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Sample records for trichosanthes kirilowii maxim

  1. [Chemical constituents of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Ye; Wu, Hong-Hua; Fu, Ai-Zhen; Zhang, Peng

    2012-07-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim., chromatographic methods such as D101 macroporous resin, silica gel column chromatographic technology, Sephadex LH-20, octadecylsilyl (ODS) column chromatographic technique and preparative HPLC were used and nine compounds were isolated from a 95% (v/v) ethanol extract of the plant. By using spectroscopic techniques including 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 1H-1H COSY, HSQC and HMBC, these compounds were identified as 5-ethoxymethyl-1-carboxyl propyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde (1), 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (2), chrysoeriol (3), 4'-hydroxyscutellarin (4), vanillic acid (5), alpha-spinasterol (6), beta-D-glucopyranosyl-a-spinasterol (7), stigmast-7-en-3beta-ol (8), and adenosine (9), separately. Among them, compound 1 is a new compound, and compounds 3, 4 and 5 are isolated from the genus Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim. for the first time.

  2. Physicochemical characteristics, thermal stability and antioxidant characteristics of Trichosanthes kirilowii maxim seed oil as affected by different extraction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. K. Hou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In conducting this study, the extraction of Trichosanthes kirilowii maxim seed oils (TSO was carried out with the help of cold pressing (CP, hot pressing (HP and soxhlet extraction (SE. Investigation, together with comparison, was carried out with respect to the physicochemical properties, thermal stability and antioxidant action of TSO. The key ingredients in the seeds consisted of fat, fiber and protein. The physicochemical characteristics of the oils brought to light the fact that CPTSO possessed top oil quality. The findings also suggested that linoleic acid, punicic acid and oleic acid were the leading unsaturated fatty acids in TSO. It was also discovered that TSO had an almost identical chemical composition regardless of the extraction method was used. It was demonstrated by TG/DTG curves that both HPTSO and CPTSO had more thermal stability in comparison with SETSO. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity assessments emphasized that CPTSO had better radical scavenging potential. CP had the ability to deliver an extract with higher quality as well as antioxidant activity in comparison with HP and SE methods and can be taken into consideration as a more suitable method in order to attain high quality oil.

  3. Physicochemical characteristics, thermal stability and antioxidant characteristics of Trichosanthes kirilowii maxim seed oil as affected by different extraction methods; Características fisicoquímicas, estabilidad térmica y características antioxidantes del aceite de semillas de Trichosanthes kirilowii maxim según diferentes métodos de extracción

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Z.K.; Ji, Q.Z.; Yang, L.; Gao, Z.Q.; Wang, B.C.

    2017-07-01

    In conducting this study, the extraction of Trichosanthes kirilowii maxim seed oils (TSO) was carried out with the help of cold pressing (CP), hot pressing (HP) and soxhlet extraction (SE). Investigation, together with comparison, was carried out with respect to the physicochemical properties, thermal stability and antioxidant action of TSO. The key ingredients in the seeds consisted of fat, fiber and protein. The physicochemical characteristics of the oils brought to light the fact that CPTSO possessed top oil quality. The findings also suggested that linoleic acid, punicic acid and oleic acid were the leading unsaturated fatty acids in TSO. It was also discovered that TSO had an almost identical chemical composition regardless of the extraction method was used. It was demonstrated by TG/DTG curves that both HPTSO and CPTSO had more thermal stability in comparison with SETSO. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity assessments emphasized that CPTSO had better radical scavenging potential. CP had the ability to deliver an extract with higher quality as well as antioxidant activity in comparison with HP and SE methods and can be taken into consideration as a more suitable method in order to attain high quality oil. [Spanish] Se realizó la extracción de aceites de semillas Trichosanthes kirilowii maxim (TSO) mediante prensado en frío (CP), prensado en caliente (HP) y extracción mediante soxhlet (SE) y se compararon las propiedades físico-químicas, la estabilidad térmica y la acción antioxidante de TSO. Las semillas estaban compuestas fundamental por grasa, fibra y proteína. Las características fisicoquímicas de los aceites pusieron de manifiesto el hecho de que el aceite de prensado en frío era de una calidad superior. Los estudios también pusieron de manifiesto que los ácidos linoleico, punicílico y oleico eran los principales ácidos grasos insaturados en TSO. Además, se constató que TSO presentaba una composición química casi idéntica, cualquiera

  4. Effects of exogenous salicylic acid on cell wall polysaccharides and aluminum tolerance of trichosanthes kirilowii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, G.; Liu, D.; Xio, Y.; Liu, P.; Gao, P. P.; Cao, L.; Wu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to study the effects of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) on root length, relative aluminum content in the apical cell wall, acid phosphatase (APA) and pectin methyl esterase (PME) activity, root pectin, hemicellulose 1(HC1), and hemicellulose 2 (HC2) contents of Anguo Trichosanthes kirilowii (Al-tolerant genotype) and Pujiang T. kirilowii (Al-sensitive genotype) under 800 micro mol/L of aluminum stress. The results showed that the growth of Al-tolerant Anguo T. kirilowii and Al-sensitive Pujiang T. kirilowii was inhibited when exposed to 800 micro mol/L of aluminum solution. APA and PME activities were also enhanced for both genotypes. The contents of relative aluminum, pectin, HC1, and HC2, as well as Al accumulation in the root tips were increased under aluminum toxicity. Pujiang T. kirilowii showed higher enzyme activity and cell wall polysaccharide contents than Anguo T. kirilowii. In addition, the root cell wall pectin, HC1, and HC2 contents of Pujiang T. kirilowii were increased by a large margin, showing its greater sensitivity to aluminum toxicity. Root length is an important indicator of aluminum toxicity, and has an important relationship with cell wall polysaccharide content. Aluminum toxicity led to the accumulation of pectin and high PME activity, and also increased the number of free carboxyl groups, which have more aluminum binding sites. Membrane skim increased extensively with the increase in APA activity, damaging membrane structure and function. Different SA concentrations can decrease enzyme activity and cell wall polysaccharide content to some extent. With the addition of different SA concentrations, the root relative aluminum content, cell wall polysaccharide content, APA and PME activities decreased. Aluminum toxicity to both genotypes of T. kirilowii was relieved in different degrees as exogenous SA concentration increased. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) marker was used to examine the genetic distance

  5. [Difference of volatile constituents contained in female and male flowers of Trichosanthes kirilowii by HS-SPME-GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen; Chao, Zhimao; Wang, Chun; Wu, Xiaoyi; Tan, Zhigao

    2012-06-01

    To compare and analyze volatile constituents from flowers of Trichosanthes kirilowii, in order to point out characteristic differences between female and male flowers. Blooming female and male flowers were collected in the same place. Volatile constituents were extracted from the flower by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME), then separated and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass-spectrometry (GC-MS). Fifty-two and forty-five chromatographic peaks were separated from the female and male flowers, respectively. Forty seven constituents were identified and their relative percentage compositions were determined with the peak area normalization method. Linalool, alpha-farnesene, benzene methanol, and (Z)-2-methylbutanal oxime were the main volatile constituents. The contents of linalool and alpha-farnesene in female flower were remarkably higher than those in male. In contrast, the content of benzene methanol in male flower was remarkably higher than that in female. In the first study on chemical constituents from flowers in genus Trichosanthes, 37 compounds are separated from T. kirilowii. Contents of linalool, alpha-farnesene and benzene methanol show the characteristic differences of volatile constituents contained in male and female flowers of T. kirilowii, which enriches the basic studies on dioecious plant.

  6. Evaluation of root-knot nematode disease control and plant growth promotion potential of biofertilizer Ning shield on Trichosanthes kirilowii in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chun-Hao; Xie, Ping; Li, Ke; Xie, Yue-Sheng; Chen, Liu-Jun; Wang, Jin-Suo; Xu, Quan; Guo, Jian-Hua

    2017-11-11

    Biofertilizer Ning shield was composed of different strains of plant growth promotion bacteria. In this study, the plant growth promotion and root-knot nematode disease control potential on Trichosanthes kirilowii in the field were evaluated. The application of Ning shield significantly reduced the diseases severity caused by Meloidogyne incognita, the biocontrol efficacy could reached up to 51.08%. Ning shield could also promote the growth of T. kirilowii in the field by increasing seedling emergence, height and the root weight. The results showed that the Ning shield could enhance the production yield up to 36.26%. Ning shield could also promote the plant growth by increasing the contents of available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and organic matter, and increasing the contents of leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid pigment. Moreover, Ning shield could efficiently enhance the medicinal compositions of Trichosanthes, referring to the polysaccharides and trichosanthin. Therefore, Ning shield is a promising biofertilizer, which can offer beneficial effects to T. kirilowii growers, including the plant growth promotion, the biological control of root-knot disease and enhancement of the yield and the medicinal quality. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Crystallization and preliminary characterization of a highly thermostable lectin from Trichosanthes dioica and comparison with other Trichosanthes lectins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharkar, Poorva D.; Anuradha, P.; Gaikwad, Sushama M.; Suresh, C. G., E-mail: cg.suresh@ncl.res.in [Division of Biochemical Sciences, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India)

    2006-03-01

    A lectin from Trichosanthes dioica seeds has been purified and crystallized using 25%(w/v) PEG 2K MME, 0.2 M ammonium acetate, 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.5 and 50 µl 0.5%(w/v) n-octyl β-d-glucopyranoside as thick needles belonging to hexagonal space group P6{sub 4}. A lectin from Trichosanthes dioica seeds has been purified and crystallized using 25%(w/v) PEG 2K MME, 0.2 M ammonium acetate, 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.5 and 50 µl 0.5%(w/v) n-octyl β-d-glucopyranoside as thick needles belonging to hexagonal space group P6{sub 4}. Unit-cell parameters were a = b = 167.54, c = 77.42 Å. The crystals diffracted to a Bragg spacing of 2.8 Å. Both the structures of abrin-a and T. kirilowii lectin could be used as a model in structure determination using the molecular-replacement method; however, T. kirilowii lectin coordinates gave better values of reliability and correlation parameters. The thermal, chemical and pH stability of this lectin have also been studied. When heated, its haemagglutination activity remained unaffected up to 363 K. Other stability studies show that 4 M guanidinium hydrochloride (Gdn–HCl) initiates unfolding and that the protein is completely unfolded at 6 M Gdn–HCl. Treatment with urea resulted in a total loss of activity at higher concentrations of denaturant with no major structural changes. The protein remained stable over a wide pH range, from pH 6 to pH 12, except for partial unfolding at extremely alkaline pH. The role of disulfide bonds in the protein stability was found to be insignificant. Rayleigh light-scattering studies showed no molecular aggregation in any of the extreme treated conditions. The unusual stability of this lectin resembles that of type II ribosome-inactivating proteins (type II RIPs), which is also supported by structure determination. The structural features observed in a preliminary electron-density map were compared with the other two available Trichosanthes lectin structures.

  8. Approaches of Rhodiola kirilowii and Rhodiola rosea field cultivation in Poland and their potential health benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Grech-Baran

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerous researches have been carried out on plants of the Rhodiola species, especially Rhodiola kirilowii (Regel Maxim. and Rhodiola rosea. Various compounds have been reported to be isolated from R. kirilowii and R. rosea, including cyanogenic glycosides, monoterpene alcohols and their glycosides, aryl glycosides, phenylethanoids, phenylpropanoids and their glycosides (salidroside and rosavins respectively, as well as flavonoids, flavonlignans, proanthocyanidins and gallic acid derivatives and the latter have free radical scavenging capacity. The benefits claimed for Rhodiola include adapogenic, neuroprotective, anti-depresive anti-tumour and cardioprotective activities. Currently, the adaptogenic activity of Rhodiola compounds are properties evaluated mainly in human clinical trials. The mechanism of the action of Rhodiola extracts include affecting the levels of cortisol and NO by interactions with glucocorticoid receptors directly or via the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK pathway. However, the natural populations of R. rosea in Poland are threatened; therefore, the cultivation of R. rosea and alternative species R. kirilowii might be a possible solution for producing these kinds of plants in Poland in sufficient quantities and quality for pharmaceutical purposes. Lack of proven interaction with other drugs and no confirmed adverse effects during clinical trials encourages further investigation. These herb preparations ought to be studied extensively to establish their position as potential drugs for a variety of diseases.

  9. Approaches of [i]Rhodiola kirilowii [/i]and [i]Rhodiola rosea[/i] field cultivation in Poland and their potential health benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Grech-Baran

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerous researches have been carried out on plants of the Rhodiola species, especially Rhodiola kirilowii (Regel Maxim. and Rhodiola rosea. Various compounds have been reported to be isolated from R. kirilowii and R. rosea, including cyanogenic glycosides, monoterpene alcohols and their glycosides, aryl glycosides, phenylethanoids, phenylpropanoids and their glycosides (salidroside and rosavins respectively, as well as flavonoids, flavonlignans, proanthocyanidins and gallic acid derivatives and the latter have free radical scavenging capacity. The benefits claimed for Rhodiola include adapogenic, neuroprotective, anti-depresive anti-tumour and cardioprotective activities. Currently, the adaptogenic activity of Rhodiola compounds are properties evaluated mainly in human clinical trials. The mechanism of the action of Rhodiola extracts include affecting the levels of cortisol and NO by interactions with glucocorticoid receptors directly or via the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK pathway. However, the natural populations of R. rosea in Poland are threatened; therefore, the cultivation of R. rosea and alternative species R. kirilowii might be a possible solution for producing these kinds of plants in Poland in sufficient quantities and quality for pharmaceutical purposes. Lack of proven interaction with other drugs and no confirmed adverse effects during clinical trials encourages further investigation. These herb preparations ought to be studied extensively to establish their position as potential drugs for a variety of diseases.

  10. ANTIPROLIFERATIVE PROTEIN FROM TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA L. VAR ANGUINA (L.) HAINES

    OpenAIRE

    CHURIYAH; WAHONO SUMARYONO

    2010-01-01

    Three proteins were isolated from plant parts of Trichosanthes cucumerina L. var anguina (L.) Haines, they were TF2 from fruit, TS3 from seed and TR3 from root with molecular masses (Mr) approximately 16 - 64 kDa on SDS-PAGE characterization. The proteins were extracted with Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS), then they were precipitated using 80% saturated ammonium sulphate continued with the dialysis using cellophane. The dialysate was fractionated through gel filtration chromatography. T...

  11. Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata on paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in rats

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    Rajasekaran Aiyalu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichosanthes lobata (family cucurbitaceae is used to treat malarial fever and liver disorders. This study aims to investigate possible hepatoprotective activities of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods Hepatotoxicity was induced in Wistar male rats by oral administration, 2 g/kg body weight on 7th day after the administration of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata and silymarin (100 mg/kg. Ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata was administered orally at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight daily for 7 days. Several serum markers, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, total protein was measured to assess the effect of the extract on paracetamol (acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage. The study included histopathological examination of liver sections. Results Blood samples from rats treated with ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata (200 mg/kg body weight and 400 mg/kg body weight had significant reductions in serum markers in paracetamol administered animals, indicating the effect of the extract in restoring the normal functional ability of hepatocytes. Silymarin (100 mg/kg, p.o. was used as a reference drug. Conclusion The ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata exhibits protective effects against paracetamol‒induced hepatotoxicity.

  12. Six new glucose esters of 3-nitropropanoic acid from Indigofera kirilowii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yanfang; Lü, Min; Yang, Fengying; Li, Chunzheng; Di, Lizhi; Wu, Di; Guo, Zengjun; Lü, Juxian; Guo, Dean

    2008-09-01

    An investigation of the aliphatic nitrocompounds in Indigofera kirilowii resulted in the identification of two new esters of glucose with 3-nitropropanoic acid and acrylic acid - kirilowin C (1) and kirilowin D (2), together with four new glucose 3-nitropropanoates - kirilowins E-H (3-6). Their structures were identified by spectroscopic data.

  13. Feeding Pregnant and Lactating Mice Rhodiola kirilowii Extracts helps to Preserve Thymus Function of their Adult Progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bień, K; Lewicki, S; Zdanowski, R; Skopinska-Różewska, E; Krzyżowska, M

    2016-09-01

    Plants belonging to Rhodiola kirilowii species, members of Rhodiola genus and Crassulaceae family, grow wildly in Tibet, Mongolia and China mountains and are traditionally used as adaptogens, antidepressants and anti-inflammatory remedies. Nowadays, R. kirilowii is cultivated in some countries, also in Poland. In our previous papers we reported immuno- and angio-modulatory effects of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of radix and rhizome of this plant in non-pregnant and pregnant mice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of feeding pregnant and further lactating mice these extracts on selected thymus function parameters in adult progeny. The counts of M-30+ apoptotic cells, in the thymuses obtained from progeny of mice fed during pregnancy and lactation water or 50% water-alcoholic extract of Rhodiola kirilowii, were significantly lower (pthymuses obtained from progeny of the control mice and mothers treated with water or hydro-alcohol extracts of Rhodiola kirilowii were observed.

  14. Phosphorylation and antiaging activity of polysaccharide from Trichosanthes peel

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    Min Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides from Trichosanthes peel (TPP were obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction. TPP-1 was separated from the TPP by Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. Phosphorylation of TPP-1 was carried out and phosphorylated TPP-1 was named as PTTP-1. The results of infrared spectra, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectra showed that the main structure of PTPP-1 was similar to that of TPP-1 and -H2PO3 groups which were conjugated to C-6 of →4-α-D-Manp-(1→, C-4 of →6-α-D-Galp-(1→, C-2 and C-3 of →1-α-L-Araf, C-2 of →1-α-L-Araf-(3→, and C-6 and C-3 of →1-α-D-Glcp. In vivo antiaging activity results proved that TTP-1 and PTTP-1 could both significantly improve the body weight, spleen index, and thymus index of the D-galactose-induced aging mice, increase the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and reduce malondialdehyde contents in the liver, brain, and serum of aging mice. These results indicated that both TPP-1 and PTTP-1 presented significant antiaging activity. Moreover, PTTP-1 showed stronger antiaging effects in aging mice, indicating that phosphorylation improved antiaging effect.

  15. Administration of Rhodiola kirilowii Extracts during Mouse Pregnancy and Lactation Stimulates Innate but Not Adaptive Immunity of the Offspring

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    Sławomir Lewicki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics during pregnancy and lactation is associated with an increased risk of developmental disorders. One of the natural medicinal plants—Rhodiola kirilowii, widely used as an immunostimulant in adults—might be a good alternative to antibiotic treatment. The aim of present study was to assess whether daily oral administration of 20 mg/kg of Rhodiola kirilowii aqueous (RKW or 50% hydroalcoholic (RKW-A extracts affected hematological and immunological parameters of 6-week-old mouse progeny. There was no significant change in hematological parameters of blood with the exception of hemoglobin, which was significantly higher (about 4% in RKW group. Offspring of mothers fed Rhodiola kirilowii extracts had increased percentage of granulocytes and decreased percentage of lymphocytes. These changes correlated with decreased percentage of CD3+/CD4+ T-cells (RKW and RKW-A, decrease of CD8+ cells, and increase percentage of NK cells in RKW group. In addition, both types of Rhodiola kirilowii extracts stimulated granulocyte phagocytosis and increased level of respiratory burst. In conclusion, the long-term supplementation of mouse mothers during pregnancy and lactation with RKW or RKW-A extracts affects the immune system of their progeny. These results should be taken into consideration before administration of Rhodiola kirilowii to pregnant and lactating women.

  16. Phylogeography of Rhodiola kirilowii (Crassulaceae: a story of Miocene divergence and quaternary expansion.

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    Jian-Qiang Zhang

    Full Text Available The evolution and current distribution of the Sino-Tibetan flora have been greatly affected by historical geological events, such as the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP, and Quaternary climatic oscillations. Rhodiola kirilowii, a perennial herb with its distribution ranging from the southeastern QTP and the Hengduan Mountains (HM to adjacent northern China and central Asia, provides an excellent model to examine and disentangle the effect of both geological orogeny and climatic oscillation on the evolutionary history of species with such distribution patterns. We here conducted a phylogeographic study using sequences of two chloroplast fragments (trnL-F and trnS-G and internal transcribed spacers in 29 populations of R. kirilowii. A total of 25 plastid haplotypes and 12 ITS ribotypes were found. Molecular clock estimation revealed deep divergence between the central Asian populations and other populations from the HM and northern China; this split occurred ca. 2.84 million year ago. The majority of populations from the mountains of northern China were dominated by a single haplotype or ribotype, while populations of the HM harbored both high genetic diversity and high haplotype diversity. This distribution pattern indicates that HM was either a diversification center or a refugium for R. kirilowii during the Quaternary climatic oscillations. The present distribution of this species on mountains in northern China may have resulted from a rapid glacial population expansion from the HM. This expansion was confirmed by the mismatch distribution analysis and negative Tajima's D and Fu's FS values, and was dated to ca. 168 thousand years ago. High genetic diversity and population differentiation in both plastid and ITS sequences were revealed; these imply restricted gene flow between populations. A distinct isolation-by-distance pattern was suggested by the Mantel test. Our results show that in old lineages, populations may harbour

  17. Evolution and loss of long-fringed petals: a case study using a dated phylogeny of the snake gourds, Trichosanthes (Cucurbitaceae

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    de Boer Hugo J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cucurbitaceae genus Trichosanthes comprises 90–100 species that occur from India to Japan and southeast to Australia and Fiji. Most species have large white or pale yellow petals with conspicuously fringed margins, the fringes sometimes several cm long. Pollination is usually by hawkmoths. Previous molecular data for a small number of species suggested that a monophyletic Trichosanthes might include the Asian genera Gymnopetalum (four species, lacking long petal fringes and Hodgsonia (two species with petals fringed. Here we test these groups’ relationships using a species sampling of c. 60% and 4759 nucleotides of nuclear and plastid DNA. To infer the time and direction of the geographic expansion of the Trichosanthes clade we employ molecular clock dating and statistical biogeographic reconstruction, and we also address the gain or loss of petal fringes. Results Trichosanthes is monophyletic as long as it includes Gymnopetalum, which itself is polyphyletic. The closest relative of Trichosanthes appears to be the sponge gourds, Luffa, while Hodgsonia is more distantly related. Of six morphology-based sections in Trichosanthes with more than one species, three are supported by the molecular results; two new sections appear warranted. Molecular dating and biogeographic analyses suggest an Oligocene origin of Trichosanthes in Eurasia or East Asia, followed by diversification and spread throughout the Malesian biogeographic region and into the Australian continent. Conclusions Long-fringed corollas evolved independently in Hodgsonia and Trichosanthes, followed by two losses in the latter coincident with shifts to other pollinators but not with long-distance dispersal events. Together with the Caribbean Linnaeosicyos, the Madagascan Ampelosicyos and the tropical African Telfairia, these cucurbit lineages represent an ideal system for more detailed studies of the evolution and function of petal fringes in plant

  18. Trichosanthes cucumerina extracts enhance glucose uptake and regulate adiponectin and leptin concentrations in 3T3-L1 adipocytes model

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    Sassi, A.,

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Trichosanthes cucumerina (Cucurbitaceae commonly known as Snake gourd or Labu Ular is considered the largest genre in the Cucurbitaceae family and is mainly found in the southeast areas of Asia. It has been used in Ayurvedic medicine as a treatment for certain diseases such as Diabetes mellitus, but these acclaims lack scientific-based evidence. In this study, water and ethanol extracts of three parts of Trichosanthes cucumerina namely; whole vegetable, peels, and seeds, were assessed for toxicity through a cell viability assay using 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes model which revealed a maximum toleration concentration of 0.063 mg/mL. The extracts were further tested on adipocytes’ differentiation and positively showed a stimulation of lipid droplets formation during adipogenesis and significantly (p<0.001 increased glycerol release levels (75.34±3.69 μg/ml during adipolysis. The extracts also significantly (p<0.001 promoted the uptake of glucose into the cells (2636.22±91.33 Bq in an action similar to that of insulin. Similar results were observed during ELISA assay with a significant increase (p<0.001 in adiponectin concentrations (3593.1±225.25 ng/mL and a decrease in leptin concentrations (23870±5066.07 pg/mL. The present study results indicate a beneficial effect of Trichosanthes cucumerina extracts on adipogenesis, adipolysis and glucose uptake, in addition to a regulation of adiponectin and leptin concentrations in 3T3-L1 adipocytes which can be of clinical importance in energy regulation which is a key factor in treating diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome.

  19. Identification and Validation of a New Male Sex-Specific ISSR Marker in Pointed Gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.

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    Sinchan Adhikari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to develop a genetic sex marker for the pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. to allow gender determination at any stage in the life cycle. Screening of genomic DNA with intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR primers was used to discover sex-specific touch-down polymerase chain reaction (Td-PCR amplification products. Using pooled DNA from male and female genotypes and 42 ISSR primers, a putative male specific marker (~550 bp was identified. DNA marker specific to male is an indication of existence of nonepigenetic factors involved in gender development in pointed gourd. The ISSR technique has proved to be a reliable technique in gender determination of pointed gourd genotypes at the seedling phenophase. The sex marker developed here could also be used as a starting material towards sequence characterization of sex linked genes for better understanding the developmental as well as evolutionary pathways in sexual dimorphism.

  20. Maximal ? -regularity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Neerven, J.M.A.M.; Veraar, M.C.; Weis, L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we prove maximal regularity estimates in “square function spaces” which are commonly used in harmonic analysis, spectral theory, and stochastic analysis. In particular, they lead to a new class of maximal regularity results for both deterministic and stochastic equations in L p

  1. Entropy maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf that satisfy ∫ f h i d = i for i = 1 , 2 , … , … k the maximizer of entropy is an f 0 that is proportional to exp ⁡ ( ∑ c i h i ) for some choice of c i . An extension of this to a continuum of ...

  2. Maximal balleans

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    Olga I. Protasova

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A ballean is a set X endowed with some family of subsets of X which are called the balls. We postulate the properties of the family of balls in such a way that the balleans with the appropriate morphisms can be considered as the asymptotic counterparts of the uniform topological spaces. The purpose of the paper is to find and study the asymptotic counterparts for maximal topological spaces and maximal topological groups.

  3. Entropy Maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf that satisfy ∫ f h i d = i for i = 1 , 2 , … , … k the maximizer of entropy is an f 0 that is proportional to exp ⁡ ( ∑ c i h i ) for some choice of c i . An extension of this to a continuum of ...

  4. Entropy maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf f that satisfy. ∫ fhi dμ = λi for i = 1, 2,...,...k the maximizer of entropy is an f0 that is pro- portional to exp(. ∑ ci hi ) for some choice of ci . An extension of this to a continuum of.

  5. Different effects of feeding pregnant and lactating mice Rhodiola kirilowii aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts on their serum angiogenic activity and content of selected polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Zdanowski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis plays an important role in many physiological processes, among them the formation of tissues and organs during embryogenesis. A lot of medicinal plants exhibit angiomodulatory properties. This creates the need for a thorough check of whether the plant extracts that we would like to give to pregnant women in order to increase their resistance to bacterial or viral infection will have negative effects on angiogenesis, and consequently on fetal development. This paper seeks to investigate the effect of serum of pregnant and nursing Balb/c mice that received aqueous (RKW or hydro-alcoholic (RKW-A R. kirilowii extracts (20 mg/kg, or epigallocatechin (0.2 mg/kg, on the in vitro proliferation and migration of mouse endothelial cell line HECa10. Of the 15 identified polyphenols in the extracts by HPLC, 8 were present in the sera. Chemical analysis revealed higher salidroside, kaempferol, chlorogenic acid, bFGF and VEGF concentration in RKW-A sera than in the sera of RKW group of mice. RKW-A and EGC sera did not affect migration of endothelial cells, however we noted some increase of migrating cells after RKW-sera treatment. RKW and EGC sera did not affect proliferation of endothelial cells. Sera of mothers from RKW-A group impaired the proliferation of endothelial cells in comparison to other groups. These data allow us to assume that Rhodiola kirilowii hydro-alcoholic extract (RKW-A is potentially able to modulate pre- and post- natal angiogenesis what might influence the development of organs in progeny. Sera of RKW mothers have not harm the proliferation of endothelial cells, despite they also contain antiangiogenic catechins and salidroside. This suggests the existence in RKW-A extract and in RKW-A sera of some other, as yet unidentified substances influencing endothelial cells proliferation.

  6. Validated HPTLC technique for simultaneous evaluation of biomarkers gallic acid and quercetin in Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.: A systematic approach for quality control of herbals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sarfaraj Hussain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the simultaneous quantification of two biologically active elements, flavonoids gallic acid (GA and quercetin (QE, in methanolic extract of Trichosanthes dioica that was customarily used to lower blood sugar and cholesterol. Methods: Silica gel 60F254 having receded with aluminum plate was applied for the separation. We used toluene-ethyl acetate-formic acid (5:4:1, v/v/v as a solvent system for the separation. Results: At 270 nm in reflectance mode densitometric analysis was performed. Squeezed bands for GA and QE were achieved at Rf (0.31 ± 0.03 and (0.50 ± 0.02. The scheme was validated for sensitivity, specificity, limit of detection and quantification. Linear relationship was found between the concentration range of 100–1 000 ng spot–1 for GA and 150–900 ng spot–1 for GA and QE, respectively. The instrumental precision was noted to be 1.03–1.96 (% RSD and 1.09–1.98 (% RSD for GA and QE, separately. Methodology specificity was determined at three different study point with varying concentration for recovery studies. Mean % recovery was noted to be 99.4%–99.9% and 98.7%–99.3% and the content estimated as (31.00 ± 1.18% and (39.00 ± 1.24% for GA and QE, respectively. Conclusions: The developed high performance thin layer chromatography scheme can be used for routine quality control analysis of Trichosanthes dioica and several other formulations containing these markers.

  7. Comparative Studies on the Fungi and Bio-Chemical Characteristics of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) in Rivers State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuku, E. C.; Ogbonna, D. N.; Onuegbu, B. A.; Adeleke, M. T. V.

    Comparative studies on the fungi and biochemical characteristics of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) and the Snake gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) products were investigated in Rivers State using various analytical procedures. Results of the proximate analysis of fresh snake gourd and tomatoes show that the essential minerals such as protein, ash, fibre, lipid, phosphorus and niacin contents were higher in snake gourd but low in carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamins A and C when compared to the mineral fractions of tomatoes which has high values of calcium, iron, vitamins A and C. The mycoflora predominantly associated with the fruit rot of tomato were Fusarium oxysporium, Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger, while other fungi isolates from Snake gourd include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamari, Penicillium ita/icum and Neurospora crassa. Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger were common spoilage fungi to both the Tomato and Snake gourd. All the fungal isolates were found to be pathogenic. The duration for storage of the fruits at room temperature (28±1°C) showed that Tomato could store for 5 days while Snake gourd stored for as much as 7 days. Sensory evaluation shows that Snake gourd is preferred to Tomatoes because of its culinary and medicinal importance.

  8. Maximally incompatible quantum observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Schultz, Jussi, E-mail: jussi.schultz@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ziman, Mario, E-mail: ziman@savba.sk [RCQI, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanická 68a, 60200 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2014-05-01

    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.

  9. Profit maximization mitigates competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    We consider oligopolistic markets in which the notion of shareholders' utility is well-defined and compare the Bertrand-Nash equilibria in case of utility maximization with those under the usual profit maximization hypothesis. Our main result states that profit maximization leads to less price...

  10. The maximal acceleration group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, H.E.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of the maximal proper acceleration relative to the vacuum, a line element and differential geometry of eight-dimensional phase space are constructed. The maximal acceleration group is defined as the mathematical transformation group under which the eight dimensional line element is invariant. In the classical limit of vanishing Planck's constant, the maximal acceleration group and geometry reduce to those of general relativity

  11. BDP-30, a systemic resistance inducer from Boerhaavia diffusa L ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... absolute sequence identity with trichosanthin, a ribosome-inactivating protein from Trichosanthes kirilowii, and a 78% and 100% homology respectively with an RIP from Bryonia dioica, bryodin. Further, effort was made to look at the fate of TMV in induced resistant Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi, a systemic host of the virus, ...

  12. Maximizers versus satisficers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Parker

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007. Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002, we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions, more avoidance of decision making, and greater tendency to experience regret. Contrary to predictions, self-reported maximizers were more likely to report spontaneous decision making. However, the relationship between self-reported maximizing and worse life outcomes is largely unaffected by controls for measures of other decision-making styles, decision-making competence, and demographic variables.

  13. Is CP violation maximal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronau, M.

    1984-01-01

    Two ambiguities are noted in the definition of the concept of maximal CP violation. The phase convention ambiguity is overcome by introducing a CP violating phase in the quark mixing matrix U which is invariant under rephasing transformations. The second ambiguity, related to the parametrization of U, is resolved by finding a single empirically viable definition of maximal CP violation when assuming that U does not single out one generation. Considerable improvement in the calculation of nonleptonic weak amplitudes is required to test the conjecture of maximal CP violation. 21 references

  14. Spin and Maximal Acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Papini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the spin current tensor of a Dirac particle at accelerations close to the upper limit introduced by Caianiello. Continual interchange between particle spin and angular momentum is possible only when the acceleration is time-dependent. This represents a stringent limit on the effect that maximal acceleration may have on spin physics in astrophysical applications. We also investigate some dynamical consequences of maximal acceleration.

  15. Social group utility maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Xiaowen; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explains how to leverage mobile users' social relationships to improve the interactions of mobile devices in mobile networks. It develops a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework that captures diverse social ties of mobile users and diverse physical coupling of mobile devices. Key topics include random access control, power control, spectrum access, and location privacy.This brief also investigates SGUM-based power control game and random access control game, for which it establishes the socially-aware Nash equilibrium (SNE). It then examines the critical SGUM-b

  16. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...... with 30% (v/v) ethanol or saline, respectively. Relative viscosity was used as one measure of physical properties of the emulsion. Higher degrees of sensitization (but not rates) were obtained at the 48 h challenge reading with the oil/propylene glycol and oil/saline + ethanol emulsions compared...

  17. MAXIMS VIOLATIONS IN LITERARY WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Hanum Sari Pertiwi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was qualitative research action that focuses to find out the flouting of Gricean maxims and the functions of the flouting in the tales which are included in collection of children literature entitled My Giant Treasury of Stories and Rhymes. The objective of the study is generally to identify the violation of maxims of quantity, quality, relevance, and manner in the data sources and also to analyze the use of the flouting in the tales which are included in the book. Qualitative design using categorizing strategies, specifically coding strategy, was applied. Thus, the researcher as the instrument in this investigation was selecting the tales, reading them, and gathering every item which reflects the violation of Gricean maxims based on some conditions of flouting maxims. On the basis of the data analysis, it was found that the some utterances in the tales, both narration and conversation, flouting the four maxims of conversation, namely maxim of quality, maxim of quantity, maxim of relevance, and maxim of manner. The researcher has also found that the flouting of maxims has one basic function that is to encourage the readers’ imagination toward the tales. This one basic function is developed by six others functions: (1 generating specific situation, (2 developing the plot, (3 enlivening the characters’ utterance, (4 implicating message, (5 indirectly characterizing characters, and (6 creating ambiguous setting. Keywords: children literature, tales, flouting maxims

  18. Maximally Symmetric Composite Higgs Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csáki, Csaba; Ma, Teng; Shu, Jing

    2017-09-29

    Maximal symmetry is a novel tool for composite pseudo Goldstone boson Higgs models: it is a remnant of an enhanced global symmetry of the composite fermion sector involving a twisting with the Higgs field. Maximal symmetry has far-reaching consequences: it ensures that the Higgs potential is finite and fully calculable, and also minimizes the tuning. We present a detailed analysis of the maximally symmetric SO(5)/SO(4) model and comment on its observational consequences.

  19. Maximizing entropy over Markov processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2014-01-01

    computation reduces to finding a model of a specification with highest entropy. Entropy maximization for probabilistic process specifications has not been studied before, even though it is well known in Bayesian inference for discrete distributions. We give a characterization of global entropy of a process...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of a system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...

  20. Maximizing Entropy over Markov Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2013-01-01

    computation reduces to finding a model of a specification with highest entropy. Entropy maximization for probabilistic process specifications has not been studied before, even though it is well known in Bayesian inference for discrete distributions. We give a characterization of global entropy of a process...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of an system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...

  1. Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum mechanics. S M ROY. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India. Abstract. Recently Auberson, Mahoux, Roy and Singh have proved a long standing conjecture of Roy and Singh: In 2N-dimensional phase space, ...

  2. Maximizing and customer loyalty: Are maximizers less loyal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Lai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite their efforts to choose the best of all available solutions, maximizers seem to be more inclined than satisficers to regret their choices and to experience post-decisional dissonance. Maximizers may therefore be expected to change their decisions more frequently and hence exhibit lower customer loyalty to providers of products and services compared to satisficers. Findings from the study reported here (N = 1978 support this prediction. Maximizers reported significantly higher intentions to switch to another service provider (television provider than satisficers. Maximizers' intentions to switch appear to be intensified and mediated by higher proneness to regret, increased desire to discuss relevant choices with others, higher levels of perceived knowledge of alternatives, and higher ego involvement in the end product, compared to satisficers. Opportunities for future research are suggested.

  3. A maximal atmospheric mixing from a maximal CP violating phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masina, Isabella [Centro Studi e Ricerche ' E. Fermi' , Via Panisperna 89/A, Rome (Italy) and INFN, Sezione di Roma, P.le A. Moro 2, Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: isabella.masina@roma1.infn.it

    2006-02-02

    We point out an elegant mechanism to predict a maximal atmospheric angle, which is based on a maximal CP violating phase difference between second and third lepton families in the flavour symmetry basis. In this framework, a discussion of the general formulas for {theta}{sub 12}, vertical bar U{sub e3} vertical bar, {delta} and their possible correlations in some limiting cases is provided. We also present an explicit realisation in terms of an SO(3) flavour symmetry model.

  4. Maximization

    OpenAIRE

    A. Garmroodi Asil; A. Shahsavand; Sh. Mirzaei

    2017-01-01

    Over 60% of Iranian natural gases are contaminated with hydrogen sulfide or other sulfur compounds. Khangiran refinery which receives around 50 MMSCMD sour gas with 3.35 mol% H2S as its GTU feed, produces around 45% of Iranian sulfur production. Three of the four existing sulfur recovery units (SRU’s) are initially installed more than 3 decades ago. Such relatively old Claus units with no tail gas clean up facility have usually sulfur recovery efficiencies as low as 90%, due to the low H2S co...

  5. Maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Garmroodi Asil

    2017-09-01

    To further reduce the sulfur dioxide emission of the entire refining process, two scenarios of acid gas or air preheats are investigated when either of them is used simultaneously with the third enrichment scheme. The maximum overall sulfur recovery efficiency and highest combustion chamber temperature is slightly higher for acid gas preheats but air preheat is more favorable because it is more benign. To the best of our knowledge, optimization of the entire GTU + enrichment section and SRU processes has not been addressed previously.

  6. Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    so different from the classical trajectories that they are sometimes called surrealistic [4]!. The answer to the first problem above is in the construction of maximally realistic quan- tum mechanics [5,6] which treats position and momentum symmetrically. We present in this paper the answer to the second problem in the form of a ...

  7. Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recently Auberson, Mahoux, Roy and Singh have proved a long standing conjecture of Roy and Singh: In 2-dimensional phase space, a maximally realistic quantum mechanics can have quantum probabilities of no more than + 1 complete commuting cets (CCS) of observables coexisting as marginals of one positive ...

  8. Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recently Auberson, Mahoux, Roy and Singh have proved a long standing conjecture of Roy and Singh: In 2-dimensional phase space, a maximally realistic quantum mechanics can have quantum probabilities of no more than + 1 complete commuting cets (CCS) of observables coexisting as marginals of one positive ...

  9. Finding Maximal Quasiperiodicities in Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Pedersen, Christian N. S.

    2000-01-01

    of length n in time O(n log n) and space O(n). Our algorithm uses the suffix tree as the fundamental data structure combined with efficient methods for merging and performing multiple searches in search trees. Besides finding all maximal quasiperiodic substrings, our algorithm also marks the nodes...... in the suffix tree that have a superprimitive path-label....

  10. Maximization, learning, and economic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erev, Ido; Roth, Alvin E

    2014-07-22

    The rationality assumption that underlies mainstream economic theory has proved to be a useful approximation, despite the fact that systematic violations to its predictions can be found. That is, the assumption of rational behavior is useful in understanding the ways in which many successful economic institutions function, although it is also true that actual human behavior falls systematically short of perfect rationality. We consider a possible explanation of this apparent inconsistency, suggesting that mechanisms that rest on the rationality assumption are likely to be successful when they create an environment in which the behavior they try to facilitate leads to the best payoff for all agents on average, and most of the time. Review of basic learning research suggests that, under these conditions, people quickly learn to maximize expected return. This review also shows that there are many situations in which experience does not increase maximization. In many cases, experience leads people to underweight rare events. In addition, the current paper suggests that it is convenient to distinguish between two behavioral approaches to improve economic analyses. The first, and more conventional approach among behavioral economists and psychologists interested in judgment and decision making, highlights violations of the rational model and proposes descriptive models that capture these violations. The second approach studies human learning to clarify the conditions under which people quickly learn to maximize expected return. The current review highlights one set of conditions of this type and shows how the understanding of these conditions can facilitate market design.

  11. FLOUTING MAXIMS IN INDONESIA LAWAK KLUB CONVERSATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmawati Sukmaningrum

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the types of maxims flouted in the conversation in famous comedy show, Indonesia Lawak Club. Likewise, it also tries to reveal the speakers‘ intention of flouting the maxim in the conversation during the show. The writers use descriptive qualitative method in conducting this research. The data is taken from the dialogue of Indonesia Lawak club and then analyzed based on Grice‘s cooperative principles. The researchers read the dialogue‘s transcripts, identify the maxims, and interpret the data to find the speakers‘ intention for flouting the maxims in the communication. The results show that there are four types of maxims flouted in the dialogue. Those are maxim of quality (23%, maxim of quantity (11%, maxim of manner (31%, and maxim of relevance (35. Flouting the maxims in the conversations is intended to make the speakers feel uncomfortable with the conversation, show arrogances, show disagreement or agreement, and ridicule other speakers.

  12. Physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of Trichosanthes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The core objective of this research was to determine the characteristics of oils, nutritional composition and antimicrobial activities of T. anguina and S. mahagoni seeds. Physicochemical characteristics of oils implied higher degree of unsaturation in T. anguina whereas, S. mahagoni oil contained appreciable level of ...

  13. Maximal abelian sets of roots

    CERN Document Server

    Lawther, R

    2018-01-01

    In this work the author lets \\Phi be an irreducible root system, with Coxeter group W. He considers subsets of \\Phi which are abelian, meaning that no two roots in the set have sum in \\Phi \\cup \\{ 0 \\}. He classifies all maximal abelian sets (i.e., abelian sets properly contained in no other) up to the action of W: for each W-orbit of maximal abelian sets we provide an explicit representative X, identify the (setwise) stabilizer W_X of X in W, and decompose X into W_X-orbits. Abelian sets of roots are closely related to abelian unipotent subgroups of simple algebraic groups, and thus to abelian p-subgroups of finite groups of Lie type over fields of characteristic p. Parts of the work presented here have been used to confirm the p-rank of E_8(p^n), and (somewhat unexpectedly) to obtain for the first time the 2-ranks of the Monster and Baby Monster sporadic groups, together with the double cover of the latter. Root systems of classical type are dealt with quickly here; the vast majority of the present work con...

  14. Maximal Abelian sets of roots

    CERN Document Server

    Lawther, R

    2018-01-01

    In this work the author lets \\Phi be an irreducible root system, with Coxeter group W. He considers subsets of \\Phi which are abelian, meaning that no two roots in the set have sum in \\Phi \\cup \\{ 0 \\}. He classifies all maximal abelian sets (i.e., abelian sets properly contained in no other) up to the action of W: for each W-orbit of maximal abelian sets we provide an explicit representative X, identify the (setwise) stabilizer W_X of X in W, and decompose X into W_X-orbits. Abelian sets of roots are closely related to abelian unipotent subgroups of simple algebraic groups, and thus to abelian p-subgroups of finite groups of Lie type over fields of characteristic p. Parts of the work presented here have been used to confirm the p-rank of E_8(p^n), and (somewhat unexpectedly) to obtain for the first time the 2-ranks of the Monster and Baby Monster sporadic groups, together with the double cover of the latter. Root systems of classical type are dealt with quickly here; the vast majority of the present work con...

  15. The maximal D = 4 supergravities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wit, Bernard de [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Postbus 80.195, NL-3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Samtleben, Henning [Laboratoire de Physique, ENS Lyon, 46 allee d' Italie, F-69364 Lyon CEDEX 07 (France); Trigiante, Mario [Dept. of Physics, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Turin (Italy)

    2007-06-15

    All maximal supergravities in four space-time dimensions are presented. The ungauged Lagrangians can be encoded in an E{sub 7(7)}-Sp(56; R)/GL(28) matrix associated with the freedom of performing electric/magnetic duality transformations. The gauging is defined in terms of an embedding tensor {theta} which encodes the subgroup of E{sub 7(7)} that is realized as a local invariance. This embedding tensor may imply the presence of magnetic charges which require corresponding dual gauge fields. The latter can be incorporated by using a recently proposed formulation that involves tensor gauge fields in the adjoint representation of E{sub 7(7)}. In this formulation the results take a universal form irrespective of the electric/magnetic duality basis. We present the general class of supersymmetric and gauge invariant Lagrangians and discuss a number of applications.

  16. Maximizing benefits from resource development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjelbred, B.

    2002-01-01

    The main objectives of Norwegian petroleum policy are to maximize the value creation for the country, develop a national oil and gas industry, and to be at the environmental forefront of long term resource management and coexistence with other industries. The paper presents a graph depicting production and net export of crude oil for countries around the world for 2002. Norway produced 3.41 mill b/d and exported 3.22 mill b/d. Norwegian petroleum policy measures include effective regulation and government ownership, research and technology development, and internationalisation. Research and development has been in five priority areas, including enhanced recovery, environmental protection, deep water recovery, small fields, and the gas value chain. The benefits of internationalisation includes capitalizing on Norwegian competency, exploiting emerging markets and the assurance of long-term value creation and employment. 5 figs

  17. VIOLATION OF CONVERSATION MAXIM ON TV ADVERTISEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desak Putu Eka Pratiwi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Maxim is a principle that must be obeyed by all participants textually and interpersonally in order to have a smooth communication process. Conversation maxim is divided into four namely maxim of quality, maxim of quantity, maxim of relevance, and maxim of manner of speaking. Violation of the maxim may occur in a conversation in which the information the speaker has is not delivered well to his speaking partner. Violation of the maxim in a conversation will result in an awkward impression. The example of violation is the given information that is redundant, untrue, irrelevant, or convoluted. Advertisers often deliberately violate the maxim to create unique and controversial advertisements. This study aims to examine the violation of maxims in conversations of TV ads. The source of data in this research is food advertisements aired on TV media. Documentation and observation methods are applied to obtain qualitative data. The theory used in this study is a maxim theory proposed by Grice (1975. The results of the data analysis are presented with informal method. The results of this study show an interesting fact that the violation of maxim in a conversation found in the advertisement exactly makes the advertisements very attractive and have a high value.

  18. A Maximally Supersymmetric Kondo Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Sarah; Kachru, Shamit; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2012-02-17

    We study the maximally supersymmetric Kondo model obtained by adding a fermionic impurity to N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. While the original Kondo problem describes a defect interacting with a free Fermi liquid of itinerant electrons, here the ambient theory is an interacting CFT, and this introduces qualitatively new features into the system. The model arises in string theory by considering the intersection of a stack of M D5-branes with a stack of N D3-branes, at a point in the D3 worldvolume. We analyze the theory holographically, and propose a dictionary between the Kondo problem and antisymmetric Wilson loops in N = 4 SYM. We perform an explicit calculation of the D5 fluctuations in the D3 geometry and determine the spectrum of defect operators. This establishes the stability of the Kondo fixed point together with its basic thermodynamic properties. Known supergravity solutions for Wilson loops allow us to go beyond the probe approximation: the D5s disappear and are replaced by three-form flux piercing a new topologically non-trivial S3 in the corrected geometry. This describes the Kondo model in terms of a geometric transition. A dual matrix model reflects the basic properties of the corrected gravity solution in its eigenvalue distribution.

  19. Maximizing the optical network capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayvel, Polina; Maher, Robert; Xu, Tianhua; Liga, Gabriele; Shevchenko, Nikita A; Lavery, Domaniç; Alvarado, Alex; Killey, Robert I

    2016-03-06

    Most of the digital data transmitted are carried by optical fibres, forming the great part of the national and international communication infrastructure. The information-carrying capacity of these networks has increased vastly over the past decades through the introduction of wavelength division multiplexing, advanced modulation formats, digital signal processing and improved optical fibre and amplifier technology. These developments sparked the communication revolution and the growth of the Internet, and have created an illusion of infinite capacity being available. But as the volume of data continues to increase, is there a limit to the capacity of an optical fibre communication channel? The optical fibre channel is nonlinear, and the intensity-dependent Kerr nonlinearity limit has been suggested as a fundamental limit to optical fibre capacity. Current research is focused on whether this is the case, and on linear and nonlinear techniques, both optical and electronic, to understand, unlock and maximize the capacity of optical communications in the nonlinear regime. This paper describes some of them and discusses future prospects for success in the quest for capacity. © 2016 The Authors.

  20. Does mental exertion alter maximal muscle activation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianney eRozand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 minutes each: i high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task, ii moderate mental exertion (congruent Stroop task, iii low mental exertion (watching a movie. In each condition, mental exertion was combined with ten intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensor muscles (one maximal voluntary contraction every 3 minutes. Neuromuscular function was assessed using electrical nerve stimulation. Maximal voluntary torque, maximal muscle activation and other neuromuscular parameters were similar across mental exertion conditions and did not change over time. These findings suggest that mental exertion does not affect neuromuscular function during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors.

