne (Huisgen cycloaddition is presented.

  19. A practical and convenient method for the synthesis of anesthetic drug thiopental: using thiourea and sodium ethoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojat Narimani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A general, simple, practical and convenient method has been described for the synthesis of anesthetic drug thiopental using thiourea in the presence of sodium ethoxide. Anesthetic drug of thiopental was prepared in two stages; during the first stage, the alkylation of mthyl cyanoacetate was performed which was then to be followed by cyclization. Alkylation of methyl cyanoacetate which was performed by 2-iodopentane in the presence of sodium ethoxide reacts with thiourea and then the process was followed by thiopental prepration in excellent yield. Some important aspects of this methodology are the high reactivity of the substrates, avoidance of the use of hazardous solvents, simplicity of the product separation, low cost of the substrates and reagents and high yield of product. This is a applicable and efficient method for the preparation of thiopental anesthesia in high yield and in an appropriate time.

  20. Controlled synthesis of multi-morphology Te crystals by a convenient Lewis acid/base-assisted solvothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, XiaoPing; Yuan, Lin; Zhou, ShaoMin; Lou, ShiYun; Wang, YongQiang; Gao, Tao; Liu, YuBiao; Shi, XiaoJing

    2012-08-01

    This paper reports on the controlled growth of multi-morphology Te crystals by a convenient Lewis acid/base-assisted solvothermal method for the first time. The morphological transformation from one-dimension (1D) nanostructures to 2D hierarchical flowerlike microarchitecture has been observed. The nanorods and nanowires with a well-defined crystallographical structure and the hierarchical flowers microarchitecture were obtained by changing the Lewis acids/bases. Lewis acids/bases were found to be crucial for the formation of the products by not only acting as the pH regulator but also as the shape controller, owing to their hydrolysis in the solvent to in situ form H+/OH- and hydrates. The results suggest that this should be an effective approach to the control the growth of t-Te crystals with interesting multiple morphologies, which are of interest for both theoretical investigations and practical applications.

  1. Controlled synthesis of multi-morphology Te crystals by a convenient Lewis acid/base-assisted solvothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiaoping; Yuan Lin; Zhou Shaomin; Lou Shiyun; Wang Yongqiang; Gao Tao; Liu YuBiao; Shi Xiaojing

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the controlled growth of multi-morphology Te crystals by a convenient Lewis acid/base-assisted solvothermal method for the first time. The morphological transformation from one-dimension (1D) nanostructures to 2D hierarchical flowerlike microarchitecture has been observed. The nanorods and nanowires with a well-defined crystallographical structure and the hierarchical flowers microarchitecture were obtained by changing the Lewis acids/bases. Lewis acids/bases were found to be crucial for the formation of the products by not only acting as the pH regulator but also as the shape controller, owing to their hydrolysis in the solvent to in situ form H + /OH − and hydrates. The results suggest that this should be an effective approach to the control the growth of t-Te crystals with interesting multiple morphologies, which are of interest for both theoretical investigations and practical applications.

  2. Modeling the Nanophase Structural Dynamics of Phenylated Sulfonated Poly Ether Ether Ketone Ketone (Ph-SPEEKK) Membranes as a Function of Hydration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lins, Roberto D.; Devanathan, Ramaswami; Dupuis, Michel

    2011-03-03

    Solvated phenylated sulfonated poly ether ether ketone ketone (Ph-SPEEKK) membranes in the presence of hydronium ions were modeled by classical molecular dynamics simulations. The characterization of the nanophase structure and dynamics of such membranes was carried out as a function of the water content lambda, where lambda is the number of water molecules per sulfonate group, for lambda values of 3.5, 6, 11, 25, and 40. Analysis of pair correlation functions supports the experimental observation of membrane swelling upon hydration as well the increase in water and hydronium ion diffusion with increasing lambda. While the average number of hydrogen bonds between hydronium ions and sulfonate groups is dramatically affected by the hydration level, the average lifetime of the hydrogen bonds remains essentially constant. The membrane is found to be relatively rigid and its overall flexibility shows little dependence on water content. Compared to Nafion, water and ion diffusion coefficients are considerably smaller at lower hydration levels and room temperature. However, at higher lambda values of 25 and 40 these coefficients are comparable to those in Nafion at a lambda value of 16. This study also shows that water diffusion in Ph-SPEEKK membranes at low hydration levels can be significantly improved by raising the temperature with important implications for proton conductivity.

  3. Convenience food products. Drivers for consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Thomas A; van der Horst, Klazine; Siegrist, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Convenience is one of the big trends in the food business. The demand for convenience food products is steadily increasing; therefore, understanding convenience food consumption is an important issue. Despite being vital properties of convenience food, saving time and effort have not been very successful constructs for predicting convenience food consumption. To examine a wide range of possible drivers for convenience food consumption, the present study uses a convenience food frequency questionnaire that asks about consumption behavior. A paper-and-pencil questionnaire was sent out to a representative sample of people in German-speaking Switzerland and yielded N = 918 complete datasets from persons mainly responsible for buying and preparing food in the household. The various convenience food products could be categorized into four groups, which we labeled as highly processed food items, moderately processed food items, single components, and salads. Fifteen drivers were found to have a significant impact either on total convenience consumption or on one of the identified categories. Strong predictors were age, concern about naturalness, nutrition knowledge, and cooking skills. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis of Crown Ethers Containing a Rubicene Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Smet

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A symmetrically disubstituted derivative of the highly fluorescing and photostable rubicene was incorporated in a macrocycle using high dilution conditions and a hydroxyrubicene was functionalized with a modified aminobenzo-15-crown-5.

  5. Determination of bisphenol a diglycidyl ether content in foods from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link ...

  6. Lost in the ether - a 20 dollar round-trip

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The advent of cheap mass-produced electronics has brought with it a series of devices, "Software Defined Radios", that allow us to listen on a wide range of frequencies for as little as 20 CHF/USD. In this talk I will show some cool things that you can discover with no more than an SDR and some pieces of wire. Spoiler: there will be airplanes involved.

  7. Extraction chromatographic studies on a strontium selective crown ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, P.N.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Kulkarni, M.J.; Manchanda, V.K.

    1998-08-01

    Selective adsorption of radiostrontium from nitric acid medium on a chromatographic resin material consisting of di-t-butyl cyclohexano 18 crown 6/n-octanol sorbed onto amberlite XAD-7 (particle size: 100-150μm) has been carried out. The column capacity is evaluated as ∼ 21 mg of Sr per gram of the resin material. The separation of radiostrontium from several metal ions present in environmental and biological samples viz. Li, Na, K, Mg, Ca, Al, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn and Cd has been achieved. A promising separation method for 90 Y from 90 Sr- 90 Y mixture has also been developed. Nitric acid concentration has no observable effect on the elution profile of 90 Y as the entire amount of the loaded 90 Y activity can be eluted by 1.5 ml of the acid in a wide concentration range (0. 1 - 10 M). Half-life of the eluted 90 Y sample is calculated as 63.75 ± 0.40 hours by following the decay profile. Repeated elutions using 1.5 ml of 3 M HNO 3 after loading 200 μCi of 90 Sr - 90 Y revealed that the product with ∼ 98% radiochemical purity could be obtained up to the 12th run beyond which the contamination due to 90 Sr increased significantly. (author)

  8. Dimethyl ether reviewed: New results on using this gas in a high-precision drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basile, M.; Bonvicini, G.; Cara Romeo, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Contin, A.; D'Ali, G.; Del Papa, C.; Maccarrone, G.; Massam, T.; Motta, F.; Nania, R.; Palmonari, F.; Rinaldi, G.; Sartorelli, G.; Spinetti, M.; Susinno, G.; Villa, F.; Voltano, L.; Zichichi, A.

    1985-01-01

    Two years ago, dimethyl ether (DME) was presented, for the first time, as a suitable gas for high-precision drift chambers. In fact our tests show that resolutions can be obtained which are better by at least a factor of 2 compared to what one can get with conventional gases. Moreover, DME is very well quenched. The feared formation of whiskers on the wires has not occurred, at least after months of use with a 10 μCi 106 Ru source. (orig.)

  9. Atmospheric Nitrogen Trifluoride: Optimized emission estimates using 2-D and 3-D Chemical Transport Models from 1973-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, D. J.; Rigby, M. L.; Prinn, R. G.; Muhle, J.; Weiss, R. F.

    2009-12-01

    We present optimized annual global emissions from 1973-2008 of nitrogen trifluoride (NF3), a powerful greenhouse gas which is not currently regulated by the Kyoto Protocol. In the past few decades, NF3 production has dramatically increased due to its usage in the semiconductor industry. Emissions were estimated through the 'pulse-method' discrete Kalman filter using both a simple, flexible 2-D 12-box model used in the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) network and the Model for Ozone and Related Tracers (MOZART v4.5), a full 3-D atmospheric chemistry model. No official audited reports of industrial NF3 emissions are available, and with limited information on production, a priori emissions were estimated using both a bottom-up and top-down approach with two different spatial patterns based on semiconductor perfluorocarbon (PFC) emissions from the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR v3.2) and Semiconductor Industry Association sales information. Both spatial patterns used in the models gave consistent results, showing the robustness of the estimated global emissions. Differences between estimates using the 2-D and 3-D models can be attributed to transport rates and resolution differences. Additionally, new NF3 industry production and market information is presented. Emission estimates from both the 2-D and 3-D models suggest that either the assumed industry release rate of NF3 or industry production information is still underestimated.

  10. A convenient colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent probe for detection of cyanide based on BODIPY derivative in aqueous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A convenient colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent probe based on BODIPY derivative for cyanide detection has been synthesized, whose structural contains a dicyanovinyl group used as a sensing unit. Among the tested analytes, such as CN−, F−, Cl−, Br−, I−, ClO4−, AcO−, NO3−, H2PO4− HSO4−, S2− and N3−, only CN− could react with dicyanovinyl moiety by nucleophilic addition, which disrupted the π-conjugation of the probe and hindered the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT, leading a blue shift of absorption and fluorescence spectrum and a concomitant color change from yellow to light pink. The detection limit of this probe was calculated to be 0.98 μM, which is lower than the maximum concentration in drinking water (1.9 μM permitted by the World Health Organization (WHO. Moreover, the probe showed excellent selectivity and anti-interference ability towards CN− over other anions. The reaction mechanism was fully supported by 1H NMR and MS spectrum.

  11. Convenience foods. What, why, and when.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholliers, Peter

    2015-11-01

    An attempt is made to assess the academic interest in convenience foods in the past decades in order to introduce this special section on historical dimensions of convenience foods, prepared by FOST, a unit that investigates the history and culture of food (up to today). First, the rise of academic interest is trailed since the appearance of the concept in the 1920s and, next, themes in connection to this interest are considered (e.g., time, health, or gender). Then, definitions of convenience foods are tracked since the 1950s, which leads to suggesting a clear focus (linking convenience foods to home cooking of meals and industrially produced foods). The conclusion stresses the changing definition of the concept, as well as the need to gain historical insight in present-day issues related to convenience foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. RNAi silencing of a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase disrupts the ability of a filamentous fungus, Graphium sp. to grow on short-chain gaseous alkanes and ethers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graphium sp. (ATCC 58400), a filamentous fungus, is one of the few eukaryotes that grows on short-chain alkanes and ethers. In this study, we investigated the genetic underpinnings that enable this fungus to catalyze the first step in the alkane and ether oxidation pathway. A gene, CYP52L1, was iden...

  13. Transesterification of propylene glycol methyl ether in chromatographic reactors using anion exchange resin as a catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jungmin; Sreedhar, Balamurali; Donaldson, Megan E; Frank, Timothy C; Schultz, Alfred K; Bommarius, Andreas S; Kawajiri, Yoshiaki

    2016-09-30

    Reactive chromatography using an anion exchange resin is proposed for a transesterification reaction of propylene glycol methyl ether (DOWANOL™ PM) with ethyl acetate to produce propylene glycol methyl ether acetate (DOWANOL™ PMA). This reaction is studied in batch and chromatographic reactors catalyzed by an anion exchange resin. Several anion exchange resins are tested and compared based on the performance of resin as an adsorbent and a catalyst. A chromatographic column is packed with a selected catalyst, AMBERLITE™ IRA904, and both reaction and chromatographic elution are studied at different temperatures and feed concentrations. The resulting chromatograms are fitted to a mathematical model to obtain adsorption equilibrium and reaction kinetic parameters by the inverse method. Compared to esterification investigated in a previous study, transesterification has advantages such as a higher conversion at lower temperature and easy removal of the byproduct which may lead to higher productivity. Deactivation of anion exchange resins is observed and potential solutions are suggested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A convenient method of preparing gene vector for real time monitoring transfection process based on the quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hai-Li; Zhang, Ming-Zhen; Li, Xiang-Yong; Wan, Min; Li, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Rong-Ying; Zhao, Yuan-Di

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An easy and direct way to prepare QDs–DNA complexes was developed. ► Surface charge of QDs was tuned with different ratio of amino and glycolate. ► Transfection efficiency was dependent on the surface zeta potentials of QDs. ► Cellular toxicity of this gene vectors is much lower than commercial liposome. ► Whole intracellular behavior of QDs–DNA complexes can be monitored in real time. -- Abstract: Nanoparticle carrier has been developed by combining water-soluble quantum dots and plasmid DNA expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in a convenient and direct way. First the QDs with different surface charges were obtained by coating with amino and carboxyl terminals at different ratios. Then plasmid DNA was conjugated to QDs via electrostatic interaction. The resultant QDs–DNA complexes showed enhanced resistance to DNase I digestion. The following transfection experiments demonstrated that the transfection efficiency was dependent on the surface charges on QDs. The real time imaging of the transfection process showed that the nanoparticles experienced binding, penetrating the cell membrane and entering cytoplasm in the first 6 h of transfection. The green fluorescence of EGFP began to appear after 18 h transfection and plasmid DNA was fully expressed in the following 6 h. This new QDs–DNA platform showed great potential as new gene delivery carrier.

  15. Bisphenols, Benzophenones, and Bisphenol A Diglycidyl Ethers in Textiles and Infant Clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jingchuan; Liu, Wenbin; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2017-05-02

    Little is known with regard to the occurrence of potentially toxic chemicals in textiles and clothes. In this study, 77 textiles and infant clothing pieces were analyzed for the determination of bisphenols including bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol S (BPS), benzophenones, bisphenol A diglycidyl ethers (BADGEs), and novolac glycidyl ethers (NOGEs). BPA and BPS occurred in 82% and 53% of the textile samples, respectively, and at mean concentrations of 366 and 15 ng/g, respectively. Benzophenone-3 (BP3) occurred in 70% of the samples at a mean concentration of 11.3 ng/g. Among 11 BADGEs and NOGEs analyzed, BFDGE was the predominant compound, with a mean concentration of 13.6 ng/g. Concentrations of target chemicals were assessed by fabric type, color, and uses. Socks contained the highest concentrations of BPA (mean: 1810 ng/g) with concentrations as high as 13 300 ng/g in a 97% polyester fabric marketed for infants. Calculated dermal exposure dose to BPA by infants via textiles was as high as 7280 pg/kg BW/d. This is the first study to report the occurrence of, and exposure to, BPA, BPS, BADGEs, and NOGEs in textiles and clothing.

  16. Degradation of Polybrominated Aiphenyl Ethers in a UV Advanced Reduction Process with Different Reducing Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoqing; Li, Chaolin; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Guosheng

    2018-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are toxic and persistent, and their efficient degradation is currently a challenge. In this study, decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) was selected as the target compound and was degraded by a UV photochemical system with different reducing agent. The result showed that the optimal BDE-209 removal in 1 hour by UV/sodium sulphite (Na2SO3) was 86.87%. With the same concentration of BDE-209 and reaction time, the optimal removal rate by UV/sodium borohydride (NaBH4) was 89.25%. Kinetic analysis revealed that the degradation of BDE-209 conformed to the first-order kinetic model. The order of rate constant of different UV photochemical processes is kUVa reducing agent, sodium borohydride showed a better enhanced effect for the removal of bromines.

  17. The convenience food market in Great Britain: convenience food lifestyle (CFL) segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Marie; Cowan, Cathal; McCarthy, Mary

    2007-11-01

    Convenience foods enable the consumer to save time and effort in food activities, related to shopping, meal preparation and cooking, consumption and post-meal activities. The objective of this paper is to report on the attitudes and reported behaviour of food consumers in Great Britain based on a review of their convenience food lifestyle (CFLs). The paper also reports the development and application of a segmentation technique that can supply information on consumer attitudes towards convenience foods. The convenience food market in Great Britain is examined and the key drivers of growth in this market are highlighted. A survey was applied to a nationally representative sample of 1000 consumers (defined as the persons primarily responsible for food shopping and cooking in the household) in Great Britain in 2002. Segmentation analysis, based on the identification of 20 convenience lifestyle factors, identified four CFL segments of consumers: the 'food connoisseurs' (26%), the 'home meal preparers' (25%), the 'kitchen evaders' (16%) and the 'convenience-seeking grazers' (33%). In particular, the 'kitchen evaders' and the 'convenience-seeking grazers' are identified as convenience-seeking segments. Implications for food producers, in particular, convenience food manufacturers are discussed. The study provides an understanding of the lifestyles of food consumers in Great Britain, and provides food manufacturers with an insight into what motivates individuals to purchase convenience foods.

  18. Metal-catalyzed activation of ethers via C-O bond cleavage: a new strategy for molecular diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornella, Josep; Zarate, Cayetana; Martin, Ruben

    2014-12-07

    In 1979, the seminal work of Wenkert set the standards for the utilization of aryl and vinyl ethers as coupling partners via C-O bond-cleavage. Although the topic remained dormant for almost three decades, the last few years have witnessed a renaissance in this area of expertise, experiencing an exponential growth and becoming a significant discipline within the cross-coupling arena. The means to utilize readily accessible aryl or vinyl ethers as counterparts does not only represent a practical, powerful and straightforward alternative to organic halides, but also constitutes an excellent opportunity to improve our chemical knowledge about a relatively unexplored area of expertise. This review summarizes the most significant developments in the area of C-O bond-cleavage when employing aryl or vinyl ethers, providing a detailed overview of the current state of the art and including future aspects, when applicable.

  19. A combination of Raspberry Pi and SoftEther VPN for controlling research devices via the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Toshikazu

    2017-11-01

    Remote control over devices for experiments may increase the efficiency of operant research and expand the area where behavior can be studied. This article introduces a combination of Raspberry Pi ® (Pi) and SoftEther VPN ® that allows for such remote control via the Internet. The Pi is a small Linux computer with a great degree of flexibility for customization. Test results indicate that a Pi-based interface meets the requirement for conducting operant research. SoftEther VPN ® allows for establishing an extensive private network on the Internet using a single private Wi-Fi router. Step-by-step instructions are provided in the present article for setting up the Pi along with SoftEther VPN ® . Their potential for improving the way of conducting research is discussed. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  20. Anaerobic treatability of a phenolic coal conversion wastewater after diisopropyl ether extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindzierski, W.B.; Fedorak, P.M.; Hrudey, S.E. (University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1991-04-01

    The combined treatment requirements for a high strength phenolic wastewater were examined in semicontinuous methogenic cultures. Selective pH adjustment of H-coal wastewater followed by diisopropyl ether extraction was used to control the phenolic concentration fed to the serum bottle cultures. This pretreatment did not completely remove the unidentified inhibitory compounds(s) from the wastewater. Thus the addition of activated carbon to the cultures and a reduced feed rate were required to stabilize their activity. However, by the end of the 250-day test period, the cultures were maintained with a 12.5-day hydraulic retention time and were fed approx. 9 parts pH 9-extracted H-coal wastewater and 1 part inorganic nutrient solution. The influent phenol concentration was near 900 mg/l, whereas the effluent concentration was {lt} mg/l. Residual dissolved diisopropyl ether did not inhibit the anaerobic process nor was it biodegraded to methane. 26 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Peptide Macrocycles Featuring a Backbone Secondary Amine: A Convenient Strategy for the Synthesis of Lipidated Cyclic and Bicyclic Peptides on Solid Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddo, Alberto; Münzker, Lena; Hansen, Paul Robert

    2015-01-01

    A convenient strategy for the on-resin synthesis of macrocyclic peptides (3- to 13-mers) via intramolecular halide substitution by a diamino acid is described. The method is compatible with standard Fmoc/tBu SPPS and affords a tail-to-side-chain macrocyclic peptide featuring an endocyclic secondary...

  2. Ethers on Si(001): A prime example for the common ground between surface science and molecular organic chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Pecher, Lisa

    2017-09-15

    Using computational chemistry, we show that the adsorption of ether molecules on Si(001) under ultra-high vacuum conditions can be understood with textbook organic chemistry. The two-step reaction mechanism of (1) dative bond formation between the ether oxygen and a Lewis acidic surface atom and (2) a nucleophilic attack of a nearby Lewis basic surface atom is analysed in detail and found to mirror the acid-catalysed ether cleavage in solution. The O-Si dative bond is found to be the strongest of its kind and reactivity from this state defies the Bell-Evans-Polanyi principle. Electron rearrangement during the C-O bond cleavage is visualized using a newly developed bonding analysis method, which shows that the mechanism of nucleophilic substitutions on semiconductor surfaces is identical to molecular chemistry SN2 reactions. Our findings thus illustrate how the fields of surface science and molecular chemistry can mutually benefit and unexpected insight can be gained.

  3. A novel ether-linked phytol-containing digalactosylglycerolipid in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishibashi, Yohei; Nagamatsu, Yusuke [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Miyamoto, Tomofumi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3-1-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Matsunaga, Naoyuki; Okino, Nozomu; Yamaguchi, Kuniko [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Ito, Makoto, E-mail: makotoi@agr.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • Alkaline-resistant galactolipid, AEGL, was found in marine algae. • The sugar moiety of AEGL is identical to that of digalactosyldiacylglycerol. • AEGL is the first identified glycolipid that possesses an ether-linked phytol. • AEGL is ubiquitously distributed in green, red and brown marine algae. - Abstract: Galactosylglycerolipids (GGLs) and chlorophyll are characteristic components of chloroplast in photosynthetic organisms. Although chlorophyll is anchored to the thylakoid membrane by phytol (tetramethylhexadecenol), this isoprenoid alcohol has never been found as a constituent of GGLs. We here described a novel GGL, in which phytol was linked to the glycerol backbone via an ether linkage. This unique GGL was identified as an Alkaline-resistant and Endogalactosylceramidase (EGALC)-sensitive GlycoLipid (AEGL) in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa. EGALC is an enzyme that is specific to the R-Galα/β1-6Galβ1-structure of galactolipids. The structure of U. pertusa AEGL was determined following its purification to 1-O-phytyl-3-O-Galα1-6Galβ1-sn-glycerol by mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. AEGLs were ubiquitously distributed in not only green, but also red and brown marine algae; however, they were rarely detected in terrestrial plants, eukaryotic phytoplankton, or cyanobacteria.

  4. A novel ether-linked phytol-containing digalactosylglycerolipid in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Yohei; Nagamatsu, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Matsunaga, Naoyuki; Okino, Nozomu; Yamaguchi, Kuniko; Ito, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Alkaline-resistant galactolipid, AEGL, was found in marine algae. • The sugar moiety of AEGL is identical to that of digalactosyldiacylglycerol. • AEGL is the first identified glycolipid that possesses an ether-linked phytol. • AEGL is ubiquitously distributed in green, red and brown marine algae. - Abstract: Galactosylglycerolipids (GGLs) and chlorophyll are characteristic components of chloroplast in photosynthetic organisms. Although chlorophyll is anchored to the thylakoid membrane by phytol (tetramethylhexadecenol), this isoprenoid alcohol has never been found as a constituent of GGLs. We here described a novel GGL, in which phytol was linked to the glycerol backbone via an ether linkage. This unique GGL was identified as an Alkaline-resistant and Endogalactosylceramidase (EGALC)-sensitive GlycoLipid (AEGL) in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa. EGALC is an enzyme that is specific to the R-Galα/β1-6Galβ1-structure of galactolipids. The structure of U. pertusa AEGL was determined following its purification to 1-O-phytyl-3-O-Galα1-6Galβ1-sn-glycerol by mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. AEGLs were ubiquitously distributed in not only green, but also red and brown marine algae; however, they were rarely detected in terrestrial plants, eukaryotic phytoplankton, or cyanobacteria

  5. DFPE, PARTIALLY FLUORINATED ETHER: A Novel Approach for Experimental Intravitreal Tamponade.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Santos, Rodrigo A V

    2012-07-16

    PURPOSE:: To evaluate decafluoro-di-n-pentyl ether (DFPE) as a vitreous tamponade by examining ocular tolerance in rabbits\\' eyes. METHODS:: Thirteen rabbits were divided into 4 groups after mechanical vitrectomy and were followed up to 12 months. The tamponade remained in the eye for 6 months in Group 1 (DFPE) and Group 3 (DFPE and silicone oil) and for 12 months in Group 2 (DFPE). Group 4 served as control. RESULTS:: In Groups 1, 2, and 3, dispersion of the fluid appeared 2 weeks postoperatively. Posterior subcapsular cataracts appeared in rabbits\\' eyes with large fills of DFPE (>50%). Histologic findings in Groups 1 and 2 showed no detectable change in outer nuclear layer thickness. Except for some vacuolations, the inner retina was well preserved in all injected rabbits\\' eyes. On the electroretinography of injected rabbits\\' eyes, there was no effect on the a wave amplitude and b wave implicit time, but the b wave amplitude was elevated with statistical significance (P < 0.001) at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively but with no statistical significance (P > 0.05) after that period when compared with Group 4 and unoperated fellow rabbits\\' eyes of each group. CONCLUSION:: Decafluoro-di-n-pentyl ether demonstrated minimum adverse effects in retinal rabbits; further studies are needed before clinical use as short-term tamponade.

  6. Vanadium-iron mixed trifluorides investigated by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamine, M.; Greneche, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Several solid solutions of the mixed crystalline Fe 1-x V x F 3 series, synthesized by the solid-state reaction, are investigated by Moessbauer spectroscopy. The evolution of the hyperfine structure as a function of temperature suggests that the Fe 0.50 V 0.50 F 3 compound exhibits a spin-clustering phenomenon over the temperature range 70-175 K. We report here some preliminary high field Moessbauer spectra in order to discuss the magnetic behaviour. (orig.)

  7. At-Home Convenience Food Consumption and BMI

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jonq-Ying; Kilmer, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    A variation of the household production theory was used to select relevant explanatory variables for the demand for convenience foods. A convenience food index was used to measure the convenience in food preparation. Because of the nature of the measure of convenience, the tobit regression technique was used to examine the importance of these explanatory variables to the demand for convenience foods. Results show that the presence of children in a household increases the demand for convenienc...

  8. Nitrogen Trifluoride: Its Chemistry, Toxicity, and Safe Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-12

    5052 Monel 400 Al uminum 1100 Nickel 200 Al uminum 2024 Copper Stainless Steel 321 Aluminum Brass Stainless Steel 304 Admiralty Brass 9 V...samples except for aluminum alloys showed slight corrosion under examination with a scanning electron microscope. After the exposure at 115°C, all samples...except the aluminum alloys exhibited visible tarnishing and weight increases. Under the scanning electron microscope , extensive crystal growth was

  9. Bioactive Diphenyl Ethers and Isocoumarin Derivatives from a Gorgonian-Derived Fungus Phoma sp. (TA07-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Shi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Three new diphenyl ether derivatives—phomaethers A–C (1–3 and five known compounds—including a diphenyl ether analog, 2,3′-dihydroxy-4-methoxy-5′,6-dimethyl diphenyl ether (4; and four isocoumarin derivatives, diaportinol (5, desmethyldiaportinol (6, citreoisocoumarinol (7, and citreoisocoumarin (8—were isolated from a gorgonian-derived fungus Phoma sp. (TA07-1. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic investigation. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were determined by acid hydrolysis reactions. It was the first report to discover the diphenyl glycoside derivatives from coral-derived fungi. Compounds 1, 3, and 4 showed selective strong antibacterial activity against five pathogenic bacteria with the minimum inhibiting concentration (MIC values and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values between 0.156 and 10.0 μM.

  10. A Robust CRISPR/Cas9 System for Convenient, High-Efficiency Multiplex Genome Editing in Monocot and Dicot Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xingliang; Zhang, Qunyu; Zhu, Qinlong; Liu, Wei; Chen, Yan; Qiu, Rong; Wang, Bin; Yang, Zhongfang; Li, Heying; Lin, Yuru; Xie, Yongyao; Shen, Rongxin; Chen, Shuifu; Wang, Zhi; Chen, Yuanling; Guo, Jingxin; Chen, Letian; Zhao, Xiucai; Dong, Zhicheng; Liu, Yao-Guang

    2015-08-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 genome targeting systems have been applied to a variety of species. However, most CRISPR/Cas9 systems reported for plants can only modify one or a few target sites. Here, we report a robust CRISPR/Cas9 vector system, utilizing a plant codon optimized Cas9 gene, for convenient and high-efficiency multiplex genome editing in monocot and dicot plants. We designed PCR-based procedures to rapidly generate multiple sgRNA expression cassettes, which can be assembled into the binary CRISPR/Cas9 vectors in one round of cloning by Golden Gate ligation or Gibson Assembly. With this system, we edited 46 target sites in rice with an average 85.4% rate of mutation, mostly in biallelic and homozygous status. We reasoned that about 16% of the homozygous mutations in rice were generated through the non-homologous end-joining mechanism followed by homologous recombination-based repair. We also obtained uniform biallelic, heterozygous, homozygous, and chimeric mutations in Arabidopsis T1 plants. The targeted mutations in both rice and Arabidopsis were heritable. We provide examples of loss-of-function gene mutations in T0 rice and T1 Arabidopsis plants by simultaneous targeting of multiple (up to eight) members of a gene family, multiple genes in a biosynthetic pathway, or multiple sites in a single gene. This system has provided a versatile toolbox for studying functions of multiple genes and gene families in plants for basic research and genetic improvement. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. KMWin--a convenient tool for graphical presentation of results from Kaplan-Meier survival time analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnd Gross

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Analysis of clinical studies often necessitates multiple graphical representations of the results. Many professional software packages are available for this purpose. Most packages are either only commercially available or hard to use especially if one aims to generate or customize a huge number of similar graphical outputs. We developed a new, freely available software tool called KMWin (Kaplan-Meier for Windows facilitating Kaplan-Meier survival time analysis. KMWin is based on the statistical software environment R and provides an easy to use graphical interface. Survival time data can be supplied as SPSS (sav, SAS export (xpt or text file (dat, which is also a common export format of other applications such as Excel. Figures can directly be exported in any graphical file format supported by R. RESULTS: On the basis of a working example, we demonstrate how to use KMWin and present its main functions. We show how to control the interface, customize the graphical output, and analyse survival time data. A number of comparisons are performed between KMWin and SPSS regarding graphical output, statistical output, data management and development. Although the general functionality of SPSS is larger, KMWin comprises a number of features useful for survival time analysis in clinical trials and other applications. These are for example number of cases and number of cases under risk within the figure or provision of a queue system for repetitive analyses of updated data sets. Moreover, major adjustments of graphical settings can be performed easily on a single window. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that our tool is well suited and convenient for repetitive analyses of survival time data. It can be used by non-statisticians and provides often used functions as well as functions which are not supplied by standard software packages. The software is routinely applied in several clinical study groups.

  12. A convenient method for the quantitative determination of elemental sulfur in coal by HPLC analysis of perchloroethylene extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, D.H.; Coombs, K.J.; Murphy, P.M.; Chaven, C.

    1993-01-01

    A convenient method for the quantitative determination of elemental sulfur in coal is described. Elemental sulfur is extracted from the coal with hot perchloroethylene (PCE) (tetrachloroethene, C2Cl4) and quantitatively determined by HPLC analysis on a C18 reverse-phase column using UV detection. Calibration solutions were prepared from sublimed sulfur. Results of quantitative HPLC analyses agreed with those of a chemical/spectroscopic analysis. The HPLC method was found to be linear over the concentration range of 6 ?? 10-4 to 2 ?? 10-2 g/L. The lower detection limit was 4 ?? 10-4 g/L, which for a coal sample of 20 g is equivalent to 0.0006% by weight of coal. Since elemental sulfur is known to react slowly with hydrocarbons at the temperature of boiling PCE, standard solutions of sulfur in PCE were heated with coals from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample program. Pseudo-first-order uptake of sulfur by the coals was observed over several weeks of heating. For the Illinois No. 6 premium coal, the rate constant for sulfur uptake was 9.7 ?? 10-7 s-1, too small for retrograde reactions between solubilized sulfur and coal to cause a significant loss in elemental sulfur isolated during the analytical extraction. No elemental sulfur was produced when the following pure compounds were heated to reflux in PCE for up to 1 week: benzyl sulfide, octyl sulfide, thiane, thiophene, benzothiophene, dibenzothiophene, sulfuric acid, or ferrous sulfate. A sluury of mineral pyrite in PCE contained elemental sulfur which increased in concentration with heating time. ?? 1993 American Chemical Society.

  13. History of abuse and organic difficulties in a convenience sample of 46 ultra-orthodox males with pedophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witztum, Eliezer; Daie, Netzer; Daie-Gabai, Ayala; Rosler, Ariel

    2012-01-01

    Evidence has started to accumulate that relates pedophilia to a history of being a victim of sexual abuse as well as to comorbidity with organic vulnerabilities. During a naturalistic study regarding treatment of pedophilia, the authors had access to clinical and psychodiagnostic evaluations of Israeli Jewish ultraorthodox male pedophiles outside the forensic system. Using psychiatric examination as well as a battery of psychological tests, presence of history of trauma as well as comorbidity with organic vulnerabilities among this unique sub-group was examined. This survey was part of a larger scale research on the effectiveness of Decapeptyl injections as treatment for pedophilia. All participants in the original research underwent comprehensive psychological assessment including an extensive clinical interview as well as psychological tests (Bender, Rorschach and TAT). Of the patients participating in the research, this survey focused on the group of 46 ultra-orthodox male pedophiles. Cross-tabs analyses were conducted in order to examine prevalence of history of trauma and organic vulnerabilities in this specific group. Based on self reports combined with corroborating reports (obtained from parents, educators and medical staff), together with indications in psychological tests, we found that 82.6% of participants were victims of sexual trauma as children and 87% suffer from some kind of organic vulnerability (learning disabilities, disinhibitions, etc.). LIMITATIONS of this small convenience sample that influence ability to generalize are discussed. The current survey indicates that in this sample, the ultra-orthodox male pedophile was frequently a victim of childhood sexual trauma, and exhibited indications of organic vulnerabilities. This is more pronounced than findings in previous studies, and calls for further research in order to understand the underlying causes.

  14. Mild and effective aliphatic and aromatic n. c. a. /sup 18/F-fluorination using crown ether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenen, H.H.; Colosimo, M.; Schuller, M.; Stocklin, G.

    1985-05-01

    For nucleophilic substitution with (/sup 18/F)-fluoride in crown ether-catalyzed reactions, the aminopolyether 2.2.2. (Kryptofix, Merck)-K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ complex in acetonitrile was found to be optimal. The method was further optimized and applied to n.c.a. /sup 18/F-labeling. /sup 18/F-fluoroacetate and /sup 18/F-heptadecanoic acid were prepared with 92 +- 3% radiochemical yield and a specific activity of > 15000 Ci/nmole. Compared to other methods, the reaction in the presence of the crown ether is less sensitive and allows simpler routine production. The mild conditions of the new reaction system also allows the production of the fluoromethylation agent /sup 18/FCH/sub 2/Br. Starting from CH/sub 2/Br/sub 2/ the use of CH/sub 2//sup 18/F instead of /sup 11/CH/sub 3/ makes available longer lived /sup 18/F-analogue tracers. The feasibility was demonstrated by n.c.a. fluoromethylation of phenolate and piperidine with radiochemical yields of 15 to 20%. The highest potency of the crown ether-supported reaction lies in the significantly increased efficiency of nucleophilic aromatic fluorination. Thus replacement of a nitro group in dinitrobenzene was accomplished within two minutes in acetonitrile-crown ether-K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ even at 80/sup 0/C with 80 +- 3%. In comparison in DMSO without crown ether and in acetamide melt yields of 80 +- 2% and 40 +- 4%, respectively, were only obtained at 150/sup 0/C. In DMSO-crown ether the labeling of p-nitro-benzonitril is almost independent of the reaction temperature from 60/sup 0/C to 180/sup 0/C. Thus temperature-sensitive molecules such as butyrophenones can be efficiently fluorinated under mild conditions.

  15. Direct dimethyl ether fueling of a high temperature polymer fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Vassiliev, Anton; Olsen, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    Direct dimethyl ether (DME) fuel cells suffer from poor DME–water miscibility and so far peak powers of only 20–40 mW cm−2 have been reported. Based on available literature on solubility of dimethyl ether (DME) in water at ambient pressure it was estimated that the maximum concentration of DME at...

  16. The mechanical properties of stored red blood cells measured by a convenient microfluidic approach combining with mathematic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; You, Guoxing; Chen, Peipei; Li, Jianjun; Chen, Gan; Wang, Bo; Li, Penglong; Han, Dong; Zhou, Hong; Zhao, Lian

    2016-03-01

    The mechanical properties of red blood cells (RBCs) are critical to the rheological and hemodynamic behavior of blood. Although measurements of the mechanical properties of RBCs have been studied for many years, the existing methods, such as ektacytometry, micropipette aspiration, and microfluidic approaches, still have limitations. Mechanical changes to RBCs during storage play an important role in transfusions, and so need to be evaluated pre-transfusion, which demands a convenient and rapid detection method. We present a microfluidic approach that focuses on the mechanical properties of single cell under physiological shear flow and does not require any high-end equipment, like a high-speed camera. Using this method, the images of stretched RBCs under physical shear can be obtained. The subsequent analysis, combined with mathematic models, gives the deformability distribution, the morphology distribution, the normalized curvature, and the Young's modulus (E) of the stored RBCs. The deformability index and the morphology distribution show that the deformability of RBCs decreases significantly with storage time. The normalized curvature, which is defined as the curvature of the cell tail during stretching in flow, suggests that the surface charge of the stored RBCs decreases significantly. According to the mathematic model, which derives from the relation between shear stress and the adherent cells' extension ratio, the Young's moduli of the stored RBCs are also calculated and show significant increase with storage. Therefore, the present method is capable of representing the mechanical properties and can distinguish the mechanical changes of the RBCs during storage. The advantages of this method are the small sample needed, high-throughput, and easy-use, which make it promising for the quality monitoring of RBCs.

