WorldWideScience

Sample records for trifluoride diethyl etherate

  1. Conjugated and fluorescent polymer based on dansyl-substituted pyrrole prepared by electrochemical polymerization in acetonitrile containing boron trifluoride diethyl etherate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Andresa K.A.; Dias, Jéssica M.M.; Silva, Ana Julia C.; Santos, Diego P.; Navarro, Marcelo; Tonholo, Josealdo; Goulart, Marília O.F.; Ribeiro, Adriana S.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A fluorescent pyrrole derivative bearing a dansyl substituent (PyPDG) was synthesized. • PyPDG was electropolymerized onto ITO in (C 4 H 9 ) 4 NBF 4 /CH 3 CN/BFEE mixed electrolyte. • The resulting polymer (PPyPDG) films displayed electrochromic behavior. • PPyPDG is a good green light emitter material. - Abstract: A fluorescent pyrrole derivative bearing a dansyl substituent was prepared by a simple synthetic route and electropolymerized onto Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) electrodes. The presence of the dansyl group in the monomer precursor prevents the electropolymerization in usual systems, such as (C 4 H 9 ) 4 NBF 4 in acetonitrile (CH 3 CN). For this reason, it was added 20% boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BFEE) to this system, to achieve electropolymerization. The resulting poly[3-(N-pyrrolyl)propyl dansylglycinate] (PPyPDG) films displayed electrochromic behavior. Their color varied from greenish-yellow, in the neutral state, to greyish-green, in the oxidized state; moreover PPyPDG is a good green light emitter material. Therefore, PPyPDG films might be potentially applicable in displays and optoelectronic devices

  2. Clinical comparison of ethyl acetate and diethyl ether in the formalin-ether sedimentation technique.

    OpenAIRE

    Erdman, D D

    1981-01-01

    A substitute for the volatile solvent diethyl ether has been actively sought for the Formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Ethyl acetate has recently been shown to be a comparable substitute. In an effort to verify these findings and evaluate ethyl acetate under clinical conditions, comparison studies with 62 fresh human stool specimens were performed. Parallel concentrates with diethyl ether and ethyl acetate were prepared for each specimen, and the quantity and appearance of recovered par...

  3. Diethyl Ether Production as a Substitute for Gasoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alviany Riza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diethyl ether is one of alternative fuel that could be used as a significant component of a blend or as a complete replacement for transportation fuel. The aim of this research is to produce diethyl ether through dehydration reaction of ethanol with fixed bed reactor using nanocrystalline γ-Al2O3 catalyst. Nanocrystalline γ-Al2O3 catalyst was synthesized by precipitation method using Al(NO33.9H2O as precursors and NH4OH as the precipitating agent. Dehydration reaction was performed at temperature range of 125 to 225°C. The result shows that synthesized γ-Al2O3 catalyst gave higher ethanol conversion and diethyl ether yield than that of commercial Al2O3 catalyst. The use of synthesized γ-Al2O3 catalyst could reach ethanol conversion as high as 94.71% and diethyl ether yield as high as 11,29%.

  4. Diethyl Ether Production Process with Various Catalyst Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widayat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several H-zeolite and HZSM-5 catalysts was preparated and their characters have also been investigated. H-zeolit Catalyst was preparated from Natural Zeolite that obtained from Malang District and Gunung Kidul District. Diethyl ether was produced by Ethanol with concentration of 95%. This research use fixed bed reactor that 1 gram of catalyst as bed catalyst, atmospheric pressure and temperature 140oC as the operating condition. Ethanol vapor from vaporization tank was driven by 200 ml/min Nitrogen stream. The responds in this research is liquid product concentration; diethyl ether, ethanol, methanol and water concentration. The results showed that the largest ethanol conversion was produced by the use of 56.44% HZSM-5 and the largest yield of diethyl ether diethyl was produced by the use of alumina and H-zeolite catalyst. The larger ratio between natural zeolite with HCl solvent will produce the larger surface area of catalyst and ethanol conversion. The largest ethanol conversion was produced at reactan ratio 1:20.

  5. The low-temperature structure of diethyl ether magnesium oxybromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Vitze

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, hexa-μ2-bromido-μ4-oxido-tetrakis[(diethyl ethermagnesium], [Mg4Br6O(C4H10O4], determined from data measured at 173 K, differs from the previously known structure of diethyl ether magnesium oxybromide, which was determined from room-temperature data [Stucky & Rundle (1964. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 86, 4821–4825]. The title compound crystallizes in the tetragonal space group Ioverline{4}, whereas the previously known structure crystallizes in a different tetragonal space group, namely Poverline{4}21c. Both molecules have crystallographic overline{4} symmetry and show almost identical geometric parameters for the Mg, Br and O atoms. The crystal of the title compound turned out to be a merohedral twin emulating a structure with apparent Laue symmetry 4/mmm, whereas the correct Laue group is just 4/m. The fractional contribution of the minor twin component converged to 0.462 (1.

  6. An efficient diethyl ether-based soxhlet protocol to quantify faecal sterols from catchment waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vikas Kumar G; Dunstan, Hugh; Taylor, Warren

    2006-03-03

    A study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency and reproducibility of a diethyl ether-based soxhlet extraction procedure for faecal sterols occurring from catchment waters. Water samples spiked with a mixture of faecal sterols were filtered and analytes were extracted using the diethyl ether-based soxhlet method and the Bligh and Dyer chloroform extraction process. For diethyl ether-based soxhlet extraction procedure, solvent extracts were saponified with 100 microL of 10% KOH in methanol (100 degrees C/120 min) and then acidified with 60 microL of 6M HCl. Lipid contents were extracted by ethanol (0.5 mL) from the saponification products. The lipid extracts were then reacted with 100 microL of bis(trimethyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) containing 1% trimethyl chlorosilane (100 degrees C/60 min) to form the trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives. The derivatised extracts were then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. For sterol concentrations ranging from 35 to 175 microg mL(-1), the soxhlet-based extraction process yielded the following recovery efficiencies for coprostanol (101%), epicoprostanol (97%), cholesterol (97%), dihydrocholesterol (97%) and 5alpha-cholestane (111%), whereas the Bligh and Dyer process yielded recoveries of 32, 41, 0, 36 and 51%, respectively. The results suggested that the diethyl ether-based soxhlet extraction method was more efficient and reproducible than the Bligh and Dyer chloroform extraction process for the analyses of trace levels of faecal sterols from water samples. Moreover, it was revealed that the diethyl ether-based soxhlet extraction method used less solvent and was logistically easier.

  7. Conversion of dimethyl ether--boron trifluoride complex to potassium fluoborate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, A.R.

    1957-06-18

    A method of preparing KBF/sub 4/ from the dimethyl ether complex of BF/sub 3/ is given. This may be accomplished by introducing the dimethyl ether complex of BF/sub 3/ into an aqueous solution of KF and alcohol, expelling the ether liberated from the complex by heating or stirring and recovering the KBF/sub 4/ so formed. The KBF/sub 4/ is then filtered from the alcohol-water solution, which may be recycled, to reduce the loss of KBF/sub 4/ which is not recovered by filtration.

  8. Effect of FeCl3 and diethyl ether as additives on compression ignition engine emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragyan P. Patnaik

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Improving the performance of internal combustion engines and ensuring the reduction of pollution by the application of an advanced technology constitutes one of the main keys for safe guarding nation's economy and health. In this context it is pertinent to note that in terms of brake thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption, a single cylinder four stroke engine acquires a better performance with 15% diethyl ether (DEE as an additive to diesel. Thus, the present investigation is motivated to compare the performance of the engine when run with diesel alone and when it is run with additives like ferric chloride (FeCl3 and diethyl ether. The experiments in the laboratory establish lowering emissions of CO, HC and smoke (excluding NO with diesel and DEE additives compared to that with diesel and FeCl3 additives and diesel alone.

  9. Sensitive and selective cataluminescence-based sensor system for acetone and diethyl ether determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qihui; Li, Bo; Wang, Yuhuai; Shou, Zhouxiang; Shi, Guolong

    2015-05-01

    A three-dimensional hierarchical CdO nanostructure with a novel bio-inspired morphology is reported. The field emission scanning electronic microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometer were employed to characterize the as-prepared samples. In gas-sensing measurements, acetone and diethyl ether were employed as target gases to investigate cataluminescence (CTL) sensing properties of the CdO nanostructure. The results show that the as-fabricated CdO nanostructure exhibited outstanding CTL properties such as stable intensity, high signal/noise values, short response and recovery time. The limit of detection of acetone and diethyl ether was ca. 6.5 ppm and 6.7 ppm, respectively, which was below the standard permitted concentrations. Additionally, a principal components analysis method was used to investigate the recognizable ability of the CTL sensor, and it was found that acetone and diethyl ether can be distinguished clearly. The performance of the bio-inspired CdO nanostructure-based sensor system suggested the promising application of the CdO nanostructure as a novel highly efficient CTL sensing material. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Effective utilization of B20 blend with diethyl ether and ethanol as oxygenated additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upadrasta-Satya Vara-Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent times' fatty acid methyl ester popularly called as biodiesel has become more prominent alternate fuel for compression ignition engines based on a single fuel concept. Since, use of neat biodiesel on a large scale is raising certain difficulties and is being adopted in a blended form with petro-diesel fuel and B20 blend has become standardized. However, the HC and NOx emissions of B20 are still on the higher side. Present work aims at experimental evaluation of a single cylinder water-cooled diesel engine by adopting various proportions of ethanol and diethyl ether blends in order to improve performance and emission characteristics of B20 blend. Besides employing different amounts of ethanol and diethyl ether, simultaneous influence of injector nozzle hole size and fuel injection pressure are also investigated to arrive at an optimum configuration. Brake specific fuel consumption and hydrocarbon emissions values are lower with B20 and DEE 5 whereas B20 with DEE15 yielded lower NOx emissions. It is observed that addition of oxygenates have improved the combustion process and lower emissions are obtained. The present investigation revealed that blends with oxygenated additives having higher Cetane rating are superior to neat blend.

  11. Numerical investigation on the effect of injection pressure on the internal flow characteristics for diethyl ether, dimethyl ether and diesel fuel injectors using CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakumar Thulasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The spray characteristics of the diesel fuel are greatly affected by the cavitation formed inside the injector due to the high pressure differential across the nozzle. Many researchers across the globe are exploring the potential of using diethyl ether and dimethyl ether as an alternate for diesel fuel to meet the strict emission norms. Due to the variation in the fuel properties the internal flow characteristics in injectors for ether fuels are expected to be different from that of the diesel fuel. In this paper computational technique is used to study and compare the internal flow characteristics of diethyl ether, dimethyl ether and diesel fuel. The two phase flow model considering the fuel as a mixture of liquid and vapor is adopted for the simulation study. The injection pressure is varied from 100 to 400 bar and the flow characteristics of all three fuels are simulated and compared. Results indicate that all three fuels have distinct cavitating patterns owing to different property values. The dimethyl ether is found to be more cavitating than diesel and diethyl ether fuels as expected. The mass of fuel injected are found to be decreasing for the ether fuels when compared with diesel fuel at all injection pressures.

  12. DFT study on the adsorption of diethyl, ethyl methyl, and dimethyl ethers on the surface of gallium doped graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shokuhi Rad, Ali, E-mail: a.shokuhi@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Qaemshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sani, Emad; Binaeian, Ehsan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Qaemshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Peyravi, Majid; Jahanshahi, Mohsen [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Adsorption of three ether molecules on the surface of Ga-doped graphene has been investigated. • High degree of adsorption for all analytes is found. • Ga-doped graphene shows p-type semiconductor property upon adsorption of ether molecules. - Abstract: In this study, we used density functional theory (DFT) to search on the adsorption properties of three important compounds of ether family; diethyl ether (DEE), ethyl methyl ether (EME), and dimethyl ether (DME) on the surface of Gallium doped graphene (GaG). We used three functionals (B3LYP, wb97xd, and MPW1PW91) for optimization and calculation of adsorption energy. After fully optimization, we scrutinized on the charge allocations on the adsorbed ethers as well as GaG (at the area of interaction) based on natural bond orbitals (NBO). Besides, we have calculated the amount of charge transfer upon adsorption of each analyte. We revel that GaG is an ideal adsorbent for chemisorption of all above-mentioned ethers. There is a little difference between the values of adsorption; −123.5, −120, and −118.3 kJ/mol (based on wb97xd) for DEE, EME, and DME, respectively. We found significant changes in the electronic structure of both adsorbent and adsorbate upon adsorption. Moreover, results of charge analyses confirm GaG is a p-type semiconductor.

  13. DFT study on the adsorption of diethyl, ethyl methyl, and dimethyl ethers on the surface of gallium doped graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokuhi Rad, Ali; Sani, Emad; Binaeian, Ehsan; Peyravi, Majid; Jahanshahi, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Adsorption of three ether molecules on the surface of Ga-doped graphene has been investigated. • High degree of adsorption for all analytes is found. • Ga-doped graphene shows p-type semiconductor property upon adsorption of ether molecules. - Abstract: In this study, we used density functional theory (DFT) to search on the adsorption properties of three important compounds of ether family; diethyl ether (DEE), ethyl methyl ether (EME), and dimethyl ether (DME) on the surface of Gallium doped graphene (GaG). We used three functionals (B3LYP, wb97xd, and MPW1PW91) for optimization and calculation of adsorption energy. After fully optimization, we scrutinized on the charge allocations on the adsorbed ethers as well as GaG (at the area of interaction) based on natural bond orbitals (NBO). Besides, we have calculated the amount of charge transfer upon adsorption of each analyte. We revel that GaG is an ideal adsorbent for chemisorption of all above-mentioned ethers. There is a little difference between the values of adsorption; −123.5, −120, and −118.3 kJ/mol (based on wb97xd) for DEE, EME, and DME, respectively. We found significant changes in the electronic structure of both adsorbent and adsorbate upon adsorption. Moreover, results of charge analyses confirm GaG is a p-type semiconductor.

  14. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Ethanol/Diethyl Ether Mixtures in a CI Engine

    KAUST Repository

    Sivasankaralingam, Vedharaj

    2016-10-17

    The auto-ignition characteristics of diethyl ether (DEE)/ethanol mixtures are investigated in compression ignition (CI) engines both numerically and experimentally. While DEE has a higher derived cetane number (DCN) of 139, ethanol exhibits poor ignition characteristics with a DCN of 8. DEE was used as an ignition promoter for the operation of ethanol in a CI engine. Mixtures of DEE and ethanol (DE), i.e., DE75 (75% DEE + 25% ethanol), DE50 (50% DEE + 50% ethanol) and DE25 (25% DEE + 75% ethanol), were tested in a CI engine. While DE75 and DE50 auto-ignited at an inlet air pressure of 1.5 bar, DE25 failed to auto-ignite even at boosted pressure of 2 bar. The peak in-cylinder pressure for diesel and DE75 were comparable, while DE50 showed reduced peak in-cylinder pressure with delayed start of combustion (SOC). Numerical simulations were conducted to study the engine combustion characteristics of DE mixture. A comprehensive detailed chemical kinetic model was created to represent the combustion of DE mixtures. The detailed mechanism was then reduced using standard direct relation graph (DRG-X) method and coupled with 3D CFD code, CONVERGE, to simulate the experimental data. The simulation results showed that the effects of physical properties on DE50 combustion are negligible. Simulations of DE50 mixture revealed that the combustion is nearly homogenous, while diesel (n-heptane used as a surrogate) and DE75 showed similar combustion behavior with flame liftoff and diffusion controlled combustion. Diesel exhibited auto-ignition at an equivalence ratio of 2, while DE75 and DE50 showed auto-ignition in the equivalence ratio range of 1-1.5 and 0-1, respectively. The experiments and numerical simulations demonstrate how the high reactivity of DEE supports the auto-ignition of ethanol, while ethanol acts as a radical scavenger.

  15. Improving Vegetable Oil Fueled CI Engine Characteristics Through Diethyl Ether Blending

    KAUST Repository

    Vedharaj, S.

    2016-12-01

    In this research, the flow and ignition properties of vegetable oil (VO) are improved by blending it with diethyl ether (DEE). DEE, synthesized from ethanol, has lower viscosity than diesel and VO. When DEE is blended with VO, the resultant DEEVO mixtures have favorable properties for compression ignition (CI) engine operation. As such, DEEVO20 (20% DEE + 80% VO) and DEEVO40 (40% DEE + 60% VO) were initially considered in the current study. The viscosity of VO is 32.4*10−6 m2/s; the viscosity is reduced with the increase of DEE in VO. In this study, our blends were limited to a maximum of 40% DEE in VO. The viscosity of DEEVO40 is 2.1*10−6 m2/s, which is comparable to that of diesel (2.3*10−6 m2/s). The lower boiling point and flash point of DEE improves the fuel spray and evaporation for DEEVO mixtures. In addition to the improvement in physical properties, the ignition quality of DEEVO mixtures is also improved, as DEE is a high cetane fuel (DCN = 139). The ignition characteristics of DEEVO mixtures were studied in an ignition quality tester (IQT). There is an evident reduction in ignition delay time (IDT) for DEEVO mixtures compared to VO. The IDT of VO (4.5 ms), DEEVO20 (3.2 ms) and DEEVO40 (2.7 ms) was measured in IQT. Accordingly, the derived cetane number (DCN) of DEEVO mixtures increased with the increase in proportion of DEE. The reported mixtures were also tested in a single cylinder CI engine. The start of combustion (SOC) was advanced for DEEVO20 and DEEVO40 compared to diesel, which is attributed to the high DCN of DEEVO mixtures. On the other hand, the peak heat release rate decreased for DEEVO mixtures compared to diesel. Gaseous emissions such as nitrogen oxide (NOX), total hydrocarbon (THC) and smoke were reduced for DEEVO mixtures compared to diesel. The physical and ignition properties of VO are improved by the addition of DEE, and thus, the need for the trans-esterification process is averted. Furthermore, this blending strategy is simpler

  16. Diethyl Ether as an Ignition Enhancer for Naphtha Creating a Drop in Fuel for Diesel

    KAUST Repository

    Vallinayagam, R.

    2016-12-01

    Direct use of naphtha in compression ignition (CI) engines is not advisable because its lower cetane number negatively impacts the auto ignition process. However, engine or fuel modifications can be made to operate naphtha in CI engines. Enhancing a fuel’s auto ignition characteristics presents an opportunity to use low cetane fuel, naphtha, in CI engines. In this research, Di-ethyl ether (DEE) derived from ethanol is used as an ignition enhancer for light naphtha. With this fuel modification, a “drop-in” fuel that is interchangeable with existing diesel fuel has been created. The ignition characteristics of DEE blended naphtha were studied in an ignition quality tester (IQT); the measured ignition delay time (IDT) for pure naphtha was 6.9 ms. When DEE was added to naphtha, IDT decreased and D30 (30% DEE + 70% naphtha) showed comparable IDT with US NO.2 diesel. The derived cetane number (DCN) of naphtha, D10 (10% DEE + 90% naphtha), D20% DEE + 80% naphtha) and D30 were measured to be 31, 37, 40 and 49, respectively. The addition of 30% DEE in naphtha achieved a DCN equivalent to US NO.2 diesel. Subsequent experiments in a CI engine exhibited longer ignition delay for naphtha compared to diesel. The peak in-cylinder pressure is higher for naphtha than diesel and other tested fuels. When DEE was added to naphtha, the ignition delay shortened and peak in-cylinder pressure is reduced. A 3.7% increase in peak in-cylinder pressure was observed for naphtha compared to US NO.2 diesel, while D30 showed comparable results with diesel. The pressure rise rate dropped with the addition of DEE to naphtha, thereby reducing the ringing intensity. Naphtha exhibited a peak heat release rate of 280 kJ/m3deg, while D30 showed a comparable peak heat release rate to US NO.2 diesel. The amount of energy released during the premixed combustion phase decreased with the increase of DEE in naphtha. Thus, this study demonstrates the suitability of DEE blended naphtha mixtures as a

  17. cis-Dichlorido(1,3-dimesitylimidazolidin-2-ylidene(2-formylbenzylidene-κ2C,Oruthenium diethyl ether solvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Slugovc

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [RuCl2(C8H6O(C21H26N2]·C4H10O, contains a catalytically active ruthenium carbene complex of the `second-generation Grubbs/Hoveyda' type with Ru in a square-pyramidal coordination, the apex of which is formed by the benzylidene carbene atom with Ru=C 1.827 (2 Å. The complex shows the uncommon cis, rather than the usual trans, arrangement of the two chloride ligands, with Ru—Cl bond lengths of 2.3548 (6 and 2.3600 (6 Å, and a Cl—Ru—Cl angle of 89.76 (2°. This cis configuration is desirable for certain applications of ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP of strained cyclic olefins. The crystalline solid is a diethyl ether solvate, which is built up from a porous framework of Ru complexes held together by π–π stacking and C—H...Cl and C—H...O interactions. The disordered diethyl ether solvent molecules are contained in two independent infinite channels, which extend parallel to the c axis at x,y = 0,0 and x,y = {1over 2},{1over 2} and have solvent-accessible void volumes of 695 and 464 Å3 per unit cell.

  18. The Effect of Time dealumination and Solvent Concentration in Synthesis of Zeolite Catalyst and Catalytic Test for DiEthyl Ether Production Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widayat, Widayat; Roesyadi, A.; Rachimoellah, M.

    2009-09-01

    Ethanol is an alternative energy, but its has three distinct disadvantages as a transportation fuel. Its availability is currently limited, and it has a lower volumetric heating value and a lower Reid vapour pressure (RVP) than gasoline. This paper focuses for this disadvantages and to solve this problem can do with converts ethanol to DiEthyl Ether product. This research produced DiEthyl Ether by ethanol dehydration process with zeolite as catalyst. The catalyst synthesis from natural material from District Gunung Kidul, Indonesia. The catalyst produced with dealumination, neutralization, drying and calcination processes. The zeolite catalyst was analysed of Si/Al, X-ray Diffraction and specific surface area. The catalyst product then used for ethanol dehydration to produce DiEthyl Ether. The results shown the biggest surface area is 184,52 m 2 / gram at catalyst production at 10 hours for time dealumination. The crystallite of catalyst product is similar like shown at diffractogram of XRD analysis. The ratio Si/Al biggest is 313.7 that obtaining at catalyst production with 7 hours for time dealumination. The catalytic test use fixed bed reactor with 1 inci diameter and ethanol fermentation borth as feed. The operation condition is 150° C at temperature and atmosphere pressure. The compounds product in liquid phase are diethyl ether, methanol and water.

  19. The in vitro assessment of anti proliferation activity of crude diethyl ether extract of Dendrophthoe species against to myeloma culture cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Lazuardi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Herb medicine have an active substances that can dissolved on polar, semi polar and non polar liquid extract. The methanol and ethyl acetate as a polar and semi polar extract liquid were used to study of herb medicine such as Dendrophthoe species. Diethyl ether as a non polar liquid extract was never use to study the Dendrophthoe species. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti proliferation activity of Dendrophthoe species to myeloma culture cells after extracted by non-polar extract solution (diethyl ether. The post test only control group design was used for this research. A thirty six of microtiterplates wells were used for myeloma culture cells in RPMI medium. The wells were devided placing in two groups: treatment groups and controls groups. Each three wells of six treatment subgroups added with 100 µl of 1.1; 5.5; 11; 22; 33 and 44 µg/ml crude diethyl ether extract series. A RPMI solution at similar method and volume were used as control substances. The cells were assessed by inverted microscope in 200x magnified two days after. The cells were quantified analyzed for anti proliferation activity by using 1:1 methylene blue solution. The results showed that started from 11.0 µg/ml of crude diethyl ether extract of Dendrophthoe species have been anti proliferation abilities of myeloma culture cells (p<0.05. In conclusion, actives substances of Dendrophthoe species where dissolved in non polar liquid as diethyl ether has anti proliferation activities to cancer cell in vitro.

  20. Poly[[bis(μ-4,4′-bipyridyl-κ2N:N′bis(thiocyanato-κNmanganese(II] diethyl ether disolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Wriedt

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, {[Mn(NCS2(C10H8N22]·2C4H10O}n, the MnII ion is coordinated by four N-bonded 4,4′-bipyridine (bipy ligands and two N-bonded thiocyanate anions in a distorted octahedral coordination geometry. The asymmetric unit consists of one MnII ion and two bipy ligands each located on a twofold rotation axis, as well as one thiocyanate anion and one diethyl ether molecule in general positions. In the crystal structure, the metal centers with terminally bonded thicyanate anions are bridged by the bipy ligands into layers parallel to (001. The diethyl ether solvent molecules occupy the voids of the structure.

  1. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Diethyl Ether and n-Hexane Extract of Polyalthia suberosa Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelufar Yasmen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In folk medicine, Polyalthia suberosa is used as abortifacient, laxative, febrifuge analgesic, filler of tooth cavities, and anti-HIV drug and for rheumatism and various skin infections. The present study was directed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of diethyl ether and n-hexane extracts of Polyalthia suberosa leaves (PSDE and PSNH. A variety of tests including formalin-induced paw licking test, acetic acid induced writhing test, and tail immersion test were used to assess the analgesic activity. In addition, xylene-induced ear edema test was used to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity of PSDE and PSNH. PSDE and PSNH at 200 and 400 mg/kg doses expressed analgesic as well as anti-inflammatory activities in mice. In formalin-induced paw licking test, acetic acid induced writhing test, and xylene-induced ear edema test, the extracts exhibited significant inhibition (P⁎<0.05 versus control of pain and inflammation. Alternatively, in tail immersion test, PSDE 400 mg/kg showed significant (P⁎<0.05 versus control latency at 30 min but another tested sample had no significant latency. From this study, it could be shown that Polyalthia suberosa leaves may contain analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents which support its use in traditional medicine.

  2. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Diethyl Ether and n-Hexane Extract ofPolyalthia suberosaLeaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmen, Nelufar; Aziz, Md Abdullah; Tajmim, Afsana; Akter, Mst Irin; Hazra, Amit Kumar; Rahman, S M Mushiur

    2018-01-01

    In folk medicine, Polyalthia suberosa is used as abortifacient, laxative, febrifuge analgesic, filler of tooth cavities, and anti-HIV drug and for rheumatism and various skin infections. The present study was directed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of diethyl ether and n-hexane extracts of Polyalthia suberosa leaves (PSDE and PSNH). A variety of tests including formalin-induced paw licking test, acetic acid induced writhing test, and tail immersion test were used to assess the analgesic activity. In addition, xylene-induced ear edema test was used to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity of PSDE and PSNH. PSDE and PSNH at 200 and 400 mg/kg doses expressed analgesic as well as anti-inflammatory activities in mice. In formalin-induced paw licking test, acetic acid induced writhing test, and xylene-induced ear edema test, the extracts exhibited significant inhibition ( ⁎ P < 0.05 versus control) of pain and inflammation. Alternatively, in tail immersion test, PSDE 400 mg/kg showed significant ( ⁎ P < 0.05 versus control) latency at 30 min but another tested sample had no significant latency. From this study, it could be shown that Polyalthia suberosa leaves may contain analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents which support its use in traditional medicine.

  3. Anti-solvent surface engineering via diethyl ether to enhance the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of perovskite solar cells to 18.76%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanbo; Yang, Lili; Wang, Fengyou; Sui, Yingrui; Sun, Yunfei; Wei, Maobin; Cao, Jian; Liu, Huilian

    2018-01-01

    A quick and repeatable fabrication of compact CH3NH3PbI3 film was achieved by the anti-solvent method which consists of the one-step deposition to the CH3NH3PbI3 film and quickly exposition to the anti-solvent of diethyl ether. The morphology, crystalline quality and properties of the CH3NH3PbI3 film were found to be extraordinary influenced by the adding amount of diethyl ether. Accordingly, the native relationship between the crystal quality of perovskite films and solar cells was revealed. The CH3NH3PbI3 film by adding optimized 600 μL diethyl ether delivered the best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 18.76% and average PCE of 18.41% with remarkable reproducibility. These results provide an approach to fabricate the high-quality perovskite film and encourage the researchers to further improve the PCE of perovskite solar cells from the aspect of the fabrication process.

  4. The final effect of extraction system in the uranyl nitrate-water-diethyl ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Luina, A.; Gutierrez Jodra, L.; Miro, A. R.

    1957-01-01

    The solute transfer of uranyl nitrate from diallylether to water has been studied in a spray column using water as dispersed phase and a direction of extraction from ether to water. The column is 102 cm. long has a diameter of 4. 7 cm. The entrances of the phases are 7 7 cm. apart. The rates of flow of both phases have been used as variables and the concentration of the continuous phase has been determined; at different heights. The curves of logarithm of concentration of the continuous phase vs , distance to interphase show the presence of a drop of concentration in the entrance of the continuous phase. This depends on the rates of flow of the phases. No effect in the entrance of the dispersed phase has been found. (Author)

  5. Chlorine trifluoride (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, L.M.; Gillardeau, J.

    1963-01-01

    This monograph on chlorine trifluoride may be considered as a working tool useful in gaseous diffusion research. It consists of data gathered from the literature and includes furthermore a certain amount of original data. This monograph groups together the physical, chemical and physiological properties of chlorine trifluoride, as well as the preparation and analytical methods. It has been thought wise to add some technological information, and the safety regulations governing its use. (authors) [fr

  6. Effect of Concentration of Catalyst (BF3-Diethyl Etherate on Synthesis of Polyester From Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renita Manurung

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD can be used as raw material for synthesis polyester. The aim of this research is to synthesis of polyester and to determine the effect of concentration of catalyst on polymerization methyl ester PFAD. The esterification stage was done at temperature 70oC, reaction time 120 minute, reactant ratio 1:8 (PFAD: methanol, concentration of catalyst (H2SO4 1% (w/w PFAD; polymerization stage was done at temperature 126-132°C, polymerization reaction time 4 hours; variation of concentration of catalyst (BF3-diethyl etherate 0%, 6.9%, 9.2%, 11.5% (w/w methyl ester; and polyesterification stage was done at temperature 175-200 oC, reactant ratios (w/w 1:1 (polymerized ME : ethylene glycol, reaction time 4 hours and all of stage was stirred at 150 rpm. The results showed, in the esterification stage was obtained methyl ester with iodine value 77.29 g I2/100 g, viscosity 6.90 cP, density 859.91 kg/m3 and analysis by using GC-MS showed that the purity of methyl ester was 82.23% and molecular weight 267.97 g/mol. Decreasing in iodine value from 77.29 I2 g/100 g to 74.97-59.99 g I2/100 g indicated that the polymerization process had taken place. In polyesterification stage was obtained light brown colored

  7. Some Biological studies on the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) After Egg Exposure to Acetone, Diethyl Ether, Ethyl Alcohol and Pupal Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadel, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Some biological studies of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) were carried out to help in controlling this pest. Three laboratory experiments were done to study the effect of acetone, diethyl ether and ethyl alcohol separately or combined with gamma radiation through egg treatment or larval diet treatment. The gamma dose (90 Gy) was applied only on the produced pupae after egg or larval diet treatment. Concentrations of 0, 25, 50 and 100% of each chemical were applied for treating eggs to evaluate egg hatch, pupation, adult emergence and sex ratio. larval diet treatment was done by adding 20 ml of each chemical concentration to 500 gm of larval diet.Treating eggs with ethyl alcohol separately increased pupation significantly at all concentration used while adult emergence was insignificantly increased with the lowest concentration only (25%). Treating larval diet with ethyl alcohol alone increased pupation insignificantly and adult emergence was insignificantly decreased at different concentrations. Moreover, treating eggs or larval diet with diethyl ether alone significantly increased sex ratio at 50% and 2% concentration, respectively,while differed insignificantly by applying different chemicals either on eggs or on larval diet. Treating eggs with the three chemicals before gamma irradiation of the produced pupae fluctuated egg hatch insignificantly compared to gamma irradiation alone. By applying diethyl ether on eggs or acetone in the larval diet decreased egg hatch insignificantly. Competitiveness values were insignificantly increased by applying ethyl alcohol on eggs, acetone or ethyl alcohol on eggs, acetone or ethyl alcohol in larval diet before gamma irradiation of the produced pupae. Survivals of the produced adults, treated as eggs or in the larval diet with different chemicals and irradiated as pupae, fluctuated insignificantly

  8. Green fuel utilization for diesel engine, combustion and emission analysis fuelled with CNSO diesel blends with Diethyl ether as additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Rajan, K.; Senthil Kumar, K. R.; Maiyappan, K.; Rasheed, Usama Tariq

    2017-05-01

    The experimental investigation is conducted to evaluate the effects by using Diethyl ether (DEE) as an additive. The Cashew Nut Shell Oil diesel blends (CDB) are tested in a 4-stroke single cylinder DI unmodified diesel engine, rated power is 4.4 kW at a speed of 1500 rpm. The effect of combustion analysis of test fuels on net heat release rate, cylinder pressure, engine power, BSFC, BTE, EGT were observed by the performance tests. The combustion and emission characteristics of a diesel engine with an additive of high cetane number is utilized with CDB and thus investigated. The influence of blends on CO, CO2, HC, NOx and smoke opacity is investigated by emission tests. Initially, the experiment was conducted with different blends of CDB diesel blends like 10%, 20%, & 30% by volume basis in a diesel engine. Among this blends B20 shows reasonable result and heat dissipation rate at full load conditions. The BTE of B20 is 27.52% whereas base diesel fuel is 29.73%. Addition of the DEE by 5%, 10% and 15% by volume basis with B20 which is a base fuel has resulted with improved estimates. The result shows that at full load conditions BTE of B20D10 is 28.96% which is close to the base fuel i.e. B20. The emissions like CO2 shows reducing trends while HC emission rises with increase in CNSO blends. The HC in diesel corresponds to 30ppm and in B20 it is 34ppm, but addition of DEE shows a decreasing trend as in B20D5 has 29ppm and B20D15 has 23ppm respectively. NOx also shows increasing trends with CNSO blend, after addition of DEE it shows declining trend. The NOx for diesel, B20, B30, B20D5, B20D10 and B20D15 emits 1195, 1450, 1511, 1327, 1373 and 1200ppm respectively. The smoke emission is 3.96, 3.38, 3.15 FSN of B20, B20D15 and diesel respectively.

  9. Multiply ionization of diethyl ether clusters by 532 nm nanosecond laser: The influence of laser intensity and the electron energy distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Nazhen; Wang Weiguo; Zhao Wuduo; Han Fenglei; Li Haiyang

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The formation mechanism for multiply charged ions (C q+ and O q+ (q = 2-4)) were investigated experimentally and theoretically using a dual polarity time-of-flight mass spectrometer when diethyl ether clusters interacted with nanosecond laser pulse. - Abstract: The formation mechanism for multiply charged ions (C q+ and O q+ (q = 2-4)) were investigated using a dual polarity time-of-flight mass spectrometer when diethyl ether clusters interacted with nanosecond laser pulse. The signal intensity of multiply charged ions and electron energy was measured experimentally. It was shown that the intensity of multiply charged ions increased about 50 times when laser intensity increased from 7.6 x 10 9 to 7.0 x 10 10 W/cm 2 , then saturated as laser intensity increased further. It is interesting that the evolution of the mean value of electron energy was same to that of multiply charged ions. The theoretical calculation showed the ionization potential of atomic ions could be significantly decreased due to the effect of Coulomb screening especially at low laser intensity. It indicated that the electron ionization combined with Coulomb screening effect could explain the production of multiply charged ions in nanosecond laser field.

  10. (Diethyl ether{1-[2-(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl-κN3-1,1-diphenylethyl]-(1,2,3,3a,7a-η-indenyl}lithium(I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Borzov

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Li(C27H23N2(C4H10O], the Li atom possesses a nearly planar trigonal coordination environment (assuming the cyclopentadienyl ring of the indenyl group occupies one coordination place. The diethyl ether ligand adopts a nearly planar W-type conformation.

  11. Binding Energy and Dissociation Barrier: Experimental Determination of the Key Parameters of the Potential Energy Curve of Diethyl Ether on Si(001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutzel, Marcel; Lipponer, Marcus; Dürr, Michael; Höfer, Ulrich

    2015-10-01

    The key parameters of the potential energy curve of organic molecules on semiconductor surfaces, binding energy of the intermediate state and dissociation barrier, were experimentally investigated for the model system of diethyl ether (Et2O) on Si(001). Et2O adsorbs via a datively bonded intermediate from which it converts via ether cleavage into a covalently attached final state. This thermally activated conversion into the final state was followed in real-time by means of optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) at different temperatures and the associated energy barrier ϵa = 0.38 ± 0.05 eV and pre-exponential factor νa = 10(4±1) s(-1) were determined. From molecular beam experiments on the initial sticking probability, the difference between the desorption energy ϵd and ϵa was extracted and thus the binding energy of the intermediate state was determined (0.62 ± 0.08 eV). The results are discussed in terms of general chemical trends as well as with respect to a wider applicability on adsorbate reactions on semiconductor surfaces.

  12. Experimental investigation on the availability, performance, combustion and emission distinctiveness of bael oil/ diesel/ diethyl ether blends powered in a variable compression ratio diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthi, M.; Malayalamurthi, R.

    2018-02-01

    The present work aims at experimental investigation on the combined effect of injection timing (IT) and injection pressure (IP) on the performance and emissions characteristics, and exergy analysis of a compression-ignition (CI) engine powered with bael oil blends. The tests were conducted using ternary blends of bael oil, diethyl ether (DEE) and neat diesel (D) at various engine loads at a constant engine speed (1500 rpm). With B2 (60%D + 30%bael oil+10%DEE) fuel, the brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of the engine is augmented by 3.5%, reduction of 4.7% of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission has been observed at 100% engine load with 250 bar IP. B2 fuel exhibits 7% lower scale of HC emissions compared to that of diesel fuel at 100% engine load in 23 °bTDC IT. The increment in both cooling water and exhaust gas availabilities lead to increasing exergy efficiency with increasing load. The exergy efficiency of about 62.17% has been recorded by B2 fuel at an injection pressure of 230 IP bar with 100% load. On the whole, B2 fuel displays the best performance and combustion characteristics. It also exhibits better characteristics of emissions level in terms of lower HC, smoke opacity and NOx.

  13. Modification of sodium and potassium channel kinetics by diethyl ether and studies on sodium channel inactivation in the crayfish giant axon membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bean, Bruce Palmer [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The effects of ether and halothane on membrane currents in the voltage clamped crayfish giant axon membrane were investigated. Concentrations of ether up to 300 mM and of halothane up to 32 mM had no effect on resting potential or leakage conductance. Ether and halothane reduced the size of sodium currents without changing the voltage dependence of the peak currents or their reversal potential. Ether and halothane also produced a reversible, dose-dependent speeding of sodium current decay at all membrane potentials. Ether reduced the time constants for inactivation, and also shifted the midpoint of the steady-state inactivation curve in the hyperpolarizing direction. Potassium currents were smaller with ether present, with no change in the voltage dependence of steady-state currents. The activation of potassium channels was faster with ether present. There was no apparent change in the capacitance of the crayfish giant axon membrane with ether concentrations of up to 100 mM. Experiments on sodium channel inactivation kinetics were performed using 4-aminopyridine to block potassium currents. Sodium currents decayed with a time course generally fit well by a single exponential. The time constant of decay was a steep function of voltage, especially in the negative resistance region of the peak current vs voltage relation.The time course of inactivation was very similar to that of the decay of the current at the same potential. The measurement of steady-state inactivation curves with different test pulses showed no shifts along the voltage asix. The voltage-dependence of the integral of sodium conductance was measured to test models of sodium channel inactivation in which channels must open before inactivating; the results appear inconsistent with some of the simplest cases of such models.

  14. An Improved Plutonium Trifluoride Precipitation Flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, H.D.

    2001-06-26

    This report discusses results of the plutonium trifluoride two-stage precipitation study. A series of precipitation experiments was used to identify the significant process variables affecting precipitation performance. A mathematical model of the precipitation process was developed which is based on the formation of plutonium fluoride complexes. The precipitation model relates all process variables, in a single equation, to a single parameter which can be used to control the performance of the plutonium trifluoride precipitation process. Recommendations have been made which will optimize the FB-Line plutonium trifluoride precipitation process.

  15. Carbonyl{3,3′-di-tert-butyl-5,5′-dimethoxy-2,2′-bis[(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphospholan-2-yloxy]biphenyl-κ2P,P′}hydrido(triphenylphosphane-κPrhodium(I diethyl ether trisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detlef Selent

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [RhH(C74H68O8P2(C18H15P(CO]·3C4H10O, the CHP3 coordination set at the RhI ion is arranged in a distorted trigonal–bipyramidal geometry with the P atoms adopting equatorial coordination sites and the C atom of the carbonyl ligand as well as the H atom adopting the axial sites. The asymmetric unit contains two very similar molecules of the rhodium complex, two half-occupied diethyl ether molecules and further diethyl ether solvent molecules which could not be modelled successfully. Therefore contributions of the latter were removed from the diffraction data using the SQUEEZE procedure in PLATON [Spek (2009. Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155].

  16. Two-stage precipitation of cerium trifluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luerkens, D.W.

    1984-04-01

    Cerium was used as a surrogate for plutonium in studies of the solubility and precipitation of the trifluoride salt. Cerium trifluoride was precipitated using a two-stage precipitation system. A series of precipitation experiments were used to identify the significant process variables affecting precipitate characteristics. A mathematical precipitation model was developed which is based on the formation of cerium fluoride complexes. The precipitation model relates all process variables, in a single equation, to a single parameter which can be used to control particle characteristics. 11 references, 9 figures, 8 tables

  17. Nitrogen Trifluoride-Based Fluoride- Volatility Separations Process: Initial Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, Bruce K.; Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2011-09-28

    This document describes the results of our investigations on the potential use of nitrogen trifluoride as the fluorinating and oxidizing agent in fluoride volatility-based used nuclear fuel reprocessing. The conceptual process uses differences in reaction temperatures between nitrogen trifluoride and fuel constituents that produce volatile fluorides to achieve separations and recover valuable constituents. We provide results from our thermodynamic evaluations, thermo-analytical experiments, kinetic models, and provide a preliminary process flowsheet. The evaluations found that nitrogen trifluoride can effectively produce volatile fluorides at different temperatures dependent on the fuel constituent.

  18. The Binary Boron Trifluoride-Hydroxylamine Molecular Complex: N ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Chemistry ... Recent computational results on a number of complexes with some oxygen and nitrogen bases have indicated relationships between the properties of the adducts, such as the interaction energies and the wavenumber shifts of some of the modes of the boron trifluoride sub-molecule, ...

  19. The Binary Boron Trifluoride-Hydroxylamine Molecular Complex: N ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    Hydroxylamine represents an example of a base containing two potential sites of electron donation, the nitrogen and the oxygen atoms. Predictions based on our earlier investigations of systems of this type suggest that hydroxylamine would bind to boron trifluoride preferentially through its nitrogen atom. Whether such a.

  20. Di-μ-chlorido-bis({4-[bis(trimethylsilylamino]-6-chloro-2,2,8,8-tetramethyl-5,7-bis(trimethylsilyl-3,5,7-triaza-4,6-diphospha-2,8-disilanon-3-en-4-ido-κ2P,P′}palladium(II diethyl ether disolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Höhne

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Pd2(C18H54Cl2N4P2Si62Cl2]·2C4H10O, features a dinuclear chloride-bridged palladium complex bearing two equivalents of the novel monoanionic mixed valent (λ3-P—N—(λ5-P ligand. A metal catalyzed coupling of two aminoiminophosphines and a shift of one chlorine from the metal to the phosphorus results in the (λ3-P—N—(λ5-P ligand. The molecule contains a planar bimetallic Pd2Cl2 core with a crystallographic centre of inversion at the mid-point of the Pd...Pd line. The Pd atoms are in a distorted square-planar arrangement, where the P/Pd/P and Cl/Pd/Cl planes are twisted with respect to each other by a dihedral angle of 7.57 (4°. The P—Pd—P bite angle is 71.380 (18°. Intramolecular C—H...Cl interactions are observed. In the crystal, the diethyl ether solvent molecule is disordered over two sites, with an occupancy ratio of 0.788 (5:0.212 (5.

  1. Chlorine trifluoride (1963); Le trifluorure de chlore (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, L.M.; Gillardeau, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    This monograph on chlorine trifluoride may be considered as a working tool useful in gaseous diffusion research. It consists of data gathered from the literature and includes furthermore a certain amount of original data. This monograph groups together the physical, chemical and physiological properties of chlorine trifluoride, as well as the preparation and analytical methods. It has been thought wise to add some technological information, and the safety regulations governing its use. (authors) [French] Cette monographie sur le trifluorure de chlore doit etre consideree comme un instrument de travail dans le cadre des recherches sur la diffusion gazeuse. Il etait necessaire de grouper les donnees eparses dans la litterature. Elle comprend en outre un certain nombre de donnees originales. Cette monographie groupe les proprietes physiques, chimiques et physiologiques du trifluorure de chlore, ainsi que ses methodes de preparation et d'analyse. On a juge utile de joindre des indications technologiques et les consignes de securite concernant son emploi. (auteurs)

  2. Vapour Pressure of Diethyl Phthalate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roháč, V.; Růžička, K.; Růžička, V.; Zaitsau, D. H.; Kabo, G. J.; Diky, V.; Aim, Karel

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 11 (2004), s. 929-937 ISSN 0021-9614 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : vapour pressure * diethyl phthalate * correlation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.144, year: 2004

  3. Di-μ-hydroxido-bis[aquatrichloridotin(IV] diethyl ether disolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minglei Yang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Sn2Cl6(OH2(H2O2]·2C4H10O, consists of a centrosymmetric molecule and two additional solvent molecules and has an infinite two-dimensional network extending parallel to (101. The Sn atom is six-coordinate with a distorted octahedral geometry. Additional O—H...O hydrogen bonding leads to stabilization of the crystal structure.

  4. The action of certain antibiotics and ether on swine enzootic pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, R G

    1971-01-01

    The susceptibility of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae to the action of three antibiotics and diethyl ether was determined. Infected swine were used in an in vivo sensitivity detection system. The parameter of susceptibility was lesion prophylaxis. In vivo, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae appeared to be resistant to diethyl ether, tylosin tartrate, and erythromycin, but was susceptible to the action of chlortetracycline. Chlortetracycline was effective in preventing the development of lesions when given at levels which would be practical in commercial swine operations.

  5. Interaction of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes with dienes in the presence of boron trifluoride etherate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gramenitskaya, V.N.; Golovkina, L.S.; Orach, V.S.

    1975-01-01

    The products of the acrolein reaction with divinyl, isoprene and chloroprene catalized by BF 3 xEt 2 O are corresponding 3-cyclohexenaldehydes trimerized under the catalyst influence. Mixtures of substituted 3-cyclohexealdehydes and Δ 3 -dihydropirines were produced as results of the reaction of croton aldehyde with 1,1,3-trimethilbutadiene at high temperature as well as at 20 deg C in presence of catalyst

  6. Etch rate and surface morphology of polycrystalline beta-silicon carbide using chlorine trifluoride gas

    OpenAIRE

    Habuka, Hitoshi; Oda, S.; Fukai, Y.; Fukae, K.; Takeuchi, T.; Aihara, M.

    2006-01-01

    Etch rates of polycrystalline beta-silicon carbide (SiC) substrate in a wide range from less than one to more than 10 mu m/min are obtained using chlorine trifluoride gas in ambient nitrogen at 673-973 K and atmospheric pressure in a horizontal reactor. Over the chlorine trifluoride gas concentrations of 10-100% used in this study, the etch rate increases at the substrate temperatures between 673 and 773 K. Additionally, the etch rate at temperatures higher than 773 K is independent of the su...

  7. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria of (water + propionic acid + diethyl succinate or diethyl glutarate or diethyl adipate) ternary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirbaslar, S. Ismail [Istanbul University, Engineering Faculty, Chemical Engineering Department, 34320 Avcilar, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: krbaslar@istanbul.edu.tr; Sahin, Selin; Bilgin, Mehmet [Istanbul University, Engineering Faculty, Chemical Engineering Department, 34320 Avcilar, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2007-11-15

    (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data of the solubility (binodal) curves and tie-line end compositions were examined for {l_brace}water (1) + propionic acid (2) + diethyl succinate or diethyl glutarate or diethyl adipate (3){r_brace} at T = 298.15 K and 101.3 {+-} 0.7 kPa. The relative mutual solubility of the propionic acid is higher in the dibasic esters layers than in the aqueous layers. The reliability of the experimental tie-line data was confirmed by using the Othmer-Tobias correlation. The LLE data of the ternary systems was predicted by UNIFAC method. Distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated for the immiscibility region.

  8. PREPARATION OF DIETHYL MALONATE ADDUCTS FROM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    compounds such as the antiinflammatory and analgesic drugs indomethacin or aclofenac [14]. A mild and efficient procedure for the introduction of the methylenecarboxy group into functionalized molecules is thus of great interest. In this study, novel chalcone-diethyl malonate derivatives that can be used in the synthesis.

  9. Skin absorption in vitro of glycol ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larese Filon, F; Fiorito, A; Adami, G; Barbieri, P; Coceani, N; Bussani, R; Reisenhofer, E

    1999-10-01

    The increased use of glycol ethers (GEs) for water-based paints and cleaning products, combined with a lack of information about many of these products, particularly with regard to the effects of percutaneous exposure, led us to evaluate the skin absorption rates of a group of glycol ethers in vitro. Skin permeation was calculated using the Franz cell method with human skin. A physiological solution was used as the receiving phase. The amount of solvent passing through the skin was analysed with a gas chromatographic technique employing flame ionization detection. A permeation profile was obtained and steady state, lag time and permeation constant flux was calculated for each of the following solvents: ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGMEE), propylene glycol mono-methyl ether (PGMME); propylene glycol mono-methyl ether acetate (PGMMEac); 2-propylene glycol 1-butyl ether (2PG1BE), ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (EGDME), ethylene glycol diethyl ether (EGDEE) and diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (DEGDME). All solvents were tested in their pure form and with 70% acetone. For all solvents tested the lag time was less than 2 h, and for the majority of them was about 60 min. Flux at steady state ranged between 0.017 +/- 0.005 and 3.435 +/- 1.897 mg/cm(2)/h and permeation rate was from 0.0192 to 1.02 x 10(-3) cm/h. The presence of acetone in the solution caused a reduction in lag time and an increase in permeation rate, higher for EGMEE, lower for EGDEE, indicating the enhancing effect of this mixture of solvents. Our results confirm the high percutaneous absorption of the GEs tested. The Franz method might be helpful for obtaining a grading of skin notation for hydrophilic substances: in the case of glycol ethers, it can give us precise information about permeation risk, particularly important in the evaluation of exposure. In the case of solvents with high dermal absorption, the air concentration is no longer a sufficient measure of the total exposure to workers, and

  10. Landau theory and giant room-temperature barocaloric effect in M F3 metal trifluorides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales-Salazar, A.; Brierley, R. T.; Littlewood, P. B.; Guzmán-Verri, G. G.

    2017-10-01

    The structural phase transitions of M F3 (M = Al, Cr, V, Fe, Ti, Sc) metal trifluorides are studied within a simple Landau theory consisting of tilts of rigid M F6 octahedra associated with soft antiferrodistortive optic modes that are coupled to long-wavelength strain generating acoustic phonons. We calculate the temperature and pressure dependence of several quantities such as the spontaneous distortions, volume expansion, and shear strains as well as T -P phase diagrams. By contrasting our model to experiments we quantify the deviations from mean-field behavior and find that the tilt fluctuations of the M F6 octahedra increase with metal cation size. We apply our model to predict giant barocaloric effects in Sc-substituted TiF3 of up to about 15 JK -1kg-1 for modest hydrostatic compressions of 0.2 GPa . The effect extends over a wide temperature range of over 140 K (including room temperature) due to a large predicted rate, d Tc/d P =723 K GPa-1 , which exceeds those of typical barocaloric materials. Our results suggest that open lattice frameworks such as the trifluorides are an attractive platform to search for giant barocaloric effects.

  11. Laboratory tests using chlorine trifluoride in support of deposit removal at MSRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.F.; Rudolph, J.C.; Del Cul, G.D.; Loghry, S.L.; Simmons, D.W.; Toth, L.M.

    1997-04-01

    Experimental trials were conducted to investigate some unresolved issues regarding the use of chlorine trifluoride (ClF 3 ) for removal of uranium-bearing deposits in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) off-gas system. The safety and effectiveness of operation of the fixed-bed trapping system for removal of reactive gases were the primary focus. The chief uncertainty concerns the fate of chlorine in the system and the potential for forming explosive chlorine oxides (primarily chlorine dioxide) in the trapping operation. Tests at the MSRE Reactive Gas Removal System reference conditions and at conditions of low ClF 3 flow showed that only very minor quantities of reactive halogen oxides were produced before column breakthrough. Somewhat larger quantities accompanied breakthrough. A separation test that exposed irradiated MSRE simulant salt to ClF 3 confirmed the expectation that the salt is basically inert for brief exposures to ClF 3 at room temperature

  12. Assessment of the Use of Nitrogen Trifluoride for Purifying Coolant and Heat Transfer Salts in the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.

    2010-09-28

    This report provides an assessment of the use of nitrogen trifluoride for removing oxide and water-caused contaminants in the fluoride salts that will be used as coolants in a molten salt cooled reactor.

  13. Gas Chromatographic Analysis of Sulfur Mustard in Diethyl Phthalate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lancaster, Paul

    1998-01-01

    ...) that had been trapped in the solvent, diethyl phthalate (DEP) is described. The method utilises the improved sensitivity and selectivity offered by the new Pulsed Flame Photometric Detector to detect routinely samples containing...

  14. Synthesis of 2-Diethyl- and 2-Diisopropylaminoethanesulfonic Acids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hsu, Fu-Lian

    1997-01-01

    Methods for the synthesis of 2-diethyl- and diisopropylaminoethanesulfonic acids have been developed by the reaction of the corresponding 2-aminoethyl chloride hydrochloride and sodium sulfite in water at 110 deg C...

  15. Preparation of diethyl malonate adducts from chalcone analogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nine chalcone-diethyl malonate derivatives (4a-i) were prepared by the reaction of chalcone derivatives (3a-i) with diethyl malonate in the presence of a catalytic amount of KOt-Bu in CH2CI2 in good to excellent yields. The products were characterized by FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and elemental analyses. KEY WORDS: ...

  16. Compound list: diethyl maleate [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available diethyl maleate DEM 00A05 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/diet...hyl_maleate.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/diet...hyl_maleate.Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/diethyl_maleate.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ...

  17. Structural study of chlorine tri-fluoride and bromine penta-fluoride in liquid and solid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousson, R.

    1973-01-01

    This research thesis reports the structural study of chlorine tri-fluoride and bromine penta-fluoride between 20 C and about -265 C. After some generalities on these compounds and a presentation of the experimental technique, the author reports and discusses results obtained with these both compounds: Raman spectrum for the liquid and for the solid phase, infrared spectrum for the solid phase, calorimetric measurements. In the case of chlorine tri-fluoride, the author studies the evolution of the liquid spectrum with temperature, shows the existence of an intermediate solid phase, and compares results obtained by Raman spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. He also applies to bromine penta-fluoride an analysis of normal coordinates of a XF 5 molecule: relationship between force constants and vibration frequencies, application of Wilson method, resolution of the molecular equation, determination of normal vibration modes [fr

  18. (Benzophenone imine-κNchlorido(hydridotripyrazolylborato(triphenylphosphineruthenium(II diethyl ether solvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Chun Tong

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of RuCl(Tp(Ph3P2, where Tp is [(CH3N2]3BH, with benzophenone imine leads to the formation of the title compound, [Ru(C9H10BN6Cl(C13H11N(C18H15P]·C4H10O. The environment about the Ru atom corresponds to a slightly distorted octahedron and the bite angle of the Tp ligand produces an average N—Ru—N angle of 86.3 (9°. The three Ru—N(Tp bond lengths [2.117 (2, 2.079 (2 and 2.084 (2 Å] are slightly longer than the average distance (2.038 Å in other ruthenium–Tp complexes.

  19. Total syntheses of naturally occurring diacetylenic spiroacetal enol ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakoshi, Naoki; Aburano, Daisuke; Mukai, Chisato

    2005-07-22

    A highly stereoselective method for constructing a (2E)-methoxymethylidene-1,6-dioxaspiro[4.5]decane skeleton has been developed on the basis of the palladium(II)-catalyzed ring-closing reaction of the 3,4-dioxygenated-9-hydroxy-1-nonyn-5-one derivatives as a crucial step. The newly developed procedures could be successfully applied to the first total synthesis of five diacetylenic spiroacetal enol ether natural products starting from commercially available (R,R)- or (S,S)-diethyl tartrate.

  20. ON THE PECULIARITIES OF THE RING CONTRACTION REACTIONS OF HOMODRIMANES VIA ACID MEDIATED EPOXIDE REARRANGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veaceslav Kulciţki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A selective rearrangement of a epoxy-homodrimanic substrate is described. Using fluorosulfonic acid at low temperature leads by ring contraction to a perhydrindanic structure. On the contrary, using boron trifluoride-diethyl ether at r.t. selectively brings about angular methyl migration.

  1. Physical and chemical feasibility of fueling molten salt reactors with TRU's trifluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, V.; Feinberg, O.; Konakov, S.; Subbotine, S.; Surenkov, A.; Zakirov, R.

    2001-01-01

    The molten salt reactor (MSR) concept is very important for consideration as an element of future nuclear energy systems. These reactor systems are unique in many ways. Particularly, the MSRs appear to have substantial promise not only as advanced TRU free system operating in U-Th cycle, but also as transmuter of TRU. Physical and chemical feasibility of fueling MSR with TRU trifluorides is examined. Solvent compositions with and without U-Th as fissile / fertile addition are considered. The principle reactor and fuel cycle variables available for optimizing the performance of MSR as TRU transmuting system are discussed. These efforts led to the definition in minimal TRU mass flow rate, reduced total losses to waste and maximum possible burn up rate for the molten salt transmuter. The current status of technology and prospects for revisited interest are summarized. Significant chemical problems are remain to be resolved at the end of prior MSRs programs, notably, graphite life durability, tritium control, fate of noble metal fission products. Questions arising from plutonium and minor actinide fueling include: corrosion and container chemistry, new redox buffer for systems without uranium, analytical chemistry instrumentation, adequate constituent solubilities, suitable fuel processing and waste form development. However these problems appear to be soluble. (author)

  2. Toxic effects of sublethal concentrations of diethyl Phthalate on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation on the effect of Diethyl phthalate (DEP) on the gill of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus was carried out in the laboratory. Seventy-five (75) catfish fingerlings were subjected to continuous exposure to sublethal concentrations of DEP (30, 40, 60 and 80 ìg/L) for a period of four weeks. The gills of the catfish ...

  3. Toxicity study of diethyl phthalate on Clarias gariepinus fingerlings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2014-02-12

    Feb 12, 2014 ... Diethyl Phthalate (DEP) is used as a plasticizer, a detergent base, in aerosol sprays, as a perfume ... Therefore, a study was designed to determine the acute toxicity effects of DEP on a fresh water fish, ... day 15 (P < 0.05) whereas mean cell haemoglobin (MCH) and mean cell haemoglobin concentration.

  4. Toxicity study of diethyl phthalate on Clarias gariepinus fingerlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diethyl Phthalate (DEP) is used as a plasticizer, a detergent base, in aerosol sprays, as a perfume binder and after shave lotion. It is known to be a contaminant of fresh water and marine ecosystem. Therefore, a study was designed to determine the acute toxicity effects of DEP on a fresh water fish, Clarias gariepinus ...

  5. Preparation and Characterization of Sulfonated Poly (ether ether ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proton-conducting membranes of organic–inorganic (sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone)/phosphated zirconia nanoparticles) composite were prepared by incorporating various ratios of phosphated zirconia nanoparticles (ZP) in sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK). SPEEK/ZP showed an improvement of ...