  1. Inclusive Fitness Maximization:An Axiomatic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John; Bossert, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of qu...

  2. Financial Management Practices, Wealth Maximization Criterion and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the field of financial management, shareholders wealth maximization is often seen as the desirable goal not only from the shareholders perspective but for the society at large; with the firm's primary goal aimed mainly at maximizing the wealth of its shareholders. This study thus aimed at determining the impact of the core ...

  3. Maximally differential ideals in regular local rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    may either be maximally differential under a set of derivations or a set of higher derivations,. i.e, Hasse–Schmidt derivations. We also extend our result (Theorem 4 of [7]) about the structure of a maximally differ- ential ideal in positive characteristic to unequal characteristic case. 2. Results. By a ring we mean a commutative ...

  4. Inclusive fitness maximization: An axiomatic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John A; Bossert, Walter

    2014-06-07

    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of quasi-inclusive fitness maximization can be derived from axioms on an individual׳s 'as if preferences' (binary choices) for the case in which phenotypic effects are additive. Our results help integrate evolutionary theory and rational choice theory, help draw out the behavioural implications of inclusive fitness maximization, and point to a possible way in which evolution could lead organisms to implement it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Maximal Entanglement in High Energy Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Cervera-Lierta, José I. Latorre, Juan Rojo, Luca Rottoli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyze how maximal entanglement is generated at the fundamental level in QED by studying correlations between helicity states in tree-level scattering processes at high energy. We demonstrate that two mechanisms for the generation of maximal entanglement are at work: i $s$-channel processes where the virtual photon carries equal overlaps of the helicities of the final state particles, and ii the indistinguishable superposition between $t$- and $u$-channels. We then study whether requiring maximal entanglement constrains the coupling structure of QED and the weak interactions. In the case of photon-electron interactions unconstrained by gauge symmetry, we show how this requirement allows reproducing QED. For $Z$-mediated weak scattering, the maximal entanglement principle leads to non-trivial predictions for the value of the weak mixing angle $\\theta_W$. Our results are a first step towards understanding the connections between maximal entanglement and the fundamental symmetries of high-energy physics.

  6. An ethical justification of profit maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    2010-01-01

    In much of the literature on business ethics and corporate social responsibility, it is more or less taken for granted that attempts to maximize profits are inherently unethical. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether an ethical argument can be given in support of profit maximizing...... behaviour. It is argued that some form of consequential ethics must be applied, and that both profit seeking and profit maximization can be defended from a rule-consequential point of view. It is noted, however, that the result does not apply unconditionally, but requires that certain form of profit (and...

  7. Maximal supergravities and the E10 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinschmidt, Axel; Nicolai, Hermann

    2006-01-01

    The maximal rank hyperbolic Kac-Moody algebra e 10 has been conjectured to play a prominent role in the unification of duality symmetries in string and M theory. We review some recent developments supporting this conjecture

  8. Maximizing Function through Intelligent Robot Actuator Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Maximizing Function through Intelligent Robot Actuator Control Successful missions to Mars and beyond will only be possible with the support of high-performance...

  9. Independent Component Analysis by Entropy Maximization (INFOMAX)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garvey, Jennie H

    2007-01-01

    ... (BSS). The Infomax method separates unknown source signals from a number of signal mixtures by maximizing the entropy of a transformed set of signal mixtures and is accomplished by performing gradient ascent in MATLAB...

  10. Bipartite Bell Inequality and Maximal Violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ming; Fei Shaoming; Li-Jost Xian-Qing

    2011-01-01

    We present new bell inequalities for arbitrary dimensional bipartite quantum systems. The maximal violation of the inequalities is computed. The Bell inequality is capable of detecting quantum entanglement of both pure and mixed quantum states more effectively. (general)

  11. A definition of maximal CP-violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, M.

    1985-01-01

    The unitary matrix of quark flavour mixing is parametrized in a general way, permitting a mathematically natural definition of maximal CP violation. Present data turn out to violate this definition by 2-3 standard deviations. (orig.)

  12. Resources and energetics determined dinosaur maximal size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, Brian K

    2009-07-21

    Some dinosaurs reached masses that were approximately 8 times those of the largest, ecologically equivalent terrestrial mammals. The factors most responsible for setting the maximal body size of vertebrates are resource quality and quantity, as modified by the mobility of the consumer, and the vertebrate's rate of energy expenditure. If the food intake of the largest herbivorous mammals defines the maximal rate at which plant resources can be consumed in terrestrial environments and if that limit applied to dinosaurs, then the large size of sauropods occurred because they expended energy in the field at rates extrapolated from those of varanid lizards, which are approximately 22% of the rates in mammals and 3.6 times the rates of other lizards of equal size. Of 2 species having the same energy income, the species that uses the most energy for mass-independent maintenance of necessity has a smaller size. The larger mass found in some marine mammals reflects a greater resource abundance in marine environments. The presumptively low energy expenditures of dinosaurs potentially permitted Mesozoic communities to support dinosaur biomasses that were up to 5 times those found in mammalian herbivores in Africa today. The maximal size of predatory theropods was approximately 8 tons, which if it reflected the maximal capacity to consume vertebrates in terrestrial environments, corresponds in predatory mammals to a maximal mass less than a ton, which is what is observed. Some coelurosaurs may have evolved endothermy in association with the evolution of feathered insulation and a small mass.

  13. An information maximization model of eye movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renninger, Laura Walker; Coughlan, James; Verghese, Preeti; Malik, Jitendra

    2005-01-01

    We propose a sequential information maximization model as a general strategy for programming eye movements. The model reconstructs high-resolution visual information from a sequence of fixations, taking into account the fall-off in resolution from the fovea to the periphery. From this framework we get a simple rule for predicting fixation sequences: after each fixation, fixate next at the location that minimizes uncertainty (maximizes information) about the stimulus. By comparing our model performance to human eye movement data and to predictions from a saliency and random model, we demonstrate that our model is best at predicting fixation locations. Modeling additional biological constraints will improve the prediction of fixation sequences. Our results suggest that information maximization is a useful principle for programming eye movements.

  14. Singularity Structure of Maximally Supersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Cachazo, Freddy

    2014-01-01

    We present evidence that loop amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric (N=4) Yang-Mills theory (SYM) beyond the planar limit share some of the remarkable structures of the planar theory. In particular, we show that through two loops, the four-particle amplitude in full N=4 SYM has only logarithmic ...... singularities and is free of any poles at infinity—properties closely related to uniform transcendentality and the UV finiteness of the theory. We also briefly comment on implications for maximal (N=8) supergravity theory (SUGRA)....

  15. Finding Maximal Pairs with Bounded Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Lyngsø, Rune B.; Pedersen, Christian N. S.

    1999-01-01

    . In this paper we present methods for finding all maximal pairs under various constraints on the gap. In a string of length n we can find all maximal pairs with gap in an upper and lower bounded interval in time O(n log n+z) where z is the number of reported pairs. If the upper bound is removed the time reduces...... to O(n+z). Since a tandem repeat is a pair where the gap is zero, our methods can be seen as a generalization of finding tandem repeats. The running time of our methods equals the running time of well known methods for finding tandem repeats....

  16. Maximizing band gaps in plate structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Søren; Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    Band gaps, i.e., frequency ranges in which waves cannot propagate, can be found in elastic structures for which there is a certain periodic modulation of the material properties or structure. In this paper, we maximize the band gap size for bending waves in a Mindlin plate. We analyze an infinite...

  17. Robust Utility Maximization Under Convex Portfolio Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoussi, Anis; Mezghani, Hanen; Mnif, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    We study a robust maximization problem from terminal wealth and consumption under a convex constraints on the portfolio. We state the existence and the uniqueness of the consumption–investment strategy by studying the associated quadratic backward stochastic differential equation. We characterize the optimal control by using the duality method and deriving a dynamic maximum principle

  18. Robust Utility Maximization Under Convex Portfolio Constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matoussi, Anis, E-mail: anis.matoussi@univ-lemans.fr [Université du Maine, Risk and Insurance institut of Le Mans Laboratoire Manceau de Mathématiques (France); Mezghani, Hanen, E-mail: hanen.mezghani@lamsin.rnu.tn; Mnif, Mohamed, E-mail: mohamed.mnif@enit.rnu.tn [University of Tunis El Manar, Laboratoire de Modélisation Mathématique et Numérique dans les Sciences de l’Ingénieur, ENIT (Tunisia)

    2015-04-15

    We study a robust maximization problem from terminal wealth and consumption under a convex constraints on the portfolio. We state the existence and the uniqueness of the consumption–investment strategy by studying the associated quadratic backward stochastic differential equation. We characterize the optimal control by using the duality method and deriving a dynamic maximum principle.

  19. Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…

  20. Maximizing scientific knowledge from randomized clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Finn; Atar, Dan; Pitt, Bertram

    2010-01-01

    Trialists have an ethical and financial responsibility to plan and conduct clinical trials in a manner that will maximize the scientific knowledge gained from the trial. However, the amount of scientific information generated by randomized clinical trials in cardiovascular medicine is highly...

  1. Maximizing Learning Potential in the Communicative Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaravadivelu, B.

    1993-01-01

    A classroom observational study is presented to assess whether a macrostrategies framework will help communicative language teaching teachers to maximize learner potential in the classroom. Analysis of two classroom episodes revealed that one episode was evidently more communicative than the other. (seven references) (VWL)

  2. Faculty Salaries and the Maximization of Prestige

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melguizo, Tatiana; Strober, Myra H.

    2007-01-01

    Through the lens of the emerging economic theory of higher education, we look at the relationship between salary and prestige. Starting from the premise that academic institutions seek to maximize prestige, we hypothesize that monetary rewards are higher for faculty activities that confer prestige. We use data from the 1999 National Study of…

  3. Ehrenfest's Lottery--Time and Entropy Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Henry S.

    2010-01-01

    Successful teaching of the Second Law of Thermodynamics suffers from limited simple examples linking equilibrium to entropy maximization. I describe a thought experiment connecting entropy to a lottery that mixes marbles amongst a collection of urns. This mixing obeys diffusion-like dynamics. Equilibrium is achieved when the marble distribution is…

  4. A Model of College Tuition Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosshardt, Donald I.; Lichtenstein, Larry; Zaporowski, Mark P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops a series of models for optimal tuition pricing for private colleges and universities. The university is assumed to be a profit maximizing, price discriminating monopolist. The enrollment decision of student's is stochastic in nature. The university offers an effective tuition rate, comprised of stipulated tuition less financial…

  5. Maximal Inequalities for Dependent Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jorgensen, Jorgen

    2016-01-01

    Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X...

  6. Coverage maximization under resource constraints using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-02-07

    Feb 7, 2015 ... Dissemination of information has been one of the prime needs in almost every kind of communication network. The existing algorithms for this service, try to maximize the coverage, i.e., the number of distinct nodes to which a given piece of information could be conveyed under the constraints of time and ...

  7. Developing maximal neuromuscular power: Part 1--biological basis of maximal power production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2011-01-01

    This series of reviews focuses on the most important neuromuscular function in many sport performances, the ability to generate maximal muscular power. Part 1 focuses on the factors that affect maximal power production, while part 2, which will follow in a forthcoming edition of Sports Medicine, explores the practical application of these findings by reviewing the scientific literature relevant to the development of training programmes that most effectively enhance maximal power production. The ability of the neuromuscular system to generate maximal power is affected by a range of interrelated factors. Maximal muscular power is defined and limited by the force-velocity relationship and affected by the length-tension relationship. The ability to generate maximal power is influenced by the type of muscle action involved and, in particular, the time available to develop force, storage and utilization of elastic energy, interactions of contractile and elastic elements, potentiation of contractile and elastic filaments as well as stretch reflexes. Furthermore, maximal power production is influenced by morphological factors including fibre type contribution to whole muscle area, muscle architectural features and tendon properties as well as neural factors including motor unit recruitment, firing frequency, synchronization and inter-muscular coordination. In addition, acute changes in the muscle environment (i.e. alterations resulting from fatigue, changes in hormone milieu and muscle temperature) impact the ability to generate maximal power. Resistance training has been shown to impact each of these neuromuscular factors in quite specific ways. Therefore, an understanding of the biological basis of maximal power production is essential for developing training programmes that effectively enhance maximal power production in the human.

  8. Deterministic quantum annealing expectation-maximization algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Hideyuki; Tsumura, Koji; Sughiyama, Yuki

    2017-11-01

    Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) is one of the most important methods in machine learning, and the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is often used to obtain maximum likelihood estimates. However, EM heavily depends on initial configurations and fails to find the global optimum. On the other hand, in the field of physics, quantum annealing (QA) was proposed as a novel optimization approach. Motivated by QA, we propose a quantum annealing extension of EM, which we call the deterministic quantum annealing expectation-maximization (DQAEM) algorithm. We also discuss its advantage in terms of the path integral formulation. Furthermore, by employing numerical simulations, we illustrate how DQAEM works in MLE and show that DQAEM moderate the problem of local optima in EM.

  9. Loop Amplitude Diagrams in Manifest, Maximal Supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Anna

    The issue of finiteness of maximal supergravity has been subject to research for quite some time. Here, we approach that question through an examination of how to describe amplitude diagrams in D = 11 maximal supergravity from a field theory point of view. The strength of the formulation is the presence of manifest supersymmetry through the use of pure spinors. An initial analysis of what the subsequent characteristics turn out to be, partly in lower dimensions through dimensional reduction, gives at hand results that agree with previous work, pointing towards a first divergence for the 7-loop contribution to the 4-point amplitude in four dimensions. The text is mainly based on and may be regarded as an introduction to the main points presented there.

  10. Maximal frustration as an immunological principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, F Vistulo; Mostardinha, P

    2009-03-06

    A fundamental problem in immunology is that of understanding how the immune system selects promptly which cells to kill without harming the body. This problem poses an apparent paradox. Strong reactivity against pathogens seems incompatible with perfect tolerance towards self. We propose a different view on cellular reactivity to overcome this paradox: effector functions should be seen as the outcome of cellular decisions which can be in conflict with other cells' decisions. We argue that if cellular systems are frustrated, then extensive cross-reactivity among the elements in the system can decrease the reactivity of the system as a whole and induce perfect tolerance. Using numerical and mathematical analyses, we discuss two simple models that perform optimal pathogenic detection with no autoimmunity if cells are maximally frustrated. This study strongly suggests that a principle of maximal frustration could be used to build artificial immune systems. It would be interesting to test this principle in the real adaptive immune system.

  11. Dynamical supersymmetry in maximally supersymmetric gauge theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Dmitry V.

    2010-06-01

    Maximally supersymmetric theories can be described by a single scalar superfield in light-cone superspace. When they are also (super)conformally invariant, they are uniquely specified by the form of the dynamical supersymmetry. We present an explicit derivation of the light-cone superspace form of the dynamical supersymmetry in the cases of ten- and four-dimensional super-Yang-Mills, and the three-dimensional Bagger-Lambert-Gustavsson theory, starting from the covariant formulation of these theories.

  12. Definable maximal discrete sets in forcing extensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törnquist, Asger Dag; Schrittesser, David

    2018-01-01

    Let  be a Σ11 binary relation, and recall that a set A is -discrete if no two elements of A are related by . We show that in the Sacks and Miller forcing extensions of L there is a Δ12 maximal -discrete set. We use this to answer in the negative the main question posed in [5] by showing...

  13. Increasing Efficiency by Maximizing Electrical Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-27

    turbines whose efficiency decreases with system size driving up costs . The cost in $/W for our system is substantially less than other competitive...basis. That forecast of a $100,000 sales price is based on a detailed analysis of anticipated bill of materials costs when manufacturing and...27-07-2016 Cost and Performance Report 04/01/2012 - 07/01/2016 Increasing Efficiency by Maximizing Electrical Output Ted Eveleth, COO, Ener-G-Rotors

  14. Maximal Linear Embedding for Dimensionality Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruiping; Shan, Shiguang; Chen, Xilin; Chen, Jie; Gao, Wen

    2011-09-01

    Over the past few decades, dimensionality reduction has been widely exploited in computer vision and pattern analysis. This paper proposes a simple but effective nonlinear dimensionality reduction algorithm, named Maximal Linear Embedding (MLE). MLE learns a parametric mapping to recover a single global low-dimensional coordinate space and yields an isometric embedding for the manifold. Inspired by geometric intuition, we introduce a reasonable definition of locally linear patch, Maximal Linear Patch (MLP), which seeks to maximize the local neighborhood in which linearity holds. The input data are first decomposed into a collection of local linear models, each depicting an MLP. These local models are then aligned into a global coordinate space, which is achieved by applying MDS to some randomly selected landmarks. The proposed alignment method, called Landmarks-based Global Alignment (LGA), can efficiently produce a closed-form solution with no risk of local optima. It just involves some small-scale eigenvalue problems, while most previous aligning techniques employ time-consuming iterative optimization. Compared with traditional methods such as ISOMAP and LLE, our MLE yields an explicit modeling of the intrinsic variation modes of the observation data. Extensive experiments on both synthetic and real data indicate the effectivity and efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  15. Cardiorespiratory Coordination in Repeated Maximal Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Garcia-Retortillo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1. Both tests started at 0 W and the workload was increased by 25 W/min in males and 20 W/min in females, until they were not able to maintain the prescribed cycling frequency of 70 rpm for more than 5 consecutive seconds. A principal component (PC analysis of selected cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variables (expired fraction of O2, expired fraction of CO2, ventilation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate was performed to evaluate the CRC defined by the number of PCs in both tests. In order to quantify the degree of coordination, the information entropy was calculated and the eigenvalues of the first PC (PC1 were compared between tests. Although no significant differences were found between the tests with respect to the performed maximal workload (Wmax, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max, or ventilatory threshold (VT, an increase in the number of PCs and/or a decrease of eigenvalues of PC1 (t = 2.95; p = 0.01; d = 1.08 was found in Test 2 compared to Test 1. Moreover, entropy was significantly higher (Z = 2.33; p = 0.02; d = 1.43 in the last test. In conclusion, despite the fact that no significant differences were observed in the conventionally explored maximal performance and physiological variables (Wmax, VO2 max, and VT between tests, a reduction of CRC was observed in Test 2. These results emphasize the interest of CRC

  16. Violation of Conversational Maxims in the Avengers Movie

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Juriati Ownie, David Hamonangan Sihite and

    2015-01-01

    The study deals with the types of maxims violation in The Avengers movie'sscript. The objectives of the study were to discover the types of maxims violation,the most dominant maxim violation, and to explain the implication of the mostdominant maxim violation in The Avengers movie. The source of the data was theconversations in The Avengers movie. The data was the script of The Avengersmovie. There were 55 maxim violations in this research. The descriptivequalitative design was used to analyze...

  17. Changes of maximal muscle torque and maximal power output of lower extremities in male judoists during training

    OpenAIRE

    Buśko, Krzysztof; Nowak, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of the study was to follow changes of the maximal muscle torque and maximal power output of lower extremities in male judoists during pre-competition training (PCT). The original hypothesis assumed that different training loads would cause changes of the maximal muscle torque and maximal power output of legs in male judoists during pre-competition training, but not changes of the topography of the maximal muscle torque in all muscle groups. Basic procedures. The study sample ...

  18. Gain maximization in a probabilistic entanglement protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Lorenzo, Antonio; Esteves de Queiroz, Johnny Hebert

    Entanglement is a resource. We can therefore define gain as a monotonic function of entanglement G (E) . If a pair with entanglement E is produced with probability P, the net gain is N = PG (E) - (1 - P) C , where C is the cost of a failed attempt. We study a protocol where a pair of quantum systems is produced in a maximally entangled state ρm with probability Pm, while it is produced in a partially entangled state ρp with the complementary probability 1 -Pm . We mix a fraction w of the partially entangled pairs with the maximally entangled ones, i.e. we take the state to be ρ = (ρm + wUlocρpUloc+) / (1 + w) , where Uloc is an appropriate unitary local operation designed to maximize the entanglement of ρ. This procedure on one hand reduces the entanglement E, and hence the gain, but on the other hand it increases the probability of success to P =Pm + w (1 -Pm) , therefore the net gain N may increase. There may be hence, a priori, an optimal value for w, the fraction of failed attempts that we mix in. We show that, in the hypothesis of a linear gain G (E) = E , even assuming a vanishing cost C -> 0 , the net gain N is increasing with w, therefore the best strategy is to always mix the partially entangled states. Work supported by CNPq, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, proc. 311288/2014-6, and by FAPEMIG, Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa de Minas Gerais, proc. IC-FAPEMIG2016-0269 and PPM-00607-16.

  19. Using molecular biology to maximize concurrent training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baar, Keith

    2014-11-01

    Very few sports use only endurance or strength. Outside of running long distances on a flat surface and power-lifting, practically all sports require some combination of endurance and strength. Endurance and strength can be developed simultaneously to some degree. However, the development of a high level of endurance seems to prohibit the development or maintenance of muscle mass and strength. This interaction between endurance and strength is called the concurrent training effect. This review specifically defines the concurrent training effect, discusses the potential molecular mechanisms underlying this effect, and proposes strategies to maximize strength and endurance in the high-level athlete.

  20. What currency do bumble bees maximize?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas L Charlton

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In modelling bumble bee foraging, net rate of energetic intake has been suggested as the appropriate currency. The foraging behaviour of honey bees is better predicted by using efficiency, the ratio of energetic gain to expenditure, as the currency. We re-analyse several studies of bumble bee foraging and show that efficiency is as good a currency as net rate in terms of predicting behaviour. We suggest that future studies of the foraging of bumble bees should be designed to distinguish between net rate and efficiency maximizing behaviour in an attempt to discover which is the more appropriate currency.

  1. Maximally entangled mixed states and conditional entropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batle, J.; Casas, M.; Plastino, A.; Plastino, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    The maximally entangled mixed states of Munro et al. [Phys. Rev. A 64, 030302 (2001)] are shown to exhibit interesting features vis a vis conditional entropic measures. The same happens with the Ishizaka and Hiroshima states [Phys. Rev. A 62, 022310 (2000)], whose entanglement degree cannot be increased by acting on them with logic gates. Special types of entangled states that do not violate classical entropic inequalities are seen to exist in the space of two qubits. Special meaning can be assigned to the Munro et al. special participation ratio of 1.8

  2. Maximizing policy learning in international committees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    , this article demonstrates that valuable lessons can be learned about policy learning, in practice and theoretically, by analysing the cooperation in the OMC committees. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework as the starting point of analysis, 15 hypotheses on policy learning are tested. Among other things......, it is concluded that in order to maximize policy learning in international committees, empirical data should be made available to committees and provided by sources close to the participants (i.e. the Commission). In addition, the work in the committees should be made prestigious in order to attract well...

  3. Techniques and technologies to maximize mucosal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moons, Leon M G; Gralnek, Ian M; Siersema, Peter D

    2015-04-01

    Performing high-quality colonoscopy is one of the important goals of gastroenterology practices and requires achieving a high level of bowel cleansing, performing good and safe polypectomy, and detecting all polyps present in the colon. This article summarizes currently available techniques and technologies to maximize mucosal visualization. Several maneuvers can be applied during insertion and withdrawal of the colonoscope to optimize mucosal visualization and decrease the number of missed polyps. Newly developed technologies support the endoscopist in the detection of polyps. Each technique is reviewed, with emphasis on the impact on colorectal polyp detection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Maximizing versus satisficing: happiness is a matter of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Barry; Ward, Andrew; Monterosso, John; Lyubomirsky, Sonja; White, Katherine; Lehman, Darrin R

    2002-11-01

    Can people feel worse off as the options they face increase? The present studies suggest that some people--maximizers--can. Study 1 reported a Maximization Scale, which measures individual differences in desire to maximize. Seven samples revealed negative correlations between maximization and happiness, optimism, self-esteem, and life satisfaction, and positive correlations between maximization and depression, perfectionism, and regret. Study 2 found maximizers less satisfied than nonmaximizers (satisficers) with consumer decisions, and more likely to engage in social comparison. Study 3 found maximizers more adversely affected by upward social comparison. Study 4 found maximizers more sensitive to regret and less satisfied in an ultimatum bargaining game. The interaction between maximizing and choice is discussed in terms of regret, adaptation, and self-blame.

  5. Developing maximal neuromuscular power: part 2 - training considerations for improving maximal power production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2011-02-01

    This series of reviews focuses on the most important neuromuscular function in many sport performances: the ability to generate maximal muscular power. Part 1, published in an earlier issue of Sports Medicine, focused on the factors that affect maximal power production while part 2 explores the practical application of these findings by reviewing the scientific literature relevant to the development of training programmes that most effectively enhance maximal power production. The ability to generate maximal power during complex motor skills is of paramount importance to successful athletic performance across many sports. A crucial issue faced by scientists and coaches is the development of effective and efficient training programmes that improve maximal power production in dynamic, multi-joint movements. Such training is referred to as 'power training' for the purposes of this review. Although further research is required in order to gain a deeper understanding of the optimal training techniques for maximizing power in complex, sports-specific movements and the precise mechanisms underlying adaptation, several key conclusions can be drawn from this review. First, a fundamental relationship exists between strength and power, which dictates that an individual cannot possess a high level of power without first being relatively strong. Thus, enhancing and maintaining maximal strength is essential when considering the long-term development of power. Second, consideration of movement pattern, load and velocity specificity is essential when designing power training programmes. Ballistic, plyometric and weightlifting exercises can be used effectively as primary exercises within a power training programme that enhances maximal power. The loads applied to these exercises will depend on the specific requirements of each particular sport and the type of movement being trained. The use of ballistic exercises with loads ranging from 0% to 50% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) and

  6. Maximal liquid bridges between horizontal cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, Herbert E.; Neufeld, Jerome A.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate two-dimensional liquid bridges trapped between pairs of identical horizontal cylinders. The cylinders support forces owing to surface tension and hydrostatic pressure that balance the weight of the liquid. The shape of the liquid bridge is determined by analytically solving the nonlinear Laplace–Young equation. Parameters that maximize the trapping capacity (defined as the cross-sectional area of the liquid bridge) are then determined. The results show that these parameters can be approximated with simple relationships when the radius of the cylinders is small compared with the capillary length. For such small cylinders, liquid bridges with the largest cross-sectional area occur when the centre-to-centre distance between the cylinders is approximately twice the capillary length. The maximum trapping capacity for a pair of cylinders at a given separation is linearly related to the separation when it is small compared with the capillary length. The meniscus slope angle of the largest liquid bridge produced in this regime is also a linear function of the separation. We additionally derive approximate solutions for the profile of a liquid bridge, using the linearized Laplace–Young equation. These solutions analytically verify the above-mentioned relationships obtained for the maximization of the trapping capacity. PMID:27616922

  7. Maximization techniques for oilfield development profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, I.

    1999-01-01

    In 1981 Nind provided a quantitative procedure for estimating the optimum number of development wells to emplace on an oilfield to maximize profit. Nind's treatment assumed that there was a steady selling price, that all wells were placed in production simultaneously, and that each well's production profile was identical and a simple exponential decline with time. This paper lifts these restrictions to allow for price fluctuations, variable with time emplacement of wells, and production rates that are more in line with actual production records than is a simple exponential decline curve. As a consequence, it is possible to design production rate strategies, correlated with price fluctuations, so as to maximize the present-day worth of a field. For price fluctuations that occur on a time-scale rapid compared to inflation rates it is appropriate to have production rates correlate directly with such price fluctuations. The same strategy does not apply for price fluctuations occurring on a time-scale long compared to inflation rates where, for small amplitudes in the price fluctuations, it is best to sell as much product as early as possible to overcome inflation factors, while for large amplitude fluctuations the best strategy is to sell product as early as possible but to do so mainly on price upswings. Examples are provided to show how these generalizations of Nind's (1981) formula change the complexion of oilfield development optimization. (author)

  8. Spiders Tune Glue Viscosity to Maximize Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarpuri, Gaurav; Zhang, Ci; Diaz, Candido; Opell, Brent D; Blackledge, Todd A; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2015-11-24

    Adhesion in humid conditions is a fundamental challenge to both natural and synthetic adhesives. Yet, glue from most spider species becomes stickier as humidity increases. We find the adhesion of spider glue, from five diverse spider species, maximizes at very different humidities that matches their foraging habitats. By using high-speed imaging and spreading power law, we find that the glue viscosity varies over 5 orders of magnitude with humidity for each species, yet the viscosity at maximal adhesion for each species is nearly identical, 10(5)-10(6) cP. Many natural systems take advantage of viscosity to improve functional response, but spider glue's humidity responsiveness is a novel adaptation that makes the glue stickiest in each species' preferred habitat. This tuning is achieved by a combination of proteins and hygroscopic organic salts that determines water uptake in the glue. We therefore anticipate that manipulation of polymer-salts interaction to control viscosity can provide a simple mechanism to design humidity responsive smart adhesives.

  9. Maximal mydriasis evaluation in cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Tony

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose the Maximal Mydriasis Test (MMT as a simple and safe means to provide the cataract surgeon with objective and dependable pre-operative information on the idiosyncratic mydriatic response of the pupil. The MMT results of a consecutive series of 165 eyes from 100 adults referred for cataract evaluation are presented to illustrate its practical applications and value. The results of the MMT allows the surgeon to anticipate problem eyes pre-operatively so that he can plan his surgical strategy more appropriately and effectively. Conversely, the surgeon can also appropriately and confidently plan surgical procedures where wide pupillary dilation is important. The MMT has also helped improve our cost-effectiveness by cutting down unnecessary delays in the operating room and enabling better utilisation of restricted costly resources.

  10. MAXIMIZING THE BENEFITS OF ERP SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo André da Conceição Menezes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning systems have been consolidated in companies with different sizes and sectors, allowing their real benefits to be definitively evaluated. In this study, several interactions have been studied in different phases, such as the strategic priorities and strategic planning defined as ERP Strategy; business processes review and the ERP selection in the pre-implementation phase, the project management and ERP adaptation in the implementation phase, as well as the ERP revision and integration efforts in the post-implementation phase. Through rigorous use of case study methodology, this research led to developing and to testing a framework for maximizing the benefits of the ERP systems, and seeks to contribute for the generation of ERP initiatives to optimize their performance.

  11. Distributed-Memory Fast Maximal Independent Set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanewala Appuhamilage, Thejaka Amila J.; Zalewski, Marcin J.; Lumsdaine, Andrew

    2017-09-13

    The Maximal Independent Set (MIS) graph problem arises in many applications such as computer vision, information theory, molecular biology, and process scheduling. The growing scale of MIS problems suggests the use of distributed-memory hardware as a cost-effective approach to providing necessary compute and memory resources. Luby proposed four randomized algorithms to solve the MIS problem. All those algorithms are designed focusing on shared-memory machines and are analyzed using the PRAM model. These algorithms do not have direct efficient distributed-memory implementations. In this paper, we extend two of Luby’s seminal MIS algorithms, “Luby(A)” and “Luby(B),” to distributed-memory execution, and we evaluate their performance. We compare our results with the “Filtered MIS” implementation in the Combinatorial BLAS library for two types of synthetic graph inputs.

  12. Maximizing policy learning in international committees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    , this article demonstrates that valuable lessons can be learned about policy learning, in practice and theoretically, by analysing the cooperation in the OMC committees. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework as the starting point of analysis, 15 hypotheses on policy learning are tested. Among other things......In the voluminous literature on the European Union's open method of coordination (OMC), no one has hitherto analysed on the basis of scholarly examination the question of what contributes to the learning processes in the OMC committees. On the basis of a questionnaire sent to all participants......, it is concluded that in order to maximize policy learning in international committees, empirical data should be made available to committees and provided by sources close to the participants (i.e. the Commission). In addition, the work in the committees should be made prestigious in order to attract well...

  13. Primordial two-component maximally symmetric inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enqvist, K.; Nanopoulos, D. V.; Quirós, M.; Kounnas, C.

    1985-12-01

    We propose a two-component inflation model, based on maximally symmetric supergravity, where the scales of reheating and the inflation potential at the origin are decoupled. This is possible because of the second-order phase transition from SU(5) to SU(3)×SU(2)×U(1) that takes place when φ≅φcinflation at the global minimum, and leads to a reheating temperature TR≅(1015-1016) GeV. This makes it possible to generate baryon asymmetry in the conventional way without any conflict with experimental data on proton lifetime. The mass of the gravitinos is m3/2≅1012 GeV, thus avoiding the gravitino problem. Monopoles are diluted by residual inflation in the broken phase below the cosmological bounds if φcUSA.

  14. Constrained information maximization by free energy minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Ryotaro

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we introduce free energy-based methods to constrain mutual information maximization, developed to realize competitive learning. The new method is introduced to simplify the computational procedures of mutual information and to improve the fidelity of representation and to stabilize learning. First, the free energy is effective in simplifying the computation procedures of mutual information because we need not directly compute mutual information, which needs heavy computation, but only deals with partition functions. With partition functions, computational complexity is significantly reduced. Second, fidelity to input patterns can be improved because training errors between input patterns and connection weights are implicitly incorporated. This means that mutual information is maximized under the constraint of the errors between input patterns and connection weights. Finally, learning can be stabilized in our approach. One of the problems of the free energy approach is that learning processes should be carefully controlled to keep its stability. The present paper shows that the conventional computational techniques in the field of self-organizing maps are really effective in controlling the processes. In particular, minimum information production learning can be used further to stabilize learning by decreasing information obtained at each learning step as much as possible. Thus, we can expect that our new method can be used to increase mutual information between competitive units and input patterns without decreasing errors between input patterns and connection weights and with stabilized learning processes. We applied the free energy-based models to the well-known Iris problem and a student survey, and succeeded in improving the performance in terms of classification rates. In addition, the minimum information production learning turned out to be effective in stabilizing learning.

  15. Maximal lattice free bodies, test sets and the Frobenius problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Lauritzen, Niels; Roune, Bjarke Hammersholt

    Maximal lattice free bodies are maximal polytopes without interior integral points. Scarf initiated the study of maximal lattice free bodies relative to the facet normals in a fixed matrix. In this paper we give an efficient algorithm for computing the maximal lattice free bodies of an integral...... method is inspired by the novel algorithm by Einstein, Lichtblau, Strzebonski and Wagon and the Groebner basis approach by Roune....

  16. Maximal saddle solution of a nonlinear elliptic equation involving the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 124; Issue 1. Maximal Saddle ... -Laplacian; maximal saddle solution; monotone iteration methods. ... We prove the existence of a maximal saddle solution of the nonlinear elliptic equation involving the -Laplacian, by using the method of monotone iteration,.

  17. Antidiabetic activity of Trichosanthes cucumerina in normal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the end of 28 days, in both normoglycemic and STZ-induced diabetic rats, there was a significant increase in the levels of liver glycogen and adipose tissue triglyceride levels, in comparison with the respective controls that did not receive HWE. However, HWE failed to inhibit intestinal glucose uptake. It may be concluded ...

  18. one step method of plantlet regeneration in trichosanthes dioica roxb

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-01-03

    Jan 3, 2011 ... Tissue Culture Laboratory, Department of Botany, Patna University, Patna, India. E-mail: .... The inclusion of liquid endosperm from immature corn (Netien et al,. 1951), tomato juice (Nitsch, 1951; Straus and La Rue,. 1954), immature fruits and seeds ... Technology, SERC div., New Delhi for the financial sup-.

  19. Evaluation and characterization of the seed oils of Trichosanthes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the chemical parameters, the high ester value and saponification values of T. cucumerina and R. heudelotii qualifies them to be used in industries for soap making, while the high iodine value for R. heudelotii (158.8 ± 8gI/100g oil) qualifies it as a drying oil and suggest possible usefulness in the paint industry.

  20. Maximal respiratory pressures among adolescent swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Rocha Crispino Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Maximal inspiratory pressures (MIP and maximal expiratory pressures (MEP are useful indices of respiratory muscle strength in athletes.The aims of this study were: to describe the strength of the respiratory muscles of Olympic junior swim team, at baseline and after a standard physical training; and to determine if there is a differential inspiratory and expiratory pressure response to the physical training.A cross-sectional study evaluated 28 international-level swimmers with ages ranging from 15 to 17 years, 19 (61% being males. At baseline, MIP was found to be lower in females (P = .001. The mean values reached by males and females were: MIP(cmH2O = M: 100.4 (± 26.5/F: 67.8 (± 23.2; MEP (cmH2O = M: 87.4 (± 20.7/F: 73.9 (± 17.3. After the physical training they reached: MIP (cmH2O = M: 95.3 (± 30.3/F: 71.8 (± 35.6; MEP (cmH2O = M: 82.8 (± 26.2/F: 70.4 (± 8.3.No differential pressure responses were observed in either males or females. These results suggest that swimmers can sustain the magnitude of the initial maximal pressures. Other studies should be developed to clarify if MIP and MEP could be used as a marker of an athlete's performance Sumário: Pressões inspiratórias máximas (PIM e pressões expiratórias máximas (PEM são indicadores úteis de força muscular em atletas.Os objetivos desse estudo foram: descrever a força da musculatura respiratória de uma equipe Olímpica júnior de natação, em repouso e após um exercício físico padronizado e. determinar o diferencial de pressão inspiratória e expiratória obtido como resposta ao exercício físico.Um estudo descritivo avaliou 28 nadadores de nível internacional, com idades variáveis entre 15 a 17 anos, sendo 19 (61% do sexo masculino. Em repouso, os valores mais baixos de PIM foram encontrados no sexo feminino (p = 0,001. Os valores m

  1. Witten spinors on maximal, conformally flat hypersurfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frauendiener, Joerg; Nester, James M; Szabados, Laszlo B

    2011-01-01

    The boundary conditions that exclude zeros of the solutions of the Witten equation (and hence guarantee the existence of a 3-frame satisfying the so-called special orthonormal frame gauge conditions) are investigated. We determine the general form of the conformally invariant boundary conditions for the Witten equation, and find the boundary conditions that characterize the constant and the conformally constant spinor fields among the solutions of the Witten equations on compact domains in extrinsically and intrinsically flat, and on maximal, intrinsically globally conformally flat spacelike hypersurfaces, respectively. We also provide a number of exact solutions of the Witten equation with various boundary conditions (both at infinity and on inner or outer boundaries) that single out nowhere vanishing spinor fields on the flat, non-extreme Reissner-Nordstroem and Brill-Lindquist data sets. Our examples show that there is an interplay between the boundary conditions, the global topology of the hypersurface and the existence/non-existence of zeros of the solutions of the Witten equation.

  2. New features of the maximal abelian projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornyakov, V.G.; Polikarpov, M.I.; Syritsyn, S.N.; Schierholz, G.; Suzuki, T.

    2005-12-01

    After fixing the Maximal Abelian gauge in SU(2) lattice gauge theory we decompose the nonabelian gauge field into the so called monopole field and the modified nonabelian field with monopoles removed. We then calculate respective static potentials and find that the potential due to the modified nonabelian field is nonconfining while, as is well known, the monopole field potential is linear. Furthermore, we show that the sum of these potentials approximates the nonabelian static potential with 5% or higher precision at all distances considered. We conclude that at large distances the monopole field potential describes the classical energy of the hadronic string while the modified nonabelian field potential describes the string fluctuations. Similar decomposition was observed to work for the adjoint static potential. A check was also made of the center projection in the direct center gauge. Two static potentials, determined by projected Z 2 and by modified nonabelian field without Z 2 component were calculated. It was found that their sum is a substantially worse approximation of the SU(2) static potential than that found in the monopole case. It is further demonstrated that similar decomposition can be made for the flux tube action/energy density. (orig.)

  3. New features of the maximal abelian projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornyakov, V.G.; Polikarpov, M.I.; Schierholz, G.; Suzuki, T.; Syritsyn, S.N.

    2006-01-01

    After fixing the Maximal Abelian gauge in SU(2) lattice gauge theory we decompose the nonabelian gauge field into the so called monopole field and the modified nonabelian field with monopoles removed. We then calculate respective static potentials and find that the potential due to the modified nonabelian field is nonconfining while, as is well known, the monopole field potential is linear. Furthermore, we show that the sum of these potentials approximates the nonabelian static potential with 5% or higher precision at all distances considered. We conclude that at large distances the monopole field potential describes the classical energy of the hadronic string while the modified nonabelian field potential describes the string fluctuations. Similar decomposition was observed to work for the adjoint static potential. A check was also made of the center projection in the direct center gauge. Two static potentials, determined by projected Z 2 and by modified nonabelian field without Z 2 component were calculated. It was found that their sum is a substantially worse approximation of the SU(2) static potential than that found in the monopole case. It is further demonstrated that similar decomposition can be made for the flux tube action/energy density

  4. Maximizing Exosome Colloidal Stability Following Electroporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Joshua L.; Scott, Michael J.; Wickline, Samuel A.

    2014-01-01

    Development of exosome based semi-synthetic nanovesicles for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes requires novel approaches to load exosomes with cargo. Electroporation has previously been used to load exosomes with RNA. However, investigations into exosome colloidal stability following electroporation have not been considered. Herein, we report the development of a unique trehalose pulse media (TPM) that minimizes exosome aggregation following electroporation. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and RNA absorbance were employed to determine the extent of exosome aggregation and electroextraction post electroporation in TPM compared to common PBS pulse media or sucrose pulse media (SPM). Use of TPM to disaggregate melanoma exosomes post electroporation was dependent on both exosome concentration and electric field strength. TPM maximized exosome dispersal post electroporation for both homogenous B16 melanoma and heterogeneous human serum derived populations of exosomes. Moreover, TPM enabled heavy cargo loading of melanoma exosomes with 5 nm superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION5) while maintaining original exosome size and minimizing exosome aggregation as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy. Loading exosomes with SPION5 increased exosome density on sucrose gradients. This provides a simple, label free means to enrich exogenously modified exosomes and introduces the potential for MRI driven theranostic exosome investigations in vivo. PMID:24333249

  5. Optimal topologies for maximizing network transmission capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenhao; Wu, Jiajing; Rong, Zhihai; Tse, Chi K.

    2018-04-01

    It has been widely demonstrated that the structure of a network is a major factor that affects its traffic dynamics. In this work, we try to identify the optimal topologies for maximizing the network transmission capacity, as well as to build a clear relationship between structural features of a network and the transmission performance in terms of traffic delivery. We propose an approach for designing optimal network topologies against traffic congestion by link rewiring and apply them on the Barabási-Albert scale-free, static scale-free and Internet Autonomous System-level networks. Furthermore, we analyze the optimized networks using complex network parameters that characterize the structure of networks, and our simulation results suggest that an optimal network for traffic transmission is more likely to have a core-periphery structure. However, assortative mixing and the rich-club phenomenon may have negative impacts on network performance. Based on the observations of the optimized networks, we propose an efficient method to improve the transmission capacity of large-scale networks.

  6. Lower skin temperature decreases maximal cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Daiki; Okazaki, Kazunobu; Matsumura, Shinya; Suzuki, Takashi; Miyazawa, Taiki; Suzuki, Akina; Takeda, Ryosuke; Hamamoto, Takeshi; Zako, Tetsuo; Kawabata, Takashi; Miyagawa, Toshiaki

    2011-12-01

    It is known that external cooling of body regions involved in exercise, prior to exercise, decreases anaerobic performance. However, there have been no studies reporting the effects of whole body skin surface cooling before exercise on maximal anaerobic capacity. In order to clarify the effects, we compared power output during the Wingate anaerobic test between preconditioning by exposure to temperature 10 degrees C and 25 degrees C. Eight healthy males carried out the Wingate test for 30 seconds, after pre-conditioning for 60 minutes using a perfusion suit with water at a temperature of 10 degrees C or 25 degrees C. We evaluated the peak power (PP) and peak power slope (PS) of the power output. Mean skin temperature (T(sk)) at 60 minutes of pre-conditioning in the 10 degrees C trial was significantly lower than in the 25 degrees C trial (p < 0.05). PP and also PS were significantly lower in the 10 degrees C trial than in the 25 degrees C trial. Changes (Δ) in PP between the 10 degrees C trial and the 25 degrees C trial were strongly correlated with ΔT(sk) and Δ in thigh and leg skin temperature (ΔT(thigh) and ΔT(leg), respectively), whereas ΔPS was strongly correlated with ΔT(sk), but not with ΔT(thigh) and ΔT(leg). Whole body skin surface cooling prior to exercise restricts anaerobic capacity, especially in the initial phase of exercise.

  7. Maximizing binding capacity for protein A chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Sanchayita; Zhang, Jennifer; Conley, Lynn; Caple, Ryan; Williams, Kevin P; Cecchini, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Advances in cell culture expression levels in the last two decades have resulted in monoclonal antibody titers of ≥10 g/L to be purified downstream. A high capacity capture step is crucial to prevent purification from being the bottleneck in the manufacturing process. Despite its high cost and other disadvantages, Protein A chromatography still remains the optimal choice for antibody capture due to the excellent selectivity provided by this step. A dual flow loading strategy was used in conjunction with a new generation high capacity Protein A resin to maximize binding capacity without significantly increasing processing time. Optimum conditions were established using a simple empirical Design of Experiment (DOE) based model and verified with a wide panel of antibodies. Dynamic binding capacities of >65 g/L could be achieved under these new conditions, significantly higher by more than one and half times the values that have been typically achieved with Protein A in the past. Furthermore, comparable process performance and product quality was demonstrated for the Protein A step at the increased loading. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  8. Value maximizing maintenance policies under general repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marais, Karen B.

    2013-01-01

    One class of maintenance optimization problems considers the notion of general repair maintenance policies where systems are repaired or replaced on failure. In each case the optimality is based on minimizing the total maintenance cost of the system. These cost-centric optimizations ignore the value dimension of maintenance and can lead to maintenance strategies that do not maximize system value. This paper applies these ideas to the general repair optimization problem using a semi-Markov decision process, discounted cash flow techniques, and dynamic programming to identify the value-optimal actions for any given time and system condition. The impact of several parameters on maintenance strategy, such as operating cost and revenue, system failure characteristics, repair and replacement costs, and the planning time horizon, is explored. This approach provides a quantitative basis on which to base maintenance strategy decisions that contribute to system value. These decisions are different from those suggested by traditional cost-based approaches. The results show (1) how the optimal action for a given time and condition changes as replacement and repair costs change, and identifies the point at which these costs become too high for profitable system operation; (2) that for shorter planning horizons it is better to repair, since there is no time to reap the benefits of increased operating profit and reliability; (3) how the value-optimal maintenance policy is affected by the system's failure characteristics, and hence whether it is worthwhile to invest in higher reliability; and (4) the impact of the repair level on the optimal maintenance policy. -- Highlights: •Provides a quantitative basis for maintenance strategy decisions that contribute to system value. •Shows how the optimal action for a given condition changes as replacement and repair costs change. •Shows how the optimal policy is affected by the system's failure characteristics. •Shows when it is

  9. POLITENESS MAXIM OF MAIN CHARACTER IN SECRET FORGIVEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Ayu Isnu Maharani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Maxim of Politeness is an interesting subject to be discussed, since politeness has been criticized from our childhood. We are obliques to be polite to anyone either in speaking or in acting. Somehow we are manage to show politeness in our spoken expression though our intention might be not so polite. For example we must appriciate others opinion although we feel objection toward the opinion. In this article the analysis of politeness is based on maxim proposes by Leech. He proposed six types of politeness maxim. The discussion shows that the main character (Kristen and Kami use all types of maxim in their conversation. The most commonly used are approbation maxim and agreement maxim

  10. Shareholder, stakeholder-owner or broad stakeholder maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels

    2004-01-01

    including the shareholders of a company. Although it may be the ultimate goal for Corporate Social Responsibility to achieve this kind of maximization, broad stakeholder maximization is quite difficult to give a precise definition. There is no one-dimensional measure to add different stakeholder benefits...... by other stakeholders' interests. These constraints vary for dif-ferent stakeholder owners and new standards for Corporate Social Responsibility and more active political consumers will strengthen these constraints.......With reference to the discussion about shareholder versus stakeholder maximization it is argued that the normal type of maximization is in fact stakeholder-owner maxi-mization. This means maximization of the sum of the value of the shares and stake-holder benefits belonging to the dominating...

  11. Fractional maximal function and its commutators on Orlicz spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guliyev, Vagif S.; Deringoz, Fatih; Hasanov, Sabir G.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we find necessary and sufficient conditions for the boundedness of fractional maximal operator M_{α } on Orlicz spaces. As an application of this results we consider the boundedness of fractional maximal commutator M_{b,α } and nonlinear commutator of fractional maximal operator [b,M_{α }] on Orlicz spaces, when b belongs to the Lipschitz space, by which some new characterizations of the Lipschitz spaces are given.