  17. Reconstitution of human ether-a-go-go-related gene channels in microfabricated silicon chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Azusa; Hirano-Iwata, Ayumi; Mozumi, Hideki; Ishinari, Yutaka; Kimura, Yasuo; Niwano, Michio

    2013-05-07

    This paper reports on the reconstitution of human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channels in artificial bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) formed in micropores fabricated in silicon chips. The hERG channels were isolated from Chinese hamster ovary cell lines expressing the channels and incorporated into the BLMs formed by a process in which the two lipid monolayers were folded into the micropores. The characteristic features of hERG channels reported by the patch-clamp method, including single-channel conductance, voltage dependence, sensitivity to typical drugs and dependence on the potassium concentration, were investigated in the BLM reconstitution system. The BLM with hERG channels incorporated exhibited a lifetime of ~65 h and a tolerance to repetitive solution exchanges. Such stable BLMs containing biological channels have the potential for use in a variety of applications, including high-throughput drug screening for various ion-channel proteins.

  18. Polyoxyethylene alkyl ether carboxylic acids: An overview of a neglected class of surfactants with multiresponsive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappisi, Leonardo

    2017-12-01

    In this work, an overview on aqueous solutions of polyoxyethylene alkyl ether carboxylic acids is given. Unique properties arise from the combination of the nonionic, temperature-responsive polyoxyethylene block with the weakly ionic, pH-responsive carboxylic acid termination in a single surfactant headgroup. Accordingly, this class of surfactant finds broad application across very different sectors. Despite their large use on an industrial and a technical scale, the literature lacks a systematic and detailed characterization of their physico-chemical properties which is provided herein. In addition, a comprehensive overview is given of their self-assembly and interfacial behavior, of their use as colloidal building blocks and for large-scale applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. MRI sensing of neurotransmitters with a crown ether appended Gd(3+) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oukhatar, Fatima; Même, Sandra; Même, William; Szeremeta, Frédéric; Logothetis, Nikos K; Angelovski, Goran; Tóth, Éva

    2015-02-18

    Molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approaches that detect biomarkers associated with neural activity would allow more direct observation of brain function than current functional MRI based on blood-oxygen-level-dependent contrast. Our objective was to create a synthetic molecular platform with appropriate recognition moieties for zwitterionic neurotransmitters that generate an MR signal change upon neurotransmitter binding. The gadolinium complex (GdL) we report offers ditopic binding for zwitterionic amino acid neurotransmitters, via interactions (i) between the positively charged and coordinatively unsaturated metal center and the carboxylate function and (ii) between a triazacrown ether and the amine group of the neurotransmitters. GdL discriminates zwitterionic neurotransmitters from monoamines. Neurotransmitter binding leads to a remarkable relaxivity change, related to a decrease in hydration number. GdL was successfully used to monitor neural activity in ex vivo mouse brain slices by MRI.

  20. Modified silyl-terminated polyether polymer blends with bisphenol A diglycidyl ether epoxy for adhesive applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitenieks, J; Meri, R Merijs; Zicans, J; Berzins, R; Umbraško, J; Rekners, U

    2016-01-01

    Modified silyl-terminated polyether polymer (MS Polymer) was blended with bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (DGEBPA) epoxy at MS Polymer/epoxy ratio from 30/70 to 70/30. MS Polymer/epoxy systems were examined for two-component adhesive formulation with additional fillers. Applicability of the MS Polymer/epoxy system at the ratio of the components 60/40 is demonstrated for the development of adhesive formulation. Rheological analysis of the components A and B shows suitable viscosity values for development of two- component adhesives formulation. Curing dynamics as well as tensile stress-strain properties and Shore A hardness of the chosen adhesive formulation are reasonable for the development of MS Polymer/epoxy type adhesive. (paper)

  1. Analysis of reaction products of food contaminants and ingredients: Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) in canned foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coulier, L.; Bradley, E.L.; Bas, R.C.; Verhoeckx, K.C.M.; Driffield, M.; Harmer, N.; Castle, L.

    2010-01-01

    Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) is an epoxide that is used as a starting substance in the manufacture of can coatings for food-contact applications. Following migration from the can coating into food, BADGE levels decay and new reaction products are formed by reaction with food ingredients. The

  2. Insights into Glycol Ether-Alkanol Mixtures from a Combined Experimental and Theoretical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde, Rafael; Gutiérrez, Alberto; Atilhan, Mert; Trenzado, José Luis; Aparicio, Santiago

    2017-06-08

    The binary liquid mixtures of glycol ethers (glymes) + 1-alkanol were characterized from the microscopic and macroscopic viewpoints through a combined experimental and theoretical study. Structuring, dynamics, and intermolecular forces were determined using density functional theory and classical molecular dynamics methods. The macroscopic behavior was studied though the measurement of relevant physicochemical properties and Raman IR studies. The changes in intermolecular forces with mixture composition, temperature, and the effects from the types of glymes as well as 1-alkanols were considered. Hydrogen bonding in the mixed fluids, its changes upon mixing, and mixture composition showed a large effect on fluids' structure and determined most of the fluids' properties together with the presence of hydrophobic domains from long 1-alkanols.

  3. 1,6-Bis(4-vinylphenyl)hexane as a crosslinking agent for the preparation of crosslinked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) membranes by EB irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sanghee; Zhang, Mei-Shan; Shin, Junhwa; Lee, Youn-Sik

    2014-04-01

    In order to mitigate problems associated with highly sulfonated aromatic hydrocarbon membranes, such as dimensional stability, mechanical strength, and methanol crossover, sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) membranes containing 1,6-bis(4-vinylphenyl)hexane (BVPH) were crosslinked by EB irradiation. Compared to the pristine SPEEK membrane, the crosslinked membranes exhibited significantly improved dimensional stability, chemical stability, and mechanical strength. The crosslinking procedure slightly reduced the proton conductivity of the membranes. The crosslinking of SPEEK with BVPH was also found to slightly reduce the proton conductivity of the membranes, but significantly reduced the methanol permeability.

  4. A Hierarchically Micro-Meso-Macroporous Zeolite CaA for Methanol Conversion to Dimethyl Ether

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchical zeolite CaA with microporous, mesoporous and macroporous structure was hydrothermally synthesized by a ”Bond-Blocking” method using organo-functionalized mesoporous silica (MS as a silica source. The characterization by XRD, SEM/TEM and N2 adsorption/desorption techniques showed that the prepared material had well-crystalline zeolite Linde Type A (LTA topological structure, microspherical particle morphologies, and hierarchically intracrystalline micro-meso-macropores structure. With the Bond-Blocking principle, the external surface area and macro-mesoporosity of the hierarchical zeolite CaA can be adjusted by varying the organo-functionalized degree of the mesoporous silica surface. Similarly, the distribution of the micro-meso-macroporous structure in the zeolite CaA can be controlled purposely. Compared with the conventional microporous zeolite CaA, the hierarchical zeolite CaA as a catalyst in the conversion of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME, exhibited complete DME selectivity and stable catalytic activity with high methanol conversion. The catalytic performances of the hierarchical zeolite CaA results clearly from the micro-meso-macroporous structure, improving diffusion properties, favoring the access to the active surface and avoiding secondary reactions (no hydrocarbon products were detected after 3 h of reaction.

  5. Fate of Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and Formation of Ester- and Ether-Linked Bound Residues in an Oxic Sandy Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangjie; Wang, Jiajia; Jiang, Bingqi; Yang, Xue; Nastold, Peter; Kolvenbach, Boris; Wang, Lianhong; Ma, Yini; Corvini, Philippe François-Xavier; Ji, Rong

    2015-11-03

    Bound-residue formation is a major dissipation process of most organic xenobiotics in soil. However, both the formation and nature of bound residues of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in soil are unclear. Using a 14C-tracer, we studied the fate of TBBPA in an oxic soil during 143 days of incubation. TBBPA dissipated with a half-life of 14.7 days; at the end of incubation, 19.6% mineralized and 66.5% formed bound residues. Eight extractable metabolites were detected, including TBBPA methyl ethers, single-ring bromophenols, and their methyl ethers. Bound residues (mostly bound to humin) rapidly formed during the first 35 days. The amount of those humin-bound residues then quickly decreased, whereas total bound residues decreased slowly. By contrast, residues bound to humic acids and fulvic acids increased continuously until a plateau was reached. Ester- and ether-linked residues accounted for 9.6-27.0% of total bound residues during the incubation, with ester linkages being predominant. Residues bound via ester linkages consisted of TBBPA, TBBPA monomethyl ether, and an unknown polar compound. Our results indicated that bound-residue formation is the major pathway of TBBPA dissipation in oxic soil and provide first insights into the chemical structure of the reversibly ester-linked bound residues of TBBPA and its metabolites.

  6. UV-A photooxidation of β-carotene in Triton X-100 micelles by nitrodiphenyl ether herbicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, G.L.; Hogan, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Photooxidation of β-carotene in Triton X-100 micelles was stimulated by lipophilic nitrodiphenyl ether herbicides at concentrations as low as 5 μM after 15 min in UV radiation (UV-A between 315 and 400 nm). Bleaching of β-carotene by acifluorfen-methyl [methyl 5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-nitrobenzoate] was proportional to UV-A intensity and independent of pH. White light (400-700 nm) alone was without effect. At pH 6.5, 100 μM acifluorfen [sodium 5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-nitrobenzoate], a water-soluble nitrodiphenyl ether, stimulated photooxidation of β-carotene after 15 min in UV-A radiation. Activity of 200 μM acifluorfen was enhanced at pHs between 3.5 and 6.5. The chlorodiphenyl ether analogue of acifluorfen-methyl, methyl 5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-chlorobenzoate, exhibited little activity at 200 μM and 200 μM phenyl ether was without effect. Activation energy for acifluorfen-methyl stimulated β-carotene photooxidation near 20 and 30 0 C was 40.3 and 5.6 kJ mol -1 , respectively. Subsequent to UV-A exposure and placement into darkness no further bleaching of β-carotene was detected, indicating that reactive species were generated only in light and consumed quickly in darkness

  7. Development of a method for the preparation of ruthenium indenylidene-ether olefin metathesis catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Leonel R; Tolentino, Daniel R; Gallon, Benjamin J; Schrodi, Yann

    2012-05-11

    The reactions between several derivatives of 1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-prop-2-yn-1-ol and different ruthenium starting materials [i.e., RuCl₂(PPh₃)₃ and RuCl₂(p-cymene)(L), where L is tricyclohexylphosphine di-t-butylmethylphosphine, dicyclohexylphenylphosphine, triisobutylphosphine, triisopropylphosphine, or tri-n-propylphosphine] are described. Several of these reactions allow for the easy, in-situ and atom-economic preparation of olefin metathesis catalysts. Organic precursor 1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-prop-2-yn-1-ol led to the formation of active ruthenium indenylidene-ether complexes, while 1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-prop-2-yn-1-ol and 1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-methyl-prop-2-yn-1-ol did not. It was also found that a bulky and strong σ-donor phosphine ligand was required to impart good catalytic activity to the new ruthenium complexes.

  8. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Anticancer Ether Lipids That Are Specifically Released by Phospholipase A2 in Tumor Tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Thomas L.; Jensen, Simon Skøde; Madsen, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The clinical use of anticancer lipids is severely limited by their ability to cause lysis of red blood cells prohibiting intravenous injection. Novel delivery systems are therefore required in order to develop anticancer ether lipids (AELs) into clinically useful anticancer drugs. In a recent...

  9. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Anticancer Ether Lipids That Are Specifically Released by Phospholipase A2 in Tumor Tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Thomas L.; Jensen, Simon Skøde; Madsen, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The clinical use of anticancer lipids is severely limited by their ability to cause lysis of red blood cells prohibiting intravenous injection. Novel delivery systems are therefore required in order to develop anticancer ether lipids (AELs) into clinically useful anticancer drugs. In a recent art...

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus etheri sp. nov. SH7T, a Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether Degrader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purswani, Jessica; Guisado, Isabel M; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus; Pozo, Clementina

    2016-02-18

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Paenibacillus etheri sp. nov. SH7(T) (= CECT 8558(T) = DSM 29760(T)), isolated from a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil pilot plant in Granada, Spain. The bacterium was isolated and sequenced due to its methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-degrading properties. Copyright © 2016 Purswani et al.

  11. A convenient synthesis of tetrabenzo[de,hi,mn,qr]naphthacene from readily available 1,2-di(phenanthren-4-yl)ethyne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Anupam; Pati, Kamalkishore; Liu, Rai-Shung

    2009-08-21

    We report here a convenient synthesis of tetrabenzo[de,hi,mn,qr]naphthacenes from 1,2-di(phenanthren-4-yl)ethynes through initial Brønsted acid-catalyzed hydroarylation, followed by FeCl(3)-oxidative coupling reactions. This new method is applicable to tetrabenzo[de,hi,mn,qr]naphthacenes bearing various alkyl substituents.

  12. A Convenient One-Pot Preparation of 2-Methyl-3-(phenylthio- methylquinolines from Morita-Baylis-Hillman Adducts and Their Oxidation to the Corresponding Sulfones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Fa Yao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A convenient one-pot preparation of 2-methyl-3-(phenylthiomethylquinolines from Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts via conjugate addition of thiols followed by reductive cyclization with Fe/AcOH was developed. The 2-methyl-3-(phenylthiomethylquinolines were transformed into 2-methyl-3-(phenylsulfonylmethylquinolines via m-CPBA-mediated oxidation.

  13. Measuring consumer perceptions of online shopping convenience

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Margarida Bernardo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this master thesis is to identify which dimensions of convenience affect consumers’ intention of using online shopping. Also it explores a conceptual model to measuring consumer perceptions of online shopping convenience. This paper contains prospects about online consumer behavior, and the results have important implications for retailers, managers and marketers, related to online shopping strategies. An empirical investigation was carried out to test the hypotheses. In order t...

  14. Mechanism of action of a novel human ether-a-go-go-related gene channel activator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casis, Oscar; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Sanguinetti, Michael C

    2005-01-01

    1,3-Bis-(2-hydroxy-5-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-urea (NS1643) is a newly discovered activator of human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) K(+) channels. Here, we characterize the effects of this compound on cloned hERG channels heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. When assessed with 2-s...... depolarizations, NS1643 enhanced the magnitude of wild-type hERG current in a concentration- and voltage-dependent manner with an EC(50) of 10.4 microM at -10 mV. The fully activated current-voltage relationship revealed that the drug increased outward but not inward currents, consistent with altered inactivation...... gating. NS1643 shifted the voltage dependence of inactivation by +21 mV at 10 microM and +35 mV at 30 microM, but it did not alter the voltage dependence of activation of hERG channels. The effects of the drug on three inactivation-deficient hERG mutant channels (S620T, S631A, and G628C/S631C) were...

  15. A convenient fluorometric method to study sulfur mustard-induced apoptosis in human epidermal keratinocytes monolayer microplate culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Radharaman; Hauck, Stephanie; Kramer, Rachel; Benton, Betty

    2005-01-01

    Sulfur mustard [SM; bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide], which causes skin blistering or vesication [(1991). Histo- and cytopathology of acute epithelial lesions. In: Papirmeister, B., Feister, A. J., Robinson, S. I., Ford, R. D., eds. Medical Defense Against Mustard Gas: Toxic Mechanisms and Pharmacological Implications. Boca Raton: CRC Press, pp. 43-78.], is a chemical warfare agent as well as a potential terrorism agent. SM-induced skin blistering is believed to be due to epidermal-dermal detachment as a result of epidermal basal cell death via apoptosis and/or necrosis. Regarding the role of apoptosis in SM pathology in animal skin, the results obtained in several laboratories, including ours, suggest the following: 1) cell death due to SM begins via apoptosis that proceeds to necrosis via an apoptotic-necrotic continuum and 2) inhibiting apoptosis decreases SM-induced microvesication in vivo. To study the mechanisms of SM-induced apoptosis and its prevention in vitro, we have established a convenient fluorometric apoptosis assay using monolayer human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK) adaptable for multiwell plates (24-, 96-, or 384-well) and high-throughput applications. This assay allows replication and multiple types of experimental manipulation in sister cultures so that the apoptotic mechanisms and the effects of test compounds can be compared statistically. SM affects diverse cellular mechanisms, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ homeostasis, mitochondrial functions, energy metabolism, and death receptors, each of which can independently trigger apoptosis. However, the biochemical pathway in any of these apoptotic mechanisms is characterized by a pathway-specific sequence of caspases, among which caspase-3 is a key member. Therefore, we exposed 80-90% confluent HEK cultures to SM and monitored apoptosis by measuring the fluorescence generated due to hydrolysis of a fluorogenic caspase-3 substrate (acetyl- or benzyl oxycarbonyl

  16. Allegheny County Supermarkets & Convenience Stores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Location information for all Supermarkets and Convenience Stores in Allegheny County was produced using the Allegheny County Fee and Permit Data for 2016.

  17. Structural and functional roles of ether lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Dean

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ether lipids, such as plasmalogens, are peroxisome-derived glycerophospholipids in which the hydrocarbon chain at the sn-1 position of the glycerol backbone is attached by an ether bond, as opposed to an ester bond in the more common diacyl phospholipids. This seemingly simple biochemical change has profound structural and functional implications. Notably, the tendency of ether lipids to form non-lamellar inverted hexagonal structures in model membranes suggests that they have a role in facilitating membrane fusion processes. Ether lipids are also important for the organization and stability of lipid raft microdomains, cholesterol-rich membrane regions involved in cellular signaling. In addition to their structural roles, a subset of ether lipids are thought to function as endogenous antioxidants, and emerging studies suggest that they are involved in cell differentiation and signaling pathways. Here, we review the biology of ether lipids and their potential significance in human disorders, including neurological diseases, cancer, and metabolic disorders.

  18. A novel route to synthesis of glycerol dimethyl ether from epichlorohydrin with high selectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Xiaoshu; Liu, Hao; Yang, Qiusheng; Li, Naihua; Dong, Xiangmo; Wang, Shufang; Zhao, Xinqiang; Wang, Yanji

    2014-01-01

    The effective utilization of glycerol, a by-product in the production of biodiesel, into useful chemicals is desirable from the viewpoint of green chemistry. With this in mind, a novel and highly selective route to synthesizing glycerol dimethyl ether (2,3-dimethoxy-1-propanol), a potential fuel additive, from glycerol was proposed. This route uses both glycerol and methanol as starting materials, takes epichlorohydrin as an intermediate product, and utilizes HCl as a recycling agent. Hereinto, the key step of this route is the reaction between epichlorohydrin and methanol to produce 2,3-dimethoxy-1-propanol which is identified by GC–MS, ESI-MS, IR and NMR. The thermodynamics of this reaction was analyzed and the result showed that the thermodynamics of a reaction was favorable and a high product yield was expected. The effect of various parameters such as kind of acid catalyst, molar ratio of epichlorohydrin to methanol, reaction temperature and reaction time was studied. Among various acid catalysts investigated, the acidic ionic liquid [HSO 3 -b-N(CH 3 ) 3 ]HSO 4 exhibited the highest activity and selectivity: conversion of epichlorohydrin of 100% and selectivity of 2,3-dimethoxy-1-propanol of 99% at 393 K, 10 h, an initial pressure of 0.1 MPa and a molar ratio of catalyst:ECH:CH 3 OH of 0.01:1:5. After the reaction, [HSO 3 -b-N(CH 3 ) 3 ]HSO 4 was separated by vacuum distillation and then reused for the next cycle directly. The results showed that the product selectivity remained at about 94% but the conversion of epichlorohydrin dropped to 75% after being used five times. Subsequently, a reaction mechanism for the synthesis of 2,3-dimethoxy-1-propanol from epichlorohydrin and methanol was proposed. - Highlights: • Epichlorohydrin was converted effectively into glycerol dimethyl ether used as potential fuel additive. • The selectivity of 99% and the conversion of 100% under the mild reaction condition. • The reaction was high product selectivity and

  19. The Development of a Graphical User Interface Engine for the Convenient Use of the HL7 Version 2.x Interface Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hwa Sun; Cho, Hune; Lee, In Keun

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The Health Level Seven Interface Engine (HL7 IE), developed by Kyungpook National University, has been employed in health information systems, however users without a background in programming have reported difficulties in using it. Therefore, we developed a graphical user interface (GUI) engine to make the use of the HL7 IE more convenient. Methods The GUI engine was directly connected with the HL7 IE to handle the HL7 version 2.x messages. Furthermore, the information exchange ru...

  20. A convenient and stereoselective synthesis of (Z)-allyl selenides via Sm/TMSCl system-promoted coupling of Baylis-Hillman adducts with diselenides*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun-kui; Xu, Dan-qian; Xu, Zhen-yuan; Zhang, Yong-min

    2006-01-01

    A simple and convenient procedure for stereoselective synthesis of (Z)-allyl selenides has been developed by a one-pot reaction of diselenides with Baylis-Hillman adducts in the presence of samarium metal-trimethylsilyl chloride under mild conditions. Presumably, the diselenides are cleaved by Sm/TMSCl system to form selenide anions, which then undergo SN2′ substitution of Baylis-Hillman adducts to produce the (Z)-allyl selenides. PMID:16615170

  1. Potent Selective Inhibition of Monoamine Oxidase A by Alternariol Monomethyl Ether Isolated from Alternaria brassicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Woo; Kim, Yeon Ji; Nam, Sang-Jip; Kim, Hoon

    2017-02-28

    Alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), a dibenzopyrone derivative, was isolated from Alternaria brassicae along with altertoxin II (ATX-II). The compounds were tested for the inhibitory activity of monoamine oxidase (MAO), which catalyzes neurotransmitting monoamines. AME was found to be a highly potent and selective inhibitor of human MAO-A with an IC 50 value of 1.71 µM; however, it was found to be ineffective for MAO-B inhibition. ATX-II was not effective for the inhibition of either MAO-A or MAO-B. The inhibition of MAO-A using AME was apparently instantaneous. MAO-A activity was almost completely recovered after the dilution of the inhibited enzyme with an excess amount of AME, suggesting AME is a reversible inhibitor. AME showed mixed inhibition for MAO-A in Lineweaver-Burk plots with a K i value of 0.34 µM. The findings of this study suggest that microbial metabolites and dibenzopyrone could be potent MAO inhibitors. In addition, AME could be a useful lead compound for developing reversible MAO-A inhibitors to treat depression, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease.

  2. EtherBone - A Network Layer for the Wishbone SoC Bus

    CERN Document Server

    Kreider, M; Lewis, J; Włostowski, T; Serrano, J

    2011-01-01

    Today, there are several System on a Chip (SoC) bus systems. Typically, these buses are confined on-chip and rely on higher level components to communicate with the outside world. Taking these systems a step further, we see the possibility of extending the reach of the SoC bus to remote FPGAs or processors. This leads to the idea of the EtherBone (EB) core, which connects a Wishbone (WB) Ver. 4 Bus via a Gigabit Ethernet based network link to remote peripheral devices. EB acts as a transparent interconnect module towards attached WB Bus devices. Address information and data from one or more WB bus cycles is preceded with a descriptive header and encapsulated in a UDP/IP packet. Because of this standard compliance, EB is able to traverse Wide Area Networks and is therefore not bound to a geographic location. Due to the low level nature of the WB bus, EB provides a sound basis for remote hardware tools like a JTAG debugger, In-System-Programmer (ISP), boundary scan interface or logic analyser module. EB was de...

  3. Revealing the values behind convenience food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botonaki, Anna; Mattas, Konstadinos

    2010-12-01

    The increasing importance of convenience in consumer food choices has attracted researchers' interest. In the effort to understand how convenience affects consumers' food preferences, values are believed to play an important role. The present study attempts to examine the way personal values suggested by Schwartz (1992) are associated with behaviour and attitudes regarding convenience food. A number of constructs describing food related attitudes and behaviours were developed and their relationship with personal values was analyzed following the methodology proposed by Brunsø, Scholderer, and Grunert (2004). Data were collected through a questionnaire survey from a random sample of consumers in Thessaloniki city, Greece. The results reveal that convenience food consumption and convenience orientation in the food domain are mainly connected with values that motivate people to seek new experiences, act independently and enhance their own personal interests, while are in conflict with values of conservation and self-transcendence. The opposite holds for other food related attitudes and behaviours like involvement with cooking and variety in diet. The findings seem to be of particular interest not only for marketers of food products, but also for food policy makers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Thermodynamics of biofuels: Excess enthalpies for binary mixtures involving ethyl 1,1-dimethylethyl ether and hydrocarbons at different temperatures using a new flow calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, Jose J.; Carmen Martin, M.; Vega-Maza, David; Chamorro, Cesar R.; Villamanan, Miguel A.

    2009-01-01

    Excess molar enthalpies for the binary systems: (ethyl 1,1-dimethylethyl ether + heptane); (ethyl 1,1-dimethylethyl ether + cyclohexane); (ethyl 1,1-dimethylethyl ether + toluene); (cyclohexane + toluene), and (toluene + heptane) have been measured at T = (298.15 and 313.15) K using a new isothermal flow calorimeter developed in the laboratory. The technique was previously checked by measuring test systems. The experimental results have been correlated with the Redlich-Kister polynomial equation. The mixing effects observed and the influence of the temperature are discussed.

  5. Innovative Catalyst Development for Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether (DME): A Renewable Diesel Substitute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveras, Elizabeth

    As a way to manage increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide, advanced research has focused on efficient and sustainable biofuel production from catalytic carbon dioxide conversion. Furthermore, atmospheric levels of methane remain the second largest greenhouse gas emitted globally. Methane can be used as a feedstock to produce dimethyl ether (DME), a clean fuel that is a substitute for fossil diesel. Production of DME as an alternative diesel fuel is a two-step process: methanol synthesis followed by methanol dehydration. Research has shown that supported Cu-ZnO with gamma alumina is a promising catalyst for DME production. The focus of this research is catalytic dehydration of methanol over catalysts based on nano-sized Ni, Co and Cu. The catalysts were prepared by depositing nano-sized metal particles onto a mesoporous alumina support using sonolysis in a hexadecane solvent. The catalysts were separated from solution by centrifuge, dried and then evaluated for methanol dehydration reaction in a 300-mL Parr batch reactor. Initial reaction conditions were 260 ?C and 150 psig under nitrogen. The data demonstrated that Cu achieved the highest methanol conversion for DME production. DME was identified using FT-IR.

  6. Physical and chemical feasibility of fueling molten salt reactors with TRU's trifluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, V.; Feinberg, O.; Konakov, S.; Subbotine, S.; Surenkov, A.; Zakirov, R.

    2001-01-01

    The molten salt reactor (MSR) concept is very important for consideration as an element of future nuclear energy systems. These reactor systems are unique in many ways. Particularly, the MSRs appear to have substantial promise not only as advanced TRU free system operating in U-Th cycle, but also as transmuter of TRU. Physical and chemical feasibility of fueling MSR with TRU trifluorides is examined. Solvent compositions with and without U-Th as fissile / fertile addition are considered. The principle reactor and fuel cycle variables available for optimizing the performance of MSR as TRU transmuting system are discussed. These efforts led to the definition in minimal TRU mass flow rate, reduced total losses to waste and maximum possible burn up rate for the molten salt transmuter. The current status of technology and prospects for revisited interest are summarized. Significant chemical problems are remain to be resolved at the end of prior MSRs programs, notably, graphite life durability, tritium control, fate of noble metal fission products. Questions arising from plutonium and minor actinide fueling include: corrosion and container chemistry, new redox buffer for systems without uranium, analytical chemistry instrumentation, adequate constituent solubilities, suitable fuel processing and waste form development. However these problems appear to be soluble. (author)

  7. Synthesis, Characterization and Chondroprotective Properties of a Hyaluronan Thioethyl Ether Derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serban, Monica A.; Yang, Guanghui; Prestwich, Glenn D.

    2008-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA), a non-sulfated glycosaminoglycan, is widely used in the clinic for viscosurgery, viscosupplementation, and treatment of osteoarthritis. Four decades of chemical modification of HA have generated derivatives in which the biophysical and biochemical properties, as well as the rates of enzymatic degradation in vivo have been manipulated and tailored for specific clinical needs. One earlier modification adds multiple thiol groups to HA through hydrazide linkages, leading to a readily crosslinkable material for adhesion prevention and wound healing. We now describe the synthesis and chemical characterization of a novel thioethyl ether derivative of HA, HA–sulfhydryl (HASH), with a minimal tether between the HA and the thiol group. Unlike earlier thiol-modified HA derivatives, HASH cannot be readily crosslinked to form a hydrogel using either oxidative or bivalent electrophilic conditions, thus offering a unique polymeric polythiol that remains soluble. Moreover, HASH showed no cytotoxicity towards primary human fibroblasts and reduced the apoptosis rates of primary chondrocytes exposed to hydrogen peroxide in vitro. These properties foreshadow the clinical potential of HASH to moderate inflammation and to act as a chondroprotective agent in vivo. PMID:18158182

  8. A Preliminary Study Of The Effect Of Some Pressurising Gasses On The Viscosity Of Dimethyl Ether

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Jakobsen, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    -micro glass viscometers, size 25, submerged completely in a constant temperature bath. A kinematic viscosity of 0,188 cSt  0,001 cSt @ 25 C, was found, consistent with the previous and initial result 0,186 cSt   0,002 cSt. Key words: Dimethyl Ether (DME), a clean substitute for diesel oil. DME viscosity......, of glass, has been used. No significant change of the efflux time was found for all the pressurising gasses, except for the gas CO2. A reduction of efflux times was found for the CO2 of about 9 %   0,6 %. The measurement accuracy for all these series was found for this very low viscosity fluid...... to be in the range 0,2 % up to more than 1 %. The previously reported viscosity of DME has been corrected for the surface tension effect. Viscosity determination was initially based on a direct comparison of efflux times of DME with efflux times of distilled water. Assuming an upper limit for the variation...

  9. Mechanical properties of orthodontic wires covered with a polyether ether ketone tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, Nobukazu; Iwata, Toshio; Miyake, Shinjiro; Otuka, Takero; Koizumi, So; Kawata, Toshitugu

    2018-03-21

    To evaluate the esthetics and frictional force of an orthodontic wire passed through a newly designed tube made of a polyether ether ketone (PEEK) resin. Two types of standard PEEK tubes were prepared at 0.5 × 0.6ф and 0.8 × 0.9ф, and different archwires were passed through the tubes. Color values were determined according to brightness and hues. Friction was assessed with different bracket-wire combinations, and surface roughness was determined by stereomicroscopy before and after the application of friction. The PEEK tube showed a color difference that was almost identical to that of coated wires conventionally used in clinical practice, indicating a sufficient esthetic property. The result of the friction test showed that the frictional force was greatly reduced by passing the archwire through the PEEK tube in almost all of the archwires tested. Use of the new PEEK tube demonstrated a good combination of esthetic and functional properties for use in orthodontic appliances.

  10. Possible applications of crown-ethers to metal extraction using liquid membrane technology - a literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozol, M.

    1990-01-01

    Ether-crowns, discovered in 1967 by J.C. PEDERSEN, exhibit attractive complexive and extractive properties, enhanced in various fields, such as analytical chemistry, chemical synthesis, field of biology, or extractive chemistry. The investigations carried out on these macrocyclic compounds are continually increasing, as show in international literature. Among the focus of interest, the applications to metal extraction are extensively studied with crown compounds present in liquid phase or impregnated on supports (membranes or resins). The goal of this paper is to describe the application of crown-ethers to metal extraction, using liquid membrane processes. 69 refs

  11. (R)-(-)-Aloesaponol III 8-Methyl Ether from Eremurus persicus: A Novel Compound against Leishmaniosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Daniela; Ahmed, Karzan Mahmood; Gaggeri, Raffaella; Della Volpe, Serena; Maggi, Lauretta; Mazzeo, Giuseppe; Longhi, Giovanna; Abbate, Sergio; Corana, Federica; Martino, Emanuela; Machado, Marisa; Varandas, Raquel; Sousa, Maria do Céu; Collina, Simona

    2017-03-24

    Leishmaniosis is a neglected tropical disease which affects several millions of people worldwide. The current drug therapies are expensive and often lack efficacy, mainly due to the development of parasite resistance. Hence, there is an urgent need for new drugs effective against Leishmania infections. As a part of our ongoing study on the phytochemical characterization and biological investigation of plants used in the traditional medicine of western and central Asia, in the present study, we focused on Eremurus persicus root extract in order to evaluate its potential in the treatment of leishmaniosis. As a result of our study, aloesaponol III 8-methyl ether (ASME) was isolated for the first time from Eremurus persicus root extract, its chemical structure elucidated by means of IR and NMR experiments and the ( R ) configuration assigned by optical activity measurements: chiroptical aspects were investigated with vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopies and DFT (density functional theory) quantum mechanical calculations. Concerning biological investigations, our results clearly proved that ( R )-ASME inhibits Leishmania infantum promastigotes viability (IC 50 73 µg/mL), inducing morphological alterations and mitochondrial potential deregulation. Moreover, it is not toxic on macrophages at the concentration tested, thus representing a promising molecule against Leishmania infections.

  12. Does dependency make a difference? The role of convenience, social influence, facilitating condition and self-efficacy on student's purchase behaviour of smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Mathivannan; Mustapa, Azrain Nasyrah; Hasan, Wan Azlina Wan; Mat, Nik Kamariah Nik; Alekam, Jamal Mohammed Esmail

    2014-12-01

    It is an undeniable fact that penetration level and usage and sales of Smartphone dramatically increased past few years, whereby; it has increased to almost 60 percent of total population. Despite the high penetration of smartphone, previous studies have exhibited inconsistent findings towards understanding the behavioural intention to use smartphone especially among university students. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine purchasing behaviour of Smartphone among students. From the literature, five antecedents of purchasing behaviour were identified. Each variable is measured using 7-point Likert scale: convenience (10 items), social influence (6 items), self-efficacy (10 items), facilitating condition (11 items), dependency (14 items) and purchasing behaviour (4 items). Using the primary data collection method, 400 questionnaires were distributed to the target respondents of one of the public higher education in the northern region. The responses collected were 350 completed questionnaires representing 87.5 percent response rate. The data were analysed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) using AMOS. Confirmatory factor analysis of measurement models indicates adequate goodness or fit after few items were eliminated through modification indices verifications. Therefore, goodness of fit for the generated structural model shows the adequate fit. This study has established four direct significant causal effects and two significant mediating effects: (1) convenience and dependency, (2) social influence and dependency, (3) facilitating condition and purchase behaviour, (4), dependency and purchase behaviour. The significant mediating results are: (1). Dependency mediates the relationship between convenience and purchase behaviour; (2) dependency mediates social influence and purchase behaviour. Thus, findings suggested that convenience, social influence and dependency play a role in determining students purchase behaviour of smartphone. The researchers

  13. Biodegradation of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether by Co-Metabolism with a Pseudomonas sp. Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Co-metabolic bioremediation is supposed to be an impressive and promising approach in the elimination technology of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE, which was found to be a common pollutant worldwide in the ground or underground water in recent years. In this paper, bacterial strain DZ13 (which can co-metabolically degrade MTBE was isolated and named as Pseudomonas sp. DZ13 based on the result of 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Strain DZ13 could grow on n-alkanes (C5-C8, accompanied with the co-metabolic degradation of MTBE. Diverse n-alkanes with different carbon number showed a significant influence on the degradation rate of MTBE and accumulation of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA. When Pseudomonas sp. DZ13 co-metabolically degraded MTBE with n-pentane as the growth substrate, a higher MTBE-degrading rate (Vmax = 38.1 nmol/min/mgprotein, Ks = 6.8 mmol/L and lower TBA-accumulation was observed. In the continuous degradation experiment, the removal efficiency of MTBE by Pseudomonas sp. Strain DZ13 did not show an obvious decrease after five times of continuous addition.

  14. Brominated diphenyl ether levels. A comparison of tributary sediments versus biosolid material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolic, T.M.; MacPherson, K.A.; Reiner, E.J. [Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Laboratory Services Branch, Toronto, ON (Canada); Ho, T.; Kleywegt, S. [Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Standards Development Branch, Toronto, ON (Canada); Dove, A.; Marvin, C. [Environment Canada, Burlington, ON (Canada)

    2004-09-15

    PBDEs are persistent in the environment, have low water solubility and are known to have a tendency to bioaccumulate in wildlife and humans. There are 209 possible PBDE congeners. There has been concern over the bioaccumulation of these compounds since they have been found in mother's milk. Some of the brominated diphenyl ethers are known to metabolize into hydroxylated compounds and these metabolites are known to compete with and reduce thyroxine (T4) from binding to the thyroxine binding protein, transthyretin. This disrupts the thyroid hormone system interaction that has recently been notable amongst women in the form of hypothyroidism that can affect the fetus development in the form of neurodevelopmental deficits. There have been reports of estrogenic activities regarding PBDEs and their hydroxylated counterparts. Information such as this is indicative that PBDEs are endocrine disruptors. Due to their lipophilic nature, PBDEs have a high binding affinity to particulates and accumulate in sediments. Various reports on sediments and sludge type matrices have been reported in Austria, Switzerland, Netherlands and Canada. The following paper is a presentation of levels of PBDEs found in Tributary sediments and their comparison of levels to nearby biosolid sampling locations along Lake Ontario.