  6. Synthesis of l-threitol-based crown ethers and their application as enantioselective phase transfer catalyst in Michael additions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapi, Zsolt; Nemcsok, Tamás; Pálvölgyi, Ádám; Keglevich, György; Grün, Alajos; Bakó, Péter

    2017-06-01

    A few new l-threitol-based lariat ethers incorporating a monoaza-15-crown-5 unit were synthesized starting from diethyl l-tartrate. These macrocycles were used as phase transfer catalysts in asymmetric Michael addition reactions under mild conditions to afford the adducts in a few cases in good to excellent enantioselectivities. The addition of 2-nitropropane to trans-chalcone, and the reaction of diethyl acetamidomalonate with β-nitrostyrene resulted in the chiral Michael adducts in good enantioselectivities (90% and 95%, respectively). The substituents of chalcone had a significant impact on the yield and enantioselectivity in the reaction of diethyl acetoxymalonate. The highest enantiomeric excess (ee) values (99% ee) were measured in the case of 4-chloro- and 4-methoxychalcone. The phase transfer catalyzed cyclopropanation reaction of chalcone and benzylidene-malononitriles using diethyl bromomalonate as the nucleophile (MIRC reaction) was also developed. The corresponding chiral cyclopropane diesters were obtained in moderate to good (up to 99%) enantioselectivities in the presence of the threitol-based crown ethers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Acute environmental toxicity and persistence of DEM, a chemical agent simulant: Diethyl malonate. [Diethyl malonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, D.A.; Ligotke, M.W.; Harvey, S.D.; Fellows, R.J.; Li, Shu-mei W.; Van Voris, P.; Wentsel, R.S.

    1990-05-01

    The purpose of the following chemical simulant studies is to assess the potential acute environmental effects and persistence of diethyl malonate (DEM). Deposition velocities for DEM to soil surfaces ranged from 0.04 to 0.2 cm/sec. For foliar surfaces, deposition velocities ranged from 0.0002 cm/sec at low air concentrations to 0.05 cm/sec for high dose levels. The residence times or half-lives of DEM deposited to soils was 2 h for the fast component and 5 to 16 h for the residual material. DEM deposited to foliar surfaces also exhibited biphasic depuration. The half-life of the short residence time component ranged from 1 to 3 h, while the longer time component had half-times of 16 to 242 h. Volatilization and other depuration mechanisms reduce surface contaminant levels in both soils and foliage to less than 1% of initial dose within 96 h. DEM is not phytotoxic at foliar mass loading levels of less than 10 {mu}m/cm{sup 2}. However, severe damage is evident at mass loading levels in excess of 17 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}. Tall fescue and sagebrush were more affected than was short-needle pine, however, mass loading levels were markedly different. Regrowth of tall fescue indicated that the effects of DEM are residual, and growth rates are affected only at higher mass loadings through the second harvest. Results from in vitro testing of DEM indicated concentrations below 500 {mu}g/g dry soil generally did not negatively impact soil microbial activity. Short-term effects of DEM were more profound on soil dehydrogenase activity than on soil phosphatase activity. No enzyme inhibition or enhancement was observed after 28 days in incubation. Results of the earthworm bioassay indicate survival to be 86 and 66% at soil doses of 107 and 204 {mu}g DEM/cm{sup 2}, respectively. At higher dose level, activity or mobility was judged to be affected in over 50% of the individuals. 21 refs., 10 figs., 15 tabs.

  8. Bis[diethyl(hydroxyammonium] benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Ming Xie

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the centrosymmetric title compound, 2C4H12NO+·C8H4O42−, two N,N-diethyl(hydroxyammonium cations are linked to a benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate dianion by a combination of O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds, which can be described in graph-set terminology as R22(7. The crystal structure is further stabilized by C—H...O hydrogen bonds, leading to the fomation of a ribbon-like network.

  9. Usage of the word 'ether'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    Confusion has been caused by scientists using the one word 'ether' to classify models differing from each other in important respects. Major roles assigned to the word are examined, and the nature of modern ether theories surveyed. The part played by the several meanings attached to the word, in the ether concept, is outlined. (author)

  10. Cation permeable membranes from blends of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) and poly (ether sulfone)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelm, F.G.; Punt, Ineke G.M.; van der Vegt, N.F.A.; Strathmann, H.; Wessling, Matthias

    2002-01-01

    Sulfonated poly(aryl ether ether ketone), S-PEEK, is blended with non-sulfonated poly(ether sulfone) (PES) to adjust the properties of ion permeable and ion selective membranes. In this study, membranes are prepared from blends with (i) a S-PEEK content between 10 and 100 wt.% using one S-PEEK batch

  11. Diethyl Phthalate Causes Oxidative Stress: An in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heena Prajapati

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phthalates are a group of multifunctional chemicals. Diethyl phthalate (DEP is one of the most frequently used phthalates in solvents and fixatives for numerous industrial products. Method: The present experiment was designed to assess oxidative stress, if any, caused by diethyl phthalate. For this the homogenates of liver and kidney were treated with different concentrations ( 10-40 µg/mL of DEP. 10% liver and kidney homogenates were prepared in phosphate buffered saline and used for estimation of lipid peroxidation.In final step lipid peroxidation and total protein content were analyzed. Results: The result revealed significant and dose - dependent increase in lipid peroxidation, whereas protein content reduced significantly. Maximum increase in LPO and decrease in protein content was observed at 40 µg/mL of DEP concentration. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that different concentrations of DEP leads to dose- dependent significant increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease protein content.So at the different concentration of DEP cause oxidative stress.

  12. Facile synthesis and reversible lithium insertion studies on hydrated iron trifluoride FeF3·0.33H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, R. S.; Pralong, V.; Varadaraju, U. V.

    2016-05-01

    An original synthesis method for the synthesis of hydrated iron trifluoride is presented. This method, based on solvothermal process starting from iron salt and HF in alcool, is economic and simple. The electrochemical performances of the composite phase FeF3·0.33H2O/Graphitic oxide is showing enhanced capacity of 250 mAh/g at 0.05 °C.

  13. Ether bond effects in quaternary ammonium and phosphonium ionic liquid-propanol solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimura, Hiroaki; Kohki, Erica; Nakada, Ayumu; Tamatani, Kentaro; Abe, Hiroshi

    2018-03-01

    The liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) of quaternary ammonium and phosphonium ionic liquid (IL)-propanol solutions were examined. The ILs contained cations with or without ether bonds; the anion in all the ILs was bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (TFSI-). The cations without ether groups are tributylmethyl ammonium (N4441+), triethylpentyl phosphonium (P2225+), triethyloctyl phosphonium (P2228+), and tributylmethyl phosphonium (P4441+). The cations containing ether groups are N,N-diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl) ammonium, (N122(2O1)+), triethyl(methoxymethyl) phosphonium (P222(1O1)+), and triethyl(2-methoxyethyl) phosphonium, (P222(2O1)+). Propanol isomer effect was observed to affect the LLEs, reflecting the geometrical factors and hydrophobicities of 1-propanol and 2-propanol. According to Raman spectroscopy, the TFSI- anion conformers in the mixtures were altered in the presence of ether bonds in the cations. The universal quasichemical (UNIQUAC) interaction parameters are consistent with significant factors affecting IL-propanol solutions, such as the type of cation (ammonium or phosphonium), ether bonds, TFSI- conformers, and propanol isomer effects.

  14. Optimization of Biodiesel-Diesel Blended Fuel Properties and Engine Performance with Ether Additive Using Statistical Analysis and Response Surface Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obed M. Ali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the fuel properties and engine performance of blended palm biodiesel-diesel using diethyl ether as additive have been investigated. The properties of B30 blended palm biodiesel-diesel fuel were measured and analyzed statistically with the addition of 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% (by volume diethyl ether additive. The engine tests were conducted at increasing engine speeds from 1500 rpm to 3500 rpm and under constant load. Optimization of independent variables was performed using the desirability approach of the response surface methodology (RSM with the goal of minimizing emissions and maximizing performance parameters. The experiments were designed using a statistical tool known as design of experiments (DoE based on RSM.

  15. [Synthesis and pharmacologic study of diethyl N-palmitoyl glutamate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamvakides, A; Kolocouris, N

    1989-01-01

    The diethyl N-palmitoyl glutamate (DEEPGt) was synthesized by the mixed anhydrides method and pharmacologically studied; hypothermy, sedation, myorelaxation and antagonism of the pentetrazole (PTZ) convulsions were obtained in mice. The haloperidol catalepsy's potentiation coming with oral dyskinesias were observed on rats. It seems, in the light of this pharmacological exploration, that DEEPGt penetrates easily in the brain and develops an anti-glutamatergic activity. It is probably the slow liberation of N-palmitoyl glutamic acid (PGt) from the DEEPGt which amplifies its anti-PTZ activity and could be interesting against the memory impairing action of all the glutamatergic antagonists which are actually considered as the possible next generation of antiepileptic and neuroprotecting drugs.

  16. The use of deuterium n.m.r. spectroscopy in mechanistic studies of exchange reactions of ethers on supported metal catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.A.; Kemball, Charles; McDougall, G.S.

    1987-01-01

    Exchange reactions of diethyl ether (DEE) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) with deuterium have been studied over supported nickel, palladium, platinum, and rhodium catalysts. Products from most of the systems were analysed by deuterium n.m.r. spectroscopy (55.28 MHz) which gave quantitative results about the distribution of deuterium in the exchanged ethers. The results confirm earlier conclusions about the mechanism of the exchange of DEE and provide new evidence about the reactions of THF. Some hydrogenolysis occurred simultaneously with exchange of THF over both nickel and platinum. (author)

  17. Ether space-time & cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this first volume of papers is to examine the different paths by which the modern ether concept has been developed and to highlight the part it plays in major departments of 21st century physics. The evidence for its existence is reviewed, and it is hoped, widespread misconceptions concerning ether are corrected. It is anticipated that the emerging modern concept of ether will play a fundamental part in the development of 21st century physical science.

  18. The extraction and effect in the system uranyl nitrate-dietyl ether-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Luina, A.; Gutierrez Jodra, L.; Rius Miro, A.

    1960-01-01

    The solute transfer of uranyl nitrate from diethyl ether to water has been studied in a spray column using water as dispersed phase and a direction of extraction from ether to water. The column is 102 cm long and has a diameter of 4,7 cm. The entrances of the phases are 77 cm apart. The rates of flow of both phases have been used as variables and the concentration of the continuous phase has been determined at different heights. The curves of logarithm of concentration of the continuous phase vs. distance to interphase show the present of a drop of concentration in the entrance of the continuous phase. This depends on the rates of flow of the phases. No effect in the entrance of the dispersed phase has been found. (Author) 20 refs

  19. Atmospheric Nitrogen Trifluoride: Optimized emission estimates using 2-D and 3-D Chemical Transport Models from 1973-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, D. J.; Rigby, M. L.; Prinn, R. G.; Muhle, J.; Weiss, R. F.

    2009-12-01

    We present optimized annual global emissions from 1973-2008 of nitrogen trifluoride (NF3), a powerful greenhouse gas which is not currently regulated by the Kyoto Protocol. In the past few decades, NF3 production has dramatically increased due to its usage in the semiconductor industry. Emissions were estimated through the 'pulse-method' discrete Kalman filter using both a simple, flexible 2-D 12-box model used in the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) network and the Model for Ozone and Related Tracers (MOZART v4.5), a full 3-D atmospheric chemistry model. No official audited reports of industrial NF3 emissions are available, and with limited information on production, a priori emissions were estimated using both a bottom-up and top-down approach with two different spatial patterns based on semiconductor perfluorocarbon (PFC) emissions from the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR v3.2) and Semiconductor Industry Association sales information. Both spatial patterns used in the models gave consistent results, showing the robustness of the estimated global emissions. Differences between estimates using the 2-D and 3-D models can be attributed to transport rates and resolution differences. Additionally, new NF3 industry production and market information is presented. Emission estimates from both the 2-D and 3-D models suggest that either the assumed industry release rate of NF3 or industry production information is still underestimated.

  20. 2-Furaldehyde diethyl acetal from tender coconut water (Cocos nucifera) attenuates biofilm formation and quorum sensing-mediated virulence of Chromobacterium violaceum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethupathy, Sivasamy; Nithya, Chari; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-biofilm and quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) potential of tender coconut water (TCW) against Chromobacterium violaceum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. TCW significantly inhibited the QS regulated violacein, virulence factors and biofilm production without affecting their growth. qRT-PCR analysis revealed the down-regulation of autoinducer synthase, transcriptional regulator and virulence genes. Mass-spectrometric analysis of a petroleum ether extract of the TCW hydrolyte revealed that 2-furaldehyde diethyl acetal (2FDA) and palmitic acid (PA) are the major compounds. In vitro bioassays confirmed the ability of 2FDA to inhibit the biofilm formation and virulence factors. In addition, the combination of PA with 2FDA resulted in potent inhibition of biofilm formation and virulence factors. The results obtained strongly suggest that TCW can be exploited as a base for designing a novel antipathogenic drug formulation to treat biofilm mediated infections caused by P. aeruginosa.

  1. Di-isopropyl ether assisted crystallization of organic-inorganic perovskites for efficient and reproducible perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu-Yao; Deng, Lin-Long; Wang, Xin; Wang, Tan; Liu, Hao-Ran; Dai, Si-Min; Xing, Zhou; Xie, Su-Yuan; Huang, Rong-Bin; Zheng, Lan-Sun

    2017-11-23

    Organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells have emerged as a promising photovoltaic technology because of their advantages such as low cost, high efficiency, and solution processability. The performance of perovskite solar cells is highly dependent on the crystallinity and morphology of the perovskite films. Herein, we report a simple, one-step anti-solvent deposition process using di-isopropyl ether as a dripping solvent to obtain extremely uniform and highly crystalline CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 perovskite films. Compared to toluene, chlorobenzene, chloroform, or diethyl ether, di-isopropyl ether has proven to be a more suitable solvent for an anti-solvent deposition process. The perovskite solar cells fabricated by the anti-solvent deposition process using di-isopropyl ether treatment exhibit an average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 17.67 ± 0.54% and the highest PCE of 19.07%. Moreover, the higher boiling point of di-isopropyl ether makes the anti-solvent deposition process more tolerant to elevated ambient temperature, which can be carried out at ambient temperatures up to 40 °C. Our results demonstrate that di-isopropyl ether is an excellent dripping solvent in the anti-solvent deposition process for efficient and reproducible perovskite solar cells.

  2. Wastewater Treatment Evaluation, Mather AFB, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-06-01

    stopper, 100 ml 2 lb Potassium iodide, CP ,»•.’, 1 lb Starch , soluble potato * V 1 lb Sodium thiosulfate, CP 5 lb Manganous sulfate, CP ; *> 100 g...Because of the high sensitivity of the electron capture detector, a one-liter water sample can be extracted with hexane, concentrated to 5 ml, and 5...sample. N Herbicides are first extracted with diethyl ether and methylated with 14 percent boron trifluoride-methanol solution, then gas

  3. Exogenous ether lipids predominantly target mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuerschner, Lars; Richter, Doris; Hannibal-Bach, Hans Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Ether lipids are ubiquitous constituents of cellular membranes with no discrete cell biological function assigned yet. Using fluorescent polyene-ether lipids we analyzed their intracellular distribution in living cells by microscopy. Mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum accumulated high...... amounts of ether-phosphatidylcholine and ether-phosphatidylethanolamine. Both lipids were specifically labeled using the corresponding lyso-ether lipids, which we established as supreme precursors for lipid tagging. Polyfosine, a fluorescent analogue of the anti-neoplastic ether lipid edelfosine...... in ether lipid metabolism and intracellular ether lipid trafficking....

  4. Reproductive toxicity of the glycol ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, B D

    1983-06-01

    The glycol ethers are an important and widely used class of solvents. Recent studies have demonstrated that ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME), ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (EGdiME), ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGEE), and ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (EGEEA) are teratogenic. Other studies have demonstrated that testicular atrophy or infertility follow treatment of males with EGME, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (EGMEA), EGEE, EGEEA, diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (diEGdiME), and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (diEGEE). Experimental data are reviewed and structure-activity relationships are speculated upon.

  5. Dimethyl sulfoxyde diethyl fumarate solution for high dose dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kassiri, H.; Kattan, M.; Daher, Y.

    2007-06-01

    Dosimetric characterization of diethyl fumarate DEF in dimethyl sulfoxyde DMSO solution has been studied spectrophotometrically for possible application at high dose radiation dosimetry in the range (0-225 kGy). The absorption spectra of irradiated solution showed broad absorption bands between (325-400 nm) with a shoulder at 332 nm. The absorption increases as the dose is increased. Absorbance at 332 nm were measured and plotted against absorbed dose. Linear relationship and good response were found between absorbed dose and absorbance of 20% DEF concentration in the range (0-225 kGy) at the wave length, and linearity up to 250 kGy of absorbance at 332 nm .Good dose rate independence was observed in the range (14-33 kGy/h). The effect of post irradiation storage in darkness and indirect daylight conditions were not found to influence the absorption up to 700 h after irradiation. The effect of irradiation temperature within the range (0 to 60 centigrade degree) on the dosimetry performance was discussed.(author)

  6. Dimethyl sulfoxyde diethyl fumarate solution for high dose dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kassiri, H.; Kattan, M.; Daher, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Dosimetric characterization of diethyl fumarate DEF in dimethyl sulfoxyde DMSO solution has been studied spectrophotometrically for possible application at high dose radiation dosimetry in the range (0-225 kGy). The absorption spectra of irradiated solution showed broad absorption bands between (325-400 nm) with a shoulder at 332 nm. The absorption increases as the dose is increased. Absorbance at 332 nm were measured and plotted against absorbed dose. Linear relationship and good response were found between absorbed dose and absorbance of 20% DEF concentration in the range (0-225 kGy) at the wave length, and linearity up to 250 kGy of absorbance at 332 nm .Good dose rate independence was observed in the range (14-33 kGy/h). The effect of post irradiation storage in darkness and indirect daylight conditions were not found to influence the absorption up to 700 h after irradiation. The effect of irradiation temperature within the range (0 to 60 centigrade degree) on the dosimetry performance was discussed. (author)

  7. Preparation and characterization of poly(ether ether ketone) derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceicao, Thiago F.; Bertolino, Jose R.; Mireski, Sandro L.; Joussef, Antonio C.; Pires, Alfredo T.N.; Barra, Guilherme M.O.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, three derivatives of poly(ether ether ketone) [PEEK] were prepared in suspension by nitration (NO 2 -PEEK), reduction to the amino group (NH 2 -PEEK) and carbonyl reduction (PEEK-OH). These modified polymers were characterized by NMR, IR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. They showed interesting characteristics, such as, basicity and higher solubility in organic solvents, like DMF, for use as membranes and composites in different applications. (author)

  8. Ether the nothing that connects everything

    CERN Document Server

    Milutis, Joe

    2006-01-01

    In Ether, the histories of the unseen merge with discussions of the technology of electromagnetism. Navigating more than three hundred years of the ether''s cultural and artistic history, Joe Milutis reveals its continuous reinvention and tangible impact without ever losing sight of its ephemeral, elusive nature. The true meaning of ether, Milutis suggests, may be that it can never be fully grasped.

  9. An experimental and modeling study of diethyl carbonate oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Nakamura, Hisashi

    2015-04-01

    Diethyl carbonate (DEC) is an attractive biofuel that can be used to displace petroleum-derived diesel fuel, thereby reducing CO2 and particulate emissions from diesel engines. A better understanding of DEC combustion characteristics is needed to facilitate its use in internal combustion engines. Toward this goal, ignition delay times for DEC were measured at conditions relevant to internal combustion engines using a rapid compression machine (RCM) and a shock tube. The experimental conditions investigated covered a wide range of temperatures (660-1300K), a pressure of 30bar, and equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 in air. To provide further understanding of the intermediates formed in DEC oxidation, species concentrations were measured in a jet-stirred reactor at 10atm over a temperature range of 500-1200K and at equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0. These experimental measurements were used to aid the development and validation of a chemical kinetic model for DEC.The experimental results for ignition in the RCM showed near negative temperature coefficient (NTC) behavior. Six-membered alkylperoxy radical (RO˙2) isomerizations are conventionally thought to initiate low-temperature branching reactions responsible for NTC behavior, but DEC has no such possible 6- and 7-membered ring isomerizations. However, its molecular structure allows for 5-, 8- and 9-membered ring RO˙2 isomerizations. To provide accurate rate constants for these ring structures, ab initio computations for RO˙2⇌Q˙OOH isomerization reactions were performed. These new RO˙2 isomerization rate constants have been implemented in a chemical kinetic model for DEC oxidation. The model simulations have been compared with ignition delay times measured in the RCM near the NTC region. Results of the simulation were also compared with experimental results for ignition in the high-temperature region and for species concentrations in the jet-stirred reactor. Chemical kinetic insights into the

  10. Luminescent Lariat Aza-Crown Ether

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard König

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Lariat ethers are interesting recognition motifs in supramolecular chemistry. The synthesis of a luminescent lariat ether with triglycol chain by azide–alkyne (Huisgen cycloaddition is presented.

  11. Comparison of vibration spectra and of valence force fields of the dimethyl sulfoxide and of its addition compounds with boron trifluoride and bivalent palladium halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranquille, Michel

    1975-01-01

    In its first part, this research thesis addresses vibration spectra and valence force fields of the dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) molecule: report of published results obtained by various techniques (microwave, X ray, NMR, slow neutron or vibration spectroscopy), discussion and analysis of vibration spectra, determination of thermodynamic values, determination of normal vibration modes. The second part addresses the study of vibration spectra of coordination compounds of DMSO: influence of water on DMSO vibration spectra, DMSO coordination compounds with boron trifluoride or with palladium halides. The third part addresses the study of valence force fields and of normal modes of vibration of DMSO coordination compounds (same compounds as above), and the fourth part reports the comparison of some DMSO properties in function of the complexing site

  12. Assessment of the properties of diethyl phosphite as a novel anticorrosion pigment in organic coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nechvílová, K.; Kalendová, A.; Schmidová, E.; Bober, Patrycja

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2017), s. 423-438 ISSN 0366-6352 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : diethyl phosphite * conductive polymers * polyaniline Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2016

  13. An efficient oxa-Michael addition to diethyl vinylphosphonate under mild reaction conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baszczyňski, Ondřej; Jansa, Petr; Dračínský, Martin; Kaiser, Martin Maxmilian; Špaček, Petr; Janeba, Zlatko

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 4 (2012), s. 1282-1284 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102015046 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : oxa-Michael addition * secondary alcohols * diethyl vinylphosphonate Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.562, year: 2012

  14. Effect of diethyl maleate on toxicity of linalool against two stored ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Essential oil extracted from plants has been widely investigated for pest control properties, with some proving to be toxic in insect pests. In this study, effect of the synergist diethyl maleate (DEM) on toxicity of one monoterpenoids, linalool was studied against two most common stored-product insects such as Callosobruchus ...

  15. Two-chiral component microemulsion EKC - chiral surfactant and chiral oil. Part 2: diethyl tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Kimberly A; Foley, Joe P

    2007-08-01

    In this second study on dual-chirality microemulsions containing a chiral surfactant and a chiral oil, a less hydrophobic and lower interfacial tension chiral oil, diethyl tartrate, is employed (Part 1, Foley, J. P. et al.., Electrophoresis, DOI: 10.1002/elps.200600551). Six stereochemical combinations of dodecoxycarbonylvaline (DDCV: R, S, or racemic, 2.00% w/v), racemic 2-hexanol (1.65% v/v), and diethyl tartrate (D, L, or racemic, 0.88% v/v) were examined as pseudostationary phases (PSPs) for the enantioseparation of six chiral pharmaceutical compounds: pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, N-methyl ephedrine, metoprolol, synephrine, and atenolol. Average efficiencies increased with the addition of a chiral oil to R-DDCV PSP formulations. Modest improvements in resolution and enantioselectivity (alpha(enant)) were achieved with two-chiral-component systems over the one-chiral-component microemulsion. Slight enantioselective synergies were confirmed using a thermodynamic model. Results obtained in this study are compared to those obtained in Part 1 as well as those obtained with chiral MEEKC using an achiral, low-interfacial-tension oil (ethyl acetate). Dual-chirality microemulsions with the more hydrophobic oil dibutyl tartrate yielded, relative to diethyl tartrate, higher efficiencies (100,000-134,000 vs. 80,800-94,300), but lower resolution (1.64-1.91 vs. 2.08-2.21) due to lower enantioselectivities (1.060-1.067 vs. 1.078-1.081). Atenolol enantiomers could not be separated with the dibutyl tartrate-based microemulsions but were partially resolved using diethyl tartrate microemulsions. A comparable single-chirality microemulsion based on the achiral oil ethyl acetate yielded, relative to diethyl tartrate, lower efficiency (78 300 vs. 91 600), higher resolution (1.99 vs. 1.83), and similar enantioselectivities.

  16. Poly (ether ether ketone) membranes for fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero, Jacqueline C.; Gomes, Ailton de S.; Filho, Jose C.D.; Hui, Wang S.; Oliveira, Vivianna S. de

    2015-01-01

    Polymeric membranes were developed using a SPEEK polymer matrix (sulphonated poly (ether ether ketone)), containing hygroscopic particles of zirconia (Zr) (incorporated by sol-gel method), for use as electrolyte membranes in fuel cells. SPEEK with different sulfonation degrees were used: 63 and 86%. The thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) was carried out to characterize the membranes and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was carried out to evaluating the proton conductivity of the membranes. Additional analysis were underway in order to characterize these membranes, which include: X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in order to evaluate the influence of zirconia and sulfonation degree on the properties of the membranes. (author)

  17. Hydrogen storage by functionalised Poly(ether ether ketone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedicini, R.; Giacoppo, G.; Carbone, A.; Passalacqua, E. [CNR-ITAE, Messina (Italy). Inst. for Advanced Energy Technologies

    2010-07-01

    In this work a functionalised polymer was studied as potential material for hydrogen storage in solid state. A Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) matrix was modified by a manganese oxide in situ formation. Here we report the functionalisation process and the preliminary results on hydrogen storage capability of the synthesised polymer. The polymer was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Gravimetric Hydrogen Adsorption measurements. In the functionalised PEEK, morphological changes occur as a function of oxide precursor concentration and reaction time. Promising results by gravimetric measurements were obtained with a hydrogen sorption of 0.24%wt/wt at 50 C and 60 bar, moreover, reversibility hydrogen adsorption and desorption in a wide range of both temperature and pressure was confirmed. (orig.)

  18. Sulfonated polyphenyl ether by electropolymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Hongying; Vacandio, Florence; Di Vona, Maria Luisa; Knauth, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sulfonated polyphenyl ether was for the first time electropolymerized. ► This technique allows the economical preparation of ionomeric membranes for electrochemical energy technologies. ► The mechanism of electropolymerization was discussed in detail. - Abstract: Electropolymerization of sulfonated phenol was for the first time achieved and studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry on stainless steel substrates. The obtained sulfonated polyphenyl ether was characterized in terms of impedance spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Dense films of micrometer thickness can be obtained; the proton conductivity is about 3 mS/cm at room temperature.

  19. Maxwell's ether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theocharis, T.

    1983-03-12

    A new interpretation of Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light is proposed, namely that the ambient Coulomb field is the medium (Maxwell's ether) of the electromagnetic radiation fields (Maxwellian waves). This investigation implies an incompleteness of the experimental foundations of the principle of special relativity, and suggests how this principle could be tested more fully. The beginning of an attempt to shape this re-interpretation in the form of an alternative theory is outlined.

  20. Determination of acetone, 2-butanone, diethyl ketone and BTX using HSCC-UV-IMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Z; Sielemann, S; Schmidt, H; Li, F; Baumbach, J I

    2002-03-01

    A combination of a custom-designed ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) with a UV ionization source and a high speed capillary column (HSCC) has been developed as an analytical device for the sensitive detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), e.g. 2-propanone (acetone), 2-butanone and 3-pentanone (diethyl ketone) in the gas phase. A fast separation of the three selected substances and benzene, toluene and m-xylene (BTX) - all of which occur in human breath - has been achieved within less than four minutes at a carrier gas flow rate of 4.5 mL x min(-1). Multi-dimensional correlations presented support the interpretation of the acquired spectra of mixtures. Method detection limits were 2.7 microg x L(-1) for acetone and 2-butanone and 3.0 microg x L(-1) for diethyl ketone in nitrogen, respectively. The assay linear dynamic range is 4-320 microg x L(-1).

  1. Structural and functional roles of ether lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Dean

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ether lipids, such as plasmalogens, are peroxisome-derived glycerophospholipids in which the hydrocarbon chain at the sn-1 position of the glycerol backbone is attached by an ether bond, as opposed to an ester bond in the more common diacyl phospholipids. This seemingly simple biochemical change has profound structural and functional implications. Notably, the tendency of ether lipids to form non-lamellar inverted hexagonal structures in model membranes suggests that they have a role in facilitating membrane fusion processes. Ether lipids are also important for the organization and stability of lipid raft microdomains, cholesterol-rich membrane regions involved in cellular signaling. In addition to their structural roles, a subset of ether lipids are thought to function as endogenous antioxidants, and emerging studies suggest that they are involved in cell differentiation and signaling pathways. Here, we review the biology of ether lipids and their potential significance in human disorders, including neurological diseases, cancer, and metabolic disorders.

  2. N,N'-Diethyl-N,N'-diphenylpyridine-2,6-dicarboxamide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klepetářová, Blanka; Makrlík, E.; Babain, V.A.; Kašička, Václav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 4 (2012), o1099-o1100 ISSN 1600-5368 Grant - others:GA ČZU(CZ) 42900/1312/3114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : N,N'-Diethyl-N,N'-diphenylpyridine-2,6-dicarboxamide * crystal structure * amide nitrogen Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.347, year: 2011

  3. Value of an hepatobiliary imaging agent for diagnosing hepatoma. Example of diethyl-IDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourguet, P.; Estable, P.; Herry, J.Y.

    1985-01-01

    A comparative study was performed using two hepatic tracers, a Tc 99m labelled colloid and an hepatobiliary agent Tc 99m labelled diethyl-IDA. In some patients with isolated primary hepatocarcinoma the uptake of the hepatobiliary agent was observed but the colloid was not taken up. In the contrary, the hepatobiliary agent has proved to be of limited value for the diagnosis of hepatomas coexisting with cirrhosis and for the detection of secondary hepatocarcinoma.

  4. A practical and azide-free synthetic approach to oseltamivir from diethyl D-tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jiang; Li, Yong-Bo; Wang, Rui-Bin; Li, Feng-Quan; Liu, Can; Chan, Albert S C; Lu, Gui

    2010-05-07

    A short and practical synthesis of oseltamivir was accomplished in 11 steps from inexpensive and abundant diethyl D-tartrate starting material. This azide-free route featured an asymmetric aza-Henry reaction and a domino nitro-Michael/Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons (HWE) reaction as the key steps to construct the relevant cyclohexene ring of the product, which provided an economical and practical alternative for the synthesis of oseltamivir.

  5. Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of diethyl 5- acetyl-4-methyl- 6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diethyl 5-acetyl-4-methyl-6-(2-fluorophenylimino)-6H-thiopyran-2,3-dicarboxylate (3TM) was synthesized and the antiproliferative activity of 3TM is reported here. Compound 3TM inhibits the growth of human colon cancer HCT-15 with an IC50 value of 4.5 μM and breast cancer MCF-7 with an IC50 value of 7 μM in a ...

  6. EFFECTS INDUCED BY DIETHYL SULPHATE ON SOME CYTOGENETICAL PARAMETERS AND LENGTH GROWTH OF HEMP PLANTLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Truta

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The hemp seeds were treated with diethyl sulphate, in four concentrations (0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1% and in two variants of alkylant exposure (3 and 6 hours. The length growth of plantlets, mitotic index and frequency of chromosomal aberrations were the analyzed parameters. Significant modifications were obtained at the level of parameters in variants treated with DES, comparatively with control.

  7. Flow-Induced Crystallization of Poly(ether ether ketone)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Behzad; Rhoades, Alicyn; Colby, Ralph

    The effects of an interval of shear above the melting temperature Tm on subsequent isothermal crystallization below Tm is reported for the premier engineering thermoplastic, poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK). The effect of shear on the crystallization rate of PEEK is investigated by means of rheological techniques and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) under a protocol of imposing shear in a rotational cone and plate rheometer and monitoring crystallization after quenching. The rate of crystallization at 320 °C was not affected by shear for shear rates <7 s-1 at 350 °C, whereas intervals of adequate shear at higher shear rates prior to the quench to 320 °C accelerated crystallization significantly. As the duration of the interval of shear above 7 s-1 is increased, the crystallization time decreases but at each shear rate eventually saturates once the applied specific work exceeds ~120 MPa. The annealing of the flow-induced precursors was also investigated. The nuclei were fairly persistent at temperatures close to 350 °C, however very unstable at temperatures above 375 °C. This suggests that the nanostructures formed under shear might be akin to crystalline lamellae of greater thickness, compared to quiescently crystallized lamellae.

  8. Environmental and health risks of chlorine trifluoride (ClF3), an alternative to potent greenhouse gases in the semiconductor industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Tien

    2011-06-15

    The first accident involving chlorine trifluoride (ClF(3)) in the history of semiconductor fabrication processes occurred on 28 July 2006 at Hsinchu (Taiwan), resulting in a large release of the highly reactive material and causing the chemical burn to several workers. ClF(3) is used primarily as an in situ cleaning gas in the manufacture of semiconductor silicon-wafer devices in replacement of perfluorocompounds (PFCs) because they have the high potential to contribute significantly to the global warming. This article aimed at reviewing ClF(3) in the physicochemical properties, the industrial uses, and the environmental implications on the basis of its toxicity, reactivity, health hazards and exposure limits. The health hazards of probable decomposition/hydrolysis products from ClF(3) were also evaluated based on their basic physicochemical properties and occupational exposure limits. The occupational exposure assessment was further discussed to understand potentially hazardous risks caused by hydrogen fluoride and fluorides from the decomposition/hydrolysis products of ClF(3). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Grand Canonical Monte Carlo Simulations Guided by an Analytic Equation of State-Transferable Anisotropic Mie Potentials for Ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmen, Andrea; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z; Gross, Joachim

    2015-06-11

    In this study, we propose using an analytical equation of state for guiding molecular simulations in the grand canonical ensemble. Molecular simulations in the grand canonical ensemble deliver phase equilibrium properties with low statistical uncertainty. The entire phase envelope can be obtained when histograms of several simulations along the phase envelope are combined. In this study, we explore the use of an analytical equation of state for defining chemical potentials, temperatures, and intervals of molecule numbers for simulations in the grand canonical ensemble, such that the phase envelope is traced. We limit particle numbers to intervals and ensure even sampling of molecule numbers in each interval by applying a bias potential determined from transition-matrix sampling. The methodology is described for pure components and binary mixtures. We apply the simulation method to develop parameters of the transferable anisotropic Mie (TAMie) force field for ethers. We find that the partial charges optimized individually for diethyl ether and for dipropyl ether differ substantially from the partial charges optimized simultaneously to both substances. The concept of transferable partial charges is thus a significant assumption. For developing the (TAMie) force field, we constrained the partial charge to a range, where individually optimized partial charges were found.

  10. Comparison of Properties among Dendritic and Hyperbranched Poly(ether ether ketones and Linear Poly(ether ketones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Morikawa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ether ether ketone dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers were prepared from 3,5-dimethoxy-4′-(4-fluorobenzoyldiphenyl ether and 3,5-dihydroxy-4′-(4-fluorobenzoyldiphenyl ether through aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions. 1-(tert-Butyldimethylsiloxy-3,5-bis(4-fluorobenzoylbenzene was polycondensed with bisphenols, followed by cleavage of the protective group to form linear poly(ether ketones having the same hydroxyl groups in the side chains as the chain ends of the dendrimer and hyperbranched polymers. Their properties, such as solubilities, reduced viscosities, and thermal properties, were compared with one another. Similar comparisons were also carried out among the corresponding methoxy group polymers, and the size of the molecules was shown to affect the properties.

  11. Atmospheric lifetimes of selected fluorinated ether compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heathfield, A.E.; Anastasi, C.; Pagsberg, Palle Bjørn

    1998-01-01

    Atmospheric lifetimes have been estimated for a selection of ethers, the latter representing a class of compounds being considered as replacements for chlorofluorocarbons. The estimates are based on laboratory measurements of rate constants for the reaction of the OH radical with the ethers, and ...

  12. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria of (water + propionic acid + diethyl phthalate) at several temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cehreli, Sueheyla [Istanbul University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Chemical Engineering, 34320 Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: cehreli@istanbul.edu.tr; Oezmen, Dilek [Istanbul University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Chemical Engineering, 34320 Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: dilekus@istanbul.edu.tr; Tatli, Besir [Istanbul University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Chemical Engineering, 34320 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2005-10-15

    (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for (water + propionic acid + diethyl phthalate) were measured under atmospheric pressure and at T (298.2, 303.2, 308.2, and 313.2) K. Phase diagrams were obtained by determining solubility and tie-line data. The UNIFAC model was used to correlate the experimental tie-line data. The average root-mean-square deviation between the observed and calculated mass fraction was 0.03. Distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated over the immiscibility regions.

  13. A High Temperature Kinetic Study for the Thermal Unimolecular Decomposition of Diethyl Carbonate

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbad, Mohammed

    2017-07-08

    Thermal unimolecular decomposition of diethyl carbonate (DEC) was investigated in a shock tube by measuring ethylene concentration with a CO2 gas laser over 900 - 1200 K and 1.2 – 2.8 bar. Rate coefficients were extracted using a simple kinetic scheme comprising of thermal decomposition of DEC as initial step followed by rapid thermal decomposition of the intermediate ethyl-hydrogen-carbonate. Our results were further analysed using ab initio and master equation calculations to obtain pressure- and temperature- dependence of rate coefficients. Similar to alkyl esters, unimolecular decomposition of DEC is found to undergo six-center retro-ene elimination of ethylene in a concerted manner.

  14. New Diethyl Ammonium Salt of Thiobarbituric Acid Derivative: Synthesis, Molecular Structure Investigations and Docking Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assem Barakat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of the new diethyl ammonium salt of diethylammonium(E-5-(1,5-bis(4-fluorophenyl-3-oxopent-4-en-1-yl-1,3-diethyl-4,6-dioxo-2-thioxohexaydropyrimidin-5-ide 3 via a regioselective Michael addition of N,N-diethylthiobarbituric acid 1 to dienone 2 is described. In 3, the carboanion of the thiobarbituric moiety is stabilized by the strong intramolecular electron delocalization with the adjacent carbonyl groups and so the reaction proceeds without any cyclization. The molecular structure investigations of 3 were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction as well as DFT computations. The theoretically calculated (DFT/B3LYP geometry agrees well with the crystallographic data. The effect of fluorine replacement by chlorine atoms on the molecular structure aspects were investigated using DFT methods. Calculated electronic spectra showed a bathochromic shift of the π-π* transition when fluorine is replaced by chlorine. Charge decomposition analyses were performed to study possible interaction between the different fragments in the studied systems. Molecular docking simulations examining the inhibitory nature of the compound show an anti-diabetic activity with Pa (probability of activity value of 0.229.

  15. Activity relationships for aromatic crown ethers

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, M J

    1998-01-01

    This thesis involves an investigation of aromatic crown ethers and a study of their binding constants for alkali metals. The study was motivated by the current needs of the semiconductor industry to improve the scavenging of mobile ions from fabricated circuits. A number of aromatic crown ethers have been sulphonated in an attempt to improve their water solubility and cation binding activity. These materials have been extensively studied and their binding activity determined. In collaboration with a molecular modelling study, the effect of ionisable sulphonate groups on the macrocycles' behaviour has been investigated. The broader issue of the effect of substituents in aromatic crown ethers has also been studied with the preparation of a wide range of substituted crown ethers. The cation binding activity of these materials has been found to bear a simple relationship to the electron withdrawing nature of the aromatic substituents. This relationship can be accurately monitored using electronic charge densities...

  16. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil and Diethyl Ether Extract of Trinia glauca (L.) Dumort. (Apiaceae) and the Chemotaxonomic Significance of 5-O-Methylvisamminol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulović, Niko S; Đorđević, Miljana R; Dekić, Milan S; Blagojević, Polina D

    2016-04-01

    Analyses by GC, GC/MS, and NMR spectroscopy (1D- and 2D-experiments) of the essential oil and Et2O extract of Trinia glauca (L.) Dumort. (Apiaceae) aerial parts allowed a successful identification of 220 constituents, in total. The major identified compounds of the essential oil were (Z)-falcarinol (10.6%), bicyclogermacrene (8.0%), germacrene D (7.4%), δ-cadinene (4.3%), and β-caryophyllene (3.2%), whereas (Z)-falcarinol (47.2%), nonacosane (7.4%), and 5-O-methylvisamminol (4.0%) were the dominant constituents of the extract of T. glauca. One significant difference between the compositions of the herein and the previously analyzed T. glauca essential oils (only two reports) was noted. (Z)-Falcarinol was the major constituent in our case, whereas germacrene D (14.4 and 19.6%) was the major component of the previously studied oils. Possible explanations for this discrepancy were discussed. 5-O-Methylvisamminol, a (furo)chromone identified in the extract of T. glauca, has a limited occurrence in the plant kingdom and is a possible excellent chemotaxonomic marker (family and/or subfamily level) for Apiaceae. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  17. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF REAL TIME SECONDARY CO-INJECTION OF WATER – DIETHYL ETHER SOLUTION IN DI-DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH PALM KERNEL METHYL ESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. V. SATYANARAYANAMURTHY

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation tests were conducted on single cylinder diesel engine fuelled with neat diesel and biodiesel palm kernel methyl ester as a base line fuel with secondary injection of Water-DEE solution through the inlet manifold. A real time control systems consists of electronic unit pump that delivers 5% to 25% vol. Water-DEE solution through injector tip mounted nearer to the inlet manifold under a pressure of 3 kgf/cm2. NOx emissions reduced to a level of 500 ppm with simultaneous reduction of soot especially for PKME. However for 15% vol. of Water-DEE injection the HC emissions are closely tallying with that of neat diesel. A global overview of the results has shown that the 15% Water-DEE solution is the optimal blend based on performance and emission characteristics.

  18. Electrochemical fabrication of nanoporous polypyrrole thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mei; Yuan Jinying; Shi Gaoquan

    2008-01-01

    Polypyrrole thin films with pores in nanometer scale were synthesized by direct electrochemical oxidation of pyrrole in a mixed electrolyte of isopropyl alcohol, boron trifluoride diethyl etherate, sodium dodecylsulfonate and poly(ethylene glycol) using well-aligned ZnO nanowires arrays as templates. The thin films exhibit high conductivity of ca. σ rt ∼ 20.5 s/cm and can be driven to bend during redox processes in 1.0 M lithium perchlorate aqueous solution. The movement rate of an actuator based on this nanoporous film was measured to be over 90 o /s at a driving potential of 0.8 V (vs. Ag/AgCl)

  19. Landau theory and giant room-temperature barocaloric effect in MF3 metal trifluorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corrales-Salazar, A. [Univ. of Costa Rica, San Jose (Costa Rica); Brierley, R. T. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Littlewood, P. B. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Guzmán-Verri, G. G. [Univ. of Costa Rica, San Jose (Costa Rica); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-10-17

    The structural phase transitions of MF3 (M = Al, Cr, V, Fe, Ti, Sc) metal trifluorides are studied within a simple Landau theory consisting of tilts of rigid MF6 octahedra associated with soft antiferrodistortive optic modes that are coupled to long-wavelength strain generating acoustic phonons. We calculate the temperature and pressure dependence of several quantities such as the spontaneous distortions, volume expansion, and shear strains as well as T - P phase diagrams. By contrasting our model to experiments we quantify the deviations from mean-field behavior and find that the tilt fluctuations of the MF6 octahedra increase with metal cation size. We apply our model to predict giant barocaloric effects in Sc-substituted TiF3 of up to about 15 JK-1 kg-1 for modest hydrostatic compressions of 0.2GPa. The effect extends over a wide temperature range of over 140K (including room temperature) due to a large predicted rate, dTc/dP = 723K GPa-1, which exceeds those of typical barocaloric materials. Our results suggest that open lattice frameworks such as the trifluorides are an attractive platform to search for giant barocaloric effects.

  20. Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) based composite membranes for nanofiltration of acidic and alkaline media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalwani, M.R.; Bargeman, Gerrald; Hosseiny, Seyed Schwan; Schwan Hosseiny, Seyed; Boerrigter, M.E.; Wessling, Matthias; Benes, Nieck Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Several thin film composite nanofiltration membranes have been prepared by spin coating a sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) solution on a polyethersulfone support, followed by thermal treatment. The most optimal developed nanofiltration membrane shows a clean water permeance of ∼4.5 L m−2 h−1

  1. Optical anisotropy, molecular orientations, and internal stresses in thin sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koziara, Beata; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.; Benes, Nieck Edwin

    2015-01-01

    The thickness, the refractive index, and the optical anisotropy of thin sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) films, prepared by spin-coating or solvent deposition, have been investigated with spectroscopic ellipsometry. For not too high polymer concentrations (B5 wt%) and not too low spin speeds

  2. Ether modified poly(ether ether ketone) nonwoven membrane with excellent wettability and stability as a lithium ion battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Wang, Wenqiang; Han, Yu; Zhang, Lei; Li, Shuangshou; Tang, Bin; Xu, Shengming; Xu, Zhenghe

    2018-02-01

    In this study, poly(ether ether ketone) is first chloromethylated to improve the solubility and is later used for nonwoven membrane fabrication by electrospinning. Finally, the chloromethyl group was converted to the ethyl ether group and dibenzyl ether group in a hot alkaline solution. The abundant polar groups endow the membrane with excellent wettability, reducing the contact angle to 0°. The polymer matrix is crosslinked by dibenzyl ether group, endowing the membrane with excellent stability (insolubility in many solvents, and ultra-low swelling in the electrolyte at 80 °C) and good anti-shrinkage property (0% at 180 °C). The electrospinning-fabricated membrane remains stable until 4.812 V (vs. Li+/Li), meeting the requirement for use in lithium ion batteries. The interwoven structure of the nonwoven membrane effectively gives rise to the high electrolyte uptake of 215.8%. The ionic conductivity of the electrolyte-swelled electrospinning-fabricated membrane is 51% higher than that of the electrolyte-swelled Celgard membrane. As a result, the lithium ion battery with this nonwoven membrane exhibits an enhanced rate performance (up to 42.5% higher than the lithium ion battery with a PP separator) and satisfactory cycling performance.

  3. The extraction and effect in the system uranyl nitrate-dietyl ether-water; El efecto final de la extraccion en el sistema nitrato de uranillo-eter dietilico-agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Luina, A.; Gutierrez Jodra, L.; Rius Miro, A.

    1960-07-01

    The solute transfer of uranyl nitrate from diethyl ether to water has been studied in a spray column using water as dispersed phase and a direction of extraction from ether to water. The column is 102 cm long and has a diameter of 4,7 cm. The entrances of the phases are 77 cm apart. The rates of flow of both phases have been used as variables and the concentration of the continuous phase has been determined at different heights. The curves of logarithm of concentration of the continuous phase vs. distance to interphase show the present of a drop of concentration in the entrance of the continuous phase. This depends on the rates of flow of the phases. No effect in the entrance of the dispersed phase has been found. (Author) 20 refs.

  4. N,N-Diethyl-1-Tosyl-3-Indoleglyoxylamide as a Dienophile in Diels-Alder Reactions. Hyperbaric vs. Thermal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Biolatto

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Under high pressure conditions, the Diels-Alder reaction involving N,N-diethyl-1-tosyl-3-indoleglyoxylamide and 1-(N-acetyl-N-propylamino-1,3-butadiene produces a highly functionalized intermediate for the synthesis of Indole Alkaloids, in shorter times and higher yields than under thermal conditions.

  5. Polyurethane/Poly(2-(Diethyl AminoEthyl Methacrylate blend for drug delivery applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Echeverría

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractA pH-sensitive blend of polyurethane (PU and poly(2-(diethyl aminoethyl methacrylate (PDEA with good film-forming capacity was prepared from the corresponding aqueous dispersions. The polymer matrix was first characterized by using FTIR, DSC, water vapor transmission and water swelling capacity at different pHs. The drug release profile of films was evaluated using a vertical Franz Cell and theophylline as model drug. The water swelling degree increases from 54 to 180% when the pH of the medium is changed from 6 to 2, demonstrating the pH-responsive behavior of the film. The in-vitro release studies indicate that an anomalous transport mechanism governs the theophylline release.

  6. Fe(III)-solar light induced degradation of diethyl phthalate (DEP) in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailhot, G; Sarakha, M; Lavedrine, B; Cáceres, J; Malato, S

    2002-11-01

    The degradation of diethyl phthalate (DEP) photoinduced by Fe(III) in aqueous solutions has been investigated under solar irradiation in the compound parabolic collector reactor at Plataforma Solar de Almeria. Hydroxyl radicals *OH, responsible of the degradation, are formed via an intramolecular photoredox process in the excited state of Fe(III) aquacomplexes. The primary step of the reaction is mainly due to the attack of *OH radicals on the aromatic ring. For prolonged irradiations DEP and its photoproducts are completely mineralized due to the regeneration of the absorbing species and the continuous formation of *OH radicals that confers a catalytic aspect to the process. Consequently, the degradation photoinduced by Fe(III) could be an efficient method of DEP removal from water.

  7. Determination of diethyl phthalate and polyhexamethylene guanidine in surrogate alcohol from Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Kuballa, Thomas; Leitz, Jenny; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2011-01-01

    Analytical methods based on spectroscopic techniques were developed and validated for the determination of diethyl phthalate (DEP) and polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG), which may occur in unrecorded alcohol. Analysis for PHMG was based on UV-VIS spectrophotometry after derivatization with Eosin Y and (1)H NMR spectroscopy of the DMSO extract. Analysis of DEP was performed with direct UV-VIS and (1)H NMR methods. Multivariate curve resolution and spectra computation methods were used to confirm the presence of PHMG and DEP in the investigated beverages. Of 22 analysed alcohol samples, two contained DEP or PHMG. (1)H NMR analysis also revealed the presence of signals of hawthorn extract in three medicinal alcohols used as surrogate alcohol. The simple and cheap UV-VIS methods can be used for rapid screening of surrogate alcohol samples for impurities, while (1)H NMR is recommended for specific confirmatory analysis if required.

  8. Determination of Diethyl Phthalate and Polyhexamethylene Guanidine in Surrogate Alcohol from Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia B. Monakhova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Analytical methods based on spectroscopic techniques were developed and validated for the determination of diethyl phthalate (DEP and polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG, which may occur in unrecorded alcohol. Analysis for PHMG was based on UV-VIS spectrophotometry after derivatization with Eosin Y and 1H NMR spectroscopy of the DMSO extract. Analysis of DEP was performed with direct UV-VIS and 1H NMR methods. Multivariate curve resolution and spectra computation methods were used to confirm the presence of PHMG and DEP in the investigated beverages. Of 22 analysed alcohol samples, two contained DEP or PHMG. 1H NMR analysis also revealed the presence of signals of hawthorn extract in three medicinal alcohols used as surrogate alcohol. The simple and cheap UV-VIS methods can be used for rapid screening of surrogate alcohol samples for impurities, while 1H NMR is recommended for specific confirmatory analysis if required.

  9. Transdermal uptake of diethyl phthalate and di(n-butyl) phthalate directly from air: Experimental verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Bekö, Gabriel; Koch, Holger M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fundamental considerations indicate that, for certain phthalate esters, dermal absorption from air is an uptake pathway that is comparable to or greater than inhalation. Yet this pathway has not been experimentally evaluated and has been largely overlooked when assessing uptake...... of phthalate esters. Objectives: This study investigated transdermal uptake, directly from air, of diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP) in humans. Methods: In a series of experiments, six human participants were exposed for 6 hr in a chamber containing deliberately elevated air...... concentrations of DEP and DnBP. The participants either wore a hood and breathed air with phthalate concentrations substantially below those in the chamber or did not wear a hood and breathed chamber air. All urinations were collected from initiation of exposure until 54 hr later. Metabolites of DEP and Dn...

  10. 8,8-Diethyl-1,4,5,8-tetrahydronaphthalene-1,4,5-trione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Araya-Maturana

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The title molecule, C14H14O3, contains two fused six-membered carbon rings with keto groups at positions 1, 4 and 5 and a gem-diethyl group at position 8. The molecule is close to planar (maximum deviation = 0.044 Å, with one ethyl group at each side of the molecular plane, with exception of the keto group at position 1 which is slightly deviated from the plane and disordered over two positions one on each side of it (occupancies 0.80/0.20. The packing of the molecule shows weak bonded chains along a through C—H...O contacts and two intramolecular C—H...O interactions are also present.

  11. Atmospheric degradation of 2-chloroethyl vinyl ether, allyl ether and allyl ethyl ether: Kinetics with OH radicals and UV photochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiñolo, M; Ocaña, A J; Aranguren, J P; Lane, S I; Albaladejo, J; Jiménez, E

    2017-08-01

    Unsaturated ethers are oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) emitted by anthropogenic sources. Potential removal processes in the troposphere are initiated by hydroxyl (OH) radicals and photochemistry. In this work, we report for the first time the rate coefficients of the gas-phase reaction with OH radicals (k OH ) of 2-chloroethyl vinyl ether (2ClEVE), allyl ether (AE), and allyl ethyl ether (AEE) as a function of temperature in the 263-358 K range, measured by the pulsed laser photolysis-laser induced fluorescence technique. No pressure dependence of k OH was observed in the 50-500 Torr range in He as bath gas, while a slightly negative T-dependence was observed. The temperature dependent expressions for the rate coefficients determined in this work are: The estimated atmospheric lifetimes (τ OH ) assuming k OH at 288 K were 3, 2, and 4 h for 2ClEVE, AE and AEE, respectively. The kinetic results are discussed in terms of the chemical structure of the unsaturated ethers by comparison with similar compounds. We also report ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) absorption cross sections (σ λ and σ(ν˜), respectively). We estimate the photolysis rate coefficients in the solar UV actinic region to be less than 10 -7 s -1 , implying that these compounds are not removed from the atmosphere by this process. In addition, from σ(ν˜) and τ OH , the global warming potential of each unsaturated ether was calculated to be almost zero. A discussion on the atmospheric implications of the titled compounds is presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Syntheses of Diazadithiacrown Ethers Containing Two 8-Hydroxyquinoline Side Arms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Song, H

    2001-01-01

    Ten new diazadithiacrown ethers containing two 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ) sidearms attached through the HQ 7-positions and four new diazadithiacrown ethers containing two HQ sidearms attached through the HQ 2-positions have been prepared...

  13. Luminescent Lariat Aza-Crown Ether Carboxylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard König

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Lariat ethers are interesting recognition motifs in supramolecular chemistry. The synthesis of a luminescent lariat aza-crown ether with a carboxyl group appended by azide-alkyne (Huisgen cycloaddition is presented.

  14. Developmental toxicity of four glycol ethers applied cutaneously to rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Hardin, B D; Goad, P T; Burg, J R

    1984-01-01

    Previous NIOSH studies demonstrated the embryo- and fetotoxicity and teratogenicity of ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGEE) applied to the shaved skin of pregnant rats. In the present study ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (EGEEA), ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE), and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (diEGEE) were tested in the same experimental model, using distilled water as the negative control and EGEE as a positive control. Water or undiluted glycols were applied four ti...

  15. On new physical reality (on ψ-ether)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaev, P.S.

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that there exists a new physical reality - the ψ-ether. All the achievements of quantum mechanics and quantum field theory are due to the fact that both the theories include the influence of ψ-ether on the physical processes occurring in the Universe. Physics of the XX century was first of all the physics of ψ-ether

  16. Paired Serum and Urine Concentrations of Biomarkers of Diethyl Phthalate, Methyl Paraben, and Triclosan in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, Susan L; Li, Qian; Lambertini, Luca; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Manservisi, Fabiana; Falcioni, Laura; Bua, Luciano; Silva, Manori J; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Chen, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to environmental chemicals, including phthalates and phenols such as parabens and triclosan, is ubiquitous within the U.S. general population. This proof-of-concept rodent study examined the relationship between oral doses of three widely used personal care product ingredients [diethyl phthalate (DEP), methyl paraben (MPB), and triclosan] and urine and serum concentrations of their respective biomarkers. Using female Sprague-Dawley rats, we carried out two rounds of experiments with oral gavage doses selected in accordance with no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) derived from previous studies: 1,735 (DEP), 1,050 (MPB), 50 (triclosan) mg/kg/day. Administered doses ranged from 0.005 to 173 mg/kg/day, 10-100,000 times below the NOAEL for each chemical. Controls for the MPB and triclosan experiments were animals treated with olive oil (vehicle) only; controls for the DEP serum experiments were animals treated with the lowest doses of MPB and triclosan. Doses were administered for 5 days with five rats in each treatment group. Urine and blood serum, collected on the last day of exposure, were analyzed for biomarkers. Relationships between oral dose and biomarker concentrations were assessed using linear regression. Biomarkers were detected in all control urine samples at parts-per-billion levels, suggesting a low endemic environmental exposure to the three chemicals that could not be controlled even with all of the precautionary measures undertaken. Among the exposed animals, urinary concentrations of all three biomarkers were orders of magnitude higher than those in serum. A consistently positive linear relationship between oral dose and urinary concentration was observed (R2 > 0.80); this relationship was inconsistent in serum. Our study highlights the importance of carefully considering the oral dose used in animal experiments and provides useful information in selecting doses for future studies. Teitelbaum SL, Li Q, Lambertini L, Belpoggi F

  17. Biosynthesis of archaeal membrane ether lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, Samta; Caforio, Antonella; Driessen, Arnold J. M.