  12. Violating Bell inequalities maximally for two d-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingling; Wu Chunfeng; Oh, C. H.; Kwek, L. C.; Ge Molin

    2006-01-01

    We show the maximal violation of Bell inequalities for two d-dimensional systems by using the method of the Bell operator. The maximal violation corresponds to the maximal eigenvalue of the Bell operator matrix. The eigenvectors corresponding to these eigenvalues are described by asymmetric entangled states. We estimate the maximum value of the eigenvalue for large dimension. A family of elegant entangled states |Ψ> app that violate Bell inequality more strongly than the maximally entangled state but are somewhat close to these eigenvectors is presented. These approximate states can potentially be useful for quantum cryptography as well as many other important fields of quantum information

  13. Alternative approaches to maximally supersymmetric field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broedel, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    The central objective of this work is the exploration and application of alternative possibilities to describe maximally supersymmetric field theories in four dimensions: N=4 super Yang-Mills theory and N=8 supergravity. While twistor string theory has been proven very useful in the context of N=4 SYM, no analogous formulation for N=8 supergravity is available. In addition to the part describing N=4 SYM theory, twistor string theory contains vertex operators corresponding to the states of N=4 conformal supergravity. Those vertex operators have to be altered in order to describe (non-conformal) Einstein supergravity. A modified version of the known open twistor string theory, including a term which breaks the conformal symmetry for the gravitational vertex operators, has been proposed recently. In a first part of the thesis structural aspects and consistency of the modified theory are discussed. Unfortunately, the majority of amplitudes can not be constructed, which can be traced back to the fact that the dimension of the moduli space of algebraic curves in twistor space is reduced in an inconsistent manner. The issue of a possible finiteness of N=8 supergravity is closely related to the question of the existence of valid counterterms in the perturbation expansion of the theory. In particular, the coefficient in front of the so-called R 4 counterterm candidate has been shown to vanish by explicit calculation. This behavior points into the direction of a symmetry not taken into account, for which the hidden on-shell E 7(7) symmetry is the prime candidate. The validity of the so-called double-soft scalar limit relation is a necessary condition for a theory exhibiting E 7(7) symmetry. By calculating the double-soft scalar limit for amplitudes derived from an N=8 supergravity action modified by an additional R 4 counterterm, one can test for possible constraints originating in the E 7(7) symmetry. In a second part of the thesis, the appropriate amplitudes are calculated

  14. Detrimental Relations of Maximization with Academic and Career Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahling, Jason J.; Thompson, Mindi N.

    2013-01-01

    Maximization refers to a decision-making style that involves seeking the single best option when making a choice, which is generally dysfunctional because people are limited in their ability to rationally evaluate all options and identify the single best outcome. The vocational consequences of maximization are examined in two samples, college…

  15. An Overview of Maximal Unitarity at Two Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Johansson, Henrik; Larsen, Kasper J.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the extension of the maximal-unitarity method to two loops, focusing on the example of the planar double box. Maximal cuts are reinterpreted as contour integrals, with the choice of contour fixed by the requirement that integrals of total derivatives vanish on it. The resulting formulae, like their one-loop counterparts, can be applied either analytically or numerically.

  16. Utility maximization under solvency constraints and unhedgeable risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinow, T.; Pelsser, A.

    2008-01-01

    We consider the utility maximization problem for an investor who faces a solvency or risk constraint in addition to a budget constraint. The investor wishes to maximize her expected utility from terminal wealth subject to a bound on her expected solvency at maturity. We measure solvency using a

  17. Shareholder, stakeholder-owner or broad stakeholder maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels

    2004-01-01

    including the shareholders of a company. Although it may be the ultimate goal for Corporate Social Responsibility to achieve this kind of maximization, broad stakeholder maximization is quite difficult to give a precise definition. There is no one-dimensional measure to add different stakeholder benefits...

  18. Maximal saddle solution of a nonlinear elliptic equation involving the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A saddle solution is called maximal saddle solution if its absolute value is not smaller than those absolute values of any solutions that vanish on the Simons cone. C = {s = t} and have the same sign as s − t. We prove the existence of a maximal saddle solution of the nonlinear elliptic equation involving the ...

  19. On Horowitz and Shelah's Borel maximal eventually different family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrittesser, David

    2017-01-01

    We give an exposition of Horowitz and Shelah’s proof that there exists an effectively Borel maximal eventually different family (working in ZF or less) and announce two related theorems.......We give an exposition of Horowitz and Shelah’s proof that there exists an effectively Borel maximal eventually different family (working in ZF or less) and announce two related theorems....

  20. Pace's Maxims for Homegrown Library Projects. Coming Full Circle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Andrew K.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses six maxims by which to run library automation. The following maxims are discussed: (1) Solve only known problems; (2) Avoid changing data to fix display problems; (3) Aut viam inveniam aut faciam; (4) If you cannot make it yourself, buy something; (5) Kill the alligator closest to the boat; and (6) Just because yours is…

  1. Inquiry in bibliography some of the bustan`s maxim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sajjad rahmatian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sa`di is on of those poets who`s has placed a special position to preaching and guiding the people and among his works, allocated throughout the text of bustan to advice and maxim on legal and ethical various subjects. Surely, sa`di on the way of to compose this work and expression of its moral point, direct or indirect have been affected by some previous sources and possibly using their content. The main purpose of this article is that the pay review of basis and sources of bustan`s maxims and show that sa`di when expression the maxims of this work has been affected by which of the texts and works. For this purpose is tried to with search and research on the resources that have been allocated more or less to the aphorisms, to discover and extract traces of influence sa`di from their moral and didactic content. From the most important the finding of this study can be mentioned that indirect effect of some pahlavi books of maxim (like maxims of azarbad marespandan and bozorgmehr book of maxim and also noted sa`di directly influenced of moral and ethical works of poets and writers before him, and of this, sa`di`s influence from abo- shakur balkhi maxims, ferdowsi and keikavus is remarkable and noteworthy.

  2. Maximal exercise and acute mood response in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronk, N P; Crouse, S F; Rohack, J J

    1995-01-01

    The present study was designed to characterize and assess the reliability of acute mood responses to maximal exercise in women. All subjects (N = 22; age = 45 +/- 2.5 yr; BMI = 24.3 +/- 0.9 kg/m2) participated in two maximal walking tests spaced approximately one month apart. The abbreviated Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire was administered immediately prior to and within 5 min following maximal exercise at both occasions. Maximal heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, and functional aerobic capacity responses indicated compliance to maximal exertion at both tests. Using repeated measures ANOVA, no significant (p self-esteem subscales while the tension and vigor affects significantly decreased. Because no interactions were found, these effects are concluded to be independent of the order in which the tests were performed. Additionally, intraclass correlations computed for each respective POMS subscale, ranged between 0.69 and 0.81 for fatigue, tension, vigor, self-esteem, confusion, and total mood disturbance. The anger and depression subscales were noted to have intraclass correlations of 0.29 and 0.43, respectively, and may have been influenced by a floor effect in this study population. It is concluded that the abbreviated POMS questionnaire may be reliably used to assess acute mood responses to maximal exercise in women and that even maximal exertion has the potential to acutely benefit mood by decreasing tension and increasing self-esteem.

  3. Optimal quantum error correcting codes from absolutely maximally entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raissi, Zahra; Gogolin, Christian; Riera, Arnau; Acín, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    Absolutely maximally entangled (AME) states are pure multi-partite generalizations of the bipartite maximally entangled states with the property that all reduced states of at most half the system size are in the maximally mixed state. AME states are of interest for multipartite teleportation and quantum secret sharing and have recently found new applications in the context of high-energy physics in toy models realizing the AdS/CFT-correspondence. We work out in detail the connection between AME states of minimal support and classical maximum distance separable (MDS) error correcting codes and, in particular, provide explicit closed form expressions for AME states of n parties with local dimension \

  4. Rational maximizing by humans (Homo sapiens) in an ultimatum game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Phillip; Silberberg, Alan

    2010-07-01

    In the human mini-ultimatum game, a proposer splits a sum of money with a responder. If the responder accepts, both are paid. If not, neither is paid. Typically, responders reject inequitable distributions, favoring punishing over maximizing. In Jensen et al.'s (Science 318:107-109, 2007) adaptation with apes, a proposer selects between two distributions of raisins. Despite inequitable offers, responders often accept, thereby maximizing. The rejection response differs between the human and ape versions of this game. For humans, rejection is instantaneous; for apes, it requires 1 min of inaction. We replicate Jensen et al.'s procedure in humans with money. When waiting 1 min to reject, humans favor punishing over maximizing; however, when rejection requires 5 min of inaction, humans, like apes, maximize. If species differences in time horizons are accommodated, Jensen et al.'s ape data are reproducible in humans.

  5. Reference Values for Maximal Inspiratory Pressure: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela MB Sclauser Pessoa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP is the most commonly used measure to evaluate inspiratory muscle strength. Normative values for MIP vary significantly among studies, which may reflect differences in participant demographics and technique of MIP measurement.

  6. Power Converters Maximize Outputs Of Solar Cell Strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Martin E.; Jermakian, Joel B.

    1993-01-01

    Microprocessor-controlled dc-to-dc power converters devised to maximize power transferred from solar photovoltaic strings to storage batteries and other electrical loads. Converters help in utilizing large solar photovoltaic arrays most effectively with respect to cost, size, and weight. Main points of invention are: single controller used to control and optimize any number of "dumb" tracker units and strings independently; power maximized out of converters; and controller in system is microprocessor.

  7. Correlation Between Abdominal Muscle Thickness and Maximal Expiratory Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Hiroshi; Suehiro, Tadanobu; Kurozumi, Chiharu; Ono, Koji; Watanabe, Susumu

    2015-11-01

    The activity of abdominal muscles mainly produces high expiratory pressure. These include the rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, and transverse abdominis muscles. The purpose of this study was to determine whether maximal expiratory pressure is associated with each abdominal muscle thickness at rest. Thirty-nine healthy male volunteers (mean age ± SD, 20.7 ± 2.7 years) participated in the study. The thickness of the right rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, and transverse abdominis muscles was measured by B-mode sonography in the supine position. The maximal expiratory pressure was obtained with a spirometer in the sitting position. The correlations between each abdominal muscle thickness and maximal expiratory pressure were determined by the Pearson correlation coefficient. The correlation coefficient between the rectus abdominis muscle and maximal expiratory pressure was 0.571 (Pmuscles and maximal expiratory pressure were 0.297 (P = .066), 0.267 (P = .100), and 0.022 (P = .894), respectively. Our results indicate that the rectus abdominis muscle thickness might be more highly correlated with expiratory pressure production than the external oblique, internal oblique, and transverse abdominis muscle thickness. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  8. Aging and loss decision making: increased risk aversion and decreased use of maximizing information, with correlated rationality and value maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnianingsih, Yoanna A; Sim, Sam K Y; Chee, Michael W L; Mullette-Gillman, O'Dhaniel A

    2015-01-01

    We investigated how adult aging specifically alters economic decision-making, focusing on examining alterations in uncertainty preferences (willingness to gamble) and choice strategies (what gamble information influences choices) within both the gains and losses domains. Within each domain, participants chose between certain monetary outcomes and gambles with uncertain outcomes. We examined preferences by quantifying how uncertainty modulates choice behavior as if altering the subjective valuation of gambles. We explored age-related preferences for two types of uncertainty, risk, and ambiguity. Additionally, we explored how aging may alter what information participants utilize to make their choices by comparing the relative utilization of maximizing and satisficing information types through a choice strategy metric. Maximizing information was the ratio of the expected value of the two options, while satisficing information was the probability of winning. We found age-related alterations of economic preferences within the losses domain, but no alterations within the gains domain. Older adults (OA; 61-80 years old) were significantly more uncertainty averse for both risky and ambiguous choices. OA also exhibited choice strategies with decreased use of maximizing information. Within OA, we found a significant correlation between risk preferences and choice strategy. This linkage between preferences and strategy appears to derive from a convergence to risk neutrality driven by greater use of the effortful maximizing strategy. As utility maximization and value maximization intersect at risk neutrality, this result suggests that OA are exhibiting a relationship between enhanced rationality and enhanced value maximization. While there was variability in economic decision-making measures within OA, these individual differences were unrelated to variability within examined measures of cognitive ability. Our results demonstrate that aging alters economic decision-making for

  9. Aging and loss decision making: increased risk aversion and decreased use of maximizing information, with correlated rationality and value maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoanna Arlina Kurnianingsih

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how adult aging specifically alters economic decision-making, focusing on examining alterations in uncertainty preferences (willingness to gamble and choice strategies (what gamble information influences choices within both the gains and losses domains. Within each domain, participants chose between certain monetary outcomes and gambles with uncertain outcomes. We examined preferences by quantifying how uncertainty modulates choice behavior as if altering the subjective valuation of gambles. We explored age-related preferences for two types of uncertainty, risk and ambiguity. Additionally, we explored how aging may alter what information participants utilize to make their choices by comparing the relative utilization of maximizing and satisficing information types through a choice strategy metric. Maximizing information was the ratio of the expected value of the two options, while satisficing information was the probability of winning.We found age-related alterations of economic preferences within the losses domain, but no alterations within the gains domain. Older adults (OA; 61 to 80 years old were significantly more uncertainty averse for both risky and ambiguous choices. OA also exhibited choice strategies with decreased use of maximizing information. Within OA, we found a significant correlation between risk preferences and choice strategy. This linkage between preferences and strategy appears to derive from a convergence to risk neutrality driven by greater use of the effortful maximizing strategy. As utility maximization and value maximization intersect at risk neutrality, this result suggests that OA are exhibiting a relationship between enhanced rationality and enhanced value maximization. While there was variability in economic decision-making measures within OA, these individual differences were unrelated to variability within examined measures of cognitive ability. Our results demonstrate that aging alters economic

  10. Quantum speedup in solving the maximal-clique problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Weng-Long; Yu, Qi; Li, Zhaokai; Chen, Jiahui; Peng, Xinhua; Feng, Mang

    2018-03-01

    The maximal-clique problem, to find the maximally sized clique in a given graph, is classically an NP-complete computational problem, which has potential applications ranging from electrical engineering, computational chemistry, and bioinformatics to social networks. Here we develop a quantum algorithm to solve the maximal-clique problem for any graph G with n vertices with quadratic speedup over its classical counterparts, where the time and spatial complexities are reduced to, respectively, O (√{2n}) and O (n2) . With respect to oracle-related quantum algorithms for the NP-complete problems, we identify our algorithm as optimal. To justify the feasibility of the proposed quantum algorithm, we successfully solve a typical clique problem for a graph G with two vertices and one edge by carrying out a nuclear magnetic resonance experiment involving four qubits.

  11. Cross-Order Integral Relations from Maximal Cuts

    CERN Document Server

    Johansson, Henrik; Larsen, Kasper J.; Søgaard, Mads

    2015-01-01

    We study the ABDK relation using maximal cuts of one- and two-loop integrals with up to five external legs. We show how to find a special combination of integrals that allows the relation to exist, and how to reconstruct the terms with one-loop integrals squared. The reconstruction relies on the observation that integrals across different loop orders can have support on the same generalized unitarity cuts and can share global poles. We discuss the appearance of nonhomologous integration contours in multivariate residues. Their origin can be understood in simple terms, and their existence enables us to distinguish contributions from different integrals. Our analysis suggests that maximal and near-maximal cuts can be used to infer the existence of integral identities more generally.

  12. Maximal Electric Dipole Moments of Nuclei with Enhanced Schiff Moments

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Pilaftsis, Apostolos

    2011-01-01

    The electric dipole moments (EDMs) of heavy nuclei, such as 199Hg, 225Ra and 211Rn, can be enhanced by the Schiff moments induced by the presence of nearby parity-doublet states. Working within the framework of the maximally CP-violating and minimally flavour-violating (MCPMFV) version of the MSSM, we discuss the maximal values that such EDMs might attain, given the existing experimental constraints on the Thallium, neutron and Mercury EDMs. The maximal EDM values of the heavy nuclei are obtained with the help of a differential-geometrical approach proposed recently that enables the maxima of new CP-violating observables to be calculated exactly in the linear approximation. In the case of 225Ra, we find that its EDM may be as large as 6 to 50 x 10^{-27} e.cm.

  13. El culto de Maximón en Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Pédron‑Colombani, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    Este artículo se enfoca en la figura de Maximón, deidad sincrética de Guatemala, en un contexto de desplazamiento de la religión católica popular por parte de las iglesias protestantes. Esta divinidad híbrida a la cual se agregan santos católicos como Judas Iscariote o el dios maya Mam, permite la apropiación de Maximón por segmentos diferenciados de la población (tanto indígena como mestiza). Permite igualmente ser símbolo de protestas sociales enmascaradas cuando se asocia Maximón con figur...

  14. Influence of central obesity in estimating maximal oxygen uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Grüne de Souza e Silva

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of central obesity on the magnitude of the error of estimate of maximal oxygen uptake in maximal cycling exercise testing. METHOD: A total of 1,715 adults (68% men between 18-91 years of age underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing using a progressive protocol to volitional fatigue. Subjects were stratified by central obesity into three quartile ranges: Q1, Q2-3 and Q4. Maximal oxygen uptake [mL.(kg.min-1] was estimated by the attained maximal workload and body weight using gender- and population-specific equations. The error of estimate [mL.(kg.min-1] and percent error between measured and estimated maximal oxygen uptake values were compared among obesity quartile ranges. RESULTS: The error of estimate and percent error differed (mean ± SD for men (Q1=1.3±3.7 and 2.0±10.4; Q2-3=0.5±3.1 and -0.5±13.0; and Q4=-0.3±2.8 and -4.5±15.8 (p<0.05 and for women (Q1=1.6±3.3 and 3.6±10.2; Q2-3=0.4±2.7 and -0.4±11.8; and Q4=-0.9±2.3 and -10.0±22.7 (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Central obesity directly influences the magnitude of the error of estimate of maximal oxygen uptake and should be considered when direct expired gas analysis is unavailable.

  15. Greedy SINR Maximization in Collaborative Multibase Wireless Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu Otilia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a codeword adaptation algorithm for collaborative multibase wireless systems. The system is modeled with multiple inputs and multiple outputs (MIMO in which information is transmitted using multicode CDMA, and codewords are adapted based on greedy maximization of the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio. The procedure monotonically increases the sum capacity and, when repeated iteratively for all codewords in the system, converges to a fixed point. Fixed-point properties and a connection with sum capacity maximization, along with a discussion of simulations that corroborate the basic analytic results, are included in the paper.

  16. Neutrino Mass Textures from Oscillations with Maximal Mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Altarelli, Guido; Altarelli, Guido; Feruglio, Ferruccio

    1998-01-01

    We study the implications of neutrino oscillations with maximal mixing for the neutrino Dirac and Majorana matrices in the see-saw mechanism for three non degenerate neutrino masses. We find the form of the Dirac matrix for a structure-less Majorana matrix and, conversely, the structure of the Majorana matrix if the Dirac matrix is according to our naive intuition. We give some examples of Majorana matrices that, in a 3 X 3 context, lead to maximal mixing without too much fine tuning and cross talk with the Dirac input.

  17. Identities on maximal subgroups of GLn(D)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiani, D.; Mahdavi-Hezavehi, M.

    2002-04-01

    Let D be a division ring with centre F. Assume that M is a maximal subgroup of GL n (D), n≥1 such that Z(M) is algebraic over F. Group identities on M and polynomial identities on the F-linear hull F[M] are investigated. It is shown that if F[M] is a PI-algebra, then [D:F] n (D) and M is a maximal subgroup of N. If M satisfies a group identity, it is shown that M is abelian-by-finite. (author)

  18. Anatomy of maximal stop mixing in the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruemmer, Felix [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kraml, Sabine; Kulkarni, Suchita [CNRS/IN2P3, INPG, Grenoble (France). Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie

    2012-05-15

    A Standard Model-like Higgs near 125 GeV in the MSSM requires multi-TeV stop masses, or a near-maximal contribution to its mass from stop mixing. We investigate the maximal mixing scenario, and in particular its prospects for being realized it in potentially realistic GUT models. We work out constraints on the possible GUT-scale soft terms, which we compare with what can be obtained from some well-known mechanisms of SUSY breaking mediation. Finally, we analyze two promising scenarios in detail, namely gaugino mediation and gravity mediation with non-universal Higgs masses.

  19. On Maximal Non-Disjoint Families of Subsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Zuev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies maximal non-disjoint families of subsets of a finite set. Non-disjointness means that any two subsets of a family have a nonempty intersection. The maximality is expressed by the fact that adding a new subset to the family cannot increase its power without violating a non-disjointness condition. Studying the properties of such families is an important section of the extreme theory of sets. Along with purely combinatorial interest, the problems considered here play an important role in informatics, anti-noise coding, and cryptography.In 1961 this problem saw the light of day in the Erdos, Ko and Rado paper, which established a maximum power of the non-disjoint family of subsets of equal power. In 1974 the Erdos and Claytman publication estimated the number of maximal non-disjoint families of subsets without involving the equality of their power. These authors failed to establish an asymptotics of the logarithm of the number of such families when the power of a basic finite set tends to infinity. However, they suggested such an asymptotics as a hypothesis. A.D. Korshunov in two publications in 2003 and 2005 established the asymptotics for the number of non-disjoint families of the subsets of arbitrary powers without maximality condition of these families.The basis for the approach used in the paper to study the families of subsets is their description in the language of Boolean functions. A one-to-one correspondence between a family of subsets and a Boolean function is established by the fact that the characteristic vectors of subsets of a family are considered to be the unit sets of a Boolean function. The main theoretical result of the paper is that the maximal non-disjoint families are in one-to-one correspondence with the monotonic self-dual Boolean functions. When estimating the number of maximal non-disjoint families, this allowed us to use the result of A.A. Sapozhenko, who established the asymptotics of the number of the

  20. Gap processing for adaptive maximal poisson-disk sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming

    2013-10-17

    In this article, we study the generation of maximal Poisson-disk sets with varying radii. First, we present a geometric analysis of gaps in such disk sets. This analysis is the basis for maximal and adaptive sampling in Euclidean space and on manifolds. Second, we propose efficient algorithms and data structures to detect gaps and update gaps when disks are inserted, deleted, moved, or when their radii are changed.We build on the concepts of regular triangulations and the power diagram. Third, we show how our analysis contributes to the state-of-the-art in surface remeshing. © 2013 ACM.

  1. Adaptive maximal poisson-disk sampling on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the generation of maximal Poisson-disk sets with varying radii on surfaces. Based on the concepts of power diagram and regular triangulation, we present a geometric analysis of gaps in such disk sets on surfaces, which is the key ingredient of the adaptive maximal Poisson-disk sampling framework. Moreover, we adapt the presented sampling framework for remeshing applications. Several novel and efficient operators are developed for improving the sampling/meshing quality over the state-of-theart. © 2012 ACM.

  2. Efficient maximal Poisson-disk sampling and remeshing on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Jianwei

    2015-02-01

    Poisson-disk sampling is one of the fundamental research problems in computer graphics that has many applications. In this paper, we study the problem of maximal Poisson-disk sampling on mesh surfaces. We present a simple approach that generalizes the 2D maximal sampling framework to surfaces. The key observation is to use a subdivided mesh as the sampling domain for conflict checking and void detection. Our approach improves the state-of-the-art approach in efficiency, quality and the memory consumption.

  3. Emotional Control and Instructional Effectiveness: Maximizing a Timeout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Staci R.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides recommendations for best practices for basketball coaches to maximize the instructional effectiveness of a timeout during competition. Practical applications are derived from research findings linking emotional intelligence to effective coaching behaviors. Additionally, recommendations are based on the implications of the…

  4. On the maximal dimension of a completely entangled subspace for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 114; Issue 4. On the Maximal Dimension of a Completely ... Using the methods of elementary linear algebra and the intersection theorem for projective varieties in basic algebraic geometry we prove that. max S ∈ E dim ⁡ S = d 1 d 2 … d k − ( d 1 + ⋯ + d k ) + ...

  5. Maximal regularity for non-autonomous stochastic evolution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tôn Vi?t T?

    2017-11-17

    Nov 17, 2017 ... The abstract results are then applied to a stochastic partial differential equation. Keywords. Evolution operators; stochastic linear evolution equations; strict solutions; maximal regularity; UMD Banach spaces of type 2. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification. Primary: 60H15, 35R60; Secondary: 47D06. 1.

  6. Stewart's maxims: eight "do's" for successfully communicating silviculture to policymakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. E. Stewart

    1997-01-01

    Technical specialists may experience difficulties in presenting information to non-technical policymakers and having that information used. Eight maxims are discussed that should help the silviculturist successfully provide technical information to non-technical audiences so that it will be considered in the formulation of policy.

  7. Transformation of bipartite non-maximally entangled states into a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present two schemes for transforming bipartite non-maximally entangled states into a W state in cavity QED system, by using highly detuned interactions and the resonant interactions between ... Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science

  8. Extract of Zanthoxylum bungeanum maxim seed oil reduces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-hyperlipidaemic effect of extract of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. seed oil (EZSO) on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperlipidemic hamsters. Methods: Following feeding with HFD for 30 days, hyperlipidemic hamsters were intragastrically treated with EZSO for 60 days. Serum levels of ...

  9. The Boundary Crossing Theorem and the Maximal Stability Interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge-Antonio López-Renteria

    2011-01-01

    useful tools in the study of the stability of family of polynomials. Although both of these theorem seem intuitively obvious, they can be used for proving important results. In this paper, we give generalizations of these two theorems and we apply such generalizations for finding the maximal stability interval.

  10. A decision theoretic framework for profit maximization in direct marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muus, L.; van der Scheer, H.; Wansbeek, T.J.; Montgomery, A.; Franses, P.H.B.F.

    2002-01-01

    One of the most important issues facing a firm involved in direct marketing is the selection of addresses from a mailing list. When the parameters of the model describing consumers' reaction to a mailing are known, addresses for a future mailing can be selected in a profit-maximizing way. Usually,

  11. Improved endpoint bounds for the lacunary spherical maximal operator

    OpenAIRE

    Cladek, Laura; Krause, Ben

    2017-01-01

    We prove new endpoint bounds for the lacunary spherical maximal operator and as a consequence obtain almost everywhere pointwise convergence of lacunary spherical means for functions locally in $L\\log\\log\\log L(\\log\\log\\log\\log L)^{1+\\epsilon}$ for any $\\epsilon>0$.

  12. Maximal multiplier operators in Lp(·)(Rn) spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gogatishvili, Amiran; Kopaliani, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 140, č. 4 (2016), s. 86-97 ISSN 0007-4497 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14743S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : spherical maximal function * variable Lebesque spaces * boundedness result Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.750, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0007449715000329

  13. Submaximal exercise capacity and maximal power output in polio subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nollet, F.; Beelen, A.; Sargeant, A. J.; de Visser, M.; Lankhorst, G. J.; de Jong, B. A.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the submaximal exercise capacity of polio subjects with postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) and without (non-PPS) with that of healthy control subjects, to investigate the relationship of this capacity with maximal short-term power and quadriceps strength, and to evaluate

  14. Maximal regularity for non-autonomous stochastic evolution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A non-autonomous stochastic linear evolution equation in UMD Banach spaces of type 2 is considered. We construct unique strict solutions to the equation and show their maximal regularity. The abstract results are then applied to a stochastic partial differential equation.

  15. Larvicidal Activity of Isodon japonicus var. glaucocalyx (Maxim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To determine the larvicidal activity of the essential oil derived from Isodon japonicus var. glaucocalyx (Maxim.) H.W.Li (Labiatae) aerial parts at flowering stage against the larvae of Aedes aegypti L. Methods: The essential oil of I. japonicus var. glaucocalyx aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation.

  16. Transformation of bipartite non-maximally entangled states into a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [6], quantum cryptography [7] and so on. The preparation of entangled state becomes more and more important in quantum infor- mation processing. One knows that bipartite entanglement can be generated through a variety of solutions [8–10]. A maximally entangled state of two qubits is called a Bell state. For atomic qubits ...

  17. Prediction of maximal heart rate: comparison using a novel and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prediction of maximal heart rate: comparison using a novel and conventional equation. LR Keytel, E Mukwevho, MA Will, M Lambert. Abstract. No Abstract. African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance Vol. 11(3) 2005: 269-277. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  18. Impact of training status on maximal oxygen uptake criteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only 11% of the trained and 56% of the untrained individuals achieved a plateau in the oxygen uptake curve. Peak treadmill running speed was significantly faster and total test time significantly longer in the trained group. In contrast, peak lactate, although maximal for both groups, was significantly higher in the untrained ...

  19. Quantum state space as a maximal consistent set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabia, Gelo Noel

    2012-02-01

    Measurement statistics in quantum theory are obtained from the Born rule and the uniqueness of the probability measure it assigns through quantum states is guaranteed by Gleason's theorem. Thus, a possible systematic way of exploring the geometry of quantum state space expresses quantum states in terms of outcome probabilities of a symmetric informationally complete measurement. This specific choice for representing quantum states is motivated by how the associated probability space provides a natural venue for characterizing the set of quantum states as a geometric construct called a maximal consistent set. We define the conditions for consistency and maximality of a set, provide some examples of maximal consistent sets and attempt to deduce the steps for building up a maximal consistent set of probability distributions equivalent to Hilbert space. In particular, we demonstrate how the reconstruction procedure works for qutrits and observe how it reveals an elegant underlying symmetry among five SIC-POVMs and a complete set of mutually unbiased bases, known in finite affine geometry as the Hesse configuration.

  20. An optimal thermal condition for maximal chlorophyll extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Jia-Jia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes an environmentally friendly process for chlorophyll extraction from bamboo leaves. Shaking water bath and ultrasound cleaner are adopted in this technology, and the influence of temperature of the water bath and ultrasonic cleaner is evaluated. Results indicated that there is an optimal condition for maximal yield of chlorophyll.

  1. Principle of Entropy Maximization for Nonequilibrium Steady States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this contribution is to find out to what extent the principle of entropy maximization, which serves as a basis for the equilibrium thermodynamics, may be generalized onto non-equilibrium steady states. We prove a theorem that, in the system of thermodynamic coordinates, where entropy...

  2. An application of the maximal independent set algorithm to course ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we demonstrated one of the many applications of the Maximal Independent Set Algorithm in the area of course allocation. A program was developed in Pascal and used in implementing a modified version of the algorithm to assign teaching courses to available lecturers in any academic environment and it ...

  3. Maximal Regularity of the Discrete Harmonic Oscillator Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airton Castro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We give a representation of the solution for the best approximation of the harmonic oscillator equation formulated in a general Banach space setting, and a characterization of lp-maximal regularity—or well posedness—solely in terms of R-boundedness properties of the resolvent operator involved in the equation.

  4. Applications of expectation maximization algorithm for coherent optical communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, L.; Oliveira, J.; Zibar, Darko

    2014-01-01

    In this invited paper, we present powerful statistical signal processing methods, used by machine learning community, and link them to current problems in optical communication. In particular, we will look into iterative maximum likelihood parameter estimation based on expectation maximization al...

  5. Simplicity and maximal commutative subalgebras of twisted generalized Weyl algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwig, J.T.; Öinert, Per Johan

    2013-01-01

    conditions for certain TGWAs to be simple, in the case when R is commutative. We illustrate our theorems by considering some special classes of TGWAs and providing concrete examples. We also discuss how simplicity of a TGWA is related to the maximal commutativity of R and the (non-)existence of non...

  6. Should I Stay or Should I Go? Maximizers versus Satisficers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R.; Gunty, Amy; King, Stephanie L.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, university students were presented a scenario in which a married couple was struggling in their marriage. These students were asked how likely it is that they would stay in a difficult marriage like the one described in the scenario. Each student also completed Schwartz's (2004) Maximization Scale. High scorers on this scale…

  7. Maximizing plant density affects broccoli yield and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased demand for fresh market bunch broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has led to increased production along the United States east coast. Maximizing broccoli yields is a primary concern for quickly expanding southeastern commercial markets. This broccoli plant density study was carr...

  8. Twitch interpolation technique in testing of maximal muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, P M; Nørregaard, J; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    1993-01-01

    The aim was to study the methodological aspects of the muscle twitch interpolation technique in estimating the maximal force of contraction in the quadriceps muscle utilizing commercial muscle testing equipment. Six healthy subjects participated in seven sets of experiments testing the effects...

  9. Maximal saddle solution of a nonlinear elliptic equation involving the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    College of Mathematics and Econometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China. E-mail: huahuiyan@163.com; duzr@hnu.edu.cn. MS received 3 September 2012; revised 20 December 2012. Abstract. A saddle solution is called maximal saddle solution if its absolute value is not smaller than those absolute values ...

  10. Building the case for biofortification: measuring and maximizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Building the case for biofortification: measuring and maximizing impact in the HarvestPlus program. N Johnson, D Asare-Marfo, M Zeller, E Birol. Abstract. This paper describes the research and related activities that HarvestPlus undertook at each stage of the research process—discovery, proof of concept, delivery at ...

  11. Quantitative approaches for profit maximization in direct marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, H.R.

    1998-01-01

    An effective direct marketing campaign aims at selecting those targets, offer and communication elements - at the right time - that maximize the net profits. The list of individuals to be mailed, i.e. the targets, is considered to be the most important component. Therefore, a large amount of direct

  12. Limits to maximal performance in individuals with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopman, M T; Dueck, C; Monroe, M; Philips, W T; Skinner, J S

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of four conditions that might improve oxygen transport and/or utilization during maximal exercise performance in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Five males with tetraplegia (TP) and four males with paraplegia (PR) performed maximal arm cranking exercise in the following positions: 1) sitting; 2) supine; and 3) sitting with the addition of a) anti-gravity suit (anit-G), b) elastic stockings and abdominal binder, and c) functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the paralysed leg muscles. Peak power output (PO peak), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), peak heart rate (HR peak) and maximal systolic blood pressure were significantly lower in TP compared to PR for all conditions. A significant decrease in HR peak for PR, and a significant increase in VO2peak/kg for TP was seen during the supine compared to sitting condition. Respiratory exchange ratio (R) decreased significantly during the FES compared to the sitting condition in TP. No other changes were observed for any of the other conditions in either group. Improvements in central circulation previously reported during submaximal exercise for these four conditions did not result in a concomitant rise in maximal exercise performance. The results of this study suggest that the limitation in VO2peak for individuals with SCI is located peripherally (small active muscle mass) rather than centrally (heart or lungs).

  13. Maximizing vegetation response on management burns by identifying fire regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    V. Thomas Parker

    1989-01-01

    Maintenance of vegetation is a central goal of watershed management. When prescribed burning of chaparral is included in management practice, then it is important for managers to understand and use the natural chaparral fire regime to maximize vegetation response. Variations from the natural fire regime in intensity, frequency, season, and environmental conditions at...

  14. Painting new lines : Maximizing color difference in metro maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen, Simone; Kiselev, Arthemy

    2015-01-01

    Each metro line usually has its own color on the map. For obvious reasons, these colors should be maximally different. Suppose a new metro line is built. We now explain a strategy to choose the color or several colors for the new lines, making them as different as possible from both the old ones and

  15. Maximal Sharing in the Lambda Calculus with Letrec

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grabmayer, C.A.; Rochel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing sharing in programs is desirable to compactify the code, and to avoid duplication of reduction work at run-time, thereby speeding up execution. We show how a maximal degree of sharing can be obtained for programs expressed as terms in the lambda calculus with letrec. We introduce a notion

  16. Distortion of maximal elevator activity by unilateral premature tooth contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, Merete; Møller, Eigild

    1980-01-01

    In four subjects the electrical activity in the anterior and posterior temporal and masseter muscles during maximal bite was recorded bilaterally with and without premature unilateral contact. Muscle activity was measured as the average level and the peak of the mean voltage with layers of strips...

  17. Assessment of maximal handgrip strength : How many attempts are needed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnierse, Esmee M.; de Jong, Nynke; Trappenburg, Marijke C.; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Gapeyeva, Helena; Hogrel, Jean Yves; Mcphee, Jamie S.; Narici, Marco V.; Sipilä, Sarianna; Stenroth, Lauri; van Lummel, Rob C.; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Meskers, Carel G M; Maier, Andrea B.

    Background: Handgrip strength (HGS) is used to identify individuals with low muscle strength (dynapenia). The influence of the number of attempts on maximal HGS is not yet known and may differ depending on age and health status. This study aimed to assess how many attempts of HGS are required to

  18. Suppression of maximal linear gluon polarization in angular asymmetries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Daniel; Mulders, Piet J.; Zhou, Jian; Zhou, Ya-jin

    2017-01-01

    We perform a phenomenological analysis of the cos 2 phi azimuthal asymmetry in virtual photon plus jet production induced by the linear polarization of gluons in unpolarized pA collisions. Although the linearly polarized gluon distribution becomes maximal at small x, TMD evolution leads to a Sudakov

  19. Multi-start approach for an integer determinant maximization problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sotirov, R.; Terlaky, T.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present a multi-start approach to solve a determinant maximization problem of an integer matrix variable that has a constant trace. In order to enforce that elements of the matrix variable are integer, we add a nonlinear repeller term to the objective function. To solve this

  20. Mentoring as Professional Development for Novice Entrepreneurs: Maximizing the Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Jean, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    Mentoring can be seen as relevant if not essential in the continuing professional development of entrepreneurs. In the present study, we seek to understand how to maximize the learning that occurs through the mentoring process. To achieve this, we consider various elements that the literature suggested are associated with successful mentoring and…

  1. A Revenue Maximization Approach for Provisioning Services in Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increased reliability, security, and reduced cost of cloud services, more and more users are attracted to having their jobs and applications outsourced into IAAS data centers. For a cloud provider, deciding how to provision services to clients is far from trivial. The objective of this decision is maximizing the provider’s revenue, while fulfilling its IAAS resource constraints. The above problem is defined as IAAS cloud provider revenue maximization (ICPRM problem in this paper. We formulate a service provision approach to help a cloud provider to determine which combination of clients to admit and in what Quality-of-Service (QoS levels and to maximize provider’s revenue given its available resources. We show that the overall problem is a nondeterministic polynomial- (NP- hard one and develop metaheuristic solutions based on the genetic algorithm to achieve revenue maximization. The experimental simulations and numerical results show that the proposed approach is both effective and efficient in solving ICPRM problems.

  2. Evaluation of Epimedium brevicornum Maxim extract for anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of Epimedium brevicornum Maxim. extract (EBME) on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats. Methods: The rats were divided into six experimental groups, viz, control (group 1) and five ovariectomy-induced (OVX) groups. The OVX groups include OVX-inducing agent only ...

  3. Prediction equations for maximal respiratory pressures of Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel E. F. Mendes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The literature emphasizes the need for studies to provide reference values and equations able to predict respiratory muscle strength of Brazilian subjects at different ages and from different regions of Brazil. OBJECTIVES: To develop prediction equations for maximal respiratory pressures (MRP of Brazilian adolescents. METHOD: In total, 182 healthy adolescents (98 boys and 84 girls aged between 12 and 18 years, enrolled in public and private schools in the city of Natal-RN, were evaluated using an MVD300 digital manometer (Globalmed® according to a standardized protocol. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS Statistics 17.0 software, with a significance level of 5%. Data normality was verified using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and descriptive analysis results were expressed as the mean and standard deviation. To verify the correlation between the MRP and the independent variables (age, weight, height and sex, the Pearson correlation test was used. To obtain the prediction equations, stepwise multiple linear regression was used. RESULTS: The variables height, weight and sex were correlated to MRP. However, weight and sex explained part of the variability of MRP, and the regression analysis in this study indicated that these variables contributed significantly in predicting maximal inspiratory pressure, and only sex contributed significantly to maximal expiratory pressure. CONCLUSION: This study provides reference values and two models of prediction equations for maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures and sets the necessary normal lower limits for the assessment of the respiratory muscle strength of Brazilian adolescents.

  4. Extract of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim Seed Oil Reduces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To investigate the anti-hyperlipidaemic effect of extract of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. ... Further researches in human and animal are both .... tissues. In Western blot assay, the PPAR protein was. ・ significantly increased by approximately 120 % in the liver tissues of the HPL group compared with.

  5. Maximizing the model for Discounted Stream of Utility from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osagiede et al. (2009) considered an analytic model for maximizing discounted stream of utility from consumption when the rate of production is linear. A solution was provided to a level where methods of solving order differential equations will be applied, but they left off there, as a result of the mathematical complexity ...

  6. Maximal near-field radiative heat transfer between two plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefzaoui, Elyes; Ezzahri, Younès; Drévillon, Jérémie; Joulain, Karl

    2013-09-01

    Near-field radiative transfer is a promising way to significantly and simultaneously enhance both thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) devices power densities and efficiencies. A parametric study of Drude and Lorentz models performances in maximizing near-field radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite planes separated by nanometric distances at room temperature is presented in this paper. Optimal parameters of these models that provide optical properties maximizing the radiative heat flux are reported and compared to real materials usually considered in similar studies, silicon carbide and heavily doped silicon in this case. Results are obtained by exact and approximate (in the extreme near-field regime and the electrostatic limit hypothesis) calculations. The two methods are compared in terms of accuracy and CPU resources consumption. Their differences are explained according to a mesoscopic description of nearfield radiative heat transfer. Finally, the frequently assumed hypothesis which states a maximal radiative heat transfer when the two semi-infinite planes are of identical materials is numerically confirmed. Its subsequent practical constraints are then discussed. Presented results enlighten relevant paths to follow in order to choose or design materials maximizing nano-TPV devices performances.

  7. Dual Competing Photovoltaic Supply Chains: A Social Welfare Maximization Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shong-Iee Ivan

    2017-01-01

    In the past decades, the inappropriate subsidy policies in many nations have caused problems such as serious oversupply, fierce competition and subpar social welfare in the photovoltaic (PV) industry in many nations. There is a clear shortage in the PV industry literature regarding how dual supply chains compete and the key decision issues regarding the competition between dual PV supply chains. It is critical to develop effective subsidy policies for the competing PV supply chains to achieve social welfare maximization. This study has explored the dual PV supply chain competition under the Bertrand competition assumption by three game-theoretical modeling scenarios (or supply chain strategies) considering either the public subsidy or no subsidy from a social welfare maximization perspective. A numerical analysis complemented by two sensitivity analyses provides a better understanding of the pricing and quantity decision dynamics in the dual supply chains under three different supply chain strategies and the corresponding outcomes regarding the total supply chain profits, the social welfare and the required total subsidies. The key findings disclose that if there are public subsidies, the dual PV supply chains have the strongest intention to pursue the decentralized strategy to achieve their maximal returns rather than the centralized strategy that would achieve the maximal social welfare; however, the government would need to pay for the maximal subsidy budget. Thus, the best option for the government would be to encourage the dual PV supply chains to adopt a centralized strategy since this will not only maximize the social welfare but also, at the same time, minimize the public subsidy. With a smart subsidy policy, the PV industry can make the best use of the subsidy budget and grow in a sustainable way to support the highly demanded solar power generation in many countries trying very hard to increase the proportion of their clean energy to combat the global

  8. Dual Competing Photovoltaic Supply Chains: A Social Welfare Maximization Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhisong; Su, Shong-Iee Ivan

    2017-11-20

    In the past decades, the inappropriate subsidy policies in many nations have caused problems such as serious oversupply, fierce competition and subpar social welfare in the photovoltaic (PV) industry in many nations. There is a clear shortage in the PV industry literature regarding how dual supply chains compete and the key decision issues regarding the competition between dual PV supply chains. It is critical to develop effective subsidy policies for the competing PV supply chains to achieve social welfare maximization. This study has explored the dual PV supply chain competition under the Bertrand competition assumption by three game-theoretical modeling scenarios (or supply chain strategies) considering either the public subsidy or no subsidy from a social welfare maximization perspective. A numerical analysis complemented by two sensitivity analyses provides a better understanding of the pricing and quantity decision dynamics in the dual supply chains under three different supply chain strategies and the corresponding outcomes regarding the total supply chain profits, the social welfare and the required total subsidies. The key findings disclose that if there are public subsidies, the dual PV supply chains have the strongest intention to pursue the decentralized strategy to achieve their maximal returns rather than the centralized strategy that would achieve the maximal social welfare; however, the government would need to pay for the maximal subsidy budget. Thus, the best option for the government would be to encourage the dual PV supply chains to adopt a centralized strategy since this will not only maximize the social welfare but also, at the same time, minimize the public subsidy. With a smart subsidy policy, the PV industry can make the best use of the subsidy budget and grow in a sustainable way to support the highly demanded solar power generation in many countries trying very hard to increase the proportion of their clean energy to combat the global

  9. Dual Competing Photovoltaic Supply Chains: A Social Welfare Maximization Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhisong Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, the inappropriate subsidy policies in many nations have caused problems such as serious oversupply, fierce competition and subpar social welfare in the photovoltaic (PV industry in many nations. There is a clear shortage in the PV industry literature regarding how dual supply chains compete and the key decision issues regarding the competition between dual PV supply chains. It is critical to develop effective subsidy policies for the competing PV supply chains to achieve social welfare maximization. This study has explored the dual PV supply chain competition under the Bertrand competition assumption by three game-theoretical modeling scenarios (or supply chain strategies considering either the public subsidy or no subsidy from a social welfare maximization perspective. A numerical analysis complemented by two sensitivity analyses provides a better understanding of the pricing and quantity decision dynamics in the dual supply chains under three different supply chain strategies and the corresponding outcomes regarding the total supply chain profits, the social welfare and the required total subsidies. The key findings disclose that if there are public subsidies, the dual PV supply chains have the strongest intention to pursue the decentralized strategy to achieve their maximal returns rather than the centralized strategy that would achieve the maximal social welfare; however, the government would need to pay for the maximal subsidy budget. Thus, the best option for the government would be to encourage the dual PV supply chains to adopt a centralized strategy since this will not only maximize the social welfare but also, at the same time, minimize the public subsidy. With a smart subsidy policy, the PV industry can make the best use of the subsidy budget and grow in a sustainable way to support the highly demanded solar power generation in many countries trying very hard to increase the proportion of their clean energy to

  10. Comparison of changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle on during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Halim; Jung, Sangwoo; Joo, Sunghee; Song, Changho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. [Subjects] Thirty healthy adults participated in this study (15 men and 15 women). [Methods] All participants performed a bridge exercise and abdominal curl-up during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. Pelvic floor mobility...

  11. On the maximal noise for stochastic and QCD travelling waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschanski, Robi

    2008-01-01

    Using the relation of a set of nonlinear Langevin equations to reaction-diffusion processes, we note the existence of a maximal strength of the noise for the stochastic travelling wave solutions of these equations. Its determination is obtained using the field-theoretical analysis of branching-annihilation random walks near the directed percolation transition. We study its consequence for the stochastic Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piscounov equation. For the related Langevin equation modeling the quantum chromodynamic nonlinear evolution of gluon density with rapidity, the physical maximal-noise limit may appear before the directed percolation transition, due to a shift in the travelling-wave speed. In this regime, an exact solution is known from a coalescence process. Universality and other open problems and applications are discussed in the outlook

  12. Twitch interpolation technique in testing of maximal muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, P M; Nørregaard, J; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    1993-01-01

    The aim was to study the methodological aspects of the muscle twitch interpolation technique in estimating the maximal force of contraction in the quadriceps muscle utilizing commercial muscle testing equipment. Six healthy subjects participated in seven sets of experiments testing the effects...... on twitch size of potentiation, time lag after potentiation, magnitude of voluntary force, stimulus amplitude, stimulus duration, angle of the knee, and angle of the hip. In addition, the consequences of submaximal potentiation on the estimation of maximal force from twitch sizes were studied in five...... healthy subjects. We found an increase in twitch size with increasing levels of potentiation and twitch size decreased exponentially following potentiation. We found a curvilinear relationship between twitch size and voluntary force, and these properties were more obvious when the stimulation intensity...

  13. Bicarbonate attenuates arterial desaturation during maximal exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henning B; Bredmose, Per P; Strømstad, Morten

    2002-01-01

    The contribution of pH to exercise-induced arterial O2 desaturation was evaluated by intravenous infusion of sodium bicarbonate (Bic, 1 M; 200-350 ml) or an equal volume of saline (Sal; 1 M) at a constant infusion rate during a "2,000-m" maximal ergometer row in five male oarsmen. Blood-gas varia......The contribution of pH to exercise-induced arterial O2 desaturation was evaluated by intravenous infusion of sodium bicarbonate (Bic, 1 M; 200-350 ml) or an equal volume of saline (Sal; 1 M) at a constant infusion rate during a "2,000-m" maximal ergometer row in five male oarsmen. Blood...

  14. Muscle mitochondrial capacity exceeds maximal oxygen delivery in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Gnaiger, Erich; Calbet, Jose A L

    2011-01-01

    Across a wide range of species and body mass a close matching exists between maximal conductive oxygen delivery and mitochondrial respiratory rate. In this study we investigated in humans how closely in-vivo maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2) max) is matched to state 3 muscle mitochondrial...... O(2) kg(-1) min(-1), exceeding the in-vivo leg VO(2) max (5.0±0.2 mmol O(2) kg(-1) min(-1)) during leg cycling with 20 kg muscle (P...... respiration. High resolution respirometry was used to quantify mitochondrial respiration from the biopsies of arm and leg muscles while in-vivo arm and leg VO(2) were determined by the Fick method during leg cycling and arm cranking. We hypothesized that muscle mitochondrial respiratory rate exceeds...

  15. LOAD THAT MAXIMIZES POWER OUTPUT IN COUNTERMOVEMENT JUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jimenez-Reyes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: One of the main problems faced by strength and conditioning coaches is the issue of how to objectively quantify and monitor the actual training load undertaken by athletes in order to maximize performance. It is well known that performance of explosive sports activities is largely determined by mechanical power. Objective: This study analysed the height at which maximal power output is generated and the corresponding load with which is achieved in a group of male-trained track and field athletes in the test of countermovement jump (CMJ with extra loads (CMJEL. Methods: Fifty national level male athletes in sprinting and jumping performed a CMJ test with increasing loads up to a height of 16 cm. The relative load that maximized the mechanical power output (Pmax was determined using a force platform and lineal encoder synchronization and estimating the power by peak power, average power and flight time in CMJ. Results: The load at which the power output no longer existed was at a height of 19.9 ± 2.35, referring to a 99.1 ± 1% of the maximum power output. The load that maximizes power output in all cases has been the load with which an athlete jump a height of approximately 20 cm. Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of considering the height achieved in CMJ with extra load instead of power because maximum power is always attained with the same height. We advise for the preferential use of the height achieved in CMJEL test, since it seems to be a valid indicative of an individual's actual neuromuscular potential providing a valid information for coaches and trainers when assessing the performance status of our athletes and to quantify and monitor training loads, measuring only the height of the jump in the exercise of CMJEL.

