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Sample records for trifluoride etherate a convenient

  1. A Convenient and Efficient Method for Demethylation of Aryl Methyl Ethers with Magnesium Iodide in Ionic Liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwan Soo; Kim, Kee D.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a new and efficient method for the demethylation of various types of aryl methyl ethers using readily available, stable, and easily handled magnesium iodide in [BMIM]BF 4 ionic liquid. Owing to its simplicity and mild reaction conditions the protocol reported herein may serve as a useful alternative to the existing methods for the deprotection of aryl methyl ethers to the corresponding phenolic derivatives. Demethylation of aryl methyl ethers to the corresponding phenols are very important reactions in organic synthesis. A number of methods have been reported for the cleavage of highly stable aryl methyl ethers utilizing strong acids or bases such as aluminum chloride, boron tribromide, cerium chloride, alkaline thiolate, methyl magnesium iodide, and L-Selectride. However, all of these methods invariably suffered from one or more drawbacks such as harsh reaction conditions, long reaction times, difficulty of manipulation, use of exotic reagents, and low reaction yields. Furthermore, in the most of known methods for demethylation of aryl methyl ethers, use of large excess amounts of demethylating agents have been generally required. Thus, it is highly desirable to develop an improved convenient and efficient procedure for demethylation reactions of aryl methyl ethers

  2. A Convenient and Efficient Method for Demethylation of Aryl Methyl Ethers with Magnesium Iodide in Ionic Liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwan Soo [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kee D. [Sangji University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    We have developed a new and efficient method for the demethylation of various types of aryl methyl ethers using readily available, stable, and easily handled magnesium iodide in [BMIM]BF{sub 4} ionic liquid. Owing to its simplicity and mild reaction conditions the protocol reported herein may serve as a useful alternative to the existing methods for the deprotection of aryl methyl ethers to the corresponding phenolic derivatives. Demethylation of aryl methyl ethers to the corresponding phenols are very important reactions in organic synthesis. A number of methods have been reported for the cleavage of highly stable aryl methyl ethers utilizing strong acids or bases such as aluminum chloride, boron tribromide, cerium chloride, alkaline thiolate, methyl magnesium iodide, and L-Selectride. However, all of these methods invariably suffered from one or more drawbacks such as harsh reaction conditions, long reaction times, difficulty of manipulation, use of exotic reagents, and low reaction yields. Furthermore, in the most of known methods for demethylation of aryl methyl ethers, use of large excess amounts of demethylating agents have been generally required. Thus, it is highly desirable to develop an improved convenient and efficient procedure for demethylation reactions of aryl methyl ethers.

  3. Method detection limit determination and application of a convenient headspace analysis method for methyl tert-butyl ether in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Dennis T; Rochette, Elizabeth A; Ramsey, Philip J

    2002-11-15

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a common groundwater contaminant, introduced to the environment by leaking petroleum storage tanks, urban runoff, and motorized watercraft. In this study. a simplified (static) headspace analysis method was adapted for determination of MTBE in water samples and soil water extracts. The MDL of the headspace method was calculated to be 2.0 microg L(-1) by the EPA single-concentration design method(1) and 1.2 microg L(-1) by a calibration method developed by Hubaux and Vos (Hubaux, A.; Vos, G. Anal. Chem. 1970,42, 849-855). The MDL calculated with the Hubaux and Vos method was favored because it considers both a true positive and a false positive. The static headspace method was applied to analysis of a tap water sample and a monitoring well sample from a gasoline service station, a river sample, and aqueous extracts from soil excavated during removal of a leaking underground storage tank (LUST). The water samples examined in this study had MTTBE concentrations ranging from 6 to 19 microg L(-1). Aqueous extracts of a soil sample taken from the LUST site had 8 microg L(-1) MTBE.

  4. Facile electrochemical polymerization of 2-(thiophen-2-yl)furan and the enhanced capacitance properties of its polymer in acetonitrile electrolyte containing boron trifluoride diethyl etherate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, Daize; Zhou, Weiqiang; Ma, Xiumei; Xu, Jingkun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The low-potential polymerization of 2-(thiophen-2-yl)furan into polymer (PTFu) was reported. • The electrochemical performance of PTFu was studied in three different electrolytes. • The specific capacitance of PTFu electrode reached 392.0 F g −1 at 5 A g −1 and had 67.0% retention after 500 cycles. • The addition of boron trifluoride diethyl etherate into acetonitrile electrolyte benefited to enhance the specific capacitance and stability of PTFu electrode. - ABSTRACT: In this study, a new simple hybrid poly(2-(thiophen-2-yl)furan) (PTFu) was easily electrodeposited by direct anodic oxidation of 2-(thiophen-2-yl)furan in acetonitrile solution containing 0.1 M lithium perchlorate (LiClO 4 ). The oxidation onset potential of 2-(thiophen-2-yl)furan monomer in this medium was measured to be 0.90 V, which was lower than those of thiophene (1.47 V) and furan (1.28 V). The structure and morphology of PTFu were characterized by Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and thermal analysis. The electrochemical capacitance properties of PTFu electrode in three electrolytes were also investigated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscope techniques. The electrochemical results showed that the specific capacitance of PTFu electrode was enhanced to 392.0 F g −1 from 249.4 F g −1 at 5 A g −1 and the cycling stability was also enhanced to 67.0% retention from 25.5% retention after 500 cycles when the equivalent boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BFEE) was added into the acetonitrile electrolyte. Furthermore, the PTFu electrode in ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BmimPF 6 ) showed a lower specific capacitance value (209.4 F g −1 at 5 A g −1 ) and an improved stability (67.6% retention after 600 cycles). These results indicated that the conducting polymers based on furan should be a promising

  5. Conjugated and fluorescent polymer based on dansyl-substituted pyrrole prepared by electrochemical polymerization in acetonitrile containing boron trifluoride diethyl etherate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Andresa K.A.; Dias, Jéssica M.M.; Silva, Ana Julia C.; Santos, Diego P.; Navarro, Marcelo; Tonholo, Josealdo; Goulart, Marília O.F.; Ribeiro, Adriana S.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A fluorescent pyrrole derivative bearing a dansyl substituent (PyPDG) was synthesized. • PyPDG was electropolymerized onto ITO in (C 4 H 9 ) 4 NBF 4 /CH 3 CN/BFEE mixed electrolyte. • The resulting polymer (PPyPDG) films displayed electrochromic behavior. • PPyPDG is a good green light emitter material. - Abstract: A fluorescent pyrrole derivative bearing a dansyl substituent was prepared by a simple synthetic route and electropolymerized onto Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) electrodes. The presence of the dansyl group in the monomer precursor prevents the electropolymerization in usual systems, such as (C 4 H 9 ) 4 NBF 4 in acetonitrile (CH 3 CN). For this reason, it was added 20% boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BFEE) to this system, to achieve electropolymerization. The resulting poly[3-(N-pyrrolyl)propyl dansylglycinate] (PPyPDG) films displayed electrochromic behavior. Their color varied from greenish-yellow, in the neutral state, to greyish-green, in the oxidized state; moreover PPyPDG is a good green light emitter material. Therefore, PPyPDG films might be potentially applicable in displays and optoelectronic devices

  6. Chlorine trifluoride (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, L.M.; Gillardeau, J.

    1963-01-01

    This monograph on chlorine trifluoride may be considered as a working tool useful in gaseous diffusion research. It consists of data gathered from the literature and includes furthermore a certain amount of original data. This monograph groups together the physical, chemical and physiological properties of chlorine trifluoride, as well as the preparation and analytical methods. It has been thought wise to add some technological information, and the safety regulations governing its use. (authors) [fr

  7. Pricing a Convenience Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Andre

    1980-01-01

    Discusses a study undertaken by the Nottingham University Consumer Study Group to determine market operation for popular convenience foods in England. Information is presented on distribution of purchases, brand loyalties of respondents to a questionnaire regarding convenience foods, and market fluctuation due to inflation. (Author/DB)

  8. Convenient procedures for the α-metallation of vinylic ethers and thioethers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkruijsse, H.D.; Brandsma, L.; Schleyer, P. von R.

    1987-01-01

    Ethyl vinyl ether H2C=CHOC2H5 and the analogous cyclic vinylic ethers dehydrofuran and 2,3-dihydropyran can be potassiated at −20°C in the α-position with a 1/1/1 molar mixture of BuLi, t-BuOK and TMEDA in hexane. Methyl vinyl sulfide is potassiated very smoothly by a 1/1 molar mixture of BuLi and

  9. An Improved Plutonium Trifluoride Precipitation Flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, H.D.

    2001-06-26

    This report discusses results of the plutonium trifluoride two-stage precipitation study. A series of precipitation experiments was used to identify the significant process variables affecting precipitation performance. A mathematical model of the precipitation process was developed which is based on the formation of plutonium fluoride complexes. The precipitation model relates all process variables, in a single equation, to a single parameter which can be used to control the performance of the plutonium trifluoride precipitation process. Recommendations have been made which will optimize the FB-Line plutonium trifluoride precipitation process.

  10. An Improved Plutonium Trifluoride Precipitation Flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, H.D.

    2001-01-01

    This report discusses results of the plutonium trifluoride two-stage precipitation study. A series of precipitation experiments was used to identify the significant process variables affecting precipitation performance. A mathematical model of the precipitation process was developed which is based on the formation of plutonium fluoride complexes. The precipitation model relates all process variables, in a single equation, to a single parameter which can be used to control the performance of the plutonium trifluoride precipitation process. Recommendations have been made which will optimize the FB-Line plutonium trifluoride precipitation process

  11. Rhombohedral iron trifluoride with a hierarchized macroporous/mesoporous texture from gaseous fluorination of iron disilicide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guérin, Katia, E-mail: katia.araujo_da_silva@univ-bpclermont.fr [Université Clermont Auvergne, Université Blaise Pascal, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6296, ICCF, F-63171 Aubière (France); Delbègue, Diane; Louvain, Nicolas; Doubtsof, Léa; Hamwi, André [Université Clermont Auvergne, Université Blaise Pascal, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6296, ICCF, F-63171 Aubière (France); Laik, Barbara; Pereira-Ramos, Jean-Pierre [Université Paris Est Créteil, Institut de Chimie et des Matériaux Paris-Est, UMR CNRS 7182, Thiais (France); Tahar-sougrati, Moulay; Jumas, Jean-Claude [Université Montpellier II, Institut Charles Gerhardt de Montpellier, UMR CNRS 5253, Montpellier (France); Willmann, Patrick; Cénac-Morthe, Céline [Centre National d' Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse (France)

    2016-04-15

    Stable low temperature rhombohedral iron trifluoride has been obtained by the fluorination under the pure fluorine gas of iron disilicide. The combination of both unusual fluorination process and precursor avoids to get unhydrated crystalline FeF{sub 3} particles and allows the formation of hierarchized channels of mesoporous/macroporous texture favorable for lithium diffusion. The fluorination mechanism proceeds by temperature steps from the formation, for a fluorination temperature below 200 °C, of an amorphous phase and an intermediate iron difluoride identified mainly by {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy before getting, as soon as a fluorination temperature of 260 °C is reached, the rhombohedral FeF{sub 3}. Both amorphous and crystallized samples display good ability for electrochemical process when used as cathode in lithium-ion battery. The low diameter of rhombohedral structure channels is balanced by an appropriate mesoporous texture and a capacity of 225 mAh.g{sup −1} after 5 cycles for a discharge cut-off of 2.5 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li at a current density of C/20 has been obtained and stabilized at 95 mAh.g{sup −1} after 116 cycles. - Highlights: • We investigated the synthesis of rhombohedral FeF{sub 3} by solid–gas reaction from iron disilicide. • We demonstrated that depending on the fluorination temperature various phases are stabilized. • We got a hierarchized macroporous/mesoporous texture. • We studied the electrochemical performances of amorphous and crystallized FeF{sub 3}. • Crystallized FeF{sub 3} presents a high faradic yield at first cycle focusing on insertion process.

  12. CONVERSION OF PLUTONIUM TRIFLUORIDE TO PLUTONIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, S.; Davidson, N.R.

    1957-09-10

    A large proportion of the trifluoride of plutonium can be converted, in the absence of hydrogen fluoride, to the tetrafiuoride of plutonium. This is done by heating plutonium trifluoride with oxygen at temperatures between 250 and 900 deg C. The trifiuoride of plutonium reacts with oxygen to form plutonium tetrafluoride and plutonium oxide, in a ratio of about 3 to 1. In the presence of moisture, plutonium tetrafluoride tends to hydrolyze at elevated temperatures and therefore it is desirable to have the process take place under anhydrous conditions.

  13. Two-stage precipitation of plutonium trifluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luerkens, D.W.

    1984-04-01

    Plutonium trifluoride was precipitated using a two-stage precipitation system. A series of precipitation experiments identified the significant process variables affecting precipitate characteristics. A mathematical precipitation model was developed which was based on the formation of plutonium fluoride complexes. The precipitation model relates all process variables, in a single equation, to a single parameter that can be used to control particle characteristics

  14. Nitrogen Trifluoride-Based Fluoride- Volatility Separations Process: Initial Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, Bruce K.; Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2011-09-28

    This document describes the results of our investigations on the potential use of nitrogen trifluoride as the fluorinating and oxidizing agent in fluoride volatility-based used nuclear fuel reprocessing. The conceptual process uses differences in reaction temperatures between nitrogen trifluoride and fuel constituents that produce volatile fluorides to achieve separations and recover valuable constituents. We provide results from our thermodynamic evaluations, thermo-analytical experiments, kinetic models, and provide a preliminary process flowsheet. The evaluations found that nitrogen trifluoride can effectively produce volatile fluorides at different temperatures dependent on the fuel constituent.

  15. Meal box schemes as a convenient way to avoid convenience food?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Frej; Halkier, Bente

    2017-01-01

    to categorize meal box schemes as a new form of convenience food called convenient food. In addition, results suggest that meal box schemes reduce leftovers from dinner. Meal boxes also influence dinner related activities such as planning ahead in time and grocery shopping, which require less physical......The term convenience food is subject to diversification, lack of clarity and moral ambiguity. In this paper we address these issues and critically discuss convenience food by using empirical findings from a Danish study that deals with practitioners' uses of meal box schemes. The methodological...

  16. Fluorination of uranium compounds by gaseous bromine trifluoride and a bromine-fluorine mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Tsutomu

    1976-03-01

    This report summarizes the studies of fluorination of uranium compounds by gaseous BrF 3 and a Br 2 -F 2 mixture, which were carried out in Fluorine Chemistry Laboratory of JAERI in connection with the reprocessing method of nuclear fuels. Although thermodynamically more stable than F 2 , BrF 3 has higher reactivity at relatively low temperatures: fluorination of uranium compounds can be carried out at 100 0 -- 200 0 C by using gaseous BrF 3 . This fluorination temperature is lower than those of F 2 , BrF 5 , ClF and SF 4 , and close to that of ClF 3 . The usage of BrF 3 has however the drawbacks that it requires additional devices to heat the corrosive liquid and to remove Br 2 produced as a byproduct. In order to eliminate the difficulties indicated, a new method of fluorination was developed - the use of a Br 2 -F 2 mixture. Addition of small amounts of Br 2 to the fluorine flow (about 6% in relation to the fluorine concentration) gives marked effects on the rate of fluorination. (auth.)

  17. A convenient calibrator for tritium survey meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutler, J.M.; Janmohamed, S.R.; Surette, R.A.; Wood, M.J.

    1993-06-01

    Staff in Ontario Hydro's CANDU nuclear power stations were having difficulty calibrating their tritium-in-air survey meters. Chalk River Laboratories suggested using a standard silica gel collector loaded with tritiated water vapour as a radiation source. The collector is a polyethylene tube with a length of rubber tubing attached to each end. The plastic tube is filled with dry silica gel, and cotton wool is stuffed into each end to retain the gel. To load the source with tritiated vapour, a bubbler containing tritiated water is connected to the collector until the gel is completely pink. The end tubes of the source are then connected to each other to seal the source. To use the source, the rubber tubes are connected to the intake and exhaust fittings of the survey meter to be calibrated. No tritium vapour is released during loading or calibration. This source not only verifies that the ion chamber and electrometer are working, but also checks whether the air sample is reaching the detector. It is more direct and credible than a gamma source, and is inexpensive and convenient to construct and calibrate at the power station. 5 figs

  18. How convenient!? Adolescents’ vistas on food competences in a convenience context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahlen, S.; Horst, van der Hilje; Pothoff, Roosje

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – Adolescents are at a stage in their life course in which they increasingly become choosers, buyers and preparers of food. Hence, they develop and employ required competences. Current food-related competences of adolescents are shaped in an environment with an abundance of convenience

  19. Convenience polyandry or convenience polygyny? Costly sex under female control in a promiscuous primate

    OpenAIRE

    Huchard, Elise; Canale, Cindy I.; Le Gros, Chloé; Perret, Martine; Henry, Pierre-Yves; Kappeler, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Classic sex roles depict females as choosy, but polyandry is widespread. Empirical attempts to understand the evolution of polyandry have often focused on its adaptive value to females, whereas ‘convenience polyandry’ might simply decrease the costs of sexual harassment. We tested whether constraint-free female strategies favour promiscuity over mating selectivity through an original experimental design. We investigated variation in mating behaviour in response to a reversible alteration of s...

  20. Convenience polyandry or convenience polygyny? Costly sex under female control in a promiscuous primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchard, Elise; Canale, Cindy I; Le Gros, Chloé; Perret, Martine; Henry, Pierre-Yves; Kappeler, Peter M

    2012-04-07

    Classic sex roles depict females as choosy, but polyandry is widespread. Empirical attempts to understand the evolution of polyandry have often focused on its adaptive value to females, whereas 'convenience polyandry' might simply decrease the costs of sexual harassment. We tested whether constraint-free female strategies favour promiscuity over mating selectivity through an original experimental design. We investigated variation in mating behaviour in response to a reversible alteration of sexual dimorphism in body mass in the grey mouse lemur, a small primate where female brief sexual receptivity allows quantifying polyandry. We manipulated body condition in captive females, predicting that convenience polyandry would increase when females are weaker than males, thus less likely to resist their solicitations. Our results rather support the alternative hypothesis of 'adaptive polyandry': females in better condition are more polyandrous. Furthermore, we reveal that multiple mating incurs significant energetic costs, which are strikingly symmetrical between the sexes. Our study shows that mouse lemur females exert tight control over mating and actively seek multiple mates. The benefits of remating are nevertheless not offset by its costs in low-condition females, suggesting that polyandry is a flexible strategy yielding moderate fitness benefits in this small mammal.

  1. A Convenient Storage Rack for Graduated Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Brian

    2004-01-01

    An attempt is made to find a solution to the occasional problem of a need for storing large numbers of graduated cylinders in many teaching and research laboratories. A design, which involves the creation of a series of parallel channels that are used to suspend inverted graduated cylinders by their bases, is proposed.

  2. Chlorine trifluoride (1963); Le trifluorure de chlore (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, L.M.; Gillardeau, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    This monograph on chlorine trifluoride may be considered as a working tool useful in gaseous diffusion research. It consists of data gathered from the literature and includes furthermore a certain amount of original data. This monograph groups together the physical, chemical and physiological properties of chlorine trifluoride, as well as the preparation and analytical methods. It has been thought wise to add some technological information, and the safety regulations governing its use. (authors) [French] Cette monographie sur le trifluorure de chlore doit etre consideree comme un instrument de travail dans le cadre des recherches sur la diffusion gazeuse. Il etait necessaire de grouper les donnees eparses dans la litterature. Elle comprend en outre un certain nombre de donnees originales. Cette monographie groupe les proprietes physiques, chimiques et physiologiques du trifluorure de chlore, ainsi que ses methodes de preparation et d'analyse. On a juge utile de joindre des indications technologiques et les consignes de securite concernant son emploi. (auteurs)

  3. Chlorine trifluoride (1963); Le trifluorure de chlore (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, L M; Gillardeau, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    This monograph on chlorine trifluoride may be considered as a working tool useful in gaseous diffusion research. It consists of data gathered from the literature and includes furthermore a certain amount of original data. This monograph groups together the physical, chemical and physiological properties of chlorine trifluoride, as well as the preparation and analytical methods. It has been thought wise to add some technological information, and the safety regulations governing its use. (authors) [French] Cette monographie sur le trifluorure de chlore doit etre consideree comme un instrument de travail dans le cadre des recherches sur la diffusion gazeuse. Il etait necessaire de grouper les donnees eparses dans la litterature. Elle comprend en outre un certain nombre de donnees originales. Cette monographie groupe les proprietes physiques, chimiques et physiologiques du trifluorure de chlore, ainsi que ses methodes de preparation et d'analyse. On a juge utile de joindre des indications technologiques et les consignes de securite concernant son emploi. (auteurs)

  4. A CONVENIENT THREE-COMPONENT SYNTHESIS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    1College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Food Safety, Bohai University, Jinzhou. 121013 ... Most reactions are performed within a short reaction time. ..... Shaterian, H.R.; Hosseinian, A.; Ghashang, M. Chin. J. Chem. 2009, 27, 821. 7. Heravi, M.M.; Tavakoli-Hoseini, N.; Bamoharram, F.F. Green Chem. Lett. Rev.

  5. A unified approach for the synthesis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical dibenzyl ethers from aryl aldehydes through reductive etherification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sembian Ruso

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe a simple and convenient conversion of aryl aldehydes to symmetrical dibenzyl ethers through reductive etherification. Similarly, unsymmetrical dibenzyl ether was obtained from aryl aldehyde and TES-protected benzyl alcohol. Triethyl silane with catalytic amount of InCl3 was found to be an efficient condition for the reductive etherification. Moreover, it exhibits remarkable functional group compatibility with yield ranging from good to excellent.

  6. [Convenience foods -- a simple way of healthy cooking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentsch, N; Mühlemann, P; Baumgartner-Perren, S; Exl-Preysch, B M

    2001-09-01

    Convenience foods stand for a culinary revolution that commenced just over 100 years ago. The food industry came into being parallel to industrialization and urbanization. Nicolas Appert invented the can at that time and Julius Maggi invented dehydrated soup. Today convenience foods--from powdered spices to ready-to-eat dishes--are prepared using state-of-the-art technology and offer a ubiquitous range of healthy, easy-to-serve foods.

  7. Regioselectivity of tributyltin ether mediated alkylations. A 119Sn and 13C NMR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruzado, C.; Bernabe, M.; Martin-Lomas, M.

    1989-01-01

    The 119 Sn and 13 C NMR spectra of the stannylated species resulting from the treatment of conformationally rigid polyhydroxylated compounds with bis(tributyltin) oxide have been determined and the effect of N-methylimidazole, added as catalyst in tributyltin ether mediated regioselective alkylations, has been investigated. The observed signal intensity changes, upfield shifts, signal broadenings, and the results of variable temperature experiments have been interpreted as indicative of the selective formation of pentacoordinated tin species, involving conveniently disposed adjacent hydroxyl groups, on addition of the catalyst. On these bases, a mechanistic hypothesis for the observed regioselectivity of N-methylimidazole-catalyzed tributyltin ether mediated benzylations is proposed. 13 references, 5 tables

  8. Meal box schemes a convenient way to avoid convenience food? Uses and understandings of meal box schemes among Danish consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Frej Daniel; Halkier, Bente

    2017-07-01

    The term convenience food is subject to diversification, lack of clarity and moral ambiguity. In this paper we address these issues and critically discuss convenience food by using empirical findings from a Danish study that deals with practitioners' uses of meal box schemes. The methodological design consists of thirteen individual interviews, four focus groups and some observations of cooking practices. We combine the empirical findings with a particular definition of convenience food by Brunner et al. (2010) and selected practice theoretical concepts. This particular combination enables us to categorize meal box schemes as a new form of convenience food called convenient food. In addition, results suggest that meal box schemes reduce leftovers from dinner. Meal boxes also influence dinner related activities such as planning ahead in time and grocery shopping, which require less physical and mental effort. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Engineering analysis of the two-stage trifluoride precipitation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luerkens, D.w.W.

    1984-06-01

    An engineering analysis of two-stage trifluoride precipitation processes is developed. Precipitation kinetics are modeled using consecutive reactions to represent fluoride complexation. Material balances across the precipitators are used to model the time dependent concentration profiles of the main chemical species. The results of the engineering analysis are correlated with previous experimental work on plutonium trifluoride and cerium trifluoride

  10. Synthesis of carboxylic acids, esters, alcohols and ethers containing a tetrahydropyran ring derived from 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzawa, Yohko; Hashimoto, Kahoko; Kasashima, Yoshio; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Mino, Takashi; Sakamoto, Masami; Fujita, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    3-hydroxy acids, 3-hydroxy-3,7-dimethyloct-6-enoic acid (1) and 3-hydroxy-2,2,3,7-tetramethyloct-6-enoic acid (2), were prepared from 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, and they were subsequently used to prepare (2,6,6-trimethyltetrahydropyran-2-yl)acetic acid (3) and 2-methyl-2-(2,6,6-trimethyltetrahydropyran-2-yl)propanoic acid (4), respectively, via cyclization with an acidic catalyst such as boron trifluoride diethyl etherate or iodine. The reaction of carboxylic acids 3 and 4 with alcohols, including methanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol, produced the corresponding methyl, ethyl, and propyl esters, which all contained a tetrahydropyran ring. Reduction of carboxylic acids 3 and 4 afforded the corresponding alcohols. Subsequent reactions of these alcohols with several acyl chlorides produced novel esters. The alcohols also reacted with methyl iodide and sodium hydride to provide novel ethers. A one-pot cyclization-esterification of 1 to produce esters containing a tetrahydropyran ring, using iodine as a catalyst, was also investigated.

  11. The hydrolysis of geminal ethers: a kinetic appraisal of orthoesters and ketals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia L. Repetto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach to protecting jet fuel against the effects of water contamination is predicated upon the coupling of the rapid hydrolysis reactions of lipophilic cyclic geminal ethers, with the concomitant production of a hydrophilic acyclic hydroxyester with de-icing properties (Fuel Dehydrating Icing Inhibitors - FDII. To this end, a kinetic appraisal of the hydrolysis reactions of representative geminal ethers was undertaken using a convenient surrogate for the fuel–water interface (D2O/CD3CN 1:4. We present here a library of acyclic and five/six-membered cyclic geminal ethers arranged according to their hydroxonium catalytic coefficients for hydrolysis, providing for the first time a framework for the development of FDII. A combination of 1H NMR, labelling and computational studies was used to assess the effects that may govern the observed relative rates of hydrolyses.

  12. [A comparison of convenience sampling and purposive sampling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Lee-Jen Wu; Huang, Hui-Man; Lee, Hao-Hsien

    2014-06-01

    Convenience sampling and purposive sampling are two different sampling methods. This article first explains sampling terms such as target population, accessible population, simple random sampling, intended sample, actual sample, and statistical power analysis. These terms are then used to explain the difference between "convenience sampling" and purposive sampling." Convenience sampling is a non-probabilistic sampling technique applicable to qualitative or quantitative studies, although it is most frequently used in quantitative studies. In convenience samples, subjects more readily accessible to the researcher are more likely to be included. Thus, in quantitative studies, opportunity to participate is not equal for all qualified individuals in the target population and study results are not necessarily generalizable to this population. As in all quantitative studies, increasing the sample size increases the statistical power of the convenience sample. In contrast, purposive sampling is typically used in qualitative studies. Researchers who use this technique carefully select subjects based on study purpose with the expectation that each participant will provide unique and rich information of value to the study. As a result, members of the accessible population are not interchangeable and sample size is determined by data saturation not by statistical power analysis.

  13. Does convenience matter in health care delivery? A systematic review of convenience-based aspects of process utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, A; Barnett, J; Meads, C; Singh, J; Longworth, L

    2014-12-01

    To systematically review the existing literature on the value associated with convenience in health care delivery, independent of health outcomes, and to try to estimate the likely magnitude of any value found. A systematic search was conducted for previously published studies that reported preferences for convenience-related aspects of health care delivery in a manner that was consistent with either cost-utility analysis or cost-benefit analysis. Data were analyzed in terms of the methodologies used, the aspects of convenience considered, and the values reported. Literature searches generated 4715 records. Following a review of abstracts or full-text articles, 27 were selected for inclusion. Twenty-six studies reported some evidence of convenience-related process utility, in the form of either a positive utility or a positive willingness to pay. The aspects of convenience valued most often were mode of administration (n = 11) and location of treatment (n = 6). The most common valuation methodology was a discrete-choice experiment containing a cost component (n = 15). A preference for convenience-related process utility exists, independent of health outcomes. Given the diverse methodologies used to calculate it, and the range of aspects being valued, however, it is difficult to assess how large such a preference might be, or how it may be effectively incorporated into an economic evaluation. Increased consistency in reporting these preferences is required to assess these issues more accurately. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dimethyl ether as a drift-chamber gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bonvicini, G.; Cara Romeo, G.; Casaccia, R.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; D'Ali, G.; Del Papa, C.; Focardi, S.; Iacobucci, G.; Maccarrone, G.; Massam, T.; Motta, F.; Nania, R.; Palmonari, F.; Prisco, G.; Sartorelli, G.; Susinno, G.; Votano, L.; Zichichi, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna; European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor; Palermo Univ.

    1986-01-01

    We have continued the testing of dimethyl ether as a drift-chamber gas in order to improve the understanding of its properties. In particular, we report on measurement accuracy, on systematic effects, and some preliminary data on the ageing of a detector filled with dimethyl ether. (orig.)

  15. Corrosion of copper by chlorine trifluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, L.

    1966-01-01

    The research described called for a considerable amount of preliminary development of the test methods and equipment in order that the various measurements and observations could be carried out without contaminating either the samples or this highly reactive gas. The chlorine trifluoride was highly purified before use, its purity being checked by gas-phase chromatography, micro-sublimation and infrared spectrography. The tests were carried out on copper samples of various purities, in particular a 99.999 per cent copper in the form of mono-crystals. They involved kinetic measurements and the characterization of corrosion products under different temperature and pressure conditions. The kinetics showed reactions of the same order of magnitude as those obtained with elementary fluorine. At atmospheric pressure there occurs formation of cupric fluoride and cuprous chloride. The presence of this latter product shows that it is not possible to consider ClF 3 simply as a fluorinating agent. At low pressures an unknown product has been characterized. There are strong grounds for believing that it is the unstable cuprous fluoride which it has not yet been possible to isolate. A germination phenomenon has been shown to exist indicating an analogy between the initial phases of fluorination and those of oxidation. Important effects resulting from the dissociation of the copper fluorides and the solubility of chlorine in this metal have been demonstrated. Finally, tests have shown the considerable influence of the purity of the gas phase and of the nature of the reaction vessel walls on the rates of corrosion which can in certain cases be increased by a factor of several powers of ten. (author) [fr

  16. Convenience in white-collar crime: A resource perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petter Gottschalk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available White-collar offenders have access to resources that make financial crime convenient. In the rare case of crime suspicion, resources are available in terms of professional attorney work, control over internal investigations, and public relations support. Hiring private investigators at an early stage of potential crime disclosure enables the organization to control the investigation mandate and influence the investigation process and the investigation output. Getting an early start on reconstruction of the past in terms of a fraud examination makes it possible for the suspect and the organization to influence what facts are relevant and how facts might be assessed in terms of possible violations of the penal code. Convenience aspects of private investigations are discussed in this article in terms of five internal investigations, two in the United States (General Motors and Lehman Brothers and three in Norway (Telenor VimpelCom, DNB Bank, and Norwegian Football Association. The aim of this research is to contribute insights into convenience associated with internal private investigations.

  17. Exploring Convenience Food Consumption through a Structural Equation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Botonaki, Anna; Natos, Dimitrios; Mattas, Konstadinos

    2007-01-01

    In this study the model of convenience orientation suggested by Scholderer and Grunert (2005) is applied in order to examine consumer behavior in the context of convenience food usage. The empirical results indicate that socio-demographic characteristics affect behavior both directly and indirectly through perceived time resources and convenience orientation towards meal preparation and clearing up. Findings seem to be important for all the bodies involved in the marketing of convenience food...

  18. A convenient basis for the Izergin-Korepin model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yi; Zhang, Xin; Hao, Kun; Cao, Junpeng; Li, Guang-Liang; Yang, Wen-Li; Shi, Kangjie

    2018-05-01

    We propose a convenient orthogonal basis of the Hilbert space for the quantum spin chain associated with the A2(2) algebra (or the Izergin-Korepin model). It is shown that compared with the original basis the monodromy-matrix elements acting on this basis take relatively simple forms, which is quite similar as that for the quantum spin chain associated with An algebra in the so-called F-basis. As an application of our general results, we present the explicit recursive expressions of the Bethe states in this basis for the Izergin-Korepin model.

  19. Convenience food with environmentally-sustainable attributes: A consumer perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranieri, Stefanella; Ricci, Elena Claire; Banterle, Alessandro

    2017-09-01

    The use of chemicals in agriculture poses risks on both human health and the environment. Regulatory measures, both mandatory and voluntary, have been introduced to promote a reduction in the use of pesticides. The proliferation of such standards is related to the gradual shift of consumer preferences towards food with reduced negative health and environmental impacts. Beside consumer demand for sustainable food products, convenience food is also assuming an increasingly important role in developed countries. Among such products, minimally-processed vegetables are showing a growing positive trend, but their production has also negative effects on the environment. The goal of this study is to investigate the interaction between environmentally-friendly and healthy convenience food, and to investigate the determinants behind the purchase of healthy convenience food products with environmentally-sustainable attributes, focusing on minimally-processed vegetables labelled with voluntary standards related to integrated agriculture. To do so, we started from the Theory of Planned Behaviour and tested the efficacy of an extended model by considering also other variables which were found to affect significantly food choices. Data were collected by means of face-to-face interviews with 550 consumers in charge of grocery shopping in the metropolitan area of Milan, in northern Italy. Structural equation modelling was performed to analyse the relative importance of the constructs on consumer behaviour. Results confirm the relations of Ajzen's theory and reveal positive relations with consumer food shopping habits, food-related environmental behaviour, gender, income and knowledge. A negative relation with agricultural practices concern also emerges, highlighting that the most concerned consumers may prefer other more stringent environmental certifications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Equilibrium Structure of Manganese Trifluoride (MnF3) Molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caliskan, M.

    2004-01-01

    The symmetry lowering in manganese trifluoride molecule due to Jahn-Teller distortion was demonstrated in both the experimental and computational results. The molecule does not have D 3 h (or C 3 v) symmetry, rather it has C 2 v symmetry it has been shown from electron-diffraction measurements, that even a molecule of D 3 h symmetry in its equilibrium geometry would appear as having C 3 v symmetry. The manganese trifluoride molecular structures is an example of concerted applications of electron diffraction experiment and computation. It was found two lower energy structures with C 2 v symmetry, one corresponding to the ground state and another corresponding to the transition state. In this work we have calculate the equilibrium structure of the MnF 3 in the C 2 v configuration using the Interionic Force Model. We have compared our results for equilibrium bond lengths and bond angles with measured values from electron diffraction and with the results of quantum chemical calculations. The agreement can be considered as very reasonable

  1. Thermochemistry of rare-earth trifluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.Y.; Johnson, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    Using the most recent crystallographic data, the Born-Lande equation was employed to calculate lattice energies of the rare-earth trifluorides. The excellent agreement ( 0 sub(f)(MX 3 ,c,298.15K) can be estimated. The magnitude of the monotonic change of ΔH 0 sub(f)(MX 3 ) for the rare-earth trihalides series (14 4f electrons) is comparable to the energy change between Sc and Ti in which only one 3d electron is added. This energy change is consistent with the chemical evidence that the electrons in the f-orbitals of rare earths contribute negligibly to the bonding. (author)

  2. Respiratory irritation associated with inhalation of boron trifluoride and fluorosulfonic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusch, G.M.; Bowden, A.M.; Muijser, H.; Arts, J.

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the respiratory irritancy of boron trifluoride (BF3) and fluorosulfonic acid (FSA) following acute inhalation exposure. Testing was conducted using groups of 10 male and 10 female rats (BF3) or groups of 6 male rats (FSA). Rats were exposed for a single

  3. A convenient procedure for magnetic field homogeneity evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teles, J; Garrido, C E; Tannus, A

    2004-01-01

    In many areas of research that utilize magnetic fields in their studies, it is important to obtain fields with a spatial distribution as homogeneous as possible. A procedure usually utilized to evaluate and to optimize field homogeneity is the expansion of the measured field in spherical harmonic components. In addition to the methods proposed in the literature, we present a more convenient procedure for evaluation of field homogeneity inside a spherical volume. The procedure uses the orthogonality property of the spherical harmonics to find the field variance. It is shown that the total field variance is equal to the sum of the individual variances of each field component in the spherical harmonic expansion. Besides the advantages of the linear behaviour of the individual variances, there is the fact that the field variance and standard deviation are the best parameters to achieve global homogeneity field information

  4. Prepaid convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, F

    1998-01-01

    Consider prepaid calling cards as a new tool in your marketing arsenal. Your hospitality facility may be considering the sale and distribution of prepaid phone cards to provide more convenience to patients or as a replacement to traditional calling cards for mobile employees. Prepaid phone cards represent a new twist and many advantages for long distance calling.

  5. Exploring the relationship between convenience and fish consumption: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Svein Ottar; Scholderer, Joachim; Brunsø, Karen; Verbeke, Wim

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explore cultural differences in the meaning of convenience and the relationships between convenience, attitudes and fish consumption in five European countries. The results suggest that the meaning of meal convenience is not culture specific, whilst the absolute levels of convenience orientation and the perceived inconvenience of fish differ between cultures. Convenience orientation was highest in Poland, followed by Spain, and was lowest in the Netherlands. The relationships between convenience orientation and attitudes towards fish, and convenience orientation and fish consumption, were insignificant in most countries. However, convenience orientation was positively related to the perceived inconvenience of fish. Perceived inconvenience of fish was negatively related to both attitudes towards fish and to fish consumption. Together, these results confirm some earlier findings that fish is generally perceived as a relatively inconvenient type of food. This study suggests that convenience orientation can be crucial to understanding food choice or behaviour only when critical mediating constructs are explored.

  6. Convenience experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohs, Ulrich

    2012-03-01

    Systems biology aims at explaining life processes by means of detailed models of molecular networks, mainly on the whole-cell scale. The whole cell perspective distinguishes the new field of systems biology from earlier approaches within molecular cell biology. The shift was made possible by the high throughput methods that were developed for gathering 'omic' (genomic, proteomic, etc.) data. These new techniques are made commercially available as semi-automatic analytic equipment, ready-made analytic kits and probe arrays. There is a whole industry of supplies for what may be called convenience experimentation. My paper inquires some epistemic consequences of strong reliance on convenience experimentation in systems biology. In times when experimentation was automated to a lesser degree, modeling and in part even experimentation could be understood fairly well as either being driven by hypotheses, and thus proceed by the testing of hypothesis, or as being performed in an exploratory mode, intended to sharpen concepts or initially vague phenomena. In systems biology, the situation is dramatically different. Data collection became so easy (though not cheap) that experimentation is, to a high degree, driven by convenience equipment, and model building is driven by the vast amount of data that is produced by convenience experimentation. This results in a shift in the mode of science. The paper shows that convenience driven science is not primarily hypothesis-testing, nor is it in an exploratory mode. It rather proceeds in a gathering mode. This shift demands another shift in the mode of evaluation, which now becomes an exploratory endeavor, in response to the superabundance of gathered data. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of a convenient information bound for general quantum channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Loan, C J

    2007-01-01

    Open questions from Sarovar and Milburn (2006 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 8487) are answered. Sarovar and Milburn derived a convenient upper bound for the Fisher information of a one-parameter quantum channel. They showed that for quasi-classical models their bound is achievable and they gave a necessary and sufficient condition for positive operator-valued measures (POVMs) attaining this bound. They asked (i) whether their bound is attainable more generally (ii) whether explicit expressions for optimal POVMs can be derived from the attainability condition. We show that the symmetric logarithmic derivative (SLD) quantum information is less than or equal to the SM bound, i.e., H(θ) ≤ C Y (θ) and we find conditions for equality. As the Fisher information is less than or equal to the SLD quantum information, i.e., F M (θ) ≤ H(θ), we can deduce when equality holds in F M (θ) ≤ C Y (θ). Equality does not hold for all channels. As a consequence, the attainability condition cannot be used to test for optimal POVMs for all channels. These results are extended to multi-parameter channels

  8. A novel sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) and cross-linked membranes for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hongtao; Zhang, Gang; Wu, Jing; Zhao, Chengji; Zhang, Yang; Shao, Ke; Han, Miaomiao; Lin, Haidan; Zhu, Jing; Na, Hui [Alan G MacDiarmid Institute, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Qianjin Street 2699, Changchun 130012, Jilin (China)

    2010-10-01

    A novel poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) containing pendant carboxyl groups has been synthesized by a nucleophilic polycondensation reaction. Sulfonated polymers (SPEEKs) with different ion exchange capacity are then obtained by post-sulfonation process. The structures of PEEK and SPEEKs are characterized by both FT-IR and {sup 1}H NMR. The properties of SPEEKs as candidates for proton exchange membranes are studied. The cross-linking reaction is performed at 140 C using poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as the cross-linker. In comparison with the non-cross-linked membranes, some properties of the cross-linked membranes are significantly improved, such as water uptake, methanol resistance, mechanical and oxidative stabilities, while the proton conductivity decreases. The effect of PVA content on proton conductivity, water uptake, swelling ratio, and methanol permeability is also investigated. Among all the membranes, SPEEK-C-8 shows the highest selectivity of 50.5 x 10{sup 4} S s cm{sup -3}, which indicates that it is a suitable candidate for applications in direct methanol fuel cells. (author)

  9. Male coercion and convenience polyandry in a calopterygid damselfly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cordero

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Copulation in odonates requires female cooperation because females must raise their abdomen to allow intromission. Nevertheless in Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Odonata males commonly grasp ovipositing females and apparently force copulations. This has been interpreted as a consequence of extreme population density and male-male competition. We studied this behavior at two sites on a river that had different densities over three years. As predicted, at high densities most matings were forced (i.e. not preceded by courtship, but at low density most were preceded by courtship. Courtship matings were shorter at high density, but density did not affect the duration of forced matings. Females cooperated in forced matings even if they had very few mature eggs. Furthermore, females mated more times if they experienced higher male harassment during oviposition, and at low density second and subsequent matings were more likely to be forced. We interpret these results to mean that females engage in "convenience polyandry", because they gain more by accepting copulation than by resisting males. The results also suggest that females might trade copulations for male protection, because under extreme population density harassment by males is so intense that they can impede oviposition.

  10. Radiolabeled cholesteryl ethers: A need to analyze for biological stability before use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny Joseph Manual Kollareth

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Radiolabeled cholesteryl ethers are widely used as non-metabolizable tracers for lipoproteins and lipid emulsions in a variety of in vitro and in vivo experiments. Since cholesteryl ethers do not leave cells after uptake and are not hydrolyzed by mammalian cellular enzymes, these compounds can act as markers for cumulative cell uptakes of labeled particles. We have employed [3H]cholesteryl oleoyl ether to study the uptake and distribution of triglyceride-rich emulsion particles on animal models. However, questionable unexpected results compelled us to analyze the stability of these ethers. We tested the stability of two commercially available radiolabeled cholesteryl ethers - [3H]cholesteryl oleoyl ether and [3H]cholesteryl hexadecyl ether from different suppliers, employing in vitro, in vivo and chemical model systems. Our results show that, among the two cholesteryl ethers tested, one ether was hydrolyzed to free cholesterol in vitro, in vivo and chemically under alkaline hydrolyzing agent. Free cholesterol, unlike cholesteryl ether, can then re-enter the circulation leading to confounding results. The other ether was not hydrolyzed to free cholesterol and remained as a stable ether. Hence, radiolabeled cholesteryl ethers should be analyzed for biological stability before utilizing them for in vitro or in vivo experiments. Keywords: Cholesteryl ether, J774 A2 macrophages, Soy oil emulsion, Thin layer chromatography, triDHA emulsion

  11. Assessment of the Use of Nitrogen Trifluoride for Purifying Coolant and Heat Transfer Salts in the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.

    2010-09-28

    This report provides an assessment of the use of nitrogen trifluoride for removing oxide and water-caused contaminants in the fluoride salts that will be used as coolants in a molten salt cooled reactor.

  12. Radiolabeled cholesteryl ethers: A need to analyze for biological stability before use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manual Kollareth, Denny Joseph; Chang, Chuchun L; Hansen, Inge H; Deckelbaum, Richard J

    2018-03-01

    Radiolabeled cholesteryl ethers are widely used as non-metabolizable tracers for lipoproteins and lipid emulsions in a variety of in vitro and in vivo experiments. Since cholesteryl ethers do not leave cells after uptake and are not hydrolyzed by mammalian cellular enzymes, these compounds can act as markers for cumulative cell uptakes of labeled particles. We have employed [ 3 H]cholesteryl oleoyl ether to study the uptake and distribution of triglyceride-rich emulsion particles on animal models. However, questionable unexpected results compelled us to analyze the stability of these ethers. We tested the stability of two commercially available radiolabeled cholesteryl ethers - [ 3 H]cholesteryl oleoyl ether and [ 3 H]cholesteryl hexadecyl ether from different suppliers, employing in vitro , in vivo and chemical model systems. Our results show that, among the two cholesteryl ethers tested, one ether was hydrolyzed to free cholesterol in vitro , in vivo and chemically under alkaline hydrolyzing agent. Free cholesterol, unlike cholesteryl ether, can then re-enter the circulation leading to confounding results. The other ether was not hydrolyzed to free cholesterol and remained as a stable ether. Hence, radiolabeled cholesteryl ethers should be analyzed for biological stability before utilizing them for in vitro or in vivo experiments.

  13. A convenient procedure for the synthesis of allyl and benzyl ethers ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Department of Chemistry, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry 605 014, .... organic synthesis we hope that the procedure described in this paper will find ... Allyl bromide (Fluka) and benzyl bromide (E Merck) were freshly distilled before use.

  14. Misconceptions about the ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    Several misconceptions concerning the ether concept and ether models are reviewed and clarified so that the relationship between modern ether theory and orthodox relativity may be better understood. The question of the ether's supposed superfluidity as a concept, and its status in modern physics remains to be answered. (author)

  15. High Resolution Rotational Spectroscopy of a Flexible Cyclic Ether

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez, F.; Martínez-Haya, B.; Blanco, S.; López, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.

    2011-06-01

    Crown ethers stand as one cornerstone molecular class inhost-guest Supramolecular Chemistry and constitute building blocks for a broad range of modern materials. We report here the first high resolution rotational study of a crown ether: 1,4,7,10,13-pentaoxacyclopentadecane (15-crown-5 ether,15c5). Molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy has been employed. The liquid sample of 15c5 has been vaporized using heating methods. The considerable size of 15c5 and the broad range of conformations allowed by the flexibility of its backbone pose important challenges to spectroscopy approaches. In fact, the ab-initio computational study for isolated 15c5, yields at least six stable conformers with relative free energies within 2 kJ Mol-1 (167 Cm-1). Nevertheless, in this investigation it has been possible to identify and characterize in detail one stable rotamer of the 15c5 molecule and to challenge different quantum methods for the accurate description of this system. The results pave the ground for an extensive description of the conformational landscape of 15c5 and related cyclic ethers in the near term. J. L. Alonso, F. J. Lorenzo, J. C. López, A. Lesarri, S. Mata and H. Dreizler, Chem. Phys., 218, 267 (1997) S. Blanco, J.C López, J.L. Alonso, P. Ottaviani, W. Caminati, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 880 (2003) S.E. Hill, D. Feller, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 201, 41 (2000)

  16. Diethyl Ether Production as a Substitute for Gasoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alviany Riza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diethyl ether is one of alternative fuel that could be used as a significant component of a blend or as a complete replacement for transportation fuel. The aim of this research is to produce diethyl ether through dehydration reaction of ethanol with fixed bed reactor using nanocrystalline γ-Al2O3 catalyst. Nanocrystalline γ-Al2O3 catalyst was synthesized by precipitation method using Al(NO33.9H2O as precursors and NH4OH as the precipitating agent. Dehydration reaction was performed at temperature range of 125 to 225°C. The result shows that synthesized γ-Al2O3 catalyst gave higher ethanol conversion and diethyl ether yield than that of commercial Al2O3 catalyst. The use of synthesized γ-Al2O3 catalyst could reach ethanol conversion as high as 94.71% and diethyl ether yield as high as 11,29%.

  17. 40 CFR 721.10017 - Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... diglycidyl ether polymer (generic). 721.10017 Section 721.10017 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (PMNs P...

  18. Reactions of adducts of phosphorus pentachloride and 1-alkenes with arsenic trifluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridland, S.V.; Miftakhov, M.N.; Dmitrieva, N.V.

    1986-01-01

    As a result of NMR investigations of models of σ and π nu complexes of 1-heptene (or 1-hexene) and phosphorus pentachloride in reactions with arsenic trifluoride it was shown that the formation of the phosphorus-containing arylated product by the Friedel-Crafts scheme is possible only with the participation of the σ complex, but in the case of the π nu complex the arylation of the olefin occurs

  19. The use of boron trifluoride and alkoxiboroxines as extinguishants for magnesium alloy fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.N.

    1987-11-01

    The extinguishants currently available for putting out magnesium alloy fires work by covering the burning fuel and excluding both the oxygen and nitrogen from the reaction zone. It has been reported that boron trifluoride and trimethoxi-and tributoxi-boroxine may act in a more specific chemical way on the combustion reactions. In this report an investigation into the effectiveness of these compounds on magnesium alloy fires is described. (author)

  20. A mild and efficient procedure for the synthesis of ethers from various alkyl halides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosstafa Kazemi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A simple, mild and practical procedure has been developed for the synthesis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical ethers by using DMSO, TBAI in the presence of K2CO3. We extended the utility of Potassium carbonate as an efficient base for the preparation of ethers. A wide range of alkyl aryl and dialkyl ethers are synthezied from treatment of aliphatic alcohols and phenols with various alkyl halides in the prescence of efficient base Potassium carbonate. Secondary alkyl halides were easily converted to corresponding ethers in releatively good yields . This is a mild, simple and practical procedure for the preparation of ethers in high yields and suitable times under mild condition.

  1. Solution of a gallstone with methyl-tertiary butyl ether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambs, H J; Roeren, T; Holstege, A; Raedecke, J

    1987-08-01

    Methyl-t-butyl ether is a new agent to dissolve gallstones. The substance proves to be very successful and acts very rapidly. A percutaneous transhepatic drainage supplies an adequate access route to dissolve calculi within the bile ducts. We report the case of a patient where before insertion of an internal stent a stone in the common bile duct was dissolved within 3 1/2 hours.

  2. "Convenience Food."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Colette

    1980-01-01

    Defines the meaning of the American expression "convenience food," quoting definitions given by dictionaries and specialized publications. Discusses the problem of finding the exact equivalent of this expression in French, and recommends some acceptable translations. (MES)

  3. Enhanced response of microbial fuel cell using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone membrane as a biochemical oxygen demand sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayyaru, Sivasankaran; Dharmalingam, Sangeetha, E-mail: sangeetha@annauniv.edu

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane in SCMFC used to determine the BOD. • The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm. • This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion{sup ®}. • SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion{sup ®}. • Nafion{sup ®} shows high anodic internal resistance (67 Ω) than the SPEEK (39 Ω). - Abstract: The present study is focused on the development of single chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC) using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane to determine the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) matter present in artificial wastewater (AW). The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm when using artificial wastewater. This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion{sup ®}. The most serious problem in using MFC as a BOD sensor is the oxygen diffusion into the anode compartment, which consumes electrons in the anode compartment, thereby reducing the coulomb yield and reducing the electrical signal from the MFC. SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion{sup ®}, resulting in low internal resistance and substrate loss, thus improving the sensing range of BOD. The system was further improved by making a double membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with an increased electrode surface area which provide high surface area for electrically active bacteria.

  4. Cosmic Ether

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    1998-01-01

    A prerelativistic approach to particle dynamics is explored in an expanding Robertson-Walker cosmology. The receding galactic background provides a distinguished frame of reference and a unique cosmic time. In this context the relativistic, purely geometric space-time concept is criticized. Physical space is regarded as a permeable medium, the cosmic ether, which effects the world-lines of particles and rays. We study in detail a Robertson-Walker universe with linear expansion factor and negatively curved, open three-space; we choose the permeability tensor of the ether in such a way that the semiclassical approximation is exact. Galactic red-shifts depend on the refractive index of the ether. In the local Minkowskian limit the ether causes a time variation of mass, which scales inversely proportional to cosmic time. In the globally geodesic rest frames of galactic observers the ether manifests itself in an unbounded speed of signal transfer, in bifurcations of world-lines, and in time inversion effects.

  5. Nitrogen Trifluoride: Its Chemistry, Toxicity, and Safe Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-12

    Hopkins University . LPAI—LtIP-1 , Nov 1961 . 27. Stauffer Chemical Co. Technical Bulletin. “Nitrogen Trifluoride and Tetrafluorohydrazine ” . Market ...Continued ) United Technologies Corp. Naval Postgraduate School Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Div. Attn: Libra ry, Tech. Repts. Florida Researc h & Development Ctr

  6. A Convenient Method for Estimation of the Isotopic Abundance in Uranium Bearing Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AI -Saleh, F.S.; AI-Mukren, Alj.H.; Farouk, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    A convenient and simple method for estimation of the isotopic abundance in some uranium bearing samples using gamma-ray spectrometry is developed using a hyper pure germanium spectrometer and a standard uranium sample with known isotopic abundance

  7. The breakdown of vinyl ethers as a two-center synchronous reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokidova, T. S.; Shestakov, A. F.

    2009-11-01

    The experimental data on the molecular decomposition of vinyl ethers of various structures to alkanes and the corresponding aldehydes or ketones in the gas phase were analyzed using the method of intersecting parabolas. The enthalpies and kinetic parameters of decomposition were calculated for 17 reactions. The breakdown of ethers is a two-center concerted reaction characterized by a very high classical potential barrier to the thermally neutral reaction (180-190 kJ/mol). The kinetic parameters (activation energies and rate constants) of back reactions of the formation of vinyl ethers in the addition of aldehydes or ketones to alkanes were calculated using the method of intersecting parabolas. The factors that influenced the activation energy of the decomposition and formation of ethers were discussed. Quantum-chemical calculations of several vinyl ether decomposition reactions were performed. Ether formation reactions were compared with the formation of unsaturated alcohols as competitive reactions, which can occur in the interaction of carbonyl compounds with alkenes.

  8. Hizbollah–Syrian Intelligence Affairs: A Marriage of Convenience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Anthony Wege

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, Hizbollah has emerged as the guardian of Lebanon's Shi'a and a stalking horse for Iran. Syria, though allied with Tehran, seeks to manage Hizbollah's freedom of action in Lebanon and is eyed cautiously in Damascus. Hizbollah has managed to maintain independence from these Syrian efforts because of both Lebanese Shi'a religious élan and the protection given Hizbollah by its Shi'a allies in Iran.

  9. Poly (ether ether ketone) membranes for fuel cells; Membranas de poli (eter eter cetona) sulfonado para celulas a combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero, Jacqueline C.; Gomes, Ailton de S.; Filho, Jose C.D., E-mail: jacquecosta@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Hui, Wang S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Vivianna S. de [Escola Tecnica Rezende-Rammel, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Polymeric membranes were developed using a SPEEK polymer matrix (sulphonated poly (ether ether ketone)), containing hygroscopic particles of zirconia (Zr) (incorporated by sol-gel method), for use as electrolyte membranes in fuel cells. SPEEK with different sulfonation degrees were used: 63 and 86%. The thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) was carried out to characterize the membranes and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was carried out to evaluating the proton conductivity of the membranes. Additional analysis were underway in order to characterize these membranes, which include: X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in order to evaluate the influence of zirconia and sulfonation degree on the properties of the membranes. (author)

  10. Interactive Video and Artificial Intelligence: A Convenient Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midoro, V.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes the theoretical framework of a research project aimed at exploring the new potentials for instructional systems offered by videodisc technology and artificial intelligence. A prototype of an intelligent tutoring system, "Earth," is described, and types of interactions in instructional systems are discussed as they relate to the…

  11. A convenient analytical form for the triton wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajduk, C.; Green, A.M.; Sainio, M.E.

    1979-01-01

    The triton wave function obtained by solving the Faddeev equations with the Reid soft core potential is parametrized in a symmetrized cluster form. As a test the 3 He charge form factor is calculated for the exact and the parametrized wave functions and reasonable agreement between the two is found. (author)

  12. a convenient synthesis of pyrandione derivatives using p

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    N. Benosmane

    2016-09-01

    Sep 1, 2016 ... P-TOLUENESULFONIC ACID AS CATALYST UNDER ULTRASOUND ... improvement a green organic reaction methodology, which is ..... [5] Tan S F, Ang K P, Jayachandran H L. Synthesis and characterisation of copper(II),.

  13. A convenient accuracy criterion for time domain FE-calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Skaarup

    1997-01-01

    An accuracy criterion that is well suited to tome domain finite element (FE) calculations is presented. It is then used to develop a method for selecting time steps and element meshes that produce accurate results without significantly overburderning the computer. Use of this method is illustrated...... with a simple example, where comparison with an analytical solution shows that results are sufficiently accurate, which is not always the case with more primitive mthods for determining the discretisation....

  14. PyNEST: a convenient interface to the NEST simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen M Eppler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The neural simulation tool NEST (http://www.nest-initiative.org is a simulator for heterogeneous networks of point neurons or neurons with a small number of compartments. It aims at simulations of large neural systems with more than 10^4 neurons and 10^7 to 10^9 synapses. NEST is implemented in C++ and can be used on a large range of architectures from single-core laptops over multi-core desktop computers to super-computers with thousands of processor cores. Python (http://www.python.org is a modern programming language that has recently received considerable attention in Computational Neuroscience. Python is easy to learn and has many extension modules for scientific computing (e.g. http://www.scipy.org. In this contribution we describe PyNEST, the new user interface to NEST. PyNEST combines NEST’s efficient simulation kernel with the simplicity and flexibility of Python. Compared to NEST’s native simulation language SLI, PyNEST makes it easier to set up simulations, generate stimuli, and analyze simulation results. We describe how PyNEST connects NEST and Python and how it is implemented. With a number of examples, we illustrate how it is used.

  15. The GTC: a convenient test bench for ELT demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Espinosa, Jose M.; Hammersley, Peter L.; Martinez-Roger, Carlos

    2004-07-01

    The Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) is, being assembled at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM) in the island of La Palma. First light is expected for early 2005 with the first science observations late in 2005. The GTC, being a segmented primary mirror telescope, could be employed for testing several technological aspects relevant to the future generation of Extremely Large Telescopes (ELT). In the short term, the mass production of aespheric mirror segments can be examined in detail and improvements made along the way, or planned for the future. Indeed the GTC segments are now entering into a chain production scheme. Later on, different strategies for the control aspects of the primary mirror can be explored to optimize the optical performance of segmented telescopes. Moreover, the entire GTC active optics can offer a learning tool for testing various strategies and their application to ELTs.

  16. Heuristics and NCLB Standardized Tests: A Convenient Lie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Arnold

    2009-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 requires public schools in the United States to test students in grades 3-8. The author argues that this mandate has been supported by the public, in part, because of the "availability heuristic," a phenomenon which occurs when people assess the probability of an event by the ease with which instances…

  17. A new convenient asymmetric approach to herbarumin Ⅲ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Song Chen; Shi Jun Da; Li Hong Yang; Bo Yan Xu; Zhi Xiang Xie; Ying Li

    2007-01-01

    The asymmetric total synthesis of herbarumin Ⅲ 3, a naturally occurred phytotoxin, along with 8-epi-herbarumin Ⅲ 22, was succeeded in 12 steps from n-butyraldehyde based on Brown's asymmetric allylation, taking modified Julia olefination and Yamaguchi's macro-lactonization as key steps.

  18. Caffeine Withdrawal and Dependence: A Convenience Survey Among Addiction Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budney, Alan J; Brown, Pamela C; Griffiths, Roland R; Hughes, John R; Juliano, Laura M

    2013-06-01

    Caffeine withdrawal was included in the research appendix of the DSM-IV to encourage additional research to assist with determining its status for the next version of the manual. Caffeine dependence was not included because of a lack of empirical research at the time of publication. This study assessed the beliefs of addiction professionals about the clinical importance of caffeine withdrawal and dependence. A 6-item survey was developed and delivered electronically to the members of six professional organizations that focus on addiction. Open-ended comments were also solicited. Five hundred members responded. The majority (95%) thought that cessation of caffeine could produce a withdrawal syndrome, and that caffeine withdrawal can have clinical importance (73%); however, only half (48%) thought that caffeine withdrawal should be included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). A majority (58%) believed that some people develop caffeine dependence; however, only 44% indicated that it should be in the DSM. Comments suggested that trepidation about inclusion of caffeine diagnoses was due to the concerns about the field of psychiatry being criticized for including common disorders with a relatively low clinical severity. Others, however, expressed an urgent need to take caffeine-related problems more seriously. The majority of addiction professionals believe that caffeine withdrawal and dependence disorders exist and are clinically important; however, these professionals are divided in whether caffeine withdrawal and dependence should be included in DSM. Wider dissemination of the extant literature on caffeine withdrawal and additional research on caffeine dependence will be needed to provide additional guidance to policymakers and healthcare workers.

  19. A convenient method to synthesize specifically labelled cholesterol with tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, S.; Kenny, M.; Ahmad, S.; Washington Univ., Seattle, WA

    1992-01-01

    A simple method is described to label cholesterol with tritium. Cholesterol was first oxidized to 5-cholesten-3-one which was then purified by HPLC. Its structure was established by electron impact (EI) mass spectrometry and 1 H-NMR spectroscopy. The ketone was reduced with NaB 3 H 4 to give specifically labelled cholesterol (C-3 3 H) at low specific activity. (author)

  20. Strategy development for improving competitiveness of a Chinese local convenience store Case of Suguo Co., Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiang; Ju, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The topic of the thesis is improving the competitiveness of the case company. We will regard Suguo as the case compamy. We focused on a Chinese local convenience store, and compared it in four perspectives with an international convenience store which has already entered the Chinese market successfully. The four perspectives are market perspective, customer perspective, management perspective, and decorative style perspective. In addition, we created a strategic map on the basis of the consum...

  1. Is a 'convenience' sample useful for estimating immunization coverage in a small population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Jean E; Jones, Carrie

    2008-01-01

    Rapid survey methodologies are widely used for assessing immunization coverage in developing countries, approximating true stratified random sampling. Non-random ('convenience') sampling is not considered appropriate for estimating immunization coverage rates but has the advantages of low cost and expediency. We assessed the validity of a convenience sample of children presenting to a travelling clinic by comparing the coverage rate in the convenience sample to the true coverage established by surveying each child in three villages in rural Papua New Guinea. The rate of DTF immunization coverage as estimated by the convenience sample was within 10% of the true coverage when the proportion of children in the sample was two-thirds or when only children over the age of one year were counted, but differed by 11% when the sample included only 53% of the children and when all eligible children were included. The convenience sample may be sufficiently accurate for reporting purposes and is useful for identifying areas of low coverage.