  15. Validation of a flow-through sampler for pesticides and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hang; Hung, Hayley; Lei, Ying Duan; Wania, Frank

    At locations without access to the electrical grid, a flow-through sampler (FTS) collects large volumes of air for the analysis of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). To test its performance under field conditions, an FTS and a traditional pumped high volume air sampler, both using polyurethane foam (PUF) as sampling medium, were co-deployed at the campus of the University of Toronto Scarborough from August 2006 to June 2007. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and various pesticides were quantified in the samples taken by both samplers to test the FTS's applicability to relatively non-volatile and slightly polar SVOCs. Air concentrations in samples taken with the FTS over five 2-week periods compare favourably with the average of the concentrations in several 24-h active high volume samples taken during the same period. In particular, time trends, temperature dependence relationships, and isomer ratios show a reasonable agreement between the two sampling techniques. An empirical linear solvation energy relationship for predicting the apparent theoretical plate number of the PUF assembly used in the FTS illustrates the effect of chemical properties, as well as temperature and wind speed, on sampling efficiency. In the absence of electrical power, the FTS can collect SVOCs from large air volumes as reliably and quantitatively as traditional HiVol samplers, although without separating gas and particle phase.

  16. Mass balance of decabromodiphenyl ethane and decabromodiphenyl ether in a WWTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklund, Niklas; Kierkegaard, Amelie; McLachlan, Michael S; Wahlberg, Cajsa

    2009-01-01

    The additive flame retardant decabromodiphenyl ethane (deBDethane) has been identified in the environment, but little is known about its environmental behaviour. It is structurally similar to decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE), making it conceivable that it may also become an environmental contaminant of concern. In this study a mass balance of deBDethane and decaBDE was undertaken in a modern WWTP in Stockholm serving 7.05x10(5) inhabitants. Flow proportional samples of plant influent and effluent as well as daily grab samples of digested sludge were collected during two 7-day periods. All samples were analyzed with GC/HRMS using isotope labelled internal standards. The mean mass flows of deBDethane and decaBDE to the WWTP were 6.0 g per day and 55 g per day, respectively. Of this, less than 1% of both BFRs left the WWTP via the effluent, while the bulk was sequestered into the digested sludge, where the mean concentrations of deBDethane and decaBDE were 81 and 800 ng g(-1)d.wt., respectively. It is concluded that the transfer efficiency of deBDethane from the technosphere to the environment via WWTPs is similar to that of decaBDE.

  17. The effect of diethylene glycol monoethyl ether as a vehicle for topical delivery of ivermectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanian, M; Chen, E

    1995-01-01

    The effect of diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (DGME; Transcutol) on the permeation of ivermectin, a broad-spectrum antiparasitic agent, through bovine skin was evaluated by in vitro permeation experiments followed by serial sectioning of the skin to assess the amount of ivermectin retained in the skin. Ivermectin permeation through bovine skin was enhanced by DGME and this enhancement was DGME-concentration-dependent. Permeation of ivermectin was effectively enhanced in vehicles with low proportions of DGME, but the magnitude of permeation enhancement decreased as the proportion of DGME increased. The permeation was accompanied by the formation of cutaneous depots of ivermectin. Furthermore, the data indicated that the flux and the cutaneous accumulation of ivermectin were sensitive to the concentration gradient of DGME across the skin. This suggested that ivermectin was permeating with DGME, in which it is very soluble. Hence, the enhancing mechanism involves solubilization of the ivermectin by DGME and the transport of DGME itself across the skin. Based on these results, DGME appears to be a potential vehicle for topical delivery of ivermectin by transport through the skin and through formation of cutaneous depots of ivermectin.

  18. Bioavailability and mass balance studies of a commercial pentabromodiphenyl ether mixture in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huwe, Janice; Hakk, Heldur; Lorentzsen, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are common flame retardants used in polyurethane foam, high impact polystyrene, and textiles which appear to be increasing in the environment and biota. Two PBDE congeners that are particularly prominent in environmental samples are 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99). These two congeners are major components in penta-BDE formulations which constitute a minor percentage of the commercial PBDE market. In order to determine the bioavailability and bioconcentration potential of these PBDEs, we have conducted a feeding experiment in rats, dosing with low amounts of a commercial penta-BDE mixture for 21 days to mimic an environmental exposure. The carcasses, livers, and feces from control and dosed rats were quantitated for PBDEs by a high resolution GC-MS isotope dilution method. Between 25% and 50% of each of the dosed congeners was retained in the rats with the liver being a minor depot (commercial mixture. Conclusions from the study suggest that the tetra- to hexa-BDEs present in commercial penta-BDE formulations are largely bioavailable, that bioavailability in the rat is not dependent on the degree of bromination, and that metabolism may occur to a large extent during a chronic exposure.

  19. Incidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in central air conditioner filter dust from a new office building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Hong-Gang; Cao, Shan-Ping; Chang, Wen-Jing; Zeng, Hui

    2011-07-01

    This study examined polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in central air conditioner filter (CACF) dust from a new office building in Shenzhen, China. Human exposure to PBDE via dust inhalation and ingestion were also estimated. PBDEs level in CACF dust was lower than those in the other countries and regions. Approximately 0.671 pg/kg bw/day PM(2.5) (Particulate Matter up to 2.5 μm in size) bounded Σ(15)PBDEs can be inhaled deep into the lungs and 4.123 pg/kg bw/day PM(10) (Particulate Matter up to 10 μm in size) bounded Σ(15)PBDEs tend to be deposited in the upper parts of the respiratory system. The average total intake of Σ(15)PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion for adults reached ∼ 141 pg/kg bw/day in this building. This value was far below the reference dose (RfD) recommended by United States Environmental Protection Agency. Human exposure to PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion in the new building is less than the old ones. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of a Method for the Preparation of Ruthenium Indenylidene-Ether Olefin Metathesis Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Schrodi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The reactions between several derivatives of 1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl-prop-2-yn-1-ol and different ruthenium starting materials [i.e., RuCl2(PPh33 and RuCl2(p-cymene(L, where L is tricyclohexylphosphine di-t-butylmethylphosphine, dicyclohexylphenylphosphine, triisobutylphosphine, triisopropylphosphine, or tri-n-propylphosphine] are described. Several of these reactions allow for the easy, in-situ and atom-economic preparation of olefin metathesis catalysts. Organic precursor 1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl-1-phenyl-prop-2-yn-1-ol led to the formation of active ruthenium indenylidene-ether complexes, while 1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl-prop-2-yn-1-ol and 1-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl-1-methyl-prop-2-yn-1-ol did not. It was also found that a bulky and strong σ-donor phosphine ligand was required to impart good catalytic activity to the new ruthenium complexes.

  1. Qualitative and quantitative simulation of androgen receptor antagonists: A case study of polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yang; Shi, Wei; Xia, Pu; Zhang, Xiaowei; Yu, Hongxia

    2017-12-15

    Recently, great attention has been paid to the identification and prediction of the androgen disrupting potencies of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). However, few existing models can discriminate active and inactive compounds, which make the quantitative prediction process including the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) technique unreliable. In this study, different grouping methods were investigated and compared for qualitative identification, including molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations (MD). The results showed that qualitative identification based on MD, which is lab-independent, accurate and closer to the real transcriptional activation process, could separate 90.5% of active and inactive chemicals and was preferred. The 3D-QSAR models built as the quantitative simulation method showed r 2 and q 2 values of 0.513 and 0.980, respectively. Together, a novel workflow combining qualitative identification and quantitative simulations was generated with processes including activeness discrimination and activity prediction. This workflow, for analyzing the antagonism of androgen receptor (AR) of PBDEs is not only allowing researchers to reduce their intense laboratory experiments but also assisting them in inspecting and adjusting their laboratory systems and results. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Efficient kinetic resolution of phenyl glycidyl ether by a novel epoxide hydrolase from Tsukamurella paurometabola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai; Wang, Hualei; Sun, Huihui; Wei, Dongzhi

    2015-11-01

    Enantioselective hydrolysis of racemic epoxides mediated by epoxide hydrolases (EHs) is one of the most promising approaches to obtain enantiopure epoxides. In this study, we identified and characterized a novel EH (TpEH1) from Tsukamurella paurometabola by analyzing the conserved catalytic residues of EH. TpEH1 was overexpressed and purified, and its catalytic properties were studied using racemic phenyl glycidyl ether (PGE) and its derivatives as substrates. TpEH1 showed excellent enantioselectivity to the substrates PGE, 3-methylPGE, and 3-nitroPGE. The highest enantioselectivity (E > 100) was achieved when 3-nitroPGE was used as the substrate. The recombinant Escherichia coli TpEH1 demonstrated high substrate tolerance toward PGE and could hydrolyze PGE at concentrations of up to 400 mM (60 g/L) with high enantioselectivity (E = 65), giving (R)-PGE with enantiomeric excess of more than 99 % ee and 45 % yield within 1 h. This concentration of PGE is the highest reported concentration catalyzed by native EHs to date. Thus, the easily available and highly active E. coli TpEH1 showed great potential for the practical preparation of optically pure (R)-PGE.

  3. Environmental pollution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers from industrial plants in China: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chao; Chen, Yuan; Li, Jinhui; Li, Ying; Li, Huafen

    2016-04-01

    Although numerous studies have shown the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in various environmental media, attention to their distribution in the environmental media surrounding industrial facilities is limited. In this study, eight PBDEs congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183, -209) were investigated in surface soils and water samples collected from commercial PBDE manufacturers, flame-retardant plastic modification plants and waste electrical and electronic equipment recycling facilities in China. Analysis of target compounds was performed using the model NCI GC-MS in SIM mode. The concentrations of ∑8PBDEs varied from 193.1 to 22,004.3 ng/L in water samples and from 1209.3 to 226,906 ng/g dry wt in surface soils, respectively. More severe PBDE contamination, when compared with previously reported data, was found in industrial areas in this study. This indicates that these industrial areas are highly polluted with PBDEs. BDE-209 was the predominant congener, accounting for more than 94% in this study, except for a 68.75% portion at one site. Our results show that PBDE manufacturing and flame-retardant plastic modification plants, easily overlooked by the public, are two primary PBDE pollution sources although they affect surrounding areas. Further research is needed, aimed at managing industrial PBDE emissions and eliminating environmental PBDE pollution, to investigate the material flows and environmental fates of PBDEs in all stages of the life cycle.

  4. Pd-Catalyzed Amination in the Synthesis of a New Family of Macropolycyclic Compounds Comprising Diazacrown Ether Moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei A. Yakushev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available N,N'-bis(bromobenzyl and N,N'-bis(halopyridinyl derivatives of diaza-12-crown-4, diaza-15-crown-5 and diaza-18-crown-6 ethers were synthesized in high yields. The Pd-catalyzed macrocyclization reactions of these compounds were carried out using a variety of polyamines and oxadiamines were carried out to give novel macrobicyclic and macrotricyclic compounds of the cryptand type. The dependence of the yields of macropolycycles on the nature of the starting diazacrown derivatives and polyamines was established. Generally N,N'-bis(3-bromobenzyl-substituted diazacrown ethers and oxadiamines provided better yields of the target products. The highest yield of the macrobicyclic products reached 57%.

  5. A tutorial review: Metabolomics and partial least squares-discriminant analysis--a marriage of convenience or a shotgun wedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromski, Piotr S; Muhamadali, Howbeer; Ellis, David I; Xu, Yun; Correa, Elon; Turner, Michael L; Goodacre, Royston

    2015-06-16

    The predominance of partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) used to analyze metabolomics datasets (indeed, it is the most well-known tool to perform classification and regression in metabolomics), can be said to have led to the point that not all researchers are fully aware of alternative multivariate classification algorithms. This may in part be due to the widespread availability of PLS-DA in most of the well-known statistical software packages, where its implementation is very easy if the default settings are used. In addition, one of the perceived advantages of PLS-DA is that it has the ability to analyze highly collinear and noisy data. Furthermore, the calibration model is known to provide a variety of useful statistics, such as prediction accuracy as well as scores and loadings plots. However, this method may provide misleading results, largely due to a lack of suitable statistical validation, when used by non-experts who are not aware of its potential limitations when used in conjunction with metabolomics. This tutorial review aims to provide an introductory overview to several straightforward statistical methods such as principal component-discriminant function analysis (PC-DFA), support vector machines (SVM) and random forests (RF), which could very easily be used either to augment PLS or as alternative supervised learning methods to PLS-DA. These methods can be said to be particularly appropriate for the analysis of large, highly-complex data sets which are common output(s) in metabolomics studies where the numbers of variables often far exceed the number of samples. In addition, these alternative techniques may be useful tools for generating parsimonious models through feature selection and data reduction, as well as providing more propitious results. We sincerely hope that the general reader is left with little doubt that there are several promising and readily available alternatives to PLS-DA, to analyze large and highly complex data sets

  6. Landau theory and giant room-temperature barocaloric effect in MF3 metal trifluorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corrales-Salazar, A. [Univ. of Costa Rica, San Jose (Costa Rica); Brierley, R. T. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Littlewood, P. B. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Guzmán-Verri, G. G. [Univ. of Costa Rica, San Jose (Costa Rica); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-10-17

    The structural phase transitions of MF3 (M = Al, Cr, V, Fe, Ti, Sc) metal trifluorides are studied within a simple Landau theory consisting of tilts of rigid MF6 octahedra associated with soft antiferrodistortive optic modes that are coupled to long-wavelength strain generating acoustic phonons. We calculate the temperature and pressure dependence of several quantities such as the spontaneous distortions, volume expansion, and shear strains as well as T - P phase diagrams. By contrasting our model to experiments we quantify the deviations from mean-field behavior and find that the tilt fluctuations of the MF6 octahedra increase with metal cation size. We apply our model to predict giant barocaloric effects in Sc-substituted TiF3 of up to about 15 JK-1 kg-1 for modest hydrostatic compressions of 0.2GPa. The effect extends over a wide temperature range of over 140K (including room temperature) due to a large predicted rate, dTc/dP = 723K GPa-1, which exceeds those of typical barocaloric materials. Our results suggest that open lattice frameworks such as the trifluorides are an attractive platform to search for giant barocaloric effects.

  7. Luminescent Lariat Aza-Crown Ether Carboxylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard König

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Lariat ethers are interesting recognition motifs in supramolecular chemistry. The synthesis of a luminescent lariat aza-crown ether with a carboxyl group appended by azide-alkyne (Huisgen cycloaddition is presented.

  8. Simulation of a multi-stage adiabatic reactor with inter-stage quenching for dimethyl ether synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Ziyang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adiabatic fixed-bed reactor has proven commercially successful in large scale production of catalytic dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether. A one dimensional pseudo-homogeneous model of an industrial reactor of dimethyl ether synthesis has been established. To verify the proposed model, the simulation results have been compared to available data from an industrial reactor. A good agreement has been found between them. The distribution of the catalyst bed temperature and concentration of each component was obtained under conditions of inlet temperature 260°C, reaction pressure 1.2MPa and gaseous hourly space velocity 950.7 h-1. With inlet catalyst bed temperature 240-280°C, operating pressure 0.6-1.8MPa and gaseous hourly space velocity 831.8-1069.5 h-1, the influence of these reaction conditions on temperature distribution of the reactor catalytic bed, outlet methanol conversion and the dimethyl ether yield were calculated. The results show that, with the rise of inlet temperature (240-280°C and operating pressure (0.6-1.8MPa, the outlet conversion of methanol, the hot spot temperature and the DME yield increased. The increase of gaseous hourly space velocity (831.8-1069.5 h-1 leads to a decrease in the hot spot temperature of catalytic bed and the outlet conversion of methanol. But the DME yield rise initially and then descend.

  9. A National Probabilistic Study of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Fish from US Lakes and Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    National estimates were developed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish from lakes and reservoirs of the conterminous United States (excluding the Laurentian Great Lakes and Great Salt Lake) using an unequal probability design. Predator (fillet) and bottom-dweller (w...

  10. In vitro estrogenicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, hydroxylated PBDEs, and polybrominated bisphenol A compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerts, I.A.T.M.; Letcher, R.J.; Hoving, S.; Marsh, G.; Bergman, A.; Lemmen, J.G.; Burg, van der B.; Brouwer, A.

    2001-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used in large quantities as additive flame retardants in plastics and textile materials. PBDEs are persistent compounds and have been detected in wildlife and in human adipose tissue and plasma samples. In this study, we investigated the (anti)estrogenic

  11. Atmospheric lifetimes of selected fluorinated ether compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heathfield, A.E.; Anastasi, C.; Pagsberg, Palle Bjørn

    1998-01-01

    Atmospheric lifetimes have been estimated for a selection of ethers, the latter representing a class of compounds being considered as replacements for chlorofluorocarbons. The estimates are based on laboratory measurements of rate constants for the reaction of the OH radical with the ethers, and ...

  12. Experimental studies on toxicity of ethylene glycol alkyl ethers in Japan.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagano, K; Nakayama, E; Oobayashi, H; Nishizawa, T; Okuda, H; Yamazaki, K

    1984-01-01

    Past studies on the toxicological effects of ethylene glycol alkyl ethers as well as the recent data on these chemicals in Japan are reviewed. Only a few researchers have participated in the study of ethylene glycol alkyl ethers in Japan. The effects of ethylene glycol alkyl ethers on testis and embryotoxic effects of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGM) have been studied, as has the teratogenicity of ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (EGdM). Studies on ethylene glycol alkyl ethers and related...

  13. Clinical comparison of ethyl acetate and diethyl ether in the formalin-ether sedimentation technique.

    OpenAIRE

    Erdman, D D

    1981-01-01

    A substitute for the volatile solvent diethyl ether has been actively sought for the Formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Ethyl acetate has recently been shown to be a comparable substitute. In an effort to verify these findings and evaluate ethyl acetate under clinical conditions, comparison studies with 62 fresh human stool specimens were performed. Parallel concentrates with diethyl ether and ethyl acetate were prepared for each specimen, and the quantity and appearance of recovered par...

  14. Hepatitis A vaccine. A new convenient single-dose schedule with booster when long-term immunization is warranted

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Victor, J; Knudsen, J D; Nielsen, L P

    1994-01-01

    A total of 162 anti-HAV-negative healthy adults were immunized with a single high dose (1440 ELISA units = 1 ml) of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine and a booster was given at month 6. Antibodies were measured after modification of a commercial ELISA kit, enabling quantification of titres down to 6...

  15. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Ethanol/Diethyl Ether Mixtures in a CI Engine

    KAUST Repository

    Sivasankaralingam, Vedharaj

    2016-10-17

    The auto-ignition characteristics of diethyl ether (DEE)/ethanol mixtures are investigated in compression ignition (CI) engines both numerically and experimentally. While DEE has a higher derived cetane number (DCN) of 139, ethanol exhibits poor ignition characteristics with a DCN of 8. DEE was used as an ignition promoter for the operation of ethanol in a CI engine. Mixtures of DEE and ethanol (DE), i.e., DE75 (75% DEE + 25% ethanol), DE50 (50% DEE + 50% ethanol) and DE25 (25% DEE + 75% ethanol), were tested in a CI engine. While DE75 and DE50 auto-ignited at an inlet air pressure of 1.5 bar, DE25 failed to auto-ignite even at boosted pressure of 2 bar. The peak in-cylinder pressure for diesel and DE75 were comparable, while DE50 showed reduced peak in-cylinder pressure with delayed start of combustion (SOC). Numerical simulations were conducted to study the engine combustion characteristics of DE mixture. A comprehensive detailed chemical kinetic model was created to represent the combustion of DE mixtures. The detailed mechanism was then reduced using standard direct relation graph (DRG-X) method and coupled with 3D CFD code, CONVERGE, to simulate the experimental data. The simulation results showed that the effects of physical properties on DE50 combustion are negligible. Simulations of DE50 mixture revealed that the combustion is nearly homogenous, while diesel (n-heptane used as a surrogate) and DE75 showed similar combustion behavior with flame liftoff and diffusion controlled combustion. Diesel exhibited auto-ignition at an equivalence ratio of 2, while DE75 and DE50 showed auto-ignition in the equivalence ratio range of 1-1.5 and 0-1, respectively. The experiments and numerical simulations demonstrate how the high reactivity of DEE supports the auto-ignition of ethanol, while ethanol acts as a radical scavenger.

  16. A convenient method for estimating the contaminated zone of a subsurface aquifer resulting from radioactive waste disposal into ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Masami; Katsurayama, Kousuke; Uchida, Shigeo.

    1981-01-01

    Studies were conducted to estimate the contamination spread resulting from the radioactive waste disposal into a subsurface aquifer. A general equation, expressing the contaminated zone as a function of radioactive decay, the physical and chemical parameters of soil is presented. A distribution coefficient was also formulated which can be used to judge the suitability of a site for waste disposal. Moreover, a method for predicting contaminant concentration in groundwater at a site boundary is suggested for a heterogeneous media where the subsurface aquifer has different values of porosity, density, flow velocity, distribution coefficient and so on. A general equation was also developed to predict the distribution of radionuclides resulting from the disposal of a solid waste material. The distributions of contamination was evaluated for 90 Sr and 239 Pu which obey a linear adsorption model and a first order kinetics respectively. These equations appear to have practical utility for easily estimating groundwater contamination. (author)

  17. A New Flexible Soy-Based Adhesive Enhanced with Neopentyl Glycol Diglycidyl Ether: Properties and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Luo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soy-based adhesives inherently possess low water resistance and brittleness, which limit their application on plywood fabrication. This investigation involves using a long chain cross-linker, neopentyl glycol diglycidyl ether (NGDE, to produce an intrinsic toughening effect to reduce the brittleness and improve the water resistance of a soybean meal–based adhesive. The solids content, viscosity, functional groups, fracture surface micrographs, and thermal stability of the adhesives were measured. Three-layer plywood was fabricated using the resultant adhesive, and the tensile shear strength of the plywood was measured. All adhesive properties were compared with a soybean meal/polyamidoamine-epichlorohydrin (PAE adhesive and commercial melamine urea formaldehyde resin. The results showed that adding 6 g NGDE improved the water resistance of the soybean meal-based adhesive by 12.5%. This improvement is attributed to the following reasons: (1 a dense cross-linked network is formed by the chemical reaction between NGDE and protein molecules; (2 the toughness of the adhesive increases and a smooth and homogeneous fracture surface is created, which effectively prevents moisture intrusion; (3 the addition of NGDE increases the thermostability of the cured adhesive. The tensile shear strength of the plywood bonded with the soybean meal-based adhesive with 6 g NGDE was 286.2% higher than that without NGDE and attained 1.12 MPa, which was attributed to the reduction in the adhesive’s viscosity, and the improvement in the water resistance and toughness of the adhesive. The tensile shear strength of the plywood bonded with 6 g NGDE was 19.1% higher than that with 6 g PAE and was similar to the MUF resin, which validated the novel adhesive being suitable for use as an industrial plywood adhesive.

  18. Prenatal exposure to glycol ethers and cryptorchidism and hypospadias: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warembourg, Charline; Botton, Jérémie; Lelong, Nathalie; Rouget, Florence; Khoshnood, Babak; Le Gléau, Florent; Monfort, Christine; Labat, Laurence; Pierre, Fabrice; Heude, Barbara; Slama, Rémy; Multigner, Luc; Charles, Marie-Aline; Cordier, Sylvaine; Garlantézec, Ronan

    2018-01-01

    Glycol ethers (GE) are oxygenated solvents frequently found in occupational and consumer products. Some of them are well-known testicular and developmental animal toxicants. This study aims to evaluate the risk of male genital anomalies in association with prenatal exposure to GE using urinary biomarkers of exposure. We conducted a case-control study nested in two joint mother-child cohorts (5303 pregnant women). Cases of cryptorchidism and hypospadias were identified at birth and confirmed during a 2-year follow-up period (n=14 cryptorchidism and n=15 hypospadias). Each case was matched to three randomly selected controls within the cohorts for region of inclusion and gestational age at urine sampling. Concentrations of five GE acidic metabolites were measured in spot maternal urine samples collected during pregnancy. ORs were estimated with multivariate conditional logistic regressions including a Firth's penalisation. Detection rates of urinary GE metabolites ranged from 8% to 93% and only two were sufficiently detected (>33%) in each cohort to be studied: methoxyacetic acid (MAA) and phenoxyacetic acid (PhAA). A significantly higher risk of hypospadias was associated with the highest tertile of exposure to MAA: OR (95% CI) 4.5(1.4 to 23.4). No association were observed with urinary concentration of PhAA, nor with the risk of cryptorchidism. In view of the toxicological plausibility of our results, this study, despite its small sample size, raises concern about the potential developmental toxicity of MAA on the male genital system and calls for thorough identification of current sources of exposure to MAA. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Hepatitis A vaccine. A new convenient single-dose schedule with booster when long-term immunization is warranted

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Victor, J; Knudsen, J D; Nielsen, L P

    1994-01-01

    A total of 162 anti-HAV-negative healthy adults were immunized with a single high dose (1440 ELISA units = 1 ml) of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine and a booster was given at month 6. Antibodies were measured after modification of a commercial ELISA kit, enabling quantification of titres down to 6...... mIU ml-1. After 14 days, 96% of vaccinees had positive anti-HAV titres (> 20 mIU ml-1), and after 30 days all vaccinees had seroconverted. The geometric mean titres were 150 mIU ml-1 and 380 mIU ml-1 respectively. The booster dose at month 6 elicited a dramatic (25-fold) increase in antibody titres...

  20. Developmental toxicity of four glycol ethers applied cutaneously to rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Hardin, B D; Goad, P T; Burg, J R

    1984-01-01

    Previous NIOSH studies demonstrated the embryo- and fetotoxicity and teratogenicity of ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGEE) applied to the shaved skin of pregnant rats. In the present study ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (EGEEA), ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE), and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (diEGEE) were tested in the same experimental model, using distilled water as the negative control and EGEE as a positive control. Water or undiluted glycols were applied four ti...

  1. The Change4Life convenience store programme to increase retail access to fresh fruit and vegetables: a mixed methods process evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Adams

    Full Text Available Consumption of fruit and vegetables is important for health, but is often lower than recommended and tends to be socio-economically patterned with lower consumption in more deprived groups. In 2008, the English Department of Health introduced the Change4Life convenience store programme. This aimed to increase retail access to fresh fruit and vegetables in deprived, urban areas by providing existing convenience stores with a range of support and branded point-of-sale materials and equipment.We undertook a mixed-methods study of the Change4Life convenience store programme in the North East of England around two years after initial implementation. Store mapping (n = 87; 100% stores and systematic in-store observations (n = 74; 85% stores provided information on intervention fidelity; the variety, purchase price and quality of fresh fruit and vegetables on sale; and purchase price compared to a major supermarket. Ten qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of retailers and other professionals explored experiences of the intervention and provided further insight on quantitative results.Intervention stores were primarily located in socio-economically disadvantaged areas. Fidelity, in terms of presence of branded materials and equipment, was low and much was not being used as intended. Fresh fruit and vegetables on sale were of high quality and had a purchase price around 10% more than comparable products at a major supermarket. Interviewees were supportive of the health improvement aim of the intervention. Retailers were appreciative of part-funding for chill cabinets and free point-of-sale materials. The intervention suffered from: poor initial and on-going communication between the intervention delivery team and retailers; poor availability of replacement point-of-sale materials; and failure to cement intended links with health workers and community organisations.Overall, intervention fidelity was low and the intervention is unlikely to have

  2. Incidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in central air conditioner filter dust from a new office building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Honggang; Cao Shanping; Chang Wenjing; Zeng Hui

    2011-01-01

    This study examined polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in central air conditioner filter (CACF) dust from a new office building in Shenzhen, China. Human exposure to PBDE via dust inhalation and ingestion were also estimated. PBDEs level in CACF dust was lower than those in the other countries and regions. Approximately 0.671 pg/kg bw/day PM 2.5 (Particulate Matter up to 2.5 μm in size) bounded Σ 15 PBDEs can be inhaled deep into the lungs and 4.123 pg/kg bw/day PM 10 (Particulate Matter up to 10 μm in size) bounded Σ 15 PBDEs tend to be deposited in the upper parts of the respiratory system. The average total intake of Σ 15 PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion for adults reached ∼141 pg/kg bw/day in this building. This value was far below the reference dose (RfD) recommended by United States Environmental Protection Agency. Human exposure to PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion in the new building is less than the old ones. - Highlights: → Human exposure to PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion in the new building is less than that in the old ones. → PBDE emissions from indoor sources can be expected to continue for a long time as the PBDE-containing products in offices were to be kept many years. → The household consumer products, especially computers, are the main sources of PBDEs in central air conditioner filter dust. → Further studies are needed to fully understand the emission mechanism of PBDE from indoor consumer products. - PBDEs in central air conditioner filter dust from a new building were investigated

  3. A global review of polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardant contamination in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da; Hale, Robert C

    2010-10-01

    As a consequence of substantial, long-term usage, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have contaminated humans, wildlife, and abiotic matrices around the world. Although several reports have reviewed PBDE contamination in general, none have focused specifically on birds. Birds have long been recognized as invaluable monitoring species for organohalogen contamination. This review summarizes most available PBDE data in birds and emphasizes several specific aspects, i.e., inter-regional differences in PBDE contamination, the extent of BDE-209 contamination, differences in congener composition patterns between piscivorous and terrestrial-feeding birds, trophic biomagnification and temporal changes in PBDE contamination. A meta-analysis of PBDE congener profiles reveals distinctly different patterns between birds utilizing terrestrial and aquatic food webs. Terrestrial-feeding birds appear to exhibit heightened Deca-BDE contamination. Inter-regional comparisons reveal elevated PBDE burdens in North American aquatic birds compared to those from the rest of the world, likely related to greater Penta-BDE demand there. Examination of North American and Chinese terrestrial birds also exhibited some of the highest BDE-209 concentrations ever reported in wildlife, and suggested that urban environments in general and some commercial activities (e.g., electronic recycling) may increase exposure of wildlife and humans to Deca-BDE. Summaries of temporal trend studies suggest that varying usage histories and regulations have influenced PBDE contamination patterns at different regions. As a consequence of continued usage of Deca-BDE around the world, significant increases in BDE-209 burdens have been observed in both North American and European birds. Examination of both wild and laboratory-exposed birds also indicated potential degradation of BDE-209 to less brominated, but more bioavailable/toxic congeners. Therefore, it would be wise to reduce releases of Deca-BDE, the only

  4. Incidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in central air conditioner filter dust from a new office building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni Honggang; Cao Shanping; Chang Wenjing [Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Circular Economy, Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Zeng Hui, E-mail: huizeng0608@gmail.com [Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Circular Economy, Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Department of Ecology, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2011-07-15

    This study examined polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in central air conditioner filter (CACF) dust from a new office building in Shenzhen, China. Human exposure to PBDE via dust inhalation and ingestion were also estimated. PBDEs level in CACF dust was lower than those in the other countries and regions. Approximately 0.671 pg/kg bw/day PM{sub 2.5} (Particulate Matter up to 2.5 {mu}m in size) bounded {Sigma}{sub 15}PBDEs can be inhaled deep into the lungs and 4.123 pg/kg bw/day PM{sub 10} (Particulate Matter up to 10 {mu}m in size) bounded {Sigma}{sub 15}PBDEs tend to be deposited in the upper parts of the respiratory system. The average total intake of {Sigma}{sub 15}PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion for adults reached {approx}141 pg/kg bw/day in this building. This value was far below the reference dose (RfD) recommended by United States Environmental Protection Agency. Human exposure to PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion in the new building is less than the old ones. - Highlights: > Human exposure to PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion in the new building is less than that in the old ones. > PBDE emissions from indoor sources can be expected to continue for a long time as the PBDE-containing products in offices were to be kept many years. > The household consumer products, especially computers, are the main sources of PBDEs in central air conditioner filter dust. > Further studies are needed to fully understand the emission mechanism of PBDE from indoor consumer products. - PBDEs in central air conditioner filter dust from a new building were investigated

  5. Natural products as potential human ether-a-go-go-related gene channel inhibitors - outcomes from a screening of widely used herbal medicines and edible plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Anja; Jähne, Evelyn A; Baburin, Igor; Hering, Steffen; Hamburger, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    Inhibition of the human ether-a-go-go-related gene channel is the single most important risk factor leading to acquired long QT syndrome. Drug-induced QT prolongation can cause severe cardiac complications, including arrhythmia, and is thus a liability in drug development. Considering the importance of the human ether-a-go-go-related gene channel as an antitarget and the daily intake of plant-derived foods and herbal products, surprisingly few natural products have been tested for channel blocking properties. In an assessment of possible human ether-a-go-go-related gene liabilities, a selection of widely used herbal medicines and edible plants (vegetables, fruits, and spices) was screened by means of a functional two-microelectrode voltage-clamp assay with Xenopus oocytes. The human ether-a-go-go-related gene channel blocking activity of selected extracts was investigated with the aid of a high-performance liquid chromatography-based profiling approach, and attributed to tannins and alkaloids. Major European medicinal plants and frequently consumed food plants were found to have a low risk for human ether-a-go-go-related gene toxicity. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. A Convenient Ultrasound-Promoted Synthesis of Some New Thiazole Derivatives Bearing a Coumarin Nucleus and Their Cytotoxic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobhi M. Gomha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Successful implementation of ultrasound irradiation for the rapid synthesis of a novel series of 3-[1-(4-substituted-5-(aryldiazenylthiazol-2-ylhydrazonoethyl]-2H-chromen-2-ones 5ah, via reactions of 2-(1-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-ylethylidene thiosemicarbazide (2 and the hydrazonoyl halides 3(4, was demonstrated. Also, a new series of 5-arylidene-2-(2-(1-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-ylethylidenehydrazinylthiazol-4(5H-ones 10ad were synthesized from reaction of 2 with chloroacetic acid and different aldehydes. Moreover, reaction of 2-cyano-N'-(1-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-ylethylidene-acetohydrazide (12 with substituted benzaldehydes gave the respective arylidene derivatives 13ac under the conditions employed. The structures of the synthesized compounds were assigned based on elemental analyses and spectral data. Also, the cytototoxic activities of the thiazole derivative 5a was evaluated against HaCaT cells (human keratinocytes. It was found that compound 5a possess potent cytotoxic activity.

  7. Applicability of dimethyl ether (DME) in a compression ignition engine as an alternative fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Su Han; Lee, Chang Sik

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Overall characteristics of DME fueled engine are reviewed. • Fuel properties characteristics of DME are introduced. • New technologies for DME vehicle are systemically reviewed. • Research trends for the development of DME vehicle in the world are introduced. - Abstract: From the perspectives of environmental conservation and energy security, dimethyl-ether (DME) is an attractive alternative to conventional diesel fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. This review article deals with the application characteristics of DME in CI engines, including its fuel properties, spray and atomization characteristics, combustion performance, and exhaust emission characteristics. We also discuss the various technological problems associated with its application in actual engine systems and describe the field test results of developed DME-fueled vehicles. Combustion of DME fuel is associated with low NO x , HC, and CO emissions. In addition, PM emission of DME combustion is very low due to its molecular structure. Moreover, DME has superior atomization and vaporization characteristics than conventional diesel. A high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate can be used in a DME engine to reduce NO x emission without any increase in soot emission, because DME combustion is essentially soot-free. To decrease NO x emission, engine after-treatment devices, such as lean NO x traps (LNTs), urea-selective catalytic reduction, and the combination of EGR and catalyst have been applied. To use DME fuel in automotive vehicles, injector design, fuel feed pump, and the high-pressure injection pump have to be modified, combustion system components, including sealing materials, have to be rigorously designed. To use DME fuel in the diesel vehicles, more research is required to enhance its calorific value and engine durability due to the low lubricity of DME, and methods to reduce NO x emission are also required

  8. Knowledge and confidence of a convenience sample of australasian emergency doctors in managing dental emergencies: results of a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaei, Hossein; Weiland, Tracey Joy; Dilley, Stuart; Jelinek, George Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Background. We aimed to determine Australasian Specialist Emergency Physicians' and Emergency Physicians in Training (Trainees') level of knowledge of common dental emergencies. We also explored confidence in managing dental emergencies; predictors of confidence and knowledge; and preferences for further dental education. Methods. A questionnaire was distributed electronically (September 2011) and directly (November 2011) to Fellows and Trainees of the Australasian College for Emergency Medicine. It explored demographics, confidence, knowledge of dental emergencies, and educational preferences. Results. Response rate was 13.6% (464/3405) and college members were proportionally represented by region. Fewer than half (186/446; 42%) had received dental training. Sixty-two percent (244/391, 95% CI 57.5-67.1) passed (>50%) a knowledge test. More than 60% incorrectly answered questions on dental fracture, periodontal abscess, tooth eruption dates, and ulcerative gingivitis. Forty percent (166/416) incorrectly answered a question about Ludwig's Angina. Eighty-three percent (360/433) were confident in the pharmacological management of toothache but only 26% (112/434) confident in recognizing periodontal disease. Knowledge was correlated with confidence (r = 0.488). Interactive workshops were preferred by most (386/415, 93%). Conclusions. The knowledge and confidence of Australasian Emergency Physicians and Trainees in managing dental emergencies are varied, yet correlated. Interactive training sessions in dental emergencies are warranted.