    2014-01-01

    A vital function of the cell membrane in all living organism is to maintain the membrane permeability barrier and fluidity. The composition of the phospholipid bilayer is distinct in archaea when compared to bacteria and eukarya. In archaea, isoprenoid hydrocarbon side chains are linked via an ether

  18. Selective crystallization of cations with crown ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heffels, Dennis Egidius

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the selectivity and preferences of the incorporation of differently sized cations in the cavities of various crown ethers and the characterization of the resulting compounds. The coordination preferences of crown ethers with different cavities have long been known, and the impact of other effects on the structure formation have increasingly become the focus of attention. In this work a comparative overview of the coordination preferences depending on various factors was undertaken. The focus was mainly on the variation of the cavity of the crown ether in the presence of differently sized cations. In addition, the effects of the solvent and differently coordinating anions have been investigated. Within the framework of this work, basic coordination preferences could be detected with rare earth nitrates, which are affected particularly by the choice of the solvent. The formation of different types of structures could be controlled by varying the conditions such that the incorporation of the cation in the cavity of the crown ether was influenced and the formation of a particular type of structure can be influenced partly by the choice of solvent. In this case no direct preferences for the incorporation into the cavity of the crown ether in relation to the cation size were observed for rare earth cations. However, the coordination of the crown ether leads in each case - for lanthanides - to rather high coordination numbers. A total of five new rare earth complexes and two structural variants could be observed with crown ethers. In the study of the selectivity of the incorporation into the cavity, known structures were also reproduced and further structures were characterized but the crystal structures not entirely solved. With the use of monovalent cations such as potassium, lithium or silver a total of nine new compounds could be synthesized, while no clear preferences for the incorporation of certain cations were detected. The

  19. Microwave sintering of poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) based coatings deposited on metallic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, G.; Leparoux, S.; Liao, H.; Coddet, C.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of microwave (MW) sintering PEEK (poly-ether-ether-ketone) based coatings was investigated. Three coatings were studied: pure PEEK, micron-SiC and nano-SiC particles filled (wt.10%) PEEK coatings. The results indicate that, for the two composite coatings, the SiC particles distributed in the polymer matrix, as a good MW susceptor, could be heated preferentially by MW radiation. Consequently, the polymer matrix was heated by these particles

  20. Discovery of 4-tert-butyl-2,6-dimethylphenylsulfur trifluoride as a deoxofluorinating agent with high thermal stability as well as unusual resistance to aqueous hydrolysis, and its diverse fluorination capabilities including deoxofluoro-arylsulfinylation with high stereoselectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, Teruo; Singh, Rajendra P; Xu, Yong; Saito, Norimichi

    2010-12-29

    Versatile, safe, shelf-stable, and easy-to-handle fluorinating agents are strongly desired in both academic and industrial arenas, since fluorinated compounds have attracted considerable interest in many areas, such as drug discovery, due to the unique effects of fluorine atoms when incorporated into molecules. This article describes the synthesis, properties, and reactivity of many substituted and thermally stable phenylsulfur trifluorides, in particular, 4-tert-butyl-2,6-dimethylphenylsulfur trifluoride (Fluolead, 1k), as a crystalline solid having surprisingly high stability on contact with water and superior utility as a deoxofluorinating agent compared to current reagents, such as DAST and its analogues. The roles of substituents on 1k in thermal and hydrolytic stability, fluorination reactivity, and the high-yield fluorination mechanism it undergoes have been clarified. In addition to fluorinations of alcohols, aldehydes, and enolizable ketones, 1k smoothly converts non-enolizable carbonyls to CF(2) groups, and carboxylic groups to CF(3) groups, in high yields. 1k also converts C(=S) and CH(3)SC(=S)O groups to CF(2) and CF(3)O groups, respectively, in high yields. In addition, 1k effects highly stereoselective deoxofluoro-arylsulfinylation of diols and amino alcohols to give fluoroalkyl arylsulfinates and arylsulfinamides, with complete inversion of configuration at fluorine and the simultaneous, selective formation of one conformational isomer at the sulfoxide sulfur atom. Considering the unique and diverse properties, relative safety, and ease of handling of 1k in addition to its convenient synthesis, it is expected to find considerable use as a novel fluorinating agent in both academic and industrial arenas.

  1. Ion-Selective Ionic Polymer Metal Composite (IPMC) Actuator Based on Crown Ether Containing Sulfonated Poly(Arylene Ether Ketone)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, Sinem; Zoetebier, Bram; Sardan Sukas, Ö.; Bayraktar, Muharrem; Hempenius, Mark A.; Vancso, Gyula J.; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.

    This study introduces the concept of ion selective actuation in polymer metal composite actuators, employing crown ether bearing aromatic polyether materials. For this purpose, sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone) (SPAEK) and crown ether containing SPAEK with molar masses suitable for membrane

  2. Preparation and characterization of monovalent ion selective cation exchange membranes based on sulphonated poly(ether ether ketone)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balster, J.H.; Krupenko, O.; Krupenko, O.; Punt, Ineke G.M.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Wessling, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the separation properties of various commercial cation exchange membranes (CEMs) and tailor made membranes based on sulphonated poly(ether ether ketone) and poly(ether sulphone) for binary electrolyte solutions containing protons and calcium ions. All membranes are thoroughly

  3. Study of a new hepatobiliary radiotracer: sup(99m)Tc diethyl IDA. Its value in the diagnosis of cholestasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roques, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    This work examines a new means of investigation: Technetium 99 (2,6 diethyl acetanilido) imino-diacetic acid, or HEPATOBIDA, hepatobiliary scintigraphy. A survey of different scintigraphic techniques is necessary. At first the kinetic study of hepatobiliary radiotracers was carried out with multiprobe systems giving quantitative information on the various organs or pools concerned. With the appearance of the scintillation camera it became possible to obtain not only quantitative data but also topographical and morphological information. Since 1976 the derivatives of iminodiacetic acid have been widely adopted, possessing features most closely resembling those of the ideal hepatobiliatropic molecules. Examinations have been performed at the Angers Radioisotopes Service with the diethyl derivative or HEPATOBIDA (Nuclear Solca Lab.) The results recorded in a group of cholestasis patients are studied, with normal data supplied by a set of 8 reference subjects free from hepatobiliary diseases [fr

  4. Synthesis, structure, computational and in-silico anticancer studies of N,N-diethyl-N‧-palmitoylthiourea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asegbeloyin, Jonnie Niyi; Oyeka, Ebube Evaristus; Okpareke, Obinna; Ibezim, Akachukwu

    2018-02-01

    A new potential ONS donor ligand N,N-diethyl-N‧-palmitoylthiourea (PACDEA) with the molecular formular C21H42N2OS has been synthesized and characterized by ESI-MS, UV, FTIR 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and single X-ray crystallography. The asymmetric molecules crystallized in the centrosymmetric structure of monoclinic crystal system with space group P21/c. In the crystal structure of the compound, molecules are linked in a continuous chain by intermolecular Nsbnd H⋯Odbnd C hydrogen bonds, which stabilized the crystal structure. The palmitoyl moiety and N (2)-ethyl group lie on a plane, while the thiocarbonyl moiety is twisted and lying othorgonal to the plane. Non-covalent interaction (NCI) analysis on the hydrogen bonded solid state structure of the molecule revealed the presence of a significant number of non-covalent interactions including intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions, Csbnd Hsbnd -lone pair interactions, weak Van der Waals interactions, and steric/ring closure interactions. The NCI analysis also showed the presence of intramolecular stabilizing Csbnd H⋯Odbnd C and Csbnd H⋯Sdbnd C interactions. Docking simulation revealed that the compound interacted favourably with ten selected validated anticancer drug targets, which is an indication that the compound could possess some anticancer properties.

  5. Detection of diethyl phthalate in perfumes by extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chingin, Konstantin; Chen, Huanwen; Gamez, Gerardo; Zhu, Liang; Zenobi, Renato

    2009-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that long-term exposure to diethyl phthalate (DEP), one of the widely used phthalate esters, can lead to serious health problems. Most perfumes contain non-negligible amounts of DEP. Rapid and sensitive detection of DEP in perfumes is thus of increasing importance. A novel procedure based on extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS) has been developed for fast detection and identification of DEP in perfumes without the need for any sample pretreatment. The limit of determination for DEP in perfume was less than 100 ppb using tandem mass spectrometry on a commercial quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The dynamic range of this method was about 4 orders of magnitude. A single sample analysis was completed within a few seconds, providing a rapid way to obtain semiquantitative information on the DEP content in perfumes. This study shows that both volatile and nonvolatile analytes (e.g., amino acids) in liquids can be directly sampled by neutral desorption, providing a convenient way for high-throughput screening of target compounds using EESI-MS.

  6. Degradation of ethyl mercaptan and its major intermediate diethyl disulfide by Pseudomonas sp. strain WL2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangqian; Wu, Chao; Liu, Nan; Li, Sujing; Li, Wei; Chen, Jianmeng; Chen, Dongzhi

    2015-04-01

    A Pseudomonas sp. strain WL2 that is able to efficiently metabolize ethyl mercaptan (EM) into diethyl disulfide (DEDS) through enzymatic oxidation was isolated from the activated sludge of a pharmaceutical wastewater plant. One hundred percent removal of 113.5 mg L(-1) EM and 110.3 mg L(-1) DEDS were obtained within 14 and 32 h, respectively. A putative EM degradation pathway that involved the catabolism via DEDS was proposed, which indicated DEDS were further mineralized into carbon dioxide (CO2), bacterial cells, and sulfate (SO4 (2-)) through the transformation of element sulfur and ethyl aldehyde. Degradation kinetics for EM and DEDS with different initial concentrations by strain WL2 were evaluated using Haldane-Andrews model with maximum specific degradation rates of 3.13 and 1.33 g g(-1) h(-1), respectively, and maximum degradation rate constants of 0.522 and 0.175 h(-1) using pseudo-first-order kinetic model were obtained. Results obtained that aerobic degradation of EM by strain WL2 was more efficient than those from previous studies. Substrate range studies of strain WL2 demonstrated its ability to degrade several mercaptans, disulfides, aldehydes, and methanol. All the results obtained highlight the potential of strain WL2 for the use in the biodegradation of volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs).

  7. Repellent Activity of TRIG (N-N Diethyl Benzamide against Man-Biting Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shandala Msangi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to assess efficacy of a new repellent brand TRIG (15% N-N Diethyl Benzamide when compared to DEET (20% N-N Methyl Toluamide. The repellents were tested in laboratory and field. In the laboratory, the repellence was tested on human volunteers, by exposing their repellent-treated arms on starved mosquitoes in cages for 3 minutes at hourly intervals, while counting the landing and probing attempts. Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were used. Field evaluation was conducted by Human Landing Catch technique. During the night, the repellents were applied on arms and legs and mosquitoes landing on these areas were collected. In laboratory tests, TRIG provided complete protection (100% against Anopheles gambiae when applied at 1.25 g, while DEET provided this at 0.75 g. When tested on Aedes aegypti, TRIG provided complete protection when applied at 1 g, compared to 0.5 g for DEET. In the field, when applied at a recommended dose, both TRIG and DEET achieved above 90% protection against both An. arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus and a Complete Protection Time of about 6 hrs against both species of mosquitoes. The performances of the two products were found to be comparable and TRIG was recommended for use as repellent against mosquito bites.

  8. Anticancer activity of Cynodon dactylon L. root extract against diethyl nitrosamine induced hepatic carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kowsalya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and a lethal disease. In view of the limited treatment and a grave prognosis of liver cancer, preventive control has been emphasized. Materials and Methods: The methanolic extract of roots of Cynodon dactylon was screened for its hepato-protective activity in diethyl nitrosamine (DEN induced liver cancer in Swiss albino mice. The plant extract at a dose of 50 mg/kg was administered orally once a week, up to 30 days after DEN administration. The animals were sacrificed; blood sample and liver tissue were collected and used for enzyme assay such as, asparatate amino transferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and glutathione-S-transferase (GST. The liver marker enzymes AST and ALT produced signifi cant results in the protective action. Results: The antioxidant enzyme assay results concerning the improved activity of GPx, GST and CAT. These results concluded that enhanced levels of antioxidant enzyme and reduced amount of serum amino transaminase, which are suggested to be the major mechanisms of C. dactylon root extract in protecting the mice from hepatocarcinoma induced by DEN. These biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. Conclusion: The methanolic extract of C. dactylon possesses signifi cant anticancer properties

  9. Equilibrium and heat of adsorption of diethyl phthalate on heterogeneous adsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W.M.; Xu, Z.W.; Pan, B.C.; Hong, C.H.; Jia, K.; Jiang, P.J.; Zhang, Q.J.; Pan, B.J. [Nanjing University, Nanjing (China)

    2008-09-15

    Removal of phthalate esters from water has been of considerable concern recently. In the present study, the adsorptive removal performance of diethyl phthalate (DEP) from water was investigated with the aminated polystyrene resin (NDA-101) and oxidized polystyrene resin (NDA-702). In addition, the commercial homogeneous polystyrene resin (XAD-4) and acrylic ester resin (Amberlite XAD-7) as well as coal-based granular activated carbon (AC-750) were chosen for comparison. The corresponding equilibrium isotherms are well described by the Freundlich equation and the adsorption capacities for DEP followed the order NDA-702 > NDA-101 > AC-750 > XAD-4 > XAD-7. Analysis of adsorption mechanisms suggested that these adsorbents spontaneously adsorb DEP molecules driven mainly by enthalpy change, and the adsorption process was derived by multiple adsorbent-adsorbate interactions such as hydrogen bonding, {pi}-{pi} stacking, and micropore filling. The information related to the adsorbent surface heterogeneity and the adsorbate-adsorbate interaction was obtained by Do's model. All the results indicate that heterogeneous resins NDA-702 and NDA-101 have excellent potential as an adsorption material for the removal of DEP from the contaminated water.

  10. Interaction of diethyl aniline methylphosphonate with DNA: Spectroscopic and isothermal titration calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yan; Xu Meihua; Wang Gongke; Zheng Yun

    2011-01-01

    In this study the diethyl aniline methylphosphonate (DAM) was synthesized, the interaction of DAM with ct-DNA has been investigated by fluorescence spectra, UV spectra, molecular modeling and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The binding constant of DAM to ct-DNA calculated from both isothermal titration calorimetry and fluorescence spectra were found to be in the 10 4 M -1 range. According to the ethidium bromide displacement studies, UV spectra and isothermal titration calorimetry experimental results, it can be concluded that DAM is an intercalator that can slide into the G-C rich region of ct-DNA. Furthermore, the results obtained from molecular modeling corroborated the experimental results obtanied from spectroscopic and ITC investigations. At the same time, fluorescence spectra suggested that the mechanism of the interaction of DAM to ct-DNA was a static enhancing type. ITC data showed that ct-DNA/DAM binding is enthalpy controlled. - Research highlights: → The interaction of DAM with ct-DNA is a static enhancing type. → DAM can slide into the G-C rich region of ct-DNA. → The binding of DAM to ct-DNA is enthalpy controlled. → The hydrogen bonding forces play an essential role in the binding process.

  11. Regulated and unregulated emissions from a diesel engine fueled with diesel fuel blended with diethyl adipate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ruijun; Cheung, C. S.; Huang, Zuohua; Wang, Xibin

    2011-04-01

    Experiments were carried out on a four-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine operating on Euro V diesel fuel blended with diethyl adipate (DEA). The blended fuels contain 8.1%, 16.4%, 25% and 33.8% by volume fraction of DEA, corresponding to 3%, 6%, 9% and 12% by mass of oxygen in the blends. The engine performance and exhaust gas emissions of the different fuels were investigated at five engine loads at a steady speed of 1800 rev/min. The results indicated an increase of brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency when the engine was fueled with the blended fuels. In comparison with diesel fuel, the blended fuels resulted in an increase in hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO), but a decrease in particulate mass concentrations. The nitrogen oxides (NO x) emission experienced a slight variation among the test fuels. In regard to the unregulated gaseous emissions, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde increased, while 1,3-butadiene, ethene, ethyne, propylene and BTX (benzene, toluene and xylene) in general decreased. A diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) was found to reduce significantly most of the investigated unregulated pollutants when the exhaust gas temperature was sufficiently high.

  12. Separation of corticosteroids by microemulsion EKC with diethyl L-tartrate as the oil phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chi-Hung; Chen, Tse-Hsien; Huang, Kuan-Pin; Wang, Guan-Ren; Liu, Chuen-Ying

    2007-10-01

    A novel microemulsion based on a mixture of diethyl L-tartrate (DET) and SDS was developed for the microemulsion EKC (MEEKC) determination of structurally related steroids. The system consisted of 0.5% w/w DET, 1.7% w/w SDS, 1.2% w/w 1-butanol, 89.6% w/w phosphate buffer (40 mM, pH 7.0), and 7% w/w ACN. With an applied voltage of +10 kV, a baseline separation of aldosterone (A), cortisone acetate (CA), dexamethasone (D), hydrocortisone (H), hydrocortisone acetate (HA), prednisolone (P), prednisolone acetate (PA), prednisone (Ps), triamcinolone (T), and triamcinolone acetonide (TA) could be achieved. Under the optimized conditions, the reproducibility of the retention time (n = 4) for most of the compounds was less than +/-0.8% with the exception of A, Ps, and T. The average number of theoretical plates was 18 800 plates/m. The results were compared with those achieved by the modified micellar EKC (MEKC). MEEKC showed obvious advantages over MEKC for the separation of highly hydrophobic substances. To further evaluate the system, we tested the MEEKC method by analyzing corticosteroids in a spiked urine sample.

  13. Gamma irradiation effects on the grafting of low-density polyethylene with diethyl maleate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Y.; Albano, C.; Karam, A.; Perera, R.; Silva, P.; Gonzalez, J.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) was grafted with diethyl maleate (DEM) using gamma-rays from a Cobalt-60 source at different absorbed doses and monomer concentrations between 5 and 30 wt.%. This process was carried out in a decalin solution at 10 w/v% to obtain a homogeneous dispersion of the monomer into the polyethylene matrix. It was found that the grafting degree increases with the absorbed doses, as a consequence of the increased amount of energy given to the system, which made the grafting process more favorable. The grafting degree also increases with the concentration of DEM, because a higher concentration makes the insertion easier due to the increased availability of the free monomer. The highest grafting degree was obtained at 200 kGy of absorbed dose and with 30 wt.% of DEM. The melt flow index (MFI) values showed a decreasing trend as the absorbed dose was increased. This fact reveals that crosslinking and grafting are taking place simultaneously, this behavior being remarkable at higher irradiation doses. The results from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the initial degradation temperatures remained almost unchanged with the absorbed dose

  14. (E-N,N-Diethyl-2,6-diisopropyl-4-[2-(4-nitrophenylethenyl]aniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiner Detert

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C24H32N2O2, was prepared by Horner olefination of 4-diethylamino-3,5-diisopropylbenzaldehyde and diethyl p-nitrobenzylphosphonate. There are two independent molecules (A and B in the asymmetric unit. Their main axes, defined by the line connecting the N atoms of the nitro and amino groups, open an angle of 79.42 (3°. Steric hindrance around the amino group is reflected in a long aryl C—N bond [1.434 (3 Å for molecule A and 1.440 (3 Å for molecule B], a pyramidal geometry [angle sum = 350.0 (2° for molecule A and 349.6 (2° for molecule B], and dihedral angles between the phenylene group and the plane defined by the CH2—N—CH2 unit of 86.9 (3° for molecule A and 88.3 (3° for molecule B. This gives structural support for the electronic decoupling of the amino group from the nearly planar nitrostilbene moiety (r.m.s. deviation for C, N and O atoms = 0.097 for molecule A and 0.107 Å for molecule B.

  15. Isothermal (vapour + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) for binary mixtures containing diethyl carbonate, phenyl acetate, diphenyl carbonate, or ethyl acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Hsiao-Yun; Shu, So-Siou; Wang, San-Jang; Lee, Ming-Jer

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Isothermal (vapour + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) data were measured. • Binary mixtures contain ethyl acetate, diethyl carbonate, phenyl acetate, diphenyl carbonate. • No azeotrope formed in the systems investigated. • The VLE data were correlated well with Wilson-HOC, NRTL-HOC, UNIQUAC-HOC models. - Abstract: The isothermal (vapour + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) (P–T–x i –y i ) was determined the binary systems of (ethyl acetate + diethyl carbonate) from T = (373.2 to 453.2) K, (ethyl acetate + phenyl acetate) at T = 373.2 K, and (diethyl carbonate + phenyl acetate) at T = 373.2 K, while the VLE (P–T–x i ) of three diphenyl carbonate-containing binary systems was also determined experimentally at temperatures from (373.2 to 453.2) K. The experimental results show no azeotrope formation and near ideal solution behaviour for each binary system. These new VLE (P–T–x i –y i ) data have been passed by the point, area, and infinite dilution thermodynamic consistency tests. The Wilson-HOC, the NRTL-HOC, and the UNIQUAC-HOC models were applied to correlate the VLE results and the optimal values of the model parameters have been determined through data reduction. Comparable results were obtained from these three models.

  16. Evaluation of crystallization kinetics of poly (ether-ketone-ketone) and poly (ether-ether-ketone) by DSC

    OpenAIRE

    Gibran da Cunha Vasconcelos; Rogerio Lago Mazur; Edson Cocchieri Botelho; Mirabel Cerqueira Rezende; Michelle Leali Costa

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: The poly (aryl ether ketones) are used as matrices in advanced composites with high performance due to its high thermal stability, excellent environmental performance and superior mechanical properties. Most of the physical, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of semi-crystalline polymers depend on the degree of crystallinity and morphology of the crystalline regions. Thus, a study on the crystallization process promotes a good prediction of how the manufacturing parameters affe...

  17. Hardness and wear properties of boron-implanted poly(ether-ether-ketone) and poly-ether-imide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Youngchul; Lee, E.H.; Mansur, L.K.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of boron beam irradiation on the hardness, friction, and wear of polymer surfaces were investigated. Typical high-performance thermoplastics, poly(ether-ether-ketone) (PEEK) and a poly-ether-imide (Ultem) were studied after 200 keV boron ion beam treatment at ambient temperature to doses of 2.3x10 14 , 6.8x10 14 , and 2.2x10 15 ions cm -2 . The hardnesses of pristine and boron-implanted materials were characterized by a conventional Knoop method and a load-depth sensing nanoindentation technique. Both measurements showed a significant increase in hardness with increasing dose. The increase in hardness was also found to depend on the penetration depth of the diamond indenter. Wear and friction properties were characterized by a reciprocating sliding friction tester with an SAE 52100 high-carbon, chrome steel ball at 0.5 and 1 N normal loads. Wear and frictional properties varied in a complex fashion with polymer type and dose, but not much with normal load. A substantial reduction in friction coefficient was observed for PEEK at the highest dose but no reduction was observed for Ultem. The wear damage was substantially reduced at the highest dose for both Ultem and PEEK. For the system studied, the highest dose, 2.2x10 15 ions cm -2 , appears to be optimum in improving wear resistance for both PEEK and Ultem. (orig.)

  18. Poly(aryl-ether-ether-ketone) as a Possible Metalized Film Capacitor Dielectric: Accurate Description of the Band Gap Through Ab Initio Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Poly(aryl-ether-ether- ketone ) as a Possible Metalized Film Capacitor Dielectric: Accurate Description of the Band Gap Through Ab Initio...the originator. Army Research Laboratory Adelphi, MD 20783-1138 ARL-TR-7160 December 2014 Poly(aryl-ether-ether- ketone ) as a...REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) December 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Poly(aryl-ether-ether- ketone ) as

  19. Model for Photodegradation of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselý, M.; Vajglová, Zuzana; Kotas, Petr; Křišťál, Jiří; Ponec, Robert; Jiřičný, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 7 (2015), s. 4949-4963 ISSN 0944-1344 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/0880; GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/12/0664 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : polybrominated diphenyl ethers * photodegradation model * quantum chemical calculation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.760, year: 2015

  20. Nikola Tesla, the Ether and his Telautomaton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milar, Kendall

    2014-03-01

    In the nineteenth century physicists' understanding of the ether changed dramatically. New developments in thermodynamics, energy physics, and electricity and magnetism dictated new properties of the ether. These have traditionally been examined from the perspective of the scientists re-conceptualizing the ether. However Nikola Tesla, a prolific inventor and writer, presents a different picture of nineteenth century physics. Alongside the displays that showcased his inventions he presented alternative interpretations of physical, physiological and even psychical research. This is particularly evident in his telautomaton, a radio remote controlled boat. This invention and Tesla's descriptions of it showcase some of his novel interpretations of physical theories. He offered a perspective on nineteenth century physics that focused on practical application instead of experiment. Sometimes the understanding of physical theories that Tesla reached was counterproductive to his own inventive work; other times he offered new insights. Tesla's utilitarian interpretation of physical theories suggests a more scientifically curious and invested inventor than previously described and a connection between the scientific and inventive communities.

  1. Protein Thiol Oxidation in Murine Airway Epithelial Cells in Response to Naphthalene or Diethyl Maleate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiess, Page C.; Morin, Dexter; Williams, Chase R.; Buckpitt, Alan R.

    2010-01-01

    Naphthalene (NA) is a semivolatile aromatic hydrocarbon to which humans are exposed from a variety of sources. NA results in acute cytotoxicity to respiratory epithelium in rodents. Cytochrome P450-dependent metabolic activation to form reactive intermediates and loss of soluble cellular thiols (glutathione) are critical steps in NA toxicity, but the precise mechanisms by which this chemical results in cellular injury remain unclear. Protein thiols are likely targets of reactive NA metabolites. Loss of these, through adduction or thiol oxidation mechanisms, may be important underlying mechanisms for NA toxicity. To address the hypothesis that loss of thiols on specific cellular proteins is critical to NA-induced cytotoxicity, we compared reduced to oxidized thiol ratios in airway epithelial cell proteins isolated from lungs of mice treated with NA or the nontoxic glutathione depletor, diethyl maleate (DEM). At 300 mg/kg doses, NA administration resulted in a greater than 85% loss of glutathione levels in the airway epithelium, which is similar to the loss observed after DEM treatment. Using differential fluorescent maleimide labeling followed by 2DE separation of proteins, we identified more than 35 unique proteins that have treatment-specific differential sulfhydryl oxidation. At doses of NA and DEM that produce similar levels of glutathione depletion, Cy3/Cy5 labeling ratios were statistically different for 16 nonredundant proteins in airway epithelium. Proteins identified include a zinc finger protein, several aldehyde dehydrogenase variants, β-actin, and several other structural proteins. These studies show distinct patterns of protein thiol alterations with the noncytotoxic DEM and the cytotoxic NA. PMID:19843705

  2. Immobilization of cholesterol esterase in mesoporous silica materials and its hydrolytic activity toward diethyl phthalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orita, Toru, E-mail: nqj45366@nifty.com [Division of Chemistry for Materials, Graduate School of Engineering, Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya-cho, Tsu, Mie 514-8570 (Japan); Taiyo Kagaku Co. Ltd., 800 Yamada-cho, Yokkaichi, Mie 512-1111 (Japan); Tomita, Masahiro [Division of Chemistry for Materials, Graduate School of Engineering, Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya-cho, Tsu, Mie 514-8570 (Japan); Saito, Takao; Nishida, Nasakazu; Kato, Katsuya [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 2266-78 Anagahora, Moriyamaku, Nagoya, Aichi 463-8560 (Japan)

    2012-05-01

    Cholesterol esterase (CE, cholesteryl ester hydrolase, EC 3.1.1.13) from porcine pancreas (molecular weight 400-500 kDa) exhibits hydrolytic activity toward various toxic organic phthalate esters. CE was confined in the nanospace (diameter 3-30 nm) of five types of mesoporous silica (MPS) that differ in structural properties such as pore diameter, pore volume, and particle morphology. These structural properties were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, small-angle X-ray diffraction, N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption experiments, solid-state {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and solid-state {sup 29}Si NMR. Catalytic activities of immobilized and free CE were evaluated by the hydrolysis of diethyl phthalate in phosphate buffer solutions containing an organic cosolvent. Optimal activity recovery was achieved when CE was immobilized in n-decane-functionalized MPS, which had a large pore size (22.5 nm). The immobilization also protected against effects of temperature within the range 30 Degree-Sign C-60 Degree-Sign C; CE immobilized in n-decyl-functionalized MPS exhibited better thermal stability than in non-functionalized MPS or free CE. Moreover, it retained approximately 60% of its catalytic activity even after six catalytic cycles. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The highest activity of immobilized CE was shown in MPS with a pore size of 22.5 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalytic efficiency improved when MPS was functionalized by n-decyl substitution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Immobilized CE exhibited good thermal stability and reusability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organic co-solvent and the substrate structures affected enzyme activities.

  3. Neurotoxicity and mode of action of N, N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Swale

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that N, N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and that this action may result in neurotoxicity and pose a risk to humans from its use as an insect repellent. We investigated the mode of action of DEET neurotoxicity in order to define the specific neuronal targets related to its acute toxicity in insects and mammals. Although toxic to mosquitoes (LD50 ca. 1.5 µg/mg, DEET was a poor acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (<10% inhibition, even at a concentration of 10 mM. IC50 values for DEET against Drosophila melanogaster, Musca domestica, and human acetylcholinesterases were 6-12 mM. Neurophysiological recordings showed that DEET had excitatory effects on the housefly larval central nervous system (EC50: 120 µM, but was over 300-fold less potent than propoxur, a standard anticholinesterase insecticide. Phentolamine, an octopamine receptor antagonist, completely blocked the central neuroexcitation by DEET and octopamine, but was essentially ineffective against hyperexcitation by propoxur and 4-aminopyridine, a potassium channel blocker. DEET was found to illuminate the firefly light organ, a tissue utilizing octopamine as the principal neurotransmitter. Additionally, DEET was shown to increase internal free calcium via the octopamine receptors of Sf21 cells, an effect blocked by phentolamine. DEET also blocked Na(+ and K(+ channels in patch clamped rat cortical neurons, with IC50 values in the micromolar range. These findings suggest DEET is likely targeting octopaminergic synapses to induce neuroexcitation and toxicity in insects, while acetylcholinesterase in both insects and mammals has low (mM sensitivity to DEET. The ion channel blocking action of DEET in neurons may contribute to the numbness experienced after inadvertent application to the lips or mouth of humans.

  4. Protein thiol oxidation in murine airway epithelial cells in response to naphthalene or diethyl maleate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiess, Page C; Morin, Dexter; Williams, Chase R; Buckpitt, Alan R

    2010-09-01

    Naphthalene (NA) is a semivolatile aromatic hydrocarbon to which humans are exposed from a variety of sources. NA results in acute cytotoxicity to respiratory epithelium in rodents. Cytochrome P450-dependent metabolic activation to form reactive intermediates and loss of soluble cellular thiols (glutathione) are critical steps in NA toxicity, but the precise mechanisms by which this chemical results in cellular injury remain unclear. Protein thiols are likely targets of reactive NA metabolites. Loss of these, through adduction or thiol oxidation mechanisms, may be important underlying mechanisms for NA toxicity. To address the hypothesis that loss of thiols on specific cellular proteins is critical to NA-induced cytotoxicity, we compared reduced to oxidized thiol ratios in airway epithelial cell proteins isolated from lungs of mice treated with NA or the nontoxic glutathione depletor, diethyl maleate (DEM). At 300 mg/kg doses, NA administration resulted in a greater than 85% loss of glutathione levels in the airway epithelium, which is similar to the loss observed after DEM treatment. Using differential fluorescent maleimide labeling followed by 2DE separation of proteins, we identified more than 35 unique proteins that have treatment-specific differential sulfhydryl oxidation. At doses of NA and DEM that produce similar levels of glutathione depletion, Cy3/Cy5 labeling ratios were statistically different for 16 nonredundant proteins in airway epithelium. Proteins identified include a zinc finger protein, several aldehyde dehydrogenase variants, beta-actin, and several other structural proteins. These studies show distinct patterns of protein thiol alterations with the noncytotoxic DEM and the cytotoxic NA.

  5. Removal of diethyl phthalate from aqueous phase using magnetic poly(EGDMA-VP) beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özer, Elif Tümay; Osman, Bilgen; Kara, Ali; Beşirli, Necati; Gücer, Seref; Sözeri, Hüseyin

    2012-08-30

    The barium hexaferrite (BaFe(12)O(19)) containing magnetic poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate-vinyl pyridine), (mag-poly(EGDMA-VP)) beads (average diameter=53-212 μm) were synthesized and characterized. Their use as an adsorbent in the removal of diethyl phthalate (DEP) from an aqueous solution was investigated. The mag-poly(EGDMA-VP) beads were prepared by copolymerizing of 4-vinyl pyridine (VP) with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA). The mag-poly(EGDMA-VP) beads were characterized by N(2) adsorption/desorption isotherms (BET), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), elemental analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and swelling studies. At a fixed solid/solution ratio, the various factors affecting the adsorption of DEP from aqueous solutions such as pH, initial concentration, contact time and temperature were analyzed. The maximum DEP adsorption capacity of the mag-poly(EGDMA-VP) beads was determined as 98.9 mg/g at pH 3.0, 25°C. All the isotherm data can be fitted with both the Langmuir and the Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. The pseudo first-order, pseudo-second-order, Ritch-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models were used to describe the adsorption kinetics. The thermodynamic parameters obtained indicated the exothermic nature of the adsorption. The DEP adsorption capacity did not change after 10 batch successive reactions, demonstrating the usefulness of the magnetic beads in applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. From ether theory to ether theology: Oliver Lodge and the physics of immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raia, Courtenay Grean

    2007-01-01

    This article follows the development of physicist Oliver Lodge's religio-scientific worldview, beginning with his reticent attraction to metaphysics in the early 1880s to the full formulation of his "ether theology" in the late 1890s. Lodge undertook the study of psychical phenomena such as telepathy, telekinesis, and "ectoplasm" to further his scientific investigations of the ether, speculating that electrical and psychical manifestations were linked phenomena that described the deeper underlying structures of the universe, beneath and beyond matter. For Lodge, to fully understand the ether was to force from the universe an ultimate Revelation, and psychical research, as the most modern and probatory science, was poised to replace religion as the means of that disclosure. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Comparison of Properties among Dendritic and Hyperbranched Poly(ether ether ketone)s and Linear Poly(ether ketone)s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Atsushi

    2016-02-16

    Poly(ether ether ketone) dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers were prepared from 3,5-dimethoxy-4'-(4-fluorobenzoyl)diphenyl ether and 3,5-dihydroxy-4'-(4-fluorobenzoyl)diphenyl ether through aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions. 1-(tert-Butyldimethylsiloxy)-3,5-bis(4-fluorobenzoyl)benzene was polycondensed with bisphenols, followed by cleavage of the protective group to form linear poly(ether ketone)s having the same hydroxyl groups in the side chains as the chain ends of the dendrimer and hyperbranched polymers. Their properties, such as solubilities, reduced viscosities, and thermal properties, were compared with one another. Similar comparisons were also carried out among the corresponding methoxy group polymers, and the size of the molecules was shown to affect the properties.

  8. Preliminary Investigation of Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketone Based on Fused Deposition Modeling for Medical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK fabricated by fused deposition modeling for medical applications was evaluated in terms of mechanical strength and in vitro cytotoxicity in this study. Orthogonal experiments were firstly designed to investigate the significant factors on tensile strength. Nozzle temperature, platform temperature, and the filament diameter were tightly controlled for improved mechanical strength performance. These sensitive parameters affected the interlayer bonding and solid condition in the samples. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectrometry analysis was secondly conducted to compare the functional groups in PEEK granules, filaments, and printed parts. In vitro cytotoxicity test was carried out at last, and no toxic substances were introduced during the printing process.

  9. Proton conductivity enhancement by nanostructural control of sulphonated poly (ether ether ketone) membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuwei; Ge, Junjie; Cui, Zhiming; Liu, Changpeng; Xing, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5625 Renmin Street, Changchun 130022, Jilin (China); Zhang, Jiujun [Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, National Research Council of Canada. 4250 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Lin, Haidan; Na, Hui [Alan G. MacDiarmid Institute, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2010-08-15

    A series of sulphonated poly (ether ether ketone) (sPEEK) membranes for direct methanol fuel cells are successfully prepared under different humidity degree conditions. These membranes exhibit enhanced proton conductivity at high humidity degree. It is proved that the different proton conductivity is ascribed to the orientation arrangement of sulphonic acid groups, which is caused by environmental water in the preparing process of membranes. A model is established by analyzing the dynamics of membrane formation and proved by Field emission scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). (author)

  10. Ethers as gasoline additives : toxicokinetics and acute effects in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Nihlén, Annsofi

    1999-01-01

    Ethers or other oxygen-containing compounds are used as replacements for lead in gasoline and to ensure complete combustion. Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) is already in use world-wide and ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) may be used increasingly in the future. The aims of the present thesis were to study the uptake and disposition (toxicokinetics) of MTBE and ETBE in humans, to address the issue of biological monitoring and to measure acute effects (assessed by questio...

  11. Divinyl ether synthase gene and protein, and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Gregg A [East Lansing, MI; Itoh, Aya [Tsuruoka, JP

    2011-09-13

    The present invention relates to divinyl ether synthase genes, proteins, and methods of their use. The present invention encompasses both native and recombinant wild-type forms of the synthase, as well as mutants and variant forms, some of which possess altered characteristics relative to the wild-type synthase. The present invention also relates to methods of using divinyl ether synthase genes and proteins, including in their expression in transgenic organisms and in the production of divinyl ether fatty acids, and to methods of suing divinyl ether fatty acids, including in the protection of plants from pathogens.

  12. Hydrogenolytic cleavage of naphthylmethyl ethers in the presence of sulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adero, Philip O; Jarois, Dean R; Crich, David

    2017-09-08

    With the aid of a series of model thioether or thioglycoside containing polyols protected with combinations of benzyl ethers and 2-naphthylmethyl ethers it is demonstrated that the latter are readily cleaved selectively under hydrogenolytic conditions in the presence of the frequently catalyst-poisoning sulfides. These results suggest the possibility of employing 2-naphthylmethyl ethers in place of benzyl ethers in synthetic schemes when hydrogenolytic deprotection is anticipated in the presence of thioether type functionality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The mild liquid-phase synthesis of 3-picoline from acrolein diethyl acetal and ammonia over heterogeneous catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Cai-Wu; Chao, Zi-Sheng; Lei, Bo; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Zheng-Hao

    2017-11-01

    The liquid-phase synthesis of 3-picoline from the reaction of acrolein diethyl acetal and ammonia over ion-exchanged resins (D402 and D002) and HZSM-5 (Si/Al = 25) was carried out in a batch reactor. Various influencing parameters, including by the addition of water, ion-exchanged resins, reaction temperature and HZSM-5, were systematically investigated. The results showed that the reaction could be directly conducted, and organic acid wasn’t utilized. The highest yield of 3-picoline reached up to 24% using HZSM-5 as catalyst at 110 °C.

  14. Organocatalytic Asymmetric Allylic Alkylation of Morita-Baylis-Hillman Carbonates with Diethyl 2-Aminomalonate Assisted by In Situ Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Wang, Jing; Xia, Peng-Ju; Zhao, Qing-Lan; Xiao, Jun-An; Xiang, Hao-Yue; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Yang, Hua

    2017-12-01

    With the aid of in situ protection by N-(2-formylphenyl)-4-methyl-benzenesulfonamide, enantioselective allylic alkylation of Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates with diethyl 2-aminomalonate was successfully realized. The corresponding adducts can be obtained in up to 99% yield with up to 98% ee as well as excellent regioselectivity. Besides, the adducts with opposite configurations were readily prepared by utilizing easily available and inexpensive quinine or quinidine as organocatalyst. Facile deprotection of the resulting adduct provides straightforward access to enantiopure α-methylene-γ-lactam.

  15. Diethyl 2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b]-1,4-dioxine-5,7-dicarboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiro Saito

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C12H14O6S, is a dicarboxylic acid diethyl ester of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene, which is a component of electrically conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT. The ethylene group is disordered over two sites with occupancy factors 0.64 and 0.36. Both the carbonyl groups are coplanar with the thiophene ring. The molecules form centrosymmetric dimers with an R22(12 coupling by intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds [3.333 (5 Å] at the ethoxycarbonyl groups. The dimer units are arranged to form a ribbon-like molecular sheet.

  16. 77 FR 15015 - Revocation of Tolerance Exemptions for Diethyl Phthalate and Methyl Ethyl Ketone; No Data Being...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ...This document proposes, under section 408(e)(1) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), to revoke the existing exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance (tolerance exemptions) for residues of diethyl phthalate and methyl ethyl ketone when used as inert ingredients in pesticide products because there are insufficient data to make the determination of safety required by FFDCA. No manufacturer or importer of these chemicals has committed to conduct testing and submit data required by test orders that EPA issued under the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP). EPA is, however, offering an opportunity for interested parties to comment or commit to submitting the required data.

  17. The Possible HEPATOPROTECTIVE Effect Of Taurine In Diethyl Nitrosamine (DEN) Treated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHAROUD, M.N.M.; ABD EL-MONEIM, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    Egypt occupies a progressed rank among the developing countries in prevalence of hepatic diseases and liver disorders. Hepatopathies are major public health problems in Egypt where hepatitis C virus (HCV) and schistosomia record a high prevalence which may account for the most serious clinical disorders e.g. liver cirrhosis and liver cancer.Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the most specific and potent mitogen of endothelial cells. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by increased pathologic angio genesis and increased level of the vascular endothelial growth factor. Taurine is clinically used as a protecting agent of the liver and recently, its chemo preventive effect on rat large bowel carcinogenesis was reported.In this study, forty male albino rats were used and diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) was used for inducing pathological changes in different organs while taurine was given to investigate the possible protective effects on liver tissue after DEN treatment.The results showed elevation in serum AST, ALT, ALP, urea, creatinine, cholesterol and triglycerides in DEN group. On the other hand, estimation of sex hormones exhibited marked decrease in testosterone and significant increase in estradiol levels in DEN group as compared to control and taurine groups.Pathological examination of rat liver showed that DEN induced peri portal inflammatory cellular infiltrate, piece meal necrosis and necro inflammatory activity as well as the appearance of areas of haemorrhage and ballooning in hepatocytes. Moreover, moderate to high expression of V EGF in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes and sinusoidal cells were clearly observed while in control and taurine groups, normal architecture of hepatic tissue of rats was found and normal distribution of V EGF as diffuse or focal granular cytoplasmic stain in rats liver were observed. The prophylactic group showed minimal and mild changes in the liver tissue with absence of necro inflammation and the V EGF expression

  18. Lithiated and sulphonated poly(ether ether ketone) solid state electrolyte films for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, K.-F.; Su, S.-H.

    2013-01-01

    Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) films have been synthesised and used as solid-state electrolytes for supercapacitors. In order to increase their ion conductivity, the PEEK films were sulphonated by sulphuric acid, and various amounts of LiClO 4 were added. The solid-state electrolyte films were characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The ionic conductivities of the electrolyte films were analysed by performing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The obtained electrolyte films can be sandwiched or directly coated on activated carbon electrodes to form solid-state supercapacitors. The electrochemical characteristics of these supercapacitors were investigated by performing cyclic voltammetry and charge–discharge tests. Under an optimal content of LiClO 4 , the supercapacitor can provide a capacitance as high as 190 F/g. After 1000 cycles, the supercapacitors show almost no capacitance fading, indicating high stability of the solid-state electrolyte films. - Highlights: • Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) films have been used as solid-state electrolytes. • LiClO4 addition can efficiently improve the ionic conductivity. • Supercapacitors using PEEK electrolyte films deliver high capacitance

  19. Silane Cross-Linked Sulfonted Poly(Ether Ketone/Ether Benzimidazoles for Fuel Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilu Yao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available γ-(2,3-epoxypropoxy propyltrimethoxysilane (KH-560 was incorporated in various proportions into side-chain-type sulfonated poly(ether ketone/ether benzimidazole (SPEKEBI as a crosslinker, to make membranes with high ion exchange capacities and excellent performance for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs. Systematical measurements including Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR, scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS proved the complete disappearance of epoxy groups in KH-560 and the existence of Si in the membranes. The resulting membranes showed increased mechanical strength and thermal stability compared to the unmodified sulfonated poly(ether ketone/ether benzimidazole membrane in appropriate doping amount. Meanwhile, the methanol permeability has decreased, leading to the increase of relative selectivities of SPEKEBI-x-SiO2 membranes. Furthermore, the H2/O2 cell performance of SPEKEBI-2.5-SiO2 membrane showed a much higher peak power density compared with the pure SPEKEBI memrbrane.

  20. All solid supercapacitor based on polyaniline and crosslinked sulfonated poly[ether ether ketone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaraman, P.; Kushwaha, R.K.; Shashidhara, K.; Hande, V.R.; Thakur, A.P. [Polymer Department, Naval Materials Research Laboratory (DRDO), Shil-Badlapur Road, Anand Nagar PO, Thane Dist., Ambernath, Maharashtra 421 506 (India); Samui, A.B., E-mail: absamui@rediffmail.co [Polymer Department, Naval Materials Research Laboratory (DRDO), Shil-Badlapur Road, Anand Nagar PO, Thane Dist., Ambernath, Maharashtra 421 506 (India); Khandpekar, M.M. [Materials Research Laboratory, Birla College, Kalyan, Thane Dist, Maharashtra 421 304 (India)

    2010-02-28

    All solid supercapacitor based on polyaniline (PANI) and crosslinked sulfonated poly[ether ether ketone] (XSPEEK,) is reported in this paper. The crosslinker used for sulfonated poly[ether ether ketone] (SPEEK) is 1,4-bis(hydroxymethyl) benzene. The XSPEEK is used as both solid electrolyte and separator membrane. Supercapacitors are fabricated using various PANI/XSPEEK weight ratios. These are characterized by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge studies. The supercapacitor with PANI/XSPEEK weight ratio 1:0.5, exhibit a specific capacitance of 480 F g{sup -1} of PANI. To the best of authors' knowledge, the value reported here is the highest for a supercapacitor based on a proton conducting solid polymer electrolyte and PANI. Detailed electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis is carried out. The analysis shows that the complex capacitance of the supercapacitor depends on the XSPEEK content. The time constant (t{sub 0}), derived from the imaginary part of complex capacitance decreases with increase in the XSPEEK content in the supercapacitor. Cycle life characteristics of the supercapacitor show a decrease in specific capacitance during initial cycles and get stabilized during later cycles.

  1. Lithiated and sulphonated poly(ether ether ketone) solid state electrolyte films for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, K.-F.; Su, S.-H., E-mail: minimono42@gmail.com

    2013-10-01

    Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) films have been synthesised and used as solid-state electrolytes for supercapacitors. In order to increase their ion conductivity, the PEEK films were sulphonated by sulphuric acid, and various amounts of LiClO{sub 4} were added. The solid-state electrolyte films were characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The ionic conductivities of the electrolyte films were analysed by performing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The obtained electrolyte films can be sandwiched or directly coated on activated carbon electrodes to form solid-state supercapacitors. The electrochemical characteristics of these supercapacitors were investigated by performing cyclic voltammetry and charge–discharge tests. Under an optimal content of LiClO{sub 4}, the supercapacitor can provide a capacitance as high as 190 F/g. After 1000 cycles, the supercapacitors show almost no capacitance fading, indicating high stability of the solid-state electrolyte films. - Highlights: • Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) films have been used as solid-state electrolytes. • LiClO4 addition can efficiently improve the ionic conductivity. • Supercapacitors using PEEK electrolyte films deliver high capacitance.

  2. Fabrication and properties of poly(polyethylene glycol n-alkyl ether vinyl ether)s as polymeric phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Dong-fang; Chen, Sai; Li, Shu-qin; Shi, Hai-feng; Li, Wei; Li, Xuan; Zhang, Xing-xiang

    2016-01-01

    A series of poly(polyethylene glycol n-alkyl ether vinyl ether)s (PC m E n VEs) with various lengths of alkyl chains and polyethylene glycol spacers as side chain (m = 16,18; n = 1,2) were synthesized via two steps. First, monomers-ethylene glycol hexadecyl ether vinyl ether (C 16 E 1 VE), ethylene glycol octadecyl ether vinyl ether (C 18 E 1 VE), diethylene glycol hexadecyl ether vinyl ether (C 16 E 2 VE) and diethylene glycol octadecyl ether vinyl ether (C 18 E 2 VE) were synthesized by a modified Williamson etherification. Then, four new types of phase change materials were successfully fabricated by a living cationic polymerization. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) were employed to characterize their composition, thermal properties and crystallization behavior. The results show that, the side chains of PC 16 E 1 VE, PC 18 E 1 VE, PC 16 E 2 VE and PC 18 E 2 VE are in a hexagonal lattice, and the onset temperatures for melting of PC 16 E 1 VE, PC 18 E 1 VE, PC 16 E 2 VE and PC 18 E 2 VE are 39.8 °C, 37.4 °C, 51.0 °C and 48.9 °C, the onset temperatures for crystallization are 36.7 °C, 35.2 °C, 47.4 °C and 46.3 °C, respectively. The enthalpy changes of PC 18 E 1 VE, PC 16 E 2 VE and PC 18 E 2 VE are higher than 100 J/g; on the contrary, it is 96 J/g for PC 16 E 1 VE. The enthalpy decrease is no more than 11% after 10 heating and cooling cycles. The 5 wt% mass loss temperatures of PC 18 E 1 VE, PC 16 E 2 VE and PC 18 E 2 VE are higher than 300 °C; on the contrary, it’s 283 °C for PC 16 E 1 VE. Using a weak polarity, flexible alkyl ether chain (-OCH 2 CH 2 O-) as a spacer to link the main chain and side chain is conducive to the crystallization of the alkyl side chain. These new phase change materials can be applied in heat storage, energy conservation, and environmental protection.

  3. Comparative quantitative evaluation of hepatic clearance of diethyl-IDA and para-butyl-IDA in jaundiced and non-jaundiced patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarolo, G.L.; Picozzi, R.; Palagi, B.; Cammelli, F.; Ospedale di Saronno

    1981-01-01

    A method for comparative measurement of hepatic clearance of different hepatobiliary agents is described and the clinical use of diethyl-IDA and parabutyl-IDA is discussed. The study was performed with both radiopharmaceuticals in 13 patients with hepatobiliary disease with serum bilirubin ranging from 0.3 to 16.4 mg/100 ml. Diethyl-IDA is preferable for a qualitative evaluation of hepatobiliary disease because of its higher hepatic clearance and faster biliary excretion rate. Parabutyl-IDA is superior for measuring the hepatocytic uptake function, due to the low urinary excretion and the absence of an apparent re-entry from liver to plasma, even in patients with obstructive jaundice. In contrast, an appreciable re-entry can be demonstrated for diethyl-IDA. (orig.)

  4. Experimental studies on toxicity of ethylene glycol alkyl ethers in Japan.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagano, K; Nakayama, E; Oobayashi, H; Nishizawa, T; Okuda, H; Yamazaki, K

    1984-01-01

    Past studies on the toxicological effects of ethylene glycol alkyl ethers as well as the recent data on these chemicals in Japan are reviewed. Only a few researchers have participated in the study of ethylene glycol alkyl ethers in Japan. The effects of ethylene glycol alkyl ethers on testis and embryotoxic effects of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGM) have been studied, as has the teratogenicity of ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (EGdM). Studies on ethylene glycol alkyl ethers and related...

  5. Synthesis and Antiplasmodial Activity of EG-Artemisinin Ethers and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to synthesize a series of ethylene glycol (EG) ethers and quinoline hybrids of the antimalarial drug artemisinin and to evaluate their antimalarial activity in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum strains. The ethers were synthesized in a ... falciparum, ethylene glycol) (EG), ethylene oxide (EO), hybrid ...

  6. Synthesis and Antiplasmodial Activity of EG-Artemisinin Ethers and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    The aim of this study was to synthesize a series of ethylene glycol (EG) ethers and quinoline hybrids of the antimalarial drug artemisinin and to ... The IC50 values revealed that all the ethers were active against both strains but less potent than ...... Compound 19 was racemate (mixture 3''R and 3''S isomers) isolated as fluffy ...

  7. Chemical Composition and Cytotoxic Activities of Petroleum Ether ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical Composition and Cytotoxic Activities of Petroleum Ether Fruit Extract of Fruits of Brucea javanica (Simarubaceae) ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... Purpose: To investigate the chemical composition and antitumor activity of the petroleum ether extract of the dried ripe fruits of Brucea javanica.

  8. Congenital malformations and maternal occupational exposure to glycol ethers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordier, S; Bergeret, A; Goujard, J; Ha, MC; Ayme, S; Calzolari, E; DeWalle, HEK; KnillJones, R; Candela, S; Dale, [No Value; Dananche, B; deVigan, C; Fevotte, J; Kiel, G; Mandereau, L

    Glycol ethers are found in a wide range of domestic and industrial products, many of which are used in women's work environments. Motivated by concern about their potential reproductive toxicity, we have evaluated the risk of congenital malformations related to glycol ether exposure during preg

  9. 40 CFR 721.3486 - Polyglycerin mono(4-nonylphenyl) ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyglycerin mono(4-nonylphenyl) ether... Substances § 721.3486 Polyglycerin mono(4-nonylphenyl) ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyglycerin mono(4...

  10. Synthesis and bioactivity of rotenone oxime O -ether derivatives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of rotenone oxime O-ether derivatives were synthesized and characterized. All compounds were tested for their insecticidal, miticidal and fungicidal activities against the selected pests and compared with those of rotenone. The results of biological tests show that the rotenone oxime O-ether derivatives have ...

  11. Isobaric (vapor + liquid) equilibria of the binary system maleic anhydride and diethyl phthalate at p = (2.67, 5.33, and 8.00) kPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Wei [Department of Chemistry, Institute of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Liu Zhihua [Department of Chemistry, Institute of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tian Yiling [Department of Chemistry, Institute of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)]. E-mail: sdwfliu@yahoo.com.cn; Zhu Rongjiao [Department of Chemistry, Institute of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2006-11-15

    Saturated vapor pressures of pure diethyl phthalate were measured with the ebulliometer. And isobaric (vapor + liquid) equilibrium data for the binary system (maleic anhydride + diethyl phthalate) at p = (2.67, 5.33, and 8.00) kPa were determined using the ebulliometric method. The parameters of the NRTL model for the binary system were obtained by calculating equilibrium compositions of the liquid and vapor phase with the experimental equilibrium temperatures, pressures and feed compositions. Moreover (vapor + liquid) equilibrium data for the binary system were predicted by use of the UNIFAC model. Predicted results were compared with those from the ebulliometric method, and showed good agreement.

  12. Bis[bis(N,N-diethyl-1,1-diselenocarbamato)copper(II)], [Cu(Se(2)CNEt(2))(2)](2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Rong; Bao, Mutai; Weng, Jiabao; Su, Weiping; Hong, Maochun

    2000-05-15

    The title centrosymmetric Cu(II) binuclear complex, bis(micro-N,N-diethyl-1,1-diselenocarbamato-Se,Se':Se)bis[(N,N-diethyl-1,1-diselenocarbamato-Se,Se')copper(II)], [Cu(Se(2)CNEt(2))(2)](2) or [Cu(2)(C(5)H(10)NSe(2))(4)], is built from two symmetry-related [Cu{Se(2)CN(Et)(2)}(2)] units by pairs of Cu-Se bonds. The coordination geometry at the unique Cu atom is distorted square pyramidal, with Cu-Se distances in the range 2.4091 (11)-2.9095 (10) A.

  13. [Recent development of research on the biotribology of carbon fiber reinforced poly ether ether ketone composites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Pan, Yusong

    2014-12-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced poly ether ether ketone (CF/PEEK) composite possesses excellent biocompatible, biomechanical and bioribological properties. It is one of the most promising implant materials for artificial joint. Many factors influence the bioribological properties of CF/PEEK composites. In this paper, the authors reviewed on the biotribology research progress of CF/PEEK composites. The influences of various factors such as lubricant, reinforcement surface modification, functional particles, friction counterpart and friction motion modes on the bio-tribological properties of CF/PEEK composites are discussed. Based on the recent research, the authors suggest that the further research should be focused on the synergistic effect of multiple factors on the wear and lubrication mechanism of CF/PEEK.

  14. Enhanced osteogenic activity of poly ether ether ketone using calcium plasma immersion ion implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Qian, Shi; Meng, Fanhao; Ning, Congqin; Liu, Xuanyong

    2016-06-01

    As a promising implantable material, poly ether ether ketone (PEEK) possesses similar elastic modulus to that of cortical bones yet suffers from bio-inertness and poor osteogenic properties, which limits its application as orthopedic implants. In this work, calcium is introduced onto PEEK surface using calcium plasma immersion ion implantation (Ca-PIII). The results obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirm the modified layer with varying contents of calcium are formed on PEEK surfaces. Water contact angle measurements reveal the increasing hydrophobicity of both Ca-PIII treated surfaces. In vitro cell adhesion, viability assay, alkaline phosphatase activity and collagen secretion analyses disclose improved the adhesion, proliferation, and osteo-differentiation of rat bone mesenchymal stem cells (bMSCs) on Ca-PIII treated surfaces. The obtained results indicate that PEEK surface with enhanced osteogenic activity can be produced by calcium incorporation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Modification of Poly(ether ether ketone Polymer for Fuel Cell Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devesh Shukla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyelectrolyte membrane (PEM is an important part of PEM fuel cell. Nafion is a commercially known membrane which gives the satisfactory result in PEM fuel cell operating at low temperature. Present research paper includes functionalization of Poly(ether ether ketone (PEEK polymer with phosphonic acid group. The functionalization was done with the help of nickel-based catalyst. Further, the polymer was characterized by the FTIR, EDAX, DSC, TGA, and 1H NMR, and it was found that PEEK polymer was functionalized with phosphonic acid group with good thermal stability in comparison to virgin PEEK. Finally, the thin films of functionalized polymer were prepared by solution casting method, and proton conductivity of film samples was measured by impedance spectra whose value was found satisfactory with good thermal stability in comparison to commercially available Nafion membrane.

  16. Dielectric properties of poly (1,4-phenylene ether-ether-sulfone)

    CERN Document Server

    Spasevska, H

    2002-01-01

    Dielectric properties of Poly (1,4-phenylene ether-ether-sulfone) are obtained from dielectric spectroscopy of the polymer pellet. The values of relative dielectric constant epsilon', dielectric losses epsilon sup , dielectric dissipation factor tan delta and complex impedance are obtained at temperature of 75 sup o C. The temperature dependence of these parameters is investigated for three frequencies (8x10 sup 4 Hz; 8x10 sup 5 Hz; 8x10 sup 6 Hz) of applied electric field. The specific conductivity sigma, which depends on temperature, is related to the ohmic resistance R, at temperature in the interval from 66 to 83 sup o C. Fitting the experimental data, the value of the activation energy U is obtained. (Original)

  17. Characterization of melt-blended graphene – poly(ether ether ketone) nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewatia, Arya; Hendrix, Justin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers University, 607 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ, 08854 (United States); Dong, Zhizhong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rutgers University, 98 Brett Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Taghon, Meredith [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers University, 607 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ, 08854 (United States); Tse, Stephen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rutgers University, 98 Brett Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Chiu, Gordon; Mayo, William E.; Kear, Bernard; Nosker, Thomas [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers University, 607 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ, 08854 (United States); Lynch, Jennifer, E-mail: jklynch@rci.rutgers.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers University, 607 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ, 08854 (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Using a high shear melt-processing method, graphene-reinforced polymer matrix composites (G-PMCs) were produced with good distribution and particle–matrix interaction of bi/trilayer graphene at 2 wt. % and 5 wt. % in poly ether ether ketone (2Gn-PEEK and 5Gn-PEEK). The morphology, structure, thermal properties, and mechanical properties of PEEK, 2Gn-PEEK and 5 Gn-PEEK were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), flexural mechanical testing, and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Addition of graphene to PEEK induces surface crystallization, increased percent crystallinity, offers a composite that is thermally stable until 550 °C and enhances thermomechanical properties. Results show that graphene was successfully melt-blended within PEEK using this method.

  18. Characterization of melt-blended graphene – poly(ether ether ketone) nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewatia, Arya; Hendrix, Justin; Dong, Zhizhong; Taghon, Meredith; Tse, Stephen; Chiu, Gordon; Mayo, William E.; Kear, Bernard; Nosker, Thomas; Lynch, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Using a high shear melt-processing method, graphene-reinforced polymer matrix composites (G-PMCs) were produced with good distribution and particle–matrix interaction of bi/trilayer graphene at 2 wt. % and 5 wt. % in poly ether ether ketone (2Gn-PEEK and 5Gn-PEEK). The morphology, structure, thermal properties, and mechanical properties of PEEK, 2Gn-PEEK and 5 Gn-PEEK were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), flexural mechanical testing, and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Addition of graphene to PEEK induces surface crystallization, increased percent crystallinity, offers a composite that is thermally stable until 550 °C and enhances thermomechanical properties. Results show that graphene was successfully melt-blended within PEEK using this method.

  19. Analysis of electron-irradiated poly-ether ether ketone by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyabu, Matashige; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Seguchi, Tadao; Sasuga, Tsuneo; Kudoh, Hisaaki.

    1995-01-01

    Organic polymers used in atomic power plants or space are damaged by ionizing irradiation. Radicals produced by irradiation cause oxidation, chain scission and crosslinking, all of which lead to degradation of the material. In this paper, the surface of electron-irradiated poly-ether ether ketone (PEEK) was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The irradiation in air was found to oxidize the PEEK surface producing carboxyl groups, the content of which dependant on the dose. Carboxyl groups were not produced in helium gas. Quantitative spectral analysis indicated that the aromatic structure might be decomposed. Some comparison was made between the semicrystalline and amorphous samples. The oxygen content resulting from irradiation, of semicrystalline PEEK increased more than that of amorphous PEEK. (author)

  20. Structuring of poly ether ether ketone by ArF excimer laser radiation in different atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Y.; Gottmann, J.; Kreutz, E.W.