  2. AIRBORNE POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN A COMPUTER CLASSROOM OF COLLEGE IN TAIWAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. H. Chang ، C. R. Yang ، C. Y. Tsai ، W. C. Lin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study characterized the airborne exposure of students to thirty polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners inside and outside a computer classroom in a southern Taiwan college. Arithmetic mean values of total indoor and outdoor polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations were 125.0 pg/m3 (89.8 to 203.9 pg/m3 and 110.3 pg/m3 (83.5 to 157.0 pg/m3, respectively. Total indoor polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations were one order of magnitude lower than those detected in homes in Birmingham, United Kingdom and in Ottawa, Canada but were several times higher than those measured in the ambient air in Ottawa, Canada and from the Bohai Sea to the Arctic. The five highest indoor concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners were decabromodiphenyl ether (23.0 pg/m3, 4,4’-dibromodiphenyl ether (15.9 pg/m3, 2,2’,3,4,4’,5,5’,6-octabromodiphenyl ether (10.6 pg/m3, 2,4-dibromodiphenyl ether (10.3 pg/m3 and 2,2’,3,4,4’,5’,6-heptabromodiphenyl ether (10.0 pg/m3. Although indoor and outdoor total polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations did not significantly differ, the indoor concentrations of 2,4-dibromodiphenyl ether, 2,2’,4-tribromodiphenyl ether, 2,4,4’-tribromodiphenyl ether, 2,2’,4,5’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether and 2,3’,4’,6-tetrabromodiphenyl ether were significantly higher than their outdoor concentrations. This study suggests the following measures: 1 to increase the air exchange rate and open classroom doors and windows for several minutes before classes to reduce indoor PBDE concentrations; 2 to reduce polybrominated diphenyl ether emissions from new devices, it’s better to use computer-related products that meet the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive adopted by the European Union.

  3. Entropy Generation Minimization in Dimethyl Ether Synthesis: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Diego; Razzitte, Adrián César

    2018-04-01

    Entropy generation minimization is a method that helps improve the efficiency of real processes and devices. In this article, we study the entropy production (due to chemical reactions, heat exchange and friction) in a conventional reactor that synthesizes dimethyl ether and minimize it by modifying different operating variables of the reactor, such as composition, temperature and pressure, while aiming at a fixed production of dimethyl ether. Our results indicate that it is possible to reduce the entropy production rate by nearly 70 % and that, by changing only the inlet composition, it is possible to cut it by nearly 40 %, though this comes at the expense of greater dissipation due to heat transfer. We also study the alternative of coupling the reactor with another, where dehydrogenation of methylcyclohexane takes place. In that case, entropy generation can be reduced by 54 %, when pressure, temperature and inlet molar flows are varied. These examples show that entropy generation analysis can be a valuable tool in engineering design and applications aiming at process intensification and efficient operation of plant equipment.

  4. A convenient way to double the capacity of a NEC type foil stripper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, K.R.

    1988-01-01

    A convenient method is described to increase the capacity of a NEC type terminal stripper. This renders the necessity for tank entry to renew foils less frequent. This is especially useful when the use of heavy ion beams renders foil lifetimes very short. (orig.)

  5. Ether-Directed ortho-C–H Olefination with a PdII/MPAA Catalyst**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Leow, Dasheng; Wan, Li; Yu, Jin-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Weak coordination is powerful! A PdII-catalyzed olefination of ortho-C–H bonds of arenes directed by weakly coordinating ethers is developed using mono-protected amino acid (MPAA) ligands. This finding provides a method for chemically modifying ethers, which are abundant in natural products and drug molecules. PMID:23239120

  6. A highly sensitive and selective dimethyl ether sensor based on cataluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Runkun; Cao, Xiaoan; Liu, Yonghui; Peng, Yan

    2010-07-15

    A sensor for detecting dimethyl ether was designed based on the cataluminescence phenomenon when dimethyl ether vapors were passing through the surface of the ceramic heater. The proposed sensor showed high sensitivity and selectivity to dimethyl ether at an optimal temperature of 279 degrees C. Quantitative analysis were performed at a wavelength of 425 nm, the flow rate of carrier air is around 300 mL/min. The linear range of the cataluminescence intensity versus concentration of dimethyl ether is 100-6.0x10(3) ppm with a detection limit of 80 ppm. The sensor response time is 2.5 s. Under the optimized conditions, none or only very low levels of interference were observed while the foreign substances such as benzene, formaldehyde, ammonia, methanol, ethanol, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acrolein, isopropyl ether, ethyl acetate, glycol ether and 2-methoxyethanol were passing through the sensor. Since the sensor does not need to prepare and fix up the granular catalyst, the simple technology reduces cost, improves stability and extends life span. The method can be applied to facilitate detection of dimethyl ether in the air. The possible mechanism of cataluminescence from the oxidation of dimethyl ether on the surface of ceramic heater was discussed based on the reaction products. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Convenience foods, as portrayed by a consumer organisation. Test-Aankoop/Test-Achats (1960-1995).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degreef, Filip

    2015-11-01

    Food choice, both today and in the past, is driven by a broad range of interacting factors, in which culture is centrally placed. This paper will assess convenience foods by means of a qualitative analysis of comparative product tests done by Belgium's largest consumer organisation Test-Aankoop/Test-Achats, and will focus on the influence of socially and culturally normative values between the years 1960 and 1995. The tests provide a unique insight into attitudes to convenience foods within an organisation that saw its role in Belgian consumer society as being both educator and guide. The organisation's views on health, food safety, modernity, tradition, control over ingredients and content, gender roles and taste shaped its attitude to the role and meaning of what food is supposed to be. The organisation thereby both guided and re-affirmed normative values with respect to convenience foods. Values, which are culturally constructed, have always played a key role in the acceptability of products. Cultural and social inhibitions and fears over control of convenience foods, which persist today, were central in the consumer organisation's representation of convenience food. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reframing convenience food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Peter; Viehoff, Valerie

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides a critical review of recent research on the consumption of 'convenience' food, highlighting the contested nature of the term and exploring its implications for public health and environmental sustainability. It distinguishes between convenience food in general and particular types of convenience food, such as ready-meals, tracing the structure and growth of the market for such foods with a particular emphasis on the UK which currently has the highest rate of ready-meal consumption in Europe. Having established the definitional complexities of the term, the paper presents the evidence from a systematic review of the literature, highlighting the significance of convenience food in time-saving and time-shifting, the importance of recent changes in domestic labour and family life, and the way the consumption of convenience food is frequently moralized. The paper shows how current debates about convenience food are part of a longer discursive history about food, health and nutrition. It discusses current levels of public understanding about the links between convenience food, environmental sustainability and food waste. The paper concludes by making a case for understanding the consumption of convenience food in terms of everyday social practices, emphasising its habitual and routine character. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination of radiostrontium in soil samples using a crown ether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajda, N; Ghods-Esphahani, A; Danesi, P R [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Chemistry Unit, PCI Laboratory, Seibersdorf (Austria)

    1995-07-01

    A simple and rapid method has been developed for the separation and successive determination of total radiostrontium in soil. The method consists of three basic steps: oxalate precipitation to remove bulk potassium, chromatographic separation of strontium from most inactive and radioactive interferences utilizing a crown ether (Sr. Spec, EIChroM Industries, II. USA), oxalate precipitation of strontium to evaluate the chemical yield. Radiostrontium is then determined by liquid scintillation counting of the dissolved precipitate. When 10 g samples of soil are used the sensitivity of the method is about 10 Bq/kg. The chemical yield is about 80%. The separation and determination of radiostrontium can be carried out in about 8 hours. (author)

  10. Determination of radiostrontium in soil samples using a crown ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, N.; Ghods-Esphahani, A.; Danesi, P.R.

    1995-01-01

    A simple and rapid method has been developed for the separation and successive determination of total radiostrontium in soil. The method consists of three basic steps: oxalate precipitation to remove bulk potassium, chromatographic separation of strontium from most inactive and radioactive interferences utilizing a crown ether (Sr. Spec, EIChroM Industries, II. USA), oxalate precipitation of strontium to evaluate the chemical yield. Radiostrontium is then determined by liquid scintillation counting of the dissolved precipitate. When 10 g samples of soil are used the sensitivity of the method is about 10 Bq/kg. The chemical yield is about 80%. The separation and determination of radiostrontium can be carried out in about 8 hours. (author)

  11. Comparing sexual minority cancer survivors recruited through a cancer registry to convenience methods of recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmer, Ulrike; Clark, Melissa A; Timm, Alison; Glickman, Mark; Sullivan, Mairead

    2011-01-01

    Sexual minority women, defined as having a lesbian or bisexual identity or reporting a preference for a female partner, are not considered by cancer surveillance. This study assesses the representativeness of sexual minority breast cancer survivors, defined as having a lesbian or bisexual identity or reporting a preference for a female partner, who were recruited into a convenience sample compared with a population-based registry sample of sexual minority breast cancer survivors. Long-term survivors of non-metastatic breast cancer who self-reported as sexual minority were recruited from a cancer registry and subsequently from the community using convenience recruitment methods. Sexual minority breast cancer survivors who screened eligible participated in a telephone survey about their quality of life and factors associated therewith. Participants in the convenience sample were similar to the registry-based sample with respect to adjustment to cancer, physical health, trust in physician, coping, social support, and sexual minority experiences. Compared with the convenience sample, breast cancer survivors in the registry sample were more likely married, more educated, diagnosed more recently, at an earlier stage of cancer, and more likely treated with breast-conserving surgery; they differed on adjuvant therapies. Because sexual minority breast cancer survivors who volunteered for the community-based sample shared most characteristics of the sample recruited from the cancer registry, we concluded that the community sample had comparable representational quality. In the absence of cancer surveillance of sexual minorities, thoughtful convenience recruitment methods provide good representational quality convenience samples. Copyright © 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Normalising convenience food?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente

    2017-01-01

    The construction of convenience food as a social and cultural category for food provisioning, cooking and eating seems to slide between or across understandings of what is considered “proper food” in the existing discourses in everyday life and media. This article sheds light upon some...... of the social and cultural normativities around convenience food by describing the ways in which convenience food forms part of the daily life of young Danes. Theoretically, the article is based on a practice theoretical perspective. Empirically, the article builds upon a qualitative research project on food...... habits among Danes aged 20–25. The article presents two types of empirical patterns. The first types of patterns are the degree to which and the different ways in which convenience food is normalised to use among the young Danes. The second types of patterns are the normative places of convenient food...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6980 - Dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky-lenepolyols...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting. (1) The chemical substance dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl... glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky-lenepolyols polyglycidyl ethers (generic name). 721.6980... Substances § 721.6980 Dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky...

  14. Structural study of chlorine tri-fluoride and bromine penta-fluoride in liquid and solid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousson, R.

    1973-01-01

    This research thesis reports the structural study of chlorine tri-fluoride and bromine penta-fluoride between 20 C and about -265 C. After some generalities on these compounds and a presentation of the experimental technique, the author reports and discusses results obtained with these both compounds: Raman spectrum for the liquid and for the solid phase, infrared spectrum for the solid phase, calorimetric measurements. In the case of chlorine tri-fluoride, the author studies the evolution of the liquid spectrum with temperature, shows the existence of an intermediate solid phase, and compares results obtained by Raman spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. He also applies to bromine penta-fluoride an analysis of normal coordinates of a XF 5 molecule: relationship between force constants and vibration frequencies, application of Wilson method, resolution of the molecular equation, determination of normal vibration modes [fr

  15. A new interpretation of SAXS peaks in sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK) membranes for fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendil-Jakani, H; Zamanillo Lopez, I; Legrand, P M; Mareau, V H; Gonon, L

    2014-06-21

    The structure of a commercial sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK) membrane was analyzed by Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) for different water uptakes obtained after immersion in liquid water at various temperatures. For low membrane swelling, the SAXS profile displays only a wide-angle peak in the 0.2-0.3 Å(-1) region. As the membrane swells, two supplementary correlation peaks arise and shift towards small angles, which are the signature of a structural evolution of the membrane, whereas the wide angle peak remains stable. The SAXS spectra of sPEEK membranes can thus display three correlation peaks simultaneously. Therefore we propose a new interpretation of these SAXS spectra which conclude that the two small angle peaks are attributed to the so-called matrix and ionomer peaks and the wide-angle peak is ascribed to the mean separation distance between sulfonic acid groups grafted onto the polymer backbone. This peak attribution implies that the sPEEK nano-phase separation is triggered by an immersion in hot water (ionomer peak apparition). Our new peak attribution was confirmed by studying the impact of temperature, electron density contrast and ionic exchange capacity.

  16. A subchronic dermal exposure study of diethylene glycol monomethyl ether and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether in the male guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, D W; D'Addario, A P; Bruner, R H; Uddin, D E

    1986-02-01

    Diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (DEGME) has been selected as a replacement anti-icing additive for ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) in Navy jet aircraft fuel. This experiment was performed to determine whether DEGME produced similar toxicity to EGME following dermal exposure. Male guinea pigs were dermally exposed to 1.00, 0.20, 0.04, or 0 (control) g/kg/day DEGME for 13 weeks, 5 days/week, 6 hr/day. Another group of animals was similarly exposed to 1.00 g/kg/day EGME. Body weights as well as testicular and splenic weights were reduced as a result of exposure to EGME, DEGME-exposed animals exhibited decreased splenic weight in the high- and medium-dose (1.00 and 0.20 g/kg/day) exposure groups only. Hematologic changes in EGME-exposed animals included mild anemia with increased erythrocytic mean corpuscular volumes and a lymphopenia with increased neutrophils. Similar hematological changes were not observed in any animals exposed to DEGME. Serum creatine kinase activity was increased in animals exposed to EGME, and serum lactate dehydrogenase activity was increased in EGME and 1.00 g/kg/day DEGME-exposed animals. In general, DEGME produced minimal toxicological changes following dermal exposure, whereas the toxicological changes observed following similar exposure to EGME were much more profound.

  17. A Framework for Collaborative and Convenient Learning on Cloud Computing Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepika; Kumar, Vikas

    2017-01-01

    The depth of learning resides in collaborative work with more engagement and fun. Technology can enhance collaboration with a higher level of convenience and cloud computing can facilitate this in a cost effective and scalable manner. However, to deploy a successful online learning environment, elementary components of learning pedagogy must be…

  18. A new cytotoxic sterol methoxymethyl ether from a deep water marine sponge Scleritoderma sp. cf. paccardi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekera, S P; Kelly-Borges, M; Longley, R E

    1996-02-01

    24(R)-Methyl-5 alpha-cholest-7-enyl 3 beta-methoxymethyl ether (1), a new sterol ether, has been isolated from a deep-water marine sponge Scleritoderma sp. cf. paccardi. Compound 1 exhibited in vitro cytotoxicity against the cultured murine P-388 tumor cell line with an IC50 of 2.3 micrograms/mL. The isolation and structure elucidation of 1 by NMR spectroscopy is described.

  19. CAN MONEY BUY CONVENIENCE: A STUDY ON INCOME AS A MOTIVATOR OF ONLINE SHOPPING?

    OpenAIRE

    Pallabi Mishra

    2016-01-01

    The fast and hectic life of professionals has created an essence of convenience and urgency in their activities and behavior. With the advent of technology and the swift internet era online activities are on a growing trend. This growing trend in online shopping has led to the consideration of this paper which aims to explore the role of individual income as a motivator of online shopping behavior. This study is descriptive in nature. It consists of primary survey of customers belonging to di...

  20. The Prevalence of Gambling in College: A Review of Literature, Convenience Sample, and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifried, Chad; Krenzelok, Ann; Turner, Brian A.; Brett, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This project examined the level of gambling exhibited by a convenience sample of 155 college students at a large Midwestern university and compared it to previously completed work. The researchers found most college student gamblers engaged in the most popular form of gambling like casino games, card games, and betting pools for money. Gambling on…

  1. Salt as a public health challenge in continental European convenience and ready meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzler, Sonja; Hartmann, Christina; Gruber, Anita; Lammer, Guido; Wagner, Karl-Heinz

    2014-11-01

    To assess the salt content of continental European convenience and ready meals. A multistage study in which, after laboratory analysis of the products' salt contents (n 32), new salt-reduced meals were developed through food reformulation. Additionally, a comprehensive survey of convenience meals from the Austrian market (n 572) was conducted to evaluate the salt contents of a wider product range. Six continental European countries participated. No subjects enrolled. The salt contents of continental European convenience and ready meals mostly exceeded 1·8 g/100 g, which is 30 % of the targeted daily intake level; some contained even more than the recommended daily intake of 6 g. The highest salt contents were found in pizzas and pasta dishes, the lowest ones in sweet meals. Large variations in salt levels were found not only between and within meal type categories, but also between similar meals from different producers. In addition, our approach to develop new salt-reduced meals showed that a stepwise reduction of the ready meals' salt contents is possible without compromising the sensory quality. To address the problem of hypertension and increased risk for CVD through high salt intake, a reduction of the salt levels in continental European convenience and ready meals is urgently needed, since they are providing a major part of the daily salt intake. Successful national-wide salt reduction strategies in the UK or Finland have already demonstrated the public health impact of this setting.

  2. Convenient Transfer Semihydrogenation Methodology for Alkynes Using a PdII-NHC Precatalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, R.M.; Bouwens, T.; van Leest, N.P.; de Bruin, B.; Elsevier, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    A convenient and easy-to-use protocol for the Z-selective transfer semihydrogenation of alkynes was developed, using ammonium formate as the hydrogen source and the easily prepared and commercially available, highly stable complex PdC1(eta(3)-C3H5)(IMes) (1) as the (pre)catalyst. Combined with

  3. A convenient synthesis of sup 14 C-cotinine from sup 14 C-nicotine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, D.H.; Djordjevic, M.V.; Amin, S. (American Health Foundation, Valhalla, NY (USA). Naylor Dana Inst. for Disease Prevention)

    1991-03-01

    A convenient synthesis with analytical monitoring of {sup 14}C-cotinine is reported. {sup 14}C-Nicotine was converted into {sup 14}C-dibromocotinine hydrobromide perbromide. Debromination, achieved by using Zn dust/acetic acid, resulted in high yields (71%) of {sup 14}C-cotinine. (author).

  4. Developing a framework of service convenience in health care: An exploratory study for a primary care provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzovic, Sven; Kuppelwieser, Volker

    2016-01-01

    From retail health clinics and online appointment scheduling to (mobile) kiosks that enable patient check-in and automate the collection of copays and open balances, convenience has become an important topic in the health care sector over the last few years. While service convenience has also gained much interest in academia, one common limitation is that authors have adopted a "goods-centered" perspective focusing primarily on retail settings. Results of this exploratory study reveal that health care service convenience encompasses seven different dimensions: decision, access, scheduling, registration and check-in, transaction, care delivery, and postconsultation convenience. Implications and future research suggestions are discussed.

  5. Chemistry and phytotoxicity of thaxtomin A alkyl ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnoff, Stuart B; Lobkovsky, Emil B; Wach, Michael J; Loria, Rosemary; Gibson, Donna M

    2005-11-30

    The thaxtomin phytotoxins (1 and 2) from scab-producing Streptomyces pathogens of the potato are 2,5-dioxopiperazines consisting of modified l-tryptophanyl and l-phenylalanyl units. Thaxtomin A (1) is hydroxylated at C-14, the alpha carbon of the modified l-phenylalanyl moiety. Refluxing thaxtomin A in acidified MeOH, EtOH, and i-PrOH afforded C-14 thaxtomin A methyl- (3a and 3b), ethyl- (4a and 4b), and isopropyl- (5a and 5b) ethers, respectively, in both the 11S,14R (3a, 4a, and 5a) and 11S,14S (3b, 4b, and 5b) configurations. Crystal structures were determined for 3a and 4a. Extensive NMR as well as other spectroscopic data supported structural assignments for all of the derivatives. The 11S,14R-configured derivatives were slightly less potent than the natural products (1 and 2) as inhibitors of lettuce seedling root growth, whereas the activity of the 11S,14S epimers was much reduced, indicating that the configuration at C-14 found in the naturally occurring thaxtomins is essential for biological activity. Among the 11S,14R-configured compounds, potency decreased with an increasing size of the substituted alkoxy group.

  6. Exploring the relationship between convenience and fish consumption: A cross-cultural study

    OpenAIRE

    OLSEN, SO; SCHOLDERER, J; BRUNSO, K; Verbeke, Wim

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explore cultural differences in the meaning of convenience and the relationships between convenience, attitudes and fish consumption in five European countries. The results suggest that the meaning of meal convenience is not culture specific, whilst the absolute levels of convenience orientation and the perceived inconvenience of fish differ between cultures. Convenience orientation was highest in Poland, followed by Spain, and was lowest in the Netherla...

  7. Glycerol etherification with TBA: high yield to poly-ethers using a membrane assisted batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannilla, Catia; Bonura, Giuseppe; Frusteri, Leone; Frusteri, Francesco

    2014-05-20

    In this work, a novel approach to obtain high yield to poly-tert-butylglycerolethers by glycerol etherification reaction with tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) is proposed. The limit of this reaction is the production of poly-ethers, which inhibits the formation of poly-ethers potentially usable in the blend with conventional diesel for transportation. The results herein reported demonstrate that the use of a water permselective membrane offers the possibility to shift the equilibrium toward the formation of poly-ethers since the water formed during reaction is continuously and selectively removed from the reaction medium by the recirculation of the gas phase. Using a proper catalyst and optimizing the reaction conditions, in a single experiment, a total glycerol conversion can be reached with a yield to poly-ethers close to 70%, which represents data never before reached using TBA as reactant. The approach here proposed could open up new opportunities for all catalytic reactions affected by water formation.

  8. Modeling of a Reaction-Distillation-Recycle System to Produce Dimethyl Ether through Methanol Dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muharam, Y.; Zulkarnain, L. M.; Wirya, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    The increase in the dimethyl ether yield through methanol dehydration due to a recycle integration to a reaction-distillation system was studied in this research. A one-dimensional phenomenological model of a methanol dehydration reactor and a shortcut model of distillation columns were used to achieve the aim. Simulation results show that 10.7 moles/s of dimethyl ether is produced in a reaction-distillation system with the reactor length being 4 m, the reactor inlet pressure being 18 atm, the reactor inlet temperature being 533 K, the reactor inlet velocity being 0.408 m/s, and the distillation pressure being 8 atm. The methanol conversion is 90% and the dimethyl ether yield is 48%. The integration of the recycle stream to the system increases the dimethyl ether yield by 8%.

  9. Contact angle measurements of a polyphenyl ether to 190 C on M-50 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Contact angle measurements were performed for a polyphenyl ether on steel in nitrogen. A tilting plate and a sessile drop apparatus were used. Surface tension was measured with a maximum bubble pressure apparatus. Critical surface energies of spreading were found to be 30.1 and 31.3 dynes/cm. It was concluded that the polyphenyl ether is inherently autophobic and will not spread on its own surface film.

  10. A smartphone-optimized web site for conveniently viewing otolaryngology journal abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Justin S; Sharma, Arun; Samy, Ravi N

    2014-12-01

    Access to the medical literature has not kept pace with the mobile revolution. We aimed to (1) gauge interest in a smartphone-optimized Web site for conveniently accessing otolaryngology literature and (2) create an easy-to-access and convenient Web site that displays otolaryngology journal abstracts in a format optimized for smartphones. A survey was sent to physicians of a major US academic otolaryngology-head and neck surgery department. Demographics, literature-browsing habits, and barriers to staying updated were assessed. The response rate was 87%. Ninety-one percent of respondents used a smartphone, and 85% wished they could stay more up to date with the otolaryngology literature. Most respondents believed a convenient smartphone-optimized Web site could help them achieve this goal. A Web site was then developed in collaboration with a university creative department as a proof of concept. The site uses a simple RSS aggregator to display journal abstracts formatted for smartphone-sized screens (www.otosurg.com). © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  11. A convenient synthesis of deuterated leukotriene A sub 4 methyl ester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bestmann, H.J.; Roeder, T. (Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Organische Chemie); Meese, C.O. (Fischer-Bosch-Inst. fuer Klinische Pharmakologie, Stuttgart (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-11-01

    2,2,3,3-({sup 2}H{sub 4})-1-Iodopentane was prepared in four steps from propargyl alcohol and used in the C-alkylation of the THP-protected 3-butyne-1-ol. Subsequent protective group removal, semi-deuteration of the acetylenic alcohol and further transformation by known methods afforded the labelled key reagent 3,4,6,6,7,7-({sup 2}H{sub 6})-(Z)-(3-nonen-1-yl)triphenylphosphonium iodide. Wittig olefination of epoxy dienal with the ylide generated from the latter completed the convenient synthesis of hexadeuterated leukotriene A{sub 4} methyl ester. (author).

  12. Physical, mental, and cognitive function in a convenience sample of centenarians in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Robyn L; Law, Jenaleen; Kay-Lambkin, Frances

    2011-06-01

    To examine the physical, mental, and cognitive function of centenarians. Descriptive study using a structured questionnaire and convenience sampling. Residential care facilities and private dwellings in Australia. A convenience sample of 188 centenarians. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) screened for anxiety and depression. The Katz Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living (Katz ADL) was used to assess functional status. The Quality of Life Scale was used to assess quality of life. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used to screen for dementia. Structured responses were obtained for living arrangement, marital status, social relationships, and supports. Centenarians had regular contact with friends (59%), neighbors (62%), and families (72%); 54% were religious and 43.5% had received social supports. Average MMSE and Katz ADL scores were 21.5 and 3.7, respectively; 45% had scores on the MMSE indicative of dementia, 10% indicated anxiety and 14% depression on the HADS. Participants with poor ratings of health experienced higher rates of anxiety and depression than their healthier counterparts. In this convenience sample of Australian centenarians, anxiety and depression was relatively nonexistent, and most reported a high quality of life. This was despite objective deterioration in functional status, paralleling the aging process, and high dependence on others for everyday tasks. Potentially, this is suggestive of a unique ability within the sample to adapt to aging and its limitations. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

  13. Energy saving effects of wireless sensor networks: a case study of convenience stores in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Sheng; Lee, Da-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) technology has been successfully applied to energy saving applications in many places, and plays a significant role in achieving power conservation. However, previous studies do not discuss WSN costs and cost-recovery. The application of WSNs is currently limited to research and laboratory experiments, and not mass industrial production, largely because business owners are unfamiliar with the possible favorable return and cost-recovery on WSN investments. Therefore, this paper focuses on the cost-recovery of WSNs and how to reduce air conditioning energy consumption in convenience stores. The WSN used in this study provides feedback to the gateway and adopts the predicted mean vote (PMV) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to allow customers to shop in a comfortable yet energy-saving environment. Four convenience stores in Taipei have used the proposed WSN since 2008. In 2008, the experiment was initially designed to optimize air-conditioning for energy saving, but additions to the set-up continued beyond 2008, adding the thermal comfort and crowds peak, off-peak features in 2009 to achieve human-friendly energy savings. Comparison with 2007 data, under the same comfort conditions, shows that the power savings increased by 40% (2008) and 53% (2009), respectively. The cost of the WSN equipment was 500 US dollars. Experimental results, including three years of analysis and calculations, show that the marginal energy conservation benefit of the four convenience stores achieved energy savings of up to 53%, recovering all costs in approximately 5 months. The convenience store group participating in this study was satisfied with the efficiency of energy conservation because of the short cost-recovery period.

  14. Consumers' purchase of organic food products. A matter of convenience and reflexive practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelmar, Ulf

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the purchase of organic food products by consumers and to explore the main factors driving this process. This paper uses evidence from 16 in-depth interviews with consumers in Denmark carried out in 2008-2009. On the basis of the analysis two broad concepts are suggested: convenience behaviours and reflexive practices. Convenience behaviours are characteristic of pragmatic organic consumers. This type of shopping behaviour requires organic foods to be available in the local supermarket, they have to be clearly visible (preferably with an eco-label), and the price differential vis-à-vis conventional products have to be minimal. The analysis also showed that politically/ethically minded consumers have reflexive practices when purchasing organic food products: health considerations, ethical considerations (animal welfare), political considerations (environmentalism) and quality considerations (taste) play an important part for these consumers. Reflexive shopping practices can be sparked by life events (e.g. having children), "shocking" news about conventional food products and similar events, and news capable of creating a "cognitive dissonance" among consumers. The Danish case illustrates that the government needs to actively implement reforms and promote activities which make organic products a convenient choice for the pragmatic oriented consumer if their market share is to increase substantially. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Exploring the relationship between convenience and fish consumption: A cross-cultural study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Svein Ottar; Scholderer, Joachim; Brunsø, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explore cultural differences in the meaning of convenience and the relationships between convenience, attitudes and fish consumption in five European countries. The results suggest that the meaning of meal convenience is not culture specific, whilst...... the absolute levels of convenience orientation and the perceived inconvenience of fish differ between cultures. Convenience orientation was highest in Poland, followed by Spain, and was lowest in the Netherlands. The relationships between convenience orientation and attitudes towards fish, and convenience...... orientation and fish consumption, were insignificant in most countries. However, convenience orientation was positively related to the perceived inconvenience of fish. Perceived inconvenience of fish was negatively related to both attitudes towards fish and to fish consumption. Together, these results confirm...

  16. Antibacterial activity of berberine-NorA pump inhibitor hybrids with a methylene ether linking group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samosorn, Siritron; Tanwirat, Bongkot; Muhamad, Nussara; Casadei, Gabriele; Tomkiewicz, Danuta; Lewis, Kim; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Prammananan, Therdsak; Gornall, Karina C; Beck, Jennifer L; Bremner, John B

    2009-06-01

    Conjugation of the NorA substrate berberine and the NorA inhibitor 5-nitro-2-phenyl-1H-indole via a methylene ether linking group gave the 13-substituted berberine-NorA inhibitor hybrid, 3. A series of simpler arylmethyl ether hybrid structures were also synthesized. The hybrid 3 showed excellent antibacterial activity (MIC Staphylococcus aureus, 1.7 microM), which was over 382-fold more active than the parent antibacterial berberine, against this bacterium. This compound was also shown to block the NorA efflux pump in S. aureus.

  17. Radiation-induced grafting of vinylbenzyl chloride onto a poly(ether ether ketone) film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Mi-Lim; Song, Ju-Myung; Ko, Beom-Seok; Sohn, Joon-Yong; Nho, Young-Chang; Shin, Junhwa

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effects of various irradiation conditions including solvent, monomer concentration, total dose, and dose rate on the radiation grafting of a VBC monomer onto a PEEK aromatic hydrocarbon film for the preparation of a PVBC-grafted PEEK (PEEK-g-PVBC) film were investigated. The results show that the desired PVBC-grafted PEEK film can be prepared using a simultaneous irradiation grafting method, and that the degree of grafting (DOG) of the film is largely influenced by the irradiation conditions. Among the applied solvents, halogenated solvents, dichloromethane and chloroform, were found to be suitable for grafting. The successful preparation of the grafted film was confirmed using analytical instruments such as FT-IR, TGA, and SEM-EDX.

  18. UHT PROCESSED CHICKPEA LIQUID MEAL: A NOVEL CONCEPT OF A CONVENIENT LIQUID FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Hosken

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea liquid meal (CLM is a new concept of a convenient liquid food. It is a complex colloidal system, which is composed of dehulled chickpea flour as the major ingredient and with the addition of other ingredients (protein, fat, sucrose, dried glucose syrup, maltodextrin, vitamins, minerals, etc. The product is expected to have a balanced nutritional composition; acceptable flavor, taste and thickness; homogenous and smooth texture; stable colloid; and can be stored for a long of period (commercially sterile. This paper presents an overview of the literature information on the production, nutritional quality and functional properties of the chickpea, and the technology of liquid meal, which is applicable to CLM. It also outlines possible problems that influence consumer acceptability of the product. Some preliminary results of our study are also reported.

  19. Pareto law of the expenditure of a person in convenience stores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Takayuki; Toriyama, Masahiro; Terano, Takao; Takayasu, Misako

    2008-06-01

    We study the statistical laws of the expenditure of a person in convenience stores by analyzing around 100 million receipts. The density function of expenditure exhibits a fat tail that follows a power law. Using the Lorenz curve, the Gini coefficient is estimated to be 0.70; this implies that loyal customers contribute significantly to a store’s sales. We observe the Pareto principle where both the top 25% and 2% of the customers account for 80% and 25% of the store’s sales, respectively.

  20. Interaction of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes with dienes in the presence of boron trifluoride etherate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gramenitskaya, V.N.; Golovkina, L.S.; Orach, V.S.

    1975-01-01

    The products of the acrolein reaction with divinyl, isoprene and chloroprene catalized by BF 3 xEt 2 O are corresponding 3-cyclohexenaldehydes trimerized under the catalyst influence. Mixtures of substituted 3-cyclohexealdehydes and Δ 3 -dihydropirines were produced as results of the reaction of croton aldehyde with 1,1,3-trimethilbutadiene at high temperature as well as at 20 deg C in presence of catalyst

  1. A convenient catalyst system for microwave accelerated cross-coupling of a range of aryl boronic acids with aryl chlorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Edward J

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A convenient microwave accelerated cross-coupling procedure between aryl chlorides with a range of boronic acids has been developed. An explanation for the low reactivity of highly fluorinated boronic acids in Suzuki coupling is provided.

  2. Effects of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties and emissions in a diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Cuenca, F.; Gomez-Marin, M. [Compania Logistica de Hidrocarburos (CLH), Central Laboratory, Mendez Alvaro 44, 28045 Madrid (Spain); Folgueras-Diaz, M.B., E-mail: belenfd@uniovi.es [Department of Energy, University of Oviedo, Independencia 13, 33004 Oviedo (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Effect of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties. {yields} Effect of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel engine specific consumption and emissions. {yields} Blends with {<=}4 wt.% of oxygen do not change substantially diesel fuel quality. {yields} Blends with 1 and 2.5 wt.% of oxygen reduce CO and HC emissions, but not smoke. - Abstract: The effect of ethylene glycol ethers on both the diesel fuel characteristics and the exhaust emissions (CO, NO{sub x}, smoke and hydrocarbons) from a diesel engine was studied. The ethers used were monoethylene glycol ethyl ether (EGEE), monoethylene glycol butyl ether (EGBE), diethylene glycol ethyl ether (DEGEE). The above effect was studied in two forms: first by determining the modification of base diesel fuel properties by using blends with oxygen concentration around 4 wt.%, and second by determining the emission reductions for blends with low oxygen content (1 wt.%) and with 2.5 wt.% of oxygen content. The addition of DEGEE enhances base diesel fuel cetane number, but EGEE and EGBE decrease it. For concentrations of {>=}4 wt.% of oxygen, EGEE and diesel fuel can show immiscibility problems at low temperatures ({<=}0 {sup o}C). Also, every oxygenated compound, according to its boiling point, modifies the distillation curve at low temperatures and the distillate percentage increases. These compounds have a positive effect on diesel fuel lubricity, and slightly decrease its viscosity. Blends with 1 and 2.5 wt.% oxygen concentrations were used in order to determine their influence on emissions at both full and medium loads and different engine speeds. Generally, all compounds help to reduce CO, and hydrocarbon emissions, but not smoke. The best results were obtained for blends with 2.5 wt.% of oxygen. At this concentration, the additive efficiency in decreasing order was EGEE > DEGEE > EGBE for CO emissions and DGEE > EGEE > EGBE for hydrocarbon emissions. For NO{sub x}, both its behaviour and the

  3. Action of the chlorine trifluoride on water vapour. Analysis of reaction products. Technical report - 589

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougon, R.

    1961-06-01

    As the separation of uranium 235 from uranium 238 by gaseous diffusion under the form of uranium hexa-fluoride requires the use of materials which may contain some impurities retained by chemical or physical bounds, this report addresses the use of a reactant which would allow these impurities to be removed. Due to its properties (inert with respect to UF 6 ; transforms most of impurities into volatile compounds, and different UF compounds into UF 6 ; strongly reacts on water; all its degradation products are volatile), chlorine trifluoride (ClF 3 ) has been chosen. It is used for the preprocessing of materials for their passivation with respect to UF 6 , and for a post-processing for the regeneration of porous materials by transformation of UF 4 , UO 2 F 2 and UF x into UF 6 . The authors more particularly studied the reaction between ClF 3 and water

  4. Ethyl tertiary-butyl ether: a toxicological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Douglas

    2007-05-01

    A number of oxygenated compounds (oxygenates) are available for use in gasoline to reduce vehicle exhaust emissions, reduce the aromatic compound content, and avoid the use of organo-lead compounds, while maintaining high octane numbers. Ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) is one such compound. The current use of ETBE in gasoline or petrol is modest but increasing, with consequently similar trends in the potential for human exposure. Inhalation is the most likely mode of exposure, with about 30% of inhaled ETBE being retained by the lungs and distributed around the body. Following cessation of exposure, the blood concentration of ETBE falls rapidly, largely as a result of its metabolism to tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA) and acetaldehyde. TBA may be further metabolized, first to 2-methyl-1,2-propanediol and then to 2-hydroxyisobutyrate, the two dominant metabolites found in urine of volunteers and rats. The rapid oxidation of acetaldehyde suggests that its blood concentration is unlikely to rise above normal as a result of human exposure to sources of ETBE. Single-dose toxicity tests show that ETBE has low toxicity and is essentially nonirritant to eyes and skin; it did not cause sensitization in a maximization test in guinea pigs. Neurological effects have been observed only at very high exposure concentrations. There is evidence for an effect of ETBE on the kidney of rats. Increases in kidney weight were seen in both sexes, but protein droplet accumulation (with alpha(2u)-globulin involvement) and sustained increases in cell proliferation occurred only in males. In liver, centrilobular necrosis was induced in mice, but not rats, after exposure by inhalation, although this lesion was reported in some rats exposed to very high oral doses of ETBE. The proportion of liver cells engaged in S-phase DNA synthesis was increased in mice of both sexes exposed by inhalation. ETBE has no specific effects on reproduction, development, or genetic material. Carcinogenicity studies

  5. Convenience, food and family lives. A socio-typological study of household food expenditures in 21st-century Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Sarah; Glorieux, Ignace

    2015-11-01

    This article aims to uncover the extent to which convenience foods have become embedded in today's diets. The paper focuses on households' food expenditures, collected by Statistics Belgium in 2005. The results show that households' reliance on (semi-) convenience food items and away-from-home consumption clearly differs over the life-course and amongst different social groups. Findings show that single-living households (single men in particular) look for more convenience in their food preparation patterns compared to couples and households with children. The consumption of semi-convenient meal components seems to be more closely related to the conventional definition of home-cooking, with older-generation, lower-educated, non-working and 'traditional' nuclear households being more likely to spend a larger share of their food budget on non-convenient and 'shortcut' ingredients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Laboratory tests using chlorine trifluoride in support of deposit removal at MSRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.F.; Rudolph, J.C.; Del Cul, G.D.; Loghry, S.L.; Simmons, D.W.; Toth, L.M.

    1997-04-01

    Experimental trials were conducted to investigate some unresolved issues regarding the use of chlorine trifluoride (ClF 3 ) for removal of uranium-bearing deposits in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) off-gas system. The safety and effectiveness of operation of the fixed-bed trapping system for removal of reactive gases were the primary focus. The chief uncertainty concerns the fate of chlorine in the system and the potential for forming explosive chlorine oxides (primarily chlorine dioxide) in the trapping operation. Tests at the MSRE Reactive Gas Removal System reference conditions and at conditions of low ClF 3 flow showed that only very minor quantities of reactive halogen oxides were produced before column breakthrough. Somewhat larger quantities accompanied breakthrough. A separation test that exposed irradiated MSRE simulant salt to ClF 3 confirmed the expectation that the salt is basically inert for brief exposures to ClF 3 at room temperature

  7. Associations with dental caries experience among a convenience sample of Aboriginal Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasena, N; Kapellas, K; Skilton, M R; Maple-Brown, L J; Brown, A; O'Dea, K; Celermajer, D S; Jamieson, L M

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have examined dental caries experience in Aboriginal adults. The objectives of this study were to describe the dental caries experience of some Aboriginal Australian adults residing in the Northern Territory, and to determine associations with dental caries experience. A convenience sample of Aboriginal adults from Australia's Northern Territory was dentally examined. Self-reported oral health information was collected through a questionnaire. Data were available for 312 participants. The per cent of untreated decayed teeth (per cent DT >0) was 77.9 (95% CI 73.0 to 82.1), the mean DT was 3.0 (95% CI 2.6 to 3.4), the prevalence of any caries experience (the per cent DMFT >0) was 95.5 (95% CI 92.6 to 97.3) and the mean DMFT was 9.7 (95% CI 8.9 to 10.5). In multivariable analyses, unemployment and not brushing teeth the previous day were associated with the per cent DT >0. Problem-based dental attendance was associated with both the mean DT and the per cent DMFT >0. Older age, residing in the capital city, being non-incarcerated, last visiting a dentist caries experience among this convenience sample of Aboriginal Australian adults was very high. Most factors associated with dental caries were social determinants or dental service access-related. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  8. Oxidation mechanism of diethyl ether: a complex process for a simple molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Tommaso, Stefania; Rotureau, Patricia; Crescenzi, Orlando; Adamo, Carlo

    2011-08-28

    A large number of organic compounds, such as ethers, spontaneously form unstable peroxides through a self-propagating process of autoxidation (peroxidation). Although the hazards of organic peroxides are well known, the oxidation mechanisms of peroxidizable compounds like ethers reported in the literature are vague and often based on old experiments, carried out in very different conditions (e.g. atmospheric, combustion). With the aim to (partially) fill the lack of information, in this paper we present an extensive Density Functional Theory (DFT) study of autoxidation reaction of diethyl ether (DEE), a chemical that is largely used as solvent in laboratories, and which is considered to be responsible for various accidents. The aim of the work is to investigate the most probable reaction paths involved in the autoxidation process and to identify all potential hazardous intermediates, such as peroxides. Beyond the determination of a complex oxidation mechanism for such a simple molecule, our results suggest that the two main reaction channels open in solution are the direct decomposition (β-scission) of DEE radical issued of the initiation step and the isomerization of the peroxy radical formed upon oxygen attack (DEEOO˙). A simple kinetic evaluation of these two competing reaction channels hints that radical isomerization may play an unexpectedly important role in the global DEE oxidation process. Finally industrial hazards could be related to the hydroperoxide formation and accumulation during the chain propagation step. The resulting information may contribute to the understanding of the accidental risks associated with the use of diethyl ether.

  9. Ether formulations of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    Contemporary ether theories are surveyed and criticised, especially those formally identical to orthodox Relativity. The historical development of Relativity, Special and General, in terms of an ether, is briefly indicated. Classical interpretations of Generalized Relativity using ether are compared to Euclidean formulations using a background space. The history of a sub-group of theories, formulating a 'new' Relativity involving modified transforms, is outlined. According to the theory with which they agree, recent supposed detections of drift are classified and criticised. Cosmological evidence suggesting an ether is mentioned. Only ether theories formally identical to Relativity have been published in depth. They stand criticised as being contrary to the positivist spirit. The history of mechanical analogues is traced, from Hartley's representing gravitating matter as spherical standing waves, to recent suggestions that vortex-sponge might model electromagnetic, quantum, uncertainty and faster-than-light phenomena. Contemporary theories are particular physical theories, themselves 'second interpretations' of a primary mathematical model. Mechanical analogues are auxiliary, not necessary, to other theory, disclosing relationships between classical and non-classical descriptions of assemblies charging state. The ether-relativity polemic, part of a broader dispute about relativity, is founded on mistaken conceptions of the roles of mathematical and physical models, mechanical analogues; and a distored view of history, which indicates that ether theories have become relativistic. (author)

  10. CAN MONEY BUY CONVENIENCE: A STUDY ON INCOME AS A MOTIVATOR OF ONLINE SHOPPING?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallabi Mishra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The fast and hectic life of professionals has created an essence of convenience and urgency in their activities and behavior. With the advent of technology and the swift internet era online activities are on a growing trend. This growing trend in online shopping has led to the consideration of this paper which aims to explore the role of individual income as a motivator of online shopping behavior. This study is descriptive in nature. It consists of primary survey of customers belonging to different individual income levels. The researcher has classified respondents on the basis of their individual income earned per annum into low, medium and high category. It investigates the influence of demographic factor income on shopping experiences of users of the major shopping websites of India. Data has been collected both from primary as well as secondary sources. The sampling technique used is convenience with a sample size of 755.The research results reveal that there is no significant effect of income on product categories purchased online. The effect of income on frequency of online shopping is not significant. There is no significant effect of income on payment mode in online shopping. Further there is no significant relationship between income and satisfaction in online shopping.The managers can benefit immensely from the results. Customers are offer driven in case of all items except necessary and emergency goods. The necessary items would sell even if there is no discount and offers on them. For other items offers and discounts influence the shopping behavior. The higher the offer the better the sale. Moreover to gain competitive advantage online marketers need to provide products and brands of higher value to customers. The cash on delivery facility should be applied to all product categories across the country so that every customer benefits from it. Care should be taken to manage reverse logistics as there should be a pick up facility from

  11. A simple and convenient set-up for high-temperature Brillouin light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerette, Michael; Huang Liping

    2012-01-01

    An emulated platelet geometry (or reflection-induced platelet geometry) is employed to collect photons scattered from both longitudinal and transverse acoustic waves travelling within a bulk transparent sample sitting on a reflective Pt plate. Temperature of the sample was controlled with a Linkam TS1500 optical furnace (maximum temperature of 1500 °C). This simple and convenient set-up allows a full determination of elastic constants of transparent materials in situ as a function of temperature from Brillouin light scattering. Structural information can be gained at the same time by guiding the scattered light into a Raman spectrometer using a flipping mirror or a beam splitter. We will demonstrate the applications of this set-up in transparent inorganic glasses, but it can be easily extended to any other transparent materials, either crystalline or amorphous in nature. (paper)

  12. A convenient way of manufacturing silicon nanotubes on a silicon substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Changchang; Cheng, Heming; Liu, Xiang, E-mail: liuxiang@ahut.edu.cn

    2016-07-01

    A convenient approach of preparing silicon nanotubes (SiNTs) on a silicon substrate is described in this work in detail. Firstly, a porous silicon (PSi) slice is prepared by a galvanic displacement reaction. Then it is put into aqueous solutions of 20% (w%) ammonium fluoride and 2.5 mM cobalt nitrate for a predetermined time. The cobalt ions are reduced and the resulted cobalt particles are deposited on the PSi slice. After the cobalt particles are removed with 5 M nitric acid a plenty of SiNTs come out and exhibit disorderly on the silicon substrate, which are illustrated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The compositions of the SiNTs are examined by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Based on the SEM images, a suggested mechanism is put forward to explain the generation of the SiNTs on the PSi substrate. - Highlights: • A facile approach of preparing silicon nano tubes was invented. • The experimental results demonstrated the strong reducibility of Si-H{sub x} species. • It provided a new way of manufacturing silicon-contained hybrids.

  13. Supercritical methanol drying as a convenient route to phenolic-furfural aerogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, Donald F.; Bruno, Joseph W. [Department of Chemistry, Wesleyan University, 06459 Middletown, CT (United States); Andrews, Greg R.; Mendenhall, Robert S. [American Aerogel Corporation, 1000 Corporate Row, 06416 Cromwell, CT (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Organic aerogels are prepared by the acid catalyzed cross-linking of phenolic-furfural (PF) precursors in methanol solution, and the solvent is subsequently removed at high temperature as the supercritical fluid. The resulting aerogel is a brown opaque solid and has been prepared as 30 ml cylindrical monoliths exhibiting little or no shrinkage during formation. These solids, which are routinely available with a density as low as ca. 125mg/cm{sup 3}, have been characterized by chemical methods (infrared spectroscopy and CP-MAS 13C NMR spectrometry) and physical techniques (Brunauer-Emmet-Teller surface area, transmission and scanning electron microscopy). In addition, thermal conductivities have been determined, and show that the PF aerogels are excellent thermal insulators. These studies establish that the materials described herein exhibit chemical and physical properties very similar to those seen for organic aerogels prepared with low temperature processing techniques. The current method constitutes a convenient and rapid route to organic aerogels.

  14. Gender, trauma type, and PTSD prevalence: a re-analysis of 18 nordic convenience samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, D. N.; Elklit, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to examine a possible trauma type related variance in the gender difference of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) prevalence. Methods: An analysis was conducted on 18 convenience sample studies including data from a total of 5220 participants. The studies all...... applied the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire - part IV to assess PTSD. Cohen's d was used to measure variance in gender differences. Trauma types included disasters and accidents, violence, loss, chronic disease and non-malignant diseases. Results: The results showed an overall gender difference in PTSD...... prevalence similar to previous findings. Thus, women had a two-fold higher prevalence of PTSD than men. Besides categorical analyses, dimensional analyses of PTSD severity were also performed; the latter were associated with twice as large effect sizes. Females were more vulnerable to PTSD after disasters...

  15. Masters of convenience: competition, including a rising star from Quebec, improves the service station breed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laverty Wilson, K.

    2002-06-03

    After a decade of extensive dismantling and reconstruction, changes in the downstream refining and marketing side of the petroleum industry have progressed to the point where downstream assets are once again considered to be among the strongest and most vital parts of the industry. Merchandising has become a way of life in gasoline service stations to the point where the service station of the 21. century will likely carry mass-consumption items from panty hose to sandwiches in addition to gasoline. Petro-Canada is in the forefront of rolling out the new-image service stations, while high traffic Esso locations are adding cafes serving doughnuts, muffins, bagels, soup and sandwiches in partnership with the Tim Horton's chain. In Canada, Quebec is way ahead of the other provinces in setting the high tone in the business of catering to consumers on wheels as demonstrated by the 1,932 retail sites of 'Couche-Tard', a name synonymous with gas pumps, fresh coffee and the myriad items offered in traditional convenience stores. With a total of 1,693 stores in Canada, 239 in the United States, 13,000 plus employees and more than 800 gas pumps (80 of them branded to in-house gasoline) Couche-Tard is the ninth largest convenience retailer in North America. The article describes the rise to prominence of the Couche-Tard empire, explains why circumstances in Quebec were ripe for this type of development, and offers a glimpse into the future of the likely further development of the retail gasoline market in the rest of Canada.

  16. Dandelion (Taraxacum Officinale Wigg. S.L. Is A Convenient Object For Genetic Monitoring Of Environmental Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina V Reutova

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed to use dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Wigg. s.l. for testing of mutagenic effects of environmental pollutants. This widespread species is convenient for genetic monitoring. It is sensitive to various types of pollutants (heavy metals, products of combustion and processing of oil. T. officinale appeared to be a convenient, simple in using and inexpensive object for genetic monitoring of environmental pollution. anaphase-telophase method is recomended for this purpose.

  17. A randomized controlled trial of cast versus splint for distal radial buckle fracture: an evaluation of satisfaction, convenience, and preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kristine G; Smith, Gillian; Luhmann, Scott J; Mao, Jingnan; Gunn, Joseph D; Luhmann, Janet D

    2013-05-01

    Buckle fractures are inherently stable and at low risk for displacement. These advantages allow for treatment options that may create confusion for the practitioner. Accepted immobilization methods include circumferential cast, plaster or prefabricated splint, and soft bandaging. Despite mounting evidence for splinting, the questions of pain, preference, satisfaction, and convenience offer a challenge to changing practice. The purposes of this study were (1) to compare cast versus splint for distal radial buckle fractures in terms of parental and patient satisfaction, convenience, and preference and (2) to compare pain reported for cast versus splint. We conducted a prospective randomized trial of a convenience sample of patients 2 through 17 years with a radiologically confirmed distal radial buckle fracture. Subjects were randomly assigned to short-arm cast or prefabricated wrist splint. We assessed satisfaction, convenience, preference, and pain in the emergency department and at days 1, 3, 7, and 21 after immobilization. Ninety-four patients were enrolled. Compared with the cast group, those in the splint group reported higher levels of satisfaction, preference, and convenience on 10-point visual analog scale. Although pain scores were higher for those in the splint group, the difference was not statistically significant. With the exception of pain reported in the emergency department being higher for the splinted group, all other measures, including convenience, satisfaction, and preference, showed a clear trend favoring splints at almost every time period in the study. This study provides additional evidence that splinting is preferable to casting for the treatment of distal radial buckle fractures.

  18. How rural and urban parents describe convenience in the context of school-based influenza vaccination: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Candace; Russell, Margaret L; Collins, Ramona; MacDonald, Judy; Frank, Christine J; Davis, Amy E

    2015-01-22

    Seasonal influenza vaccine uptake among school-age children has been low, particularly among rural children, even in jurisdictions in Canada where this immunization is publicly funded. Providing this vaccination at school may be convenient for parents and might contribute to increased vaccine uptake, particularly among rural children. We explore the construct of convenience as an advantage of school based influenza vaccination. We also explore for rural urban differences in this construct. Participants were parents of school-aged children from Alberta, Canada. We qualitatively analyzed focus group data from rural parents using a thematic template that emerged from prior work with urban parents. Both groups of parents had participated in focus groups to explore their perspectives on the acceptability of adding an annual influenza immunization to the immunization program that is currently delivered in Alberta schools. Data from within the theme of 'convenience' from both rural and urban parents were then further explored for sub-themes within convenience. Data were obtained from nine rural and nine urban focus groups. The template of themes that had arisen from prior analysis of the urban data applied to the rural data. Convenience was a third level theme under Advantages. Five fourth level themes emerged from within convenience. Four of the five sub-themes were common to both rural and urban participants: reduction of parental burden to schedule, reduction in parental lost time, decrease in parental stress and increase in physical access points for influenza immunization. The fifth subtheme, increases temporal access to influenza immunization, emerged uniquely from the rural data. Both rural and urban parents perceived that convenience would be an advantage of adding an annual influenza immunization to the vaccinations currently given to Alberta children at school. Improving temporal access to such immunization may be a more relevant aspect of convenience to rural

  19. A convenient tuning method for NMR/NQR spectrometers by using piezoelectric resonance from quartz crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, J.G.; Yu, I.S.; Kwun, S.I.

    1986-01-01

    We observe that the cw or pulse NMR/NQR spectrometer tuning can be easily and conveniently adjusted by utilizing the piezoelectric resonance signal from quartz crystal sample. For an illustration some properties of the resonance signal are shown. (Author)

  20. Isoflurane is a suitable alternative to ether for anesthetizing rats prior to euthanasia for gene expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsu, Noriyuki; Igarashi, Yoshinobu; Aoshi, Taiki; Hamaguchi, Isao; Saito, Masumichi; Mizukami, Takuo; Momose, Haruka; Ishii, Ken J; Yamada, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Diethyl ether (ether) had been widely used in Japan for anesthesia, despite its explosive properties and toxicity to both humans and animals. We also had used ether as an anesthetic for euthanizing rats for research in the Toxicogenomics Project (TGP). Because the use of ether for these purposes will likely cease, it is required to select an alternative anesthetic which is validated for consistency with existing TGP data acquired under ether anesthesia. We therefore compared two alternative anesthetic candidates, isoflurane and pentobarbital, with ether in terms of hematological findings, serum biochemical parameters, and gene expressions. As a result, few differences among the three agents were observed. In hematological and serum biochemistry analysis, no significant changes were found. In gene expression analysis, four known genes were extracted as differentially expressed genes in the liver of rats anesthetized with ether, isoflurane, or pentobarbital. However, no significant relationships were detected using gene ontology, pathway, or gene enrichment analyses by DAVID and TargetMine. Surprisingly, although it was expected that the lung would be affected by administration via inhalation, only one differentially expressed gene was extracted in the lung. Taken together, our data indicate that there are no significant differences among ether, isoflurane, and pentobarbital with respect to effects on hematological parameters, serum biochemistry parameters, and gene expression. Based on its smallest affect to existing data and its safety profile for humans and animals, we suggest isoflurane as a suitable alternative anesthetic for use in rat euthanasia in toxicogenomics analysis.

  1. Ketene as a Reaction Intermediate in the Carbonylation of Dimethyl Ether to Methyl Acetate over Mordenite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Dominik Bjørn; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Temel, Burcin

    2015-01-01

    Unprecedented insight into the carbonylation of dimethyl ether over Mordenite is provided through the identification of ketene (CH2CO) as a reaction intermediate. The formation of ketene is predicted by detailed DFT calculations and verified experimentally by the observation of doubly deuterated ...

  2. Polyether ether ketone encased monolith frits made of polyether ether ketone tubing with a 0.25 mm opening resulting in an improved separation performance in liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sin Young; Cheong, Won Jo

    2016-05-01

    Tiny polyether ether ketone encased monolith frits have been prepared by modified catalytic sulfonation of the inner surface of polyether ether tubing (1.6 mm od, 0.25 mm id) followed by modified formation of organic monolith and cutting of the tubing into slices. The frit was placed below the central hole of the column outlet union and supported by a combination of a silica capillary (0.365 mm od, 0.05 mm id) and a polyether ether ketone sleeve (1.6 mm od, 0.38 mm id) tightened with a nut and a ferrule when the column was packed to prevent sinking of the frit element into the union hole (0.25 mm opening) otherwise. The column packed this way with the frits investigated in this study has shown better separation performance owing to the reduced frit volume in comparison to the column packed with a commercial stainless-steel screen frit. This study establishes the strategy of disposable microcolumns in which cheap disposable frits are used whenever the column is re-packed to yield columns of even better chromatographic performance than the columns with commercial frits. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. OCT as a convenient tool to assess the quality and application of organotypic retinal samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gater, Rachel; Khoshnaw, Nicholas; Nguyen, Dan; El Haj, Alicia J.; Yang, Ying

    2016-03-01

    Eye diseases such as macular degeneration and glaucoma have profound consequences on the quality of human life. Without treatment, these diseases can lead to loss of sight. To develop better treatments for retinal diseases, including cell therapies and drug intervention, establishment of an efficient and reproducible 3D native retinal tissue system, enabled over a prolonged culture duration, will be valuable. The retina is a complex tissue, consisting of ten layers with a different density and cellular composition to each. Uniquely, as a light transmitting tissue, retinal refraction of light differs among the layers, forming a good basis to use optical coherence tomography (OCT) in assessing the layered structure of the retina and its change during the culture and treatments. In this study, we develop a new methodology to generate retinal organotypic tissues and compare two substrates: filter paper and collagen hydrogel, to culture the organotypic tissue. Freshly slaughtered pig eyes have been obtained for use in this study. The layered morphology of intact organotypic retinal tissue cultured on two different substrates has been examined by spectral domain OCT. The viability of the tissues has been examined by live/dead fluorescence dye kit to cross validate the OCT images. For the first time, it is demonstrated that the use of a collagen hydrogel supports the viability of retinal organotypic tissue, capable of prolonged culture up to 2 weeks. OCT is a convenient tool for appraising the quality and application of organotypic retinal samples and is important in the development of current organotypic models.

  4. Reducing elevator energy use: A comparison of posted feedback and reduced elevator convenience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houten, Ron Van; Nau, Paul A.; Merrigan, Michael

    1981-01-01

    The effects of two different procedures for reducing elevator energy use were assessed using a multiple-baseline design. In the first procedure, feedback about the amount of energy consumed by the elevators each week was posted on each elevator door. Later, signs advocating the use of stairs to save energy and improve health were posted next to the feedback signs. In the second procedure, the time required to travel between floors was increased by adding a delay to the elevator door closing mechanisms. Results indicated that neither feedback alone nor feedback plus educational signs reduced the amount of energy consumed by the elevators. However, use of the door delay reduced consumption by one-third in all elevators. A second experiment replicated the effect of the door delay on energy consumption and, in addition, demonstrated that the door delay also produced a reduction in the number of persons using the elevator. The second experiment also showed that, following an initial period during which a full delay was in effect, a gradual reduction of the delay interval resulted in continued energy conservation. Reduced convenience as a general strategy for energy conservation is discussed. PMID:16795648

  5. A convenient tool for gas derivatization using fine-needle capillary mounting for protein crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Nobuhiro; Makino, Masatomo; Kumasaka, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    A convenient gas-derivatization tool for protein crystals is presented in combination with a fine-needle capillary and a gas-pressure regulator. Gas derivatization of protein crystals is useful not only to analyse gas-binding proteins but also to solve the phase problem of X-ray crystallography by using noble gases. However, the gas pressurization tools for these experiments are often elaborate and need to release the gas before flash-cooling. To simplify this step, a procedure using a fine-needle capillary to mount and flash-cool protein crystals under the pressurization of gases has been developed. After the crystals are picked up with the capillary, the capillary is sealed with an adhesive and then connected directly to a gas regulator. The quality of the diffraction data using this method is comparable with that of data from conventional pressurization procedures. The preparation of xenon-derivatives of hen egg-white lysozyme using this method was a success. In the derivatives, two new xenon binding sites were found and one of their sites vanished by releasing the gas. This observation shows the availability of flash-cooling under gas pressurization. This procedure is simple and useful for preparing gas-derivative crystals

  6. A convenient method for synthesis of glyconanoparticles for colorimetric measuring carbohydrate-protein interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, Yen-Jun; Zhou, Xichun; Pan, Zhengwei; Turchi, Craig

    2009-01-01

    Carbohydrate functionalized nanoparticles, i.e., the glyconanoparticles, have wide application ranging from studies of carbohydrate-protein interactions, in vivo cell imaging, biolabeling, etc. Currently reported methods for preparation of glyconanoparticles require multi-step modifications of carbohydrates moieties to conjugate to nanoparticle surface. However, the required synthetic manipulations are difficult and time consuming. We report herewith a simple and versatile method for preparing glyconanoparticles. This method is based on the utilization of clean and convenient microwave irradiation energy for one-step, site-specific conjugation of unmodified carbohydrates onto hydrazide-functionalized Au nanoparticles. A colorimetric assay that utilizes the ensemble of gold glyconanoparticles and Concanavalin A (ConA) was also presented. This feasible assay system was developed to analyze multivalent interactions and to determine the dissociation constant (K d ) for five kind of Au glyconanoparticles with lectin. Surface plasmon changes of the Au glyconanoparticles as a function of lectin-carbohydrate interactions were measured and the dissociation constants were determined based on non-linear curve fitting. The strength of the interaction of carbohydrates with ConA was found to be as follows: maltose > mannose > glucose > lactose > MAN5.