  9. A convenient procedure for the synthesis of 3{beta}-hydroxy-6-oxo-5{alpha}-steroids. Application to the synthesis of laxogenin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias-Arteaga, Martin A. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D.F. (Mexico). Facultad de Quimica Dept. de Quimica Organica]. E-mail: martin.iglesias@servidor.unam.mx; Simuta-Lopez, Eva M.; Xochihua-Moreno, Sergio; Vinas-Bravo, Omar; Smith, Sara Montiel; Meza Reyes, Socorro; Sandoval-Ramirez, Jesus [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Pue., (Mexico). Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas]. E-mail: jsandova@siu.buap.mx

    2005-05-15

    A convenient pathway to obtain 3{beta}-hydroxy-6-oxo-5{alpha}-steroids from 3{beta}-acetoxy {delta}5-steroids is reported; the methodology was applied to the synthesis of laxogenin (7), substance that behaves as a plant growth hormone. This is an alternative way to produce an important functionality found in many examples of naturally occurring steroids. The developed procedure uses inexpensive reagents and can be carried out in four steps. The oxidizing and acidic steps used in this methodology did not affect the labile spiroketal side chain present in diosgenin (16). (author)

  10. Retailer-Led Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Price Increase Reduces Purchases in a Hospital Convenience Store in Melbourne, Australia: A Mixed Methods Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Miranda R; Peeters, Anna; Lancsar, Emily; Boelsen-Robinson, Tara; Corben, Kirstan; Stevenson, Christopher E; Palermo, Claire; Backholer, Kathryn

    2017-09-01

    Limited evidence has been gathered on the real-world impact of sugar-sweetened beverage price changes on purchasing behavior over time or in community-retail settings. Our aim was to determine changes in beverage purchases, business outcomes, and customer and retailer satisfaction associated with a retailer-led sugar-sweetened beverage price increase in a convenience store. We hypothesized that purchases of less-healthy beverages would decrease compared to predicted sales. A convergent parallel mixed methods design complemented sales data (122 weeks pre-intervention, 17 weeks during intervention) with stakeholder interviews and customer surveys. Electronic beverage sales data were collected from a convenience store in Melbourne, Australia (August through November 2015). Convenience store staff completed semi-structured interviews (n=4) and adult customers exiting the store completed surveys (n=352). Beverages were classified using a state government framework. Prices of "red" beverages (eg, nondiet soft drinks, energy drinks) increased by 20%. Prices of "amber" (eg, diet soft drinks, small pure fruit juices) and "green" beverages (eg, water) were unchanged. Changes in beverage volume, item sales, and revenue during the intervention were compared with predicted sales. Sales data were analyzed using time series segmented regression while controlling for pre-intervention trends, autocorrelation in sales data, and seasonal fluctuations. Beverage volume sales of red (-27.6%; 95% CI -32.2 to -23.0) and amber (-26.7%; 95% CI -39.3 to -16.0) decreased, and volume of green beverages increased (+26.9%; 95% CI +14.1 to +39.7) in the 17th intervention week compared with predicted sales. Store manager and staff considered the intervention business-neutral, despite a small reduction in beverage revenue. Fifteen percent of customers noticed the price difference and 61% supported the intervention. A 20% sugar-sweetened beverage price increase was associated with a reduction

  11. A new pen device for injection of recombinant human growth hormone: a convenience, functionality and usability evaluation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauer M

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available   Maritta Sauer,1 Carole Abbotts2 1Global Strategic Insights, Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany; 2Pharmaceutical Market Research Consultant, London, UK Purpose: Adherence to recombinant human growth hormone (r-hGH is critical to growth and other outcomes in patients with growth disorders, but the requirement for daily injections means that ease of use is an important factor. This study assessed the perceived ease of use and functionality of the prototype of a reusable pen injector (pen device for r-hGH that incorporates several advanced features. Participants and methods: Semi-structured 60-minute qualitative interviews were conducted in 5 countries with 57 health care professionals (HCPs and 30 patients with GH deficiency/caregivers administering r-hGH to patients, including children. HCPs had to be responsible for training in the use of r-hGH pen devices and to see ≥4 r-hGH patients/caregivers per month. Patients/caregivers had to have experience with r-hGH administration for at least 6 months.Results: Thirty-seven (65% of HCPs described the pen device as “simple” or “easy” to use. The aluminum body was generally perceived as attractive, high quality and comfortable to hold and operate. The ease of preparation and use made it suitable for both children and adults. The ability to dial back the r-hGH dose, if entered incorrectly, was mentioned as a major benefit, because other devices need several user steps to reset. Patients/caregivers felt the pen device was easy to use and the injection-feedback features reassured them that the full dose had been given. Overall, 40 (70% HCPs and 16 (52% patients/caregivers were likely to recommend or request the pen device. Moreover, patients/caregivers rated the pen device higher than their current reusable pens and almost equal to the leading disposable device for ease of learning, preparation, administration and ease of use.Conclusion: The prototype pen device successfully met its design

  12. On new physical reality (on ψ-ether)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaev, P.S.

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that there exists a new physical reality - the ψ-ether. All the achievements of quantum mechanics and quantum field theory are due to the fact that both the theories include the influence of ψ-ether on the physical processes occurring in the Universe. Physics of the XX century was first of all the physics of ψ-ether

  13. A questionnaire to measure melanoma risk, knowledge and protective behaviour: Assessing content validity in a convenience sample of Scots and Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Amanda J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the content validity of a questionnaire to measure melanoma risk, knowledge and protective behaviour in a convenience sample of Scots and Australians. Australia has the highest melanoma incidence worldwide but has developed a culture of skin cancer avoidance with a long history of skin cancer primary prevention campaigns of proven effectiveness. Scotland has lower incidence, but has shown a greater rate of increase between 1985 and 2007. There is an urgent need in Scotland, therefore, to identify those groups at greatest risk and provide them with effective preventative advice. Method A self-administered postal survey was completed by four groups formed from convenience samples in two geographical locations (Northeast Scotland and Western Australia. In univariate analysis scores on personal risk, level of concern, protective behaviour, and knowledge were compared by nationality, previous skin cancer diagnosis and personally knowing someone with melanoma. Multivariate linear regression analysis modelled the influence of potential predictor variables upon each of the scores. Results 540 people completed the questionnaire, 273 Scots (50.6%. 133 (24.6% Scots and 83 (15.4% Australians previously had melanoma or non-melanoma skin cancer, whilst 120 (22.2% Scots and 190 (35.2% Australians personally knew someone with melanoma. Australians had higher knowledge (p , level of concern (p and protective behaviour (p scores than the Scottish. Australian nationality was the strongest independent predictor of a higher knowledge score (p , followed by a previous skin cancer diagnosis (p = 0.003, personal knowledge of someone with melanoma (p = 0.011, female gender (p = 0.005 and higher education status (p (R2 = 0.163. Conclusion The questionnaire detected higher levels of knowledge and skin cancer protective behaviours in Australians than in Scottish people. This was expected and supports the content

  14. Preparation and Characterization of Sulfonated Poly (ether ether ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proton-conducting membranes of organic–inorganic (sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone)/phosphated zirconia nanoparticles) composite were prepared by incorporating various ratios of phosphated zirconia nanoparticles (ZP) in sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK). SPEEK/ZP showed an improvement of ...

  15. Grab a Cup, Fill It Up! An Intervention to Promote the Convenience of Drinking Water and Increase Student Water Consumption During School Lunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gortmaker, Steven L.; Carter, Jill E.; Howe, M. Caitlin W.; Reiner, Jennifer F.; Cradock, Angie L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated a low-cost strategy for schools to improve the convenience and appeal of drinking water. Methods. We conducted a group-randomized, controlled trial in 10 Boston, Massachusetts, schools in April through June 2013 to test a cafeteria-based intervention. Signage promoting water and disposable cups were installed near water sources. Mixed linear regression models adjusting for clustering evaluated the intervention impact on average student water consumption over 359 lunch periods. Results. The percentage of students in intervention schools observed drinking water during lunch nearly doubled from baseline to follow-up compared with controls (+9.4%; P < .001). The intervention was associated with a 0.58-ounce increase in water intake across all students (P < .001). Without cups, children were observed drinking 2.4 (SE = 0.08) ounces of water from fountains; with cups, 5.2 (SE = 0.2) ounces. The percentage of intervention students observed with sugar-sweetened beverages declined (–3.3%; P < .005). Conclusions. The current default of providing water through drinking fountains in cafeterias results in low water consumption. This study shows that an inexpensive intervention to improve drinking water’s convenience by providing cups can increase student water consumption. PMID:26180950

  16. Diethyl Ether as an Ignition Enhancer for Naphtha Creating a Drop in Fuel for Diesel

    KAUST Repository

    Vallinayagam, R.

    2016-12-01

    Direct use of naphtha in compression ignition (CI) engines is not advisable because its lower cetane number negatively impacts the auto ignition process. However, engine or fuel modifications can be made to operate naphtha in CI engines. Enhancing a fuel’s auto ignition characteristics presents an opportunity to use low cetane fuel, naphtha, in CI engines. In this research, Di-ethyl ether (DEE) derived from ethanol is used as an ignition enhancer for light naphtha. With this fuel modification, a “drop-in” fuel that is interchangeable with existing diesel fuel has been created. The ignition characteristics of DEE blended naphtha were studied in an ignition quality tester (IQT); the measured ignition delay time (IDT) for pure naphtha was 6.9 ms. When DEE was added to naphtha, IDT decreased and D30 (30% DEE + 70% naphtha) showed comparable IDT with US NO.2 diesel. The derived cetane number (DCN) of naphtha, D10 (10% DEE + 90% naphtha), D20% DEE + 80% naphtha) and D30 were measured to be 31, 37, 40 and 49, respectively. The addition of 30% DEE in naphtha achieved a DCN equivalent to US NO.2 diesel. Subsequent experiments in a CI engine exhibited longer ignition delay for naphtha compared to diesel. The peak in-cylinder pressure is higher for naphtha than diesel and other tested fuels. When DEE was added to naphtha, the ignition delay shortened and peak in-cylinder pressure is reduced. A 3.7% increase in peak in-cylinder pressure was observed for naphtha compared to US NO.2 diesel, while D30 showed comparable results with diesel. The pressure rise rate dropped with the addition of DEE to naphtha, thereby reducing the ringing intensity. Naphtha exhibited a peak heat release rate of 280 kJ/m3deg, while D30 showed a comparable peak heat release rate to US NO.2 diesel. The amount of energy released during the premixed combustion phase decreased with the increase of DEE in naphtha. Thus, this study demonstrates the suitability of DEE blended naphtha mixtures as a

  17. Environmental and health risks of chlorine trifluoride (ClF3), an alternative to potent greenhouse gases in the semiconductor industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Tien

    2011-06-15

    The first accident involving chlorine trifluoride (ClF(3)) in the history of semiconductor fabrication processes occurred on 28 July 2006 at Hsinchu (Taiwan), resulting in a large release of the highly reactive material and causing the chemical burn to several workers. ClF(3) is used primarily as an in situ cleaning gas in the manufacture of semiconductor silicon-wafer devices in replacement of perfluorocompounds (PFCs) because they have the high potential to contribute significantly to the global warming. This article aimed at reviewing ClF(3) in the physicochemical properties, the industrial uses, and the environmental implications on the basis of its toxicity, reactivity, health hazards and exposure limits. The health hazards of probable decomposition/hydrolysis products from ClF(3) were also evaluated based on their basic physicochemical properties and occupational exposure limits. The occupational exposure assessment was further discussed to understand potentially hazardous risks caused by hydrogen fluoride and fluorides from the decomposition/hydrolysis products of ClF(3). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Time-weighted average sampling of airborne propylene glycol ethers by a solid-phase microextraction device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, H C; Tsai, S W; Kuo, C H

    2012-01-01

    A solid-phase microextraction (SPME) device was used as a diffusive sampler for airborne propylene glycol ethers (PGEs), including propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME), propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA), and dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether (DPGME). Carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) SPME fiber was selected for this study. A polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tubing was used as the holder, and the SPME fiber assembly was inserted into the tubing as a diffusive sampler. The diffusion path length and area of the sampler were 0.3 cm and 0.00086 cm(2), respectively. The theoretical sampling constants at 30°C and 1 atm for PGME, PGMEA, and DPGME were 1.50 × 10(-2), 1.23 × 10(-2) and 1.14 × 10(-2) cm(3) min(-1), respectively. For evaluations, known concentrations of PGEs around the threshold limit values/time-weighted average with specific relative humidities (10% and 80%) were generated both by the air bag method and the dynamic generation system, while 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min were selected as the time periods for vapor exposures. Comparisons of the SPME diffusive sampling method to Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) organic Method 99 were performed side-by-side in an exposure chamber at 30°C for PGME. A gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) was used for sample analysis. The experimental sampling constants of the sampler at 30°C were (6.93 ± 0.12) × 10(-1), (4.72 ± 0.03) × 10(-1), and (3.29 ± 0.20) × 10(-1) cm(3) min(-1) for PGME, PGMEA, and DPGME, respectively. The adsorption of chemicals on the stainless steel needle of the SPME fiber was suspected to be one of the reasons why significant differences between theoretical and experimental sampling rates were observed. Correlations between the results for PGME from both SPME device and OSHA organic Method 99 were linear (r = 0.9984) and consistent (slope = 0.97 ± 0.03). Face velocity (0-0.18 m/s) also proved to have no effects on the sampler

  19. Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) based composite membranes for nanofiltration of acidic and alkaline media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalwani, M.R.; Bargeman, Gerrald; Hosseiny, Seyed Schwan; Schwan Hosseiny, Seyed; Boerrigter, M.E.; Wessling, Matthias; Benes, Nieck Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Several thin film composite nanofiltration membranes have been prepared by spin coating a sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) solution on a polyethersulfone support, followed by thermal treatment. The most optimal developed nanofiltration membrane shows a clean water permeance of ∼4.5 L m−2 h−1

  20. A Convenient Route to Higher Sugars by Two-Carbon Chain Elongation Using Wittig/Dihydroxylation Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten; Iversen, Erik Høgh; Madsen, Robert

    2001-01-01

    The combination of a Wittig olefination and a dihydroxylation reaction constitutes a facile synthetic protocol for the transformation of unprotected carbohydrates into higher sugars. The Wittig reaction is carried out with tert-butyl or diphenylmethyl ester stabilized phosphoranes to give (E...

  1. A simple and convenient gradient elution set-up and its application in the separation of rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Chungi; Yu, Decai; Yang, Fu

    1982-01-01

    The operation principles, construction flowsheet, and electronic control circuit of a gradient elution device are described. The device was used for the separation of rare earth elements, (Lu, Yb, Tm, Er, Ho, Y, Dy, Tb, Gd, Eu, Sm, Nd, Pr, Ce and La) on a polystyrene sulfonic acid cation exchanger by elution with hydroxyisobutyric acid. The gradient elution device was easy to operate reliable and could be used continuously for a long period of time [fr

  2. V3 Stain-free Workflow for a Practical, Convenient, and Reliable Total Protein Loading Control in Western Blotting

    OpenAIRE

    Posch, Anton; Kohn, Jonathan; Oh, Kenneth; Hammond, Matt; Liu, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The western blot is a very useful and widely adopted lab technique, but its execution is challenging. The workflow is often characterized as a "black box" because an experimentalist does not know if it has been performed successfully until the last of several steps. Moreover, the quality of western blot data is sometimes challenged due to a lack of effective quality control tools in place throughout the western blotting process. Here we describe the V3 western workflow, which applies stain-fr...

  3. The role of the "socio" in socio-hydrology: equal partner or a marriage of convenience (and necessity)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Socio-hydrology as a concept has been in vogue for past 10-15 years and has been defined as a means to better integrate hydrological and societal processes and connections. Rarely, however, do we reflect on the balance between the two elements in the concept, and all too often the "socio" is seen as a necessary evil in support of hydrological sciences, rather than as an equal partner. The objective of this contribution is to assess the "socio" component of socio-hydrology, a fairly recent and accepted genre within the hydrological sciences. A brief history of the term and related research is outlined, followed by a discussion of the current balance between socio and hydrology in this science, and directions for future research and integration. This contribution also introduces the concept of a "water policy cycle" as a way to integrate the "socio" into the more traditional (and engineering and bio-physical biased) hydrological cycle. Finally, we use an ongoing case of coproduction of knowledge and decision making in a dynamic southwest Idaho river basin to illustrate the opportunities and challenges of socio-hydrology at the local and regional scale. This contribution will address the "Society co-production of knowledge and policy" theme of HS 5.5.

  4. Rich in vitamin C or just a convenient snack? Multiple-category reasoning with cross-classified foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brett K; Kurniawan, Hendy; Newell, Ben R

    2011-01-01

    Two studies examined multiple category reasoning in property induction with cross-classified foods. Pilot tests identified foods that were more typical of a taxonomic category (e.g., "fruit"; termed 'taxonomic primary') or a script based category (e.g., "snack foods"; termed 'script primary'). They also confirmed that taxonomic categories were perceived as more coherent than script categories. In Experiment 1 participants completed an induction task in which information from multiple categories could be searched and combined to generate a property prediction about a target food. Multiple categories were more often consulted and used in prediction for script primary than for taxonomic primary foods. Experiment 2 replicated this finding across a range of property types but found that multiple category reasoning was reduced in the presence of a concurrent cognitive load. Property type affected which categories were consulted first and how information from multiple categories was weighted. The results show that multiple categories are more likely to be used for property predictions about cross-classified objects when an object is primarily associated with a category that has low coherence.

  5. Preservation of semi-perishable food and development of convenience food using a combination of irradiation and other physicochemical treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, N.; Siddiqui, A.K.; Chowdhury, N.A.; Youssouf, Q.M.; Rashid, H.; Begum, A.A.; Alam, M.K.

    1998-01-01

    Studies were carried out on the development and irradiation preservation of semi-dried fish, e.g. Labeo rohita (Ruhi) and Cirrhiuas mrigala (Mrigel), the extension of shelf-life at ambient temperature, and the improvement in the microbiological quality of sealed, ready to eat, commercially prepared fish kebabs by a combination of gamma irradiation with spices and an acidulant such as ascorbic acid. In the processing of semi-dried fish, the combination treatment of a salt dip and irradiation at a dose of 4 kGy extended the shelf-life by more than 3 months. Kebabs prepared in the laboratory and irradiated at a dose of 5 kGy were found to have a shelf-life of up to 6 months at room temperature. With commercially prepared fish kebabs collected from ordinary and sophisticated food shops, the maximum shelf-life extension was 14 days for the 5 kGy treated samples stored at ambient temperature. The microbiological quality of such kebabs indicated that the fish used was of poor quality, resulting in a limited shelf-life, even after chemical and irradiation treatments. Inoculated pack studies of Clostridium botulinum spores showed that when oil fried, the kebab size had a definite effect on heat penetration, and consequent spore reduction. No spores were recovered from the 5 kGy irradiated fried kebabs. (author)

  6. Consumer Convenience and the Availability of Retail Stations as a Market Barrier for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M.; Bremson, J.; Solo, K.

    2013-01-01

    The availability of retail stations can be a significant barrier to the adoption of alternative fuel light-duty vehicles in household markets. This is especially the case during early market growth when retail stations are likely to be sparse and when vehicles are dedicated in the sense that they can only be fuelled with a new alternative fuel. For some bi-fuel vehicles, which can also fuel with conventional gasoline or diesel, limited availability will not necessarily limit vehicle sales but can limit fuel use. The impact of limited availability on vehicle purchase decisions is largely a function of geographic coverage and consumer perception. In this paper we review previous attempts to quantify the value of availability and present results from two studies that rely upon distinct methodologies. The first study relies upon stated preference data from a discrete choice survey and the second relies upon a station clustering algorithm and a rational actor value of time framework. Results from the two studies provide an estimate of the discrepancy between stated preference cost penalties and a lower bound on potential revealed cost penalties.

  7. A convenient sol-gel route for the synthesis of salicylate-titania nanocomposites having visible absorption and blue luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Atanu; Bhaumik, Asim; Nandi, Mahasweta; Mondal, John; Roy, B. K.

    2009-05-01

    Syntheses of titania-based nanomaterials by simple sol-gel route using a mixture of CTAB and salicylate as well as salicylate ions as templates have been reported. The materials are characterized by the powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and spectroscopic (FT IR, UV-VIS) analyses. A disordered mesoscale orientation of nanoparticles (ca. 2-4 nm) composed of TiO 2-salicylate surface complex has been obtained when 1:1 mixing ratio of CTAB and salicylate at the CTAB concentration of 0.001 M was employed as a template. All these nanocomposites exhibit a considerable red shift at the onsets of their absorption band compared to pure (organic-free) nanocrystalline TiO 2 and show blue luminescence at room temperature. This assembly of nanoparticles is highly interesting in the context of visible light sensitization and nanodevice fabrication.

  8. Variable temperature infrared spectroscopy: a convenient tool for studying the thermodynamics of weak solid-gas interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrone, Edoardo; Otero Areán, Carlos

    2005-10-01

    This tutorial review describes the use of variable temperature infrared spectroscopy of adsorbed species (VTIR), a recent method for studying the thermodynamics of weak solid-gas interactions. Examples show how a fundamental relationship of thermodynamics (the van't Hoff equation, used long since in several fields of physical chemistry) can describe equilibrium processes at the solid-gas interface. The VTIR method is fully exploited by measuring absorbance of an IR band, temperature and pressure over a wide temperature range: an estimation of the interaction energy is, however, possible even ignoring the equilibrium pressure. Precise thermodynamic characterization of solid-gas interactions is required in several fields: on the applied side, gas sensing, separation and storage, which involve such areas as work-place security, air pollution control and the energy sector; regarding fundamental knowledge, weak solid-gas interactions are relevant to a number of fields, including hydrogen bonding, coordination chemistry and surface phenomena in a broad sense. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy of (gas) molecules adsorbed on a solid is frequently used to characterize both, the adsorbed species and the adsorbing centres at the solid surface. The potential of the technique can be greatly enhanced by obtaining IR spectra over a temperature range, and simultaneously measuring IR absorbance, temperature and equilibrium pressure. When this is done, variable temperature infrared (VTIR) spectroscopy can be used not only for a more detailed surface characterization, but also for precise studies on the thermodynamics of solid-gas interactions. Furthermore, when weak interactions are concerned, the technique shows favourable features compared to adsorption calorimetry, or to other classical methods. The potential of the VTIR method is highlighted by reviewing recently reported studies on dihydrogen, dinitrogen and carbon monoxide adsorption on zeolites. To facilitate understanding, an

  9. Willingness to Pay for Information Programs about E-Commerce: Results from a Convenience Sample of Rural Louisiana Businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Susan; Nwoha, Ogbonnaya John; Kennedy, Gary A.; Rea, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    The probability of a business paying various amounts of money for an e-commerce presence ultimately depends on demographic features, experiences with e-commerce from a buyer’s and seller’s perspective, technological expertise, and knowledge of e-commerce opportunities and limitations. Estimating functions to assign probabilities associated with the willingness to pay for an e-commerce presence will assist in forecasting regional likelihood of certain profiles paying various monetary amoun...

  10. A convenient preparation of 9 H -carbazole-3,6-dicarbonitrile and 9 H -carbazole-3,6-dicarboxylic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Weselinski, Lukasz Jan

    2014-01-23

    A catalytic, high yielding and scalable procedure for the synthesis of 9H-carbazole-3,6-dicarbonitrile has been developed. Subsequent hydrolysis of the dinitrile in the presence of a catalytic copper species (i.e., CuI) yields 9H-carbazole-3,6-dicarboxylic acid. Both compounds are versatile and fine-tunable organic building blocks and therefore offer potential in material science, medicinal and supramolecular chemistry. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart New York.

  11. A convenient synthesis of substituted pyrazolidines and azaproline derivatives through highly regio- and diastereoselective reduction of 2-pyrazolines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Los Santos, Jesús M; López, Yago; Aparicio, Domitila; Palacios, Francisco

    2008-01-18

    The synthesis of substituted N-acetyl- and N-aroyl-2-pyrazolines via intramolecular Michael addition of alpha,beta-unsaturated hydrazones generated through olefination of phosphinyl and phosphonyl hydrazones with carbonyl compounds is reported. The regioselective reduction of the C-N double bond in these 2-pyrazolines using Superhydride (Et3BHLi) gives pirazolidine derivatives with excellent levels of cis-diastereoselectivity. These 2-pyrazolines can also be obtained in one-pot reaction from allenes, hydrazides, and aldehydes; and pyrazolidines, after reduction, from allenes, hydrazides, and aldehydes. This synthetic route was developed to provide a new approach to substituted azaproline derivatives in a diastereoselective fashion.

  12. panMetaDocs and DataSync - providing a convenient way to share and publish research data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, D.; Klump, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years research institutions, geological surveys and funding organizations started to build infrastructures to facilitate the re-use of research data from previous work. At present, several intermeshed activities are coordinated to make data systems of the earth sciences interoperable and recorded data discoverable. Driven by governmental authorities, ISO19115/19139 emerged as metadata standards for discovery of data and services. Established metadata transport protocols like OAI-PMH and OGC-CSW are used to disseminate metadata to data portals. With the persistent identifiers like DOI and IGSN research data and corresponding physical samples can be given unambiguous names and thus become citable. In summary, these activities focus primarily on 'ready to give away'-data, already stored in an institutional repository and described with appropriate metadata. Many datasets are not 'born' in this state but are produced in small and federated research projects. To make access and reuse of these 'small data' easier, these data should be centrally stored and version controlled from the very beginning of activities. We developed DataSync [1] as supplemental application to the panMetaDocs [2] data exchange platform as a data management tool for small science projects. DataSync is a JAVA-application that runs on a local computer and synchronizes directory trees into an eSciDoc-repository [3] by creating eSciDoc-objects via eSciDocs' REST API. DataSync can be installed on multiple computers and is in this way able to synchronize files of a research team over the internet. XML Metadata can be added as separate files that are managed together with data files as versioned eSciDoc-objects. A project-customized instance of panMetaDocs is provided to show a web-based overview of the previously uploaded file collection and to allow further annotation with metadata inside the eSciDoc-repository. PanMetaDocs is a PHP based web application to assist the creation of metadata in

  13. V3 stain-free workflow for a practical, convenient, and reliable total protein loading control in western blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posch, Anton; Kohn, Jonathan; Oh, Kenneth; Hammond, Matt; Liu, Ning

    2013-12-30

    The western blot is a very useful and widely adopted lab technique, but its execution is challenging. The workflow is often characterized as a "black box" because an experimentalist does not know if it has been performed successfully until the last of several steps. Moreover, the quality of western blot data is sometimes challenged due to a lack of effective quality control tools in place throughout the western blotting process. Here we describe the V3 western workflow, which applies stain-free technology to address the major concerns associated with the traditional western blot protocol. This workflow allows researchers: 1) to run a gel in about 20-30 min; 2) to visualize sample separation quality within 5 min after the gel run; 3) to transfer proteins in 3-10 min; 4) to verify transfer efficiency quantitatively; and most importantly 5) to validate changes in the level of the protein of interest using total protein loading control. This novel approach eliminates the need of stripping and reprobing the blot for housekeeping proteins such as β-actin, β-tubulin, GAPDH, etc. The V3 stain-free workflow makes the western blot process faster, transparent, more quantitative and reliable.

  14. Ultrasound and supine chest radiograph in road traffic accident patients: a reliable and convenient way to diagnose pleural effusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumtaz, U.; Zahur, Z.; Raza, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Portable bed side ultrasound and supine chest radiograph of 80 traumatic patients excluding very clinically unstable patients who subsequently underwent CT scan chest was done for traumatic effusion showing that ultrasound had a higher sensitivity than CXR, 88.23% and 77.94%, respectively, and a similar specificity of 100% and 100%, respectively. Objective of the study is to compare the diagnostic accuracy of high resolution ultrasound and supine chest x-ray in detection of pleural effusion in road traffic accident patients keeping plain CT chest as gold standard. Methods: This study was conducted in PIMS and PAEC General Hospital, Islamabad from 1st January to 15th December 2015. The current study examined total of 80 trauma (blunt and penetrating) patients coming to emergency departments of both hospitals specifically those who had road traffic accident history. Their portable bed side ultrasound and supine chest radiograph were performed for assessing pleural effusion and subsequently CT scan chest was done for confirmation as it's a gold standard. Results: Using CT findings as gold standard the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value was assessed for both ultrasonography and chest radiography and found to be 88.23%,100%, 100%, 40% and 77.94%, 100%, 100%, 55.55% respectively with diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound 90% as compared to 81.25% for supine chest x-rays when compared with gold standard. Conclusion: Ultrasound and chest x-ray can be used as a useful and suitable adjunct to CT in road traffic accident patients as these are easily available, non-invasive, no contrast required, can be performed on bed side and carries no or little radiation risk. (author)

  15. Fluorosomes: Fluorescent Virus-Like Nanoparticles that Represent a Convenient Tool to Visualize Receptor-Ligand Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Wojta-Stremayr

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are the smallest life forms and parasitize on many eukaryotic organisms, including humans. Consequently, the study of viruses and viral diseases has had an enormous impact on diverse fields of biology and medicine. Due to their often pathogenic properties, viruses have not only had a strong impact on the development of immune cells but also on shaping entire immune mechanisms in their hosts. In order to better characterize virus-specific surface receptors, pathways of virus entry and the mechanisms of virus assembly, diverse methods to visualize virus particles themselves have been developed in the past decades. Apart from characterization of virus-specific mechanisms, fluorescent virus particles also serve as valuable platforms to study receptor-ligand interactions. Along those lines the authors have developed non-infectious virus-like nanoparticles (VNP, which can be decorated with immune receptors of choice and used for probing receptor-ligand interactions, an especially interesting application in the field of basic but also applied immunology research. To be able to better trace receptor-decorated VNP the authors have developed technology to introduce fluorescent proteins into such particles and henceforth termed them fluorosomes (FS. Since VNP are assembled in a simple expression system relying on HEK-293 cells, gene-products of interest can be assembled in a simple and straightforward fashion—one of the reasons why the authors like to call fluorosomes ‘the poor-man’s staining tool’. Within this review article an overview on virus particle assembly, chemical and recombinant methods of virus particle labeling and examples on how FS can be applied as sensors to monitor receptor-ligand interactions on leukocytes are given.

  16. Reactions of carbonyl compounds with α,β-unsaturated nitriles as a convenient pathway to carbo- and heterocycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharanin, Yu A; Goncharenko, M P; Litvinov, Victor P

    1998-01-01

    Published data on the methods for synthesis of carbo- and heterocyclic compounds based on reactions of α,β-unsaturated nitriles with carbonyl compounds and activated phenols are surveyed. It is demonstrated that all these reactions occur via nucleophilic addition of the carbanion generated from a carbonyl compound to the double bond of an unsaturated nitrile (the Michael reaction). The main routes of transformation of the adducts into carbo- and heterocyclic compounds are considered. The methods for regioselective preparation of fused 4H-pyrans or 1,4-dihydropyridines by varying conditions of cyclisation of Michael adducts are discussed. The bibliography includes 249 references.

  17. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence as a convenient tool for determination of trace elements in microscale gasoline and diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Airui; Jin, Axiang; Wang, Hai; Wang, Xiaokang; Zha, Pengfei; Wang, Meiling; Song, Xiaoping; Gao, Sitian

    2018-03-01

    Quantitative determination of trace elements like S, Fe, Cu, Mn and Pb in gasoline and S in diesel is of great importance due to the growing concerns over air pollution, human health and engine failure caused by utilization of gasoline and diesel with these harmful elements. A method of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was developed to measure these harmful trace elements in gasoline and diesel. A variety of factors to affect measurement results, including TXRF parameters, microwave-assisted digestion conditions and internal standard element and its addition, were examined to optimize these experimental procedures. The hydrophobic treatment of the surface of quartz reflectors to support the analyte with neutral silicone solutions could prepare thin films of gasoline and diesel digestion solutions for subsequent TXRF analysis. The proposed method shows good potential and reliability to determine the content of harmful trace elements in gasoline and diesel with high sensitivity and accuracy without drawing different standard calibration curves, and can be easily employed to screen gasoline and diesel in routine quality control and assurance.

  18. Survey of attitudes toward and experiences with animal abuse encounters in a convenience sample of US veterinarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Lori R; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M; Hellyer, Peter W; Rishniw, Mark; Ruch-Gallie, Rebecca A

    2017-03-15

    OBJECTIVE To survey practicing veterinarians regarding their perceptions of and experiences with cases of suspected or confirmed animal abuse and related state laws. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. POPULATION Members of the Veterinary Information Network (VIN; n = 34,144) who were in veterinary practice at the time of the survey. PROCEDURES A survey was designed and distributed online to all VIN members from January 26 to February 28, 2015. Responses were compiled, and binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors that influenced decisions or perceptions regarding animal abuse encounters and related legislation. RESULTS 1,209 completed surveys were received (3.5% response rate); 1,155 (95.5%) surveys were submitted by currently practicing veterinarians. One thousand five (87.0%) practicing veterinarians reported having encountered at least 1 case of animal abuse while in practice; 561 (55.8%) of these veterinarians indicated that they had reported at least 1 case. The most common reasons selected for reporting abuse were to protect the animal, ethical beliefs, and to protect other animals in the household. The most common reasons selected for not reporting the abuse were uncertainty that the animal had been abused, belief that client education would be better, and belief that the injury or illness was accidental versus intentional. Most respondents were unaware of the current status of laws in their state regarding animal abuse reporting. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested a need for state and national veterinary and humane-law enforcement organizations to increase communication and education efforts on recognition and reporting by veterinarians of animal abuse and the related laws.

  19. Gamma-radiation-induced oxidation—a very convenient tool to unravel the mechanisms of polyolefin aging and stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, Jean

    The production of ketones during the oxidative degradation, aging and weathering of polyethylenes is explained by two primary reactions: the well-known termination reaction and a competitive chain reaction which must be introduced in the usual reaction scheme. Experimental conditions are found in which antioxidant (AO) properties of N-oxyl or nitroxyl (>NO .) radicals are observed and can be studied without having to assume that they depend on the unreasonable condition that > NO ., even produced at very low concentration during the natural aging and weathering of polymer materials, would be able to compete with O 2 to scavenge alkyl and other organic free radicals. Therefore, the classical scheme of the AO efficiency of >NO . generated by the oxidation of so-called hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS) is challenged. Also, the usual scheme of the oxidative degradation of 2,4-dimethylpentane is shown to be incorrect. The intramolecular propagation reaction favoured does not involve ter-alkylperoxyl but rather ter-alkoxyl free radicals, while the reverse is found for intermolecular propagation by these species. It will be necessary to take into account these new conclusions in understanding the oxidative degradation of the whole series of polypropylenes.

  20. Inadequate Iodine Intake in Population Groups Defined by Age, Life Stage and Vegetarian Dietary Practice in a Norwegian Convenience Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Johansen, Nina Cathrine; Nyheim, Kristine Aastad; Erlund, Iris; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Henjum, Sigrun

    2018-02-17

    Inadequate iodine intake has been identified in populations considered iodine replete for decades. The objective of the current study is to evaluate urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and the probability of adequate iodine intake in subgroups of the Norwegian population defined by age, life stage and vegetarian dietary practice. In a cross-sectional survey, we assessed the probability of adequate iodine intake by two 24-h food diaries and UIC from two fasting morning spot urine samples in 276 participants. The participants included children ( n = 47), adolescents ( n = 46), adults ( n = 71), the elderly ( n = 23), pregnant women ( n = 45), ovo-lacto vegetarians ( n = 25), and vegans ( n = 19). In all participants combined, the median (95% CI) UIC was 101 (90, 110) µg/L, median (25th, 75th percentile) calculated iodine intake was 112 (77, 175) µg/day and median (25th, 75th percentile) estimated usual iodine intake was 101 (75, 150) µg/day. According to WHOs criteria for evaluation of median UIC, iodine intake was inadequate in the elderly, pregnant women, vegans and non-pregnant women of childbearing age. Children had the highest (82%) and vegans the lowest (14%) probability of adequate iodine intake according to reported food and supplement intakes. This study confirms the need for monitoring iodine intake and status in nationally representative study samples in Norway.

  1. Inadequate Iodine Intake in Population Groups Defined by Age, Life Stage and Vegetarian Dietary Practice in a Norwegian Convenience Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Lise Brantsæter

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate iodine intake has been identified in populations considered iodine replete for decades. The objective of the current study is to evaluate urinary iodine concentration (UIC and the probability of adequate iodine intake in subgroups of the Norwegian population defined by age, life stage and vegetarian dietary practice. In a cross-sectional survey, we assessed the probability of adequate iodine intake by two 24-h food diaries and UIC from two fasting morning spot urine samples in 276 participants. The participants included children (n = 47, adolescents (n = 46, adults (n = 71, the elderly (n = 23, pregnant women (n = 45, ovo-lacto vegetarians (n = 25, and vegans (n = 19. In all participants combined, the median (95% CI UIC was 101 (90, 110 µg/L, median (25th, 75th percentile calculated iodine intake was 112 (77, 175 µg/day and median (25th, 75th percentile estimated usual iodine intake was 101 (75, 150 µg/day. According to WHOs criteria for evaluation of median UIC, iodine intake was inadequate in the elderly, pregnant women, vegans and non-pregnant women of childbearing age. Children had the highest (82% and vegans the lowest (14% probability of adequate iodine intake according to reported food and supplement intakes. This study confirms the need for monitoring iodine intake and status in nationally representative study samples in Norway.

  2. Hydrogen storage by functionalised Poly(ether ether ketone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedicini, R.; Giacoppo, G.; Carbone, A.; Passalacqua, E. [CNR-ITAE, Messina (Italy). Inst. for Advanced Energy Technologies

    2010-07-01

    In this work a functionalised polymer was studied as potential material for hydrogen storage in solid state. A Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) matrix was modified by a manganese oxide in situ formation. Here we report the functionalisation process and the preliminary results on hydrogen storage capability of the synthesised polymer. The polymer was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Gravimetric Hydrogen Adsorption measurements. In the functionalised PEEK, morphological changes occur as a function of oxide precursor concentration and reaction time. Promising results by gravimetric measurements were obtained with a hydrogen sorption of 0.24%wt/wt at 50 C and 60 bar, moreover, reversibility hydrogen adsorption and desorption in a wide range of both temperature and pressure was confirmed. (orig.)

  3. Friedel–Crafts Crosslinked Highly Sulfonated Polyether Ether Ketone (SPEEK Membranes for a Vanadium/Air Redox Flow Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Merle

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Highly conductive and low vanadium permeable crosslinked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone (cSPEEK membranes were prepared by electrophilic aromatic substitution for a Vanadium/Air Redox Flow Battery (Vanadium/Air-RFB application. Membranes were synthesized from ethanol solution and crosslinked under different temperatures with 1,4-benzenedimethanol and ZnCl2 via the Friedel–Crafts crosslinking route. The crosslinking mechanism under different temperatures indicated two crosslinking pathways: (a crosslinking on the sulfonic acid groups; and (b crosslinking on the backbone. It was observed that membranes crosslinked at a temperature of 150 °C lead to low proton conductive membranes, whereas an increase in crosslinking temperature and time would lead to high proton conductive membranes. High temperature crosslinking also resulted in an increase in anisotropy and water diffusion. Furthermore, the membranes were investigated for a Vanadium/Air Redox Flow Battery application. Membranes crosslinked at 200 °C for 30 min with a molar ratio between 2:1 (mol repeat unit:mol benzenedimethanol showed a proton conductivity of 27.9 mS/cm and a 100 times lower VO2+ crossover compared to Nafion.