  16. Oncoplastic Breast Reduction: Maximizing Aesthetics and Surgical Margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Milee Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oncoplastic breast reduction combines oncologically sound concepts of cancer removal with aesthetically maximized approaches for breast reduction. Numerous incision patterns and types of pedicles can be used for purposes of oncoplastic reduction, each tailored for size and location of tumor. A team approach between reconstructive and breast surgeons produces positive long-term oncologic results as well as satisfactory cosmetic and functional outcomes, rendering oncoplastic breast reduction a favorable treatment option for certain patients with breast cancer.

  17. Oncoplastic Breast Reduction: Maximizing Aesthetics and Surgical Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Michelle Milee; Huston, Tara; Ascherman, Jeffrey; Rohde, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Oncoplastic breast reduction combines oncologically sound concepts of cancer removal with aesthetically maximized approaches for breast reduction. Numerous incision patterns and types of pedicles can be used for purposes of oncoplastic reduction, each tailored for size and location of tumor. A team approach between reconstructive and breast surgeons produces positive long-term oncologic results as well as satisfactory cosmetic and functional outcomes, rendering oncoplastic breast reduction a favorable treatment option for certain patients with breast cancer. PMID:23209890

  18. Local Hardy-Littlewood maximal operator in variable Lebesgue spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gogatishvili, Amiran; Danelia, A.; Kopaliani, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2014), s. 229-244 ISSN 1735-8787 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14743S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : variable exponent Lebesgue space * local Hardy-Littlewood maximal function * local Muckenhoupt classes Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.050, year: 2014 http://projecteuclid.org/euclid.bjma/1396640066

  19. Resting and maximal heart rates in ectothermic vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillywhite, H B; Zippel, K C; Farrell, A P

    1999-12-01

    Resting and maximal heart rates (HR) in ectothermic vertebrates are generally lower than those in endotherms and vary by more than an order of magnitude interspecifically. Variation of HR transcends phylogeny and is influenced by numerous factors including temperature, activity, gas exchange, intracardiac shunts, pH, posture, and reflexogenic regulation of blood pressure. The characteristic resting HR is rarely the intrinsic rate of the pacemaker, which is primarily modulated by cholinergic inhibition and adrenergic excitation in most species. Neuropeptides also appear to be involved in cardiac regulation, although their role is not well understood. The principal determinants of resting HR include temperature, metabolic rate and hemodynamic requirements. Maximal HRs generally do not exceed 120 b min-1, but notable exceptions include the heterothermic tuna and small reptiles having HRs in excess of 300 b min-1 at higher body temperatures. Temperature affects the intrinsic pacemaker rate as well as the relative influence of adrenergic and cholinergic modulation. It also influences the evolved capability to increase HR, with maximal cardiac responses matched to preferred body temperatures in some species. Additional factors either facilitate or limit the maximal level of HR, including: (1) characteristics of the pacemaker potential; (2) development of sarcoplasmic reticulum as a calcium store in excitation-contraction coupling; (3) low-resistance coupling of myocardial cells; (4) limitations of force development imposed by rate changes; (5) efficacy of sympathetic modulation; and (6) development of coronary circulation to enhance oxygen delivery to myocardium. In evolutionary terms, both hemodynamic and oxygen requirements appear to have been key selection pressures for rapid cardiac rates.

  20. Networks maximizing the consensus time of voter models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamasa, Yuni; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-07-01

    We explore the networks that yield the largest mean consensus time of voter models under different update rules. By analytical and numerical means, we show that the so-called lollipop graph, barbell graph, and double-star graph maximize the mean consensus time under the update rules called the link dynamics, voter model, and invasion process, respectively. For each update rule, the largest mean consensus time scales as O (N3), where N is the number of nodes in the network.

  1. Maximal reductions in the Baker-Hausdorff formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolsrud, M.

    1992-05-01

    A preliminary expression for the Baker-Hausdorff formula is found up to ninth order, i.e. a series expansion of z in terms of multiple commutators, where e x =e x e y with x and y non-commuting, up to ninth degree in x,y. By means of complete sets of linear relations between multiple commutators, maximal reduction of the number of different multiple commutators in the series is obtained. 4 refs

  2. Maximal-entropy random walk unifies centrality measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochab, J K

    2012-12-01

    This paper compares a number of centrality measures and several (dis-)similarity matrices with which they can be defined. These matrices, which are used among others in community detection methods, represent quantities connected to enumeration of paths on a graph and to random walks. Relationships between some of these matrices are derived in the paper. These relationships are inherited by the centrality measures. They include measures based on the principal eigenvector of the adjacency matrix, path enumeration, as well as on the stationary state, stochastic matrix, or mean first-passage times of a random walk. As the random walk defining the centrality measure can be arbitrarily chosen, we pay particular attention to the maximal-entropy random walk, which serves as a very distinct alternative to the ordinary (diffusive) random walk used in network analysis. The various importance measures, defined both with the use of ordinary random walk and the maximal-entropy random walk, are compared numerically on a set of benchmark graphs with varying mixing parameter and are grouped with the use of the agglomerative clustering technique. It is shown that centrality measures defined with the two different random walks cluster into two separate groups. In particular, the group of centrality measures defined by the maximal-entropy random walk does not cluster with any other measures on change of graphs' parameters, and members of this group produce mutually closer results than members of the group defined by the ordinary random walk.

  3. Prediction of maximal aerobic capacity in severely burned children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porro, Laura; Rivero, Haidy G; Gonzalez, Dante; Tan, Alai; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E

    2011-06-01

    Maximal oxygen uptake (VO₂ peak) is an indicator of cardiorespiratory fitness, but requires expensive equipment and a relatively high technical skill level. The aim of this study is to provide a formula for estimating VO₂ peak in burned children, using information obtained without expensive equipment. Children, with ≥ 40% total surface area burned (TBSA), underwent a modified Bruce treadmill test to assess VO(2) peak at 6 months after injury. We recorded gender, age, %TBSA, %3rd degree burn, height, weight, treadmill time, maximal speed, maximal grade, and peak heart rate, and applied McHenry's select algorithm to extract important independent variables and Robust multiple regression to establish prediction equations. 42 children; 7-17 years old were tested. Robust multiple regression model provided the equation: VO₂ =10.33-0.62 × age (years)+1.88 × treadmill time (min)+2.3 (gender; females = 0, males = 1). The correlation between measured and estimated VO₂ peak was R = 0.80. We then validated the equation with a group of 33 burned children, which yielded a correlation between measured and estimated VO₂ peak of R = 0.79. Using only a treadmill and easily gathered information, VO₂ peak can be estimated in children with burns. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of sonic driving on maximal aerobic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilla, L.R.; Hatcher, Stefanie

    2000-07-01

    The study purpose was to evaluate antecedent binaural stimulation (ABS) on maximal aerobic physical performance. Twenty-two healthy, physically active subjects, 21-34 years, randomly received one of two preparations for each session: 15 min of quiet (BLANK) or percussive sonic driving at 200+ beats per minute (bpm) using a recorded compact disc (FSS, Mill Valley, CA) with headphones (ABS). Baseline HR, blood pressure (BP), and breathing frequency (f(br)) were obtained. During each condition, HR and f(br) were recorded at 3-min intervals. The graded maximal treadmill testing was administered immediately postpreparation session on separate days, with at least 48 h rest between sessions. There were significant differences in the antecedent period means between the two conditions, ABS (HR: 70.2 +/- 10.7 bpm; f(br): 18.5 +/- 3.3 br min(-1); BP: 134.5/87.9 +/- 13.6/9.2 mm Hg) and BLANK (HR: 64.6 +/- 7.9; f(br): 14.3 +/- 2.9; BP: 126.7/80.3 +/- 12.1/8.6). Differences were noted for each 3-min interval and pre- postantecedent period. The maximal graded exercise test (GXT) results showed that there was a small but significant (P 0.05). There may be a latency to ABS related to entrainment or imagery-enhanced warm-up. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:558-565, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Polarity related influence maximization in signed social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Xu, Zhi-Ming; Chakraborty, Nilanjan; Gupta, Anika; Sycara, Katia; Li, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Influence maximization in social networks has been widely studied motivated by applications like spread of ideas or innovations in a network and viral marketing of products. Current studies focus almost exclusively on unsigned social networks containing only positive relationships (e.g. friend or trust) between users. Influence maximization in signed social networks containing both positive relationships and negative relationships (e.g. foe or distrust) between users is still a challenging problem that has not been studied. Thus, in this paper, we propose the polarity-related influence maximization (PRIM) problem which aims to find the seed node set with maximum positive influence or maximum negative influence in signed social networks. To address the PRIM problem, we first extend the standard Independent Cascade (IC) model to the signed social networks and propose a Polarity-related Independent Cascade (named IC-P) diffusion model. We prove that the influence function of the PRIM problem under the IC-P model is monotonic and submodular Thus, a greedy algorithm can be used to achieve an approximation ratio of 1-1/e for solving the PRIM problem in signed social networks. Experimental results on two signed social network datasets, Epinions and Slashdot, validate that our approximation algorithm for solving the PRIM problem outperforms state-of-the-art methods.

  6. Pacing pattern in a 30-minute maximal cycling test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Morgan E; Berg, Kris; Zuniga, Jorge; Hanumanthu, Vidya Sagar

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pacing pattern and associated physiological effects in competitive cyclists who performed a 30-minute maximal cycling test. Measurements included oxygen uptake (V O2), heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration (BLC), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and work rate in watts. Twelve well-trained amateur cyclists (seven men and five women) whose mean age was 32.4 +/- 8.6 years participated in this study. They performed a 30-minute self-paced maximal cycling test using their own performance road bike attached to a CompuTrainer Pro, which allowed the assessment of work rate (W). During the test, work rate, V O2, and HR were measured every 30 seconds. Subjects' BLC and RPE were obtained every 5 minutes. Results indicate that no significant differences existed across three 10-minute periods for work rate, HR, or V O2. However, RPE at 30 minutes was significantly greater than RPE at 10 and 20 minutes (both p minutes was also greater than the RPE at 10 minutes (p 30 seconds of the test. The associated V O2 was fairly constant over time, whereas HR rose linearly and gradually. It was concluded that pacing in a 30-minute maximal exercise bout performed in the laboratory in experienced cyclists varies minimally until the last 30 seconds. Knowledge of pacing strategy and the linked physiological responses may be helpful to exercise scientists in optimizing performance in the endurance athlete.

  7. Planning Routes Across Economic Terrains: Maximizing Utility, Following Heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang; Maddula, Soumya V.; Maloney, Laurence T.

    2010-01-01

    We designed an economic task to investigate human planning of routes in landscapes where travel in different kinds of terrain incurs different costs. Participants moved their finger across a touch screen from a starting point to a destination. The screen was divided into distinct kinds of terrain and travel within each kind of terrain imposed a cost proportional to distance traveled. We varied costs and spatial configurations of terrains and participants received fixed bonuses minus the total cost of the routes they chose. We first compared performance to a model maximizing gain. All but one of 12 participants failed to adopt least-cost routes and their failure to do so reduced their winnings by about 30% (median value). We tested in detail whether participants’ choices of routes satisfied three necessary conditions (heuristics) for a route to maximize gain. We report failures of one heuristic for 7 out of 12 participants. Last of all, we modeled human performance with the assumption that participants assign subjective utilities to costs and maximize utility. For 7 out 12 participants, the fitted utility function was an accelerating power function of actual cost and for the remaining 5, a decelerating power function. We discuss connections between utility aggregation in route planning and decision under risk. Our task could be adapted to investigate human strategy and optimality of route planning in full-scale landscapes. PMID:21833269

  8. Maximal trace distance between isoenergetic bosonic Gaussian states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkoff, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    We locate the set of pairs (ρ1, ρ2) of Gaussian states of a single mode electromagnetic field that exhibit maximal trace distance subject to the energy constraint ⟨a†a⟩ ρ1=⟨a†a⟩ ρ2=E . Any such pair allows to achieve the minimum possible error in the task of binary distinguishability of two single mode, isoenergetic Gaussian quantum signals. In particular, we show that the logarithm of the minimal error probability for distinguishing two maximally trace distant, isoenergetic Gaussian states scales as -E2, less than the achievable scaling of the minimal error probability for distinguishing, e.g., a pair of isoenergetic Heisenberg-Weyl coherent states with energy E or a pair of isoenergetic quadrature squeezed states with energy E. For the case of a field consisting of M > 1 modes, we locate the set of pairs of maximally trace distant isoenergetic, isocovariant Gaussian states. These results have basic applications in the theory of continuous variable quantum communications with Gaussian states of light.

  9. An efficient community detection algorithm using greedy surprise maximization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yawen; Jia, Caiyan; Yu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Community detection is an important and crucial problem in complex network analysis. Although classical modularity function optimization approaches are widely used for identifying communities, the modularity function (Q) suffers from its resolution limit. Recently, the surprise function (S) was experimentally proved to be better than the Q function. However, up until now, there has been no algorithm available to perform searches to directly determine the maximal surprise values. In this paper, considering the superiority of the S function over the Q function, we propose an efficient community detection algorithm called AGSO (algorithm based on greedy surprise optimization) and its improved version FAGSO (fast-AGSO), which are based on greedy surprise optimization and do not suffer from the resolution limit. In addition, (F)AGSO does not need the number of communities K to be specified in advance. Tests on experimental networks show that (F)AGSO is able to detect optimal partitions in both simple and even more complex networks. Moreover, algorithms based on surprise maximization perform better than those algorithms based on modularity maximization, including Blondel–Guillaume–Lambiotte–Lefebvre (BGLL), Clauset–Newman–Moore (CNM) and the other state-of-the-art algorithms such as Infomap, order statistics local optimization method (OSLOM) and label propagation algorithm (LPA). (paper)

  10. Trunk muscle activation during sub-maximal extension efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Michael W

    2010-02-01

    Neuromuscular fatigue of the trunk musculature, particularly lumbar paraspinal and abdominal muscles, is important in when evaluating motor control of the trunk. Activation of agonists and antagonists trunk muscles was hypothesized to change during sub-maximal isometric trunk extension efforts. Thirteen women were positioned in 30 degrees of trunk flexion and performed maximal voluntary isometric contraction in trunk extension against an isokinetic dynamometer. One of two sub-maximal efforts (50% and 70%) was performed to induce neuromuscular fatigue on two different days. Surface electromyography of the lumbar paraspinal (LP), rectus abdominis, and external oblique muscles was recorded during each session. Torque output, median frequency of the power density spectrum, and normalized integrated electromyography were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance to evaluate trends in the data over time. Paraspinal muscles showed signs of fatigue in both conditions (pAbdominal activity did not increase during the 70% condition, but showed a non-significant trend (p=0.07), coinciding with the reduced median frequency of LP muscles. The neuromuscular system modulates its motor control strategy to identify the muscle activation levels necessary to maintain force output. This information is necessary in the evaluation of contributing mechanisms to trunk stability in furthering preventative and rehabilitative treatments.

  11. An Analysis of Maxims in Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono’s Political Speeches

    OpenAIRE

    Pasaribu, Mestika

    2015-01-01

    Thesis entitled " An Analysis of Maxims in Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono 's Political Speeches " is an analysis of the application of the maxim in his speech Yudhoyono . Theoretical basis used is the theory Geoffrey Leech (1983 ) which describes the level of politeness with the use of the maxim . This research uses descriptive qualitative method . This study aims to determine the types of maxims used by Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono and the most dominant maxim used Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono in his polit...

  12. Gas analyzer’s drift leads to systematic error in maximal oxygen uptake and maximal respiratory exchange ratio determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibai eGarcia-Tabar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to examine the drift in the measurements of fractional concentration of oxygen (FO2 and carbon dioxide (FCO2 of a Nafion-using metabolic cart during incremental maximal exercise in 18 young and 12 elderly males, and to propose a way in which the drift can be corrected. The drift was verified by comparing the pre-test calibration values with the immediate post-test verification values of the calibration gases. The system demonstrated an average downscale drift (P < 0.001 in FO2 and FCO2 of -0.18% and -0.05%, respectively. Compared with measured values, corrected average maximal oxygen uptake values were 5-6% lower (P < 0.001 whereas corrected maximal respiratory exchange ratio values were 8-9% higher (P < 0.001. The drift was not due to an electronic instability in the analyzers because it was reverted after 20 minutes of recovery from the end of the exercise. The drift may be related to an incomplete removal of water vapor from the expired gas during transit through the Nafion conducting tube. These data demonstrate the importance of checking FO2 and FCO2 values by regular pre-test calibrations and post-test verifications, and also the importance of correcting a possible shift immediately after exercise.

  13. In vitro Screening and Evaluation of 37 Traditional Chinese Medicines for Their Potential to Activate Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors-γ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Die; Zhang, Yonglan; Yang, Fengqing; Lin, Yexin; Zhang, Qihui; Xia, Zhining

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)-γ is widely used as an attractive target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Thiazolidinediones, the agonists of PPARγ, has been popularly utilized as insulin sensitizers in the therapy of type 2 diabetes whereas numerous severe side-effects may also occur concomitantly. The PPARγ activation activity of different polar extracts, including petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, residual of ethanol, the precipitate part of water and the supernatant of water extracts, from 37 traditional Chinese medicines were systematically evaluated. HeLa cells were transiently co-transfected with the re-constructed plasmids of GAL4-PPARγ-ligand binding domain and pGL4.35. The activation of PPARγ by different polarity extracts were evaluated based on the PPARγ transactivation assay and rosiglitazone was used as positive control. Seven medicines (root bark of Lycium barbarum, Anoectochilus sroxburghii, the rhizome of Phragmites australis, Pterocephalus hookeri, Polygonatum sibiricum, fruit of Gleditsia sinensis, and Epimedium brevicornu) were able to significantly activate PPARγ. As seven medicines were able to activate PPARγ, the anti-diabetic activity of them is likely to be mediated by this nuclear receptor. Lots of the tested medicinal products had activation effects on activating PPARγEthyl acetate extracts of root bark of L.barbarum, rhizome of P.saustralis and fruit of G.siasinensis showed good PPARγ activation effect similar or higher than that of positive control, 0.5 μg/mL rosiglitazonePetroleum ether extracts of A.roxburghii, P. hookeri, P. sibiricum, E.brevicornu also can significantly activate PPARγ, the effects of them were higher than t0.5 μg/mL rosiglitazoneSchisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill., the fruit Cornus officinalis Siebold and Zucc., Alisma plantago-aquatica L. and the root of Trichosanthes Kirilowii Maxim., traditional anti-diabetic mediciness in China, had no effects on the

  14. Descriptive Analysis on Flouting and Hedging of Conversational Maxims in the “Post Grad” Movie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastiti Rokhmania

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This research is focused on analyzing flouting and hedging of conversational maxim of utterances used by the main characters in “Post Grad” movie. Conversational maxims are the rules of cooperative principle categorized into four categories; Maxim of Quality, Maxim of Quantity, Maxim of Relevance, and Maxim of Manner. If these maxims are used in conversations, the conversations can go smoothly. However, people often break the maxims overtly (flouting maxim and sometimes break the maxims secretly (hedging maxims when they make a conversation. This research is conducted using descriptive qualitative method based on the theory known as Grice’s Maxims. The data are in form of utterances used by the characters in “Post Grad” movie. The data analysis reveals some finding covering the formulated research question. The maxims are flouted when the speaker breaks some conversational maxims when using the utterances in the form of rhetorical strategies, such as tautology, metaphor, hyperbole, irony, and rhetorical question. On the other hand, conversational maxims are also hedged when the information is not totally accurate or unclearly stated but seems informative, well-founded, and relevant.

  15. Patient-specific rhytidectomy: finding the angle of maximal rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacono, Andrew A; Ransom, Evan R

    2012-09-01

    Rhytidectomy is fundamentally an operation of tissue release and resuspension, although the manner and direction of suspension are subject to perpetual debate. The authors describe a method for identifying the angle of maximal rejuvenation during rhytidectomy and quantify the resulting angle and its relationship to patient age. Patients were prospectively enrolled; demographic data, history, and operative details were recorded. Rhytidectomies were performed by the senior author (AAJ). After complete elevation, the face-lift flap was rotated in a medially-based arc (0-90°) while attention was given to the submental area, jawline, and midface. The angle of maximal rejuvenation for each hemiface was identified as described, and the flap was resuspended. During redraping, measurements of vertical and horizontal skin excess were recorded in situ. The resulting angle of lift was then calculated for each hemiface using trigonometry. Symmetry between sides was determined, and the effect of patient age on this angle was assessed. Three hundred hemifaces were operated (147 women; 3 men). Mean age was 60 years (range, 37-80 years). Mean resulting angle for the cohort was 60° from horizontal (range, 46-77°). This was inversely correlated with patient age (r = -.3). Younger patients (<50 years, 64°) had a significantly more vertical angle than older patients (≥70 years, 56°; P < .0002). No significant intersubject difference was found between hemifaces (P = .53). The authors present a method for identifying the angle of maximal rejuvenation during rhytidectomy. This angle was more superior than posterior in all cases and is intimately related to patient age. Lasting results demand a detailed anatomical understanding and strict attention to the direction and degree of laxity.

  16. Maximal exercise at extreme altitudes on Mount Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J B; Boyer, S J; Graber, D J; Hackett, P H; Maret, K H; Milledge, J S; Peters, R M; Pizzo, C J; Samaja, M; Sarnquist, F H

    1983-09-01

    Maximal exercise at extreme altitudes was studied during the course of the American Medical Research Expedition to Everest. Measurements were carried out at sea level [inspired O2 partial pressure (PO2) 147 Torr], 6,300 m during air breathing (inspired PO2 64 Torr), 6,300 m during 16% O2 breathing (inspired PO2 49 Torr), and 6,300 m during 14% O2 breathing (inspired PO2 43 Torr). The last PO2 is equivalent to that on the summit of Mt. Everest. All the 6,300 m studies were carried out in a warm well-equipped laboratory on well-acclimatized subjects. Maximal O2 uptake fell dramatically as the inspired PO2 was reduced to very low levels. However, two subjects were able to reach an O2 uptake of 1 l/min at the lowest inspired PO2. Arterial O2 saturations fell markedly and alveolar-arterial PO2 differences increased as the work rate was raised at high altitude, indicating diffusion limitation of O2 transfer. Maximal exercise ventilations exceeded 200 l/min at 6,300 m during air breathing but fell considerably at the lowest values of inspired PO2. Alveolar CO2 partial pressure was reduced to 7-8 Torr in one subject at the lowest inspired PO2, and the same value was obtained from alveolar gas samples taken by him at rest on the summit. The results help to explain how man can reach the highest point on earth while breathing ambient air.

  17. Informatics knowledge: the key to maximizing performance and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, V G

    1997-06-01

    Nurse managers face a competitive and complex market-place that demands greater attention to customer satisfaction along with continual improvements in quality and cost-effectiveness. Without information technology, the manager cannot hope to deliver ever greater quality at less cost. The nurse managers' effective promotion and use of computer applications can have enormous impact on the performance and productivity of their health care facilities. This article explores the potential of information technology to maximize clinical and cost outcomes, optimize decision making, and enhance administrative productivity.

  18. Maximizing Shelf Life of Paneer-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Sumit; Goyal, Gyanendra Kumar

    2016-06-10

    Paneer resembling soft cheese is a well-known heat- and acid-coagulated milk product. It is very popular in the Indian subcontinent and has appeared in the western and Middle East markets. The shelf life of paneer is quite low and it loses freshness after two to three days when stored under refrigeration. Various preservation techniques, including chemical additives, packaging, thermal processing, and low-temperature storage, have been proposed by researchers for enhancing its shelf life. The use of antimicrobial additives is not preferred because of perceived toxicity risks. Modified atmosphere packaging has been recommended as one of the best techniques for maximizing the shelf life of paneer.

  19. Maximal heat loading of electrostatic deflector's septum at the cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzumanov, A.; Borissenko, A.

    2002-01-01

    An electrostatic deflector is used for extraction of accelerated particles at the isochronous cyclotron U-150 (Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kazakhstan). Efficiency of beam extraction depends on a set of factors. Decisive is heat state of the septum and essentially beam extraction is limited by beam power dissipation on the deflector. Due to the works carried on for radioisotope production, determination of septum's maximal heat loading, optimization of the septum's geometry represent the interest. Maximum heat loading of deflector's septum and it's dependence on septum's geometry and thermal-physical properties of septum's material are presented in the paper as result of numerical calculation. The obtained results are discussed

  20. Eccentric exercise decreases maximal insulin action in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asp, Svend; Daugaard, J R; Kristiansen, S

    1996-01-01

    subjects participated in two euglycaemic clamps, performed in random order. One clamp was preceded 2 days earlier by one-legged eccentric exercise (post-eccentric exercise clamp (PEC)) and one was without the prior exercise (control clamp (CC)). 2. During PEC the maximal insulin-stimulated glucose uptake...... over the eccentric thigh was marginally lower when compared with the control thigh, (11.9%, 64.6 +/- 10.3 vs. 73.3 +/- 10.2 mumol kg-1 min-1, P = 0.08), whereas no inter-thigh difference was observed at a submaximal insulin concentration. The glycogen concentration was lower in the eccentric thigh...

  1. Gribov ambiguities at the Landau-maximal Abelian interpolating gauge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Antonio D.; Sobreiro, Rodrigo F. [UFF-Universidade Federal Fluminense, Instituto de Fisica, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    In a previous work, we presented a new method to account for the Gribov ambiguities in non-Abelian gauge theories. The method consists on the introduction of an extra constraint which directly eliminates the infinitesimal Gribov copies without the usual geometric approach. Such strategy allows one to treat gauges with non-hermitian Faddeev-Popov operator. In this work, we apply this method to a gauge which interpolates among the Landau and maximal Abelian gauges. The result is a local and power counting renormalizable action, free of infinitesimal Gribov copies. Moreover, the interpolating tree-level gluon propagator is derived. (orig.)

  2. The one-sided Ap conditions and local maximal operator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bernardis, A.L.; Gogatishvili, Amiran; Martin-Reyes, F. J.; Ortega Salvador, P.; Pick, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2012), s. 79-104 ISSN 0013-0915 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0383; GA ČR GA201/05/2033 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : one-sided Ap conditions * one-sided local maximal operator * quasi- Banach function spaces * variable-exponent Lebesgue spaces Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.561, year: 2012 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8477114&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S0013091510000635

  3. The one-sided Ap conditions and local maximal operator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bernardis, A.L.; Gogatishvili, Amiran; Martin-Reyes, F. J.; Ortega Salvador, P.; Pick, L.

    Roč. 55, č. 1 ( 2012 ), s. 79-104 ISSN 0013-0915 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0383; GA ČR GA201/05/2033 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : one-sided Ap conditions * one-sided local maximal operator * quasi-Banach function spaces * variable-exponent Lebesgue spaces Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.561, year: 2012 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8477114&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S0013091510000635

  4. Maximizing Team Performance: The Critical Role of the Nurse Leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manges, Kirstin; Scott-Cawiezell, Jill; Ward, Marcia M

    2017-01-01

    Facilitating team development is challenging, yet critical for ongoing improvement across healthcare settings. The purpose of this exemplary case study is to examine the role of nurse leaders in facilitating the development of a high-performing Change Team in implementing a patient safety initiative (TeamSTEPPs) using the Tuckman Model of Group Development as a guiding framework. The case study is the synthesis of 2.5 years of critical access hospital key informant interviews (n = 50). Critical juncture points related to team development and key nurse leader actions are analyzed, suggesting that nurse leaders are essential to maximize clinical teams' performance. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Economic strategies to maximize profits from satellite field developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antia, D.D.J.

    1994-01-01

    The main strategies that can be used to maximize profits from integrated satellite field developments are: (1) restructuring the cost, production and revenue profile of the satellite field; and (2) increasing the volume of oil/gas processed, and available for future use, by the central processing and distribution facility through: (a) using a combined strategy of low tariffs, volume discount, and netback agreements; (b) using reusable facilities, shared facilities, extended reach wells, contractor finance, partnering agreements, netback agreements, oil/gas price swaps; and (c) improving development, discovery and exploration efficiency

  6. Software development with C++ maximizing reuse with object technology

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Kjell

    2014-01-01

    Software Development with C++: Maximizing Reuse with Object Technology is about software development and object-oriented technology (OT), with applications implemented in C++. The basis for any software development project of complex systems is the process, rather than an individual method, which simply supports the overall process. This book is not intended as a general, all-encompassing treatise on OT. The intent is to provide practical information that is directly applicable to a development project. Explicit guidelines are offered for the infusion of OT into the various development phases.

  7. MaxAlign: maximizing usable data in an alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Rodrigo Gouveia; Sackett, Peter Wad; Pedersen, Anders Gorm

    2007-01-01

    the alignment prior to such analyses. Specifically, it maximizes the number of nucleotide (or amino acid) symbols that are present in gap-free columns - the alignment area - by selecting the optimal subset of sequences to exclude from the alignment. MaxAlign can be used prior to phylogenetic and bioinformatical......Align. In this paper we also introduce a new simple measure of tree similarity, Normalized Symmetric Similarity (NSS) that we consider useful for comparing tree topologies. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate how MaxAlign is helpful in detecting misaligned or defective sequences without requiring manual inspection. We also...

  8. Maximal lens bounds on QSO-galaxy association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovner, I.

    1989-01-01

    The maximal possible enhancement of QSO number counts that can be produced by any ensemble of lenses which conserve brightness and in which the magnification probability is negligibly correlated with the intrinsic QSO flux is obtained. Under the assumption of the Boyle et al. (1988) number-magnitude relation for the QSOs unaffected by lenses, the theory is applied to the QSO-galaxy association sample of Webster et al. (1988). The results suggest that the background QSOs of Webster et al. may be appreciably affected by lensing. 17 refs

  9. Determinants of maximal oxygen uptake in severe acute hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J A L; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Rådegran, G

    2003-01-01

    , as reflected by the higher alveolar-arterial O2 difference in hypoxia (P rate and stroke VOlume (P ... level). With hypoxia, exercise PaO2 dropped to 31-34 mmHg and arterial O2 content (CaO2) was reduced by 35% (P exchange......: 1) reduction of PiO2, 2) impairment of pulmonary gas exchange, and 3) reduction of maximal cardiac output and peak leg blood flow, each explaining about one-third of the loss in VO2 max....

  10. Stochastic convolutions driven by martingales: maximal inequalities and exponential integrability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hausenblas, E.; Seidler, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 1 (2008), s. 98-119 ISSN 0736-2994 Grant - others:Austrian Academy of Sciences(AT) APART 700; GA ČR(CZ) GA201/04/0750; GA ČR(CZ) GA201/01/1197; GA MSM(CZ) Kontakt 2001-05 Program:GA; GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje ; V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : maximal inequality * exponential tail estimates * stochastic convolution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.528, year: 2008

  11. Maximizing opto‐mechanical interaction using topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg, Allan Roulund; Sigmund, Ole

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies topology optimization of a coupled opto‐mechanical problem with the goal of finding the material layout which maximizes the optical modulation, i.e. the difference between the optical response for the mechanically deformed and undeformed configuration. The optimization is perfo......This paper studies topology optimization of a coupled opto‐mechanical problem with the goal of finding the material layout which maximizes the optical modulation, i.e. the difference between the optical response for the mechanically deformed and undeformed configuration. The optimization...... is performed on a periodic cell and the periodic modeling of the optical and mechanical fields have been carried out using transverse electric Bloch waves and homogenization theory in a plane stress setting, respectively. Two coupling effects are included being the photoelastic effect and the geometric effect...... caused by the mechanical deformation. For the studied objective and material choice it is concluded that the photoelastic effect and the geometric effect counteract each other, which yields designs which are fundamentally different if the optimization takes only one effect into account. When both effects...

  12. Understanding the factors that effect maximal fat oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdom, Troy; Kravitz, Len; Dokladny, Karol; Mermier, Christine

    2018-01-01

    Lipids as a fuel source for energy supply during submaximal exercise originate from subcutaneous adipose tissue derived fatty acids (FA), intramuscular triacylglycerides (IMTG), cholesterol and dietary fat. These sources of fat contribute to fatty acid oxidation (FAox) in various ways. The regulation and utilization of FAs in a maximal capacity occur primarily at exercise intensities between 45 and 65% VO 2max , is known as maximal fat oxidation (MFO), and is measured in g/min. Fatty acid oxidation occurs during submaximal exercise intensities, but is also complimentary to carbohydrate oxidation (CHOox). Due to limitations within FA transport across the cell and mitochondrial membranes, FAox is limited at higher exercise intensities. The point at which FAox reaches maximum and begins to decline is referred to as the crossover point. Exercise intensities that exceed the crossover point (~65% VO 2max ) utilize CHO as the predominant fuel source for energy supply. Training status, exercise intensity, exercise duration, sex differences, and nutrition have all been shown to affect cellular expression responsible for FAox rate. Each stimulus affects the process of FAox differently, resulting in specific adaptions that influence endurance exercise performance. Endurance training, specifically long duration (>2 h) facilitate adaptations that alter both the origin of FAs and FAox rate. Additionally, the influence of sex and nutrition on FAox are discussed. Finally, the role of FAox in the improvement of performance during endurance training is discussed.

  13. Biomechanical characteristics of handballing maximally in Australian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrington, Lucy; Ball, Kevin; MacMahon, Clare

    2014-11-01

    The handball pass is influential in Australian football, and achieving higher ball speeds in flight is an advantage in increasing distance and reducing the chance of interceptions. The purpose of this study was to provide descriptive kinematic data and identify key technical aspects of maximal handball performance. Three-dimensional full body kinematic data from 19 professional Australian football players performing handball pass for maximal speed were collected, and the hand speed at ball contact was used to determine performance. Sixty-four kinematic parameters initially obtained were reduced to 15, and then grouped into like components through a two-stage supervised principal components analysis procedure. These components were then entered into a multiple regression analysis, which indicated that greater hand speed was associated with greater shoulder angular velocity and separation angle between the shoulders and pelvis at ball contact, as well as an earlier time of maximum upper-trunk rotation velocity. These data suggested that in order to increase the speed of the handball pass in Australian football, strategies like increased shoulder angular velocity, increased separation angle at ball contact, and earlier achievement of upper-trunk rotation speed might be beneficial.

  14. Consumer-driven profit maximization in broiler production and processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecio de Farias Costa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased emphasis on consumer markets in broiler profit-maximizing modeling generates results that differ from those by traditional profit-maximization models. This approach reveals that the adoption of step pricing and consideration of marketing options (examples of responsiveness to consumers affect the optimal feed formulation levels and types of broiler production to generate maximum profitability. The adoption of step pricing attests that higher profits can be obtained for targeted weights only if premium prices for broiler products are contracted.Um aumento na ênfase dada ao mercado de consumidores de carne de frango e modelos de maximização de lucros na produção de frangos de corte geram resultados que diferem daqueles obtidos em modelos tradicionais de maximização de lucros. Esta metodologia revela que a adoção de step-pricing e considerando opções de mercado (exemplos de resposta às preferências de consumidores afetam os níveis ótimos de formulação de rações e os tipos de produção de frangos de corte que geram uma lucratividade máxima. A adoção de step-pricing atesta que maiores lucros podem ser obtidos para pesos-alvo somente se preços-prêmio para produtos processados de carne de frango forem contratados.

  15. Energy conservation and maximal entropy production in enzyme reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobovišek, Andrej; Vitas, Marko; Brumen, Milan; Fajmut, Aleš

    2017-08-01

    A procedure for maximization of the density of entropy production in a single stationary two-step enzyme reaction is developed. Under the constraints of mass conservation, fixed equilibrium constant of a reaction and fixed products of forward and backward enzyme rate constants the existence of maximum in the density of entropy production is demonstrated. In the state with maximal density of entropy production the optimal enzyme rate constants, the stationary concentrations of the substrate and the product, the stationary product yield as well as the stationary reaction flux are calculated. The test, whether these calculated values of the reaction parameters are consistent with their corresponding measured values, is performed for the enzyme Glucose Isomerase. It is found that calculated and measured rate constants agree within an order of magnitude, whereas the calculated reaction flux and the product yield differ from their corresponding measured values for less than 20 % and 5 %, respectively. This indicates that the enzyme Glucose Isomerase, considered in a non-equilibrium stationary state, as found in experiments using the continuous stirred tank reactors, possibly operates close to the state with the maximum in the density of entropy production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Maximizing Macromolecule Crystal Size for Neutron Diffraction Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, R. A.; Kephart, R.; Leardi, R.; Myles, D. A.; Snell, E. H.; vanderWoerd, M.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A challenge in neutron diffraction experiments is growing large (greater than 1 cu mm) macromolecule crystals. In taking up this challenge we have used statistical experiment design techniques to quickly identify crystallization conditions under which the largest crystals grow. These techniques provide the maximum information for minimal experimental effort, allowing optimal screening of crystallization variables in a simple experimental matrix, using the minimum amount of sample. Analysis of the results quickly tells the investigator what conditions are the most important for the crystallization. These can then be used to maximize the crystallization results in terms of reducing crystal numbers and providing large crystals of suitable habit. We have used these techniques to grow large crystals of Glucose isomerase. Glucose isomerase is an industrial enzyme used extensively in the food industry for the conversion of glucose to fructose. The aim of this study is the elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism at the molecular level. The accurate determination of hydrogen positions, which is critical for this, is a requirement that neutron diffraction is uniquely suited for. Preliminary neutron diffraction experiments with these crystals conducted at the Institute Laue-Langevin (Grenoble, France) reveal diffraction to beyond 2.5 angstrom. Macromolecular crystal growth is a process involving many parameters, and statistical experimental design is naturally suited to this field. These techniques are sample independent and provide an experimental strategy to maximize crystal volume and habit for neutron diffraction studies.

  17. Maximizing Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks with Mobile Sink Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yourong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to maximize network lifetime and balance energy consumption when sink nodes can move, maximizing lifetime of wireless sensor networks with mobile sink nodes (MLMS is researched. The movement path selection method of sink nodes is proposed. Modified subtractive clustering method, k-means method, and nearest neighbor interpolation method are used to obtain the movement paths. The lifetime optimization model is established under flow constraint, energy consumption constraint, link transmission constraint, and other constraints. The model is solved from the perspective of static and mobile data gathering of sink nodes. Subgradient method is used to solve the lifetime optimization model when one sink node stays at one anchor location. Geometric method is used to evaluate the amount of gathering data when sink nodes are moving. Finally, all sensor nodes transmit data according to the optimal data transmission scheme. Sink nodes gather the data along the shortest movement paths. Simulation results show that MLMS can prolong network lifetime, balance node energy consumption, and reduce data gathering latency under appropriate parameters. Under certain conditions, it outperforms Ratio_w, TPGF, RCC, and GRND.

  18. Maximizing Photoluminescence Extraction in Silicon Photonic Crystal Slabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Ali; Sarau, George; Xavier, Jolly; Paraïso, Taofiq K; Christiansen, Silke; Vollmer, Frank

    2016-04-26

    Photonic crystal modes can be tailored for increasing light matter interactions and light extraction efficiencies. These PhC properties have been explored for improving the device performance of LEDs, solar cells and precision biosensors. Tuning the extended band structure of 2D PhC provides a means for increasing light extraction throughout a planar device. This requires careful design and fabrication of PhC with a desirable mode structure overlapping with the spectral region of emission. We show a method for predicting and maximizing light extraction from 2D photonic crystal slabs, exemplified by maximizing silicon photoluminescence (PL). Systematically varying the lattice constant and filling factor, we predict the increases in PL intensity from band structure calculations and confirm predictions in micro-PL experiments. With the near optimal design parameters of PhC, we demonstrate more than 500-fold increase in PL intensity, measured near band edge of silicon at room temperature, an enhancement by an order of magnitude more than what has been reported.

  19. Quantum coherence generating power, maximally abelian subalgebras, and Grassmannian geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, Paolo; Campos Venuti, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    We establish a direct connection between the power of a unitary map in d-dimensions (d algebra). This set can be seen as a topologically non-trivial subset of the Grassmannian over linear operators. The natural distance over the Grassmannian induces a metric structure on Md, which quantifies the lack of commutativity between the pairs of subalgebras. Given a maximally abelian subalgebra, one can define, on physical grounds, an associated measure of quantum coherence. We show that the average quantum coherence generated by a unitary map acting on a uniform ensemble of quantum states in the algebra (the so-called coherence generating power of the map) is proportional to the distance between a pair of maximally abelian subalgebras in Md connected by the unitary transformation itself. By embedding the Grassmannian into a projective space, one can pull-back the standard Fubini-Study metric on Md and define in this way novel geometrical measures of quantum coherence generating power. We also briefly discuss the associated differential metric structures.

  20. Theoretical maximal storage of hydrogen in zeolitic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitillo, Jenny G; Ricchiardi, Gabriele; Spoto, Giuseppe; Zecchina, Adriano

    2005-12-07

    Physisorption and encapsulation of molecular hydrogen in tailored microporous materials are two of the options for hydrogen storage. Among these materials, zeolites have been widely investigated. In these materials, the attained storage capacities vary widely with structure and composition, leading to the expectation that materials with improved binding sites, together with lighter frameworks, may represent efficient storage materials. In this work, we address the problem of the determination of the maximum amount of molecular hydrogen which could, in principle, be stored in a given zeolitic framework, as limited by the size, structure and flexibility of its pore system. To this end, the progressive filling with H2 of 12 purely siliceous models of common zeolite frameworks has been simulated by means of classical molecular mechanics. By monitoring the variation of cell parameters upon progressive filling of the pores, conclusions are drawn regarding the maximum storage capacity of each framework and, more generally, on framework flexibility. The flexible non-pentasils RHO, FAU, KFI, LTA and CHA display the highest maximal capacities, ranging between 2.86-2.65 mass%, well below the targets set for automotive applications but still in an interesting range. The predicted maximal storage capacities correlate well with experimental results obtained at low temperature. The technique is easily extendable to any other microporous structure, and it can provide a method for the screening of hypothetical new materials for hydrogen storage applications.

  1. Automatic physical inference with information maximizing neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnock, Tom; Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2018-04-01

    Compressing large data sets to a manageable number of summaries that are informative about the underlying parameters vastly simplifies both frequentist and Bayesian inference. When only simulations are available, these summaries are typically chosen heuristically, so they may inadvertently miss important information. We introduce a simulation-based machine learning technique that trains artificial neural networks to find nonlinear functionals of data that maximize Fisher information: information maximizing neural networks (IMNNs). In test cases where the posterior can be derived exactly, likelihood-free inference based on automatically derived IMNN summaries produces nearly exact posteriors, showing that these summaries are good approximations to sufficient statistics. In a series of numerical examples of increasing complexity and astrophysical relevance we show that IMNNs are robustly capable of automatically finding optimal, nonlinear summaries of the data even in cases where linear compression fails: inferring the variance of Gaussian signal in the presence of noise, inferring cosmological parameters from mock simulations of the Lyman-α forest in quasar spectra, and inferring frequency-domain parameters from LISA-like detections of gravitational waveforms. In this final case, the IMNN summary outperforms linear data compression by avoiding the introduction of spurious likelihood maxima. We anticipate that the automatic physical inference method described in this paper will be essential to obtain both accurate and precise cosmological parameter estimates from complex and large astronomical data sets, including those from LSST and Euclid.

  2. Entropy Maximization, Cutoff Distribution, and Finite Stellar Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Kumar Dubey

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional equilibrium statistical mechanics of open gravitational systems is known to be problematical. We first recall that spherical stars/galaxies acquire unbounded radii, become infinitely massive, and evaporate away continuously if one uses the standard Maxwellian distribution fB (which maximizes the usual Boltzmann-Shannon entropy and hence has a tail extending to infinity. Next, we show that these troubles disappear automatically if we employ the exact most probable distribution f (which maximizes the combinatorial entropy and hence possesses a sharp cutoff tail. Finally, if astronomical observation is carried out on a large galaxy, then the Poisson equation together with thermal de Broglie wavelength provides useful information about the cutoff radius rK, cutoff energy εK, and the huge quantum number K up to which the cluster exists. Thereby, a refinement over the empirical lowered isothermal King models, is achieved. Numerically, we find that the most probable distribution (MPD prediction fits well the number density profile near the outer edge of globular clusters.

  3. Quantum effects in non-maximally symmetric spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, T.C.

    1985-01-01

    Non-Maximally symmetric spaces provide a more general background to explore the relation between the geometry of the manifold and the quantum fields defined in the manifold than those with maximally symmetric spaces. A static Taub universe is used to study the effect of curvature anisotropy on the spontaneous symmetry breaking of a self-interacting scalar field. The one-loop effective potential on a λphi 4 field with arbitrary coupling xi is computed by zeta function regularization. For massless minimal coupled scalar fields, first order phase transitions can occur. Keeping the shape invariant but decreasing the curvature radius of the universe induces symmetry breaking. If the curvature radius is held constant, increasing deformation can restore the symmetry. Studies on the higher-dimensional Kaluza-Klein theories are also focused on the deformation effect. Using the dimensional regularization, the effective potential of the free scalar fields in M 4 x T/sup N/ and M 4 x (Taub) 3 spaces are obtained. The stability criterions for the static solutions of the self-consistent Einstein equations are derived. Stable solutions of the M 4 x S/sup N/ topology do not exist. With the Taub space as the internal space, the gauge coupling constants of SU(2), and U(1) can be determined geometrically. The weak angle is therefore predicted by geometry in this model

  4. A criterion to maximize the irreversible efficiency in heat engines

    CERN Document Server

    Aragon-Gonzalez, G; Leon-Galicia, A; Musharrafie-Martinez, M

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to obtain a more precise calculation of the effective limits to the efficiency, of several cyclic heat engines. This calculation is based, first, on the equations describing the irreversible efficiency, and second, on a method which results from a general criterion to maximize this efficiency, applicable to several heat engines. With this method, we apply the criterion to maximize efficiencies; establish lower and upper bounds, corresponding to the efficiencies of Curzon-Ahlborn-like and Carnot-like heat engines; and, finally, find analytical or numerical expressions for the efficiencies eta sub m sub e and eta sub m sub a sub x. eta sub m sub a sub x is the maximum irreversible efficiency; eta sub m sub e is the efficiency in which the irreversible efficiency achieves its maximum, in a similar way to the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency (maximum work or power). The method was applied to a Brayton cycle, presenting internal dissipations of the working fluid and irreversibilities due to th...

  5. Associations of maximal strength and muscular endurance test scores with cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaara, Jani P; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Niemi, Jaakko; Ohrankämmen, Olli; Häkkinen, Arja; Kocay, Sheila; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationships between maximal strength and muscular endurance test scores additionally to previously widely studied measures of body composition and maximal aerobic capacity. 846 young men (25.5 ± 5.0 yrs) participated in the study. Maximal strength was measured using isometric bench press, leg extension and grip strength. Muscular endurance tests consisted of push-ups, sit-ups and repeated squats. An indirect graded cycle ergometer test was used to estimate maximal aerobic capacity (V(O2)max). Body composition was determined with bioelectrical impedance. Moreover, waist circumference (WC) and height were measured and body mass index (BMI) calculated. Maximal bench press was positively correlated with push-ups (r = 0.61, p strength (r = 0.34, p strength correlated positively (r = 0.36-0.44, p test scores were related to maximal aerobic capacity and body fat content, while fat free mass was associated with maximal strength test scores and thus is a major determinant for maximal strength. A contributive role of maximal strength to muscular endurance tests could be identified for the upper, but not the lower extremities. These findings suggest that push-up test is not only indicative of body fat content and maximal aerobic capacity but also maximal strength of upper body, whereas repeated squat test is mainly indicative of body fat content and maximal aerobic capacity, but not maximal strength of lower extremities.

  6. Energetics of swimming at maximal speeds in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, C; Pendergast, D R; Termin, B

    1998-10-01

    The energy cost per unit of distance (Cs, kilojoules per metre) of the front-crawl, back, breast and butterfly strokes was assessed in 20 elite swimmers. At sub-maximal speeds (v), Cs was measured dividing steady-state oxygen consumption (VO2) by the speed (v, metres per second). At supra-maximal v, Cs was calculated by dividing the total metabolic energy (E, kilojoules) spent in covering 45.7, 91.4 and 182.9 m by the distance. E was obtained as: E = Ean + alphaVO2maxtp - alphaVO2maxtau(1 - e(-(tp/tau))), where Ean was the amount of energy (kilojoules) derived from anaerobic sources, VO2max litres per second was the maximal oxygen uptake, alpha( = 20.9 kJ x 1 O2(-1)) was the energy equivalent of O2, tau (24 s) was the time constant assumed for the attainment of VO2max at muscle level at the onset of exercise, and tp (seconds) was the performance time. The lactic acid component was assumed to increase exponentially with tp to an asymptotic value of 0.418 kJ x kg(-1) of body mass for tp> or =120 s. The lactic acid component of Ean was obtained from the net increase of lactate concentration after exercise (delta[La]b) assuming that, when delta[La]b = 1 mmol x 1(-1) the net amount of metabolic energy released by lactate formation was 0.069 kJ x kg(-1). Over the entire range of v, front crawl was the least costly stroke. For example at 1 m x s(-1), Cs amounted, on average, to 0.70, 0.84, 0.82 and 0.124 kJ x m(-1) in front crawl, backstroke, butterfly and breaststroke, respectively; at 1.5 m x s(-1), Cs was 1.23, 1.47, 1.55 and 1.87 kJ x m(-1) in the four strokes, respectively. The Cs was a continuous function of the speed in all of the four strokes. It increased exponentially in crawl and backstroke, whereas in butterfly Cs attained a minimum at the two lowest v to increase exponentially at higher v. The Cs in breaststroke was a linear function of the v, probably because of the considerable amount of energy spent in this stroke for accelerating the body during the

  7. Open Maximal Mucosa-Sparing Functional Total Laryngectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Dulguerov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTotal laryngectomy after (chemoradiotherapy is associated with a high incidence of fistula and therefore flaps are advocated. The description of a transoral robotic total laryngectomy prompted us to develop similar minimally invasive open approaches for functional total laryngectomy.MethodsA retrospective study of consecutive unselected patients with a dysfunctional larynx after (chemoradiation that underwent open maximal mucosal-sparing functional total laryngectomy (MMSTL between 2014 and 2016 is presented. The surgical technique is described, and the complications and functional outcome are reviewed.ResultsThe cohorts included 10 patients who underwent open MMSTL. No pedicled flap was used. Only one postoperative fistula was noted (10%. All patients resumed oral diet and experienced a functional tracheo-esophageal voice.ConclusionMMSTL could be used to perform functional total laryngectomy without a robot and with minimal incidence of complications.