  7. Factors associated with supermarket and convenience store closure: a discrete time spatial survival modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Joshua L; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2018-06-01

    While there is a literature on the distribution of food stores across geographic and social space, much of this research uses cross-sectional data. Analyses attempting to understand whether the availability of stores across neighborhoods is associated with diet and/or health outcomes are limited by a lack of understanding of factors that shape the emergence of new stores and the closure of others. We used quarterly data on supermarket and convenience store locations spanning seven years (2006-2012) and tract-level census data in four US cities: Birmingham, Alabama; Chicago, Illinois; Minneapolis, Minnesota; San Francisco, California. A spatial discrete-time survival model was used to identify factors associated with an earlier and/or later closure time of a store. Sales volume was typically the strongest indicator of store survival. We identified heterogeneity in the association between tract-level poverty and racial composition with respect to store survival. Stores in high poverty, non-White tracts were often at a disadvantage in terms of survival length. The observed patterns of store survival varied by some of the same neighborhood sociodemographic factors associated with lifestyle and health outcomes, which could lead to confusion in interpretation in studies of the estimated effects of introduction of food stores into neighborhoods on health.

  8. Iodination of monoclonal antibodies for diagnosis and radiotherapy using a convenient one vial method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haisma, H.J.; Hilgers, J.; Zurawski, V.R. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    We have developed a convenient system that can be used to iodinate monoclonal antibodies for diagnosis or therapy. A vial, previously coated with 1,3,4,6-tetrachloro-3a, 6a-diphenyl glycouril (iodogen), is used as a reaction vessel. Iodination and separation of bound and free iodide, using AG1-X8 ion exchange resin, are both accomplished in this vial. We found 90 +/- 4% of the iodide which was added was incorporated, respectively, into each of four different monoclonal antibodies evaluated. Approximately 90% of labeled antibody was recovered in each case. The monoclonal antibody OC125 was labeled to specific activities up to 25 mCi/mg. Immunoreactivities of 82 +/- 2% using 125 I and 66 +/- 5% using 131 I were achieved. As the radioiodination is done in one sealed vial and takes less than 15 min, this procedure is safe and can be performed in any nuclear medicine laboratory. The final product, which is sterile and apyrogenic, is suitable for diagnostic and radiotherapeutic applications

  9. A stable and convenient protein electrophoresis titration device with bubble removing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Fan, Liu-Yin; Li, Wen-Lin; Cong, Feng-Song; Zhong, Ran; Chen, Jing-Jing; He, Yu-Chen; Xiao, Hua; Cao, Cheng-Xi

    2017-07-01

    Moving reaction boundary titration (MRBT) has a potential application to immunoassay and protein content analysis with high selectivity. However, air bubbles often impair the accuracy of MRBT, and the leakage of electrolyte greatly decreases the safety and convenience of electrophoretic titration. Addressing these two issues a reliable MRBT device with modified electrolyte chamber of protein titration was designed. Multiphysics computer simulation was conducted for optimization according to two-phase flow. The single chamber was made of two perpendicular cylinders with different diameters. After placing electrophoretic tube, the resident air in the junction next to the gel could be eliminated by a simple fast electrolyte flow. Removing the electrophoretic tube automatically prevented electrolyte leakage at the junction due to the gravity-induced negative pressure within the chamber. Moreover, the numerical simulation and experiments showed that the improved MRBT device has following advantages: (i) easy and rapid setup of electrophoretic tube within 20 s; (ii) simple and quick bubble dissipates from the chamber of titration within 2 s; (iii) no electrolyte leakage from the two chambers: and (iv) accurate protein titration and safe instrumental operation. The developed technique and apparatus greatly improves the performance of the previous MRBT device, and providing a new route toward practical application. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Misbeliefs About Gambling in a Convenience Sample from the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomei, Alexander; Bamert, Anthony; Sani, Anna-Maria

    2017-09-01

    We examined knowledge about the role of randomness in gambling and the principle of independence of events, in a community sample. We also investigated whether this knowledge varies according to gender and age. A convenience sample of 1257 residents in French-speaking Switzerland, aged 18-88 years (28.5% of women) completed a short online questionnaire. This assessed the perceived role of human skills in four different games as well as beliefs relating to the principle of independence of events. The results show that 19.5% of the respondents perceived Roulette as a game for which the outcome is determined by skill. They also showed that 15.1% of the respondents did not hold beliefs about the independence of events principle. Gender and age differences were also observed: Men were proportionally more likely to hold erroneous beliefs about gambling skills and the independence of events, compared to women. The 18-25 year-old age group attributed Roulette outcomes to the gambler's skill more frequently than the older categories. The implications of these findings for prevention and social support are discussed.

  11. The Retinal Pigment Epithelium: a Convenient Source of New Photoreceptor cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Zhen Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent success in restoring visual function through photoreceptor replacement in mouse models of photoreceptor degeneration intensifies the need to generate or regenerate photoreceptor cells for the ultimate goal of using cell replacement therapy for blindness caused by photoreceptor degeneration. Current research on deriving new photoreceptors for replacement, as regenerative medicine in general, focuses on the use of embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells to generate transplantable cells. Nonetheless, naturally occurring regeneration, such as wound healing, involves awakening cells at or near a wound site to produce new cells needed to heal the wound. Here we discuss the possibility of tweaking an ocular tissue, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE, to produce photoreceptor cells in situ in the eye. Unlike the neural retina, the RPE in adult mammals maintains cell proliferation capability. Furthermore, progeny cells from RPE proliferation may differentiate into cells other than RPE. The combination of proliferation and plasticity opens a question of whether they could be channeled by a regulatory gene with pro-photoreceptor activity towards photoreceptor production. Studies using embryonic chick and transgenic mouse showed that indeed photoreceptor-like cells were produced in culture and in vivo in the eye using genedirected reprogramming of RPE cells, supporting the feasibility of using the RPE as a convenient source of new photoreceptor cells for in situ retinal repair without involving cell transplantation.

  12. Pineapple juice labeled with gadolinium: a convenient oral contrast for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppens, Emmanuel; Metens, Thierry; Winant, Catherine; Matos, Celso

    2005-01-01

    The aim of our study was to prepare in vitro a pineapple juice (PJ) solution labeled with a minimal gadolinium concentration working as a negative contrast agent in heavily T2-weighted imaging and to assess that solution in vivo as a negative oral contrast agent for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). Three PJs were compared in vitro according to their T2. Increasing concentrations of gadolinium (Gd)-DOTA in PJ were assessed in vitro for T2 reduction. Single-shot turbo spin echo T2-weighted MR cholangiopancreatograms were obtained for 35 patients with suspected biliopancreatic duct disease, before and after ingestion of the PJ/Gd-DOTA solution. Signal intensity (SI) measurements of gastroduodenal lumens, pancreatobiliary ducts, and image quality scores were obtained systematically before and after contrast ingestion. The in vitro selected Gd-DOTA concentration in the PJ was 2.76 mmol/l. Ingestion of 180 ml of PJ labeled with 1 ml of Gd-DOTA eliminated efficiently the gastroduodenal SI in MRCP, improving significantly the rates of complete visualization of the pancreatobiliary ducts (P<0.01) and the MRCP image quality scores (P<0.05). All patients easily ingested the contrast solution and found the solution palatable. PJ labeled with gadolinium constituted an efficient and convenient negative oral contrast agent for MRCP. (orig.)

  13. Pineapple juice labeled with gadolinium: a convenient oral contrast for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppens, Emmanuel; Metens, Thierry; Winant, Catherine; Matos, Celso [Hopital Erasme, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Department of Radiology, Division of Magnetic Resonance, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-10-01

    The aim of our study was to prepare in vitro a pineapple juice (PJ) solution labeled with a minimal gadolinium concentration working as a negative contrast agent in heavily T2-weighted imaging and to assess that solution in vivo as a negative oral contrast agent for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). Three PJs were compared in vitro according to their T2. Increasing concentrations of gadolinium (Gd)-DOTA in PJ were assessed in vitro for T2 reduction. Single-shot turbo spin echo T2-weighted MR cholangiopancreatograms were obtained for 35 patients with suspected biliopancreatic duct disease, before and after ingestion of the PJ/Gd-DOTA solution. Signal intensity (SI) measurements of gastroduodenal lumens, pancreatobiliary ducts, and image quality scores were obtained systematically before and after contrast ingestion. The in vitro selected Gd-DOTA concentration in the PJ was 2.76 mmol/l. Ingestion of 180 ml of PJ labeled with 1 ml of Gd-DOTA eliminated efficiently the gastroduodenal SI in MRCP, improving significantly the rates of complete visualization of the pancreatobiliary ducts (P<0.01) and the MRCP image quality scores (P<0.05). All patients easily ingested the contrast solution and found the solution palatable. PJ labeled with gadolinium constituted an efficient and convenient negative oral contrast agent for MRCP. (orig.)

  14. A Convenient Approach to Synthesizing Peptide C-Terminal N-Alkyl Amides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei-Jie; Yakovleva, Tatyana; Aldrich, Jane V.

    2014-01-01

    Peptide C-terminal N-alkyl amides have gained more attention over the past decade due to their biological properties, including improved pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. However, the synthesis of this type of peptide on solid phase by current available methods can be challenging. Here we report a convenient method to synthesize peptide C-terminal N-alkyl amides using the well-known Fukuyama N-alkylation reaction on a standard resin commonly used for the synthesis of peptide C-terminal primary amides, the PAL-PEG-PS (Peptide Amide Linker-polyethylene glycol-polystyrene) resin. The alkylation and oNBS deprotection were conducted under basic conditions and were therefore compatible with this acid labile resin. The alkylation reaction was very efficient on this resin with a number of different alkyl iodides or bromides, and the synthesis of model enkephalin N-alkyl amide analogs using this method gave consistently high yields and purities, demonstrating the applicability of this methodology. The synthesis of N-alkyl amides was more difficult on a Rink amide resin, especially the coupling of the first amino acid to the N-alkyl amine, resulting in lower yields for loading the first amino acid onto the resin. This method can be widely applied in the synthesis of peptide N-alkyl amides. PMID:22252422

  15. Availability of convenience stores and adolescent alcohol use in Taiwan: a multi-level analysis of national surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-Heng; Lin, I-Chin; Chen, Chuan-Yu; Chen, Duan-Rung; Chan, Ta-Chien; Chen, Wei J

    2013-12-01

    To examine the association between alcohol in school environments and adolescent alcohol use over the previous 6 months. A multi-level logistic regression analysis was performed of cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2004, 2005 and 2006. A total of 52 214 students aged 11-19 years from 387 middle or high schools were selected from a nationally representative, multi-stage, stratified probability sampling across Taiwan. Information on socio-demographic features and substance use experiences was collected using self-administered questionnaires. The alcohol in the environment was measured using the availability of convenience stores surrounding the schools. Using geographical information systems, the weighted numbers of convenience stores within 1 km, a 12-15-minute walk, of a school were calculated. The schools were later categorized into three subgroups via the tertile of nearby convenience stores. Considering the compositional characteristics, the availability of convenience stores was found to account for 1.5% of the school-level variance of youthful drinking. The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of alcohol use over the previous 6 months among youth attending schools with medium and high availability were 1.04 (0.96-1.13) and 1.08 (1.00-1.17), respectively, with a P-value of 0.04 in the trend test. The greater availability of convenience stores near a school is associated with an increased risk of alcohol use among adolescents over the previous 6 months. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Convenience on the menu? A typological conceptualization of family food expenditures and food-related time patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Sarah; Glorieux, Ignace; Minnen, Joeri; van Tienoven, T P; Weenas, Djiwo

    2015-05-01

    One of the most fundamental, but also controversial, food trends of the past years is convenience food. This article investigates the underexplored relationship between the heterogeneity in (convenience) food consumption (a feature of a food culture's cuisine) and meal patterns (characteristics of a food culture's structure). This study hopes to illustrate that convenience food can be interpreted both as a means to maintain a food culture's structure and as a means to overturn it. Latent Class Cluster Analysis is performed using data from the HBS 2005 survey on families' food expenditures to conceptualize convenience-orientation and to examine the relationships with families' meal behaviors. Whereas outsourcing cooking is most prevalent among single-person households; two-or more-person households are most likely to buy unprocessed and natural foods and to spend most time cooking and eating in. A higher consumption of convenience food is also more likely to affect individuals' kitchen than table habits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Dunedin Dementia Risk Awareness Project: a convenience sample of general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Yoram; Rapsey, Charlene; Fridman, Dana; Scott, Kate

    2018-05-04

    Recent recommendations of US and UK governmental and academic agencies suggest that up to 35% of dementia cases are preventable. We aimed to appraise general practitioners' (GPs) awareness of risk and protective factors associated with dementia and their intentions to act within the context of the Health Beliefs Model. We canvassed degree of dementia awareness, using the modified Lifestyle for Brain Health (LIBRA) scale among a convenience sample of local GPs. Thirty-five GPs, mean age 56.7 + 6.8 years (range: 43-72) participated. There were 19 women and 16 men, all New Zealand European. Genetics was the most commonly cited risk for dementia and exercise the most commonly cited protective factor. More than 80% of participants correctly identified 8/12 LIBRA factors. Factors not identified were: renal dysfunction, obesity, Mediterranean diet and high cognitive activity. The majority of participants felt they were at risk of suffering from dementia, that lifestyle changes will help reduce their risk and wished to start these changes soon. GPs are knowledgeable about dementia risk and protective factors. They reported optimism in their ability to modify their own risk factors through lifestyle interventions. This places GPs in a unique position to help disseminate this knowledge to their clients.

  18. Development and quality evaluation of quick cooking dhal-A convenience product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Shruti; Samuel, D V K; Khan, Islam

    2014-03-01

    Owing to rapid urbanization and more women joining the workforce, use of ready-to-eat and ready-to-use convenience foods is gaining increasing popularity. Women require dhal that cooks fast and increases in volume when cooked. In an attempt to prepare quick cooking dhal from pigeon pea, variety UPAS 120 was milled, pre-treated with sodium chloride solution (1%), flaked and dried. The quick cooking dhal was packed in three packaging materials, namely, high molecular weight high density polyethylene (HMHDPE), high density polyethylene (HDPE) and laminated pouches. The quality evaluation of the prepared flakes with respect to the cooking quality attributes, changes in proximate composition, free fatty acid (FFA) and peroxide value (PV) were carried out during storage at ambient temperature (8-36°C) at regular intervals for a period of 10 months. During storage, quick cooking dhal packed in laminated pouches performed better than samples stored in other pouches with respect to the changes in the overall quality and acceptability of the product.

  19. A convenient method for X-ray analysis in TEM that measures mass thickness and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statham, P.; Sagar, J.; Holland, J.; Pinard, P.; Lozano-Perez, S.

    2018-01-01

    We consider a new approach for quantitative analysis in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) that offers the same convenience as single-standard quantitative analysis in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Instead of a bulk standard, a thin film with known mass thickness is used as a reference. The procedure involves recording an X-ray spectrum from the reference film for each session of acquisitions on real specimens. There is no need to measure the beam current; the current only needs to be stable for the duration of the session. A new reference standard with a large (1 mm x 1 mm) area of uniform thickness of 100 nm silicon nitride is used to reveal regions of X-ray detector occlusion that would give misleading results for any X-ray method that measures thickness. Unlike previous methods, the new X-ray method does not require an accurate beam current monitor but delivers equivalent accuracy in mass thickness measurement. Quantitative compositional results are also automatically corrected for specimen self-absorption. The new method is tested using a wedge specimen of Inconel 600 that is used to calibrate the high angle angular dark field (HAADF) signal to provide a thickness reference and results are compared with electron energy-loss spectrometry (EELS) measurements. For the new X-ray method, element composition results are consistent with the expected composition for the alloy and the mass thickness measurement is shown to provide an accurate alternative to EELS for thickness determination in TEM without the uncertainty associated with mean free path estimates.

  20. Estimation of the fraction of biologically active methyl tert-butyl ether degraders in a heterogeneous biomass sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waul, Christopher Kevin; Arvin, Erik; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2008-01-01

    The fraction of biologically active methyl tert-butyl ether degraders in reactors is just as important for prediction of removal rates as knowledge of the kinetic parameters. The fraction of biologically active methyl tert-butyl ether degraders in a heterogeneous biomass sample, taken from a packed...... bed reactor, was determined using a batch kinetic based approach. The procedure involved modeling of methyl tert-butyl ether removal rates from batch experiments followed by parameter estimations. It was estimated to be 5-14% (w/w) of the measured volatile suspended solids concentration in the reactor....

  1. Raised crosswalks on entrance to the roundabout-a case study on effectiveness of treatment on pedestrian safety and convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candappa, Nimmi; Stephan, Karen; Fotheringham, Nicola; Lenné, Michael G; Corben, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    A common concern in the use of a roundabout is providing adequately for the pedestrian. This unique roundabout layout, which introduces raised crosswalks directly at the roundabout entrance, as opposed to at a car length back, aims at improving safety and convenience for pedestrians at roundabouts. A preliminary evaluation of the layout was undertaken to establish its effectiveness in meeting study objectives. A quasi-experimental before-and-after study design was used to compare speeds on approach and immediately prior to the crossing to ascertain potential impact speed and implications for pedestrian safety. Compliance to crossing and crossing time were also compared in relation to safety and convenience outcomes. A questionnaire assessed pedestrian perception of the safety and convenience at the roundabout before and after treatment. Results from this case study indicate that mean approach speeds (free speeds 30 m from crossing) reduced from 32.7 to 30.7 km/h and immediately prior to crossing, mean speeds reduced from 19.1 to 16.3 km/h. There was also a marked reduction in proportions of vehicles traveling at speeds that could elevate risk to pedestrians. Total crossing time after treatment reduced by around 4 s, and crossing compliance increased from approximately half to approximately 90 percent. Survey of pedestrians indicated positive response to the perceived safety and convenience posttreatment. Preliminary results of the case study suggest positive safety and convenience outcomes. Implications for pedestrian safety include less exposure to traffic and lower risk of serious injury, particularly for elderly pedestrians; convenience outcomes include shorter waiting times to cross and greater compliance to the crossing. A larger study is required to substantiate the findings.

  2. A simple and convenient method for the simultaneous in vitro study of metformin and glimepiride tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rehan

    2014-11-01

    A simple and convenient method was developed for the simultaneous determination of metformin HCl and glimepiride in tablet dosage form of different pharmaceuticals companies. This method was validated and proved to be applicable for assay determination in intermediate and finished staged. More over a single medium dissolution of metformin HCl and glimepiride was established and the media was evaluated for comparative studies for different formulations. Reverse phase HPLC equipped with UV detector was used for the determination of metformin HCl and glimepiride. A mixture of acetonitrile and ammonium acetate buffer 0.05M pH 3.0 was used as mobile phase at flow rate of 1.0ml/min. Promocil C18 5µ 100Aº 4.6 x 100mm C18 silica column was used and detection was carried out at 270nm. Method was found to be linear over the range of 4ppm to 16ppm for glimepiride and 170ppm to 680ppm for metformin HCl. Regression co-efficient were found to be 0.9949 and 0.9864 for glimepiride and metformin HCl respectively. Dissolution was performed in 500ml 0.2% sodium lauryl sulfate at 37°C for 45min using paddle apparatus. Dissolution of glimepiride was found to be 98.60% and 101.08% in Orinase Met1 tablet and Amaryl M tablet respectively whereas metformin was found 99.41% and 98.59% in Orinase Met 1 tablet and Amaryl M tablet. RSD for all the dissolutions was less than 2.0% after completion.

  3. The influence of propylene glycol ethers on base diesel properties and emissions from a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Cuenca, F.; Gómez-Marín, M.; Folgueras-Díaz, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of propylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties. • Effect of these compounds on diesel engine performance and emissions. • Blends with ⩽4 wt.% of oxygen do not change substantially diesel fuel quality. • Blends with ⩽2.5 wt.% of oxygen reduce CO, HC and NOx emissions, but not smoke. • These compounds are helpful to reach a cleaner combustion in a diesel engine. - Abstract: The oxygenated additives propylene glycol methyl ether (PGME), propylene glycol ethyl ether (PGEE), dipropylene glycol methyl ether (DPGME) were studied to determine their influence on both the base diesel fuel properties and the exhaust emissions from a diesel engine (CO, NOx, unburnt hydrocarbons and smoke). For diesel blends with low oxygen content (⩽4.0 wt.%), the addition of these compounds to base diesel fuel decreases aromatic content, kinematic viscosity, cold filter plugging point and Conradson carbon residue. Also, each compound modifies the distillation curve at temperatures below the corresponding oxygenated compound boiling point, the distillate percentage being increased. The blend cetane number depends on the type of propylene glycol ether added, its molecular weight, and the oxygen content of the fuel. The addition of PGME decreased slightly diesel fuel cetane number, while PGEE and DPGME increased it. Base diesel fuel-propylene glycol ether blends with 1.0 and 2.5 wt.% oxygen contents were used in order to determine the performance of the diesel engine and its emissions at both full and medium loads and different engine speeds (1000, 2500 and 4000 rpm). In general, at full load and in comparison with base diesel fuel, the blends show a slight reduction of oxygen-free specific fuel consumption. CO emissions are reduced appreciably for 2.5 wt.% of oxygen blends, mainly for PGEE and DPGME. NOx emissions are reduced slightly, but not the smoke. Unburnt hydrocarbon emissions decrease at 1000 and 2500 rpm, but not at 4000 rpm. At medium load

  4. Fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, bisphenol F-diglycidyl ether and their derivatives in canned food and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallart-Ayala, H; Moyano, E; Galceran, M T

    2011-03-25

    In this work a fast liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method using a C18 Fused Core™ column, was developed for the simultaneous analysis of bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), bisphenol A (2,3-dihydroxypropyl) glycidyl ether (BADGE·H(2)O), bisphenol A bis(2,3-dihydroxypropyl) ether (BADGE·2H(2)O), bisphenol A (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) glycidyl ether (BADGE·HCl), bisphenol A bis(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) ether (BADGE·2HCl) and bisphenol A (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)(2,3-dihydroxypropyl ether) (BADGE·HCl·H(2)O) and bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE), bisphenol F bis(2,3-dihydroxypropyl) ether (BFDGE·2H(2)O), bisphenol F bis(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) ether (BFDGE·2HCl). The LC method was coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, using an ESI source in positive mode and using the [M+NH(4)](+) adduct as precursor ion for tandem mass spectrometry experiments. The method developed was applied to the determination of these compounds in canned soft drinks and canned food. OASIS HLB solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges were used for the analysis of soft drinks, while solid canned food was extracted with ethyl acetate. Method limits of quantitation ranged from 0.13 μgL(-1) to 1.6 μgL(-1) in soft drinks and 1.0 μgkg(-1) to 4.0 μgkg(-1) in food samples. BADGE·2H(2)O was detected in all the analyzed samples, while other BADGEs such as BADGE·H(2)O, BADGE·HCl·H(2)O, BADGE·HCl and BADGE·2HCl were also detected in canned foods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Preparation and DMFC performance of a sulfophenylated poly(arylene ether ketone) polymer electrolyte membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Baijun, E-mail: liubj@jlu.edu.c [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Hu Wei [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Electronic and Electrochemical Materials and Devices, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Zou Haifeng [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Robertson, Gilles P. [Institute for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology, National Research Council, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Jiang Zhenhua [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Guiver, Michael D. [Institute for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology, National Research Council, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    A sulfonated poly(aryl ether ether ketone ketone) (PEEKK) having a well-defined rigid homopolymer-like chemical structure was synthesized from a readily prepared PEEKK by post-sulfonation with concentrated sulfuric acid at room temperature within several hours. The polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) cast from the resulting polymer exhibited an excellent combination of thermal resistance, oxidative and dimensional stability, low methanol fuel permeability and high proton conductivity. Furthermore, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were successfully fabricated and good direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) performance was observed. At 2 M MeOH feed, the current density at 0.5 V reached 165 mA/cm, which outperformed our reported similarly structured analogues and MEAs derived from comparative Nafion membranes.

  6. From classical to modern ether-drift experiments: the narrow window for a preferred frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consoli, M.; Costanzo, E.

    2004-01-01

    Modern ether-drift experiments look for a preferred frame by measuring the difference Δν in the relative frequencies of two cavity-stabilized lasers, upon local rotations of the apparatus or under the Earth's rotation. If the small deviations observed in the classical ether-drift experiments were not mere instrumental artifacts, by replacing the high vacuum in the resonating cavities with a dielectric gaseous medium (e.g., air), the typical measured Δν∼1 Hz should increase by orders of magnitude. This prediction is consistent with the characteristic modulation of a few kHz observed in the original experiment with He-Ne masers. However, if such enhancement would not be confirmed by new and more precise data, the existence of a preferred frame can be definitely ruled out

  7. (1-Adamantyl)methyl glycidyl ether: a versatile building block for living polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moers, Christian; Wrazidlo, Robert; Natalello, Adrian; Netz, Isabelle; Mondeshki, Mihail; Frey, Holger

    2014-06-01

    (1-Adamantyl)methyl glycidyl ether (AdaGE) is introduced as a versatile monomer for oxyanionic polymerization, enabling controlled incorporation of adamantyl moieties in aliphatic polyethers. Via copolymerization with ethoxyethyl glycidyl ether (EEGE) and subsequent cleavage of the acetal protection groups of EEGE, hydrophilic linear polyglycerols with an adjustable amount of pendant adamantyl moieties are obtained. The adamantyl unit permits control over thermal properties and solubility profile of these polymers (LCST). Additionally, AdaGE is utilized as a termination agent in carbanionic polymerization, affording adamantyl-terminated polymers. Using these structures as macroinitiators for the polymerization of ethylene oxide affords amphiphilic, in-chain adamantyl-functionalized block copolymers. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Mass spectra of alkaline earth salts with a FAB source. Complexation with crown ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, J.

    1987-01-01

    With a liquid desorption FAB source it is possible to obtain alkaline earth metal ions complexed by a crown ether. Conditions for formation of these complexes ions are examined for selection of the complexing agent in function of cation size. Behaviour of alkaline and alkaline earth compounds are compared allowing the differentiation of ion extraction phenomena by liquid desorption ion source and solvent extraction [fr

  9. Morphological classification of mesoporous silicas synthesized in a binary water-ether solvent system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, Qiang; Geng, Yi; Zhao, Xiang; Cui, Kai; Sun, Qianyao; Chen, Xihua; Feng, Qingling; Li, Hengde; Vrieling, Engel G.

    2008-01-01

    Using diethyl ether as a co-solvent, a non-stable interface of biphasic oil-water system (the so-called oil-water two-phase (OWTP) system) was employed in the preparation of mesostructured silicas with diversified particle morphologies. By adjusting the molar ratios of H2O:C2H5OC2H5:NH3 center dot

  10. Analysis of Oxygenated Component (butyl Ether) and Egr Effect on a Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Hun; Oh, Young-Taig

    Potential possibility of the butyl ether (BE, oxygenates of di-ether group) was analyzed as an additives for a naturally aspirated direct injection diesel engine fuel. Engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics were analyzed by applying the commercial diesel fuel and oxygenates additives blended diesel fuels. Smoke emission decreased approximately 26% by applying the blended fuel (diesel fuel 80 vol-% + BE 20vol-%) at the engine speed of 25,000 rpm and with full engine load compared to the diesel fuel. There was none significant difference between the blended fuel and the diesel fuel on the power, torque, and brake specific energy consumption rate of the diesel engine. But, NOx emission from the blended fuel was higher than the commercial diesel fuel. As a counter plan, the EGR method was employed to reduce the NOx. Simultaneous reduction of the smoke and the NOx emission from the diesel engine was achieved by applying the BE blended fuel and the cooled EGR method.

  11. Properties of p-type amorphous silicon carbide window layers prepared using boron trifluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandia, J J [Inst. de Energias Renovables, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Gutierrez, M T [Inst. de Energias Renovables, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Carabe, J [Inst. de Energias Renovables, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    1993-03-01

    One set (A) of undoped and three sets (B, C and D) of doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide samples have been made in the framework of a research plan for obtaining high quality p-type window layers by radiofrequency glow discharge of silane-based gas mixtures. The samples of sets A and B were made using different RF-power-density to mass-flow ratios for various methane percentages in the gas mixture. The best carbon incorporation in the amorphous silicon lattice was obtained at the highest RF-power density. The properties of sets C and D, prepared using different RF-power densities and silane and methane proportions have been analysed as functions of the concentration of boron trifluoride with respect to silane. In both cases, the optical gap E[sub G], after a slight initial decrease, remains at a value of approximately 2.1 eV without quenching in the doping ranges covered. The best conductivity obtained is 2x10[sup -7] ([Omega] cm)[sup -1]. IR spectra allow to associate these features with the structural quality of the films. (orig.)

  12. Extraction and [superscript 1]H NMR Analysis of Fats from Convenience Foods: A Laboratory Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartel, Aaron M.; Moore, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    The extraction and analysis of fats from convenience foods (crackers, cookies, chips, candies) has been developed as an experiment for a second-year undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory course. Students gravimetrically determine the fat content per serving and then perform a [superscript 1]H NMR analysis of the recovered fat to determine the…

  13. Metabolism of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and tetrabromobisphenol A by fish liver subcellular fractions in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Mengnan; Cheng, Jie; Wu, Ruohan; Zhang, Shenghu; Mao, Liang; Gao, Shixiang

    2012-06-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) are two major flame retardants that accumulate in fish tissues and are potentially toxic. Their debrominated and oxidated derivatives were also reported in fish tissues although the sources of theses derivatives were unidentified. Our study was to determine whether PBDEs and TBBPA could be metabolized by fish liver subcellular fractions in vitro and to identify what types of metabolites were formed. Liver microsomes and S9 fractions of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) were exposed to 4,4'-dibromodiphenyl ether (BDE 15), 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 47) or TBBPA solutions for 4h. Exposure of liver subcellular fractions to BDE 15 resulted in the formation of bromophenol and two monohydroxylated dibromodiphenyl ether metabolites. Neither in microsomes nor in S9 studies has revealed the presence of hydroxylated metabolites with BDE 47 exposure which indicated that the oxidation reactions in vitro were hindered by the increased number of bromine substituents on the PBDEs. TBBPA underwent an oxidative cleavage near the central carbon of the molecule, which led to the production of 2,6-dibromo-4-isopropyl-phenol and three unidentified metabolites. Another metabolite of TBBPA characterized as a hexa-brominated compound with three aromatic rings was also found in the liver subcellular fractions. These results suggest that the biotransformation of BDE 15 and TBBPA in fish liver is mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes, as revealed by the formation of hydroxylated metabolites and oxidative bond cleavage products. Moreover, further studies on the identification of specific CYP450 isozymes involved in the biotransformation revealed that CYP1A was the major enzyme responsible for the biotransformation of BDE 15 and TBBPA in fish liver subcellular fractions and CYP3A4 also played a major role in metabolism of TBBPA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification of heme oxygenase-1 stimulators by a convenient ELISA-based bilirubin quantification assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rücker, Hannelore; Amslinger, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    lipopolysaccharide and the specific HO-1 inhibitor tin protoporphyrin IX. Taken together, we developed a convenient and highly sensitive ELISA-based HO-1 enzyme activity assay, allowing the identification and characterization of molecules potentially useful for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Convenient In Vivo Model Using Small Interfering RNA Silencing to Rapidly Assess Skeletal Gene Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    Full Text Available It is difficult to study bone in vitro because it contains various cell types that engage in cross-talk. Bone biologically links various organs, and it has thus become increasingly evident that skeletal physiology must be studied in an integrative manner in an intact animal. We developed a model using local intraosseous small interfering RNA (siRNA injection to rapidly assess the effects of a target gene on the local skeletal environment. In this model, 160-g male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 1-2 weeks. The left tibia received intraosseous injection of a parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (Pth1r or insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (Igf-1r siRNA transfection complex loaded in poloxamer 407 hydrogel, and the right tibia received the same volume of control siRNA. All the tibias received an intraosseous injection of recombinant human parathyroid hormone (1-34 (rhPTH (1-34 or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1. Calcein green and alizarin red were injected 6 and 2 days before euthanasia, respectively. IGF-1R and PTH1R expression levels were detected via RT-PCR assays and immunohistochemistry. Bone mineral density (BMD, microstructure, mineral apposition rates (MARs, and strength were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, micro-CT, histology and biomechanical tests. The RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry results revealed that IGF-1R and PTH1R expression levels were dramatically diminished in the siRNA-treated left tibias compared to the right tibias (both p<0.05. Using poloxamer 407 hydrogel as a controlled-release system prolonged the silencing effect of a single dose of siRNA; the mRNA expression levels of IGF-1R were lower at two weeks than at one week (p<0.01. The BMD, bone microstructure parameters, MAR and bone strength were significantly decreased in the left tibias compared to the right tibias (all p<0.05. This simple and convenient local intraosseous siRNA injection model achieved gene silencing with very small quantities of

  16. Geissoschizine methyl ether N-oxide, a new alkaloid with antiacetylcholinesterase activity from Uncaria rhynchophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-Wei; Su, Jia; Wu, Xing-De; He, Juan; Peng, Li-Yan; Cheng, Xiao; Zhao, Qin-Shi

    2015-01-01

    Geissoschizine methyl ether N-oxide, a new oxindole alkaloid, along with 14 known alkaloids, was isolated from the aerial part of Uncaria rhynchophylla. Their structures were identified by comprehensive spectral methods, including 2D NMR experiments, and confirmed by comparing with the literature data. In vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity assay showed that the new compound exhibited anti-AChE activity with IC₅₀ value of 23.4 μM.

  17. Contact angle and surface tension measurements of a five-ring polyphenyl ether

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Contact angle measurements were performed for a five-ring polyphenyl ether isomeric mixture on M-50 steel in a dry nitrogen atmosphere. Two different techniques were used: (1) a tilting plate apparatus, and (2) a sessile drop apparatus. Measurements were made for the temperature range 25 to 190 C. Surface tension was measured by a differential maximum bubble pressure technique over the range 23 to 220 C in room air. The critical surface energy of spreading (gamma /sub c/) was determined for the polyphenyl ether by plotting the cosine of the contact angle (theta) versus the surface tension (gamma /sub LV/). The straight line intercept at cosine theta = 1 is defined as gamma (sub c). Gamma (sub c) was found to be 30.1 dyn/cm for the tilting plate technique and 31.3 dyn/cm for the sessile drop technique. These results indicate that the polyphenyl ether is inherently autophobic (i.e., it will not spread on its own surface film until its surface tension is less than gamma /sub c/). This phenomenon is discussed in light of the wettability and wear problems encountered with this fluid.

  18. When are stockpiled products consumed faster? A convenience-salience framework of postpurchase consumption incidence and quantity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandon, P.; Wansink, B.

    2002-01-01

    When people stockpile products, how do they decide when and how much they will consume? To answer this question, the authors develop a framework that shows how the salience and convenience of products influence postpurchase consumption incidence and quantity. Multiple research methods¿including

  19. A study of oxidative stress induced by two polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, You; Sun, Kai-Ming; Fang, Kuan; Tang, Xuexi

    2016-12-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely dispersed persistent organic pollutants in the marine ecosystem. However, their toxic mechanisms in marine organisms, especially invertebrates, remain poorly understood. Two common congeners of PBDEs, tetrabrominated diphenyl ether-47 (BDE-47) and decabrominated diphenyl ether-209 (BDE-209), were investigated. Their toxic mechanisms, with a focus on oxidative stress, were examined in rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was induced by two PBDEs. The expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) mRNA was increased, suggesting SOD play a main role in ROS-scavenging. The intercellular concentrations of calcium ([Ca 2+ ] in ) and the expression of calmodulin (CaM) mRNA were increased. This indicates the calcium ion (Ca 2+ ) signaling channel is involved in PBDEs stress. Further analysis showed that the reproductive system might be the target site for toxicity of PBDEs. Moreover, high value of detection indexes in BDE-47 experimental groups suggested BDE-47 might cause higher oxidative damage than BDE-209 in rotifers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimal conditions in direct dimethyl ether synthesis from syngas utilizing a dual-type fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousefi, Ahmad; Eslamloueyan, Reza; Kazerooni, Nooshin Moradi

    2017-01-01

    Concerns over environmental pollution and ever-increasing energy demand have urged the global community to tap clean-burning fuels among which dimethyl ether is a promising candidate for contribution in the transportation sector. Direct dimethyl ether synthesis from syngas, in which methanol production and dehydration take place simultaneously, is arguably the preferred route for large scale production. In this study, direct dimethyl ether synthesis is proposed in an industrial dual-type fluidized bed reactor. This configuration involves two fluidized bed reactors operating in different conditions. In the first catalytic reactor (water-cooled reactor), the synthesis gas is partly converted to methanol after being preheated by the reaction heat in the second reactor (gas-cooled reactor). A two-phase generalized comprehensive reactor model, comprised of the flow in three different regimes is applied and a smooth transition between flow regimes is provided based on the probabilistic averaging approach. The optimal operating conditions are sought by employing differential evolution algorithm as a robust optimization strategy. The dimethyl ether mole fraction is considered as the objective function during the optimization. The results show considerable dimethyl ether enhancement by 16% and 14% compared to the conventional direct dimethyl ether synthesis reactor and dual-type fixed bed dimethyl ether reactor arrangements, respectively. - Highlights: • Dual-type catalytic fluidized bed reactors for dimethyl ether synthesis is studied. • A two-phase comprehensive model comprised of flow in three regimes is used. • Probabilistic averaging approach is applied for smooth transitions between regimes. • Differential evolution method is employed to determine optimal operating conditions. • Production capacity is remarkably enhanced compared to conventional reactor.

  1. Electricity generation and removal performance of a microbial fuel cell using sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) as proton exchange membrane to treat phenol/acetone wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Fu, Yu; Guo, Chunyu; Li, Yanbo; Jiang, Nanzhe; Yin, Chengri

    2018-07-01

    The microbial fuel cell (MFC) has emerged as a promising technology for wastewater treatment and energy recovery, but the expensive cost of proton exchange membranes (PEMs) is a problem that need to be solved. In this study, a two-chamber MFC based on our self-made PEM sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) membrane was set up to treat phenol/acetone wastewater and synchronously generate power. The maximum output voltage was 240-250 mV. Using phenol and acetone as substrates, the power generation time in an operation cycle was 289 h. The MFC exhibited good removal performance, with no phenol or acetone detected, respectively, when the phenol concentration was lower than 50 mg/L and the acetone concentration was lower than 100 mg/L. This study provides a cheap and eco-friendly way to treat phenol/acetone wastewater and generate useful energy by MFC technology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Exogenous ether lipids predominantly target mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Kuerschner

    Full Text Available Ether lipids are ubiquitous constituents of cellular membranes with no discrete cell biological function assigned yet. Using fluorescent polyene-ether lipids we analyzed their intracellular distribution in living cells by microscopy. Mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum accumulated high amounts of ether-phosphatidylcholine and ether-phosphatidylethanolamine. Both lipids were specifically labeled using the corresponding lyso-ether lipids, which we established as supreme precursors for lipid tagging. Polyfosine, a fluorescent analogue of the anti-neoplastic ether lipid edelfosine, accumulated to mitochondria and induced morphological changes and cellular apoptosis. These data indicate that edelfosine could exert its pro-apoptotic power by targeting and damaging mitochondria and thereby inducing cellular apoptosis. In general, this study implies an important role of mitochondria in ether lipid metabolism and intracellular ether lipid trafficking.

  3. Quantum Dots in a Polymer Composite: A Convenient Particle-in-a-Box Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Charles V.; Giffin, Guinevere A.

    2008-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are at the forefront of materials science chemistry with applications in biological imaging and photovoltaic technologies. We have developed a simple laboratory experiment to measure the quantum-dot size from fluorescence spectra. A major roadblock of quantum-dot based exercises is the particle synthesis and handling;…

  4. Reductive debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in anaerobic sediment and a biomimetic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz, John A; Ahn, Mi-Youn; Leng, June; Filley, Timothy R; Nies, Loring

    2008-02-15

    Because of the bioaccumulation of penta- and tetrapolybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants in biota,the environmental biotransformation of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) is of interest. BDE-209 accounts for more than 80% by mass of PBDE production and is the dominant PBDE in sediments. Most sediments are anaerobic and reports of microbial reductive dehalogenation of hydrophobic persistent organohalogen pollutants are numerous. Reductive debromination of BDE-209 in the environment could provide a significant source of lesser-brominated PBDEs to biota. Moreover, a recent study showed that BDE-209 debrominates in sewage sludge, and another demonstrated that some halorespiring bacteria will debrominate BDE-209. To determine whether reductive debromination of BDE-209 occurs in sediments, parallel experiments were conducted using anaerobic sediment microcosms and a cosolvent-enhanced biomimetic system. In the biomimetic system, reductive debromination occurred at rates corresponding to bromine substitution levels with a BDE-209 half-life of only 18 s compared with a halflife of almost 60 days for 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether. In sediment, the measured debromination half-life of BDE-209 was well over a decade and was in good agreement with the predicted value obtained from the biomimetic experiment. Product congeners were predominantly double para-substituted. BDE-209 debrominated in sediment with a corresponding increase in nona-, octa-, hepta-, and hexa-PBDEs. Nine new PBDE congeners appeared in sediment from reductive debromination. Given the very large BDE-209 burden already in sediments globally, it is important to determine whether this transformation is a significant source of lesser-brominated PBDEs to the environment.

  5. Large-scale production of graphitic carbon nitride with outstanding nitrogen photofixation ability via a convenient microwave treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Huiqiang [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, and Environmental Engineering, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001 (China); College of Environment and Resources, Key Lab of Groundwater Resources and Environment, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Shi, Zhenyu; Li, Shuang [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, and Environmental Engineering, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001 (China); Liu, Na, E-mail: Naliujlu@163.com [College of Environment and Resources, Key Lab of Groundwater Resources and Environment, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Microwave method for synthesizing g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} with N{sub 2} photofixation ability is reported. • Nitrogen vacancies play the important role on the nitrogen photofixation ability. • The present process is a convenient method for large-scale production of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. - Abstract: A convenient microwave treatment for synthesizing graphitic carbon nitride (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) with outstanding nitrogen photofixation ability under visible light is reported. X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption, UV–vis spectroscopy, SEM, N{sub 2}-TPD, EPR, photoluminescence (PL) and photocurrent measurements were used to characterize the prepared catalysts. The results indicate that microwave treatment can form many irregular pores in as-prepared g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, which causes the increased surface area and separation rate of electrons and holes. More importantly, microwave treatment causes the formation of many nitrogen vacancies in as-prepared g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. These nitrogen vacancies not only serve as active sites to adsorb and activate N{sub 2} molecules but also promote interfacial charge transfer from catalysts to N{sub 2} molecules, thus significantly improving the nitrogen photofixation ability. Moreover, the present process is a convenient method for large-scale production of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} which is significantly important for the practical application.

  6. Large-scale production of graphitic carbon nitride with outstanding nitrogen photofixation ability via a convenient microwave treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Huiqiang; Shi, Zhenyu; Li, Shuang; Liu, Na

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Microwave method for synthesizing g-C_3N_4 with N_2 photofixation ability is reported. • Nitrogen vacancies play the important role on the nitrogen photofixation ability. • The present process is a convenient method for large-scale production of g-C_3N_4. - Abstract: A convenient microwave treatment for synthesizing graphitic carbon nitride (g-C_3N_4) with outstanding nitrogen photofixation ability under visible light is reported. X-ray diffraction (XRD), N_2 adsorption, UV–vis spectroscopy, SEM, N_2-TPD, EPR, photoluminescence (PL) and photocurrent measurements were used to characterize the prepared catalysts. The results indicate that microwave treatment can form many irregular pores in as-prepared g-C_3N_4, which causes the increased surface area and separation rate of electrons and holes. More importantly, microwave treatment causes the formation of many nitrogen vacancies in as-prepared g-C_3N_4. These nitrogen vacancies not only serve as active sites to adsorb and activate N_2 molecules but also promote interfacial charge transfer from catalysts to N_2 molecules, thus significantly improving the nitrogen photofixation ability. Moreover, the present process is a convenient method for large-scale production of g-C_3N_4 which is significantly important for the practical application.

  7. Determination of bisphenol a diglycidyl ether content in foods from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link ...

  8. Lost in the ether - a 20 dollar round-trip

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The advent of cheap mass-produced electronics has brought with it a series of devices, "Software Defined Radios", that allow us to listen on a wide range of frequencies for as little as 20 CHF/USD. In this talk I will show some cool things that you can discover with no more than an SDR and some pieces of wire. Spoiler: there will be airplanes involved.

  9. Direct transformation of silyl enol ethers into functionalized allenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, P; Döring, M; Seyferth, D; Görls, H

    2001-02-02

    The first elimination reactions of silyl enol ethers to lithiated allenes are reported. These reactions allow a direct transformation of readily available silyl enol ethers into functionalized allenes. The action of three to four equivalents of lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) on silyl enol ethers results in the formation of lithiated allenes by initial allylic lithiation, subsequent elimination of a lithium silanolate, and finally, lithiation of the allene thus formed. Starting with amide-derived silyl imino ethers, lithiated ketenimines are obtained. A variety of reactions of the lithiated allenes with electrophiles (chlorosilanes, trimethylchlorostannane, dimethyl sulfate and ethanol) were carried out. Elimination of silanolate is observed only for substrates that contain the hindered SiMe2tBu or Si(iPr)3 moiety, but not for the SiMe3 group. The reaction of 1,1-dilithio-3,3-diphenylallene with ketones provides a convenient access to novel 1,1-di(hydroxymethyl)allenes which undergo a domino Nazarov-Friedel-Crafts reaction upon treatment with p-toluenesulfonic acid.

  10. Dimethyl ether reviewed: New results on using this gas in a high-precision drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basile, M.; Bonvicini, G.; Cara Romeo, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Contin, A.; D'Ali, G.; Del Papa, C.; Maccarrone, G.; Massam, T.; Motta, F.; Nania, R.; Palmonari, F.; Rinaldi, G.; Sartorelli, G.; Spinetti, M.; Susinno, G.; Villa, F.; Voltano, L.; Zichichi, A.

    1985-01-01

    Two years ago, dimethyl ether (DME) was presented, for the first time, as a suitable gas for high-precision drift chambers. In fact our tests show that resolutions can be obtained which are better by at least a factor of 2 compared to what one can get with conventional gases. Moreover, DME is very well quenched. The feared formation of whiskers on the wires has not occurred, at least after months of use with a 10 μCi 106 Ru source. (orig.)

  11. Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone-Supported Boron Trifluoride; Highly Efficient Catalyst for the Synthesis of N-tert-Butyl Amides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Mokhtary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly efficient method for the preparation of N-tert-butyl amides by reaction of nitriles with tert-butyl acetate is described using polyvinylpolypyrrolidone-supported boron trifluoride (PVPP-BF3 at 70°C in good to excellent yields. Selective amidation of benzonitrile in the presence of acetonitrile was also achieved. polyvinylpolypyrrolidone-boron trifluoride complex shows non-corrosive and stable solid catalyst elevated Lewis acid property.

  12. Gasoline ether oxygenate occurrence in Europe, and a review of their fate and transport characteristics in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stupp, D.; Gass, M.; Leiteritz, H. [Dr. Stupp Consulting DSC, Tauw, Bergisch Gladbach (Germany); Pijls, C. [TAUW, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Thornton, S. [University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Smith, J.; Dunk, M.; Grosjean, T.; Den Haan, K. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-06-15

    Ether oxygenates are added to certain gasoline (petrol) formulations to improve combustion efficiency and to increase the octane rating. In this report the term gasoline ether oxygenates (GEO) refers collectively to methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), diisopropyl ether (DIPE), tertiary amyl ethyl ether (TAEE), tertiary hexyl methyl ether (THxME), and tertiary hexyl ethyl ether (THxEE), as well as the associated tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA). This report presents newly collated data on the production capacities and use of MTBE, ETBE, TAME, DIPE and TBA in 30 countries (27 EU countries and Croatia, Norway and Switzerland) to inform continued and effective environmental management practices for GEO by CONCAWE members. The report comprises data on gasoline use in Europe that were provided by CONCAWE and obtained from the European Commission. Furthermore Societe Generale de Surveillance (SGS) provided detailed analytical data (more than 1,200 sampling campaigns) on the GEO composition of gasoline in European countries in the period 2000-2010. Another major aspect of this report is the investigation of GEO distribution in groundwater, drinking water, surface water, runoff water, precipitation (rain/snow) and air in the European environment. Apart from the general sources of literature for the study, local environmental authorities and institutes in the 30 European countries have been contacted for additional information. Finally, a review of the international literature on GEO natural attenuation processes was undertaken with a focus on international reports and peer-reviewed scientific publications to give an overview on the known fate, transport and degradation mechanisms of GEO in the subsurface, to inform risk-management strategies that may rely on natural attenuation processes. The literature reveals that all GEO compounds used in fuels are highly water soluble and weakly retarded by aquifer

  13. Outline of a relativistic theory for a non-Lorentzian ether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pocci, G; Sjoedin, T [Ist. di Matematica ' ' Leonida Tonelli' ' , Pisa (Italy)

    1981-06-11

    A simple ether theory permitting transversal contractions and an observer-dependent light velocity is outlined. It is found that the laws of dynamics and electrodynamics have the same form as in special relativity within each inertial frame, but that the transformation properties of the physical quantities differ. To bring the theory in agreement with ''relativistic'' experiments, it suffices to assume that the factor of transversal contraction is close to unity and the velocity of light nearly constant in the interval of made experiments (approximately (0/10/sup -3/)c). New experiments are thus necessary in order to test special relativity, since simplicity arguments alone are not enough to rule out the proposed theory.

  14. Ethers on Si(001): A prime example for the common ground between surface science and molecular organic chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Pecher, Lisa

    2017-09-15

    Using computational chemistry, we show that the adsorption of ether molecules on Si(001) under ultra-high vacuum conditions can be understood with textbook organic chemistry. The two-step reaction mechanism of (1) dative bond formation between the ether oxygen and a Lewis acidic surface atom and (2) a nucleophilic attack of a nearby Lewis basic surface atom is analysed in detail and found to mirror the acid-catalysed ether cleavage in solution. The O-Si dative bond is found to be the strongest of its kind and reactivity from this state defies the Bell-Evans-Polanyi principle. Electron rearrangement during the C-O bond cleavage is visualized using a newly developed bonding analysis method, which shows that the mechanism of nucleophilic substitutions on semiconductor surfaces is identical to molecular chemistry SN2 reactions. Our findings thus illustrate how the fields of surface science and molecular chemistry can mutually benefit and unexpected insight can be gained.

  15. Ethers on Si(001): A prime example for the common ground between surface science and molecular organic chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Pecher, Lisa; Laref, Slimane; Raupach, Marc; Tonner, Ralf Ewald

    2017-01-01

    Using computational chemistry, we show that the adsorption of ether molecules on Si(001) under ultra-high vacuum conditions can be understood with textbook organic chemistry. The two-step reaction mechanism of (1) dative bond formation between the ether oxygen and a Lewis acidic surface atom and (2) a nucleophilic attack of a nearby Lewis basic surface atom is analysed in detail and found to mirror the acid-catalysed ether cleavage in solution. The O-Si dative bond is found to be the strongest of its kind and reactivity from this state defies the Bell-Evans-Polanyi principle. Electron rearrangement during the C-O bond cleavage is visualized using a newly developed bonding analysis method, which shows that the mechanism of nucleophilic substitutions on semiconductor surfaces is identical to molecular chemistry SN2 reactions. Our findings thus illustrate how the fields of surface science and molecular chemistry can mutually benefit and unexpected insight can be gained.

  16. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers: a case study for using biomonitoring data to address risk assessment questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Linda S; Cohen Hubal, Elaine A

    2006-11-01

    The use of biomonitoring data holds promise for characterizing exposure and informing risk assessment. Biomonitoring data have been used successfully to track population trends, identify susceptible populations, and provide indications of emerging environmental health issues. However, there remain challenges associated with interpreting biomonitoring data for risk assessment. An international biomonitoring workshop was convened in September 2004 to explore the use of biomonitoring data in the context of risk assessment. Six compounds were examined as case studies for this workshop, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The PBDE case study was developed to provide an example of a persistent compound for which relatively few data are available for human exposure, biomonitoring, and health outcomes. PBDEs are used in hard plastics, electronics, textiles, and polyurethane foam products. The congener pattern downstream of production facilities often resembles the commercial mixture. However, because these compounds persist in the environment and in biota, the patterns of congeners evolve. PBDEs partition into body lipids, and direct measurement of bromodiphenyl ether congeners in biologic specimens provides a good marker of exposure. Data indicate significant variability (> 100-fold range) in lipid-adjusted levels for PBDEs in the general population. It is hypothesized that both exposure and pharmacokinetics may play a role in observed congener profiles. Significant gaps in our ability to interpret PBDE biomonitoring data to address public health and risk assessment questions include limited knowledge of environmental fate and transport of PBDE congeners, limited population-based data for adults, and lack of data for potentially vulnerable populations such as children.

  17. More than Just Convenient: The Scientific Merits of Homogeneous Convenience Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Justin; Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2017-01-01

    Despite their disadvantaged generalizability relative to probability samples, non-probability convenience samples are the standard within developmental science, and likely will remain so because probability samples are cost-prohibitive and most available probability samples are ill-suited to examine developmental questions. In lieu of focusing on how to eliminate or sharply reduce reliance on convenience samples within developmental science, here we propose how to augment their advantages when it comes to understanding population effects as well as subpopulation differences. Although all convenience samples have less clear generalizability than probability samples, we argue that homogeneous convenience samples have clearer generalizability relative to conventional convenience samples. Therefore, when researchers are limited to convenience samples, they should consider homogeneous convenience samples as a positive alternative to conventional or heterogeneous) convenience samples. We discuss future directions as well as potential obstacles to expanding the use of homogeneous convenience samples in developmental science. PMID:28475254

  18. II. MORE THAN JUST CONVENIENT: THE SCIENTIFIC MERITS OF HOMOGENEOUS CONVENIENCE SAMPLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Justin; Putnick, Diane L; Bornstein, Marc H

    2017-06-01

    Despite their disadvantaged generalizability relative to probability samples, nonprobability convenience samples are the standard within developmental science, and likely will remain so because probability samples are cost-prohibitive and most available probability samples are ill-suited to examine developmental questions. In lieu of focusing on how to eliminate or sharply reduce reliance on convenience samples within developmental science, here we propose how to augment their advantages when it comes to understanding population effects as well as subpopulation differences. Although all convenience samples have less clear generalizability than probability samples, we argue that homogeneous convenience samples have clearer generalizability relative to conventional convenience samples. Therefore, when researchers are limited to convenience samples, they should consider homogeneous convenience samples as a positive alternative to conventional (or heterogeneous) convenience samples. We discuss future directions as well as potential obstacles to expanding the use of homogeneous convenience samples in developmental science. © 2017 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  19. A novel ether-linked phytol-containing digalactosylglycerolipid in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Yohei; Nagamatsu, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Matsunaga, Naoyuki; Okino, Nozomu; Yamaguchi, Kuniko; Ito, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Alkaline-resistant galactolipid, AEGL, was found in marine algae. • The sugar moiety of AEGL is identical to that of digalactosyldiacylglycerol. • AEGL is the first identified glycolipid that possesses an ether-linked phytol. • AEGL is ubiquitously distributed in green, red and brown marine algae. - Abstract: Galactosylglycerolipids (GGLs) and chlorophyll are characteristic components of chloroplast in photosynthetic organisms. Although chlorophyll is anchored to the thylakoid membrane by phytol (tetramethylhexadecenol), this isoprenoid alcohol has never been found as a constituent of GGLs. We here described a novel GGL, in which phytol was linked to the glycerol backbone via an ether linkage. This unique GGL was identified as an Alkaline-resistant and Endogalactosylceramidase (EGALC)-sensitive GlycoLipid (AEGL) in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa. EGALC is an enzyme that is specific to the R-Galα/β1-6Galβ1-structure of galactolipids. The structure of U. pertusa AEGL was determined following its purification to 1-O-phytyl-3-O-Galα1-6Galβ1-sn-glycerol by mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. AEGLs were ubiquitously distributed in not only green, but also red and brown marine algae; however, they were rarely detected in terrestrial plants, eukaryotic phytoplankton, or cyanobacteria

  20. A novel ether-linked phytol-containing digalactosylglycerolipid in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishibashi, Yohei; Nagamatsu, Yusuke [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Miyamoto, Tomofumi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3-1-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Matsunaga, Naoyuki; Okino, Nozomu; Yamaguchi, Kuniko [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Ito, Makoto, E-mail: makotoi@agr.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • Alkaline-resistant galactolipid, AEGL, was found in marine algae. • The sugar moiety of AEGL is identical to that of digalactosyldiacylglycerol. • AEGL is the first identified glycolipid that possesses an ether-linked phytol. • AEGL is ubiquitously distributed in green, red and brown marine algae. - Abstract: Galactosylglycerolipids (GGLs) and chlorophyll are characteristic components of chloroplast in photosynthetic organisms. Although chlorophyll is anchored to the thylakoid membrane by phytol (tetramethylhexadecenol), this isoprenoid alcohol has never been found as a constituent of GGLs. We here described a novel GGL, in which phytol was linked to the glycerol backbone via an ether linkage. This unique GGL was identified as an Alkaline-resistant and Endogalactosylceramidase (EGALC)-sensitive GlycoLipid (AEGL) in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa. EGALC is an enzyme that is specific to the R-Galα/β1-6Galβ1-structure of galactolipids. The structure of U. pertusa AEGL was determined following its purification to 1-O-phytyl-3-O-Galα1-6Galβ1-sn-glycerol by mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. AEGLs were ubiquitously distributed in not only green, but also red and brown marine algae; however, they were rarely detected in terrestrial plants, eukaryotic phytoplankton, or cyanobacteria.

  1. DFPE, PARTIALLY FLUORINATED ETHER: A Novel Approach for Experimental Intravitreal Tamponade.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Santos, Rodrigo A V

    2012-07-16

    PURPOSE:: To evaluate decafluoro-di-n-pentyl ether (DFPE) as a vitreous tamponade by examining ocular tolerance in rabbits\\' eyes. METHODS:: Thirteen rabbits were divided into 4 groups after mechanical vitrectomy and were followed up to 12 months. The tamponade remained in the eye for 6 months in Group 1 (DFPE) and Group 3 (DFPE and silicone oil) and for 12 months in Group 2 (DFPE). Group 4 served as control. RESULTS:: In Groups 1, 2, and 3, dispersion of the fluid appeared 2 weeks postoperatively. Posterior subcapsular cataracts appeared in rabbits\\' eyes with large fills of DFPE (>50%). Histologic findings in Groups 1 and 2 showed no detectable change in outer nuclear layer thickness. Except for some vacuolations, the inner retina was well preserved in all injected rabbits\\' eyes. On the electroretinography of injected rabbits\\' eyes, there was no effect on the a wave amplitude and b wave implicit time, but the b wave amplitude was elevated with statistical significance (P < 0.001) at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively but with no statistical significance (P > 0.05) after that period when compared with Group 4 and unoperated fellow rabbits\\' eyes of each group. CONCLUSION:: Decafluoro-di-n-pentyl ether demonstrated minimum adverse effects in retinal rabbits; further studies are needed before clinical use as short-term tamponade.

  2. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in articles: a review of its applications and legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinhui, Li; Yuan, Chen; Wenjing, Xiao

    2017-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), especially commercial decabrominated diphenyl ethers (c-decaBDE), have been widely produced and applied to numerous materials because of their highly effective flame-retardant capabilities. The production of commercial pentaBDE (c-pentaBDE) and commercial octaBDE (c-octaBDE) ended in 2004 because they are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic to both humans and the environment, but decaBDE production and use continue. Furthermore, many congeners of PBDEs are still prevalent in consumer products and articles that they pose enormous threat to both the environment and human health. PBDEs have been detected in the casing of electrical and electronic equipment, textile materials, automotive interiors, polyurethane foam (PUF) in seat cushions, children's toys, kitchenware, and other products. With increasing evidence about PBDE pollution and the adoption of international conventions, many developed countries have drawn more public attention to PBDEs and developed sound strategies for their management. This review summaries the utilization and management of PBDEs in a number of countries and reaches the conclusion that PBDEs are still prevalent in consumer articles, while specific regulations or policies for articles containing PBDEs are rare. Public awareness should be raised on the importance of sound management of articles containing PBDEs.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Sulfonated Poly (ether ether ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    2007-08-10

    Aug 10, 2007 ... Preparation and Characterization of Sulfonated Poly (ether ... Currently perfluori- ... with phosphoric acid solution according to the method described earlier.11,12 ... where A is the membrane area available for diffusion; CA is.

  4. Radioiodsodestannylation. Convenient synthesis of a high affinity thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 receptor antagonist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mais, D.E.; Hamanaka, Nobuyuki

    1991-01-01

    Radioiodination of methyl-7-[(2R, 2S, 5R)-6,6-dimethyl-3-(4-trimethylstannylbenzenesulfononylamino3S) bicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-yl]-5(Z)-heptenoate with [ 125 I] Na using a modification of the chloramine-T method in organic solvent is simple with high yields and site specific. The product, following hydrolysis of the ester, 7-[(2R, 2S, 3S, 5R)-6,6-dimethyl-3-(4[ 125 I]-iodobenzenesulfonylamino) bicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-yl]-5(Z)-heptenoic acid [( 125 I]-ISAP), was purified by HPLC. The high specific activity and specific binding will make the ligand a useful tool for the characterization of thromboxane A 2 /prostaglandin H 2 receptors. (author)

  5. Direct dimethyl ether fueling of a high temperature polymer fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Vassiliev, Anton; Olsen, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    Direct dimethyl ether (DME) fuel cells suffer from poor DME–water miscibility and so far peak powers of only 20–40 mW cm−2 have been reported. Based on available literature on solubility of dimethyl ether (DME) in water at ambient pressure it was estimated that the maximum concentration of DME at...

  6. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell for cooperating households: A convenient combined heat and power solution for residential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappa, Francesco; Facci, Andrea Luigi; Ubertini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we compare the technical and economical performances of a high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell with those of an internal combustion engine for a 10 kW combined heat and power residential application. In a view of social innovation, this solution will create new partnerships of cooperating families aiming to reduce the energy consumption and costs. The energy system is simulated through a lumped model. We compare, in the Italian context, the total daily operating cost and energy savings of each system with respect to the separate purchase of electricity from the grid and production of the thermal energy through a standard boiler. The analysis is carried out with the energy systems operating with both the standard thermal tracking and an optimized management. The latter is retrieved through an optimization methodology based on the graph theory. We show that the internal combustion engine is much more affected by the choice of the operating strategy with respect to the fuel cell, in terms long term profitability. Then we conduct a net present value analysis with the aim of evidencing the convenience of using a high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell for cogeneration in residential applications. - Highlights: • Fuel cells are a feasible and economically convenient solution for residential CHP. • Control strategy is fundamental for the economical performance of a residential CHP. • Flexibility is a major strength of the fuel cell CHP.