    2003-01-01

    Structuring of poly ether ether ketone (PEEK) by 193 nm ArF excimer laser radiation has been investigated. Experiments were carried out in different atmospheres (air, vacuum, Ar, O 2 ) in order to study its influence on the quality of the structures and the formation of the debris. Repetition rate makes little effect on the ablation rate and roughness of the structure in presence of any kind of atmosphere, indicating for the structuring of PEEK by ArF laser radiation a large window of processing. The roughness at the bottom of the structures and the morphology of the side walls are strongly affected by the properties of the atmosphere. The smallest roughness is achieved at 0.6 J/cm 2 for all kinds of processing gases. Debris around the structures can be diminished by structuring in vacuum. Plasma expansion speed has been measured by using high speed photography

  1. A sulfonated poly (aryl ether ether ketone ketone) isomer: synthesis and DMFC performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liu, Baijun [JILIN UNIV.; Hu, Wei [JILIN UNIV.; Jiang, Zhenhua [JILIN UNIV.; Robertson, Gilles [CANADA NRC; Guiver, Michael [CANADA NRC

    2009-01-01

    A sulfonated poly(aryl ether ether ketone ketone) (PEEKK) having a well-defined rigid homopolymer-like chemical structure was synthesized from a readily-prepared PEEKK post-sulfonation with concentrated sulfuric acid at room temperature within several hours. The polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) cast from the resulting polymer exhibited an excellent combination of thermal resistance, oxidative and dimensional stability, low methanol fuel permeability and high proton conductivity. Furthermore, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were successfully fabricated and good direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) performance was observed. At 2 M MeOH feed, the current density at 0.5 V reached 165 mA/cm, which outperformed our reported analogues and eveluated Nafion membranes.

  2. Origin of mechanical modifications in poly (ether ether ketone)/carbon nanotube composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlenko, Ekaterina; Puech, Pascal; Bacsa, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.bacsa@cemes.fr [CEMES-CNRS and University of Toulouse, 29 Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France); Boyer, François; Olivier, Philippe [Université de Toulouse, Institut Clément Ader, I.U.T. Université Paul Sabatier - 133C Avenue de Rangueil - B.P. 67701, 31077 Toulouse CEDEX 4 (France); Sapelkin, Andrei [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, E1 4NS London (United Kingdom); King, Stephen; Heenan, Richard [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, OX11 0QX Didcot (United Kingdom); Pons, François; Gauthier, Bénédicte; Cadaux, Pierre-Henri [AIRBUS FRANCE (B.E. M and P Toulouse), 316 Route de Bayonne, 31060 Toulouse (France)

    2014-06-21

    Variations in the hardness of a poly (ether ether ketone) beam electrically modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, 0.5%-3%) are investigated. It is shown that both rupture and hardness variations correlate with the changes in carbon nanotube concentration when using micro indentation and extended Raman imaging. Statistical analysis of the relative spectral intensities in the Raman image is used to estimate local tube concentration and polymer crystallinity. We show that the histogram of the Raman D band across the image provides information about the amount of MWCNTs and the dispersion of MWCNTs in the composite. We speculate that we have observed a local modification of the ordering between pure and modified polymer. This is partially supported by small angle neutron scattering measurements, which indicate that the agglomeration state of the MWCNTs is the same at the concentrations studied.

  3. Sulfonated poly(tetramethydiphenyl ether ether ketone) membranes for vanadium redox flow battery application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Zhensheng; Bi, Cheng; Dai, Hua [PEMFC Key Materials and Technology Laboratory, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongshan Road 457, Dalian 116023 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, Huamin; Li, Xianfeng [PEMFC Key Materials and Technology Laboratory, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongshan Road 457, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Sulfonated poly(tetramethydiphenyl ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) with various degree of sulfonation is prepared and first used as ion exchange membrane for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) application. The vanadium ion permeability of SPEEK40 membrane is one order of magnitude lower than that of Nafion 115 membrane. The low cost SPEEK membranes exhibit a better performance than Nafion at the same operating condition. VRB single cells with SPEEK membranes show very high energy efficiency (>84%), comparable to that of the Nafion, but at much higher columbic efficiency (>97%). In the self-discharge test, the duration of the cell with the SPEEK membrane is two times longer than that with Nafion 115. The membrane keeps a stable performance after 80-cycles charge-discharge test. (author)

  4. Molecular structure and transport dynamics in Nafion and sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone) membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, P.Y.; Chiu, C.P.; Hong, C.W. [Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Sec. 2, Kwang Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013 (China)

    2009-12-01

    An atomistic simulation technique is performed to investigate the molecular structure and transport dynamics inside a hydrated Nafion membrane and a hydrated sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone) (SPEEKK) membrane. The simulation system consists of the representative fragments of the polymer electrolytes, hydronium ions and solvent molecules, such as water plus methanol molecules. Simulation results show that the hydrated SPEEKK has less phase separation among hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions in comparison with the Nafion. Those water channels formed in the SPEEKK are much narrower compared to those in the Nafion. These characteristics lead to a lower mobility of hydronium ions and water molecules and hence relatively lower diffusion coefficient of methanol in the SPEEKK. It results in the reduction of the methanol permeation problem in direct methanol fuel cells. (author)

  5. Preparation and tribological behaviors of poly (ether ether ketone) nanocomposite films containing graphene oxide nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Haojie, E-mail: shj6922@163.com; Li Na; Yang Jin; Min Chunying [Jiangsu University, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China); Zhang Zhaozhu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics (China)

    2013-02-15

    The composite films of poly (ether ether ketone) (PEEK) filled with different proportions of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were prepared by the cast method. The tribological behaviors of the composite films under boundary lubrication (water and liquid paraffin oil lubrication) were investigated and compared with that under dry sliding on an UMT-2 friction and wear machine, by running a steel sphere against the composite films. The results were as follows: GO nanosheets as the filler greatly improve the wear resistance of PEEK under boundary lubrication, though the composites show a different dependence of wear resistance on the filler content. Scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy performed to analyze the wear scar surfaces after friction confirmed that the outstanding lubrication performance of GO could be attributed to their small size and extremely thin laminated structure, which allow the GO to easily enter the contact area, thereby preventing the rough surfaces from coming into direct contact.

  6. Poly(vinylbenzyl sulfonic acid)-grafted poly(ether ether ketone) membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Mi-Lim; Choi, Jisun; Woo, Hyun-Su; Kumar, Vinod; Sohn, Joon-Yong; Shin, Junhwa, E-mail: shinj@kaeri.re.kr

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • PEEK-g-PVBSA, a polymer electrolyte membrane was prepared by a radiation grafting technique. • Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK), an aromatic hydrocarbon polymer was used as a grafting backbone film. • The water uptake, proton conductivity, and methanol permeability of the membranes were evaluated. • PEEK-g-PVBSA membranes show considerably lower methanol permeability compared to a Nafion membrane. -- Abstract: In this study, an aromatic hydrocarbon based polymer electrolyte membrane, poly(vinylbenzyl sulfonic acid)-grafted poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK-g-PVBSA), has been prepared by the simultaneous irradiation grafting of vinylbenzyl chloride (VBC) monomer onto a PEEK film and subsequent sulfonation. Each chemical conversion was monitored by FT-IR and SEM–EDX instruments. The physicochemical properties including IEC, water uptake, proton conductivity, and methanol permeability of the prepared membranes were also investigated and found that the values of these properties increase with the increase of degree of grafting. It was observed that the IEC values of the prepared PEEK-g-PVBSA membranes with 32%, 58%, and 80% DOG values were 0.50, 1.05, and 1.22 meq/g while the water uptakes were 14%, 20%, and 21%, respectively. The proton conductivities (0.0272–0.0721 S/cm at 70 °C) were found to be somewhat lower than Nafion 212 (0.126 S/cm at 70 °C) at a relative humidity of 90%. However, the prepared membranes showed a considerably lower methanol permeability (0.61–1.92 × 10{sup −7} cm{sup 2}/s) compared to a Nafion 212 membrane (5.37 × 10{sup −7} cm{sup 2}/s)

  7. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and novel flame retardants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marie; Vorkamp, Katrin; Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    Besides diet, house dust has been recognized as an important exposure media for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) [1]. Our previous work showed significant associations between levels in dust and in human plasma, for the congeners BDE-28, BDE-47 and BDE-100 as well as for ΣPBDEtri hexa [2......, the objectives were to study whether i) the associations observed for plasma also existed for human milk, ii) the PBDE profiles in dust and milk could provide insights into the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of individual congeners, iii) NFRs were measurable in human milk, and iv) infants were exposed...... of BDE-99 in milk compared with plasma (100% vs. 37%). Hexabromocyclododecane and the NFRs bis(2-ethylhexyl)tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP), 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)-ethane (BTBPE), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), 2,3-dibromopropyl-2...

  8. Crown ether derivatives of EDTA: Pt. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhongqun; Qin Shengying; Chen Shaojin; Tan Lin

    1988-01-01

    EDTA-diaminodibenzo-18-crown-6 (cis- and trans-) condensation polymer is a new compound of crown ether derivatives of EDTA. In this paper the adsorption behaviors of U(IV) and U(VI) on this polymer from chloride solutions and effects of hydrochloric acid concentrations, salting-out agents and organic solvents on distribution coefficient (K d ) of uranium are investigated. Adsorption mechanism of uranyl ion (UO 2 2+ ) on this polymer was studied with IR spectra and by means of the adsorption behaviors of compounds of similar structure. Experimental results show that both polyether section and carboxyl groups in EDTA-diaminodibenzo-18-crown-6 take part in complexation with uranyl ion and synergistic effect appeared

  9. Cationic Poly(benzyl ether)s as Self-Immolative Antimicrobial Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergene, Cansu; Palermo, Edmund F

    2017-10-09

    Self-immolative polymers (SIMPs) are macromolecules that spontaneously undergo depolymerization into small molecules when triggered by specific external stimuli. We report here the first examples of antimicrobial SIMPs with potent, rapid, and broad-spectrum bactericidal activity. Their antibacterial and hemolytic activities were examined as a function of cationic functionality. Polymers bearing primary ammonium cationic groups showed more potent bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli, relative to tertiary and quaternary ammonium counterparts, whereas the quaternary ammonium polymers showed the lowest hemolytic toxicity. These antibacterial polycations undergo end-to-end depolymerization when triggered by an externally applied stimulus. Specifically, poly(benzyl ether)s end-capped with a silyl ether group and bearing pendant allyl side chains were converted to polycations by photoinitiated thiol-ene radical addition using cysteamine HCl. The intact polycations are stable in solution, but they spontaneously unzip into their component monomers upon exposure to fluoride ions, with excellent sensitivity and selectivity. Upon triggered depolymerization, the antibacterial potency was largely retained but the hemolytic toxicity was substantially reduced. Thus, we reveal the first example of a self-immolative antibacterial polymer platform that will enable antibacterial materials to spontaneously unzip into biologically active small molecules upon the introduction of a specifically designed stimulus.

  10. Thermolysis of phenethyl phenyl ether: A model of ether linkages in low rank coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III; Malcolm, E.A.

    1994-09-01

    Currently, an area of interest and frustration for coal chemists has been the direct liquefaction of low rank coal. Although low rank coals are more reactive than bituminous coals, they are more difficult to liquefy and offer lower liquefaction yields under conditions optimized for bituminous coals. Solomon, Serio, and co-workers have shown that: in the pyrolysis and liquefaction of low rank coals, a low temperature cross-linking reaction associated with oxygen functional groups occurs before tar evolution. A variety of pretreatments (demineralization, alkylation, and ion-exchange) have been shown to reduce these retrogressive reactions and increase tar yields, but the actual chemical reactions responsible for these processes have not been defined. In order to gain insight into the thermochemical reactions leading to cross-linking in low rank coal, we have undertaken a study of the pyrolysis of oxygen containing coal model compounds. Solid state NMR studies suggest that the alkyl aryl ether linkage may be present in modest amounts in low rank coal. Therefore, in this paper, we will investigate the thermolysis of phenethyl phenyl ether (PPE) as a model of 0-aryl ether linkages found in low rank coal, lignites, and lignin, an evolutionary precursor of coal. Our results have uncovered a new reaction channel that can account for 25% of the products formed. The impact of reaction conditions, including restricted mass transport, on this new reaction pathway and the role of oxygen functional groups in cross-linking reactions will be investigated.

  11. Effect of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and diethylene glycol monomethyl ether on hepatic metabolizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, T; Matsuno, K; Kayama, F; Hirai, M; Arashidani, K; Yoshikawa, M; Kodama, Y

    1990-06-01

    Glycol ethers have been extensively used in industry over the past 40-50 years. Numerous studies on the toxicity of glycol ethers have been performed, however, the effects of glycol ethers on the hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes are still unknown. We studied the changes of the putative metabolic enzymes, that is, the hepatic microsomal mixed function oxidase system and cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase, by the oral administration of diEGME and EGME. Adult male Wistar rats were used. DiEGME was administered orally; 500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg for 1, 2, 5 or 20 days and EGME was 100, 300 mg/kg for 1, 2, 5 or 20 days. Decreases in liver weights were produced by highest doses of diEGME (2000 mg/kg body wt/day for 20 days) and EGME (300 mg/kg body wt/day for 20 days). DiEGME increased hepatic microsomal protein contents and induced cytochrome P-450, but not cytochrome b5 or NADPH-cytochrome c reductase. The activity of cytosolic ADH was not affected by diEGME administration. On the other hand, EGME did not change cytochrome P-450, cytochrome b5 or NADPH-cytochrome c reductase. The activity of cytosolic ADH was increased by repeated EGME treatment. Therefore it is suspected that the enzyme which takes part in the metabolism of diEGME is different from that of EGME, although diEGME is a structural homologue of EGME.

  12. Formulating liquid ethers for microtubular SOFCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Kevin; Slinn, Matthew; Preece, John

    One of the key problems of applying solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) in transportation is that conventional fuels like kerosene and diesel do not operate directly in SOFCs without prereforming to hydrogen and carbon monoxide which can be handled by the nickel cermet anode. SOFCs can internally reform certain hydrocarbon molecules such as methanol and methane. However, other liquid fuels usable in petrol or diesel internal combustion engines (ICEs) have not easily been reformable directly on the anode. This paper describes a search for liquid fuels which can be mixed with petrol or diesel and also injected directly into an SOFC without destroying the nickel anode. When fuel molecules such as octane are injected onto the conventional nickel/yttria stabilised zirconia (Ni/YSZ) SOFC fuel electrode, the anode rapidly becomes blocked by carbon deposition and the cell power drops to near zero in minutes. This degeneration of the anode can be inhibited by injection of air or water into the anode or by some upstream reforming just before entry to the SOFC. Some smaller molecules such as methane, methanol and methanoic acid produce a slight tendency to carbon deposition but not sufficient to prevent long term operation. In this project we have investigated a large number of molecules and now found that some liquid ethers do not significantly damage the anode when directly injected. These molecules and formulations with other components have been evaluated in this study. The theory put forward in this paper is that carbon-carbon bonds in the fuel are the main reason for anode damage. By testing a number of fuels without such bonds, particularly liquid ethers such as methyl formate and dimethoxy methane, it has been shown that SOFCs can run without substantial carbon formation. The proposal is that conventional fuels can be doped with these molecules to allow hybrid operation of an ICE/SOFC device.

  13. Vapor intrusion risk of fuel ether oxygenates methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE): A modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Xiong, Desen; Li, Haiyan; Ding, Yi; Xia, Xiangcheng; Yang, Yongqi

    2017-06-15

    Vapor intrusion of synthetic fuel additives represents a critical yet still neglected problem at sites contaminated by petroleum fuel releases. This study used an advanced numerical model to investigate the vapor intrusion potential of fuel ether oxygenates methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME), and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE). Simulated indoor air concentration of these compounds can exceed USEPA indoor air screening level for MTBE (110μg/m 3 ). Our results also reveal that MTBE has much higher chance to cause vapor intrusion problems than TAME and ETBE. This study supports the statements made by USEPA in the Petroleum Vapor Intrusion (PVI) Guidance that the vertical screening criteria for petroleum hydrocarbons may not provide sufficient protectiveness for fuel additives, and ether oxygenates in particular. In addition to adverse impacts on human health, ether oxygenate vapor intrusion may also cause aesthetic problems (i.e., odour and flavour). Overall, this study points out that ether oxygenates can cause vapor intrusion problems. We recommend that USEPA consider including the field measurement data of synthetic fuel additives in the existing PVI database and possibly revising the PVI Guidance as necessary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of Microsolvated Crown Ethers from Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Cristobal; Schnell, Melanie; Blanco, Susana; Lopez, Juan Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Since they were first synthetized, crown ethers have been extensively used in organometallic chemistry due to their unparalleled binding selectivity with alkali metal cations. From a structural point of view, crown ethers are heterocycles containing oxygen and/or other heteroatoms, although the most common ones are formed from ethylene oxide unit. Crown ethers are conventionally seen as being hydrophilic inside and hydrophobic outside when the structures found for the metal cation complexes are considered. However, crown ethers are extremely flexible and in isolation may present a variety of stable conformations so that their structure may be easily adapted in presence of a strong ligand as an alkali metal cation minimize the energy of the resulting complex. Water can be considered a soft ligand which interacts with crown ethers through moderate hydrogen bonds. It is thus interesting to investigate which conformers are selected by water to form complexes, the preferred interaction sites and the possible conformational changes due to the presence of one or more water molecules. Previous studies identified microsolvated crown ethers but in all cases with a chromophore group attached to the structure. Here we present a broadband rotational spectroscopy study of microsolvated crown ethers produced in a pulsed molecular jet expansion. Several 1:1 and 1:2 crown ether:water aggregates are presented for 12-crown-4, 15-crown-5 and 18-crown-6. Unambiguous identification of the structures has been achieved using isotopic substitution within the water unit. The subtle changes induced in the structures of the crown ether monomer upon complexation and the hydrogen-bonding network that hold them together will be also discussed. F. Gámez, B. Martínez-Haya, S. Blanco,J. C. López and J. L. Alonso, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2014, 14 12912-12918 V. A. Shubert, C.W. Müller and T. Zwier, J. Phys. Chem. A 2009, 113 8067-8079

  15. Thiol and Disulfide Derivatives of Ephedra Alkaloids 2 : A Mechanistic Study of Their Effect on the Addition of Diethyl Zinc to Benzaldehyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitzpatrick, Kevin; Hulst, Ron; Kellogg, Richard M.

    Thiol and disulfide derivatives of ephedrine have been shown previously to catalyse in high enantiomeric excess (ee) the reaction of diethyl zinc with benzaldehyde. We find that this reaction involves non-linear correlations between the ee of product and catalyst. Osmotic measurements indicate a

  16. The Photocatalysis of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) Using Dispersions of Degussa P-25 TiO2 Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The photocatalysis of N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) was examined using aqueous Degussa P-25 TiO2 dispersions and a 350 nm high pressure Hg lamp UV reactor. Various concentrations of humic acid (HA) were added to the photocatalytic sample matrix in order to simulat...

  17. Systemic uptake of diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, and butyl paraben following whole-body topical application and reproductive and thyroid hormone levels in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janjua, Nadeem Rezaq; Mortensen, Gerda Krogh; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2007-01-01

    In vitro and animal studies have reported endocrine-disrupting activity of chemicals used commonly as additives in cosmetics and skin care products. We investigated whether diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and butyl paraben (BP) were systemically absorbed and influenced endogenous...

  18. Infrared Multiple Photon Dissociation Action Spectroscopy and Theoretical Studies of Diethyl Phosphate Complexes: Effects of Protonation and Sodium Cationization on Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fales, B. S.; Fujamade, N. O.; Nei, Y. W.; Oomens, J.; Rodgers, M. T.

    2011-01-01

    The gas-phase structures of deprotonated, protonated, and sodium-cationized complexes of diethyl phosphate (DEP) including [DEP - H](-), [DEP + H](+), [DEP + Na](+), and [DEP - H + 2Na](+) are examined via infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy using tunable IR radiation

  19. Extraction of uranium(VI) by emulsion liquid membrane containing 5,8-diethyl-7-hydroxy-6-dodecanone oxime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Kenichi; Takahashi, Toshihiko; Kanno, Takuji

    1984-01-01

    Extraction of uranium(VI) by a liquid surfactant membrane has been studied. The stability of water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion dispersed in the continuous aqueous phase increased with an increase in surfactant concentrations and in the fraction of the organic phase in emulsion globules. Uranium(VI) in dilute acid solutions was extracted into (w/o) emulsions containing 5,8-diethyl-7-hydroxy-6-dodecanone oxime (LIX 63) as a mobile carrier and its concentration decreased according to [U]sub(t)=[U]sub(o)exp(-ksub(obsd)t). The apparent rate constants (ksub(obsd)) increased with an increase in carrier concentrations and in external pH values, while they were slightly dependent on the stripping acid concentrations. Uranium was transported and concentrated into the internal aqueous droplets. The final concentration of uranium in the external aqueous phase dropped to about 10 -3 of its initial value. (author)

  20. Functional scintiscanning with sup(99m)technetium-diethyl-HIDA as a nuclear diagnostical means in hepatobiliary diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummel, G.

    1982-01-01

    The study aimed to delimit the value of sequential hepatobiliary scintiscanning with the aid of sup(99m)technetium-diethyl-HIDA as a diagnostical method in functional or morphological disorders of the gall bladder and bile ducts. The most frequent indications to carry through the investigation therefore were inflammations calculosis in the biliary system, suspected intrahepatic icterus or conditions following biliodigestive anastomoses. Special attention was directed to the question in how far the results were in accordance with those of x-ray cholecystography/cholangiography. Furthermore the possibility for semiquantitative evaluation of serial functional scintiscanning was looked into and clearance determinations were carried through in part of the patients investigated. (orig./MG) [de

  1. Selection of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii strains resistant to cadmium with improved removal abilities through ultraviolet-diethyl sulfate cooperative mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Xu, Ying; Wang, Dongfeng; Jiang, Wei

    2017-08-01

    Cd 2+ resistance and bioaccumulation capacity were selected from parental Zygosaccharomyces rouxii (CRZ-0) while maintaining NaCl tolerance using protoplast mutagenesis technology. Ultraviolet-diethyl sulfate (UV-DES) cooperative mutagenesis, followed by preliminary screening and rescreening, was used to select the mutant strain CRZ-9. CRZ-9 grew better than CRZ-0 in YPD medium with 20 or 50 mg L -1 of Cd 2+ . Scanning electron microscopy observations and flow cytometry tests indicated that CRZ-9 was more effective at eliminating reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by Cd 2+ , which led to less cellular structural damage and lower lethality. Furthermore, compared with CRZ-0, CRZ-9 exhibited increased potential for application with higher Cd 2+ removal ratio, wider working pH range, and lower biomass dosage in Cd 2+ bioaccumulation. The mutant strain CRZ-9 possessed improved Cd 2+ resistance and bioaccumulation capacity and therefore is a promising strain to remove Cd 2+ from wastewater.

  2. An Efficient Synthesis of Nitriles from Aldoximes Using Diethyl Phosphorocyanidate under Mild Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kieseung; An, Hyeonseong; Hwang, Chanyeon [Woosuk Univ.,Wanju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Nitriles are valuable intermediates in organic synthesis not only because they serve as the appropriate precursors to various functional groups, but also because they are widely used as the key intermediates for pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and various N-heterocyclic compounds. The cyano group itself is also frequently found in many biologically important molecules. Therefore, a variety of synthetic routes to nitriles from diverse chemical precursors have been developed. Among these routes, nitrile synthesis from aldoximes using an appropriate dehydrating agent has been a general and clean method. For this purpose, numerous reagents such as chlorosulfonyl isocyanate, di-2-pyridyl sulfite, Burgess reagent, [RuCl{sub 2}(p-cymene)]{sub 2}/MS, 4A, BOP, Pd(OAc){sub 2}/PPh{sub 3}, Cu(OAc){sub 2}/ultrasound have been developed. These reagents, however, may have limitations in some respects such as harsh reaction conditions, use of expensive or less readily available reagents, low yields, and lack of generality. Therefore, there is still a need to develop mild and general method for this conversion. Diethyl phosphorocyanidate (DEPC) was initially introduced as an efficient peptide coupling reagent, and has been utilized for useful organic reactions. Previously, we reported that 2-chloro-1-methylpyridinium iodide is an efficient and mild reagent for the dehydration of aldoximes to nitriles under mild conditions. In continuation of our interest in developing mild method for the conversion of aldoximes to nitriles, we herein wish to report the first application of DEPC to the efficient synthesis of nitriles from aldoximes under mild conditions (Scheme 1). In order to obtain the information regarding the optimum reaction conditions, 4-pyridine aldoxime (1a) was reacted with DEPC without base, and in presence of various base in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} at rt for a prolonged reaction time (20 h) (Table 1). CH{sub 2}CI{sub 2} was chosen as reaction medium in this reaction due to the

  3. Chemical Analysis and Risk Assessment of Diethyl Phthalate in Alcoholic Beverages with Special Regard to Unrecorded Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitz, Jenny; Kuballa, Thomas; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Phthalates are synthetic compounds with a widespread field of applications. For example, they are used as plasticizers in PVC plastics and food packaging, or are added to personal care products. Diethyl phthalate (DEP) may be used to denature alcohol, e.g., for cosmetic purposes. Public health concerns of phthalates include carcinogenic, teratogenic, hepatotoxic and endocrine effects. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a method for determining phthalates in alcohol samples and to provide a risk assessment for consumers of such products. Methodology/Principal Findings A liquid-liquid extraction procedure was optimized by varying the following parameters: type of extraction solvent (cyclohexane, n-hexane, 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane), the ratio extraction solvent/sample volume (1∶1 to 50∶1) and the number of extraction repetitions (1–10). The best extraction yield (99.9%) was achieved with the solvent 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane, an extraction solvent volume/sample volume ratio of 10∶1 and a double extraction. For quantification, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with deuterated internal standards was used. The investigated samples were alcoholic beverages and unrecorded alcohol products from different countries (n = 257). Two unrecorded alcohol samples from Lithuania contained diethyl phthalate in concentrations of 608 mg/L and 210 mg/L. Conclusions/Significance The consumption of the phthalate-positive unrecorded alcohols would exceed tolerable daily intakes as derived from animal experiments. Both positive samples were labelled as cosmetic alcohol, but had clearly been offered for human consumption. DEP seems to be unsuitable as a denaturing agent as it has no effect on the organoleptic properties of ethanol. In light of our results that DEP might be consumed by humans in unrecorded alcohols, the prohibition of its use as a denaturing agent should be considered. PMID:19956573

  4. Chemical analysis and risk assessment of diethyl phthalate in alcoholic beverages with special regard to unrecorded alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitz, Jenny; Kuballa, Thomas; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2009-12-02

    Phthalates are synthetic compounds with a widespread field of applications. For example, they are used as plasticizers in PVC plastics and food packaging, or are added to personal care products. Diethyl phthalate (DEP) may be used to denature alcohol, e.g., for cosmetic purposes. Public health concerns of phthalates include carcinogenic, teratogenic, hepatotoxic and endocrine effects. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a method for determining phthalates in alcohol samples and to provide a risk assessment for consumers of such products. A liquid-liquid extraction procedure was optimized by varying the following parameters: type of extraction solvent (cyclohexane, n-hexane, 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane), the ratio extraction solvent/sample volume (1 ratio 1 to 50 ratio 1) and the number of extraction repetitions (1-10). The best extraction yield (99.9%) was achieved with the solvent 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane, an extraction solvent volume/sample volume ratio of 10 ratio 1 and a double extraction. For quantification, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with deuterated internal standards was used. The investigated samples were alcoholic beverages and unrecorded alcohol products from different countries (n = 257). Two unrecorded alcohol samples from Lithuania contained diethyl phthalate in concentrations of 608 mg/L and 210 mg/L. The consumption of the phthalate-positive unrecorded alcohols would exceed tolerable daily intakes as derived from animal experiments. Both positive samples were labelled as cosmetic alcohol, but had clearly been offered for human consumption. DEP seems to be unsuitable as a denaturing agent as it has no effect on the organoleptic properties of ethanol. In light of our results that DEP might be consumed by humans in unrecorded alcohols, the prohibition of its use as a denaturing agent should be considered.

  5. Chemical analysis and risk assessment of diethyl phthalate in alcoholic beverages with special regard to unrecorded alcohol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Leitz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates are synthetic compounds with a widespread field of applications. For example, they are used as plasticizers in PVC plastics and food packaging, or are added to personal care products. Diethyl phthalate (DEP may be used to denature alcohol, e.g., for cosmetic purposes. Public health concerns of phthalates include carcinogenic, teratogenic, hepatotoxic and endocrine effects. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a method for determining phthalates in alcohol samples and to provide a risk assessment for consumers of such products.A liquid-liquid extraction procedure was optimized by varying the following parameters: type of extraction solvent (cyclohexane, n-hexane, 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane, the ratio extraction solvent/sample volume (1 ratio 1 to 50 ratio 1 and the number of extraction repetitions (1-10. The best extraction yield (99.9% was achieved with the solvent 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane, an extraction solvent volume/sample volume ratio of 10 ratio 1 and a double extraction. For quantification, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with deuterated internal standards was used. The investigated samples were alcoholic beverages and unrecorded alcohol products from different countries (n = 257. Two unrecorded alcohol samples from Lithuania contained diethyl phthalate in concentrations of 608 mg/L and 210 mg/L.The consumption of the phthalate-positive unrecorded alcohols would exceed tolerable daily intakes as derived from animal experiments. Both positive samples were labelled as cosmetic alcohol, but had clearly been offered for human consumption. DEP seems to be unsuitable as a denaturing agent as it has no effect on the organoleptic properties of ethanol. In light of our results that DEP might be consumed by humans in unrecorded alcohols, the prohibition of its use as a denaturing agent should be considered.

  6. Synthesis of Diethyl Pyridin-2-ylphosphonates and Quinolin-2-ylphosphonates by Deoxygenative Phosphorylation of the Corresponding N-Oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sangjin; Kim, Hyunsoo; Yang, Haewon; Yoo, Byungwoo; Yoon, Cheol Min [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    The reaction of pyridine N-oxide and quinoline N-oxide activated by ethyl chloroformate with triethyl phosphites at rt gave the corresponding diethyl pyridin-2-ylphosphonate and diethyl quinolin-2-ylphosphonate regio-selectively in good to excellent yield through oxygenative phosphorylation. The reaction condition is mild and efficient compared to the reported methods. All chemicals including commercially available pyridine N-oxides were purchased from specialized suppliers with analytical purity and used without further purification. Non commercially available pyridine N-oxide for the reaction were prepared by known method. IR spectra of products were recorded on a Perkin-Elmer FT-IR 240-c spectrometer using KBr disks. {sup 1}H NMR (300 MHz) and {sup 13}C NMR (75 MHz) spectra were recorded on a Bruker 300 spectrometer in CDCl{sub 3}. High-resolution ESI-MS spectra were obtained on an IT-TOF (Shimadzu, Japan) at Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI). Column chromatography was performed using Merck silica gel (230-400 mesh). Some known products have physical, spectroscopic, and analytic data identical to those (shown as a CAS registry number) given in the literature. Dialkyl pyridin-2-ylphosphonates widely used as corrosion inhibitors, dispersing and emulsifying agents, antistatics and lubricant additives in various technological fields are known as potent insecticides, fungicides and herbicides. Pyridin-2-ylphosphonates have also been reported to have a promising cytokinin activity, anti-proliferating and antiplatelet activating factor (anti-PAF) activities, and to be used as a chelate ligand to prepare various metal-organic frameworks, such as polymeric material with Zn, Cd and Ag showing luminescence properties, iron complex as a catalyst and copper complex with weak ferromagnetism. Because biological properties of dialkyl pyridin-2-ylphosphonates and physical properties of their complexes depend both on the phosphorus-containing ligand, simple and efficient

  7. Experimental studies on toxicity of ethylene glycol alkyl ethers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, K; Nakayama, E; Oobayashi, H; Nishizawa, T; Okuda, H; Yamazaki, K

    1984-08-01

    Past studies on the toxicological effects of ethylene glycol alkyl ethers as well as the recent data on these chemicals in Japan are reviewed. Only a few researchers have participated in the study of ethylene glycol alkyl ethers in Japan. The effects of ethylene glycol alkyl ethers on testis and embryotoxic effects of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGM) have been studied, as has the teratogenicity of ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (EGdM). Studies on ethylene glycol alkyl ethers and related compounds administered to mice by oral gavage revealed the occurrence of testicular atrophy and decreased white blood cell count by EGM, EGdM, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate, ethylene glycol monoethyl ether and ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate, and the toxicity was related to their chemical structure. On the other hand, ethylene glycol, ethylene glycol monopropyl ether, ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, ethylene glycol monophenyl ether, ethylene glycol monoacetate or ethylene glycol diacetate showed no such an effect. Studies on EGM using hamsters or guinea pigs revealed the occurrence of testicular atrophy similar to that observed in mice. In regard to the methyl ethers of other glycols, there is no convincing evidence that propylene glycol monomethyl ether, diethylene glycol monomethyl ether or diethylene glycol dimethyl ether causes testicular atrophy in mice. Teratological studies of EGM and EGdM revealed embryotoxic effects in mice.

  8. Isotope effects associated with the preparation and methylation of fatty acids by boron trifluoride in methanol for compound-specific stable hydrogen isotope analysis via gas chromatography/thermal conversion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivall, David; Berstan, Robert; Bull, Ian D; Evershed, Richard P

    2012-05-30

    Compound-specific stable hydrogen isotope analysis of fatty acids is being used increasingly as a means of deriving information from a diverse range of materials of archaeological, geological and environmental interest. Preparative steps required prior to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) analysis have the potential to alter determined δD values and hence must be accounted for if accurate δD values for target compounds are to be obtained. Myristic, palmitic, stearic, arachidic and behenic saturated fatty acids were derivatised to their respective fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), using 14% (w/v) boron trifluoride in methanol then analysed by gas chromatography/thermal conversion/IRMS (GC/TC/IRMS). FAMEs generated from fatty acid sodium salts of unknown δD values were then used to test a correction factor determined for this method of derivatisation. Derivatisation was found to alter the hydrogen isotopic composition of FAMEs although this effect was reproducible and can be accounted for. The difference between the mean corrected and mean bulk δD values was always less than 6.7 ‰. Extraction of saturated fatty acids and acyl lipids from samples, subsequent hydrolysis, then separation on a solid-phase extraction cartridge, was found to alter the determined δD values by less than one standard deviation. Overall, it has been shown that for natural abundance hydrogen isotope determinations, the isolation and derivatisation of extracted fatty acids alters the determined δD values only by a numerical increment comparable with the experimental error. This supports the use of the described analytical protocol as an effective means of determining fatty acid δD values by GC/TC/IRMS. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Evaluation of crystallization kinetics of poly (ether-ketone-ketone and poly (ether-ether-ketone by DSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibran da Cunha Vasconcelos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The poly (aryl ether ketones are used as matrices in advanced composites with high performance due to its high thermal stability, excellent environmental performance and superior mechanical properties. Most of the physical, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of semi-crystalline polymers depend on the degree of crystallinity and morphology of the crystalline regions. Thus, a study on the crystallization process promotes a good prediction of how the manufacturing parameters affect the developed structure, and the properties of the final product. The objective of this work was to evaluate the thermoplastics polymers PEKK e PEEK by DSC, aiming to obtain the relationship between kinetics, content, nucleation and geometry of the crystalline phases, according to the parameters of the Avrami and Kissinger models. The analysis of the Avrami exponents obtained for the studied polymers indicates that both showed the formation of crystalline phases with heterogeneous nucleation and growth geometry of the type sticks or discs, depending on the cooling conditions. It was also found that the PEEK has a higher crystallinity than PEKK.

  10. Aquatic Life Criteria - Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether (MTBE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information pertaining to the 1999 Acute and Chronic Ambient Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether (MTBE) for freshwater and salt water. Information includes the safe levels of MTBE that should protect the majority of species.

  11. The zeolite mediated isomerization of allyl phenyl ether

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebriana, R.; Mujahidin, D.; Syah, Y. M.

    2017-04-01

    Allyl phenyl ether is an important starting material in organic synthesis that has several applications in agrochemical industry. The green transformation of allyl phenyl ether assisted by heterogeneous catalyst is an attractive topic for an industrial process. In this report, we investigated the isomerization of allyl phenyl ether by heating it in zeolite H-ZSM-5 and Na-ZSM-5. The conversion of allyl phenyl ether (neat) in H-ZSM-5 was 67% which produced 40% of 2-allylphenol, 17% of 2-methyldihydrobenzofuran, and other product (4:1.7:1), while in Na-ZSM-5 produced exclusively 2-allylphenol with 52% conversion. These results showed that zeolite properties can be tuned to give a selective transformation by substitution of metal ion into the zeolite interior.

  12. Nickel-catalyzed direct synthesis of dialkoxymethane ethers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    oxymethylene ethers) from alcohols and paraformaldehyde in the presence of commercially available nickel(II) salt is described. The reaction proceeds readily under neutral, solvent-free conditions using paraformaldehyde as a C1 source.

  13. Nickel-catalyzed direct synthesis of dialkoxymethane ethers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MURUGAN SUBARAMANIAN

    free condition. 1. Introduction. Ethers constitute the most diverse family of organic compounds and are ubiquitous in many natural prod- ucts and pharmaceuticals.1 The extent to which they can be utilized as an organic intermediate in contempo-.

  14. SYNTHESIS AND BIOACTIVITY OF ROTENONE OXIME O-ETHER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    mail: g.cao@mail.scut.edu.cn. SYNTHESIS AND BIOACTIVITY OF ROTENONE OXIME O-ETHER DERIVATIVES. Gao Cao*, Zhen Zhou and Ying Wang. School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University,.

  15. Spatial trends of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spatial trends of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were analyzed in young of the year bluefish collected along the U.S. Atlantic coastline from...

  16. Fluorinated Alkyl Ether Epoxy Resin Compositions and Applications Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Christopher J. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Gardner, John M. (Inventor); Palmieri, Frank M. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Epoxy resin compositions prepared using amino terminated fluoro alkyl ethers. The epoxy resin compositions exhibit low surface adhesion properties making them useful as coatings, paints, moldings, adhesives, and fiber reinforced composites.

  17. Palladium-Catalyzed Reductive Insertion of Alcohols into Aryl Ether Bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Meng [Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Gutiérrez, Oliver Y. [Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Camaioni, Donald M. [Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Lercher, Johannes A. [Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Department of Chemistry and Catalysis Research Institute, TU München, Lichtenbergstrasse 4 85748 Garching Germany

    2018-03-06

    Pd/C catalyzes C-O bond cleavage of aryl ethers (diphenyl ether and cyclohexyl phenyl ether) by methanol in H2. The aromatic C-O bond is cleaved by reductive methanolysis, which is initiated by Pd-catalyzed partial hydrogenation of one phenyl ring to form an enol ether. The enol ether reacts rapidly with methanol to form a ketal, which generates methoxycyclohexene by eliminating phenol or an alkanol. Subsequent hydrogenation leads to methoxycyclohexane.

  18. Synthesis and Characterisation of Macrocyclic Diamino Chiral Crown Ethers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L. Scott

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available A benign and efficient synthesis of chiral macrocyclic ‘aza-crown’ ethers of varying ring size is reported. The synthesis involves a Schiff base condensation of ether linked dialdehydes of varying chain length and (1R,2R-(–-1,2-diaminocyclohexane under mild conditions to yield the macrocycles, which are subsequently reduced to yield the diamino analogues.

  19. Marine Sponge Dysidea herbacea revisited: Another Brominated Diphenyl Ether

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce F. Bowden

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A pentabrominated phenolic diphenyl ether (1 that has not previously been reported from marine sources has been isolated from Dysidea herbacea collected at Pelorus Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. The structure was determined by comparison of NMR data with those of known structurally-related metabolites. NMR spectral assignments for (1 are discussed in context with those of three previously reported isomeric pentabrominated phenolic diphenyl ethers.

  20. Novel electrochemical route to cleaner fuel dimethyl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassone, Giuseppe; Pietrucci, Fabio; Saija, Franz; Guyot, François; Sponer, Jiri; Sponer, Judit E; Saitta, A Marco

    2017-07-31

    Methanol, the simplest alcohol, and dimethyl ether, the simplest ether, are central compounds in the search for alternative "green" combustion fuels. In fact, they are generally considered as the cornerstones of the envisaged "Methanol Economy" scenario, as they are able to efficiently produce energy in an environmentally friendly manner. However, despite a massive amount of research in this field, the synthesis of dimethyl ether from liquid methanol has never so far been reported. Here we present a computational study, based on ab initio Molecular Dynamics, which suggests a novel synthesis route to methanol dehydration - leading thus to the dimethyl ether synthesis - through the application of strong electric fields. Besides proving the impressive catalytic effects afforded by the field, our calculations indicate that the obtained dimethyl ether is stable and that it can be progressively accumulated thanks to the peculiar chemical pathways characterising the methanol reaction network under electric field. These results suggest that the experimental synthesis of dimethyl ether from liquid methanol could be achieved, possibly in the proximity of field emitter tips.

  1. Effects of the ether phospholipid AMG-PC on mast cells are similar to that of the ether lipid AMG but different from that of the analogue hexadecylphosphocholine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosman, Nina

    1991-01-01

    Farmakologi, ether phospholipid, hexacylphosphocholine, miltefosine, protein kinase C, AMG-PC(alkyl-methyl-glycero-phosphocholine), Histamine release, mast cell......Farmakologi, ether phospholipid, hexacylphosphocholine, miltefosine, protein kinase C, AMG-PC(alkyl-methyl-glycero-phosphocholine), Histamine release, mast cell...

  2. Review on Modification of Sulfonated Poly (-ether-ether-ketone Membranes Used as Proton Exchange Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin GAO

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC is a type of modern power, but the traditional proton exchange membranes (PEM of PEMFC are limited by high methanol permeability and water uptake. Poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK is a widely used thermoplastic with good cost-effective property. Sulfonated poly (-ether-ether-ketone (SPEEK has high electric conductivity and low methanol permeability, as well as comprehensive property, which is expected to be used as PEMs. However, the proton exchange ability, methanol resistance, mechanical property and thermal stability of SPEEK are closely related to the degree of sulfonation (DS of SPEEK membranes. Additionally, the proton conductivity, methanol permeability, and stability of SPEEK membranes applied in various conditions need to be further improved. In this paper, the research into modification of SPEEK membranes made by SPEEK and other polymers, inorganic materials are introduced. The properties and modification situation of the SPEEK and the composite membranes, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of membranes prepared by different materials are summarized. From the results we know that, the methanol permeability of SPEEK/PES-C membranes is within the order of magnitude, 10-7cm2/s. The proton conductivity of the SPPESK/SPEEK blend membrane reaches 0.212 S cm-1 at 80 °C. The cross-linked SPEEK membranes have raised thermal and dimensional stability. The non-solvent caused aggregation of the SPEEK ionomers. The proton conductivity of SPEEK/50%BMIMPF6/4.6PA membrane maintains stable as 2.0 x 10-2S cm-1 after 600 h at 160 °C. Incorporation of aligned CNT into SPEEK increases the proton conductivity and reduces the methanol permeability of the composite membranes. The PANI improves the hydrothermal stability. More proton transfer sites lead to a more compact structure in the composite membranes. According to the results, the proton exchange capacity, water uptake, and conductivity of

  3. Radiation induced crosslinking of cellulose ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wach, A.R.; Mitomo, H.; Yoshii, F.; Kume, T.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of high-energy radiation on four ethers of cellulose: carboxymethyl (CMC); hydroxypropyl (HPC), hydroxyethyl (HEC) and methylcellulose (MC) were investigated. Polymers are irradiated in solid state and in aqueous solutions at various concentrations. Degree of substitution (DS) of the derivatives, the concentration of their aqueous solutions and irradiation conditions had a significant impact on the obtained products. Irradiation of polymers in solid state and in diluted aqueous solutions resulted in their degradation. However, it was found that for concentrated solutions gel formation occurred. Paste-like form of the initial material, when water plasticizes the bulk of polymer as well as the high dose rate, what prevents oxygen penetration of the polymer during irradiation, have been found favourable for hydrogel formation. Up to 95% of gel fraction was obtained from solutions of CMC with concentration over 50% irradiated by γ-rays or electron beam. It was pointed out that the ability to the formation of the three-dimensional network is related to the DS of anhydroglucose units and a type of chemical group introduced to main chain of cellulose. Produced hydrogels swelled markedly in water. Despite of the crosslinked structure they underwent degradation by the action of cellulase enzyme or microorganisms from compost, and can be included into the group of biodegradable materials. (author)

  4. Aromatic polymers obtained by precipitation polycondensation, 2a) Synthesis of poly(ether ketone ether ketone ketone) (PEKEKK)

    OpenAIRE

    Zolotukhin, Mikhail K.; Rueda, Daniel R.; Baltá Calleja, Francisco José; Bruix, M.; Cagiao, M. E.; Bulai, Anna; Gileva, Natalia G.

    1997-01-01

    A high molecular weight, linear aromatic poly(ether ketone ether ketone ketone) (PEKEKK) has been synthesized by electrophilic Friedel-Crafts acylation condensation of 1,4-diphenoxybenzophenone with terephthaloyl chloride. The syntheses were performed as precipitation polycondensations, and the polyketones were obtained in particle form. The viscosity (molecular weight), shape and size of these particles were found to be strongly dependent on the reaction conditions. For low monomer concen...

  5. Enhanced osteoblast responses to poly ether ether ketone surface modified by water plasma immersion ion implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heying; Lu, Tao; Meng, Fanhao; Zhu, Hongqin; Liu, Xuanyong

    2014-05-01

    Poly ether ether ketone (PEEK) offers a set of characteristics superior for human implants; however, its application is limited by the bio-inert surface property. In this work, PEEK surface was modified using single step plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) treatment with a gas mixture of water vapor as a plasma resource and argon as an ionization assistant. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to investigate the microstructure and composition of the modified PEEK surface. The water contact angle and zeta-potential of the surfaces were also measured. Osteoblast precursor cells MC3T3-E1 and rat bone mesenchymal stem cells were cultured on the PEEK samples to evaluate their cytocompatibility. The obtained results show that the hydroxyl groups as well as a "ravined structure" are constructed on water PIII modified PEEK. Compared with pristine PEEK, the water PIII treated PEEK is more favorable for osteoblast adhesion, spreading and proliferation, besides, early osteogenic differentiation indicated by the alkaline phosphatase activity is also up-regulated. Our study illustrates enhanced osteoblast responses to the PEEK surface modified by water PIII, which gives positive information in terms of future biomedical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Development and characterization of poli composites (ether ether ketone)(PEEK)(Hydroxyapatite(HA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, V.P.; Santos, F.S.F.; Sa, M.D. de; Fook, M.V.L.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop PEEK / HA composites, combining the biological activity of the ceramic phase with the properties of the polymer phase, the materials used in this research were Poly (ether-ether-ketone) (PEEK) and Hydroxyapatite (HA) (50, 60, 70 and 80% m / v HA), this material was subjected to a load of two tons followed by a thermal treatment at 390 ° for a period of 30 minutes. Then they were characterized by FTIR, DRX and MO. In the physical-chemical characterization of FTIR and XRD, it was not possible to identify significant alterations. In the FTIR spectra of the composites, there is no formation of new identifiable chemical bonds. In the composites XRD diffractograms a profile similar to the ceramic phase was observed, with peaks increasing in intensity and narrowing proportional to the increase of the hydroxyapatite concentration in the composites. In optical microscopy it is possible to observe surfaces with heterogeneous morphology, with signs of roughness and in the cross section we observe a heterogeneous aspect, rich in regions with large agglomerates and lighter particles. Considering the processing aspects, the technique proved to be effective for the development of PEEK /HA composites. (author)

  7. Rheological, mechanical and tribological properties of carbon-nanofibre reinforced poly (ether ether ketone composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Altstaedt

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ether ether ketone nanocomposites containing vapour-grown carbon nanofibres (CNF were produced using standard polymer processing techniques. At high shear rates no significant increase in resin viscosity was observed. Nevertheless, the addition of the CNFs results in a higher melt strength at 360°C. Electron microscopy confirmed the homogeneous dispersion and alignment of nanofibres in the polymer matrix. Evaluation of the mechanical composite properties revealed a linear increase in tensile stiffness and strength with nanofibre loading fractions up to 15 wt% whilst matrix ductility was maintained up to 10 wt%. An interpretation of the composite performance by short-fibre theory resulted in rather low intrinsic stiffness properties of the vapour-grown CNF. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate crystallization kinetics and degree of crystallinity. The CNFs were found not to act as nucleating sites. Furthermore, unidirectional sliding tests against two different counterpart materials (100Cr6 martensitic bearing steel, X5CrNi18-10 austenitic stainless steel were performed. The carbon nanofibres were found to reduce the wear rate of PEEK significantly.

  8. Evaluation of workers exposed to ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jiyoung; Yoon, Chungsik; Byun, Hyaejeong; Kim, Yangho; Park, Donguk; Ha, Kwonchul; Lee, Sang man; Park, Sungki; Chung, Eunkyo

    2012-01-01

    Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (EGMEA) are widely used in industries as solvents for coatings, paint and ink, but exposure data are limited because they are minor components out of mixed solvents, as well as because of inconsistency in desorption solvent use. The objective of this study was to investigate the worker exposure profile of EGME and EGMEA. Our study investigated 27 workplaces from June to September 2008 and detected EGME and EGMEA in 20 and 13, respectively. Both personal and area sampling were conducted using a charcoal tube to collect EGME and EGMEA. Gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector was used to analyze these compounds after desorption using a mixture of methylene chloride and methanol. The arithmetic mean concentrations of EGME and EGMEA during periods of full work shifts were 2.59 ppm and 0.33 ppm, respectively. The exposure levels were lower than the Korean Ministry of Labor (MOL) OEL (5 ppm) but higher than the ACGIH TLV (0.1 ppm). In general, the working environments were poor and required much improvement, including the use of personal protective equipment. Only 50% of the workplaces had local exhaust ventilation systems in operation. The average capture velocity of the operating local exhaust ventilation systems was 0.27 m/s, which did not meet the legal requirement of 0.5 m/s. Educating workers to clearly understand the handling and use of hazardous chemicals and improving working conditions are strongly suggested.

  9. Copoly(arlene ether)s containing pendant sulfonic acid groups as proton exchange membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kim, Dae Sik [CANADA NRC; Robertson, Gilles [CANADA NRC; Guiver, Michael [CANADA NRC

    2008-01-01

    A copoly(arylene ether) (PAE) with high fluorine content and a copoly(arylene ether nitrile) (PAEN) with high nitrile content, each containing pendant phenyl sulfonic acids were synthesized. The P AE and PAEN were prepared from decafluorobiphenyl (DFBP) and difluorobenzonitrile (DFBN) respectively, by polycondensation with 2-phenylhydroquinone (PHQ) by conventional aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions. The sulfonic acid groups were introduced by mild post-sulfonation exclusively on the para-position of the pendant phenyl ring in PHQ. The membrane properties of the resulting sulfonated copolymers sP AE and sP AEN were compared for fuel cell applications. The copolymers sPAE and sPAEN, each having a degree of sulfonation (DS) of 1.0 had high ion exchange capacities (IEC{sub v}(wet) (volume-based, wet state)) of 1.77 and 2.55 meq./cm{sup 3}, high proton conductivities of 135.4 and 140.1 mS/cm at 80 C, and acceptable volume-based water uptake of 44.5-51.9 vol% at 80 C, respectively, compared to Nafion. The data points of these copolymer membranes are located in the area of outstanding properties in the trade-off plot of alternative hydrocarbon polyelectrolyte membranes (PEM) for the relationship between proton conductivity versus water uptake (weight based or volume based). Furthermore, the relative selectivity derived from proton conductivity and methanol permeability is higher than that of Nafion.

  10. The Effects of Sulfonated Poly(ether ether ketone) Ion Exchange Preparation Conditions on Membrane Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Rebecca S. L.; Zhang, Kaisong; Ladewig, Bradley P.

    2013-01-01

    A low cost cation exchange membrane to be used in a specific bioelectrochemical system has been developed using poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK). This material is presented as an alternative to current commercial ion exchange membranes that have been primarily designed for fuel cell applications. To increase the hydrophilicity and ion transport of the PEEK material, charged groups are introduced through sulfonation. The effect of sulfonation and casting conditions on membrane performance has been systematically determined by producing a series of membranes synthesized over an array of reaction and casting conditions. Optimal reaction and casting conditions for producing SPEEK ion exchange membranes with appropriate performance characteristics have been established by this uniquely systematic experimental series. Membrane materials were characterized by ion exchange capacity, water uptake, swelling, potential difference and NMR analysis. Testing this extensive membranes series established that the most appropriate sulfonation conditions were 60 °C for 6 h. For mechanical stability and ease of handling, SPEEK membranes cast from solvent casting concentrations of 15%–25% with a resulting thickness of 30–50 µm were also found to be most suitable from the series of tested casting conditions. Drying conditions did not have any apparent impact on the measured parameters in this study. The conductivity of SPEEK membranes was found to be in the range of 10−3 S cm−1, which is suitable for use as a low cost membrane in the intended bioelectrochemical systems. PMID:24956945

  11. A novel sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) and cross-linked membranes for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hongtao; Zhang, Gang; Wu, Jing; Zhao, Chengji; Zhang, Yang; Shao, Ke; Han, Miaomiao; Lin, Haidan; Zhu, Jing; Na, Hui [Alan G MacDiarmid Institute, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Qianjin Street 2699, Changchun 130012, Jilin (China)

    2010-10-01

    A novel poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) containing pendant carboxyl groups has been synthesized by a nucleophilic polycondensation reaction. Sulfonated polymers (SPEEKs) with different ion exchange capacity are then obtained by post-sulfonation process. The structures of PEEK and SPEEKs are characterized by both FT-IR and {sup 1}H NMR. The properties of SPEEKs as candidates for proton exchange membranes are studied. The cross-linking reaction is performed at 140 C using poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as the cross-linker. In comparison with the non-cross-linked membranes, some properties of the cross-linked membranes are significantly improved, such as water uptake, methanol resistance, mechanical and oxidative stabilities, while the proton conductivity decreases. The effect of PVA content on proton conductivity, water uptake, swelling ratio, and methanol permeability is also investigated. Among all the membranes, SPEEK-C-8 shows the highest selectivity of 50.5 x 10{sup 4} S s cm{sup -3}, which indicates that it is a suitable candidate for applications in direct methanol fuel cells. (author)

  12. Nafion {sup registered} /nitrated sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) membranes for direct methanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Jie-Cheng; Kuo, Jen-Feng; Chen, Chuh-Yung [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, 70148 (China)

    2009-10-20

    Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)s (SPEEKs) are substituted on the main chain of the polymer by nitro groups and blended with Nafion {sup registered} to attain composite membranes. The sulfonation, nitration and blending are achieved with a simple, inexpensive process, and the blended membranes containing the nitrated SPEEKs reveal a liquid-liquid phase separation. The blended membranes have a lower water uptake compared to recast Nafion {sup registered}, and the methanol permeability is reduced significantly to 4.29 x 10{sup -7}-5.34 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} for various contents of nitrated SPEEK for S63N17, and 4.72 x 10{sup -7}-7.11 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} for S63N38, with a maximum proton conductivity of {proportional_to}0.085 S cm{sup -1}. This study examines the single-cell performance at 80 C of Nafion {sup registered} /nitrated SPEEK membranes with various contents of nitrated SPEEK and a degree of nitration of 23-25 mW cm{sup -2} for S63N17 and 24-29 mW cm{sup -2} for S63N38. Both the power density and open circuit voltage are higher than those of Nafion {sup registered} 115 and recast Nafion {sup registered}. (author)

  13. The Effects of Sulfonated Poly(ether ether ketone Ion Exchange Preparation Conditions on Membrane Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca S. L. Yee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A low cost cation exchange membrane to be used in a specific bioelectrochemical system has been developed using poly(ether ether ketone (PEEK. This material is presented as an alternative to current commercial ion exchange membranes that have been primarily designed for fuel cell applications. To increase the hydrophilicity and ion transport of the PEEK material, charged groups are introduced through sulfonation. The effect of sulfonation and casting conditions on membrane performance has been systematically determined by producing a series of membranes synthesized over an array of reaction and casting conditions. Optimal reaction and casting conditions for producing SPEEK ion exchange membranes with appropriate performance characteristics have been established by this uniquely systematic experimental series. Membrane materials were characterized by ion exchange capacity, water uptake, swelling, potential difference and NMR analysis. Testing this extensive membranes series established that the most appropriate sulfonation conditions were 60 °C for 6 h. For mechanical stability and ease of handling, SPEEK membranes cast from solvent casting concentrations of 15%–25% with a resulting thickness of 30–50 µm were also found to be most suitable from the series of tested casting conditions. Drying conditions did not have any apparent impact on the measured parameters in this study. The conductivity of SPEEK membranes was found to be in the range of 10−3 S cm−1, which is suitable for use as a low cost membrane in the intended bioelectrochemical systems.

  14. Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) based membranes for direct ethanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofs, Kimball S.

    2010-07-01

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels and the increasing impact of greenhouse gases on the environment lead to an extensive development of more efficient or renewable energy sources. The direct alcohol fuel cell (DAFC) as a portable energy source is a promising and fast growing technology which meets these demands. Up to now, methanol is mostly studied as a fuel for these devices, however, applying ethanol has some evident advantages over methanol. The major challenges in direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) research on component level are the catalyst development and the electrolyte membrane development. The focus of this thesis lies on the development and characterization of proton conductive membranes for application in direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFC). Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK) based organic-inorganic mixed-matrix membranes are developed and, in addition, the inorganic phase is modified with functional silanes carrying basic groups. The membranes are characterized with respect to fuel crossover, proton conductivity, membrane stability and direct ethanol fuel cell tests. (orig.)

  15. Interface and properties of inorganic fullerene tungsten sulphide nanoparticle reinforced poly (ether ether ketone) nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nannan; Yang, Zhuxian; Wang, Yuan; Thummavichai, Kunyapat; Xia, Yongde; Ghita, Oana; Zhu, Yanqiu

    We report a simple and effective method to fabricate PEEK (poly ether ether ketone)/IF-WS2 (Inorganic Fullerene Tungsten Sulphide) nanocomposites with IF-WS2 content up to 8 wt%. We have used electron microscopies to characterise the morphology and structural features of the nancomposites, and FTIR and XPS to show that some chemical interface bondings were formed between the PEEK and IF-WS2. We demonstrate that the resulting PEEK/IF-WS2 nanocomposites showed an extraordinary 190% increase in thermal conductivity, 50 °C higher in degradation temperature, and mild improvements in strength and hardness. The increased degradation activation energy from 64 to 76 kJ/mol for neat PEEK and PEEK/IF-WS2 nanocomposites, respectively, is attributed to the synergistic interface between the PEEK matrix and IF-WS2 nanoparticles. The enhancements in both the mechanical and thermal properties will significantly expand the capacities of PEEK-based nanocomposites towards applications where thermal conductivity and stability are important.

  16. Electrical conductivity of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) based composite membranes containing sulfonated polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celso, Fabricio; Mikhailenko, Serguei D.; Rodrigues, Marco A. S.; Mauler, Raquel S.; Kaliaguine, Serge

    2016-02-01

    Composite proton exchange membranes (PEMs) intended for fuel cell applications were prepared by embedding of various amounts of dispersed tri-sulfonic acid ethyl POSS (S-Et-POSS) and tri-sulfonic acid butyl POSS (S-Bu-POSS) in thin films of sulfonated poly ether-ether ketone. The electrical properties of the PEMs were studied by Impedance spectroscopy and it was found that their conductivity σ changes with the filler content following a curve with a maximum. The water uptake of these PEMs showed the same dependence. The investigation of initial isolated S-POSS substances revealed the properties of typical electrolytes, which however in both cases possessed low conductivities of 1. 17 × 10-5 S cm-1 (S-Et-POSS) and 3.52 × 10-5 S cm-1 (S-Bu-POSS). At the same time, the insoluble in water S-POSS was found forming highly conductive interface layer when wetted with liquid water and hence producing a strong positive impact on the conductivity of the composite PEM. Electrical properties of the composites were analysed within the frameworks of effective medium theory and bounding models, allowing to evaluate analytically the range of possible conductivity values. It was found that these approaches produced quite good approximation of the experimental data and constituted a fair basis for interpretation of the observed relationship.