  8. Designing lattice structures with maximal nearest-neighbor entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro-Munoz, J C; Lopez-Sandoval, R; Garcia, M E

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study the numerical optimization of nearest-neighbor concurrence of bipartite one- and two-dimensional lattices, as well as non-bipartite two-dimensional lattices. These systems are described in the framework of a tight-binding Hamiltonian while the optimization of concurrence was performed using genetic algorithms. Our results show that the concurrence of the optimized lattice structures is considerably higher than that of non-optimized systems. In the case of one-dimensional chains, the concurrence increases dramatically when the system begins to dimerize, i.e., it undergoes a structural phase transition (Peierls distortion). This result is consistent with the idea that entanglement is maximal or shows a singularity near quantum phase transitions. Moreover, the optimization of concurrence in two-dimensional bipartite and non-bipartite lattices is achieved when the structures break into smaller subsystems, which are arranged in geometrically distinguishable configurations.

  9. The spinor heat kernel in maximally symmetric spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camporesi, R.

    1992-01-01

    The heat kernel K(x, x', t) of the iterated Dirac operator on an N-dimensional simply connected maximally symmetric Riemannian manifold is calculated. On the odd-dimensional hyperbolic spaces K is a Minakshisundaram-DeWitt expansion which terminates to the coefficient a (N-1)/2 and is exact. On the odd spheres the heat kernel may be written as an image sum of WKB kernels, each term corresponding to a classical path (geodesic). In the even dimensional case the WKB approximation is not exact, but a closed form of K is derived both in terms of (spherical) eigenfunctions and of a 'sum over classical paths'. The spinor Plancherel measure μ(λ) and ζ function in the hyperbolic case are also calculated. A simple relation between the analytic structure of μ on H N and the degeneracies of the Dirac operator on S N is found. (orig.)

  10. Low-energy restoration of parity and maximal symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raychaudhuri, A.; Sarkar, U.

    1982-01-01

    The maximal symmetry of fermions of one generation, SU(16), which includes the left-right-symmetric Pati-Salam group, SU(4)/sub c/ x SU(2) /sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/, as a subgroup, allows the possibility of a low-energy (M/sub R/approx.100 GeV) breaking of the left-right symmetry. It is known that such a low-energy restoration of parity can be consistent with weak-interaction phenomenology. We examine different chains of descent of SU(16) that admit a low value of M/sub R/ and determine the other intermediate symmetry-breaking mass scales associated with each of these chains. These additional mass scales provide an alternative to the ''great desert'' expected in some grand unifying models. The contributions of the Higgs fields in the renormalization-group equations are retained and are found to be important

  11. The price of anarchy is maximized at the percolation threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Brian

    2015-03-01

    When many independent users try to route traffic through a network, the flow can easily become suboptimal as a consequence of congestion of the most efficient paths. The degree of this suboptimality is quantified by the so-called ``price of anarchy'' (POA), but so far there are no general rules for when to expect a large POA in a random network. Here I address this question by introducing a simple model of flow through a network with randomly-placed ``congestible'' and ``incongestible'' links. I show that the POA is maximized precisely when the fraction of congestible links matches the percolation threshold of the lattice. Both the POA and the total cost demonstrate critical scaling near the percolation threshold.

  12. Price of anarchy is maximized at the percolation threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Brian

    2015-05-01

    When many independent users try to route traffic through a network, the flow can easily become suboptimal as a consequence of congestion of the most efficient paths. The degree of this suboptimality is quantified by the so-called price of anarchy (POA), but so far there are no general rules for when to expect a large POA in a random network. Here I address this question by introducing a simple model of flow through a network with randomly placed congestible and incongestible links. I show that the POA is maximized precisely when the fraction of congestible links matches the percolation threshold of the lattice. Both the POA and the total cost demonstrate critical scaling near the percolation threshold.

  13. Price of anarchy is maximized at the percolation threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Brian

    2015-05-01

    When many independent users try to route traffic through a network, the flow can easily become suboptimal as a consequence of congestion of the most efficient paths. The degree of this suboptimality is quantified by the so-called \\price of anarchy" (POA), but so far there are no general rules for when to expect a large POA in a random network. Here I address this question by introducing a simple model of flow through a network with randomly-placed "congestible" and "incongestible" links. I show that the POA is maximized precisely when the fraction of congestible links matches the percolation threshold of the lattice. Further, for large networks the value of the POA appears to saturate at its theoretical maximum value.

  14. Price of anarchy is maximized at the percolation threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Brian

    2015-05-01

    When many independent users try to route traffic through a network, the flow can easily become suboptimal as a consequence of congestion of the most efficient paths. The degree of this suboptimality is quantified by the so-called price of anarchy (POA), but so far there are no general rules for when to expect a large POA in a random network. Here I address this question by introducing a simple model of flow through a network with randomly placed congestible and incongestible links. I show that the POA is maximized precisely when the fraction of congestible links matches the percolation threshold of the lattice. Both the POA and the total cost demonstrate critical scaling near the percolation threshold.

  15. Maximization of fructose esters synthesis by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neta, Nair Sampaio; Peres, António M; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Ligia R

    2011-07-01

    Enzymatic synthesis of fructose fatty acid ester was performed in organic solvent media, using a purified lipase from Candida antartica B immobilized in acrylic resin. Response surface methodology with a central composite rotatable design based on five levels was implemented to optimize three experimental operating conditions (temperature, agitation and reaction time). A statistical significant cubic model was established. Temperature and reaction time were found to be the most significant parameters. The optimum operational conditions for maximizing the synthesis of fructose esters were 57.1°C, 100 rpm and 37.8 h. The model was validated in the identified optimal conditions to check its adequacy and accuracy, and an experimental esterification percentage of 88.4% (±0.3%) was obtained. These results showed that an improvement of the enzymatic synthesis of fructose esters was obtained under the optimized conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The globalization of ayahuasca: harm reduction or benefit maximization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupper, Kenneth W

    2008-08-01

    Ayahuasca is a tea made from two plants native to the Amazon, Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis, which, respectively, contain the psychoactive chemicals harmala alkaloids and dimethyltryptamine. The tea has been used by indigenous peoples in countries such as Brazil, Ecuador and Peru for medicinal, spiritual and cultural purposes since pre-Columbian times. In the 20th century, ayahuasca spread beyond its native habitat and has been incorporated into syncretistic practices that are being adopted by non-indigenous peoples in modern Western contexts. Ayahuasca's globalization in the past few decades has led to a number of legal cases which pit religious freedom against national drug control laws. This paper explores some of the philosophical and policy implications of contemporary ayahuasca use. It addresses the issue of the social construction of ayahuasca as a medicine, a sacrament and a "plant teacher." Issues of harm reduction with respect to ayahuasca use are explored, but so too is the corollary notion of "benefit maximization."

  17. Preliminary accelerator plans for maximizing the integrated LHC luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Benedikt, Michael; Ruggiero, F; Ostojic, R; Scandale, Walter; Shaposhnikova, Elena; Wenninger, J

    2006-01-01

    A working group on "Proton Accelerators for the Future" (PAF) has been created in May 2005 by the CERN direction to elaborate a baseline scenario of the possible development and upgrade of the present Proton Accelerator Complex. This report is the result of the investigation conducted until the end of 2005, in close connection with the working group on "Physics Opportunities with Future Proton Accelerators" (POFPA) and is consistent with their recommendations. Focused on the goal of maximizing the integrated luminosity for the LHC experiments, a scenario of evolution is proposed, subject to further refinement using the future experience of commissioning and running-in the collider and its injector complex. The actions to be taken in terms of consolidation, R & D and improvement are outlined. The benefits for other types of physics are mentioned and will be investigated in more detail in the future.

  18. Discussion on: "Profit Maximization of a Power Plant"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma (fhv. Kristoffersen), Trine Krogh; Fleten, Stein-Erik

    2012-01-01

    that the research may have been done at some distance to the reality of power operations. As opposed to formulating the tracking as a hard constraint, the authors penalize volume deviations between reference and actual production (tracking error) in the objective function. This is not entirely consistent......Kragelund et al. provides an interesting contribution to operations scheduling in liberalized electricity markets. They address the problem of profit maximization for a power plant participating in the electricity market. In particular, given that the plant has already been dispatched in a day......-ahead market, the aim is to schedule production throughout an operation day while complying with the day-ahead commitments, referred to in the paper as tracking a predefined production reference. The authors refer to Fig. 2 for an example of a production reference plan for a power plant of DONG Energy. A minor...

  19. Designing lattice structures with maximal nearest-neighbor entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro-Munoz, J C; Lopez-Sandoval, R [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion CientIfica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San Jose 2055, 78216 San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Garcia, M E [Theoretische Physik, FB 18, Universitaet Kassel and Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology (CINSaT), Heinrich-Plett-Str.40, 34132 Kassel (Germany)

    2009-08-07

    In this paper, we study the numerical optimization of nearest-neighbor concurrence of bipartite one- and two-dimensional lattices, as well as non-bipartite two-dimensional lattices. These systems are described in the framework of a tight-binding Hamiltonian while the optimization of concurrence was performed using genetic algorithms. Our results show that the concurrence of the optimized lattice structures is considerably higher than that of non-optimized systems. In the case of one-dimensional chains, the concurrence increases dramatically when the system begins to dimerize, i.e., it undergoes a structural phase transition (Peierls distortion). This result is consistent with the idea that entanglement is maximal or shows a singularity near quantum phase transitions. Moreover, the optimization of concurrence in two-dimensional bipartite and non-bipartite lattices is achieved when the structures break into smaller subsystems, which are arranged in geometrically distinguishable configurations.

  20. Decade of the Brain 1990--2000: Maximizing human potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The US Decade of the Brain offers scientists throughout the Federal Government a unique opportunity to advance and apply scientific knowledge about the brain and nervous system. During the next 10 years, scientists hope to maximize human potential through studies of human behavior, senses and communication, learning and memory, genetic/chemical alterations, and environmental interactions. Progress in these areas should lead to reductions in mortality from brain and nervous system disorders and to improvements in the quality of life. This report identifies nine research areas that could form the basis of an integrated program in the brain and behavioral sciences. A chart summarizing the Federal activities in these nine areas may be found at the back of the report. In addition, three areas that span the nine research areas -- basic research, technology and international activities -- are considered.

  1. Maximizing entropy of image models for 2-D constrained coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Danieli, Matteo; Burini, Nino

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers estimating and maximizing the entropy of two-dimensional (2-D) fields with application to 2-D constrained coding. We consider Markov random fields (MRF), which have a non-causal description, and the special case of Pickard random fields (PRF). The PRF are 2-D causal finite...... context models, which define stationary probability distributions on finite rectangles and thus allow for calculation of the entropy. We consider two binary constraints and revisit the hard square constraint given by forbidding neighboring 1s and provide novel results for the constraint that no uniform 2...... £ 2 squares contains all 0s or all 1s. The maximum values of the entropy for the constraints are estimated and binary PRF satisfying the constraint are characterized and optimized w.r.t. the entropy. The maximum binary PRF entropy is 0.839 bits/symbol for the no uniform squares constraint. The entropy...

  2. General spectral flow formula for fixed maximal domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm; Zhu, Chaofeng

    2005-01-01

    of the resulting continuous family of (unbounded) self-adjoint Fredholm operators in terms of the Maslov index of two related curves of Lagrangian spaces. One curve is given by the varying domains, the other by the Cauchy data spaces. We provide rigorous definitions of the underlying concepts of spectral theory......We consider a continuous curve of linear elliptic formally self-adjoint differential operators of first order with smooth coefficients over a compact Riemannian manifold with boundary together with a continuous curve of global elliptic boundary value problems. We express the spectral flow...... and symplectic analysis and give a full (and surprisingly short) proof of our General Spectral Flow Formula for the case of fixed maximal domain. As a side result, we establish local stability of weak inner unique continuation property (UCP) and explain its role for parameter dependent spectral theory....

  3. Long memory analysis by using maximal overlapping discrete wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie, Nur Amalina binti; Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Isa, Zaidi

    2015-05-01

    Long memory process is the asymptotic decay of the autocorrelation or spectral density around zero. The main objective of this paper is to do a long memory analysis by using the Maximal Overlapping Discrete Wavelet Transform (MODWT) based on wavelet variance. In doing so, stock market of Malaysia, China, Singapore, Japan and United States of America are used. The risk of long term and short term investment are also being looked into. MODWT can be analyzed with time domain and frequency domain simultaneously and decomposing wavelet variance to different scales without loss any information. All countries under studied show that they have long memory. Subprime mortgage crisis in 2007 is occurred in the United States of America are possible affect to the major trading countries. Short term investment is more risky than long term investment.

  4. Maximizing Information from Residential Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, Randy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Li, Na [Berkeley Analytical Associates, Richmond, CA (United States); Hodgson, Alfred [Berkeley Analytical Associates, Richmond, CA (United States); Offermann, Francis [Indoor Environmental Engineering, San Francisco, CA (United States); Singer, Brett [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Continually changing materials used in home construction and finishing can introduce new chemicals or changes in the VOC profile in residential air and the trend towards tighter homes can lead to higher exposure concentrations for many indoor sources. However, the complex mixture of VOCs in residential air makes it difficult to discover emerging contaminants and/or trends in pollutant profiles. The purpose of this study is to prepare a comprehensive library of chemicals found in homes, along with a semi-quantitative approach to maximize the information gained from VOC measurements. We carefully reviewed data from 108 new California homes and identified 238 individual compounds. The majority of the identified VOCs originated indoors. Only 31% were found to have relevant health based exposure guidelines and less than 10% had a chronic reference exposure level (CREL). The finding highlights the importance of extending IAQ studies to include a wider range of VOCs

  5. Maximizing sparse matrix vector product performance in MIMD computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLay, R.T.; Kohli, H.S.; Swift, S.L.; Carey, G.F.

    1994-12-31

    A considerable component of the computational effort involved in conjugate gradient solution of structured sparse matrix systems is expended during the Matrix-Vector Product (MVP), and hence it is the focus of most efforts at improving performance. Such efforts are hindered on MIMD machines due to constraints on memory, cache and speed of memory-cpu data transfer. This paper describes a strategy for maximizing the performance of the local computations associated with the MVP. The method focuses on single stride memory access, and the efficient use of cache by pre-loading it with data that is re-used while bypassing it for other data. The algorithm is designed to behave optimally for varying grid sizes and number of unknowns per gridpoint. Results from an assembly language implementation of the strategy on the iPSC/860 show a significant improvement over the performance using FORTRAN.

  6. Pareto optimization of an industrial ecosystem: sustainability maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. M.-S. Monteiro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates a procedure to design an Industrial Ecosystem for sequestrating CO2 and consuming glycerol in a Chemical Complex with 15 integrated processes. The Complex is responsible for the production of methanol, ethylene oxide, ammonia, urea, dimethyl carbonate, ethylene glycol, glycerol carbonate, β-carotene, 1,2-propanediol and olefins, and is simulated using UNISIM Design (Honeywell. The process environmental impact (EI is calculated using the Waste Reduction Algorithm, while Profit (P is estimated using classic cost correlations. MATLAB (The Mathworks Inc is connected to UNISIM to enable optimization. The objective is granting maximum process sustainability, which involves finding a compromise between high profitability and low environmental impact. Sustainability maximization is therefore understood as a multi-criteria optimization problem, addressed by means of the Pareto optimization methodology for trading off P vs. EI.

  7. Tetrahedral meshing via maximal Poisson-disk sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Jianwei

    2016-02-15

    In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective method to generate 3D-conforming tetrahedral meshes from closed 2-manifold surfaces. Our approach is inspired by recent work on maximal Poisson-disk sampling (MPS), which can generate well-distributed point sets in arbitrary domains. We first perform MPS on the boundary of the input domain, we then sample the interior of the domain, and we finally extract the tetrahedral mesh from the samples by using 3D Delaunay or regular triangulation for uniform or adaptive sampling, respectively. We also propose an efficient optimization strategy to protect the domain boundaries and to remove slivers to improve the meshing quality. We present various experimental results to illustrate the efficiency and the robustness of our proposed approach. We demonstrate that the performance and quality (e.g., minimal dihedral angle) of our approach are superior to current state-of-the-art optimization-based approaches.

  8. Optimal weight based on energy imbalance and utility maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ruoyan

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the optimal weight for both male and female using energy imbalance and utility maximization. Based on the difference of energy intake and expenditure, we develop a state equation that reveals the weight gain from this energy gap. We ​construct an objective function considering food consumption, eating habits and survival rate to measure utility. Through applying mathematical tools from optimal control methods and qualitative theory of differential equations, we obtain some results. For both male and female, the optimal weight is larger than the physiologically optimal weight calculated by the Body Mass Index (BMI). We also study the corresponding trajectories to steady state weight respectively. Depending on the value of a few parameters, the steady state can either be a saddle point with a monotonic trajectory or a focus with dampened oscillations.

  9. Techniques to maximize software reliability in radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichhorn, G.; Piercey, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    Microprocessor system failures due to memory corruption by single event upsets (SEUs) and/or latch-up in RAM or ROM memory are common in environments where there is high radiation flux. Traditional methods to harden microcomputer systems against SEUs and memory latch-up have usually involved expensive large scale hardware redundancy. Such systems offer higher reliability, but they tend to be more complex and non-standard. At the Space Astronomy Laboratory the authors have developed general programming techniques for producing software which is resistant to such memory failures. These techniques, which may be applied to standard off-the-shelf hardware, as well as custom designs, include an implementation of Maximally Redundant Software (MRS) model, error detection algorithms and memory verification and management

  10. Origin of constrained maximal CP violation in flavor symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong-Jian; Rodejohann, Werner; Xu, Xun-Jie

    2015-12-01

    Current data from neutrino oscillation experiments are in good agreement with δ = -π/2 and θ23 =π/4 under the standard parametrization of the mixing matrix. We define the notion of ;constrained maximal CP violation; (CMCPV) for predicting these features and study their origin in flavor symmetry. We derive the parametrization-independent solution of CMCPV and give a set of equivalent definitions for it. We further present a theorem on how the CMCPV can be realized. This theorem takes the advantage of residual symmetries in neutrino and charged lepton mass matrices, and states that, up to a few minor exceptions, (| δ | ,θ23) = (π/2 ,π/4) is generated when those symmetries are real. The often considered μ- τ reflection symmetry, as well as specific discrete subgroups of O(3), is a special case of our theorem.

  11. Teaching for more effective learning: Seven maxims for practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Starting from the assumption that deep learning, which seeks lasting mastery over a subject, is more desirable in professional education than shallow learning, which is merely designed to pass academic assessments, this paper suggests ways in which teachers in higher education can encourage the former. Noting that students tend to adopt either a shallow or deep approach in response to their experiences in the classroom and their understanding of what the assessment regime requires, it argues that, as a consequence, it ought to be possible to prompt more students to adopt deep learning approaches by manipulating teaching and assessment strategies. The literature on teaching and learning is explored in order to derive maxims of good practice which, if followed, can reasonably be expected to promote deep learning and discourage surface learning. It is argued that this will lead to more effective preparation for the real world of professional practice

  12. Maximal Abelian gauge and a generalized BRST transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Deguchi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We apply a generalized Becchi–Rouet–Stora–Tyutin (BRST formulation to establish a connection between the gauge-fixed SU(2 Yang–Mills (YM theories formulated in the Lorenz gauge and in the Maximal Abelian (MA gauge. It is shown that the generating functional corresponding to the Faddeev–Popov (FP effective action in the MA gauge can be obtained from that in the Lorenz gauge by carrying out an appropriate finite and field-dependent BRST (FFBRST transformation. In this procedure, the FP effective action in the MA gauge is found from that in the Lorenz gauge by incorporating the contribution of non-trivial Jacobian due to the FFBRST transformation of the path integral measure. The present FFBRST formulation might be useful to see how Abelian dominance in the MA gauge is realized in the Lorenz gauge.

  13. Correntropy Maximization via ADMM: Application to Robust Hyperspectral Unmixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fei; Halimi, Abderrahim; Honeine, Paul; Chen, Badong; Zheng, Nanning

    2017-09-01

    In hyperspectral images, some spectral bands suffer from low signal-to-noise ratio due to noisy acquisition and atmospheric effects, thus requiring robust techniques for the unmixing problem. This paper presents a robust supervised spectral unmixing approach for hyperspectral images. The robustness is achieved by writing the unmixing problem as the maximization of the correntropy criterion subject to the most commonly used constraints. Two unmixing problems are derived: the first problem considers the fully-constrained unmixing, with both the non-negativity and sum-to-one constraints, while the second one deals with the non-negativity and the sparsity-promoting of the abundances. The corresponding optimization problems are solved efficiently using an alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) approach. Experiments on synthetic and real hyperspectral images validate the performance of the proposed algorithms for different scenarios, demonstrating that the correntropy-based unmixing is robust to outlier bands.

  14. Short Run Profit Maximization in a Convex Analysis Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilko Vrankic

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyse the short run profit maximization problem in a convex analysis framework. The goal is to apply the results of convex analysis due to unique structure of microeconomic phenomena on the known short run profit maximization problem where the results from convex analysis are deductively applied. In the primal optimization model the technology in the short run is represented by the short run production function and the normalized profit function, which expresses profit in the output units, is derived. In this approach the choice variable is the labour quantity. Alternatively, technology is represented by the real variable cost function, where costs are expressed in the labour units, and the normalized profit function is derived, this time expressing profit in the labour units. The choice variable in this approach is the quantity of production. The emphasis in these two perspectives of the primal approach is given to the first order necessary conditions of both models which are the consequence of enveloping the closed convex set describing technology with its tangents. The dual model includes starting from the normalized profit function and recovering the production function, and alternatively the real variable cost function. In the first perspective of the dual approach the choice variable is the real wage, and in the second it is the real product price expressed in the labour units. It is shown that the change of variables into parameters and parameters into variables leads to both optimization models which give the same system of labour demand and product supply functions and their inverses. By deductively applying the results of convex analysis the comparative statics results are derived describing the firm's behaviour in the short run.

  15. Expectation-Maximization Binary Clustering for Behavioural Annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garriga, Joan; Palmer, John R B; Oltra, Aitana; Bartumeus, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    The growing capacity to process and store animal tracks has spurred the development of new methods to segment animal trajectories into elementary units of movement. Key challenges for movement trajectory segmentation are to (i) minimize the need of supervision, (ii) reduce computational costs, (iii) minimize the need of prior assumptions (e.g. simple parametrizations), and (iv) capture biologically meaningful semantics, useful across a broad range of species. We introduce the Expectation-Maximization binary Clustering (EMbC), a general purpose, unsupervised approach to multivariate data clustering. The EMbC is a variant of the Expectation-Maximization Clustering (EMC), a clustering algorithm based on the maximum likelihood estimation of a Gaussian mixture model. This is an iterative algorithm with a closed form step solution and hence a reasonable computational cost. The method looks for a good compromise between statistical soundness and ease and generality of use (by minimizing prior assumptions and favouring the semantic interpretation of the final clustering). Here we focus on the suitability of the EMbC algorithm for behavioural annotation of movement data. We show and discuss the EMbC outputs in both simulated trajectories and empirical movement trajectories including different species and different tracking methodologies. We use synthetic trajectories to assess the performance of EMbC compared to classic EMC and Hidden Markov Models. Empirical trajectories allow us to explore the robustness of the EMbC to data loss and data inaccuracies, and assess the relationship between EMbC output and expert label assignments. Additionally, we suggest a smoothing procedure to account for temporal correlations among labels, and a proper visualization of the output for movement trajectories. Our algorithm is available as an R-package with a set of complementary functions to ease the analysis.

  16. Expectation-Maximization Binary Clustering for Behavioural Annotation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Garriga

    Full Text Available The growing capacity to process and store animal tracks has spurred the development of new methods to segment animal trajectories into elementary units of movement. Key challenges for movement trajectory segmentation are to (i minimize the need of supervision, (ii reduce computational costs, (iii minimize the need of prior assumptions (e.g. simple parametrizations, and (iv capture biologically meaningful semantics, useful across a broad range of species. We introduce the Expectation-Maximization binary Clustering (EMbC, a general purpose, unsupervised approach to multivariate data clustering. The EMbC is a variant of the Expectation-Maximization Clustering (EMC, a clustering algorithm based on the maximum likelihood estimation of a Gaussian mixture model. This is an iterative algorithm with a closed form step solution and hence a reasonable computational cost. The method looks for a good compromise between statistical soundness and ease and generality of use (by minimizing prior assumptions and favouring the semantic interpretation of the final clustering. Here we focus on the suitability of the EMbC algorithm for behavioural annotation of movement data. We show and discuss the EMbC outputs in both simulated trajectories and empirical movement trajectories including different species and different tracking methodologies. We use synthetic trajectories to assess the performance of EMbC compared to classic EMC and Hidden Markov Models. Empirical trajectories allow us to explore the robustness of the EMbC to data loss and data inaccuracies, and assess the relationship between EMbC output and expert label assignments. Additionally, we suggest a smoothing procedure to account for temporal correlations among labels, and a proper visualization of the output for movement trajectories. Our algorithm is available as an R-package with a set of complementary functions to ease the analysis.

  17. Maximal Oxygen Consumption is Reduced in Aquaporin-1 Knockout Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Al-Samir

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We have measured maximal oxygen consumption (V’O2,max of mice lacking one or two of the established mouse red-cell CO2 channels AQP1, AQP9 and Rhag. We intended to study whether these proteins, by acting as channels for O2, determine O2 exchange in the lung and in the periphery. We found that V’O2,max as determined by the Helox technique is reduced by ~ 16%, when AQP1 is knocked out, but not when AQP9 or Rhag are lacking. This figure holds for animals respiring normoxic as well as hypoxic gas mixtures. To see whether the reduction of V’O2,max is due to impaired O2 uptake in the lung, we measured carotid arterial O2 saturation (SO2 by pulse oximetry. Neither under normoxic (inspiratory O2 21% nor under hypoxic conditions (11% O2 is there a difference in SO2 between AQP1null and WT mice, suggesting that AQP1 is not critical for O2 uptake in the lung. The fact that the % reduction of V’O2,max is identical in normoxia and hypoxia indicates moreover that the limitation of V’O2,max is not due to an O2 diffusion problem, neither in the lung nor in the periphery. Instead, it appears likely that AQP1null animals exhibit a reduced V’O2,max due to the reduced wall thickness and muscle mass of the left ventricles of their hearts, as reported previously. We conclude that very likely the properties of the hearts of AQP1 knockout mice cause a reduced maximal cardiac output and thus cause a reduced V’O2,max, which constitutes a new phenotype of these mice.

  18. Global haplotype partitioning for maximal associated SNP pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katanforoush, Ali; Sadeghi, Mehdi; Pezeshk, Hamid; Elahi, Elahe

    2009-08-27

    Global partitioning based on pairwise associations of SNPs has not previously been used to define haplotype blocks within genomes. Here, we define an association index based on LD between SNP pairs. We use the Fisher's exact test to assess the statistical significance of the LD estimator. By this test, each SNP pair is characterized as associated, independent, or not-statistically-significant. We set limits on the maximum acceptable proportion of independent pairs within all blocks and search for the partitioning with maximal proportion of associated SNP pairs. Essentially, this model is reduced to a constrained optimization problem, the solution of which is obtained by iterating a dynamic programming algorithm. In comparison with other methods, our algorithm reports blocks of larger average size. Nevertheless, the haplotype diversity within the blocks is captured by a small number of tagSNPs. Resampling HapMap haplotypes under a block-based model of recombination showed that our algorithm is robust in reproducing the same partitioning for recombinant samples. Our algorithm performed better than previously reported models in a case-control association study aimed at mapping a single locus trait, based on simulation results that were evaluated by a block-based statistical test. Compared to methods of haplotype block partitioning, we performed best on detection of recombination hotspots. Our proposed method divides chromosomes into the regions within which allelic associations of SNP pairs are maximized. This approach presents a native design for dimension reduction in genome-wide association studies. Our results show that the pairwise allelic association of SNPs can describe various features of genomic variation, in particular recombination hotspots.

  19. Global haplotype partitioning for maximal associated SNP pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezeshk Hamid

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global partitioning based on pairwise associations of SNPs has not previously been used to define haplotype blocks within genomes. Here, we define an association index based on LD between SNP pairs. We use the Fisher's exact test to assess the statistical significance of the LD estimator. By this test, each SNP pair is characterized as associated, independent, or not-statistically-significant. We set limits on the maximum acceptable proportion of independent pairs within all blocks and search for the partitioning with maximal proportion of associated SNP pairs. Essentially, this model is reduced to a constrained optimization problem, the solution of which is obtained by iterating a dynamic programming algorithm. Results In comparison with other methods, our algorithm reports blocks of larger average size. Nevertheless, the haplotype diversity within the blocks is captured by a small number of tagSNPs. Resampling HapMap haplotypes under a block-based model of recombination showed that our algorithm is robust in reproducing the same partitioning for recombinant samples. Our algorithm performed better than previously reported models in a case-control association study aimed at mapping a single locus trait, based on simulation results that were evaluated by a block-based statistical test. Compared to methods of haplotype block partitioning, we performed best on detection of recombination hotspots. Conclusion Our proposed method divides chromosomes into the regions within which allelic associations of SNP pairs are maximized. This approach presents a native design for dimension reduction in genome-wide association studies. Our results show that the pairwise allelic association of SNPs can describe various features of genomic variation, in particular recombination hotspots.

  20. Comparison of three protocols for measuring the maximal respiratory pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Maria B. Sclauser Pessoa

    Full Text Available Introduction To avoid the selection of submaximal efforts during the assessment of maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures (MIP and MEP, some reproducibility criteria have been suggested. Criteria that stand out are those proposed by the American Thoracic Society (ATS and European Respiratory Society (ERS and by the Brazilian Thoracic Association (BTA. However, no studies were found that compared these criteria or assessed the combination of both protocols. Objectives To assess the pressure values selected and the number of maneuvers required to achieve maximum performance using the reproducibility criteria proposed by the ATS/ERS, the BTA and the present study. Materials and method 113 healthy subjects (43.04 ± 16.94 years from both genders were assessed according to the criteria proposed by the ATS/ERS, BTA and the present study. Descriptive statistics were used for analysis, followed by ANOVA for repeated measures and post hoc LSD or by Friedman test and post hoc Wilcoxon, according to the data distribution. Results The criterion proposed by the present study resulted in a significantly higher number of maneuvers (MIP and MEP – median and 25%-75% interquartile range: 5[5-6], 4[3-5] and 3[3-4] for the present study criterion, BTA and ATS/ERS, respectively; p < 0.01 and higher pressure values (MIP – mean and 95% confidence interval: 103[91.43-103.72], 100[97.19-108.83] and 97.6[94.06-105.95]; MEP: median and 25%-75% interquartile range: 124.2[101.4-165.9], 123.3[95.4-153.8] and 118.4[95.5-152.7]; p < 0.05. Conclusion The proposed criterion resulted in the selection of pressure values closer to the individual’s maximal capacity. This new criterion should be considered in future studies concerning MIP and MEP measurements.

  1. Optimization of Second Fault Detection Thresholds to Maximize Mission POS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzalone, Evan

    2018-01-01

    both magnitude and time. As such, the Navigation team is taking advantage of the INS's capability to schedule and change fault detection thresholds in flight. These values are optimized along a nominal trajectory in order to maximize probability of mission success, and reducing the probability of false positives (defined as when the INS would report a second fault condition resulting in loss of mission, but the vehicle would still meet insertion requirements within system-level margins). This paper will describe an optimization approach using Genetic Algorithms to tune the threshold parameters to maximize vehicle resilience to second fault events as a function of potential fault magnitude and time of fault over an ascent mission profile. The analysis approach, and performance assessment of the results will be presented to demonstrate the applicability of this process to second fault detection to maximize mission probability of success.

  2. COOPERATIVE PRINCIPLE AND ITS MAXIMS OF COMMENTS IN TEXT YOUR SAY OF THE JAKARTA POST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fauzi Sulton

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find what maxims and how the maxims are observed or infringed in text your sayof The Jakarta Post based on the cooperative principle and maxims. The research design of this study is descriptive qualitative. The resercher himself is the main instrument. He uses typological analysis (based on categories. In addition, investigator triangulation is usedtovalidate the analysis. The research results show that all maxims are observed and infringed. In this case, the most comments (42 comments from 53 gathered in „text your say’ of The Jakarta Post do not match the cooperative principle and they also infringe and observe one or some of the maxims.

  3. Technique of the transcervical-subxiphoid-videothoracoscopic maximal thymectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zielinski Marcin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to present the new technique of transcervical-subxiphoid-videothoracoscopic "maximal"thymectomy introduced by the authors of this study for myasthenia gravis. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and sixteen patients with Osserman scores ranging from I-III were operated on from 1/9/2000 to 31/12/2006 for this study. The operation was performed through four incisions: a transverse 5-8 cm incision in the neck, a 4-6 cm subxiphoid incision and two 1 cm incisions for videothoracoscopic (VTS ports. The cervical part of the procedure was performed with an open technique while the intrathoracic part was performed using a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical (VATS technique. The whole thymus with the surrounding fatty tissue containing possible ectopic foci of the thymic tissue was removed. Such an operation can be performed by one surgical team (the one team approach or by two teams working simultaneously (two team approach. The early and late results as well as the incidence and localization of ectopic thymic foci have been presented in this report. Results: There were 216 patients in this study of which 178 were women and 38 were men. The ages of the patients ranged from 11 to 69 years (mean 29.7 years. The duration of myasthenia was 2-180 months (mean 28.3 months. Osserman scores were in the range of I-III. Almost 27% of the patients were taking steroids or immunosuppressive drugs preoperatively. The mean operative time was 201.5 min (120-330 min for a one-team approach and it was 146 (95-210 min for a two-team approach (P < 0.05. While there was no postoperative mortality, the postoperative morbidity was 12%. The incidence of ectopic thymic foci was 68.4%. The rates of complete remission after one, two, three, four and five years of follow-up were 26.3, 36.5, 42.9, 46.8 and 50.2%, respectively. Conclusion: Transcervical-subxiphoid-VTS maximal thymectomy is a complete and highly effective treatment modality for

  4. Maximally-localized position, Euclidean path-integral, and thermodynamics in GUP quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Reginald Christian S.; Esguerra, Jose Perico H.

    2018-04-01

    In dealing with quantum mechanics at very high energies, it is essential to adapt to a quasiposition representation using the maximally-localized states because of the generalized uncertainty principle. In this paper, we look at maximally-localized states as eigenstates of the operator ξ = X + iβP that we refer to as the maximally-localized position. We calculate the overlap between maximally-localized states and show that the identity operator can be expressed in terms of the maximally-localized states. Furthermore, we show that the maximally-localized position is diagonal in momentum-space and that the maximally-localized position and its adjoint satisfy commutation and anti-commutation relations reminiscent of the harmonic oscillator commutation and anti-commutation relations. As application, we use the maximally-localized position in developing the Euclidean path-integral and introduce the compact form of the propagator for maximal localization. The free particle momentum-space propagator and the propagator for maximal localization are analytically evaluated up to quadratic-order in β. Finally, we obtain a path-integral expression for the partition function of a thermodynamic system using the maximally-localized states. The partition function of a gas of noninteracting particles is evaluated. At temperatures exceeding the Planck energy, we obtain the gas' maximum internal energy N / 2 β and recover the zero heat capacity of an ideal gas.

  5. A New Look at the Impact of Maximizing on Unhappiness: Two Competing Mediating Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxi Peng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study aims to explore how the decision-making style of maximizing affects subjective well-being (SWB, which mainly focuses on the confirmation of the mediator role of regret and suppressing role of achievement motivation. A total of 402 Chinese undergraduate students participated in this study, in which they responded to the maximization, regret, and achievement motivation scales and SWB measures. Results suggested that maximizing significantly predicted SWB. Moreover, regret and achievement motivation (hope for success dimension could completely mediate and suppress this effect. That is, two competing indirect pathways exist between maximizing and SWB. One pathway is through regret. Maximizing typically leads one to regret, which could negatively predict SWB. Alternatively, maximizing could lead to high levels of hope for success, which were positively correlated with SWB. Findings offered a complex method of thinking about the relationship between maximizing and SWB.

  6. Comparison between static maximal force and handbrake pulling force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chateauroux, E; Wang, X

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of maximum pulling force is important not only for specifying force limit of industrial workers but also for designing controls requiring high force. This paper presents a comparison between maximal static handbrake pulling force (FST) and force exerted during normal handbrake pulling task (FDY). These forces were measured for different handle locations and subject characteristics. Participants were asked to pull a handbrake on an adjustable car mock-up as they would do when parking their own car, then to exert a force as high as possible on the pulled handbrake. Hand pulling forces were measured using a six-axes force sensor. 5 fixed handbrake positions were tested as well as a neutral handbrake position defined by the subject. FST and FDY were significantly correlated. Both were found to be dependent on handbrake position, age and gender. As expected, women and older subjects exerted lower forces. FST was significantly higher than FDY. The ratio FmR (FDY divided by FST) was also analyzed. Women showed higher FmR than men meaning that the task required a higher amount of muscle capability for women. FmR was also influenced by handbrake location. These data will be useful for handbrake design.

  7. Association of acceleration with spatiotemporal variables in maximal sprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahara, R; Naito, H; Morin, J-B; Zushi, K

    2014-08-01

    This study clarified the association between acceleration and the rates of changes in spatiotemporal variables on a step-to-step basis during the entire acceleration phase of maximal sprinting. 21 male sprinters performed a 60-m sprint, during which step-to-step acceleration and rates of changes in step length (RSL) and step frequency (RSF) were calculated. The coefficients of correlation between acceleration and other variables were tested at each step. There were positive correlations between acceleration and the RSF up to the second step. Acceleration was positively correlated with the RSL from the 5(th) to the 19(th) step. At the third and from the 16(th) to the 22(nd) step and from the 20(th) to the 21(st) step, there was no significant correlation, but weak relationships were found between acceleration and the RSF and RSL. The results suggest that the acceleration phase can be divided into 3 sections, and for sprinting to be effective, it is important to accelerate by increasing the step frequency to the third step, increasing the step length from the 5(th) to the 15(th) step, and increasing the step length or frequency (no systematic relative importance of step length or frequency) from the 16(th) step in the entire acceleration phase. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. MANAGING CONTENTION AVOIDANCE AND MAXIMIZING THROUGHPUT IN OBS NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMIT KUMAR GARG

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Optical Burst Switching (OBS is a promising technology for future optical networks. Due to its less complicated implementation using current optical and electrical components, OBS is seen as the first step towards the future Optical Packet Switching (OPS. In OBS, a key problem is to schedule bursts on wavelength channels whose bandwidth may become fragmented with the so-called void (or idle intervals with both fast and bandwidth efficient algorithms so as to reduce burst loss. In this paper, a new scheme has been proposed to improve the throughput and to avoid the contention in the OBS network. The proposed scheme offers the same node complexity as that in general OBS networks with optical buffers. Also, it avoids burst blockings in transit nodes, turning it into an efficient and simple burst contention avoidance mechanism. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme has improvement of 15% in terms of burst loss probability as compared to OBS existing schemes and also maximizes the throughput of the network without deteriorating excessively other parameters such as end to end delay or ingress queues.

  9. Begin, After, and Later: a Maximal Decidable Interval Temporal Logic

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    Davide Bresolin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Interval temporal logics (ITLs are logics for reasoning about temporal statements expressed over intervals, i.e., periods of time. The most famous ITL studied so far is Halpern and Shoham's HS, which is the logic of the thirteen Allen's interval relations. Unfortunately, HS and most of its fragments have an undecidable satisfiability problem. This discouraged the research in this area until recently, when a number non-trivial decidable ITLs have been discovered. This paper is a contribution towards the complete classification of all different fragments of HS. We consider different combinations of the interval relations Begins, After, Later and their inverses Abar, Bbar, and Lbar. We know from previous works that the combination ABBbarAbar is decidable only when finite domains are considered (and undecidable elsewhere, and that ABBbar is decidable over the natural numbers. We extend these results by showing that decidability of ABBar can be further extended to capture the language ABBbarLbar, which lays in between ABBar and ABBbarAbar, and that turns out to be maximal w.r.t decidability over strongly discrete linear orders (e.g. finite orders, the naturals, the integers. We also prove that the proposed decision procedure is optimal with respect to the complexity class.

  10. Maximal force and tremor changes across the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenan, Matthew S; Hackney, Anthony C; Griffin, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Sex hormones have profound effects on the nervous system in vitro and in vivo. The present study examines the effect of the menstrual cycle on maximal isometric force (MVC) and tremor during an endurance task. Nine eumenorrheic females participated in five study visits across their menstrual cycle. In each menstrual phase, an MVC and an endurance task to failure were performed. Tremor across the endurance task was quantified as the coefficient of variation in force and was assessed in absolute time and relative percent time to task failure. MVC decreases 23% from ovulation to the mid luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. In absolute time, the mid luteal phase has the highest initial tremor, though the early follicular phase has substantially higher tremor than other phases after 150 s of task performance. In relative time, the mid luteal phase has the highest level of tremor throughout the endurance task. Both MVC and tremor during an endurance task are modified by the menstrual cycle. Performance of tasks and sports which require high force and steadiness to exhaustion may be decreased in the mid luteal phase compared to other menstrual phases.

  11. Terminal altitude maximization for Mars entry considering uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Pingyuan; Zhao, Zeduan; Yu, Zhengshi; Dai, Juan

    2018-04-01

    Uncertainties present in the Mars atmospheric entry process may cause state deviations from the nominal designed values, which will lead to unexpected performance degradation if the trajectory is designed merely based on the deterministic dynamic model. In this paper, a linear covariance based entry trajectory optimization method is proposed considering the uncertainties presenting in the initial states and parameters. By extending the elements of the state covariance matrix as augmented states, the statistical behavior of the trajectory is captured to reformulate the performance metrics and path constraints. The optimization problem is solved by the GPOPS-II toolbox in MATLAB environment. Monte Carlo simulations are also conducted to demonstrate the capability of the proposed method. Primary trading performances between the nominal deployment altitude and its dispersion can be observed by modulating the weights on the dispersion penalty, and a compromised result referring to maximizing the 3σ lower bound of the terminal altitude is achieved. The resulting path constraints also show better satisfaction in a disturbed environment compared with the nominal situation.

  12. Maximizing recovery of water-soluble proteins through acetone precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Andrew M J; Wall, Mark J; Doucette, Alan A

    2013-09-24

    Solvent precipitation is commonly used to purify protein samples, as seen with the removal of sodium dodecyl sulfate through acetone precipitation. However, in its current practice, protein loss is believed to be an inevitable consequence of acetone precipitation. We herein provide an in depth characterization of protein recovery through acetone precipitation. In 80% acetone, the precipitation efficiency for six of 10 protein standards was poor (ca. ≤15%). Poor recovery was also observed for proteome extracts, including bacterial and mammalian cells. As shown in this work, increasing the ionic strength of the solution dramatically improves the precipitation efficiency of individual proteins, and proteome mixtures (ca. 80-100% yield). This is obtained by including 1-30 mM NaCl, together with acetone (50-80%) which maximizes protein precipitation efficiency. The amount of salt required to restore the recovery correlates with the amount of protein in the sample, as well as the intrinsic protein charge, and the dielectric strength of the solution. This synergistic approach to protein precipitation in acetone with salt is consistent with a model of ion pairing in organic solvent, and establishes an improved method to recover proteins and proteome mixtures in high yield. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Computerized detection of masses on mammograms by entropy maximization thresholding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kom, Guillaume; Tiedeu, Alain; Feudjio, Cyrille; Ngundam, J.

    2010-03-01

    In many cases, masses in X-ray mammograms are subtle and their detection can benefit from an automated system serving as a diagnostic aid. It is to this end that the authors propose in this paper, a new computer aided mass detection for breast cancer diagnosis. The first step focuses on wavelet filters enhancement which removes bright background due to dense breast tissues and some film artifacts while preserving features and patterns related to the masses. In the second step, enhanced image is computed by Entropy Maximization Thresholding (EMT) to obtain segmented masses. The efficiency of 98,181% is achieved by analyzing a database of 84 mammograms previously marked by radiologists and digitized at a pixel size of 343μmm x 343μ mm. The segmentation results, in terms of size of detected masses, give a relative error on mass area that is less than 8%. The performance of the proposed method has also been evaluated by means of the receiver operating-characteristics (ROC) analysis. This yielded respectively, an area (Az) of 0.9224 and 0.9295 under the ROC curve whether enhancement step is applied or not. Furthermore, we observe that the EMT yields excellent segmentation results compared to those found in literature. (author)

  14. Crouched Posture Maximizes Ground Reaction Forces Generated by Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Hoa X.; Reinbolt, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Crouch gait decreases walking efficiency due to the increased knee and hip flexion during the stance phase of gait. Crouch gait is generally considered to be disadvantageous for children with cerebral palsy; however, a crouched posture may allow biomechanical advantages that lead some children to adopt a crouch gait. To investigate one possible advantage of crouch gait, a musculoskeletal model created in OpenSim was placed in 15 different postures from upright to severe crouch during initial, middle, and final stance of the gait cycle for a total of 45 different postures. A series of optimizations was performed for each posture to maximize transverse plane ground reaction forces in the 8 compass directions by modifying muscle forces acting on the model. We compared the force profile areas across all postures. Larger force profile areas were allowed by postures from mild crouch (for initial stance) to crouch (for final stance). The overall ability to generate larger ground reaction force profiles represents a mechanical advantage of a crouched posture. This increase in muscle capacity while in a crouched posture may allow a patient to generate new movements to compensate for impairments associated with cerebral palsy, such as motor control deficits. PMID:22542242

  15. Anesthetic constituents of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim.: A pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Rong; Cui, Mei-Yu; Zhang, Qi-Li; Zhang, Mei-Yan; Yu, Yu-Ming; Zhou, Xian-Ying; Yu, Zhi-Guo; Zhao, Yun-Li

    2016-07-01

    A sensitive and selective ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was established and validated for the simultaneous determination of hydroxy-α-sanshool, hydroxy-β-sanshool, and hydroxy-γ-sanshool in rat plasma after the subcutaneous and intravenous administration of an extract of the pericarp of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. Piperine was used as the internal standard. The analytes were extracted from rat plasma by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate and separated on a Thermo Hypersil GOLD C18 column (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.9 μm) with a gradient elution system at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile/0.05% formic acid in water and the total analysis time was 4 min. Positive electrospray ionization was performed using multiple reaction monitoring mode for the analytes. The calibration curves of the three analytes were linear over the tested concentration range. The intra- and interday precision was no more than 13.6%. Extraction recovery, matrix effect, and stability were satisfactory in rat plasma. The developed and validated method was suitable for the quantification of hydroxy-α-sanshool, hydroxy-β-sanshool, and hydroxy-γ-sanshool and successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of these analytes after subcutaneous and intravenous administration to rats. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Predicting maximal aerobic speed through set distance time-trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellenger, Clint R; Fuller, Joel T; Nelson, Maximillian J; Hartland, Micheal; Buckley, Jonathan D; Debenedictis, Thomas A

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of aerobic performance capacity allows for the optimisation of training programs in aerobically dominant sports. Maximal aerobic speed (MAS) is a measure of aerobic performance; however, the time and personnel demands of establishing MAS are considerable. This study aimed to determine whether time-trials (TT), which are shorter and less onerous than traditional MAS protocols, may be used to predict MAS. 28 Australian Rules football players completed a test of MAS, followed by TTs of six different distances in random order, each separated by at least 48 h. Half of the participants completed TT distances of 1200, 1600 and 2000 m, and the others completed distances of 1400, 1800 and 2200 m. Average speed for the 1200 and 1400 m TTs were greater than MAS (P speed for 1600, 1800, 2000 and 2200 m TTs were not different from MAS (P > 0.08). Average speed for all TT distances correlated with MAS (r = 0.69-0.84; P speed and MAS with increasing TT distance (r = -0.79; P speed over the 2000 m distance exhibited the best agreement with MAS. MAS may be predicted from the average speed during a TT for any distance between 1200 and 2200 m, with 2000 m being optimal. Performance of a TT may provide a simple alternative to traditional MAS testing.

  17. On gauged maximal d  =  8 supergravities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasso Andino, Óscar; Ortín, Tomás

    2018-04-01

    We study the gauging of maximal d  =  8 supergravity using the embedding tensor formalism. We focus on SO(3) gaugings, study all the possible choices of gauge fields and construct explicitly the bosonic actions (including the complicated Chern–Simons terms) for all these choices, which are parametrized by a parameter associated to the 8-dimensional SL(2, {R}) duality group that relates all the possible choices which are, ultimately, equivalent from the purely 8-dimensional point of view. Our result proves that the theory constructed by Salam and Sezgin by Scherk–Schwarz compactification of d  =  11 supergravity and the theory constructed in Alonso-Alberca (2001 Nucl. Phys. B 602 329) by dimensional reduction of the so called ‘massive 11-dimensional supergravity’ proposed by Meessen and Ortín in (1999 Nucl. Phys. B 541 195) are indeed related by an SL(2, {R}) duality even though they have two completely different 11-dimensional origins.