  4. A 28-day oral dose toxicity study enhanced to detect endocrine effects of a purified technical pentabromodiphenyl ether (pentaBDE) mixture in Wistar rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ven, L.T.M.; van de Kuil, T.; Verhoef, A.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Slob, W.; Canton, R.F.; Germer, S.; Hamers, T.; Visser, T.J.; Litens, S.; Hakansson, H.; Fery, Y.; Schrenk, D.; van den Berg, M.; Piersma, A.H.; Vos, J.G.

    2008-01-01

    A 28-day subacute oral toxicity study was performed in Wistar rats with a purified preparation of the commercial pentabromodiphenyl ether (pentaBDE), DE-71. The applied OECD407 protocol was enhanced for endocrine and immune parameters, and to enable benchmark dose analysis. A vehicle control group

  5. Effects of a diphenyl-ether herbicide, oxyfluorfen, on human BFU-E/CFU-E development and haemoglobin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, B; Parent-Massin, D; Lautraite, S; Hoellinger, H

    1997-02-01

    The diphenyl-ether herbicides exert their phytotoxic activity by preventing chlorophyll formation in plants as a result of inhibition of protoporphyrinogen oxidase. This enzyme is the last step of the common pathway for chlorophyll and haem biosynthesis. The aim of this work is to determine whether herbicide inhibitors of plant protoporphyrinogen oxidase could act on the human protoporphyrinogen oxidase involved in haemoglobin synthesis and cause heamatologic diseases. Human erythroblastic progenitors (BFU-E/CFU-E: Burst Forming Unit-Erythroid and Colony Forming Unit-Erythroid) were exposed to oxyfluorfen, a diphenyl-ether herbicide in the presence of erythropoietin, and the haematoxicity evaluated in vitro by scoring the development of BFU-E/CFU-E colonies after 7 and 14 days of culture. The toxic effect on differentiation has been evaluated using four criteria: morphology, total protein, total porphyrin, and haemoglobin content. The study of BFU-E/CFU-E proliferation and differentiation showed a cytotoxic effect of oxyfluorfen only at very high concentrations. In contrast, haemoglobin synthesis can be inhibited by concentration of oxyfluorfen (10(-4) M) that have no adverse effect on cellular proliferation.

  6. Experimental studies on toxicity of ethylene glycol alkyl ethers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, K; Nakayama, E; Oobayashi, H; Nishizawa, T; Okuda, H; Yamazaki, K

    1984-08-01

    Past studies on the toxicological effects of ethylene glycol alkyl ethers as well as the recent data on these chemicals in Japan are reviewed. Only a few researchers have participated in the study of ethylene glycol alkyl ethers in Japan. The effects of ethylene glycol alkyl ethers on testis and embryotoxic effects of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGM) have been studied, as has the teratogenicity of ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (EGdM). Studies on ethylene glycol alkyl ethers and related compounds administered to mice by oral gavage revealed the occurrence of testicular atrophy and decreased white blood cell count by EGM, EGdM, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate, ethylene glycol monoethyl ether and ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate, and the toxicity was related to their chemical structure. On the other hand, ethylene glycol, ethylene glycol monopropyl ether, ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, ethylene glycol monophenyl ether, ethylene glycol monoacetate or ethylene glycol diacetate showed no such an effect. Studies on EGM using hamsters or guinea pigs revealed the occurrence of testicular atrophy similar to that observed in mice. In regard to the methyl ethers of other glycols, there is no convincing evidence that propylene glycol monomethyl ether, diethylene glycol monomethyl ether or diethylene glycol dimethyl ether causes testicular atrophy in mice. Teratological studies of EGM and EGdM revealed embryotoxic effects in mice.

  7. Removal of technetium from alkaline nuclear-waste media by a solvent-extraction process using crown ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnesen, P.V.; Presley, D.J.; Haverlock, T.J.; Moyer, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    Crown ethers dissolved in suitably modified aliphatic kerosene diluents can be employed to extract technetium as pertechnetate anion (TcO 4 - ) with good extraction ratios from realistic simulants of radioactive alkaline nitrate waste. The modifiers utilized are non-halogenated and non-volatile, and the technetium can be removed from the solvent by stripping using water. The crown ethers bis-4,4'(5')[(tert-butyl)cyclohexano]-18-crown-6 (di-t-BuCH18C6) and dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6) provide stronger TcO 4 - extraction than dicyclohexano-21-crown-7 and 4-tert-butylcyclohexano 15-crown-5. Whereas DCH18C6 provides somewhat higher TcO 4 - extraction ratios than the more lipophilic di-t-BuCH18C6 derivative, the latter was selected for further study owing to its lower distribution to the aqueous phase. Particularly good extraction and stripping results were obtained with di-t-BuCH 18C6 at 0.02 M in a 2:1 vol/vol blend of tributyl phosphate and Isopar reg-sign M. Using this solvent, 98.9% of the technetium contained (at 6 x 10 -5 M) in a Double-Shell Slurry Feed (DSSF) Hanford tank waste simulant was removed following two cross-current extraction contacts. Two cross-current stripping contacts with deionized water afforded removal of 99.1% of the technetium from the organic solvent

  8. Activity relationships for aromatic crown ethers

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, M J

    1998-01-01

    This thesis involves an investigation of aromatic crown ethers and a study of their binding constants for alkali metals. The study was motivated by the current needs of the semiconductor industry to improve the scavenging of mobile ions from fabricated circuits. A number of aromatic crown ethers have been sulphonated in an attempt to improve their water solubility and cation binding activity. These materials have been extensively studied and their binding activity determined. In collaboration with a molecular modelling study, the effect of ionisable sulphonate groups on the macrocycles' behaviour has been investigated. The broader issue of the effect of substituents in aromatic crown ethers has also been studied with the preparation of a wide range of substituted crown ethers. The cation binding activity of these materials has been found to bear a simple relationship to the electron withdrawing nature of the aromatic substituents. This relationship can be accurately monitored using electronic charge densities...

  9. Influence of Macrocyclic Ring Size on the Corrosion Inhibition Efficiency of Dibenzo Crown Ether: A Density Functional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saprizal Hadisaputra

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of macrocycle ring size on the corrosion inhibition efficiency of dibenzo-12-crown-4 (DB12C4, dibenzo-15-crown-5 (DB15C5, dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6, dibenzo-21-crown-7 (DB21C7 and dibenzo-24-crown-8 (DB24C8 have been elucidated by mean of density functional calculation at B3LYP/6-31G(d level of theory in the gas and aqueous environment. The quantum chemical parameters including the frontier orbital energies (EHOMO, ELUMO, ionization potential (I, electron affinity (A, the absolute electronegativity (χ, hardness (η, softness (σ, and the fraction of electron transferred (ΔN are positively correlated to the corrosion inhibition efficiency (IE% of the studied crown ethers. The calculation results indicate that DB24C8 exhibits the highest corrosion inhibition efficiency, whereas DB12C4 exhibits the lowest corrosion inhibition efficiency. The results of this study will contribute to design crown ethers potential as corrosion inhibitors.

  10. Characterization of a poly(ether urethane)-based controlled release membrane system for delivery of ketoprofen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macocinschi, Doina; Filip, Daniela; Vlad, Stelian; Oprea, Ana Maria; Gafitanu, Carmen Anatolia

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ketoprofen incorporation in poly(ether urethane) microporous membrane. ► Moisture sorption properties of as-cast membrane. ► Drug release mechanisms in function of pH and composition of membranes. - Abstract: A poly(ether urethane) based on polytetrahydrofuran containing hydroxypropyl cellulose for biomedical applications was tested for its biocompatibility. Ketoprofen was incorporated (3% and 6%) in the polyurethane matrix as an anti-inflammatory drug. Kinetic and drug release mechanisms were studied. The pore size and pore size distribution of the polyurethane membranes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Surface tension characteristics as well as moisture sorption properties such as diffusion coefficients and equilibrium moisture contents of the membrane material were studied. It was found that kinetics and release mechanisms are in function of medium pH, composition of polymer–drug system, pore morphology and pore size distribution. Prolonged nature of release of ketoprofen is assured by low amount of drug in polyurethane membrane and physiological pH.

  11. Poly (ether ether ketone) membranes for fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero, Jacqueline C.; Gomes, Ailton de S.; Filho, Jose C.D.; Hui, Wang S.; Oliveira, Vivianna S. de

    2015-01-01

    Polymeric membranes were developed using a SPEEK polymer matrix (sulphonated poly (ether ether ketone)), containing hygroscopic particles of zirconia (Zr) (incorporated by sol-gel method), for use as electrolyte membranes in fuel cells. SPEEK with different sulfonation degrees were used: 63 and 86%. The thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) was carried out to characterize the membranes and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was carried out to evaluating the proton conductivity of the membranes. Additional analysis were underway in order to characterize these membranes, which include: X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in order to evaluate the influence of zirconia and sulfonation degree on the properties of the membranes. (author)

  12. Electrochemical investigation of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)/clay nanocomposite membranes for moderate temperature fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasani-Sadrabadi, Mohammad Mahdi [Polymer Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Biomedical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Dashtimoghadam, Erfan; Sarikhani, Kaveh [Polymer Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Majedi, Fatemeh S. [Biomedical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Khanbabaei, Ghader [Polymer Science and Technology Division, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-05-01

    In the present study, polyelectrolyte membranes based on partially sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK) with various degrees of sulfonation are prepared. The optimum degree of sulfonation is determined according to the transport properties and hydrolytic stability of the membranes. Subsequently, various amounts of the organically modified montmorillonite (MMT) are introduced into the sPEEK matrices via the solution intercalation technique. The proton conductivity and methanol permeability measurements of the fabricated composite membranes reveal a high proton to methanol selectivity, even at elevated temperatures. Membrane based on sPEEK and 1 wt% of MMT, as the optimum nanoclay composition, exhibits a high selectivity and power density at the concentrated methanol feed. Moreover, it is found that the optimum nanocomposite membrane not only provides higher performance compared to the neat sPEEK and Nafion {sup registered} 117 membranes, but also exhibits a high open circuit voltage (OCV) at the elevated methanol concentration. Owing to the high proton conductivity, reduced methanol permeability, high power density, convenient processability and low cost, sPEEK/MMT nanocomposite membranes could be considered as the alternative membranes for moderate temperature direct methanol fuel cell applications. (author)

  13. Palladium-Catalyzed Reductive Insertion of Alcohols into Aryl Ether Bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Meng [Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Gutiérrez, Oliver Y. [Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Camaioni, Donald M. [Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Lercher, Johannes A. [Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Department of Chemistry and Catalysis Research Institute, TU München, Lichtenbergstrasse 4 85748 Garching Germany

    2018-03-06

    Pd/C catalyzes C-O bond cleavage of aryl ethers (diphenyl ether and cyclohexyl phenyl ether) by methanol in H2. The aromatic C-O bond is cleaved by reductive methanolysis, which is initiated by Pd-catalyzed partial hydrogenation of one phenyl ring to form an enol ether. The enol ether reacts rapidly with methanol to form a ketal, which generates methoxycyclohexene by eliminating phenol or an alkanol. Subsequent hydrogenation leads to methoxycyclohexane.

  14. Maxwell's ether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theocharis, T.

    1983-03-12

    A new interpretation of Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light is proposed, namely that the ambient Coulomb field is the medium (Maxwell's ether) of the electromagnetic radiation fields (Maxwellian waves). This investigation implies an incompleteness of the experimental foundations of the principle of special relativity, and suggests how this principle could be tested more fully. The beginning of an attempt to shape this re-interpretation in the form of an alternative theory is outlined.

  15. Upgrading versus reforming: an energy and exergy analysis of two Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-based systems for a convenient biogas-to-electricity conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldinelli, A.; Barelli, L.; Bidini, G.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Biogas-to-electricity conversion through Solid Oxide Fuel Cell is investigated. • Two solutions are compared for biogas-to-electricity conversion. • Direct feeding by partially upgraded biogas meets with fuel cell long operation. • Best energy and exergy performances are obtained with an innovative system-design. • A sensitivity analysis on the process parameters determines its convenience margin. - Abstract: Aiming at designing biogas-to-electricity advanced systems, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells are promising candidates. They benefit from scalability on plant sizes that suit anaerobic digesters potentialities. For biogas-Solid Oxide Fuel Cells applications, the implementation of an external pre-reformer is usually considered. However, the possibility to perform direct fuel feeding to the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell offers new opportunities towards the realization of lean systems, which are competitive especially on small-scale installations (i.e. on-farm biogas-to-electricity conversion). In this frame, scientific literature is rather poor and, to cover this gap, system simulations are called for two reasons: first, to demonstrate the potential efficiency gain of new concepts; second, to provide a meaningful support for long-term experimental investigation on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells operated upon direct feeding of unreformed biogas. For that, the current study compares two system designs for biogas utilization into Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. The conventional one realizes biogas steam reforming prior the fuel cell, while the novel concept is based on direct feeding of partially upgraded biogas by means of carbon dioxide-separation membranes. As main outcome of the study, the system equipped with carbon dioxide-separation membranes achieves better performances than its conventional competitor does, scoring 51.1% energy efficiency and 52.3% exergy efficiency (compared to 37.2% and 38.6% respectively exhibited by the reformer-based system). Because of the lack

  16. Personal values, marketing attitudes and nutrition trust are associated with patronage of convenience food outlets in the Asia-Pacific region: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, Breanna; Worsley, Anthony; Wang, Wei Chun; Sarmugam, Rani; Pham, Quynh; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Ridley, Stacey

    2017-02-16

    An online cross-sectional survey examined the relationships between the demographic characteristics, personal values, trust in sources of nutrition information and the use of convenience food outlets among middle-class household food providers in the Asia-Pacific region. The survey was administered to 3945 household food providers in Melbourne, Singapore, Shanghai, Vietnam and Indonesia in late 2013. Information about demographics, personal values, trust in sources of nutrition information and use of convenience food outlets was elicited. Exploratory factor analysis, two-step clustering and logistic regression were employed. The analyses found that the use of convenience food outlets was positively related to hedonist values and trust in food industry sources of nutrition information. However, lesser use of convenience food outlets and trust in health sources of nutrition information was associated with traditional (community-oriented) values. Further replication and extension of these findings would be useful. However, they suggest that improvements in the quality of foods sold in convenience food outlets combined with stronger regulation of food marketing and long-term food education are required.

  17. Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Butadienylcalcium-based Heavy Grignard Reagents and a Ca4[O] Inverse Crown Ether Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Baosheng; Liu, Liang; Zhang, Wen-Xiong; Xi, Zhenfeng

    2017-07-24

    The structure elucidation of heavy Grignard reagents (RAeX, Ae=Ca, Sr, and Ba, X=halides) has been greatly strived after, mainly because of their inaccessibility and remarkable instability. The synthesis of a series of butadienylcalcium compounds is presented, including 1-calcio-4-lithio-1,3-butadiene, 1,4-dicalcio-1,3-butadiene, and a Ca 4 [O] inverse crown ether complex, via the reaction between 1,4-dilithio-1,3-butadienes and calcium iodide in THF. Single-crystal X-ray analysis of these unprecedented heavy Grignard reagents revealed unique structural characteristics and bonding modes. Preliminary reaction chemistry was investigated. This study provides a novel class of alkenyl heavy Grignard reagents and a useful synthetic strategy for otherwise unavailable reactive organometallic compounds. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Unusual ``Twisting'' Morphology in Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co 3-hydroxyhexanoate) and Poly(bisphenol A hexane ether) Spherulites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jerold

    2013-03-01

    Polarized light images of poly(3- hydroxybutyrate-co 3-hydroxyhexanoate) spherulites grown from the melt exhibit the standard evidence of periodic twisting of lamellae. AFM images of lamellae growing from the melt, on the other hand, reveal a sudden change in orientation and a trowel-like morphology. Similarly, AFM images of poly(bisphenol A hexane ether) (BA-C6) lamellae growing from the melt show a sudden orthogonal change of orientation. It is suggested that chain extension in the melt near the propagating front forces the observed reorientation, possibly through creation of crystals with an orientation approximately orthogonal to that of the original crystals. A rudimentary model for this behavior is proposed.

  19. Effects of Surface Treatments of Montmorillonite Nanoclay on Cure Behavior of Diglycidyl Ether of Bisphenol A Epoxy Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tcherbi-Narteh, A.; Hosur, M.V.; Triggs, E.; Jelaani, S.

    2013-01-01

    Diglycidyl ether of Bisphenol A (DGEBA) based SC-15 epoxy resin was modified with three different commercially available montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclay: Nanomer I.28E and Cloisite 10A and 30B. Cure behavior of nanocomposites was studied using a variety of techniques. Primary focus of this study was to investigate influence of different surface modifications of MMT nanoclay on rheological properties and cure behavior of SC-15 epoxy resin. By adding MMT to SC-15 epoxy resin, chemistry of the epoxy is altered leading to changes in rheological properties and ultimately enthalpy and activation energy of reactions. Addition of Nanomer I.28E delayed gelation, while Cloisite 10A and 30B accelerated gelation, regardless of the curing temperature. Activation energy of reaction was lower with the addition of Nanomer I.28E and Cloisite 10A and higher for Cloisite 30B compared to neat SC-15 epoxy composite.

  20. A suspending-droplet mode paper-based microfluidic platform for low-cost, rapid, and convenient detection of lead(II) ions in liquid solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Han; Li, Wanbo; Dong, Zhen-Zhen; Hu, Chong; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung; Ren, Kangning

    2018-01-15

    A paper-based microfluidic device based on unconventional principle was developed and used to detect lead ions through a two-step process including heated incubation and subsequent mixing. The device was made by generating a superhydrophobic pattern, which defines channel and reservoir barriers, on a water-impermeable paper substrate, followed by loading and drying the reagents in the defined reservoirs. Different from the conventional paper-based devices that are made of water-permeable paper, the as-prepared device holds water drops in discrete reservoirs, and the water drops will not move unless the device is titled along the direction of the predefined channels. In this way, the liquid samples applied onto the device are handled as individual drops and could be stored, transported, and mixed on demand. Different from the conventional paper-based devices that use capillary force to drive liquid, our new device uses wetting and gravity as driving force. We name this operation principle suspending-droplet mode paper-based device (SD-μPAD). The use of a Teflon contact-printing stamp makes the production of such devices rapid, cost efficient, and mass productive. Utilizing a G-quadruplex-based luminescence switch-on assay, we demonstrated rapid, convenient, highly sensitive, and low cost detection of lead(II) ions in water samples, using a custom made battery-powered portable device, and a smart phone as the detector. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. 21 CFR Appendix A to Part 74 - The Procedure for Determining Ether Soluble Material in D&C Red Nos. 6 and 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The Procedure for Determining Ether Soluble Material in D&C Red Nos. 6 and 7 A Appendix A to Part 74 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...) NaOH. Appropriately label a 100 mL beaker. After the layers separate, drain the aqueous alkaline...

  2. Usage of the word 'ether'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    Confusion has been caused by scientists using the one word 'ether' to classify models differing from each other in important respects. Major roles assigned to the word are examined, and the nature of modern ether theories surveyed. The part played by the several meanings attached to the word, in the ether concept, is outlined. (author)

  3. A new pH/organic modifier gradient RP HPLC method for convenient determination of lipophilicity and acidity of drugs as applied to established imidazoline agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiczling, Paweł; Nasal, Antoni; Kubik, Łukasz; Kaliszan, Roman

    2012-08-30

    Convenient drug candidates testing methods for lipophilicity and acidity are highly requested in modern pharmaceutical research and development strategy. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP HPLC) might be particularly useful for the determination of both pK(a) and the apparent (pH-dependent) octanol-water partition coefficient, applicable in high-throughput analysis of multi-component mixtures. In this report the pH/organic modifier gradient RP HPLC is presented as a means of simultaneous determination of acidity and lipophilicity of a series of 26 imidazoline-like drugs. The previously theoretically elaborated approach has been applied consisting in retention measurements in a series of methanol gradient runs differing in pH range and duration of the gradient. The simultaneously determined lipophilicity and dissociation constants have been demonstrated to correlate to the respective parameters form calculation chemistry. The proposed approach can be applied to compound mixtures, it requires only minute amounts of substances, and pK(a) values can be determined in the range 3-10 units and lipophilicity log P parameter in the range 0-7 units. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Just how convenient is convenience? An empirical study of the associations between perceived convenience, meal preparation activities and ready meals' characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Ana I.A.; Ruijschop, R. M. A. J.

    2006-01-01

    Parallel to considerations about settings, selection of the appropriate level of time, effort and care to be put into meal preparation is an important determinant of food choice. Nevertheless, significant relations between the time/energy consumers are willing to devote to food preparation...... and the types of meals they eat are surprisingly hard to find. One explanation for this could be that perceived convenience finds little support on the technological attributes of products like ready meals. This study's aim was to uncover significant relations between perceived convenience, meal preparation...... activities and technological attributes of frozen pizzas. Ninety-eight Dutch meal preparers, 18-29 years old, were asked to rate expected convenience attributes of frozen pizzas; (2) prepare and consume these pizzas in a home-like setting; (3) rate experienced convenience after consumption. Pizzas were also...

  5. A convenient approach to 10-12 g/ g ICP-MS limits for Th and U in aurubis electrolytic NA-ESN brand copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Douglas S.

    2014-06-01

    Inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectroscopy is a powerful technique for measuring trace levels of radioactive contaminants, specifically Th and U, in materials for use in construction of low-background rare-event detectors such as double beta decay and dark matter detectors. I describe here a technique for measuring Th and U contamination in copper by using direct acid digestion and dilution without further chemical processing, achieving results comparable to those achieved in previous work [1, 2] which utilized more complex chemical pre-concentration techniques. A convenient research-oriented analysis environment is described as well. Results are presented for measurements of three samples from the production line of electrolytically-purified, LME (London Metal Exchange) grade A, NA-ESN Aurubis copper. Purified samples showed levels consistent with zero contamination for both elements, while weak, but inconclusive, indications of contamination were present for the unpurified anode copper. The best limits achieved are near 1•10-12 g/ g (95% CL) for both Th and U measured for copper from the cathode of the purification process.

  6. Health risk estimates for groundwater and soil contamination in the Slovak Republic: a convenient tool for identification and mapping of risk areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajčíková, K; Cvečková, V; Stewart, A; Rapant, S

    2014-10-01

    We undertook a quantitative estimation of health risks to residents living in the Slovak Republic and exposed to contaminated groundwater (ingestion by adult population) and/or soils (ingestion by adult and child population). Potential risk areas were mapped to give a visual presentation at basic administrative units of the country (municipalities, districts, regions) for easy discussion with policy and decision-makers. The health risk estimates were calculated by US EPA methods, applying threshold values for chronic risk and non-threshold values for cancer risk. The potential health risk was evaluated for As, Ba, Cd, Cu, F, Hg, Mn, NO3 (-), Pb, Sb, Se and Zn for groundwater and As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Cu, F, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se and Zn for soils. An increased health risk was identified mainly in historical mining areas highly contaminated by geogenic-anthropogenic sources (ore deposit occurrence, mining, metallurgy). Arsenic and antimony were the most significant elements in relation to health risks from groundwater and soil contamination in the Slovak Republic contributing a significant part of total chronic risk levels. Health risk estimation for soil contamination has highlighted the significance of exposure through soil ingestion in children. Increased cancer risks from groundwater and soil contamination by arsenic were noted in several municipalities and districts throughout the country in areas with significantly high arsenic levels in the environment. This approach to health risk estimations and visualization represents a fast, clear and convenient tool for delineation of risk areas at national and local levels.

  7. A comparative study of biodiesel production using methanol, ethanol, and tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE) under supercritical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farobie, Obie; Matsumura, Yukihiko

    2015-09-01

    In this study, biodiesel production under supercritical conditions among methanol, ethanol, and tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE) was compared in order to elucidate the differences in their reaction behavior. A continuous reactor was employed, and experiments were conducted at various reaction temperatures (270-400 °C) and reaction times (3-30 min) and at a fixed pressure of 20 MPa and an oil-to-reactant molar ratio of 1:40. The results showed that under the same reaction conditions, the supercritical methanol method provided the highest yield of biodiesel. At 350 °C and 20 MPa, canola oil was completely converted to biodiesel after 10, 30, and 30 min in the case of - supercritical methanol, ethanol, and MTBE, respectively. The reaction kinetics of biodiesel production was also compared for supercritical methanol, ethanol, and MTBE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antiproliferative constituents from umbelliferae plants. V. A new furanocoumarin and falcarindiol furanocoumarin ethers from the root of Angelica japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, T; Furumi, K; Fujii, H; Okabe, H; Mihashi, K; Nakano, Y; Matsunaga, H; Katano, M; Mori, M

    1999-01-01

    The CHCl3 extract of the root of Angelica japonica showed high inhibitory activity against human gastric adenocarcinoma (MK-1) cell growth. From this extract, a new furanocoumarin named japoangelone and four furanocoumarin ethers of falcarindiol, named japoangelols A-D, were isolated together with caffeic acid methyl ester, four polyacetylenic compounds (panaxynol, falcarindiol, 8-O-acetylfalcarindiol, and (9Z)-1,9-heptadecadiene-4,6-diyne-3,8,11-triol), eight coumarins (osthol, isoimperatorin, scopoletin, byakangelicin, xanthotoxin, bergapten, oxypeucedanin methanolate, and oxypeucedanin hydrate), and two chromones (3'-O-acetylhamaudol, and hamaudol). The structures of the new isolates were determined based on spectral evidence. The ED50 of isolates against MK-1, HeLa, and B16F10 cell lines are reported.

  9. The impact of polybrominated diphenyl ether prohibition: A case study on the atmospheric levels in China, Japan and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qilu; Li, Jun; Chaemfa, Chakra; Zhang, Gan; Kobara, Yuso; Nam, Jae-Jak; Jones, Kevin C.

    2014-06-01

    The atmosphere is an important medium which could directly reflect the changes of pollutant sources. Worldwide, the commercial products of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been officially restricted and subsequently prohibited. For the purpose of evaluating their concentration after prohibition, passive air samplers (PASs) were therefore deployed again across the East Asia during two periods in 2008 after the initial deployment 4 years ago. When compared with the data in 2004, the atmospheric concentrations of PBDEs have declined significantly. Spatially, the PBDE level in China was still the highest, with a mean value of 15.4 pg m- 3, and in Japan was the lowest (2.47 ± 1.12 pg m- 3) in the East Asia. Moreover, the relatively high concentrations were observed at sites where there are electronic or e-waste recycling industries, and this is particularly true in China, suggesting that illegally imported e-waste is still a typical source of PBDEs in this region.

  10. Skin absorption in vitro of glycol ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larese Filon, F; Fiorito, A; Adami, G; Barbieri, P; Coceani, N; Bussani, R; Reisenhofer, E

    1999-10-01

    The increased use of glycol ethers (GEs) for water-based paints and cleaning products, combined with a lack of information about many of these products, particularly with regard to the effects of percutaneous exposure, led us to evaluate the skin absorption rates of a group of glycol ethers in vitro. Skin permeation was calculated using the Franz cell method with human skin. A physiological solution was used as the receiving phase. The amount of solvent passing through the skin was analysed with a gas chromatographic technique employing flame ionization detection. A permeation profile was obtained and steady state, lag time and permeation constant flux was calculated for each of the following solvents: ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGMEE), propylene glycol mono-methyl ether (PGMME); propylene glycol mono-methyl ether acetate (PGMMEac); 2-propylene glycol 1-butyl ether (2PG1BE), ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (EGDME), ethylene glycol diethyl ether (EGDEE) and diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (DEGDME). All solvents were tested in their pure form and with 70% acetone. For all solvents tested the lag time was less than 2 h, and for the majority of them was about 60 min. Flux at steady state ranged between 0.017 +/- 0.005 and 3.435 +/- 1.897 mg/cm(2)/h and permeation rate was from 0.0192 to 1.02 x 10(-3) cm/h. The presence of acetone in the solution caused a reduction in lag time and an increase in permeation rate, higher for EGMEE, lower for EGDEE, indicating the enhancing effect of this mixture of solvents. Our results confirm the high percutaneous absorption of the GEs tested. The Franz method might be helpful for obtaining a grading of skin notation for hydrophilic substances: in the case of glycol ethers, it can give us precise information about permeation risk, particularly important in the evaluation of exposure. In the case of solvents with high dermal absorption, the air concentration is no longer a sufficient measure of the total exposure to workers, and

  11. Sourdough products for convenient use in baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Markus J

    2007-04-01

    Sourdough fermentations require a specific knowledge on the effects of process parameters, raw materials and micro-organisms in order to obtain a specific, reproducible sourdough and bread quality. This knowledge is not necessarily available in bakeries. Sourdough starter cultures, either active sourdoughs (Reinzuchtsauerteig) or freeze-dried micro-organisms are used to start sourdough fermentation with the required micro-flora. As sourdough fermentation is a labour-intensive and a time-consuming process, a growing demand for convenient products arised early. First organic acids (lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid) and mixtures thereof came in use. These agents were used directly without or in combination with a sourdough; however, flavour and taste of the resulting breads were unsatisfactory. Based on modified and optimized traditional sourdough processes, dried, pasty and liquid sourdoughs were developed. Companies which produce such ready-to-use products, claim for a convenient, direct production of baked goods in constant quality, in combination with all advantages of a biological sourdough fermentation, e.g. flavour and taste, fresh keeping and prolonged microbial shelf-life. Currently, a broad variety of sourdough products with different fermented cereals is available on the market. In order to obtain a stable product, it is a necessity to inactivate the sourdough micro-biota by e.g. pasteurization, drying or autosterilization.

  12. Effects of Different Montmorillonite Nanoclay Loading on Cure Behavior and Properties of Diglycidyl Ether of Bisphenol A Epoxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Tcherbi-Narteh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary focus of this study was to understand the effects of different amounts of montmorillonite nanoclay (MMT loading on viscosity, cure behavior, reaction mechanism, and properties of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA epoxy composites. Influence of 1–3 wt.% MMT on rheological and subsequent cure behavior of SC-15 epoxy resin was studied using nonisothermal and isothermal rheometry and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Rheological properties were influenced by different amounts of MMT at lower shear rates prior to and during curing. Cure reaction mechanism was unaffected by different MMT concentration; however heat and activation energy of reactions increased with increasing MMT loading. Samples with 2 wt.% MMT showed highest reaction rate constant, indicative of catalytic behavior. X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscope (TEM revealed mainly intercalated microstructure throughout the MMT infused epoxy composite samples irrespective of the percent loading.

  13. Ion Selectivity of Crown Ethers Investigated by UV and IR Spectroscop;y in a Cold Ion Trap

    OpenAIRE

    Inokuchi Y.; Boyarkin O. V.; Kusaka R.; Haino T.; Ebata T.; Rizzo T. R.

    2012-01-01

    Electronic and vibrational spectra of benzo-15-crown-5 (B15C5) and benzo-18-crown-6 (B18C6) complexes with alkali metal ions, M+・B15C5 and M+・B18C6 (M = Li, Na, K, Rb and Cs), are measured using UV photodissociation (UVPD) and IR-UV double resonance spectroscopy in a cold, 22-pole ion trap. We determine the structure of conformers with the aid of density functional theory calculations. In the Na+・B15C5 and K+・B18C6 complexes, the crown ethers open the most and hold the metal ions at the cente...

  14. Tris(8-methoxy-2-quinolylmethyl)amine (8-MeOTQA) as a highly fluorescent Zn(2+) probe prepared by convenient C3-symmetric tripodal amine synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikata, Yuji; Nodomi, Yuki; Ohnishi, Risa; Kizu, Asako; Konno, Hideo

    2015-05-07

    A convenient synthesis of C3-symmetric tribenzylamine (TBA) derivatives has been investigated. The reaction of benzyl chlorides with acetaldehyde ammonia trimer () in the presence of base afforded tribenzylamines in high yields. This efficient method allows the diverse synthesis of TPA (tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine) and TQA (tris(2-quinolylmethyl)amine) derivatives. Among the TQA compounds prepared, tris(8-methoxy-2-quinolylmethyl)amine (8-MeOTQA, ) exhibited superior properties as a fluorescent zinc probe with high quantum yield (ϕZn = 0.51) and high sensitivity (limit of detection (LOD) = 3.4 nM). The X-ray crystallographic analysis of [Zn(8-MeOTQA)](2+) revealed that the steric and electronic effect of 8-methoxy substituents kicks out the solvent and counterion molecules from the metal coordination sphere, resulting in short Zn-Nquinoline coordination distances (2.04-2.07 Å). The pseudo hexacoordinate complex of 6-methoxy derivative, [Zn(6-MeOTQA)(DMF)(ClO4)](+), exhibited longer Zn-Nquinoline distances (2.07-2.19 Å) and much smaller fluorescence intensity (ϕZn = 0.027). The replacement of one of the three 8-methoxyquinolines with pyridine also afforded much less fluorescent zinc complex (ϕZn = 0.095) due to the solvent coordination (Zn-Nquinoline = 2.05-2.18 Å for [Zn(8-MeOBQPA)(CH3OH)](2+)).

  15. The chemotherapeutic potential of glycol alkyl ethers: structure-activity studies of nine compounds in a Fischer-rat leukemia transplant model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, M P; Jameson, C W; Maronpot, R R; Langenbach, R; Braun, A G

    1990-01-01

    Structure-activity studies with nine glycol alkyl ethers were conducted with a cellular leukemia transplant model in male Fischer rats. This in vivo assay measures the effects of chemical treatment on neoplastic progression in transplant recipients. Chemicals were given ad libitum in the drinking water simultaneously with the transplants and continued throughout the study. In all, 20 million leukemic cells were injected s.c. into syngeneic rats, which after 60 days resulted in a 10-fold increase in relative spleen weights, a 100-fold increase in white blood cell counts, and a 50% reduction in red blood cell (RBC) indices and platelet counts. At this interval, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (2-ME) given at a dose of 2.5 mg/ml in the drinking water completely eliminated all clinical, morphological, and histopathological evidence of leukemia, whereas the same dose of ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (2-EE) reduced these responses by about 50%. Seven of the glycol ethers were ineffective as anti-leukemic agents, including ethylene glycol, the monopropyl, monobutyl, and monophenyl ethylene glycol ethers, diethylene glycol, and the monomethyl and monoethyl diethylene glycol ethers. 2-ME more than doubled the latency period of leukemia expression and extended survival for at least 210 days. A minimal effective dose for a 50% reduction in the leukemic responses was 0.25 mg/ml 2-ME in the drinking water (15 mg/kg body weight), whereas a 10-fold higher dose of 2-EE was required for equivalent antileukemic activity. In addition, the in vitro exposure of a leukemic spleen mononuclear cell culture to 2-ME caused a dose- and time-dependent reduction in the number of leukemia cells after a single exposure to 1-100 microM concentrations, whereas the 2-ME metabolite, 2-methoxyacetic acid, was only half as effective. The two glycol alkyl ethers with demonstrable anti-leukemic activity, 2-ME and 2-EE, also exhibited a favorable efficacy-to-toxicity ratio and should be considered for

  16. Development of a convenient in vivo hepatotoxin assay using a transgenic zebrafish line with liver-specific DsRed expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Zhang

    provide a rapid and convenient in vivo hepatotoxicity assay that should be applicable to high-throughput hepatotoxicity test in drug screening as well as in biomonitoring environmental toxicants.

  17. And another thing - flags of convenience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flatern, R. von

    2002-01-01

    Crude oil being shipped around the world, when spilled, is a threat to the environment unlike any other commodity, save perhaps for radioactive materials. Therefore, if the oil industry expects to be taken seriously in its role of protecting the environment, it must assume responsibility for its product from wellhead to consumer. Whilst there are many operators paying considerable attention to transportation issues - the largest of them using their own double-hulled tanker fleets - there still too many using ships unsuitable for the purpose, either because of age or the fact that they are single hulled vessels. These derelicts are kept in business by owners who have registered them in country's where inspections are a local joke, registration requires only a fraction of the fee charged by more conscientious nations, and taxes are low. Ships flying flags of convenience have no ties to any country, including the ones in which they are registered. The author says that it is up to the oil industry to clean up their act, for instance they could refuse to use ships that sail under a flag of convenience or single hulled vessels to move their product. The major and large independent companies learned some time ago that taking care of the environment is very much in their interest, and further that only they can do it effectively

  18. Involvement of a novel enzyme, MdpA, in methyl tert-butyl ether degradation in Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Radomir; Battaglia, Vince; Scow, Kate; Kane, Staci; Hristova, Krassimira R

    2008-11-01

    Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1 is a well-characterized environmental strain capable of complete metabolism of the fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Using a molecular genetic system which we established to study MTBE metabolism by PM1, we demonstrated that the enzyme MdpA is involved in MTBE removal, based on insertional inactivation and complementation studies. MdpA is constitutively expressed at low levels but is strongly induced by MTBE. MdpA is also involved in the regulation of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) removal under certain conditions but is not directly responsible for TBA degradation. Phylogenetic comparison of MdpA to related enzymes indicates close homology to the short-chain hydrolyzing alkane hydroxylases (AH1), a group that appears to be a distinct subfamily of the AHs. The unique, substrate-size-determining residue Thr(59) distinguishes MdpA from the AH1 subfamily as well as from AlkB enzymes linked to MTBE degradation in Mycobacterium austroafricanum.

  19. Degradation of a recalcitrant xenobiotic compound: methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) metabolism by mycobacterium austroafricanum; Degradation d'un compose xenobiotique recalcitrant: metabolisme du methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) par mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, A.