  7. Ether: Bitcoin's competitor or ally?

    OpenAIRE

    Bouoiyour, Jamal; Selmi, Refk

    2017-01-01

    Although Bitcoin has long been dominant in the crypto scene, it is certainly not alone. Ether is another cryptocurrency related project that has attracted an intensive attention because of its additional features. This study seeks to test whether these cryptocurrencies differ in terms of their volatile and speculative behaviors, hedge, safe haven and risk diversification properties. Using different econometric techniques, we show that a) Bitcoin and Ether are volatile and relatively more resp...

  8. Implementing a reward and reminder underage drinking prevention program in convenience stores near Southern California American Indian reservations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Roland S; Roberts, Jennifer; McGaffigan, Richard; Calac, Daniel; Grube, Joel W; Gilder, David A; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2012-09-01

    Underage drinking is associated with a number of social and public health consequences. Preventing access to alcohol is one approach to reducing underage drinking. This study assesses the efficacy of a culturally tailored "reward and reminder" program aimed at reducing convenience store alcohol sales to youth living on or near nine American Indian reservations. First, tribal council proclamations were sought to support underage drinking prevention, including reward and reminder efforts. Then, decoys (volunteers over 21 years of age but judged to look younger) attempted to purchase alcohol without identification. Clerks who asked for identification were given "rewards" (gift cards and congratulatory letters), whereas clerks who did not were given "reminders" of the law regarding sales to minors. Following an initial baseline of 12 purchase attempts, three repeated reward and reminder visits were made to 13 convenience stores selling alcohol within 10 miles of the reservations (n = 51 total attempts). Five of nine tribal councils passed resolutions in support of the program. The baseline sales rate without requesting ID was 33%. Similarly, 38% of stores in the first reward and reminder visit round failed to request identification. However, in the following two reward and reminder rounds, 0% of the stores failed to request identification. These results indicate that environmental community-level underage drinking prevention strategies to reduce alcohol sales near rural reservations are feasible and can be effective. Environmental prevention strategies within reservation communities support integrated supply and demand reduction models for reducing underage drinking.

  9. MRI sensing of neurotransmitters with a crown ether appended Gd(3+) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oukhatar, Fatima; Même, Sandra; Même, William; Szeremeta, Frédéric; Logothetis, Nikos K; Angelovski, Goran; Tóth, Éva

    2015-02-18

    Molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approaches that detect biomarkers associated with neural activity would allow more direct observation of brain function than current functional MRI based on blood-oxygen-level-dependent contrast. Our objective was to create a synthetic molecular platform with appropriate recognition moieties for zwitterionic neurotransmitters that generate an MR signal change upon neurotransmitter binding. The gadolinium complex (GdL) we report offers ditopic binding for zwitterionic amino acid neurotransmitters, via interactions (i) between the positively charged and coordinatively unsaturated metal center and the carboxylate function and (ii) between a triazacrown ether and the amine group of the neurotransmitters. GdL discriminates zwitterionic neurotransmitters from monoamines. Neurotransmitter binding leads to a remarkable relaxivity change, related to a decrease in hydration number. GdL was successfully used to monitor neural activity in ex vivo mouse brain slices by MRI.

  10. Polyoxyethylene alkyl ether carboxylic acids: An overview of a neglected class of surfactants with multiresponsive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappisi, Leonardo

    2017-12-01

    In this work, an overview on aqueous solutions of polyoxyethylene alkyl ether carboxylic acids is given. Unique properties arise from the combination of the nonionic, temperature-responsive polyoxyethylene block with the weakly ionic, pH-responsive carboxylic acid termination in a single surfactant headgroup. Accordingly, this class of surfactant finds broad application across very different sectors. Despite their large use on an industrial and a technical scale, the literature lacks a systematic and detailed characterization of their physico-chemical properties which is provided herein. In addition, a comprehensive overview is given of their self-assembly and interfacial behavior, of their use as colloidal building blocks and for large-scale applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Modified silyl-terminated polyether polymer blends with bisphenol A diglycidyl ether epoxy for adhesive applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitenieks, J; Meri, R Merijs; Zicans, J; Berzins, R; Umbraško, J; Rekners, U

    2016-01-01

    Modified silyl-terminated polyether polymer (MS Polymer) was blended with bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (DGEBPA) epoxy at MS Polymer/epoxy ratio from 30/70 to 70/30. MS Polymer/epoxy systems were examined for two-component adhesive formulation with additional fillers. Applicability of the MS Polymer/epoxy system at the ratio of the components 60/40 is demonstrated for the development of adhesive formulation. Rheological analysis of the components A and B shows suitable viscosity values for development of two- component adhesives formulation. Curing dynamics as well as tensile stress-strain properties and Shore A hardness of the chosen adhesive formulation are reasonable for the development of MS Polymer/epoxy type adhesive. (paper)

  12. Analysis of reaction products of food contaminants and ingredients: Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) in canned foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coulier, L.; Bradley, E.L.; Bas, R.C.; Verhoeckx, K.C.M.; Driffield, M.; Harmer, N.; Castle, L.

    2010-01-01

    Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) is an epoxide that is used as a starting substance in the manufacture of can coatings for food-contact applications. Following migration from the can coating into food, BADGE levels decay and new reaction products are formed by reaction with food ingredients. The

  13. Repairing a Facial Cleft by Polyether-Ether-Ketone Implant Combined With Titanium Mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuan; Tang, Weiwei; Li, Zhengkang

    2018-05-15

    The Tessier Number 4 cleft is one of the rarest, most complex craniofacial anomalies that presents difficulties in surgical treatment. In this article, we report a case of simultaneous facial depression, eye displacement, and medial canthus deformity. In this case, the maxillary bony defect was reconstructed using computer-assisted design computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD-CAM) polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) material, and the orbital floor defect was repaired with AO prefabricated titanium mesh. Additionally, the medial canthus was modified with canthopexy and a single Z-plasty flap. Owing to its relative rarity and varied clinical presentations, no definitive operative methods have been accepted for Tessier No. 4 facial cleft. This study presents the combination of CAD-CAM manufactured PEEK material and titanium mesh as an alternative approach for reconstructing the bony defect of Tessier No. 4 facial clefts.

  14. Insights into Glycol Ether-Alkanol Mixtures from a Combined Experimental and Theoretical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde, Rafael; Gutiérrez, Alberto; Atilhan, Mert; Trenzado, José Luis; Aparicio, Santiago

    2017-06-08

    The binary liquid mixtures of glycol ethers (glymes) + 1-alkanol were characterized from the microscopic and macroscopic viewpoints through a combined experimental and theoretical study. Structuring, dynamics, and intermolecular forces were determined using density functional theory and classical molecular dynamics methods. The macroscopic behavior was studied though the measurement of relevant physicochemical properties and Raman IR studies. The changes in intermolecular forces with mixture composition, temperature, and the effects from the types of glymes as well as 1-alkanols were considered. Hydrogen bonding in the mixed fluids, its changes upon mixing, and mixture composition showed a large effect on fluids' structure and determined most of the fluids' properties together with the presence of hydrophobic domains from long 1-alkanols.

  15. UV-A photooxidation of β-carotene in Triton X-100 micelles by nitrodiphenyl ether herbicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, G.L.; Hogan, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Photooxidation of β-carotene in Triton X-100 micelles was stimulated by lipophilic nitrodiphenyl ether herbicides at concentrations as low as 5 μM after 15 min in UV radiation (UV-A between 315 and 400 nm). Bleaching of β-carotene by acifluorfen-methyl [methyl 5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-nitrobenzoate] was proportional to UV-A intensity and independent of pH. White light (400-700 nm) alone was without effect. At pH 6.5, 100 μM acifluorfen [sodium 5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-nitrobenzoate], a water-soluble nitrodiphenyl ether, stimulated photooxidation of β-carotene after 15 min in UV-A radiation. Activity of 200 μM acifluorfen was enhanced at pHs between 3.5 and 6.5. The chlorodiphenyl ether analogue of acifluorfen-methyl, methyl 5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-chlorobenzoate, exhibited little activity at 200 μM and 200 μM phenyl ether was without effect. Activation energy for acifluorfen-methyl stimulated β-carotene photooxidation near 20 and 30 0 C was 40.3 and 5.6 kJ mol -1 , respectively. Subsequent to UV-A exposure and placement into darkness no further bleaching of β-carotene was detected, indicating that reactive species were generated only in light and consumed quickly in darkness

  16. Bisphenol diglycidyl ethers and bisphenol A and their hydrolysis in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, R F; Adams, C D; Randtke, S J; Carter, R E

    2015-04-01

    Epoxy coatings are commonly used to protect the interior (and exterior) surfaces of water mains and storage tanks and can be used on the interior surfaces of water pipes in homes, hospitals, hotels, and other buildings. Common major components of epoxies include bisphenols, such as bisphenol A (BPA) or bisphenol F (BPF), and their reactive prepolymers, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE), respectively. There currently are health concerns about the safety of BPA and BPF due to known estrogenic effects. Determination of key bisphenol leachates, development of a hydrolysis model, and identification of stable hydrolysis products will aid in assessment of human bisphenol exposure through ingestion of drinking water. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was used for quantitation of key analytes, and a pseudo-first order kinetic approach was used for modeling. In fill-and-dump studies on epoxy-coated pipe specimens, BADGE and a BPA-like compound were identified as leachates. The BADGE hydrolysis model predicts BADGE half-lives at pH 7 and 15, 25, 35, and 40 °C to be 11, 4.6, 2.0, and 1.4 days respectively; the BFDGE half-life was 5 days at pH 7 and 25 °C. The two identified BADGE hydrolysis products are BADGE-H2O and BADGE 2H2O, with BADGE 2H2O being the final end product under the conditions studied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimizing the Performance of a 50cc Compression Ignition Two-Stroke Engine Operating on Dimethyl Ether

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Rene; Dolriis, J.D.; Hansson, C.

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the optimization of a 50cc crankcase scavenged two-stroke diesel engine operating on dimethyl ether (DME). The optimization is primarily done with respect to engine efficiency. The underlying idea behind the work is that the low weight, low internal friction and low engine...

  18. Ambient gold-catalyzed O-vinylation of cyclic 1,3-diketone: A vinyl ether synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumeng Xi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Gold-catalyzed O-vinylation of cyclic 1,3-diketones has been achieved for the first time, which provides direct access to various vinyl ethers. A catalytic amount of copper triflate was identified as the significant additive in promoting this transformation. Both aromatic and aliphatic alkynes are suitable substrates with good to excellent yields.

  19. A Hierarchically Micro-Meso-Macroporous Zeolite CaA for Methanol Conversion to Dimethyl Ether

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchical zeolite CaA with microporous, mesoporous and macroporous structure was hydrothermally synthesized by a ”Bond-Blocking” method using organo-functionalized mesoporous silica (MS as a silica source. The characterization by XRD, SEM/TEM and N2 adsorption/desorption techniques showed that the prepared material had well-crystalline zeolite Linde Type A (LTA topological structure, microspherical particle morphologies, and hierarchically intracrystalline micro-meso-macropores structure. With the Bond-Blocking principle, the external surface area and macro-mesoporosity of the hierarchical zeolite CaA can be adjusted by varying the organo-functionalized degree of the mesoporous silica surface. Similarly, the distribution of the micro-meso-macroporous structure in the zeolite CaA can be controlled purposely. Compared with the conventional microporous zeolite CaA, the hierarchical zeolite CaA as a catalyst in the conversion of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME, exhibited complete DME selectivity and stable catalytic activity with high methanol conversion. The catalytic performances of the hierarchical zeolite CaA results clearly from the micro-meso-macroporous structure, improving diffusion properties, favoring the access to the active surface and avoiding secondary reactions (no hydrocarbon products were detected after 3 h of reaction.

  20. Convenience of achieving a software platform leading to increased travel safety for disabled persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Simona TECĂU

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a qualitative marketing research, achieved by the focus group method, one of a series of marketing researches proposed with a view to determining the extent to which it is opportune to achieve a software platform containing a database with safe tourist routes and images, accessible for disabled persons, which may tested/ visualized by virtual reality.

  1. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers fate in China: a review with an emphasis on environmental contamination levels, human exposure and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan; Li, Jinhui; Liu, Lili; Zhao, Nana

    2012-12-30

    Because of their highly effective flame-retardant capability, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been extensively used as flame retardants in consumer goods. However, compelling evidence shows that many congeners of PBDEs have been accumulating in the environment, in biota and in human populations worldwide. In China, although octabrominated diphenyl ether (octaBDE) has never been produced or used, pentabrominated diphenyl ether (pentaBDE) and decabrominated diphenyl ether (decaBDE) have been produced and used in large quantities. In the face of increasing evidence about PBDE pollution and the adoption of international conventions, there is a growing push for China to develop more stringent methods of managing PBDE waste. This paper summarizes the information about PBDE production and application, describes the flame-retarding mechanism, and then reviews the toxicity and levels of PBDEs in China's environmental media and human tissues. Based on international regulations on PBDEs, the paper finally puts forward some suggestions for Chinese policy making and for self-regulation within the flame retardant industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Convenient determination of luminescence quantum yield using a combined electronic absorption and emission spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, John; Mishra, Ashok Kumar [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2016-01-15

    It is possible to measure luminescence quantum yield in a facile way, by designing an optical spectrometer capable of obtaining electronic absorption as well as luminescence spectra, with a setup that uses the same light source and detector for both the spectral measurements. Employment of a single light source and single detector enables use of the same correction factor profile for spectral corrections. A suitable instrumental scaling factor is used for adjusting spectral losses.

  3. A Simple and Convenient Method of Multiple Linear Regression to Calculate Iodine Molecular Constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Paul D.

    2010-01-01

    A new procedure using a student-friendly least-squares multiple linear-regression technique utilizing a function within Microsoft Excel is described that enables students to calculate molecular constants from the vibronic spectrum of iodine. This method is advantageous pedagogically as it calculates molecular constants for ground and excited…

  4. A General and Convenient Method for the Rhodium-Catalyzed Decarbonylation of Aldehydes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreis, Michael; Palmelund, Anders; Bunch, Lennart

    2006-01-01

    A practical protocol for the decarbonylation of a wide range of aldehydes has been developed by using commercially available RhCl3x3H2O and dppp in a diglyme solution. This method gives rise to decarbonylated products in good to high yield and is particularly useful because of its experimental si...

  5. Chlorination and chloramination of bisphenol A, bisphenol F, and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Rachael F; Adams, Craig D; Randtke, Stephen J; Carter, Ray E

    2015-08-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol F (BPF), and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) are common components of epoxy coatings used in food packaging and in drinking water distribution systems. Thus, leachates from the epoxy may be exposed to the disinfectants free chlorine (Cl2/HOCl/OCl(-)) and monochloramine (MCA, NH2Cl). Bisphenols are known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) with estrogenic activity. Chlorination by-products have the potential to have reduced or enhanced estrogenic qualities, and are, therefore, of interest. In this work, chlorination reactions for bisphenols and BADGE were explored (via LC/MS/MS) and kinetic modeling (using a pseudo-first order approach) was conducted to predict the fate of these compounds in drinking water. The half-lives of BPA and BPF with 1 mg/L of free chlorine ranged from 3 to 35 min over the pH range from 6 to 11 and the temperature range of 10-25 °C. Half-lives for reactions of BPA and BPF with a nominal MCA concentration of 3.5 mg/L as Cl2 were from 1 to 10 days and were greater at higher pH and lower temperature. Formation of chlorinated bisphenol A by-products was observed during the kinetic studies. BADGE was found unreactive with either oxidant. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Customers Sustainability Demand : A comparison between convenience goods and shopping goods

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Lisa; Höjman, Viktor; Elfqvist, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In pace with a growing awareness among customers, so does the demand for sustainable products increase in various markets. Sustainability is even referred to become a mega-trend (Lubin & Esty, 2010). Although, extensive research can be found on sustainability and its three pillars; environment, social and economic, little is known whether there is a general customer demand for sustainability for any type of good. Therefore, this study’s purpose has been to compare sustainability demand fo...

  7. Adaptive Multicarrier Modulation: A Convenient Framework for Time-Frequency Processing in Wireless Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, T.; Hanzo, L.

    2000-01-01

    A historical perspective of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is given with reference to its literature. Its advantages and disadvantages are reviewed, and its performance is characterized over highly dispersive channels. The effects of both time- and frequency-domain synchronization errors are quantified, and a range of solutions proposed in the recent literature are re-viewed. One of the main objectives of this review is to highlight the recent thinking behind adaptive bit a...

  8. The disgrace of commodification and shameful convenience: a critical race critique of the NBA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Rachel Alicia

    2012-01-01

    This essay positions sport as a pedagogical social institution from which people learn about race, gender, power, and privilege. The National Basketball Association is examined closely with a critical race lens with regard to the commodification of Black masculinity. A critical race analysis reveals the sharp contradictions between the league’s progressive image as an “industry leader” of racial diversity (Lapchick, Bustamante, & Ruiz, 2007, p.1) and the actualization of league discourse, policy, and practice.

  9. Increasing fresh fruit and vegetable availability in a low-income neighborhood convenience store: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetter, Karen M; Cassady, Diana L

    2010-09-01

    Changing the food environment in low-income communities may be an effective way to increase the consumption of fruits and vegetables by low-income consumers. This study examines the impacts of a pilot study that increases the availability of fresh produce in a convenience store in a low-income neighborhood not served by a supermarket. Two hypotheses based on theories of technology adoption are tested regarding the lack of fresh produce in low-income neighborhood stores: the first is that high fixed costs present a barrier for store owners in developing produce sections; the second is that there is insufficient consumer demand to cover the variable costs of a fresh produce section. The impacts of changing the food environment on store owners and the consumer response to environmental change are measured through weekly inventories of fresh produce. The results show that fixed costs are one barrier for store owners and that although the consumer response is sufficient to cover the direct costs of operating the produce case, it is not enough to cover variable management costs. Consequently, alternative management paradigms or venues may offer a better method to meet the demand for fresh produce by low-income consumers to promote better health through healthier diets in low-income communities.

  10. Suicide Ideation among Participants in an After-School Program: A Convenience Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Raymond K.; Burrola, Kimberly S.; Bryan, Carey H.

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study examined differences between elementary-age youth who have considered suicide and their peers using a data set that was collected from elementary school-age children (N = 51) who participated in an after-school program. Data were collected using a standardized survey assessing daily activities, social support, self-esteem,…

  11. Sex differences in glucose levels: a consequence of physiology or methodological convenience? The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Vaag, A

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether sex differences in fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h post-OGTT plasma glucose (2hPG) and HbA(1c) could be explained by differences in body size and/or body composition between men and women in a general non-diabetic Danish population. Moreover, we aimed to study to what...

  12. A Rapid and Convenient Procedure to Evaluate Optical Performance of Intraocular Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Schaeffel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A new portable lens scanner was developed and tested for measuring focal lengths and relative contrast transfer of mono- and multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs. A photograph of a natural scene was imaged in white light through an IOL in a water-filled cuvette, with their +21D base power largely neutralized by a −20D trial lens, using a USB monochrome video camera that could be focused via a laptop-controlled stepping motor from −8.5 to + 8.0D. The output of 10000 ON-OFF antagonistic “receptive fields” measuring the video image with adjustable diameter was continuously recorded by custom written software to quantify focus and relative contrast. Six monofocal and four multifocal IOLs, as well as two radial refractive gradient (RRG lenses were measured. After calibration with trial lenses the optical powers and relative contrast transfer of mono- and multifocal IOLs were readily measured. Refractive power profiles measured in RRG lenses closely matched data obtained from the manufacturer. The lens scanner uses a rapidly operating procedure, is portable and can be used to verify positions of the focal planes of mono- and multifocal IOLs in less than 3 s.

  13. A convenient method to prepare emulsified polyacrylate nanoparticles from powders [corrected] for drug delivery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay-Jimenez, Julio C; Turos, Edward

    2011-08-01

    We describe a method to obtain purified, polyacrylate nanoparticles in a homogeneous powdered form that can be readily reconstituted in aqueous media for in vivo applications. Polyacrylate-based nanoparticles can be easily prepared by emulsion polymerization using a 7:3 mixture of butyl acrylate and styrene in water containing sodium dodecyl sulfate as a surfactant and potassium persulfate as a water-soluble radical initiator. The resulting emulsions contain nanoparticles measuring 40-50 nm in diameter with uniform morphology, and can be purified by centrifugation and dialysis to remove larger coagulants as well as residual surfactant and monomers associated with toxicity. These purified emulsions can be lyophilized in the presence of maltose (a non-toxic cryoprotectant) to provide a homogeneous dried powder, which can be reconstituted as an emulsion by addition of an aqueous diluent. Dynamic light scattering and microbiological experiments were carried out on the reconstituted nanoparticles. This procedure allows for ready preparation of nanoparticle emulsions for drug delivery applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Real-space quadrature: A convenient, efficient representation for multipole expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Multipoles are central to the theory and modeling of polarizable and nonpolarizable molecular electrostatics. This has made a representation in terms of point charges a highly sought after goal, since rotation of multipoles is a bottleneck in molecular dynamics implementations. All known point charge representations are orders of magnitude less efficient than spherical harmonics due to either using too many fixed charge locations or due to nonlinear fitting of fewer charge locations. We present the first complete solution to this problem—completely replacing spherical harmonic basis functions by a dramatically simpler set of weights associated to fixed, discrete points on a sphere. This representation is shown to be space optimal. It reduces the spherical harmonic decomposition of Poisson’s operator to pairwise summations over the point set. As a corollary, we also shows exact quadrature-based formulas for contraction over trace-free supersymmetric 3D tensors. Moreover, multiplication of spherical harmonic basis functions translates to a direct product in this representation

  15. Ionic liquid catalyzed convenient synthesis of imidazo[1,2-a]quinoline under sonic condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Devji S.; Avalani, Jemin R.; Raval, Dipak K., E-mail: dipanalka@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Sardar Patel University Gujarat (India)

    2012-10-15

    An efficient protocol for the synthesis of imidazo[1,2-a]quinoline from aldehydes, enaminones, and malononitrile using 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]-undec-7-en-8-ium acetate ([DBU][Ac]) as a catalyst under ultrasound irradiation is described. Compared with other methods, this new method has the advantages of easier work-up, milder reaction conditions, high yields and environmentally benign procedure. (author)

  16. A convenient method for the determination of moisture in aromatic plants

    OpenAIRE

    Flávio A. Pimentel; Maria das Graças Cardoso; Ana Paula S. P. Salgado; Priscila M. Aguiar; Vanisse de F. Silva; Augusto Ramalho de Morais; David Lee Nelson

    2006-01-01

    A method is proposed for the determination of the moisture content of aromatic plants. This method is based on the co-distillation of the starting material in a modified Clevenger apparatus with four organic solvents (toluene, cyclohexane, dichloromethane and carbon tetrachloride). The results were compared with those obtained by oven drying at 105 ºC and steam distillation of the essential oil. The efficiencies of the methods were shown to be equivalent. The solvent distillation method was m...

  17. Marketing and Assessment in Academic Libraries: A Marriage of Convenience or True Love?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Porat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This paper describes the process of cooperation between the Marketing and Assessment Teams at the University of Haifa in Israel, from initial apprehension about working together to the successful marketing of a suite of user studies.Methods – The first step was a formal meeting in which the leader of the assessment team explained the aims of assessment. For each assessment activity, the assessment team submitted a formal request for assistance to the marketing team, conducted team meetings on how to market each assessment, and met with the marketing team to explain the survey and receive their input on how it should be marketed. Over a 3-year period, 5 joint activities were undertaken: a 1-day, in-library use survey; a wayfinding study, in which 10 new students were filmed as they searched for 3 items in the library; 5 focus group sessions regarding upcoming library renovations; a LibQUAL+® survey measuring perceptions of service quality among the entire campus population; and an online survey of non-users of the library. The success of the assessment/marketing projects was measured by the response rates, the representativeness of the results, and the number of free-text comments with rectifiable issues.Results – Although the response rates were not very high in any of the surveys, they were very representative of the university population. With over 40% or respondents filling in free-text comments, the information received was used and applied in making service changes, including the creation and marketing of additional group study rooms, improved signage, and the launch of a “quiet” campaign. In addition, a “You said – We did” document was compiled that outlines all of the changes that were implemented since the first four surveys were conducted; this document was published on the library’s blog, Facebook page, and website.Conclusion – The number of issues that appear in the first “You said – We did

  18. The convenient truth LPG: clean energy for a low carbon world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolland, M.

    2008-01-01

    In the context of climate change, no one solution is future-proof. It is going to take a coordinated worldwide effort to find the right mix of energy policies while balancing diverse and sometimes competing priorities. The WLPGA Climate Change Working Group (CCWG) seeks to demonstrate that the technologies needed to continue current rates of development while mitigating climate change already exist and that LP gas can be a major part of today's solutions to this challenge. LP gas is not a zero-GHG fuel. However, in most cases it can make major and immediate contributions to delivering real GHG emissions reductions. In some ways LP Gas can claim to be ahead of its time, for its clean-burning, low-carbon advantage is available at once, so that even using today's technology, most industries can exceed Kyoto GHG reduction targets by switching to LP Gas. The fact is that LP Gas produces lower GHG emissions compared to conventional energy supplies in virtually every application it is used, from stationary applications such as water heating, space heating, cooking and industrial boilers to transportation applications. There are opportunities to switch to clean burning LP gas for virtually every industry as a means meet GHG targets. LP gas is also portable, making it a perfect complement to distributed renewable energy source such as solar, wind and wave energy (and soon the fuel cell), thereby reducing our reliance centrally produced electricity. LP Gas used in combination with these renewable sources also can improve energy reliability while reducing the overall life-cycle costs. The portable and clean burning nature of LP Gas also makes it an ideal substitute for solid fuels in domestic cooking and heating applications. Household solid fuel use, overwhelmingly concentrated in developing countries, accounts for up to 30% of black carbon emissions worldwide according to some statistics. Switching to LP Gas could lower global GHG emissions as well as help to diminish

  19. Fluorescent Hydrogel Generated Conveniently from a Perylene Tetracarboxylate Derivative of Titanium(IV) Alkoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Dan-Hong; Wang, Peng; Luo, Wen; Hou, Jin-Le; Zhu, Qin-Yu; Dai, Jie

    2018-02-05

    Organic gelators and metal-coordination frameworks based on perylene derivatives as functional materials have attracted great attention because of their intense fluorescence emission as well as unique electronic and photonic properties. We report here the structures and properties of a luminescent titanium(IV) coordination compound of a perylene tetracarboxylate (PTC) derivative, [Ti 2 (O i Pr) 6 (L 1 )(phen) 2 ] (1), along with its two naphthalene analogues, [Ti 2 (O i Pr) 6 (L 2 )(phen) 2 ] (2) and [Ti 2 (O i Pr) 6 (L 2 )(bpy) 2 ] (3), where L 1 = 3,9-dicarboxylate-(4,10-diisopropanolcarboxylate)perylene, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, L 2 = 1,5-dicarboxylate-(2,6-diisopropanolcarboxylate)naphthalene, and bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine. Compound 1 is a rare early-transition-metal PTC coordination compound that can be simply prepared in one pot as crystals by a low-heat synthesis. Unlike those of paramagnetic late-transition-metal PTC compounds, compound 1 showed intense fluorescence emission. More remarkably, the crystals of 1 can be turned immediately to a fluorescent hydrogel just through a simple procedure, putting the crystals in water and then treating with ultrasound. No acid catalyst or pH adjustment is needed. Hydrolysis of the titanium isopropanol group in water and π-π interaction of the perylene and phen play important roles in the gelation process. The film prepared from the gel can be used as a visual fluorescence sensor for aromatic amines and phenols, which are hazards for the human and environment.

  20. A convenient truth? The spectre of global environmental catastrophe and sustainable development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Arsel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Through a critical point of view, this article analyses the debates on the sustainability of China’s development. Specifically, it tackles the dual argument that development in China is not sustainable, and that it represents a direct threat to the environmental security of the rest of the world. Thus, the study argues that calling for “sustainable development” as a solution to theenvironmental problem being faced by China (and, by implication, the whole world is being used to de-politicise what is essentially a very controversial political issue that reflects certain very old concerns linked with the sustainability of modern capitalism and North-South relations. Significantly, the article does not claim that China is not facing grave environmental problems which are intensifying quickly in terms of both scope and magnitude, and that these problems do not have regional and global consequences. Instead, it attempts to unravel the underlying reasons why China has become the paradigmatic example of unsustainable development, and what implications this has for China’s future economic development. Studying China in this context is instructive, given that China is not only the country leading the pack of a large group of Asian economies that are developing very quickly, economically speaking. China is also one of the most important of the developing nations, and its stance on policies for sustainable development marks – in many cases – the guideline that other developing countries will have to follow.

  1. Convenient, rapid synthesis of silver nanocubes and nanowires via a microwave-assisted polyol method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dapeng; Qiao, Xueliang; Qiu, Xiaolin; Chen, Jianguo; Jiang, Renzhi

    2010-01-01

    Silver nanostructures have been synthesized via a microwave-assisted polyol method by adding sodium sulfide (Na2S) into the solution. An interesting morphology evolution can be observed by adjusting the concentration of Na2S and the heating power. It is found that the ideal concentration of Na2S is 31.25-500 µM for the fast reduction of Ag+ at 300 W under optimal conditions for producing monodispersed silver nanocubes. When the heating power is increased to 400 W, 62.5-250 µM is the ideal concentration of Na2S for the synthesis of silver nanocubes. On increasing the concentration of Na2S (>500 µM), a mixture of silver nanowires, nanocubes, bipyramids, and irregular/quasispherical particles is synthesized at 300 and 400 W. In particular, an increase in the concentration of Na2S to 750 µM at 400 W leads to the production of a quantity of silver nanowires. In addition, silver nanocubes with controllable sizes can be obtained by changing the concentration of Na2S and the heating power. Compared to traditional wet-chemical methods, this method has the advantage of a marked decrease in reaction time to 3.5 min. Finally, our work provides a simple strategy for fabricating silver nanostructures with controllable morphologies and sizes.

  2. Convenient, rapid synthesis of silver nanocubes and nanowires via a microwave-assisted polyol method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Dapeng; Qiao Xueliang; Chen Jianguo; Jiang Renzhi [State Key Laboratory of Plastic Forming Simulation and Die and Mold Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074, Hubei (China); Qiu Xiaolin, E-mail: dpchenhust@yahoo.com.cn [Nanomaterials Research Center, Nanchang Institute of Technology, Nanchang, 330013, Jiangxi (China)

    2010-01-15

    Silver nanostructures have been synthesized via a microwave-assisted polyol method by adding sodium sulfide (Na{sub 2}S) into the solution. An interesting morphology evolution can be observed by adjusting the concentration of Na{sub 2}S and the heating power. It is found that the ideal concentration of Na{sub 2}S is 31.25-500 {mu}M for the fast reduction of Ag{sup +} at 300 W under optimal conditions for producing monodispersed silver nanocubes. When the heating power is increased to 400 W, 62.5-250 {mu}M is the ideal concentration of Na{sub 2}S for the synthesis of silver nanocubes. On increasing the concentration of Na{sub 2}S (>500 {mu}M), a mixture of silver nanowires, nanocubes, bipyramids, and irregular/quasispherical particles is synthesized at 300 and 400 W. In particular, an increase in the concentration of Na{sub 2}S to 750 {mu}M at 400 W leads to the production of a quantity of silver nanowires. In addition, silver nanocubes with controllable sizes can be obtained by changing the concentration of Na{sub 2}S and the heating power. Compared to traditional wet-chemical methods, this method has the advantage of a marked decrease in reaction time to 3.5 min. Finally, our work provides a simple strategy for fabricating silver nanostructures with controllable morphologies and sizes.

  3. Convenient, rapid synthesis of silver nanocubes and nanowires via a microwave-assisted polyol method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Dapeng; Qiao Xueliang; Chen Jianguo; Jiang Renzhi; Qiu Xiaolin

    2010-01-01

    Silver nanostructures have been synthesized via a microwave-assisted polyol method by adding sodium sulfide (Na 2 S) into the solution. An interesting morphology evolution can be observed by adjusting the concentration of Na 2 S and the heating power. It is found that the ideal concentration of Na 2 S is 31.25-500 μM for the fast reduction of Ag + at 300 W under optimal conditions for producing monodispersed silver nanocubes. When the heating power is increased to 400 W, 62.5-250 μM is the ideal concentration of Na 2 S for the synthesis of silver nanocubes. On increasing the concentration of Na 2 S (>500 μM), a mixture of silver nanowires, nanocubes, bipyramids, and irregular/quasispherical particles is synthesized at 300 and 400 W. In particular, an increase in the concentration of Na 2 S to 750 μM at 400 W leads to the production of a quantity of silver nanowires. In addition, silver nanocubes with controllable sizes can be obtained by changing the concentration of Na 2 S and the heating power. Compared to traditional wet-chemical methods, this method has the advantage of a marked decrease in reaction time to 3.5 min. Finally, our work provides a simple strategy for fabricating silver nanostructures with controllable morphologies and sizes.

  4. Development of a simplified and convenient assay for cell-mediated immunity to the mumps virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Naruhito; Shima, Masayuki; Nakajima, Kazuhiko; Takesue, Yoshio; Okuno, Toshiomi

    2014-09-01

    Because methods for measuring cell-mediated immunity (CMI) to the mumps virus are expensive, time-consuming, and technically demanding, the role of CMI in mumps virus infection remains unclear. To address this issue, we report here the development of a simplified method for measuring mumps virus-specific CMI that is suitable for use in diverse laboratory and clinical settings. A mumps vaccine was cultured with whole blood, and interferon (IFN)-γ released into the culture supernatant was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. IFN-γ production in blood from vaccinated subjects markedly increased in response to the vaccine and decreased before the antibody titer decreased in some cases, suggesting that this assay may be used as a simple surrogate method for measuring CMI specific for the mumps virus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Convenience food products. Drivers for consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Thomas A; van der Horst, Klazine; Siegrist, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Convenience is one of the big trends in the food business. The demand for convenience food products is steadily increasing; therefore, understanding convenience food consumption is an important issue. Despite being vital properties of convenience food, saving time and effort have not been very successful constructs for predicting convenience food consumption. To examine a wide range of possible drivers for convenience food consumption, the present study uses a convenience food frequency questionnaire that asks about consumption behavior. A paper-and-pencil questionnaire was sent out to a representative sample of people in German-speaking Switzerland and yielded N = 918 complete datasets from persons mainly responsible for buying and preparing food in the household. The various convenience food products could be categorized into four groups, which we labeled as highly processed food items, moderately processed food items, single components, and salads. Fifteen drivers were found to have a significant impact either on total convenience consumption or on one of the identified categories. Strong predictors were age, concern about naturalness, nutrition knowledge, and cooking skills. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk based regulation: a convenient concept for legislation and regulation in the field of technical risks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    Legislation and regulation concerning risk activities are traditionally based on deterministic safety measures. This may lead to inefficient results: sometimes the law requires safety measures which are - from an economic viewpoint - not justified because of their poor cost-effectiveness; sometimes it does not require safety measures although they would be very efficient. The risk based regulation approach wants to make the law more efficient and to get more safety at less costs. Legislation and regulation should be based on terms of risk rather than on deterministic rules. Risk should be expressed in quantitative terms and risk regulation should be based on the cost-effectiveness of safety measures. Thus a most efficient (in the sense of the economic analysis of the law) strategy for safety and environmental law could be established. The approach is economically reasonable and theoretically convincing. Its practical implementation however raises a lot of technical and legal questions. The project 'Risk Based Regulation' (1996-1999), sponsored by the Swiss National Fund for Scientific Research, intends to evaluate the practical feasibility of the approach from a technical and a legal view. It contains a general part which describes the risk based regulation approach and its legal and technical questions, case studies which try to practically implement the risk based regulation approach; the case studies are: storage and management of explosives in the army, storage and management of explosives for non-military purposes, safety at work, accident prevention in the non-professional field (mainly road accidents), fire protection, transportation of dangerous goods, waste disposal: traditional waste, waste disposal: radioactive waste, nuclear energy (reactor safety), a synthesis with recommendations for the future legislation and regulation in the field of technical risks. The paper presents the project and its preliminary results. (author)

  7. A convenient method for the determination of moisture in aromatic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio A. Pimentel

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A method is proposed for the determination of the moisture content of aromatic plants. This method is based on the co-distillation of the starting material in a modified Clevenger apparatus with four organic solvents (toluene, cyclohexane, dichloromethane and carbon tetrachloride. The results were compared with those obtained by oven drying at 105 ºC and steam distillation of the essential oil. The efficiencies of the methods were shown to be equivalent. The solvent distillation method was more practical, especially with respect to operating time (2 h.

  8. Honey: A Skin Graft Fixator Convenient for Both Patient and Surgeon

    OpenAIRE

    Maghsoudi, Hemmat; Moradi, Sohrab

    2014-01-01

    Skin grafts can be used effectively to cover burn injuries. A critical element of this treatment is the adherence of the graft to the wound bed. Honey has been shown to increase the adherence of skin grafts to wound beds and have antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects and increase healing rate of wounds. We therefore devised a clinical trial to determine the effect of honey on skin graft fixation in burn injuries. Sixty patients were included in this study (in 30 patients, graft was fixe...

  9. A convenient allylsilane-N-acyliminium route toward indolizidine and quinolizidine alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remuson Roland

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review relates all the results that we obtained in the field of the total synthesis of indolizidine and quinolizidine alkaloids using a strategy of the addition of an allylsilane on an N-acyliminium ion. In this paper, we describe the synthesis of racemic indolizidine 167B and chiral indolizidines: (--indolizidines 167B, 195B, 223AB, (+-monomorine, (--(3R,5S,8aS-3-butyl-5-propylindolizidine and (--dendroprimine. Next, we relate the synthesis that we have developed in the quinolizidines field: (±-myrtine and epimyrtine, (±-lasubines I and II and chiral quinolizidines: (+-myrtine, (--epimyrtine, (--lasubines I and II and (+-subcosine II.

  10. Controlled synthesis of multi-morphology Te crystals by a convenient Lewis acid/base-assisted solvothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiaoping; Yuan Lin; Zhou Shaomin; Lou Shiyun; Wang Yongqiang; Gao Tao; Liu YuBiao; Shi Xiaojing

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the controlled growth of multi-morphology Te crystals by a convenient Lewis acid/base-assisted solvothermal method for the first time. The morphological transformation from one-dimension (1D) nanostructures to 2D hierarchical flowerlike microarchitecture has been observed. The nanorods and nanowires with a well-defined crystallographical structure and the hierarchical flowers microarchitecture were obtained by changing the Lewis acids/bases. Lewis acids/bases were found to be crucial for the formation of the products by not only acting as the pH regulator but also as the shape controller, owing to their hydrolysis in the solvent to in situ form H + /OH − and hydrates. The results suggest that this should be an effective approach to the control the growth of t-Te crystals with interesting multiple morphologies, which are of interest for both theoretical investigations and practical applications.

  11. A practical and convenient method for the synthesis of anesthetic drug thiopental: using thiourea and sodium ethoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojat Narimani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A general, simple, practical and convenient method has been described for the synthesis of anesthetic drug thiopental using thiourea in the presence of sodium ethoxide. Anesthetic drug of thiopental was prepared in two stages; during the first stage, the alkylation of mthyl cyanoacetate was performed which was then to be followed by cyclization. Alkylation of methyl cyanoacetate which was performed by 2-iodopentane in the presence of sodium ethoxide reacts with thiourea and then the process was followed by thiopental prepration in excellent yield. Some important aspects of this methodology are the high reactivity of the substrates, avoidance of the use of hazardous solvents, simplicity of the product separation, low cost of the substrates and reagents and high yield of product. This is a applicable and efficient method for the preparation of thiopental anesthesia in high yield and in an appropriate time.

  12. Simple and convenient preparation of Au-Pt core-shell nanoparticles on surface via a seed growth method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Lei; Sha Yufang; Yang Xiurong

    2006-01-01

    Au-Pt core-shell nanoparticles were prepared on glass surface by a seed growth method. Gold nanoparticles were used as seeds and ascorbic acid-H 2 PtCl 6 solutions as growth solutions to deposit Pt shell on the surface of gold nanoparticles. These core-shell nanoparticles and their growth process were examined by UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and field-emission environmental scanning electron microscopy and the results indicated that the deposition speed was fast and nanoparticles with obvious core-shell structure could be obtained after 2 min. Moreover, this seed growth method for preparation of the core-shell nanoparticles is simple and convenient compared with other seed growth methods with NH 4 OH as a mild reductant. In addition, electrochemical experiments indicated that these Au-Pt core-shell nanoparticles had similar electrochemical properties to those of the bulk Pt electrode

  13. A Convenient One-Pot Method for the Synthesis of N-Methoxy-N-methyl Amides from Carboxylic Acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joong Gon; Jang, Doo Ok

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a mild and convenient method for one-pot synthesis of Weinreb amides from carboxylic acids. The process is general for the preparation of Weinreb amides from a variety of carboxylic acids. The reaction was also applicable to the preparation of α-amino Weinreb amides and proceeded without deprotection of the N-Fmoc protecting group or racemization of the stereogenic centers. N-Methoxy-N-methyl amides, or Weinreb amides, have been widely used as versatile synthetic intermediates in organic syntheses. These amides serve as excellent acylating agents for organolithium or organomagnesium reagents and as robust aldehyde group equivalents. The utility of Weinreb amides has been extended to the preparation of N-protected amino aldehydes, useful intermediates for many chemoselective transformations in peptide chemistry

  14. Correctness-by-construction and post-hoc verification : a marriage of convenience?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watson, B.W.; Kourie, D.G.; Schaefer, I.; Cleophas, L.G.W.A.; Margaria, T.; Steffen, B.

    2016-01-01

    Correctness-by-construction (CbC), traditionally based on weakest precondition semantics, and post-hoc verification (PhV) aspire to ensure functional correctness. We argue for a lightweight approach to CbC where lack of formal rigour increases productivity. In order to mitigate the risk of

  15. A convenient procedure for the solid-phase synthesis of hydroxamic acids on PEGA resins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandurkar, Nitin Subhash; Petersen, Rico; Qvortrup, Katrine

    2011-01-01

    An efficient method for the solid-phase synthesis of hydroxamic acids is described. The method comprises the nucleophilic displacement of esters immobilized on PEGA resins with hydroxylamine/sodium hydroxide in isopropanol. The hydroxyaminolysis protocol is compatible with a broad range of PEGA...

  16. Delivering Food to the Front Door: A New, Or Very Old, Convenience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Muller

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A century of commercial competitive conflict between the grocery (food at home or “FAH” and restaurant (food away from home or “FAFH” distribution channels is now being fought on an unexpected but previously contested battlefield: who will own the “convenience” of delivery in the consumer’s mind.

  17. A convenient method for the conversion of N-acyloxazolidinones to hydroxamic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, Mukund P; Hasegawa, Hikaru; Ghorpade, Sandeep R

    2002-10-03

    Treatment of N-acyloxazolidinones with hydroxylamines using samarium triflate as a Lewis acid provides the corresponding hydroxamic acids in 50-98% yields at room temperature. The conversion proceeds with high degree of chemoselectivity and without racemization of chiral centers alpha- to the acyl group. [reaction: see text

  18. A convenient and reproducible method to genetically transform bacteria of the genus Bifidobacterium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Argnani, A.; Leer, R.J.; Luijk, N. van; Pouwels, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    A protocol was developed for the introduction of foreign plasmid DNA into various Bifidobacterium strains. The method, which is applicable to all Bifidobacterium species tested so far, is based on electroporation of bacteria made competent by preincubation in electroporation buffer for several hours

  19. Peer influence on youth's snack purchases: a laboratory analog of convenience store shopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Kluczynski, Melissa A; Nitecki, Lauren A; O'Connor, Briannon C

    2012-08-01

    This paper reports the results of two experiments using a laboratory analog to examine the influence of taxes and subsidies on youth's snack food purchases when alone (Experiment 1) and when in the presence of a same-gender peer (Experiment 2). Adolescents (12-14-years-old) completed a purchasing task, during which prices of snack foods were manipulated, either alone in Experiment 1 (N=37) or in the presence of an unfamiliar peer in Experiment 2 (N=52). In both experiments, purchases of unhealthy snacks decreased and purchases of healthy snacks increased when the price of unhealthy snacks were taxed (increased). In Experiment 1 (alone), participants did not purchase more healthy snacks when the price of these snacks were subsidized (decreased). However, in Experiment 2 (when participants were in the presence of a peer), participants purchased more healthy snacks when these snacks were subsidized. Taxes and subsidies affect adolescents' snack purchasing, as does the presence of peers. The results of this study highlight factors that influence healthy and unhealthy snack purchasing behavior in young adolescents. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Private management and public finance in the Italian water industry: A marriage of convenience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarutto, Antonio; Paccagnan, Vania; Linares, Elisabetta

    2008-12-01

    In many countries, reforms of water and sanitation utilities have favored private sector participation. The drivers of this trend are the need to improve efficiency, professional capabilities of service operations, and willingness to relieve public budgets of the heavy burden of investment. Scant attention has been devoted to the great impact this strategy can have on water bills because of the higher cost of capital that is implicit, given the economic risk that the private sector is required to accept. Since it is a capital-intensive industry with a long economic life of its assets, the water industry is particularly vulnerable to the cost of capital. This creates the case for publicly-supported financial schemes in order to keep this cost as low as possible and guarantee long-run viability as well as affordability. The Italian water industry is an excellent case study to investigate the importance of this situation: in the last 15 years, a far-reaching reform has been introduced with the aim of substituting a financing model, based entirely on public spending, with one delegating financial responsibilities to operators through full-cost recovery. Our simulations show that delegating all responsibilities and risks to the private sector can lead to unsustainable price increases once replacement of existing assets are required. The solution is not to give up full-cost recovery, but rather to search for risk allocation patterns that are more coherent with the risk profile of the water industry and help keeping the cost of capital low.

  1. Preparation of tritium- or deuterium-labeled vitamin D analogs by a convenient general method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paaren, H.E.; Fivizzani, M.A.; Schnoes, H.K.; DeLuca, H.F.

    1981-01-01

    The three-step conversion of vitamin D analogs to 6-oxo-3,5-cyclovitamin D derivatives followed by reduction with a tritide or deuteride reagent and subsequent cycloreversion gives 6-tritio(deutero)vitamin D derivatives and corresponding 5,6-trans-analogs. The method is general and affords the 6-labeled-vitamin D analogs in approx. =20% overall yield

  2. A marriage bar of convenience? The BBC and married women's work 1923-39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kate

    2014-01-01

    In October 1932 the British Broadcasting Corporation introduced a marriage bar, stemming what had been an enlightened attitude towards married women employees. The policy was in line with the convention of the day; marriage bars were widespread in the inter-war years operating in occupations such as teaching and the civil service and in large companies such as Sainsbury's and ICI. However, once implemented, the BBC displayed an ambivalent attitude towards its marriage bar which had been constructed to allow those married women considered useful to the Corporation to remain on the staff. This article considers why, for its first ten years, the BBC bucked convention and openly employed married women and why, in 1932, it took the decision to introduce a marriage bar, albeit not a full bar, which was not abolished until 1944. It contends that the BBC marriage bar represented a quest for conformity rather than active hostility towards the employment of married women and demonstrates how easily arguments against the acceptability of married women's work could be transgressed, if seen as beneficial to the employer. Overall, the article contemplates how far the BBC's marriage bar reflected inter-war ideology towards the employment of married women.

  3. A convenient diagnostic function test of peripheral blood neutrophils in glycogen storage disease type Ib

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, A.J.; Visser, G; Van Zwieten, R; Gruszczynska, B; Poll-The, DWEET; Smit, GPA

    Neutrophils from patients suffering from glycogen storage disease type To (GSD-Ib) show several defects, one of which is a decreased rate of glucose utilization. In this study, we established experimental conditions to show the stimulation of the neutrophil respiratory burst by extracellular

  4. A Safer and Convenient Synthesis of Sulfathiazole for Undergraduate Organic and Medicinal Chemistry Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Jeff; Otty, Sandra; Sarojini, Vijayalekshmi

    2012-01-01

    A safer method for the synthesis of the sulfonamide drug sulfathiazole, for undergraduate classes, is described. This method improves upon procedures currently followed in several undergraduate teaching laboratories for the synthesis of sulfathiazole. Key features of this procedure include the total exclusion of pyridine, which has potential…

  5. Urethral and periurethral dosimetry in prostate brachytherapy: is there a convenient surrogate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucci, Joseph; Spadinger, Ingrid; Hilts, Michelle; Sidhu, Sabeena; Smith, Clarke; Keyes, Mira; Morris, W. James

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To assess and compare two models for a surrogate urethra to be used for postimplant dosimetry in prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Twenty men with a urinary catheter present at the time of postimplant computed tomographic imaging were studied. Urethral and periurethral volumes were defined as 5-mm and 10-mm diameter volumes, respectively. Three contours of each were used: one contour of the true urethra (and periurethra), and two surrogate models. The true volumes were centered on the catheter center. One surrogate model used volumes centered on the geometrical center of each prostate contour (centered surrogate). The other surrogate model was based on the average deviation of the true urethra from a reference line through the geometrical center of the axial midplane of the prostate (deviated surrogate). Maximum point doses and the D 10 , D 25 , D 50 , D 90 , V 100 , V 120 , and V 150 of the true and surrogate volumes were measured and compared (D n is the minimum dose [Gy] received by n% of the structure, and V m is the volume [%] of the structure that received m% of the prescribed dose) as well as the distances between the surrogate urethras and the true urethra. Results: Doses determined from both surrogate urethral and periurethral volumes were in good agreement with the true urethral and periurethral doses except in the superior third of the gland. The deviated surrogate provided a physically superior likeness to the true urethra. Certain dose-volume histogram (DVH)-based parameters could also be predicted reasonably well on the basis of the surrogates. Correlation coefficients ≥0.85 were seen for D 25 , D 50 , V 100 , V 120 , and V 150 for both models. All the other parameters had correlation coefficients in the range of 0.73 - 0.85. Conclusions: Both surrogate models predicted true urethral dosimetry reasonably well. It is recommended that the simpler deviated surrogate would be a more suitable surrogate for routine clinical practice

  6. A rapid and convenient method for specific 11C-labelling of synthetic polypeptides containing methionine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laengstroem, B.; Sjoeberg, S.; Ragnarsson, U.

    1981-01-01

    11 C-labelling of methionine residues in a synthetic peptide via the preparation of the corresponding protected, pure homocysteine peptide has been investigated. Complete deprotection of the peptide and specific methylation of the homocysteine residue can be performed in one step in liquid ammonia. As a first application of this method the synthesis of the tripeptide, Z-Gly-L-Hcy(Bzl)-Gly-O-Bzl, and its conversion to Gly-Met-Gly and the corresponding labelled Gly-([ 11 C]-methyl)-Met-Gly, is reported. Starting with the protected peptide the labelling was performed in 20 +- 5 min (starting with 11 CO 2 ), yielding the labelled peptide in 92 +- 5 % radiochemical yield. Analyses and preparative LC can be performed within 6 min. (author)

  7. Better infrastructure: industry-academia partnerships--a marriage of convenience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Edward

    2009-01-01

    The successful design and completion of clinical trials often requires participation of both industry and academia. Although there may be differing priorities for academic and industry participants, both bring important insights and resources to the clinical trial effort. Although industry generally is primarily responsible for preclinical development and funding of the study and academia for patient recruitment and participation in the data safety monitoring board and clinical coordinating center, there are also a number of important areas, including protocol design, data analysis, and manuscript preparation where both academia and industry can supply important insights. Inherent tensions may exist in the academic-industry relationship, including important issues relating to conflict of interest for both academic and industry participants. Nevertheless, the academic-industry partnership, if appropriately organized, can perform in a synergistic fashion, allowing exploration of novel therapies, elucidation of important mechanisms, and greater understanding of critical illness through using combined approaches that generate insights unable to be provided by either partner alone.

  8. DMAP-BODIPY alkynes: a convenient tool for labeling biomolecules for bimodal PET-optical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizet, Bertrand; Goncalves, Victor; Bernhard, Claire; Harvey, Pierre D; Denat, Franck; Goze, Christine

    2014-09-26

    Several new boron dipyrromethene/N,N-dimethylaminopyridine (BODIPY-DMAP) assemblies were synthesized as precursors for bimodal imaging probes (optical imaging, OI/positron emission tomography, PET). The photophysical properties of the new compounds were also studied. The first proof-of-concept was obtained with the preparation of several new BODIPY-labeled bombesins and evaluation of the affinity for bombesin receptors by using a competition binding assay. Fluorination reactions were investigated on DMAP-BODIPY precursors as well as on DMAP-BODIPY-labeled bombesins. Chemical modifications on the BODIPY core were also performed to obtain luminescent dyes emitting in the therapeutic window (650-900 nm), suitable for in vivo imaging, making these compounds promising precursors for PET/optical dual-modality imaging agents. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. A Convenient Synthesis of Conjugated Acetylenic Ketones by Copper(l)-Catalyzed under Microwave Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG JinXian; WEI BangGuo; ZHAO LianBiao; HU YuLai; KANG LiQing

    2001-01-01

    @@ Alkynyl ketones are useful precursors and intermediates in synthetic organic chemistry1 and has evoked considerable interest. A number of methods for the synthesis of conjugated acetylenic ketones involve the reaction a metal acetylide with an acyl chlorides or another carboxylic acid derivative have been developed 2. Recently, the synthesis of α, β-conjugated acetylenic ketones catalyzed by Pd(Ⅱ) or by copper(Ⅰ)pd(Ⅱ) reaction of 1-alkynes and acyl chlorides have been described. The acylation of terminal alkynes by acyl chlorides in the presence of catalytic amounts copper(Ⅰ) salts leading to α, β-conjugated acetylenic ketones has also been reported. However, many of these reactions suffer from lack of high pressure (17 atm), long reaction time (30 h)and require low temperatures (-78℃). Our work involves the synthesis of conjugated acetylenic ketones via the reaction of terminal alkynes with aroyl chlorides in the presence of cuprous iodide under microwave irradiation conditions.

  10. A Convenient and Templated Method for the Fabrication of Monodisperse Micrometer Hollow Titania Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and widely applicable methodology was presented to synthesize monodisperse micrometer hollow titania spheres (HTS based on the templating method. It was performed by using the preformed poly(styrene-acrylic acid (PSA as template spheres which was mixed with tetrabutyltitanate (TBOT in an ethanol solvent under steam treatment. The HTS which were obtained by the calcination of PSA/TiO2 composite core-shell spheres had a narrow particle size distribution and commendable surface topography characterized by SEM. The calcined HTS at 500°C displayed crystalline reflection peaks that were characteristic to the anatase phase by XRD. Moreover, some key influencing factors including TBOT concentration and reaction time were analyzed. As expected, the diameter of HTS could be readily controlled by altering the size of PSA template spheres. In addition, the approach was also applied to fabricate hollow zirconia spheres and other inorganic spheres.

  11. Analysis of the Preferences for a New Convenient Seafood Product: Empirical Application for Spain and Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Dopico, Domingo Calvo; Olsen, Svein Ottar; Tudoran, Alina

    2007-01-01

    Fish and seafood products represent a very healthy food, low in saturated fats and offer an excellent source of protein essential for our health. However, very often, consumer behaviour would seem to infer that seafood products do not rank particularly highly in terms of preference, this being due to the perception of various physical and psychological costs, which represent barriers to consumption. Consequently, there is an opportunity to develop new tailor-made seafood products more adapted...

  12. A Convenient Cas9-based Conditional Knockout Strategy for Simultaneously Targeting Multiple Genes in Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiang; Du, Yinan; He, Xueyan; Huang, Xingxu; Shi, Yun S

    2017-03-31

    The most powerful way to probe protein function is to characterize the consequence of its deletion. Compared to conventional gene knockout (KO), conditional knockout (cKO) provides an advanced gene targeting strategy with which gene deletion can be performed in a spatially and temporally restricted manner. However, for most species that are amphiploid, the widely used Cre-flox conditional KO (cKO) system would need targeting loci in both alleles to be loxP flanked, which in practice, requires time and labor consuming breeding. This is considerably significant when one is dealing with multiple genes. CRISPR/Cas9 genome modulation system is advantaged in its capability in targeting multiple sites simultaneously. Here we propose a strategy that could achieve conditional KO of multiple genes in mouse with Cre recombinase dependent Cas9 expression. By transgenic construction of loxP-stop-loxP (LSL) controlled Cas9 (LSL-Cas9) together with sgRNAs targeting EGFP, we showed that the fluorescence molecule could be eliminated in a Cre-dependent manner. We further verified the efficacy of this novel strategy to target multiple sites by deleting c-Maf and MafB simultaneously in macrophages specifically. Compared to the traditional Cre-flox cKO strategy, this sgRNAs-LSL-Cas9 cKO system is simpler and faster, and would make conditional manipulation of multiple genes feasible.

  13. Honey: A Skin Graft Fixator Convenient for Both Patient and Surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoudi, Hemmat; Moradi, Sohrab

    2015-12-01

    Skin grafts can be used effectively to cover burn injuries. A critical element of this treatment is the adherence of the graft to the wound bed. Honey has been shown to increase the adherence of skin grafts to wound beds and have antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects and increase healing rate of wounds. We therefore devised a clinical trial to determine the effect of honey on skin graft fixation in burn injuries. Sixty patients were included in this study (in 30 patients, graft was fixed with medical honey, and in 30 patients, it was fixed with dressing or suturing). All patients in two groups were evaluated for infection, graft loss, graft contraction, severity of pain, and need for re-operation. The most common cause of burn was kerosene. Honey significantly decreased infection rate on fifth day and reduced the patient pain. The mean hospital stay was shorter in honey group. Contraction of graft was significantly less in honey group. Honey has strong adhesive properties for skin graft fixation. Medical honey is a natural material, not synthetic. For this reason, we can advise the application of medical honey for the fixation of split thickness skin graft.

  14. Radioiododestannylation. Convenient synthesis of a stable penicillin derivative for rapid penicillin binding protein (PBP) assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaszczak, L.C.; Halligan, N.G.; Seitz, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    Radioiodination of p-(trimethylstannyl)penicillin V with [ 125 I]Na using a modification of the chloramine-T method is simple, high yielding, and site-specific. The structure and penicillin binding protein (PBP) affinity of p-[ 125 I]-penicillin V (IPV) are similar to penicillin G and the product can be used directly without purification in the PBP assay. Because of the high degree of stability toward autoradiolysis and equivalent PBP binding affinity, IPV can be used in place of [ 3 H]-penicillin G or [ 14 C]-penicillin G for these experiments. (author)

  15. Hard scattering on light nuclei: a convenient way to study parton correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calucci, G.; Treleani, D.

    2011-01-01

    The one-body partonic distributions in the hadrons are well investigated using electromagnetic or weak interactions. If we wish to exploit the same procedure to study the two-body distributions we should study the very rare events with multiple electromagnetic or weak interactions on the same hadron.The alternative is to study events with hard QCD double scattering of partons of the same hadron, such events become more and more abundant when the energy of the colliding hadrons grows. In fact at very high energies even the parton at small fractional momentum χ may suffer collisions with momentum transfer large enough to allow a perturbative treatment

  16. A Convenient Synthesis of Conjugated Acetylenic Ketones by Copper(l)-Catalyzed under Microwave Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; JinXian

    2001-01-01

    Alkynyl ketones are useful precursors and intermediates in synthetic organic chemistry1 and has evoked considerable interest. A number of methods for the synthesis of conjugated acetylenic ketones involve the reaction a metal acetylide with an acyl chlorides or another carboxylic acid derivative have been developed 2. Recently, the synthesis of α, β-conjugated acetylenic ketones catalyzed by Pd(Ⅱ) or by copper(Ⅰ)pd(Ⅱ) reaction of 1-alkynes and acyl chlorides have been described. The acylation of terminal alkynes by acyl chlorides in the presence of catalytic amounts copper(Ⅰ) salts leading to α, β-conjugated acetylenic ketones has also been reported. However, many of these reactions suffer from lack of high pressure (17 atm), long reaction time (30 h)and require low temperatures (-78℃). Our work involves the synthesis of conjugated acetylenic ketones via the reaction of terminal alkynes with aroyl chlorides in the presence of cuprous iodide under microwave irradiation conditions.……

  17. Transport velocity transformation - A convenient method for performance analysis of multilayer solar cell structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M.

    1981-01-01

    It is noted that in the case of low-level injection, space-charge quasi-neutrality, and spatially constant material parameters (including an electrostatic field), the individual layer can be treated analytically and the basic solar cell performance parameters can be evaluated from three equations. The first equation represents the transformation of the transport velocity across the layer from the other layer boundary. The second establishes the light-generated current output from the layer interface, under the influence of the transport velocities and minority-carrier density at both layer boundaries and of bulk recombination. The third equation describes the flow of these carriers across other layers. The power of the approach is considered to lie in its facility for analysis of the solar cell's performance layer by layer, giving a clear picture of the individual layer's influence on cell efficiency.