  18. Renewable Substitutability Index: Maximizing Renewable Resource Use in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi S. Srinivasan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve a material and energy balance in buildings that is sustainable in the long run, there is an urgent need to assess the renewable and non-renewable resources used in the manufacturing process and to progressively replace non-renewable resources with renewables. Such progressive disinvestment in the non-renewable resources that may be substituted with renewable resources is referred to as “Renewable Substitutability” and if implemented, this process will lead to a paradigm shift in the way building materials are manufactured. This paper discusses the development of a Renewable Substitutability Index (RSI that is designed to maximize the use of renewable resources in a building and quantifies the substitution process using solar emergy (i.e., the solar equivalent joules required for any item. The RSI of a building or a building component, i.e., floor or wall systems, etc., is the ratio of the renewable resources used during construction, including replacement and maintenance, to the building’s maximum renewable emergy potential. RSI values range between 0 and 1.0. A higher RSI achieves a low-energy building strategy promoting a higher order of sustainability by optimizing the use of renewables over a building’s lifetime from formation-extraction-manufacturing to maintenance, operation, demolition, and recycle.

  19. The maximal operator in weighted variable spaces Lp(⋅

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakhtang Kokilashvili

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the boundedness of the maximal operator in the weighted spaces Lp(⋅(ρ over a bounded open set Ω in the Euclidean space ℝn or a Carleson curve Γ in a complex plane. The weight function may belong to a certain version of a general Muckenhoupt-type condition, which is narrower than the expected Muckenhoupt condition for variable exponent, but coincides with the usual Muckenhoupt class Ap in the case of constant p. In the case of Carleson curves there is also considered another class of weights of radial type of the form ρ(t=∏k=1mwk(|t-tk|, tk∈Γ, where wk has the property that r1p(tkwk(r∈Φ10, where Φ10 is a certain Zygmund-Bari-Stechkin-type class. It is assumed that the exponent p(t satisfies the Dini–Lipschitz condition. For such radial type weights the final statement on the boundedness is given in terms of the index numbers of the functions wk (similar in a sense to the Boyd indices for the Young functions defining Orlich spaces.

  20. Moderate intra-group bias maximizes cooperation on interdependent populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changbing Tang

    Full Text Available Evolutionary game theory on spatial structures has received increasing attention during the past decades. However, the majority of these achievements focuses on single and static population structures, which is not fully consistent with the fact that real structures are composed of many interactive groups. These groups are interdependent on each other and present dynamical features, in which individuals mimic the strategy of neighbors and switch their partnerships continually. It is however unclear how the dynamical and interdependent interactions among groups affect the evolution of collective behaviors. In this work, we employ the prisoner's dilemma game to investigate how the dynamics of structure influences cooperation on interdependent populations, where populations are represented by group structures. It is found that the more robust the links between cooperators (or the more fragile the links between cooperators and defectors, the more prevalent of cooperation. Furthermore, theoretical analysis shows that the intra-group bias can favor cooperation, which is only possible when individuals are likely to attach neighbors within the same group. Yet, interestingly, cooperation can be even inhibited for large intra-group bias, allowing the moderate intra-group bias maximizes the cooperation level.

  1. Pollination benefits are maximized at intermediate nutrient levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Giovanni; Lami, Francesco; Marini, Lorenzo

    2017-08-16

    Yield production in flowering crops depends on both nutrient availability and pollination, but their relative roles and potential interactions are poorly understood. We measured pollination benefits to yield in sunflower, combining a gradient in insect pollination (0, 25, 50, 100%) with a continuous gradient in nitrogen (N) fertilization (from 0 to 150 kg N ha -1 ) in an experiment under realistic soil field conditions. We found that pollination benefits to yield were maximized at intermediate levels of N availability, bolstering yield by approximately 25% compared with complete pollinator exclusion. Interestingly, we found little decrease in yield when insect visits were reduced by 50%, indicating that the incremental contribution of pollination by insects to yield is greater when the baseline pollination service provision is very low. Our findings provide strong evidence for interactive, nonlinear effects of pollination and resource availability on seed production. Our results support ecological intensification as a promising strategy for sustainable management of agroecosystems. In particular, we found optimal level of pollination to potentially compensate for lower N applications. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Gaze-enabled Egocentric Video Summarization via Constrained Submodular Maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xut, Jia; Mukherjee, Lopamudra; Li, Yin; Warner, Jamieson; Rehg, James M; Singht, Vikas

    2015-06-01

    With the proliferation of wearable cameras, the number of videos of users documenting their personal lives using such devices is rapidly increasing. Since such videos may span hours, there is an important need for mechanisms that represent the information content in a compact form (i.e., shorter videos which are more easily browsable/sharable). Motivated by these applications, this paper focuses on the problem of egocentric video summarization. Such videos are usually continuous with significant camera shake and other quality issues. Because of these reasons, there is growing consensus that direct application of standard video summarization tools to such data yields unsatisfactory performance. In this paper, we demonstrate that using gaze tracking information (such as fixation and saccade) significantly helps the summarization task. It allows meaningful comparison of different image frames and enables deriving personalized summaries (gaze provides a sense of the camera wearer's intent). We formulate a summarization model which captures common-sense properties of a good summary, and show that it can be solved as a submodular function maximization with partition matroid constraints, opening the door to a rich body of work from combinatorial optimization. We evaluate our approach on a new gaze-enabled egocentric video dataset (over 15 hours), which will be a valuable standalone resource.

  3. Managing the innovation supply chain to maximize personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, S A; Terzic, A

    2014-02-01

    Personalized medicine epitomizes an evolving model of care tailored to the individual patient. This emerging paradigm harnesses radical technological advances to define each patient's molecular characteristics and decipher his or her unique pathophysiological processes. Translated into individualized algorithms, personalized medicine aims to predict, prevent, and cure disease without producing therapeutic adverse events. Although the transformative power of personalized medicine is generally recognized by physicians, patients, and payers, the complexity of translating discoveries into new modalities that transform health care is less appreciated. We often consider the flow of innovation and technology along a continuum of discovery, development, regulation, and application bridging the bench with the bedside. However, this process also can be viewed through a complementary prism, as a necessary supply chain of services and providers, each making essential contributions to the development of the final product to maximize value to consumers. Considering personalized medicine in this context of supply chain management highlights essential points of vulnerability and/or scalability that can ultimately constrain translation of the biological revolution or potentiate it into individualized diagnostics and therapeutics for optimized value creation and delivery.

  4. Maximal accumulated oxygen deficit as a predictor of anaerobic capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Franchini

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD has been considered as one of the most adequate measures of anaerobic capacity. It is based on the numerical difference between the total energy demand of a severe exercise bout and the energy portion associated to the total oxygen consumption. However, the debate around the measurement procedures and the validity of the assumptions persist. The present review was done to describe and discuss these measurement procedures, as well as the validity evidences of MAOD. Finally, critical questions about the methodology of measurement of this physiological variable are discussed. RESUMO O máximo déficit acumulado de oxigênio (MAOD vem sendo apontado como uma das medidas mais adequadas de capacidade anaeróbia. Ele se baseia na diferença numérica entre a demanda energética total de um exercício severo e a porção de energia associada ao consumo total de oxigênio. Ainda há debate na literatura sobre seus procedimentos de medida e validade dos pressupostos. A presente revisão foi feita para descrever e discutir esses procedimentos de medida, bem como as evidências de validade do MAOD. Por fim, são discutidas questões críticas da metodologia empregada na medida dessa variável fisiológica.

  5. Optimal optical communication terminal structure for maximizing the link budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Jiang, Dagang; Deng, Ke; Zhang, Peng

    2015-02-01

    Ordinary inter-satellite optical includes at least three optical paths for acquisition, tracking and communication, the three optical paths work simultaneously and share the received power. An optimal structure of inter-satellite optical communication terminal with single working optical path at each of working stages of acquisition and communication is introduced. A space optical switch based on frustrated total internal reflection effect is applied to switch the received laser power between the acquisition sensor and the communication sensor between the stages of acquisition and communication, this is named as power fusion which means power is transferred for shutting down unused optical path. For the stages of tracking and communication, a multiple cells sensor is used to accomplish the operation of tracking while communication, this is named as function fusion which means accomplishing multiple functions by one device to reduce the redundant optical paths. For optical communication terminal with single working path structure, the total received laser power would be detected by one sensor for each different stages of acquisition, tracking and communication, the link budget would be maximized, and this design would help to enlarge the system tolerance and reduce the acquisition time.

  6. Blood detection in wireless capsule endoscopy using expectation maximization clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sae; Oh, JungHwan; Cox, Jay; Tang, Shou Jiang; Tibbals, Harry F.

    2006-03-01

    Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a relatively new technology (FDA approved in 2002) allowing doctors to view most of the small intestine. Other endoscopies such as colonoscopy, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, push enteroscopy, and intraoperative enteroscopy could be used to visualize up to the stomach, duodenum, colon, and terminal ileum, but there existed no method to view most of the small intestine without surgery. With the miniaturization of wireless and camera technologies came the ability to view the entire gestational track with little effort. A tiny disposable video capsule is swallowed, transmitting two images per second to a small data receiver worn by the patient on a belt. During an approximately 8-hour course, over 55,000 images are recorded to a worn device and then downloaded to a computer for later examination. Typically, a medical clinician spends more than two hours to analyze a WCE video. Research has been attempted to automatically find abnormal regions (especially bleeding) to reduce the time needed to analyze the videos. The manufacturers also provide the software tool to detect the bleeding called Suspected Blood Indicator (SBI), but its accuracy is not high enough to replace human examination. It was reported that the sensitivity and the specificity of SBI were about 72% and 85%, respectively. To address this problem, we propose a technique to detect the bleeding regions automatically utilizing the Expectation Maximization (EM) clustering algorithm. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed bleeding detection method achieves 92% and 98% of sensitivity and specificity, respectively.

  7. Network architecture underlying maximal separation of neuronal representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron A Jortner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most basic and general tasks faced by all nervous systems is extracting relevant information from the organism’s surrounding world. While physical signals available to sensory systems are often continuous, variable, overlapping and noisy, high-level neuronal representations used for decision-making tend to be discrete, specific, invariant, and highly separable. This study addresses the question of how neuronal specificity is generated. Inspired by experimental findings on network architecture in the olfactory system of the locust, I construct a highly simplified theoretical framework which allows for analytic solution of its key properties. For generalized feed-forward systems, I show that an intermediate range of connectivity values between source- and target-populations leads to a combinatorial explosion of wiring possibilities, resulting in input spaces which are, by their very nature, exquisitely sparsely populated. In particular, connection probability ½, as found in the locust antennal-lobe–mushroom-body circuit, serves to maximize separation of neuronal representations across the target Kenyon-cells, and explains their specific and reliable responses. This analysis yields a function expressing response specificity in terms of lower network-parameters; together with appropriate gain control this leads to a simple neuronal algorithm for generating arbitrarily sparse and selective codes and linking network architecture and neural coding. I suggest a way to easily construct ecologically meaningful representations from this code.

  8. Maximizing Utilization of Energy from Crop By-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Haryanto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The availability of crop by-products is huge during harvesting times as related to the vast agricultural land area; however, their utilization is still limited due to lack of knowledge and handling problem. Seasonal effect is obvious especially during wet season when high rainfall hinders proper management of crop by-products. Crop by-products are energy rich feedstuffs in the form of chemical substance such as cellulose and hemicellulose. The utilization of cellulose and hemicellulose as sources of energy can be maximized by the application of technologies to increase the digestibility. Cellulose is polymer of glucose while hemicellulose is polymer of xylose which both can be converted to volatile fatty acids by rumen microbial enzyme activities and subsequently used by the host animal as source of energy. In addition, cellulose and hemicellulose can also be used as substrates for bioethanol production leaving behind residual matter with higher concentration of protein which is also appropriate for ruminant feeds. The fat content of crop by-products such as those in rice bran and corn germ can be extracted for oil production that can be used for human consumption with concomitant production of high nutritive value of residues for ruminant feeds. The oil extraction technologies are available; however the high cost of ethanol and oil production should obtain high attention to make the technologies more applicable at farmers’ level.

  9. A maximally selected test of symmetry about zero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laska, Eugene; Meisner, Morris; Wanderling, Joseph

    2012-11-20

    The problem of testing symmetry about zero has a long and rich history in the statistical literature. We introduce a new test that sequentially discards observations whose absolute value is below increasing thresholds defined by the data. McNemar's statistic is obtained at each threshold and the largest is used as the test statistic. We obtain the exact distribution of this maximally selected McNemar and provide tables of critical values and a program for computing p-values. Power is compared with the t-test, the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and the Sign Test. The new test, MM, is slightly less powerful than the t-test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test for symmetric normal distributions with nonzero medians and substantially more powerful than all three tests for asymmetric mixtures of normal random variables with or without zero medians. The motivation for this test derives from the need to appraise the safety profile of new medications. If pre and post safety measures are obtained, then under the null hypothesis, the variables are exchangeable and the distribution of their difference is symmetric about a zero median. Large pre-post differences are the major concern of a safety assessment. The discarded small observations are not particularly relevant to safety and can reduce power to detect important asymmetry. The new test was utilized on data from an on-road driving study performed to determine if a hypnotic, a drug used to promote sleep, has next day residual effects. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Expectation-Maximization Tensor Factorization for Practical Location Privacy Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murakami Takao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Location privacy attacks based on a Markov chain model have been widely studied to de-anonymize or de-obfuscate mobility traces. An adversary can perform various kinds of location privacy attacks using a personalized transition matrix, which is trained for each target user. However, the amount of training data available to the adversary can be very small, since many users do not disclose much location information in their daily lives. In addition, many locations can be missing from the training traces, since many users do not disclose their locations continuously but rather sporadically. In this paper, we show that the Markov chain model can be a threat even in this realistic situation. Specifically, we focus on a training phase (i.e. mobility profile building phase and propose Expectation-Maximization Tensor Factorization (EMTF, which alternates between computing a distribution of missing locations (E-step and computing personalized transition matrices via tensor factorization (M-step. Since the time complexity of EMTF is exponential in the number of missing locations, we propose two approximate learning methods, one of which uses the Viterbi algorithm while the other uses the Forward Filtering Backward Sampling (FFBS algorithm. We apply our learning methods to a de-anonymization attack and a localization attack, and evaluate them using three real datasets. The results show that our learning methods significantly outperform a random guess, even when there is only one training trace composed of 10 locations per user, and each location is missing with probability 80% (i.e. even when users hardly disclose two temporally-continuous locations.

  11. Maximal zero textures in Linear and Inverse seesaw

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    Roopam Sinha

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate Linear and Inverse seesaw mechanisms with maximal zero textures of the constituent matrices subjected to the assumption of non-zero eigenvalues for the neutrino mass matrix mν and charged lepton mass matrix me. If we restrict to the minimally parametrized non-singular ‘me’ (i.e., with maximum number of zeros it gives rise to only 6 possible textures of me. Non-zero determinant of mν dictates six possible textures of the constituent matrices. We ask in this minimalistic approach, what phenomenologically allowed maximum zero textures are possible. It turns out that Inverse seesaw leads to 7 allowed two-zero textures while the Linear seesaw leads to only one. In Inverse seesaw, we show that 2 is the maximum number of independent zeros that can be inserted into μS to obtain all 7 viable two-zero textures of mν. On the other hand, in Linear seesaw mechanism, the minimal scheme allows maximum 5 zeros to be accommodated in ‘m’ so as to obtain viable effective neutrino mass matrices (mν. Interestingly, we find that our minimalistic approach in Inverse seesaw leads to a realization of all the phenomenologically allowed two-zero textures whereas in Linear seesaw only one such texture is viable. Next, our numerical analysis shows that none of the two-zero textures give rise to enough CP violation or significant δCP. Therefore, if δCP=π/2 is established, our minimalistic scheme may still be viable provided we allow larger number of parameters in ‘me’.

  12. Kettlebell swing training improves maximal and explosive strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Jason P; Lauder, Mike A

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effect that kettlebell swing (KB) training had on measures of maximum (half squat-HS-1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and explosive (vertical jump height-VJH) strength. To put these effects into context, they were compared with the effects of jump squat power training (JS-known to improve 1RM and VJH). Twenty-one healthy men (age = 18-27 years, body mass = 72.58 ± 12.87 kg) who could perform a proficient HS were tested for their HS 1RM and VJH pre- and post-training. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a KB or JS training group after HS 1RM testing and trained twice a week. The KB group performed 12-minute bouts of KB exercise (12 rounds of 30-second exercise, 30-second rest with 12 kg if 70 kg). The JS group performed at least 4 sets of 3 JS with the load that maximized peak power-Training volume was altered to accommodate different training loads and ranged from 4 sets of 3 with the heaviest load (60% 1RM) to 8 sets of 6 with the lightest load (0% 1RM). Maximum strength improved by 9.8% (HS 1RM: 165-181% body mass, p < 0.001) after the training intervention, and post hoc analysis revealed that there was no significant difference between the effect of KB and JS training (p = 0.56). Explosive strength improved by 19.8% (VJH: 20.6-24.3 cm) after the training intervention, and post hoc analysis revealed that the type of training did not significantly affect this either (p = 0.38). The results of this study clearly demonstrate that 6 weeks of biweekly KB training provides a stimulus that is sufficient to increase both maximum and explosive strength offering a useful alternative to strength and conditioning professionals seeking variety for their athletes.

  13. Reconstruction of phylogenetic trees of prokaryotes using maximal common intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Mahdi; Marashi, Sayed-Amir; Tusserkani, Ruzbeh; Sadeghi, Mehdi

    2014-10-01

    One of the fundamental problems in bioinformatics is phylogenetic tree reconstruction, which can be used for classifying living organisms into different taxonomic clades. The classical approach to this problem is based on a marker such as 16S ribosomal RNA. Since evolutionary events like genomic rearrangements are not included in reconstructions of phylogenetic trees based on single genes, much effort has been made to find other characteristics for phylogenetic reconstruction in recent years. With the increasing availability of completely sequenced genomes, gene order can be considered as a new solution for this problem. In the present work, we applied maximal common intervals (MCIs) in two or more genomes to infer their distance and to reconstruct their evolutionary relationship. Additionally, measures based on uncommon segments (UCS's), i.e., those genomic segments which are not detected as part of any of the MCIs, are also used for phylogenetic tree reconstruction. We applied these two types of measures for reconstructing the phylogenetic tree of 63 prokaryotes with known COG (clusters of orthologous groups) families. Similarity between the MCI-based (resp. UCS-based) reconstructed phylogenetic trees and the phylogenetic tree obtained from NCBI taxonomy browser is as high as 93.1% (resp. 94.9%). We show that in the case of this diverse dataset of prokaryotes, tree reconstruction based on MCI and UCS outperforms most of the currently available methods based on gene orders, including breakpoint distance and DCJ. We additionally tested our new measures on a dataset of 13 closely-related bacteria from the genus Prochlorococcus. In this case, distances like rearrangement distance, breakpoint distance and DCJ proved to be useful, while our new measures are still appropriate for phylogenetic reconstruction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Maximizing and stabilizing luminescence from halide perovskites with potassium passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi-Jalebi, Mojtaba; Andaji-Garmaroudi, Zahra; Cacovich, Stefania; Stavrakas, Camille; Philippe, Bertrand; Richter, Johannes M.; Alsari, Mejd; Booker, Edward P.; Hutter, Eline M.; Pearson, Andrew J.; Lilliu, Samuele; Savenije, Tom J.; Rensmo, Håkan; Divitini, Giorgio; Ducati, Caterina; Friend, Richard H.; Stranks, Samuel D.

    2018-03-01

    Metal halide perovskites are of great interest for various high-performance optoelectronic applications. The ability to tune the perovskite bandgap continuously by modifying the chemical composition opens up applications for perovskites as coloured emitters, in building-integrated photovoltaics, and as components of tandem photovoltaics to increase the power conversion efficiency. Nevertheless, performance is limited by non-radiative losses, with luminescence yields in state-of-the-art perovskite solar cells still far from 100 per cent under standard solar illumination conditions. Furthermore, in mixed halide perovskite systems designed for continuous bandgap tunability (bandgaps of approximately 1.7 to 1.9 electronvolts), photoinduced ion segregation leads to bandgap instabilities. Here we demonstrate substantial mitigation of both non-radiative losses and photoinduced ion migration in perovskite films and interfaces by decorating the surfaces and grain boundaries with passivating potassium halide layers. We demonstrate external photoluminescence quantum yields of 66 per cent, which translate to internal yields that exceed 95 per cent. The high luminescence yields are achieved while maintaining high mobilities of more than 40 square centimetres per volt per second, providing the elusive combination of both high luminescence and excellent charge transport. When interfaced with electrodes in a solar cell device stack, the external luminescence yield—a quantity that must be maximized to obtain high efficiency—remains as high as 15 per cent, indicating very clean interfaces. We also demonstrate the inhibition of transient photoinduced ion-migration processes across a wide range of mixed halide perovskite bandgaps in materials that exhibit bandgap instabilities when unpassivated. We validate these results in fully operating solar cells. Our work represents an important advance in the construction of tunable metal halide perovskite films and interfaces that can

  15. Maximizing Symmetry in Upper Blepharoplasty: The Role of Microptosis Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Helen; Goldberg, Robert Alan

    2016-02-01

    Traditional descriptions of blepharoplasty and ptosis surgery focus on the incision and eyelid crease. However, it may be more useful to consider the tarsal platform show as the important construct in analyzing and planning aesthetic eyelid surgery. In order to measure and characterize the key contours of the eyelid, the authors find it helpful to consider the brow fat span, tarsal platform show, and margin reflex distance. Subtle eyelid ptosis can result in asymmetry by lengthening the tarsal platform show, and it is exacerbated by the tendency for the eyebrow to compensate. When ptosis is asymmetric, the plan should usually include asymmetric ptosis surgery. There are two general patterns that can be recognized and used for planning to address preoperative tarsal platform show asymmetry. If the tarsal platform show is longer on the side with worse blepharoptosis, then asymmetric or unilateral ptosis surgery will improve symmetry. In the cases of symmetric show despite asymmetric blepharoptosis, there may be bony and soft-tissue asymmetry, which leads to crowding of the orbit on the more ptotic side. Surgical planning should include consideration to increase the tarsal platform show on the more crowded side. It is not necessary to cut the eyelid skin in order to alter the tarsal show and brow fat span; ptosis surgery alone, by altering the eyelid position and eyebrow compensation, can reset the tarsal platform show/brow fat span relationship. It is important to recognize preoperative asymmetry, to predict the resetting of compensatory mechanisms, and to design asymmetric surgery, in order to maximize postoperative symmetry.

  16. Maximizing children's physical activity using the LET US Play principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazendale, Keith; Chandler, Jessica L; Beets, Michael W; Weaver, Robert G; Beighle, Aaron; Huberty, Jennifer L; Moore, Justin B

    2015-07-01

    Staff in settings that care for children struggle to implement standards designed to promote moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), suggesting a need for effective strategies to maximize the amount of time children spend in MVPA during scheduled PA opportunities. The purpose of this study was to compare the MVPA children accumulate during commonly played games delivered in their traditional format versus games modified according to the LET US Play principles. Children (K-5th) participated in 1-hour PA sessions delivered on non-consecutive days (summer 2014). Using a randomized, counterbalanced design, one of the six games was played for 20min using either traditional rules or LET US Play followed by the other strategy with a 10min break in between. Physical activity was measured via accelerometry. Repeated-measures, mixed-effects regression models were used to estimate differences in percent of time spent sedentary and in MVPA. A total of 267 children (age 7.5years, 43% female, 29% African American) participated in 50, 1-hour activity sessions. Games incorporating LET US Play elicited more MVPA from both boys and girls compared to the same games with traditional rules. For boys and girls, the largest MVPA difference occurred during tag games (+20.3%). The largest reduction in the percent of time sedentary occurred during tag games (boys -27.7%, girls -32.4%). Overall, the percentage of children meeting 50% time in MVPA increased in four games (+18.7% to +53.1%). LET US Play led to greater accumulation of MVPA for boys and girls, and can increase the percent of children attaining the 50% of time in MVPA standard. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Maximizing the functional lifetime of Protein A resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jennifer; Siva, Sethu; Caple, Ryan; Ghose, Sanchayita; Gronke, Rob

    2017-05-01

    Protein A chromatography is currently the industry gold-standard for monoclonal antibody and Fc-fusion protein purification. The high cost of Protein A, however, makes resin lifetime and resin reuse an important factor for process economics. Typical resin lifetime studies performed in the industry usually examine the effect of resin re-use on binding capacity, yield, and product quality without answering the fundamental question of what is causing the decrease in performance. A two part mechanistic study was conducted in an attempt to decouple the effect of the two possible factors (resin hydrolysis and/or degradation vs. resin fouling) on column performance over lifetime of the most commonly used alkali-stable Protein A resins (MabSelect SuRe and MabSelect SuRe LX). The change in binding capacity as a function of sodium hydroxide concentration (rate of hydrolysis), temperature, and stabilizing additives was examined. Additionally, resin extraction studies and product cycling studies were conducted to determine cleaning effectiveness (resin fouling) of various cleaning strategies. Sodium hydroxide-based cleaning solutions were shown to be more effective at preventing resin fouling. Conversely, cold temperature and the use of stabilizing additives in conjunction with sodium hydroxide were found to be beneficial in minimizing the rate of Protein A ligand hydrolysis. An effective and robust cleaning strategy is presented here to maximize resin lifetime and thereby the number of column cycles for future manufacturing processes. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:708-715, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  18. Maximizing noise energy for noise-masking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules Étienne, Cédric; Arleo, Angelo; Allard, Rémy

    2017-08-01

    Noise-masking experiments are widely used to investigate visual functions. To be useful, noise generally needs to be strong enough to noticeably impair performance, but under some conditions, noise does not impair performance even when its contrast approaches the maximal displayable limit of 100 %. To extend the usefulness of noise-masking paradigms over a wider range of conditions, the present study developed a noise with great masking strength. There are two typical ways of increasing masking strength without exceeding the limited contrast range: use binary noise instead of Gaussian noise or filter out frequencies that are not relevant to the task (i.e., which can be removed without affecting performance). The present study combined these two approaches to further increase masking strength. We show that binarizing the noise after the filtering process substantially increases the energy at frequencies within the pass-band of the filter given equated total contrast ranges. A validation experiment showed that similar performances were obtained using binarized-filtered noise and filtered noise (given equated noise energy at the frequencies within the pass-band) suggesting that the binarization operation, which substantially reduced the contrast range, had no significant impact on performance. We conclude that binarized-filtered noise (and more generally, truncated-filtered noise) can substantially increase the energy of the noise at frequencies within the pass-band. Thus, given a limited contrast range, binarized-filtered noise can display higher energy levels than Gaussian noise and thereby widen the range of conditions over which noise-masking paradigms can be useful.

  19. Reliability of surface electromyography activity of gluteal and hamstring muscles during sub-maximal and maximal voluntary isometric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussey, Melanie D; Aldabe, Daniela; Adhia, Divya; Mani, Ramakrishnan

    2018-04-01

    Normalizing to a reference signal is essential when analysing and comparing electromyography signals across or within individuals. However, studies have shown that MVC testing may not be as reliable in persons with acute and chronic pain. The purpose of this study was to compare the test-retest reliability of the muscle activity in the biceps femoris and gluteus maximus between a novel sub-MVC and standard MVC protocols. This study utilized a single individual repeated measures design with 12 participants performing multiple trials of both the sub-MVC and MVC tasks on two separate days. The participant position in the prone leg raise task was standardised with an ultrasonic sensor to improve task precession between trials/days. Day-to-day and trial-to-trial reliability of the maximal muscle activity was examined using ICC and SEM. Day-to-day and trial-to-trial reliability of the EMG activity in the BF and GM were high (0.70-0.89) to very high (≥0.90) for both test procedures. %SEM was <5-10% for both tests on a given day but higher in the day-to-day comparisons. The lower amplitude of the sub-MVC is a likely contributor to increased %SEM (8-13%) in the day-to-day comparison. The findings show that the sub-MVC modified prone double leg raise results in GM and BF EMG measures similar in reliability and precision to the standard MVC tasks. Therefore, the modified prone double leg raise may be a useful substitute for traditional MVC testing for normalizing EMG signals of the BF and GM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effects of circadian rhythmicity of salivary cortisol and testosterone on maximal isometric force, maximal dynamic force, and power output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Weipeng; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Michael J

    2011-06-01

    The study investigated the effects of circadian rhythm of cortisol (C) and testosterone (T) on maximal force production (Fpeak) and power output (Ppeak). Twenty male university students (mean age = 23.8 ± 3.6 years, height = 177.5 ± 6.4 cm, weight = 78.9 ± 11.2 kg) performed 4 time-of-day testing sessions consisting of countermovement jumps (CMJs), squat jumps (SJ), isometric midthigh pulls (IMTPs), and a 1-repetition maximum (1RM) squat. Saliva samples were collected at 0800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 hours to assess T and C levels on each testing day. Session rate-of-perceived exertion (RPE) scores were collected after each session. The results showed that Fpeak and Ppeak presented a clear circadian rhythm in CMJ and IMTP but not in SJ. One repetition maximum squat did not display a clear circadian rhythm. Session RPE scores collected at 0800 and 2000 hours were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher than those obtained at 1200 and 1600 hours. Salivary T and C displayed a clear circadian rhythm with highest values at 0800 hours and lowest at 2000 hours; however, no significant correlation was found between T and C with Fpeak and Ppeak. A very strong correlation was found between Taural with Fpeak of CMJ and IMTP and Ppeak of CMJ (r = 0.86, r = 0.84 and r = 0.8, p ≤ 0.001). The study showed the existence of a circadian rhythm in Fpeak and Ppeak in CMJ and IMTP. The evidence suggests that strength and power training or testing should be scheduled later during the day. The use of Taural seemed to be a more effective indicator of physical performance than hormonal measures, and the use of session RPE should also be closely monitored because it may present a circadian rhythm.

  1. The effect of a high carbohydrate diet and glycogen depletion on graded maximal exercise

    OpenAIRE

    小林, 義雄; 細井, 輝男; 竹内, 敏子; 朴, 哲浩; 金, 享烈; 荒井, 康夫; Yoshio, Kobayashi; Teruo, Hosoi; Toshiko, Takeuchi; Cheol-Ho, Pak; Hyung-Ryul, Kim; Yasuo, Arai; 中京大学教養部健康スポーツ科学研究室; 中京大学教養部健康スポーツ科学研究室; 中京大学教養部健康スポーツ科学研究室

    1997-01-01

    The present investigation examined the influence of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) on the performance of graded maximal exercise on a bicycle ergometer. A group of highly trained college students [mean age 22.2 (SD 1.6) years] completed three trials of graded maximal exercise under three dietary conditions; normal diet (ND), glycogen depleted (CHD), and glycogen loaded (CHL) conditions with each trial separated by five days. Measurements of work done, maximal oxygen intake (Vo_), serum lactae, gl...

  2. Moving multiple sinks through wireless sensor networks for lifetime maximization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrioli, Chiara (Universita di Roma); Carosi, Alessio (Universita di Roma); Basagni, Stefano (Northeastern University); Phillips, Cynthia Ann

    2008-01-01

    Unattended sensor networks typically watch for some phenomena such as volcanic events, forest fires, pollution, or movements in animal populations. Sensors report to a collection point periodically or when they observe reportable events. When sensors are too far from the collection point to communicate directly, other sensors relay messages for them. If the collection point location is static, sensor nodes that are closer to the collection point relay far more messages than those on the periphery. Assuming all sensor nodes have roughly the same capabilities, those with high relay burden experience battery failure much faster than the rest of the network. However, since their death disconnects the live nodes from the collection point, the whole network is then dead. We consider the problem of moving a set of collectors (sinks) through a wireless sensor network to balance the energy used for relaying messages, maximizing the lifetime of the network. We show how to compute an upper bound on the lifetime for any instance using linear and integer programming. We present a centralized heuristic that produces sink movement schedules that produce network lifetimes within 1.4% of the upper bound for realistic settings. We also present a distributed heuristic that produces lifetimes at most 25:3% below the upper bound. More specifically, we formulate a linear program (LP) that is a relaxation of the scheduling problem. The variables are naturally continuous, but the LP relaxes some constraints. The LP has an exponential number of constraints, but we can satisfy them all by enforcing only a polynomial number using a separation algorithm. This separation algorithm is a p-median facility location problem, which we can solve efficiently in practice for huge instances using integer programming technology. This LP selects a set of good sensor configurations. Given the solution to the LP, we can find a feasible schedule by selecting a subset of these configurations, ordering them

  3. Maximizing Target Language Use in a Pre-­Service Practicum: Tensions, Power, and Identity Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This study draws from a cultural-historical perspective to explore the experiences of two pre-­service ESL teachers in terms of their efforts to maximize the use of the target language during a school practicum. Both student teachers were fluent in English, had received training in maximizing target language use during their university studies,…

  4. The effects of three days of sub-maximal-intensity mountain biking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of three days of sub-maximal-intensity mountain biking on sleep. SP Murphy, A Fuller, AJ Bentley, I Avidon. Abstract. Objectives. We determined the effect of three consecutive days of sub-maximal-intensity mountain biking (4.5 hours per day, ~64 km per day), on the sleep of ten healthy, trained male and female ...

  5. Weighted and vector-valued inequalities for one-sided maximal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we study weighted and vector-valued inequalities for one-sided maximal functions. In particular, we give a new proof of l r -valued extension of weighted L p -inequalities for one-sided maximal functions. In the process, we prove an analogue of the well-known Fefferman–Stein's weighted lemma in the context ...

  6. Maximal airway narrowing in humans in vivo. Histamine compared with methacholine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, P. J.; Timmers, M. C.; Dijkman, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    Maximal airway narrowing to inhaled nonsensitizing stimuli is limited to a mild degree in nonasthmatic and mildly asthmatic subjects. We investigated whether this limitation is due to a nonspecific inhibitory mechanism (with regard to the agonist) by comparing the maximal response plateaus of

  7. Outcome Additivity and Outcome Maximality Influence Cue Competition in Human Causal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Tom; De Houwer, Jan; Pineno, Oskar; Miller, Ralph R.

    2005-01-01

    Recent research suggests that outcome additivity pretraining modulates blocking in human causal learning. However, the existing evidence confounds outcome additivity and outcome maximality. Here the authors present evidence for the influence of presenting information about outcome maximality (Experiment 1) and outcome additivity (Experiment 2) on…

  8. Active Female Maximal and Anaerobic Threshold Cardiorespiratory Responses to Six Different Water Aerobics Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Amanda H.; Alberton, Cristine L.; Finatto, Paula; Pinto, Stephanie S.; Cadore, Eduardo L.; Zaffari, Paula; Kruel, Luiz F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Maximal tests conducted on land are not suitable for the prescription of aquatic exercises, which makes it difficult to optimize the intensity of water aerobics classes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the maximal and anaerobic threshold cardiorespiratory responses to 6 water aerobics exercises. Volunteers performed 3 of the…

  9. Deconstructing facts and frames in energy research: Maxims for evaluating contentious problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Brown, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we argue that assumptions and values can play a combative, corrosive role in the generation of objective energy analysis. We then propose six maxims for energy analysts and researchers. Our maxim of information asks readers to keep up to date on trends in energy resources and technology. Our maxim of inclusivity asks readers to involve citizens and other public actors more in energy decisions. Our maxim of symmetry asks readers to keep their analysis of energy technologies centered always on both technology and society. Our maxim of reflexivity asks readers to be self-aware of one's assumptions. Our maxim of prudence asks readers to make energy decisions that are ethical or at least informed. Our maxim of agnosticism asks readers to look beyond a given energy technology to the services it provides and recognize that many systems can provide a desired service. We conclude that decisions in energy are justified by, if not predicated on, beliefs—beliefs which may or may not be supported by objective data, constantly blurring the line between fact, fiction, and frames. - Highlights: • Assumptions and values can play a combative, corrosive role in the generation of objective energy analysis. • Decisions in energy are justified by, if not predicated on, beliefs. • We propose six maxims for energy analysts and researcher.

  10. Conversational Implicature of Peanuts Comic Strip Based on Grice’s Maxim Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhartoyo Muhartoyo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses about conversational implicature that occurs in Peanuts comic strips. The objectives of this study are to find out the implied meaning in the conversation between Charlie Brown with Lucy van Pelt and Lucy van Pelt with Linus van Pelt to evaluate the existence of maxim flouting and maxim violating in those conversations in relation to the four maxims such as quantity, quality, relation, and manner. Likewise, this study attempts to find out the reason for using conversational implicature in a comic strip. The writers uses a qualitative method with library research concerning to Grice’s maxim theory to analyze the conversational implicature. Based on the analysis, it can be concluded that all the comics that comprise 14 comics generate conversational implicature since all the characters breach rules of maxim. The result of this analysis shows that flouting maxim of manner has the highest occurrence of conversational implicature and the least occurrences belong to flouting maxim of relation and violating maxim of quantity. Moreover, the writers concludes that to make a successful communication ideally the speaker and the hearer to cooperate in the conversation by saying explicitly so the hearer can grasp the meaning as the goal of communication is to deliver a message to the hearer.  

  11. Cardio-Respiratory Responses to Maximal Work During Arm and Bicycle Ergometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Richard G.; Hardison, George T.

    This study compared cardio-respiratory responses during maximal arm work using a Monarch Model 880 Rehab Trainer to cardio-respiratory responses during maximal leg work on a Monarch Model 850 Bicycle Ergometer. Subjects for the investigation were 17 male university students ranging from 18 to 28 years of age. The specific variables compared…

  12. Nonlinear Impairment Compensation Using Expectation Maximization for PDM 16-QAM Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Winther, Ole; Franceschi, Niccolo

    2012-01-01

    We show experimentally that by using non-linear signal processing based algorithm, expectation maximization, nonlinear system tolerance can be increased by 2 dB. Expectation maximization is also effective in combating I/Q modulator nonlinearities and laser linewidth....

  13. Non-maximizing output behavior for firms with a cost-constrained technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blank, J.L.T.

    2008-01-01

    In many public service industries, firms are constrained by a cost (budget) and characterized by non-maximizing output behavior, due to bureaucratic behavior, for instance. This paper proposes a model based on the assumption that firms with a cost constraint do not maximize service levels due to

  14. Maximizing carbon storage in the Appalachians: A method for considering the risk of disturbance events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael R. Vanderberg; Kevin Boston; John. Bailey

    2011-01-01

    Accounting for the probability of loss due to disturbance events can influence the prediction of carbon flux over a planning horizon, and can affect the determination of optimal silvicultural regimes to maximize terrestrial carbon storage. A preliminary model that includes forest disturbance-related carbon loss was developed to maximize expected values of carbon stocks...

  15. Is energy expenditure taken into account in human sub-maximal jumping? - a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanrenterghem, J.; Bobbert, M.F.; Casius, L.J.R.; de Clercq, D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation study that was conducted to investigate whether the stereotyped motion pattern observed in human sub-maximal jumping can be interpreted from the perspective of energy expenditure. Human sub-maximal vertical countermovement jumps were compared to jumps simulated with

  16. Effects of feedback and educational Training on Maximization in choice Tasks: Experimental-game Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, G.; Maital, S.

    2002-01-01

    Compelling evidence exists that behavior is inconsistent with the assumptions of expected-utility maximization. However, if learning occurs, then maximization may take place asymptotically (albeit slowly). But a series of experiments by Herrnstein and his associates show that under very general

  17. Maximal heart rate does not limit cardiovascular capacity in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, G D W; Svendsen, J H; Damsgaard, R

    2014-01-01

    In humans, maximal aerobic power (VO2 max ) is associated with a plateau in cardiac output (Q), but the mechanisms regulating the interplay between maximal heart rate (HRmax) and stroke volume (SV) are unclear. To evaluate the effect of tachycardia and elevations in HRmax on cardiovascular function...... and RAP (P human heart can be paced to a higher HR than observed during maximal exercise, suggesting that HRmax and myocardial work capacity do not limit VO2 max in healthy...... and capacity during maximal exercise in healthy humans, 12 young male cyclists performed incremental cycling and one-legged knee-extensor exercise (KEE) to exhaustion with and without right atrial pacing to increase HR. During control cycling, Q and leg blood flow increased up to 85% of maximal workload (WLmax...

  18. Comparison of changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle on during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Halim; Jung, Sangwoo; Joo, Sunghee; Song, Changho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. [Subjects] Thirty healthy adults participated in this study (15 men and 15 women). [Methods] All participants performed a bridge exercise and abdominal curl-up during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. Pelvic floor mobility was evaluated as the distance from the bladder base using ultrasound. [Results] According to exercise method, bridge exercise and abdominal curl-ups led to significantly different pelvic floor mobility. The pelvic floor muscle was elevated during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver and descended during maximal expiration. Finally, pelvic floor muscle mobility was greater during abdominal curl-up than during the bridge exercise. [Conclusion] According to these results, the abdominal drawing-in maneuver induced pelvic floor muscle contraction, and pelvic floor muscle contraction was greater during the abdominal curl-up than during the bridge exercise. PMID:27065532

  19. Effect of Maximal Versus Supra-Maximal Exhausting Race on Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Activity and Muscle-Damage Biomarkers in Long-Distance and Middle-Distance Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Said; Lamya, Ncir; Hamda, Mansour

    2016-03-01

    Exhausting physical exercise increases lipid peroxidation and causes important muscle damages. The human body tries to mitigate these adverse effects by mobilizing its antioxidant defenses. This study aims to investigate the effect of a maximal versus supra-maximal race sustained until exhaustion on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity and muscle-damage biomarkers in trained (i.e. long-distance and middle-distance runners) and sedentary subjects. The study has been carried out on 8 middle-distance runners (MDR), 9 long-distance runners (LDR), and 8 sedentary subjects (SS). Each subject has undergone two exhaustive running tests, the first one is an incremental event (VAMEVAL test), the second one is a constant supra-maximal intensity test (limited-time test). Blood samples were collected at rest and immediately after each test. A significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations was observed in SS and MDR after the VAMEVAL test and in LDR after the Limited-Time test. A significant difference was also observed between LDR and the other two groups after the VAMEVAL test, and between LDR and MDR after the Limited-Time test. Significant modifications, notably, in myoglobin, CK, LDH, IL-6, TNF-α, and TAS were likewise noted but depending on the race-type and the sportive specialty. Maximal and supra-maximal races induce a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and cause non-negligible inflammation and muscle damage. These effects were relatively related to the physical exercise type and the sportive specialty.

  20. Comparison of changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle on during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Halim; Jung, Sangwoo; Joo, Sunghee; Song, Changho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. [Subjects] Thirty healthy adults participated in this study (15 men and 15 women). [Methods] All participants performed a bridge exercise and abdominal curl-up during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. Pelvic floor mobility was evaluated as the distance from the bladder base using ultrasound. [Results] According to exercise method, bridge exercise and abdominal curl-ups led to significantly different pelvic floor mobility. The pelvic floor muscle was elevated during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver and descended during maximal expiration. Finally, pelvic floor muscle mobility was greater during abdominal curl-up than during the bridge exercise. [Conclusion] According to these results, the abdominal drawing-in maneuver induced pelvic floor muscle contraction, and pelvic floor muscle contraction was greater during the abdominal curl-up than during the bridge exercise.

  1. The key kinematic determinants of undulatory underwater swimming at maximal velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaboy, Chris; Naemi, Roozbeh; Brown, Susan; Psycharakis, Stelios; McCabe, Carla; Coleman, Simon; Sanders, Ross

    2016-01-01

    The optimisation of undulatory underwater swimming is highly important in competitive swimming performance. Nineteen kinematic variables were identified from previous research undertaken to assess undulatory underwater swimming performance. The purpose of the present study was to determine which kinematic variables were key to the production of maximal undulatory underwater swimming velocity. Kinematic data at maximal undulatory underwater swimming velocity were collected from 17 skilled swimmers. A series of separate backward-elimination analysis of covariance models was produced with cycle frequency and cycle length as dependent variables (DVs) and participant as a fixed factor, as including cycle frequency and cycle length would explain 100% of the maximal swimming velocity variance. The covariates identified in the cycle-frequency and cycle-length models were used to form the saturated model for maximal swimming velocity. The final parsimonious model identified three covariates (maximal knee joint angular velocity, maximal ankle angular velocity and knee range of movement) as determinants of the variance in maximal swimming velocity (adjusted-r2 = 0.929). However, when participant was removed as a fixed factor there was a large reduction in explained variance (adjusted r2 = 0.397) and only maximal knee joint angular velocity continued to contribute significantly, highlighting its importance to the production of maximal swimming velocity. The reduction in explained variance suggests an emphasis on inter-individual differences in undulatory underwater swimming technique and/or anthropometry. Future research should examine the efficacy of other anthropometric, kinematic and coordination variables to better understand the production of maximal swimming velocity and consider the importance of individual undulatory underwater swimming techniques when interpreting the data.

  2. Flouting maxim by sherlock holmes and dr. Watson in tv series Of sherlock season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Affifatusholihah

    2017-04-01

    In running daily activities, people will always meet and interact with other people, and language is a medium that is used by humans to interact with each other. In a conversation or discussion, everyone should pay attention to the four maxims in order that there are no errors in communication. However, it is not uncommon that the four rules above are breached by the speakers. This is called non-observance of the maxims, and one of a non-observance of the maxims that often occurs in is flouting maxim. The aims of this paper are to describe types of maxims that are flouted by Sherlock Holmes and dr. Watson as well as to describe how the maxims are flouted in Sherlock TV series season 1. This research used qualitative descriptive method. The researcher classifies the utterances to know what kind of maxim which are flouted, categorizes those into the category based on the Grice’s theory of Cooperative Principle, namely: maxim of quantity, quality, relation and manner. The research procedure begin by searching the script in the internet, matching the utterances in the script and in film and sorting the utterances between Sherlock Holmes and dr. Watson as well observing every word or sentence which are flouted by the main characters. The findings find that all kinds of maxims are flouted by Sherlock and dr. Watson. The result of analysis shows that the maxim flouted when the speakers say something irrelevant; something roguishness or lied to hide the truth in the form of rhetorical question; the information becomes more or too informative than what is required; and something obscurity of expression, ambiguity, or unnecessary prolixity.

  3. An ethnomedicinal survey of cucurbitaceae family plants used in the folk medicinal practices of Bangladesh 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Rahmatullah

    2012-01-01

    cochinchinensis, Trichosanthes anguina, Trichosanthes cordata, Trichosanthes dioica, and Trichosanthes kirilowii. The review of the available scientific literature showed that the use of a number of the above-mentioned plants in folk medicine can be validated based on their reported pharmacological activity studies. Conclusion: Taken together, the plants present excellent potential for further scientific studies, which may result in discovery of novel compounds of therapeutic interest.

  4. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation is acutely impaired during maximal apnoea in trained divers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy J Cross

    Full Text Available AIMS: To examine whether dynamic cerebral autoregulation is acutely impaired during maximal voluntary apnoea in trained divers. METHODS: Mean arterial pressure (MAP, cerebral blood flow-velocity (CBFV and end-tidal partial pressures of O2 and CO2 (PETO2 and PETCO2 were measured in eleven trained, male apnoea divers (28 ± 2 yr; 182 ± 2 cm, 76 ± 7 kg during maximal "dry" breath holding. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation was assessed by determining the strength of phase synchronisation between MAP and CBFV during maximal apnoea. RESULTS: The strength of phase synchronisation between MAP and CBFV increased from rest until the end of maximal voluntary apnoea (P<0.05, suggesting that dynamic cerebral autoregulation had weakened by the apnoea breakpoint. The magnitude of impairment in dynamic cerebral autoregulation was strongly, and positively related to the rise in PETCO2 observed during maximal breath holding (R (2 = 0.67, P<0.05. Interestingly, the impairment in dynamic cerebral autoregulation was not related to the fall in PETO2 induced by apnoea (R (2 = 0.01, P = 0.75. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to report that dynamic cerebral autoregulation is acutely impaired in trained divers performing maximal voluntary apnoea. Furthermore, our data suggest that the impaired autoregulatory response is related to the change in PETCO2, but not PETO2, during maximal apnoea in trained divers.

  5. Physiological and subjective responses to maximal repetitive lifting employing stoop and squat technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, K B; Hallén, J; Harms-Ringdahl, K

    1993-01-01

    To establish safe levels for physical strain in occupational repetitive lifting, it is of interest to know the specific maximal working capacity. Power output, O2 consumption, heart rate and ventilation were measured in ten experienced forestry workers during maximal squat and stoop repetitive lifting. The two modes of repetitive lifting were also compared with maximal treadmill running. In addition, electromyogram (EMG) activity in four muscles was recorded and perceived central, local low-back and thigh exertion were assessed during the lifting modes. No significant difference was found in power output between the two lifting techniques. Despite this the mean O2 consumption was significantly greater during maximal squat lifting [38.7 (SD 5.8) ml.kg-1.min-1] than maximal stoop lifting [32.9 (SD 5.7) ml.kg-1.min-1] (P squat lifting correlated highly with that of maximal treadmill running (r = 0.928, P squat lifting than during stoop lifting. The EMG recordings showed a higher activity for the vastus lateralis muscle and lower activity for the biceps femoris muscle during squat lifting than during stoop lifting. Related to the maximal voluntary contraction, the erector spinae muscle showed the highest activity irrespective of lifting technique.