  17. Diethyl citrate and sodium citrate reduce the cytotoxic effects of nanosized hydroxyapatite crystals on mouse vascular smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang CY

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Chong-Yu Zhang,1 Xin-Yuan Sun,1 Jian-Ming Ouyang,1 Bao-Song Gui2 1Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 2Department of Nephrology, The Second Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China Objective: This study aimed to investigate the damage mechanism of nanosized hydroxyapatite (nano-HAp on mouse aortic smooth muscle cells (MOVASs and the injury-inhibiting effects of diethyl citrate (Et2Cit and sodium citrate (Na3Cit to develop new drugs that can simultaneously induce anticoagulation and inhibit vascular calcification. Methods: The change in cell viability was evaluated using a cell proliferation assay kit, and the amount of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH released was measured using an LDH kit. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and mitochondrial damage were detected by DCFH-DA staining and JC-1 staining. Cell apoptosis and necrosis were detected by Annexin V staining. Intracellular calcium concentration and lysosomal integrity were measured using Fluo-4/AM and acridine orange, respectively. Results: Nano-HAp decreased cell viability and damaged the cell membrane, resulting in the release of a large amount of LDH. Nano-HAp entered the cells and damaged the mitochondria, and then induced cell apoptosis by producing a large amount of ROS. In addition, nano-HAp increased the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, leading to lysosomal rupture and cell necrosis. On addition of the anticoagulant Et2Cit or Na3Cit, cell viability and mitochondrial membrane potential increased, whereas the amount of LDH released, ROS, and apoptosis rate decreased. Et2Cit and Na3Cit could also chelate with Ca2+ to inhibit the intracellular Ca2+ elevations induced by nano-HAp, prevent lysosomal rupture, and reduce cell necrosis. High concentrations of Et2Cit and Na3Cit exhibited strong inhibitory effects. The inhibitory capacity of Na3Cit was stronger than that of Et2Cit at similar

  18. Mutagenicity testing of diethylene glycol monobutyl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, E D; Coppinger, W J; Valencia, R; Iavicoli, J

    1984-01-01

    The mutagenic potential of diethylene glycol monobutyl ether (diEGBE) was examined with a Tier I battery of in vitro assays followed by a Tier II in vivo Drosophila sex-linked recessive lethal assay. The in vitro battery consisted of: the Salmonella mutagenicity test, the L5178Y mouse lymphoma test, a cytogenetics assay using Chinese hamster ovary cells and the unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay in rat hepatocytes. Results of the Salmonella mutagenicity test, the cytogenetics test, and the rat hepatocyte assay were negative at concentrations up to 20 microL/plate, 7.92 microL/mL, and 4.4 microL/mL, respectively. Toxicity was clearly demonstrated at all high doses. A weak, but dose-related increase in the mutation frequency (4-fold increase over the solvent control at 5.6 microL/mL with 12% survival) was obtained in the L5178Y lymphoma test in the absence of metabolic activation. Results of the mouse lymphoma assay were negative in the presence of the S-9 activation system. The significance of the mouse lymphoma assay were negative in the presence of the S-9 activation system. The significance of the mouse lymphoma assay results were assessed by performing the Tier II sex-linked recessive lethal assay in Drosophila in which the target tissue is maturing germinal cells. Both feeding (11,000 ppm for 3 days) and injection (0.3 microL of approximately 14,000 ppm solution) routes of administration were employed in the Drosophila assay. Approximately 11,000 individual crosses with an equal number of negative controls were performed for each route of administration. diEGBE produced no increase in recessive lethals under these conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6389113

  19. Measurements of mass-fraction activity coefficient at infinite dilution of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, thiophene, alcohols, water, ethers, and ketones in hyperbranched polymer, Boltorn H2004, using inverse gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanska, Urszula; Zolek-Tryznowska, Zuzanna

    2010-01-01

    Thermodynamic properties of the hyperbranched polymer, Boltorn H2004 (B-H2004), were investigated by inverse gas chromatography with 42 different solvents: n-alkanes (C 5 -C 10 ), cycloalkanes (C 5 -C 8 ), alkenes (C 5 -C 8 ), alkynes (C 5 -C 8 ), aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-, m-, p-xylene, thiophene), alcohols (C 1 -C 5 ), water, ethers (tetrahydrofuran (THF), methyl-tert-butylether (MTBE), diethyl-, di-n-propyl-, di-n-butyl ether), and ketones (acetone, 2-pentanone, 3-pentanone, 2-hexanone, 3-hexanone, cyclopentanone) at the temperatures from (308.15 to 348.15) K using the inverse gas chromatography (IGC). The density and thermophysical properties of polymer were described. The specific retention volume (V g ), the mass-fraction activity coefficient at infinite dilution (Ω 13 ∞ ), the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ 13 ∞ ), the molar enthalpy of sorption in the polymer (Δ s H), the partial molar excess enthalpy at infinite dilution (ΔH 1 E,∞ ), the molar enthalpy of vaporization to the ideal-gas state for the pure solutes (Δ vap H 0 ), the partial molar Gibbs excess energy at infinite dilution (ΔG 1 E,∞ ), and the solubility parameter of the polymer (δ 3 ), were calculated. The UNIFAC-FV model was used to predict the mass-fraction activity coefficient at infinite dilution for different solutes in the B-H2004 polymer.

  20. Study on radiation degradation of hydroxylamine derivatives. Pt.3: Qualitative and quantitative analyses of hydrogen and carbon monoxide produced by radiation degradation of N,N-diethyl hydroxylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinhua; Bao Borong; Wu Minghong; Sun Xilian

    2004-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative analysis of hydrogen and carbon monoxide produced by radiation degradation of N,N-diethyl hydroxylamine is performed on a 2 m column packed with 5 Angstrom molecular sieve and equipped with a thermal conductivity detector. The analysis of hydrogen employs argon as a carrier gas, the column temperature is 85 degree C and the detector temperature is 110 degree C; the analysis of carbon monoxide employs hydrogen as a carrier gas, the column temperature is 50 degree C and the detector temperature is 80 degree C. The results show that the volume fraction of hydrogen is increased with the increase of dose, but has little relationship with the concentration of N,N-diethyl hydroxylamine. Carbon monoxide is only produced when the absorption dose is very high and the volume fraction is very low

  1. Study on radiation degradation of hydroxylamine derivatives. Pt.2: The qualitative and quantitative analysis of light hydrocarbons produced by radiation degradation of N, N-diethyl hydroxylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinhua; Bao Borong; Wu Minghong; Sun Xilian

    2004-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative analysis of light hydrocarbons produced by radiation degradation of N,N-diethyl hydroxylamine are reported. These analyses are performed on the gas chromatography in which a porous layer open tubular column coated with aluminum oxide and a flame-ionization detector are used. When the doses are between 10 and 1000 kGy, the main hydrocarbons produced by radiation degradation of N,N-diethyl hydroxylamine are methane, ethane, ethene, propane and n-butane. The volume fraction of methane, ethane, n-butane and propane are increased with the increase of dose. The volume fraction of ethene is also increased with the increase of dose at first, however, when the absorbed dose is higher than 500 kGy. The volume fraction of ethene is decreased with the increase of dose

  2. Silane Reduction of 5-Hydroxy-6-methyl-pyridine-3,4-dicarboxylic Acid Diethyl Ester: Synthesis of Vitamin B6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G. Gum

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods for the synthesis of pyridoxine have been investigated. The key intermediate, 5-hydroxy-6-methyl-pyridine-3,4-dicarboxylic acid diethyl ester (5, was reduced with either a silane monomer (MeSiH(OEt2 or a polysiloxane (polymethylhydrosiloxane, PMHS to afford crude pyridoxine. An isolation technique utilizing a commercially available resin was devised, affording the desired product, vitamin B6, in an overall yield of 38-54 % and a purity of 76%.

  3. The acidity function of diethyl amine and triethyl amine in aqueous solutions; Funcion de acidez de disoluciones de dietilamina y trietilamina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdu, J. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de Valladolid (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    The acidity function of diethyl amine (DEA) and triethyl amine (TEA) in aqueous solutions, ethanolic solutions and ethanol-water mixtures has been determined spectrophotometrically, using as indicator butanol 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. The acidity function lies within the range from 12.5 to 14.2. The basicity of solutions increases with the water content, and the order of basicity of the amines is TEA

  4. On the ether-like Lorentz-breaking actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, A.Yu; Nascimento, J.R.; Gomes, M.; Silva, A. J. da

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the generation of the CPT-even, ether-like Lorentz-breaking actions for the scalar and electro-magnetic fields via their appropriate Lorentz-breaking coupling to spinor fields in three, four and five space-time dimensions. Besides, we show that the ether-like terms for the spinor field also can be generated as a consequence of the same couplings. The key result which will be presented here is the finiteness of the ether-like term for the electromagnetic field not only in three and five space-time dimensions where it is natural due to known effects of the dimensional regularization but also in four space-time dimensions. Moreover, we present the calculation of the last result within different calculational schemes and conclude that the result for the four-dimensional ether-like term for the electromagnetic field essentially depending on the calculation scheme, similarly to the result for the Carroll-Field-Jackiw (CFJ) term which probably signalizes a possibility for arising of a new anomaly. Also we discuss the dispersion relations in the theories with ether-like Lorentz-breaking terms which allows to discuss the consistency of the Lorentz-breaking modified theories for different (space-like or time-like) Lorentz-breaking vectors and find the tree-level effective (Breit) potential for fermion scattering and the one-loop effective potential corresponding to the action of the scalar field. (author)

  5. Comparisons of sensitivity on X-ray and diethyl sulfate in M1 seedling stage of welsh onion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.K.; Eun, J.S.; Park, H.B.

    1977-01-01

    In order to select useful mutants, dormant seeds of a Welsh onion variety ''Baekeunju'' were treated with different levels of X-ray and diethyl sulfate (DES). For this study, the sensitivities on germination, emergence, seedling height, and chromosome aberrations in root tip cells were investigated in M 1 seedling stage. The results obtained were summarized as follow: The germination rate was not influenced by X-ray irradiation but in plots of DES treatment it was significantly decreased according to increasing of the DES concentration. A significant reduction to emergence rate and seedling height measured on 30th day after sowing was in direct proportion to increasing of the X-ray dose and the DES concentration. Fifty per cent growth reduction dose and concentration was determined to about 33kR for X-ray, and about 0.12% for EES. The chromosome aberration, such as chromosome fragment, chromosome bridge and chromosomering, was shown much frequently in plants treated with high dose or concentration of the both mutagens. However, the DES made less aberration of chromosome than the X-ray in average of all the treated concentrations. A trend was also observed that the X-ray irradiation made more chromosome fragments than chromosome bridges and the DES treatment more chromosome bridges than chromosome fragments. (author)

  6. Crystal structure, vibrational, spectral investigation, quantum chemical DFT calculations and thermal behavior of Diethyl [hydroxy (phenyl) methyl] phosphonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouksel, Louiza; Chafaa, Salah; Bourzami, Riadh; Hamdouni, Noudjoud; Sebais, Miloud; Chafai, Nadjib

    2017-09-01

    Single Diethyl [hydroxy (phenyl) methyl] phosphonate (DHPMP) crystal with chemical formula C11H17O4P, was synthesized via the base-catalyzed Pudovik reaction and Lewis acid as catalyst. The results of SXRD analyzes indicate that this compound crystallizes into a mono-clinic system with space group P21/n symmetry and Z = 4. The crystal structure parameters are a = 9.293 Å, b = 8.103 Å, c = 17.542 Å, β = 95.329° and V = 1315.2 Å3, the structure displays one inter-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bonding. The UV-Visible absorption spectrum shows that the crystal exhibits a good optical transmission in the visible domain, and strong absorption in middle ultraviolet one. The vibrational frequencies of various functional groups present in DHPMP crystal have been deduced from FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra and then compared with theoretical values performed with DFT (B3LYP) method using 6-31G (p, d) basis sets. Chemical and thermodynamic parameters such as: ionization potential (I), electron affinity (A), hardness (σ), softness (η), electronegativity (χ) and electrophilicity index (ω), are also calculated using the same theoretical method. The thermal decomposition behavior of DHPMP, studied by using thermogravimetric analysis (TDG), shows a thermal stability until to 125 °C.

  7. Acute toxicity assessment of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) on the oxygen flux of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium instriatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Eloy; Vélez, Sylvia M; Mayo, Marietta; Sastre, Miguel P

    2016-01-01

    Despite the ubiquitous occurrence of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) in aquatic systems, assessments evaluating the toxicity of DEET on phytoplankton species are summed to a single study on a unicellular green alga. In particular, the toxicological effects of DEET in dinoflagellates are unknown. In this study, we employed the mixotrophic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium instriatum as a study system to evaluate acute effects of DEET on the oxygen flux of laboratory cultures. This study reports an inhibitory reaction model of DEET described by the equation y = 4.99x(0.54), where y represents the percent inhibition of oxygen flux and x represents DEET concentration in mg L(−1) (r(2) = 0.98). Based on this model, the effective concentration of DEET needed to reduce O2 flux by 50% (EC50) for this species was found to be at 72.9 mg L(−1). The reported EC50 is more than five times lower than the EC50 reported previously for the unicellular green algae Chlorella protothecoides. This study raises the question of the potential toxicological effects of DEET in dinoflagellates, in particular those populations inhabiting systems characterized by low water circulation such as enclosed bays and lagoons.

  8. Room Temperature Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of New Sulfonamides Containing N,N-Diethyl-Substituted Amido Moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayinka O. Ajani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonamide drugs which have brought about an antibiotic revolution in medicine are associated with a wide range of biological activities. We have synthesized a series of α-tolylsulfonamide, 1–11 and their substituted N,N-diethyl-2-(phenylmethylsulfonamido alkanamide derivatives, 12–22 in improved and excellent yields in aqueous medium at room temperature through highly economical synthetic routes. The chemical structures of the synthesized compounds 1–22 were confirmed by analytical and spectral data such as IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR, and mass spectra. The in vitro antibacterial activity of these compounds along with standard clinical reference, streptomycin, was investigated on two key targeted organisms. It was observed that 1-(benzylsulfonylpyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid, 2 emerged as the most active compound against Staphylococcus aureus at MIC value of 1.8 μg/mL while 4-(3-(diethylamino-3-oxo-2-(phenylmethylsulfonamido propylphenyl phenylmethanesulfonate, 22 was the most active sulfonamide scaffold on Escherichia coli at MIC value of 12.5 μg/mL.

  9. Effect of diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate on the accumulation of high-value biocompounds produced by two novel isolated microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liqun; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong; Han, Fei; Zhang, Lijie; Hou, Qingjie

    2015-12-01

    The low productivity of microalgae has restricted scale-up application of microalgae-based biodiesel processes. Diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate (DA-6) was investigated to enhance the biomass and metabolite productivity. At a very low concentration (10(-7)M) DA-6 made Chlorella ellipsoidea SDEC-11 and Scenedesmus quadricauda SDEC-13 obtain enlarged cell size, 114mgL(-1)d(-1), 101mgL(-1)d(-1) biomass productivity and 39.13mgL(-1)d(-1), 32.69mgL(-1)d(-1) lipid productivity, respectively. Biomass and lipid productivity of SDEC-11 and SDEC-13 were 100mgL(-1)d(-1) and 30.05mgL(-1)d(-1), 94mgL(-1)d(-1) and 28.43mgL(-1)d(-1), respectively, without DA-6. Twice hormone dose in 10(-6)M DA-6 medium resulted in higher biomass productivity (106mgL(-1)d(-1)) and longer exponential growth of SDEC-13. DA-6 also ensured the property of microalgae biodiesel to meet the EN 14214 standard. The current investigation demonstrated that DA-6 accelerated the microalgae growth and simultaneously improved the quality and quantity of lipid for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Kinetic of the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals and Cl atoms with Diethyl Ethylphosphonate and Triethyl Phosphate

    KAUST Repository

    Laversin, H.

    2015-11-30

    In this paper, the relative-rate technique has been used to obtain rate coefficients for the reaction of two organophosphorus compounds: Triethyl phosphate (TEP) and Diethyl ethylphosphonate (DEEP) with OH radicals and Cl atoms at atmospheric pressure and at different temperatures. The calculated rate constants were fitted to the Arrhenius expression over the temperature range 298 – 352 K. The following expressions (in cm3molecule-1s-1) were obtained for the reactions of OH and CL with DEEP and TEP: kOH+DEEP= (7.84±0.65)x10-14exp((1866±824)/T), kOH+TEP = (6.54±0.42)x10-14exp((1897±626)/T), kCl+DEEP = (5.27± 0.80)x10−11exp(765±140/T) and kCl+TEP = (5.23± 0.80)x10−11exp(736± 110/T). These results show that the reaction of the studied compounds with Cl atoms proceeds more rapidly than that with OH radicals. The related tropospheric lifetimes suggest that once emitted into the atmosphere, TEP and DEEP can be removed within a few hours in areas close to their emission sources. TEP and DEEP are principally removed by OH radicals. However, in coastal areas where the Cl atoms’ concentration is higher, TEP and DEEP removal by reaction with Cl atoms could be a competitive process.

  11. Thiol-functionalized copolymeric polyesters by lipase-catalyzed esterification and transesterification of 1,12-dodecanedioic acid and its diethyl ester, respectively, with 1-thioglycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehling, Eberhard; Bergander, Klaus; Klein, Erika; Weber, Nikolaus; Vosmann, Klaus

    2010-10-01

    Copolymeric polyoxoesters containing branched-chain methylenethiol functions, i.e., poly(1,12-dodecanedioic acid-co-1-thioglycerol) and poly(diethyl 1,12-dodecanedioate-co-1-thioglycerol), were formed by lipase-catalyzed polyesterification and polytransesterification of 1,12-dodecanedioic acid and diethyl 1,12-dodecanedioate, respectively, with 1-thioglycerol (3-mercaptopropane-1,2-diol) using immobilized lipase B from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435) in vacuo without drying agent in the reaction mixture. After 360-480 h, both polyoxoesters were purified by extraction from the reaction mixtures followed by solvent fractionation. The precipitate of poly(1,12-dodecanedioic acid-co-1-thioglycerol) demonstrated a M(W) of ~170,000 Da, whereas a M(W) of ~7,100 Da only was found for poly(diethyl 1,12-dodecanedioate-co-1-thioglycerol). Both polycondensates were analyzed by GPC/SEC, alkali-catalyzed transmethylation, NMR- and FTIR-spectrometry.

  12. Mechanical Properties Optimization of Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketone via Fused Deposition Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohu Deng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the common selective laser sintering (SLS manufacturing method, fused deposition modeling (FDM seems to be an economical and efficient three-dimensional (3D printing method for high temperature polymer materials in medical applications. In this work, a customized FDM system was developed for polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK materials printing. The effects of printing speed, layer thickness, printing temperature and filling ratio on tensile properties were analyzed by the orthogonal test of four factors and three levels. Optimal tensile properties of the PEEK specimens were observed at a printing speed of 60 mm/s, layer thickness of 0.2 mm, temperature of 370 °C and filling ratio of 40%. Furthermore, the impact and bending tests were conducted under optimized conditions and the results demonstrated that the printed PEEK specimens have appropriate mechanical properties.

  13. Biofilm behavior on sulfonated poly(ether-ether-ketone) (sPEEK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero, Juan F.D.; Tajiri, Henrique A.; Barra, Guilherme M.O.; Fredel, Márcio C.; Benfatti, Cesar A.M.; Magini, Ricardo S.; Pimenta, Andréa L.; Souza, Júlio C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Poly(ether-ether-ketone) (PEEK) has also shown to be very attractive for incorporating therapeutic compounds thanks to a sulfonation process which modifies the material structure resulting in a sulfonated-PEEK (sPEEK). Concerning biomedical applications, the objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of different sulfonation degree of sPEEK on the biofilm growth. PEEK samples were functionalized by using sulphuric acid (98%) and then dissolved into dimethyl-sulfoxide. A dip coating technique was used to synthesize sPEEK thin films. The sulfonation degree of the materials was analyzed by FT-IR, H NMR, TG and IEC. The surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, profilometry and contact angle analyses. Subsequently, the biofilm formation on sulfonated-PEEK based on Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis was measured by spectrophotometry, colony forming units (CFU mL −1 ) and SEM. Results obtained from thermal and chemical analyses showed an intensification in sulfonation degree for sPEEK at 2 and 2.5 h. The E. faecalis or S. mutans biofilm growth revealed statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between 2 and 3 h sulfonation groups. A significant decrease (p < 0.05) in CFU mL −1 was recorded for S. mutans or E. faecalis biofilm grown on 2.5 or 3 h sPEEK. Regarding the thermal-chemical and microbiologic analyses, the sulfonation degree of sPEEK ranging from 2 up to 3 h was successful capable to decrease the biofilm growth. That revealed an alternative strategy to embed anti-biofilm and therapeutic compounds into PEEK avoiding infections in biomedical applications. - Highlights: • PEEK can be dissolved to incorporate therapeutic compounds. • High sulfonation degree on sPEEK affected the biofilm growth. • The sulfonation degree must be controlled to maintain the properties of sPEEK.

  14. Fuel cell performance of pendent methylphenyl sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone)s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanyu; Stanis, Ronald J.; Song, Yang; Hu, Wei; Cornelius, Chris J.; Shi, Qiang; Liu, Baijun; Guiver, Michael D.

    2017-11-01

    Meta- and para-linked homopolymers bearing 3-methylphenyl (Me) pendent groups were postsulfonated to create sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone) (SPEEKK) backbone isomers, which are referred to as Me-p-SPEEKK and Me-m-SPEEKK. Their thermal and oxidative stability, mechanical properties, dimensional stability, methanol permeability, and proton conductivity are characterized. Me-p-SPEEKK and Me-m-SPEEKK proton conductivities at 100 °C are 116 and 173 mS cm-1, respectively. Their methanol permeabilities are 3.3-3.9 × 10-7 cm2 s-1, and dimensional swelling at 100 °C is 16.4-17.5%. Me-p-SPEEKK and Me-m-SPEEKK were fabricated into membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs), and electrochemical properties were evaluated within a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) and proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). When O2 is used as the oxidant at 80 °C and 100% RH, the maximum power density of Me-m-SPEEKK reaches 657 mW cm-2, which is higher than those of Nafion 115 (552 mW cm-2). DMFC performance is 85 mW cm-2 at 80 °C with 2.0 M methanol using Me-p-SPEEKK due to its low MeOH crossover. In general, these electrochemical results are comparable to Nafion. These ionomer properties, combined with a potentially less expensive and scalable polymer manufacturing process, may broaden their potential for many practical applications.

  15. Copoly(arylene ether)s containing pendant sulfonic acid groups as proton exchange membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dae Sik, Kim [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yu Seung, Kim [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gilles, Robertson [CANADA-NRC; Guiver, Michael D [CANADA-NRC

    2009-01-01

    A copoly(arylene ether) (PAE) with high fluorine content and a copoly(arylene ether nitrile) (PAEN) with high nitrile content, each containing pendant phenyl sulfonic acids were synthesized. The PAE and P AEN were prepared from decafluorobiphenyl (DFBP) and difluorobenzonitrile (DFBN) respectively, by polycondensation with 2phenylhydroquinone (PHQ) by conventional aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions. sulfonic acid groups were introduced by mild post-sulfonation exclusively on the para-position of the pendant phenyl ring in PHQ. The membrane properties of the resulting sulfonated copolymers sPAE and sPAEN were compared for fuel cell applications. The copolymers sPAE and sPAEN, each having a degree of sulfonation (OS) of 1.0 had high ion exchange capacities (IEC{sub v})(wet) (volume-based, wet state) of 1.77 and 2.55 meq./cm3, high proton conductivities of 135.4 and 140.1 mS/cm at 80 C, and acceptable volume-based water uptake of 44.5 -51.9 vol% at 80 C, respectively, compared to Nafion. The data points of these copolymer membranes are located in the upper left-hand corner in the trade-off plot of alternative hydrocarbon polyelectrolyte membranes (PEM) for the relationship between proton conductivity versus water uptake (weight based or volume based), i.e., high proton conductivity and low water uptake. Furthermore, the relative selectivity derived from proton conductivity and methanol permeability is higher than that of Nafion.

  16. Polydopamine-functionalized poly(ether ether ketone) tube for capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Wenpeng; Liu, Yikun; Yu, Xinhong; Chen, Zilin

    2017-09-22

    Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) is a hyphenated technique that combines the advantages like low sample consumption, high separation efficiency, short analytical time in CE and high sensitivity, powerful molecular structure elucidation in MS. Polyimide-coated fused silica capillary has become the most dominant capillary for CE, but it suffers from swelling and aminolysis of polyimide coating when treated with organic solvents and alkaline buffer in the CE-MS interface in which the polyimide coating at the end of the capillary is exposed to the solution, and this phenomenon can result in current instability, irregular electrospray and clogging at outlet after prolonged use. In this work, poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) capillary was explored as separation capillary for CE-MS. The problems like swelling and aminolysis of polyimide coating were solved due to the high thermal and chemical stability of PEEK material. After modification with polydopamine, PEEK capillary (PD-PEEK) can generate adjustable electroosmotic flow and provide good separation selectivity. The zwitterion polymer of polydopamine can provide cathodic electroosmotic flow (EOF) at high pH value (pH ≥ 5) and anodic EOF at low pH value (pH ≤ 4), and the EOF mobility can also be adjusted by controlling the modification time of polydopamine. Good separation performance was obtained in the analysis for several classes of compounds including amino acids, phenols and plant hormones at rational EOF direction. Repeatability of the PD-PEEK capillary was studied, with relative standard deviations for intra-day, inter-day runs and between tubes less than 4.94%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Novel sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)s containing nitrile groups and their composite membranes for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Meimei; Liu, Baijun; Guan, Shaowei; Li, Long; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Yunhe; Jiang, Zhenhua [Alan G. MacDiarmid Institute, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2010-08-01

    A series of novel sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)s containing a cyanophenyl group (SPEEKCNxx) are prepared based on (4-cyano)phenylhydroquinone via nucleophilic substitution polycondensation reactions. To further improve their properties, novel composite membranes composed of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)s containing cyanophenyl group as an acidic component and aminated poly(aryl ether ketone) as a basic component are successfully prepared. Most of the membranes exhibit excellent thermal, oxidative and dimensional stability, low-swelling ratio, high proton conductivity, low methanol permeability and high selectivity. The proton conductivities of the membranes are close to Nafion 117 at room temperature. And especially, the values of SPEEKCN40 and its composite membranes are higher than Nafion 117 at 80 C (0.17 S cm{sup -1} of Nafion, 0.26 S cm{sup -1} of SPEEKCN40, 0.20 S cm{sup -1} of SPEEKCN40-1, and 0.18 S cm{sup -1} of SPEEKCN40-2). Moreover, the methanol permeability is one order magnitude lower than that of Nafion 117. All the data prove that both copolymers and their composite membranes may be potential proton exchange membrane for fuel cells applications. (author)

  18. Synthesis and Biophysical Characterization of Chlorambucil Anticancer Ether Lipid Prodrugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Palle Jacob; Christensen, Mikkel Stochkendahl; Ruysschaert, Tristan

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis and biophysical characterization of four prodrug ether phospholipid conjugates are described. The lipids are prepared from the anticancer drug chlorambucil and have C16 and C18 ether chains with phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylglycerol headgroups. All four prodrugs have the ability...... to form unilamellar liposomes (86-125 nm) and are hydrolyzed by phospholipase A2, resulting in chlorambucil release. Liposomal formulations of prodrug lipids displayed cytotoxicity toward HT-29, MT-3, and ES-2 cancer cell lines in the presence of phospholipase A2, with IC50 values in the 8-36 μM range....

  19. Proton-Ionizable Crown Ethers. A Short Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-30

    Triazole’Subcyclic Unit 14. Proton-Ionizable Crown Ethers Containing Sulfonamide Groups 15. Miscellaneous Proton-Ionizable Crown Ethers 1. INTRODUCTION. ""Since...the diaza dinitrile crown. Subsequent hydrolysis produced the diacid 33 (Procedure E). 27 Monoaza-crowns 35-38 (Figure V, Table 5) were obtained by the...followed by hydrolysis of the cetidi to f the acid.3o Complextion by th~eam crownsJ hasJ boon extensively castudieon and transportat es of thos ecaions have

  20. Environmental analysis of higher brominated diphenyl ethers and decabromodiphenyl ethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Amelie; Sellström, Ulla; McLachlan, Michael S

    2009-01-16

    Methods for environmental analysis of higher brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in particular decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209), and the recently discovered environmental contaminant decabromodiphenyl ethane (deBDethane) are reviewed. The extensive literature on analysis of BDE209 has identified several critical issues, including contamination of the sample, degradation of the analyte during sample preparation and GC analysis, and the selection of appropriate detection methods and surrogate standards. The limited experience with the analysis of deBDethane suggests that there are many commonalities with BDE209. The experience garnered from the analysis of BDE209 over the last 15 years will greatly facilitate progress in the analysis of deBDethane.

  1. Sulphonated biphenylated poly(aryl ether ketone)s for fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, W.; Jiang, Z. [Alan G. MacDiarmid Institute, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Robertson, G.P.; Guiver, M.D. [Institute for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology, National Research Council, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Kim, Y.S. [Electronic and Electrochemical Materials and Devices, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Liu, B.

    2010-02-15

    New series of fully aromatic poly(ether ketone)s with a biphenyl pendant groups were synthesised. A direct comparison of sulphonation reaction among monophenylated poly(ether ether ketone) (Ph-PEEK), biphenylated poly(ether ether ketone) (BiPh-PEEK) and PEEK (Victrex) was thoroughly investigated. Several advantages of the pendant-phenyl poly(ether ketone)s compared with commercial PEEK were identified, including ready control over the site of sulphonation and degree of sulphonation (DS), and mild and rapid sulphonation. The basic membrane physical properties comprising of thermal and mechanical properties, dimensional stability and proton conductivity were studied. One new membrane, sulphonated biphenylated poly(ether ether ketone) (BiPh-SPEEKDK) having a good combination of membrane properties was fabricated into a membrane electrode assembly (MEA), and it showed excellent direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) performance. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Molecular structure impacts on secondary organic aerosol formation from glycol ethers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lijie; Cocker, David R.

    2018-05-01

    Glycol ethers, a class of widely used solvents in consumer products, are often considered exempt as volatile organic compounds based on their vapor pressure or boiling points by regulatory agencies. However, recent studies found that glycol ethers volatilize at ambient conditions nearly as rapidly as the traditional high-volatility solvents indicating the potential of glycol ethers to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA). This is the first work on SOA formation from glycol ethers. The impact of molecular structure, specifically -OH, on SOA formation from glycol ethers and related ethers are investigated in the work. Ethers with and without -OH, with methyl group hindrance on -OH and with -OH at different location are studied in the presence of NOX and under "NOX free" conditions. Photooxidation experiments under different oxidation conditions confirm that the processing of ethers is a combination of carbonyl formation, cyclization and fragmentation. Bulk SOA chemical composition analysis and oxidation products identified in both gas and particle phase suggests that the presence and location of -OH in the carbon bond of ethers determine the occurrence of cyclization mechanism during ether oxidation. The cyclization is proposed as a critical SOA formation mechanism to prevent the formation of volatile compounds from fragmentation during the oxidation of ethers. Glycol ethers with -CH2-O-CH2CH2OH structure is found to readily form cyclization products, especially with the presence of NOx, which is more relevant to urban atmospheric conditions than without NOx. Glycol ethers are evaluated as dominating SOA precursors among all ethers studied. It is estimated that the contribution of glycol ethers to anthropogenic SOA is roughly 1% of the current organic aerosol from mobile sources. The contribution of glycol ethers to anthropogenic SOA is roughly 1% of the current organic aerosol from mobile sources and will play a more important role in future anthropogenic SOA

  3. CCDC 879409: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : dichloro-(2,6-bis(4,4-diphenyl-4,5-dihydro-1,3-oxazol-2-yl)pyridine)-iron(ii) diethyl ether solvate

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Tao

    2015-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  4. CCDC 1420289: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : (2,2'-(methylenebis(1H-imidazol-2-ylidene-3,1(2H)-diylmethylene))dipyridine)-tris(acetonitrile)-iron bis(hexafluorophosphate) diethyl ether solvate

    KAUST Repository

    Weiss, Daniel T.

    2015-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  5. Semi-Batch Reactive Distillation of Consecutive Reaction : The Saponification Reaction of Diethyl Adipate with Sodium Hydroxide Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghad Fareed Kasim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research presents a new study in reactive distillation by using consecutive reaction: the saponification reaction of diethyl adipate (DA with sodium hydroxide solution . The effect of three parameters were studied through a design of experiments applying 23 factorial design . These parameters were : the mole ratio of DA to NaOH solution (0.1 and 1 , NaOH solution concentration (3 N and 8 N , and batch time (1.5 hr. and 3.5 hr. . The conversion of DA to sodium monoethyladipate(SMA(intermediate product was the effect of these parameters which was detected . Also , the percentage purity of the intermediate product was recorded . The results showed that increasing mole ratio of DA to NaOHsolution increases the conversion and percentage purity to a maximum value within the range of study . The effect of NaOH solution concentration decreases the conversion and percentage purity to specified value within the range of study . The effect of batch time on conversion and percentage purity , when NaOH solution concentration (3 N is as follows : the increasing in batch time decreases the conversion and percentage purity to specified value within the range of study . When NaOH solution concentration (8 N increasing batch time decreases the conversion , while percentage purity increases with increasing batch time to a maximum value within the range of study . The maximum attainable conversion within the studied range of parameters was eighteen fold of the base case , while the maximum percentage purity was (99.40 % . Empirical equation was obtained using statistical analysis of experimental results . The empirical results of relative conversion was drawn . The empirical graphs showed linear variation .

  6. 40 CFR 721.10017 - Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... diglycidyl ether polymer (generic). 721.10017 Section 721.10017 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (PMNs P...

  7. Electrochemical fabrication of nanoporous polypyrrole thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Mei [Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Yuan Jinying [Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)], E-mail: yuanjy@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Shi Gaoquan [Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)], E-mail: gshi@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

    2008-04-30

    Polypyrrole thin films with pores in nanometer scale were synthesized by direct electrochemical oxidation of pyrrole in a mixed electrolyte of isopropyl alcohol, boron trifluoride diethyl etherate, sodium dodecylsulfonate and poly(ethylene glycol) using well-aligned ZnO nanowires arrays as templates. The thin films exhibit high conductivity of ca. {sigma}{sub rt} {approx} 20.5 s/cm and can be driven to bend during redox processes in 1.0 M lithium perchlorate aqueous solution. The movement rate of an actuator based on this nanoporous film was measured to be over 90{sup o}/s at a driving potential of 0.8 V (vs. Ag/AgCl)

  8. Enhanced electrocatalytic performance for isopropanol oxidation on Pd-Au nanoparticles dispersed on poly(p-phenylene) prepared from biphenyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Weiqiang; Wang Chuanyi; Xu Jingkun; Du Yukou; Yang Ping

    2010-01-01

    Poly(p-phenylene) (PPP) films with good electrochemical activity and good thermal stability were synthesized by a low-potential electrochemical polymerization of biphenyl in pure boron trifluoride diethyl etherate. As-formed PPP film was firstly used as a catalyst support. Pd-Au nanoparticles were successfully electro-deposited on PPP films (namely, Pd-Au/PPP) and used for the electrooxidation of isopropanol in alkaline media. The Pd-Au/PPP composite catalyst shows a high electrochemical active surface area in the hydrogen adsorption potential region. The results for isopropanol oxidation indicate that Pd-Au/PPP have higher catalytic activity and stronger poisoning-resistance than the Pd-Au deposited on the bare electrode. Furthermore, the role of PPP in the composite catalyst and supplemental effect are discussed. The present study evidences that Pd-Au/PPP is a promising choice as a composite catalyst for isopropanol electrooxidation in alkaline medium.

  9. General and Stereocontrolled Approach to the Chemical Synthesis of Naturally Occurring Cyanogenic Glucosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Birger L; Olsen, Carl E; Motawia, Mohammed S

    2016-04-22

    An effective method for the chemical synthesis of cyanogenic glucosides has been developed as demonstrated by the synthesis of dhurrin, taxiphyllin, prunasin, sambunigrin, heterodendrin, and epiheterodendrin. O-Trimethylsilylated cyanohydrins were prepared and subjected directly to glucosylation using a fully acetylated glucopyranosyl fluoride donor with boron trifluoride-diethyl etherate as promoter to afford a chromatographically separable epimeric mixture of the corresponding acetylated cyanogenic glucosides. The isolated epimers were deprotected using a triflic acid/MeOH/ion-exchange resin system without any epimerization of the cyanohydrin function. The method is stereocontrolled and provides an efficient approach to chemical synthesis of other naturally occurring cyanogenic glucosides including those with a more complex aglycone structure.

  10. Stereodivergent Mannich reaction of bis(trimethylsilyl)ketene acetals with N-tert-butanesulfinyl imines by Lewis acid or Lewis base activation, a one-pot protocol to obtain chiral β-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantú-Reyes, Margarita; Alvarado-Beltrán, Isabel; Ballinas-Indilí, Ricardo; Álvarez-Toledano, Cecilio; Hernández-Rodríguez, Marcos

    2017-09-20

    We report a one-pot synthesis of chiral β 2,2,3 -amino acids by the Mannich addition of bistrimethylsilyl ketene acetals to N-tert-butanesulfinyl imines followed by the removal of the chiral auxiliary. The synthesis and isolation of pure β-amino acid hydrochlorides were conducted under mild conditions, without strong bases and this method is operationally simple. The stereoselective reaction was promoted by two different activation methods that lead to different stereoisomers: (1) Lewis Acid (LA) catalysis with boron trifluoride diethyl etherate and (2) Lewis Base (LB) catalysis with tetrabutylammonium difluorotriphenylsilicate. The reaction presented good diastereoselectivity with LB activation and moderate to good dr with LA catalysis. The exceptions in both protocols were imines with electron donating groups in the aromatic ring.

  11. Fluorescence Sensing Properties of Thiazolobenzo-crown Ether Incorporating Coumarin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Helal, Aasif; Kim, Hong Seok

    2010-01-01

    A new coumarin-thiazolobenzo-crown ether based fluorogenic chemosensor BTC (1) was reported. The ion-selective binding properties of 1 with different alkali, alkaline earth metals and transitional metals were investigated in an ethanol- DMSO system. BTC (1) showed the highest binding constant toward Hg 2+ over Ag + , Pb 2+ and Cu 2+

  12. High Resolution Rotational Spectroscopy of a Flexible Cyclic Ether

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez, F.; Martínez-Haya, B.; Blanco, S.; López, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.

    2011-06-01

    Crown ethers stand as one cornerstone molecular class inhost-guest Supramolecular Chemistry and constitute building blocks for a broad range of modern materials. We report here the first high resolution rotational study of a crown ether: 1,4,7,10,13-pentaoxacyclopentadecane (15-crown-5 ether,15c5). Molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy has been employed. The liquid sample of 15c5 has been vaporized using heating methods. The considerable size of 15c5 and the broad range of conformations allowed by the flexibility of its backbone pose important challenges to spectroscopy approaches. In fact, the ab-initio computational study for isolated 15c5, yields at least six stable conformers with relative free energies within 2 kJ Mol-1 (167 Cm-1). Nevertheless, in this investigation it has been possible to identify and characterize in detail one stable rotamer of the 15c5 molecule and to challenge different quantum methods for the accurate description of this system. The results pave the ground for an extensive description of the conformational landscape of 15c5 and related cyclic ethers in the near term. J. L. Alonso, F. J. Lorenzo, J. C. López, A. Lesarri, S. Mata and H. Dreizler, Chem. Phys., 218, 267 (1997) S. Blanco, J.C López, J.L. Alonso, P. Ottaviani, W. Caminati, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 880 (2003) S.E. Hill, D. Feller, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 201, 41 (2000)

  13. Evaluation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sediment of Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These highly hazardous organic pollutants of concern are persistent, can bioaccumulate and biomagnify in aquatic organism especially fish, and there appears to be no clear strategy for managing them. In this study, levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers were determined in sediments collected from Lagos lagoon with ...

  14. Chemical Composition and Cytotoxic Activities of Petroleum Ether ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical Composition and Cytotoxic Activities of. Petroleum Ether Fruit Extract of Fruits of Brucea javanica. (Simarubaceae). Zhiwei Su1,2, Huijuan Huang3, Jinlian Li1,4, Yuehui Zhu1, Riming Huang1 and. Samuel X Qiu1*. 1Program for Natural Product Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Discovery, Key Laboratory of Plant ...

  15. Why do crown ethers activate enzymes in organic solvents?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Unen, D.J.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.; Reinhoudt, David

    2002-01-01

    One of the major drawbacks of enzymes in nonaqueous solvents is that their activity is often dramatically low compared to that in water. This limitation can be largely overcome by crown ether treatment of enzymes. In this paper, we describe a number of carefully designed new experiments that have

  16. Evaluation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sediment of Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    environmental concerns. New organic pollutants especially polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDEs) employed in electronic equipment and in some household items as flame retardants are now finding their way into the aquatic environment as components of waste discharge into the water body. These highly hazardous ...

  17. Bio-inspired ion selective crown-ether polymer membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, Sinem

    2016-01-01

    Development of unctional membranes that are capable of selectively recognizing and transporting ions have key importance for the recovery and separation of specific icons (e.d. K+, Li+, Na+) from multicomponent mixtures. In this thesis, new membrane materials based on crown ether-metal ion

  18. Dimethyl ether in diesel engines - progress and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C

    2001-01-01

    A review of recent developments related to the use of dimethyl ether (DME) in engines is presented Research work discussed is in the areas of engine performance and emissions, fuel injection systems, spray and ignition delay, and detailed chemical kinetic modeling. DME's properties and safety...

  19. Binary mixtures of carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether as alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data were predicted for the binary mixture of carbon dioxide (CO2) and dimethyl ether (DME) at ten temperatures ranging from 273.15 to 386.56 K and pressure upto 7.9 MPa to observe this mixture's potential of COP enhancement and capacity modulation as a working fluid in a refrigeration ...

  20. Synthesis of hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers from olive oil waste waters

    OpenAIRE

    Espartero Sánchez, José Luis; Madrona, Andrés; Pereira Cano, Gema; Mateos, Raquel; Rodríguez, Guillermo; Trujillo, Mariana; Fernández Bolaños, Juan

    2009-01-01

    The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol.

  1. Synthesis of Hydroxytyrosyl Alkyl Ethers from Olive Oil Waste Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernández-Bolaños

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol.

  2. Developmental toxicity of four glycol ethers applied cutaneously to rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, B.D.; Goad, P.T.; Burg, J.R.

    1984-08-01

    Previous NIOSH studies demonstrated the embryo- and fetotoxicity and teratogenicity of ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGEE) applied to the shaved skin of pregnant rats. In the present study ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (EGEEA), ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE), and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (diEGEE) were tested in the same experimental model, using distilled water as the negative control and EGEE as a positive control. Water or undiluted glycols were applied four times daily on days 7 to 16 of gestation to the shaved interscapular skin with an automatic pipetter. Volumes of EGEE (0.25 mL), EGEEA (0.35 mL), and diEGEE (0.35 mL) were approximately equimolar (2.6 mmole per treatment). EGBE at 0.35 mL four times daily (approximately 2.7 mmole per treatment) killed 10 of 11 treated rats, and was subsequently tested at 0.12 mL (0.9 mmole) per treatment. EGEE- and EGEEA-treated rats showed a reduction in body weight relative to water controls that was associated with completely resorbed litters and significantly fewer live fetuses per litter. Fetal body weights were also significantly reduced in those groups. Visceral malformations and skeletal variations were significantly increased in EGEE and EGEEA groups over the negative control group. No embryotoxic, genotoxic, or teratogenic effects were detected in the EGBE- or diEGEE-treated litters. 16 references, 4 tables.

  3. Developmental toxicity of four glycol ethers applied cutaneously to rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, B D; Goad, P T; Burg, J R

    1984-08-01

    Previous NIOSH studies demonstrated the embryo- and fetotoxicity and teratogenicity of ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGEE) applied to the shaved skin of pregnant rats. In the present study ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (EGEEA), ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE), and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (diEGEE) were tested in the same experimental model, using distilled water as the negative control and EGEE as a positive control. Water or undiluted glycols were applied four times daily on days 7 to 16 of gestation to the shaved interscapular skin with an automatic pipetter. Volumes of EGEE (0.25 mL), EGEEA (0.35 mL), and diEGEE (0.35 mL) were approximately equimolar (2.6 mmole per treatment). EGBE at 0.35 mL four times daily (approximately 2.7 mmole per treatment) killed 10 of 11 treated rats, and was subsequently tested at 0.12 mL (0.9 mmole) per treatment. EGEE- and EGEEA-treated rats showed a reduction in body weight relative to water controls that was associated with completely resorbed litters and significantly fewer live fetuses per litter. Fetal body weights were also significantly reduced in those groups. Visceral malformations and skeletal variations were significantly increased in EGEE and EGEEA groups over the negative control group. No embryotoxic, fetotoxic, or teratogenic effects were detected in the EGBE- or diEGEE-treated litters.

  4. Calix salophen crown ethers as receptors for neutral molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichwein, A.M.; Reichwein, Arjen M.; Verboom, Willem; Harkema, Sybolt; Spek, Anthony L.; Reinhoudt, David

    1994-01-01

    The calix[4]arene based salophen crown ethers 7 and 8 were synthesized as lipophilic carriers for neutral molecules. The X-ray structures of the H2O, CH3OH and (CH3)2SO complexes of 8a have been determined.

  5. Synthesis and reduction of 2-nitroalkyl polysaccharide ethers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeres, A.; Spoelma, F.F.; Doren, H.A. van; Gotlieb, K.F.; Bleeker, I.P.; Kellogg, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    Several 2-nitroalkyl polysaccharide ethers (from pullulan (1), guar (2), agarose (3), inulin (4), cellulose (5), Na-α-polyglucuronate (6) and hydroxyethyl cellulose (7)) were synthesized by reaction with 2-nitro-1-alkenes (2-nitro-1-propene and 2-nitro-1-butene) formed in situ from 2-nitroalkyl

  6. Synthesis and reduction of 2-nitroalkyl polysaccharide ethers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeres, A; Spoelma, FF; van Doren, HA; Gotlieb, KF; Bleeker, IP; Kellogg, RM

    Several 2-nitroalkyl polysaccharide ethers (from pullulan (1), guar (2), agarose (3), inulin (4), cellulose (5), Na-alpha-polyglucuronate (6) and hydroxyethyl cellulose (7)) were synthesized by reaction with 2-nitro-1-alkenes (2-nitro-1-propene and 2-nitro-1-butene) formed in situ from 2-nitroalkyl

  7. Formation and Structural Analysis of Novel Dibornyl Ethers | Kaye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy has been used to establish the regio- and stereochemistry of novel dibornyl ethers, obtained by acid-catalysed condensation of camphor-derived a-hydroxybornanones. South African Journal of Chemistry Vol.55 2002: 111-118 ...

  8. Ether and interpretation of some physical phenomena and concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzayev, S.G.

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of the concept of existence of an ether representation about time, space, matters and physical field are profound and also the essence of such phenomena, as corpuscular - wave dualism, change of time, scale and mass at movement body's is opened. The opportunity of transition from probability-statistical interpretation of the quantum phenomena to Laplace's determinism is shown

  9. A novel chlorinated diphenyl ether from Byrsonima microphylla (Malpighiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, João H C; Cardoso, Manuela P; David, Juceni P; David, Jorge M

    2006-11-01

    The isolation is described of an unusual chlorinated diphenyl ether named methyl 3,5-dichloro-6-(6-hydroxy-4-methoxy-3-methoxycarbonyl-2-methylphenoxy)-2-hydroxy-4-methylbenzoate that was obtained from the trunk of Byrsonima microphylla (Malpighiaceae). The structure was elucidated by a spectroscopic data analysis, and the presence of this compound in heartwood was confirmed by HPLC and HPTLC analyses.

  10. Radiation chemistry of alternative fuel oxygenates - substituted ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezyk, S. P.; Cooper, W. J.; Bartels, D. M.; Tobien, T.; O'Shea, K. E.

    1999-01-01

    The electron beam process, an advanced oxidation and reduction technology, is based in the field of radiation chemistry. Fundamental to the development of treatment processes is an understanding of the underlying chemistry. The authors have previously evaluated the bimolecular rate constants for the reactions of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and with this study have extended their studies to include ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) with the hydroxyl radical, hydrogen atom and solvated electron using pulse radiolysis. For all of the oxygenates the reaction with the hydroxyl radical appears to be of primary interest in the destruction of the compounds in water. The rates with the solvated electron are limiting values as the rates appear to be relatively low. The hydrogen atom rate constants are relatively low, coupled with the low yield in radiolysis, they concluded that these are of little significance in the destruction of the alternative fuel oxygenates (and MTBE)

  11. Comparative evaluation of direct stool smear and Formol-ether ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cryptosporidium is a common cause of diarrhoea in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Unfortunately this pathogen is not often checked for in Microbiology laboratories because the formol-ether stool concentration method for identification of Cryptosporidium is ...

  12. Determination of bisphenol a diglycidyl ether content in foods from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to avoid migration issues of chemical compounds from tin cans to foods, covering internal surface of the tin cans with epoxyphenolic and organosol resins is widespread. However, monomers like Bisphenol A Diglycidyl Ether (BADGE), number among the constituents of these resins capable of migrating to foods.

  13. Ether lipids of planktonic archae in the marine water column

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Hoefs, M.J.L.; Schouten, S.; King, L.L.; Wakeham, S.G.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1997-01-01

    Acyclic and cyclic biphytanes derived from the membrane ether lipids of archaea were found in water column particulate and sedimentary organic matter from several oxic and anoxic marine environments. Compound-specific isotope analyses of the carbon skeletons suggest that planktonic archaea utilize

  14. Enhanced response of microbial fuel cell using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone membrane as a biochemical oxygen demand sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyaru, Sivasankaran; Dharmalingam, Sangeetha

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane in SCMFC used to determine the BOD. • The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm. • This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion ® . • SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion ® . • Nafion ® shows high anodic internal resistance (67 Ω) than the SPEEK (39 Ω). - Abstract: The present study is focused on the development of single chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC) using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane to determine the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) matter present in artificial wastewater (AW). The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm when using artificial wastewater. This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion ® . The most serious problem in using MFC as a BOD sensor is the oxygen diffusion into the anode compartment, which consumes electrons in the anode compartment, thereby reducing the coulomb yield and reducing the electrical signal from the MFC. SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion ® , resulting in low internal resistance and substrate loss, thus improving the sensing range of BOD. The system was further improved by making a double membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with an increased electrode surface area which provide high surface area for electrically active bacteria

  15. Modified nanocrystal cellulose/fluorene-containing sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone) composites for proton exchange membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yingcong; Shang, Yabei; Ni, Chuangjiang; Zhang, Hanyu; Li, Xiaobai; Liu, Baijun; Men, Yongfeng; Zhang, Mingyao; Hu, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Highly sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone)s (SFPEEKKs) with sulfonation degrees of 2.34 (SFPEEKK5) and 2.48 (SFPEEKK10) were synthesized through the direct sulfonation of a fluorene-containing poly(ether ether ketone ketone) under a relatively mild reaction condition. Using the solution blending method, sulfonated nanocrystal cellulose (sNCC)-enhanced SFPEEKK composites (SFPEEKK/sNCC) were successfully prepared for investigation as proton exchange membranes. Transmission electron microscopy showed that sNCC was uniformly distributed in the composite membranes. The properties of the composite membranes, including thermal stability, mechanical properties, water uptake, swelling ratio, oxidative stability and proton conductivity were thoroughly evaluated. Results indicated that the insertion of sNCC could contribute to water management and improve the mechanical performance of the membranes. Notably, the proton conductivity of SFPEEKK5/sNCC-5 was as high as 0.242 S cm-1 at 80 °C. All data proved the potential of SFPEEKK/sNCC composites for proton exchange membranes in medium-temperature fuel cells.

  16. Enhanced response of microbial fuel cell using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone membrane as a biochemical oxygen demand sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayyaru, Sivasankaran; Dharmalingam, Sangeetha, E-mail: sangeetha@annauniv.edu

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane in SCMFC used to determine the BOD. • The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm. • This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion{sup ®}. • SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion{sup ®}. • Nafion{sup ®} shows high anodic internal resistance (67 Ω) than the SPEEK (39 Ω). - Abstract: The present study is focused on the development of single chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC) using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane to determine the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) matter present in artificial wastewater (AW). The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm when using artificial wastewater. This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion{sup ®}. The most serious problem in using MFC as a BOD sensor is the oxygen diffusion into the anode compartment, which consumes electrons in the anode compartment, thereby reducing the coulomb yield and reducing the electrical signal from the MFC. SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion{sup ®}, resulting in low internal resistance and substrate loss, thus improving the sensing range of BOD. The system was further improved by making a double membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with an increased electrode surface area which provide high surface area for electrically active bacteria.

  17. A cost-effective and practical polybenzanthrone-based fluorescent sensor for efficient determination of palladium (II) ion and its application in agricultural crops and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ge; Wen, Yangping; Guo, Chaoqun; Xu, Jingkun; Lu, Baoyang; Duan, Xuemin; He, Haohua; Yang, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •PBA was facilely electrosynthesized in the binary solvent system containing of acetonitrile and boron trifluoride diethyl etherate. •“On–off” type fluorescent sensor based on this polymer for highly selective, sensitive, and practical detection of Pd 2+ was designed. •The possible mechanism between Pd 2+ and PBA has been discussed and TEM preliminary proved the proposed mechanism. •This fluorescent CP-based sensor has been used to practically detect Pd 2+ in agricultural crops and environment samples with satisfactory results. -- Abstract: A highly selective and sensitive fluorescent chemosensor suitable for practical measurement of palladium ion (Pd 2+ ) in agricultural crops and environment samples has been successfully fabricated using polybenzanthrone (PBA). PBA was facilely electrosynthesized in the mixed electrolyte of acetonitrile and boron trifluoride diethyl etherate. The fluorescence intensity of PBA showed a linear response to Pd 2+ in the concentration range of 5 nM–0.12 mM with a detection limit of 0.277 nM and quantification limit of 0.925 nM. Different compounds existing in agricultural crops and environment such as common metal ions, anions, natural amino acids, carbohydrates, and organic acids were used to examine the selectivity of the as-fabricated sensor, and no obvious fluorescence change could be observed in these interferents and their mixtures. A possible mechanism was proposed that the coordination of PBA and Pd 2+ enhance the aggregation of polymer chains, which led to a significant quenching of PBA emission, and this was further confirmed by absorption spectra monitoring and transmission electron microscopy. The excellent performance of the proposed sensor and satisfactory results of the Pd 2+ determination in practical samples suggested that the PBA-based fluorescent sensor for the determination of Pd 2+ will be a good candidate for application in agriculture and environment

  18. A mild and efficient procedure for the synthesis of ethers from various alkyl halides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosstafa Kazemi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A simple, mild and practical procedure has been developed for the synthesis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical ethers by using DMSO, TBAI in the presence of K2CO3. We extended the utility of Potassium carbonate as an efficient base for the preparation of ethers. A wide range of alkyl aryl and dialkyl ethers are synthezied from treatment of aliphatic alcohols and phenols with various alkyl halides in the prescence of efficient base Potassium carbonate. Secondary alkyl halides were easily converted to corresponding ethers in releatively good yields . This is a mild, simple and practical procedure for the preparation of ethers in high yields and suitable times under mild condition.

  19. RATE CONSTANTS FOR THE REACTIONS OF OH RADICALS AND CL ATOMS WITH DI-N-PROPYL ETHER AND DI-N-BUTYL ETHER AND THEIR DEUTERATED ANALOGS. (R825252)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using relative rate methods, rate constants for the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals and Cl atoms with di-n-propyl ether, di-n-propyl ether-d14, di-n-butyl ether and di-n-butyl ether-d18 have been measured at 296 ? 2 K and atmos...

  20. Biodegradability of fuel-ethers in environment; Biodegradabilite des ethers-carburants dans l'environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayolle-Guichard, F.

    2005-04-01

    Fuel ethers (methyl tert-butyl ether or MTBE, ethyl tert-butyl ether or ETBE and tert-amyl methyl ether or TAME have been used as gasoline additives since about twenty years in order to meet the requirements for the octane index and to limit the polluting emission in exhaust pipe gas (unburnt hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide). The high water solubility and the poor biodegradability of these compounds make them pollutants frequently encountered in aquifers. The present manuscript summarizes the knowledge concerning the biodegradability of fuel ethers obtained both at IFP and during collaborations with the Pasteur Institute (Paris), the Biotechnology Research Institute (Montreal, Canada) and the Center for Environmental Biotechnology (University of Tennessee, USA). Rhodococcus ruber IFP 2001 and Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012, two microorganisms isolated at IFP for their ability to grow, respectively, on ETBE and MTBE, were studied in order to determine the intermediates produced during MTBE and ETBE biodegradation and the enzymes required for each biodegradation step, thus allowing us to propose MTBE and ETBE catabolic pathways. A proteomic approach, from the protein induced during the degradation of ETBE or MTBE to the genes encoding these different enzymes, was carried out. The isolation of such genes is required:1) to use them for help in determining the bio-remediation capacities in polluted aquifers (DNA micro-arrays), 2) to monitor the microorganisms isolated for their degradative capacities during bio-remediation processes (fluorescent in situ hybridization or FISH) and 3) to create new tools for the detection and the quantification of ETBE or MTBE in contaminated aquifers (bio-sensor). The manuscript also describes the different ways for the adaptation of microorganisms to the presence of a xenobiotic compound. (author)

  1. Determination of crystal and molecular structures of two complexes resulting from the reaction between bis (diethyl muconate) monocarbonyliron and monodentate nitrogenated heterocyclic ligands, by X-ray diffractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inumaru, A.T.

    1983-01-01

    The crystal structures of (diethylmuconate) (quinoline) dicarbonyliron and (diethyl muconate) (pyrazine) dicarbonyliron have been determined from diffractometric X-ray data using the heavy atom method. (Diethyl muconate) (quinoline) dicarbonyliron. C 21 H 21 O 6 NFe. Crystal system: triclinic; space group P1 sup(-); a=7.766(2), b=9.664(2), c=14.917(2)A sup(o), α=84.12(2), β=74.99(2), γ=76.54(2) sup(o), V=1050.6(5)A sup(o) 3 , Z=2, D sub(c)=1.382 Mg m -3 , lambda(M sub(o) K sub(α))=0.71073A sup(o), μ(M sub(o) K sub(α))=0.78mm -1 . The final R-factor was 0.058 for 1589 reflections with I>3σ(I). (Diethyl muconate) (pyrazine) dicarbonyliron. C 16 H 18 O 6 N 2 Fe. Crystal system: monoclinic; space group P2 1 /C; a=10.390(2), b=19.754(4), c=9.051(2)A sup(o), β=108.27(2) sup(o), V=1764(1)A sup(o) 3 , Z=4, D sub(c)=1.469 Mg m -3 , lambda(M sub(o) K sub(α))=0.71073A sup(o), μ(M sub(o) K sub(α))=0.98mm -1 . The final R-factor was 0.066 for 967 reflections with I>3σ(I). In both compunds the Fe sup(o) atom is penta coordinated in the form of a quadrangular pyramid, being that the nitrogen atom occupies the apical position in the pyrazine complex and one of the basal positions in the quinolinecase. (Author) [pt

  2. Investigation of Volumetric Properties of Some Glycol Ethers Using a Simple Equation of State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, M.; Goharshadi, E. K.