    2002-11-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is introduced up to 15% (vol/vol) in gasoline in order to obtain a good octane number and to prevent carbon monoxide emissions. However, as a consequence of storage tanks leakage, MTBE became one of the major pollutants of aquifers because of its very low biodegradability. The present study aimed at investigating the biodegradation of MTBE by Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012. The MTBE metabolic pathway was partially elucidated owing to the identification of some intermediates (tert-butyl formate (TBF), tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), a-hydroxy-isobutyric acid and acetone) and some enzymatic activities (MTBE/TBA monooxygenase (non hemic and inducible), TBF esterase, 2-propanol: NDMA oxidoreductase and another monooxygenase involved in acetone degradation). The involvement of TBF and the requirement of cobalt could be explanations for the low natural attenuation of MTBE; whereas the methoxy group does not seem to be implicated. (author)

  20. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soils, sediments, and human hair in a plastic waste recycling area: a neglected heavily polluted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenwu; Huang, Qifei; Cheng, Jiali; Yang, Yufei; Yang, Jun; Guo, Wei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Zeng, Ning; Jin, Lu

    2014-01-01

    The release of pollutants during the recycling of contaminated plastics is a problem which has drawn worldwide attention; however, little information on the transfer of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in these processes is available. We conducted a survey of PBDEs in soils, sediments, and human hair in a typical plastic waste recycling area in northern China. The total concentrations (ng/g) of 21 PBDEs were 1.25-5504 (average 600), 18.2-9889 (average 1619), and 1.50-861 (average 112) in soils, sediments, and hair, respectively. The PBDE concentrations were comparable to concentrations observed in e-waste recycling areas; however, the concentrations in soils and sediments were 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than in other areas, and the concentrations in hair were much higher than in other areas. This indicates that this area is highly polluted with PBDEs. BDE-209 was the dominant congener (representing 91.23%, 92.3%, and 91.5% of the total PBDEs observed in soils, sediments, and hair, respectively), indicating that the commercial deca-BDE product was dominant. The commercial penta- and octa-BDE products made small contributions to the total PBDE concentrations, unlike what has been found in some e-waste recycling areas. Our results show that crude plastic waste processing is a major contributor of PBDEs to the environment and humans, which should be of great concern.

  1. Facile synthesis and reversible lithium insertion studies on hydrated iron trifluoride FeF3·0.33H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, R. S.; Pralong, V.; Varadaraju, U. V.

    2016-05-01

    An original synthesis method for the synthesis of hydrated iron trifluoride is presented. This method, based on solvothermal process starting from iron salt and HF in alcool, is economic and simple. The electrochemical performances of the composite phase FeF3·0.33H2O/Graphitic oxide is showing enhanced capacity of 250 mAh/g at 0.05 °C.

  2. Treatment of the rat hepatic stellate cell line, PAV-1, by retinol and palmitic acid leads to a convenient model to study retinoids metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvant, Patrick; Abergel, Armand; Partier, Anne; Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cécile; Rock, Edmond; Sion, Benoit; Motta, Claude; Sapin, Vincent; Azaïs-Bresco, Véronique

    2002-10-01

    The main site of vitamin A storage in the liver is the hepatic stellate cells (HSC). Involvement of HSC in vitamin A metabolism has mainly been studied using primary culture, which represents the most physiological model but technically suffers several drawbacks (yield, low reproducibility, etc.). To circumvent these problems, we have previously established and characterised an immortalised rat HSC line named PAV-1. This study aimed to investigate in PAV-1 and in primary HSC (i) the incorporation of retinol and its esterification, (ii) the cellular retinol-binding protein (CRBP) content, (iii) the acid retinyl ester hydrolase activity (aREH), (iv) the thermal susceptibility and (v) the lipid composition of the membranes, which may play a crucial role in retinol transport across cellular membrane. In routine conditions of culture, the rate of retinol esterification in PAV-1 was low (5.2%) compared to that obtained with primary HSC (69.9%). Retinol pre-treatment doubled this esterification rate (10.7%) and the CRBP content in PAV-1. The co-incubation with retinol and palmitic acid enabled PAV-1 to esterify retinol with a rate close to that of primary HSC (66.2% vs. 69.9%) and with similar retinyl ester profiles. aREH activity was higher in primary HSC than in PAV-1. Thermal susceptibility and phospholipid composition of membranes in PAV-1 treated cells were similar to those of primary HSC. In conclusion, our study shows that PAV-1 cells treated with retinol and palmitic acid is a sound and convenient model for studying vitamin A mobilisation, a fundamental physiological event occurring in HSC.

  3. PBDEs (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) pose a risk to captive giant pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ping; Zheng, Ying-Juan; Liu, Qiang; Ellison, Aaron M; Zhao, Yan; Ma, Qing-Yi

    2017-07-01

    The Qinling subspecies of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca qinlingensis), is highly endangered; fewer than 350 individuals still inhabit Qinling Mountains. Previous research revealed captive pandas were exposed to bromine, so we hypothesized that captive pandas were exposed to and affected by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). To test this hypothesis, we tested blood and feces of captive and wild pandas, their drinking water, food (bamboo leaves) from SWARC (Shaanxi Wild Animal Research Center)and FNNR (Foping National Nature Reserve) and supplemental feedstuff given to captive panda at SWARC. We found 13 congeners of PBDEs in fecal samples, of which BDE47, BDE66, BDE71, BDE99, and BDE154 were the dominant, total PBDE concentration in feces of captive pandas was 255% higher than in wild pandas. We found nine PBDEs congeners in blood samples: BDE153 and BDE183 were the predominant congers. PBDEs in blood from captive pandas were significantly higher than in wild pandas. The total concentration of PBDEs were 5473 and 4835 (pg.g) in Fargesia qinlingensis, were 2192 and 1414 (pg.g) in Bashannia fargesii (2192, 1414 pg g), 0.066, 0.038 (pg/ml) in drinking water, and 28.8 (pg.g) in supplemental feedstuff for captive and wild pandas, which indicate that the PBDEs came from its bamboo feed, especially from Bashannia fargesii. Our results demonstrate that BDE99 and BDE47 could be threatening the pandas' health especially for captive panda and there are potential health risks from PBDEs for pandas. In the short term, this risk may be ameliorated by strict control of food quality. In the long term, however, reducing air, water and soil contamination so as to improve environmental quality can best reduce these risks to meet the international standard such as Stockholm Convention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Development of a Graphical User Interface Engine for the Convenient Use of the HL7 Version 2.x Interface Engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwa Sun; Cho, Hune; Lee, In Keun

    2011-12-01

    The Health Level Seven Interface Engine (HL7 IE), developed by Kyungpook National University, has been employed in health information systems, however users without a background in programming have reported difficulties in using it. Therefore, we developed a graphical user interface (GUI) engine to make the use of the HL7 IE more convenient. The GUI engine was directly connected with the HL7 IE to handle the HL7 version 2.x messages. Furthermore, the information exchange rules (called the mapping data), represented by a conceptual graph in the GUI engine, were transformed into program objects that were made available to the HL7 IE; the mapping data were stored as binary files for reuse. The usefulness of the GUI engine was examined through information exchange tests between an HL7 version 2.x message and a health information database system. Users could easily create HL7 version 2.x messages by creating a conceptual graph through the GUI engine without requiring assistance from programmers. In addition, time could be saved when creating new information exchange rules by reusing the stored mapping data. The GUI engine was not able to incorporate information types (e.g., extensible markup language, XML) other than the HL7 version 2.x messages and the database, because it was designed exclusively for the HL7 IE protocol. However, in future work, by including additional parsers to manage XML-based information such as Continuity of Care Documents (CCD) and Continuity of Care Records (CCR), we plan to ensure that the GUI engine will be more widely accessible for the health field.

  5. Regional Equivalence Scales for Convenience Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Tedford, John R.; Capps, Oral, Jr.; Havlicek, Joseph, Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Estimates of regional adult equivalence scales for convenience foods were obtained using the model developed by Buse and Salathe and using data from the 1977-78 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey. Wide dispa rities exist in scale values among regions, controlling for other factors, suggesting that age-sex composition of households have differential impacts on convenience food expenditures.

  6. The effect of process parameters and microstructural changes on a new convenience food - quick-frozen paste-coated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su-Wen; Chang, Xue-Dong; Liu, Xiu-Feng; Jiang, Wen-Hong; Ma, Xiao-Feng

    2015-03-01

    The technology of quick-freezing paste-coated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) was studied and optimized. The best microwave pretreatment condition for 1 cm slices, regarding color protection, was 5.4 W/g, for 55, 55-60 and 60 s for mushrooms with 3, 4 and 5 cm diameter caps respectively. For a batch of paste (668.2-1034.6 g), the process parameters considered were oil content (46.6-63.4 g), water content (381-562.6 g) and flour content (166-334 g) with a constant additional content of 30 g starch, 9 g baking powder, 2.6 g carrageenan, 30 g salt and 3 g pepper. These parameters were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite design. The optimal levels of the major paste components were 300 g flour, 432.5 g water and 50 g oil. The freezing time and sensory acceptability for paste-coated Agaricus bisporus(PCAB) under the optimized conditions were 7.49 min and 6.2 respectively. The freezing curves of PCAB were established at different temperatures and the freezing rates were calculated to find the freezing characteristics. In addition, the cell structure of PCAB, frozen at -75 °C, the lowest freezing temperature, and studied using transmission electron microscopy, was similar in quality to that of fresh Agaricus bisporus. The results suggested that Agaricus bisporus can be quick-frozen with a paste coating to produce an acceptable and nutritious convenience food.

  7. Hydrogenolytic cleavage of naphthylmethyl ethers in the presence of sulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adero, Philip O; Jarois, Dean R; Crich, David

    2017-09-08

    With the aid of a series of model thioether or thioglycoside containing polyols protected with combinations of benzyl ethers and 2-naphthylmethyl ethers it is demonstrated that the latter are readily cleaved selectively under hydrogenolytic conditions in the presence of the frequently catalyst-poisoning sulfides. These results suggest the possibility of employing 2-naphthylmethyl ethers in place of benzyl ethers in synthetic schemes when hydrogenolytic deprotection is anticipated in the presence of thioether type functionality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical kinetic study of a novel lignocellulosic biofuel: Di-n-butyl ether oxidation in a laminar flow reactor and flames

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Liming

    2014-03-01

    The combustion characteristics of promising alternative fuels have been studied extensively in the recent years. Nevertheless, the pyrolysis and oxidation kinetics for many oxygenated fuels are not well characterized compared to those of hydrocarbons. In the present investigation, the first chemical kinetic study of a long-chain linear symmetric ether, di-n-butyl ether (DBE), is presented and a detailed reaction model is developed. DBE has been identified recently as a candidate biofuel produced from lignocellulosic biomass. The model includes both high temperature and low temperature reaction pathways with reaction rates generated using appropriate rate rules. In addition, experimental studies on fundamental combustion characteristics, such as ignition delay times and laminar flame speeds have been performed. A laminar flow reactor was used to determine the ignition delay times of lean and stoichiometric DBE/air mixtures. The laminar flame speeds of DBE/air mixtures were measured in the stagnation flame configuration for a wide rage of equivalence ratios at atmospheric pressure and an unburned reactant temperature of 373. K. All experimental data were modeled using the present kinetic model. The agreement between measured and computed results is satisfactory, and the model was used to elucidate the oxidation pathways of DBE. The dissociation of keto-hydroperoxides, leading to radical chain branching was found to dominate the ignition of DBE in the low temperature regime. The results of the present numerical and experimental study of the oxidation of di-n-butyl ether provide a good basis for further investigation of long chain linear and branched ethers. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.

  9. Highly efficient acidic etherification using a trichloroacetimidate for the preparation of (4-chlorophenyl)(2-pyridyl)methyl-4-piperidyl ether, a key intermediate of bepotastine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soo Jeong; Oh, Youree; Park Hoon Gyu; Oh, Se Han; Kim, Hak Won [Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Institute of Natural Sciences, College of Applied Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Bepotastinebesilate(TAU-284,(+)-(S)-4-{4-[(4-chlorophenyl) (2-pyridyl)methoxy]piperidino}butyric acid monobenzenesulfonate) is a nonsedative antiallergic drug with antihistamine activity that is used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis or allergic skin diseases. The bepotastine base, 1, is composed of two major parts: a 2-(4-chlorobenzyl)pyridyl moiety and an N-alky-lated-piperidyl moiety. The trichloroacetimidate method has been adopted for the synthesis of the key ether intermediate 3 of bepotastine, an antiallergic drug. Reaction of the trichloroace-timidate intermediate 4b with N -Boc-4-hydroxypiperidine and 1 equiv of Cu(OTf ){sub 2} gave the ether 3 in 91% yield. Various alcohols were also reacted with trichloroacetimidate intermediate 4b in presence of Lewis acids to yield the corresponding ether products 7 in modest to high yields. A highly efficient and mild synthesis of racemic bepotastine free base has been developed using the trichloacetimidate etherification method under acidic conditions.

  10. Convenient synthesis of volatile streptomyces lactones

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Amonkar, C.P.; Tilve, S.G.; Parameswaran, P.S.

    Compound R Yield (%) 671 a H50 a 87 – b CH 3 50 a 85 92 c b CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 57 92 77 d CH 2 (CH 2 ) 3 CH 3 60 89 93 e CH 2 CH(CH 3 ) 2 65 90 94 a Yield based on phosphorane consumed. b Yield: 49%, obtained using IBX. 11 PAPER Convenient Synthesis... + + 1), 95 (17), 67 (100), 65 (20), 43 (13). 5-Methyl-3-[(E)-ethylidene]dihydrofuran-2(5H)-one (7b) Yield: 85%. IR (neat): 1756 (C=O), 1680 (C=C) cm –1 . 1 H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl 3 ): d = 1.35 (d, J = 6.3 Hz, 3 H, CHCH 3 ), 1.84 (dt, J = 6.9, 2.1, 1.8 Hz...

  11. Microwave sintering of poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) based coatings deposited on metallic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, G.; Leparoux, S.; Liao, H.; Coddet, C.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of microwave (MW) sintering PEEK (poly-ether-ether-ketone) based coatings was investigated. Three coatings were studied: pure PEEK, micron-SiC and nano-SiC particles filled (wt.10%) PEEK coatings. The results indicate that, for the two composite coatings, the SiC particles distributed in the polymer matrix, as a good MW susceptor, could be heated preferentially by MW radiation. Consequently, the polymer matrix was heated by these particles

  12. Expected consequences of convenience euthanasia perceived by veterinarians in Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathwell-Deault, Dominick; Godard, Béatrice; Frank, Diane; Doizé, Béatrice

    2017-01-01

    In companion animal practice, convenience euthanasia (euthanasia of a physically and psychologically healthy animal) is recognized as one of the most difficult situations. There is little published on veterinary perceptions of the consequences of convenience euthanasia. A qualitative study on the subject based on interviews with 14 veterinarians was undertaken. The animal’s interests in the dilemma of convenience euthanasia was taken into consideration, strictly from the point of view of the physical suffering and stress related to the procedure. The veterinarian’s goal was to respect the animal’s interests by controlling physical pain. Most often, veterinarians made their own interests and those of the owners a priority when considering the consequences of their decision to perform or refuse convenience euthanasia. PMID:28698691

  13. The Big Drink Debate: perceptions of the impact of price on alcohol consumption from a large scale cross-sectional convenience survey in north west England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briant Linford

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large-scale survey was conducted in 2008 in north west England, a region with high levels of alcohol-related harm, during a regional 'Big Drink Debate' campaign. The aim of this paper is to explore perceptions of how alcohol consumption would change if alcohol prices were to increase or decrease. Methods A convenience survey of residents (≥ 18 years of north west England measured demographics, income, alcohol consumption in previous week, and opinions on drinking behaviour under two pricing conditions: low prices and discounts and increased alcohol prices (either 'decrease', 'no change' or 'increase'. Multinomial logistic regression used three outcomes: 'completely elastic' (consider that lower prices increase drinking and higher prices decrease drinking; 'lower price elastic' (lower prices increase drinking, higher prices have no effect; and 'price inelastic' (no change for either. Results Of 22,780 drinkers surveyed, 80.3% considered lower alcohol prices and discounts would increase alcohol consumption, while 22.1% thought raising prices would decrease consumption, making lower price elasticity only (i.e. lower prices increase drinking, higher prices have no effect the most common outcome (62%. Compared to a high income/high drinking category, the lightest drinkers with a low income (adjusted odds ratio AOR = 1.78, 95% confidence intervals CI 1.38-2.30 or medium income (AOR = 1.88, CI 1.47-2.41 were most likely to be lower price elastic. Females were more likely than males to be lower price elastic (65% vs 57% while the reverse was true for complete elasticity (20% vs 26%, P Conclusions Lower pricing increases alcohol consumption, and the alcohol industry's continued focus on discounting sales encourages higher drinking levels. International evidence suggests increasing the price of alcohol reduces consumption, and one in five of the surveyed population agreed; more work is required to increase this agreement to achieve

  14. A cost-effective and practical polybenzanthrone-based fluorescent sensor for efficient determination of palladium (II) ion and its application in agricultural crops and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ge; Wen, Yangping; Guo, Chaoqun; Xu, Jingkun; Lu, Baoyang; Duan, Xuemin; He, Haohua; Yang, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •PBA was facilely electrosynthesized in the binary solvent system containing of acetonitrile and boron trifluoride diethyl etherate. •“On–off” type fluorescent sensor based on this polymer for highly selective, sensitive, and practical detection of Pd 2+ was designed. •The possible mechanism between Pd 2+ and PBA has been discussed and TEM preliminary proved the proposed mechanism. •This fluorescent CP-based sensor has been used to practically detect Pd 2+ in agricultural crops and environment samples with satisfactory results. -- Abstract: A highly selective and sensitive fluorescent chemosensor suitable for practical measurement of palladium ion (Pd 2+ ) in agricultural crops and environment samples has been successfully fabricated using polybenzanthrone (PBA). PBA was facilely electrosynthesized in the mixed electrolyte of acetonitrile and boron trifluoride diethyl etherate. The fluorescence intensity of PBA showed a linear response to Pd 2+ in the concentration range of 5 nM–0.12 mM with a detection limit of 0.277 nM and quantification limit of 0.925 nM. Different compounds existing in agricultural crops and environment such as common metal ions, anions, natural amino acids, carbohydrates, and organic acids were used to examine the selectivity of the as-fabricated sensor, and no obvious fluorescence change could be observed in these interferents and their mixtures. A possible mechanism was proposed that the coordination of PBA and Pd 2+ enhance the aggregation of polymer chains, which led to a significant quenching of PBA emission, and this was further confirmed by absorption spectra monitoring and transmission electron microscopy. The excellent performance of the proposed sensor and satisfactory results of the Pd 2+ determination in practical samples suggested that the PBA-based fluorescent sensor for the determination of Pd 2+ will be a good candidate for application in agriculture and environment

  15. Stereodivergent Mannich reaction of bis(trimethylsilyl)ketene acetals with N-tert-butanesulfinyl imines by Lewis acid or Lewis base activation, a one-pot protocol to obtain chiral β-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantú-Reyes, Margarita; Alvarado-Beltrán, Isabel; Ballinas-Indilí, Ricardo; Álvarez-Toledano, Cecilio; Hernández-Rodríguez, Marcos

    2017-09-20

    We report a one-pot synthesis of chiral β 2,2,3 -amino acids by the Mannich addition of bistrimethylsilyl ketene acetals to N-tert-butanesulfinyl imines followed by the removal of the chiral auxiliary. The synthesis and isolation of pure β-amino acid hydrochlorides were conducted under mild conditions, without strong bases and this method is operationally simple. The stereoselective reaction was promoted by two different activation methods that lead to different stereoisomers: (1) Lewis Acid (LA) catalysis with boron trifluoride diethyl etherate and (2) Lewis Base (LB) catalysis with tetrabutylammonium difluorotriphenylsilicate. The reaction presented good diastereoselectivity with LB activation and moderate to good dr with LA catalysis. The exceptions in both protocols were imines with electron donating groups in the aromatic ring.

  16. Atmospheric degradation of 2-chloroethyl vinyl ether, allyl ether and allyl ethyl ether: Kinetics with OH radicals and UV photochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiñolo, M; Ocaña, A J; Aranguren, J P; Lane, S I; Albaladejo, J; Jiménez, E

    2017-08-01

    Unsaturated ethers are oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) emitted by anthropogenic sources. Potential removal processes in the troposphere are initiated by hydroxyl (OH) radicals and photochemistry. In this work, we report for the first time the rate coefficients of the gas-phase reaction with OH radicals (k OH ) of 2-chloroethyl vinyl ether (2ClEVE), allyl ether (AE), and allyl ethyl ether (AEE) as a function of temperature in the 263-358 K range, measured by the pulsed laser photolysis-laser induced fluorescence technique. No pressure dependence of k OH was observed in the 50-500 Torr range in He as bath gas, while a slightly negative T-dependence was observed. The temperature dependent expressions for the rate coefficients determined in this work are: The estimated atmospheric lifetimes (τ OH ) assuming k OH at 288 K were 3, 2, and 4 h for 2ClEVE, AE and AEE, respectively. The kinetic results are discussed in terms of the chemical structure of the unsaturated ethers by comparison with similar compounds. We also report ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) absorption cross sections (σ λ and σ(ν˜), respectively). We estimate the photolysis rate coefficients in the solar UV actinic region to be less than 10 -7 s -1 , implying that these compounds are not removed from the atmosphere by this process. In addition, from σ(ν˜) and τ OH , the global warming potential of each unsaturated ether was calculated to be almost zero. A discussion on the atmospheric implications of the titled compounds is presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Flow-Induced Crystallization of Poly(ether ether ketone)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Behzad; Rhoades, Alicyn; Colby, Ralph

    The effects of an interval of shear above the melting temperature Tm on subsequent isothermal crystallization below Tm is reported for the premier engineering thermoplastic, poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK). The effect of shear on the crystallization rate of PEEK is investigated by means of rheological techniques and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) under a protocol of imposing shear in a rotational cone and plate rheometer and monitoring crystallization after quenching. The rate of crystallization at 320 °C was not affected by shear for shear rates <7 s-1 at 350 °C, whereas intervals of adequate shear at higher shear rates prior to the quench to 320 °C accelerated crystallization significantly. As the duration of the interval of shear above 7 s-1 is increased, the crystallization time decreases but at each shear rate eventually saturates once the applied specific work exceeds ~120 MPa. The annealing of the flow-induced precursors was also investigated. The nuclei were fairly persistent at temperatures close to 350 °C, however very unstable at temperatures above 375 °C. This suggests that the nanostructures formed under shear might be akin to crystalline lamellae of greater thickness, compared to quiescently crystallized lamellae.

  18. A Review on Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in South Asia with a Focus on Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaw, Han Yeong; Kannan, Narayanan

    Malaysia is a developing country in Southeast Asia, with rapid industrial and economic growth. Speedy population growth and aggressive consumerism in the past five decades have resulted in environmental pollution issues, including products containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). PCBs and PBDEs are classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by the Stockholm Convention due to their persistence, bioaccumulation in the environment and toxicity to humans and wildlife. These compounds are known to cause liver dysfunction, thyroid toxicity, developmental neuro-toxicity and possibly cancer. PCBs in air, mussels, pellets, seawater, fresh water, and human breast milk samples were analyzed in Malaysia, while studies on the pollution level of PBDEs in Malaysia were conducted on mussels, soils, leachate and sediment samples. PCBs in breast milk collected from Malaysia was the highest among Asian developing countries, with mean concentration of 80 ng/g lipid weight. On the other hand, the mean concentration of PCBs in mussels collected from Malaysia recorded the second lowest, with 56 ng/g and 89 ng/g lipid weight in two studies respectively. The concentrations of PBDEs in mussels taken from Malaysia fall in the range of 0.84-16 ng/g lipid weight, which is considerably low compared to 104.5 ng/g lipid weight in Philippines and 90.59 ng/g in Korea. Nevertheless, there are limited studies on these compounds in Malaysia, particularly there is no research on PBDEs in breast milk and sediment samples. This review will summarize the contamination levels of PCBs and PBDEs in different samples collected from Asian countries since 1988 until 2010 with a focus on Malaysia and will provide needed information for further research in this field.

  19. Calcitriol inhibits Ether-a go-go potassium channel expression and cell proliferation in human breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Becerra, Rocio [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Diaz, Lorenza, E-mail: lorenzadiaz@gmail.com [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Camacho, Javier [Department of Pharmacology, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, San Pedro Zacatenco 07360, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Barrera, David; Ordaz-Rosado, David; Morales, Angelica [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ortiz, Cindy Sharon [Department of Pathology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Avila, Euclides [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Bargallo, Enrique [Department of Breast Tumors, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Av. San Fernando No. 22, Tlalpan 14080, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Arrecillas, Myrna [Department of Pathology, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Av. San Fernando No. 22, Tlalpan 14080, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Halhali, Ali; Larrea, Fernando [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-02-01

    Antiproliferative actions of calcitriol have been shown to occur in many cell types; however, little is known regarding the molecular basis of this process in breast carcinoma. Ether-a-go-go (Eag1) potassium channels promote oncogenesis and are implicated in breast cancer cell proliferation. Since calcitriol displays antineoplastic effects while Eag1 promotes tumorigenesis, and both factors antagonically regulate cell cycle progression, we investigated a possible regulatory effect of calcitriol upon Eag1 as a mean to uncover new molecular events involved in the antiproliferative activity of this hormone in human breast tumor-derived cells. RT real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry showed that calcitriol suppressed Eag1 expression by a vitamin D receptor (VDR)-dependent mechanism. This effect was accompanied by inhibition of cell proliferation, which was potentiated by astemizole, a nonspecific Eag1 inhibitor. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot demonstrated that Eag1 and VDR abundance was higher in invasive-ductal carcinoma than in fibroadenoma, and immunoreactivity of both proteins was located in ductal epithelial cells. Our results provide evidence of a novel mechanism involved in the antiproliferative effects of calcitriol and highlight VDR as a cancer therapeutic target for breast cancer treatment and prevention.

  20. A poly(ether-ester) copolymer for the preparation of nanocarriers with improved degradation and drug delivery kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliardi, M., E-mail: mariacristina.gagliardi@iit.it [Center for Micro Bio-Robotics @SSSA, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Viale Rinaldo Piaggio 34, 56025 Pontedera (Italy); Bertero, A. [Department of Biology, Unit of Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Pisa, S.S.12 Abetone e Brennero 4, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Center for Neuroscience and Cognitive Systems @UNITN, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Bettini 31, 38068 Rovereto (Italy); Bardi, G. [Center for Bio-Molecular Nanotechnologies @UniLe, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Barsanti, 73010 Arnesano (Italy); Bifone, A. [Center for Neuroscience and Cognitive Systems @UNITN, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Bettini 31, 38068 Rovereto (Italy)

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports the synthesis and the physicochemical, functional and biological characterisations of nanocarriers made of a novel di-block biodegradable poly(ether-ester) copolymer. This material presents tunable, fast biodegradation rates, but its products are less acidic than those of other biosorbable polymers like PLGA, thus presenting a better biocompatibility profile and the possibility to carry pH-sensitive payloads. A method for the production of monodisperse and spherical nanoparticles is proposed; drug delivery kinetics and blood protein adsorption were measured to evaluate the functional properties of these nanoparticles as drug carriers. The copolymer was labelled with a fluorescent dye for internalisation tests, and rhodamine B was used as a model cargo to study transport and release inside cultured cells. Biological tests demonstrated good cytocompatibility, significant cell internalisation and the possibility to vehiculate non-cell penetrating moieties into endothelial cells. Taken together, these results support the potential use of this nanoparticulate system for systemic administration of drugs. - Highlights: • We propose a novel biodegradable nanocarrier for intracellular drug delivery. • Biodegradation rates can be finely tuned by controlling copolymer composition. • Degradation products are less acidic, thus enabling delivery of pH-sensitive cargoes. • We demonstrate intracellular delivery of a non-cell-penetrating model drug. • No significant membrane damage by the polymer nanocarriers is observed.

  1. Calcitriol inhibits Ether-a go-go potassium channel expression and cell proliferation in human breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Becerra, Rocio; Diaz, Lorenza; Camacho, Javier; Barrera, David; Ordaz-Rosado, David; Morales, Angelica; Ortiz, Cindy Sharon; Avila, Euclides; Bargallo, Enrique; Arrecillas, Myrna; Halhali, Ali; Larrea, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Antiproliferative actions of calcitriol have been shown to occur in many cell types; however, little is known regarding the molecular basis of this process in breast carcinoma. Ether-a-go-go (Eag1) potassium channels promote oncogenesis and are implicated in breast cancer cell proliferation. Since calcitriol displays antineoplastic effects while Eag1 promotes tumorigenesis, and both factors antagonically regulate cell cycle progression, we investigated a possible regulatory effect of calcitriol upon Eag1 as a mean to uncover new molecular events involved in the antiproliferative activity of this hormone in human breast tumor-derived cells. RT real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry showed that calcitriol suppressed Eag1 expression by a vitamin D receptor (VDR)-dependent mechanism. This effect was accompanied by inhibition of cell proliferation, which was potentiated by astemizole, a nonspecific Eag1 inhibitor. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot demonstrated that Eag1 and VDR abundance was higher in invasive-ductal carcinoma than in fibroadenoma, and immunoreactivity of both proteins was located in ductal epithelial cells. Our results provide evidence of a novel mechanism involved in the antiproliferative effects of calcitriol and highlight VDR as a cancer therapeutic target for breast cancer treatment and prevention.

  2. A poly(ether-ester) copolymer for the preparation of nanocarriers with improved degradation and drug delivery kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagliardi, M.; Bertero, A.; Bardi, G.; Bifone, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the synthesis and the physicochemical, functional and biological characterisations of nanocarriers made of a novel di-block biodegradable poly(ether-ester) copolymer. This material presents tunable, fast biodegradation rates, but its products are less acidic than those of other biosorbable polymers like PLGA, thus presenting a better biocompatibility profile and the possibility to carry pH-sensitive payloads. A method for the production of monodisperse and spherical nanoparticles is proposed; drug delivery kinetics and blood protein adsorption were measured to evaluate the functional properties of these nanoparticles as drug carriers. The copolymer was labelled with a fluorescent dye for internalisation tests, and rhodamine B was used as a model cargo to study transport and release inside cultured cells. Biological tests demonstrated good cytocompatibility, significant cell internalisation and the possibility to vehiculate non-cell penetrating moieties into endothelial cells. Taken together, these results support the potential use of this nanoparticulate system for systemic administration of drugs. - Highlights: • We propose a novel biodegradable nanocarrier for intracellular drug delivery. • Biodegradation rates can be finely tuned by controlling copolymer composition. • Degradation products are less acidic, thus enabling delivery of pH-sensitive cargoes. • We demonstrate intracellular delivery of a non-cell-penetrating model drug. • No significant membrane damage by the polymer nanocarriers is observed.

  3. Identification of a polyketide synthase required for alternariol (AOH and alternariol-9-methyl ether (AME formation in Alternaria alternata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjani Saha

    Full Text Available Alternaria alternata produces more than 60 secondary metabolites, among which alternariol (AOH and alternariol-9-methyl ether (AME are important mycotoxins. Whereas the toxicology of these two polyketide-based compounds has been studied, nothing is known about the genetics of their biosynthesis. One of the postulated core enzymes in the biosynthesis of AOH and AME is polyketide synthase (PKS. In a draft genome sequence of A. alternata we identified 10 putative PKS-encoding genes. The timing of the expression of two PKS genes, pksJ and pksH, correlated with the production of AOH and AME. The PksJ and PksH proteins are predicted to be 2222 and 2821 amino acids in length, respectively. They are both iterative type I reducing polyketide synthases. PksJ harbors a peroxisomal targeting sequence at the C-terminus, suggesting that the biosynthesis occurs at least partly in these organelles. In the vicinity of pksJ we found a transcriptional regulator, altR, involved in pksJ induction and a putative methyl transferase, possibly responsible for AME formation. Downregulation of pksJ and altR caused a large decrease of alternariol formation, suggesting that PksJ is the polyketide synthase required for the postulated Claisen condensations during the biosynthesis. No other enzymes appeared to be required. PksH downregulation affected pksJ expression and thus caused an indirect effect on AOH production.

  4. Impact of Biodiesel Blends and Di-Ethyl-Ether on the Cold Starting Performance of a Compression Ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Clenci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of biodiesel fuel in compression ignition engines has the potential to reduce CO2, which can lead to a reduction in global warming and environmental hazards. Biodiesel is an attractive fuel, as it is made from renewable resources. Many studies have been conducted to assess the impact of biodiesel use on engine performances. Most of them were carried out in positive temperature conditions. A major drawback associated with the use of biodiesel, however, is its poor cold flow properties, which have a direct influence on the cold starting performance of the engine. Since diesel engine behavior at negative temperatures is an important quality criterion of the engine’s operation, one goal of this paper is to assess the starting performance at −20 °C of a common automotive compression ignition engine, fueled with different blends of fossil diesel fuel and biodiesel. Results showed that increasing the biodiesel blend ratio generated a great deterioration in engine startability. Another goal of this study was to determine the biodiesel blend ratio limit at which the engine would not start at −20 °C and, subsequently, to investigate the impact of Di-Ethyl-Ether (DEE injection into the intake duct on the engine’s startability, which was found to be recovered.

  5. New chemically reworkable epoxy coatings obtained by the addition of polyesters with star topologies to diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A resins

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, A.; Ferrando, F.; Fernández-Francos, X.; Ramis, X.; Tomuta, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    A new multiarm star with hyperbranched aromatic–aliphatic polyester core and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) arms (HBPCL) was synthesized and characterized. Mixtures of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) resin and different proportions of this star type modifier were cured using a thermal cationic curing agent, Yb(OTf)3. The HBPCL prepared has hydroxyl groups as chain ends, which are capable of chemically incorporating to the epoxy matrix by means of the monomer activated mechanism. This, together ...

  6. Biological activities, mechanisms of action and biomedical prospect of the antitumor ether phospholipid ET-18-OCH3 (edelfosine), a proapoptotic agent in tumor cells

    OpenAIRE

    Gajate, Consuelo; Mollinedo, Faustino

    2002-01-01

    The antitumor ether lipid ET-18-OCH3 (edelfosine) is the type of a new class of antineoplastic agents, synthetic analogues of lysophosphatidylcholine, that shows a high metabolic stability, does not interact with DNA and shows a selective apoptotic response in tumor cells, sparing normal cells. Unlike currently used antitumor drugs, ET-18-OCH3 does not act directly on the formation and function of the replication machinery, and thereby its effects are independent of the proliferative state of...

  7. Synthesis and Antiplasmodial Activity of EG-Artemisinin Ethers and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to synthesize a series of ethylene glycol (EG) ethers and quinoline hybrids of the antimalarial drug artemisinin and to evaluate their antimalarial activity in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum strains. The ethers were synthesized in a ... falciparum, ethylene glycol) (EG), ethylene oxide (EO), hybrid ...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3486 - Polyglycerin mono(4-nonylphenyl) ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyglycerin mono(4-nonylphenyl) ether... Substances § 721.3486 Polyglycerin mono(4-nonylphenyl) ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyglycerin mono(4...

  9. Monolayer detection of ion binding at a crown ether-functionalised supramolecular surface via an integrated optical Bragg grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard M; Wales, Dominic J; Gates, James C; Frey, Jeremy G; Smith, Peter G R; Grossel, Martin C

    2014-06-07

    There have been significant recent developments in the field of integrated optical Bragg grating sensors for use in the biological domain, where changes in the thickness of a surface layer upon specific binding of biological targets allows quantitative detection. However in the chemical domain less work has been reported. We present here an integrated optical Bragg grating sensor, capable of evanescently detecting small changes in refractive index down to 10(-6) RIU at infrared wavelengths, within a microfluidic system. The high spectral fidelity of the Bragg gratings combined with precise thermal compensation enables direct monitoring of the surface throughout the experiment. This allows the sensor to probe surface changes in situ and in real-time, from preparation through to chemical modification of the surface, so that the progress of dynamic surface-localized interactions can be followed. Here we describe confirmatory studies to validate this approach, including a comparison with the modelled optical system, before assessing the ability to detect binding of Group I cations at a crown ether-functionalised supramolecular surface. Unlike larger biological entities, for these small chemical species, simple additive changes in film-thickness no longer prevail.

  10. Observation of a sequence of wetting transitions in the binary water+ethylene glycol monobutyl ether mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Kang; Chen, Li-Jen

    2005-08-01

    A homemade pendant drop/bubble tensiometer was assembled and applied to perform the surface-interfacial tension measurements for the binary water+ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (C4E1) mixture over the temperature range from 50to128°C at 10bar. The symbol CiEj is the abbreviation of a nonionic polyoxyethylene alcohol CiH2i+1(OCH2CH2)jOH. The wetting behavior of the C4E1-rich phase at the interface separating the gas and the aqueous phases was systematically examined according to the wetting coefficient calculated from the experimental results of surface/interfacial tensions. It was found that the C4E1-rich phase exhibits a sequence of wetting transitions, nonwetting→partial wetting→complete wetting, at the gas-water interface in the water+C4E1 system along with increasing the temperature, consistent with the conjecture of Kahlweit and Busse [J. Chem. Phys. 91, 1339 (1989)]. In addition, the relationship of the mutual solubility and the interfacial tension of the interface separating the C4E1-rich phase and the aqueous phase is discussed.

  11. In vitro cytotoxicity assessment of a West Virginia chemical spill mixture involving 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol and propylene glycol phenyl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Alice A; Fabyanic, Emily B; Miller, Julie V; Prediger, Maren S; Prince, Nicole; Mouch, Julia A; Boyd, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    Thousands of gallons of industrial chemicals, crude 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) and propylene glycol phenyl ether (PPh), leaked from industrial tanks into the Elk River in Charleston, West Virginia, USA, on January 9, 2014. A considerable number of people were reported to exhibit symptoms of chemical exposure and an estimated 300,000 residents were advised not to use or drink tap water. At the time of the spill, the existing toxicological data of the chemicals were limited for a full evaluation of the health risks, resulting in concern among those in the impacted regions. In this preliminary study, we assessed cell viability and plasma membrane degradation following a 24-h exposure to varying concentrations (0-1000 μM) of the two compounds, alone and in combination. Evaluation of different cell lines, HEK-293 (kidney), HepG2 (liver), H9c2 (heart), and GT1-7 (brain), provided insight regarding altered cellular responses in varying organ systems. Single exposure to MCHM or PPh did not affect cell viability, except at doses much higher than the estimated exposure levels. Certain co-exposures significantly reduced metabolic activity and increased plasma membrane degradation in GT1-7, HepG2, and H9c2 cells. These findings highlight the importance of examining co-exposures to fully understand the potential toxic effects.