  18. Mortality in Transition: Study Protocol of the PrivMort Project, a multilevel convenience cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Irdam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research using routine data identified rapid mass privatisation as an important driver of mortality crisis following the collapse of Communism in Central and Eastern Europe. However, existing studies on the mortality crisis relying on individual level or routine data cannot assess both distal (societal and proximal (individual causes of mortality simultaneously. The aim of the PrivMort Project is to overcome these limitations and to investigate the role of societal factors (particularly rapid mass privatisation and individual-level factors (e.g. alcohol consumption in the mortality changes in post-communist countries. Methods The PrivMort conducts large-sample surveys in Russia, Belarus and Hungary. The approach is unique in comparing towns that have undergone rapid privatisation of their key industrial enterprises with those that experienced more gradual forms of privatisation, employing a multi-level retrospective cohort design that combines data on the industrial characteristics of the towns, socio-economic descriptions of the communities, settlement-level data, individual socio-economic characteristics, and individuals’ health behaviour. It then incorporates data on mortality of different types of relatives of survey respondents, employing a retrospective demographic approach, which enables linkage of historical patterns of mortality to exposures, based on experiences of family members. By May 2016, 63,073 respondents provided information on themselves and 205,607 relatives, of whom 102,971 had died. The settlement-level dataset contains information on 539 settlements and 12,082 enterprises in these settlements in Russia, 96 settlements and 271 enterprises in Belarus, and 52 settlement and 148 enterprises in Hungary. Discussion In addition to reinforcing existing evidence linking smoking, hazardous drinking and unemployment to mortality, the PrivMort dataset will investigate the variation in transition

  19. Mortality in Transition: Study Protocol of the PrivMort Project, a multilevel convenience cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irdam, Darja; King, Lawrence; Gugushvili, Alexi; Azarova, Aytalina; Fazekas, Mihaly; Scheiring, Gabor; Stefler, Denes; Doniec, Katarzyna; Horvat, Pia; Kolesnikova, Irina; Popov, Vladimir; Szelenyi, Ivan; Marmot, Michael; Murphy, Michael; McKee, Martin; Bobak, Martin

    2016-07-30

    Previous research using routine data identified rapid mass privatisation as an important driver of mortality crisis following the collapse of Communism in Central and Eastern Europe. However, existing studies on the mortality crisis relying on individual level or routine data cannot assess both distal (societal) and proximal (individual) causes of mortality simultaneously. The aim of the PrivMort Project is to overcome these limitations and to investigate the role of societal factors (particularly rapid mass privatisation) and individual-level factors (e.g. alcohol consumption) in the mortality changes in post-communist countries. The PrivMort conducts large-sample surveys in Russia, Belarus and Hungary. The approach is unique in comparing towns that have undergone rapid privatisation of their key industrial enterprises with those that experienced more gradual forms of privatisation, employing a multi-level retrospective cohort design that combines data on the industrial characteristics of the towns, socio-economic descriptions of the communities, settlement-level data, individual socio-economic characteristics, and individuals' health behaviour. It then incorporates data on mortality of different types of relatives of survey respondents, employing a retrospective demographic approach, which enables linkage of historical patterns of mortality to exposures, based on experiences of family members. By May 2016, 63,073 respondents provided information on themselves and 205,607 relatives, of whom 102,971 had died. The settlement-level dataset contains information on 539 settlements and 12,082 enterprises in these settlements in Russia, 96 settlements and 271 enterprises in Belarus, and 52 settlement and 148 enterprises in Hungary. In addition to reinforcing existing evidence linking smoking, hazardous drinking and unemployment to mortality, the PrivMort dataset will investigate the variation in transition experiences for individual respondents and their families across

  20. Emergency ultrasound usage among recent emergency medicine residency graduates of a convenience sample of 14 residencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Anthony J; Breyer, Michael J; Ku, Bon S; Mills, Angela M; Pines, Jesse M

    2010-02-01

    Emergency Medicine (EM) residency graduates are trained to perform Emergency Medicine bedside ultrasound (EMBU). However, the degree to which they use this skill in their practice after graduation is unknown. We sought to test the amount and type of usage of EMBU among recent residency graduates, and how usage and barriers vary among various types of EM practice settings. Graduates from 14 EM residency programs in 2003-2005 were surveyed on their current practice setting and use of EMBU. There were 252 (73%) graduates who completed the survey. Of the 73% of respondents reporting access to EMBU, 98% had used it within the past 3 months. Access to EMBU was higher in academic (97%) vs. community teaching (79%) vs. community non-teaching settings (62%) (p < 0.001), and in Emergency Departments (EDs) where yearly census exceeded 60,000 visits (87% vs. 65%, p < 0.001). Physicians in academic settings reported "high use" of EMBU more frequently than those in community settings for most modalities. FAST (focused assessment by sonography in trauma) was the most common high-use application and the most useful in practice. The greatest impediment to EMBU use was "not enough time" (61%). Ultrasound usage among recent EM residency graduates is significantly higher in teaching than in community settings and in high-volume EDs. Its use is more widespread than in previous reports in all types of practice. There is a wide range of utilization of ultrasound in the various applications in emergency practice, with the evaluation of trauma being the most common. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. N-[3H]acetyl-labeling, a convenient method for radiolabeling of glycosaminoglycans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hook, M.; Riesenfeld, J.; Lindahl, U.

    1982-01-01

    A method for the introduction of N-[ 3 H]acetyl groups into glycosaminoglycans is described. The procedure is based on [ 3 H]acetylation of N-unsubstituted hexosamine residues by treating the polysaccharides with [ 3 H]acetic anhydride. Preparations of heparin and heparin sulfate were found to contain significant numbers of N-unsubstituted hexosamine residues, as isolates. In contrast, such units could not be detected in chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, or hyaluronic acid. These polysaccharides were therefore subjected to partial N-deacetylation by reaction with hydrazine in the presence of hydrazine sulfate. After treatment with [ 3 H]acetic anhydride, the specific activities of the resulting labeled polysaccharide preparations ranged between 0.1 X 10 6 and 0.6 X 10 6 cpm 3 H/μg of uronic acid. The 3 H-labeled polysaccharide preparations did not differ significantly from the corresponding unlabeled starting materials with regard to polyanion properties (chromatography on DEAE-cellulose) or polymer chain size (gel chromatography). Further, the radiolabeled polysaccharide derivatives were susceptible to specific enzymatic degradation (chondroitinase ABC and mammalian heparitinase) and retained their ability to interact specifically with certain proteins - for example, [ 3 H]heparin with antithrombin [ 3 H]hyaluronic acid oligosaccharides with chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. These findings indicate that the labeling procedures did not induce any major structural derangement of the polysaccharide molecules. The method developed should be useful in providing labeled glycosaminoglycans for metabolic and enzymatic experiments as well as for studies on the interacion between glycosaminoglycans and other bilogical macromolecules

  2. Representativeness of two sampling procedures for an internet intervention targeting cancer-related distress: a comparison of convenience and registry samples

    OpenAIRE

    Owen, Jason E.; Bantum, Erin O'Carroll; Criswell, Kevin; Bazzo, Julie; Gorlick, Amanda; Stanton, Annette L.

    2013-01-01

    Internet interventions often rely on convenience sampling, yet convenience samples may differ in important ways from systematic recruitment approaches. The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential demographic, medical, and psychosocial differences between Internet-recruited and registry-recruited cancer survivors in an Internet-based intervention. Participants were recruited from a cancer registry (n = 80) and via broad Internet outreach efforts (n = 160). Participants completed a set ...

  3. Measuring and valuing convenience and service quality: A review of global practices and challenges from mass transit operators and railway industries

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Richard; Condry, Benjamin; Findlay, Nicholas; Brage-Ardao, Ruben; Li, Haojie

    2013-01-01

    Origin-destination demand, trip patterns, pricing and transport networks alone cannot explain passenger demand for public transport modes. Other factors of convenience and service quality play a key role in influencing demand and mode choice but they are often more complex and harder to define, measure and value. This paper argues that the good measurement of public transport convenience and service quality is a pre-requisite to its valuation and ensuring more optimal policy and management ac...

  4. Geissoschizine methyl ether, a corynanthean-type indole alkaloid from Uncaria rhynchophylla as a potential acetylcholinesterase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhong-Duo; Duan, Dong-Zhu; Du, Juan; Yang, Ming-Jun; Li, Shuo; Yao, Xiao-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Geissoschizine methyl ether (1), a newly discovered strong acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, along with six weakly active alkaloids, vallesiachotamine (2), hisuteine (3), hirsutine (4), isorhynchophylline (5), cisocorynoxeine (6) and corynoxeine (7) have been isolated from Uncaria rhynchophylla. Geissoschizine methyl ether (1) inhibited 50% of AChE activity at concentrations of 3.7 ± 0.3 µg mL(-1) while the IC(50) value of physostigmine as a standard was 0.013 ± 0.002 µg mL(-1). The mode of AChE inhibition by 1 was reversible and non-competitive. In addition, molecular modelling was performed to explore the binding mode of inhibitor 1 at the active site of AChE.

  5. Assessing representativeness of sampling methods for reaching men who have sex with men: a direct comparison of results obtained from convenience and probability samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarcz, Sandra; Spindler, Hilary; Scheer, Susan; Valleroy, Linda; Lansky, Amy

    2007-07-01

    Convenience samples are used to determine HIV-related behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM) without measuring the extent to which the results are representative of the broader MSM population. We compared results from a cross-sectional survey of MSM recruited from gay bars between June and October 2001 to a random digit dial telephone survey conducted between June 2002 and January 2003. The men in the probability sample were older, better educated, and had higher incomes than men in the convenience sample, the convenience sample enrolled more employed men and men of color. Substance use around the time of sex was higher in the convenience sample but other sexual behaviors were similar. HIV testing was common among men in both samples. Periodic validation, through comparison of data collected by different sampling methods, may be useful when relying on survey data for program and policy development.

  6. Safety and convenience of once-weekly somapacitan in adult GH deficiency: a 26-week randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsson, Gudmundur; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Håkonsson, Ida Holme; Biering, Henrik; Rodien, Patrice; Tahara, Shigeyuki; Toogood, Andrew; Rasmussen, Michael Højby

    2018-05-01

    Somapacitan is a reversible albumin-binding growth hormone (GH) derivative, developed for once-weekly administration. This study aimed to evaluate the safety of once-weekly somapacitan vs once-daily Norditropin ® . Local tolerability and treatment satisfaction were also assessed. 26-week randomized, controlled phase 3 safety and tolerability trial in six countries (Nbib2382939). Male or female patients aged 18-79 years with adult GH deficiency (AGHD), treated with once-daily GH for ≥6 months, were randomized to once-weekly somapacitan ( n  = 61) or once-daily Norditropin ( n  = 31) administered subcutaneously by pen. Both treatments were dose titrated for 8 weeks to achieve insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) standard deviation score (SDS) levels within the normal range, and then administered at a fixed dose. Outcome measures were adverse events (AEs), including injection site reactions; occurrence of anti-somapacitan/anti-GH antibodies and change in treatment satisfaction, assessed using the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication-9 (TSQM-9). Mean IGF-I SDS remained between 0 and 2 SDS throughout the trial in both groups. AEs were mostly mild or moderate and transient in nature. The most common AEs were nasopharyngitis, headache and fatigue in both groups. More than 1500 somapacitan injections were administered and no clinically significant injection site reactions were reported. No anti-somapacitan or anti-GH antibodies were detected. The TSQM-9 score for convenience increased significantly more with somapacitan vs Norditropin ( P  = 0.0171). In this 26-week trial in patients with AGHD, somapacitan was well tolerated and no safety issues were identified. Once-weekly somapacitan was reported to be more convenient than once-daily Norditropin. © 2018 The authors.

  7. Numerical analysis of spray characteristics of dimethyl ether and diethyl ether fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Balaji; Yang, Wenming; Yu, Wenbin; Tay, Kun Lin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermo-physical properties of liquid DME and DEE are reported. • Ether fuels tend to cavitate higher compared to that of diesel fuel. • Spray tip penetration and SMD are found to be lesser for ether fuels. • Ether fuels shows excellent atomization behavior. - Abstract: In this work, the spray characteristics of ether fuels such as dimethyl ether (DME) and diethyl ether (DEE) have been numerically investigated using KIVA-4 CFD code. A new hybrid spray model developed by coupling the standard KHRT model to cavitation sub model was used. The detailed thermo-physical properties of ether fuels have been predicted and validated with experimental results available from literature. The cavitation inception inside the injector nozzle hole has been studied for ether fuels in comparison with diesel fuel. It was found that ether fuels cavitates higher compared to that of conventional diesel fuel because of its low viscosity. The spray tip penetration of diesel fuel was longer than that of ether fuels due to high viscosity and density of diesel fuel. Ether fuels characterized by low Ohnesorge number and high Reynolds number showed better atomization behavior compared to that of the diesel fuel.

  8. Analysis of blended fuel properties and cycle-to-cycle variation in a diesel engine with a diethyl ether additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Obed M.; Mamat, Rizalman; Masjuki, H.H.; Abdullah, Abdul Adam

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Viability of diethyl ether additive to improve palm biodiesel–diesel blend. • Numerical analysis of engine cyclic variation at different additive ratios. • Physicochemical properties of the blends improved with diethyl ether additive. • Blended fuel heating value is significantly affected. • Blended fuel with 4% diethyl ether shows comparable engine cyclic variation to diesel. - Abstract: In this study, the effect of adding small portions of a diethyl ether additive to biodiesel–diesel blended fuel (B30) was investigated. This study includes an evaluation of the fuel properties and a combustion analysis, specifically, an analysis of the cyclic variations in diesel engines. The amount of additive used with B30 is 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% (by volume). The experimental engine test was conducted at 2500 rpm which produce maximum torque, and the in-cylinder pressure data were collected over 200 consecutive engine cycles for each test. The indicated mean effective pressure time series is analyzed using the coefficient of variation and the wavelet analysis method. The test results for the properties show a slight improvement in density and acid value with a significant decrease in the viscosity, pour point and cloud point of the blended fuel with an 8% additive ratio by 26.5%, 4 °C and 3 °C, respectively, compared with blended fuel without additive. However, the heating value is reduced by approximately 4% with increasing the additive ratio to 8%. From the wavelet power spectrum, it is observed that the intermediate and long-term periodicities appear in diesel fuel, while the short-period oscillations become intermittently visible in pure blended fuel. The coefficient of variation for B30 was the lowest and increased as the additive ratios increased, which agrees with the wavelet analysis results. Furthermore, the spectral power increased with an increase in the additive ratio, indicating that the additive has a noticeable effect on increasing the

  9. Disclosure experience in a convenience sample of Quebec-born women living with HIV: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouleau, Geneviève; Côté, José; Cara, Chantal

    2012-10-18

    In Canada, there has been a considerable increase in the number of women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Within a stigmatized social context, disclosure of HIV positivity is still a prevailing concern among women. Little is known about the global understanding of how French-speaking, Quebec-born women living with HIV, live their serostatus disclosure experience. The aim of this qualitative study is to describe and understand the disclosure experience of these women. We conducted semi-structured interviews with seven women. A convenience sample of French-speaking, Quebec-born women was chosen because they all responded to the criteria of wishing to share their disclosure experience. The mean age of the participants was 46 years old (SD±12). They lived with HIV for an average of 10 years; time since diagnosis varied from 8 months to 23 years. Two out of four mothers had given birth to HIV positive children. Data analysis proposed by van Manen was performed to discover the essential themes of the experience. Seven themes were identified to understand the experience of disclosure in women: 1) Respecting for self and confidants; 2) Feeling apprehension; 3) Exercising control to ensure protection; 4) Deliberately engaging in a process of disclosure/non-disclosure; 5) Exposing oneself to stigma and social exclusion; 6) Suffering internally; and 7) Benefitting from the positive effects of one's decision. For these women, disclosing their HIV status meant: Living the ambivalence of a paradoxical process of revealing/concealing, in a state of profound suffering, exacerbated by stigma, while also being enriched by the benefits attained. Understanding the experience of disclosure in WLHIV is important to guide actions in the practice to support and accompany these women in their unique reality. Health professionals have to broaden their role and work on individual, interpersonal, inter-organizational and intersectoral levels. Mobilization of actors from

  10. Disclosure experience in a convenience sample of quebec-born women living with HIV: a phenomenological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In Canada, there has been a considerable increase in the number of women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Within a stigmatized social context, disclosure of HIV positivity is still a prevailing concern among women. Little is known about the global understanding of how French-speaking, Quebec-born women living with HIV, live their serostatus disclosure experience. The aim of this qualitative study is to describe and understand the disclosure experience of these women. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with seven women. A convenience sample of French-speaking, Quebec-born women was chosen because they all responded to the criteria of wishing to share their disclosure experience. The mean age of the participants was 46 years old (SD±12). They lived with HIV for an average of 10 years; time since diagnosis varied from 8 months to 23 years. Two out of four mothers had given birth to HIV positive children. Data analysis proposed by van Manen was performed to discover the essential themes of the experience. Results Seven themes were identified to understand the experience of disclosure in women: 1) Respecting for self and confidants; 2) Feeling apprehension; 3) Exercising control to ensure protection; 4) Deliberately engaging in a process of disclosure/non-disclosure; 5) Exposing oneself to stigma and social exclusion; 6) Suffering internally; and 7) Benefitting from the positive effects of one’s decision. For these women, disclosing their HIV status meant: Living the ambivalence of a paradoxical process of revealing/concealing, in a state of profound suffering, exacerbated by stigma, while also being enriched by the benefits attained. Conclusions Understanding the experience of disclosure in WLHIV is important to guide actions in the practice to support and accompany these women in their unique reality. Health professionals have to broaden their role and work on individual, interpersonal, inter-organizational and

  11. A novel route to synthesis of glycerol dimethyl ether from epichlorohydrin with high selectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Xiaoshu; Liu, Hao; Yang, Qiusheng; Li, Naihua; Dong, Xiangmo; Wang, Shufang; Zhao, Xinqiang; Wang, Yanji

    2014-01-01

    The effective utilization of glycerol, a by-product in the production of biodiesel, into useful chemicals is desirable from the viewpoint of green chemistry. With this in mind, a novel and highly selective route to synthesizing glycerol dimethyl ether (2,3-dimethoxy-1-propanol), a potential fuel additive, from glycerol was proposed. This route uses both glycerol and methanol as starting materials, takes epichlorohydrin as an intermediate product, and utilizes HCl as a recycling agent. Hereinto, the key step of this route is the reaction between epichlorohydrin and methanol to produce 2,3-dimethoxy-1-propanol which is identified by GC–MS, ESI-MS, IR and NMR. The thermodynamics of this reaction was analyzed and the result showed that the thermodynamics of a reaction was favorable and a high product yield was expected. The effect of various parameters such as kind of acid catalyst, molar ratio of epichlorohydrin to methanol, reaction temperature and reaction time was studied. Among various acid catalysts investigated, the acidic ionic liquid [HSO 3 -b-N(CH 3 ) 3 ]HSO 4 exhibited the highest activity and selectivity: conversion of epichlorohydrin of 100% and selectivity of 2,3-dimethoxy-1-propanol of 99% at 393 K, 10 h, an initial pressure of 0.1 MPa and a molar ratio of catalyst:ECH:CH 3 OH of 0.01:1:5. After the reaction, [HSO 3 -b-N(CH 3 ) 3 ]HSO 4 was separated by vacuum distillation and then reused for the next cycle directly. The results showed that the product selectivity remained at about 94% but the conversion of epichlorohydrin dropped to 75% after being used five times. Subsequently, a reaction mechanism for the synthesis of 2,3-dimethoxy-1-propanol from epichlorohydrin and methanol was proposed. - Highlights: • Epichlorohydrin was converted effectively into glycerol dimethyl ether used as potential fuel additive. • The selectivity of 99% and the conversion of 100% under the mild reaction condition. • The reaction was high product selectivity and

  12. A serosurvey of bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease in a convenience sample of sheep and cattle herds in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Stuart J G; Bolwell, Charlotte; Rogers, Chris W; Musuka, Godfrey; Kelly, Patrick; Guthrie, Alan; Mellor, Philip S; Hamblin, Chris

    2017-11-14

    A convenience sample of sheep and cattle herds around the cities of Harare, Kwekwe and Bulawayo, located in the Highveld region of Zimbabwe, was used to estimate the seroprevalence and sero-incidence of bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) antibodies. A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to identify serum antibodies against BTV and EHDV across three rainy seasons. The median sero-prevalence of BTV and EHDV antibodies in cattle was 62% (interquartile range [IQR]: 30-89) and 56% (IQR: 5-77), respectively. In sheep, the median sero-prevalence of BTV and EHDV was 41% (IQR: 19-63) and 0% (IQR: 0-21), respectively. Median sero-incidences of BTV and EHDV antibodies in cattle of 43% (IQR: 22-67) and 27% (IQR: 9-57) respectively were recorded. The median sero-incidence of BTV in sheep was 14% (IQR: 6-23). Based on these preliminary findings, animal health workers in Zimbabwe should continue to monitor the exposure rates of cattle and sheep to BTV and consider the possibility of strains emerging with increased pathogenicity. There are no previous published reports of antibodies against EHDV in Zimbabwe so the possibility of epizootic haemorrhagic disease existing in domestic livestock should now be considered by Zimbabwean animal health officials. Seroconversions to BTV and EHDV occurred predominantly at the end of each rainy season (March and April), which generally corresponds to high numbers of the Culicoides vectors. BTV isolations were made from three individual cows in two of the sentinel herds and all three were identified as serotype 3. This is the first time BTV serotype 3 has been recorded in Zimbabwe, although its presence in neighbouring South Africa is well documented.

  13. Performance Determinants for Convenience Store Suppliers

    OpenAIRE

    Zainah Abdullah; Aznur Hajar Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) usage, internal relationship, supplier-retailer relationship, logistics services and inventory management on convenience store suppliers- performance. Data was collected from 275 convenience store managers in Malaysia using a set of questionnaire. The multiple linear regression results indicate that inventory management, supplier-retailer relationship, logistics services and internal relation...

  14. Atmospheric Nitrogen Trifluoride: Optimized emission estimates using 2-D and 3-D Chemical Transport Models from 1973-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, D. J.; Rigby, M. L.; Prinn, R. G.; Muhle, J.; Weiss, R. F.

    2009-12-01

    We present optimized annual global emissions from 1973-2008 of nitrogen trifluoride (NF3), a powerful greenhouse gas which is not currently regulated by the Kyoto Protocol. In the past few decades, NF3 production has dramatically increased due to its usage in the semiconductor industry. Emissions were estimated through the 'pulse-method' discrete Kalman filter using both a simple, flexible 2-D 12-box model used in the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) network and the Model for Ozone and Related Tracers (MOZART v4.5), a full 3-D atmospheric chemistry model. No official audited reports of industrial NF3 emissions are available, and with limited information on production, a priori emissions were estimated using both a bottom-up and top-down approach with two different spatial patterns based on semiconductor perfluorocarbon (PFC) emissions from the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR v3.2) and Semiconductor Industry Association sales information. Both spatial patterns used in the models gave consistent results, showing the robustness of the estimated global emissions. Differences between estimates using the 2-D and 3-D models can be attributed to transport rates and resolution differences. Additionally, new NF3 industry production and market information is presented. Emission estimates from both the 2-D and 3-D models suggest that either the assumed industry release rate of NF3 or industry production information is still underestimated.

  15. Pyrene absorption can be a convenient method for probing critical micellar concentration (cmc) and indexing micellar polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu Ray, Gargi; Chakraborty, Indranil; Moulik, Satya P

    2006-02-01

    The critical micellar concentration (cmc) of both ionic and non-ionic surfactants can be conveniently determined from the measurements of UV absorption of pyrene in surfactant solution. The results on a number of surfactants have agreed with that realized from pyrene fluorescence measurements as well as that obtained following conductometric, tensiometric and calorimetric methods. The absorbance vs [surfactant] profiles for all the major UV spectral peaks of pyrene have been found to be sigmoidal in nature which were analyzed according to Sigmoidal-Boltzmann equation (SBE) to evaluate the cmcs of the studied surfactants. The difference between the initial and the final asymptotes (a(i) and a(f), respectively) of the sigmoidal profile, Delta a = (a(f)-a(i)) and the slope of the sigmoid, S(sig) have been observed to depend on the type of the surfactant. The Delta a has shown a linear correlation with the ratio of the fluorescence intensities of the first and the third vibronic peaks, I1/I3 of pyrene which is considered as a measure of the environmental polarity (herein micellar interior) of the probe (pyrene). Thus, Delta a values have the prospect for use as another index for the estimation of polarity of micellar interior.

  16. EtherBone - A Network Layer for the Wishbone SoC Bus

    CERN Document Server

    Kreider, M; Lewis, J; Włostowski, T; Serrano, J

    2011-01-01

    Today, there are several System on a Chip (SoC) bus systems. Typically, these buses are confined on-chip and rely on higher level components to communicate with the outside world. Taking these systems a step further, we see the possibility of extending the reach of the SoC bus to remote FPGAs or processors. This leads to the idea of the EtherBone (EB) core, which connects a Wishbone (WB) Ver. 4 Bus via a Gigabit Ethernet based network link to remote peripheral devices. EB acts as a transparent interconnect module towards attached WB Bus devices. Address information and data from one or more WB bus cycles is preceded with a descriptive header and encapsulated in a UDP/IP packet. Because of this standard compliance, EB is able to traverse Wide Area Networks and is therefore not bound to a geographic location. Due to the low level nature of the WB bus, EB provides a sound basis for remote hardware tools like a JTAG debugger, In-System-Programmer (ISP), boundary scan interface or logic analyser module. EB was de...

  17. Convenience foods. What, why, and when.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholliers, Peter

    2015-11-01

    An attempt is made to assess the academic interest in convenience foods in the past decades in order to introduce this special section on historical dimensions of convenience foods, prepared by FOST, a unit that investigates the history and culture of food (up to today). First, the rise of academic interest is trailed since the appearance of the concept in the 1920s and, next, themes in connection to this interest are considered (e.g., time, health, or gender). Then, definitions of convenience foods are tracked since the 1950s, which leads to suggesting a clear focus (linking convenience foods to home cooking of meals and industrially produced foods). The conclusion stresses the changing definition of the concept, as well as the need to gain historical insight in present-day issues related to convenience foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A convenient colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent probe for detection of cyanide based on BODIPY derivative in aqueous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A convenient colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent probe based on BODIPY derivative for cyanide detection has been synthesized, whose structural contains a dicyanovinyl group used as a sensing unit. Among the tested analytes, such as CN−, F−, Cl−, Br−, I−, ClO4−, AcO−, NO3−, H2PO4− HSO4−, S2− and N3−, only CN− could react with dicyanovinyl moiety by nucleophilic addition, which disrupted the π-conjugation of the probe and hindered the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT, leading a blue shift of absorption and fluorescence spectrum and a concomitant color change from yellow to light pink. The detection limit of this probe was calculated to be 0.98 μM, which is lower than the maximum concentration in drinking water (1.9 μM permitted by the World Health Organization (WHO. Moreover, the probe showed excellent selectivity and anti-interference ability towards CN− over other anions. The reaction mechanism was fully supported by 1H NMR and MS spectrum.

  19. Direct dimethyl ether (DME) synthesis through a thermally coupled heat exchanger reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakili, R.; Pourazadi, E.; Setoodeh, P.; Eslamloueyan, R.; Rahimpour, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    Compared to some of the alternative fuel candidates such as methane, methanol and Fischer-Tropsch fuels, dimethyl ether (DME) seems to be a superior candidate for high-quality diesel fuel in near future. The direct synthesis of DME from syngas would be more economical and beneficial in comparison with the indirect process via methanol synthesis. Multifunctional auto-thermal reactors are novel concepts in process intensification. A promising field of applications for these concepts could be the coupling of endothermic and exothermic reactions in heat exchanger reactors. Consequently, in this study, a double integrated reactor for DME synthesis (by direct synthesis from syngas) and hydrogen production (by the cyclohexane dehydrogenation) is modelled based on the heat exchanger reactors concept and a steady-state heterogeneous one-dimensional mathematical model is developed. The corresponding results are compared with the available data for a pipe-shell fixed bed reactor for direct DME synthesis which is operating at the same feed conditions. In this novel configuration, DME production increases about 600 Ton/year. Also, the effects of some operational parameters such as feed flow rates and the inlet temperatures of exothermic and endothermic sections on reactor behaviour are investigated. The performance of the reactor needs to be proven experimentally and tested over a range of parameters under practical operating conditions.

  20. Accumulation of long-chain bases in yeast promotes their conversion to a long-chain base vinyl ether

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Montañés, Fernando; Lone, Museer A.; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Schneiter3, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Long-chain bases (LCBs) are the precursors to ceramide and sphingolipids in eukaryotic cells. They are formed by the action of serine palmitoyl-CoA transferase (SPT), a complex of integral membrane proteins located in the endoplasmic reticulum. SPT activity is negatively regulated by Orm proteins to prevent the toxic overaccumulation of LCBs. Here we show that overaccumulation of LCBs in yeast results in their conversion to a hitherto undescribed LCB derivative, an LCB vinyl ether. The ...

  1. Efficacy of oral active ether lipid analogs of cidofovir in a lethal mousepox model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buller, R. Mark; Owens, Gelita; Schriewer, Jill; Melman, Lora; Beadle, James R.; Hostetler, Karl Y.

    2004-01-01

    Cidofovir (CDV) is a highly effective inhibitor of orthopoxvirus replication and may be used intravenously to treat smallpox or complications arising from the smallpox vaccine under an investigational new drug application (IND). However, CDV is absorbed poorly following oral administration and is inactive orally. To improve the bioavailability of CDV, others synthesized alkoxyalkanol esters of CDV and observed >100-fold more activity than unmodified CDV against cowpox, vaccinia, and variola virus (VARV) replication. These ether lipid analogs of CDV have high oral bioavailability in mice. In this study, we compared the oral activity of CDV with the hexadecyloxypropyl (HDP)-, octadecyloxyethyl-, oleyloxypropyl-, and oleyloxyethyl-esters of CDV in a lethal, aerosol ectromelia virus (ECTV) challenge model in A/NCR mice. Octadecyloxyethyl-CDV appeared to be the most potent CDV analog as a dose regimen of 5 mg/kg started 4 h following challenge completely blocked virus replication in spleen and liver, and protected 100% of A/NCR mice, although oral, unmodified CDV was inactive. These results suggest that this family of compounds deserves further evaluation as poxvirus antiviral

  2. Mechanical properties of orthodontic wires covered with a polyether ether ketone tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, Nobukazu; Iwata, Toshio; Miyake, Shinjiro; Otuka, Takero; Koizumi, So; Kawata, Toshitugu

    2018-03-21

    To evaluate the esthetics and frictional force of an orthodontic wire passed through a newly designed tube made of a polyether ether ketone (PEEK) resin. Two types of standard PEEK tubes were prepared at 0.5 × 0.6ф and 0.8 × 0.9ф, and different archwires were passed through the tubes. Color values were determined according to brightness and hues. Friction was assessed with different bracket-wire combinations, and surface roughness was determined by stereomicroscopy before and after the application of friction. The PEEK tube showed a color difference that was almost identical to that of coated wires conventionally used in clinical practice, indicating a sufficient esthetic property. The result of the friction test showed that the frictional force was greatly reduced by passing the archwire through the PEEK tube in almost all of the archwires tested. Use of the new PEEK tube demonstrated a good combination of esthetic and functional properties for use in orthodontic appliances.

  3. A Preliminary Study Of The Effect Of Some Pressurising Gasses On The Viscosity Of Dimethyl Ether

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Jakobsen, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    -micro glass viscometers, size 25, submerged completely in a constant temperature bath. A kinematic viscosity of 0,188 cSt  0,001 cSt @ 25 C, was found, consistent with the previous and initial result 0,186 cSt   0,002 cSt. Key words: Dimethyl Ether (DME), a clean substitute for diesel oil. DME viscosity......, of glass, has been used. No significant change of the efflux time was found for all the pressurising gasses, except for the gas CO2. A reduction of efflux times was found for the CO2 of about 9 %   0,6 %. The measurement accuracy for all these series was found for this very low viscosity fluid...... to be in the range 0,2 % up to more than 1 %. The previously reported viscosity of DME has been corrected for the surface tension effect. Viscosity determination was initially based on a direct comparison of efflux times of DME with efflux times of distilled water. Assuming an upper limit for the variation...

  4. Possible applications of crown-ethers to metal extraction using liquid membrane technology - a literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozol, M.

    1990-01-01

    Ether-crowns, discovered in 1967 by J.C. PEDERSEN, exhibit attractive complexive and extractive properties, enhanced in various fields, such as analytical chemistry, chemical synthesis, field of biology, or extractive chemistry. The investigations carried out on these macrocyclic compounds are continually increasing, as show in international literature. Among the focus of interest, the applications to metal extraction are extensively studied with crown compounds present in liquid phase or impregnated on supports (membranes or resins). The goal of this paper is to describe the application of crown-ethers to metal extraction, using liquid membrane processes. 69 refs

  5. Relevant Features of a Triethylene Glycol Dimethyl Ether-Based Electrolyte for Application in Lithium Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Lorenzo; Di Lecce, Daniele; Gobet, Mallory; Munoz, Stephen; Devany, Matthew; Greenbaum, Steve; Hassoun, Jusef

    2017-05-24

    Triethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TREGDME) dissolving lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF 3 SO 3 ) is studied as a suitable electrolyte medium for lithium battery. Thermal and rheological characteristics, transport properties of the dissolved species, and the electrochemical behavior in lithium cell represent the most relevant investigated properties of the new electrolyte. The self-diffusion coefficients, the lithium transference numbers, the ionic conductivity, and the ion association degree of the solution are determined by pulse field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The study sheds light on the determinant role of the lithium nitrate (LiNO 3 ) addition for allowing cell operation by improving the electrode/electrolyte interfaces and widening the voltage stability window. Accordingly, an electrochemical activation procedure of the Li/LiFePO 4 cell using the upgraded electrolyte leads to the formation of stable interfaces at the electrodes surface as clearly evidenced by cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy, and ex situ scanning electron microscopy. Therefore, the lithium battery employing the TREGDME-LiCF 3 SO 3 -LiNO 3 solution shows a stable galvanostatic cycling, a high efficiency, and a notable rate capability upon the electrochemical conditions adopted herein.

  6. Critical properties of some aliphatic symmetrical ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, Eugene D.; Popov, Alexander P.; Bogatishcheva, Nataliya S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Critical properties of simple aliphatic ethers were measured. • The ethers decompose at near-critical temperatures. • Pulse-heating method with short residence times was used. -- Abstract: The critical temperatures T c and the critical pressures p c of dihexyl, dioctyl, and didecyl ethers have been measured. According to the measurements, the coordinates of the critical points are T c = (665 ± 7) K, p c = (1.44 ± 0.04) MPa for dihexyl ether, T c = (723 ± 7) K, p c = (1.19 ± 0.04) MPa for dioctyl ether, and T c = (768 ± 8) K, p c = (1.03 ± 0.03) MPa for didecyl ether. All the ethers studied degrade chemically at near-critical temperatures. A pulse-heating method applicable to measuring the critical properties of thermally unstable compounds has been used. The times from the beginning of a heating pulse to the moment of reaching the critical temperature were from 0.06 to 0.46 ms. The short residence times provide little decomposition of the substances in the course of the experiments. The critical properties of the ethers investigated in this work have been discussed together with those of methyl to butyl ethers. The experimental critical constants of the ethers have been compared with those estimated by the group-contribution methods of Wilson and Jasperson and Marrero and Gani. The Wilson/Jasperson method provides a better estimation of the critical temperatures and pressures of simple aliphatic ethers in comparison with the Marrero/Gani method if reliable normal boiling temperatures are used in the method of Wilson and Jasperson

  7. The convenience food market in Great Britain: convenience food lifestyle (CFL) segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Marie; Cowan, Cathal; McCarthy, Mary

    2007-11-01

    Convenience foods enable the consumer to save time and effort in food activities, related to shopping, meal preparation and cooking, consumption and post-meal activities. The objective of this paper is to report on the attitudes and reported behaviour of food consumers in Great Britain based on a review of their convenience food lifestyle (CFLs). The paper also reports the development and application of a segmentation technique that can supply information on consumer attitudes towards convenience foods. The convenience food market in Great Britain is examined and the key drivers of growth in this market are highlighted. A survey was applied to a nationally representative sample of 1000 consumers (defined as the persons primarily responsible for food shopping and cooking in the household) in Great Britain in 2002. Segmentation analysis, based on the identification of 20 convenience lifestyle factors, identified four CFL segments of consumers: the 'food connoisseurs' (26%), the 'home meal preparers' (25%), the 'kitchen evaders' (16%) and the 'convenience-seeking grazers' (33%). In particular, the 'kitchen evaders' and the 'convenience-seeking grazers' are identified as convenience-seeking segments. Implications for food producers, in particular, convenience food manufacturers are discussed. The study provides an understanding of the lifestyles of food consumers in Great Britain, and provides food manufacturers with an insight into what motivates individuals to purchase convenience foods.

  8. Disclosure experience in a convenience sample of quebec-born women living with HIV: a phenomenological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouleau Geneviève

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, there has been a considerable increase in the number of women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Within a stigmatized social context, disclosure of HIV positivity is still a prevailing concern among women. Little is known about the global understanding of how French-speaking, Quebec-born women living with HIV, live their serostatus disclosure experience. The aim of this qualitative study is to describe and understand the disclosure experience of these women. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with seven women. A convenience sample of French-speaking, Quebec-born women was chosen because they all responded to the criteria of wishing to share their disclosure experience. The mean age of the participants was 46 years old (SD±12. They lived with HIV for an average of 10 years; time since diagnosis varied from 8 months to 23 years. Two out of four mothers had given birth to HIV positive children. Data analysis proposed by van Manen was performed to discover the essential themes of the experience. Results Seven themes were identified to understand the experience of disclosure in women: 1 Respecting for self and confidants; 2 Feeling apprehension; 3 Exercising control to ensure protection; 4 Deliberately engaging in a process of disclosure/non-disclosure; 5 Exposing oneself to stigma and social exclusion; 6 Suffering internally; and 7 Benefitting from the positive effects of one’s decision. For these women, disclosing their HIV status meant: Living the ambivalence of a paradoxical process of revealing/concealing, in a state of profound suffering, exacerbated by stigma, while also being enriched by the benefits attained. Conclusions Understanding the experience of disclosure in WLHIV is important to guide actions in the practice to support and accompany these women in their unique reality. Health professionals have to broaden their role and work on individual, interpersonal, inter

  9. Brominated diphenyl ether levels. A comparison of tributary sediments versus biosolid material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolic, T.M.; MacPherson, K.A.; Reiner, E.J. [Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Laboratory Services Branch, Toronto, ON (Canada); Ho, T.; Kleywegt, S. [Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Standards Development Branch, Toronto, ON (Canada); Dove, A.; Marvin, C. [Environment Canada, Burlington, ON (Canada)

    2004-09-15

    PBDEs are persistent in the environment, have low water solubility and are known to have a tendency to bioaccumulate in wildlife and humans. There are 209 possible PBDE congeners. There has been concern over the bioaccumulation of these compounds since they have been found in mother's milk. Some of the brominated diphenyl ethers are known to metabolize into hydroxylated compounds and these metabolites are known to compete with and reduce thyroxine (T4) from binding to the thyroxine binding protein, transthyretin. This disrupts the thyroid hormone system interaction that has recently been notable amongst women in the form of hypothyroidism that can affect the fetus development in the form of neurodevelopmental deficits. There have been reports of estrogenic activities regarding PBDEs and their hydroxylated counterparts. Information such as this is indicative that PBDEs are endocrine disruptors. Due to their lipophilic nature, PBDEs have a high binding affinity to particulates and accumulate in sediments. Various reports on sediments and sludge type matrices have been reported in Austria, Switzerland, Netherlands and Canada. The following paper is a presentation of levels of PBDEs found in Tributary sediments and their comparison of levels to nearby biosolid sampling locations along Lake Ontario.

  10. Biodegradation of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether by Co-Metabolism with a Pseudomonas sp. Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Co-metabolic bioremediation is supposed to be an impressive and promising approach in the elimination technology of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE, which was found to be a common pollutant worldwide in the ground or underground water in recent years. In this paper, bacterial strain DZ13 (which can co-metabolically degrade MTBE was isolated and named as Pseudomonas sp. DZ13 based on the result of 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Strain DZ13 could grow on n-alkanes (C5-C8, accompanied with the co-metabolic degradation of MTBE. Diverse n-alkanes with different carbon number showed a significant influence on the degradation rate of MTBE and accumulation of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA. When Pseudomonas sp. DZ13 co-metabolically degraded MTBE with n-pentane as the growth substrate, a higher MTBE-degrading rate (Vmax = 38.1 nmol/min/mgprotein, Ks = 6.8 mmol/L and lower TBA-accumulation was observed. In the continuous degradation experiment, the removal efficiency of MTBE by Pseudomonas sp. Strain DZ13 did not show an obvious decrease after five times of continuous addition.

  11. Peptide Macrocycles Featuring a Backbone Secondary Amine: A Convenient Strategy for the Synthesis of Lipidated Cyclic and Bicyclic Peptides on Solid Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddo, Alberto; Münzker, Lena; Hansen, Paul Robert

    2015-01-01

    A convenient strategy for the on-resin synthesis of macrocyclic peptides (3- to 13-mers) via intramolecular halide substitution by a diamino acid is described. The method is compatible with standard Fmoc/tBu SPPS and affords a tail-to-side-chain macrocyclic peptide featuring an endocyclic secondary...

  12. Building up a convenient accountability: How the ‘anti-corruption’ law in Brazil was put into force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Odilla Vasconcellos de Figueiredo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on how Brazil designed and put into force a legal instrument that makes companies strictly liable for domestic and international acts of corruption and highlights the role of external drivers during a 15-year process. It also introduces the concept of ‘convenient accountability’ which suggests that Brazil has adopted the slowest and cheaper methods in order to see to demands of those who want and do not want greater accountability in the case of the new clean company act (Law 12846/2013; also dubbed as ‘anti-corruption law’. Despite the apparent force of the civil society in this case of ‘pressure from below’, until now, no company has been punished under Law 12846/2013. An already over-whelmed anti-corruption agency was chosen to enforce the new legislation in the federal and international spheres against companies, some of them being traditional campaign financers and governmental contractors. Hence, it still remains uncertain whether Brazil will effectively enforce its anti-corruption law that, on paper, even exceeds international requirements.

  13. Effects of dimethyl ether on the performance characteristics of a direct methanol fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Sang Hern; Lee, Chang Sik

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Activation loss is significantly reduced in fuel cell with DME-methanol. • DME crossover through the membrane reduces. • The open circuit voltage of DME-methanol the fuel cell increases. • The overall efficiency of the mixed fuel cell is higher than that of DMFC. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dimethyl ether (DME) on the performance characteristics of a direct methanol fuel cell. Impedance and crossover experiments were performed in order to investigate the performance losses such as ohmic loss, activation loss and crossover loss accurately. The DME was pressurized to 5 bar to supply with liquid phase was and blended with an aqueous methanol solution. In this experiment, the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) was composed of Nafion 115, anode catalyst loaded Pt–Ru and cathode catalyst loaded Pt-Black. Experimental results showed that fuel cells with DME-methanol enhanced performance when compared to fuel cells with methanol only. Such performance enhancement was due to a decrease in activation losses by DME oxidation reactions. As the DME crossover through the membrane was reduced, the open circuit voltage (OCV) of the fuel cell increased. Other output characteristics are also discussed

  14. Mass balance of decabromodiphenyl ethane and decabromodiphenyl ether in a WWTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklund, Niklas; Kierkegaard, Amelie; McLachlan, Michael S; Wahlberg, Cajsa

    2009-01-01

    The additive flame retardant decabromodiphenyl ethane (deBDethane) has been identified in the environment, but little is known about its environmental behaviour. It is structurally similar to decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE), making it conceivable that it may also become an environmental contaminant of concern. In this study a mass balance of deBDethane and decaBDE was undertaken in a modern WWTP in Stockholm serving 7.05x10(5) inhabitants. Flow proportional samples of plant influent and effluent as well as daily grab samples of digested sludge were collected during two 7-day periods. All samples were analyzed with GC/HRMS using isotope labelled internal standards. The mean mass flows of deBDethane and decaBDE to the WWTP were 6.0 g per day and 55 g per day, respectively. Of this, less than 1% of both BFRs left the WWTP via the effluent, while the bulk was sequestered into the digested sludge, where the mean concentrations of deBDethane and decaBDE were 81 and 800 ng g(-1)d.wt., respectively. It is concluded that the transfer efficiency of deBDethane from the technosphere to the environment via WWTPs is similar to that of decaBDE.

  15. Bioavailability and mass balance studies of a commercial pentabromodiphenyl ether mixture in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huwe, Janice; Hakk, Heldur; Lorentzsen, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are common flame retardants used in polyurethane foam, high impact polystyrene, and textiles which appear to be increasing in the environment and biota. Two PBDE congeners that are particularly prominent in environmental samples are 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99). These two congeners are major components in penta-BDE formulations which constitute a minor percentage of the commercial PBDE market. In order to determine the bioavailability and bioconcentration potential of these PBDEs, we have conducted a feeding experiment in rats, dosing with low amounts of a commercial penta-BDE mixture for 21 days to mimic an environmental exposure. The carcasses, livers, and feces from control and dosed rats were quantitated for PBDEs by a high resolution GC-MS isotope dilution method. Between 25% and 50% of each of the dosed congeners was retained in the rats with the liver being a minor depot (commercial mixture. Conclusions from the study suggest that the tetra- to hexa-BDEs present in commercial penta-BDE formulations are largely bioavailable, that bioavailability in the rat is not dependent on the degree of bromination, and that metabolism may occur to a large extent during a chronic exposure.

  16. A rapid culture system uninfluenced by an inoculum effect increases reliability and convenience for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yong-Gyun; Kim, Hyejin; Lee, Sangyeop; Kim, Suyeoun; Jo, EunJi; Kim, Eun-Geun; Choi, Jungil; Kim, Hyun Jung; Yoo, Jungheon; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Haeun; Jung, Hyunju; Ryoo, Sungweon; Kwon, Sunghoon

    2018-06-05

    The Disc Agarose Channel (DAC) system utilizes microfluidics and imaging technologies and is fully automated and capable of tracking single cell growth to produce Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) drug susceptibility testing (DST) results within 3~7 days. In particular, this system can be easily used to perform DSTs without the fastidious preparation of the inoculum of MTB cells. Inoculum effect is one of the major problems that causes DST errors. The DAC system was not influenced by the inoculum effect and produced reliable DST results. In this system, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the first-line drugs were consistent regardless of inoculum sizes ranging from ~10 3 to ~10 8 CFU/mL. The consistent MIC results enabled us to determine the critical concentrations for 12 anti-tuberculosis drugs. Based on the determined critical concentrations, further DSTs were performed with 254 MTB clinical isolates without measuring an inoculum size. There were high agreement rates (96.3%) between the DAC system and the absolute concentration method using Löwenstein-Jensen medium. According to these results, the DAC system is the first DST system that is not affected by the inoculum effect. It can thus increase reliability and convenience for DST of MTB. We expect that this system will be a potential substitute for conventional DST systems.

  17. A convenient method of preparing gene vector for real time monitoring transfection process based on the quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hai-Li; Zhang, Ming-Zhen; Li, Xiang-Yong; Wan, Min; Li, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Rong-Ying; Zhao, Yuan-Di

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An easy and direct way to prepare QDs–DNA complexes was developed. ► Surface charge of QDs was tuned with different ratio of amino and glycolate. ► Transfection efficiency was dependent on the surface zeta potentials of QDs. ► Cellular toxicity of this gene vectors is much lower than commercial liposome. ► Whole intracellular behavior of QDs–DNA complexes can be monitored in real time. -- Abstract: Nanoparticle carrier has been developed by combining water-soluble quantum dots and plasmid DNA expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in a convenient and direct way. First the QDs with different surface charges were obtained by coating with amino and carboxyl terminals at different ratios. Then plasmid DNA was conjugated to QDs via electrostatic interaction. The resultant QDs–DNA complexes showed enhanced resistance to DNase I digestion. The following transfection experiments demonstrated that the transfection efficiency was dependent on the surface charges on QDs. The real time imaging of the transfection process showed that the nanoparticles experienced binding, penetrating the cell membrane and entering cytoplasm in the first 6 h of transfection. The green fluorescence of EGFP began to appear after 18 h transfection and plasmid DNA was fully expressed in the following 6 h. This new QDs–DNA platform showed great potential as new gene delivery carrier.

  18. A convenient method of preparing gene vector for real time monitoring transfection process based on the quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hai-Li; Zhang, Ming-Zhen; Li, Xiang-Yong [Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wuhan 430074 (China); Key Laboratory of Biomedical Photonics of Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wan, Min [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Photonics of Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wuhan 430074 (China); Li, Yong-Qiang [Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wuhan 430074 (China); Key Laboratory of Biomedical Photonics of Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhang, Rong-Ying [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Photonics of Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhao, Yuan-Di, E-mail: zydi@mail.hust.edu.cn [Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wuhan 430074 (China); Key Laboratory of Biomedical Photonics of Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► An easy and direct way to prepare QDs–DNA complexes was developed. ► Surface charge of QDs was tuned with different ratio of amino and glycolate. ► Transfection efficiency was dependent on the surface zeta potentials of QDs. ► Cellular toxicity of this gene vectors is much lower than commercial liposome. ► Whole intracellular behavior of QDs–DNA complexes can be monitored in real time. -- Abstract: Nanoparticle carrier has been developed by combining water-soluble quantum dots and plasmid DNA expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in a convenient and direct way. First the QDs with different surface charges were obtained by coating with amino and carboxyl terminals at different ratios. Then plasmid DNA was conjugated to QDs via electrostatic interaction. The resultant QDs–DNA complexes showed enhanced resistance to DNase I digestion. The following transfection experiments demonstrated that the transfection efficiency was dependent on the surface charges on QDs. The real time imaging of the transfection process showed that the nanoparticles experienced binding, penetrating the cell membrane and entering cytoplasm in the first 6 h of transfection. The green fluorescence of EGFP began to appear after 18 h transfection and plasmid DNA was fully expressed in the following 6 h. This new QDs–DNA platform showed great potential as new gene delivery carrier.

  19. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in atmosphere and soil of a production area in China: levels and partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun; Wang, Ying; Liu, Weizhi; Yang, Congqiao; Hu, Jicheng; Cui, Jian

    2011-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in atmosphere and soil samples taken in winter and summer at a PBDE production area of Laizhou Bay in China. The concentrations of Sigma11PBDE were 0.017-1.17 ng/m3 in gaseous phase, 0.5-161.1 ng/m3 in particulate phase, and 73-2629 ng/g dry weight in soil samples. The PBDE congener pattern in the gaseous phase differed from that in the particulate phase, and the PBDE congener pattern in the particulate phase was similar with that in soil. This demonstrated that there was little difference with atmospheric particle-soil transfer efficiency among PBDE congeners. In addition, there were seasonal variations in percentages on particle for lower brominated congeners. The BDE-28 was mostly in the gaseous phase in summer (88.3%), whereas the average proportion of BDE-28 in gaseous phase in winter was 38.9%. Higher brominated congeners (i.e., BDE-206, BDE-207, BDE-208, and BDE-209) were bound to the atmospheric particulate phase, and their potentials for long-range migration were mainly affected by the environmental behavior of atmospheric particles. Results indicated that PBDE congeners in summer were closer to gas-particle partition equilibrium than in winter. Temperature should be considered the main factor causing nonequilibrium in winter.

  20. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in atmosphere and soil of a production area in China: Levels and partitioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Jin; Ying Wang; Weizhi Liu; Congqiao Yang; Jicheng Hu; Jian Cui

    2011-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in atmosphere and soil samples taken in winter and summer at a PBDE production area of Laizhou Bay in China. The concentrations of ∑11 PBDE were 0.017-1.17 ng/m3 in gaseous phase, 0.5-161.1 ng/m3 in particulate phase, and 73-2629 ng/g dry weight in soil samples. The PBDE congener pattern in the gaseous phase differed from that in the particulate phase, and the PBDE congener pattern in the particulate phase was similar with that in soil. This demonstrated that there was little difference with atmospheric panicle-soil transfer efficiency among PBDE congeners. In addition, there were seasonal variations in percentages on particle for lower brominated congeners. The BDE-28 was mostly in the gaseous phase in summer (88.3%),whereas the average proportion of BDE-28 in gaseous phase in winter was 38.9%. Higher brominated congeners (i.e., BDE-206, BDE207, BDE-208, and BDE-209) were bound to the atmospheric particulate phase, and their potentials for long-range migration were mainly affected by the environmental behavior of atmospheric particles. Results indicated that PBDE congeners in summer were closer to gas-particle partition equilibrium than in winter. Temperature should be considered the main factor causing nonequilibrium in winter.

  1. Incidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in central air conditioner filter dust from a new office building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Hong-Gang; Cao, Shan-Ping; Chang, Wen-Jing; Zeng, Hui

    2011-07-01

    This study examined polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in central air conditioner filter (CACF) dust from a new office building in Shenzhen, China. Human exposure to PBDE via dust inhalation and ingestion were also estimated. PBDEs level in CACF dust was lower than those in the other countries and regions. Approximately 0.671 pg/kg bw/day PM(2.5) (Particulate Matter up to 2.5 μm in size) bounded Σ(15)PBDEs can be inhaled deep into the lungs and 4.123 pg/kg bw/day PM(10) (Particulate Matter up to 10 μm in size) bounded Σ(15)PBDEs tend to be deposited in the upper parts of the respiratory system. The average total intake of Σ(15)PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion for adults reached ∼ 141 pg/kg bw/day in this building. This value was far below the reference dose (RfD) recommended by United States Environmental Protection Agency. Human exposure to PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion in the new building is less than the old ones. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Environmental pollution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers from industrial plants in China: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chao; Chen, Yuan; Li, Jinhui; Li, Ying; Li, Huafen

    2016-04-01

    Although numerous studies have shown the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in various environmental media, attention to their distribution in the environmental media surrounding industrial facilities is limited. In this study, eight PBDEs congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183, -209) were investigated in surface soils and water samples collected from commercial PBDE manufacturers, flame-retardant plastic modification plants and waste electrical and electronic equipment recycling facilities in China. Analysis of target compounds was performed using the model NCI GC-MS in SIM mode. The concentrations of ∑8PBDEs varied from 193.1 to 22,004.3 ng/L in water samples and from 1209.3 to 226,906 ng/g dry wt in surface soils, respectively. More severe PBDE contamination, when compared with previously reported data, was found in industrial areas in this study. This indicates that these industrial areas are highly polluted with PBDEs. BDE-209 was the predominant congener, accounting for more than 94% in this study, except for a 68.75% portion at one site. Our results show that PBDE manufacturing and flame-retardant plastic modification plants, easily overlooked by the public, are two primary PBDE pollution sources although they affect surrounding areas. Further research is needed, aimed at managing industrial PBDE emissions and eliminating environmental PBDE pollution, to investigate the material flows and environmental fates of PBDEs in all stages of the life cycle.

  3. Ethers on Si(001): A Prime Example for the Common Ground between Surface Science and Molecular Organic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecher, Lisa; Laref, Slimane; Raupach, Marc; Tonner, Ralf

    2017-11-20

    By using computational chemistry it has been shown that the adsorption of ether molecules on Si(001) under ultrahigh vacuum conditions can be understood with classical concepts of organic chemistry. Detailed analysis of the two-step reaction mechanism-1) formation of a dative bond between the ether oxygen atom and a Lewis acidic surface atom and 2) nucleophilic attack of a nearby Lewis basic surface atom-shows that it mirrors acid-catalyzed ether cleavage in solution. The O-Si dative bond is the strongest of its kind, and the reactivity in step 2 defies the Bell-Evans-Polanyi principle. Electron rearrangement during C-O bond cleavage has been visualized with a newly developed method for analyzing bonding, which shows that the mechanism of nucleophilic substitutions on semiconductor surfaces is identical to molecular S N 2 reactions. Our findings illustrate how surface science and molecular chemistry can mutually benefit from each other and unexpected insight can be gained. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Induction of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities in mussels exposed to bisphenol A, diallyl phthalate and tetrabromodiphenyl ether-47

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsiene, Janina; Syvokiene, Janina; Bjornstad, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of micronuclei, nuclear buds, bi-polynucleated and fragmented-apoptotic cells was performed in gills of blue mussels exposed for 3 weeks to sublethal concentrations of bisphenol A, diallyl phthalate (for the both nominal concentration 50 ppb) and to tetrabromodiphenyl ether-47 (nominal concentration 5 ppb). Fourteen specimens from each treatment and control group were used for the analysis. Our results demonstrated a significant increase in micronuclei frequency after the treatment with bisphenol A (P = 0.0243), diallyl phthalate (P = 0.0005) and tetrabromodiphenyl ether-47 (P < 0.0001; Mann-Whitney U-test). Induction of bi-nucleated (P = 0.0028), fragmented-apoptotic (P = 0.0004) cells and nuclear buds (P = 0.0101) was found in mussels exposed to tetrabromodiphenyl ether-47 while treatment with diallyl phthalate increased the level of fragmented-apoptotic cells (P = 0.0283). Bisphenol A was the only agent that resulted only in induction of micronuclei but not any other kind of nuclear injuries

  5. Unitary information ether and its possible applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horodecki, R.

    1991-01-01

    The idea of information ether as the unitary information field is developed. It rests on the assumption that the notion of information is a fundamental category in the description of reality and that it can be defined independently from the notion of probability itself. It is shown that the information ether provides a deterministic background for the nonlinear wave hypothesis and quantum cybernetics. (orig.)

  6. Thermal and Optical Properties of New Poly(amide-imide)/Nanocomposite Reinforced by Layer Silicate Containing Diphenyl Ether Moieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Khalil; Faramarzi, Ellahe; Shabanian, Meisam

    2011-04-01

    New poly(amide-imide)-montmorillonite reinforced nanocomposites containing Bis(4-N-trimellitylimido) diphenyl ether moiety in the main chain were synthesized by a convenient solution intercalation technique. Poly(amide-imide) (PAI) 4 was synthesized by the direct polycondensation reaction of Bis(4-N-trimellitylimido) diphenyl ether 3 with 4,4'-diamino diphenyl ether 2 in the presence of triphenyl phosphite (TPP), CaCl2, pyridine and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). Morphology and structure of the resulting PAI-nanocomposite films 4a and 4b with 10 and 20 mass% silicate particles respectively, were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The properties of nanocomposites films were investigated by using Uv-vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and water uptake measurements.

  7. A National Probabilistic Study of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Fish from US Lakes and Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    National estimates were developed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish from lakes and reservoirs of the conterminous United States (excluding the Laurentian Great Lakes and Great Salt Lake) using an unequal probability design. Predator (fillet) and bottom-dweller (w...

  8. In vitro estrogenicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, hydroxylated PBDEs, and polybrominated bisphenol A compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerts, I.A.T.M.; Letcher, R.J.; Hoving, S.; Marsh, G.; Bergman, A.; Lemmen, J.G.; Burg, van der B.; Brouwer, A.

    2001-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used in large quantities as additive flame retardants in plastics and textile materials. PBDEs are persistent compounds and have been detected in wildlife and in human adipose tissue and plasma samples. In this study, we investigated the (anti)estrogenic

  9. KMWin--a convenient tool for graphical presentation of results from Kaplan-Meier survival time analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Arnd; Ziepert, Marita; Scholz, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of clinical studies often necessitates multiple graphical representations of the results. Many professional software packages are available for this purpose. Most packages are either only commercially available or hard to use especially if one aims to generate or customize a huge number of similar graphical outputs. We developed a new, freely available software tool called KMWin (Kaplan-Meier for Windows) facilitating Kaplan-Meier survival time analysis. KMWin is based on the statistical software environment R and provides an easy to use graphical interface. Survival time data can be supplied as SPSS (sav), SAS export (xpt) or text file (dat), which is also a common export format of other applications such as Excel. Figures can directly be exported in any graphical file format supported by R. On the basis of a working example, we demonstrate how to use KMWin and present its main functions. We show how to control the interface, customize the graphical output, and analyse survival time data. A number of comparisons are performed between KMWin and SPSS regarding graphical output, statistical output, data management and development. Although the general functionality of SPSS is larger, KMWin comprises a number of features useful for survival time analysis in clinical trials and other applications. These are for example number of cases and number of cases under risk within the figure or provision of a queue system for repetitive analyses of updated data sets. Moreover, major adjustments of graphical settings can be performed easily on a single window. We conclude that our tool is well suited and convenient for repetitive analyses of survival time data. It can be used by non-statisticians and provides often used functions as well as functions which are not supplied by standard software packages. The software is routinely applied in several clinical study groups.

  10. KMWin – A Convenient Tool for Graphical Presentation of Results from Kaplan-Meier Survival Time Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Arnd; Ziepert, Marita; Scholz, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Background Analysis of clinical studies often necessitates multiple graphical representations of the results. Many professional software packages are available for this purpose. Most packages are either only commercially available or hard to use especially if one aims to generate or customize a huge number of similar graphical outputs. We developed a new, freely available software tool called KMWin (Kaplan-Meier for Windows) facilitating Kaplan-Meier survival time analysis. KMWin is based on the statistical software environment R and provides an easy to use graphical interface. Survival time data can be supplied as SPSS (sav), SAS export (xpt) or text file (dat), which is also a common export format of other applications such as Excel. Figures can directly be exported in any graphical file format supported by R. Results On the basis of a working example, we demonstrate how to use KMWin and present its main functions. We show how to control the interface, customize the graphical output, and analyse survival time data. A number of comparisons are performed between KMWin and SPSS regarding graphical output, statistical output, data management and development. Although the general functionality of SPSS is larger, KMWin comprises a number of features useful for survival time analysis in clinical trials and other applications. These are for example number of cases and number of cases under risk within the figure or provision of a queue system for repetitive analyses of updated data sets. Moreover, major adjustments of graphical settings can be performed easily on a single window. Conclusions We conclude that our tool is well suited and convenient for repetitive analyses of survival time data. It can be used by non-statisticians and provides often used functions as well as functions which are not supplied by standard software packages. The software is routinely applied in several clinical study groups. PMID:22723912

  11. KMWin--a convenient tool for graphical presentation of results from Kaplan-Meier survival time analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnd Gross

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Analysis of clinical studies often necessitates multiple graphical representations of the results. Many professional software packages are available for this purpose. Most packages are either only commercially available or hard to use especially if one aims to generate or customize a huge number of similar graphical outputs. We developed a new, freely available software tool called KMWin (Kaplan-Meier for Windows facilitating Kaplan-Meier survival time analysis. KMWin is based on the statistical software environment R and provides an easy to use graphical interface. Survival time data can be supplied as SPSS (sav, SAS export (xpt or text file (dat, which is also a common export format of other applications such as Excel. Figures can directly be exported in any graphical file format supported by R. RESULTS: On the basis of a working example, we demonstrate how to use KMWin and present its main functions. We show how to control the interface, customize the graphical output, and analyse survival time data. A number of comparisons are performed between KMWin and SPSS regarding graphical output, statistical output, data management and development. Although the general functionality of SPSS is larger, KMWin comprises a number of features useful for survival time analysis in clinical trials and other applications. These are for example number of cases and number of cases under risk within the figure or provision of a queue system for repetitive analyses of updated data sets. Moreover, major adjustments of graphical settings can be performed easily on a single window. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that our tool is well suited and convenient for repetitive analyses of survival time data. It can be used by non-statisticians and provides often used functions as well as functions which are not supplied by standard software packages. The software is routinely applied in several clinical study groups.

  12. A convenient method for the quantitative determination of elemental sulfur in coal by HPLC analysis of perchloroethylene extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, D.H.; Coombs, K.J.; Murphy, P.M.; Chaven, C.

    1993-01-01

    A convenient method for the quantitative determination of elemental sulfur in coal is described. Elemental sulfur is extracted from the coal with hot perchloroethylene (PCE) (tetrachloroethene, C2Cl4) and quantitatively determined by HPLC analysis on a C18 reverse-phase column using UV detection. Calibration solutions were prepared from sublimed sulfur. Results of quantitative HPLC analyses agreed with those of a chemical/spectroscopic analysis. The HPLC method was found to be linear over the concentration range of 6 ?? 10-4 to 2 ?? 10-2 g/L. The lower detection limit was 4 ?? 10-4 g/L, which for a coal sample of 20 g is equivalent to 0.0006% by weight of coal. Since elemental sulfur is known to react slowly with hydrocarbons at the temperature of boiling PCE, standard solutions of sulfur in PCE were heated with coals from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample program. Pseudo-first-order uptake of sulfur by the coals was observed over several weeks of heating. For the Illinois No. 6 premium coal, the rate constant for sulfur uptake was 9.7 ?? 10-7 s-1, too small for retrograde reactions between solubilized sulfur and coal to cause a significant loss in elemental sulfur isolated during the analytical extraction. No elemental sulfur was produced when the following pure compounds were heated to reflux in PCE for up to 1 week: benzyl sulfide, octyl sulfide, thiane, thiophene, benzothiophene, dibenzothiophene, sulfuric acid, or ferrous sulfate. A sluury of mineral pyrite in PCE contained elemental sulfur which increased in concentration with heating time. ?? 1993 American Chemical Society.