    2006-09-01

    In this work, a simple equation of state (EoS) has been used to predict the density and other thermodynamic properties such as the isobaric expansion coefficient, α P , the isothermal compressibility, κ T , and the internal pressure, P i , of six glycol ethers including diethylene glycol monobutyl ether (DEGBE), propylene glycol propyl ether (PGPE), diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (DEGME), diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (DEGEE), triethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TriEGDME), and tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME) at different temperatures and pressures. A comparison with literature experimental data has been made. Additionally, statistical parameters between experimental and calculated densities for the GMA EoS and four other EoSs (Soave Redlich Kwong, Peng Robinson, Soave Redlich Kwong with volume translation, and Patel Teja) indicate the superiority of the GMA EoS.

  3. Crown ethers as size-selective synergists in solvent extraction systems: a new selectivity parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinard, W.F.; McDowell, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Mixtures of macrocyclic polyethers (crown ethers) and organic-phase-soluble liquid cation exchangers have been found to produce a synergistic effect in the extraction of metal ions. The synergistic effect is size selective; that is, it tends to be greatest for those ions that best fit the crown ether cavity. The mixtures of a liquid cation exchanger and a crown ether also allow metal ion extraction from common mineral-acid anion systems (NO 3 - , Cl - , SO 4 2- ) that would be impossible with the crown ether alone, because of the difficulty of solubilizing those anions in nonpolar solvents. This cooperation makes the use of crown ethers as size-selective coordinators available for process applications. Size selectivity of compounds such as crown ethers may thus become a useful new parameter in designing selective solvent extraction systems. Results are reported for alkali (including Cs) and alkaline earth (including Sr) extraction by HDEHP mixed with various crown ethers. (author)

  4. A mild and efficient method for the selective deprotection of silyl ethers using KF in the presence of tetraethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hailong; Oh, Joong-Suk; Song, Choong Eui

    2011-12-07

    A mild and efficient protocol for the deprotection of silyl ethers using KF in tetraethylene glycol is reported. A wide range of alcoholic silyl ethers can be selectively cleaved in high yield in the presence of certain acid- and base-labile functional groups. Moreover, the phenolic silyl ethers were cleaved exclusively, without affecting the alcoholic silyl ethers, at room temperature.

  5. Protective efficacy of menthol propylene glycol carbonate compared to N, N-diethyl-methylbenzamide against mosquito bites in Northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kweka Eliningaya J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reduction of malaria parasite transmission by preventing human-vector contact is critical in lowering disease transmission and its outcomes. This underscores the need for effective and long lasting arthropod/insect repellents. Despite the reduction in malaria transmission and outcomes in Tanzania, personal protection against mosquito bites is still not well investigated. This study sought to determine the efficacy of menthol propylene glycol carbonate (MR08, Ocimum suave as compared to the gold standard repellent N, N-diethyl-methylbenzamide (DEET, either as a single dose or in combination (blend, both in the laboratory and in the field against Anopheles gambiae s.l and Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods In the laboratory evaluations, repellents were applied on one arm while the other arm of the same individual was treated with a base cream. Each arm was separately exposed in cages with unfed female mosquitoes. Repellents were evaluated either as a single dose or as a blend. Efficacy of each repellent was determined by the number of mosquitoes that landed and fed on treated arms as compared to the control or among them. In the field, evaluations were performed by human landing catches at hourly intervals from 18:00 hr to 01:00 hr. Results A total of 2,442 mosquitoes were collected during field evaluations, of which 2,376 (97.30% were An. gambiae s.l while 66 (2.70% were Cx. quinquefaciatus. MR08 and DEET had comparatively similar protective efficacy ranging from 92% to 100 for both single compound and blends. These findings indicate that MR08 has a similar protective efficacy as DEET for personal protection outside bed nets when used singly and in blends. Because of the personal protection provided by MR08, DEET and blends as topical applicants in laboratory and field situations, these findings suggest that, these repellents could be used efficiently in the community to complement existing tools. Overall, Cx

  6. Protective efficacy of menthol propylene glycol carbonate compared to N, N-diethyl-methylbenzamide against mosquito bites in Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kweka, Eliningaya J; Munga, Stephen; Mahande, Aneth M; Msangi, Shandala; Mazigo, Humphrey D; Adrias, Araceli Q; Matias, Jonathan R

    2012-09-05

    The reduction of malaria parasite transmission by preventing human-vector contact is critical in lowering disease transmission and its outcomes. This underscores the need for effective and long lasting arthropod/insect repellents. Despite the reduction in malaria transmission and outcomes in Tanzania, personal protection against mosquito bites is still not well investigated. This study sought to determine the efficacy of menthol propylene glycol carbonate (MR08), Ocimum suave as compared to the gold standard repellent N, N-diethyl-methylbenzamide (DEET), either as a single dose or in combination (blend), both in the laboratory and in the field against Anopheles gambiae s.l and Culex quinquefasciatus. In the laboratory evaluations, repellents were applied on one arm while the other arm of the same individual was treated with a base cream. Each arm was separately exposed in cages with unfed female mosquitoes. Repellents were evaluated either as a single dose or as a blend. Efficacy of each repellent was determined by the number of mosquitoes that landed and fed on treated arms as compared to the control or among them. In the field, evaluations were performed by human landing catches at hourly intervals from 18:00  hr to 01:00  hr. A total of 2,442 mosquitoes were collected during field evaluations, of which 2,376 (97.30%) were An. gambiae s.l while 66 (2.70%) were Cx. quinquefaciatus. MR08 and DEET had comparatively similar protective efficacy ranging from 92% to 100 for both single compound and blends. These findings indicate that MR08 has a similar protective efficacy as DEET for personal protection outside bed nets when used singly and in blends. Because of the personal protection provided by MR08, DEET and blends as topical applicants in laboratory and field situations, these findings suggest that, these repellents could be used efficiently in the community to complement existing tools. Overall, Cx. quinquefasciatus were significantly prevented from blood

  7. A New Route for Preparation of Hydrophobic Silica Nanoparticles Using a Mixture of Poly(dimethylsiloxane and Diethyl Carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Protsak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Organosilicon layers chemically anchored on silica surfaces show high carbon content, good thermal and chemical stability and find numerous applications as fillers in polymer systems, thickeners in dispersing media, and as the stationary phases and carriers in chromatography. Methyl-terminated poly(dimethylsiloxanes (PDMSs are typically considered to be inert and not suitable for surface modification because of the absence of readily hydrolyzable groups. Therefore, in this paper, we report a new approach for surface modification of silica (SiO2 nanoparticles with poly(dimethylsiloxanes with different lengths of polymer chains (PDMS-20, PDMS-50, PDMS-100 in the presence of diethyl carbonate (DEC as initiator of siloxane bond splitting. Infrared spectroscopy (IR, elemental analysis (CHN, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, rotational viscosity and contact angle of wetting were employed for the characterization of the raw fumed silica and modified silica nanoparticles. Elemental analysis data revealed that the carbon content in the grafted layer is higher than 8 wt % for all modified silicas, but it decreases significantly after sample treatment in polar media for silicas which were modified using neat PDMS. The IR spectroscopy data indicated full involvement of free silanol groups in the chemisorption process at a relatively low temperature (220 °C for all resulting samples. The contact angle studies confirmed hydrophobic surface properties of the obtained materials. The rheology results illustrated that fumed silica modified with mixtures of PDMS-x/DEC exhibited thixotropic behavior in industrial oil (I-40A, and exhibited a fully reversible nanostructure and shorter structure recovery time than nanosilicas modified with neat PDMS. The obtained results from AFM and TEM analysis revealed that the modification of fumed silica with mixtures of PDMS-20/DEC allows obtaining narrow particle size distribution with

  8. Sorption-desorption behavior of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshansky, Yaniv; Polubesova, Tamara; Vetter, Walter; Chefetz, Benny

    2011-10-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants that are commonly found in commercial and household products. These compounds are considered persistent organic pollutants. In this study, we used 4,4'-dibromodiphenyl ether (BDE-15) as a model compound to elucidate the sorption and desorption behavior of PBDEs in soils. The organic carbon-normalized sorption coefficient (K(OC)) of BDE-15 was more than three times higher for humin than for bulk soils. However, pronounced desorption hysteresis was obtained mainly for bulk soils. For humin, increasing concentration of sorbed BDE-15 resulted in decreased desorption. Our data illustrate that BDE-15 and probably other PBDEs exhibit high sorption affinity to soils. Moreover, sorption is irreversible and thus PBDEs can potentially accumulate in the topsoil layer. We also suggest that although humin is probably a major sorbent for PBDEs in soils, other humic materials are also responsible for their sequestration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. SYNTHESIS OF ALLYL PHENYL ETHER AND CLAISEN REARRANGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagik Torosyan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been established the possibility for phenol allylation on natural zeolites and them analogs. Here is demonstrated the synthesis of allyl phenol, which has wide industrial applications. The offered method in comparison with the traditional methods has more advantages – higher selectivity, smaller material and power resources consumption. It has been obtained the mixture of allylating phenols (30% in general with allyl phenyl ether (1 with 80% yields. At 600 K is obtained allylphenyl ether, at 700 K beginning the formation of allyl phenols, which is the result of direct C-allylation of the aromatic ring. It has been investigated the possibility of Claisen rearrangement in the same conditions. All of that are established by gas-liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography data.

  10. Structural Study of Mismatched Disila-Crown Ether Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Reuter

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mismatched complexes of the alkali metals cations Li+ and Na+ were synthesized from 1,2-disila[18]crown-6 (1 and 2 and of K+ from 1,2,4,5-tetrasila[18]crown-6 (4. In these alkali metal complexes, not all crown ether O atoms participate in the coordination, which depicts the coordination ability of the C-, Si/C-, and Si-bonded O atoms. Furthermore, the inverse case—the coordination of the large Ba2+ ion by the relatively small ligand 1,2-disila[15]crown-5—was investigated, yielding the dinuclear complex 5. This structure represents a first outlook on sandwich complexes based on hybrid crown ethers.

  11. [Ethylene glycol and propylene glycol ethers - Reproductive and developmental toxicity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starek-Świechowicz, Beata; Starek, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Both ethylene and propylene glycol alkyl ethers (EGAEs and PGAEs, respectively) are widely used, mainly as solvents, in industrial and household products. Some EGAEs demonstrate gonadotoxic, embriotoxic, fetotoxic and teratogenic effects in both humans and experimental animals. Due to the noxious impact of these ethers on reproduction and development of organisms EGAEs are replaced for considerably less toxic PGAEs. The data on the mechanisms of testicular, embriotoxic, fetotoxic and teratogenic effects of EGAEs are presented in this paper. Our particular attention was focused on the metabolism of some EGAEs and their organ-specific toxicities, apoptosis of spermatocytes associated with changes in the expression of various genes that code for oxidative stress factors, protein kinases and nuclear hormone receptors. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  12. Ether and ester derivatives of the perborate icosahedron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, M. Frederick; Peymann, Toralf; Maderna, Andreas

    2003-12-16

    New boron icosahedral ethers and esters formed from Cs.sub.2 [closo-B.sub.12 (OH).sub.12 ],; Cs[closo-1-H-1-CB.sub.11 (OH).sub.11 ]; and closo-1,12-H.sub.2 -1,12-C.sub.2 B.sub.10 (OH).sub.10 are disclosed. Also set forth are their preparation by reacting the icosahedral boranes [closo-B.sub.12 H.sub.12 ].sup.2-, [closo-1-CB.sub.11 H.sub.12 ].sup.- and closo-1,12-(CH.sub.2 OH).sub.2 -1,12-C.sub.2 B.sub.10 H.sub.10 with an acid anhdride or acid chloride to form the ester or an alkylating agent to form the ether.

  13. Increasing the thermopower of crown-ether-bridged anthraquinones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismael, Ali K.; Grace, Iain; Lambert, Colin J.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate strategies for increasing the thermopower of crown-ether-bridged anthraquinones. The novel design feature of these molecules is the presence of either (1) crown-ether or (2) diaza-crown-ether bridges attached to the side of the current-carrying anthraquinone wire. The crown-ether side groups selectively bind alkali-metal cations and when combined with TCNE or TTF dopants, provide a large phase-space for optimising thermoelectric properties. We find that the optimum combination of cations and dopants depends on the temperature range of interest. The thermopowers of both 1 and 2 are negative and at room temperature are optimised by binding with TTF alone, achieving thermpowers of -600 μV K-1 and -285 μV K-1 respectively. At much lower temperatures, which are relevant to cascade coolers, we find that for 1, a combination of TTF and Na+ yields a maximum thermopower of -710 μV K-1 at 70 K, whereas a combination of TTF and Li+ yields a maximum thermopower of -600 μV K-1 at 90 K. For 2, we find that TTF doping yields a maximum thermopower of -800 μV K-1 at 90 K, whereas at 50 K, the largest thermopower (of -600 μV K-1) is obtain by a combination TTF and K+ doping. At room temperature, we obtain power factors of 73 μW m-1 K-2 for 1 (in combination with TTF and Na+) and 90 μW m-1 K-2 for 2 (with TTF). These are higher or comparable with reported power factors of other organic materials.We investigate strategies for increasing the thermopower of crown-ether-bridged anthraquinones. The novel design feature of these molecules is the presence of either (1) crown-ether or (2) diaza-crown-ether bridges attached to the side of the current-carrying anthraquinone wire. The crown-ether side groups selectively bind alkali-metal cations and when combined with TCNE or TTF dopants, provide a large phase-space for optimising thermoelectric properties. We find that the optimum combination of cations and dopants depends on the temperature range of interest. The

  14. Detonation characteristics of dimethyl ether and ethanol-air mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakow, P.; Cross, M.; Ciccarelli, G.

    2015-05-01

    The detonation cell structure in dimethyl ether vapor and ethanol vapor-air mixtures was measured at atmospheric pressure and initial temperatures in the range of 293-373 K. Tests were carried out in a 6.2-m-long, 10-cm inner diameter tube. For more reactive mixtures, a series of orifice plates were used to promote deflagration-to-detonation transition in the first half of the tube. For less reactive mixtures prompt detonation initiation was achieved with an acetylene-oxygen driver. The soot foil technique was used to capture the detonation cell structure. The measured cell size was compared to the calculated one-dimensional detonation reaction zone length. For fuel-rich dimethyl ether mixtures the calculated reaction zone is highlighted by a temperature gradient profile with two maxima, i.e., double heat release. The detonation cell structure was interpreted as having two characteristic sizes over the full range of mixture compositions. For mixtures at the detonation propagation limits the large cellular structure approached a single-head spin, and the smaller cells approached the size of the tube diameter. There is little evidence to support the idea that the two cell sizes observed on the foils are related to the double heat release predicted for the rich mixtures. There was very little influence of initial temperature on the cell size over the temperature range investigated. A double heat release zone was not predicted for ethanol-air detonations. The detonation cell size for stoichiometric ethanol-air was found to be similar to the size of the small cells for dimethyl ether. The measured cell size for ethanol-air did not vary much with composition in the range of 30-40 mm. For mixtures near stoichiometric it was difficult to discern multiple cell sizes. However, near the detonation limits there was strong evidence of a larger cell structure similar to that observed in dimethyl ether air mixtures.

  15. Ring-opening of cyclic ethers by aluminum hydridotriphenylborate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Debabrata; Osseili, Hassan; Truong, Khai-Nghi; Spaniol, Thomas P; Okuda, Jun

    2017-03-25

    Molecular aluminum hydride [(L)AlH 2 ] (L = Me 3 TACD) reacted with 2 equiv. of BPh 3 in THF or THP to give the cationic alkoxides [(L)Al(OR)][HBPh 3 ] (R = nBu, nPent) by facile ring-opening of the cyclic ethers. The C α -O bond cleavage which involves the isolable intermediate [(L)AlH][HBPh 3 ] is a result of hydride transfer to C α from [HBPh 3 ] - .

  16. Extraction separation of lithium isotopes with crown-ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsivadze, A.Yu.; Demin, S.V.; Levkin, A.V.; Zhilov, V.I.; Nikol'skij, S.F.; Knyazev, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    By the method of extraction chromatography lithium isotope separation coefficients are measured during chemical isotope exchange between lithium aquocomplex and its complex in chloroform with crown-ethers: benzo-15-crown-5, 15crown-5, dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 and dibenzo-18-crown-6. Lithium perchlorate and trichloroacetate are the salts extracted. Values of 6 Li/ 7 Li isotope separation are 1.0032-1.020

  17. Photochemical Degradation of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Microreactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vajglová, Zuzana; Veselý, M.; Hejda, S.; Vondráčková, Magdalena; Křišťál, Jiří; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Křesinová, Zdena; Tříska, Jan; Klusoň, Petr; Jiřičný, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 12 (2015), s. 9373-9381 ISSN 0922-6168. [Pannonian Symposium on Catalysis /12./. Castle Trest, 16.09.2014-20.09.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/12/0664; GA ČR GA104/09/0880 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:61388971 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : polybrominated diphenyl ethers * photochemical microreactor * debromination * photo degradation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.833, year: 2015

  18. Thermolysis of surface-immobilized phenethyl phenyl ether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III; Hitsman, V.M.

    1991-01-01

    Our research has focused on modeling the constraints on free-radical reactions that might be imposed in coal as a consequence of its cross-linked macromolecular structure by covalently bonding diphenylalkanes to an inert silica surface. A surface-immobilized phenethyl phenyl ether ({approx}PhCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}POh, or {approx}PPE-3) has been prepared as a model for ether linkages in lignin by the condensation of p-HOPhCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OPh with the surface hydroxyls of a high purity fumed silica. Thermolysis of {approx}PPE-3 at saturation surface coverage at 375{degree}C produces {approx}PhCH = CH{sub 2} and PhOH as the major products which are consistent with the proposed free-radical chain mechanism for the decomposition of fluid-phase phenethyl phenyl ether. However, significant quantities of {approx}PhCH{sub 3} and PhCHO (ca. 18% of the products) are produced indicating the emergence of a new reaction pathway on the surface. The mechanism for the decomposition of {approx}PPE-3 will be discussed in light of this new information. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Isotopic exchange of cyclic ethers with deuterium over metal catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchet, J.C.; Cornet, D.

    1976-01-01

    The exchange reaction between deuterium and cyclic ethers (oxolane and α-methyl derivatives) has been investigated using rhodium and palladium catalysts. The first hydrogen undergoing exchange has been found to be located on a β-carbon. This fact, and the poisoning of the exchange of cyclopentane in the presence of ether, suggest that the O atom participates in the exchange mechanism of ethers. It appears, however, that the oxygen--metal bonding occurs only during this simple exchange process; simultaneous adsorption of oxygen and a vicinal carbon causes hydrogenolysis of the O--C bond. In each case multiple exchange is important. In the oxolane molecule two sets of exchangeable hydrogens are distinguished according to their reactivities, as could be expected by analogy with cycloalkanes. However, this distinction is not so clear in the exchange patterns of substituted oxolanes, since intermediate maxima are observed in these cases. It is suggested that the conformational properties of the substituted rings cause a constraint in the formation of 3,4-diadsorbed oxolanes. Thus, multiple exchange, based on α,β-process, and epimerization via the ''roll-over'' mechanism occur preferentially in certain parts of the molecules

  20. DFT investigations of the reaction mechanism of diethyl carbonate synthesis catalyzed by Cu(I)/β or Pd(II)/β zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yongli; Wang, Shengping; Huang, Shouying; Li, Zhong; Ma, Xinbin

    2014-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are used to investigate the oxidative carbonylation of ethanol occurring on Cu(I)/β or Pd(II)/β. The thermochemistry and activation energy for all elementary steps involved in the formation of diethyl carbonate are presented. Upon calculation, we identify that the mechanisms for the formation of surface O atom are varying on different catalysts. Ethanol can react with the surface O atom to produce (C 2 H 5 O)(OH)-M/β (M = Cu + , Pd 2+ ) species. And this intermediate can further react with carbon monoxide or ethanol to give monoethyl carbonate or di-ethoxied species ((C 2 H 5 O) 2 -M/β). Diethyl carbonate can form via two distinct reaction pathways: (I) ethanol reacts with monoethyl carbonate or (II) carbon monoxide inserts into di-ethoxide species. Upon calculation, we confirmed that both reaction pathways for the formation of DEC are accessible on Cu(I)/β catalyst, whereas only Path II is achievable on Pd(II)/β catalyst.

  1. Studies on Viburnum nervosum Hook: Chemistry and Spectroscopy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Capprifoliaceae). This is the first time the compound has been isolated from the genus Viburnum. Derivatives of bergenin namely bergenin diethyl ether, bergenin pentaacetate and bergenin diethyl ether triacetate were prepared and characterized ...

  2. Microwave spectra of 2-phenylethyl methyl ether and 2-phenylethyl methyl ether-argon: Conformation-dependent tunneling and complexation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusinghe, Ranil M.; Tubergen, Michael J.

    2018-04-01

    High-resolution rotational spectra were recorded for 2-phenylethyl methyl ether and the 2-phenylethyl methyl ether - argon complex using a cavity-based Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. The spectra were assigned to the aao and g-ao monomer conformations and the g-ao - argon complex. Small tunneling splittings arising from more than one internal motion were resolved for eight transitions of the aao conformer; no tunneling splittings were observed in the spectra of the g-ao conformer or the argon complex. The calculated barriers (ωB97XD/6-311++G(d,p)) for methyl and phenyl internal rotations were found to be very similar for both conformers. The observation of tunneling splittings is limited to the aao conformer by relatively large barriers for the internal motions and sensitivity to the rotor axis angles within the two conformers.

  3. Preparation of poly(ether ether ketone)-based polymer electrolytes for fuel cell membranes using grafting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Shin; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Maekawa, Yasunari

    2008-01-01

    Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK)-based polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) was successfully prepared by radiation grafting of a styrene monomer into PEEK films and the consequent selective sulfonation of the grafting chains in the film state. Using milder sulfonation, the sulfonation reactions proceeded at the grafted chains in preference to the phenylene rings of PEEK main chains; as a result, the grafted films could successfully transform to a PEM with conductivity of more than 0.1 S/cm. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) and conductivity of the grafted PEEK electrolyte membranes were controlled to the ranges of 1.2-2.9 mmol/g and 0.03-0.18 S/cm by changing the grafting degree. It should be noted that this is the first example of directly transforming super-engineering plastic films into a PEM using radiation grafting

  4. Preparation and characterization of poly (methyl methacrylate) and sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) blend ultrafiltration membranes for protein separation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthanareeswaran, G.; Thanikaivelan, P.; Raajenthiren, M.

    2009-01-01

    Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly (methyl methacrylate)/sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) blend membranes were prepared by phase inversion technique in various composition using N,N'-dimethylformamide as solvent. The prepared membranes were characterized in terms of pure water flux, water content, porosity and thermal stability. The addition of SPEEK to the casting solution resulted in membranes with high pure water flux, water content, porosity and slightly low thermal stability. The cross sectional views of the blend membranes under electron microscope confirm the porosity and water flux results. The effect of the addition of SPEEK into the PMMA matrix on the extent of bovine serum albumin (BSA) separation was studied. It was found that the permeate flux increased significantly while the rejection of BSA from aqueous solution reduced moderately during ultrafiltration (UF) process. The effect was attributed to the increase in porosity and charge of the membrane due to the addition of SPEEK into the PMMA blend solution

  5. Pressure and temperature dependence of excess enthalpies of methanol + tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether and methanol + polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether 250

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, E.R.; Coxam, J.Y.; Fernandez, J.; Grolier, J.P.E.

    1999-12-01

    The excess molar enthalpies at 323.15 K, 373.15 K, and 423.15 K, at 8 MPa, are reported for the binary mixtures methanol + tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME) and methanol + poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether 250 (PEGDME 250). Excess molar enthalpies were determined with a Setaram C-80 calorimeter equipped with a flow mixing cell. For both systems, the excess enthalpies are positive over the whole composition range, increasing with temperature. The H{sup E}(x) curves are slightly asymmetrical, and their maxima are skewed toward the methanol-rich region. The excess enthalpies slightly change with the pressure, the sign of this change being composition-dependent. In the case of mixtures with TEGDME, the experimental H{sup E} values have been compared with those predicted with the Gmehling et al. version of UNIFAC (Dortmund) and the Nitta-Chao and DISQUAC group contribution models.

  6. A new catalyst layer based on in situ pore generation of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) for PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Wan-Keun; Sung, Kyung A; Oh, Keun-Hwan; Choo, Min-Ju; Park, Jung-Ki [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and WCU Energy Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea); Cho, Kuk Young [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kongju National University, 275, Budae-dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 303-717 (Korea); Cho, Ki-Yun [Fuel Cell Vehicle Team, Hyundai Motor Company and Kia Motors Corp., 104, Mabuk-Dong, Giheung-Gu, Yongin-Si, Gyunggi-Do 446-912 (Korea)

    2009-08-15

    A new concept of in situ pore generation to reduce water flooding in cathode catalyst layer (CCL) of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is proposed with the introduction of water soluble poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as a porogen to CCL based on sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK). In this new type of CCL, PEG is directly removed by water produced during the cathode reaction. The new CCL exhibited much higher cell performance especially in mass transport limitation region compared to the pristine sPEEK-CCL. In addition, the presence of PEG in the new CCL lowered the glass transition temperature of the sPEEK binder, and it could improve the transference of catalyst layer onto the polymer electrolyte membrane. (author)

  7. Poly (ether ether ketone) membranes for fuel cells; Membranas de poli (eter eter cetona) sulfonado para celulas a combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero, Jacqueline C.; Gomes, Ailton de S.; Filho, Jose C.D., E-mail: jacquecosta@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Hui, Wang S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Vivianna S. de [Escola Tecnica Rezende-Rammel, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Polymeric membranes were developed using a SPEEK polymer matrix (sulphonated poly (ether ether ketone)), containing hygroscopic particles of zirconia (Zr) (incorporated by sol-gel method), for use as electrolyte membranes in fuel cells. SPEEK with different sulfonation degrees were used: 63 and 86%. The thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) was carried out to characterize the membranes and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was carried out to evaluating the proton conductivity of the membranes. Additional analysis were underway in order to characterize these membranes, which include: X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in order to evaluate the influence of zirconia and sulfonation degree on the properties of the membranes. (author)

  8. Poly(mono/diethylene glycol n-tetradecyl ether vinyl ethers with Various Molecular Weights as Phase Change Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfang Pei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available At present, research on the relationship of comb-like polymer phase change material structures and their heat storage performance is scarce. Therefore, this relationship from both micro and macro perspectives will be studied in this paper. In order to achieve a high phase change enthalpy, ethylene glycol segments were introduced between the vinyl and the alkyl side chains. A series of poly(mono/diethylene glycol n-tetradecyl ether vinyl ethers (PC14EnVEs (n = 1, 2 with various molecular weights were polymerized by living cationic polymerization. The results of PC14E1VE and PC14E2VE showed that the minimum number of carbon atoms required for side-chain crystallization were 7.7 and 7.2, which were lower than that reported in the literature. The phase change enthalpy 89 J/g (for poly(mono ethylene glycol n-tetradecyl ether vinyl ethers and 86 J/g (for poly(hexadecyl acrylate were approximately equal. With the increase of molecular weight, the melting temperature, the melting enthalpy, and the initial thermal decomposition temperature of PC14E1VE changed from 27.0 to 28.0 °C, from 95 to 89 J/g, and from 264 to 287 °C, respectively. When the number average molar mass of PC14EnVEs exceeded 20,000, the enthalpy values remained basically unchanged. The introduction of the ethylene glycol chain was conducive to the crystallization of alkyl side chains.

  9. Effect of the SK/IK channel modulator 4,5-dichloro-1,3-diethyl-1,3-dihydro-benzoimidazol-2-one (NS4591) on contractile force in rat, pig and human detrusor smooth muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Steen; Rode, Frederik; Rahbek, Mette

    2011-01-01

    • To investigate the importance of small (SK)- and intermediate (IK)-conductance Ca2(+) -activated K(+) channels on bladder function, by studying the effects of 4,5-dichloro-1,3-diethyl-1,3-dihydro-benzoimidazol-2-one (NS4591), a new modulator of SK/IK channels, on contractions induced by electri......• To investigate the importance of small (SK)- and intermediate (IK)-conductance Ca2(+) -activated K(+) channels on bladder function, by studying the effects of 4,5-dichloro-1,3-diethyl-1,3-dihydro-benzoimidazol-2-one (NS4591), a new modulator of SK/IK channels, on contractions induced...

  10. Densely quaternized poly(arylene ether)s with distinct phase separation for highly anion-conductive membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanfang; Wang, Bingxi; Li, Xiao; Chen, Dongyang; Zhang, Weiying

    2018-05-01

    To develop high performance anion exchange membranes (AEMs), a novel bisphenol monomer bearing eight benzylmethyl groups at the outer edge of the molecule was synthesized, which after condensation polymerization with various amounts of 4,4‧-dihydroxydiphenylsulfone and 4,4‧-difluorobenzophenone yielded novel poly(arylene ether)s with densely located benzylmethyl groups. These benzylmethyl groups were then converted to quaternary ammonium groups by radical-initiated bromination and quaternization in tandem, leading to the emergence of densely quaternized poly(arylene ether sulfone)s (QA-PAEs) with controlled ion exchange capacities (IECs) ranging from 1.61 to 2.32 mmol g-1. Both small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies revealed distinct phase separation in the QA-PAEs. The QA-PAE-40 with an IEC of 2.32 mmol g-1 exhibited a Br- conductivity of 9.2 mS cm-1 and a SO42- conductivity of 14.0 mS cm-1 at room temperature, much higher than those of a control membrane with a similar IEC but without obvious phase separation. Therefore, phase separation of AEMs was validated to be advantageous for the efficient conducting of anions. The experimental results also showed that the QA-PAEs were promising AEM materials, especially for non-alkaline applications.

  11. The breakdown of vinyl ethers as a two-center synchronous reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokidova, T. S.; Shestakov, A. F.

    2009-11-01

    The experimental data on the molecular decomposition of vinyl ethers of various structures to alkanes and the corresponding aldehydes or ketones in the gas phase were analyzed using the method of intersecting parabolas. The enthalpies and kinetic parameters of decomposition were calculated for 17 reactions. The breakdown of ethers is a two-center concerted reaction characterized by a very high classical potential barrier to the thermally neutral reaction (180-190 kJ/mol). The kinetic parameters (activation energies and rate constants) of back reactions of the formation of vinyl ethers in the addition of aldehydes or ketones to alkanes were calculated using the method of intersecting parabolas. The factors that influenced the activation energy of the decomposition and formation of ethers were discussed. Quantum-chemical calculations of several vinyl ether decomposition reactions were performed. Ether formation reactions were compared with the formation of unsaturated alcohols as competitive reactions, which can occur in the interaction of carbonyl compounds with alkenes.

  12. 40 CFR 721.1729 - Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol mono Me ether. 721.1729 Section 721.1729 Protection... acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol mono Me ether... identified as boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

  13. Gold-catalyzed alkylation of silyl enol ethers with ortho-alkynylbenzoic acid esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Yamamoto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Unprecedented alkylation of silyl enol ethers has been developed by the use of ortho-alkynylbenzoic acid alkyl esters as alkylating agents in the presence of a gold catalyst. The reaction probably proceeds through the gold-induced in situ construction of leaving groups and subsequent nucleophilic attack on the silyl enol ethers. The generated leaving compound abstracts a proton to regenerate the silyl enol ether structure.

  14. Thermodynamics of Hydrogen Production from Dimethyl Ether Steam Reforming and Hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.A. Semelsberger

    2004-10-01

    The thermodynamic analyses of producing a hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feed from the process of dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming were investigated as a function of steam-to-carbon ratio (0-4), temperature (100 C-600 C), pressure (1-5 atm), and product species: acetylene, ethanol, methanol, ethylene, methyl-ethyl ether, formaldehyde, formic acid, acetone, n-propanol, ethane and isopropyl alcohol. Results of the thermodynamic processing of dimethyl ether with steam indicate the complete conversion of dimethyl ether to hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide for temperatures greater than 200 C and steam-to-carbon ratios greater than 1.25 at atmospheric pressure (P = 1 atm). Increasing the operating pressure was observed to shift the equilibrium toward the reactants; increasing the pressure from 1 atm to 5 atm decreased the conversion of dimethyl ether from 99.5% to 76.2%. The order of thermodynamically stable products in decreasing mole fraction was methane, ethane, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, n-propanol, ethylene, ethanol, methyl-ethyl ether and methanol--formaldehyde, formic acid, and acetylene were not observed. The optimal processing conditions for dimethyl ether steam reforming occurred at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.5, a pressure of 1 atm, and a temperature of 200 C. Modeling the thermodynamics of dimethyl ether hydrolysis (with methanol as the only product considered), the equilibrium conversion of dimethyl ether is limited. The equilibrium conversion was observed to increase with temperature and steam-to-carbon ratio, resulting in a maximum dimethyl ether conversion of approximately 68% at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 4.5 and a processing temperature of 600 C. Thermodynamically, dimethyl ether processed with steam can produce hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feeds--with hydrogen concentrations exceeding 70%. This substantiates dimethyl ether as a viable source of hydrogen for PEM fuel cells.

  15. Integrated catalytic and electrocatalytic conversion of substituted phenols and diaryl ethers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yang; Chia, Shao H.; Sanyal, Udishnu; Gutierrez, Oliver Y.; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2016-10-17

    Electrocatalytic hydrogenation and catalytic thermal hydrogenation of substituted phenols and diaryl ethers were studied on carbon-supported Rh. For electrocatalytic and catalytic thermal hydrogen addition reactions, the dominant reaction pathway is hydrogenation to cyclic alcohols and cycloalkyl ethers. The presence of substituting methyl or methoxy groups led to lower rates compared to unsubstituted phenol or diphenyl ether. Methoxy or benzyloxy groups, however, undergo C-O bond cleavage via hydrogenolysis and hydrolysis (minor pathway).

  16. Polyaza crown ether as non-nucleosidic building blocks in DNA-conjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Ulla; Rohr, Katja; Madsen, Rasmus K

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis of amphiphilic polyaza crown ether monomers X (palmityl-substituted), Y (cholesteryl-substituted) and Z (dipalmityl-subtituted) and their incorporation into oligonucleotides are described. Their effects on thermal duplex stability were investigated by UV melting curve analysis....... Thermal denaturation experiments showed remarkable stabilization of dsDNA by polyaza crown ether monomers when incorporated in opposite positions. The series of polyaza crown ether monomers (X, Y, and Z) with different lipophilicity showed a trend of increased stability of the corresponding ds......DNA with increasing lipophilicity of the polyaza crown ether monomer....

  17. Selective catalytic dehydration of furfuryl alcohol to 2, 2'-difurfuryl ether using a polyoxometalate catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaoxiang; Hao, Yanfeng; Wang, Jialin; Wang, Hao; Zheng, Yimeng; Tian, Hongyu; Liu, Yongguo; Sun, Baoguo

    2017-10-11

    The spice flavour compound 2, 2'-difurfuryl ether (DFE) is widely utilised in the food industry as it has a coffee-like, nutty, earthy, mushroom-like odour. However, despite intensive research efforts, to date, an environmentally friendly and practical synthetic preparation technique for 2, 2'-difurfuryl ether is still unavailable. Here, we investigate a new approach using polyoxometalate catalysts to selectively catalytically dehydrate furfuryl alcohol to 2, 2'-difurfuryl ether. We have successfully applied this methodology using the polyoxometalate (POMs) catalyst {[(CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 ) 4 N] 2 [SMo 12 O 40 ]} to produce 2,2'-difurfuryl ether in a 30.86% isolated yield.

  18. Synthesis of Poly(vinyl ether) Thermoplastic Elastomers Having Functional Soft Segments

    OpenAIRE

    今枝, 嗣人; 漆崎, 美智遠; 阪口, 壽一; 橋本, 保; Tsuguto, IMAEDA; Michio, URUSHISAKI; Toshikazu, SAKAGUCHI; Tamotsu, HASHIMOTO

    2013-01-01

    The ABA-type triblock copolymers consisting of poly(2-adarnantyl vinyl ether) [poly(2-AdVE) as outer hard segments and poly(6-acetoxyhexyl vinyl ether) [poly(AcHVE)] poly(6-hydroxyhexyl vinyl ether) [poly(H HVE)], or poly(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl vinyl ether [poly(MOEOVE)] as inner soft segments were synthesized by sequential living cationic polymerization. Despite the presence of polar functional groups such as ester, hydroxy, and oxyethylene units in their soft segments, the two polymer seg...

  19. AIRBORNE POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN A COMPUTER CLASSROOM OF COLLEGE IN TAIWAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. H. Chang ، C. R. Yang ، C. Y. Tsai ، W. C. Lin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study characterized the airborne exposure of students to thirty polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners inside and outside a computer classroom in a southern Taiwan college. Arithmetic mean values of total indoor and outdoor polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations were 125.0 pg/m3 (89.8 to 203.9 pg/m3 and 110.3 pg/m3 (83.5 to 157.0 pg/m3, respectively. Total indoor polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations were one order of magnitude lower than those detected in homes in Birmingham, United Kingdom and in Ottawa, Canada but were several times higher than those measured in the ambient air in Ottawa, Canada and from the Bohai Sea to the Arctic. The five highest indoor concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners were decabromodiphenyl ether (23.0 pg/m3, 4,4’-dibromodiphenyl ether (15.9 pg/m3, 2,2’,3,4,4’,5,5’,6-octabromodiphenyl ether (10.6 pg/m3, 2,4-dibromodiphenyl ether (10.3 pg/m3 and 2,2’,3,4,4’,5’,6-heptabromodiphenyl ether (10.0 pg/m3. Although indoor and outdoor total polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations did not significantly differ, the indoor concentrations of 2,4-dibromodiphenyl ether, 2,2’,4-tribromodiphenyl ether, 2,4,4’-tribromodiphenyl ether, 2,2’,4,5’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether and 2,3’,4’,6-tetrabromodiphenyl ether were significantly higher than their outdoor concentrations. This study suggests the following measures: 1 to increase the air exchange rate and open classroom doors and windows for several minutes before classes to reduce indoor PBDE concentrations; 2 to reduce polybrominated diphenyl ether emissions from new devices, it’s better to use computer-related products that meet the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive adopted by the European Union.

  20. Measurements of mass-fraction activity coefficient at infinite dilution of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, thiophene, alcohols, water, ethers, and ketones in hyperbranched polymer, Boltorn H2004, using inverse gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domanska, Urszula, E-mail: ula@ch.pw.edu.p [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland); Zolek-Tryznowska, Zuzanna [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-03-15

    Thermodynamic properties of the hyperbranched polymer, Boltorn H2004 (B-H2004), were investigated by inverse gas chromatography with 42 different solvents: n-alkanes (C{sub 5}-C{sub 10}), cycloalkanes (C{sub 5}-C{sub 8}), alkenes (C{sub 5}-C{sub 8}), alkynes (C{sub 5}-C{sub 8}), aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-, m-, p-xylene, thiophene), alcohols (C{sub 1}-C{sub 5}), water, ethers (tetrahydrofuran (THF), methyl-tert-butylether (MTBE), diethyl-, di-n-propyl-, di-n-butyl ether), and ketones (acetone, 2-pentanone, 3-pentanone, 2-hexanone, 3-hexanone, cyclopentanone) at the temperatures from (308.15 to 348.15) K using the inverse gas chromatography (IGC). The density and thermophysical properties of polymer were described. The specific retention volume (V{sub g}), the mass-fraction activity coefficient at infinite dilution (OMEGA{sub 13}{sup i}nfinity), the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (chi{sub 13}{sup i}nfinity), the molar enthalpy of sorption in the polymer (DELTA{sub s}H), the partial molar excess enthalpy at infinite dilution (DELTAH{sub 1}{sup E,i}nfinity), the molar enthalpy of vaporization to the ideal-gas state for the pure solutes (DELTA{sub vap}H{sup 0}), the partial molar Gibbs excess energy at infinite dilution (DELTAG{sub 1}{sup E,i}nfinity), and the solubility parameter of the polymer (delta{sub 3}), were calculated. The UNIFAC-FV model was used to predict the mass-fraction activity coefficient at infinite dilution for different solutes in the B-H2004 polymer.

  1. Radiochemical determination of 210Pb using crown ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, N.; Bodizs, D.; Vodicska, M.

    1994-01-01

    Gamma spectrometric determination of 210 Pb following chemical separation has been performed very precisely and with high sensitivity, due to the low and constant self-absorption of the chemically pure sample. A simple and quick method for the chemical separation of lead using crown ether has been developed. Its four steps are described in detail. The new method was verified using phosphate ore and gypsum samples that were measured in an interlaboratory comparison and with a standard reference material. This method can also be used for self-absorption correction in direct gamma spectrometry of 210 Pb. (N.T.) 4 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  2. Lanthanide crown ether complexes of p-sulfonatocalix[5]arene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgarno, Scott J; Hardie, Michaele J; Warren, John E; Raston, Colin L

    2004-08-21

    Two types of arrays are formed in water involving aza-crown ethers, p-sulfonatocalix[5]arene and europium(III) ions. One is a co-ordination polymer connecting calixarenes, sodium ions and lanthanide ions based on "ferris wheel" moieties incorporating aza-18-crown-6 and sodium ions. The second structure is a host-guest arrangement with di-protonated diaza-18-crown-6 in the cavity of the calixarenes as part of secondary coordination spheres of aquated europium(iii) ions.

  3. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the soil of typical industrial city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, K; Fu, S; Yang, Z Z; Xu, X B

    2009-12-01

    Linfen is generally recognized as one of the most polluted industrial cities in China. Indeed, Linfen is affected by heavy polluting industries and faces pollution by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). For this study, ten surface soil samples covering all of Linfen were collected and analyzed for 42 BDE congeners. The total PBDEs concentration ranged from 0.064 to 136.1 ng g−1. Moreover, source analysis indicated that PBDEs may be associated with the prevalent use of Deca-BDE in the industrial area of the city. Furthermore, higher levels of PBDE contamination were observed in south Linfen due to the distribution of industrial plants.

  4. Performance of long straw tubes using dimethyl ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.L.; Gianotti, P.; Giardoni, M.; Guaraldo, C.; Lanaro, A.; Lucherini, V.; Mecozzi, A.; Passamonti, L.; Russo, V.; Sarwar, S.

    1995-01-01

    A cylindrical tracking detector with an inner radius of one meter employing straw tubes is being envisaged for the FINUDA experiment aimed at hyper-nuclear physics at DAΦNE, the Frascati φ-factory. A prototype using several 10 mm and 20 mm diameter, two meter long aluminized mylar straws has been assembled and tested with a one GeV/c pion beam. While operating with dimethyl ether, gas gain, space resolution, and device systematics have been studied. A simple method of correction for systematics due to straw eccentricity has been developed and, once applied, a space resolution better than 40 μm can be reached. (orig.)

  5. Chemistry and properties of new poly(arylene ether imidazoles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.

    1990-01-01

    As part of a program to develop high-temperature high-performance structural resins for aerospace applications, the chemistry and properties of new poly(arylene ether imidazoles) were investigated. The polymers were prepared by the nucleophilic displacement reaction of aromatic bis(imidazolephenols) with activated aromatic difluoro compounds. The amorphous thermoplastic polymers exhibited glass transition temperatures from 230 to 301 C, inherent viscosities from 0.46 to 1.46 dL/g, and number-average molecular weights as high as 59,300 g/mole. The polymers exhibit good toughness, adhesive, composite, and film properties. The chemical, physical, and mechanical properties of these materials are discussed.

  6. Novel 1,3-alternate calix[4]thiacrown ethers

    CERN Document Server

    Sim, W B; Kwon, J C; Kim, J S; Kim, M J

    2002-01-01

    A series of novel 1,3-alternate calix[4]-mono-thiacrown and -bis-thiacrowns were synthesized within good yields. The three dimensional 1,3-alternate conformation was confirmed by X-ray crystal structure. From the results of two phase extraction and NMR studies on the ligand-metal complex, one can conclude that the calix[4]thiacrown ethers showed the very high selectivity for silver ion over other metal ions by an electrostatic interaction between sulfur atom and silver ion and by a pi-metal complexation.

  7. Dimethyl ether production from methanol and/or syngas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagle, Robert A; Wang, Yong; Baker, Eddie G; Hu, Jianli

    2015-02-17

    Disclosed are methods for producing dimethyl ether (DME) from methanol and for producing DME directly from syngas, such as syngas from biomass. Also disclosed are apparatus for DME production. The disclosed processes generally function at higher temperatures with lower contact times and at lower pressures than conventional processes so as to produce higher DME yields than do conventional processes. Certain embodiments of the processes are carried out in reactors providing greater surface to volume ratios than the presently used DME reactors. Certain embodiments of the processes are carried out in systems comprising multiple microchannel reactors.

  8. Direct dimethyl ether high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassiliev, Anton; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Li, Qingfeng

    A high temperature polybenzimidazole (PBI) polymer fuel cell was fed with dimethyl ether (DME) and water vapour mixture on the anode at ambient pressure with air as oxidant. A peak power density of 79 mW/cm2 was achieved at 200°C. A conventional polymer based direct DME fuel cell is liquid fed...... and suffers from low DME solubility in water. When the DME - water mixture is fed as vapour miscibility is no longer a problem. The increased temperature is more beneficial for the kinetics of the direct oxidation of DME than of methanol. The Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) with DME operation was 50 to 100 m...

  9. Enzymatic network for production of ether amines from alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacio, Cyntia M.; Crismaru, Ciprian G.; Bartsch, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    We constructed an enzymatic network composed of three different enzymes for the synthesis of valuable ether amines. The enzymatic reactions are interconnected to catalyze the oxidation and subsequent transamination of the substrate and to provide cofactor recycling. This allows production...... for reactions containing 10mM alcohol and up to 280mM ammonia corresponded well to predicted conversions. The results indicate that efficient amination can be driven by high concentrations of ammonia and may require improving enzyme robustness for scale-up....

  10. Production and characterization of a single-chain variable fragment linked alkaline phosphatase fusion protein for detection of O,O-diethyl organophosphorus pesticides in a one-step enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    A single-chain variable fragment (scFv) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) fusion protein for detection of O, O-diethyl organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) was produced and characterized. The scFv gene was prepared by cloning VL and VH genes from a hybridoma cell secreting monoclonal antibody with broad-s...

  11. Reaction of 3-Amino-1,2,4-Triazole with Diethyl Phosphite and Triethyl Orthoformate: Acid-Base Properties and Antiosteoporotic Activities of the Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Miszczyk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of diethyl phosphite with triethyl orthoformate and a primary amine followed by hydrolysis is presented, and the reaction was suitable for the preparation of (aminomethylenebisphosphonates. 3-Amino-1,2,4-triazole was chosen as an interesting substrate for this reaction because it possesses multiple groups that can serve as the amino component in the reaction—namely, the side-chain and triazole amines. This substrate readily forms 1,2,4-triazolyl-3-yl-aminomethylenebisphosphonic acid (compound 1 as a major product, along with N-ethylated bisphosphonates as side products. The in vitro antiproliferative effects of the synthesized aminomethylenebisphosphonic acids against J774E macrophages were determined. These compounds exhibit similar activity to zoledronic acid and higher activity than incadronic acid.

  12. Reaction of 3-Amino-1,2,4-Triazole with Diethyl Phosphite and Triethyl Orthoformate: Acid-Base Properties and Antiosteoporotic Activities of the Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszczyk, Patrycja; Wieczorek, Dorota; Gałęzowska, Joanna; Dziuk, Błażej; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Chmielewska, Ewa

    2017-02-08

    The reaction of diethyl phosphite with triethyl orthoformate and a primary amine followed by hydrolysis is presented, and the reaction was suitable for the preparation of (aminomethylene)bisphosphonates. 3-Amino-1,2,4-triazole was chosen as an interesting substrate for this reaction because it possesses multiple groups that can serve as the amino component in the reaction-namely, the side-chain and triazole amines. This substrate readily forms 1,2,4-triazolyl-3-yl-aminomethylenebisphosphonic acid (compound 1 ) as a major product, along with N -ethylated bisphosphonates as side products. The in vitro antiproliferative effects of the synthesized aminomethylenebisphosphonic acids against J774E macrophages were determined. These compounds exhibit similar activity to zoledronic acid and higher activity than incadronic acid.

  13. Pseudo-first-order alkaline hydrolysis of diethyl tartrate: a baseline study for a polymer matrix used in controlled-release delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalonia, D S; Simonelli, A P

    1990-04-01

    The hydrolysis kinetics of a bifunctional group compound, diethyl tartrate, was studied as a function of temperature and pH in the alkaline region. A pH-stat was used to maintain constant pH conditions in the alkaline region. This allowed the studies to be carried out at low ionic strengths and without the use of buffers. The results indicate that the hydrolysis for both steps followed specific base catalysis. The ratio of the two rate constants was 13.31, which was attributed to a strong charge effect in the second step. The results also show that the use of an overall average rate constant may not be acceptable for multifunctional group compounds.

  14. Sorption-desorption behavior of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olshansky, Yaniv; Polubesova, Tamara [Department of Soil and Water Sciences, Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Vetter, Walter [Institute of Food Chemistry (170b), University of Hohenheim, Garbenstr. 28, D-70599 Stuttgart (Germany); Chefetz, Benny, E-mail: chefetz@agri.huji.ac.il [Department of Soil and Water Sciences, Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2011-10-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants that are commonly found in commercial and household products. These compounds are considered persistent organic pollutants. In this study, we used 4,4'-dibromodiphenyl ether (BDE-15) as a model compound to elucidate the sorption and desorption behavior of PBDEs in soils. The organic carbon-normalized sorption coefficient (K{sub OC}) of BDE-15 was more than three times higher for humin than for bulk soils. However, pronounced desorption hysteresis was obtained mainly for bulk soils. For humin, increasing concentration of sorbed BDE-15 resulted in decreased desorption. Our data illustrate that BDE-15 and probably other PBDEs exhibit high sorption affinity to soils. Moreover, sorption is irreversible and thus PBDEs can potentially accumulate in the topsoil layer. We also suggest that although humin is probably a major sorbent for PBDEs in soils, other humic materials are also responsible for their sequestration. - Highlights: > BDE-15 exhibited pronounced desorption hysteresis. > BDE-15 sowed higher sorption affinity to humin as compared to the bulk soils. > Sequestration of PBDEs depends on soil organic matter constitutes other than humin. - Pronounced desorption hysteresis was observed for BDE-15 in natural soils.

  15. Entropy Generation Minimization in Dimethyl Ether Synthesis: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Diego; Razzitte, Adrián César

    2018-04-01

    Entropy generation minimization is a method that helps improve the efficiency of real processes and devices. In this article, we study the entropy production (due to chemical reactions, heat exchange and friction) in a conventional reactor that synthesizes dimethyl ether and minimize it by modifying different operating variables of the reactor, such as composition, temperature and pressure, while aiming at a fixed production of dimethyl ether. Our results indicate that it is possible to reduce the entropy production rate by nearly 70 % and that, by changing only the inlet composition, it is possible to cut it by nearly 40 %, though this comes at the expense of greater dissipation due to heat transfer. We also study the alternative of coupling the reactor with another, where dehydrogenation of methylcyclohexane takes place. In that case, entropy generation can be reduced by 54 %, when pressure, temperature and inlet molar flows are varied. These examples show that entropy generation analysis can be a valuable tool in engineering design and applications aiming at process intensification and efficient operation of plant equipment.

  16. Synthesis of hydroxy thio-ether derivatives of vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Brajendra K; Adhvaryu, A; Erhan, S Z

    2006-12-27

    Bio-based additives are desirable commodities due to their eco-friendly nature. These additives can demonstrate physical and chemical properties comparable to those of conventional mineral oil-based products. Sulfur incorporated triacylglycerol can function as an antiwear/antifriction additive for lubricants. The synthesis of four useful hydroxy thio-ether derivatives of vegetable oils, from commercially available epoxidized soybean oil and common organic thiols, is reported in this paper. The common thiols used herein were 1-butanethiol, 1-decanethiol, 1-octadecanethiol, and cyclohexyl mercaptan. Currently, there is no reported literature describing the synthesis of hydroxy thio-ether derivatives of vegetable oil. The reaction was monitored, and products were confirmed by NMR and FTIR spectroscopies. Experimental conditions involving various thiols, solvent, catalyst amount, time, and temperature were optimized for research quantity and laboratory scale-up. The synthetic process retains the vegetable oil structure, eliminates polyunsaturation in the molecule, and adds polar functional groups on triacylglycerol. These products can be used as agriculturally-based antiwear additives for lubricant applications.

  17. Novel Ordered Crown Ether-Containing Polyimides for Ion Conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Jennifer A.; Stasko, Daniel; Fallis, Stephen; Guenthner, Andrew J.; Webber, Cynthia; Blackwell, John; Chvalun, Sergei N.

    2003-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of thermally-stable polyimides for use as battery and fuel cell electrolyte membranes. Dianhydrides used were 1,4,5,8- naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride and/or 4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphthalic anhydride. Diamines used were anti-4,4-diaminodibenzo-l8-crown-6, 4,4'- diaminodibenzo-24-crown-8, 2,2-bis(4-aminophenyl)hexafluoropropane, and/or 2,5- diaminobenzenesulfonic acid. The polymers were characterized using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. Polymers containing the hexafluoroisopropylidene (HFIP) group were soluble in common organic solvents, while polymers without the HFIP group were very poorly soluble. Sulfonation yields polymers that are sparingly soluble in aqueous base and/or methanol. Degree of sulfonation, determined by titration, was between one and three sulfonate groups per repeat unit. Proton conductivity was determined as a function of water content, with a maximum conductivity of l x 10(exp -2) per centimeter when fully hydrated. Crown ether-containing polymers exhibit a high degree of order that may be indicative of crown ether channel formation, which may facilitate Li(+) transport for use in battery membranes.

  18. Developmental toxicity of diphenyl ether herbicides in nestling American kestrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D J; Spann, J W; LeCaptain, L J; Bunck, C M; Rattner, B A

    1991-11-01

    Beginning the day after hatching, American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings were orally dosed for 10 consecutive days with 5 microliters/g of corn oil (controls) or one of the diphenyl ether herbicides (nitrofen, bifenox, or oxyfluorfen) at concentrations of 10, 50, 250, or 500 mg/kg in corn oil. At 500 mg/kg, nitrofen resulted in complete nestling mortality, bifenox in high (66%) mortality, and oxyfluorfen in no mortality. Nitrofen at 250 mg/kg reduced nestling growth as reflected by decreased body weight, crown-rump length, and bone lengths including humerus, radius-ulna, femur, and tibiotarsus. Bifenox at 250 mg/kg had less effect on growth than nitrofen, but crown-rump, humerus, radius-ulna, and femur were significantly shorter than controls. Liver weight as a percent of body weight increased with 50 and 250 mg/kg nitrofen. Other manifestations of impending hepatotoxicity following nitrofen ingestion included increased hepatic GSH peroxidase activity in all nitrofen-treated groups, and increased plasma enzyme activities for ALT, AST, and LDH-L in the 250-mg/kg group. Bifenox ingestion resulted in increased hepatic GSH peroxidase activity in the 50- and 250-mg/kg groups. Nitrofen exposure also resulted in an increase in total plasma thyroxine (T4) concentration. These findings suggest that altricial nestlings are more sensitive to diphenyl ether herbicides than young or adult birds of precocial species.

  19. Crystal structure and thermal property of polyethylene glycol octadecyl ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Jie-yun; Tang, Xiao-fen; Li, Wei; Shi, Hai-feng; Zhang, Xing-xiang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The crystal structure of C18En for n ≥ 20 is a monoclinic system. ► Polyethylene glycol octadecyl ether crystallizes perfectly. ► The number of repeat units has significant effect on the melting, crystallizing temperature and enthalpy. ► The thermal stable temperature increases rapidly with increasing the number of repeat unit. - Abstract: The crystal structure, phase change property and thermal stable temperature (T d ) of polyethylene glycol octadecyl ether [HO(CH 2 CH 2 O) n C 18 H 37 , C18En] with various numbers of repeat units (n = 2, 10, 20 and 100) as phase change materials (PCMs) were investigated using temperature variable Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). C18En crystallizes perfectly at 0 °C; and the crystal structure for n ≥ 20 is a monoclinic system. The number of repeat units has great effect on the phase change properties of C18En. The thermal stable temperature increases rapidly with increasing the number of repeat units. They approach to that of PEG-2000 as the number of repeat units is more than 10. T d increases rapidly with increasing the number of repeat units. C18En are a series of promising polymeric PCMs

  20. Radiation-induced cationic polymerization of vinyl ethers in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deffieux, A.; Young, J.A.; Hsieh, W.C.; Squire, D.R.; Stannett, V.

    1983-01-01

    The influences of the polymerization media, the monomer and solvent concentrations and the temperature on the radiation-induced polymerization of isopropyl vinyl ether (IPVE) have been studied in detail under super-dry conditions. Rates of polymerization were measured and estimates of the rate constants of polymerization were calculated according to the simplified Hayashi-Williams equation. A comparison of the results with those previously reported for ethyl vinyl ether (EVE) is made. The much higher reactivity of IPVC in low polar solvents is interpreted by a drastic reduction of the polymer intramolecular solvation of the growing chain ends. This is ascribed to the bulkiness of the isopropyl side-chain groups. The radiation-induced polymerization of IPVE in bulk and in various solvents with different physical and solvating properties was studied. This was to obtain further information on the kinetics and the mechanisms involved with this monomer and also the role of the polymerization media. The influence of the monomer and solvent concentrations and of the polymerization temperature on the rate of polymerization have also been investigated. (author)

  1. Determination of Icing Inhibitors (Ethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether and Diethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether) in Ground Water by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ho Sang; Jung, Dong Gyun [Kongju National University, Kongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-15

    A gas chromatography/mass spectrometric assay method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of icing inhibitors, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and diethylene glycol monomethyl ether in ground water contaminated with JP-8. Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether and ethylene glycol monoethyl ether were used as the internal standard and surrogate, respectively. 100 mL of ground water was extracted twice with 20 mL of methylene chloride. The extract was concentrated to dryness, dissolved with 100 μL of methanol and analyzed by GC-MS (SIM). The use of an Innowax column gave the peaks good chromatographic properties, and the extraction of these compounds from samples gave recoveries of about 50% with small variations. The method detection limits of the target compounds were in a range of 0.5-0.8 ng/mL in ground water.

  2. Novel sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) with pendant benzimidazole groups as a proton exchange membrane for direct methanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yang; Shao, Ke; Zhao, Chengji; Zhang, Gang; Li, Hongtao; Fu, Tiezhu; Na, Hui [Alan G MacDiarmid Institute, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Qianjin Street 2699, Changchun 130012, Jilin (China)

    2009-10-20

    A series of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)s bearing pendant carboxylic acid groups (C-SPEEKs) have been prepared and subsequently react with 1,2-diaminobenzene to obtain sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)s with pendant benzimidazole groups (BI-SPEEKs). The expected structures of the sulfonated copolymers are confirmed by {sup 1}H NMR. The resulting copolymers all show good thermal and mechanical properties. It should be noted that the introduction of benzimidazole groups into the copolymer improves its thermal and oxidative stability obviously. Meanwhile, compared to C-SPEEK, BI-SPEEK membranes show much lower water uptake and methanol permeability with the same sulfonation degree (DS). In order to study morphological changes of C-SPEEK and BI-SPEEK membranes, hydrophilic domains sizes from an atomic force microscopy (AFM) are investigated. (author)

  3. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ether, and ethylene oxide. 721.7000 Section 721.7000 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ethylene oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide (P-91...