  12. Biomagnification of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls in a highly contaminated freshwater food web from South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jiangping; Luo Xiaojun; Zhang Ying; Yu Mei; Chen Shejun; Mai Bixian; Yang Zhongyi

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the biomagnification extent of polybrominated diphenyls ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a highly contaminated freshwater food web from South China, trophic magnification factors (TMFs) for 18 PBDE congeners and 53 PCB congeners were calculated. The TMF values ranged 0.26-4.47 for PBDEs and 0.75-5.10 for PCBs. Forty-five of 53 PCBs and BDEs 47, 100 and 154 had TMFs greater than one, suggesting their biomagnification in the present food web. The TMFs for PBDEs were generally smaller than those for PCBs with the same degree of halogenation, indicating a lower biomagnification potential for PBDEs compared to PCBs. For PCBs, it followed a parabolic relationship between TMFs and log K OW (octanol-water partition coefficient). However, this relationship was not significant for PBDEs, possibly due to the more complex behaviors of PBDEs in the food web (e.g., metabolism), compared to that of PCBs. - Forty-five of 53 PCBs magnified in the freshwater food web, while only BDEs 47, 100 and 154 significantly magnified in the same food web

  13. Levels and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the freshwater environment surrounding a PBDE manufacturing plant in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jie; Gao Zishen; Xian Qiming; Yu Hongxia; Feng Jianfang

    2009-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in muscle, liver and eggs of freshwater fishes and surface sediments from the Nongkang River in Jinhu, Jiangsu Province, China. The present study is the first to report PBDE concentrations in the freshwater environment surrounding a PBDE manufacturing plant in China. The concentrations of 13 PBDE congeners in muscle, liver and eggs of freshwater fishes ranged from < LOD to 130, < LOD to 252 and < LOD to 33.3 ng/g lipid wt, respectively, while the concentrations of 13 PBDE congeners in surface sediments from sewage outfall, upstream and downstream of the river were 52, 9.2, 7.1 ng/g organic carbon wt, respectively. Contamination by PBDEs in this area was not serious when compared with other regions of the world. A relatively high proportion of BDE-183 was found, consistent with the octa-BDE technical mixtures from the manufacturing plant by the side of the river. - The first study to report concentrations of PBDEs in the freshwater environment surrounding a PBDE manufacturing plant in China.

  14. Local anesthetic interaction with human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG) channels: role of aromatic amino acids Y652 and F656

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebrands, Cornelia C; Schmitt, Nicole; Friederich, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG) potassium channels constitute a potential target involved in cardiotoxic side effects of amino-amide local anesthetics. The molecular interaction site of these low-affinity blockers with HERG channels is currently unknown. The aim of this study...... (r > 0.9). CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that local anesthetics specifically but not exclusively interact with the aromatic residues Y652 and F656 in S6 of HERG channels....

  15. A point mutation of valine-311 to methionine in Bacillus subtilis protoporphyrinogen oxidase does not greatly increase resistance to the diphenyl ether herbicide oxyfluorfen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eunjoo; Houn, Thavrak; Kuk, Yongin; Kim, Eun-Seon; Chandru, Hema Kumar; Baik, Myunggi; Back, Kyoungwhan; Guh, Ja-Ock; Han, Oksoo

    2003-10-01

    In an effort to asses the effect of Val311Met point mutation of Bacillus subtilis protoporphyrinogen oxidase on the resistance to diphenyl ether herbicides, a Val311Met point mutant of B. subtilis protoporphyrinogen oxidase was prepared, heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified recombinant Val311Met mutant protoporphyrinogen oxidase was kinetically characterized. The mutant protoporphyrinogen oxidase showed very similar kinetic patterns to wild type protoporphyrinogen oxidase, with slightly decreased activity dependent on pH and the concentrations of NaCl, Tween 20, and imidazole. When oxyfluorfen was used as a competitive inhibitor, the Val311Met mutant protoporphyrinogen oxidase showed an increased inhibition constant about 1.5 times that of wild type protoporphyrinogen oxidase. The marginal increase of the inhibition constant indicates that the Val311Met point mutation in B. subtilis protoporphyrinogen oxidase may not be an important determinant in the mechanism that protects protoporphyrinogen oxidase against diphenyl ether herbicides.

  16. New chlorinated diphenyl ethers and xanthones from a deep-sea-derived fungus Penicillium chrysogenum SCSIO 41001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Feng; Zhou, Li-Man; Chen, Sheng-Tian; Yang, Bin; Liao, Sheng-Rong; Kong, Fan-Dong; Lin, Xiu-Ping; Wang, Fa-Zuo; Zhou, Xue-Feng; Liu, Yong-Hong

    2018-03-01

    Seven new compounds, including four new chlorinated diphenyl ethers, namely chrysines A-D (1-4), one new dichlorinated xanthone, chrysoxanthone (5), dichloroorcinol (6), and one new benzeneacetic acid derivative, 3-isopentyl-4-hydroxy phenylacetic acid methyl ester (7), along with fourteen known compounds (8-21), were isolated from a deep-sea-derived fungus Penicillium chrysogenum SCSIO 41001. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic methods and X-ray single-crystal diffraction analysis. All of the isolated compounds (1-21) were evaluated for their α-glucosidase inhibitory activity using PNPG method. Among them, nine compounds (2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 13, 17, and 18) exhibited inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase with IC 50 values of 0.35, 0.20, 0.04, 0.16, 0.15, 0.09, 0.14, 0.14, and 0.12mM, respectively (IC 50 0.28mM for the positive control acarbose). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Tailor-made pore controlled poly (arylene ether ketone) membranes as a lithium-ion battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Mong, Anh; Kim, Dukjoon

    2016-02-01

    Porous poly(arylene ether ketone) (PAEK) membranes are prepared by selective removal of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) molecules from self-assembled PAEK-PLA block copolymers. The pore size and porosity of the membranes are precisely controlled by adjusting PLA concentration. The synthesis of the PAEK-PLA copolymer is confirmed by FTIR and NMR spectroscopies and the morphology of the membrane is examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Several important properties such as liquid electrolyte uptake, contact angle, thermal and mechanical stability, and lithium ion conductivity are measured and compared with those of commercial poly(propylene) (PP) membranes to investigate their application feasibility as a separator. The porous PAEK membrane shows improved thermal and dimensional stability compared to the PP membrane. The EC/DEC/EMC (1:1:1, v/v/v) soaked PAEK membrane with a pore diameter of 50 nm shows the highest lithium ion conductivity, higher than that of PP membrane. More importantly, the porous PAEK membranes show superior liquid electrolyte holding capacity to the PP membrane.

  18. The transepithelial transport mechanism of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in human intestine determined using a Caco-2 cell monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yingxin; Wang, Mengmeng; Zhang, Kaiqiong; Yang, Dan; Zhong, Yufang; An, Jing; Lei, Bingli; Zhang, Xinyu

    2017-04-01

    Oral ingestion plays an important role in human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The uptake of PBDEs primarily occurs in the small intestine. The aim of the present study is to investigate the transepithelial transport characteristics and mechanisms of PBDEs in the small intestine using a Caco-2 cell monolayer model. The apparent permeability coefficients of PBDEs indicated that tri- to hepta-BDEs were poorly absorbed compounds. A linear increase in transepithelial transport was observed with various concentrations of PBDEs, which suggested that passive diffusion dominated their transport at the concentration range tested. In addition, the pseudo-first-order kinetics equation can be applied to the transepithelial transport of PBDEs. The rate-determining step in transepithelial transport of PBDEs was trans-cell transport including the trans-pore process. The significantly lower transepithelial transport rates at low temperature for bidirectional transepithelial transport suggested that an energy-dependent transport mechanism was involved. The efflux transporters (P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance-associated protein, and breast cancer resistance protein) and influx transporters (organic cation transporters) participated in the transepithelial transport of PBDEs. In addition, the transepithelial transport of PBDEs was pH sensitive; however, more information is required to understand the influence of pH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Removal of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) using a combined system involving TiO2photocatalysis and wetland plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Ka Lai; Man, Yu Bon; Tam, Nora Fung Yee; Liang, Yan; Wong, Ming Hung

    2017-01-15

    There is a rising concern about the capability of sewage treatment works in treating emerging chemicals, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). A combined photocatalysis (TiO 2 and visible light) and constructed wetland system (planted with Oryza sativa (rice cultivar: Hefengzhan) and Phragmites australis (common reed)) was designed to study PBDEs removal efficiencies. After the pre-treatment in TiO 2 suspension, the artificially BDE-209 spiked sewage (78.2 and 782nmol/L) was discharged into the sub-surface flow constructed wetland tanks planted with rice and common reed, respectively. The treated sewage, soil, plant roots, shoots, rice grains and hulls were collected and analyzed for PBDEs by GC-MS. The removals of BDE-209 in the combined systems (93.6±2.19% (78.2nmol/L) and 92.1±1.11% (782nmol/L)) were significantly higher than those in the photocatalytic systems (56.3±5.78% (78.2nmol/L) and 54.7±9.47% (782nmol/L)), which could be explained by the enhanced biodegradability of PBDEs in photocatalysis, led to its better dissipation by rice plants. Therefore, this combined system might help to degrade BDE-209 in the wastewater effluent, reducing its potential entry into aquatic food chains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in a marine food web from Liaodong Bay, North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Xindong; Zhang, Haijun; Yao, Ziwei; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Wang, Longxing; Wang, Zhen; Chen, Jiping; Chen, Jingwen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • BDE-47 was the dominating congener in organisms of the Liaodong Bay. • The length of food chain played an important role on the TMFs. • PBDEs were steadily metabolized in the trophic transfer process along the food chain. -- Abstract: The concentrations of 21 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) congeners were analyzed in organisms within a marine food web collected from the Liaodong Bay, North China. The total concentrations of PBDEs in all samples ranged from 0.87 to 91.4 ng g −1 lipid weight (lw). BDE-47 was the predominant congener and had a concentration ranging from 0.30 to 36.1 ng g −1 lw. The trophic magnification factors (TMF) of the PBDEs were calculated using the trophic levels obtained from the stable nitrogen isotope ratios. The TMF value of ∑PBDEs was 3.50 for the entire food web and 2.21 for the food web excluding seabirds. Four concentration ratios, BDE-99/BDE-100, BDE-99/BDE-47, BDE-153/BDE-154 and BDE-183/BDE-154, decreased linearly with the increase of the trophic levels in the invertebrates and the fishes (p < 0.01). The results suggested that the PBDEs were steadily metabolized in the trophic transfer process along the food chain

  1. Sulphonated biphenylated poly(aryl ether ketone)s for fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, W.; Jiang, Z. [Alan G. MacDiarmid Institute, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Robertson, G.P.; Guiver, M.D. [Institute for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology, National Research Council, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Kim, Y.S. [Electronic and Electrochemical Materials and Devices, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Liu, B.

    2010-02-15

    New series of fully aromatic poly(ether ketone)s with a biphenyl pendant groups were synthesised. A direct comparison of sulphonation reaction among monophenylated poly(ether ether ketone) (Ph-PEEK), biphenylated poly(ether ether ketone) (BiPh-PEEK) and PEEK (Victrex) was thoroughly investigated. Several advantages of the pendant-phenyl poly(ether ketone)s compared with commercial PEEK were identified, including ready control over the site of sulphonation and degree of sulphonation (DS), and mild and rapid sulphonation. The basic membrane physical properties comprising of thermal and mechanical properties, dimensional stability and proton conductivity were studied. One new membrane, sulphonated biphenylated poly(ether ether ketone) (BiPh-SPEEKDK) having a good combination of membrane properties was fabricated into a membrane electrode assembly (MEA), and it showed excellent direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) performance. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Synthesis and Antiplasmodial Activity of EG-Artemisinin Ethers and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    The aim of this study was to synthesize a series of ethylene glycol (EG) ethers and quinoline hybrids of the antimalarial drug artemisinin and to ... The IC50 values revealed that all the ethers were active against both strains but less potent than ...... Compound 19 was racemate (mixture 3''R and 3''S isomers) isolated as fluffy ...

  3. Congenital malformations and maternal occupational exposure to glycol ethers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordier, S; Bergeret, A; Goujard, J; Ha, MC; Ayme, S; Calzolari, E; DeWalle, HEK; KnillJones, R; Candela, S; Dale, [No Value; Dananche, B; deVigan, C; Fevotte, J; Kiel, G; Mandereau, L

    Glycol ethers are found in a wide range of domestic and industrial products, many of which are used in women's work environments. Motivated by concern about their potential reproductive toxicity, we have evaluated the risk of congenital malformations related to glycol ether exposure during preg

  4. Synthesis and bioactivity of rotenone oxime O -ether derivatives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of rotenone oxime O-ether derivatives were synthesized and characterized. All compounds were tested for their insecticidal, miticidal and fungicidal activities against the selected pests and compared with those of rotenone. The results of biological tests show that the rotenone oxime O-ether derivatives have ...

  5. Bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and several alternative halogenated flame retardants in a small herbivorous food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Ya-Zhe; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Peng, Ying; Mo, Ling; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2013-03-01

    Little is known about the bioaccumulation behavior of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) in plants and in herbivores. In the present study, PBDEs and several alternative HFRs (AHFRs) were examined in a small herbivorous food chain (paddy soils-rice plant-apple snails) from an electronic waste recycling site in South China. Mean concentrations of total PBDEs were 40.5, 1.81, and 5.54 ng/g dry weight in the soils, rice plant, and apple snails, respectively. Levels of total AHFRs in the samples were comparable to or even higher than those of PBDEs. The calculated plant to soil concentration ratios for most AHFRs (0.05-3.40) were higher than those for PBDEs (0.02-0.23), indicating the greater bioavailability of the AHFRs in the rice plant. All PBDE congeners and Dechlorane Plus (DP) isomers were biomagnified from the rice plant to apple snails, with mean biomagnification factors (BMFs) of 1.1-5.0. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the indoor and outdoor environments – A review on occurrence and human exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besis, Athanasios; Samara, Constantini

    2012-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) constitute an important group of brominated flame retardants that have been massively produced and extensively used in numerous everyday products, providing longer escape times in case of fire and thus saving lives, as well as reducing the damage of property. In recent years, PBDEs have been recognized as significant pollutants of the indoor environment. This article provides a synthesis and critical evaluation of the state of the knowledge about the occurrence of PBDEs in the indoor environment (air and dust in homes, workplaces and cars) in different countries in Europe, North America, Asia and Australia, as well as about the human exposure via indoor air inhalation and dust ingestion in comparison to outdoor air inhalation and dietary intake. - Although dietary intake is major human exposure route to PBDEs, there is sufficient body of evidence for the ubiquitous presence of these compounds in indoor air and dust, therefore for the potential for significant exposure at work, at home, as well as in closed means of transport.

  7. Cholesterol as a factor regulating the influence of natural (PAF and lysoPAF) vs synthetic (ED) ether lipids on model lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasiński, Michał; Wydro, Paweł; Hąc-Wydro, Katarzyna; Dynarowicz-Łątka, Patrycja

    2013-11-01

    In this work we have performed a comparative study on the effect of antineoplastic ether lipid-edelfosine (ED), its natural analogs - Platelet Activating Factor (PAF) and its precursor (lyso-PAF), both lacking anticancer properties, on cholesterol/phosphatidylcholine (Chol/PC) monolayers, serving as model membranes. Since all the above ether lipids are membrane active, it can be expected that their effect on membranes may differentiate their biological activity. Our investigations were aimed at studying potential relationship of the effect of ED, PAF and lyso-PAF on model membranes, differing in condensation. We have modified molecular packing of Chol/PC model systems either by increasing the level of sterol in the system or changing the structure of PC, while keeping the same sterol content. Additionally, we have performed a detailed comparison of the miscibility of ED, PAF and lyso-PAF with various membrane lipids. The collected data evidenced that all the investigated ether lipids influence Chol/PC films in the same way; however, in a different magnitude. Moreover, the interactions of ED, PAF and lyso-PAF with model membranes were the strongest at the highest level of sterol in the system. A thorough analysis of the obtained results has proved that the effect of the investigated ether lipids on membranes is not dependent on the condensation of the system, but it is strongly determined by the concentration of cholesterol. Since ED was found to interact with model membranes stronger than PAF and lyso-PAF, we have suggested that this fact may contribute to differences in cytotoxicity of these compounds. © 2013.

  8. An open, randomized single-centre study to compare the efficacy and convenience of follitropin beta administered by a pen device with follitropin alpha administered by a conventional syringe in women undergoing ovarian stimulation for IVF/ICSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platteau, Peter; Laurent, Els; Albano, Carola; Osmanagaoglu, Kaan; Vernaeve, Valérie; Tournaye, Herman; Camus, Michel; Van Steirteghem, André; Devroey, Paul

    2003-06-01

    A pen device, similar to an insulin pen, has been recently marketed for the administration of follitropin beta in cartridges. A randomized controlled trial was performed to compare the efficacy and convenience of this pen device delivering follitropin beta with a conventional syringe delivering follitropin alpha. A total of 200 patients needing IVF/ICSI treatment and willing to self-inject were enrolled in the study. All subjects had ovarian stimulation according to a long protocol and were randomized to the pen or the conventional syringe group during down-regulation by means of a computer-generated randomization list using random numbers. Patients were asked to fill in a daily local tolerance book after each injection. On the day of hCG the patients scored a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain and convenience. The average duration, total dose of recombinant FSH and number of cumulus oocyte complexes retrieved were 10.8/12.0 days (P = 0.001), 1880/2226 IU (P < 0.001) and 15.2/13.1 respectively in the pen device and conventional syringe groups; the presence of pain after the daily injection was significantly higher in the conventional syringe group (P = 0.027); the visual analogue scale score was similar for pain but significantly more convenient for the pen device (P < 0.001). The live birth rate per embryo transfer was 32.9 and 34.4% respectively in the pen device and conventional syringe groups. Self-injection with the pen device is safe and easy, more convenient and less painful for the patient, requires less FSH and shortens the treatment duration.

  9. The structure and binding energy of K+endash ether complexes: A comparison of MP2, RI-MP2, and density functional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feller, D.; Apra, E.; Nichols, J.A.; Bernholdt, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    The structures and binding energies of several cation:ether complexes (K + :dimethyl ether, K + :dimethoxyethane, K + :12-crown-4 and K + :18-crown-6) were determined with second and fourth order perturbation theory using correlation consistent basis sets. Several of these are the largest correlated calculations yet attempted on crown ethers. The observed systematic convergence to the complete basis set limit provides a standard by which the accuracy of previous studies can be measured and facilitates the calibration of density functional methods. Recent Fouier transform ion cyclotron resonance experiments predicted K + :18-crown-6 binding energies which were significantly smaller than ab initio calculations. None of the potential sources of error examined in the present study were large enough to explain this difference. Although the 6-31+G* basis set used in an earlier theoretical study was smaller than the smallest of the correlation consistent basis sets, with suitable correction for basis set superposition error, it appears capable of yielding binding energies within several kcal/mol of the basis set limit. Perturbation theory calculations exploiting the open-quote open-quote resolution of the identity close-quote close-quote approximation were found to faithfully reproduce binding energies and conformational differences. Although the cation endash ether interaction is dominated by classical electrostatics, the accuracy of density functional techniques was found to be quite sensitive to the choice of functionals. The local density SVWN procedure performed well for binding energies and conformational differences, while underestimating K + O distances by up to 0.08 A. The gradient-corrected Becke endash Lee endash Yang endash Parr functional underestimated the K + :12c4 binding energy by 4 endash 7 kcal/mol or 15%. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  10. The introduction of a double bond on the steroid skeleton - the preparation of enol silyl ether derivatives from vicinal diols

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marek, Aleš; Klepetářová, Blanka; Elbert, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 5 (2011), s. 443-456 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400550801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : enol silyl ether * vicinal diol * steroids Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.283, year: 2011

  11. The smallest quaternary ammonium salts with ether groups for high-performance electrochemical double layer capacitors† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc02755a Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Taihee; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Jeonghun; Kim, Jung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) are energy storage devices that have been used for a wide range of electronic applications. In particular, the electrolyte is one of the important components, directly related to the capacitance and stability. Herein, we first report a series of the smallest quaternary ammonium salts (QASs), with ether groups on tails and tetrafluoroborate (BF4) as an anion, for use in EDLCs. To find the optimal structure, various QASs with different sized head groups and ether-containing tail groups were systematically compared. Comparing two nearly identical structures with and without ether groups, QASs with oxygen atoms showed improved capacitance, proving that ions with oxygen atoms move more easily than their counterparts at lower electric fields. Moreover, the ether containing QASs showed low activation energy values of conductivities, leading to smaller IR drops during the charge and discharge processes, resulting in an overall higher capacitance. PMID:28959391

  12. Reproductive toxicity of the glycol ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, B D

    1983-06-01

    The glycol ethers are an important and widely used class of solvents. Recent studies have demonstrated that ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME), ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (EGdiME), ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGEE), and ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (EGEEA) are teratogenic. Other studies have demonstrated that testicular atrophy or infertility follow treatment of males with EGME, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (EGMEA), EGEE, EGEEA, diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (diEGdiME), and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (diEGEE). Experimental data are reviewed and structure-activity relationships are speculated upon.

  13. Extraction of Gd3+and UO22+Ions Using Polystyrene Grafted Dibenzo Crown Ether (DB18C6) with Octanol and Nitrobenzene: A Molecular Dynamics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappidi, Praveenkumar; Namsani, Sadanandam; Ali, Sk Musharaf; Singh, Jayant Kumar

    2018-01-25

    Atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed in order to derive thermodynamic properties important to understand the extraction of gadolinium (Gd 3+ ) and uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) with dibenzo crown ether (DBCE) in nitrobenzene (NB) and octanol (OCT) solvents. The effect of polystyrene graft length, on DBCE, on the binding behavior of Gd 3+ and UO 2 2+ is investigated for the first time. Our simulation results demonstrate that the binding of Gd 3+ and UO 2 2+ onto the oxygens of crown ethers is favorable for polystyrene grafted crown ether in the organic solvents OCT and NB. The metal ion binding free energy (ΔG Binding ) in different solvent environments is calculated using the thermodynamic integration (TI) method. ΔG Binding becomes more favorable in both solvents, NB and OCT, with an increase in the polystyrene monomer length. The metal ion transferability from an aqueous phase to an organic phase is estimated by calculating transfer free-energy calculations (ΔG Transfer ). ΔG Transfer is significantly favorable for both Gd 3+ and UO 2 2+ for the transfer from the aqueous phase to the organic phase (i.e., NB and OCT) via ion-complexation to DBCE with an increase in polystyrene length. The partition coefficient (log P) values for Gd 3+ and UO 2 2+ show a 5-fold increase in separation capacity with polystyrene grafted DBCE. We corroborate the observed behavior by further analyzing the structural and dynamical properties of the ions in different phases.

  14. Molecular structure impacts on secondary organic aerosol formation from glycol ethers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lijie; Cocker, David R.

    2018-05-01

    Glycol ethers, a class of widely used solvents in consumer products, are often considered exempt as volatile organic compounds based on their vapor pressure or boiling points by regulatory agencies. However, recent studies found that glycol ethers volatilize at ambient conditions nearly as rapidly as the traditional high-volatility solvents indicating the potential of glycol ethers to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA). This is the first work on SOA formation from glycol ethers. The impact of molecular structure, specifically -OH, on SOA formation from glycol ethers and related ethers are investigated in the work. Ethers with and without -OH, with methyl group hindrance on -OH and with -OH at different location are studied in the presence of NOX and under "NOX free" conditions. Photooxidation experiments under different oxidation conditions confirm that the processing of ethers is a combination of carbonyl formation, cyclization and fragmentation. Bulk SOA chemical composition analysis and oxidation products identified in both gas and particle phase suggests that the presence and location of -OH in the carbon bond of ethers determine the occurrence of cyclization mechanism during ether oxidation. The cyclization is proposed as a critical SOA formation mechanism to prevent the formation of volatile compounds from fragmentation during the oxidation of ethers. Glycol ethers with -CH2-O-CH2CH2OH structure is found to readily form cyclization products, especially with the presence of NOx, which is more relevant to urban atmospheric conditions than without NOx. Glycol ethers are evaluated as dominating SOA precursors among all ethers studied. It is estimated that the contribution of glycol ethers to anthropogenic SOA is roughly 1% of the current organic aerosol from mobile sources. The contribution of glycol ethers to anthropogenic SOA is roughly 1% of the current organic aerosol from mobile sources and will play a more important role in future anthropogenic SOA

  15. Unexpected differences between thermal and photoinitiated cationic curing of a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A modified with a multiarm star poly(styrene-b-poly(ε-caprolactone polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Morancho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of adding a multiarm star poly(styrene-b-poly(ε-caprolactone polymer on the cationic thermal and photoinitiated curing of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A was studied. This star-polymer decelerated the thermal curing of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A and modified the final structure of the epoxy matrix. The photocuring was influenced significantly by the addition of the multiarm star. When the proportion of this modifier added was 5%, much more time was necessary for complete photocuring (160 min at 40ºC. In the presence of 10% of modifier, the degree of photocuring reached was very low (0.196 at 120°C. A subsequent thermal post-curing was necessary to cure completely the system. During photocuring in presence of poly(styrene-b-poly(ε-caprolactone, the formation of dormant species, which are reactivated when the temperature increases, takes places. The kinetics of the thermal curing and the photocuring was analyzed using an isoconversional method due to the complexity of the reactive process. Applying this method, it has been confirmed the dependence of activation energy on the degree of conversion. The fracture morphology analyzed by scanning electron microscopy exhibited a second phase originated during photocuring by the presence of the modifier.

  16. 48 CFR 809.270 - Qualified products for convenience/labor-saving foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... convenience/labor-saving foods. 809.270 Section 809.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... 809.270 Qualified products for convenience/labor-saving foods. (a) Each VISN Nutrition and Food Service representative is authorized to establish a common VISN QPL for convenience and labor-saving foods...

  17. Healthy convenience: nudging students toward healthier choices in the lunchroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Andrew S; Just, David R; Smith, Laura E; Wansink, Brian

    2012-08-01

    In the context of food, convenience is generally associated with less healthy foods. Given the reality of present-biased preferences, if convenience was associated with healthier foods and less healthy foods were less convenient, people would likely consume healthier foods. This study examines the application of this principle in a school lunchroom where healthier foods were made more convenient relative to less healthy foods. One of two lunch lines in a cafeteria was arranged so as to display only healthier foods and flavored milk. Trained field researchers collected purchase and consumption data before and after the conversion. Mean comparisons were used to identify differences in selection and consumption of healthier foods, less healthy foods and chocolate milk. Sales of healthier foods increased by 18% and grams of less healthy foods consumed decreased by nearly 28%. Also, healthier foods' share of total consumption increased from 33 to 36%. Lastly, we find that students increased their consumption of flavored milk, but flavored milk's share of total consumption did not increase. In a school lunchroom, a convenience line that offered only healthier food options nudged students to consume fewer unhealthy foods. This result has key implications for encouraging healthy behavior in public schools nation wide, cafeterias and other food establishments.

  18. Fabrication and properties of poly(polyethylene glycol n-alkyl ether vinyl ether)s as polymeric phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Dong-fang; Chen, Sai; Li, Shu-qin; Shi, Hai-feng; Li, Wei; Li, Xuan; Zhang, Xing-xiang

    2016-01-01

    A series of poly(polyethylene glycol n-alkyl ether vinyl ether)s (PC m E n VEs) with various lengths of alkyl chains and polyethylene glycol spacers as side chain (m = 16,18; n = 1,2) were synthesized via two steps. First, monomers-ethylene glycol hexadecyl ether vinyl ether (C 16 E 1 VE), ethylene glycol octadecyl ether vinyl ether (C 18 E 1 VE), diethylene glycol hexadecyl ether vinyl ether (C 16 E 2 VE) and diethylene glycol octadecyl ether vinyl ether (C 18 E 2 VE) were synthesized by a modified Williamson etherification. Then, four new types of phase change materials were successfully fabricated by a living cationic polymerization. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) were employed to characterize their composition, thermal properties and crystallization behavior. The results show that, the side chains of PC 16 E 1 VE, PC 18 E 1 VE, PC 16 E 2 VE and PC 18 E 2 VE are in a hexagonal lattice, and the onset temperatures for melting of PC 16 E 1 VE, PC 18 E 1 VE, PC 16 E 2 VE and PC 18 E 2 VE are 39.8 °C, 37.4 °C, 51.0 °C and 48.9 °C, the onset temperatures for crystallization are 36.7 °C, 35.2 °C, 47.4 °C and 46.3 °C, respectively. The enthalpy changes of PC 18 E 1 VE, PC 16 E 2 VE and PC 18 E 2 VE are higher than 100 J/g; on the contrary, it is 96 J/g for PC 16 E 1 VE. The enthalpy decrease is no more than 11% after 10 heating and cooling cycles. The 5 wt% mass loss temperatures of PC 18 E 1 VE, PC 16 E 2 VE and PC 18 E 2 VE are higher than 300 °C; on the contrary, it’s 283 °C for PC 16 E 1 VE. Using a weak polarity, flexible alkyl ether chain (-OCH 2 CH 2 O-) as a spacer to link the main chain and side chain is conducive to the crystallization of the alkyl side chain. These new phase change materials can be applied in heat storage, energy conservation, and environmental protection.

  19. Optical Sensing of Aromatic Amino Acids and Dipeptides by a Crown-Ether-Functionalized Perylene Bisimide Fluorophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weißenstein, Annike; Saha-Möller, Chantu R; Würthner, Frank

    2018-03-25

    We have studied the host-guest binding properties of a crown ether equipped, fluorescent perylene bisimide (PBI) receptor with a series of aromatic amino acids and dipeptides by UV/Vis, fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy. Fluorescence titration experiments showed that electron-rich aromatic amino acids L-tryptophan (L-Trp) and L-tyrosine (L-Tyr) as well as dipeptides containing these amino acids strongly quench the fluorescence of the electron-poor PBI molecule. Benesi-Hildebrand plots of fluorescence titration data confirmed the formation of host-guest complexes with 1:2 stoichiometry. Binding constants determined by UV/Vis and fluorescence titration experiments revealed values of 10³ - 10⁵ M-¹ in acetonitrile/methanol (9:1) at 23 °C. These data showed that amino acid L-Trp having an electron-rich indole unit and dipeptides containing this amino acid bind to the PBI receptor more strongly than other amino acids and dipeptides investigated here. For dipeptides containing L-Trp or L-Tyr the binding strength depends on the distance between the ammonium group and the aromatic unit of the amino acids and dipeptides, leading to a strong sensitivity for Ala-Trp dipeptide. 1D and 2D NMR experiments also corroborated 1:2 host-guest complexation and indicated formation of two diastereomeric species of the complexes. Our studies have shown that a properly functionalized PBI fluorophore can be applied as a molecular probe for the optical sensing of aromatic amino acids and dipeptides. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Comparative embryotoxicity of a pentabrominated diphenyl ether mixture to common terns (Sterna hirundo) and American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A; Lazarus, Rebecca S; Heinz, Gary H; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K; Schultz, Sandra L; Hale, Robert C

    2013-09-01

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) eggs from San Francisco Bay have been reported to range up to 63μgg(-1) lipid weight. This value exceeds the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (1.8μgg(-1) egg wet weight; ∼32μg(-1) lipid weight) reported in an embryotoxicity study with American kestrels (Falco sparverius). As a surrogate for Forster's terns, common tern (Sterna hirundo) eggs were treated by air cell injection with corn oil vehicle (control) or a commercial penta-BDE formulation (DE-71) at nominal concentrations of 0.2, 2, and 20μgg(-1) egg. As a positive control, kestrel eggs received vehicle or 20μg DE-71g(-1) egg. In terns, there were no effects of DE-71 on embryonic survival, and pipping or hatching success; however, treated eggs hatched later (0.44d) than controls. Organ weights, organ-to-body weight ratios, and bone lengths did not differ, and histopathological observations were unremarkable. Several measures of hepatic oxidative stress in hatchling terns were not affected by DE-71, although there was some evidence of oxidative DNA damage (8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine; 8-OH-dG). Although DE-71 did not impair pipping and hatching of kestrels, it did result in a delay in hatch, shorter humerus length, and reduced total thyroid weight. Concentrations of oxidized glutathione, reduced glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and 8-OH-dG in liver were greater in DE-71-treated kestrels compared to controls. Our findings suggest common tern embryos, and perhaps other tern species, are less sensitive to PBDEs than kestrel embryos. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Comparative embryotoxicity of a pentabrominated diphenyl ether mixture to common terns (Sterna hirundo) and American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Lazarus, Rebecca S.; Heinz, Gary H.; Karouna-Reiner, Natalie K.; Schultz, Sandra L.; Hale, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Forster’s tern (Sterna forsteri) eggs from San Francisco Bay have been reported to range up to 63 μg g−1 lipid weight. This value exceeds the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (1.8 μg g−1 egg wet weight; ∼32 μg−1 lipid weight) reported in an embryotoxicity study with American kestrels (Falco sparverius). As a surrogate for Forster’s terns, common tern (Sterna hirundo) eggs were treated by air cell injection with corn oil vehicle (control) or a commercial penta-BDE formulation (DE-71) at nominal concentrations of 0.2, 2, and 20 μg g−1 egg. As a positive control, kestrel eggs received vehicle or 20 μg DE-71 g−1 egg. In terns, there were no effects of DE-71 on embryonic survival, and pipping or hatching success; however, treated eggs hatched later (0.44 d) than controls. Organ weights, organ-to-body weight ratios, and bone lengths did not differ, and histopathological observations were unremarkable. Several measures of hepatic oxidative stress in hatchling terns were not affected by DE-71, although there was some evidence of oxidative DNA damage (8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine; 8-OH-dG). Although DE-71 did not impair pipping and hatching of kestrels, it did result in a delay in hatch, shorter humerus length, and reduced total thyroid weight. Concentrations of oxidized glutathione, reduced glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and 8-OH-dG in liver were greater in DE-71-treated kestrels compared to controls. Our findings suggest common tern embryos, and perhaps other tern species, are less sensitive to PBDEs than kestrel embryos.

  2. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in airborne particulates collected during a research expedition from the Bohai Sea to the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Ming; Ding, Xiang; Mai, Bi-Xian; Xie, Zhou-Qing; Xiang, Cai-Hong; Sun, Li-Guang; Sheng, Guo-Ying; Fu, Jia-Mo; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2005-10-15

    In July to September 2003, particulates in the oceanic atmosphere from the Bohai Sea to the high Arctic (37 degrees N to 80 degrees N) were collected aboard a research expedition icebreaker, Xuelong (Snow Dragon), under the 2003 Chinese Arctic Research Expedition Program (CHINARE 2003). These samples were analyzed to elucidate the atmospheric distributions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the North Pacific Ocean and adjacent Arctic region. The levels of 11 PBDE congeners (BDE-28, -47, -66, -100, -99, -85, -154, -153, -138, -183, and -209; the sum was defined as sigma11PBDE) in the oceanic atmosphere of Far East Asia (34-48 degrees N/122-148 degrees E) ranged from 2.25 to 198.9 pg/m3 with a mean of 58.3 pg/m3. BDE-47, -99, -100, and -209 were the dominant congeners in all the samples, suggesting that the widely used commercial penta- and deca-BDE products were the original sources. The PBDE levels exhibited a decreasing trend from the mid- to high-latitudinal regions of the North Pacific Ocean, probably resulting from dilution, deposition, and decomposition of PBDEs during long-range transport of air masses. On the other hand, no apparent geographical pattern of PBDE distribution was observed within the Arctic, attributable to unstable air circulation and strong air mixing. Correlations among the PBDE congeners suggested that air masses collected from the North Pacific Ocean were relatively fresh, whereas those from the Arctic were aged as a result of photodecompoisiton. The higher average level (17.3 pg/m3) of PBDE congeners in the Arctic than those in the adjacent North Pacific Ocean (12.8 pg/m3) or other remote areas reported in the literature was attributed to the impact of the North American continent and temperature effects, which was consistent with the hypotheses of global fractionation.

  3. Biosynthesis of archaeal membrane ether lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, Samta; Caforio, Antonella; Driessen, Arnold J. M.

    2014-01-01

    A vital function of the cell membrane in all living organism is to maintain the membrane permeability barrier and fluidity. The composition of the phospholipid bilayer is distinct in archaea when compared to bacteria and eukarya. In archaea, isoprenoid hydrocarbon side chains are linked via an ether

  4. Tree bark as a passive air sampler to indicate atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaoxu; Wang, Junxia; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Deng, Jingjing; Liu, Yangcheng; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Lili; Dong, Liang; Lin, Kuangfei

    2014-06-01

    The different barks were sampled to discuss the influence of the tree species, trunk circumference, and bark thickness on the accumulation processes of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from air into the bark. The results of different PBDE concentrations indicated that barks with a thickness of 0-3 mm collected from weeping willow, Camphor tree, and Masson pine, the trunk circumferences of which were 100 to 150 cm, were better PBDEs passive samplers. Furthermore, tree bark and the corresponding air samples were collected at Anji (AJ), Hangzhou (HZ), Shanghai (SH), and Wenling (WL) to investigate the relationship between the PBDE concentrations in bark and those in air. In addition, the significant correlation (r (2) = 0.906; P atmospheric PBDEs were the principle source for the accumulation of PBDEs in the barks. In this study, the log K BA (bark-air partition coefficient) of individual PBDE congeners at the four sites were in the range from 5.69 to 6.79. Finally, the total PBDE concentration in WL was 5 to 20 times higher than in the other three cities. The result indicated that crude household workshops contributed a heavy amount of PBDEs pollution to the environment, which had been verified by the spatial distribution of PBDEs levels in barks collected at Wenling (range, 26.53-1317.68 ng/g dw). The good correlation between the PBDE concentrations in the barks and the air samples and the variations of the PBDE concentrations in tree barks collected from different sites reflected that the bark could be used as a passive sampler to indicate the atmospheric PBDEs.