  6. Physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of Trichosanthes anguina and Swietenia mahagoni seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida I. Muhamad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The core objective of this research was to determine the characteristics of oils, nutritional composition and antimicrobial activities of T. anguina and S. mahagoni seeds. Physicochemical characteristics of oils implied higher degree of unsaturation in T. anguina whereas, S. mahagoni oil contained appreciable level of unsaturation. Tri-acyl-glycerols and neutral lipids were found to be most abounded components recorded to 86.2 and 91.3% for T. anguina and 87.0 and 89.4% for S. mahagoni, respectively. GLC analysis showed the presence of fatty acids from series C16:0 to C18:3 for T. anguina and C16:0 to C20:0 for S. mahagoni in which principal fatty acids accounted as punicic (45.1% in T. anguina and linoleic (30.1% in S. mahagoni seed oils. Of the major energy producing nutrients, the seed samples contained large amounts of lipid (36.1% in T. anguina and 57.9% in S. mahagoni and protein (20.9% in T. anguina and 13.0% in S. mahagoni and potentially useful amounts of other nutrients. The knowledge from the nutritional analysis could be important to its appropriate industrial use and for improvement in the nutritional value. Assessment of the anti-microbial studies reported herein revealed the crude extracts of T. anguina and S. mahagoni seeds were not significantly inhibition against most of the tested bacteria and fungi. This study may lead to further ethno-pharmacognostic investigations to identify new compounds with therapeutic promise.

  7. Estimation of maximal oxygen uptake without exercise testing in Korean healthy adult workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Tae-Won; Park, Shin-Goo; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Kim, Jung-Man; Hong, Young-Seoub; Kim, Byoung-Gwon

    2012-08-01

    Maximal oxygen uptake is generally accepted as the most valid and reliable index of cardiorespiratory fitness and functional aerobic capacity. The exercise test for measuring maximal oxygen uptake is unsuitable for screening tests in public heath examinations, because of the potential risks of exercise exertion and time demands. We designed this study to determine whether work-related physical activity is a potential predictor of maximal oxygen uptake, and to develop a maximal oxygen uptake equation using a non-exercise regression model for the cardiorespiratory fitness test in Korean adult workers. Study subjects were adult workers of small-sized companies in Korea. Subjects with history of disease such as hypertension, diabetes, asthma and angina were excluded. In total, 217 adult subjects (113 men of 21-55 years old and 104 women of 20-64 years old) were included. Self-report questionnaire survey was conducted on study subjects, and maximal oxygen uptake of each subject was measured with the exercise test. The statistical analysis was carried out to develop an equation for estimating maximal oxygen uptake. The predictors for estimating maximal oxygen uptake included age, gender, body mass index, smoking, leisure-time physical activity and the factors representing work-related physical activity. The work-related physical activity was identified to be a predictor of maximal oxygen uptake. Moreover, the equation showed high validity according to the statistical analysis. The equation for estimating maximal oxygen uptake developed in the present study could be used as a screening test for assessing cardiorespiratory fitness in Korean adult workers.

  8. Maximal violation of Bell's inequalities for algebras of observables in tangent spacetime regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, S.J.; Werner, R.

    1988-01-01

    We continue our study of Bell's inequalities and quantum field theory. It is shown in considerably broader generality than in our previous work that algebras of local observables corresponding to complementary wedge regions maximally violate Bell's inequality in all normal states. Pairs of commuting von Neumann algebras that maximally violate Bell's inequalities in all normal states are characterized. Algebras of local observables corresponding to tangent double cones are shown to maximally violate Bell's inequalities in all normal states in dilatation-invariant theories, in free quantum field models, and in a class of interacting models. Further, it is proven that such algebras are not split in any theory with an ultraviolet scaling limit

  9. Factors associated with maximal walking speed among older community-living adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sallinen, Janne; Mänty, Minna; Leinonen, Raija

    2011-01-01

    07330512) involving 605 community-living ambulatory adults aged 75-81 years. Maximal walking speed, leg extensor power, standing balance and body mass index were measured at the research center. Physical activity, smoking, use of alcohol, chronic diseases and depressive symptoms were self-reported using...... standard questionnaires. Results: The mean maximal walking speed was 1.4 m/s (range 0.3-2.9). In linear regression analysis, age, gender and body mass index explained 11% of the variation in maximal walking speed. Adding leg extensor power and standing balance into the model increased the variation...

  10. Outer measures and weak type estimates of Hardy-Littlewood maximal operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terasawa Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We will introduce the times modified centered and uncentered Hardy-Littlewood maximal operators on nonhomogeneous spaces for . We will prove that the times modified centered Hardy-Littlewood maximal operator is weak type bounded with constant when if the Radon measure of the space has "continuity" in some sense. In the proof, we will use the outer measure associated with the Radon measure. We will also prove other results of Hardy-Littlewood maximal operators on homogeneous spaces and on the real line by using outer measures.

  11. Recurrent glioblastomas in the elderly after maximal first-line treatment: does preserved overall condition warrant a maximal second-line treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanello, Marc; Roux, Alexandre; Ursu, Renata; Peeters, Sophie; Bauchet, Luc; Noel, Georges; Guyotat, Jacques; Le Reste, Pierre-Jean; Faillot, Thierry; Litre, Fabien; Desse, Nicolas; Emery, Evelyne; Petit, Antoine; Peltier, Johann; Voirin, Jimmy; Caire, François; Barat, Jean-Luc; Vignes, Jean-Rodolphe; Menei, Philippe; Langlois, Olivier; Dezamis, Edouard; Carpentier, Antoine; Dam Hieu, Phong; Metellus, Philippe; Pallud, Johan

    2017-11-01

    A growing literature supports maximal safe resection followed by standard combined chemoradiotherapy (i.e. maximal first-line therapy) for selected elderly glioblastoma patients. To assess the prognostic factors from recurrence in elderly glioblastoma patients treated by maximal safe resection followed by standard combined chemoradiotherapy as first-line therapy. Multicentric retrospective analysis comparing the prognosis and optimal oncological management of recurrent glioblastomas between 660 adult patients aged of patients aged of ≥70 years (elderly group) harboring a supratentorial glioblastoma treated by maximal first-line therapy. From recurrence, both groups did not significantly differ regarding Karnofsky performance status (KPS) (p = 0.482). Oncological treatments from recurrence significantly differed: patients of the elderly group received less frequently oncological treatment from recurrence (p oncological treatment from recurrence (p patients had substandard care from recurrence whereas age did not impact overall survival from recurrence contrary to KPS at recurrence <70. Treatment options from recurrence should include repeat surgery, second line chemotherapy and anti-angiogenic agents.

  12. Real-time traffic management to maximize throughput of automated vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    In intelligent transportation systems, most of the research work has focused on lane change assistant : systems. No existing work considers minimizing the disruption of traffic flow by maximizing the number : of lane changes while eliminating the col...

  13. Physiological and morphological determinants of maximal expiratory flow in chronic obstructive lung disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A.W.M. Tiddens (Harm); J.M. Bogaard (Jan); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); H.O. Coxson (Harvey); P.D. Pare

    1996-01-01

    textabstractMaximal expiratory flow in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) could be reduced by three different mechanisms; loss of lung elastic recoil, decreased airway conductance upstream of flow-limiting segments; and increased collapsibility of airways.

  14. Bounds on absolutely maximally entangled states from shadow inequalities, and the quantum MacWilliams identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Felix; Eltschka, Christopher; Siewert, Jens; Gühne, Otfried

    2018-04-01

    A pure multipartite quantum state is called absolutely maximally entangled (AME), if all reductions obtained by tracing out at least half of its parties are maximally mixed. Maximal entanglement is then present across every bipartition. The existence of such states is in many cases unclear. With the help of the weight enumerator machinery known from quantum error correction and the shadow inequalities, we obtain new bounds on the existence of AME states in dimensions larger than two. To complete the treatment on the weight enumerator machinery, the quantum MacWilliams identity is derived in the Bloch representation. Finally, we consider AME states whose subsystems have different local dimensions, and present an example for a 2×3×3×3 system that shows maximal entanglement across every bipartition.

  15. Maximization of Sums of Quotients of Quadratic Forms and Some Generalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiers, Henk A. L.

    1995-01-01

    Monotonically convergent algorithms are described for maximizing sums of quotients of quadratic forms. Six (constrained) functions are investigated. The general formulation of the functions and the algorithms allow for application of the algorithms in various situations in multivariate analysis. (SLD)

  16. Effects of cluster vs. traditional plyometric training sets on maximal-intensity exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Asadi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Although both plyometric training methods improved lower body maximal-intensity exercise performance, the traditional sets methods resulted in greater adaptations in sprint performance, while the cluster sets method resulted in greater jump and agility adaptations.

  17. A Local Scalable Distributed Expectation Maximization Algorithm for Large Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper describes a local and distributed expectation maximization algorithm for learning parameters of Gaussian mixture models (GMM) in large peer-to-peer (P2P)...

  18. PERTURBATION ESTIMATES FOR THE MAXIMAL SOLUTION OF A NONLINEAR MATRIX EQUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vejdi I. Hasanov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a nonlinear matrix equation is considered. Perturba- tion estimations for the maximal solution of the considered equation are obtained. The results are illustrated by the use of numerical ex- amples.

  19. Maximal bite force and surface EMG in patients with myasthenia gravis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijnen, FG; Wokke, JHJ; Kuks, JBM; van der Glas, HW; Bosman, F

    2000-01-01

    Masticatory muscle strength was quantified in patients with bulbar myasthenia gravis and compared with that of patients with ocular myasthenia gravis, patients in clinical remission (whether or not pharmacological) who previously suffered from bulbar myasthenia gravis, and healthy subjects. Maximal

  20. Incentive Compatible Influence Maximization in Social Networks and Application to Viral Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Mohite, Mayur; Narahari, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Information diffusion and influence maximization are important and extensively studied problems in social networks. Various models and algorithms have been proposed in the literature in the context of the influence maximization problem. A crucial assumption in all these studies is that the influence probabilities are known to the social planner. This assumption is unrealistic since the influence probabilities are usually private information of the individual agents and strategic agents may no...

  1. A maximal element theorem in FWC-spaces and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haishu; Hu, Qingwen; Miao, Yulin

    2014-01-01

    A maximal element theorem is proved in finite weakly convex spaces (FWC-spaces, in short) which have no linear, convex, and topological structure. Using the maximal element theorem, we develop new existence theorems of solutions to variational relation problem, generalized equilibrium problem, equilibrium problem with lower and upper bounds, and minimax problem in FWC-spaces. The results represented in this paper unify and extend some known results in the literature.

  2. The properties and interrelationships of various force-time parameters during maximal repeated rhythmic grip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Masakatsu; Demura, Shinichi; Yamaji, Shunsuke

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the properties and interrelationships of various force-time parameters including the inflection point for the rate of decline in force during a maximal repeated rhythmic grip. Fifteen healthy males (age M=21.5, SD=2.1 yr, height M=172.4, SD=5.7 cm, body mass M=68.2, SD=9.2 kg) participated in this study. Subjects performed a maximal repeated rhythmic grip with maximal effort with a target frequency of 30 grip.min(-1) for 6 min. The force value decreased linearly and markedly until about 70% of maximal strength for about 55 s after the onset of a maximal repeated rhythmic grip, and then decreased moderately. Because all parameters showed fair or good correlations between 3 min and 6 min, they are considered to be able to sufficiently evaluate muscle endurance for 3 min instead of 6 min. However, there were significant differences between 3 min and 6 min in the integrated area, the final force, the rate of the decrement constant (k) fitting the force decreasing data to y=ae(-kx)+b and the force of maximal difference between the force and a straight line from peak force to the final force. Their parameters may vary generally by the length of a steady state, namely, a measurement time. The final force value before finishing and the rate of the decrement constant (k) reflect the latter phase during a maximal repeated rhythmic grip. Although many parameters show relatively high mutual relationships, the rate constant (k) shows relatively low correlations with other parameters. We inferred that decreasing the time until 80% of maximal strength and the amount of the decrement force for the first 1 min reflect a linear decrease in the initial phase.

  3. Relations of morphological characteristics and maximal oxygen consumption of fourth grade pupils based on gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available On a sample of 71 respondents, 37 boys and 34 girls, age of fourth grade elementary school, accordingly 9 years +/- 6 months, it is assessed correlation and prediction of maximal oxygen consumption based measures of morphological range. Maximum oxygen consumption was measured by indirect method, using a field test of maximal multiple load of feedback running at 20 meters. Range of morphology was analyzed based on 5 measures of longitudinal dimensionality, 4 measures of volume and body mass and 3 measures of transversal dimensionality. Results of correlation analysis showed that in both sexes there was no statistically significant correlation between results of maximal oxygen consumption and measures of longitudinal dimensionality, while regression analysis confirmed that there was no statistically significant prediction of maximum oxygen consumption based on measures of longitudinal dimensionality. While the correlation analysis deduced that part of volume measures and body mass and transversal dimensionality have statistically significant correlation only with female respondents with results of maximal oxygen consumption. Regression analysis showed statistically significant prediction of maximal oxygen consumption based on part of volume measures and body mass and transversal dimensionality. It is determined that female respondents with larger volumes of the thigh and lower leg, accordingly with smaller diameters of knee joint and ankle joint most likely will achieve better results in applied test, and therefore higher maximal oxygen consumption.

  4. Optimal Energy Management for a Smart Grid using Resource-Aware Utility Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegaz, Brook W.; Mahajan, Satish M.; Negeri, Ebisa O.

    2016-06-01

    Heterogeneous energy prosumers are aggregated to form a smart grid based energy community managed by a central controller which could maximize their collective energy resource utilization. Using the central controller and distributed energy management systems, various mechanisms that harness the power profile of the energy community are developed for optimal, multi-objective energy management. The proposed mechanisms include resource-aware, multi-variable energy utility maximization objectives, namely: (1) maximizing the net green energy utilization, (2) maximizing the prosumers' level of comfortable, high quality power usage, and (3) maximizing the economic dispatch of energy storage units that minimize the net energy cost of the energy community. Moreover, an optimal energy management solution that combines the three objectives has been implemented by developing novel techniques of optimally flexible (un)certainty projection and appliance based pricing decomposition in an IBM ILOG CPLEX studio. A real-world, per-minute data from an energy community consisting of forty prosumers in Amsterdam, Netherlands is used. Results show that each of the proposed mechanisms yields significant increases in the aggregate energy resource utilization and welfare of prosumers as compared to traditional peak-power reduction methods. Furthermore, the multi-objective, resource-aware utility maximization approach leads to an optimal energy equilibrium and provides a sustainable energy management solution as verified by the Lagrangian method. The proposed resource-aware mechanisms could directly benefit emerging energy communities in the world to attain their energy resource utilization targets.

  5. Maximal hypersurfaces and foliations of constant mean curvature in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsden, J.E.; Tipler, F.J.; Texas Univ., Austin

    1980-01-01

    We prove theorems on existence, uniqueness and smoothness of maximal and constant mean curvature compact spacelike hypersurfaces in globally hyperbolic spacetimes. The uniqueness theorem for maximal hypersurfaces of Brill and Flaherty, which assumed matter everywhere, is extended to specetimes that are vacuum and non-flat or that satisfy a generic-type condition. In this connection we show that under general hypotheses, a spatially closed universe with a maximal hypersurface must be Wheeler universe; i.e. be closed in time as well. The existence of Lipschitz achronal maximal volume hypersurfaces under the hypothesis that candidate hypersurfaces are bounded away from the singularity is proved. This hypothesis is shown to be valid in two cases of interest: when the singularities are of strong curvature type, and when the singularity is a single ideal point. Some properties of these maximal volume hypersurfaces and difficulties with Avez' original arguments are discussed. The difficulties involve the possibility that the maximal volume hypersurface can be null on certain portions; we present an incomplete argument which suggests that these hypersurfaces are always smooth, but prove that an a priori bound on the second fundamental form does imply smoothness. An extension of the perturbation theorem of Choquet-Bruhat, Fischer and Marsden is given and conditions under which local foliantions by constant mean curvature hypersurfaces can be extended to global ones is obtained. (orig.)

  6. Expectation-Maximization-Maximization: A Feasible MLE Algorithm for the Three-Parameter Logistic Model Based on a Mixture Modeling Reformulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chanjin; Meng, Xiangbin; Guo, Shaoyang; Liu, Zhengguang

    2017-01-01

    Stable maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) of item parameters in 3PLM with a modest sample size remains a challenge. The current study presents a mixture-modeling approach to 3PLM based on which a feasible Expectation-Maximization-Maximization (EMM) MLE algorithm is proposed. The simulation study indicates that EMM is comparable to the Bayesian EM in terms of bias and RMSE. EMM also produces smaller standard errors (SEs) than MMLE/EM. In order to further demonstrate the feasibility, the method has also been applied to two real-world data sets. The point estimates in EMM are close to those from the commercial programs, BILOG-MG and flexMIRT, but the SEs are smaller.

  7. Expectation-Maximization-Maximization: A Feasible MLE Algorithm for the Three-Parameter Logistic Model Based on a Mixture Modeling Reformulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanjin Zheng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Stable maximum likelihood estimation (MLE of item parameters in 3PLM with a modest sample size remains a challenge. The current study presents a mixture-modeling approach to 3PLM based on which a feasible Expectation-Maximization-Maximization (EMM MLE algorithm is proposed. The simulation study indicates that EMM is comparable to the Bayesian EM in terms of bias and RMSE. EMM also produces smaller standard errors (SEs than MMLE/EM. In order to further demonstrate the feasibility, the method has also been applied to two real-world data sets. The point estimates in EMM are close to those from the commercial programs, BILOG-MG and flexMIRT, but the SEs are smaller.

  8. Resistance training for explosive and maximal strength: effects on early and late rate of force development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Felipe B D; Oliveira, Anderson S C; Rizatto, Guilherme F; Denadai, Benedito S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify whether strength training designed to improve explosive and maximal strength would influence rate of force development (RFD). Nine men participated in a 6-week knee extensors resistance training program and 9 matched subjects participated as controls. Throughout the training sessions, subjects were instructed to perform isometric knee extension as fast and forcefully as possible, achieving at least 90% maximal voluntary contraction as quickly as possible, hold it for 5 s, and relax. Fifteen seconds separated each repetition (6-10), and 2 min separated each set (3). Pre- and post-training measurements were maximal isometric knee extensor (MVC), RFD, and RFD relative to MVC (i.e., %MVC·s(-1)) in different time-epochs varying from 10 to 250 ms from the contraction onset. The MVC (Nm) increased by 19% (275.8 ± 64.9 vs. 329.8 ± 60.4, p resistance training for explosive and maximal strength. This time-specific RFD adaptation highlight that resistance training programs should consider the specific neuromuscular demands of each sport. Key PointsThe time-specific RFD adaptation evoked by resistance training highlight that the method of analyzing RFD is essential for the interpretation of results.Confirming previous data, maximal contractile RFD and maximal force can be differently influenced by resistance training. Thus, the resistance training programs should consider the specific neuromuscular demands of each sport.In active non-strength trained individuals, a short-term resistance training program designed to increase both explosive and maximal strength seems to reduce the adaptive response (i.e. increased RFDMAX) evoked by training with an intended ballistic effort (i.e. high-RFD contraction).

  9. Entropy maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This implies that f (x) is positive for all x different from one and at x = 1 it is zero. ... PROPOSITION 1. Let ( , B, μ) be a measure space. Let f1 and f2 be B measurable functions from to. R. + = [0, ∞) such that. ∫ f1(ω)dμ = 1 = ∫ f2(ω)dμ. Then .... single point, an interval that is half open, fully open, closed, semi-infinite, finite.

  10. Effect of voluntary teeth clenching and sitting posture on maximal static force of limb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Zafar, Hamayun; Iqbal, Zaheen A; Al-Eisa, Einas S

    2018-04-04

    People clench their teeth to activate facial, neck and abdominal muscles when they need to generate heavy muscle force against large resistance like lifting heavy objects, in order to gain possible ergogenic advantage. These are termed as remote voluntary contractions. Aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of voluntary teeth clenching on maximal voluntary contraction of extensors and flexors of the knee, shoulder and elbow joints of the dominant side during slouch and unsupported upright sitting. One hundred healthy young male adults (mean age 23.3 years) participated in this study. Maximal voluntary contraction was measured using a hand held dynamometer. Jaw clenching caused different ergogenic effect during slouch versus unsupported sitting postures. The data revealed that during unsupported upright sitting, the effect of jaw clenching consistently results in larger maximal voluntary contraction of both extensor and flexor muscles of all the three studied joints. However, during slouch sitting, only the maximal voluntary contraction of extensors of elbow and flexors of knee were larger with clenched teeth position. Jaw clenching can affect the maximal voluntary contraction of limb muscles which is sitting posture dependent. Jaw clenching can consistently facilitate certain muscles of the upper and lower limbs to generate greater force production during upright sitting.

  11. Models and tests of optimal density and maximal yield for crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jianming; Ran, Jinzhi; Wang, Zhiqiang; Fan, Zhexuan; Wang, Genxuan; Ji, Mingfei; Liu, Jing; Wang, Yun; Liu, Jianquan; Brown, James H

    2012-09-25

    We introduce a theoretical framework that predicts the optimum planting density and maximal yield for an annual crop plant. Two critical parameters determine the trajectory of plant growth and the optimal density, N(opt), where canopies of growing plants just come into contact, and competition: (i) maximal size at maturity, M(max), which differs among varieties due to artificial selection for different usable products; and (ii) intrinsic growth rate, g, which may vary with variety and environmental conditions. The model predicts (i) when planting density is less than N(opt), all plants of a crop mature at the same maximal size, M(max), and biomass yield per area increases linearly with density; and (ii) when planting density is greater than N(opt), size at maturity and yield decrease with -4/3 and -1/3 powers of density, respectively. Field data from China show that most annual crops, regardless of variety and life form, exhibit similar scaling relations, with maximal size at maturity, M(max), accounting for most of the variation in optimal density, maximal yield, and energy use per area. Crops provide elegantly simple empirical model systems to study basic processes that determine the performance of plants in agricultural and less managed ecosystems.

  12. Running speed and maximal oxygen uptake in rats and mice: practical implications for exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høydal, Morten A; Wisløff, Ulrik; Kemi, Ole J; Ellingsen, Oyvind

    2007-12-01

    Valid and reliable experimental models are essential to gain insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of exercise in prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of lifestyle-related diseases. Studies with large changes, low variation, and reproducible training outcome require individualized training intensity, controlled by direct measurements of maximal oxygen uptake or heart rate. As this approach is expensive and time consuming, we discuss whether maximal treadmill running speed in a gradually increasing ramp protocol might be sufficient to control intensity without losing accuracy. Combined data from six studies of rats and mice from our lab demonstrated a close correlation between running speed and oxygen uptake. This relationship changed towards a steeper linear slope after endurance training, indicating improved work economy, that is, less oxygen was consumed at fixed submaximal running speeds. Maximal oxygen uptake increased 40-70% after high-intensity aerobic interval training in mice and rats. The speed at which oxygen uptake reached a plateau, increased in parallel with the change in maximal oxygen uptake during the training period. Although this suggests that running speed can be used to assess training intensity throughout a training program, the problem is to determine the exact relative intensity related to maximal oxygen uptake from running speed alone. We therefore suggest that directly measured oxygen uptake should be used to assess exercise intensity and optimize endurance training in rats and mice. Running speed may serve as a supplement to ensure this intensity.

  13. Predischarge maximal exercise test identifies risk for cardiac death in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J R; Mickley, H; Damsgaard, E M

    1990-01-01

    subjects was 143 watts. A maximal work capacity half this (less than or equal to 72 watts) predicted long-term mortality in AMI patients (p less than 0.001). In addition a low increase in systolic blood pressure (less than 30 mm Hg) also predicted long-term mortality (p less than 0.005), whereas ST shifts...... were of no significant value. In this study maximal work capacity turned out to be the best single exercise variable for identifying groups of AMI patients with very low and relative high risk of cardiac death. When all 3 exercise variables were combined, the predischarge maximal exercise test......A maximal exercise test was performed in 54 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) before discharge and in 49 age-matched control subjects. The long-term prognosis was assessed after an average follow-up of 7.6 years in AMI patients and 5.8 years in control subjects. The maximal work...

  14. When Wanting the Best Goes Right or Wrong: Distinguishing Between Adaptive and Maladaptive Maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jeffrey; Scholer, Abigail A

    2017-04-01

    Researchers have often disagreed on how to define maximization, leading to conflicting conclusions about its potential benefits or drawbacks. Drawing from motivation research, we distinguish between the goals (i.e., wanting the best) and strategies (e.g., alternative search) associated with maximizing. Three studies illustrate how this differentiation offers insight into when maximizers do or do not experience affective costs when making decisions. In Study 1, we show that two motivational orientations, promotion focus and assessment mode, are both associated with the goal of wanting the best, yet assessment (not promotion) is related to the use of alternative search strategies. In Study 2, we demonstrate that alternative search strategies are associated with frustration on a discrete decision task. In Study 3, we provide evidence that one reason for this link may be due to reconsideration of previously dismissed options. We discuss the potential of this approach to integrate research in this area.

  15. An Efficient Approach to Mining Maximal Contiguous Frequent Patterns from Large DNA Sequence Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rezaul Karim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mining interesting patterns from DNA sequences is one of the most challenging tasks in bioinformatics and computational biology. Maximal contiguous frequent patterns are preferable for expressing the function and structure of DNA sequences and hence can capture the common data characteristics among related sequences. Biologists are interested in finding frequent orderly arrangements of motifs that are responsible for similar expression of a group of genes. In order to reduce mining time and complexity, however, most existing sequence mining algorithms either focus on finding short DNA sequences or require explicit specification of sequence lengths in advance. The challenge is to find longer sequences without specifying sequence lengths in advance. In this paper, we propose an efficient approach to mining maximal contiguous frequent patterns from large DNA sequence datasets. The experimental results show that our proposed approach is memory-efficient and mines maximal contiguous frequent patterns within a reasonable time.

  16. Maximal Cohen-Macaulay modules over non-isolated surface singularities and matrix problems

    CERN Document Server

    Burban, Igor

    2017-01-01

    In this article the authors develop a new method to deal with maximal Cohen-Macaulay modules over non-isolated surface singularities. In particular, they give a negative answer on an old question of Schreyer about surface singularities with only countably many indecomposable maximal Cohen-Macaulay modules. Next, the authors prove that the degenerate cusp singularities have tame Cohen-Macaulay representation type. The authors' approach is illustrated on the case of \\mathbb{k} x,y,z/(xyz) as well as several other rings. This study of maximal Cohen-Macaulay modules over non-isolated singularities leads to a new class of problems of linear algebra, which the authors call representations of decorated bunches of chains. They prove that these matrix problems have tame representation type and describe the underlying canonical forms.

  17. Maximizing the spectral and energy efficiency of ARQ with a fixed outage probability

    KAUST Repository

    Hadjtaieb, Amir

    2015-10-05

    This paper studies the spectral and energy efficiency of automatic repeat request (ARQ) in Nakagami-m block-fading channels. The source encodes each packet into L similar sequences and transmits them to the destination in the L subsequent time slots. The destination combines the L sequences using maximal ratio combining and tries to decode the information. In case of decoding failure, the destination feeds back a negative acknowledgment and then the source sends the same L sequences to the destination. This process continues until successful decoding occurs at the destination with no limit on the number of retransmissions. We consider two optimization problems. In the first problem, we maximize the spectral efficiency of the system with respect to the rate for a fixed power. In the second problem, we maximize the energy efficiency with respect to the transmitted power for a fixed rate. © 2015 IEEE.

  18. Maximal locality and predictive power in higher-dimensional, compactified field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Jisuke; Nunami, Masanori

    2004-01-01

    To realize maximal locality in a trivial field theory, we maximize the ultraviolet cutoff of the theory by fine tuning the infrared values of the parameters. This optimization procedure is applied to the scalar theory in D + 1 dimensional (D ≥ 4) with one extra dimension compactified on a circle of radius R. The optimized, infrared values of the parameters are then compared with the corresponding ones of the uncompactified theory in D dimensions, which is assumed to be the low-energy effective theory. We find that these values approximately agree with each other as long as R -1 > approx sM is satisfied, where s ≅ 10, 50, 50, 100 for D = 4,5,6,7, and M is a typical scale of the D-dimensional theory. This result supports the previously made claim that the maximization of the ultraviolet cutoff in a nonrenormalizable field theory can give the theory more predictive power. (author)

  19. Contemporary Applications of Shariah Maxims Related to Needs and Necessities in Medical Field(Urdu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Hafiz Aziz ur Raḥman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Emergence of biomedical research and innovation with an unprecedented speed has created number of opportunities and challenges for policy makers. On the one hand, it is now possible to introduce tailor-made personal medication regime for an ailing patient to offer state of the art treatments. On the other hand, several ethical and legal issues have been raised due to the complex nature of emerging technologies. Policy makers all over the world are constantly addressing these challenges by continuously upgrading their respective professional and regulatory frameworks. This article is an attempt to highlight Shariah maxims which have contemporary application in medical field. Lately, there has been a lot of interest in the debate of Shariah maxims and many scholars have used maxims-based analytical frameworks to show the dynamic application of Islamic law. This article builds upon those works by focusing on issues related to the medical field.

  20. All conjugate-maximal-helicity-violating amplitudes from topological open string theory in twistor space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiban, Radu; Volovich, Anastasia

    2004-09-24

    It has recently been proposed that the D-instanton expansion of the open topological B model on P(3|4) is equivalent to the perturbative expansion of the maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions. In this letter we show how to construct the gauge theory results for all n-point conjugate-maximal-helicity-violating amplitudes by computing the integral over the moduli space of curves of degree n-3 in P(3|4), providing strong support to the string theory construction.

  1. The constrained maximal expression level owing to haploidy shapes gene content on the mammalian X chromosome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurst, Laurence D.; Ghanbarian, Avazeh T.; Forrest, Alistair R R

    2015-01-01

    is not a tolerable environment for genes with very high maximal net levels of expression, owing to transcriptional traffic jams. We test this hypothesis using The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) and data from the Functional Annotation of the Mammalian Genome (FANTOM5) project. As predicted, the maximal......-to-autosome retrogenes on autosomes. Also as expected, X-linked genes have a lesser degree of increase in gene expression than autosomal ones (compared to the human/Chimpanzee common ancestor) if highly expressed, but not if lowly expressed. The traffic jam model also explains the known lower breadth of expression...

  2. Supergravity backgrounds for four-dimensional maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxfield, Travis [Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago,Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2017-02-13

    In this note, we describe supersymmetric backgrounds for the four-dimensional maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. As an extension of the method of Festuccia and Seiberg to sixteen supercharges in four dimensions, we utilize the coupling of the gauge theory to maximally extended conformal supergravity. Included among the fields of the conformal supergravity multiplet is the complexified coupling parameter of the gauge theory; therefore, backgrounds with spacetime varying coupling — such as appear in F-theory and Janus configurations — are naturally included in this formalism. We demonstrate this with a few examples from past literature.

  3. Supergravity backgrounds for four-dimensional maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxfield, Travis

    2017-02-01

    In this note, we describe supersymmetric backgrounds for the four-dimensional maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. As an extension of the method of Festuccia and Seiberg to sixteen supercharges in four dimensions, we utilize the coupling of the gauge theory to maximally extended conformal supergravity. Included among the fields of the conformal supergravity multiplet is the complexified coupling parameter of the gauge theory; therefore, backgrounds with spacetime varying coupling — such as appear in F-theory and Janus configurations — are naturally included in this formalism. We demonstrate this with a few examples from past literature.

  4. Local depletion of glycogen with supra-maximal exercise in human skeletal muscle fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Kasper Degn; Ørtenblad, Niels; Andersson, Erik

    2017-01-01

    importance to muscle function. The present study was designed to investigate the depletion of these three sub-cellular glycogen compartments during repeated supra-maximal exercise in elite athletes. Ten elite cross-country skiers (age: 25 ± 4 yrs., VO2 max : 65 ± 4 ml kg(-1) min(-1) , mean ± SD) performed...... of spatially distinct glycogen compartments differs during supra-maximal exercise. Furthermore, the depletion changes with repeated exercise and is fibre type-dependent. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  5. Maximal translational equivalence classes of musical patterns in point-set representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collins, Tom; Meredith, David

    2013-01-01

    Representing musical notes as points in pitch-time space causes repeated motives and themes to appear as translationally related patterns that often correspond to maximal translatable patterns (MTPs). However, an MTP is also often the union of a salient pattern with one or two temporally isolated...... notes. This has been called the problem of isolated membership. Examining the MTPs in musical works reveals that salient patterns may correspond more often to the intersections of MTPs than to the MTPs themselves. We therefore explore patterns that are maximal with respect to their translational...

  6. Sum Rate Maximization using Linear Precoding and Decoding in the Multiuser MIMO Downlink

    OpenAIRE

    Tenenbaum, Adam J.; Adve, Raviraj S.

    2008-01-01

    We propose an algorithm to maximize the instantaneous sum data rate transmitted by a base station in the downlink of a multiuser multiple-input, multiple-output system. The transmitter and the receivers may each be equipped with multiple antennas and each user may receive more than one data stream. We show that maximizing the sum rate is closely linked to minimizing the product of mean squared errors (PMSE). The algorithm employs an uplink/downlink duality to iteratively design transmit-recei...

  7. Determination of maximal amount of minor gases adsorbed in a shale sample by headspace gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Yun; Hu, Hui-Chao; Chai, Xin-Sheng; Pan, Lei; Xiao, Xian-Ming

    2014-02-07

    In this paper, we present a novel method for determining the maximal amount of ethane, a minor gas species, adsorbed in a shale sample. The method is based on the time-dependent release of ethane from shale samples measured by headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC). The study includes a mathematical model for fitting the experimental data, calculating the maximal amount gas adsorbed, and predicting results at other temperatures. The method is a more efficient alternative to the isothermal adsorption method that is in widespread use today. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Maximal power output during incremental exercise by resistance and endurance trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivelavan, D S; Sumathilatha, S

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed at comparing the maximal power output by resistance trained and endurance trained athletes during incremental exercise. Thirty male athletes who received resistance training (Group I) and thirty male athletes of similar age group who received endurance training (Group II) for a period of more than 1 year were chosen for the study. Physical parameters were measured and exercise stress testing was done on a cycle ergometer with a portable gas analyzing system. The maximal progressive incremental cycle ergometer power output at peak exercise and carbon dioxide production at VO2max were measured. Highly significant (P biofeedback and perk up the athlete's performance.

  9. Multi-channel counter-current chromatography for high-throughput fractionation of natural products for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shihua; Yang, Lu; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Xiaoyue; Liu, Feiyan

    2008-02-08

    A multi-channel counter-current chromatography (CCC) method has been designed and fabricated for the high-throughput fractionation of natural products without complications sometimes encountered with other conventional chromatographic systems, such as irreversible adsorptive constituent losses and deactivation, tailing of solute peaks and contamination. It has multiple independent CCC channels and each channel connects independent separation column(s) by parallel flow tubes, and thus the multi-channel CCC apparatus can achieve simultaneously two or more independent chromatographic processes. Furthermore, a high-throughput CCC fractionation method for natural products has been developed by a combination of a new three-channel CCC apparatus and conventional parallel chromatographic devices including pumps, sample injectors, effluent detectors and collectors, and its performance has been displayed on the fractionation of ethyl acetate extracts of three natural materials Solidago canadensis, Suillus placidus, and Trichosanthes kirilowii, which are found to be potent cytotoxic to tumor cell lines in the course of screening the antitumor candidates. By combination of biological screening programs and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) purification, 22.8 mg 6 beta-angeloyloxykolavenic acid and 29.4 mg 6 beta-tigloyloxykolavenic acid for S. canadensis, 25.3mg suillin for S. placidus, and 6.8 mg 23,24-dihydrocucurbitacin B for T. Kirilowii as their major cytotoxic principles were isolated from each 1000 mg crude ethyl acetate extract. Their chemical structures were characterized by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance. The overall results indicate the multi-channel CCC is very useful for high-throughput fractionation of natural products for drug discovery in spite of the solvent balancing requirement and the lower resolution of the shorter CCC columns.

  10. Letting the daylight in : Reviewing the reviewers and other ways to maximize transparency in science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Kievit, R.A.; Bakker, M.; Borsboom, D.

    2012-01-01

    With the emergence of online publishing, opportunities to maximize transparency of scientific research have grown considerably. However, these possibilities are still only marginally used. We argue for the implementation of (1) peer-reviewed peer review, (2) transparent editorial hierarchies, and

  11. Optimizing the financial structure and maximizing the future value of your generation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arulampalam, G.; Letellier, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses ways of optimizing the financial structure and maximizing the future value of an electric power generation project. It outlines the project structure, the sponsor objectives, project finance lending criteria, project timeline, risk mitigation, bank and institutional financing, sponsor's role, impact of financing choices on project value, and impact of penalties and derivative products

  12. Testing the maximal rank of the volatility process for continuous diffusions observed with noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fissler, Tobias; Podolskij, Mark

    In this paper, we present a test for the maximal rank of the volatility process in continuous diffusion models observed with noise. Such models are typically applied in mathematical finance, where latent price processes are corrupted by microstructure noise at ultra high frequencies. Using high...

  13. Weighted and vector-valued inequalities for one-sided maximal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The classical Hardy–Littlewood maximal operator M : f → Mf plays a key role in the study of a variety of problems in .... Again, Fefferman–Stein's weighted lemma plays a key role in the proof of Theorem 1.4 in [1]. The authors suitably adapted the ... Also, another motivation to study these objects come from applications of ...

  14. A note on boundedness of the Hardy–Littlewood maximal operator on Morrey spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gogatishvili, Amiran; Mustafayev, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2016), s. 1885-1891 ISSN 1660-5446 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14743S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Morrey spaces * maximal operator Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.868, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00009-015-0614-3

  15. 75 FR 16514 - Maxim Integrated Products, Formerly Known as Dallas Semiconductor, Dallas, TX; Amended...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Formerly Known as Dallas Semiconductor, Dallas, TX; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply... Integrated Products was formerly known as Dallas Semiconductor. Some workers separated from employment at the... the names Maxim Integrated Products, Inc. and Dallas Semiconductor. Accordingly, the Department is...

  16. Metropolitan natural area protection to maximize public access and species representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane A. Ruliffson; Robert G. Haight; Paul H. Gobster; Frances R. Homans

    2003-01-01

    In response to widespread urban development, local governments in metropolitan areas in the United States acquire and protect privately-owned open space. We addressed the planner's problem of allocating a fixed budget for open space protection among eligible natural areas with the twin objectives of maximizing public access and species representation. Both...

  17. Ergogenic effect of varied doses of coffee-caffeine on maximal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Caffeine one of the readily available stimulants consumed daily by more than 80% of the world's population, making it the most widely consumed drug in history. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different doses (5, 10 &15 mg.kg-1) of caffeine per kilogram body weight on maximal ...

  18. Navy Ship Maintenance: Action Needed to Maximize New Contracting Strategys Potential Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    NAVY SHIP MAINTENANCE Action Needed to Maximize New Contracting Strategy’s Potential Benefits Report to...Compared to MSMO 12 Additional Action Needed to Address Potential Challenges to Implementation of the MAC-MO Contract Strategy 19 MAC-MO Strategy Will...evaluate whether implementation of the new strategy is progressing as planned. Additional Action Needed to Address Potential Challenges to

  19. Optimization of total body irradiation: the match between (maximal) leukemic cell kill and (minimal) late effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harteveld, M.L. van

    2007-01-01

    Optimization of total body irradiation: the match between (maximal) leukemic cell kill and (minimal) late effects: In this thesis, cataract formation and renal dysfunction as late effects of high-dose total body irradiation (TBI) as part of the conditioning before hematological stem cell

  20. The Effects of Rear-Wheel Camber on Maximal Effort Mobility Performance in Wheelchair Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, B.; van der Woude, L.; Tolfrey, K.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V.

    This study examined the effect of rear-wheel camber on maximal effort wheelchair mobility performance. 14 highly trained wheelchair court sport athletes performed a battery of field tests in 4 standardised camber settings (15°, 18°, 20°, 24°) with performance analysed using a velocometer. 20 m

  1. A Linear Time Algorithm for the em>k> Maximal Sums Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund

    2007-01-01

    Finding the sub-vector with the largest sum in a sequence of n numbers is known as the maximum sum problem. Finding the k sub-vectors with the largest sums is a natural extension of this, and is known as the k maximal sums problem. In this paper we design an optimal O(n + k) time algorithm for the...... k maximal sums problem. We use this algorithm to obtain algorithms solving the two-dimensional k maximal sums problem in O(m 2·n + k) time, where the input is an m ×n matrix with m ≤ n. We generalize this algorithm to solve the d-dimensional problem in O(n 2d − 1 + k) time. The space usage of all...... the algorithms can be reduced to O(n d − 1 + k). This leads to the first algorithm for the k maximal sums problem in one dimension using O(n + k) time and O(k) space....

  2. MAXIMAL CONCENTRATIONS OF SENSITIVE COMPONENTS IN BURDEN, SUBJECT TO REACTIONARY MECHANICAL ALLOYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Lovshenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of detection of maximal content of reacting substances in burden, undergoing processing in mechanoreactor, providing safety of realization of the reaction mechanical alloying, is solved on the basis of the modern conceptions on mechanism of self-distributing high-temperature synthesis with using method of thermodynamic modeling.

  3. Glucose clearance in aged trained skeletal muscle during maximal insulin with superimposed exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela, Flemming; Mikines, K J; Larsen, J J

    1999-01-01

    Insulin and muscle contractions are major stimuli for glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and have in young healthy people been shown to be additive. We studied the effect of superimposed exercise during a maximal insulin stimulus on glucose uptake and clearance in trained (T) (1-legged bicycle tra...

  4. A comparison of maximal torque levels of the different planes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is often assumed that because different sports require specific skills, the torque levels differ from sport to sport. The purpose of this study was to establish whether there were significant differences in the maximal torque levels of the different planes of movement of the shoulder-girdle complex for different types of sport.

  5. Linear maps preserving maximal deviation and the Jordan structure of quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamhalter, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In the algebraic approach to quantum theory, a quantum observable is given by an element of a Jordan algebra and a state of the system is modelled by a normalized positive functional on the underlying algebra. Maximal deviation of a quantum observable is the largest statistical deviation one can obtain in a particular state of the system. The main result of the paper shows that each linear bijective transformation between JBW algebras preserving maximal deviations is formed by a Jordan isomorphism or a minus Jordan isomorphism perturbed by a linear functional multiple of an identity. It shows that only one numerical statistical characteristic has the power to determine the Jordan algebraic structure completely. As a consequence, we obtain that only very special maps can preserve the diameter of the spectra of elements. Nonlinear maps preserving the pseudometric given by maximal deviation are also described. The results generalize hitherto known theorems on preservers of maximal deviation in the case of self-adjoint parts of von Neumann algebras proved by Molnár.

  6. Quadratic maximization on the unit simplex: structure, stability, genericity and application in biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Still, Georg J.; Ahmed, F.

    The paper deals with the simple but important problem of maximizing a (nonconvex) quadratic function on the unit simplex. This program is directly related to the concept of evolutionarily stable strategies (ESS) in biology. We discuss this relation and study optimality conditions, stability and

  7. Eigenvalue for Densely Defined Perturbations of Multivalued Maximal Monotone Operators in Reflexive Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boubakari Ibrahimou

    2013-01-01

    maximal monotone with and . Using the topological degree theory developed by Kartsatos and Quarcoo we study the eigenvalue problem where the operator is a single-valued of class . The existence of continuous branches of eigenvectors of infinite length then could be easily extended to the case where the operator is multivalued and is investigated.

  8. Two-texture zeros and near-maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-08

    Jan 8, 2016 ... We study the implications of a large value of the effective Majorana neutrino mass for a class of two-texture zero neutrino mass matrices in the flavour basis. We find that these textures predict near-maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing angle in the limit of large effective Majorana neutrino mass. We present ...

  9. Maximally Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory: The Story of N = 4 Yang-Mills Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Lars

    The following sections are included: * History * Dual Models * Supersymmetric Field Theories and Supergravity * Maximally Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theories * The Light-Cone Gauge Formulation of N = 4 Yang-Mills Theory * The Perturbative Finiteness N = 4 Yang-Mills Theory * References

  10. J.-L. Lions' problem concerning maximal regularity of equations governed by non-autonomous forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fackler, Stephan

    2017-05-01

    An old problem due to J.-L. Lions going back to the 1960s asks whether the abstract Cauchy problem associated to non-autonomous forms has maximal regularity if the time dependence is merely assumed to be continuous or even measurable. We give a negative answer to this question and discuss the minimal regularity needed for positive results.

  11. Recovery Responses to Maximal Exercise in Healthy-Weight Children and Children with Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, Elizabeth A.; Black, W. Scott; Bailey, Alison L.; Lennie, Terry A.; Sims, Wilma J.; Clasey, Jody L.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine differences in heart rate recovery (HRRec) and oxygen consumption recovery (VO2 recovery) between young healthy-weight children and children with obesity following a maximal volitional graded exercise test (GXTmax). Method: Twenty healthy-weight children and 13 children with obesity completed body…

  12. The guinea pig maximization test--with a multiple dose design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Vølund, A; Frankild, S

    1995-01-01

    The guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) is usually performed with one moderately irritant induction dose of the allergen and gives a qualitative assessment-hazard identification-of the allergenicity of the chemical. We refined the GPMT by applying a multiple dose design and used 30 guinea pigs in...

  13. Alterations in Strength and Maximal Oxygen Uptake Consequent to Nautilus Circuit Weight Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, Stephen P.; Dill, Mary Elizabeth

    1985-01-01

    The study compared the effects on muscular strength and maximal oxygen uptake of a Nautilus circuit weight training program, a free weight strength training program, and a running program. Nautilus circuit weight training appears to be equally effective for a training period of short duration. (MT)

  14. Beneficial Web 2.0 Tools to Engage Learners and Maximize Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBella, Karen S.; Williams, Kimberly G.

    2015-01-01

    Technology has certainly altered the landscape in which students learn today. The use of technology in today's classrooms is continually increasing as educators seek ways to engage learners and maximize learning potential. Incorporating Web 2.0 tools into the classroom can not only encourage collaboration among learners, but also provide a way for…

  15. Run-time revenue maximization for composite web services with response time commitments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Živković, M.; Bosman, J.W.; Berg, H. van den; Mei, R. van der; Meeuwissen, H.B.; Núñez-Queija, R.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate dynamic decision mechanisms for composite web services maximizing the expected revenue for the providers of composite services. A composite web service is represented by a (sequential) workflow, and for each task within this workflow, a number of service alternatives may be available.

  16. Run-time Revenue Maximization for Composite Web Services with Response Time Commitments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zivkovic, Miroslav; Bosman, J.W.; van den Berg, Hans Leo; van der Mei, R.D.; Meeuwissen, H.B.; Nunez Queija, R.

    We investigate dynamic decision mechanisms for composite web services maximizing the expected revenue for the providers of composite services. A composite web service is represented by a (sequential) workflow, and for each task within this workflow, a number of service alternatives may be available.

  17. Runtime revenue maximization for composite Web services with response-time commitments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Zivkovic; J.W. Bosman (Joost); J.L. van den Berg (Hans); H.B. Meeuwissen; R.D. van der Mei (Rob); R. Núñez Queija (Rudesindo)

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractWe investigate dynamic decision mechanisms for composite web services maximizing the expected revenue for the providers of composite services. A composite web service is represented by a (sequential) workflow, and for each of the tasks within this workflow, a number of service

  18. Force steadiness, muscle activity, and maximal muscle strength in subjects with subacromial impingement syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas; Rasmussen, Lars; Aagaard, Per

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effects of the subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) on shoulder sensory-motor control and maximal shoulder muscle strength. It was hypothesized that both would be impaired due to chronic shoulder pain associated with the syndrome. Nine subjects with unilateral SIS who remain...

  19. Effective Educational Videos: Principles and Guidelines for Maximizing Student Learning from Video Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brame, Cynthia J.

    2016-01-01

    Educational videos have become an important part of higher education, providing an important content-delivery tool in many flipped, blended, and online classes. Effective use of video as an educational tool is enhanced when instructors consider three elements: how to manage cognitive load of the video; how to maximize student engagement with the…

  20. Maximal dissipation and well-posedness for the compressible Euler system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 3 (2014), s. 447-461 ISSN 1422-6928 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 320078 - MATHEF Keywords : maximal dissipation * compressible Euler system * weak solution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.186, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00021-014-0163-8

  1. Increasing plant density in eastern United States broccoli production systems to maximize marketable head yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased demand for fresh market broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has led to increased production along the eastern seaboard of the United States. Maximizing broccoli yields is a primary concern for quickly expanding eastern commercial markets. Thus, a plant density study was carried ...

  2. Incompletely informed shorebirds that face a digestive constraint maximize net energy gain when exploiting patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gils, Jan A; Schenk, Ingrid W; Bos, Oscar; Piersma, Theunis

    2003-05-01

    Foragers that feed on hidden prey are uncertain about the intake rate they can achieve as they enter a patch. However, foraging success can inform them, especially if they have prior knowledge about the patch quality distribution in their environment. We experimentally tested whether and how red knots (Calidris canutus) use such information and whether their patch-leaving decisions maximized their long-term net energy intake rate. The results suggest that the birds combined patch sample information with prior knowledge by making use of the potential value assessment rule. We reject five alternative leaving rules. The potential encounter rate that the birds choose as their critical departure threshold maximized their foraging gain ratio (a modified form of efficiency) while foraging. The high experimental intake rates were constrained by rate of digestion. Under such conditions, maximization of the foraging gain ratio during foraging maximizes net intake rate during total time (foraging time plus digestive breaks). We conclude that molluscivore red knots, in the face of a digestive constraint, are able to combine prior environmental knowledge about patch quality with patch sample information to obtain the highest possible net intake over total time.