  4. Synthesis of Novel Bibrachial Lariat Ethers (BiBLEs) Containing [1,2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A practical and regioselective method for the synthesis of cis-diastereomers of bibrachial lariat ethers (BiBLEs) bearing ester and amide groups is reported. The novel bibrachial lariat ethers (BiBLEs) 3a–d with neutral side chains were prepared by reaction of the corresponding aza-crown macrocycles 1a–b with ethyl ...

  5. The kinetics of 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether crosslinking of dermal sheep collagen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, R.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; van Wachem, Pauline B.; van Luyn, Marja J.A.; Hendriks, Marc; Cahalan, Patrick T.; Feijen, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Dermal sheep collagen was crosslinked with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDGE) or modified with glycidyl isopropyl ether (PGE). The reduction in amine groups as a function of time was followed to study the overall reaction kinetics of collagen with either BDDGE or PGE. Linearization of the

  6. The kinetics of 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether crosslinking of dermal sheep collagen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, R; Dijkstra, PJ; van Wachem, PB; van Luyn, MJA; Hendriks, M; Cahalan, PT; Feijen, J

    2000-01-01

    Dermal sheep collagen was crosslinked with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDGE) or modified with glycidyl isopropyl ether (PGE). The reduction in amine groups as a function of time was followed to study the overall reaction kinetics of collagen with either BDDGE or PGE;. Linearization of the

  7. The antifungal activity of methanol and ether extracts of the leaves of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    extracts from the leaves of Leonotis nepetafolia showed that they contain quinones, saponosides, flavonoids and tannins. The high amount of quinones was remarked in both methanol and ether extracts while saponins were more well extracted by methanol compared to ether. Tannins and flavonoids found in methanol ...

  8. Aspects of reaction of N-oxide radical with ethers in 13C NMR spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolodziejski, W.

    1980-01-01

    The stable radical N-oxide 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine was dissolved in ethers. The 13 C NMR spectra were recorded in the temperature 313K at the frequency 22,625 MHz on the spectrometers with Fourier transformation. The dissolution of the radical in ether caused the contact shifts in NMR spectra. The shifts were measured. (A.S.)

  9. Ether-Directed ortho-C–H Olefination with a PdII/MPAA Catalyst**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Leow, Dasheng; Wan, Li; Yu, Jin-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Weak coordination is powerful! A PdII-catalyzed olefination of ortho-C–H bonds of arenes directed by weakly coordinating ethers is developed using mono-protected amino acid (MPAA) ligands. This finding provides a method for chemically modifying ethers, which are abundant in natural products and drug molecules. PMID:23239120

  10. Direct dimethyl ether fueling of a high temperature polymer fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Vassiliev, Anton; Olsen, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    Direct dimethyl ether (DME) fuel cells suffer from poor DME–water miscibility and so far peak powers of only 20–40 mW cm−2 have been reported. Based on available literature on solubility of dimethyl ether (DME) in water at ambient pressure it was estimated that the maximum concentration of DME at...

  11. IRON(III) NITRATE-CATALYZED FACILE SYNTHESIS OF DIPHENYLMETHYL (DPM) ETHERS FROM ALCOHOLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diphenyl methyl (DPM) ethers constitute important structural portion of some pharmaceutical entities and also as protective group for hydroxyl groups in synthetic chemistry. DPM ethers are normally prepared using concentrated acids or base as catalysts, which may result in the fo...

  12. A convenient procedure for the synthesis of allyl and benzyl ethers ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Allyl and benzyl groups are commonly employed for the protection of alcohol and phenol moieties for ease of synthesis and convenient deprotection. Allyl and benzyl ethers are also intermediates in sigmatropic rearrangement reactions such as the Claisen and the. Cope rearrangements. Allyl ethers can be prepared from ...

  13. Mechanical properties and chemical stability of pivalolactone-based poly(ether ester)s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijsma, E.J.; Tijsma, E.J.; van der Does, L.; Bantjes, A.; Bantjes, A.; Vulic, I.

    1994-01-01

    The processing, mechanical and chemical properties of poly(ether ester)s, prepared from pivalolactone (PVL), 1,4-butanediol (4G) and dimethyl terephthalate (DMT), were studied. The poly(ether ester)s could easily be processed by injection moulding, owing to their favourable rheological and thermal

  14. Reduced muscle strength in ether lipid-deficient mice is accompanied by altered development and function of the neuromuscular junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorninger, Fabian; Herbst, Ruth; Kravic, Bojana; Camurdanoglu, Bahar Z.; Macinkovic, Igor; Zeitler, Gerhard; Forss-Petter, Sonja; Strack, Siegfried; Khan, Muzamil Majid; Waterham, Hans R.; Rudolf, Rüdiger; Hashemolhosseini, Said; Berger, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Inherited deficiency in ether lipids, a subgroup of phospholipids whose biosynthesis needs peroxisomes, causes the fatal human disorder rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata. The exact roles of ether lipids in the mammalian organism and, therefore, the molecular mechanisms underlying the disease are

  15. Oil recovery with sulfomethylated poly (lower alkyl vinyl ether/maleic anhydride)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, C.J.; Falk, D.O.

    1973-05-22

    Lower alkyl vinyl ether e.g., methyl vinyl ether, propyl vinyl ether, isopropyl vinyl ether, hexyl vinyl ether, is copolymerized conventionally with maleic anhydride, the resulting copolymer is treated with ammonia or ammonium hydroxide to form the partial amide-ammonium salt, and this salt is in turn treated with formaldehyde and thereafter or simultaneously with ammonium or alkali metal salt sulfite (including bisulfites, etc.) to form an at least partially sulfomethylated copolymer. Aqueous solutions of the sulfomethylated copolymer are useful in increasing the viscosity of drive fluids used in the supplemented recovery of petroleum from subterranean formations. In general, enhancing the polyionic character of mobility control agents used in supplemented recovery of petroleum provides enhanced recovery. Achieving this enhancement of polyionic character through use of sulfonate groups provides a mobility control agent with good ability to sustain viscosity in the presence of brine and lime, usually present in the connate waters of petroleum-bearing formations. (7 claims)

  16. Degradation of Perfluorinated Ether Lubricants on Pure Aluminum Surfaces: Semiempirical Quantum Chemical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaby, Scott M.; Ewing, David W.; Zehe, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    The AM1 semiempirical quantum chemical method was used to model the interaction of perfluoroethers with aluminum surfaces. Perfluorodimethoxymethane and perfluorodimethyl ether were studied interacting with aluminum surfaces, which were modeled by a five-atom cluster and a nine-atom cluster. Interactions were studied for edge (high index) sites and top (low index) sites of the clusters. Both dissociative binding and nondissociative binding were found, with dissociative binding being stronger. The two different ethers bound and dissociated on the clusters in different ways: perfluorodimethoxymethane through its oxygen atoms, but perfluorodimethyl ether through its fluorine atoms. The acetal linkage of perfluorodimeth-oxymethane was the key structural feature of this molecule in its binding and dissociation on the aluminum surface models. The high-index sites of the clusters caused the dissociation of both ethers. These results are consistent with the experimental observation that perfluorinated ethers decompose in contact with sputtered aluminum surfaces.

  17. Williamson alkylation approach to the synthesis of poly(alkyl vinyl ether) copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markova, D.; Christova, D.; Velichkova, R.

    2008-01-01

    A method for synthesis of poly(alkyl vinyl ether-co-vinyl alcohol) copolymers was developed based on the Williamson's alkylation of poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) with alkyl iodides. The influence of the alkylating agent and the reaction conditions on the efficiency of the modification reaction was investigated. The copolymers obtained were characterized by means of 1 H NMR and GPC. It was proved that by applying the proposed method copolymers of different composition and properties containing methyl vinyl ether, ethyl vinyl ether as well as n-butyl vinyl ether units could be prepared. Poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-vinyl alcohol)s of high degree of methylation exhibit sharp temperature response at 38-39 deg C in aqueous solution typical of the so-called smart polymers. (authors)

  18. Halogen derivatives of benzo- and dibenzocrown ethers: synthesis, structure, properties and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluzhnik-Gladyr, S M

    2016-01-01

    Methods of synthesis of halogenated benzo- and dibenzocrown ether derivatives are surveyed: halogenation of benzo- and dibenzocrown ethers with molecular halogens, N-halosuccinimides in the solid phase and different media (water, ethanol, halohydrocarbons) and hypohalites in water, as well as the 'assembly' method. Reactions of these compounds are considered: synthesis of phosphorus-containing crown ethers, organometallic synthesis, the Heck and Sonogashira reactions, synthesis of acetylene derivatives and other reactions. Special attention is focused on the complexing properties of halogenated benzocrown ethers with respect to ionic guests and neutral organic molecules. The possibility of synthesis of complexes of such compounds in the solid phase is demonstrated. The extraction and sorption properties of halogenated benzo- and dibenzocrown ethers are considered. Examples of practical use of these compounds are presented. The bibliography includes 203 references

  19. Anaerobic degradation of glycol ether-ethanol mixtures using EGSB and hybrid reactors: Performance comparison and ether cleavage pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, P; San-Valero, P; Gabaldón, C; Martínez-Soria, V; Penya-Roja, J M

    2018-05-01

    The anaerobic biodegradation of ethanol-glycol ether mixtures as 1-ethoxy-2-propanol (E2P) and 1-methoxy-2-propanol (M2P), widely used in printing facilities, was investigated by means of two laboratory-scale anaerobic bioreactors at 25 o C: an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor and an anaerobic hybrid reactor (AHR), which incorporated a packed bed to improve biomass retention. Despite AHR showed almost half of solid leakages compared to EGSB, both reactors obtained practically the same performance for the operating conditions studied with global removal efficiencies (REs) higher than 92% for organic loading rates (OLRs) as high as 54 kg of chemical oxygen demand (COD) m -3 d -1 (REs of 70% and 100% for OLRs of 10.6 and 8.3 kg COD m -3 d -1 for E2P and M2P, respectively). Identified byproducts allowed clarifying the anaerobic degradation pathways of these glycol ethers. Thus, this study shows that anaerobic scrubber can be a feasible treatment for printing emissions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Enhanced response of microbial fuel cell using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone membrane as a biochemical oxygen demand sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyaru, Sivasankaran; Dharmalingam, Sangeetha

    2014-03-25

    The present study is focused on the development of single chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC) using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane to determine the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) matter present in artificial wastewater (AW). The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm when using artificial wastewater. This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion(®). The most serious problem in using MFC as a BOD sensor is the oxygen diffusion into the anode compartment, which consumes electrons in the anode compartment, thereby reducing the coulomb yield and reducing the electrical signal from the MFC. SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion(®), resulting in low internal resistance and substrate loss, thus improving the sensing range of BOD. The system was further improved by making a double membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with an increased electrode surface area which provide high surface area for electrically active bacteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Novel sulfonated poly (ether ether keton)/polyetherimide acid-base blend membranes for vanadium redox flow battery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shuai; Wang, Lihua; Ding, Yue; Liu, Biqian; Han, Xutong; Song, Yanlin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • SPEEK/PEI acid-base blend membranes are prepared for VRB applications. • The acid-base blend membranes have much lower vanadium ion permeability. • The energy efficiency of SPEEK/PEI maintain around 86.9% after 50 cycles. - Abstract: Novel acid-base blend membranes composed of sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) and polyetherimide (PEI) were prepared for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB). The blend membranes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The ion exchange capacity (IEC), proton conductivity, water uptake, vanadium ion permeability and mechanical properties were measured. As a result, the acid-base blend membranes exhibit higher water uptake, IEC and lower vanadium ion permeability compared to Nafion117 membranes and all these properties decrease with the increase of PEI. In VRB single cell test, the VRB with blend membranes shows lower charge capacity loss, higher coulombic efficiency (CE) and energy efficiency (EE) than Nafion117 membrane. Furthermore, the acid-base blend membranes present stable performance up to 50 cycles with no significant decline in CE and EE. All experimental results indicate that the SPEEK/PEI (S/P) acid-base blend membranes show promising prospects for VRB

  2. Molecular motions of non-crystalline poly(aryl ether-ether-ketone) PEEK and influence of electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasuga, T.; Hagiwara, M.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamic mechanical relaxation of non-crystalline poly(aryl ether-ether-ketone) PEEK and the one irradiated with electron beam were studied. The three distinct γ, β, α' relaxation maxima were observed in unirradiated PEEK from low to high temperature. It was revealed from the study on the irradiation effects that three different molecular processes are overlapped in γ relaxation peak, i.e., molecular motion of water bound to main chain, local motion of main chain, and local mode of the aligned and/or oriented moiety. The β relaxation connected with the glass transition occurred at 150 deg C and it shifted to higher temperature by irradiation. The α' relaxation which can be attributed to rearrangement of molecular chain due to crystallization was observed in unirradiated PEEK approx. 180 deg C and its magnitude decreased with the increase in irradiation dose. This effect indicates the formation of structures inhibiting crystallization such as crosslinking and/or short branching during irradiation. A new relaxation, β', appeared in the temperature range of 40 deg to 100 deg C by irradiation and its magnitude increased with dose. This relaxation was attributed to rearrangement of molecular chain from loosened packing around chain ends, which were introduced into the non-crystalline region by chain scission under irradiation, to more rigid molecular packing. (author)

  3. Effect of surface finishing on friction and wear of Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketone (PEEK under oil lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Fontoura de Andrade

    Full Text Available Abstract The tribological properties of poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK containing 30% of carbon fiber were studied in an oil-lubricated environment and different surface finishing of the metallic counterbody. Four different finishing processes, commonly used in the automotive industry, were chosen for this study: turning, grinding, honing and polishing. The test system used was tri-pin on disc with pins made of PEEK and counterbody made of steel; they were fully immersed in ATF Dexron VI oil. Some test parameters were held constant, such as the apparent pressure of 2 MPa, linear velocity of 2 m/s, oil temperature at 85 °C, and the time - 120 minutes. The lubrication regime for the apparent pressure of 1 MPa to 7 MPa range was also studied at different sliding speeds. A direct correlation was found between the wear rate, friction coefficient and the lubrication regime, wherein wear under hydrodynamic lubrication was, on average, approximately 5 times lower, and the friction coefficient 3 times lower than under boundary lubrication.

  4. Effect of chemical etching on the Cu/Ni metallization of poly (ether ether ketone)/carbon fiber composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Lizhi; Liu Bin; Song Jianjing; Shan Dan; Yang Dean

    2011-01-01

    Poly(ether ether ketone)/carbon fiber composites (PEEK/Cf) were chemical etched by Cr 2 O 3 /H 2 SO 4 solution, electroless plated with copper and then electroplated with nickel. The effects of chemical etching time and temperature on the adhesive strength between PEEK/Cf and Cu/Ni layers were studied by thermal shock method. The electrical resistance of some samples was measured. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to analyze the surface composition and functional groups. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to observe the surface morphology of the composite, the chemical etched sample, the plated sample and the peeled metal layer. The results indicated that C=O bond increased after chemical etching. With the increasing of etching temperature and time, more and more cracks and partially exposed carbon fibers appeared at the surface of PEEK/Cf composites, and the adhesive strength increased consequently. When the composites were etched at 60 deg. C for 25 min and at 70-80 deg. C for more than 15 min, the Cu/Ni metallization layer could withstand four thermal shock cycles without bubbling, and the electrical resistivity of the metal layer of these samples increased with the increasing of etching temperature and time.

  5. Nanocomposite Based on Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles and Sulfonated Poly(ether ether ketone Membranes: Synthesis and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iole Venditti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles, capped by 3-mercapto propane sulfonate (Au-3MPS, were synthesized inside a swollen sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone membrane (sPEEK. The formation of the Au-3MPS nanoparticles in the swollen sPEEK membrane was observed by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The nanocomposite containing the gold nanoparticles grown in the sPEEK membrane, showed the plasmon resonance λmax at about 520 nm, which remained stable over a testing period of three months. The size distribution of the nanoparticles was assessed, and the sPEEK membrane roughness, both before and after the synthesis of nanoparticles, was studied by AFM. The XPS measurements confirm Au-3MPS formation in the sPEEK membrane. Moreover, AFM experiments recorded in fluid allowed the production of images of the Au-3MPS@sPEEK composite in water at different pH levels, achieving a better understanding of the membrane behavior in a water environment; the dynamic hydration process of the Au-3MPS@sPEEK membrane was investigated. These preliminary results suggest that the newly developed nanocomposite membranes could be promising materials for fuel cell applications.

  6. Novel proton exchange membranes based on structure-optimized poly(ether ether ketone ketone)s and nanocrystalline cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Chuangjiang; Wei, Yingcong; Zhao, Qi; Liu, Baijun; Sun, Zhaoyan; Gu, Yan; Zhang, Mingyao; Hu, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Two sulfonated fluorenyl-containing poly(ether ether ketone ketone)s (SFPEEKKs) were synthesized as the matrix of composite proton exchange membranes by directly sulfonating copolymer precursors comprising non-sulfonatable fluorinated segments and sulfonatable fluorenyl-containing segments. Surface-modified nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) was produced as the "performance-enhancing" filler by treating the microcrystalline cellulose with acid. Two families of SFPEEKK/NCC nanocomposite membranes with various NCC contents were prepared via a solution-casting procedure. Results revealed that the insertion of NCC at a suitable ratio could greatly enhance the proton conductivity of the pristine membranes. For example, the proton conductivity of SFPEEKK-60/NCC-4 (SFPEEKK with 60% fluorenyl segments in the repeating unit, and inserted with 4% NCC) composite membrane was as high as 0.245 S cm-1 at 90 °C, which was 61.2% higher than that of the corresponding pure SFPEEKK-60 membrane. This effect could be attributed to the formation of hydrogen bond networks and proton conduction paths through the interaction between -SO3H/-OH groups on the surface of NCC particles and -SO3H groups on the SFPEEKK backbones. Furthermore, the chemically modified NCC filler and the optimized chemical structure of the SFPEEKK matrix also provided good dimensional stability and mechanical properties of the obtained nanocomposites. In conclusion, these novel nanocomposites can be promising proton exchange membranes for fuel cells at moderate temperatures.

  7. Highly stable ionic-covalent cross-linked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) for direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Linfeng; Zhu, Xingye; Xu, Jianfeng; Qian, Huidong; Zou, Zhiqing; Yang, Hui

    2017-05-01

    A novel ionic cross-linked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) containing equal content of sulfonic acid and pendant tertiary amine groups (TA-SPEEK) has been initially synthesized for the application in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). By adjusting the ratio of p-xylene dibromide to tertiary amine groups of TA-SPEEK, a series of ionic-covalent cross-linked membranes (C-SPEEK-x) with tunable degree of cross-linking are prepared. Compared with the pristine membrane, the ionic and ionic-covalent cross-linked proton exchange membranes (PEMs) exhibit reduced methanol permeability and improved mechanical properties, dimensional and oxidative stability. The proton conductivity and methanol selectivity of protonated TA-SPEEK and C-SPEEK-x at 25 °C is up to 0.109 S cm-1 and 3.88 × 105 S s cm-3, respectively, which are higher than that of Nafion 115. The DMFC incorporating C-SPEEK-25 exhibits a maximum power density as high as 35.3 mW cm-2 with 4 M MeOH at 25 °C (31.8 mW cm-2 for Nafion 115). Due to the highly oxidative stability of the membrane, no obvious performance degradation of the DMFC is observed after more than 400 h operation, indicating such cost-effective ionic-covalent cross-linked membranes have substantial potential as alternative PEMs for DMFC applications.

  8. Electrochemical investigation of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)/clay nanocomposite membranes for moderate temperature fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasani-Sadrabadi, Mohammad Mahdi [Polymer Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Biomedical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Dashtimoghadam, Erfan; Sarikhani, Kaveh [Polymer Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Majedi, Fatemeh S. [Biomedical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Khanbabaei, Ghader [Polymer Science and Technology Division, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-05-01

    In the present study, polyelectrolyte membranes based on partially sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK) with various degrees of sulfonation are prepared. The optimum degree of sulfonation is determined according to the transport properties and hydrolytic stability of the membranes. Subsequently, various amounts of the organically modified montmorillonite (MMT) are introduced into the sPEEK matrices via the solution intercalation technique. The proton conductivity and methanol permeability measurements of the fabricated composite membranes reveal a high proton to methanol selectivity, even at elevated temperatures. Membrane based on sPEEK and 1 wt% of MMT, as the optimum nanoclay composition, exhibits a high selectivity and power density at the concentrated methanol feed. Moreover, it is found that the optimum nanocomposite membrane not only provides higher performance compared to the neat sPEEK and Nafion {sup registered} 117 membranes, but also exhibits a high open circuit voltage (OCV) at the elevated methanol concentration. Owing to the high proton conductivity, reduced methanol permeability, high power density, convenient processability and low cost, sPEEK/MMT nanocomposite membranes could be considered as the alternative membranes for moderate temperature direct methanol fuel cell applications. (author)

  9. Novel modification method to prepare crosslinked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)/silica hybrid membranes for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Shaoguang; Shang, Yuming; Liu, Guoshun; Dong, Wenqi; Xie, Xiaofeng; Xu, Jingming [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Mathur, V.K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of New Hampshire, NH 03824 (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Crosslinked organic-inorganic hybrid membranes are prepared from hydroxyl-functionalized sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) and various amounts of silica with the aims to improve dimensional stability and methanol resistance. The partially hydroxyl-functionalized SPEEK is prepared by the reduction of some benzophenone moieties of SPEEK into the corresponding benzhydrol moieties which is then reacted with (3-isocyanatopropyl)triethoxysilane (ICPTES) to get a side chained polymer bearing triethoxysilyl groups. These groups are subsequently co-hydrolyzed with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and allow the membrane to form a crosslinked network via a sol-gel process. The obtained hybrid membranes with covalent bonds between organic and inorganic phases exhibit much lower methanol swelling ratio and water uptake. With the increase of silica content, the methanol permeability coefficient of the hybrid membranes decreases at first and then increased. At silica content of about 6 wt.%, the methanol permeability coefficient reaches a minimum of 7.15 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}, a 5-fold decrease compared with that of the pristine SPEEK. Despite the fact that the proton conductivity is decreased to some extent as a result of introduction of the silica, the hybrid membranes with silica content of 4-8 wt.% shows higher selectivity than Nafion117. (author)

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Sulfonated Graphene Oxide Reinforced Sulfonated Poly (Ether Ether Ketone) (SPEEK) Composites for Proton Exchange Membrane Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ning; Zhou, Chaofan; Wang, Yong; Ju, Hong; Tan, Dongyang; Li, Jin

    2018-03-28

    As a clean energy utilization device, full cell is gaining more and more attention. Proton exchange membrane (PEM) is a key component of the full cell. The commercial-sulfonated, tetrafluoroethylene-based fluoropolymer-copolymer (Nafion) membrane exhibits excellent proton conductivity under a fully humidified environment. However, it also has some disadvantages in practice, such as high fuel permeability, a complex synthesis process, and high cost. To overcome these disadvantages, a low-cost and novel membrane was developed. The sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) was selected as the base material of the proton exchange membrane. Sulfonated graphene (SG) was cross-linked with SPEEK through the elimination reaction of hydrogen bonds. It was found that the sulfonic acid groups and hydrophilic oxygen groups increased obviously in the resultant membrane. Compared with the pure SPEEK membrane, the SG-reinforced membrane exhibited better proton conductivity and methanol permeability prevention. The results indicate that the SG/SPEEK could be applied as a new proton exchange membrane in fuel cells.

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Sulfonated Graphene Oxide Reinforced Sulfonated Poly (Ether Ether Ketone (SPEEK Composites for Proton Exchange Membrane Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Cao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As a clean energy utilization device, full cell is gaining more and more attention. Proton exchange membrane (PEM is a key component of the full cell. The commercial-sulfonated, tetrafluoroethylene-based fluoropolymer-copolymer (Nafion membrane exhibits excellent proton conductivity under a fully humidified environment. However, it also has some disadvantages in practice, such as high fuel permeability, a complex synthesis process, and high cost. To overcome these disadvantages, a low-cost and novel membrane was developed. The sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone (SPEEK was selected as the base material of the proton exchange membrane. Sulfonated graphene (SG was cross-linked with SPEEK through the elimination reaction of hydrogen bonds. It was found that the sulfonic acid groups and hydrophilic oxygen groups increased obviously in the resultant membrane. Compared with the pure SPEEK membrane, the SG-reinforced membrane exhibited better proton conductivity and methanol permeability prevention. The results indicate that the SG/SPEEK could be applied as a new proton exchange membrane in fuel cells.

  12. Effect of chemical etching on the Cu/Ni metallization of poly (ether ether ketone)/carbon fiber composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Lizhi; Liu Bin [Tianjin Medical College, Tianjin 300222 (China); Song Jianjing; Shan Dan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Yang Dean, E-mail: dayang@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Poly(ether ether ketone)/carbon fiber composites (PEEK/Cf) were chemical etched by Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution, electroless plated with copper and then electroplated with nickel. The effects of chemical etching time and temperature on the adhesive strength between PEEK/Cf and Cu/Ni layers were studied by thermal shock method. The electrical resistance of some samples was measured. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to analyze the surface composition and functional groups. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to observe the surface morphology of the composite, the chemical etched sample, the plated sample and the peeled metal layer. The results indicated that C=O bond increased after chemical etching. With the increasing of etching temperature and time, more and more cracks and partially exposed carbon fibers appeared at the surface of PEEK/Cf composites, and the adhesive strength increased consequently. When the composites were etched at 60 deg. C for 25 min and at 70-80 deg. C for more than 15 min, the Cu/Ni metallization layer could withstand four thermal shock cycles without bubbling, and the electrical resistivity of the metal layer of these samples increased with the increasing of etching temperature and time.

  13. A subchronic dermal exposure study of diethylene glycol monomethyl ether and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether in the male guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, D W; D'Addario, A P; Bruner, R H; Uddin, D E

    1986-02-01

    Diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (DEGME) has been selected as a replacement anti-icing additive for ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) in Navy jet aircraft fuel. This experiment was performed to determine whether DEGME produced similar toxicity to EGME following dermal exposure. Male guinea pigs were dermally exposed to 1.00, 0.20, 0.04, or 0 (control) g/kg/day DEGME for 13 weeks, 5 days/week, 6 hr/day. Another group of animals was similarly exposed to 1.00 g/kg/day EGME. Body weights as well as testicular and splenic weights were reduced as a result of exposure to EGME, DEGME-exposed animals exhibited decreased splenic weight in the high- and medium-dose (1.00 and 0.20 g/kg/day) exposure groups only. Hematologic changes in EGME-exposed animals included mild anemia with increased erythrocytic mean corpuscular volumes and a lymphopenia with increased neutrophils. Similar hematological changes were not observed in any animals exposed to DEGME. Serum creatine kinase activity was increased in animals exposed to EGME, and serum lactate dehydrogenase activity was increased in EGME and 1.00 g/kg/day DEGME-exposed animals. In general, DEGME produced minimal toxicological changes following dermal exposure, whereas the toxicological changes observed following similar exposure to EGME were much more profound.

  14. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers Alter Hepatic Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Enzyme Kinetics in Male Wistar Rats: Implications for Lipid and Glucose Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are a family of lipophilic brominated flame-retardants consisting of 209 possible congeners. Three PBDE commercially-produced mixtures are decabrominated diphenyl ether (e.g. deca-BDE or DE-83R); octabrominated diphenyl ether (e.g. octa-BDE o...

  15. Biosynthesis of ether-phospholipids including plasmalogens, peroxisomes and human disease: new insights into an old problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Brites, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Ether-phospholipids represent an important subclass of phospholipids in animal cell membranes characterized by the presence of an ether bond at the sn-I position and the enrichment of PUFAs at the sn-2 position. Of the different ether-phospholipids, plasmalogens are the most abundant form and their

  16. 18F-fluorination by crown ether-metal fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, T.; Fukushi, K.; Ido, T.; Kasida, Y.; Nozaki, T.

    1984-01-01

    For non-carrier-added 18 F-labeling of organic compounds, details were studied concerning the previously developed KF-crown ether method. In the modified method, a minute amount of KOH instead of carrier KF is added for the preparation of the anhydrous 18 F from aqueous carrier-free 18 F. The following factors were examined in order to determine optimum conditions for the preparation of the anhydrous non-carrier-added 18 F and the labeling synthesis with it: effects of the vessel on the evaporation of the 18 F-KOH solution and the amount of added KOH for the conversion of aqueous 18 F to anhydrous 18 F, the solubilized activity of the 18 F obtained by the evaporation in organic solutions containing 18-Crown-6 and the labeling reaction, as exemplified by the synthesis of 21-fluoroprogesterone. (author)

  17. Poly(phenylene ether Based Amphiphilic Block Copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward N. Peters

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenylene ether (PPE telechelic macromonomers are unique hydrophobic polyols which have been used to prepare amphiphilic block copolymers. Various polymer compositions have been synthesized with hydrophilic blocks. Their macromolecular nature affords a range of structures including random, alternating, and di- and triblock copolymers. New macromolecular architectures can offer tailored property profiles for optimum performance. Besides reducing moisture uptake and making the polymer surface more hydrophobic, the PPE hydrophobic segment has good compatibility with polystyrene (polystyrene-philic. In general, the PPE contributes to the toughness, strength, and thermal performance. Hydrophilic segments go beyond their affinity for water. Improvements in the interfacial adhesion between polymers and polar substrates via hydrogen bonding and good compatibility with polyesters (polyester-philic have been exhibited. The heterogeneity of domains in these PPE based block copolymer offers important contributions to diverse applications.

  18. Calorimetric study of binding of some disaccharides with crown ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydova, Olga I.; Lebedeva, Nataliya Sh.; Parfenyuk, Elena V.

    2004-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry has been applied to the determination of the thermodynamic parameters of binding of β-lactose, α,α-trehalose and sucrose with 15-crown-5 and 18-crown-6 in water at 298.15 K. The formation of 1:1 molecular associates has been found for the systems studied except 18-crown-6 and β-lactose. The associates are preferentially or completely entropy stabilized. The most stable associate is formed between α,α-trehalose and 18-crown-6. The obtained values of thermodynamic parameters of binding are discussed from the point of view of solute-solvent interactions as well as conformational and structural peculiarities of the disaccharides (DS) and crown ethers (CE)

  19. Degradation of β-Aryl Ether Bonds in Transgenic Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mnich, Ewelina

    of the cell wall. The aim of the study was to alter lignin structure by expression in plants of the enzymes from S. paucimobilis involved in ether bond degradation (LigDFG). Arabidopsis thaliana and Brachypodium distachyon transgenic lines were generated and characterized with respect to lignin structure...... and cell wall polysaccharide extractability. Structural changes in lignin detected by 2D HSQC NMR analysis of transgenic Arabidopsis stems correlated with a slight increase in the saccharification yield. An increase in oxidized guaiacyl and syringyl units resulting from the action of LigDFG was observed...... be degraded by LigDFG, which can presumably cause loosening of the lignin-ferulate-polysaccharide matrix. In a xylanase hydrolysis of Brachypodium transgenic stems, the release of arabinose and xylose was increased compared to wild type. The data presented demonstrate that introduction of lignin degrading...

  20. Probing supramolecular complexation of cetylpyridinium chloride with crown ethers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Subhadeep; Roy, Mahendra Nath

    2017-11-01

    Supramolecular complexations of cetylpyridinium chloride with three comparable cavity dimension based crown ethers, namely, dibenzo-18-crown-6, 18-crown-6 and dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 have been explored and adequately compared in acetonitrile with the help of conductivity in a series of temperatures to reveal the stoichiometry of the three host-guest complexes. Programme based mathematical treatment of the conductivity data affords association constants for complexations from which the thermodynamic parameters were derived for better comprehension about the process. The interactions at molecular level have been explained and decisively discussed by means of FT-IR and 1H NMR spectroscopic studies that demonstrate H-bond type interactions as the primarily force of attraction for the investigated supramolecular complexations.

  1. Metagenomic discovery of polybrominated diphenyl ether biosynthesis by marine sponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podell, Sheila; Taton, Arnaud; Schorn, Michelle A.; Busch, Julia; Lin, Zhenjian; Schmidt, Eric W.; Jensen, Paul R.; Paul, Valerie J.; Biggs, Jason S.; Golden, James W.; Allen, Eric E.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2017-01-01

    Naturally produced polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) pervade the marine environment and structurally resemble toxic man-made brominated flame retardants. PBDEs bioaccumulate in marine animals and are likely transferred to the human food chain. However, the biogenic basis for PBDE production in one of their most prolific sources, marine sponges of the order Dysideidae, remains unidentified. Here, we report the discovery of PBDE biosynthetic gene clusters within sponge microbiome-associated cyanobacterial endosymbionts by employing an unbiased metagenome mining approach. By expression of PBDE biosynthetic genes in heterologous cyanobacterial hosts, we correlate the structural diversity of naturally produced PBDEs to modifications within PBDE biosynthetic gene clusters in multiple sponge holobionts. Our results establish the genetic and molecular foundation for the production of PBDEs in one of the most abundant natural sources of these molecules, further setting the stage for a metagenomic-based inventory of other PBDE sources in the marine environment. PMID:28319100

  2. Synthesis and characterization of ether-linked porphyrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radchada Buntem

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The ether-linked porphyrin dimers in this research work were prepared from coupling reaction between suitableporphyrin precursors and linkers in the presence of potassium carbonate. The structures of all synthesized compounds werecharacterized by spectroscopic methods. The UV/Visible absorption maxima and extinction coefficients did not show any significant difference among these porphyrin dimers. This indicates that the length of the linker did not affect the absorption property of the dimers. However, different metal ions bonding to the porphyrin moiety affect the different absorption maxima of the porphyrin dimers. It was also found that the position of the linker on the phenyl ring of porphyrin does not affect the visible absorption pattern or the proton chemical shifts of the porphyrin core as found in the case of Zn2(metaC-dimer (13(compared with the data obtained for Zn2C2-dimer (3.

  3. Poly (ether imide sulfone) membranes from solutions in ionic liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dooli

    2017-11-20

    A membrane manufacture method based on non-volatile solvents and a high performance polymer, poly (ether imide sulfone) (EXTEM™), is proposed, as greener alternative to currently industrial process. We dissolved EXTEM™ in pure ionic liquids: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidalzolium thiocyanate ([EMIM]SCN), 1-butyl-3-methylimidalzolium thiocyanate ([BMIM]SCN), and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidalzolium acetate ([EMIM]OAc). The following polymer solution parameters were evaluated to optimize the manufacture: Gibbs free energy of mixing (G), intrinsic viscosity ([]) and hydrodynamic diameter. Membranes with sponge-like structure and narrow pore size distribution were obtained from solutions in [EMIM]SCN. They were tested for separation of proteins and deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA). Due to the polymer stability, we foresee that applications in more demanding chemical separations would be possible. [EMIM]SCN was 96 % purified and recovered after the membrane fabrication, contributing to the sustainability of the whole manufacturing process.

  4. (R,R-Disynephrine ether bis(hydrogen sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Arbuckle

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound [systematic name: (R,R-2,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl-N,N′-dimethyl-3-oxapentane-1,5-diammonium bis(hydrogen sulfate], C18H26N2O32+·2HSO4−, contains one half-cation and one hydrogen sulfate anion. The cation has crystallographically imposed twofold symmetry with the rotation axis passing through the central ether O atom. Hydrogen bonds between the hydroxy group and amine H atoms of the cation to two hydrogen sulfate anions link the three ions in a ring motif. A three-dimensional network is accomplished by additional O—H...O hydrogen bonds between the anions and by N—H...O hydrogen bonds between the cations. Disorder with equally occupied sites affects the H-atom position in the anion.

  5. Application of Dimethyl Ether in Compression Ignition Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Rene

    . The elastomer seals that provided the sealing instead of the metal-to-metal contact could do that because of the low injection pressure. The engine developed in this way was based on a 50cc Peugeot two-stroke engine. The fuel injector used was a Bosch HDEV originally developed for direct injection of gasoline......This study has its roots in two separate events at the Department of Mechanical Engineering at DTU. In 1995 the first attempt to operate a diesel engine on dimethyl ether (DME) was successfully concluded. In 2004 the department decided to compete in the vehicle fuel efficiency competition Shell Eco......-Marathon. The diesel engine test results from 1995 showed that DME is a superb diesel fuel. DME is easy to ignite by compression ignition and it has a molecular structure that results in near-zero emission of particulates when burned. These are features of a fuel that are highly desirable in a diesel engine...

  6. Sulfonation of alkyl phenyl ether self-assembled monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katash, Irit; Luo, Xianglin; Sukenik, Chaim N

    2010-02-02

    The sulfonation of phenyl ether decorated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) was studied with an eye toward creating surfaces with a particularly high negative charge density based on a close-packed array of phenyl rings with more than one sulfonic acid group per molecule. The product distribution and kinetics of this process were studied by ultraviolet, infrared, and photoelectron spectroscopies and by monitoring changes in the thickness and wetting properties of the SAM. The sulfonation chemistry could be effected without undermining monolayer integrity and the isomer distribution of ortho- and para-monosulfonated material, along with the percentages of mono- and disulfonated molecules could be established throughout the process. As doubly sulfonated molecules appeared, the reaction slowed drastically. Ultimately, sulfonation stops completely with approximately 60% of the molecules disulfonated and 20% each of the two monosulfonated isomers. This striking constraint on monolayer reactivity and the relationship between the surface chemistry and variations in SAM structure are discussed.

  7. Searching for trans ethyl methyl ether in Orion KL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercero, B; Cernicharo, J; López, A; Brouillet, N; Kolesniková, L; Motiyenko, R A; Margulès, L; Alonso, J L; Guillemin, J-C

    2015-10-01

    We report on the tentative detection of trans ethyl methyl ether (tEME), t-CH 3 CH 2 OCH 3 , through the identification of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule towards Orion KL. We also search for gauche-trans-n-propanol, Gt-n-CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 OH, an isomer of tEME in the same source. We have identified lines of both species in the IRAM 30 m line survey and in the ALMA Science Verification data. We have obtained ALMA maps to establish the spatial distribution of these species. Whereas tEME mainly arises from the compact ridge component of Orion, Gt-n-propanol appears at the emission peak of ethanol (south hot core). The derived column densities of these species at the location of their emission peaks are ≤(4.0 ± 0.8) × 10 15 cm -2 and ≤(1.0 ± 0.2)× 10 15 cm -2 for tEME and Gt-n-propanol, respectively. The rotational temperature is ~100 K for both molecules. We also provide maps of CH 3 OCOH, CH 3 CH 2 OCOH, CH 3 OCH 3 , CH 3 OH, and CH 3 CH 2 OH to compare the distribution of these organic saturated O-bearing species containing methyl and ethyl groups in this region. Abundance ratios of related species and upper limits to the abundances of non-detected ethers are provided. We derive an abundance ratio N (CH 3 OCH 3 )/ N (tEME) ≥ 150 in the compact ridge of Orion.

  8. Impaired neurotransmission in ether lipid-deficient nerve terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodde, Alexander; Teigler, Andre; Brugger, Britta; Lehmann, Wolf D; Wieland, Felix; Berger, Johannes; Just, Wilhelm W

    2012-06-15

    Isolated defects of ether lipid (EL) biosynthesis in humans cause rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata type 2 and type 3, serious peroxisomal disorders. Using a previously described mouse model [Rodemer, C., Thai, T.P., Brugger, B., Kaercher, T., Werner, H., Nave, K.A., Wieland, F., Gorgas, K., and Just, W.W. (2003) Inactivation of ether lipid biosynthesis causes male infertility, defects in eye development and optic nerve hypoplasia in mice. Hum. Mol. Genet., 12, 1881-1895], we investigated the effect of EL deficiency in isolated murine nerve terminals (synaptosomes) on the pre-synaptic release of the neurotransmitters (NTs) glutamate and acetylcholine. Both Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis and Ca(2+)-independent efflux of the transmitters were affected. EL-deficient synaptosomes respire at a reduced rate and exhibit a lowered adenosin-5'-triphosphate/adenosine diphosphate (ATP/ADP) ratio. Consequently, ATP-driven processes, such as synaptic vesicle cycling and maintenance of Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+) homeostasis, might be disturbed. Analyzing reactive oxygen species in EL-deficient neural and non-neural tissues revealed that plasmalogens (PLs), the most abundant EL species in mammalian central nervous system, considerably contribute to the generation of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde. Although EL-deficient tissue contains less lipid peroxidation products, fibroblasts lacking ELs are more susceptible to induced oxidative stress. In summary, these results suggest that due to the reduced energy state of EL-deficient tissue, the Ca(2+)-independent efflux of NTs increases while the Ca(2+)-dependent release declines. Furthermore, lack of PLs is mainly compensated for by an increase in the concentration of phosphatidylethanolamine and results in a significantly lowered level of lipid peroxidation products in the brain cortex and cerebellum.

  9. Evaluating the swelling, erosion, and compaction properties of cellulose ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghori, Muhammad U; Grover, Liam M; Asare-Addo, Kofi; Smith, Alan M; Conway, Barbara R

    2018-02-01

    Swelling, erosion, deformation, and consolidation properties can affect the performance of cellulose ethers, the most commonly used matrix former in hydrophilic sustained tablet formulations. The present study was designed to comparatively evaluate the swelling, erosion, compression, compaction, and relaxation properties of the cellulose ethers in a comprehensive study using standardised conditions. The interrelationship between various compressional models and the inherent deformation and consolidation properties of the polymers on the derived swelling and erosion parameters are consolidated. The impact of swelling (K w ) on erosion rates (K E ) and the inter-relationship between Heckel and Kawakita plasticity constants was also investigated. It is evident from the findings that the increases in both substitution and polymer chain length led to higher K w , but a lower K E ; this was also true for all particle size fractions regardless of polymer grade. Smaller particle size and high substitution levels tend to increase the relative density of the matrix but reduce porosity, yield pressure (P y ), Kawakita plasticity parameter (b -1 ) and elastic relaxation. Both K W versus K E (R 2  = 0.949-0.980) and P y versus. b -1 correlations (R 2  = 0.820-0.934) were reasonably linear with regards to increasing hydroxypropyl substitution and molecular size. Hence, it can be concluded that the combined knowledge of swelling and erosion kinetics in tandem with the in- and out-of-die compression findings can be used to select a specific polymer grade and further to develop and optimize formulations for oral controlled drug delivery applications.

  10. The influence of water mixtures on the dermal absorption of glycol ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traynor, Matthew J.; Wilkinson, Simon C.; Williams, Faith M.

    2007-01-01

    Glycol ethers are solvents widely used alone and as mixtures in industrial and household products. Some glycol ethers have been shown to have a range of toxic effects in humans following absorption and metabolism to their aldehyde and acid metabolites. This study assessed the influence of water mixtures on the dermal absorption of butoxyethanol and ethoxyethanol in vitro through human skin. Butoxyethanol penetrated human skin up to sixfold more rapidly from aqueous solution (50%, 450 mg/ml) than from the neat solvent. Similarly penetration of ethoxyethanol was increased threefold in the presence of water (50%, 697 mg/ml). There was a corresponding increase in apparent permeability coefficient as the glycol ether concentration in water decreased. The maximum penetration rate of water also increased in the presence of both glycol ethers. Absorption through a synthetic membrane obeyed Fick's Law and absorption through rat skin showed a similar profile to human skin but with a lesser effect. The mechanisms for this phenomenon involves disruption of the stratum corneum lipid bilayer by desiccation by neat glycol ether micelles, hydration with water mixtures and the physicochemical properties of the glycol ether-water mixtures. Full elucidation of the profile of absorption of glycol ethers from mixtures is required for risk assessment of dermal exposure. This work supports the view that risk assessments for dermal contact scenarios should ideally be based on absorption data obtained for the relevant formulation or mixture and exposure scenario and that absorption derived from permeability coefficients may be inappropriate for water-miscible solvents

  11. Absorption of decabromodiphenyl ether and other organohalogen chemicals by grey seals (Halichoerus grypus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Gareth O.; Moss, Simon E.W.; Asplund, Lillemor; Hall, Ailsa J.

    2005-01-01

    An input-output balance study was performed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls and some organochlorine pesticides on three captive, juvenile grey seals (Halichoerus grypus). The animals were fed a diet of herring for six months, during the last three months of which this study was performed. A supplement of decabromodiphenyl ether was included in the diet during the second month of the study. Consistently high absorption (>89%) was observed for all of the chemicals studied, whereas work on other animals has generally shown high (>80%) net absorption at log K OW OW , and very low absorption of decabromodiphenyl ether. The half-life of decabromodiphenyl ether in blood was estimated to be between 8.5 and 13 days. Measurable concentrations of decabromodiphenyl ether were detected in seal blubber at the end of the study, indicating that this chemical can be stored in adipose and may bioaccumulate. Current understanding of the mechanism of absorption of organohalogen chemicals and the potential for accumulation of decabromodiphenyl ether will need reassessing in the light of these results. - Decabromodiphenyl ether is absorbed effectively from the diet by grey seals, and can be stored in the blubber even after exposure ceases

  12. Alternariol 9-methyl ether from the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 and its bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jingfeng; Yu, Ruiting; Wang, Xiaohan; Mao, Ziling; Fu, Linyun; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Ligang

    2016-01-01

    One bioactive compound, identified as alternariol 9-methyl ether, was isolated from the crude extract of the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 residing in the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. Alternariol 9-methyl ether was active against bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 25 to 75μg/mL and median inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ranging from 16.00 to 38.27μg/mL. The IC50 value of alternariol 9-methyl ether against spore germination of Magnaporthe oryzae was 87.18μg/mL. Alternariol 9-methyl ether also showed antinematodal activity against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Caenorhabditis elegans with IC50 values of 98.17μg/mL and 74.62μg/mL, respectively. This work is the first report on alternariol 9-methyl ether and its biological activities from the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 derived from S. miltiorrhiza Bunge. The results indicate the potential of Alternaria sp. Samif01 as a source of alternariol 9-methyl ether and also support that alternariol 9-methyl ether is a natural compound with high potential bioactivity against microorganisms. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. EXPOSURE TO ETHYLENE GLYCOL MONOBUTYL ETHER AND RELATED WORKERS HABITS IN AN INK FACTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. C. Lin, H. Y. Chang, F. H. Chang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty six workers from an ink factory were included in this study, in which, passive badge sampler and questionnaire interview were used to assess the concentrations of airborne exposure to ethylene glycol monobutyl ether during work shifts and to understand the subjects' working habits. The geometric mean value (95% confidence interval of the airborne ethylene glycol monobutyl ether concentrations was 0.12(0.08-0.19ppm, with a range of <0.02-1.82ppm. The exposure group was exposed to statistically significantly higher ethylene glycol monobutyl ether concentrations than the control group (geometric mean value: 0.14vs. 0.03ppm; P=0.017. Some chromatograms showed that subjects were co-exposed to m-xylene, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether, and ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate. According to the completed questionnaires, subjects might also be exposed to 1,2,4,5-tetramethylbenzene, propylene glycol ethers, ethanol, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, methanol and diisononyl phthalate. This study also suggests that, the Taiwan occupational time-weighted average level of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether be reconsidered with a view to being lowered.

  14. Anhydrous proton exchange membrane of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) enabled by polydopamine-modified silica nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jingtao; Bai, Huijuan; Zhang, Haoqin; Zhao, Liping; Chen, Huiling; Li, Yifan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The concept of acid/base pairs was employed to design anhydrous PEMs. • Polydopamine-modified silica particles were uniformly dispersed in SPEEK membrane. • The membranes displayed enhancement in both stability and anhydrous proton conductivity. - Abstract: Novel anhydrous proton exchange membrane is (PEM) facilely prepared by embedding dopamine-modified silica nanoparticles (DSiOis 2 ) into sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) polymer matrix. DSiO 2 bearing -NH 2 /-NH- groups are synthesized inspired by the bioadhesion principle, which are uniformly dispersed within SPEEK membrane due to the good interfacial compatibility. The interfacial electrostatic attractions render unique rearrangement of the nanophase-separated structure and the chain packing of the resultant hybrid membranes. As a result, the thermal and mechanical stabilities as well as structural stability of the hybrid membranes are enhanced when compared to SPEEK control membrane. On the other hand, induced by the attractions, acid–base pairs are formed at the SPEEK/DSiOarewere 2 interface, where fast proton transfer via Grotthuss mechanism is expected. These features confer much higher proton conductivities on the DSiO 2 -filled membranes under both hydrated and anhydrous conditions, compared to those of the SPEEK control membrane and SiO 2 -filled membranes. Particularly, the hybrid membrane with 15 wt% DSiO 2 achieve the highest conductivities of 4.52achieveachieved × 10 −3 S cm −1 at 120 °C under anhydrous condition, which is much higher than the SPEEK control membrane and the commercial Nafion membrane (0.1iswas × 10 −3 S cm −1 ). The membrane with 9 wt% DSiO 2 show an open cell potential of 0.98showshowed V and an optimum power density of 111.7 mW cm −2 , indicative of its potential application in fuel cell under anhydrous condition

  15. Dispersibility and chemical bonds between multi-walled carbon nanotubes and poly(ether ether ketone) in nanocomposite fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanmei, Jin; Haihui, Liu; Ning, Wang; Lichen, Hou; Xing-Xiang, Zhang

    2012-01-01

    A series of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs)/poly(ether ether ketone)(PEEK) nanocomposite fibers were fabricated by mixing, melt extruding PEEK with different loadings and species of MWNTs, and melt-spun the blended chips. Nanocomposite fibers were heat-stretched and heat-treated. The morphology and dispersibility of MWNTs in nanocomposite fibers were observed using a field emission environmental scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The thermal and crystallization behavior of nanocomposite fibers were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and an X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Mechanical properties were tested using a tensile strength tester. MWNTs tend to aggregate when the loading exceeds 0.8 wt%. Functional groups on MWNTs improve the hydrophobicity and the dispersibility of MWNTs in PEEK matrix. The enhancement of mechanical properties depends on the loading and species of functional groups. The most effectively reinforced effect is in the sequence, carboxylic MWNTs (MWNT–COOH) > hydroxyl MWNTs (MWNT–OH) > MWNTs, which can be explained by the strong hydrogen bonding and the affinity between MWNT–COOH and PEEK, MWNT–OH and PEEK, and possible formation of a chemical bond between MWNT–COOH and PEEK. A nanocomposite fiber with excellent mechanical property was fabricated using 0.8 wt% MWNT–COOH as filler. The Young's modulus is 1.7 GPa; and the stress is 648 MPa. -- Highlights: ► Functional groups on MWNTs improve their hydrophobility and dispersability. ► Mechanical properties depend on the content and species of the functional groups. ► The reinforced effect is in the sequence, carboxylic MWNTs > hydroxyl MWNTs > MWNTs. ► The strength behavior was result of hydrogen bond, affinity and chemical bond. ► Dispersability of MWNTs in matrix was analyzed by calculating solubility parameter.

  16. Composite electrolytes composed of Cs-substituted phosphotungstic acid and sulfonated poly(ether-ether ketone) for fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Song-Yul, E-mail: ms089203@tutms.tut.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Yoshida, Toshihiro; Kawamura, Go [Department of Materials Science, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Muto, Hiroyuki [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kurume National College of Technology, 1-1-1 Komorino, Kurume, Fukuoka 830-8555 (Japan); Sakai, Mototsugu [Department of Materials Science, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Matsuda, Atsunori, E-mail: matsuda@tutms.tut.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Composite electrolytes composed of cesium hydrogen sulfate containing phosphotungstic acids (CsHSO{sub 4}-H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}) and sulfonated poly(ether-ether ketone) (SPEEK) were prepared by casting the corresponding precursor for application in fuel cells. Partially Cs-substituted phosphotungstic acids (Cs{sub x}H{sub 3-x}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}) were formed in the CsHSO{sub 4}-H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} system by mechanochemical treatment. SPEEK was prepared from PEEK by sulfonation using concentrated sulfuric acid. Flexible composite electrolytes were obtained and their electrochemical properties were markedly improved with the addition of Cs{sub x}H{sub 3-x}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}, into the SPEEK matrix. A maximum power density of 213 mW cm{sup -2} was obtained from the single cell test for 50H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}-50CsHSO{sub 4} in SPEEK (1/5 by weight) composite electrolyte at 80 deg. C and at 80 RH%. Electrochemical properties and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results suggest that three-dimensional cluster particles were formed and homogeneously distributed in the SPEEK matrix. The mechanochemically synthesized Cs{sub x}H{sub 3-x}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} incorporated into the SPEEK matrix increased the number of protonate sites in the electrolyte. The composite electrolytes were successfully formed with Cs{sub x}H{sub 3-x}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}, which consist of hydrogen bonding between surface of inorganic solid acids and not only -HSO{sub 4}{sup -} dissociated from CsHSO{sub 4} but also -SO{sub 3}H groups in the SPEEK.

  17. Dihydrogenimidazole modified silica-sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) hybrid materials as electrolyte membranes for direct ethanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofs, Kimball S.; Hirth, Thomas [Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology, Nobelstr. 12, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Schiestel, Thomas, E-mail: Thomas.Schiestel@igb.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology, Nobelstr. 12, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-05-25

    The present study reports on dihydrogenimidazole modified inorganic-organic mixed matrix membranes for possible application as a proton exchange membrane in direct ethanol fuel cells. The polymeric phase consisted mainly of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK) with a sulfonation degree of 55%. The inorganic phase was built up from hydrophilic fumed silica particles interconnected with partially hydrolyzed and condensed tetraethoxysilane with a total inorganic loading of 27.3%. This inorganic phase was further modified with N-(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazole (DHIM), which consists of an hydrolyzable inorganic part and a functional organic group. The influence of the modifier on the mixed matrix system was studied by means of various modifier concentrations in various aqueous-ethanolic systems (water, 2 M and 4 M ethanol). Modifier concentration and ethanol concentration of the ethanol-water mixture exhibited significant but opposite effects on the liquid uptake of the mixed matrix membranes. The proton conductivity as well as the proton diffusion coefficient as a function of modifier content showed a linear decrease. The proton conductivity as a function of temperature showed Arrhenius behavior and the activation energy of the mixed matrix membranes was 43.9 {+-} 2.6 kJ mol{sup -1}. High selectivity of proton diffusion coefficient to ethanol permeability coefficient was obtained with high modifier concentrations. At low modifier concentrations, this selectivity was dominated by ethanol permeation and at high modifier concentrations by proton diffusion. The main electrolyte properties can be optimized by setting the DHIM content in mixed matrix membrane. With this approach, tailor-made membranes can be prepared for possible application in direct ethanol fuel cells.

  18. State of the water in crosslinked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone). Two-dimensional differential scanning calorimetry correlation mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Lafi, Abdul G. [Department of Chemistry, Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus, P.O. Box 6091 (Syrian Arab Republic); Hay, James N., E-mail: cscientific9@aec.org.sy [The School of Metallurgy and Materials, College of Physical Sciences and Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-20

    Highlights: • 2D-DSC mapping was applied to analyze the heat flow responses of hydrated crosslinked sPEEK. • Two types of loosely bond water were observed. • The first was bond to the sulfonic acid groups and increased with ion exchange capacity. • The second was attributed to the polar groups introduced by ions irradiation and increased with crosslinking degree. • DSC combined with 2D mapping provides a powerful tool for polymer structural determination. - Abstract: This paper reports the first application of two-dimensional differential scanning calorimetry correlation mapping, 2D-DSC-CM to analyze the heat flow responses of sulphonated poly(ether ether ketone), sPEEK, films having different ion exchange capacity and degrees of crosslinks. With the help of high resolution and high sensitivity of 2D-DSC-CM, it was possible to locate two types of loosely bound water within the structure of crosslinked sPEEK. The first was bound to the sulfonic acid groups and dependent on the ion exchange capacity of the sPEEK. The second was bound to other polar groups, either introduced by irradiation with ions and dependent on the crosslinking degree or present in the polymer such as the carbonyl groups or terminal units. The results suggest that the ability of the sulfonic acid groups in the crosslinked sPEEK membranes to adsorb water molecules is increased by crosslinking, probably due to the better close packing efficiency of the crosslinked samples. DSC combined with 2D correlation mapping provides a fast and powerful tool for polymer structural determination.

  19. Dispersibility and chemical bonds between multi-walled carbon nanotubes and poly(ether ether ketone) in nanocomposite fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanmei, Jin, E-mail: jinyanmei818@163.com [Tianjin Municipal Key Lab of Fiber Modification and Functional Fiber, Institute of Functional Fibers, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Haihui, Liu; Ning, Wang; Lichen, Hou [Tianjin Municipal Key Lab of Fiber Modification and Functional Fiber, Institute of Functional Fibers, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Xing-Xiang, Zhang, E-mail: zhangpolyu@gmail.com [Tianjin Municipal Key Lab of Fiber Modification and Functional Fiber, Institute of Functional Fibers, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2012-08-15

    A series of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs)/poly(ether ether ketone)(PEEK) nanocomposite fibers were fabricated by mixing, melt extruding PEEK with different loadings and species of MWNTs, and melt-spun the blended chips. Nanocomposite fibers were heat-stretched and heat-treated. The morphology and dispersibility of MWNTs in nanocomposite fibers were observed using a field emission environmental scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The thermal and crystallization behavior of nanocomposite fibers were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and an X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Mechanical properties were tested using a tensile strength tester. MWNTs tend to aggregate when the loading exceeds 0.8 wt%. Functional groups on MWNTs improve the hydrophobicity and the dispersibility of MWNTs in PEEK matrix. The enhancement of mechanical properties depends on the loading and species of functional groups. The most effectively reinforced effect is in the sequence, carboxylic MWNTs (MWNT-COOH) > hydroxyl MWNTs (MWNT-OH) > MWNTs, which can be explained by the strong hydrogen bonding and the affinity between MWNT-COOH and PEEK, MWNT-OH and PEEK, and possible formation of a chemical bond between MWNT-COOH and PEEK. A nanocomposite fiber with excellent mechanical property was fabricated using 0.8 wt% MWNT-COOH as filler. The Young's modulus is 1.7 GPa; and the stress is 648 MPa. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Functional groups on MWNTs improve their hydrophobility and dispersability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mechanical properties depend on the content and species of the functional groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reinforced effect is in the sequence, carboxylic MWNTs > hydroxyl MWNTs > MWNTs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The strength behavior was result of hydrogen bond, affinity and chemical bond. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dispersability of MWNTs in matrix was analyzed by

  20. The effect of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and diethylene glycol monomethyl ether on hepatic gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, T; Matsuno, K; Kayama, F; Arashidani, K; Yoshikawa, M; Kodama, Y

    1992-11-22

    In this paper, we determined whether ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) and diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (diEGME) induce hepatic gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity. Male adult Wistar rats weighing 220 g were used as experimental animals. EGME (100, 300 mg/kg per day) and diEGME (500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg per day) were administered by gavage for 1, 2 or 5 days or 4 weeks. In the 4-week study, experimental animals were administered EGME or diEGME once a day orally, 5 days/week. EGME treatment increased the serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) level significantly, however, diEGME did not. The activities of three other enzymes (SGOT, SGPT and ALP) in serum were not altered by EGME or diEGME treatment and thus there was no biochemical indices of hepatic damage by EGME or diEGME. EGME treatment increased the GGT activities in the liver and lungs. Of the organs examined, the induction of GGT was the greatest in the liver. The inducibility in the liver was 216% for the 5-day treatment and 460% for the 4-week treatment. A dose-dependent increase of hepatic microsomal GGT activity by EGME was observed. On the other hand, renal GGT activities were declined to 72% and 60% of control by the 5-day and 4-week EGME treatments, respectively. DiEGME did not affect the GGT activities in any of the tissues except those of the brain. In the histochemical study, most hepatocytes at the periportal zones were stained with GGT staining after the 4-week treatment. However, the hepatocytes at the central zones were negative.