  13. History of abuse and organic difficulties in a convenience sample of 46 ultra-orthodox males with pedophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witztum, Eliezer; Daie, Netzer; Daie-Gabai, Ayala; Rosler, Ariel

    2012-01-01

    Evidence has started to accumulate that relates pedophilia to a history of being a victim of sexual abuse as well as to comorbidity with organic vulnerabilities. During a naturalistic study regarding treatment of pedophilia, the authors had access to clinical and psychodiagnostic evaluations of Israeli Jewish ultraorthodox male pedophiles outside the forensic system. Using psychiatric examination as well as a battery of psychological tests, presence of history of trauma as well as comorbidity with organic vulnerabilities among this unique sub-group was examined. This survey was part of a larger scale research on the effectiveness of Decapeptyl injections as treatment for pedophilia. All participants in the original research underwent comprehensive psychological assessment including an extensive clinical interview as well as psychological tests (Bender, Rorschach and TAT). Of the patients participating in the research, this survey focused on the group of 46 ultra-orthodox male pedophiles. Cross-tabs analyses were conducted in order to examine prevalence of history of trauma and organic vulnerabilities in this specific group. Based on self reports combined with corroborating reports (obtained from parents, educators and medical staff), together with indications in psychological tests, we found that 82.6% of participants were victims of sexual trauma as children and 87% suffer from some kind of organic vulnerability (learning disabilities, disinhibitions, etc.). LIMITATIONS of this small convenience sample that influence ability to generalize are discussed. The current survey indicates that in this sample, the ultra-orthodox male pedophile was frequently a victim of childhood sexual trauma, and exhibited indications of organic vulnerabilities. This is more pronounced than findings in previous studies, and calls for further research in order to understand the underlying causes.

  14. Life-cycle nitrogen trifluoride emissions from photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fthenakis, Vasilis; Clark, Daniel O; Moalem, Mehran; Chandler, Phil; Ridgeway, Robert G; Hulbert, Forrest E; Cooper, David B; Maroulis, Peter J

    2010-11-15

    Amorphous- and nanocrystalline-silicon thin-film photovoltaic modules are made in high-throughput manufacturing lines that necessitate quickly cleaning the reactor. Using NF₃, a potent greenhouse gas, as the cleaning agent triggered concerns as recent reports reveal that the atmospheric concentrations of this gas have increased significantly. We quantified the life-cycle emissions of NF₃ in photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing, on the basis of actual measurements at the facilities of a major producer of NF₃ and of a manufacturer of PV end-use equipment. From these, we defined the best practices and technologies that are the most likely to keep worldwide atmospheric concentrations of NF₃ at very low radiative forcing levels. For the average U.S. insolation and electricity-grid conditions, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from manufacturing and using NF₃ in current PV a-Si and tandem a-Si/nc-Si facilities add 2 and 7 g CO₂(eq)/kWh, which can be displaced within the first 1-4 months of the PV system life.

  15. Corrosion of copper by chlorine trifluoride; Corrosion du cuivre par le trifluorure de chlore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    The research described called for a considerable amount of preliminary development of the test methods and equipment in order that the various measurements and observations could be carried out without contaminating either the samples or this highly reactive gas. The chlorine trifluoride was highly purified before use, its purity being checked by gas-phase chromatography, micro-sublimation and infrared spectrography. The tests were carried out on copper samples of various purities, in particular a 99.999 per cent copper in the form of mono-crystals. They involved kinetic measurements and the characterization of corrosion products under different temperature and pressure conditions. The kinetics showed reactions of the same order of magnitude as those obtained with elementary fluorine. At atmospheric pressure there occurs formation of cupric fluoride and cuprous chloride. The presence of this latter product shows that it is not possible to consider ClF{sub 3} simply as a fluorinating agent. At low pressures an unknown product has been characterized. There are strong grounds for believing that it is the unstable cuprous fluoride which it has not yet been possible to isolate. A germination phenomenon has been shown to exist indicating an analogy between the initial phases of fluorination and those of oxidation. Important effects resulting from the dissociation of the copper fluorides and the solubility of chlorine in this metal have been demonstrated. Finally, tests have shown the considerable influence of the purity of the gas phase and of the nature of the reaction vessel walls on the rates of corrosion which can in certain cases be increased by a factor of several powers of ten. (author) [French] Le travail a comporte une importante mise au point des appareillages et methodes d'essai, en vue de pouvoir effectuer differentes mesures et observations sans contaminer les echantillons, ni polluer ce gaz hautement reactif. Une purification poussee du trifluorure de

  16. Construction and use of small chambers for boron trifluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caillat, R.; Lallemant, C.; Valladas, G.

    1949-01-01

    The fabrication of the chambers (the materials used, the fabrication of the parts and their assembly), and their final testing are described in a first part. Then, the preparation of crude boron fluoride, the storing of the crude, the purification of BF 3 by sublimation and condensation, the pumping, drying and filling up of the chambers, their finishing and sealing are described in a second part. The last part describes the use of the chambers for the counting of slow neutrons: amplification system, pulses discrimination and neutrons counting, accuracy. The characteristics of the amplification circuit used with the chamber are described in the appendix. (J.S.)

  17. Grab a Cup, Fill It Up! An Intervention to Promote the Convenience of Drinking Water and Increase Student Water Consumption During School Lunch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Erica L; Gortmaker, Steven L; Carter, Jill E; Howe, M Caitlin W; Reiner, Jennifer F; Cradock, Angie L

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated a low-cost strategy for schools to improve the convenience and appeal of drinking water. We conducted a group-randomized, controlled trial in 10 Boston, Massachusetts, schools in April through June 2013 to test a cafeteria-based intervention. Signage promoting water and disposable cups were installed near water sources. Mixed linear regression models adjusting for clustering evaluated the intervention impact on average student water consumption over 359 lunch periods. The percentage of students in intervention schools observed drinking water during lunch nearly doubled from baseline to follow-up compared with controls (+ 9.4%; P convenience by providing cups can increase student water consumption.

  18. Exposure to di-2-ethylhexyl terephthalate in a convenience sample of U.S. adults from 2000 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Manori J; Wong, Lee-Yang; Samandar, Ella; Preau, James L; Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun

    2017-10-01

    Di-2-ethylhexyl terephthalate (DEHTP), a structural isomer of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), is a plasticizer used in a variety of commercial applications, but data on Americans' exposure to DEHTP do not exist. We investigated the exposure to DEHTP in a convenience group of U.S. adults by analyzing urine collected anonymously in 2000 (N = 44), 2009 (N = 61), 2011 (N = 81), 2013 (N = 92), and 2016 (N = 149) for two major DEHTP oxidative metabolites: mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl terephthalate (MECPTP) and mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl terephthalate (MEHHTP). For comparison, we also quantified the analogous DEHP metabolites mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (MEHHP) and mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (MECPP). We detected MECPTP, MEHHP, and MECPP in all samples collected in 2016 with geometric means of 13.1, 4.1, and 6.7 ng/mL, respectively; we detected MEHHTP in 91% of the samples (geometric mean = 3.1 ng/mL). Concentrations of MECPTP correlated well with those of MEHHTP (R 2  = 0.8, p  0.05) suggesting different sources of exposure to DEHP and DEHTP. We also evaluated the fraction of the metabolites eliminated in their free (i.e., unconjugated) form. The median percent of unconjugated species was lower for the DEHP metabolites (MECPP [45.5%], MEHHP [1.9%]) compared to the DEHTP metabolites (MECPTP [98.8%], MEHHTP [21.2%]). Contrary to the downward trend from 2000 to 2016 in urinary concentrations of MEHHP and MECPP, we observed an upward trend for MEHHTP and MECPTP. These preliminary data suggest that exposure to DEHTP may be on the rise. Nevertheless, general population exposure data using MEHHTP and MECPTP as exposure biomarkers would increase our understanding of exposure to DEHTP, one of the known DEHP alternatives.

  19. The mechanical properties of stored red blood cells measured by a convenient microfluidic approach combining with mathematic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; You, Guoxing; Chen, Peipei; Li, Jianjun; Chen, Gan; Wang, Bo; Li, Penglong; Han, Dong; Zhou, Hong; Zhao, Lian

    2016-03-01

    The mechanical properties of red blood cells (RBCs) are critical to the rheological and hemodynamic behavior of blood. Although measurements of the mechanical properties of RBCs have been studied for many years, the existing methods, such as ektacytometry, micropipette aspiration, and microfluidic approaches, still have limitations. Mechanical changes to RBCs during storage play an important role in transfusions, and so need to be evaluated pre-transfusion, which demands a convenient and rapid detection method. We present a microfluidic approach that focuses on the mechanical properties of single cell under physiological shear flow and does not require any high-end equipment, like a high-speed camera. Using this method, the images of stretched RBCs under physical shear can be obtained. The subsequent analysis, combined with mathematic models, gives the deformability distribution, the morphology distribution, the normalized curvature, and the Young's modulus (E) of the stored RBCs. The deformability index and the morphology distribution show that the deformability of RBCs decreases significantly with storage time. The normalized curvature, which is defined as the curvature of the cell tail during stretching in flow, suggests that the surface charge of the stored RBCs decreases significantly. According to the mathematic model, which derives from the relation between shear stress and the adherent cells' extension ratio, the Young's moduli of the stored RBCs are also calculated and show significant increase with storage. Therefore, the present method is capable of representing the mechanical properties and can distinguish the mechanical changes of the RBCs during storage. The advantages of this method are the small sample needed, high-throughput, and easy-use, which make it promising for the quality monitoring of RBCs.

  20. Comparison of femoroacetabular impingement-related radiographic features in a convenience sample of Japanese patients with and without herniation pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineta, Kazuaki; Goto, Tomohiro; Wada, Keizo; Tamaki, Yasuaki; Hamada, Daisuke; Higashino, Kosaku; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    To examine the prevalence of herniation pits (HPs) and to evaluate differences in radiographic features related to femoroacetabular impingement - a hip disorder with abnormal abutment between the acetabulum and femur - between hips with and without HPs in a convenience sample of Japanese patients. We reviewed 1,178 hips on each side (695 men, 483 women; mean age, 58.2 years) using computed tomographic images. The radiological assessments of hip morphology were performed by measuring the lateral center edge angle, acetabular index, acetabular version, alpha angle, and femoral head-neck offset. HPs were defined as the round or oval cystic lesions surrounded by sclerotic bone located below the anterior femoral neck cortex. Intraclass and interclass reproducibility of all radiographic measurements was acceptable (ICC: 0.71-0.98). The prevalence of HPs was 13.9 % in all subjects and was significantly higher in men (18.1 %) than in women (7.8 %; p < 0.001). HPs were larger in male (p < 0.001) and elderly subjects (p < 0.005). In subjects with HPs, the alpha angle was larger and femoral head-neck offset and offset ratio were smaller in the cohort overall and in men. Logistic regression analysis revealed the association between radiological cam-type FAI and HPs in all subjects (odds ratio: 1.86, p < 0.001). We revealed the prevalence of HPs and showed it has a predilection for men in this Japanese cohort. Femoral head asphericity or small head-neck offset was more common in subjects with HPs than those without HPs. (orig.)

  1. Effect of Polyether Ether Ketone on Therapeutic Radiation to the Spine: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J Benjamin; Crimaldi, Anthony J; Peindl, Richard; Norton, H James; Anderson, William E; Patt, Joshua C

    2017-01-01

    Cadaveric model. To compare the effect of PEEK versus conventional implants on scatter radiation to a simulated tumor bed in the spine SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Given the highly vasculature nature of the spine, it is the most common place for bony metastases. After surgical treatment of a spinal metastasis, adjuvant radiation therapy is typically administered. Radiation dosing is primarily limited by toxicity to the spinal cord. The scatter effect caused by metallic implants decreases the accuracy of dosing and can unintentionally increase the effective dose seen by the spinal cord. This represents a dose-limiting factor for therapeutic radiation postoperatively. A cadaveric thorax specimen was utilized as a metastatic tumor model with two separate three-level spine constructs (one upper thoracic and one lower thoracic). Each construct was examined independently. All four groups compared included identical posterior instrumentation. The anterior constructs consisted of either: an anterior polyether ether ketone (PEEK) cage, an anterior titanium cage, an anterior bone cement cage (polymethyl methacrylate), or a control group with posterior instrumentation alone. Each construct had six thermoluminescent detectors to measure the radiation dose. The mean dose was similar across all constructs and locations. There was more variability in the upper thoracic spine irrespective of the construct type. The PEEK construct had a more uniform dose distribution with a standard deviation of 9.76. The standard deviation of the others constructs was 14.26 for the control group, 19.31 for the titanium cage, and 21.57 for the cement (polymethyl methacrylate) construct. The PEEK inter-body cage resulted in a significantly more uniform distribution of therapeutic radiation in the spine when compared with the other constructs. This may allow for the application of higher effective dosing to the tumor bed for spinal metastases without increasing spinal cord toxicity with either

  2. Blended poly (ether sulfone) and poly (ethylene naphthalate) as a scintillation material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Hidehito, E-mail: hidehito@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Kyoto University, 2, Asashiro-Nishi, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Sato, Nobuhiro [Kyoto University, 2, Asashiro-Nishi, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Kitamura, Hisashi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Takahashi, Sentaro [Kyoto University, 2, Asashiro-Nishi, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan)

    2014-09-21

    The advantages of blending two aromatic ring polymers for use as a scintillation substrate for radiation detection have attracted considerable attention. Here, we have characterised the blending of poly (ether sulfone) (PES) and poly (ethylene naphthalate) (PEN), which have dissimilar repeat units. The blended substrate is a faint-amber-coloured resin, and its density is between that of PES and PEN (1.34 g/cm{sup 3}). Its excitation spectrum has a maximum at 370 nm and differs from the component substrates. However, the emission spectrum is similar to that for PEN substrates, and does not exhibit short-wavelength light from the PES component, even when excited by the excitation maximum of PES. These results reveal that excitation energy is being transferred to a lower energy level before it is emitted as light, with a maximum at 420 nm. By taking into account its emission spectrum, an effective refractive index was determined to be 1.70. Light yield distributions generated by {sup 137}Cs and {sup 207}Bi radioactive sources indicated that the blended substrate had a yield 2.23 times that of PES, and 0.68 times that of PEN. Overall, the results demonstrate that polymer blends can have scintillation characteristics that differ in some ways from those of the base substrates, with a potential advantage in being able to control them. - Highlights: • A blended substrate of PES and PEN is characterised as a scintillation material. • The excitation and emission maxima are 370 nm and 420 nm, respectively. • Excitation energy is transferred to a lower energy level prior to emission. • Based on its emission spectrum, the effective refractive index is 1.70. • The light yield is 2.23 that of PES and 0.68 times that of PEN.

  3. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Ethanol/Diethyl Ether Mixtures in a CI Engine

    KAUST Repository

    Sivasankaralingam, Vedharaj

    2016-10-17

    The auto-ignition characteristics of diethyl ether (DEE)/ethanol mixtures are investigated in compression ignition (CI) engines both numerically and experimentally. While DEE has a higher derived cetane number (DCN) of 139, ethanol exhibits poor ignition characteristics with a DCN of 8. DEE was used as an ignition promoter for the operation of ethanol in a CI engine. Mixtures of DEE and ethanol (DE), i.e., DE75 (75% DEE + 25% ethanol), DE50 (50% DEE + 50% ethanol) and DE25 (25% DEE + 75% ethanol), were tested in a CI engine. While DE75 and DE50 auto-ignited at an inlet air pressure of 1.5 bar, DE25 failed to auto-ignite even at boosted pressure of 2 bar. The peak in-cylinder pressure for diesel and DE75 were comparable, while DE50 showed reduced peak in-cylinder pressure with delayed start of combustion (SOC). Numerical simulations were conducted to study the engine combustion characteristics of DE mixture. A comprehensive detailed chemical kinetic model was created to represent the combustion of DE mixtures. The detailed mechanism was then reduced using standard direct relation graph (DRG-X) method and coupled with 3D CFD code, CONVERGE, to simulate the experimental data. The simulation results showed that the effects of physical properties on DE50 combustion are negligible. Simulations of DE50 mixture revealed that the combustion is nearly homogenous, while diesel (n-heptane used as a surrogate) and DE75 showed similar combustion behavior with flame liftoff and diffusion controlled combustion. Diesel exhibited auto-ignition at an equivalence ratio of 2, while DE75 and DE50 showed auto-ignition in the equivalence ratio range of 1-1.5 and 0-1, respectively. The experiments and numerical simulations demonstrate how the high reactivity of DEE supports the auto-ignition of ethanol, while ethanol acts as a radical scavenger.

  4. A New Flexible Soy-Based Adhesive Enhanced with Neopentyl Glycol Diglycidyl Ether: Properties and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Luo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soy-based adhesives inherently possess low water resistance and brittleness, which limit their application on plywood fabrication. This investigation involves using a long chain cross-linker, neopentyl glycol diglycidyl ether (NGDE, to produce an intrinsic toughening effect to reduce the brittleness and improve the water resistance of a soybean meal–based adhesive. The solids content, viscosity, functional groups, fracture surface micrographs, and thermal stability of the adhesives were measured. Three-layer plywood was fabricated using the resultant adhesive, and the tensile shear strength of the plywood was measured. All adhesive properties were compared with a soybean meal/polyamidoamine-epichlorohydrin (PAE adhesive and commercial melamine urea formaldehyde resin. The results showed that adding 6 g NGDE improved the water resistance of the soybean meal-based adhesive by 12.5%. This improvement is attributed to the following reasons: (1 a dense cross-linked network is formed by the chemical reaction between NGDE and protein molecules; (2 the toughness of the adhesive increases and a smooth and homogeneous fracture surface is created, which effectively prevents moisture intrusion; (3 the addition of NGDE increases the thermostability of the cured adhesive. The tensile shear strength of the plywood bonded with the soybean meal-based adhesive with 6 g NGDE was 286.2% higher than that without NGDE and attained 1.12 MPa, which was attributed to the reduction in the adhesive’s viscosity, and the improvement in the water resistance and toughness of the adhesive. The tensile shear strength of the plywood bonded with 6 g NGDE was 19.1% higher than that with 6 g PAE and was similar to the MUF resin, which validated the novel adhesive being suitable for use as an industrial plywood adhesive.

  5. On new physical reality (on ψ-ether)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaev, P.S.

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that there exists a new physical reality - the ψ-ether. All the achievements of quantum mechanics and quantum field theory are due to the fact that both the theories include the influence of ψ-ether on the physical processes occurring in the Universe. Physics of the XX century was first of all the physics of ψ-ether

  6. Incidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in central air conditioner filter dust from a new office building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni Honggang; Cao Shanping; Chang Wenjing [Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Circular Economy, Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Zeng Hui, E-mail: huizeng0608@gmail.com [Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Circular Economy, Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Department of Ecology, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2011-07-15

    This study examined polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in central air conditioner filter (CACF) dust from a new office building in Shenzhen, China. Human exposure to PBDE via dust inhalation and ingestion were also estimated. PBDEs level in CACF dust was lower than those in the other countries and regions. Approximately 0.671 pg/kg bw/day PM{sub 2.5} (Particulate Matter up to 2.5 {mu}m in size) bounded {Sigma}{sub 15}PBDEs can be inhaled deep into the lungs and 4.123 pg/kg bw/day PM{sub 10} (Particulate Matter up to 10 {mu}m in size) bounded {Sigma}{sub 15}PBDEs tend to be deposited in the upper parts of the respiratory system. The average total intake of {Sigma}{sub 15}PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion for adults reached {approx}141 pg/kg bw/day in this building. This value was far below the reference dose (RfD) recommended by United States Environmental Protection Agency. Human exposure to PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion in the new building is less than the old ones. - Highlights: > Human exposure to PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion in the new building is less than that in the old ones. > PBDE emissions from indoor sources can be expected to continue for a long time as the PBDE-containing products in offices were to be kept many years. > The household consumer products, especially computers, are the main sources of PBDEs in central air conditioner filter dust. > Further studies are needed to fully understand the emission mechanism of PBDE from indoor consumer products. - PBDEs in central air conditioner filter dust from a new building were investigated

  7. Incidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in central air conditioner filter dust from a new office building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Honggang; Cao Shanping; Chang Wenjing; Zeng Hui

    2011-01-01

    This study examined polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in central air conditioner filter (CACF) dust from a new office building in Shenzhen, China. Human exposure to PBDE via dust inhalation and ingestion were also estimated. PBDEs level in CACF dust was lower than those in the other countries and regions. Approximately 0.671 pg/kg bw/day PM 2.5 (Particulate Matter up to 2.5 μm in size) bounded Σ 15 PBDEs can be inhaled deep into the lungs and 4.123 pg/kg bw/day PM 10 (Particulate Matter up to 10 μm in size) bounded Σ 15 PBDEs tend to be deposited in the upper parts of the respiratory system. The average total intake of Σ 15 PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion for adults reached ∼141 pg/kg bw/day in this building. This value was far below the reference dose (RfD) recommended by United States Environmental Protection Agency. Human exposure to PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion in the new building is less than the old ones. - Highlights: → Human exposure to PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion in the new building is less than that in the old ones. → PBDE emissions from indoor sources can be expected to continue for a long time as the PBDE-containing products in offices were to be kept many years. → The household consumer products, especially computers, are the main sources of PBDEs in central air conditioner filter dust. → Further studies are needed to fully understand the emission mechanism of PBDE from indoor consumer products. - PBDEs in central air conditioner filter dust from a new building were investigated

  8. Biomagnification and debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in a coastal ecosystem in Tokyo Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Yamada, Toshiko [Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Matsuo, Hiroaki; Takeuchi, Ichiro [Department of Life Environment Conservation, Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, Tarumi 3-5-7, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8566 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Kotaro [Faculty of Marine Science, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Konan 4-5-7, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8477 (Japan); Takada, Hideshige, E-mail: shige@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2013-04-01

    By field sampling and laboratory experiments we compared the mechanisms by which polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are biomagnified. We measured PBDEs and PCBs, together with stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes as an index of trophic level, in low-trophic-level organisms collected from a coastal area in Tokyo Bay. PBDEs were biomagnified to a lesser degree than PCBs. The more hydrophobic congeners of each were biomagnified more. However, the depletion of BDE congeners BDE99 and BDE153 from fish was suggested. To study congener-specific biotransformation of halogenated compounds, we conducted an in vitro experiment using hepatic microsomes of two species of fish and five BDE congeners (BDE47, 99, 100, 153, and 154) and five CB congeners with the same substitution positions as the PBDEs. BDE99 and 153 were partially debrominated, but BDE47 and 154 were not debrominated. This congener-specific debromination is consistent with the field results. Both in vitro and field results suggested selective debromination at the meta position. The CB congeners were not transformed in vitro. This result is also consistent with the field results, that PCBs were more biomagnified than PBDEs. We conclude that metabolizability is an important factor in the biomagnification of chemicals, but other factors must be responsible for the lower biomagnification of PBDEs in natural ecosystems. Highlights: ► PBDEs were less biomagnified than PCBs in low-trophic-level organisms in Tokyo Bay. ► Depletion of PBDE congeners BDE99 and BDE153 from fish was suggested. ► BDE99 and 153 were debrominated in in vitro experiment using hepatic microsomes of fish. ► BDE47, 100, and 154 as well as PCB congeners were not transformed in vitro. ► Both in vitro and field results suggested selective meta-protonation of PBDEs.

  9. Applicability of dimethyl ether (DME) in a compression ignition engine as an alternative fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Su Han; Lee, Chang Sik

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Overall characteristics of DME fueled engine are reviewed. • Fuel properties characteristics of DME are introduced. • New technologies for DME vehicle are systemically reviewed. • Research trends for the development of DME vehicle in the world are introduced. - Abstract: From the perspectives of environmental conservation and energy security, dimethyl-ether (DME) is an attractive alternative to conventional diesel fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. This review article deals with the application characteristics of DME in CI engines, including its fuel properties, spray and atomization characteristics, combustion performance, and exhaust emission characteristics. We also discuss the various technological problems associated with its application in actual engine systems and describe the field test results of developed DME-fueled vehicles. Combustion of DME fuel is associated with low NO x , HC, and CO emissions. In addition, PM emission of DME combustion is very low due to its molecular structure. Moreover, DME has superior atomization and vaporization characteristics than conventional diesel. A high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate can be used in a DME engine to reduce NO x emission without any increase in soot emission, because DME combustion is essentially soot-free. To decrease NO x emission, engine after-treatment devices, such as lean NO x traps (LNTs), urea-selective catalytic reduction, and the combination of EGR and catalyst have been applied. To use DME fuel in automotive vehicles, injector design, fuel feed pump, and the high-pressure injection pump have to be modified, combustion system components, including sealing materials, have to be rigorously designed. To use DME fuel in the diesel vehicles, more research is required to enhance its calorific value and engine durability due to the low lubricity of DME, and methods to reduce NO x emission are also required

  10. Application of a polycarboxylate ether admixture in RCC dam construction[ACI SP-239

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asmus, S.M.F.; Christensen, B.J.; Varley, N.J. [BASF Construction Chemicals Asia Pacific, Shanghai (China)

    2006-07-01

    Chemical admixtures are used in dam construction to improve plasticity of the dry materials mixture over time. Roller compacted concrete (RCC) has been used on many dam projects in China. However, the use of RCC has frequently resulted in water reduction problems. This paper provided details of an admixture based on polycarboxylate ether (PCE) which was developed to improve the quality of RCC constructions at the JinHong dam in China. Use of the polymer at the JinHong dam resulted in a vibration sensitive concrete that was sustained over time. Under identical mix-design and compaction conditions in the laboratory, specific gravity of the RCC was increased from 2417 kg/m{sup 3} to 2463 kg/m{sup 3}. The high specific gravity of the material resulted in satisfactory strength data from the dam project. The key-ratio of the splitting tensile strength versus compressive strength was higher than 8 per cent in all cases. A key advantage of the tailored PCE-RCC was the short Vebe times sustained over elapsed time in the RCC. Without additional compaction or vibration efforts, the specific density of RCC was better than conventional admixture technologies. The reduced viscosity provided cement paste films which formed on the surface of each layer of the RCC, which resulted in better bonding between the layers. It was concluded that the new PCE polymer is compatible with alternative retarder systems, which contributes to more extensive setting times under strict hydration regimes. 7 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  11. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in relation to autism and developmental delay: a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants used widely and in increasing amounts in the U.S. over the last few decades. PBDEs and their metabolites cross the placenta and studies in rodents demonstrate neurodevelopmental toxicity from prenatal exposures. PBDE exposures occur both via breastfeeding and hand-to-mouth activities in small children. Methods Participants were 100 children from the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risk from Genetics and the Environment) Study, a case-control epidemiologic investigation of children with autism/autism spectrum disorder, with developmental delay and from the general population. Diagnoses of autism were confirmed by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and Autism Diagnostic Inventory-Revised, and of developmental delay using the Mullen's Scales of Early Learning and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Typically developing controls were those with no evidence of delay, autism, or autism spectrum disorder. Eleven PBDE congeners were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry from serum specimens collected after children were assessed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between plasma PBDEs and autism. Results Children with autism/autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay were similar to typically developing controls for all PBDE congeners, but levels were high for all three groups. Conclusions Plasma samples collected post-diagnosis in this study may not represent early life exposures due to changes in diet and introduction of new household products containing PBDEs. Studies with direct measurements of prenatal or infant exposures are needed to assess the possible causal role for these compounds in autism spectrum disorders. PMID:21205326

  12. Embracing the convenient care concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Allison H; McAndrew, Thomas M; Shearer, Debra; Donnelly, Gloria F; Miller, Howard A

    2010-01-01

    The landscape of primary care medicine is rapidly changing. The decline in interest, both in primary care fields and students choosing these career paths, has left a vacuum in the health care system that must be filled. One of the recent developments has been the birth of "convenient care centers," also known as "retail clinics." This form of health care delivery has mostly been entrepreneurial and based in retail organizations, such as drug stores. These walk-in clinics provide basic medical care for minor common medical conditions, such as sore throat, urinary tract infection, the common cold, and ear infections. Much of this care is provided not by physicians, but by nurse practitioners or physician assistants. After seeing the success of the earliest of these clinics, MinuteClinic by CVS, many other businesses joined the venture, and retail clinics popped up in Wal-Mart, Target, and many local grocery stores. Gradually, hospital systems, physician groups, and managed care companies have also entered the market, sometimes partnering with retail outlets, such as the local grocery store or Wal-Mart, and less often, starting a stand-alone facility. Only 12% of retail clinics are owned by hospital systems or physician groups, while 73% are owned by CVS, Walgreens, or Target. There is even a national nonprofit organization called the Convenient Care Association, started in 2006, and based in Philadelphia, PA. This new trend in delivering health care has been mostly, if not totally, ignored by the medical school practice plans, with the exception of the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota, which has developed several "express care" clinics as stand-alone facilities. As a medical school practice plan and a division of general internal medicine, we could continue to keep a blind eye toward this new trend in primary care medicine or embrace the concept. We aim to develop a new convenient care model integrating our College of Medicine practice plan in partnership with our College of

  13. Effects of a Squalene Epoxidase Inhibitor, Terbinafine, on Ether Lipid Biosyntheses in a Thermoacidophilic Archaeon, Thermoplasma acidophilum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Takahide; Nemoto, Naoki; Oshima, Tairo; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2002-01-01

    The archaeal plasma membrane consists mainly of diether lipids and tetraether lipids instead of the usual ester lipids found in other organisms. Although a molecule of tetraether lipid is thought to be synthesized from two molecules of diether lipids, there is no direct information about the biosynthetic pathway(s) or intermediates of tetraether lipid biosynthesis. In this study, we examined the effects of the fungal squalene epoxidase inhibitor terbinafine on the growth and ether lipid biosyntheses in the thermoacidophilic archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum. Terbinafine was found to inhibit the growth of T. acidophilum in a concentration-dependent manner. When growing T. acidophilum cells were pulse-labeled with [2-14C]mevalonic acid in the presence of terbinafine, incorporation of radioactivity into the tetraether lipid fraction was strongly suppressed, while accumulation of radioactivity was noted at the position corresponding to diether lipids, depending on the concentration of terbinafine. After the cells were washed with fresh medium and incubated further without the radiolabeled substrate and the inhibitor, the accumulated radioactivity in the diether lipid fraction decreased quickly while that in the tetraether lipids increased simultaneously, without significant changes in the total radioactivity of ether lipids. These results strongly suggest that terbinafine inhibits the biosynthesis of tetraether lipids from a diether-type precursor lipid(s). The terbinafine treatment will be a tool for dissecting tetraether lipid biosynthesis in T. acidophilum. PMID:11844769

  14. Evaluating medical convenience in ethnic minority areas of Southwest China via road network vulnerability: a case study for Dehong autonomous prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xuejun; Cheng, Liang; Sun, Lele; Pan, Yingying; Zong, Wenwen

    2017-11-28

    Southwest China is home to more than 30 ethnic minority groups. Since most of these populations reside in mountainous areas, convenient access to medical services is an important metric of how well their livelihoods are being protected. This paper proposes a medical convenience index (MCI) and computation model for mountain residents, taking into account various conditions including topography, geology, and climate. Data on road networks were used for comprehensive evaluation from three perspectives: vulnerability, complexity, and accessibility. The model is innovative for considering road network vulnerability in mountainous areas, and proposing a method of evaluating road network vulnerability by measuring the impacts of debris flows based on only links. The model was used to compute and rank the respective MCIs for settlements of each ethnic population in the Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan Province, in 2009 and 2015. Data on the settlements over the two periods were also used to analyze the spatial differentiation of medical convenience levels within the study area. The medical convenience levels of many settlements improved significantly. 80 settlements were greatly improved, while another 103 showed slight improvement.Areas with obvious improvement were distributed in clusters, and mainly located in the southwestern part of Yingjiang County, northern Longchuan County, eastern Lianghe County, and the region where Lianghe and Longchuan counties and Mang City intersect. Development of the road network was found to be a major contributor to improvements in MCI for mountain residents over the six-year period.

  15. Measuring consumer perceptions of online shopping convenience

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Margarida Bernardo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this master thesis is to identify which dimensions of convenience affect consumers’ intention of using online shopping. Also it explores a conceptual model to measuring consumer perceptions of online shopping convenience. This paper contains prospects about online consumer behavior, and the results have important implications for retailers, managers and marketers, related to online shopping strategies. An empirical investigation was carried out to test the hypotheses. In order t...

  16. A synthesis of convenience survey and other data to estimate undiagnosed HIV infection among men who have sex with men in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kate; Seaman, Shaun R; De Angelis, Daniela; Presanis, Anne M; Dodds, Julie P; Johnson, Anne M; Mercey, Danielle; Gill, O Noel; Copas, Andrew J

    2011-10-01

    Hard-to-reach population subgroups are typically investigated using convenience sampling, which may give biased estimates. Combining information from such surveys, a probability survey and clinic surveillance, can potentially minimize the bias. We developed a methodology to estimate the prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in England and Wales aged 16-44 years in 2003, making fuller use of the available data than earlier work. We performed a synthesis of three data sources: genitourinary medicine clinic surveillance (11 380 tests), a venue-based convenience survey including anonymous HIV testing (3702 MSM) and a general population sexual behaviour survey (134 MSM). A logistic regression model to predict undiagnosed infection was fitted to the convenience survey data and then applied to the MSMs in the population survey to estimate the prevalence of undiagnosed infection in the general MSM population. This estimate was corrected for selection biases in the convenience survey using clinic surveillance data. A sensitivity analysis addressed uncertainty in our assumptions. The estimated prevalence of undiagnosed HIV in MSM was 2.4% [95% confidence interval (95% CI 1.7-3.0%)], and between 1.6% (95% CI 1.1-2.0%) and 3.3% (95% CI 2.4-4.1%) depending on assumptions; corresponding to 5500 (3390-7180), 3610 (2180-4740) and 7570 (4790-9840) men, and undiagnosed fractions of 33, 24 and 40%, respectively. Our estimates are consistent with earlier work that did not make full use of data sources. Reconciling data from multiple sources, including probability-, clinic- and venue-based convenience samples can reduce bias in estimates. This methodology could be applied in other settings to take full advantage of multiple imperfect data sources.

  17. A random cluster survey and a convenience sample give comparable estimates of immunity to vaccine preventable diseases in children of school age in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Heath; Riddell, Michaela A; Gidding, Heather F; Nolan, Terry; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L

    2002-08-19

    We compared estimates of the age-specific population immunity to measles, mumps, rubella, hepatitis B and varicella zoster viruses in Victorian school children obtained by a national sero-survey, using a convenience sample of residual sera from diagnostic laboratories throughout Australia, with those from a three-stage random cluster survey. When grouped according to school age (primary or secondary school) there was no significant difference in the estimates of immunity to measles, mumps, hepatitis B or varicella. Compared with the convenience sample, the random cluster survey estimated higher immunity to rubella in samples from both primary (98.7% versus 93.6%, P = 0.002) and secondary school students (98.4% versus 93.2%, P = 0.03). Despite some limitations, this study suggests that the collection of a convenience sample of sera from diagnostic laboratories is an appropriate sampling strategy to provide population immunity data that will inform Australia's current and future immunisation policies. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  18. Process for making propenyl ethers and photopolymerizable compositions containing them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivello, James V.

    1996-01-01

    Propenyl ether monomers of formula V A(OCH.dbd.CHCH.sub.3).sub.n wherein n is an integer from one to six and A is selected from cyclic ethers, polyether and alkanes are disclosed. The monomers are readily polymerized in the presence of cationic photoinitiators, when exposed to actinic radiation, to form poly(propenyl ethers) that are useful for coatings, sealants, varnishes and adhesives. Compositions for preparing polymeric coatings comprising the compounds of formula V together with particular cationic photoinitiators are also disclosed, as are processes for making the monomers from allyl halides and readily available alcohols. The process involves rearranging the resulting allyl ethers to propenyl ethers.

  19. Diethyl Ether as an Ignition Enhancer for Naphtha Creating a Drop in Fuel for Diesel

    KAUST Repository

    Vallinayagam, R.

    2016-12-01

    Direct use of naphtha in compression ignition (CI) engines is not advisable because its lower cetane number negatively impacts the auto ignition process. However, engine or fuel modifications can be made to operate naphtha in CI engines. Enhancing a fuel’s auto ignition characteristics presents an opportunity to use low cetane fuel, naphtha, in CI engines. In this research, Di-ethyl ether (DEE) derived from ethanol is used as an ignition enhancer for light naphtha. With this fuel modification, a “drop-in” fuel that is interchangeable with existing diesel fuel has been created. The ignition characteristics of DEE blended naphtha were studied in an ignition quality tester (IQT); the measured ignition delay time (IDT) for pure naphtha was 6.9 ms. When DEE was added to naphtha, IDT decreased and D30 (30% DEE + 70% naphtha) showed comparable IDT with US NO.2 diesel. The derived cetane number (DCN) of naphtha, D10 (10% DEE + 90% naphtha), D20% DEE + 80% naphtha) and D30 were measured to be 31, 37, 40 and 49, respectively. The addition of 30% DEE in naphtha achieved a DCN equivalent to US NO.2 diesel. Subsequent experiments in a CI engine exhibited longer ignition delay for naphtha compared to diesel. The peak in-cylinder pressure is higher for naphtha than diesel and other tested fuels. When DEE was added to naphtha, the ignition delay shortened and peak in-cylinder pressure is reduced. A 3.7% increase in peak in-cylinder pressure was observed for naphtha compared to US NO.2 diesel, while D30 showed comparable results with diesel. The pressure rise rate dropped with the addition of DEE to naphtha, thereby reducing the ringing intensity. Naphtha exhibited a peak heat release rate of 280 kJ/m3deg, while D30 showed a comparable peak heat release rate to US NO.2 diesel. The amount of energy released during the premixed combustion phase decreased with the increase of DEE in naphtha. Thus, this study demonstrates the suitability of DEE blended naphtha mixtures as a

  20. Diethyl Ether as an Ignition Enhancer for Naphtha Creating a Drop in Fuel for Diesel

    KAUST Repository

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; Sarathy, Mani; Dibble, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Direct use of naphtha in compression ignition (CI) engines is not advisable because its lower cetane number negatively impacts the auto ignition process. However, engine or fuel modifications can be made to operate naphtha in CI engines. Enhancing a fuel’s auto ignition characteristics presents an opportunity to use low cetane fuel, naphtha, in CI engines. In this research, Di-ethyl ether (DEE) derived from ethanol is used as an ignition enhancer for light naphtha. With this fuel modification, a “drop-in” fuel that is interchangeable with existing diesel fuel has been created. The ignition characteristics of DEE blended naphtha were studied in an ignition quality tester (IQT); the measured ignition delay time (IDT) for pure naphtha was 6.9 ms. When DEE was added to naphtha, IDT decreased and D30 (30% DEE + 70% naphtha) showed comparable IDT with US NO.2 diesel. The derived cetane number (DCN) of naphtha, D10 (10% DEE + 90% naphtha), D20% DEE + 80% naphtha) and D30 were measured to be 31, 37, 40 and 49, respectively. The addition of 30% DEE in naphtha achieved a DCN equivalent to US NO.2 diesel. Subsequent experiments in a CI engine exhibited longer ignition delay for naphtha compared to diesel. The peak in-cylinder pressure is higher for naphtha than diesel and other tested fuels. When DEE was added to naphtha, the ignition delay shortened and peak in-cylinder pressure is reduced. A 3.7% increase in peak in-cylinder pressure was observed for naphtha compared to US NO.2 diesel, while D30 showed comparable results with diesel. The pressure rise rate dropped with the addition of DEE to naphtha, thereby reducing the ringing intensity. Naphtha exhibited a peak heat release rate of 280 kJ/m3deg, while D30 showed a comparable peak heat release rate to US NO.2 diesel. The amount of energy released during the premixed combustion phase decreased with the increase of DEE in naphtha. Thus, this study demonstrates the suitability of DEE blended naphtha mixtures as a

  1. [Indoor dust as a pathway of human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Struciński, Paweł; Hernik, Agnieszka; Czaja, Katarzyna; Korcz, Wojciech; Minorczyk, Maria; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2012-01-01

    The brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) belong to a class of synthetic, additive brominated flame retardants (BFRs). PBDEs are used to reduce the flammability of commercial and household products such as textiles, various plastic polymers, furnishing foam, and electronic equipment. People spend a large percentage of their life-time indoors at home, in offices and cars, etc, providing many opportunities for lengthy exposure to PBDEs from residential settings and commercial products in an indoor environment. In recent time, the foodstuffs, mainly food of animal origin, have been indicated as the main pathway of human exposure to PBDEs. However, many studies have shown that the indoor environment, mainly indoor dust, can be also a significant source of exposure to PBDEs, especially for younger children (toddlers) because of their behavioral patterns, eg. putting fingers, toys, and other items in their mouth. Numerous studies show that the median intakes of PBDEs via dust for adult range from 1.41 to 277 ng x day(-1) is lower than that via food which range from 135 to 333 ng x day-', while the median intake of these compounds via indoor dust for children range from 101 to 404 ng x day(-1) is much higher than via food: 77-190 ng x day(-1). The congener pattern observed in the indoor dust is different to that found in food. The indoor dust is dominated by the congener BDE-209 vs. food where the most dominated congeners are BDE-47 and BDE-99. Human exposure to PBDEs and other brominated flame retardants (BFRs) is widely widespread throughout the world and it depends on a country range of usage, production and legislation concerning these chemicals as well as a citizen's behavior. Generally, human exposure has been found higher in North America than in Europe and Asia. Within European countries the significant highest concentrations in dust have been found in the United Kingdom. It should be noted that many uncertainty factors such as personal habits, dietary preferences

  2. Radiation-induced cationic curing of vinyl ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapin, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    Recently there has been an increasing interest in nonacrylate radiation-curable coatings. Vinyl ethers are particularly reactive under cationic polymerization reaction conditions. The high efficiency of the photoacid initiators combined with the high reactivity of vinyl ether monomers makes this a potentially very useful system. This chapter discusses the preparation of vinyl ethers, introduces vinyl ether-functional monomers and oligomers, describes radiation-induced cationic polymerization of vinyl ethers, and discusses various coating systems. Throughout the chapter, an emphasis is placed on radiation-curable coating applications. 64 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs

  3. Allegheny County Supermarkets & Convenience Stores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Location information for all Supermarkets and Convenience Stores in Allegheny County was produced using the Allegheny County Fee and Permit Data for 2016.

  4. Thermal stability of sulfonated Poly(Ether Ether Ketone) films : on the role of Protodesulfonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koziara, B.T.; Kappert, E.J.; Ogieglo, W.; Nijmeijer, Kitty; Hempenius, M.A.; Benes, N.E.

    Thin film and bulk, sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) have been subjected to a thermal treatment at 160–250 °C for up to 15 h. Exposing the films to 160 °C already causes partial desulfonation, and heating to temperatures exceeding 200 °C results in increased conjugation in the material,

  5. Linking service convenience to satisfaction: Dimensions and key moderators

    OpenAIRE

    Benoit, Sabine; Klose, S; Ettinger, A

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Demand for service convenience, defined as a consumer’s perception of minimized time and effort spent to obtain a service, has increased in conjunction with certain sociocultural and demographic changes. Prior research notes the significance of service convenience, but the importance of different dimensions of service convenience as well as the role of key moderators affecting the link between convenience and satisfaction (like customer psychographic and sociodemograph...

  6. Measurement of Ether Phospholipids in Human Plasma with HPLC-ELSD and LC/ESI-MS After Hydrolysis of Plasma with Phospholipase A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawatari, Shiro; Hazeyama, Seira; Fujino, Takehiko

    2016-08-01

    Ethanolamine ether phospholipid (eEtnGpl) and choline ether phospholipid (eChoGpl) are present in human plasma or serum, but the relative concentration of the ether phospholipids in plasma is very low as compared to those in other tissues. Nowadays, measurement of ether phospholipids in plasma depends on tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), but a system for LC/MS/MS is generally too expensive for usual clinical laboratories. Treatment of plasma with phospholipase A1 (PLA1) causes complete hydrolysis of diacylphospholipids, but ether phospholipids remain intact. After the treatment of plasma with PLA1, both eEtnGpl and eChoGpl are detected as independent peaks by high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD). The same sample used for HPLC-ELSD can be applied to detect eEtnGpl and eChoGpl with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Presence of alkylacylphospholipids in both eChoGpl and eEtnGpl in human plasma was indicated by sequential hydrolysis of plasma with PLA1 and hydrochloric acid.

  7. Fate of polybrominated diphenyl ethers during cooking of fish in a new model cooking apparatus and a household microwave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendig, Paul; Hägele, Florian; Blumenstein, Marina; Schmidt, Jasmin; Vetter, Walter

    2013-07-10

    Fish is a major source of human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Because fish is mainly consumed after cooking, this measure may alter the pattern and amounts of PBDEs that are finally consumed. To investigate this issue, we developed a model cooking apparatus consisting of a small glass bowl and a beaker glass with an exhaust fitted with a polyurethane foam filter connected to a water jet pump. In this model cooking apparatus, fish (1 g) and/or sunflower oil (0.2/0.4 g) spiked with three PBDE congeners was cooked for 30 min. Small amounts of the semi-volatile PBDEs were evaporated from the fish (BDE-47 cooking apparatus proved to be well-suited to study the fate of polyhalogenated compounds in fish during cooking.

  8. Hydrogen storage by functionalised Poly(ether ether ketone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedicini, R.; Giacoppo, G.; Carbone, A.; Passalacqua, E. [CNR-ITAE, Messina (Italy). Inst. for Advanced Energy Technologies

    2010-07-01

    In this work a functionalised polymer was studied as potential material for hydrogen storage in solid state. A Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) matrix was modified by a manganese oxide in situ formation. Here we report the functionalisation process and the preliminary results on hydrogen storage capability of the synthesised polymer. The polymer was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Gravimetric Hydrogen Adsorption measurements. In the functionalised PEEK, morphological changes occur as a function of oxide precursor concentration and reaction time. Promising results by gravimetric measurements were obtained with a hydrogen sorption of 0.24%wt/wt at 50 C and 60 bar, moreover, reversibility hydrogen adsorption and desorption in a wide range of both temperature and pressure was confirmed. (orig.)

  9. Friedel–Crafts Crosslinked Highly Sulfonated Polyether Ether Ketone (SPEEK Membranes for a Vanadium/Air Redox Flow Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Merle

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Highly conductive and low vanadium permeable crosslinked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone (cSPEEK membranes were prepared by electrophilic aromatic substitution for a Vanadium/Air Redox Flow Battery (Vanadium/Air-RFB application. Membranes were synthesized from ethanol solution and crosslinked under different temperatures with 1,4-benzenedimethanol and ZnCl2 via the Friedel–Crafts crosslinking route. The crosslinking mechanism under different temperatures indicated two crosslinking pathways: (a crosslinking on the sulfonic acid groups; and (b crosslinking on the backbone. It was observed that membranes crosslinked at a temperature of 150 °C lead to low proton conductive membranes, whereas an increase in crosslinking temperature and time would lead to high proton conductive membranes. High temperature crosslinking also resulted in an increase in anisotropy and water diffusion. Furthermore, the membranes were investigated for a Vanadium/Air Redox Flow Battery application. Membranes crosslinked at 200 °C for 30 min with a molar ratio between 2:1 (mol repeat unit:mol benzenedimethanol showed a proton conductivity of 27.9 mS/cm and a 100 times lower VO2+ crossover compared to Nafion.

  10. Friedel–Crafts Crosslinked Highly Sulfonated Polyether Ether Ketone (SPEEK) Membranes for a Vanadium/Air Redox Flow Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, Géraldine; Ioana, Filipoi Carmen; Demco, Dan Eugen; Saakes, Michel; Hosseiny, Seyed Schwan

    2014-01-01

    Highly conductive and low vanadium permeable crosslinked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (cSPEEK) membranes were prepared by electrophilic aromatic substitution for a Vanadium/Air Redox Flow Battery (Vanadium/Air-RFB) application. Membranes were synthesized from ethanol solution and crosslinked under different temperatures with 1,4-benzenedimethanol and ZnCl2 via the Friedel–Crafts crosslinking route. The crosslinking mechanism under different temperatures indicated two crosslinking pathways: (a) crosslinking on the sulfonic acid groups; and (b) crosslinking on the backbone. It was observed that membranes crosslinked at a temperature of 150 °C lead to low proton conductive membranes, whereas an increase in crosslinking temperature and time would lead to high proton conductive membranes. High temperature crosslinking also resulted in an increase in anisotropy and water diffusion. Furthermore, the membranes were investigated for a Vanadium/Air Redox Flow Battery application. Membranes crosslinked at 200 °C for 30 min with a molar ratio between 2:1 (mol repeat unit:mol benzenedimethanol) showed a proton conductivity of 27.9 mS/cm and a 100 times lower VO2+ crossover compared to Nafion. PMID:24957118

  11. Friedel-Crafts Crosslinked Highly Sulfonated Polyether Ether Ketone (SPEEK) Membranes for a Vanadium/Air Redox Flow Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, Géraldine; Ioana, Filipoi Carmen; Demco, Dan Eugen; Saakes, Michel; Hosseiny, Seyed Schwan

    2013-12-30

    Highly conductive and low vanadium permeable crosslinked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (cSPEEK) membranes were prepared by electrophilic aromatic substitution for a Vanadium/Air Redox Flow Battery (Vanadium/Air-RFB) application. Membranes were synthesized from ethanol solution and crosslinked under different temperatures with 1,4-benzenedimethanol and ZnCl2 via the Friedel-Crafts crosslinking route. The crosslinking mechanism under different temperatures indicated two crosslinking pathways: (a) crosslinking on the sulfonic acid groups; and (b) crosslinking on the backbone. It was observed that membranes crosslinked at a temperature of 150 °C lead to low proton conductive membranes, whereas an increase in crosslinking temperature and time would lead to high proton conductive membranes. High temperature crosslinking also resulted in an increase in anisotropy and water diffusion. Furthermore, the membranes were investigated for a Vanadium/Air Redox Flow Battery application. Membranes crosslinked at 200 °C for 30 min with a molar ratio between 2:1 (mol repeat unit:mol benzenedimethanol) showed a proton conductivity of 27.9 mS/cm and a 100 times lower VO2+ crossover compared to Nafion.

  12. Luminescence spectroscopy applied to a study of the curing process of diglycidyl-ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Mendonça Sales

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This work involved the application of luminescence spectroscopy under steady-state conditions to study the curing process of the epoxy resin diglycidyl-ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA using the curing agents 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane (DDM and 4,4'-diaminodiphenylsulfone (DDS. Two fluorescence methods were employed: the intrinsic method related to the polymeric matrix and the extrinsic method, using the molecular probe 9-anthroic acid (9-AA. Stoichiometric mixtures, with and without 9-AA, were heated to 120 °C at a 5 °C/min heating rate. These samples were then cured at 120 °C for a further 2 hours and allowed to cool to room temperature for 20 minutes. The results obtained by the two methods indicate that the cross-linking reaction can be monitored by analyzing the spectral changes of the emission bands of DGEBA, curing agents and 9-AA.

  13. A novel technique for the simultaneous determination of 210Pb and 210Po using a crown ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, N.; LaRosa, J.; Zeisler, R.; Danesi, P.; Kis-Benedek, Gy.

    1997-01-01

    A simple radiochemical procedure has been developed to separate lead and polonium simultaneously from different environmental and biological materials. After adding 208 Po tracer and lead carrier, samples are decomposed using mineral acids. Lead and polonium are selectively retained from 2M HCl solution by the bis-4,4'(5')-t-butyl-cyclohexano-18-crown-6-ether; polonium is stripped with 6 M HNO 3 while lead is stripped with 6 M HCL solution. A polonium source is prepared by spontaneous deposition onto a silver disk. The activity concentration of 210 Po is determined by isotope dilution alpha spectrometry. Lead is precipitated as oxalate; the chemical recovery is determined by gravimetry. The activity concentration of 210 Pb is calculated from the liquid scintillation spectrum. (author)

  14. Spectroscopic and molecular modeling approaches to investigate the interaction of bisphenol A, bisphenol F and their diglycidyl ethers with PPARα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Tiehua; Guan, Tianzhu; Ruan, Ping; Ren, Dayong; Dai, Weichang; Yu, Hansong; Li, Tiezhu

    2017-08-01

    A fluorescence polarization (FP) assay for the simultaneous determination of bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE) was developed. The method was based on the competition between bisphenols (BPs) and fluorescein-labeled dexamethasone derivative (Dex-fl) for mouse peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α ligand binding domain (mPPARα-LBD). A recombinant soluble protein derivative mPPARα-LBD* was prepared, then in vitro binding of 4 BPs to mPPARα-LBD* was investigated. Fluorescence polarization assay showed that these compounds exhibited different binding potencies with mPPARα-LBD*. Additionally, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to further understand the mechanism of BPs binding affinity for mPPARα-LBD*. Docking results elucidated that the driving forces for the binding of BPs to mPPARα-LBD* were predominantly dependent on hydrophobic and hydrogen-bonding interactions. Comparison of the calculated binding energies vs. experimental binding affinities yielded a good correlation (R 2  = 0.7258). The proposed method has potential for multi-residue detection of BPA, BPF, BADGE, and BFDGE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Use of zero order diffraction of a grating monochromator towards convenient and sensitive detection of fluorescent analytes in multi fluorophoric systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Suraj Kumar; Mishra, Ashok Kumar

    2018-02-01

    White light excitation fluorescence (WLEF) is known to possess analytical advantage in terms of enhanced sensitivity and facile capture of the entire fluorescence spectral signature of multi component fluorescence systems. Using the zero order diffraction of the grating monochromator on the excitation side of a commercial spectrofluorimeter, it has been shown that WLEF spectral measurements can be conveniently carried out. Taking analyte multi-fluorophoric systems like (i) drugs and vitamins spiked in urine sample, (ii) adulteration of extra virgin olive oil with olive pomace oil and (iii) mixture of fabric dyes, it was observed that there is a significant enhancement of measurement sensitivity. The total fluorescence spectral response could be conveniently analysed using PLS2 regression. This work brings out the ease of the use of a conventional fluorimeter for WLEF measurements.

  16. Effects of a diphenyl-ether herbicide, oxyfluorfen, on human BFU-E/CFU-E development and haemoglobin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, B; Parent-Massin, D; Lautraite, S; Hoellinger, H

    1997-02-01

    The diphenyl-ether herbicides exert their phytotoxic activity by preventing chlorophyll formation in plants as a result of inhibition of protoporphyrinogen oxidase. This enzyme is the last step of the common pathway for chlorophyll and haem biosynthesis. The aim of this work is to determine whether herbicide inhibitors of plant protoporphyrinogen oxidase could act on the human protoporphyrinogen oxidase involved in haemoglobin synthesis and cause heamatologic diseases. Human erythroblastic progenitors (BFU-E/CFU-E: Burst Forming Unit-Erythroid and Colony Forming Unit-Erythroid) were exposed to oxyfluorfen, a diphenyl-ether herbicide in the presence of erythropoietin, and the haematoxicity evaluated in vitro by scoring the development of BFU-E/CFU-E colonies after 7 and 14 days of culture. The toxic effect on differentiation has been evaluated using four criteria: morphology, total protein, total porphyrin, and haemoglobin content. The study of BFU-E/CFU-E proliferation and differentiation showed a cytotoxic effect of oxyfluorfen only at very high concentrations. In contrast, haemoglobin synthesis can be inhibited by concentration of oxyfluorfen (10(-4) M) that have no adverse effect on cellular proliferation.

  17. Biaxial deformation behaviour of poly-ether-ether-ketone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Josh; Menary, Gary; Martin, Peter

    2018-05-01

    The biaxial tensile properties of thin poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) films are presented. Investigation into the biaxial mechanical behaviour of PEEK films will provide a preliminary insight into the anticipated stress/strain response, and potential suitability, to the possible fabrication of thin walled parts through stretch blow moulding and thermoforming processes - with the multi-axial state of strain imposed onto the heated thermoplastic sheet representative of the expected strain history experienced during these material forming processes. Following identification of the prospective forming temperature window, the biaxial mechanical behaviour of the material is characterized under differing modes of deformation, at a nominal strain rate of 1 s-1. The temperature dependence is outlined within - with an appreciable increase in flow behaviour correlated with specimen temperature exceeding its glass transition temperature (Tg).

  18. Mechanistic Study of the sPLA2 Mediated Hydrolysis of a Thio-ester Pro Anticancer Ether Lipid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderoth, Lars; Fristrup, Peter; Hansen, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) is an interesting enzyme for triggered liposomal drug delivery to tumor tissue due the overexpression of sPLA2 in cancerous tissue. A drug delivery system based on the triggered release of therapeutics from sPLA2-sensitive liposomes constituted of pro anticancer...... ether lipids, which become cytotoxic upon sPLA2-catalyzed hydrolysis has previously been established. To optimize the hydrolysis rate of the lipids and thereby optimizing the release profile of the drugs from the liposomes, we have synthesized a thio-ester pro anticancer ether lipid. Liposomes...... constituted of this lipid showed an altered rate of hydrolysis by sPLA2. We have tested the cytotoxicity of the thio-ester pro anticancer ether lipids toward cancer cells, and the results showed that the cytotoxicity is indeed maintained upon sPLA2 exposure. To further understand the origin for the observed...

  19. Removal of technetium from alkaline nuclear-waste media by a solvent-extraction process using crown ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnesen, P.V.; Presley, D.J.; Haverlock, T.J.; Moyer, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    Crown ethers dissolved in suitably modified aliphatic kerosene diluents can be employed to extract technetium as pertechnetate anion (TcO 4 - ) with good extraction ratios from realistic simulants of radioactive alkaline nitrate waste. The modifiers utilized are non-halogenated and non-volatile, and the technetium can be removed from the solvent by stripping using water. The crown ethers bis-4,4'(5')[(tert-butyl)cyclohexano]-18-crown-6 (di-t-BuCH18C6) and dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6) provide stronger TcO 4 - extraction than dicyclohexano-21-crown-7 and 4-tert-butylcyclohexano 15-crown-5. Whereas DCH18C6 provides somewhat higher TcO 4 - extraction ratios than the more lipophilic di-t-BuCH18C6 derivative, the latter was selected for further study owing to its lower distribution to the aqueous phase. Particularly good extraction and stripping results were obtained with di-t-BuCH 18C6 at 0.02 M in a 2:1 vol/vol blend of tributyl phosphate and Isopar reg-sign M. Using this solvent, 98.9% of the technetium contained (at 6 x 10 -5 M) in a Double-Shell Slurry Feed (DSSF) Hanford tank waste simulant was removed following two cross-current extraction contacts. Two cross-current stripping contacts with deionized water afforded removal of 99.1% of the technetium from the organic solvent

  20. Personal factors associated with smoking among marginalized and disadvantaged youth in Japan. A strong relationship between smoking and convenience store use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Isao; Shigeta, Masako; Inoue, Kaoru; Matsui, Daisuke; Ozaki, Etsuko; Kuriyama, Nagato; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yamamoto, Toshiro; Kanamura, Narisato; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki

    2013-12-01

    A national survey in Japan reported that the prevalence of smoking among high school students has sharply decreased in recent years. However, the survey only considered students who attended regular high schools (RHSs), and Japan offers part-time high schools (PHSs) that are often attended by academically and socioeconomically disadvantaged youth. Therefore, we examined the smoking prevalence and smoking-related factors among PHS students. A self-administered questionnaire-based survey was conducted at six PHSs. The subjects included 540 enrolled students aged 15 to 18 years. The questionnaire included items on smoking status, smokers in the family, frequency of convenience store use, lifestyle behaviors, and health awareness. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors that were significantly associated with smoking. A total of 45.6 % of students had smoking experience, and 29.3 % were smokers. For males and females, the smoking prevalence was about 3 and 7-12 times higher, respectively, than that reported in the national survey. The factors found to be significantly associated with smoking included having a smoker in the family, experience with drinking alcohol, and using convenience store daily (odds ratio [OR] = 12.5) or sometimes (OR = 3.63). There was a significant dose-response relationship between smoking and convenience store use. The smoking prevalence among PHS students was remarkably higher than that among RHS students. These findings suggest that marginalized and disadvantaged youth should be targeted for tobacco control, and intervention is needed to protect youth from tobacco sales and advertising at convenience stores.

  1. Poly (ether ether ketone) membranes for fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero, Jacqueline C.; Gomes, Ailton de S.; Filho, Jose C.D.; Hui, Wang S.; Oliveira, Vivianna S. de

    2015-01-01

    Polymeric membranes were developed using a SPEEK polymer matrix (sulphonated poly (ether ether ketone)), containing hygroscopic particles of zirconia (Zr) (incorporated by sol-gel method), for use as electrolyte membranes in fuel cells. SPEEK with different sulfonation degrees were used: 63 and 86%. The thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) was carried out to characterize the membranes and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was carried out to evaluating the proton conductivity of the membranes. Additional analysis were underway in order to characterize these membranes, which include: X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in order to evaluate the influence of zirconia and sulfonation degree on the properties of the membranes. (author)

  2. Revealing the values behind convenience food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botonaki, Anna; Mattas, Konstadinos

    2010-12-01

    The increasing importance of convenience in consumer food choices has attracted researchers' interest. In the effort to understand how convenience affects consumers' food preferences, values are believed to play an important role. The present study attempts to examine the way personal values suggested by Schwartz (1992) are associated with behaviour and attitudes regarding convenience food. A number of constructs describing food related attitudes and behaviours were developed and their relationship with personal values was analyzed following the methodology proposed by Brunsø, Scholderer, and Grunert (2004). Data were collected through a questionnaire survey from a random sample of consumers in Thessaloniki city, Greece. The results reveal that convenience food consumption and convenience orientation in the food domain are mainly connected with values that motivate people to seek new experiences, act independently and enhance their own personal interests, while are in conflict with values of conservation and self-transcendence. The opposite holds for other food related attitudes and behaviours like involvement with cooking and variety in diet. The findings seem to be of particular interest not only for marketers of food products, but also for food policy makers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of a poly(ether urethane)-based controlled release membrane system for delivery of ketoprofen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macocinschi, Doina; Filip, Daniela; Vlad, Stelian; Oprea, Ana Maria; Gafitanu, Carmen Anatolia

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ketoprofen incorporation in poly(ether urethane) microporous membrane. ► Moisture sorption properties of as-cast membrane. ► Drug release mechanisms in function of pH and composition of membranes. - Abstract: A poly(ether urethane) based on polytetrahydrofuran containing hydroxypropyl cellulose for biomedical applications was tested for its biocompatibility. Ketoprofen was incorporated (3% and 6%) in the polyurethane matrix as an anti-inflammatory drug. Kinetic and drug release mechanisms were studied. The pore size and pore size distribution of the polyurethane membranes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Surface tension characteristics as well as moisture sorption properties such as diffusion coefficients and equilibrium moisture contents of the membrane material were studied. It was found that kinetics and release mechanisms are in function of medium pH, composition of polymer–drug system, pore morphology and pore size distribution. Prolonged nature of release of ketoprofen is assured by low amount of drug in polyurethane membrane and physiological pH.