  5. Emissions of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers from a municipal solid waste incinerator during the start-up operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jing-Sing [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Lin, Sheng-Lun, E-mail: cbmsgml@gmail.com [Department of Civil Engineering and Geomatics, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan (China); Super Micro Mass Research and Technology Center, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ta-Chang; Wu, Yee-Lin [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Wang, Lin-Chi [Department of Civil Engineering and Geomatics, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan (China); Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping, E-mail: guoping@csu.edu.tw [Super Micro Mass Research and Technology Center, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan (China); Department of Cosmetic and Fashion Styling, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • This is the first study on the PCDE emission during a MSWI start-up procedure. • The highest PCDE level occurred similar to the PCDD/F reformation temperature. • The pollution control were modified and reduce 86% PCDE peak emission. • Multiple start-ups are analyzed for their effects on the annual PCDE emission. - Abstract: This study examines the emissions of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs) during the start-up processes of a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI). Both normal and modified emission control start-ups were tested. Fifteen samples were taken from the flue gas with increasing furnace temperature. Peak PCDE concentrations of 1.48–10.3 ng/Nm{sup 3} were observed at 8–11 h after the start of combustion, when the furnace temperature was in the range of 267–440 °C, that also needed for PCDD/F formation by de novo synthesis. The PCDE emissions could thus, be reduced by current control techniques. Furthermore, the modified control strategies inhibited PCDE formation at the beginning of combustion, and led to an 86% reduction in the maximum PCDE concentration. The overall start-up emissions were calculated as 1.01–3.08 mg, while the annual PCDE emissions with one start-up operation were found to be 7.48–9.64 mg. However, total PCDE emissions will increase by 12–69% if the number of start-up runs increases to between two and eight times per year. Consequently, the prevention of the unnecessary start-ups and advanced activation of the related emission control system are both efficient ways to reduce PCDE emissions.

  6. Emissions of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers from a municipal solid waste incinerator during the start-up operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jing-Sing; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Lin, Ta-Chang; Wu, Yee-Lin; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This is the first study on the PCDE emission during a MSWI start-up procedure. • The highest PCDE level occurred similar to the PCDD/F reformation temperature. • The pollution control were modified and reduce 86% PCDE peak emission. • Multiple start-ups are analyzed for their effects on the annual PCDE emission. - Abstract: This study examines the emissions of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs) during the start-up processes of a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI). Both normal and modified emission control start-ups were tested. Fifteen samples were taken from the flue gas with increasing furnace temperature. Peak PCDE concentrations of 1.48–10.3 ng/Nm 3 were observed at 8–11 h after the start of combustion, when the furnace temperature was in the range of 267–440 °C, that also needed for PCDD/F formation by de novo synthesis. The PCDE emissions could thus, be reduced by current control techniques. Furthermore, the modified control strategies inhibited PCDE formation at the beginning of combustion, and led to an 86% reduction in the maximum PCDE concentration. The overall start-up emissions were calculated as 1.01–3.08 mg, while the annual PCDE emissions with one start-up operation were found to be 7.48–9.64 mg. However, total PCDE emissions will increase by 12–69% if the number of start-up runs increases to between two and eight times per year. Consequently, the prevention of the unnecessary start-ups and advanced activation of the related emission control system are both efficient ways to reduce PCDE emissions.

  7. Rab11-dependent Recycling of the Human Ether-a-go-go-related Gene (hERG) Channel*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jeffery; Guo, Jun; Yang, Tonghua; Li, Wentao; Lamothe, Shawn M.; Kang, Yudi; Szendrey, John A.; Zhang, Shetuan

    2015-01-01

    The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes the pore-forming subunit of the rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium channel (IKr). A reduction in the hERG current causes long QT syndrome, which predisposes affected individuals to ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. We reported previously that hERG channels in the plasma membrane undergo vigorous internalization under low K+ conditions. In the present study, we addressed whether hERG internalization occurs under normal K+ conditions and whether/how internalized channels are recycled back to the plasma membrane. Using patch clamp, Western blot, and confocal imaging analyses, we demonstrated that internalized hERG channels can effectively recycle back to the plasma membrane. Low K+-enhanced hERG internalization is accompanied by an increased rate of hERG recovery in the plasma membrane upon reculture following proteinase K-mediated clearance of cell-surface proteins. The increased recovery rate is not due to enhanced protein synthesis, as hERG mRNA expression was not altered by low K+ exposure, and the increased recovery was observed in the presence of the protein biosynthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. GTPase Rab11, but not Rab4, is involved in the recycling of hERG channels. Interfering with Rab11 function not only delayed hERG recovery in cells after exposure to low K+ medium but also decreased hERG expression and function in cells under normal culture conditions. We concluded that the recycling pathway plays an important role in the homeostasis of plasma membrane-bound hERG channels. PMID:26152716

  8. Effect of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) on a soil-biota system: Role of earthworms and ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mingbao; He, Qun; Shi, Jiaqi; Qin, Li; Zhang, Xuesheng; Sun, Ping; Wang, Zunyao

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, the toxic effect of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), an important brominated fire retardant, on soil was evaluated by amending with different concentrations (0 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg dry wt) for 40 d. The activities of 3 soil enzymes (urease, catalase, and alkaline phosphatase) were measured as the principal assessment endpoints. Meanwhile, the effects of natural environmental factors, such as light conditions and soil biota, on BDE-209 intoxication were studied. For the latter, 30 earthworms (Metaphire guillelmi) with fully matured clitella or ryegrass (Lolium perenne) with fully matured leaves were exposed in soil amended with BDE-209. The activities of the soil enzymes were adversely affected by BDE-209, especially for the high-concentration treatments, with greater adverse effects in the dark than in the light. The presence of earthworms reduced toxicity to BDE-209, whereas ryegrass did not. The calculated integrated biomarker response index, which provides a general indicator of the health status of test species by combining different biomarker signals, further validated these findings. Moreover, the antioxidant status (oxidant-antioxidant balance) of these 2 biota was assessed. Results indicated that BDE-209 significantly affected the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and enhanced the levels of malondialdehyde in both species. The present study may facilitate a better understanding of the toxicity of BDE-209 toward the soil environment. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1349-1357. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  9. Responses of growth inhibition and antioxidant gene expression in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to tetrabromobisphenol A, hexabromocyclododecane and decabromodiphenyl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ya-juan; Xu, Xiang-bo; Zheng, Xiao-qi; Lu, Yong-long

    2015-01-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209), suspected ubiquitous contaminants, account for the largest volume of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) since penta-BDE and octa-BDE have been phased out globally. In this paper, the growth inhibition and gene transcript levels of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT)) and the stress-response gene involved in the prevention of oxidative stress (Hsp70) of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to TBBPA, HBCD and BDE 209 were measured to identify the toxicity effects of selected BFRs on earthworms. The growth of earthworms treated by TBBPA at 200 and 400 mg/kg dw were inhibited at rate of 13.7% and 22.0% respectively, while there was no significant growth inhibition by HBCD and BDE 209. A significant (Pearthworms exposed to TBBPA at 50 mg/kg dw (1.77-fold) and to HBCD at 400 mg/kg dw (2.06-fold). The transcript level of Hsp70 gene was significantly up-regulated (Pearthworms exposed to TBBPA at concentration of 50-200 mg/kg (2.16-2.19-fold) and HBCD at 400 mg/kg (2.61-fold). No significant variation of CAT gene expression in all the BFRs treatments was observed, neither does all the target gene expression level exposed to BDE 209. Assessed by growth inhibition and the changes at mRNA levels of encoding genes in earthworms, TBBPA showed the greatest toxicity, followed by HBCD and BDE 209, consistent with trends in molecular properties. The results help to understand the molecular mechanism of antioxidant defense. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Selective crystallization of cations with crown ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heffels, Dennis Egidius

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the selectivity and preferences of the incorporation of differently sized cations in the cavities of various crown ethers and the characterization of the resulting compounds. The coordination preferences of crown ethers with different cavities have long been known, and the impact of other effects on the structure formation have increasingly become the focus of attention. In this work a comparative overview of the coordination preferences depending on various factors was undertaken. The focus was mainly on the variation of the cavity of the crown ether in the presence of differently sized cations. In addition, the effects of the solvent and differently coordinating anions have been investigated. Within the framework of this work, basic coordination preferences could be detected with rare earth nitrates, which are affected particularly by the choice of the solvent. The formation of different types of structures could be controlled by varying the conditions such that the incorporation of the cation in the cavity of the crown ether was influenced and the formation of a particular type of structure can be influenced partly by the choice of solvent. In this case no direct preferences for the incorporation into the cavity of the crown ether in relation to the cation size were observed for rare earth cations. However, the coordination of the crown ether leads in each case - for lanthanides - to rather high coordination numbers. A total of five new rare earth complexes and two structural variants could be observed with crown ethers. In the study of the selectivity of the incorporation into the cavity, known structures were also reproduced and further structures were characterized but the crystal structures not entirely solved. With the use of monovalent cations such as potassium, lithium or silver a total of nine new compounds could be synthesized, while no clear preferences for the incorporation of certain cations were detected. The

  11. Efficient and convenient synthesis of symmetrical carboxylic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient and convenient procedure for the synthesis of symmetrical carboxylic anhydrides from carboxylic acids with sulfated zirconia by PEG-1000 phase transfer catalysis has been developed. The reactions proceeded under mild and solvent-free conditions to provide the carboxylic anhydrides in good to excellent ...

  12. efficient and convenient synthesis of symmetrical carboxylic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    strong acidity and high activity in light alkane conversions at relatively mild temperatures [36,. 37]. In this paper, we wish to report an efficient and convenient method for the preparation of symmetrical carboxylic anhydrides from the corresponding carboxylic acids with sulfated zirconia by phase transfer catalysis without any ...

  13. Preparation and characterization of poly(ether ether ketone) derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceicao, Thiago F.; Bertolino, Jose R.; Mireski, Sandro L.; Joussef, Antonio C.; Pires, Alfredo T.N.; Barra, Guilherme M.O.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, three derivatives of poly(ether ether ketone) [PEEK] were prepared in suspension by nitration (NO 2 -PEEK), reduction to the amino group (NH 2 -PEEK) and carbonyl reduction (PEEK-OH). These modified polymers were characterized by NMR, IR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. They showed interesting characteristics, such as, basicity and higher solubility in organic solvents, like DMF, for use as membranes and composites in different applications. (author)

  14. Ether the nothing that connects everything

    CERN Document Server

    Milutis, Joe

    2006-01-01

    In Ether, the histories of the unseen merge with discussions of the technology of electromagnetism. Navigating more than three hundred years of the ether''s cultural and artistic history, Joe Milutis reveals its continuous reinvention and tangible impact without ever losing sight of its ephemeral, elusive nature. The true meaning of ether, Milutis suggests, may be that it can never be fully grasped.

  15. Characterization of Microsolvated Crown Ethers from Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Cristobal; Schnell, Melanie; Blanco, Susana; Lopez, Juan Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Since they were first synthetized, crown ethers have been extensively used in organometallic chemistry due to their unparalleled binding selectivity with alkali metal cations. From a structural point of view, crown ethers are heterocycles containing oxygen and/or other heteroatoms, although the most common ones are formed from ethylene oxide unit. Crown ethers are conventionally seen as being hydrophilic inside and hydrophobic outside when the structures found for the metal cation complexes are considered. However, crown ethers are extremely flexible and in isolation may present a variety of stable conformations so that their structure may be easily adapted in presence of a strong ligand as an alkali metal cation minimize the energy of the resulting complex. Water can be considered a soft ligand which interacts with crown ethers through moderate hydrogen bonds. It is thus interesting to investigate which conformers are selected by water to form complexes, the preferred interaction sites and the possible conformational changes due to the presence of one or more water molecules. Previous studies identified microsolvated crown ethers but in all cases with a chromophore group attached to the structure. Here we present a broadband rotational spectroscopy study of microsolvated crown ethers produced in a pulsed molecular jet expansion. Several 1:1 and 1:2 crown ether:water aggregates are presented for 12-crown-4, 15-crown-5 and 18-crown-6. Unambiguous identification of the structures has been achieved using isotopic substitution within the water unit. The subtle changes induced in the structures of the crown ether monomer upon complexation and the hydrogen-bonding network that hold them together will be also discussed. F. Gámez, B. Martínez-Haya, S. Blanco,J. C. López and J. L. Alonso, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2014, 14 12912-12918 V. A. Shubert, C.W. Müller and T. Zwier, J. Phys. Chem. A 2009, 113 8067-8079

  16. ZERO-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF A DIMETHYL ETHER (DME) PLANT BASED ON GASIFICATION OF TORREFIED BIOMASS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Elmegaard, Brian; Houbak, Niels

    2009-01-01

    A model of a DME fuel production plant was designed and analyzed in Aspen Plus. The plant produces DME by catalytic conversion of a syngas generated by gasification of torrefied woody biomass. Torrefication is a mild pyrolysis process that takes place at 200-300°C. Torrefied biomass has propertie...... % (LHV) from torrefied biomass to DME and 70 % (LHV) if the exported electricity is included. When accounting for raw, untreated biomass, the efficiency for DME production is reduced to about 60 %....... similar to coal, which enables the use of commercially available coal gasification processing equipment. The DME plant model is integrated with a steam cycle that utilizes waste heat from the plant and covers the on-site electricity consumption. The plant model predicts a fuel production efficiency of 67...

  17. A new bile acid-derived lariat-ether: Design, synthesis and cation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    binding as we had anticipated, possibly due to the perpendicular positioning of the pyrene moiety with respect to the mean crown plane as indicated by the geometry minimised structure of compound 2 (figure 1a)10b,c. We envisioned that a C-3 hydroxyl protected. 7,12-crown might show enhanced binding towards alkali ...

  18. Partitioning of tetra- and pentabromo diphenyl ether and benzo[a]pyrene among water and dissolved and particulate organic carbon along a salinity gradient in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuivikko, Miika; Sorsa, Karoliina; Kukkonen, Jussi V K; Akkanen, Jarkko; Kotiaho, Tapio; Vähätalo, Anssi V

    2010-11-01

    This study assessed the partitioning of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromo diphenyl ether (BDE-47), 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromo diphenyl ether (BDE-99) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) among water, dissolved organic carbon (DOC: 4.93-8.72 mg/L), and particulate organic carbon (POC: 191-462 µg/L) along the salinity gradient (0-5.5‰) of the Baltic Sea off the coast of Finland. Equilibrium dialysis and two solid-phase extraction techniques using polyoxymethylene polymer (POM) were used to determine partitioning coefficients. Experiments using artificial coastal water (ACW) with Nordic fulvic (FAs) and humic acids (HAs) were used to assess the effect of salinity (0 and 5.5‰) on the DOC-water partitioning of the model compounds. All three compounds bound more (2.2-3.8-fold) to the HAs than to the FAs. Increasing salinity from 0 to 5.5‰ decreased sorption to dissolved humic substances in the ACW and Baltic Sea water samples. Along the salinity gradient, the sorption of compounds to organic material decreased when the salinity increased. Particulate organic matter sorbed model compounds per unit of carbon more than dissolved organic matter. Along the studied salinity gradient, the freely dissolved portion increased from 10 to 29% to 52 to 80% in the coastal water samples, mainly because of the increasing salinity and changes in DOC and quality of POC. © 2010 SETAC.

  19. A new bile acid-derived lariat-ether: Design, synthesis and cation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... available precursors. The association constant of compound 1 with alkali metal picrates was measured using Cram's extraction protocol. Evidence is presented for the involvement of the 3-methoxy group for the complexation. Energy minimised structures show that the A-ring gets slightly distorted upon metal ion binding.

  20. Convenience: Så tag på gourmetrestaurant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    2006-01-01

    Vil De have en særlig oplevelse med convenience food? Så vil jeg anbefale, at De booker et bord på en gourmet-restaurant og bestiller en menu surprise med en tilsvarende vinmenu. Så behøver man slet ikke at lave mad. Man behøver ikke engang at tænke over, hvad man ønsker at spise eller drikke....... Maden bliver serveret for en. Drikkevarerne bliver skænket op. De snavsede tallerkner bliver ryddet væk. Selv servietten bliver foldet ud og lagt på ens skød. Er det ikke det, De forbinder med convenience food? Hvad er det så - pulverkaffe, kagemiks, lørdagskylling? Eller pølsevogn og burgere, når det...

  1. Proton conductivity enhancement by nanostructural control of sulphonated poly (ether ether ketone) membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuwei; Ge, Junjie; Cui, Zhiming; Liu, Changpeng; Xing, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5625 Renmin Street, Changchun 130022, Jilin (China); Zhang, Jiujun [Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, National Research Council of Canada. 4250 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Lin, Haidan; Na, Hui [Alan G. MacDiarmid Institute, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2010-08-15

    A series of sulphonated poly (ether ether ketone) (sPEEK) membranes for direct methanol fuel cells are successfully prepared under different humidity degree conditions. These membranes exhibit enhanced proton conductivity at high humidity degree. It is proved that the different proton conductivity is ascribed to the orientation arrangement of sulphonic acid groups, which is caused by environmental water in the preparing process of membranes. A model is established by analyzing the dynamics of membrane formation and proved by Field emission scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). (author)

  2. Teleparallelism, modified Born-Infeld nonlinearity and space-time as a micromorphic ether

    OpenAIRE

    Sławianowski, Jan J.

    2008-01-01

    Discussed are field-theoretic models with degrees of freedom described by the $n$-leg field in an $n$-dimensional "space-time" manifold. Lagrangians are generally-covariant and invariant under the internal group GL$(n,{\\bf R})$. It is shown that the resulting field equations have some correspondence with Einstein theory and possess homogeneous vacuum solutions given by semisimple Lie group spaces or their appropriate deformations. There exists a characteristic link with the generalized Born-I...

  3. A primary study into graphene/polyether ether ketone (PEEK) nanocomposite for laser sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Binling; Berretta, Silvia; Evans, Ken; Smith, Kaylie; Ghita, Oana

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes two methods of preparation of graphene/PEEK powders for Laser Sintering (LS) and investigates their behaviour in relation to their microstructure and their properties. Thin composite films were fabricated in an attempt to replicate the thin layer formation of the powder bed process. Both methods of composite powder preparation (wet and dry) led to enhanced mechanical performance of the composite films at 0.1 and 0.5 wt% graphene nano-platelets (GNP) concentrations. The TEM images show that the GNP act as a nucleation point in crystallisation of PEEK, being at the centre of the spherulites. The hot stage microscopy reveals a 20 s delay in the onset of GNP/PEEK nanocomposite coalescence in comparison with plain PEEK. This is a very important observation for laser sintering, as it will influence the build strategy and specific parameters (e.g. time between layers deposition, multiple exposures). The excellent electrical conductivity properties of graphene were noticeable in the nanocomposite films at concentrations above 1 wt% GNP.

  4. Pterostilbene, a dimethyl ether derivative of resveratrol, reduces fat accumulation in rats fed an obesogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Zorita, Saioa; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; Lasa, Arrate; Aguirre, Leixuri; Rimando, Agnes M; Portillo, María P

    2014-08-20

    The current study aimed to demonstrate the effects of pterostilbene in rats fed an obesogenic diet. For this purpose, pterostilbene was administered at doses of 15 mg/kg body weight/day (PT15 group) or 30 mg/kg body weight/day (PT30 group) for 6 weeks. Pterostilbene reduced adipose tissue mass -15.1% (PT15) and -22.9% (PT30). In this tissue, it decreased malic enzyme (-39.4 and -49.5% for PT15 and PT30 groups, respectively) and fatty acid synthase (-45 and -53.4% for PT15 and PT30) activities. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity was reduced and AMPK activity was increased only in the PT30 group. In the liver, pterostilbene (PT30) reduced malic enzyme (-29.5%) and glucose-6-P dehydrogenase (-43.2%) activities and increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1a (37.5%) and acyl-coenzyme A oxidase (42.5%) activities. This increased oxidative capacity was not associated with increased mitochondriogenesis. Among biochemical serum parameters, only insulin was modified by pterostilbene (-31.6%) in the PT15 group. The amounts of pterostilbene in serum and tissues from rats in the PT30 group were in not all cases 2-fold greater than those found in the PT15 group. In conclusion, pterostilbene shows antiobesity properties due, at least in part, to reduced lipogenesis in adipose tissue and increased fatty acid oxidation in liver.

  5. Neurotoxicity of a polybrominated diphenyl ether mixture (DE-71) in mouse neurons and astrocytes is modulated by intracellular glutathione levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordano, Gennaro; Kavanagh, Terrance J.; Costa, Lucio G.

    2008-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants have become widespread environmental contaminants. Body burden in the U.S. population has been shown to be higher than in other countries, and infants and toddlers have highest exposure through maternal breast milk and household dust. The primary concern for adverse health effects of PBDEs relates to their potential developmental neurotoxicity, which has been found in a number of animal studies. Information on the possible mechanisms of PBDE neurotoxicity is limited, though some studies have suggested that PBDEs may elicit oxidative stress. The present study examined the in vitro neurotoxicity of DE-71, a penta-BDE mixture, in primary neurons and astrocytes obtained from wild-type and Gclm knockout mice, which lack the modifier subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase and, as a consequence, have very low levels of glutathione (GSH). These experiments show that neurotoxicity of DE-71 in these cells is modulated by cellular GSH levels. Cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) from Gclm (-/-) mice displayed a higher sensitivity to DE-71 toxicity compared to CGNs from wild-type animals. DE-71 neurotoxicity in CGNs from Gclm (+/+) mice was exacerbated by GSH depletion, and in CGNs from both genotypes it was antagonized by increasing GSH levels and by antioxidants. DE-71 caused an increase in reactive oxygen species and in lipid peroxidation in CGNs, that was more pronounced in Gclm (-/-) mice. Toxicity of DE-71 was mostly due to the induction of apoptotic cell death. An analysis of DE-71-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in neurons and astrocytes from different brain areas (cerebellum, hippocampus, cerebral cortex) in both mouse genotypes showed a significant correlation with intracellular GSH levels. As an example, DE-71 caused cytotoxicity in hippocampal neurons with IC50s of 2.2 and 0.3 μM, depending on genotype, and apoptosis with IC50s of 2.3 and 0.4 μM, respectively. These findings suggest that the developmental

  6. Managing routine food choices in UK families: the role of convenience consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, Marylyn; Szmigin, Isabelle; Leek, Sheena

    2006-11-01

    The paper explores the meaning of convenience food for UK mothers, investigating the relationship between mothers and their families' food. The study examines the role of convenience food within the food strategies of contemporary UK families, and aims to elicit consumption meanings in the broader social context of family relationships with food, their rituals, routines and conventions. The findings reveal convenience has multiple meanings for UK women, and that convenience food has been incorporated into reinterpreted versions of homemade and "proper" meals. A hierarchy of acceptable convenience food is presented by the mothers, who tackle complex and conflicting family routines by introducing convenience solutions. Rules of eating have evolved, yet remain essentially controlled by the mother in terms of nutrition. While the traditional model of "proper" food remains aspirational, contemporary family lifestyles require that convenience food become part of the equation.

  7. Analisis Industri pada Ritel Convenience Store: Kasus 7-Eleven (Sevel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son Wandrial

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available 7-Eleven, a Japanese retailer is very popular and loved in Jakarta. 7-Eleven or commonly abbreviated to Sevel is now reaping a lot of fans because of the concept of 7-Eleven Indonesia, found only in Indonesia. With the rising middle classes in Indonesia, 7-Eleven becomes a luxurious place for hanging-out but affordable. Consequently, it is attracting the interest of investors to make such a kind of convenience store like Sevel, and it is likely the competition in this sector will be increasingly fierce. PT. Modern’s initial plans are to focus onopening stores in Jakarta, targeting densely-populated commercial and office areas, to offer Indonesian workersa convenient place to shop for lunch, snacks, and emergency items. The company’s goal is to focus on opening stores in Jakarta in its first years of operation. Other major cities, such as Bandung, Semarang, and Surabaya offer for future expansion opportunities. The objective of this article is to describe the competitive condition in convenience store industries using Porter’s Five Forces model. Although the competition is fierce andunfavorable industry condition, Sevel is still leading and dominating the convenience store market in Indonesia.

  8. Thermal Neutron Point Source Imaging using a Rotating Modulation Collimator (RMC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    thesis. The detectors used in this research are boron -trifluoride enriched in 10B (10BF3) gas proportional detector and helium-3 (3He) proportional...scintillators have the normal liquid, but also are loaded with an isotope or element that has a high cross section for thermal neutrons, such as boron ...Abbreviations ADC – Analog-to-Digital Converter BF3 – Boron -Trifluoride (detector) BLR – Base Line Restoration DPP – Digital Pulse Processing DSP – Digital

  9. Evaluation of crystallization kinetics of poly (ether-ketone-ketone) and poly (ether-ether-ketone) by DSC

    OpenAIRE

    Gibran da Cunha Vasconcelos; Rogerio Lago Mazur; Edson Cocchieri Botelho; Mirabel Cerqueira Rezende; Michelle Leali Costa

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: The poly (aryl ether ketones) are used as matrices in advanced composites with high performance due to its high thermal stability, excellent environmental performance and superior mechanical properties. Most of the physical, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of semi-crystalline polymers depend on the degree of crystallinity and morphology of the crystalline regions. Thus, a study on the crystallization process promotes a good prediction of how the manufacturing parameters affe...

  10. Nickel-catalyzed direct synthesis of dialkoxymethane ethers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    oxymethylene ethers) from alcohols and paraformaldehyde in the presence of commercially available nickel(II) salt is described. The reaction proceeds readily under neutral, solvent-free conditions using paraformaldehyde as a C1 source.

  11. Hardness and wear properties of boron-implanted poly(ether-ether-ketone) and poly-ether-imide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Youngchul; Lee, E.H.; Mansur, L.K.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of boron beam irradiation on the hardness, friction, and wear of polymer surfaces were investigated. Typical high-performance thermoplastics, poly(ether-ether-ketone) (PEEK) and a poly-ether-imide (Ultem) were studied after 200 keV boron ion beam treatment at ambient temperature to doses of 2.3x10 14 , 6.8x10 14 , and 2.2x10 15 ions cm -2 . The hardnesses of pristine and boron-implanted materials were characterized by a conventional Knoop method and a load-depth sensing nanoindentation technique. Both measurements showed a significant increase in hardness with increasing dose. The increase in hardness was also found to depend on the penetration depth of the diamond indenter. Wear and friction properties were characterized by a reciprocating sliding friction tester with an SAE 52100 high-carbon, chrome steel ball at 0.5 and 1 N normal loads. Wear and frictional properties varied in a complex fashion with polymer type and dose, but not much with normal load. A substantial reduction in friction coefficient was observed for PEEK at the highest dose but no reduction was observed for Ultem. The wear damage was substantially reduced at the highest dose for both Ultem and PEEK. For the system studied, the highest dose, 2.2x10 15 ions cm -2 , appears to be optimum in improving wear resistance for both PEEK and Ultem. (orig.)

  12. Synthesis and Characterisation of Macrocyclic Diamino Chiral Crown Ethers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L. Scott

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available A benign and efficient synthesis of chiral macrocyclic ‘aza-crown’ ethers of varying ring size is reported. The synthesis involves a Schiff base condensation of ether linked dialdehydes of varying chain length and (1R,2R-(–-1,2-diaminocyclohexane under mild conditions to yield the macrocycles, which are subsequently reduced to yield the diamino analogues.

  13. Etching of uranium dioxide in nitrogen trifluoride RF plasma glow discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, John Mark

    1999-10-01

    A series of room temperature, low pressure (10.8 to 40 Pa), low power (25 to 210 W) RF plasma glow discharge experiments with UO2 were conducted to demonstrate that plasma treatment is a viable method for decontaminating UO2 from stainless steel substrates. Experiments were conducted using NF3 gas to decontaminate depleted uranium dioxide from stainless-steel substrates. Results demonstrated that UO2 can be completely removed from stainless-steel substrates after several minutes processing at under 200 W. At 180 W and 32.7 Pa gas pressure, over 99% of all UO2 in the samples was removed in just 17 minutes. The initial etch rate in the experiments ranged from 0.2 to 7.4 mum/min. Etching increased with the plasma absorbed power and feed gas pressure in the range of 10.8 to 40 Pa. A different pressure effect on UO2 etching was also noted below 50 W in which etching increased up to a maximum pressure, ˜23 Pa, then decreased with further increases in pressure. A computer simulation, CHEMKIN, was applied to predict the NF3 plasma species in the experiments. The code was validated first by comparing its predictions of the NF3 plasma species with mass spectroscopy etching experiments of silicon. The code predictions were within +/-5% of the measured species concentrations. The F atom radicals were identified as the primary etchant species, diffusing from the bulk plasma to the UO2 surface and reacting to form a volatile UF6, which desorbed into the gas phase to be pumped away. Ions created in the plasma were too low in concentration to have a major effect on etching, but can enhance the etch rate by removing non-volatile reaction products blocking the reaction of F with UO2. The composition of these non-volatile products were determined based on thermodynamic analysis and the electronic structure of uranium. Analysis identified possible non-volatile products as the uranium fluorides, UF2-5, and certain uranium oxyfluorides UO2F, UO2F2, UOF3, and UOF 4 which form over the

  14. Can simultaneous contact allergies to phenyl glycidyl ether and epoxy resins of the bisphenol A/F-types be explained by contamination of the epoxy resins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontén, Ann; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus

    2008-11-01

    Simultaneous contact allergies to epoxy resins based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA-R) or epoxy resins of the bisphenol F-type and the reactive diluent phenyl glycidyl ether (PGE) have been reported. The reason might be cross-reactivity, exposure to an epoxy resin system with PGE as a component, or contamination by PGE in the epoxy resin. To study contamination by PGE, 20 commercial epoxy resins were analysed for the presence of PGE. To study contact allergy to PGE and its relation to epoxy resins by inserting PGE in the standard series. Among 2227 patients, 7 reacted to PGE. Of 23 (30%) patients, 7 with contact allergy to DGEBA-R and 7/19 (37%) with contact allergy to an epoxy resin of the bisphenol F-type reacted to PGE. All 7 patients with contact allergy to PGE reacted both to the DGEBA-R and to the epoxy resin of the bisphenol F-type. PGE was found in 90% of the investigated resins. The amounts of PGE ranged between 0.004% w/w and 0.18% w/w. Most probably, the presence of PGE as a contaminant in epoxy resins is of minor importance for the sensitization, but possibly the contamination of PGE might elicit contact dermatitis in individuals with a high reactivity to PGE.

  15. The zeolite mediated isomerization of allyl phenyl ether

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebriana, R.; Mujahidin, D.; Syah, Y. M.

    2017-04-01

    Allyl phenyl ether is an important starting material in organic synthesis that has several applications in agrochemical industry. The green transformation of allyl phenyl ether assisted by heterogeneous catalyst is an attractive topic for an industrial process. In this report, we investigated the isomerization of allyl phenyl ether by heating it in zeolite H-ZSM-5 and Na-ZSM-5. The conversion of allyl phenyl ether (neat) in H-ZSM-5 was 67% which produced 40% of 2-allylphenol, 17% of 2-methyldihydrobenzofuran, and other product (4:1.7:1), while in Na-ZSM-5 produced exclusively 2-allylphenol with 52% conversion. These results showed that zeolite properties can be tuned to give a selective transformation by substitution of metal ion into the zeolite interior.

  16. A Focus on Triazolium as a Multipurpose Molecular Station for pH-Sensitive Interlocked Crown-Ether-Based Molecular Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutrot, Frédéric

    2015-10-01

    The control of motion of one element with respect to others in an interlocked architecture allows for different co-conformational states of a molecule. This can result in variations of physical or chemical properties. The increase of knowledge in the field of molecular interactions led to the design, the synthesis, and the study of various systems of molecular machinery in a wide range of interlocked architectures. In this field, the discovery of new molecular stations for macrocycles is an attractive way to conceive original molecular machines. In the very recent past, the triazolium moiety proved to interact with crown ethers in interlocked molecules, so that it could be used as an ideal molecular station. It also served as a molecular barrier in order to lock interlaced structures or to compartmentalize interlocked molecular machines. This review describes the recently reported examples of pH-sensitive triazolium-containing molecular machines and their peculiar features.

  17. SPACE FOR PEOPLE IN A CONTEMPORARY CITY - WHAT ARCHITECTURAL AND TOWN PLANNING SOLUTIONS HELP IN SHAPING A FUNCTIONAL AND CONVENIENT STREET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna DUDEK

    Full Text Available One of the basic ingredients of the city tissue are streets. Closely related to the buildings, they defined the pattern of the tissue, or constituted its derivative. The street has always been an important element shaping the character of a city. It played not only the role of transport, but also served as a place for meetings and trade exchange. According to the contemporary urban planning trends, while designing building complexes one should employ an interdisciplinary approach. Apart from classical engineering one should also use the achievements of sociology and psychology. Besides the proportions of a horizontal surface, the architectural solutions of buildings in a street have the most significant influence on the way that a street is perceived by its users. The examples of guidelines on shaping the right space of a street are as follows: the right height of buildings, their location relative to the street or the right arrangement of window and door openings. The purpose of the article is to introduce and compile the sources describing the urban planning and architectural guidelines that influence the creation of a people-friendly street. The analyzed texts concern both architectural solutions and issues from the field of psychology of space.

  18. Reduced muscle strength in ether lipid-deficient mice is accompanied by altered development and function of the neuromuscular junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorninger, Fabian; Herbst, Ruth; Kravic, Bojana; Camurdanoglu, Bahar Z.; Macinkovic, Igor; Zeitler, Gerhard; Forss-Petter, Sonja; Strack, Siegfried; Khan, Muzamil Majid; Waterham, Hans R.; Rudolf, Rüdiger; Hashemolhosseini, Said; Berger, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Inherited deficiency in ether lipids, a subgroup of phospholipids whose biosynthesis needs peroxisomes, causes the fatal human disorder rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata. The exact roles of ether lipids in the mammalian organism and, therefore, the molecular mechanisms underlying the disease are

  19. All solid supercapacitor based on polyaniline and crosslinked sulfonated poly[ether ether ketone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaraman, P.; Kushwaha, R.K.; Shashidhara, K.; Hande, V.R.; Thakur, A.P. [Polymer Department, Naval Materials Research Laboratory (DRDO), Shil-Badlapur Road, Anand Nagar PO, Thane Dist., Ambernath, Maharashtra 421 506 (India); Samui, A.B., E-mail: absamui@rediffmail.co [Polymer Department, Naval Materials Research Laboratory (DRDO), Shil-Badlapur Road, Anand Nagar PO, Thane Dist., Ambernath, Maharashtra 421 506 (India); Khandpekar, M.M. [Materials Research Laboratory, Birla College, Kalyan, Thane Dist, Maharashtra 421 304 (India)

    2010-02-28

    All solid supercapacitor based on polyaniline (PANI) and crosslinked sulfonated poly[ether ether ketone] (XSPEEK,) is reported in this paper. The crosslinker used for sulfonated poly[ether ether ketone] (SPEEK) is 1,4-bis(hydroxymethyl) benzene. The XSPEEK is used as both solid electrolyte and separator membrane. Supercapacitors are fabricated using various PANI/XSPEEK weight ratios. These are characterized by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge studies. The supercapacitor with PANI/XSPEEK weight ratio 1:0.5, exhibit a specific capacitance of 480 F g{sup -1} of PANI. To the best of authors' knowledge, the value reported here is the highest for a supercapacitor based on a proton conducting solid polymer electrolyte and PANI. Detailed electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis is carried out. The analysis shows that the complex capacitance of the supercapacitor depends on the XSPEEK content. The time constant (t{sub 0}), derived from the imaginary part of complex capacitance decreases with increase in the XSPEEK content in the supercapacitor. Cycle life characteristics of the supercapacitor show a decrease in specific capacitance during initial cycles and get stabilized during later cycles.

  20. A Sensitive, Multifunctional Spinner Magnetometer Using Magneto-impedance Sensor: a Rapid and Convenient Tool for the Quantification of Inhomogeneity of Magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, K.

    2016-12-01

    A new type of spinner magnetometer with wide dynamic range from 10-7 mAm2 to 10-1 mAm2 and the resolution of 10-8 mAm2 was developed. The high sensitivity was achieved by using magneto-impedance (MI) sensor, a compact, high-performance magnetic sensor used in industrial fields. The slow spinning speed (5 Hz) and the unique mechanism enabling the adjustment of the sample-sensor distance allow measurements of fragile samples in any shape and size. A differential arrangement connecting a pair of the MI sensors in opposite serial reduces external noise and temperature drift. The differential sensor output is transferred to an amplification circuit associated with a programmable low-pass filter. The signal with reference to the spinning frequency is detected with a digital lock-in amplifier. The spinner magnetometer has two selectable measurement modes, the fundamental-mode (F-mode) and the harmonic-mode (H-mode). Measurements in the F-mode detect signals oscillating at the fundamental frequency (5 Hz) as conventional spinner magnetometers do. In the H-mode, additionally, the second (10 Hz) and the third (15 Hz) harmonic components can be measured. Tests in the H-mode were performed using a small coil and changing its position to simulate an offset-dipole. The results demonstrate that the dipole moment of the fundamental component is systematically biased by both quadrupole and octupole components arising in practice from inhomogeneity of magnetization or irregularity of sample shape. This study proposes, combined with theoretical and numerical analyses, quantification of such non-dipole effects and associated errors in the determination of dipole moment of a sample, as well as their correction that may be necessary, for example, when measuring irregular-shaped samples in the proximity of the sensor.