  1. The Preparation and Intramolecular Radical Cyclisation Reactions of Chiral Oxime Ethers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Booth Susan E.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Chiral oxime ether 2 and Oxime ester 4 have been prepared by alkylation and esterification of the oxime 1. Racemic hydroxylamine 6 and chiral hydroxylamine 10 have been synthesised from N-hydroxysuccinimide and the corresponding alcohol in the presence of diethylazodicarboxylate, the two products were converted into the oxime ethers 7 and 11 respectively. The intramolecular radical cyclisation reactions of these oxime ethers and esters has been studied, successful reaction was observed to produce alkyl hydroxylamines 3, 8 and 12.

  2. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart F of... - Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants Subject to Cooling Tower Monitoring Requirements in § 63.104

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-chloroethyl)ether) 111444 Dichloropropene (1,3-) 542756 Diethylene glycol diethyl ether 112367 Diethylene... glycol monobutyl ether acetate 112072 Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate 111159 Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether 110805 Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether 109864 Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate...

  3. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart F of... - Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ether 112732 I Diethylene glycol diethyl ether 112367 I Diethylene glycol dimethyl ether 111966 I Diethylene glycol monobutyl ether acetate 124174 I Diethylene glycol monobutyl ether 112345 I Diethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate 112152 I Diethylene glycol monoethyl ether 111900 I Diethylene glycol...

  4. Elastic Wave Propagation through Multilayered Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    Ether Diethylene Glycol Diethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether Diethyl Ester Malonic Acid 2,3-Dimethylbutanoic Acid...Chloroethanoate Ethylene Bromide Ethylene Chloride Ethylene Dibromide Ethylene Dichloride Ethylene Glycol Ethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether Ethyl Ester...Methyl Propionate 24.5 Methyl Propyl Ketona (Diethyl Ketone) 24 Milk (Evaporated) 20 Monoethyl Ether 25 Morpholine 25 Nicotine 20

  5. Biodegradation of dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate by Rhodococcus sp. L4 isolated from activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Tang, Fei; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Jinhui; Zeng, Xin; Luo, Qifang; Wang, Lin

    2009-09-15

    In this study, an aerobic bacterial strain capable of utilizing dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) as sole carbon source and energy was isolated from activated sludge collected from a dyeing plant. According to its morphology, physiochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence, the strain was identified as Rhodococcus ruber. The biodegradation batch tests of DMP, DEP and DBP by the Rhodococcus sp. L4 showed the optimal pH value, temperature and substrate concentration: pH 7.0-8.0, 30-37 degrees C and PAEs concentration Kinetics of degradation have also been performed at different initial concentrations. The results show that the degradation can be described with exponential model. The half-life of degradation was about 1.30 days when the concentration of PAEs mixture was lower than 300 mg/L. PAEs contaminated water samples (300 mg/L) with non-emulsification and completed emulsification were prepared to investigate the effect on PAEs degradation rate. Little difference between the above two sample preparations was observed in terms of ultimate degradation rate. Rhodococcus sp. L4 can also grow on phenol, sodium benzoate or naphthalene solution as sole carbon source and energy which suggests its ability in resisting environmental toxicants. This work provides some new evidence for the possibility of applying Rhodococcus for contaminated water remediation in the area of industry.

  6. Three New and Eleven Known Unusual C25 Steroids: Activated Production of Silent Metabolites in a Marine-Derived Fungus by Chemical Mutagenesis Strategy using Diethyl Sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Wen Xia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Three new (1–3 and 11 known (4–14 C25 steroids with an unusual bicyclo[4.4.1]A/B ring system were isolated by tracing newly produced metabolites in the EtOAc extract of an antitumor mutant AD-1-2 obtained by the diethyl sulphate (DES mutagenesis of a marine-derived Penicillium purpurogenum G59. HPLC-PDAD-UV and HPLC-ESI-MS analyses indicated that the G59 strain did not produce these metabolites and the production of 1–14 in the mutant AD-1-2 extract was caused by the activation of silent metabolites in the original G59 strain by DES mutagenesis. The structures of the new compounds, named antineocyclocitrinols A (1 and B (2 and 23-O-methylantineocyclocitrinol (3, including their absolute configurations were determined by various spectroscopic methods, especially the NMR and Mo2-induced CD analyses. Compounds 1–3 provide the first examples of the C25 bicyclo[4.4.1]A/B ring steroids with the Z-configuration of 20,22-double bond. All of 1–14 weakly inhibited several human cancer cell lines to varying extents. These results provided additional examples for the successful application of the chemical mutagenesis strategy using DES to discover new compounds by activating silent metabolites in fungal isolates and supported also the effectiveness and usefulness of this new strategy.

  7. Indoor residual spraying with microencapsulated DEET repellent (N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide) for control of Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitau, Jovin; Oxborough, Richard; Matowo, Johnson; Mosha, Franklin; Magesa, Stephen M; Rowland, Mark

    2014-09-23

    Evolution of insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae complex necessitates evaluation of alternative chemical classes to complement existing insecticides for long lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). Microencapsulated (MC) DEET (N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide) is a formulation of the popular repellent, which gives long lasting activity when applied to nets. Its suitability for IRS use has not been evaluated before. This study assessed the efficacy of DEET MC, for IRS in experimental huts. DEET MC was tested alongside standard repellent and non-repellent residual insecticides: lambdacyhalothrin, permethrin, pirimiphos methyl and DDT. Residual formulations of these compounds were sprayed on plywood panels attached to walls of experimental huts to assess efficacy against pyrethroid resistant, wild free-flying Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus. The panel treatments were rotated weekly between huts. The overall mortalities of An. arabiensis induced by the various treatments (range: 76-86%) were significantly greater than mortality in the untreated control (8%, P control (34%) than in sprayed huts (range between treatments: 19-22%, P control. There was a significantly higher exiting of An. arabiensis from huts sprayed with DEET (98%), lambdacyhalothrin (98%) and permethrin (96%) relative to the control (80%, P control. Microencapsulated DEET acts like an insecticide at ambient temperature and induces mosquito mortality when applied to walls made from wooden panels. This trial demonstrated the potential of microencapsulated DEET to control An. arabiensis and warrants further studies of residual activity on interior substrates.

  8. Identification of Diethyl 2,5-Dioxahexane Dicarboxylate and Polyethylene Carbonate as Decomposition Products of Ethylene Carbonate Based Electrolytes by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Feifei

    2014-07-10

    The formation of passive films on electrodes due to electrolyte decomposition significantly affects the reversibility of Li-ion batteries (LIBs); however, understanding of the electrolyte decomposition process is still lacking. The decomposition products of ethylene carbonate (EC)-based electrolytes on Sn and Ni electrodes are investigated in this study by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The reference compounds, diethyl 2,5-dioxahexane dicarboxylate (DEDOHC) and polyethylene carbonate (poly-EC), were synthesized, and their chemical structures were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Assignment of the vibration frequencies of these compounds was assisted by quantum chemical (Hartree-Fock) calculations. The effect of Li-ion solvation on the FTIR spectra was studied by introducing the synthesized reference compounds into the electrolyte. EC decomposition products formed on Sn and Ni electrodes were identified as DEDOHC and poly-EC by matching the features of surface species formed on the electrodes with reference spectra. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of accounting for the solvation effect in FTIR analysis of the decomposition products forming on LIB electrodes. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  9. Contraction and evacuation of the gallbladder studied simultaneously by ultrasonography and 99mTc-labelled diethyl-iminodiacetic acid scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raadberg, G.; Asztely, M.; Moonen, M.; Svanvik, J.

    1993-01-01

    Emptying of the gallbladder was studied by the simultaneous use of 99m Tc-labelled diethyl-iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) scanning and real-time ultrasonography. In response to a liquid test meal the gallbladder volume was reduced for 80 min and then increased again, but the radionuclide evacuation continued and was more complete than could be explained by the reduction of gallbladder volume. In response to intravenous infusion of cholecystokinin, a maximal contraction of the gallbladder to 35% of the basal volume was obtained at 40 min, and 36% of the HIDA then remained in the gallbladder. In a separate series repeated intravenous injections of 99m Tc-HIDA were given after the test meal, and the isotope was found to enter the gallbladder even when the gallbladder contracted. The results support the view that the gallbladder acts like a ''bellows'' when contracting and that postprandial fluid secretion by the gallbladder mucosa may help to evacuate its contents. 11 refs., 4 figs

  10. Volumetric, viscometric, spectral studies and viscosity modelling of binary mixtures of esters and alcohols (diethyl succinate, or ethyl octanoate + isobutanol, or isopentanol) at varying temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majstorović, Divna M.; Živković, Emila M.; Matija, Lidija R.; Kijevčanin, Mirjana Lj.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Densitis and viscosities of four ester + alcohol binary mixtures were measured. • Excess and deviation functions were calculated. • Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis was conducted. • Molecular interactions present in the mixture were analyzed. • Viscosity modelling was performed. - Abstract: Density, viscosity and refractive index of four binary mixtures consisting of diethyl succinate or ethyl octanoate + 2-methyl-1-propanol or 3-methyl-1-butanol have been measured at atmospheric pressure and over the temperature range from 288.15 K to 323.15 K. Excess and deviation functions have been calculated from these data and fitted to the Redlich-Kister equation. The values of excess molar volume and deviation functions, with FT-IR study, were further used in the analysis of molecular interactions present in the mixture as well as the temperature influence on them. Molar excess Gibbs free energies of activation of viscous flow were additionally calculated from measured density and viscosity data for better understanding of present molecular interactions. Viscosity modelling was done with two approaches, predictive by group contribution models (UNIFAC-VISCO and ASOG-VISCO), and correlative by one to three-parameter models (Teja-Rice, Grunberg–Nissan, McAlister, Eyring-UNIQUAC and Eyring-NRTL). The obtained results were compared with experimental data and conclusions about applied approaches and models were made.

  11. Characterization and in vitro degradation of poly(2,3-(1,4-diethyl tartrate)-co-2,3-isopropyliden tartrate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliecker, Gesine; Schmidt, Carsten; Fuchs, Stefan; Kissel, Thomas

    2004-07-23

    In the present study, a less known polyester based on tartaric acid was characterized with respect to its degradation mechanism. Poly(2,3-(1,4-diethyl tartrate)-co-2,3-isopropyliden tartrate) (PTA) differs from commonly used biodegradable polyesters, such as poly(lactides-co-glycolides) (PLGA) by the presence of additional cleavable bonds in the polymer side chains. This modification results in different polymer properties and influences polymer degradation. The hydrolytic degradation of PTA was studied in parallel to PLGA using disc-shape matrices, which were obtained by compression-molding. The discs were incubated in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer solution at 37 degrees C. The degraded samples were characterized for percentage mass loss, water absorption, decay of molecular weight and change in glass transition temperature. The results demonstrate that the degradation of PTA proceeds via bulk erosion similar to PLGA. However, the degradation of PTA implants is characterized by a rapid mass loss within a short period of time appearing after a definite lag phase without remarkable mass loss. This makes the polymer promising for pulsatile drug release systems.

  12. Significance of porous structure on degradatin of 2,2' dichloro diethyl sulphide and 2 chloroethyl ethyl sulphide on the surface of vanadium oxide nanostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Beer; Mahato, T H; Srivastava, A K; Prasad, G K; Ganesan, K; Vijayaraghavan, R; Jain, Rajeev

    2011-06-15

    Degradation of the king of chemical warfare agent, 2,2' dichloro diethyl sulphide (HD), and its simulant 2 chloroethyl ethyl sulphide (CEES) were investigated on the surface of porous vanadium oxide nanotubes at room temperature (30 ± 2°C). Reaction kinetics was monitored by GC-FID technique and the reaction products were characterized by GC-MS. Data indicates that HD degraded faster relative to CEES inside the solid decontaminant compared to the reported liquid phase degradation of CEES and HD. Data explores the role of hydrolysis, elimination and oxidation reactions in the detoxification of HD and CEES and the first order rate constant and t(1/2) were calculated to be 0.026 h(-1), 26.6h for CEES and 0.052 h(-1), 13.24h for HD. In this report faster degradation of HD compared to CEES was explained on the basis of porous structure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Diethyl (6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl) methylphosphonate induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7402 cells: Role of reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Bin; Wang, Wei; Tan, Zhenyi; Li, Di; Wan, Jun; Sun, Jie; Cheng, Kun; Luo, Hao

    2010-08-01

    The primary purpose of this work was to study the mechanism of the anti-proliferation activity of compound diethyl (6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl) methylphosphonate (DaMP), a novel acyclic nucleoside phosphonate. Using cell survival MTT assay, flow cytometry analysis, DNA laddering, DCF fluorescence detection and caspases assays, this study investigated the effects of this compound on cell apoptosis, cell cycle regulation and reactive oxygen species in human hepatocarcinoma BEL-7402 cell lines. Exposure to DaMP at 80 microM for 24 h, BEL-7402 cells displayed a marked retardation of S-phase progression, leading to a severe perturbation of normal cell cycle. In addition, DaMP also significantly inhibited cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis, disrupting DNA synthesis and increasing the activities of caspase-3 and -9, while the antioxidants could significantly inhibit these effects. This study was the first to demonstrate that DaMP could induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by producing reactive oxygen species and activating caspase-3 and -9.

  14. Magnetic Solid-Phase Extraction of N,N-Diethyl-m-Toluamide From Baby Toilet Water Prior to its HPLC-UV Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaowei; Feng, Fan; Yang, Yang; Dang, Xueping; Huang, Jianlin; Chen, Huaixia

    2017-07-01

    Fe3O4@MIL-100 (MIL, Material Institut Lavoisier) core-shell magnetic microspheres were prepared and applied as the sorbent for the magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) in baby toilet water for the first time. The synthesized magnetic metal-organic frameworks were characterized by transmission electron microscope, infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The functionalized magnetic microparticles showed excellent dispersibility in aqueous solution. The MSPE conditions were investigated in detail. Under the optimized conditions, an MSPE-high performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of DEET was developed. The method was linear in the concentration range from 5 to 500 μg L-1 for DEET in baby toilet water and good linearity (r2 > 0.9998) was obtained for the calibration curve. The limit of detection was 1.5 μg L-1. Both the intra-day and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviations) were <3%. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Spectrophotometric Determination of Nano Amounts of Gallium (III) using 2-(5-Bromo-2-Pyridylazo)-5-Diethyl aminophenol Reagent in Water Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandil, A.T.; Abd El-Atty, N.; El-Naggar, W.S.A.; Hafez, W.S.; Lasheen, T.A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop a simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method for determination of nano amounts of Ga(III) using 2-(5-Bromo-2-Pyridylazo)-5-Diethyl aminophenol (5-Br-PADAP) reagent. The factors affecting the determination procedure including absorption spectra, ph value, surfactant type and dye reagent concentration were studied and optimized. Interferences had also been evaluated. Maximum absorbance was obtained at 573 nm at ph 2.75, after 5 minutes mixing time. The proposed method was valid for Ga(III) concentration determination ranging from 0.005 to 1.25 Μg ml -1 in aqueous solution. However, the detection limit was decreased up to 0.001 Μg ml-1 in the presence of methanol. The ratio between Ga(III) and 5-Br-PADAP was found to be 1:1 with apparent molar absorptivity 1.12 × 10 5 l mol -1 cm -1 and coefficient of variation 0.44%. The elucidation of the complex composition was proved using FTIR technique. The method was applied for the determination of Ga(III) in some polluted water samples from different sources.

  16. An Uncommon Plant Growth Regulator, Diethyl Aminoethyl Hexanoate, Is Highly Effective in Tissue Cultures of the Important Medicinal Plant Purple Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lu Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of various concentrations of diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate (DA-6 on the regeneration and growth of adventitious buds in in vitro purple coneflower cultures. Among the 3 types of explants tested, leaf explants required higher concentrations of DA-6 than petiole and root explants in order to obtain high regeneration rates, while root explants required the lowest concentration of DA-6. Additionally, explants with higher ploidy levels were more sensitive to the addition of DA-6, while explants with lower ploidy levels required higher concentrations of DA-6 to achieve its maximal regeneration rate. Interestingly, the application of a concentration that was conducive to the regeneration of explants with lower ploidy levels was inhibitory to the regeneration of explants with higher ploidy levels. Moreover, during the growth of regenerated buds, DA-6 application significantly improved plant height and weight, root weight, root thickness, root number, primary root length, total root length, and root/top ratio. Differences in the responses of explants to supplementation with DA-6 were also observed among explants with different ploidy levels, with buds having lower ploidy levels responding to lower concentrations of DA-6. Taken together, the results of the present experiments showed that proper application of DA-6 could increase in vitro culture efficiency in purple coneflower.

  17. Investigation for antimicrobial resistance-modulating activity of diethyl malate and 1-methyl malate against beta-lactamase class A from Bacillus licheniformis by molecular dynamics, in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaie, Sako; Najafi, Kambiz; Hakhamaneshi, Mohammad Saeed; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza; Fathi, Fardin

    2015-01-01

    Resistance to antibiotics in bacteria, is one of the major problems of mankind. Each year, a large number of patients due to infection, lose their lives. One of the main mechanisms of antibiotic resistance is beta-lactamase secretion. This enzyme hydrolyzes the amide bond of a lactam ring in beta-lactam antibiotics. Bacillus licheniformis is a mesophilic gram-positive bacterium, which has a high potential to produce beta-lactamase class A. In this study, the inhibitory effects of some malate analogous were studied by in vitro and in vivo studies. In addition, the effects of inhibitor binding on beta-lactamase were studied using MD simulations. Our results showed that diethyl malate and 1-methyl malate can decrease the MIC value of benzyl penicillin by sixteen and eight-fold, respectively. Data derived from in vitro studies revealed that decrease in MIC values is correlated with beta-lactamase inhibition. Molecular docking studies predicted the binding mode of inhibitors with the beta-lactamase active site. The structural analysis from MD simulations exhibits that binding of citrate and diethyl malate causes earlier equilibrium of beta-lactamase. After binding, the fluctuation of Ser 70 is also decreased. Based on our data, diethyl malate can be used to design the potent inhibitor against beta-lactamase class A.

  18. Identification of oxygenated ions in premixed flames of dimethyl ether and oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøsig Østergaard, L.; Egsgaard, H.; Hammerum, S.

    2003-01-01

    dimethyl ether, (CH3)(2)OH+. The flame-ion m/z 61 is a mixture of the trimethyloxonium ion, (CH3)(3)O+ and lesser amounts of protonated methyl formate and/or protonated ethyl methyl ether. The viability of an ionic mechanism to soot formation for dimethyl ether-oxygen flames is discussed on the background......The structure of characteristic flame-ions in premixed flames of dimethyl ether and oxygen was studied by ion-molecule reactions with ammonia and collision activation with argon. The results obtained show that the flame-ions m/z 45 and m/z 47 are the methoxymethyl cation, CH3OCH2+, and protonated...

  19. Recommended Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium Data. Part 5. Ether-Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góral, Marian; Måczyński, Andrzej; Oracz, Paweł

    2007-12-01

    Recommended liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data for 12 binary ether-water systems have been obtained after the critical evaluation of all data (168 data sets) reported for 17 systems in the open literature up to the end of 2006. An equation for the prediction of the ether solubilities in water was developed. The predicted ether solubilities were used for the calculation of water solubility in the ether-rich phase. The LLE calculations were done with the equation of state appended with a chemical term (EoSC) proposed by Góral [Fluid Phase Equilib. 118, 27 (1996)]. The recommended data are presented in the form of individual tables with references. Using these recommended data, predictive ability has been tested for several UNIFAC and ASOG group-contribution methods.

  20. Oxime Ethers of (E)-11-Isonitrosostrychnine as Highly Potent Glycine Receptor Antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohsen, Amal M Y; Mandour, Yasmine M; Sarukhanyan, Edita

    2016-01-01

    A series of (E)-11-isonitrosostrychnine oxime ethers, 2-aminostrychnine, (strychnine-2-yl)propionamide, 18-oxostrychnine, and N-propylstrychnine bromide were synthesized and evaluated pharmacologically at human α1 and α1β glycine receptors in a functional fluorescence-based and a whole-cell patch......-clamp assay and in [(3)H]strychnine binding studies. 2-Aminostrychnine and the methyl, allyl, and propargyl oxime ethers were the most potent α1 and α1β antagonists in the series, displaying IC50 values similar to those of strychnine at the two receptors. Docking experiments to the strychnine binding site...... of the crystal structure of the α3 glycine receptor indicated the same orientation of the strychnine core for all analogues. For the most potent oxime ethers, the ether substituent was accommodated in a lipophilic receptor binding pocket. The findings identify the oxime hydroxy group as a suitable attachment...

  1. Rate Constants for the Reactions of Hydroxyl Radical with Several Alkanes, Cycloalkanes, and Dimethyl Ether

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMore, W.; Bayes, K.

    1998-01-01

    Relative rate experiements were used to measure rate constants and temperature denpendencies of the reactions of OH with propane, n-butane, n-pentane, n-hexane, cyclopropane, cyclobutane, cyclopentane, and dimethyl ether.

  2. A superconcentrated ether electrolyte for fast-charging Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuki; Yaegashi, Makoto; Abe, Takeshi; Yamada, Atsuo

    2013-12-11

    We have found ultrafast Li(+) intercalation into graphite in a superconcentrated ether electrolyte, even exceeding that in a currently used commercial electrolyte. This discovery is an important breakthrough toward fast-charging Li-ion batteries far beyond present technologies.

  3. The smallest quaternary ammonium salts with ether groups for high-performance electrochemical double layer capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Taihee; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Jeonghun; Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Ketack

    2016-03-01

    Electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) are energy storage devices that have been used for a wide range of electronic applications. In particular, the electrolyte is one of the important components, directly related to the capacitance and stability. Herein, we first report a series of the smallest quaternary ammonium salts (QASs), with ether groups on tails and tetrafluoroborate (BF 4 ) as an anion, for use in EDLCs. To find the optimal structure, various QASs with different sized head groups and ether-containing tail groups were systematically compared. Comparing two nearly identical structures with and without ether groups, QASs with oxygen atoms showed improved capacitance, proving that ions with oxygen atoms move more easily than their counterparts at lower electric fields. Moreover, the ether containing QASs showed low activation energy values of conductivities, leading to smaller IR drops during the charge and discharge processes, resulting in an overall higher capacitance.

  4. Synthesis and biological evaluation of arctigenin ester and ether derivatives as activators of AMPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sida; Zhuang, Jingjing; Chen, Yijia; Lei, Min; Chen, Jing; Shen, Xu; Hu, Lihong

    2013-07-01

    A series of new arctigenin and 9-deoxy-arctigenin derivatives bearing different ester and ether side chains at the phenolic hydroxyl positions are designed, synthesized, and evaluated for activating AMPK potency in L6 myoblasts. Initial biological evaluation indicates that some alkyl ester and phenethyl ether arctigenin derivatives display potential activities in AMPK phosphorylation improvement. Further structure-activity relationship analysis shows that arctigenin ester derivatives 3a, 3h and 9-deoxy-arctigenin phenethyl ether derivatives 6a, 6c, 6d activate AMPK more potently than arctigenin. Moreover, the 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl ether moiety of 6c has been demonstrated as a potential functional group to improve the effect of AMPK phosphorylation. The structural optimization of arctigenin leads to the identification of 6c as a promising lead compound that exhibits excellent activity in AMPK activation. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Polybrominated diphenyl ether contamination levels in fish from the Antarctic and the Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghesi, N.; Corsolini, S.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Brandsma, S.H.; de Boer, J.

    2009-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) concentrations and congener profiles were evaluated in four species of Antarctic fish (Chionodraco hamatus, Chaempsocephalus gunnari, Gymnoscopelus nicholsi, Trematomus eulepidotes) and in one Mediterranean species (Tuna, Thunnus thynnus). The GC/MS-ECNI

  6. New Tetraazacrown Ethers Containing Two Pyridine, Quinoline, 8-Hydroxyquinoline, or 8-Aminoquinoline Sidearms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Zhaoxia

    1999-01-01

    .... Crab-like cyclization of bis(alpha-chloroacetamide)s and diamines followed by reduction of the cyclic diamides was used to synthesize the selected crown ethers containing two unsubstituted macroring nitrogen atoms...

  7. Degradation of the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and altenuene upon bread baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, David; Feist, Michael; Proske, Matthias; Koch, Matthias; Nehls, Irene

    2010-09-08

    The stability of the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and altenuene upon bread baking was investigated by model experiments using a spiked wholemeal wheat flour matrix. For alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether, but not for altenuene, degradation products, formed through a sequence of hydrolysis and decarboxylation, could be identified in pilot studies. The simultaneous quantification of alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene, and the degradation products was achieved by a newly developed high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) multimethod. The obtained quantitative data indicate that the Alternaria mycotoxins are barely degraded during wet baking, while significant degradation occurs upon dry baking, with the stability decreasing in the order alternariol monomethyl ether>alternariol>altenuene. The novel degradation products could be detected after the wet baking of flour spiked with alternariol and in a sample survey of 24 commercial cereal based baking products.

  8. Modeling of a Reaction-Distillation-Recycle System to Produce Dimethyl Ether through Methanol Dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muharam, Y.; Zulkarnain, L. M.; Wirya, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    The increase in the dimethyl ether yield through methanol dehydration due to a recycle integration to a reaction-distillation system was studied in this research. A one-dimensional phenomenological model of a methanol dehydration reactor and a shortcut model of distillation columns were used to achieve the aim. Simulation results show that 10.7 moles/s of dimethyl ether is produced in a reaction-distillation system with the reactor length being 4 m, the reactor inlet pressure being 18 atm, the reactor inlet temperature being 533 K, the reactor inlet velocity being 0.408 m/s, and the distillation pressure being 8 atm. The methanol conversion is 90% and the dimethyl ether yield is 48%. The integration of the recycle stream to the system increases the dimethyl ether yield by 8%.

  9. SYNTHESIS, COMPLEXATION BEHAVIOR AND REACTIONS OF THIA-CROWN ETHERS INCORPORATING PROPAN-2-ONE UNITS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KELLOGG, RM; VANBOLHUIS, F

    1991-01-01

    Thia-crown ethers containing ketone functionality derived from 1,3-dichloroacetone have been prepared in 70-80% yields; the crystal structures of one free macrocycle and two Ag1 complexes have been determined.

  10. Protective effects of ether, oxygen and their mixture for radiation in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megumi, Tsuneo; Tsujii, Yukio; Gamo, Sumiko

    1992-01-01

    Protective effects of ether mixed with air or oxygen against ionizing radiation damages were demonstrated in adult flies of Drosophila melanogaster. The protective effects against knock-down on the second day and lethality on the eighth day after irradiation were not affected by the radiation sensitivity and DNA repair capacity of the strains. Ether (4.2%) in oxygen was more effective than ether in air for both endpoints. The protective effects may be due to damages not involving cell division, since no mitotic cells are observed in adult flies except in gonadal glands. A change in the orderliness of the cell membrane by ether is suggested to be the cause of the protective effects. (author). 16 refs.; 3 tabs

  11. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether (Egbe) (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has conducted a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  12. 6-C-METHYLQUERCETIN-3, 3', 4'-TRIMETHYL ETHER FROM THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... ether and a 2-phenoxychromone ( Piliostigmin) and were isolated along with quercetin, quercetrin and quercetin-3-O-glucoside. The chemotaxonomic significance of the findings is briefly discussed. Key Words: Piliostigma reticulatum; Caesalpinaceae; leaves; 2-phenoxychromone; C- methylflavonols; chemotaxonomy.

  13. Water-filled telescopes and the pre-history of Fresnel's ether dragging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller Pedersen, K.

    2000-06-01

    This essay examines the development of the optics of moving transparent bodies during the 19th century. In particular, it highlights how the discussion of stellar and terrestrial aberration influenced the formulation of Fresnel's theory of ether dragging.

  14. Complexation of molecular clips containing fragments of diphenylglycoluril and benzocrown ethers with paraquat and its derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid S. Kikot'

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The complexation of molecular clips containing fragments of diphenylglycoluril and benzocrown ethers with paraquat and its derivatives has been studied both in solution and in the solid state. In this paper we studied the influence of the crown ether ring size and the nature of the substituents at the nitrogen atoms of the paraquat derivatives on the composition and stability of these complexes.

  15. Exposure of German residents to ethylene and propylene glycol ethers in general and after cleaning scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, H; Nitschke, L; Boehmer, S; Kiranoglu, M; Göen, T

    2013-03-01

    Glycol ethers are a class of semi-volatile substances used as solvents in a variety of consumer products like cleaning agents, paints, cosmetics as well as chemical intermediates. We determined 11 metabolites of ethylene and propylene glycol ethers in 44 urine samples of German residents (background level study) and in urine samples of individuals after exposure to glycol ethers during cleaning activities (exposure study). In the study on the background exposure, methoxyacetic acid and phenoxyacetic acid (PhAA) could be detected in each urine sample with median (95th percentile) values of 0.11 mgL(-1) (0.30 mgL(-1)) and 0.80 mgL(-1) (23.6 mgL(-1)), respectively. The other metabolites were found in a limited number of samples or in none. In the exposure study, 5-8 rooms were cleaned with a cleaner containing ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE), propylene glycol monobutyl ether (PGBE), or ethylene glycol monopropyl ether (EGPE). During cleaning the mean levels in the indoor air were 7.5 mgm(-3) (EGBE), 3.0 mgm(-3) (PGBE), and 3.3 mgm(-3) (EGPE), respectively. The related metabolite levels analysed in the urine of the residents of the rooms at the day of cleaning were 2.4 mgL(-1) for butoxyacetic acid, 0.06 mgL(-1) for 2-butoxypropionic acid, and 2.3 mgL(-1) for n-propoxyacetic acid. Overall, our study indicates that the exposure of the population to glycol ethers is generally low, with the exception of PhAA. Moreover, the results of the cleaning scenarios demonstrate that the use of indoor cleaning agents containing glycol ethers can lead to a detectable internal exposure of residents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Design and synthesis of aryl ether and sulfone hydroxamic acids as potent histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabba, Chittari; Gregg, Brian T; Kitchen, Douglas B; Chen, Zhen Jia; Judkins, Angela

    2011-01-01

    A series of novel hydroxamic acid based histone deacetylases (HDAC) inhibitors with aryl ether and aryl sulfone residues at the terminus of a substituted, unsaturated 5-carbon spacer moiety have been synthesized for the first time and evaluated. Compounds with meta- and para-substitution on the aryl ring of ether hydroxamic acids 19c, 20c, 19e, 19f and 19g are potent HDAC inhibitors with activities at low nanomolar levels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Measurement of Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium for the DME + Diisopropyl Ether Binary System and Correlation for the DME + CO2 + Diisopropyl Ether Ternary System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianghong; Du, Xiaojie; Zheng, Danxing

    2010-02-01

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data have been measured with a static-type VLE apparatus for the dimethyl ether (DME)-diisopropyl ether (DIPE) binary system at five temperatures within the range from 293.04 K to 352.70 K. An isothermal correlation for the experimental data has been carried out based on the Peng-Robinson equation of state. The regressed binary interaction parameters were used to estimate VLE for the DME-CO2-DIPE ternary system at 298.15 K. From the study, it is demonstrated that DIPE is an excellent absorbent for separation in the DME synthesis process from syngas.

  18. 1,6-Bis(4-vinylphenyl)hexane as a crosslinking agent for the preparation of crosslinked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) membranes by EB irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sanghee; Zhang, Mei-Shan; Shin, Junhwa; Lee, Youn-Sik

    2014-04-01

    In order to mitigate problems associated with highly sulfonated aromatic hydrocarbon membranes, such as dimensional stability, mechanical strength, and methanol crossover, sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) membranes containing 1,6-bis(4-vinylphenyl)hexane (BVPH) were crosslinked by EB irradiation. Compared to the pristine SPEEK membrane, the crosslinked membranes exhibited significantly improved dimensional stability, chemical stability, and mechanical strength. The crosslinking procedure slightly reduced the proton conductivity of the membranes. The crosslinking of SPEEK with BVPH was also found to slightly reduce the proton conductivity of the membranes, but significantly reduced the methanol permeability.

  19. Radium separation through complexation by aqueous crown ethers and ion exchange or solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarizia, R.; Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; Burnett, W.C. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Oceanography

    1997-11-01

    The effect of three water-soluble, unsubstituted crown ethers (15-crown-5 (15C5), 18-crown-6 (18C6) and 21-crown-7 (21C7)) on the uptake of Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra cations by a sulfonic acid cation exchange resin, and on the extraction of the same cations by xylene solutions of dinonylnaphthalenesulfonic acid (HDNNS) from aqueous hydrochloric acid solutions has been investigated. The crown ethers enhance the sorption of the larger cations by the ion exchange resin, thereby improving the resin selectivity over calcium, a result of a synergistic interaction between the crown ether and the ionic functional groups of the resin. Similarly, the extraction of the larger alkaline earth cations into xylene by HDNNS is strongly synergized by the presence of the crown ethers in the aqueous phase. Promising results for intra-Group IIa cation separations have been obtained using each of the three crown ethers as the aqueous ligands and the sulfonic acid cation exchange resin. Even greater separation factors for the radium-calcium couple have been measured with the crown-ethers and HDNNS solutions in the solvent extraction mode. The application of the uptake and extraction results to the development of radium separation schemes is discussed and a possible flowchart for the determination of {sup 226}Ra/{sup 228}Ra in natural waters is presented.

  20. Safety Assessment of Alkyl PEG/PPG Ethers as Used in Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice M; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2016-07-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel assessed the safety of 131 alkyl polyethylene glycol (PEG)/polypropylene glycol ethers as used in cosmetics, concluding that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment when formulated to be nonirritating. Most of the alkyl PEG/PPG ethers included in this review are reported to function in cosmetics as surfactants, skin-conditioning agents, and/or emulsifying agents. The alkyl PEG/PPG ethers share very similar physiochemical properties as the alkyl PEG ethers, which were reviewed previously by the CIR Expert Panel and found safe when formulated to be nonirritating. The alkyl PEG ethers differ by the inclusion of PPG repeat units, which are used to fine-tune the surfactant properties of this group. The Panel relied heavily on data on analogous ingredients, extracted from the alkyl PEG ethers and PPG reports, when making its determination of safety. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Dimethyl ether. A fuel for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleisch, T.H.; Basu, A.; Gradassi, M.J.; Masin, J.G. [Gas Transportation and Upgrading Division, Amoco, Exploration and Production Technology Group, Naperville, IL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    For several years Amoco has been involved in research and development work on the synthesis of liquid fuels from natural gas. In a recent collaborative work with Haldor Topsoe S/A, AVL LIST GmbH and Navistar, Amoco has identified Dimethyl Ether (DME) as a new, ultraclean alternative fuel for diesel engines. DME can be handled like LPG, an important alternative transportation fuel. Preliminary engine test data for DME, showing emission levels better than the California 1998 ULEV standards, were recently reported at the 1995 SAE conference in Detroit, Michigan. DME is today manufactured from methanol and is primarily used as an aerosol propellant due to its environmentally benign characteristics. Haldor Topsoe has developed a process for direct production of DME from natural gas, coal or biomass. The process can be used for large scale (about 40.000 BSD diesel equivalent) manufacture of DME from natural gas using predominantly single-train process units. In this paper, we will provide an overview of the attractiveness of DME as an environmentally and customer-friendly diesel fuel option. 14 refs.

  2. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in birds of prey from Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da; Mai, Bixian; Song, Jie; Sun, Quanhui; Luo, Yong; Luo, Xiaojun; Zeng, Eddy Y; Hale, Robert C

    2007-03-15

    Birds of prey from Northern China (Beijing area) were examined for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). A total of 47 specimens from eight different species were analyzed. Muscle and liver were analyzed separately for each bird. Kidneys were pooled by species. Common kestrels exhibited the highest PBDE levels (mean muscle and liver concentrations of 12300 and 12200 ng/g lipid weight, respectively), with maxima in an individual bird of 31700 in muscle and 40900 ng/g lw in liver. Congener profiles differed between some species, but were generally dominated by the more brominated congeners (e.g., BDE-153, -209, -183, -207). BDE-209 was especially elevated compared to other published reports. Interspecies differences in congener concentrations and profiles may be due to diet, behavior, or biotransformation capacities. BDE-209 was detected in 79.4% of the samples. Common kestrels contained the highest BDE-209 levels (mean/maxima of 2150/6220 in muscle and 2870/12200 ng/g lw in liver). BDE-209 was the dominant congener in tissues from some buzzards, scops owls, and long-eared owls. It was the second most abundant congener in common kestrels. The remarkable levels and dominance of BDE-209 may relate to significant production, usage, or disposal of deca-containing products in China. These observations reinforce the growing view that organisms using terrestrial food chains may have greater exposure to BDE-209.

  3. Biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether by Kocuria sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiković Dragan D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE has been used to replace the toxic compounds from gasoline and to reduce emission of air pollutants. Due to its intensive use, MTBE has become one of the most important environment pollutants. The aim of this paper is isolation and identification of the bacteria from wastewater sample of “HIP Petrohemija” Pančevo (Serbia, capable of MTBE biodegradation. The results of the investigation showed that only the bacterial isolate 27/1 was capable of growth on MTBE. The result of sequence analyzes of 16S rDNA showed that this bacterial isolate belongs to the Kocuria sp. After the incubation period of 86 days, the degradation rates of initial MTBE concentration of 25 and 125 μg/ml were 55 and 36%, respectively. These results indicated that bacteria Kocuria sp. is successfully adapted on MTBE and can be potentially used in bioremediation of soils and waters contaminated with MTBE.

  4. Crown ethers and phase transfer catalysis in polymer science

    CERN Document Server

    Carraher, Charles

    1984-01-01

    Phase transfer catalysis or interfacial catalysis is a syn­ thetic technique involving transport of an organic or inorganic salt from a solid or aqueous phase into an organic liquid where reaction with an organic-soluble substrate takes place. Over the past 15 years there has been an enormous amount of effort invested in the development of this technique in organic synthe­ sis. Several books and numerous review articles have appeared summarizing applications in which low molecular weight catalysts are employed. These generally include either crown ethers or onium salts of various kinds. While the term phase transfer catalysis is relatively new, the concept of using a phasetrans­ fer agent (PTA) is much older~ Both Schnell and Morgan employed such catalysts in synthesis of polymeric species in the early 1950's. Present developments are really extensions of these early applications. It has only been within the last several years that the use of phase transfer processes have been employed in polymer synthesis...

  5. Decorating poly(alkyl aryl-ether) dendrimers with metallacarboranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Rosario; Juárez-Pérez, Emilio José; Teixidor, Francesc; Santillan, Rosa; Farfán, Norberto; Abreu, Arturo; Yépez, Rebeca; Viñas, Clara

    2010-11-01

    A new family of polyanionic poly(alkyl aryl-ether) metallodendrimers decorated with four and eight cobaltabisdicarbollide units have been obtained in high yield by the ring-opening reaction of cyclic oxonium [3,3'-Co(8-(C(2)H(4)O)(2)-1,2-C(2)B(9)H(10))(1',2'-C(2)B(9)H(11))] with alkoxides formed by deprotonation of terminal alcohols in the α,α'-bis[3,5-bis(hydroxymehyl)phenoxy]-p-xylene, α,α'-bis[3,5-bis(hydroxymehyl)phenoxy]-m-xylene, α,α'-bis[3,5-bis-[3,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)phenoxy]methylen]phenoxy]-p-xylene, and α,α,'-bis[3,5-bis-[3,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)phenoxy]methylen]phenoxy]-m-xylene dendrimers. The crystal structure of the precursor α,α'-bis[3,5-bis(chloromethyl)phenoxy]-p-xylene is also described. Final products are fully characterized by FTIR, NMR, UV-vis spectroscopies and elemental analysis. For metallodendrimers, the UV-vis absorptions have been a good tool for estimating the experimental number of cobaltabisdicarbollide units peripherally attached to the dendrimeric structure and consequently to corroborate the complete functionalization of the dendrimers.

  6. Sesquiterpene amino ether and cytotoxic phenols from Dendrobium wardianum Warner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cong; Liu, Shou-Jin; Yang, Liu; Yuan, Ming-Yan; Li, Jin-Yu; Hou, Bo; Li, Hong-Mei; Yang, Xing-Zhi; Ding, Chang-Chun; Hu, Jiang-Miao

    2017-10-01

    A new bibenzyl derivative, dendrocandin V (1) and a new sesquiterpene amino ether, wardianumine A (2), together with eleven known compounds, including phenanthrenes (denbinobin (3), 9,10-dihydro-denbinobin (4), mostatin (5), loddigesiinols A (6)), bibenzyls (moscatilin (7), 5-hydroxy-3,4'-dimethoxybibenzyl (8), 3,4-dihydroxy-5,4'-dimethoxy bibenzyl (9), dendrocandin A (10), gigantol (11), dendrocandin U (12)) and an alkaloids (dihydroshihunine, 13) were isolated from the EtOH extraction of stems of Dendrobium wardianum Warner. Isolation of the new compound 2 indicated that N,N-dimethylethanolamine as the key adduction in the synthesis of dendroxine and its analogs in Dendrobium species. The hypothetical biosynthetic pathway of 2 was then postulated. Inspired by literature and traditional usage of the herbal medicine, some compounds were sent for cytotoxic activity and the results indicated that compounds 1, 3, 4, 5 showed cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines (HL-60, A-549, SMMC-7721, MCF-7, and SW-480) with IC50 from 2.33-38.48μM. Among those compounds, 3 and 4 showed cell line selectivity with strong activity comparable to DDP. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Crystal structure of the diglycidyl ether of eugenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigier, Jordan; François, Camille; Pourchet, Sylvie; Boni, Gilles; Plasseraud, Laurent; Placet, Vincent; Fontaine, Stéphane; Cattey, Hélène

    2017-05-01

    The diep-oxy monomer, C 13 H 16 O 4 { DGE-Eu ; systematic name: 2-[3-meth-oxy-4-(oxiran-2-ylmeth-oxy)benz-yl]oxirane}, was synthesized from eugenol by a three-step reaction. It consists of a 1,2,4-tris-ubstituted benzene ring substituted by diglycidyl ether, a meth-oxy group and a methyl-oxirane group. The three-membered oxirane rings are inclined to the benzene ring by 61.0 (3) and 27.9 (3)°. The methyl-ene C atom of one of the two terminal epoxide rings is positionally disordered [refined occupancy ratio = 0.69 (1):0.31 (1)]. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming layers parallel to the ab plane. The layers are linked by C-H⋯π inter-actions, forming a three-dimensional network.

  8. ether ether ketone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    2007-08-10

    Phosphated Zirconia Nanoparticles. Composite Proton-conducting Membranes. Hongze Luo, Shan Ji, Guntars Vaivars*, Ben Bladergroen and Vladimir Linkov. Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag ...

  9. Block copolymers of poly(vinyl ethers) and poly(ethylene glycol) by means of the living cationic polymerization of vinyl ethers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loontjens, Ton; Derks, Frank; Kleuskens, Engelien

    1992-01-01

    If living poly(vinyl ethers) are terminated with a large excess of methanol, containing aqueous ammonia, well-defined products are obtained. If only a slight excess of methanol is used, aldehydes and coupling products are formed. However, termination with an excess of a hydroxy terminated polymer is

  10. Impact on prevalence of intestinal helminth infection in school children administered with seven annual rounds of diethyl carbamazine (DEC with albendazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I P Sunish

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: One third of the world′s population is infected with one or more of the most common soil-transmitted helminths (STH. Albendazole (ALB is being administered with diethyl carbamazine (DEC in filariasis endemic areas to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF and helminth infections. In this study, the cumulative impact of seven annual rounds of mass drug administrations (MDA of DEC and ALB on STH infection in school children in selected villages in southern India was determined. Methods: During 2001-2010, seven MDAs were implemented by the Tamil Nadu s0 tate h0 ealth d0 epartment, India. LF and STH infections were monitored in school children from 18 villages of the two treatment arms (viz, DEC alone and DEC+ALB. Kato-Katz cellophane quantitative thick smear technique was employed to estimate STH infections at three weeks, six months and one year post MDA. Results: Prior to treatment, an overall STH prevalence was 60 per cent. After each MDA, infection markedly reduced at three weeks post-treatment in both the arms. The prevalence increased at six months period, which was maintained up to one year. After seven rounds of MDA, the infection reduced from 60.44 to 12.48 per cent in DEC+ALB arm; while the reduction was negligible in DEC alone arm (58.77 to 52.70%. Interpretation & conclusions: Seven rounds of MDA with DEC+ALB reduced the infection load significantly, and further sustained low level of infection for 10 years. However, complete parasite elimination could not be achieved. To curtail STH infection in the community, MDA should be regularized and environmental sanitation measures need to be improved by effective community-based campaigns.

  11. Comparative study of diethyl phthalate degradation by UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2: kinetics, mechanism, and effects of operational parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chengjie; Wang, Liping; Ren, Jie; Lv, Bo; Sun, Zhonghao; Yan, Jing; Li, Xinying; Liu, Jingjing

    2016-02-01

    The photodegradation of diethyl phthalate (DEP) by UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 is studied. The DEP degradation kinetics and multiple crucial factors effecting the clearance of DEP are investigated, including initial DEP concentration ([DEP]0), initial pH values (pH0), UV light intensity, anions (Cl(-), NO(3-), SO4 (2-), HCO3 (-), and CO3 (2-)), cations (Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Mn(2+), and Fe(3+)), and humic acid (HA). Total organic carbon (TOC) removal is tested by two treatments. And, cytotoxicity evolution of DEP degradation intermediates is detected. The relationship between molar ratio ([H2O2]/[DEP] or [TiO2]/[DEP]) and degradation kinetic constant (K) is also studied. And, the cytotoxicity tests of DEP and its degradation intermediates in UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 treatments are researched. The DEP removal efficiency of UV/H2O2 treatment is higher than UV/TiO2 treatment. The DEP degradation fitted a pseudo-first-order kinetic pattern under experimental conditions. The K linearly related with molar ratio in UV/H2O2 treatment while nature exponential relationship is observed in the case of UV/TiO2. However, K fitted corresponding trends better in H2O2 treatment than in TiO2 treatment. The Cl(-) is in favor of the DEP degradation in UV/H2O2 treatment; in contrast, it is disadvantageous to the DEP degradation in UV/TiO2 treatment. Other anions are all disadvantageous to the DEP degradation in two treatments. Fe(3+) promotes the degradation rates significantly. And, all other cations in question inhibit the degradation of DEP. HA hinders DEP degradation in two treatments. The intermediates of DEP degradation in UV/TiO2 treatment are less toxic to biological cell than that in UV/H2O2 treatment.

  12. A margin of exposure approach to assessment of non-cancerous risk of diethyl phthalate based on human exposure from bottled water consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare Jeddi, Maryam; Rastkari, Noushin; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Yunesian, Masud; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Daryabeygi, Reza

    2015-12-01

    Phthalates may be present in food due to their widespread presence as environmental contaminants or due to migration from food contact materials. Exposure to phthalates is considered to be potentially harmful to human health as well. Therefore, determining the main source of exposure is an important issue. So, the purpose of this study was (1) to measure the release of diethyl phthalate (DEP) in bottled water consumed in common storage conditions specially low temperature and freezing conditions; (2) to evaluate the intake of DEP from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottled water and health risk assessment; and (3) to assess the contribution of the bottled water to the DEP intake against the tolerable daily intake (TDI) values. DEP migration was investigated in six brands of PET-bottled water under different storage conditions room temperature, refrigerator temperature, freezing conditions (40 °C ,0 °C and -18 °C) and outdoor] at various time intervals by magnetic solid extraction (MSPE) using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Eventually, a health risk assessment was conducted and the margin of exposure (MOE) was calculated. The results indicate that contact time with packaging and storage temperatures caused DEP to be released into water from PET bottles. But, when comprising the DEP concentration with initial level, the results demonstrated that the release of phthalates were not substantial in all storage conditions especially at low temperatures (bottled water was much lower than the reference value. However, the lowest MOE was estimated for high water consumers (preschooler > children > lactating women > teenagers > adults > pregnant women), but in all target groups, the MOE was much higher than 1000, thus, low risk is implied. Consequently, PET-bottled water is not a major source of human exposure to DEP and from this perspective is safe for consumption.

  13. Benchmarking semiempirical and DFT methods for the interaction of thiophene and diethyl sulfide molecules with a Ti(OH)4(H2O) cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorontsov, Alexander V; Smirniotis, Panagiotis G

    2017-08-01

    Semiempirical methods pm6 and pm7 as well as density functional theory functionals exchange LSDA, exchange-correlation PW91 and PBE, hybrid B3LYP1 and PBE0 were compared for energy and geometry of thiophene, diethyl sulfide (DES) molecules and their binding to a frozen Ti(OH) 4 (H 2 O) complex having one coordinatively unsaturated Ti 5C site representing small fragment of TiO 2 anatase (001) surface. PBE0/6-31G(d) with DFT-D3 dispersion correction was the best method for description of thiophene and DES molecules geometries as comparison with experimental data demonstrated. Semiempirical methods pm6 and pm7 resulted in only three of four possible binding configurations of thiophene with the Ti(OH) 4 (H 2 O) complex while pm7 described correctly the enthalpy and all configurations of DES binding with the Ti(OH) 4 (H 2 O) complex. SBKJC pseudopotential and LSDA with and without dispersion correction produced flawed results for many configurations. PBE0 and PBE with and without dispersion correction and PW91 with 6-31G(d) basis set systematically produced dependable results for thiophene and DES binding to the Ti(OH) 4 (H 2 O) complex. PBE0-D3/6-31G(d), B3LYP1-D3/6-31G(d), and PBE-D3/6-31G(d) gave best match of binding energy for thiophene while PBE0/6-31G(d) gave best match of DES binding energy as comparison with CCSD(T) energy demonstrated. On the basis of the superior results obtained with PBE0/6-31G(d), it is the recommended method for modeling of adsorption over TiO 2 surfaces. Such a conclusion is in agreement with recent literature.

  14. Incongruent nuclear and mitochondrial genetic structure of new world screwworm fly populations due to positive selection of mutations associated with dimethyl- and diethyl-organophosphates resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamo, Luana Walravens; Fresia, Pablo; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production is an important economic activity in Brazil, which has been suffering significant losses due to the impact of parasites. The New World screwworm (NWS) fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax, is an ectoparasite and one of the most important myiasis-causing flies endemic to the Americas. The geographic distribution of NWS has been reduced after the implementation of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), being eradicated in North America and part of Central America. In South America, C. hominivorax is controlled by chemical insecticides, although indiscriminate use can cause selection of resistant individuals. Previous studies have associated the Gly137Asp and Trp251Leu mutations in the active site of carboxylesterase E3 to resistance of diethyl and dimethyl-organophosphates insecticides, respectively. Here, we have sequenced a fragment of the carboxylesterase E3 gene (ChαE7), comprising part of intron iII, exon eIII, intron iIII and part of exon eIV, and three mitochondrial gene sequences (CR, COI and COII), of NWS flies from 21 locations in South America. These markers were used for population structure analyses and the ChαE7 gene was also investigated to gain insight into the selective pressures that have shaped its evolution. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and pairwise FST analysis indicated an increased genetic structure between locations in the ChαE7 compared to the concatenated mitochondrial genes. Discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) and spatial analysis of molecular variance (SAMOVA) indicated different degrees of genetic structure for all markers, in agreement with the AMOVA results, but with low correlation to geographic data. The NWS fly is considered a panmitic species based on mitochondrial data, while it is structured into three groups considering the ChαE7 gene. A negative association between the two mutations related to organophosphate resistance and Fay & Wu's H significant negative values for the exons, suggest

  15. Application of Ce{sub x}Zr{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} catalysts for the synthesis of diethyl carbonate from ethanol and carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prymak, I.; Kalevaru, V.N.; Kollmorgen, P.; Wohlrab, S. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Katalyse e.V. an der Universitaet Rostock (Germany); Martin, A.

    2013-11-01

    The direct synthesis of diethyl carbonate (DEC) from ethanol and CO{sub 2} is indeed an attractive approach from both academic and commercial points of view. In the present study, we report on the synthesis, characterization and catalytic evaluation of Ce-Zr-O solids with varying Ce/Zr ratios. The catalysts were prepared by citrate complexation method, and characterized by various techniques such as N{sub 2} adsorption (BET-SA), XRD, H{sub 2}-TPR, NH{sub 3}-TPD etc. The catalytic performance of these catalysts was evaluated towards the synthesis of DEC from ethanol and CO{sub 2} under suitable reaction conditions. According to thermodynamic data, the reaction is favorable at low reaction temperatures and high reaction pressures. Thus, the catalytic experiments were carried out in a continuous mode using a plug-flow reactor that was operated up to 200 bar and ca. 200 C. The effect of the reaction temperature (30-180 C) and pressure (80-180 bar) on the yield of DEC was investigated. Among various catalysts tested, Ce-Zr-O catalyst with 80 mol% Ce content has exhibited a relatively better performance compared to all other Ce-Zr-O catalysts. DEC yield increased with increasing reaction temperature up to 140 C. The highest yield of DEC obtained from the best case was 0.7 % at 140 C and at 140 bars. Further increase in temperature to 180 C caused a decrease in the DEC formation due to thermodynamic reasons as mentioned above. The ceria proportion has shown a considerable influence on the BET surface areas and thereby catalytic activity as well. The results revealed that the redox properties as well as acidity characteristics of the solids are strongly influenced by the content of Ce in the catalysts, which in turn showed a clear impact on the catalytic performance. (orig.)

  16. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Their strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis (FMEA, referred to by Air Products as a ''HAZOP'' analysis) with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operational in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation Institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on

  17. Evaluation of hepatic biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the polar bear (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Lisa K; Szeitz, András; Bandiera, Stelvio M

    2016-03-01

    Polar bears are at the top of the Arctic marine food chain and are subject to exposure and bioaccumulation of environmental chemicals of concern such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which were widely used as flame retardants. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro oxidative metabolism of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-47) and 2,2',4,4',5-pentabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-99) by polar bear liver microsomes. The identification and quantification of the hydroxy-brominated diphenyl ethers formed were assessed using an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based method. Incubation of BDE-47 with archived individual liver microsomes, prepared from fifteen polar bears from northern Canada, produced a total of eleven hydroxylated metabolites, eight of which were identified using authentic standards. The major metabolites were 4'-hydroxy-2,2',4,5'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether and 5'-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether. Incubation of BDE-99 with polar bear liver microsomes produced a total of eleven hydroxylated metabolites, seven of which were identified using authentic standards. The major metabolites were 2,4,5-tribromophenol and 4-hydroxy-2,2',3,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether. Among the CYP specific antibodies tested, anti-rat CYP2B was found to be the most active in inhibiting the formation of hydroxylated metabolites of both BDE-47 and BDE-99, indicating that CYP2B was the major CYP enzyme involved in the oxidative biotransformation of these two congeners. Our study shows that polar bears are capable of forming multiple hydroxylated metabolites of BDE-47 and BDE-99 in vitro and demonstrates the role of CYP2B in the biotransformation and possibly in the toxicity of BDE-47 and BDE-99 in polar bears. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties and emissions in a diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Cuenca, F.; Gomez-Marin, M. [Compania Logistica de Hidrocarburos (CLH), Central Laboratory, Mendez Alvaro 44, 28045 Madrid (Spain); Folgueras-Diaz, M.B., E-mail: belenfd@uniovi.es [Department of Energy, University of Oviedo, Independencia 13, 33004 Oviedo (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Effect of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties. {yields} Effect of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel engine specific consumption and emissions. {yields} Blends with {<=}4 wt.% of oxygen do not change substantially diesel fuel quality. {yields} Blends with 1 and 2.5 wt.% of oxygen reduce CO and HC emissions, but not smoke. - Abstract: The effect of ethylene glycol ethers on both the diesel fuel characteristics and the exhaust emissions (CO, NO{sub x}, smoke and hydrocarbons) from a diesel engine was studied. The ethers used were monoethylene glycol ethyl ether (EGEE), monoethylene glycol butyl ether (EGBE), diethylene glycol ethyl ether (DEGEE). The above effect was studied in two forms: first by determining the modification of base diesel fuel properties by using blends with oxygen concentration around 4 wt.%, and second by determining the emission reductions for blends with low oxygen content (1 wt.%) and with 2.5 wt.% of oxygen content. The addition of DEGEE enhances base diesel fuel cetane number, but EGEE and EGBE decrease it. For concentrations of {>=}4 wt.% of oxygen, EGEE and diesel fuel can show immiscibility problems at low temperatures ({<=}0 {sup o}C). Also, every oxygenated compound, according to its boiling point, modifies the distillation curve at low temperatures and the distillate percentage increases. These compounds have a positive effect on diesel fuel lubricity, and slightly decrease its viscosity. Blends with 1 and 2.5 wt.% oxygen concentrations were used in order to determine their influence on emissions at both full and medium loads and different engine speeds. Generally, all compounds help to reduce CO, and hydrocarbon emissions, but not smoke. The best results were obtained for blends with 2.5 wt.% of oxygen. At this concentration, the additive efficiency in decreasing order was EGEE > DEGEE > EGBE for CO emissions and DGEE > EGEE > EGBE for hydrocarbon emissions. For NO{sub x}, both its behaviour and the

  19. Further studies on the toxicology of the glycol ethers with emphasis on rapid screening and hazard assessment.

    OpenAIRE

    Doe, J E

    1984-01-01

    The discovery that ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) could affect the testis and the developing fetus in laboratory animals prompted further work to understand the effect of EGME and to examine additional glycol ethers to see if they showed EGME's reprotoxicity. Propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME) was shown not to cause testicular atrophy or to affect the development of rats at 600 ppm by inhalation, whereas EGME caused testicular atrophy at 300 ppm and showed teratogenic potential...

  20. Inhibition of germinal vesicle breakdown in Xenopus oocytes in vitro by a series of substituted glycol ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Douglas J; Mathis, Michael B; Guiney, Patrick D; Weeks, John A

    2018-05-01

    A 24 hour in vitro Xenopus oocyte maturation (germinal vesicle breakdown [GVBD]) assay developed by Pickford and Morris (Environmental Health Perspectives, 1999, 107, 285-292) was used to screen a series of substituted glycol ethers (GEs). Substituted GEs included: ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME); EG monoethyl ether (EGEE); EG monopropyl ether (EGPE); EG monobutyl ether (EGBE); EG monohexyl ether (EGHE); diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (DGME); triethylene glycol monomethyl ether (TGME); ethylene glycol monophenyl ether (EGPhE); EG monobenzyl ether (EGBeE); EG diphenyl ether (EGDPhE); and propylene glycol monophenyl ether (PGPhE). The GEs inhibited progesterone- or androstenedione-induced GVBD with the following relative potency: EGPhE > PGPhE > EGME > EGEE ≥ EGBeE > EGPE > EGBE >EGHE > EGDPhE > DGME ≥ TGME, or EGPhE > PGPhE > EGBeE > EGDPhE > EGEE > EGME > EGPE > EGBE, EGHE, DGME and TGME, respectively. Further, [ 3 H]progesterone or [ 3 H]androstenedione binding affinities to the oocyte plasma membrane progesterone receptor (OMPR) or classical androgen receptor (AR) were: EGME > EGPhE ≥ PGPhE ≥ EGEE > EGBeE > EGPE > EGBE ≥ EGHE > EGDPhE, TGME, and DGME, or EGPhE > PGPhE > EGBeE > EGDPhE > EGEE ≥ EGME > EGPE, EGBE, and EGHE > DGME and TGME, respectively. Binary joint mixture studies with the GVBD model using flutamide (AR antagonist) and EGPhE indicated that flutamide/EGPhE mixture acted in a concentration additive manner. The effects of substituted GE series, however, may be mediated through the OMPR; the potency of EGPhE may be the result of bimodal inhibition of both the OMPR and AR pathways. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.