  4. Representativeness of two sampling procedures for an internet intervention targeting cancer-related distress: a comparison of convenience and registry samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jason E; Bantum, Erin O'Carroll; Criswell, Kevin; Bazzo, Julie; Gorlick, Amanda; Stanton, Annette L

    2014-08-01

    Internet interventions often rely on convenience sampling, yet convenience samples may differ in important ways from systematic recruitment approaches. The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential demographic, medical, and psychosocial differences between Internet-recruited and registry-recruited cancer survivors in an Internet-based intervention. Participants were recruited from a cancer registry (n = 80) and via broad Internet outreach efforts (n = 160). Participants completed a set of self-report questionnaires, and both samples were compared to a population-based sample of cancer survivors (n = 5,150). The Internet sample was younger, better educated, more likely to be female, had longer time since diagnosis, and had more advanced stage of disease (p's sample was over-represented by men and those with prostate or other cancer types (p's sample also exhibited lower quality of life and social support and greater mood disturbance (p's convenience and systematic samples differ has important implications for external validity and potential for dissemination of Internet-based interventions.

  5. Does dependency make a difference? The role of convenience, social influence, facilitating condition and self-efficacy on student's purchase behaviour of smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Mathivannan; Mustapa, Azrain Nasyrah; Hasan, Wan Azlina Wan; Mat, Nik Kamariah Nik; Alekam, Jamal Mohammed Esmail

    2014-12-01

    It is an undeniable fact that penetration level and usage and sales of Smartphone dramatically increased past few years, whereby; it has increased to almost 60 percent of total population. Despite the high penetration of smartphone, previous studies have exhibited inconsistent findings towards understanding the behavioural intention to use smartphone especially among university students. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine purchasing behaviour of Smartphone among students. From the literature, five antecedents of purchasing behaviour were identified. Each variable is measured using 7-point Likert scale: convenience (10 items), social influence (6 items), self-efficacy (10 items), facilitating condition (11 items), dependency (14 items) and purchasing behaviour (4 items). Using the primary data collection method, 400 questionnaires were distributed to the target respondents of one of the public higher education in the northern region. The responses collected were 350 completed questionnaires representing 87.5 percent response rate. The data were analysed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) using AMOS. Confirmatory factor analysis of measurement models indicates adequate goodness or fit after few items were eliminated through modification indices verifications. Therefore, goodness of fit for the generated structural model shows the adequate fit. This study has established four direct significant causal effects and two significant mediating effects: (1) convenience and dependency, (2) social influence and dependency, (3) facilitating condition and purchase behaviour, (4), dependency and purchase behaviour. The significant mediating results are: (1). Dependency mediates the relationship between convenience and purchase behaviour; (2) dependency mediates social influence and purchase behaviour. Thus, findings suggested that convenience, social influence and dependency play a role in determining students purchase behaviour of smartphone. The researchers

  6. Palladium-Catalyzed Reductive Insertion of Alcohols into Aryl Ether Bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Meng [Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Gutiérrez, Oliver Y. [Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Camaioni, Donald M. [Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Lercher, Johannes A. [Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Department of Chemistry and Catalysis Research Institute, TU München, Lichtenbergstrasse 4 85748 Garching Germany

    2018-03-06

    Pd/C catalyzes C-O bond cleavage of aryl ethers (diphenyl ether and cyclohexyl phenyl ether) by methanol in H2. The aromatic C-O bond is cleaved by reductive methanolysis, which is initiated by Pd-catalyzed partial hydrogenation of one phenyl ring to form an enol ether. The enol ether reacts rapidly with methanol to form a ketal, which generates methoxycyclohexene by eliminating phenol or an alkanol. Subsequent hydrogenation leads to methoxycyclohexane.

  7. Activity relationships for aromatic crown ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Mark James

    1998-01-01

    This thesis involves an investigation of aromatic crown ethers and a study of their binding constants for alkali metals. The study was motivated by the current needs of the semiconductor industry to improve the scavenging of mobile ions from fabricated circuits. A number of aromatic crown ethers have been sulphonated in an attempt to improve their water solubility and cation binding activity. These materials have been extensively studied and their binding activity determined. In collaboration with a molecular modelling study, the effect of ionisable sulphonate groups on the macrocycles' behaviour has been investigated. The broader issue of the effect of substituents in aromatic crown ethers has also been studied with the preparation of a wide range of substituted crown ethers. The cation binding activity of these materials has been found to bear a simple relationship to the electron withdrawing nature of the aromatic substituents. This relationship can be accurately monitored using electronic charge densities from molecular modelling and this rational has been applied to the study of proton ionisable and lariating crown ethers. The incorporation of crown ethers into polyamic acid and polyimide frameworks has also been investigated, where the resulting materials have been found to exhibit unusual cation binding and uptake properties. These results imply that the combination of the crown ethers' macrocycle and adjacent carboxylic acid residues, from the polyamic acids, are conducive to effective cationic binding. NMR measurements, in conjunction with molecular modelling, have been used to explore the geometry changes encountered as the crown ether goes from it's uncomplexed to its complexed state. The energy requirement for these geometry changes has subsequently been used to examine the cation selectivity of these materials. The electronic charge changes associated with the complexation have also been investigated and correlated with the theoretical results. (author)

  8. Electrochemical investigation of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)/clay nanocomposite membranes for moderate temperature fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasani-Sadrabadi, Mohammad Mahdi [Polymer Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Biomedical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Dashtimoghadam, Erfan; Sarikhani, Kaveh [Polymer Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Majedi, Fatemeh S. [Biomedical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Khanbabaei, Ghader [Polymer Science and Technology Division, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-05-01

    In the present study, polyelectrolyte membranes based on partially sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK) with various degrees of sulfonation are prepared. The optimum degree of sulfonation is determined according to the transport properties and hydrolytic stability of the membranes. Subsequently, various amounts of the organically modified montmorillonite (MMT) are introduced into the sPEEK matrices via the solution intercalation technique. The proton conductivity and methanol permeability measurements of the fabricated composite membranes reveal a high proton to methanol selectivity, even at elevated temperatures. Membrane based on sPEEK and 1 wt% of MMT, as the optimum nanoclay composition, exhibits a high selectivity and power density at the concentrated methanol feed. Moreover, it is found that the optimum nanocomposite membrane not only provides higher performance compared to the neat sPEEK and Nafion {sup registered} 117 membranes, but also exhibits a high open circuit voltage (OCV) at the elevated methanol concentration. Owing to the high proton conductivity, reduced methanol permeability, high power density, convenient processability and low cost, sPEEK/MMT nanocomposite membranes could be considered as the alternative membranes for moderate temperature direct methanol fuel cell applications. (author)

  9. Physical and chemical feasibility of fueling molten salt reactors with TRU's trifluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, V.; Feinberg, O.; Konakov, S.; Subbotine, S.; Surenkov, A.; Zakirov, R.

    2001-01-01

    The molten salt reactor (MSR) concept is very important for consideration as an element of future nuclear energy systems. These reactor systems are unique in many ways. Particularly, the MSRs appear to have substantial promise not only as advanced TRU free system operating in U-Th cycle, but also as transmuter of TRU. Physical and chemical feasibility of fueling MSR with TRU trifluorides is examined. Solvent compositions with and without U-Th as fissile / fertile addition are considered. The principle reactor and fuel cycle variables available for optimizing the performance of MSR as TRU transmuting system are discussed. These efforts led to the definition in minimal TRU mass flow rate, reduced total losses to waste and maximum possible burn up rate for the molten salt transmuter. The current status of technology and prospects for revisited interest are summarized. Significant chemical problems are remain to be resolved at the end of prior MSRs programs, notably, graphite life durability, tritium control, fate of noble metal fission products. Questions arising from plutonium and minor actinide fueling include: corrosion and container chemistry, new redox buffer for systems without uranium, analytical chemistry instrumentation, adequate constituent solubilities, suitable fuel processing and waste form development. However these problems appear to be soluble. (author)

  10. Discussion of "Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in aircraft cabins--a source of human exposure?" by Anna Christiansson et al. [Chemosphere 73(10) (2008) 1654-1660].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schecter, Arnold; Colacino, Justin; Haffner, Darrah; Patel, Keyur; Opel, Matthias; Päpke, Olaf

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents new data on the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in American airline workers. This pilot study did not find elevated total PBDEs in the blood of nine flight attendants and one aircraft pilot who have worked in airplanes for at least the past 5 years. These findings are not consistent with the findings of elevated blood levels of PBDEs from the 2008 Christiansson et al. publication "Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in aircraft cabins - A source of human exposure?" We agree that more research needs to be done on larger, more representative samples of airline workers to better characterize exposure of airline workers and other frequent flyers to PBDEs.

  11. A questionnaire to measure melanoma risk, knowledge and protective behaviour: assessing content validity in a convenience sample of Scots and Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Helen S; Watson, Tony; Emery, Jon D; Lee, Amanda J; Murchie, Peter

    2011-08-25

    The aim of this study was to assess the content validity of a questionnaire to measure melanoma risk, knowledge and protective behaviour in a convenience sample of Scots and Australians. Australia has the highest melanoma incidence worldwide but has developed a culture of skin cancer avoidance with a long history of skin cancer primary prevention campaigns of proven effectiveness. Scotland has lower incidence, but has shown a greater rate of increase between 1985 and 2007. There is an urgent need in Scotland, therefore, to identify those groups at greatest risk and provide them with effective preventative advice. A self-administered postal survey was completed by four groups formed from convenience samples in two geographical locations (Northeast Scotland and Western Australia). In univariate analysis scores on personal risk, level of concern, protective behaviour, and knowledge were compared by nationality, previous skin cancer diagnosis and personally knowing someone with melanoma. Multivariate linear regression analysis modelled the influence of potential predictor variables upon each of the scores. 540 people completed the questionnaire, 273 Scots (50.6%). 133 (24.6%) Scots and 83 (15.4%) Australians previously had melanoma or non-melanoma skin cancer, whilst 120 (22.2%) Scots and 190 (35.2%) Australians personally knew someone with melanoma. Australians had higher knowledge (p behaviour (p behaviours in Australians than in Scottish people. This was expected and supports the content validity of the questionnaire and its value as a future research tool in the Scottish population.

  12. The stochastic seasonal behavior of energy commodity convenience yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirantes, Andrés García; Población, Javier; Serna, Gregorio

    2013-01-01

    This paper contributes to the commodity pricing literature by consistently modeling the convenience yield with its empirically observed properties. Specifically, in this paper, we show how a four-factor model for the stochastic behavior of commodity prices, with two long- and short-term factors and two additional seasonal factors, may accommodate some of the most important empirically observed characteristics of commodity convenience yields, such as the mean reversion and stochastic seasonality. Based on this evidence, a theoretical model is presented and estimated to characterize the commodity convenience yield dynamics that are consistent with previous findings. We also show that commodity price seasonality is better estimated through convenience yields than through futures prices. - Highlights: • Energy commodity convenience yields exhibit mean reversion and stochastic seasonality. • We present a model for convenience yields accounting for their observed characteristics. • Commodity price seasonality is better estimated through convenience yields

  13. Actinide/crown ether chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benning, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    A structural survey of actinide/crown ether compounds was conducted in order to investigate the solid state chemistry of these complexes. Several parameters - the metal size, crown type, counterion, solvent systems and reaction and crystallization conditions - were varied to correlate their importance in complexation. Under atmospheric conditions, two types of complexes were isolated, those containing only hydrogen-bonded crown interactions and instances where the crown interacts directly with the metal center. In both cases, water seems to play a very important role. When coordinated to the metal, water molecules exhibit the necessary donor properties required for the formation of hydrogen-bonded contacts. The water molecules also provide fierce competition with the crown ethers for metal-binding sites and in most cases prohibit the formation of complexes in which direct metal-ligand association exists. The results of this study indicate that direct interaction between the metal atoms and the crown ethers, in the presence of water, can only occur with polyether conformations which limit the steric replusions within the metal coordination sphere

  14. Promoting environmentally sound management of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhui; Zhao, Nana; Liu, Xue; Wu, Xiaoyang

    2014-06-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers with persistent organic pollutant properties are required to be controlled by the Stockholm Convention. Recently, polybrominated diphenyl ether contamination has become widespread in Asia, mainly because of the disposal and recycling processes of polybrominated diphenyl ether-containing wastes. The management status, production, usage, import/export, treatment, and disposal, as well as implementation deficiencies for the environmentally sound management of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polybrominated diphenyl ether-containing materials in ten Asian countries were investigated and assessed in this study. This information could help the participating countries implement the Stockholm Convention and could promote the regional environmentally sound management of polybrominated diphenyl ether-containing articles and products. The results obtained were as follows. (1) Most of the countries studied lacked environmental policies and regulations, or even standards of polybrominated diphenyl ether pollution management and emission control actions. Accurate data on the consumption and importation of polybrominated diphenyl ether-containing materials, however, were not available for all the participating countries. In addition, there were no special treatment or disposal systems for polybrominated diphenyl ether-containing materials, or emission-cutting measures for the treatment of waste in these countries, owing to the lack of sufficient funding or technologies. (2) The improper dismantling of e-waste is a major source of polybrominated diphenyl ether emissions in these countries. (3) Proper e-waste management could result in a breakthrough in the environmentally sound management of this major polybrominated diphenyl ether-containing material flow, and could significantly reduce polybrominated diphenyl ether emissions. Finally, based on the study results, this article puts forward some recommendations for improving the environmentally

  15. Landau theory and giant room-temperature barocaloric effect in MF3 metal trifluorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corrales-Salazar, A. [Univ. of Costa Rica, San Jose (Costa Rica); Brierley, R. T. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Littlewood, P. B. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Guzmán-Verri, G. G. [Univ. of Costa Rica, San Jose (Costa Rica); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-10-17

    The structural phase transitions of MF3 (M = Al, Cr, V, Fe, Ti, Sc) metal trifluorides are studied within a simple Landau theory consisting of tilts of rigid MF6 octahedra associated with soft antiferrodistortive optic modes that are coupled to long-wavelength strain generating acoustic phonons. We calculate the temperature and pressure dependence of several quantities such as the spontaneous distortions, volume expansion, and shear strains as well as T - P phase diagrams. By contrasting our model to experiments we quantify the deviations from mean-field behavior and find that the tilt fluctuations of the MF6 octahedra increase with metal cation size. We apply our model to predict giant barocaloric effects in Sc-substituted TiF3 of up to about 15 JK-1 kg-1 for modest hydrostatic compressions of 0.2GPa. The effect extends over a wide temperature range of over 140K (including room temperature) due to a large predicted rate, dTc/dP = 723K GPa-1, which exceeds those of typical barocaloric materials. Our results suggest that open lattice frameworks such as the trifluorides are an attractive platform to search for giant barocaloric effects.

  16. Effects of Surface Treatments of Montmorillonite Nanoclay on Cure Behavior of Diglycidyl Ether of Bisphenol A Epoxy Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tcherbi-Narteh, A.; Hosur, M.V.; Triggs, E.; Jelaani, S.

    2013-01-01

    Diglycidyl ether of Bisphenol A (DGEBA) based SC-15 epoxy resin was modified with three different commercially available montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclay: Nanomer I.28E and Cloisite 10A and 30B. Cure behavior of nanocomposites was studied using a variety of techniques. Primary focus of this study was to investigate influence of different surface modifications of MMT nanoclay on rheological properties and cure behavior of SC-15 epoxy resin. By adding MMT to SC-15 epoxy resin, chemistry of the epoxy is altered leading to changes in rheological properties and ultimately enthalpy and activation energy of reactions. Addition of Nanomer I.28E delayed gelation, while Cloisite 10A and 30B accelerated gelation, regardless of the curing temperature. Activation energy of reaction was lower with the addition of Nanomer I.28E and Cloisite 10A and higher for Cloisite 30B compared to neat SC-15 epoxy composite.

  17. Usage of the word 'ether'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    Confusion has been caused by scientists using the one word 'ether' to classify models differing from each other in important respects. Major roles assigned to the word are examined, and the nature of modern ether theories surveyed. The part played by the several meanings attached to the word, in the ether concept, is outlined. (author)

  18. Synthesis, characterization and sup 23 Na NMR shift studies of a novel dysprosium(III) crown ether texaphyrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sessler, J.L.; Mody, T.D. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry); Ramasamy, R.; Sherry, A.D. (Texas Univ., Dallas, TX (United States))

    1992-05-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a novel dysprosium(III) crown-ether texaphyrin (Dy(BCTxp)){sup 2+} is reported. This complex was designed to serve as a ditopic chelate for both dysprosium(III) and sodium cations. {sup 23}Sodium NMR spectroscopic studies indicates that titration of Na{sup +} with increasing concentrations of (Dy(BCTxp)){sup 2+} results in a shift toward higher frequency and gives a net hyperfine shift of 0.86 ppm. Sodium complexation is taking place into the crown subunit in (Dy(BCTxp)){sup 2+} and the degree of complexation is not reduced substantially by the positive charge on the dysprosium(III) portion of this binucleating system.

  19. A microstructural analysis of isoprenol ether-based polycarboxylates and the impact of structural motifs on the dispersing effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plank, Johann; Li, Huiqun; Ilg, Manuel; Pickelmann, Julia; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Yao, Yan; Wang, Ziming

    2016-01-01

    Generally, polycarboxylate superplasticizers (PCEs) are synthesized via aqueous free radical copolymerization. The conditions during copolymerization such as relative reactivity and feeding mode and ratio of monomers can cause different monomer sequences in the final product. In this study, the sequence of monomers in PCE polymers synthesized from acrylic acid and isoprenyloxy polyethylene glycol (IPEG) macromonomer was characterized by 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Three different triads of monomer sequences (EAE, AAE and AAA; E = ether, A = acid monomer) were detected. It was found that IPEG PCEs predominantly contain the structural motifs of AAE and EAE, and less of AAA. Higher additions of acrylic acid do not incorporate into the structure of PCE, but convert to HMW polyacrylate as by-product instead. A PCE with optimal dispersing effectiveness was achieved at high contents of IPEG macromonomer, a molecular weight (M w ) around 40,000 Da and narrow molecular weight distribution.

  20. Processing of intractable polymers using reactive solvents. 2. Poly(2,6-Dimethyl-1,4-Phenylene Ether) as a Matrix Material for High-Performance Composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venderbosch, R.W.; Meijer, H.E.H.; Lemstra, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    The application of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene ether) (PPE) as a matrix material for continuous carbon fibre reinforced composites has been studied. Owing to the intractable nature of PPE, melt impregnation is not feasible and therefore a solution impregnation route was explored using epoxy

  1. The impact of polybrominated diphenyl ether prohibition: A case study on the atmospheric levels in China, Japan and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qilu; Li, Jun; Chaemfa, Chakra; Zhang, Gan; Kobara, Yuso; Nam, Jae-Jak; Jones, Kevin C.

    2014-06-01

    The atmosphere is an important medium which could directly reflect the changes of pollutant sources. Worldwide, the commercial products of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been officially restricted and subsequently prohibited. For the purpose of evaluating their concentration after prohibition, passive air samplers (PASs) were therefore deployed again across the East Asia during two periods in 2008 after the initial deployment 4 years ago. When compared with the data in 2004, the atmospheric concentrations of PBDEs have declined significantly. Spatially, the PBDE level in China was still the highest, with a mean value of 15.4 pg m- 3, and in Japan was the lowest (2.47 ± 1.12 pg m- 3) in the East Asia. Moreover, the relatively high concentrations were observed at sites where there are electronic or e-waste recycling industries, and this is particularly true in China, suggesting that illegally imported e-waste is still a typical source of PBDEs in this region.

  2. Possible mechanisms of thyroid hormone disruption in mice by BDE 47, a major polybrominated diphenyl ether congener

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Vicki M.; Staskal, Daniele F.; Ross, David G.; Diliberto, Janet J.; DeVito, Michael J.; Birnbaum, Linda S.

    2008-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of polyhalogenated aromatic compounds commercially used as fire retardants in consumer products. These compounds have been shown to decrease thyroid hormone concentrations in rodents after acute exposures. This study examines the ability of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 47) to decrease circulating thyroid hormone concentrations and pairs this with BDE 47-induced effects on genes involved in thyroid hormone homeostasis. Female C57BL/6 mice (9 weeks old) were orally administered 3, 10, or 100 mg/kg/day of BDE 47 for 4 days. Animals were euthanized 24 h after the final dose (day 5) and liver, kidney, and serum were collected for analysis. BDE 47 caused a significant 43% decrease at 100 mg/kg/day in serum total thyroxine (T 4 ) concentrations. There was no increase in hepatic T 4 -glucuronidation activity, but significant increases in hepatic Ugt1a1, Ugt1a7, and Ugt2b5 mRNA expression accompany significant decreases in T 4 concentrations at 100 mg/kg/day of BDE 47. Induction of PROD activity occurred at the lowest dose (3 mg/kg/day). Cyp2b10 mRNA expression also increased significantly at 10 and 100 mg/kg/day. These key findings show that BDE activates the nuclear receptor, CAR. Decreases in Mdr1a mRNA expression also occurred at the lowest dose administered (3 mg/kg/day BDE 47). BDE 47 exposure also decreased hepatic transthyretin and monocarboxylate transporter 8 (Mct8) mRNA expression, suggesting that while induction of UGTs may be partly responsible for T 4 decreases, other mechanisms are also involved. No effects were seen in the kidney. We conclude that changes in hepatic UGTs and transporters may be involved in decreases in circulating T 4 following BDE 47 exposure

  3. Hepatitis A vaccine. A new convenient single-dose schedule with booster when long-term immunization is warranted

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Victor, J; Knudsen, J D; Nielsen, L P

    1994-01-01

    A total of 162 anti-HAV-negative healthy adults were immunized with a single high dose (1440 ELISA units = 1 ml) of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine and a booster was given at month 6. Antibodies were measured after modification of a commercial ELISA kit, enabling quantification of titres down to 6...

  4. The chemotherapeutic potential of glycol alkyl ethers: structure-activity studies of nine compounds in a Fischer-rat leukemia transplant model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, M P; Jameson, C W; Maronpot, R R; Langenbach, R; Braun, A G

    1990-01-01

    Structure-activity studies with nine glycol alkyl ethers were conducted with a cellular leukemia transplant model in male Fischer rats. This in vivo assay measures the effects of chemical treatment on neoplastic progression in transplant recipients. Chemicals were given ad libitum in the drinking water simultaneously with the transplants and continued throughout the study. In all, 20 million leukemic cells were injected s.c. into syngeneic rats, which after 60 days resulted in a 10-fold increase in relative spleen weights, a 100-fold increase in white blood cell counts, and a 50% reduction in red blood cell (RBC) indices and platelet counts. At this interval, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (2-ME) given at a dose of 2.5 mg/ml in the drinking water completely eliminated all clinical, morphological, and histopathological evidence of leukemia, whereas the same dose of ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (2-EE) reduced these responses by about 50%. Seven of the glycol ethers were ineffective as anti-leukemic agents, including ethylene glycol, the monopropyl, monobutyl, and monophenyl ethylene glycol ethers, diethylene glycol, and the monomethyl and monoethyl diethylene glycol ethers. 2-ME more than doubled the latency period of leukemia expression and extended survival for at least 210 days. A minimal effective dose for a 50% reduction in the leukemic responses was 0.25 mg/ml 2-ME in the drinking water (15 mg/kg body weight), whereas a 10-fold higher dose of 2-EE was required for equivalent antileukemic activity. In addition, the in vitro exposure of a leukemic spleen mononuclear cell culture to 2-ME caused a dose- and time-dependent reduction in the number of leukemia cells after a single exposure to 1-100 microM concentrations, whereas the 2-ME metabolite, 2-methoxyacetic acid, was only half as effective. The two glycol alkyl ethers with demonstrable anti-leukemic activity, 2-ME and 2-EE, also exhibited a favorable efficacy-to-toxicity ratio and should be considered for

  5. A convenient method for estimating the contaminated zone of a subsurface aquifer resulting from radioactive waste disposal into ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Masami; Katsurayama, Kousuke; Uchida, Shigeo.

    1981-01-01

    Studies were conducted to estimate the contamination spread resulting from the radioactive waste disposal into a subsurface aquifer. A general equation, expressing the contaminated zone as a function of radioactive decay, the physical and chemical parameters of soil is presented. A distribution coefficient was also formulated which can be used to judge the suitability of a site for waste disposal. Moreover, a method for predicting contaminant concentration in groundwater at a site boundary is suggested for a heterogeneous media where the subsurface aquifer has different values of porosity, density, flow velocity, distribution coefficient and so on. A general equation was also developed to predict the distribution of radionuclides resulting from the disposal of a solid waste material. The distributions of contamination was evaluated for 90 Sr and 239 Pu which obey a linear adsorption model and a first order kinetics respectively. These equations appear to have practical utility for easily estimating groundwater contamination. (author)

  6. Application of a congener-specific debromination model to study photodebromination, anaerobic microbial debromination, and FE0 reduction of polybrominated diphenyl ethers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, X.; Simonich, S.L.M.; Robrock, K.R.; Korytar, P.; Alvarez-Cohen, L.; Barofsky, D.F.

    2010-01-01

    A model was used to predict the photodebromination of the BDE-203, 197, 196, and 153, the major components of the octa-polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) technical mixture, as well as BDE-47, and the predicted results were compared to the experimental results. The predicted reaction time profiles

  7. The Synthesis of Novel 3-Substituted Poly(pyrroles) Bearing Crown-ether Moieties and a Study of their Electrochemical Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guernion, Nicolas J.L.; Blencowe, A.; Hayes, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    A series of fourteen novel pyrrole monomers substituted at the 3-position with aliphatic and aromatic crown-ether moieties have been synthesised in good yield and characterised extensively. Several of those compounds were electropolymerised successfully in acetonitrile, using both potentiostatic ...

  8. Effects of Different Montmorillonite Nanoclay Loading on Cure Behavior and Properties of Diglycidyl Ether of Bisphenol A Epoxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Tcherbi-Narteh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary focus of this study was to understand the effects of different amounts of montmorillonite nanoclay (MMT loading on viscosity, cure behavior, reaction mechanism, and properties of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA epoxy composites. Influence of 1–3 wt.% MMT on rheological and subsequent cure behavior of SC-15 epoxy resin was studied using nonisothermal and isothermal rheometry and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Rheological properties were influenced by different amounts of MMT at lower shear rates prior to and during curing. Cure reaction mechanism was unaffected by different MMT concentration; however heat and activation energy of reactions increased with increasing MMT loading. Samples with 2 wt.% MMT showed highest reaction rate constant, indicative of catalytic behavior. X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscope (TEM revealed mainly intercalated microstructure throughout the MMT infused epoxy composite samples irrespective of the percent loading.

  9. Effect of beta-adrenoceptor blockers on human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG) potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Delphine S; Klaerke, Dan A; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2005-01-01

    Patients with congenital long QT syndrome may develop arrhythmias under conditions of increased sympathetic tone. We have addressed whether some of the beta-adrenoceptor blockers commonly used to prevent the development of these arrhythmias could per se block the cardiac HERG (Human Ether....... These data showed that HERG blockade by beta-adrenoceptor blockers occurred only at high micromolar concentrations, which are significantly above the recently established safe margin of 100 (Redfern et al., 2003).......-1H-inden-4-yl)oxy]-3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]-2-butanol hydrochloride) blocked the HERG channel with similar affinity, whereas the beta1-receptor antagonists metoprolol and atenolol showed weak effects. Further, the four compounds blocked HERG channels expressed in a mammalian HEK293 cell line...

  10. Meroterpenoid and diphenyl ether derivatives from Penicillium sp. MA-37, a fungus isolated from marine mangrove rhizospheric soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Li, Xiao-Ming; Shang, Zhuo; Li, Chun-Shun; Ji, Nai-Yun; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2012-11-26

    Penicillium sp. MA-37, which was obtained from the rhizospheric soil of the mangrove plant Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, exhibited different chemical profiles in static and shaken fermentation modes. Three new meroterpenoid derivatives, 4,25-dehydrominiolutelide B (1), 4,25-dehydro-22-deoxyminiolutelide B (2), and isominiolutelide A (3), together with three known ones were characterized from its static fermentation, while three new diphenyl ether derivatives, namely, Δ(1('),3('))-1'-dehydroxypenicillide (4), 7-O-acetylsecopenicillide C (5), and hydroxytenellic acid B (6), along with five related metabolites were isolated from the shaken culture. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, and the structure of compound 2 was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The absolute configurations of 1-3 and 6 were determined by ECD and modified Mosher's method, respectively. All isolated compounds were evaluated for brine shrimp lethality and antibacterial activity.

  11. The rapid detection of methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) in water using a prototype gas sensor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lacy Costello, B P J; Sivanand, P S; Ratcliffe, N M; Reynolds, D M

    2005-01-01

    The gasoline additive Methyl-tertiary-Butyl Ether (MtBE) is the second most common contaminant of groundwater in the USA and represents an important soil contaminant. This compound has been detected in the groundwater in at least 27 states as a result of leaking underground storage facilities (gasoline storage tanks and pipelines). Since the health effects of MtBE are unclear the potential threat to drinking water supplies is serious. Therefore, the ability to detect MtBE at low levels (ppb) and on-line at high-risk groundwater sites would be highly desirable. This paper reports the use of 'commercial' and metal oxide sensor arrays for the detection of MtBE in drinking and surface waters at low ppb level (microg.L(-1) range). The output responses from some of the sensors were found to correlate well with MtBE concentrations under laboratory conditions.

  12. Convenient synthesis of volatile streptomyces lactones

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Amonkar, C.P.; Tilve, S.G.; Parameswaran, P.S.

    A convenient three-step synthetic approach towards 3-alkyl-5-methyl-2[5H]furanones is described. The steps involved in the synthesis are domino primary alcohol oxidation-Wittig reaction, acid-catalysed lactonisation and isomerisation. This synthetic...

  13. Retailer-Led Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Price Increase Reduces Purchases in a Hospital Convenience Store in Melbourne, Australia: A Mixed Methods Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Miranda R; Peeters, Anna; Lancsar, Emily; Boelsen-Robinson, Tara; Corben, Kirstan; Stevenson, Christopher E; Palermo, Claire; Backholer, Kathryn

    2018-06-01

    Limited evidence has been gathered on the real-world impact of sugar-sweetened beverage price changes on purchasing behavior over time or in community-retail settings. Our aim was to determine changes in beverage purchases, business outcomes, and customer and retailer satisfaction associated with a retailer-led sugar-sweetened beverage price increase in a convenience store. We hypothesized that purchases of less-healthy beverages would decrease compared to predicted sales. A convergent parallel mixed methods design complemented sales data (122 weeks pre-intervention, 17 weeks during intervention) with stakeholder interviews and customer surveys. Electronic beverage sales data were collected from a convenience store in Melbourne, Australia (August through November 2015). Convenience store staff completed semi-structured interviews (n=4) and adult customers exiting the store completed surveys (n=352). Beverages were classified using a state government framework. Prices of "red" beverages (eg, nondiet soft drinks, energy drinks) increased by 20%. Prices of "amber" (eg, diet soft drinks, small pure fruit juices) and "green" beverages (eg, water) were unchanged. Changes in beverage volume, item sales, and revenue during the intervention were compared with predicted sales. Sales data were analyzed using time series segmented regression while controlling for pre-intervention trends, autocorrelation in sales data, and seasonal fluctuations. Beverage volume sales of red (-27.6%; 95% CI -32.2 to -23.0) and amber (-26.7%; 95% CI -39.3 to -16.0) decreased, and volume of green beverages increased (+26.9%; 95% CI +14.1 to +39.7) in the 17th intervention week compared with predicted sales. Store manager and staff considered the intervention business-neutral, despite a small reduction in beverage revenue. Fifteen percent of customers noticed the price difference and 61% supported the intervention. A 20% sugar-sweetened beverage price increase was associated with a reduction

  14. A Convenient Ultrasound-Promoted Synthesis of Some New Thiazole Derivatives Bearing a Coumarin Nucleus and Their Cytotoxic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobhi M. Gomha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Successful implementation of ultrasound irradiation for the rapid synthesis of a novel series of 3-[1-(4-substituted-5-(aryldiazenylthiazol-2-ylhydrazonoethyl]-2H-chromen-2-ones 5ah, via reactions of 2-(1-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-ylethylidene thiosemicarbazide (2 and the hydrazonoyl halides 3(4, was demonstrated. Also, a new series of 5-arylidene-2-(2-(1-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-ylethylidenehydrazinylthiazol-4(5H-ones 10ad were synthesized from reaction of 2 with chloroacetic acid and different aldehydes. Moreover, reaction of 2-cyano-N'-(1-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-ylethylidene-acetohydrazide (12 with substituted benzaldehydes gave the respective arylidene derivatives 13ac under the conditions employed. The structures of the synthesized compounds were assigned based on elemental analyses and spectral data. Also, the cytototoxic activities of the thiazole derivative 5a was evaluated against HaCaT cells (human keratinocytes. It was found that compound 5a possess potent cytotoxic activity.

  15. Antitumor potential of crown ethers: structure-activity relationships, cell cycle disturbances, and cell death studies of a series of ionophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanović, Marko; Kralj, Marijeta; Supek, Fran; Frkanec, Leo; Piantanida, Ivo; Smuc, Tomislav; Tusek-Bozić, Ljerka

    2007-03-08

    The present paper demonstrates the antiproliferative ability and structure-activity relationships (SAR) of 14 crown and aza-crown ether analogues on five tumor-cell types. The most active compounds were di-tert-butyldicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (3), which exhibited cytotoxicity in the submicromolar range, and di-tert-butyldibenzo-18-crown-6 (5) (IC50 values of approximately 2 microM). Also, 3 and 5 induced marked influence on the cell cycle phase distribution--strong G1 arrest, followed by the induction of apoptosis. A computational SAR modeling effort offers insight into possible mechanisms of crown ether biological activity, presumably involving penetration into cell membranes, and points out structural features of molecules important for this activity. The results reveal that crown ethers possess marked tumor-cell growth inhibitory activity, the extent of which depends on the characteristics of the hydrophilic macrocylic cavity and the surrounding hydrophobic ring. Our work supports the hypothesis that crown ether compounds inhibit tumor-cell growth by disrupting potassium ion homeostasis, which in turn leads to cell cycle perturbations and apoptosis.

  16. Involvement of a novel enzyme, MdpA, in methyl tert-butyl ether degradation in Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Radomir; Battaglia, Vince; Scow, Kate; Kane, Staci; Hristova, Krassimira R

    2008-11-01

    Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1 is a well-characterized environmental strain capable of complete metabolism of the fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Using a molecular genetic system which we established to study MTBE metabolism by PM1, we demonstrated that the enzyme MdpA is involved in MTBE removal, based on insertional inactivation and complementation studies. MdpA is constitutively expressed at low levels but is strongly induced by MTBE. MdpA is also involved in the regulation of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) removal under certain conditions but is not directly responsible for TBA degradation. Phylogenetic comparison of MdpA to related enzymes indicates close homology to the short-chain hydrolyzing alkane hydroxylases (AH1), a group that appears to be a distinct subfamily of the AHs. The unique, substrate-size-determining residue Thr(59) distinguishes MdpA from the AH1 subfamily as well as from AlkB enzymes linked to MTBE degradation in Mycobacterium austroafricanum.

  17. Knowledge and Confidence of a Convenience Sample of Australasian Emergency Doctors in Managing Dental Emergencies: Results of a Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Samaei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We aimed to determine Australasian Specialist Emergency Physicians’ and Emergency Physicians in Training (Trainees’ level of knowledge of common dental emergencies. We also explored confidence in managing dental emergencies; predictors of confidence and knowledge; and preferences for further dental education. Methods. A questionnaire was distributed electronically (September 2011 and directly (November 2011 to Fellows and Trainees of the Australasian College for Emergency Medicine. It explored demographics, confidence, knowledge of dental emergencies, and educational preferences. Results. Response rate was 13.6% (464/3405 and college members were proportionally represented by region. Fewer than half (186/446; 42% had received dental training. Sixty-two percent (244/391, 95% CI 57.5–67.1 passed (>50% a knowledge test. More than 60% incorrectly answered questions on dental fracture, periodontal abscess, tooth eruption dates, and ulcerative gingivitis. Forty percent (166/416 incorrectly answered a question about Ludwig’s Angina. Eighty-three percent (360/433 were confident in the pharmacological management of toothache but only 26% (112/434 confident in recognizing periodontal disease. Knowledge was correlated with confidence (r=0.488. Interactive workshops were preferred by most (386/415, 93%. Conclusions. The knowledge and confidence of Australasian Emergency Physicians and Trainees in managing dental emergencies are varied, yet correlated. Interactive training sessions in dental emergencies are warranted.

  18. A questionnaire to measure melanoma risk, knowledge and protective behaviour: Assessing content validity in a convenience sample of Scots and Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Amanda J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the content validity of a questionnaire to measure melanoma risk, knowledge and protective behaviour in a convenience sample of Scots and Australians. Australia has the highest melanoma incidence worldwide but has developed a culture of skin cancer avoidance with a long history of skin cancer primary prevention campaigns of proven effectiveness. Scotland has lower incidence, but has shown a greater rate of increase between 1985 and 2007. There is an urgent need in Scotland, therefore, to identify those groups at greatest risk and provide them with effective preventative advice. Method A self-administered postal survey was completed by four groups formed from convenience samples in two geographical locations (Northeast Scotland and Western Australia. In univariate analysis scores on personal risk, level of concern, protective behaviour, and knowledge were compared by nationality, previous skin cancer diagnosis and personally knowing someone with melanoma. Multivariate linear regression analysis modelled the influence of potential predictor variables upon each of the scores. Results 540 people completed the questionnaire, 273 Scots (50.6%. 133 (24.6% Scots and 83 (15.4% Australians previously had melanoma or non-melanoma skin cancer, whilst 120 (22.2% Scots and 190 (35.2% Australians personally knew someone with melanoma. Australians had higher knowledge (p , level of concern (p and protective behaviour (p scores than the Scottish. Australian nationality was the strongest independent predictor of a higher knowledge score (p , followed by a previous skin cancer diagnosis (p = 0.003, personal knowledge of someone with melanoma (p = 0.011, female gender (p = 0.005 and higher education status (p (R2 = 0.163. Conclusion The questionnaire detected higher levels of knowledge and skin cancer protective behaviours in Australians than in Scottish people. This was expected and supports the content

  19. A new pen device for injection of recombinant human growth hormone: a convenience, functionality and usability evaluation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauer M

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available   Maritta Sauer,1 Carole Abbotts2 1Global Strategic Insights, Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany; 2Pharmaceutical Market Research Consultant, London, UK Purpose: Adherence to recombinant human growth hormone (r-hGH is critical to growth and other outcomes in patients with growth disorders, but the requirement for daily injections means that ease of use is an important factor. This study assessed the perceived ease of use and functionality of the prototype of a reusable pen injector (pen device for r-hGH that incorporates several advanced features. Participants and methods: Semi-structured 60-minute qualitative interviews were conducted in 5 countries with 57 health care professionals (HCPs and 30 patients with GH deficiency/caregivers administering r-hGH to patients, including children. HCPs had to be responsible for training in the use of r-hGH pen devices and to see ≥4 r-hGH patients/caregivers per month. Patients/caregivers had to have experience with r-hGH administration for at least 6 months.Results: Thirty-seven (65% of HCPs described the pen device as “simple” or “easy” to use. The aluminum body was generally perceived as attractive, high quality and comfortable to hold and operate. The ease of preparation and use made it suitable for both children and adults. The ability to dial back the r-hGH dose, if entered incorrectly, was mentioned as a major benefit, because other devices need several user steps to reset. Patients/caregivers felt the pen device was easy to use and the injection-feedback features reassured them that the full dose had been given. Overall, 40 (70% HCPs and 16 (52% patients/caregivers were likely to recommend or request the pen device. Moreover, patients/caregivers rated the pen device higher than their current reusable pens and almost equal to the leading disposable device for ease of learning, preparation, administration and ease of use.Conclusion: The prototype pen device successfully met its design

  20. Degradation of a recalcitrant xenobiotic compound: methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) metabolism by mycobacterium austroafricanum; Degradation d'un compose xenobiotique recalcitrant: metabolisme du methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) par mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, A

    2002-11-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is introduced up to 15% (vol/vol) in gasoline in order to obtain a good octane number and to prevent carbon monoxide emissions. However, as a consequence of storage tanks leakage, MTBE became one of the major pollutants of aquifers because of its very low biodegradability. The present study aimed at investigating the biodegradation of MTBE by Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012. The MTBE metabolic pathway was partially elucidated owing to the identification of some intermediates (tert-butyl formate (TBF), tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), a-hydroxy-isobutyric acid and acetone) and some enzymatic activities (MTBE/TBA monooxygenase (non hemic and inducible), TBF esterase, 2-propanol: NDMA oxidoreductase and another monooxygenase involved in acetone degradation). The involvement of TBF and the requirement of cobalt could be explanations for the low natural attenuation of MTBE; whereas the methoxy group does not seem to be implicated. (author)

  1. Degradation of a recalcitrant xenobiotic compound: methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) metabolism by mycobacterium austroafricanum; Degradation d'un compose xenobiotique recalcitrant: metabolisme du methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) par mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, A.

    2002-11-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is introduced up to 15% (vol/vol) in gasoline in order to obtain a good octane number and to prevent carbon monoxide emissions. However, as a consequence of storage tanks leakage, MTBE became one of the major pollutants of aquifers because of its very low biodegradability. The present study aimed at investigating the biodegradation of MTBE by Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012. The MTBE metabolic pathway was partially elucidated owing to the identification of some intermediates (tert-butyl formate (TBF), tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), a-hydroxy-isobutyric acid and acetone) and some enzymatic activities (MTBE/TBA monooxygenase (non hemic and inducible), TBF esterase, 2-propanol: NDMA oxidoreductase and another monooxygenase involved in acetone degradation). The involvement of TBF and the requirement of cobalt could be explanations for the low natural attenuation of MTBE; whereas the methoxy group does not seem to be implicated. (author)

  2. Perceived Convenience, Compatibility, and Media Richness Contribute Significantly toDedicated E-book Reader Acceptance. A Review of: Lai, J.-Y., & Chang, C.-Y. (2011. User attitudes toward dedicated e-book readers for reading: The effects of convenience, compatibility and media richness. Online Information Review, 35(4, 558-580.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa S. Arndt

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – Investigates the effects ofperceived convenience, compatibility andmedia richness on users’ attitudes towarddedicated e-book readers.Design – Convenience sample survey.Setting – Taiwanese university.Subjects – A total of 288 students at the seniorsecondary (5%, four-year university (78%,and graduate student (17% levels. Malefemaleparticipation was approximately equal.Methods – Students completed a 23-itemsurvey on dedicated e-book readers, withquestions on perceived usefulness, perceivedease of use, intention to use, convenience,compatibility, and media richness. Data wasanalyzed using the partial least squaresstatistical technique.Main Results – Users state an increasedintention to use dedicated e-book readers ifthey perceive the technology to be compatiblewith what they desire in a “book,” if the devicedelivers rich media content, and if the device isconvenient. Compatibility was found tosignificantly affect perceived ease of use, andwas found to be the strongest influence onintent to use a dedicated e-book reader.Compatibility, media richness andconvenience also increased the perceivedusefulness of dedicated e-book readers.Conclusion – Users will prefer dedicated e-book readers that are compatible with their preferences in a “book,” that deliver media-rich content, and that they find convenient. The study has implications for the design and development of e-book reading devices.

  3. Posterior lumbar interbody fusion using non resorbable poly-ether-ether-ketone versus resorbable poly-L-lactide-co-D,L-lactide fusion devices. Clinical outcome at a minimum of 2-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiya, Timothy U; Smit, T; van Royen, B J; Mullender, M

    2011-04-01

    Previous papers on resorbable poly-L-lactide-co-D,L-lactide (PLDLLA) cages in spinal fusion have failed to report adequately on patient-centred clinical outcome measures. Also comparison of PLDLLA cage with a traditionally applicable counterpart has not been previously reported. This is the first randomized prospective study that assesses clinical outcome of PLDLLA cage compared with a poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) implant. Twenty-six patients were randomly assigned to undergo instrumented posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) whereby either a PEEK cage or a PLDLLA cage was implanted. Clinical outcome based on visual analogue scale scores for leg pain and back pain, as well as Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and SF-36 questionnaires were documented and analysed. When compared with preoperative values, all clinical parameters have significantly improved in the PEEK group at 2 years after surgery with the exception of SF-36 general health, SF-36 mental health and SF-36 role emotional scores. No clinical parameter showed significant improvement at 2 years after surgery compared with preoperative values in the PLDLLA patient group. Only six patients (50%) in the PLDLLA group showed improvement in the VAS scores for leg and back pain as well as the ODI, as opposed to 10 patients (71%) in the PEEK group. One-third of the patients in the PLDLLA group actually reported worsening of their pain scores and ODI. Three cases of mild to moderate osteolysis were seen in the PLDLLA group. Following up on our preliminary report, these 2-year results confirm the superiority of the PEEK implant to the resorbable PLDLLA implant in aiding spinal fusion and alleviating symptoms following PLIF in patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis associated with either canal stenosis or foramen stenosis or both and emanating from a single lumbar segment.

  4. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soils, sediments, and human hair in a plastic waste recycling area: a neglected heavily polluted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenwu; Huang, Qifei; Cheng, Jiali; Yang, Yufei; Yang, Jun; Guo, Wei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Zeng, Ning; Jin, Lu

    2014-01-01

    The release of pollutants during the recycling of contaminated plastics is a problem which has drawn worldwide attention; however, little information on the transfer of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in these processes is available. We conducted a survey of PBDEs in soils, sediments, and human hair in a typical plastic waste recycling area in northern China. The total concentrations (ng/g) of 21 PBDEs were 1.25-5504 (average 600), 18.2-9889 (average 1619), and 1.50-861 (average 112) in soils, sediments, and hair, respectively. The PBDE concentrations were comparable to concentrations observed in e-waste recycling areas; however, the concentrations in soils and sediments were 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than in other areas, and the concentrations in hair were much higher than in other areas. This indicates that this area is highly polluted with PBDEs. BDE-209 was the dominant congener (representing 91.23%, 92.3%, and 91.5% of the total PBDEs observed in soils, sediments, and hair, respectively), indicating that the commercial deca-BDE product was dominant. The commercial penta- and octa-BDE products made small contributions to the total PBDE concentrations, unlike what has been found in some e-waste recycling areas. Our results show that crude plastic waste processing is a major contributor of PBDEs to the environment and humans, which should be of great concern.

  5. A convenient method for determination of quizalofop-p-ethyl based on the fluorescence quenching of eosin Y in the presence of Pd(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huan; Zhao, Yanmei; Tan, Xuanping; Zeng, Xiaoqing; Guo, Yuan; Yang, Jidong

    2017-03-01

    A convenient fluorescence quenching method for determination of Quizalofop-p-ethyl(Qpe) was proposed in this paper. Eosin Y(EY) is a red dye with strong green fluorescence (λex/λem = 519/540 nm). The interaction between EY, Pd(II) and Qpe was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy, resonance Rayleigh scattering(RRS) and UV-Vis absorption. Based on changes in spectrum, Pd(II) associated with Qpe giving a positively charged chelate firstly, then reacted with EY through electrostatic and hydrophobic interaction formed ternary chelate could be demonstrated. Under optimum conditions, the fluorescence intensity of EY could be quenched by Qpe in the presence of Pd(II) and the RRS intensity had a remarkable enhancement, which was directly proportional to the Qpe concentration within a certain concentration range, respectively. Based on the fluorescence quenching of EY-Pd(II) system by Qpe, a novel, convenient and specific method for Qpe determination was developed. To our knowledge, this is the first fluorescence method for determination of Qpe was reported. The detection limit for Qpe was 20.3 ng/mL and the quantitative determination range was 0.04-1.0 μg/mL. The method was highly sensitive and had larger detection range compared to other methods. The influence of coexisting substances was investigated with good anti-interference ability. The new analytical method has been applied to determine of Qpe in real samples with satisfactory results.

  6. A convenient method of obtaining percentile norms and accompanying interval estimates for self-report mood scales (DASS, DASS-21, HADS, PANAS, and sAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, John R; Garthwaite, Paul H; Lawrie, Caroline J; Henry, Julie D; MacDonald, Marie A; Sutherland, Jane; Sinha, Priyanka

    2009-06-01

    A series of recent papers have reported normative data from the general adult population for commonly used self-report mood scales. To bring together and supplement these data in order to provide a convenient means of obtaining percentile norms for the mood scales. A computer program was developed that provides point and interval estimates of the percentile rank corresponding to raw scores on the various self-report scales. The program can be used to obtain point and interval estimates of the percentile rank of an individual's raw scores on the DASS, DASS-21, HADS, PANAS, and sAD mood scales, based on normative sample sizes ranging from 758 to 3822. The interval estimates can be obtained using either classical or Bayesian methods as preferred. The computer program (which can be downloaded at www.abdn.ac.uk/~psy086/dept/MoodScore.htm) provides a convenient and reliable means of supplementing existing cut-off scores for self-report mood scales.

  7. A simple and convenient microtiter plate assay for the detection of bactericidal antibodies to Vibrio cholerae O1 and Vibrio cholerae O139.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutonnier, Alain; Dassy, Bruno; Duménil, Rémy; Guénolé, Alain; Ratsitorahina, Maherisoa; Migliani, René; Fournier, Jean-Michel

    2003-12-01

    It is believed that the correlate of protection for cholera can be determined by the serum vibriocidal assay. The currently available vibriocidal assays, based on the conventional agar plating technique, are labor intensive. We developed a simple and convenient microtiter plate assay for the detection of vibriocidal antibodies that is equally as efficient for Vibrio cholerae O1 and for V. cholerae O139. The addition of succinate and neotetrazolium made it possible to measure the growth of surviving bacterial target cells by monitoring a color change. We evaluated assay parameters (target strains, growth of target cells, complement source and concentration) that may affect the reproducibility of the method for V. cholerae O139. The results obtained with the microtiter plate assay were uniformly similar to those obtained with the conventional agar plating assay, when testing both the Inaba and Ogawa serotypes of V. cholerae O1. The microtiter plate assay was also convenient for measuring the activity of animal sera and mouse monoclonal antibodies.

  8. Consumers' convenience orientation towards meal preparation: conceptualization and measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candel, M

    2001-02-01

    Consumer researchers consider convenience orientation towards meal preparation to be a relevant construct for understanding consumer behavior towards foods. This study set out to conceptualize this construct and to develop a scale that measures it. As examined in two different samples of meal preparers, the resulting scale is reliable, satisfies a unifactorial structure and has satisfactory convergent validity. The scale's nomological validity is supported in that it conforms to expectations regarding various psychographic constructs and various food-related behaviors. Convenience orientation was found to be negatively related to cooking enjoyment, involvement with food products and variety seeking, and to be positively related to role overload. The analyses also suggest that the lack of relation between the meal preparer's working status and convenience food consumption, as found in many studies, is due to convenience food not offering enough preparation convenience. Consuming take-away meals and eating in restaurants appear to satisfy the consumer's need for convenience more adequately. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  9. Chemical kinetic study of a novel lignocellulosic biofuel: Di-n-butyl ether oxidation in a laminar flow reactor and flames

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Liming; Sudholt, Alena; Lee, Dongjoon; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.; Pitsch, Heinz G.; Westbrook, Charles K.; Sarathy, Mani

    2014-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of promising alternative fuels have been studied extensively in the recent years. Nevertheless, the pyrolysis and oxidation kinetics for many oxygenated fuels are not well characterized compared to those of hydrocarbons. In the present investigation, the first chemical kinetic study of a long-chain linear symmetric ether, di-n-butyl ether (DBE), is presented and a detailed reaction model is developed. DBE has been identified recently as a candidate biofuel produced from lignocellulosic biomass. The model includes both high temperature and low temperature reaction pathways with reaction rates generated using appropriate rate rules. In addition, experimental studies on fundamental combustion characteristics, such as ignition delay times and laminar flame speeds have been performed. A laminar flow reactor was used to determine the ignition delay times of lean and stoichiometric DBE/air mixtures. The laminar flame speeds of DBE/air mixtures were measured in the stagnation flame configuration for a wide rage of equivalence ratios at atmospheric pressure and an unburned reactant temperature of 373. K. All experimental data were modeled using the present kinetic model. The agreement between measured and computed results is satisfactory, and the model was used to elucidate the oxidation pathways of DBE. The dissociation of keto-hydroperoxides, leading to radical chain branching was found to dominate the ignition of DBE in the low temperature regime. The results of the present numerical and experimental study of the oxidation of di-n-butyl ether provide a good basis for further investigation of long chain linear and branched ethers. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.

  10. Chemical kinetic study of a novel lignocellulosic biofuel: Di-n-butyl ether oxidation in a laminar flow reactor and flames

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Liming

    2014-03-01

    The combustion characteristics of promising alternative fuels have been studied extensively in the recent years. Nevertheless, the pyrolysis and oxidation kinetics for many oxygenated fuels are not well characterized compared to those of hydrocarbons. In the present investigation, the first chemical kinetic study of a long-chain linear symmetric ether, di-n-butyl ether (DBE), is presented and a detailed reaction model is developed. DBE has been identified recently as a candidate biofuel produced from lignocellulosic biomass. The model includes both high temperature and low temperature reaction pathways with reaction rates generated using appropriate rate rules. In addition, experimental studies on fundamental combustion characteristics, such as ignition delay times and laminar flame speeds have been performed. A laminar flow reactor was used to determine the ignition delay times of lean and stoichiometric DBE/air mixtures. The laminar flame speeds of DBE/air mixtures were measured in the stagnation flame configuration for a wide rage of equivalence ratios at atmospheric pressure and an unburned reactant temperature of 373. K. All experimental data were modeled using the present kinetic model. The agreement between measured and computed results is satisfactory, and the model was used to elucidate the oxidation pathways of DBE. The dissociation of keto-hydroperoxides, leading to radical chain branching was found to dominate the ignition of DBE in the low temperature regime. The results of the present numerical and experimental study of the oxidation of di-n-butyl ether provide a good basis for further investigation of long chain linear and branched ethers. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.

  11. Convenience samples and caregiving research: how generalizable are the findings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruchno, Rachel A; Brill, Jonathan E; Shands, Yvonne; Gordon, Judith R; Genderson, Maureen Wilson; Rose, Miriam; Cartwright, Francine

    2008-12-01

    We contrast characteristics of respondents recruited using convenience strategies with those of respondents recruited by random digit dial (RDD) methods. We compare sample variances, means, and interrelationships among variables generated from the convenience and RDD samples. Women aged 50 to 64 who work full time and provide care to a community-dwelling older person were recruited using either RDD (N = 55) or convenience methods (N = 87). Telephone interviews were conducted using reliable, valid measures of demographics, characteristics of the care recipient, help provided to the care recipient, evaluations of caregiver-care recipient relationship, and outcomes common to caregiving research. Convenience and RDD samples had similar variances on 68.4% of the examined variables. We found significant mean differences for 63% of the variables examined. Bivariate correlations suggest that one would reach different conclusions using the convenience and RDD sample data sets. Researchers should use convenience samples cautiously, as they may have limited generalizability.

  12. Microwave sintering of poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) based coatings deposited on metallic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, G.; Leparoux, S.; Liao, H.; Coddet, C.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of microwave (MW) sintering PEEK (poly-ether-ether-ketone) based coatings was investigated. Three coatings were studied: pure PEEK, micron-SiC and nano-SiC particles filled (wt.10%) PEEK coatings. The results indicate that, for the two composite coatings, the SiC particles distributed in the polymer matrix, as a good MW susceptor, could be heated preferentially by MW radiation. Consequently, the polymer matrix was heated by these particles

  13. Environmental and health risks of chlorine trifluoride (ClF3), an alternative to potent greenhouse gases in the semiconductor industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Tien

    2011-06-15

    The first accident involving chlorine trifluoride (ClF(3)) in the history of semiconductor fabrication processes occurred on 28 July 2006 at Hsinchu (Taiwan), resulting in a large release of the highly reactive material and causing the chemical burn to several workers. ClF(3) is used primarily as an in situ cleaning gas in the manufacture of semiconductor silicon-wafer devices in replacement of perfluorocompounds (PFCs) because they have the high potential to contribute significantly to the global warming. This article aimed at reviewing ClF(3) in the physicochemical properties, the industrial uses, and the environmental implications on the basis of its toxicity, reactivity, health hazards and exposure limits. The health hazards of probable decomposition/hydrolysis products from ClF(3) were also evaluated based on their basic physicochemical properties and occupational exposure limits. The occupational exposure assessment was further discussed to understand potentially hazardous risks caused by hydrogen fluoride and fluorides from the decomposition/hydrolysis products of ClF(3). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Measurement of solubility of plutonium trifluoride and rare-earth fluorides in molten LiF-BeF2-ZrF4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, V.S.; Bychkov, A.V.; Kormilitsyn, M.V.

    1996-12-01

    Data on behavior of plutonium fluoride and fission products (FP) dissolved in fuel composition are needed to calculate the duration of an operating cycle of the ADTT facility (Accelerator-Driver Transmutation Technologies) and to determine the effect of their equilibrium concentrations on nuclear-physical characteristics of reactor operation. The data on the FP fluoride solubility in the molten salts are of great important for some industrial processes (electrolytical metal deposition, development of physical-chemical mean for processes of chemical technology, etc.) As noted above, some information on this question is given in monography and articles. Data concerning fluoride salts are given in reports. However, it was impossible to make the substantial analysis of mutual solubility of fluoride melts. The primary investigation of CeF 3 and neodymium, samarium and lanthanum fluorides showed that the solubility of the melt LiF-BeF 2 and LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 was a linear function of reverse temperature and increases from lanthanum to samarium in the row of rare-earth elements. Disagreement in estimation of plutonium trifluoride solubility and incomplete data on the solubility of rare-earth elements prompted this study

  15. Ab initio molecular orbital studies of the vibrational spectra of the van der Waals complexes of boron trifluoride with the noble gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Thomas A

    2005-05-01

    The molecular structures, interaction energies, charge transfer properties and vibrational spectra of the van der Waals complexes formed between boron trifluoride and the noble gases neon, argon, krypton and xenon have been computed using second and fourth order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory and the Los Alamos National Laboratory LANL2DZ basis set. The complexes are all symmetric tops, with the noble gas atom acting as a sigma electron donor along the C3 axis of the BF3 molecule. The interaction energies are all vanishingly small, and the amount of charge transferred in each case is of the order of 0.01e. The directions of the wavenumber shifts of the symmetric bending (nu2) and antisymmetric stretching (nu3) modes of the BF3 fragment confirm those determined experimentally, and the shifts are shown to correlate well with the polarizability of the noble gas atom and the inverse sixth power of the intermonomer separation. The nu2 mode is substantially more sensitive to complexation than the nu3 vibration.

  16. A comparative study of the structure and luminescence of mono- and dinuclear crown-ether lanthanide complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Keyla M.N. de [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Rua Dom Manoel de Medeiros, S/N – Dois Irmãos, 52171-900 Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); Batista, Hélcio J., E-mail: helciojb@gmail.com [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Rua Dom Manoel de Medeiros, S/N – Dois Irmãos, 52171-900 Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); Belian, Mônica F. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Rua Dom Manoel de Medeiros, S/N – Dois Irmãos, 52171-900 Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); Silva, Wagner E. [Unidade Acadêmica do Cabo de Santo Agostinho, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, 54510-000 Cabo de Santo Agostinho, Pernambuco (Brazil); Silva, Juliana A.B. da [Centro Acadêmico do Agreste, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 55002-970 Caruaru, Pernambuco (Brazil)

    2016-02-15

    Using as precursor the mononuclear lanthanide (Ln) macrocyclic complex, based on the 15-crown-5 ether (C) ligand and coordinated water (W) molecules, [LnCW{sub 4}]{sup 3+}, four novel analogous complexes for each of the three Ln(III) ions (Ln=Eu, Tb and Gd) were synthesized through systematic substitution of water molecules by the antenna-type ligands: 2,2′-dipyridyl (D), 1,10-phenanthroline (P) and 2,2′;6',2′′-terpyridine (T). The corresponding formulae of the complexes, obtained in a trichloride salt form, were the following: [LnCW{sub 4}]{sup 3+}, [LnCP{sub 2}]{sup 3+}, [LnCDW]{sup 3+}, [LnCDP]{sup 3+}, and [LnCT]{sup 3+}. The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, UV and infrared spectroscopy and investigated through luminescence spectroscopy. For the Eu(III) and Tb(III) complex series, the most luminescent ones were [EuCDP]{sup 3+} and [TbCT]{sup 3+}, respectively. Motivated by this fact, two dinuclear analogous Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes, based on the two-site coordinating macrocyclic ligand lariat-silacrown ether (S), as well as analogous Gd(III) complexes, were obtained as hexachloride salts with the following formulae: [Eu{sub 2}SD{sub 2}P{sub 2}]{sup 6+}, [Gd{sub 2}SD{sub 2}P{sub 2}]{sup 6+}, [Tb{sub 2}ST{sub 2}]{sup 6+} and [Gd{sub 2}ST{sub 2}]{sup 6+}. Also, [Eu{sub 2}SW{sub 8}]{sup 6+}, [Tb{sub 2}SW{sub 8}]{sup 6+} and [Gd{sub 2}SW{sub 8}]{sup 6+} complexes were prepared and used as reference non-antenna type dinuclear compounds. Comparing the luminescence between the antenna mononuclear complexes with the analogous dinuclear ones, for Eu(III) and Tb(III) ions, almost no change was observed. On the other hand, in the particular case of Eu(III), comparing the mono- and dinuclear non-antenna reference complexes [EuCW{sub 4}]{sup 3+} and [Eu{sub 2}SW{sub 8}]{sup 6+}, a surprisingly much higher luminescence intensity was observed for the dinuclear complex (~ one order of magnitude). The proposed cause for this behavior is the

  17. alfa-Amylase as a reliable and convenient measure of sympathetic activity: don’t start salivating just yet!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, JA; Veerman, J.W.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Proctor, J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in salivary α-amylase (sAA) as a non-invasive marker for sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. Saliva offers many advantages as a biomarker fluid and sAA is one of its most plentiful components. sAA is a digestive enzyme that breaks down starch, which

  18. α-Amylase as a reliable and convenient measure of sympathetic activity: don't start salivating just yet!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, J.A.; Veerman, E.C.I.; de Geus, E.J.; Proctor, G.B.