  3. Maximizing the information transfer in a quantum-limited light-scattering system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini

    1990-01-01

    A quantum-limited light-scattering system is considered. The spatial configuration that maximizes a given figure of merit is investigated, assuming that the emitted light has Poisson photon statistics. A specific system for measuring the velocity of a small particle is considered as an example...

  4. On Maximal Surfaces in Certain Non-Flat 3-Dimensional Robertson-Walker Spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Alfonso, E-mail: aromero@ugr.es [Universidad de Granada, Departamento de Geometria y Topologia (Spain); Rubio, Rafael M., E-mail: rmrubio@uco.es [Universidad de Cordoba, Departamento de Matematicas, Campus de Rabanales (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    An upper bound for the integral, on a geodesic disc, of the squared length of the gradient of a distinguished function on any maximal surface in certain non-flat 3-dimensional Robertson-Walker spacetimes is obtained. As an application, a new proof of a known Calabi-Bernstein's theorem is given.

  5. Co-Teaching that Works: Structures and Strategies for Maximizing Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beninghof, Anne M.

    2012-01-01

    For the increasing number of teachers working in co-taught classrooms, this book provides practical ideas for defining teacher roles, planning lessons, providing effective instruction, and maximizing the value of each team member. Former co-teacher and national presenter Anne Beninghof shares stories, and real-life co-taught lesson examples that…

  6. Weighted and vector-valued inequalities for one-sided maximal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [10] Hewitt E and Stromberg K, Real and abstract analysis (1975) (New York, Heidelberg, and Berlin: Springer-Verlag). [11] Martín-Reyes F J, New proofs of weighted inequalities for the one-sided Hardy–. Littlewood maximal functions, Proc. Am. Math. Soc. 117(3) (1993) 691–698. [12] Martín-Reyes F J, Ortega Salvador P ...

  7. Two-texture zeros and near-maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We study the implications of a large value of the effective Majorana neutrino mass for a class of two-texture zero neutrino mass matrices in the flavour basis. We find that these textures predict near-maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing angle in the limit of large effective Majorana neutrino mass. We present the ...

  8. Weighted Sum-Rate Maximization Using Weighted MMSE for MIMO-BC Beamforming Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren; De Carvalho, Elisabeth; Agarwal, Rajiv

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies linear transmit filter design for weighted sum-rate (WSR) maximization in the multiple input multiple output broadcast channel (MIMO-BC). The problem of finding the optimal transmit filter is non-convex and intractable to solve using low complexity methods. Motivated by recent ...

  9. Increase in Jumping Height Associated with Maximal Effort Vertical Depth Jumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, John F.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    In order to assess if there existed a statistically significant increase in jumping performance when dropping from different heights, 32 males, aged 19 to 26, performed a series of maximal effort vertical jumps after dropping from eight heights onto a force plate. Results are analyzed. (Author/MT)

  10. Glucose clearance in aged trained skeletal muscle during maximal insulin with superimposed exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela, Flemming; Mikines, K J; Larsen, J J

    1999-01-01

    Insulin and muscle contractions are major stimuli for glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and have in young healthy people been shown to be additive. We studied the effect of superimposed exercise during a maximal insulin stimulus on glucose uptake and clearance in trained (T) (1-legged bicycle...

  11. The relationship between the interval shuttle run test and maximal oxygen uptake in soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmink, KAPM; Visscher, C

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the interval shuttle run test (ISRT) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in soccer players. The ISRT was developed to measure interval endurance capacity. During the ISRT, subjects alternately run for 30 sec and walk for 15 sec with

  12. On the Maximal Ideals of Non-Zero-Symmetric Near-Rings and of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: ideals, near-rings, algebra, composition algebras, polynomial functions, Ω-groups, maximal ideals, Brown-McCoy radical, operations, polynomials, primal algebras, ordinary polynomial rings, skew polynomial rings, semigroup rings, Banach, banach space, Pettis, Pettis integrable, complete, congruences, ...

  13. Potential benefits of maximal exercise just prior to return from weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether performance of a single maximal bout of exercise during weightlessness within hours of return to earth would enhance recovery of aerobic fitness and physical work capacities under a 1G environment. Ten healthy men were subjected to a 10-d bedrest period in the 6-deg headdown position. A graded maximal supine cycle ergometer test was performed before and at the end of bedrest to simulate exercise during weightlessness. Following 3 h of resumption of the upright posture, a second maximal exercise test was performed on a treadmill to measure work capacity under conditions of 1G. Compared to before bedrest, peak oxygen consumption, V(O2), decreased by 8.7 percent and peak heart rate (HR) increased by 5.6 percent in the supine cycle test at the end of bedrest. However, there were no significant changes in peak V(O2) and peak HR in the upright treadmill test following bedrest. These data suggest that one bout of maximal leg exercise prior to return from 10 d of weightlessness may be adequate to restore preflight aerobic fitness and physical work capacity.

  14. Estimation of maximal oxygen uptake via submaximal exercise testing in sports, clinical, and home settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartor, F.; Vernillo, G.; de Morree, H.M.; Bonomi, A.G.; La Torre, A.; Kubis, H.P.; Veicsteinas, A.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of the functional capacity of the cardiovascular system is essential in sports medicine. For athletes, the maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) provides valuable information about their aerobic power. In the clinical setting, the V˙O2max provides important diagnostic and prognostic information

  15. Evaluation of Electromyographic Frequency Domain Changes during a Three-Minute Maximal Effort Cycling Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Wang, David H. Fukuda, Jeffrey R. Stout, Edward H. Robinson, Amelia A. Miramonti, Maren S. Fragala, Jay R. Hoffman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the time course of EMG frequency changes during a three-minute maximal effort cycling test (3MT session and to examine which parameter between mean (MNF and median (MDF frequency is more suitable for evaluation of changes in neuromuscular function throughout a 3MT. Eighteen recreationally-active men volunteered to participate in this study. Maximum voluntary contraction (MVC was measured using a dynamometer to determine maximal EMG frequency of the vastus lateralis (VL of the kicking leg during isometric knee extension. A maximal oxygen consumption test (VO2peak on a cycle ergometer was performed to establish the appropriate load profile for the 3MT which was completed after a period of at least 48 hours. MNF, MDF and power output (PO values were measured at 10-second epochs throughout the duration of the 3MT. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare the changes in EMG frequency, relative to maximal values from the MVC, and change in PO during the testing procedure. MNF, Root Mean Square (RMS, and PO significantly decreased during the 3MT, while MDF did not change significantly. Statistically, EMG frequency and PO decreased at first and remained constant in response to the 3MT, which may be reflective of differing patterns of muscle fiber type fatigue throughout the testing session. Due to decreased variability, changes in neuromuscular function during this protocol may be better evaluated using MNF than MDF.

  16. Hilbert isometries and maximal deviation preserving maps on JB-algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Roelands, Mark; Wortel, Marten

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we characterize the surjective linear variation norm isometries on JB-algebras. Variation norm isometries are precisely the maps that preserve the maximal deviation, the quantum analogue of the standard deviation, which plays an important role in quantum statistics. Consequently, we characterize the Hilbert's metric isometries on cones in JB-algebras.

  17. Harvest Regimens to Maximize Sericea Lespedeza Crude Protein and Condensed Tannins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata) is sold as hay or pellets for its crude protein (CP) and condensed tannin (CT) content, the latter to promote rumen bypass protein, depress methane emissions in livestock, and suppress gastro-intestinal parasites in small ruminants. Maximizing these forage c...

  18. Maximal aerobic and anaerobic exercise responses in children with cerebral palsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balemans, A.C.J.; van Wely, L.; de Heer, S.J.; van den Brink, J.; de Koning, J.J.; Becher, J.G.; Dallmeijer, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to compare the maximal aerobic and anaerobic exercise responses of children with cerebral palsy (CP) by level of motor impairment and in comparison with those of typically developing children (TD). METHODS: Seventy children with CP, with varying levels of

  19. Luminostat operation: A tool to maximize microalgae photosynthetic efficiency in photobioreactors during the daily light cycle?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuaresma, M.; Janssen, M.G.J.; End, van den E.J.; Vílchez, C.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    The luminostat regime has been proposed as a way to maximize light absorption and thus to increase the microalgae photosynthetic efficiency within photobioreactors. In this study, simulated outdoor light conditions were applied to a lab-scale photobioreactor in order to evaluate the luminostat

  20. LONG-LASTING SUPERNORMAL CONDUCTION-VELOCITY AFTER SUSTAINED MAXIMAL ISOMETRIC CONTRACTION IN HUMAN MUSCLE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERHOEVEN, JH; VANWEERDEN, TW; ZWARTS, MJ

    Local muscle fatigue (1 min maximal voluntary contraction) and recovery were studied by means of surface and invasive EMG on elbow flexors to record the changes in muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV), median power frequency (MPF), integrated EMG (IEMG), and force. The main finding was a

  1. A degree theory for variational inequalities with sums of maximal monotone and (S+) operators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kim, I.-S.; Väth, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2016), s. 405-422 ISSN 1230-3429 Keywords : degree theory * maximal monotone operator * multivalued map Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2016 http://apcz.pl/czasopisma/index.php/TMNA/article/view/TMNA.2016.022

  2. Determinants of time trial performance and maximal incremental exercise in highly trained endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Robert Acton; Rasmussen, Peter; Siebenmann, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Human endurance performance can be predicted from maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)), lactate threshold, and exercise efficiency. These physiologic parameters, however, are not wholly exclusive from one another and their interplay is complex. Accordingly, we sought to identify more specific...

  3. Green Energy in New Construction: Maximize Energy Savings and Minimize Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventresca, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    People often use the term "green energy" to refer to alternative energy technologies. But green energy doesn't guarantee maximum energy savings at a minimum cost--a common misconception. For school business officials, green energy means getting the lowest energy bills for the lowest construction cost, which translates into maximizing green energy…

  4. Guinea pig maximization tests with formaldehyde releasers. Results from two laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Boman, A; Hamann, K

    1984-01-01

    The guinea pig maximization test was used to evaluate the sensitizing potential of formaldehyde and 6 formaldehyde releasers (Forcide 78, Germall 115, Grotan BK, Grotan OX, KM 200 and Preventol D2). The tests were carried out in 2 laboratories (Copenhagen and Stockholm), and although we intended...

  5. Letting the daylight in: reviewing the reviewers and other ways to maximize transparency in science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Kievit, R.A.; Bakker, M.; Borsboom, D.

    2012-01-01

    With the emergence of online publishing, opportunities to maximize transparency of scientific research have grown considerably. However, these possibilities are still only marginally used. We argue for the implementation of (1) peer-reviewed peer review, (2) transparent editorial hierarchies, and

  6. The Measurement of Maximal (Anaerobic Power Output on a Cycle Ergometer: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarak Driss

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The interests and limits of the different methods and protocols of maximal (anaerobic power ( assessment are reviewed: single all-out tests versus force-velocity tests, isokinetic ergometers versus friction-loaded ergometers, measure of during the acceleration phase or at peak velocity. The effects of training, athletic practice, diet and pharmacological substances upon the production of maximal mechanical power are not discussed in this review mainly focused on the technical (ergometer, crank length, toe clips, methodological (protocols and biological factors (muscle volume, muscle fiber type, age, gender, growth, temperature, chronobiology and fatigue limiting in cycling. Although the validity of the Wingate test is questionable, a large part of the review is dedicated to this test which is currently the all-out cycling test the most often used. The biomechanical characteristics specific of maximal and high speed cycling, the bioenergetics of the all-out cycling exercises and the influence of biochemical factors (acidosis and alkalosis, phosphate ions… are recalled at the beginning of the paper. The basic knowledge concerning the consequences of the force-velocity relationship upon power output, the biomechanics of sub-maximal cycling exercises and the study on the force-velocity relationship in cycling by Dickinson in 1928 are presented in Appendices.

  7. Evaluation of Maxim Module-Integrated Electronics at the DOE Regional Test Centers: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deline, C.; Sekulic, B.; Stein, J.; Barkaszi, S.; Yang, J.; Kahn, S.

    2014-07-01

    Module-embedded power electronics developed by Maxim Integrated are under evaluation through a partnership with the Department of Energy's Regional Test Center (RTC) program. Field deployments of both conventional modules and electronics-enhanced modules are designed to quantify the performance advantage of Maxim's products under different amounts of inter-row shading, and their ability to be deployed at a greater ground-coverage-ratio than conventional modules. Simulations in PVSYST have quantified the predicted performance difference between conventional modules and Maxim's modules from inter-row shading. Initial performance results have identified diffuse irradiance losses at tighter row spacing for both the Maxim and conventional modules. Comparisons with published models show good agreement with models predicting the greatest diffuse irradiance losses. At tighter row spacing, all of the strings equipped with embedded power electronics outperformed their conventional peers. An even greater performance advantage is predicted to occur in the winter months when the amount of inter-row shading mismatch is at a maximum.

  8. Maximal outerplanar graphs as chordal graphs, path-neighborhood graphs, and triangle graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.C. Laskar (R.C.); H.M. Mulder (Martyn); B. Novick (Beth)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractMaximal outerplanar graphs are characterized using three different classes of graphs. A path-neighborhood graph is a connected graph in which every neighborhood induces a path. The triangle graph $T(G)$ has the triangles of the graph $G$ as its vertices, two of these being adjacent

  9. Studies of the dimensionality, correlates, and meaning of measures of the maximizing tendency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Bin Rim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This series of four studies was designed to clarify the underlying dimensionality and psychological well-being correlates of the major extant measures of the maximization tendency: the Maximization Scale (MS; Schwarz et al., 2002 and the Maximization Tendency Scale (MTS; Diab et al., 2008. Four studies using psychometric and factor analysis, item response theory (IRT, and an experimental manipulation all supported the following conclusions. The MS does measure three separate factors as postulated by its authors, but only two of them (alternative search and decisional difficulty are correlated with each other and (negatively with indices of well-being as postulated by the scale authors; high standards, the third factor, correlated strongly with the MTS, and both of these were strongly correlated with positive indices of well-being (optimism and happiness and functioning (e.g., self-esteem and self-efficacy. The high standards subscale and MTS were related to analytical decision making style, while alternative search and decision difficulty were related to the regret-based decision making style and to procrastination. The IRT analysis indicated serious weaknesses in the measurement capabilities of existing scales, and the findings of the experimental study confirmed that alternative search and decision difficulty are related to the maximization tendency while high standards and MTS are not. Implications for further research and scale development are discussed.

  10. Functional Relevance of Relative Maintenance of Maximal Eccentric Quadriceps Torque in Healthy Old Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waanders, Jeroen; Beijersbergen, Chantal; Murgia, Alessio; Hortobagyi, Tibor

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Old referenced to young adults show a relative maintenance of maximal eccentric (RELM) compared to concentric muscle torque: ∼76 and ∼59%, respectively. However, it is unknown if RELM affords functional benefits in old adults. OBJECTIVE: We examined if there is specificity between the

  11. Effect of active warm-up duration on morning short-term maximal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, ratings of perceived exertion were higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up only during Ramadan. Conclusions: There is no need to prolong the warm-up period before short-term maximal exercise performed during Ramadan in the morning. Keywords: fasting; morning; warm-up; anaerobic; ...

  12. Tissue P Systems With Channel States Working in the Flat Maximally Parallel Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bosheng; Perez-Jimenez, Mario J; Paun, Gheorghe; Pan, Linqiang

    2016-10-01

    Tissue P systems with channel states are a class of bio-inspired parallel computational models, where rules are used in a sequential manner (on each channel, at most one rule can be used at each step). In this work, tissue P systems with channel states working in a flat maximally parallel way are considered, where at each step, on each channel, a maximal set of applicable rules that pass from a given state to a unique next state, is chosen and each rule in the set is applied once. The computational power of such P systems is investigated. Specifically, it is proved that tissue P systems with channel states and antiport rules of length two are able to compute Parikh sets of finite languages, and such P systems with one cell and noncooperative symport rules can compute at least all Parikh sets of matrix languages. Some Turing universality results are also provided. Moreover, the NP-complete problem SAT is solved by tissue P systems with channel states, cell division and noncooperative symport rules working in the flat maximally parallel way; nevertheless, if channel states are not used, then such P systems working in the flat maximally parallel way can solve only tractable problems. These results show that channel states provide a frontier of tractability between efficiency and non-efficiency in the framework of tissue P systems with cell division (assuming P ≠ NP ).

  13. A Linear Time Algorithm for the k Maximal Sums Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund

    2007-01-01

     k maximal sums problem. We use this algorithm to obtain algorithms solving the two-dimensional k maximal sums problem in O(m 2·n + k) time, where the input is an m ×n matrix with m ≤ n. We generalize this algorithm to solve the d-dimensional problem in O(n 2d − 1 + k) time. The space usage of all......Finding the sub-vector with the largest sum in a sequence of n numbers is known as the maximum sum problem. Finding the k sub-vectors with the largest sums is a natural extension of this, and is known as the k maximal sums problem. In this paper we design an optimal O(n + k) time algorithm for the...... the algorithms can be reduced to O(n d − 1 + k). This leads to the first algorithm for the k maximal sums problem in one dimension using O(n + k) time and O(k) space....

  14. Facial Video based Detection of Physical Fatigue for Maximal Muscle Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haque, Mohammad Ahsanul; Irani, Ramin; Nasrollahi, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Physical fatigue reveals the health condition of a person at for example health checkup, fitness assessment or rehabilitation training. This paper presents an efficient noncontact system for detecting non-localized physi-cal fatigue from maximal muscle activity using facial videos acquired...

  15. Do Nondomestic Undergraduates Choose a Major Field in Order to Maximize Grade Point Averages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Matthew E.; Fass-Holmes, Barry

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated whether undergraduates attending an American West Coast public university who were not U.S. citizens (nondomestic) maximized their grade point averages (GPA) through their choice of major field. Multiple regression hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed that major field's effect size was small for these…

  16. The Constrained Maximal Expression Level Owing to Haploidy Shapes Gene Content on the Mammalian X Chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Laurence D; Ghanbarian, Avazeh T; Forrest, Alistair R R; Huminiecki, Lukasz

    2015-12-01

    X chromosomes are unusual in many regards, not least of which is their nonrandom gene content. The causes of this bias are commonly discussed in the context of sexual antagonism and the avoidance of activity in the male germline. Here, we examine the notion that, at least in some taxa, functionally biased gene content may more profoundly be shaped by limits imposed on gene expression owing to haploid expression of the X chromosome. Notably, if the X, as in primates, is transcribed at rates comparable to the ancestral rate (per promoter) prior to the X chromosome formation, then the X is not a tolerable environment for genes with very high maximal net levels of expression, owing to transcriptional traffic jams. We test this hypothesis using The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) and data from the Functional Annotation of the Mammalian Genome (FANTOM5) project. As predicted, the maximal expression of human X-linked genes is much lower than that of genes on autosomes: on average, maximal expression is three times lower on the X chromosome than on autosomes. Similarly, autosome-to-X retroposition events are associated with lower maximal expression of retrogenes on the X than seen for X-to-autosome retrogenes on autosomes. Also as expected, X-linked genes have a lesser degree of increase in gene expression than autosomal ones (compared to the human/Chimpanzee common ancestor) if highly expressed, but not if lowly expressed. The traffic jam model also explains the known lower breadth of expression for genes on the X (and the Z of birds), as genes with broad expression are, on average, those with high maximal expression. As then further predicted, highly expressed tissue-specific genes are also rare on the X and broadly expressed genes on the X tend to be lowly expressed, both indicating that the trend is shaped by the maximal expression level not the breadth of expression per se. Importantly, a limit to the maximal expression level explains biased tissue of expression

  17. The Constrained Maximal Expression Level Owing to Haploidy Shapes Gene Content on the Mammalian X Chromosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence D Hurst

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available X chromosomes are unusual in many regards, not least of which is their nonrandom gene content. The causes of this bias are commonly discussed in the context of sexual antagonism and the avoidance of activity in the male germline. Here, we examine the notion that, at least in some taxa, functionally biased gene content may more profoundly be shaped by limits imposed on gene expression owing to haploid expression of the X chromosome. Notably, if the X, as in primates, is transcribed at rates comparable to the ancestral rate (per promoter prior to the X chromosome formation, then the X is not a tolerable environment for genes with very high maximal net levels of expression, owing to transcriptional traffic jams. We test this hypothesis using The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE and data from the Functional Annotation of the Mammalian Genome (FANTOM5 project. As predicted, the maximal expression of human X-linked genes is much lower than that of genes on autosomes: on average, maximal expression is three times lower on the X chromosome than on autosomes. Similarly, autosome-to-X retroposition events are associated with lower maximal expression of retrogenes on the X than seen for X-to-autosome retrogenes on autosomes. Also as expected, X-linked genes have a lesser degree of increase in gene expression than autosomal ones (compared to the human/Chimpanzee common ancestor if highly expressed, but not if lowly expressed. The traffic jam model also explains the known lower breadth of expression for genes on the X (and the Z of birds, as genes with broad expression are, on average, those with high maximal expression. As then further predicted, highly expressed tissue-specific genes are also rare on the X and broadly expressed genes on the X tend to be lowly expressed, both indicating that the trend is shaped by the maximal expression level not the breadth of expression per se. Importantly, a limit to the maximal expression level explains biased

  18. Endurance Training and V˙O2max: Role of Maximal Cardiac Output and Oxygen Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, David; Diaz-Cañestro, Candela; Lundby, Carsten

    2015-10-01

    Although endurance training (ET) commonly augments maximal oxygen consumption (V˙O2max), it remains unclear whether such increase is associated with that of maximal cardiac output (Qmax) alone or along with arteriovenous oxygen difference (a-V˙O2diff). Herein, we sought to systematically review and determine the effects of ET on V˙O2max, Qmax, and a-V˙O2diff at maximal exercise, and on their associations, in healthy young subjects. We conducted a systematic search of MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science (from their inception until September 2014) for articles assessing the effects of ET lasting ≥3 wk on V˙O2max and Qmax and/or a-V˙O2diff at maximal exercise in healthy young adults (mean age V˙O2max, Qmax, and a-V˙O2diff at maximal exercise between posttraining and pretraining measurements. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses were used to evaluate associations among SMD and potential moderating factors. Thirteen studies were included after systematic review, comprising a total of 130 untrained or moderately trained healthy young subjects (mean age, 22-28 yr). Duration of ET programs ranged from 5 to 12.9 wk. After data pooling, V˙O2max (SMD = 0.75, P P V˙O2diff at maximal exercise (SMD = 0.21, P = 0.23), were increased after ET. No significant heterogeneity was detected. With meta-regression, the SMD in Qmax was positively associated with the SMD in V˙O2max (B = 0.91, P = 0.007). The SMD in a-V˙O2diff at maximal exercise was not associated with the SMD in V˙O2max (B = 0.20, P = 0.40). Based on a relatively small number of studies, improvement in V˙O2max following 5-13 wk of ET is associated with increase in Qmax, but not in a-V˙O2diff, in previously untrained to moderately trained healthy young individuals.

  19. A Lyapunov based approach to energy maximization in renewable energy technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyasere, Erhun

    This dissertation describes the design and implementation of Lyapunov-based control strategies for the maximization of the power captured by renewable energy harnessing technologies such as (i) a variable speed, variable pitch wind turbine, (ii) a variable speed wind turbine coupled to a doubly fed induction generator, and (iii) a solar power generating system charging a constant voltage battery. First, a torque control strategy is presented to maximize wind energy captured in variable speed, variable pitch wind turbines at low to medium wind speeds. The proposed strategy applies control torque to the wind turbine pitch and rotor subsystems to simultaneously control the blade pitch and tip speed ratio, via the rotor angular speed, to an optimum point at which the capture efficiency is maximum. The control method allows for aerodynamic rotor power maximization without exact knowledge of the wind turbine model. A series of numerical results show that the wind turbine can be controlled to achieve maximum energy capture. Next, a control strategy is proposed to maximize the wind energy captured in a variable speed wind turbine, with an internal induction generator, at low to medium wind speeds. The proposed strategy controls the tip speed ratio, via the rotor angular speed, to an optimum point at which the efficiency constant (or power coefficient) is maximal for a particular blade pitch angle and wind speed by using the generator rotor voltage as a control input. This control method allows for aerodynamic rotor power maximization without exact wind turbine model knowledge. Representative numerical results demonstrate that the wind turbine can be controlled to achieve near maximum energy capture. Finally, a power system consisting of a photovoltaic (PV) array panel, dc-to-dc switching converter, charging a battery is considered wherein the environmental conditions are time-varying. A backstepping PWM controller is developed to maximize the power of the solar generating

  20. Maximal Strength Training Improves Surfboard Sprint and Endurance Paddling Performance in Competitive and Recreational Surfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Joseph O C; Tran, Tai T; Secomb, Josh L; Lundgren, Lina E; Farley, Oliver R L; Newton, Robert U; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2017-01-01

    Coyne, JOC, Tran, TT, Secomb, JL, Lundgren, LE, Farley, ORL, Newton, RU, and Sheppard, JM. Maximal strength training improves surfboard sprint and endurance paddling performance in competitive and recreational surfers. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 244-253, 2017-Upper-body (UB) strength has very high correlations with faster surfboard paddling speeds. However, there is no research examining the effects of improving UB strength has on surfboard paddling ability. This study aimed to determine the influence that improvements in UB closed-kinetic chain maximal strength have on surfboard paddling in both competitive and recreational surfers. Seventeen competitive and recreational male surfers (29.7 ± 7.7 years, 177.4 ± 7.4 cm, 76.7 ± 9.9 kg) participated in a repeated-measures, parallel control study design. Anthropometry; 5-, 10-, and 15-m sprint; and 400-m endurance surfboard paddling tests along with pull-up and dip 1 repetition maximum strength tests were assessed pre- and postintervention. Subjects in the training group performed 5 weeks of maximal strength training in the pull-up and dip. Differences between the training and control groups were examined postintervention. The training group increased their speed over the 5-, 10-, and 15-m sprint, whereas the control group became slower (d = 0.71, 0.51, and 0.4, respectively). The training group also displayed faster endurance paddling performance compared with the control group (d = 0.72). Short-term exposure to maximal strength training elicits improvements in paddling performance measures. However, the magnitude of performance increases seems to be dependent on initial strength levels with differential responses between strong and weaker athletes. Although a longer maximal strength training period may have produced more significant paddling improvements in stronger subjects, practitioners are unlikely to have any more than 5 weeks in an uninterrupted block with competitive surfing athletes. This study reveals

  1. The Constrained Maximal Expression Level Owing to Haploidy Shapes Gene Content on the Mammalian X Chromosome

    KAUST Repository

    Hurst, Laurence D.

    2015-12-18

    X chromosomes are unusual in many regards, not least of which is their nonrandom gene content. The causes of this bias are commonly discussed in the context of sexual antagonism and the avoidance of activity in the male germline. Here, we examine the notion that, at least in some taxa, functionally biased gene content may more profoundly be shaped by limits imposed on gene expression owing to haploid expression of the X chromosome. Notably, if the X, as in primates, is transcribed at rates comparable to the ancestral rate (per promoter) prior to the X chromosome formation, then the X is not a tolerable environment for genes with very high maximal net levels of expression, owing to transcriptional traffic jams. We test this hypothesis using The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) and data from the Functional Annotation of the Mammalian Genome (FANTOM5) project. As predicted, the maximal expression of human X-linked genes is much lower than that of genes on autosomes: on average, maximal expression is three times lower on the X chromosome than on autosomes. Similarly, autosome-to-X retroposition events are associated with lower maximal expression of retrogenes on the X than seen for X-to-autosome retrogenes on autosomes. Also as expected, X-linked genes have a lesser degree of increase in gene expression than autosomal ones (compared to the human/Chimpanzee common ancestor) if highly expressed, but not if lowly expressed. The traffic jam model also explains the known lower breadth of expression for genes on the X (and the Z of birds), as genes with broad expression are, on average, those with high maximal expression. As then further predicted, highly expressed tissue-specific genes are also rare on the X and broadly expressed genes on the X tend to be lowly expressed, both indicating that the trend is shaped by the maximal expression level not the breadth of expression per se. Importantly, a limit to the maximal expression level explains biased tissue of expression

  2. Sub-maximal and maximal Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test level 2: heart rate response, reproducibility and application to elite soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Paul S; Mohr, Magni; Bendiksen, Mads

    2011-01-01

    to detect test-retest changes and discriminate between performance for different playing standards and positions in elite soccer. Elite (n = 148) and sub-elite male (n = 14) soccer players carried out the Yo-Yo IE2 test on several occasions over consecutive seasons. Test-retest coefficient of variation (CV......The aims of this study were to (1) determine the reproducibility of sub-maximal and maximal versions of the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test level 2 (Yo-Yo IE2 test), (2) assess the relationship between the Yo-Yo IE2 test and match performance and (3) quantify the sensitivity of the Yo-Yo IE2 test......) in Yo-Yo IE2 test performance and heart rate after 6 min were 3.9% (n = 37) and 1.4% (n = 32), respectively. Elite male senior and youth U19 players Yo-Yo IE2 performances were better (P ...

  3. The Effect of Acute Taurine Ingestion on Human Maximal Voluntary Muscle Contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Z I Xiang; Singh, Anish; Leow, Zac Zi Xiang; Arthur, Peter G; Fournier, Paul A

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of taurine ingestion on maximal voluntary muscle torque and power in trained male athletes with different caffeine habits. Fourteen male athletes 21.8 ± 2.5 yr old were separated into caffeine and noncaffeine consumers to control for the effect of caffeine withdrawal on muscle function. On separate occasions, participants performed four isokinetic or three maximal isometric knee extensions with and without taurine (40 mg·kg body mass) after a double-blind, counterbalanced design. Muscle contractile performances were compared between the first sets as well as between the sets where these variables scored best. In response to isokinetic contraction, taurine treatment in the noncaffeine consumers resulted in a significant fall in first (-16.1%; P = 0.013) and best peak torque (-5.0%; P = 0.016) as well as in first (-17.7%; P = 0.015) and best power output (-8.0%; P = 0.008). In the caffeine consumers deprived of caffeine, taurine intake improved best power (5.2%; P = 0.045). With respect to the isometric variables, there was a significant decrease in the first (-5.1%; P = 0.002) and best peak torque (-4.3%; P = 0.032) in the noncaffeine group, but no effect in the group of caffeine consumers deprived of caffeine. Taurine ingestion increased blood taurine levels but had no effect on plasma amino acid levels. Taurine ingestion is detrimental to maximal voluntary muscle power and both maximal isokinetic and isometric peak torque in noncaffeine consumers, whereas taurine ingestion in caffeine-deprived caffeine consumers improves maximal voluntary muscle power but has no effect on other aspects of contractile performance.

  4. Decline in voluntary activation contributes to reduced maximal performance of fatigued human lower limb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileva, K N; Sumners, D P; Bowtell, J L

    2012-12-01

    In upper limb muscles, altered corticospinal excitability and reduction in neural drive are observed in parallel with peripheral fatigue during prolonged and/or repeated contractions. However, the fatigue-induced adaptations of central and peripheral elements and their relative contribution to lower limb muscle performance are yet to be fully explored. In the present study, corticospinal excitability and peripheral contractility of ankle flexor muscles were quantified before, during and after repeated brief unilateral maximal dorsiflexions to fatigue in eleven healthy volunteers. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex area related to lower limb muscles was performed, and the evoked twitch and EMG responses in tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus (SOL) were measured. The motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in fatigued TA during post-exercise maximal dorsiflexions were smaller (-20 ± 6 %, p = 0.026) and remained depressed for at least 5 min. Post-exercise MEPs in fatigued SOL and silent periods in TA and SOL were not different compared to pre-exercise. These changes were accompanied by lower voluntary torque (-8 ± 3 %, p = 0.013), estimated resting twitch (-36 ± 5 %, p = 0.003) and voluntary activation (-17 ± 9 %, p = 0.021) versus pre-exercise. During last versus first maximal contraction in the fatiguing protocol lower voluntary torque (-40 ± 4 %, p = 0.003), higher MEP amplitudes (>+49 %, p +24 %, p muscles. Decreased corticospinal excitability contributes significantly to the reduced maximal performance of fatigued lower limb muscles. During prolonged intermittent maximal dorsiflexions the performance of ankle muscles declines despite enhanced corticospinal excitability presumably due to deficient descending drive and/or spinal motoneuron responsiveness to the cortical drive.

  5. Trainability of Muscular Activity Level during Maximal Voluntary Co-Contraction: Comparison between Bodybuilders and Nonathletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeo, Sumiaki; Takahashi, Takumi; Takai, Yohei; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Antagonistic muscle pairs cannot be fully activated simultaneously, even with maximal effort, under conditions of voluntary co-contraction, and their muscular activity levels are always below those during agonist contraction with maximal voluntary effort (MVE). Whether the muscular activity level during the task has trainability remains unclear. The present study examined this issue by comparing the muscular activity level during maximal voluntary co-contraction for highly experienced bodybuilders, who frequently perform voluntary co-contraction in their training programs, with that for untrained individuals (nonathletes). The electromyograms (EMGs) of biceps brachii and triceps brachii muscles during maximal voluntary co-contraction of elbow flexors and extensors were recorded in 11 male bodybuilders and 10 nonathletes, and normalized to the values obtained during the MVE of agonist contraction for each of the corresponding muscles (% EMGMVE). The involuntary coactivation level in antagonist muscle during the MVE of agonist contraction was also calculated. In both muscles, % EMGMVE values during the co-contraction task for bodybuilders were significantly higher (Pbodybuilders vs. 46±13% in nonathletes, triceps brachii: 74±16% vs. 57±9%). There was a significant positive correlation between a length of bodybuilding experience and muscular activity level during the co-contraction task (r = 0.653, P = 0.03). Involuntary antagonist coactivation level during MVE of agonist contraction was not different between the two groups. The current result indicates that long-term participation in voluntary co-contraction training progressively enhances muscular activity during maximal voluntary co-contraction. PMID:24260233

  6. Trainability of muscular activity level during maximal voluntary co-contraction: comparison between bodybuilders and nonathletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumiaki Maeo

    Full Text Available Antagonistic muscle pairs cannot be fully activated simultaneously, even with maximal effort, under conditions of voluntary co-contraction, and their muscular activity levels are always below those during agonist contraction with maximal voluntary effort (MVE. Whether the muscular activity level during the task has trainability remains unclear. The present study examined this issue by comparing the muscular activity level during maximal voluntary co-contraction for highly experienced bodybuilders, who frequently perform voluntary co-contraction in their training programs, with that for untrained individuals (nonathletes. The electromyograms (EMGs of biceps brachii and triceps brachii muscles during maximal voluntary co-contraction of elbow flexors and extensors were recorded in 11 male bodybuilders and 10 nonathletes, and normalized to the values obtained during the MVE of agonist contraction for each of the corresponding muscles (% EMGMVE. The involuntary coactivation level in antagonist muscle during the MVE of agonist contraction was also calculated. In both muscles, % EMGMVE values during the co-contraction task for bodybuilders were significantly higher (P<0.01 than those for nonathletes (biceps brachii: 66±14% in bodybuilders vs. 46±13% in nonathletes, triceps brachii: 74±16% vs. 57±9%. There was a significant positive correlation between a length of bodybuilding experience and muscular activity level during the co-contraction task (r = 0.653, P = 0.03. Involuntary antagonist coactivation level during MVE of agonist contraction was not different between the two groups. The current result indicates that long-term participation in voluntary co-contraction training progressively enhances muscular activity during maximal voluntary co-contraction.

  7. The Violation of Conversational Maxims by Salespersons of “Revlon” Cosmetic in Two Department Stores in Malang

    OpenAIRE

    KARTIKASARI, NIKEN WULAN

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: cooperative principle, violation of maxims, Revlon, salespersonsLanguage is a system to transfer and to inform something through communication. In the real life sometimes people do not obey the cooperative principles. The researcher conducts a study on the violation of conversational maxims by salespersons of “Revlon” cosmetic in two department stores in Malang. There are two problems in this study: (1) What maxims are violated by the salespersons of Revlon cosmetic while offering t...

  8. CFTR Genotype and Maximal Exercise Capacity in Cystic Fibrosis: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Thomas; Hebestreit, Helge; Gallati, Sabina; Schneiderman, Jane E; Braun, Julia; Stevens, Daniel; Hulzebos, Erik Hj; Takken, Tim; Boas, Steven R; Urquhart, Don S; Lands, Larry C; Tejero, Sergio; Sovtic, Aleksandar; Dwyer, Tiffany; Petrovic, Milos; Harris, Ryan A; Karila, Chantal; Savi, Daniela; Usemann, Jakob; Mei-Zahav, Meir; Hatziagorou, Elpis; Ratjen, Felix; Kriemler, Susi

    2018-02-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is expressed in human skeletal muscle cells. Variations of CFTR dysfunction among patients with cystic fibrosis may be an important determinant of maximal exercise capacity in cystic fibrosis. Previous studies on the relationship between CFTR genotype and maximal exercise capacity are scarce and contradictory. This study was designed to explore factors influencing maximal exercise capacity, expressed as peak oxygen uptake (V.O2peak), with a specific focus on CFTR genotype in children and adults with cystic fibrosis. In an international, multicenter, cross-sectional study, we collected data on CFTR genotype and cardiopulmonary exercise tests in patients with cystic fibrosis who were ages 8 years and older. CFTR mutations were classified into functional classes I–V. The final analysis included 726 patients (45% females; age range, 8–61 yr; forced expiratory volume in 1 s, 16 to 123% predicted) from 17 cystic fibrosis centers in North America, Europe, Australia, and Asia, all of whom had both valid maximal cardiopulmonary exercise tests and complete CFTR genotype data. Overall, patients exhibited exercise intolerance (V.O2peak, 77.3 ± 19.1% predicted), but values were comparable among different CFTR classes. We did not detect an association between CFTR genotype functional classes I–III and either V.O2peak (percent predicted) (adjusted β = −0.95; 95% CI, −4.18 to 2.29; P = 0.57) or maximum work rate (Wattmax) (adjusted β = −1.38; 95% CI, −5.04 to 2.27; P = 0.46) compared with classes IV–V. Those with at least one copy of a F508del-CFTR mutation and one copy of a class V mutation had a significantly lower V.O2peak (β = −8.24%; 95% CI, −14.53 to −2.99; P = 0.003) and lower Wattmax (adjusted β = −7.59%; 95% CI, −14.21 to −0.95; P = 0.025) than those with two copies of a class II mutation. On the basis of linear regression analysis adjusted for

  9. Maximal COX-2 and ppRb expression in neurons occurs during early Braak stages prior to the maximal activation of astrocytes and microglia in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arendt Thomas

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neuronal expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and cell cycle proteins is suggested to contribute to neurodegeneration during Alzheimer's disease (AD. The stimulus that induces COX-2 and cell cycle protein expression in AD is still elusive. Activated glia cells are shown to secrete substances that can induce expression of COX-2 and cell cycle proteins in vitro. Using post mortem brain tissue we have investigated whether activation of microglia and astrocytes in AD brain can be correlated with the expression of COX-2 and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein (ppRb. The highest levels of neuronal COX-2 and ppRb immunoreactivity are observed in the first stages of AD pathology (Braak 0–II, Braak A. No significant difference in COX-2 or ppRb neuronal immunoreactivity is observed between Braak stage 0 and later Braak stages for neurofibrillary changes or amyloid plaques. The mean number of COX-2 or ppRb immunoreactive neurons is significantly decreased in Braak stage C compared to Braak stage A for amyloid deposits. Immunoreactivity for glial markers KP1, CR3/43 and GFAP appears in the later Braak stages and is significantly increased in Braak stage V-VI compared to Braak stage 0 for neurofibrillary changes. In addition, a significant negative correlation is observed between the presence of KP1, CR3/43 and GFAP immunoreactivity and the presence of neuronal immunoreactivity for COX-2 and ppRb. These data show that maximal COX-2 and ppRb immunoreactivity in neurons occurs during early Braak stages prior to the maximal activation of astrocytes and microglia. In contrast to in vitro studies, post mortem data do not support a causal relation between the activation of microglia and astrocytes and the expression of neuronal COX-2 and ppRb in the pathological cascade of AD.

  10. Fishermen's profits maximization: case of generalized Nash equilibrium of a non-symmetrical game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Foutayeni, Y; Khaladi, M

    2014-09-01

    In the present paper, we consider a bio-economic equilibrium model which describes the dynamics of a fish population fished by several fishermen seeking to maximize their profits. Each fisherman tries to find the fishing effort which maximizes his profit at biological equilibrium without any consultation with others, but all of them have to respect two constraints: (1) the sustainable management of the resources ; and (2) the preservation of the biodiversity. With all these considerations, our problem leads to a generalized Nash equilibrium problem. The objective is to show that even when a fisherman (i) provides a fishing effort equal to twice the fishing effort of a fisherman (j), then the profit of fisherman (i) is not necessarily double that of fisherman (j).

  11. Biochemical changes in relation to a maximal exercise test in patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, J; Bülow, P M; Mehlsen, J

    1994-01-01

    Patients with fibromyalgia often complain of fatigue and pain during exercise and of worsening of pain days after exercise. The aim of the study described here was to determine if abnormal changes in potassium or lactate could be observed during an exercise test in fibromyalgia. Whether an abnormal...... incline in plasma creatine kinase or myoglobin could be observed days after the test was studied also. Fifteen female fibromyalgia patients and 15 age- and sex-matched controls performed a stepwise incremental maximal bicycle-ergometer test. Blood samples were collected from a catheter in a cubital vein....... The changes in heart rate, potassium levels, and haematocrit during the exercise test were similar in the two groups. The maximal obtained lactate concentration was 4.2 mmol l-1 (3.5-5.6) in the patients as compared to 4.9 mmol l-1 (3.9-5.9) in the controls (NS). The estimated anaerobic threshold of 2 mmol l...

  12. Energy efficiency and SINR maximization beamformers for cognitive radio utilizing sensing information

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, Abdulrahman

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we consider a cognitive radio multi-input multi-output environment in which we adapt our beamformer to maximize both energy efficiency and signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) metrics. Our design considers an underlaying communication using adaptive beamforming schemes combined with the sensing information to achieve an optimal energy efficient system. The proposed schemes maximize the energy efficiency and SINR metrics subject to cognitive radio and quality of service constraints. Since the optimization of energy efficiency problem is not a convex problem, we transform it into a standard semi-definite programming (SDP) form to guarantee a global optimal solution. Analytical solution is provided for one scheme, while the other scheme is left in a standard SDP form. Selected numerical results are used to quantify the impact of the sensing information on the proposed schemes compared to the benchmark ones.

  13. Placebo effects of caffeine on maximal voluntary concentric force of the knee flexors and extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallis, Jason; Muhammad, Bilal; Islam, Mohammed; Duncan, Michael J

    2016-09-01

    We examined the placebo effect of caffeine and the combined effect of caffeine and caffeine expectancy on maximal voluntary strength. Fourteen men completed 4 randomized, single-blind experimental trials: (1) told caffeine, given caffeine (5 mg/kg) (CC); (2) told caffeine, given placebo (CP); (3) told placebo, given placebo (PP); and (4) told placebo, given caffeine (PC). Maximal voluntary concentric force and fatigue resistance of the knee flexors and extensors were measured using isokinetic dynamometry. A significant and equal improvement in peak concentric force was found in the CC and PC trials. Despite participants believing caffeine would evoke a performance benefit, there was no effect of CP. Caffeine caused an improvement in some aspects of muscle strength, but there was no additional effect of expectancy. Performance was poorer in participants who believed caffeine would have the greatest benefit, which highlights a link between expected ergogenicity, motivation, and personality characteristics. Muscle Nerve 54: 479-486, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. PEM-PCA: A Parallel Expectation-Maximization PCA Face Recognition Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokmon Rujirakul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Principal component analysis or PCA has been traditionally used as one of the feature extraction techniques in face recognition systems yielding high accuracy when requiring a small number of features. However, the covariance matrix and eigenvalue decomposition stages cause high computational complexity, especially for a large database. Thus, this research presents an alternative approach utilizing an Expectation-Maximization algorithm to reduce the determinant matrix manipulation resulting in the reduction of the stages’ complexity. To improve the computational time, a novel parallel architecture was employed to utilize the benefits of parallelization of matrix computation during feature extraction and classification stages including parallel preprocessing, and their combinations, so-called a Parallel Expectation-Maximization PCA architecture. Comparing to a traditional PCA and its derivatives, the results indicate lower complexity with an insignificant difference in recognition precision leading to high speed face recognition systems, that is, the speed-up over nine and three times over PCA and Parallel PCA.

  15. Improving the Accuracy of Predicting Maximal Oxygen Consumption (VO2pk)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Meghan E.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Feiveson, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Maximal oxygen (VO2pk) is the maximum amount of oxygen that the body can use during intense exercise and is used for benchmarking endurance exercise capacity. The most accurate method to determineVO2pk requires continuous measurements of ventilation and gas exchange during an exercise test to maximal effort, which necessitates expensive equipment, a trained staff, and time to set-up the equipment. For astronauts, accurate VO2pk measures are important to assess mission critical task performance capabilities and to prescribe exercise intensities to optimize performance. Currently, astronauts perform submaximal exercise tests during flight to predict VO2pk; however, while submaximal VO2pk prediction equations provide reliable estimates of mean VO2pk for populations, they can be unacceptably inaccurate for a given individual. The error in current predictions and logistical limitations of measuring VO2pk, particularly during spaceflight, highlights the need for improved estimation methods.

  16. Quantum circuit implementation of the optimal information-disturbance tradeoff of maximally entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang ShengLi; Zou Xubo; Li Ke; Jin Chenhui; Guo Guangcan

    2008-01-01

    We give a direct derivation for the information-disturbance tradeoff in estimating a maximally entangled state, which was first obtained by Sacchi (2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 220502) in terms of the covariant positive operator valued measurement (POVM) and Jamiolkowski's isomorphism. We find that, the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, which is one of the most powerful tools in deriving the tradeoff for a single-particle pure state still plays a key role in the case of the maximal entanglement estimation. Our result shows that the inequality becomes equality when the optimal tradeoff is achieved. Moreover, we demonstrate that such a tradeoff is physically achievable with a quantum circuit that only involves single- and two-particle logic gates and single-particle measurements

  17. Associated decrements in rate of force development and neural drive after maximal eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farup, J; Rahbek, S K; Bjerre, J; de Paoli, F; Vissing, K

    2016-05-01

    The present study investigated the changes in contractile rate of force development (RFD) and the neural drive following a single bout of eccentric exercise. Twenty-four subjects performed 15 × 10 maximal isokinetic eccentric knee extensor contractions. Prior to and at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 168 h during post-exercise recovery, isometric RFD (30, 50 100, and 200 ms), normalized RFD [1/6,1/2, and 2/3 of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)] and rate of electromyography rise (RER; 30, 50, and 75 ms) were measured. RFD decreased by 28-42% peaking at 48 h (P eccentric exercise. This association suggests that exercise-induced decrements in RFD can, in part, be explained decrements in neural drive. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Optimal power allocation based on sum-throughput maximization for energy harvesting cognitive radio networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhenwei; Zhu, Qi

    2017-01-01

    In this study, an optimal power allocation algorithm by maximizing the sum-throughput in energy harvesting cognitive radio networks is proposed. Under the causality constraints of the harvested energy by solar radiation, electromagnetic waves and so on in the two secondary users (SUs), and the interference constraint in the primary user (PU), the sum-throughput maximization problem is formulated. The algorithm decomposes the interference threshold constraint to the power upper bounds of the two SUs. Then, the power allocation problems of the two SUs can be solved by a directional water-filling algorithm (DWA) with the power upper bounds, respectively. The paper gives the algorithm steps and simulation results, and the simulation results verify that the proposed algorithm has obvious advantages over the other two algorithms.

  19. Influence of maximal fat oxidation on long-term weight loss maintenance in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandanell, Sune; Husted, Karina; Amdisen, Signe

    2017-01-01

    Impaired maximal fat oxidation has been linked to obesity and weight regain after weight loss. The aim was to investigate the relationship between maximal fat oxidation (MFO) and long-term weight loss maintenance. Eighty subjects [means (SD): age, 36(13) yrs; BMI, 38(1) kg/m2] were recruited from...... composition (dual X-ray absorptiometry) and fat oxidation (indirect calorimetry) during incremental exercise were measured at follow-up. Blood and a muscle biopsy were sampled. At follow-up, a U-shaped parabolic relationship between MFO and percent weight loss was observed (r = 0.448; P ... a total of 2,420 former participants of an 11- to 12-wk lifestyle intervention. Three groups were established based on percent weight loss at follow-up [5.3(3.3) yr]: clinical weight loss maintenance (CWL), >10% weight loss; moderate weight loss (MWL), 1–10% weight loss; and weight regain (WR). Body...

  20. Reproducibility of incremental maximal cycle ergometer tests in healthy recreationally active subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dideriksen, Kasper; Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Testing of the ventilatory threshold (VT) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) is relevant for the evaluation of a range of training studies, clinical trials and cross-sectional studies. Due to a possible learning effect, a familiarization test is often performed to increase test......, and the workload was increased by 4 W/10 s thereafter. No familiarization test was performed. RESULTS: VO2 peak increased significantly as the time-averaging interval became shorter (e.g. 5-s interval 48·7 versus 60-s interval 44·8 ml O2 kg(-1) min(-1) ; overall P...-averaging intervals (60, 30, 15, 10 and 5 s) for the determination of VO2 peak to compare test results and reproducibility. METHODS: Thirteen recreational triathletes completed three identical incremental maximal cycle ergometer tests. The initial workload was 75 and 100 watt (W) for women and men, respectively...