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in salivary α-amylase (sAA) as a non-invasive marker for sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. Saliva offers many advantages as a biomarker fluid and sAA is one of its most plentiful components. sAA is a digestive enzyme that breaks down starch, which

  19. Radiation-induced transformations of cellulose ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nud'ga, L.A.; Petropavlovskii, G.S.; Plisko, E.A.; Isakova, O.V.; Ershov, B.G.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the transformation which take place under the action of γ-radiation in a number of cellulose ethers containing both saturated (carboxymethyl, hydroxyethyl) and unsaturated (allyl, methacryloyl) groups. Irradiation was carried out on a 60 Co unit in air at 77 and 300 K; the dose rate was 37 and 50 kGy/h respectively. The EPR spectra of γ-irradiated hydroxyethyl- and allylhydroxyethylcelluloses are identical. Under the action of γ-radiation extensive changes took place in cellulose ethers which are exhibited in degradation or the formation of three-dimensional structures and are accompanied by a change in the functional composition. The efficiency in the formation of radicals and their localization are determined by the nature and number of substituents in the cellulose ethers

  20. The role of the "socio" in socio-hydrology: equal partner or a marriage of convenience (and necessity)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Socio-hydrology as a concept has been in vogue for past 10-15 years and has been defined as a means to better integrate hydrological and societal processes and connections. Rarely, however, do we reflect on the balance between the two elements in the concept, and all too often the "socio" is seen as a necessary evil in support of hydrological sciences, rather than as an equal partner. The objective of this contribution is to assess the "socio" component of socio-hydrology, a fairly recent and accepted genre within the hydrological sciences. A brief history of the term and related research is outlined, followed by a discussion of the current balance between socio and hydrology in this science, and directions for future research and integration. This contribution also introduces the concept of a "water policy cycle" as a way to integrate the "socio" into the more traditional (and engineering and bio-physical biased) hydrological cycle. Finally, we use an ongoing case of coproduction of knowledge and decision making in a dynamic southwest Idaho river basin to illustrate the opportunities and challenges of socio-hydrology at the local and regional scale. This contribution will address the "Society co-production of knowledge and policy" theme of HS 5.5.

  1. A Convenient Route to Higher Sugars by Two-Carbon Chain Elongation Using Wittig/Dihydroxylation Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten; Iversen, Erik Høgh; Madsen, Robert

    2001-01-01

    The combination of a Wittig olefination and a dihydroxylation reaction constitutes a facile synthetic protocol for the transformation of unprotected carbohydrates into higher sugars. The Wittig reaction is carried out with tert-butyl or diphenylmethyl ester stabilized phosphoranes to give (E......)-configured alpha,beta -unsaturated esters as the only products in most cases. These are dihydroxylated in a diastereoselective fashion using OsO4/NMO. The stereochemical outcome in the dihydroxylation follows Kishi's empirical rule and gives high diastereoselectivity (5:1-8:1) when starting from sugars with the 2......,3-threo configuration. When starting from sugars with the 2,3-erythro configuration, the diastereoselectivity in the dihydroxylation is low (2:1-2.5:1). As a result, the Wittig/dihydroxylation protocol is most effective for producing higher sugars with the galacto configuration at the reducing end...

  2. Synthesis and characterization of boron trifluoride (B F[sub 3]). Sintese e caracterizacao de trifluoreto de boro (BF[sub 3])

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, E T.R.; Umeda, K; Echternacht, M V; Silva, E.F. da.

    1994-08-01

    High purity boron trifluoride (B F[sub 3]) has been prepared from reaction of ammonium fluorborate and boron oxide in concentrated sulfuric acid. Fluorborate was synthesized by reaction of ammonium bi fluoride and boric acid produced from enrichment plant. (author).

  3. Preservation of semi-perishable food and development of convenience food using a combination of irradiation and other physicochemical treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, N.; Siddiqui, A.K.; Chowdhury, N.A.; Youssouf, Q.M.; Rashid, H.; Begum, A.A.; Alam, M.K.

    1998-01-01

    Studies were carried out on the development and irradiation preservation of semi-dried fish, e.g. Labeo rohita (Ruhi) and Cirrhiuas mrigala (Mrigel), the extension of shelf-life at ambient temperature, and the improvement in the microbiological quality of sealed, ready to eat, commercially prepared fish kebabs by a combination of gamma irradiation with spices and an acidulant such as ascorbic acid. In the processing of semi-dried fish, the combination treatment of a salt dip and irradiation at a dose of 4 kGy extended the shelf-life by more than 3 months. Kebabs prepared in the laboratory and irradiated at a dose of 5 kGy were found to have a shelf-life of up to 6 months at room temperature. With commercially prepared fish kebabs collected from ordinary and sophisticated food shops, the maximum shelf-life extension was 14 days for the 5 kGy treated samples stored at ambient temperature. The microbiological quality of such kebabs indicated that the fish used was of poor quality, resulting in a limited shelf-life, even after chemical and irradiation treatments. Inoculated pack studies of Clostridium botulinum spores showed that when oil fried, the kebab size had a definite effect on heat penetration, and consequent spore reduction. No spores were recovered from the 5 kGy irradiated fried kebabs. (author)

  4. Rich in vitamin C or just a convenient snack? Multiple-category reasoning with cross-classified foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brett K; Kurniawan, Hendy; Newell, Ben R

    2011-01-01

    Two studies examined multiple category reasoning in property induction with cross-classified foods. Pilot tests identified foods that were more typical of a taxonomic category (e.g., "fruit"; termed 'taxonomic primary') or a script based category (e.g., "snack foods"; termed 'script primary'). They also confirmed that taxonomic categories were perceived as more coherent than script categories. In Experiment 1 participants completed an induction task in which information from multiple categories could be searched and combined to generate a property prediction about a target food. Multiple categories were more often consulted and used in prediction for script primary than for taxonomic primary foods. Experiment 2 replicated this finding across a range of property types but found that multiple category reasoning was reduced in the presence of a concurrent cognitive load. Property type affected which categories were consulted first and how information from multiple categories was weighted. The results show that multiple categories are more likely to be used for property predictions about cross-classified objects when an object is primarily associated with a category that has low coherence.

  5. α-Amylase as a reliable and convenient measure of sympathetic activity: don't start salivating just yet!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Jos A; Veerman, Enno C I; de Geus, Eco J; Proctor, Gordon B

    2011-05-01

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in salivary α-amylase (sAA) as a non-invasive marker for sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. Saliva offers many advantages as a biomarker fluid and sAA is one of its most plentiful components. sAA is a digestive enzyme that breaks down starch, which provides a simple means of quantification by measuring its enzymatic activity. This commentary will address a number of common misconceptions and methodological issues that surround the use of sAA as a marker of SNS activity and limit its utility in biobehavioral research. The usefulness of sAA as an SNS marker is undermined by the fact that the parasympathetic nerves also play a significant role in sAA release. Local parasympathetic nerves regulate sAA activity via: (1) α-amylase release from glands that are solely or mainly parasympathetically innervated; (2) via synergistic sympathetic-parasympathetic effects on protein secretion (known as 'augmented secretion'); and (3) via effects on salivary flow rate. Regarding methodology, we discuss why it is problematic: (1) to ignore the contribution of salivary flow rate; (2) to use absorbent materials for saliva collection, and; (3) to stimulate saliva secretion by chewing. While these methodological problems can be addressed by using standardized and timed collection of unstimulated saliva, the physiological regulation of sAA secretion presents less resolvable issues. We conclude that at present there is insufficient support for the use and interpretation of sAA activity as a valid and reliable measure of SNS activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A convenient preparation of 9 H -carbazole-3,6-dicarbonitrile and 9 H -carbazole-3,6-dicarboxylic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Weselinski, Lukasz Jan

    2014-01-23

    A catalytic, high yielding and scalable procedure for the synthesis of 9H-carbazole-3,6-dicarbonitrile has been developed. Subsequent hydrolysis of the dinitrile in the presence of a catalytic copper species (i.e., CuI) yields 9H-carbazole-3,6-dicarboxylic acid. Both compounds are versatile and fine-tunable organic building blocks and therefore offer potential in material science, medicinal and supramolecular chemistry. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart New York.

  7. Willingness to Pay for Information Programs about E-Commerce: Results from a Convenience Sample of Rural Louisiana Businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Susan; Nwoha, Ogbonnaya John; Kennedy, Gary A.; Rea, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    The probability of a business paying various amounts of money for an e-commerce presence ultimately depends on demographic features, experiences with e-commerce from a buyer’s and seller’s perspective, technological expertise, and knowledge of e-commerce opportunities and limitations. Estimating functions to assign probabilities associated with the willingness to pay for an e-commerce presence will assist in forecasting regional likelihood of certain profiles paying various monetary amoun...

  8. Real-Time PCR Typing of Escherichia coli Based on Multiple Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms--a Convenient and Rapid Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lager, Malin; Mernelius, Sara; Löfgren, Sture; Söderman, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare-associated infections caused by Escherichia coli and antibiotic resistance due to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production constitute a threat against patient safety. To identify, track, and control outbreaks and to detect emerging virulent clones, typing tools of sufficient discriminatory power that generate reproducible and unambiguous data are needed. A probe based real-time PCR method targeting multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) was developed. The method was based on the multi locus sequence typing scheme of Institute Pasteur and by adaptation of previously described typing assays. An 8 SNP-panel that reached a Simpson's diversity index of 0.95 was established, based on analysis of sporadic E. coli cases (ESBL n = 27 and non-ESBL n = 53). This multi-SNP assay was used to identify the sequence type 131 (ST131) complex according to the Achtman's multi locus sequence typing scheme. However, it did not fully discriminate within the complex but provided a diagnostic signature that outperformed a previously described detection assay. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing of isolates from a presumed outbreak (n = 22) identified two outbreaks (ST127 and ST131) and three different non-outbreak-related isolates. Multi-SNP typing generated congruent data except for one non-outbreak-related ST131 isolate. We consider multi-SNP real-time PCR typing an accessible primary generic E. coli typing tool for rapid and uniform type identification.

  9. A convenient method for calculation of ionic diffusion coefficients for accurate selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryahina, K.; Spanel, P.

    2005-07-01

    A method to calculate diffusion coefficients of ions important for the selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, is presented. The ions, on which this method is demonstrated, include the SIFT-MS precursors H3O+(H2O)0,1,2,3, NO.+(H2O)0,1,2 and O2+ and the product ions relevant to analysis of breath trace metabolites ammonia (NH3+(H2O)0,1,2, NH4+(H2O)0,1,2), acetaldehyde (C2H4OH+(H2O)0,1,2), acetone (CH3CO+, (CH3)2CO+, (CH3)2COH+(H2O)0,1, (CH3)2CO.NO+), ethanol (C2H5OHH+(H2O)0,1,2) and isoprene (C5H7+, C5H8+, C5H9+). Theoretical model of the (12, 4) potential for interaction between the ions and the helium atoms is used, with the repulsive part approximated by the mean hard-sphere cross section and the attractive part describing ion-induced dipole interactions. The reduced zero-field mobilities at 300 K are calculated using the Viehland and Mason theory [L.A. Viehland, S.L. Lin, E.A. Mason, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables, 60 (1995) 37-95], parameterised by a simple formula as a function of the mean hard-sphere cross section, and converted to diffusion coefficients using the Einstein relation. The method is tested on a set of experimental data for simple ions and cluster ions.

  10. panMetaDocs and DataSync - providing a convenient way to share and publish research data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, D.; Klump, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years research institutions, geological surveys and funding organizations started to build infrastructures to facilitate the re-use of research data from previous work. At present, several intermeshed activities are coordinated to make data systems of the earth sciences interoperable and recorded data discoverable. Driven by governmental authorities, ISO19115/19139 emerged as metadata standards for discovery of data and services. Established metadata transport protocols like OAI-PMH and OGC-CSW are used to disseminate metadata to data portals. With the persistent identifiers like DOI and IGSN research data and corresponding physical samples can be given unambiguous names and thus become citable. In summary, these activities focus primarily on 'ready to give away'-data, already stored in an institutional repository and described with appropriate metadata. Many datasets are not 'born' in this state but are produced in small and federated research projects. To make access and reuse of these 'small data' easier, these data should be centrally stored and version controlled from the very beginning of activities. We developed DataSync [1] as supplemental application to the panMetaDocs [2] data exchange platform as a data management tool for small science projects. DataSync is a JAVA-application that runs on a local computer and synchronizes directory trees into an eSciDoc-repository [3] by creating eSciDoc-objects via eSciDocs' REST API. DataSync can be installed on multiple computers and is in this way able to synchronize files of a research team over the internet. XML Metadata can be added as separate files that are managed together with data files as versioned eSciDoc-objects. A project-customized instance of panMetaDocs is provided to show a web-based overview of the previously uploaded file collection and to allow further annotation with metadata inside the eSciDoc-repository. PanMetaDocs is a PHP based web application to assist the creation of metadata in

  11. Steroidal[17,16-d]pyrimidines derived from dehydroepiandrosterone: A convenient synthesis, antiproliferation activity, structure-activity relationships, and role of heterocyclic moiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Shaoyong; Shi, Liqiao; Zhang, Zhigang; Yang, Ziwen

    2017-01-01

    A series of steroidal[17,16-d]pyrimidines derived from dehydroepiandrosterone were designed and prepared by a convenient heterocyclization reaction. The in vitro anticancer activities for these obtained compounds were evaluated against human cancer cell lines (HepG2, Huh-7, and SGC-7901), which demonstrated that some of these heterocyclic pyrimidine derivatives exhibited significantly good cytotoxic activities against all tested cell lines compared with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), especially, compound 3b exhibited high potential growth inhibitory activities against all tested cell lines with the IC50 values of 5.41 ± 1.34, 5.65 ± 1.02 and 10.64 ± 1.49 μM, respectively, which might be used as promising lead scaffold for discovery of novel anticancer agents. PMID:28290501

  12. Convenient preparation of high molecular weight poly(dimethylsiloxane using thermally latent NHC-catalysis: a structure-activity correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Naumann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The polymerization of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4 is investigated using several five-, six- and seven-membered N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs. The catalysts are delivered in situ from thermally susceptible CO2 adducts. It is demonstrated that the polymerization can be triggered from a latent state by mild heating, using the highly nucleophilic 1,3,4,5-tetramethylimidazol-2-ylidene as organocatalyst. This way, high molecular weight PDMS is prepared (up to >400 000 g/mol, 1.6 ÐM 95%, using low catalyst loadings (0.2–0.1 mol %. Furthermore, the results suggest that a nucleophilic, zwitterionic mechanism is in operation, in preference to purely anionic polymerization.

  13. Ultrasound and supine chest radiograph in road traffic accident patients: a reliable and convenient way to diagnose pleural effusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumtaz, U.; Zahur, Z.; Raza, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Portable bed side ultrasound and supine chest radiograph of 80 traumatic patients excluding very clinically unstable patients who subsequently underwent CT scan chest was done for traumatic effusion showing that ultrasound had a higher sensitivity than CXR, 88.23% and 77.94%, respectively, and a similar specificity of 100% and 100%, respectively. Objective of the study is to compare the diagnostic accuracy of high resolution ultrasound and supine chest x-ray in detection of pleural effusion in road traffic accident patients keeping plain CT chest as gold standard. Methods: This study was conducted in PIMS and PAEC General Hospital, Islamabad from 1st January to 15th December 2015. The current study examined total of 80 trauma (blunt and penetrating) patients coming to emergency departments of both hospitals specifically those who had road traffic accident history. Their portable bed side ultrasound and supine chest radiograph were performed for assessing pleural effusion and subsequently CT scan chest was done for confirmation as it's a gold standard. Results: Using CT findings as gold standard the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value was assessed for both ultrasonography and chest radiography and found to be 88.23%,100%, 100%, 40% and 77.94%, 100%, 100%, 55.55% respectively with diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound 90% as compared to 81.25% for supine chest x-rays when compared with gold standard. Conclusion: Ultrasound and chest x-ray can be used as a useful and suitable adjunct to CT in road traffic accident patients as these are easily available, non-invasive, no contrast required, can be performed on bed side and carries no or little radiation risk. (author)

  14. Concentrations of bisphenol a, bisphenol a diglycidyl ether, and their derivatives in canned foods in Japanese markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonekubo, Jun; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Sajiki, Junko

    2008-03-26

    Bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), and their derivatives in 38 canned foods sold in Japan were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and LC-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). BPA, BADGE, BADGE.2H 2O, BADGE.HCl.H2O, BADGE.HCl, and BADGE.2HCl were 0-235.4, 0-3.4, 0-247.2, 0.2-196.4, 0-3.0, and 0-25.7 ng/g, respectively, which did not exceed acceptable daily intake for BPA and specific migration limit for BADGEs. BADGE was degraded by 58, 100, 46, and 58% in water (pH 7), 0.01 N HCl (pH 2), 0.01 N NaCl (pH 6.8), and 0.01 N NaCl with acetic acid (pH 2.5), respectively, when it was allowed to stand at 120 degrees C for 30 min. The prominent derivatives formed were BADGE.2H 2O and BADGE.HCl.H2O, which was formed not only in BADGE with added HCl but also in that with NaCl. Acetic acid accelerated the formation of both BADGE.2H2O and BADGE.HCl.H2O in NaCl. No BPA was detected in any simulation samples started from BADGE. The results suggest that BPA and BADGE are independently leached into canned foods and that BADGE is easily changed to more stable compounds such as BADGE.2H2O and BADGE.HCl.H2O by sterilization.

  15. A Review on Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in South Asia with a Focus on Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaw, Han Yeong; Kannan, Narayanan

    Malaysia is a developing country in Southeast Asia, with rapid industrial and economic growth. Speedy population growth and aggressive consumerism in the past five decades have resulted in environmental pollution issues, including products containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). PCBs and PBDEs are classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by the Stockholm Convention due to their persistence, bioaccumulation in the environment and toxicity to humans and wildlife. These compounds are known to cause liver dysfunction, thyroid toxicity, developmental neuro-toxicity and possibly cancer. PCBs in air, mussels, pellets, seawater, fresh water, and human breast milk samples were analyzed in Malaysia, while studies on the pollution level of PBDEs in Malaysia were conducted on mussels, soils, leachate and sediment samples. PCBs in breast milk collected from Malaysia was the highest among Asian developing countries, with mean concentration of 80 ng/g lipid weight. On the other hand, the mean concentration of PCBs in mussels collected from Malaysia recorded the second lowest, with 56 ng/g and 89 ng/g lipid weight in two studies respectively. The concentrations of PBDEs in mussels taken from Malaysia fall in the range of 0.84-16 ng/g lipid weight, which is considerably low compared to 104.5 ng/g lipid weight in Philippines and 90.59 ng/g in Korea. Nevertheless, there are limited studies on these compounds in Malaysia, particularly there is no research on PBDEs in breast milk and sediment samples. This review will summarize the contamination levels of PCBs and PBDEs in different samples collected from Asian countries since 1988 until 2010 with a focus on Malaysia and will provide needed information for further research in this field.

  16. Brain GABA and Glutamate Concentrations Following Chronic Gabapentin Administration: A Convenience Sample Studied During Early Abstinence From Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter J. Meyerhoff

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Gabapentin (GBP, a GABA analog that may also affect glutamate (Glu production, can normalize GABA and Glu tone during early abstinence from alcohol, effectively treating withdrawal symptoms and facilitating recovery. Using in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we tested the degree to which daily GBP alters regional brain GABA and Glu levels in short-term abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals. Regional metabolite levels were compared between 13 recently abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals who had received daily GBP for at least 1 week (GBP+ and 25 matched alcohol-dependent individuals who had not received GBP (GBP−. Magnetic resonance spectra from up to five different brain regions were analyzed to yield absolute GABA and Glu concentrations. GABA and Glu concentrations in the parieto-occipital cortex were not different between GBP− and GBP+. Glu levels in anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and basal ganglia did not differ between GBP− and GBP+. However, in a subgroup of individuals matched on age, sex, and abstinence duration, GBP+ had markedly lower Glu in the frontal white matter (WM than GBP−, comparable to concentrations found in light/non-drinking controls. Furthermore, lower frontal WM Glu in GBP+ correlated with a higher daily GBP dose. Daily GBP treatment at an average of 1,600 mg/day for at least 1 week was not associated with altered cortical GABA and Glu concentrations during short-term abstinence from alcohol, but with lower Glu in frontal WM. GBP for the treatment of alcohol dependence may work through reducing Glu in WM rather than increasing cortical GABA.

  17. Reactions of carbonyl compounds with α,β-unsaturated nitriles as a convenient pathway to carbo- and heterocycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharanin, Yu A; Goncharenko, M P; Litvinov, Victor P

    1998-01-01

    Published data on the methods for synthesis of carbo- and heterocyclic compounds based on reactions of α,β-unsaturated nitriles with carbonyl compounds and activated phenols are surveyed. It is demonstrated that all these reactions occur via nucleophilic addition of the carbanion generated from a carbonyl compound to the double bond of an unsaturated nitrile (the Michael reaction). The main routes of transformation of the adducts into carbo- and heterocyclic compounds are considered. The methods for regioselective preparation of fused 4H-pyrans or 1,4-dihydropyridines by varying conditions of cyclisation of Michael adducts are discussed. The bibliography includes 249 references.

  18. Tandem mass spectrometry: a convenient approach in the dosage of steviol glycosides in Stevia sweetened commercial food beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Donna, L; Mazzotti, F; Santoro, I; Sindona, G

    2017-05-01

    The use of sweeteners extracted from leaves of the plant species Stevia rebaudiana is increasing worldwide. They are recognized as generally recognized as safe by the US-FDA and approved by EU-European Food Safety Authority, with some recommendation on the daily dosage that should not interfere with glucose metabolism. The results presented here introduce an easy analytical approach for the identification and assay of Stevia sweeteners in commercially available soft drink, based on liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, using a natural statin-like molecule, Brutieridin, as internal standard. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence as a convenient tool for determination of trace elements in microscale gasoline and diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Airui; Jin, Axiang; Wang, Hai; Wang, Xiaokang; Zha, Pengfei; Wang, Meiling; Song, Xiaoping; Gao, Sitian

    2018-03-01

    Quantitative determination of trace elements like S, Fe, Cu, Mn and Pb in gasoline and S in diesel is of great importance due to the growing concerns over air pollution, human health and engine failure caused by utilization of gasoline and diesel with these harmful elements. A method of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was developed to measure these harmful trace elements in gasoline and diesel. A variety of factors to affect measurement results, including TXRF parameters, microwave-assisted digestion conditions and internal standard element and its addition, were examined to optimize these experimental procedures. The hydrophobic treatment of the surface of quartz reflectors to support the analyte with neutral silicone solutions could prepare thin films of gasoline and diesel digestion solutions for subsequent TXRF analysis. The proposed method shows good potential and reliability to determine the content of harmful trace elements in gasoline and diesel with high sensitivity and accuracy without drawing different standard calibration curves, and can be easily employed to screen gasoline and diesel in routine quality control and assurance.

  20. The Ether Wind and the Global Positioning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Rainer

    2000-01-01

    Explains how students can perform a refutation of the ether theory using information from the Global Positioning System (GPS). Discusses the functioning of the GPS, qualitatively describes how position determination would be affected by an ether wind, and illustrates the pertinent ideas with a simple quantitative model. (WRM)

  1. Calcitriol inhibits Ether-a go-go potassium channel expression and cell proliferation in human breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Becerra, Rocio [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Diaz, Lorenza, E-mail: lorenzadiaz@gmail.com [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Camacho, Javier [Department of Pharmacology, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, San Pedro Zacatenco 07360, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Barrera, David; Ordaz-Rosado, David; Morales, Angelica [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ortiz, Cindy Sharon [Department of Pathology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Avila, Euclides [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Bargallo, Enrique [Department of Breast Tumors, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Av. San Fernando No. 22, Tlalpan 14080, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Arrecillas, Myrna [Department of Pathology, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Av. San Fernando No. 22, Tlalpan 14080, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Halhali, Ali; Larrea, Fernando [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-02-01

    Antiproliferative actions of calcitriol have been shown to occur in many cell types; however, little is known regarding the molecular basis of this process in breast carcinoma. Ether-a-go-go (Eag1) potassium channels promote oncogenesis and are implicated in breast cancer cell proliferation. Since calcitriol displays antineoplastic effects while Eag1 promotes tumorigenesis, and both factors antagonically regulate cell cycle progression, we investigated a possible regulatory effect of calcitriol upon Eag1 as a mean to uncover new molecular events involved in the antiproliferative activity of this hormone in human breast tumor-derived cells. RT real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry showed that calcitriol suppressed Eag1 expression by a vitamin D receptor (VDR)-dependent mechanism. This effect was accompanied by inhibition of cell proliferation, which was potentiated by astemizole, a nonspecific Eag1 inhibitor. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot demonstrated that Eag1 and VDR abundance was higher in invasive-ductal carcinoma than in fibroadenoma, and immunoreactivity of both proteins was located in ductal epithelial cells. Our results provide evidence of a novel mechanism involved in the antiproliferative effects of calcitriol and highlight VDR as a cancer therapeutic target for breast cancer treatment and prevention.

  2. A combined effect of polybrominated diphenyl ether and aquaculture effluent on growth and antioxidative response of mangrove plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzana, Shazia; Tam, Nora Fung Yee

    2018-06-01

    Mangrove wetland receives nutrient-rich aquaculture effluent (AE) from nearby farming activities and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from the production and usage of flame retardants. The effects of BDE-209 (the most common PBDE congener), AE and their combination on two true mangrove species, namely Kandelia obovata and Avicennia marina, were compared in a 6-month microcosm study. Results showed that K. obovata was more sensitive to these contaminants than A. marina, as reflected by its enhanced production of leaf superoxide (O 2 -∗ ) by BDE-209 and root malondialdehyde (MDA) by the combined BDE-209 and AE treatment. The hormesis model showed that the combined effects of BDE-209 and AE on the production of MDA, O 2 -∗ and catalase (CAT) activity in K. obovata and A. marina were antagonistic except root O 2 -∗ in A. marina, but the effects on leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in K. obovata, and root SOD and peroxidase (POD) activities in A. marina were synergistic. The defense mechanisms differed between treatment and species. The activities of SOD and POD were the main mechanisms to defend K. obovata and A. marina against BDE-209, but CAT in K. obovata and POD in A. marina were more important in defending the combined BDE-209 and AE treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Calcitriol inhibits Ether-a go-go potassium channel expression and cell proliferation in human breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Becerra, Rocio; Diaz, Lorenza; Camacho, Javier; Barrera, David; Ordaz-Rosado, David; Morales, Angelica; Ortiz, Cindy Sharon; Avila, Euclides; Bargallo, Enrique; Arrecillas, Myrna; Halhali, Ali; Larrea, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Antiproliferative actions of calcitriol have been shown to occur in many cell types; however, little is known regarding the molecular basis of this process in breast carcinoma. Ether-a-go-go (Eag1) potassium channels promote oncogenesis and are implicated in breast cancer cell proliferation. Since calcitriol displays antineoplastic effects while Eag1 promotes tumorigenesis, and both factors antagonically regulate cell cycle progression, we investigated a possible regulatory effect of calcitriol upon Eag1 as a mean to uncover new molecular events involved in the antiproliferative activity of this hormone in human breast tumor-derived cells. RT real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry showed that calcitriol suppressed Eag1 expression by a vitamin D receptor (VDR)-dependent mechanism. This effect was accompanied by inhibition of cell proliferation, which was potentiated by astemizole, a nonspecific Eag1 inhibitor. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot demonstrated that Eag1 and VDR abundance was higher in invasive-ductal carcinoma than in fibroadenoma, and immunoreactivity of both proteins was located in ductal epithelial cells. Our results provide evidence of a novel mechanism involved in the antiproliferative effects of calcitriol and highlight VDR as a cancer therapeutic target for breast cancer treatment and prevention.

  4. A poly(ether-ester) copolymer for the preparation of nanocarriers with improved degradation and drug delivery kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliardi, M., E-mail: mariacristina.gagliardi@iit.it [Center for Micro Bio-Robotics @SSSA, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Viale Rinaldo Piaggio 34, 56025 Pontedera (Italy); Bertero, A. [Department of Biology, Unit of Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Pisa, S.S.12 Abetone e Brennero 4, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Center for Neuroscience and Cognitive Systems @UNITN, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Bettini 31, 38068 Rovereto (Italy); Bardi, G. [Center for Bio-Molecular Nanotechnologies @UniLe, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Barsanti, 73010 Arnesano (Italy); Bifone, A. [Center for Neuroscience and Cognitive Systems @UNITN, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Bettini 31, 38068 Rovereto (Italy)

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports the synthesis and the physicochemical, functional and biological characterisations of nanocarriers made of a novel di-block biodegradable poly(ether-ester) copolymer. This material presents tunable, fast biodegradation rates, but its products are less acidic than those of other biosorbable polymers like PLGA, thus presenting a better biocompatibility profile and the possibility to carry pH-sensitive payloads. A method for the production of monodisperse and spherical nanoparticles is proposed; drug delivery kinetics and blood protein adsorption were measured to evaluate the functional properties of these nanoparticles as drug carriers. The copolymer was labelled with a fluorescent dye for internalisation tests, and rhodamine B was used as a model cargo to study transport and release inside cultured cells. Biological tests demonstrated good cytocompatibility, significant cell internalisation and the possibility to vehiculate non-cell penetrating moieties into endothelial cells. Taken together, these results support the potential use of this nanoparticulate system for systemic administration of drugs. - Highlights: • We propose a novel biodegradable nanocarrier for intracellular drug delivery. • Biodegradation rates can be finely tuned by controlling copolymer composition. • Degradation products are less acidic, thus enabling delivery of pH-sensitive cargoes. • We demonstrate intracellular delivery of a non-cell-penetrating model drug. • No significant membrane damage by the polymer nanocarriers is observed.

  5. A poly(ether-ester) copolymer for the preparation of nanocarriers with improved degradation and drug delivery kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagliardi, M.; Bertero, A.; Bardi, G.; Bifone, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the synthesis and the physicochemical, functional and biological characterisations of nanocarriers made of a novel di-block biodegradable poly(ether-ester) copolymer. This material presents tunable, fast biodegradation rates, but its products are less acidic than those of other biosorbable polymers like PLGA, thus presenting a better biocompatibility profile and the possibility to carry pH-sensitive payloads. A method for the production of monodisperse and spherical nanoparticles is proposed; drug delivery kinetics and blood protein adsorption were measured to evaluate the functional properties of these nanoparticles as drug carriers. The copolymer was labelled with a fluorescent dye for internalisation tests, and rhodamine B was used as a model cargo to study transport and release inside cultured cells. Biological tests demonstrated good cytocompatibility, significant cell internalisation and the possibility to vehiculate non-cell penetrating moieties into endothelial cells. Taken together, these results support the potential use of this nanoparticulate system for systemic administration of drugs. - Highlights: • We propose a novel biodegradable nanocarrier for intracellular drug delivery. • Biodegradation rates can be finely tuned by controlling copolymer composition. • Degradation products are less acidic, thus enabling delivery of pH-sensitive cargoes. • We demonstrate intracellular delivery of a non-cell-penetrating model drug. • No significant membrane damage by the polymer nanocarriers is observed.

  6. Inadequate Iodine Intake in Population Groups Defined by Age, Life Stage and Vegetarian Dietary Practice in a Norwegian Convenience Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Johansen, Nina Cathrine; Nyheim, Kristine Aastad; Erlund, Iris; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Henjum, Sigrun

    2018-02-17

    Inadequate iodine intake has been identified in populations considered iodine replete for decades. The objective of the current study is to evaluate urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and the probability of adequate iodine intake in subgroups of the Norwegian population defined by age, life stage and vegetarian dietary practice. In a cross-sectional survey, we assessed the probability of adequate iodine intake by two 24-h food diaries and UIC from two fasting morning spot urine samples in 276 participants. The participants included children ( n = 47), adolescents ( n = 46), adults ( n = 71), the elderly ( n = 23), pregnant women ( n = 45), ovo-lacto vegetarians ( n = 25), and vegans ( n = 19). In all participants combined, the median (95% CI) UIC was 101 (90, 110) µg/L, median (25th, 75th percentile) calculated iodine intake was 112 (77, 175) µg/day and median (25th, 75th percentile) estimated usual iodine intake was 101 (75, 150) µg/day. According to WHOs criteria for evaluation of median UIC, iodine intake was inadequate in the elderly, pregnant women, vegans and non-pregnant women of childbearing age. Children had the highest (82%) and vegans the lowest (14%) probability of adequate iodine intake according to reported food and supplement intakes. This study confirms the need for monitoring iodine intake and status in nationally representative study samples in Norway.

  7. Complexation of imidazopyridine-based cations with a 24-crown-8 ether host: [2]pseudorotaxane and partially threaded structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Olivares, Surisadai I; Cervantes, Ruy; Tiburcio, Jorge

    2013-11-01

    A new series of linear molecules derived from 1,2-bis(imidazopyridin-2-yl)ethane can fully or partially penetrate the cavity of the dibenzo-24-crown-8 macrocycle to produce a new family of host-guest complexes. Protonation or alkylation of the nitrogen atoms on the pyridine rings led to an increase in the guest total positive charge up to 4+ and simultaneously generated two new recognition sites (pyridinium motifs) that are in competition with the 1,2-bis(benzimidazole)ethane motif for the crown ether. The relative position of the pyridine ring and the chemical nature of the N-substituent determined the preferred motif and the host-guest complex geometry: (i) for linear guests with relatively bulky groups (i.e., a benzyl substituent), the 1,2-bis(benzimidazole)ethane motif is favored, leading to a fully threaded complex with a [2]pseudorotaxane geometry; (ii) for small substituents, such as -H and -CH3 groups, regardless of the guest shape, the pyridinium motifs are preferred, leading to external partially threaded complexes in a 2:1 host to guest stoichiometry.

  8. Identification of a polyketide synthase required for alternariol (AOH and alternariol-9-methyl ether (AME formation in Alternaria alternata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjani Saha

    Full Text Available Alternaria alternata produces more than 60 secondary metabolites, among which alternariol (AOH and alternariol-9-methyl ether (AME are important mycotoxins. Whereas the toxicology of these two polyketide-based compounds has been studied, nothing is known about the genetics of their biosynthesis. One of the postulated core enzymes in the biosynthesis of AOH and AME is polyketide synthase (PKS. In a draft genome sequence of A. alternata we identified 10 putative PKS-encoding genes. The timing of the expression of two PKS genes, pksJ and pksH, correlated with the production of AOH and AME. The PksJ and PksH proteins are predicted to be 2222 and 2821 amino acids in length, respectively. They are both iterative type I reducing polyketide synthases. PksJ harbors a peroxisomal targeting sequence at the C-terminus, suggesting that the biosynthesis occurs at least partly in these organelles. In the vicinity of pksJ we found a transcriptional regulator, altR, involved in pksJ induction and a putative methyl transferase, possibly responsible for AME formation. Downregulation of pksJ and altR caused a large decrease of alternariol formation, suggesting that PksJ is the polyketide synthase required for the postulated Claisen condensations during the biosynthesis. No other enzymes appeared to be required. PksH downregulation affected pksJ expression and thus caused an indirect effect on AOH production.

  9. A four-component coupling reaction of carbon dioxide, amines, cyclic ethers and 3-triflyloxybenzynes for the synthesis of functionalized carbamates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wenfang; Qi, Chaorong; Cheng, Ruixiang; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Lu; Yan, Donghao; Jiang, Huanfeng

    2018-04-27

    A novel four-component coupling reaction of carbon dioxide, amines, cyclic ethers and 3-triflyloxybenzynes has been developed for the first time, providing an efficient method for the synthesis of a series of functionalized carbamate derivatives in moderate to high yields. The process proceeds under mild, transition metal-free and fluoride-free conditions, leading to the formation of two new C-O bonds, one new C-N bond and one C-H bond in a single step.

  10. Impact of Biodiesel Blends and Di-Ethyl-Ether on the Cold Starting Performance of a Compression Ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Clenci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of biodiesel fuel in compression ignition engines has the potential to reduce CO2, which can lead to a reduction in global warming and environmental hazards. Biodiesel is an attractive fuel, as it is made from renewable resources. Many studies have been conducted to assess the impact of biodiesel use on engine performances. Most of them were carried out in positive temperature conditions. A major drawback associated with the use of biodiesel, however, is its poor cold flow properties, which have a direct influence on the cold starting performance of the engine. Since diesel engine behavior at negative temperatures is an important quality criterion of the engine’s operation, one goal of this paper is to assess the starting performance at −20 °C of a common automotive compression ignition engine, fueled with different blends of fossil diesel fuel and biodiesel. Results showed that increasing the biodiesel blend ratio generated a great deterioration in engine startability. Another goal of this study was to determine the biodiesel blend ratio limit at which the engine would not start at −20 °C and, subsequently, to investigate the impact of Di-Ethyl-Ether (DEE injection into the intake duct on the engine’s startability, which was found to be recovered.

  11. A convenient ultrasound-assisted saponification for the simultaneous determination of vitamin E isomers in vegetable oil by HPLC with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Lu, Dan; Yin, Shuo; Yang, Danni; Chen, Yaling; Li, Yongxin; Sun, Chengjun

    2018-04-01

    An efficient ultrasound-assisted saponification was developed for simultaneous determination of vitamin E isomers in vegetable oil by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The samples were saponified ultrasonically with potassium hydroxide solution for only 7 min, then the analytes were extracted with ether. Vitamin E isomers were separated on a C 18 column at 25°C with a mobile phase of methanol/acetonitrile (81:19, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Fluorescence detection was operated at 290 nm of excitation wavelength and 327 nm of emission wavelength. Under the optimized conditions, good linearities over the range of 0.001-8.00 μg/mL (r > 0.999) were obtained. Mean recoveries of the method were 88.0-106%, with intra- and interday RSDs less than 11.8 and 12.8%, respectively. The detection limits and quantification limits of the method were 0.30-1.8 and 1.0-6.1 μg/kg, respectively. The recoveries of this method were much higher than that of the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method and direct dilution method, but were similar to those of hot saponification. This proposed method provides reliable, simple, and rapid quantification of vitamin E isomers in vegetable oils. Five kinds of vegetable oils were analyzed, the quantification results were within the ranges reported by other authors. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Public Attitudes toward Stuttering in Turkey: Probability versus Convenience Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, R. Sertan; St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Topbas, Seyhun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A Turkish translation of the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S") was used to compare probability versus convenience sampling to measure public attitudes toward stuttering. Method: A convenience sample of adults in Eskisehir, Turkey was compared with two replicates of a school-based,…

  13. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sewage sludge and effluents of sewage plants from a central region of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, S. [eurofins/GfA, Muenster (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) belong to the group of bromine-containing flame retardants. They are added to materials such as plastics, resins and textiles in percent concentrations to make them flameproof. While in former times also Penta and OctaBDE formulations were used, today mainly the technical DecaBDE is applied throughout Europe. Meanwhile PBDEs have been found in partly increasing concentrations in a number of aquatic environmental compartments such as river and marine sediments, river water, fishes and mussels. Here, mostly the same PBDE components which are present in the technical mixtures are found in the environment. PBDE emissions can punctually take place during the manufacture or processing of the flame retardants and during the disposal and recycling of flame-retarded materials. This, as a rule, should lead to local contamination but cannot explain the meanwhile wide spread of these flame retardants in the aquatic environment. Therefore, we have to have a closer look at possible further sources. Thus, the sewage sludges and suspended matter from the effluents of 8 municipal sewage treatment plants from a central region of Germany were examined for their PBDE content. The analyses included the quantitation of Tri to DecaBDE under congener-specific determination of components which are typically present in technical PBDE products. This paper reports on the applied method of analysis and presents the PBDE data for the sewage sludges and the respective sewage plant effluents.

  14. Influence of structure of crown ethers on their radiation stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'ev, E.I.; Myasoedova, T.G.; Nesterov, S.V.; Trakhtenberg, L.I.

    1988-01-01

    Primary products of γ-radiolysis of crown ethers with the same size of the macrocyclic ring and different substituents were studied by EPR and mass spectrometry. It was shown that introduction of substituents into the polyether ring increases the radiation stability of crown ethers due to intramolecular transfer of energy from the polyether ring to a substituent

  15. Congenital malformations and maternal occupational exposure to glycol ethers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordier, S; Bergeret, A; Goujard, J; Ha, MC; Ayme, S; Calzolari, E; DeWalle, HEK; KnillJones, R; Candela, S; Dale, [No Value; Dananche, B; deVigan, C; Fevotte, J; Kiel, G; Mandereau, L

    Glycol ethers are found in a wide range of domestic and industrial products, many of which are used in women's work environments. Motivated by concern about their potential reproductive toxicity, we have evaluated the risk of congenital malformations related to glycol ether exposure during preg

  16. A Tetrazine-Labile Vinyl Ether Benzyloxycarbonyl Protecting Group (VeZ): An Orthogonal Tool for Solid-Phase Peptide Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staderini, Matteo; Gambardella, Alessia; Lilienkampf, Annamaria; Bradley, Mark

    2018-06-01

    The vinyl ether benzyloxycarbonyl (VeZ) protecting group is selectively cleaved by treatment with tetrazines via an inverse electron-demand Diels-Alder reaction. This represents a new orthogonal protecting group for solid-phase peptide synthesis, with Fmoc-Lys(VeZ)-OH as a versatile alternative to Fmoc-Lys(Alloc)-OH and Fmoc-Lys(Dde)-OH, as demonstrated by the synthesis of two biologically relevant cyclic peptides.

  17. Analysis of reaction products of food contaminants and ingredients: bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) in canned foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulier, Leon; Bradley, Emma L; Bas, Richard C; Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; Driffield, Malcolm; Harmer, Nick; Castle, Laurence

    2010-04-28

    Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) is an epoxide that is used as a starting substance in the manufacture of can coatings for food-contact applications. Following migration from the can coating into food, BADGE levels decay and new reaction products are formed by reaction with food ingredients. The significant decay of BADGE was demonstrated by liquid chromatographic (LC) analysis of foodstuffs, that is, tuna, apple puree, and beer, spiked with BADGE before processing and storage. Life-science inspired analytical approaches were successfully applied to study the reactions of BADGE with food ingredients, for example, amino acids and sugars. An improved mass balance of BADGE was achieved by selective detection of reaction products of BADGE with low molecular weight food components, using a successful combination of stable isotopes of BADGE and analysis by LC coupled to fluorescence detection (FLD) and high-resolution mass spectrometric (MS) detection. Furthermore, proteomics approaches showed that BADGE also reacts with peptides (from protein digests in model systems) and with proteins in foods. The predominant reaction center for amino acids, peptides, and proteins was cysteine.

  18. A novel, environmentally friendly sodium lauryl ether sulfate-, cocamidopropyl betaine-, cocamide monoethanolamine-containing buffer for MEKC on microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeman, Kurt W; Culbertson, Christopher T

    2008-12-01

    A new buffer has been developed for fast, high-efficiency separations of amino acids by MEKC. This buffer was more environmentally friendly than the most commonly used surfactant-containing buffers for MEKC separations. It used a commercially available dishwashing soap by Seventh Generation (Burlington, VT, USA), which contained three micelle-forming agents. The mixed micelles were composed of sodium lauryl ether sulfate (anionic), cocamidopropyl betaine (zwitterionic), and cocamide monoethanolamine (non-ionic). The optimized buffer contained 5.0% w/w Seventh Generation Free & Clear dishwashing soap, 10 mM sodium borate, and was completely void of organics. The lack of organics and the biodegradability of the surfactant molecules made this buffer more environmentally friendly than typical SDS-containing buffers. This new buffer also had a different selectivity and provided faster separations with higher separation efficiencies than SDS-based buffers. Fast separations of BODIPY FL labeled amino acids yielded peaks with separation efficiencies greater than 100,000 in less than 20 s.

  19. Biomagnification of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls in a highly contaminated freshwater food web from South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Jiangping [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Luo Xiaojun [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)], E-mail: luoxiaoj@gig.ac.cn; Zhang Ying; Yu Mei [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Chen Shejun; Mai Bixian [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Yang Zhongyi [School of Life Sciences, SunYat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2009-03-15

    To evaluate the biomagnification extent of polybrominated diphenyls ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a highly contaminated freshwater food web from South China, trophic magnification factors (TMFs) for 18 PBDE congeners and 53 PCB congeners were calculated. The TMF values ranged 0.26-4.47 for PBDEs and 0.75-5.10 for PCBs. Forty-five of 53 PCBs and BDEs 47, 100 and 154 had TMFs greater than one, suggesting their biomagnification in the present food web. The TMFs for PBDEs were generally smaller than those for PCBs with the same degree of halogenation, indicating a lower biomagnification potential for PBDEs compared to PCBs. For PCBs, it followed a parabolic relationship between TMFs and log K{sub OW} (octanol-water partition coefficient). However, this relationship was not significant for PBDEs, possibly due to the more complex behaviors of PBDEs in the food web (e.g., metabolism), compared to that of PCBs. - Forty-five of 53 PCBs magnified in the freshwater food web, while only BDEs 47, 100 and 154 significantly magnified in the same food web.

  20. Biomagnification of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls in a highly contaminated freshwater food web from South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jiangping; Luo Xiaojun; Zhang Ying; Yu Mei; Chen Shejun; Mai Bixian; Yang Zhongyi

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the biomagnification extent of polybrominated diphenyls ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a highly contaminated freshwater food web from South China, trophic magnification factors (TMFs) for 18 PBDE congeners and 53 PCB congeners were calculated. The TMF values ranged 0.26-4.47 for PBDEs and 0.75-5.10 for PCBs. Forty-five of 53 PCBs and BDEs 47, 100 and 154 had TMFs greater than one, suggesting their biomagnification in the present food web. The TMFs for PBDEs were generally smaller than those for PCBs with the same degree of halogenation, indicating a lower biomagnification potential for PBDEs compared to PCBs. For PCBs, it followed a parabolic relationship between TMFs and log K OW (octanol-water partition coefficient). However, this relationship was not significant for PBDEs, possibly due to the more complex behaviors of PBDEs in the food web (e.g., metabolism), compared to that of PCBs. - Forty-five of 53 PCBs magnified in the freshwater food web, while only BDEs 47, 100 and 154 significantly magnified in the same food web

  1. Observation of a sequence of wetting transitions in the binary water+ethylene glycol monobutyl ether mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Kang; Chen, Li-Jen

    2005-08-01

    A homemade pendant drop/bubble tensiometer was assembled and applied to perform the surface-interfacial tension measurements for the binary water+ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (C4E1) mixture over the temperature range from 50to128°C at 10bar. The symbol CiEj is the abbreviation of a nonionic polyoxyethylene alcohol CiH2i+1(OCH2CH2)jOH. The wetting behavior of the C4E1-rich phase at the interface separating the gas and the aqueous phases was systematically examined according to the wetting coefficient calculated from the experimental results of surface/interfacial tensions. It was found that the C4E1-rich phase exhibits a sequence of wetting transitions, nonwetting→partial wetting→complete wetting, at the gas-water interface in the water+C4E1 system along with increasing the temperature, consistent with the conjecture of Kahlweit and Busse [J. Chem. Phys. 91, 1339 (1989)]. In addition, the relationship of the mutual solubility and the interfacial tension of the interface separating the C4E1-rich phase and the aqueous phase is discussed.

  2. Levels and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the freshwater environment surrounding a PBDE manufacturing plant in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jie; Gao Zishen; Xian Qiming; Yu Hongxia; Feng Jianfang

    2009-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in muscle, liver and eggs of freshwater fishes and surface sediments from the Nongkang River in Jinhu, Jiangsu Province, China. The present study is the first to report PBDE concentrations in the freshwater environment surrounding a PBDE manufacturing plant in China. The concentrations of 13 PBDE congeners in muscle, liver and eggs of freshwater fishes ranged from < LOD to 130, < LOD to 252 and < LOD to 33.3 ng/g lipid wt, respectively, while the concentrations of 13 PBDE congeners in surface sediments from sewage outfall, upstream and downstream of the river were 52, 9.2, 7.1 ng/g organic carbon wt, respectively. Contamination by PBDEs in this area was not serious when compared with other regions of the world. A relatively high proportion of BDE-183 was found, consistent with the octa-BDE technical mixtures from the manufacturing plant by the side of the river. - The first study to report concentrations of PBDEs in the freshwater environment surrounding a PBDE manufacturing plant in China.

  3. A point mutation of valine-311 to methionine in Bacillus subtilis protoporphyrinogen oxidase does not greatly increase resistance to the diphenyl ether herbicide oxyfluorfen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eunjoo; Houn, Thavrak; Kuk, Yongin; Kim, Eun-Seon; Chandru, Hema Kumar; Baik, Myunggi; Back, Kyoungwhan; Guh, Ja-Ock; Han, Oksoo

    2003-10-01

    In an effort to asses the effect of Val311Met point mutation of Bacillus subtilis protoporphyrinogen oxidase on the resistance to diphenyl ether herbicides, a Val311Met point mutant of B. subtilis protoporphyrinogen oxidase was prepared, heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified recombinant Val311Met mutant protoporphyrinogen oxidase was kinetically characterized. The mutant protoporphyrinogen oxidase showed very similar kinetic patterns to wild type protoporphyrinogen oxidase, with slightly decreased activity dependent on pH and the concentrations of NaCl, Tween 20, and imidazole. When oxyfluorfen was used as a competitive inhibitor, the Val311Met mutant protoporphyrinogen oxidase showed an increased inhibition constant about 1.5 times that of wild type protoporphyrinogen oxidase. The marginal increase of the inhibition constant indicates that the Val311Met point mutation in B. subtilis protoporphyrinogen oxidase may not be an important determinant in the mechanism that protects protoporphyrinogen oxidase against diphenyl ether herbicides.

  4. Dietary intake estimations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) based on a total diet study in Osaka, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutsu, K; Takatori, S; Nakazawa, H; Hayakawa, K; Izumi, S; Makino, T

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the results of a total diet study performed for estimating the dietary intake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Osaka, Japan. The concentrations of 36 PBDEs were measured in samples from 14 food groups (Groups I-XIV). PBDEs were detected only in Groups IV (oils and fats), V (legumes and their products), X (fish, shellfish, and their products), and XI (meat and eggs) at concentrations of 1.8, 0.03, 0.48, and 0.01 ng g⁻¹, respectively. For an average person, the lower bound dietary intakes of penta- and deca-formulations were estimated to be 46 and 21 ng day⁻¹, respectively. A high proportion of the decabrominated congener (DeBDE-209) was observed in Group IV. To confirm the presence of DeBDE-209 in vegetable oils, an additional analysis was performed using 18 vegetable oil samples. Of these, seven contained ng g⁻¹ levels of DeBDE-209.

  5. Effects of premixed diethyl ether (DEE) on combustion and exhaust emissions in a HCCI-DI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinar, Can; Can, Ozer; Sahin, Fatih; Yucesu, H. Serdar

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effects of premixed ratio of diethyl ether (DEE) on the combustion and exhaust emissions of a single-cylinder, HCCI-DI engine were investigated. The experiments were performed at the engine speed of 2200 rpm and 19 N m operating conditions. The amount of the premixed DEE was controlled by a programmable electronic control unit (ECU) and the DEE injection was conducted into the intake air charge using low pressure injector. The premixed fuel ratio (PFR) of DEE was changed from 0% to 40% and results were compared to neat diesel operation. The percentages of premixed fuel were calculated from the energy ratio of premixed DEE fuel to total energy rate of the fuels. The experimental results show that single stage ignition was found with the addition of premixed DEE fuel. Increasing and phasing in-cylinder pressure and heat release were observed in the premixed stage of the combustion. Lower diffusion combustion was also occurred. Cycle-to cycle variations were very small with diesel fuel and 10% DEE premixed fuel ratio. Audible knocking occurred with 40% DEE premixed fuel ratio. NO x -soot trade-off characteristics were changed and improvements were found simultaneously. NO x and soot emissions decreased up to 19.4% and 76.1%, respectively, while exhaust gas temperature decreased by 23.8%. On the other hand, CO and HC emissions increased.

  6. Porous poly-ether ether ketone (PEEK) manufactured by a novel powder route using near-spherical salt bead porogens: characterisation and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiq, Abdur R; Kennedy, Andrew R

    2015-02-01

    Porous PEEK structures with approximately 85% open porosity have been made using PEEK-OPTIMA® powder and a particulate leaching technique using porous, near-spherical, sodium chloride beads. A novel manufacturing approach is presented and compared with a traditional dry mixing method. Irrespective of the method used, the use of near-spherical beads with a fairly narrow size range results in uniform pore structures. However the integration, by tapping, of fine PEEK into a pre-existing network salt beads, followed by compaction and "sintering", produces porous structures with excellent repeatability and homogeneity of density; more uniform pore and strut sizes; an improved and predictable level of connectivity via the formation of "windows" between the cells; faster salt removal rates and lower levels of residual salt. Although tapped samples show a compressive yield stress >1 MPa and stiffness >30 MPa for samples with 84% porosity, the presence of windows in the cell walls means that tapped structures show lower strengths and lower stiffnesses than equivalent structures made by mixing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Excess molar volumes of (an alkanol plus a branched chain ether) at the temperature 298.15 K and the application of the ERAS model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Letcher, TM

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Phase Equilibria 140 (1997) 207-220 The excess molar the temperature volumes of (an alkanol + a branched chain ether) at 298.15 K and the application of the ERAS model Trevor M. Letcher * , Penny U. Govender ? Drpartnwnt... V,,? results presented here, together with the previously reported data for the molar excess enthalpy Hi, has been used to test the Extended Real Associated Solution (ERAS) model. 0 1997 Elsevier Science B.V. Ke...

  8. The Analysis of Product, Price, Place, Promotion and Service Quality on Customers’ Buying Decision of Convenience Store: A Survey of Young Adult in Bekasi, West Java, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Junio Andret; Nabila H Zhafira; Sheila S Akmal; Suresh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This research aim to analyze why the number of convenience store keep increasing by identify the dominant factors which are product, price, place, promotion and service quality that affect customer buying decision of convenience store in Bekasi. This research also as an input to help smaller traders in having better performance in future market. This research involves 300 Bekasi populations to obtain the required data. Then the questionnaire result analyzed with SPPS statistics wh...

  9. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the indoor and outdoor environments – A review on occurrence and human exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besis, Athanasios; Samara, Constantini

    2012-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) constitute an important group of brominated flame retardants that have been massively produced and extensively used in numerous everyday products, providing longer escape times in case of fire and thus saving lives, as well as reducing the damage of property. In recent years, PBDEs have been recognized as significant pollutants of the indoor environment. This article provides a synthesis and critical evaluation of the state of the knowledge about the occurrence of PBDEs in the indoor environment (air and dust in homes, workplaces and cars) in different countries in Europe, North America, Asia and Australia, as well as about the human exposure via indoor air inhalation and dust ingestion in comparison to outdoor air inhalation and dietary intake. - Although dietary intake is major human exposure route to PBDEs, there is sufficient body of evidence for the ubiquitous presence of these compounds in indoor air and dust, therefore for the potential for significant exposure at work, at home, as well as in closed means of transport.

  10. Chlorohydrins of bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and of bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE) in canned foods and ready-to-drink coffees from the Japanese market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Y; Hirata, K; Suzuki, K; Iida, K; Saito, K

    2001-02-01

    BADGE.2HCl and BFDGE.2HCl were determined in 28 samples of ready-to-drink canned coffee and 18 samples of canned vegetables (10 corn, 5 tomatoes and 3 others), all from the Japanese market. HPLC was used as the principal analytical method and GC-MS for confirmation of relevant LC fractions. BADGE.2HCl was found to be present in one canned coffee and five samples of corn, BFDGE.2HCl in four samples of canned tomatoes and in one canned corn. No sample was found which exceeded the 1 mg/kg limit of the EU for the BADGE chlorohydrins. However the highest concentration was found for the sum of BFDGE.2HCl anti BFDGE.HCl.H2O at a level of 1.5 mg/kg. A Beilstein test confirmed that all cans containing foods contaminated with BADGE.2HCl or BFDGE.2HCl had at lest one part coated with a PVC organosol.

  11. (Liquid + liquid), (solid + liquid), and (solid + liquid + liquid) equilibria of systems containing cyclic ether (tetrahydrofuran or 1,3-dioxolane), water, and a biological buffer MOPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altway, Saidah; Taha, Mohamed; Lee, Ming-Jer

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • MOPS buffer induced liquid phase splitting for mixtures of water with THF or 1,3-dioxolane. • Phase boundaries of LLE, SLE, and SLLE were determined experimentally. • Tie-lines at LLE and at SLLE were also measured. • Phase diagrams of MOPS + water + THF or 1,3-dioxolane are prepared. • LLE tie-line data are correlated satisfactorily with the NRTL model. - Abstract: Two liquid phases were formed as the addition of a certain amount of biological buffer 3-(N-morpholino)propane sulfonic acid (MOPS) in the aqueous solutions of tetrahydrofuran (THF) or 1,3-dioxolane. To evaluate the feasibility of recovering the cyclic ethers from their aqueous solutions with the aid of MOPS, we determined experimentally the phase diagrams of the ternary systems of {cyclic ether (THF or 1,3-dioxolane) + water + MOPS} at T = 298.15 K under atmospheric pressure. In this study, the solubility data of MOPS in water and in the mixed solvents of water/cyclic ethers were obtained from the results of a series of density measurements, while the (liquid + liquid) and the (solid + liquid + liquid) phase boundaries were determined by visually inspection. Additionally, the tie-line results for (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) and for (solid + liquid + liquid) equilibrium (SLLE) were measured using an analytical method. The reliability of the experimental LLE tie-line results data was validated by using the Othmer–Tobias correlation. These LLE tie-line values were correlated well with the NRTL model. The phase diagrams obtained from this study reveal that MOPS is a feasible green auxiliary agent to recover the cyclic ethers from their aqueous solutions, especially for 1,3-dioxolane

  12. Catalytic hydroprocessing of lignin β-O-4 ether bond model compound phenethyl phenyl ether over ruthenium catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Monedero, B.; Faria, J.; Bimbela, F.; Ruiz, M.P.

    2017-01-01

    The catalytic hydroprocessing of phenethyl phenyl ether (PPE), a model compound of one of the most significant ether linkages within lignin structure, β-O-4, has been studied. Reactions were carried out using two ruthenium-based catalysts, supported on different materials: 3.8 wt.% Ru/C and 3.9 wt.%

  13. 14 CFR 152.507 - Termination for convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination for convenience. 152.507 Section 152.507 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... convenience. (a) When the continuation of the project would not produce beneficial results commensurate with...

  14. 32 CFR 33.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Termination for convenience. 33.44 Section 33.44 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT... convenience. Except as provided in § 33.43 awards may be terminated in whole or in part only as follows: (a...

  15. 38 CFR 43.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Termination for convenience. 43.44 Section 43.44 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... convenience. Except as provided in § 43.43 awards may be terminated in whole or in part only as follows: (a...

  16. 40 CFR 31.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Termination for convenience. 31.44 Section 31.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... convenience. Except as provided in § 31.43 awards may be terminated in whole or in part only as follows: (a...

  17. 34 CFR 303.423 - Convenience of proceedings; timelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Convenience of proceedings; timelines. 303.423 Section 303.423 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF... Parents and Children § 303.423 Convenience of proceedings; timelines. (a) Any proceeding for implementing...

  18. 40 CFR 51.355 - Test frequency and convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test frequency and convenience. 51.355 Section 51.355 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Requirements § 51.355 Test frequency and convenience. (a) The performance standards for I/M programs assume an...

  19. The structure and binding energy of K+endash ether complexes: A comparison of MP2, RI-MP2, and density functional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feller, D.; Apra, E.; Nichols, J.A.; Bernholdt, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    The structures and binding energies of several cation:ether complexes (K + :dimethyl ether, K + :dimethoxyethane, K + :12-crown-4 and K + :18-crown-6) were determined with second and fourth order perturbation theory using correlation consistent basis sets. Several of these are the largest correlated calculations yet attempted on crown ethers. The observed systematic convergence to the complete basis set limit provides a standard by which the accuracy of previous studies can be measured and facilitates the calibration of density functional methods. Recent Fouier transform ion cyclotron resonance experiments predicted K + :18-crown-6 binding energies which were significantly smaller than ab initio calculations. None of the potential sources of error examined in the present study were large enough to explain this difference. Although the 6-31+G* basis set used in an earlier theoretical study was smaller than the smallest of the correlation consistent basis sets, with suitable correction for basis set superposition error, it appears capable of yielding binding energies within several kcal/mol of the basis set limit. Perturbation theory calculations exploiting the open-quote open-quote resolution of the identity close-quote close-quote approximation were found to faithfully reproduce binding energies and conformational differences. Although the cation endash ether interaction is dominated by classical electrostatics, the accuracy of density functional techniques was found to be quite sensitive to the choice of functionals. The local density SVWN procedure performed well for binding energies and conformational differences, while underestimating K + O distances by up to 0.08 A. The gradient-corrected Becke endash Lee endash Yang endash Parr functional underestimated the K + :12c4 binding energy by 4 endash 7 kcal/mol or 15%. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  20. Effects of a thirteen-week inhalation exposure to ethyl tertiary butyl ether on fischer-344 rats and CD-1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medinsky, M A; Wolf, D C; Cattley, R C; Wong, B; Janszen, D B; Farris, G M; Wright, G A; Bond, J A

    1999-09-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require that oxygenates be added to automotive fuels to reduce emissions of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. One potential oxygenate is the aliphatic ether ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE). Our objective was to provide data on the potential toxic effects of ETBE. Male and female Fisher 344 rats and CD-1 mice were exposed to 0 (control), 500, 1750, or 5000 ppm of ETBE for 6 h/day and 5 days/wk over a 13-week period. ETBE exposure had no effect on mortality and body weight with the exception of an increase in body weights of the female rats in the 5000-ppm group. No major changes in clinical pathology parameters were noted for either rats or mice exposed to ETBE for 6 (rats only) or 13 weeks. Liver weights increased with increasing ETBE-exposure concentration for both sexes of rats and mice. Increases in kidney, adrenal, and heart (females only) weights were noted in rats. Degenerative changes in testicular seminiferous tubules were observed in male rats exposed to 1750 and 5000 ppm but were not seen in mice. This testicular lesion has not been reported previously for aliphatic ethers. Increases in the incidence of regenerative foci, rates of renal cell proliferation, and alpha2u-globulin containing protein droplets were noted in the kidneys of all treated male rats. These lesions are associated with the male rat-specific syndrome of alpha2u-globulin nephropathy. Increases in the incidence of centrilobular hepatocyte hypertrophy and rates of hepatocyte cell proliferation were seen in the livers of male and female mice in the 5000-ppm group, consistent with a mitogenic response to ETBE. These two target organs for ETBE toxicity, mouse liver and male rat kidney, have also been reported for methyl tertiary butyl ether and unleaded gasoline.