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Sample records for trichogramma spp selection

  1. Biology and thermal requirements to Trichogramma spp. selection for Ecdytolopha aurantiana control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, Rosa M.S.; Parra, Jose R.P.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the potential of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman and Platner, 1983 and T. pretiosum Riley, 1879 as agents of control of Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), an important Citrus pest in Sao Paulo State (South-East Brazil). In order to provide subsidies to programs of biological control with these parasitoids, studies of biology in different temperatures, thermal requirements and parasitism capacity were carried out. The temperatures (18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30, and 32 deg C) did not affect the sex ratio, however, female longevity of both species was higher at 22 and 25 deg C. The temperature of 25 deg C tended to be more suitable to both emergency rate and female longevity. The egg-adult period for both Trichogramma species was inversely proportional to temperature. The thermal requirements of the two species were very close, about 108 DD (degree days). Neither the natural rearing host, E. aurantiana, nor the alternative host Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae), affected the number of parasitized eggs per Trichogramma female. The parasitism rate and the number of emerged adults per egg on E. aurantiana eggs were higher than on A. kuehniella eggs. However, the emergency rate was higher when the parasitoids were reared on A. kuehniella eggs. Both Trichogramma species could be tested in the field for citrus fruit borer control. The thermal requirements and the parasitism capacity also could be good parameters for selection of Trichogramma species/strains. (author)

  2. Selection of Wild Plant Species from Organic Rice Field in Sumberngepoh Village in Malang as Attractant of Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae

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    Wahyu Kusumayanti Putri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the actions in biological control is the use of parasitoid. Some wild plant species can attract those parasitoid. By the fact, the objective of this research are to select some of wild plant species attracting Trichogramma spp. These wild plant were belong to Asteraceae (Eupatorium odoratum, Bidens pilosa, Crassocephalum crepidioides and Mimosaceae (Parkia speciosa, Leucaena glauca, Mimosa pudica. Mass rearing of trichogramma spp. was prepared for those purpose. The selection were conducted by using four armed olfactometer. The percentage of the tested Trichogramma spp. attracted to the wild plant species was noted as well as their orientation duration to select the plant species. The difference of the mean of their orientation duration was analyzed statistically by T-Test. Both of plant familia can attract the parasitoid. This were the plant species that attracted Trichogramma spp. From the most attractive to the lowest one : B. pilosa 22 %, E. odoratum 18.6 %, M. pudica 18.2 %, C. crepidioides 13.8 %, P. speciosa 13.6 %, and L. glauca 13.6 %. For the orientation duration, this are the plant species that can attract the parasitoid from the fastest one to the slowest one : P. speciosa 45.5 seconds, C. crepidioides 46.2 seconds, L. glauca 49 seconds, E. odoratum 50.6 seconds , B. pilosa 53.4 seconds, and M. pudica 55.2 seconds. Keywords : Asteraceae, Mimosaceae, Trichogramma spp.

  3. Biology and thermal requirements to Trichogramma spp. selection for Ecdytolopha aurantiana control; Selecao de Trichogramma spp., para o controle de Ecdytolopha aurantiana, com base na biologia e exigencias termicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Rosa M.S.; Parra, Jose R.P. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola], e-mail: rmsmolina@ig.com.br, e-mail: jrpparra@esalq.usp.br; Fronza, Vanoli [Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Minas Gerais (EPAMIG), Uberaba, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: vanoli@epamig.br

    2005-03-15

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the potential of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman and Platner, 1983 and T. pretiosum Riley, 1879 as agents of control of Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), an important Citrus pest in Sao Paulo State (South-East Brazil). In order to provide subsidies to programs of biological control with these parasitoids, studies of biology in different temperatures, thermal requirements and parasitism capacity were carried out. The temperatures (18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30, and 32 deg C) did not affect the sex ratio, however, female longevity of both species was higher at 22 and 25 deg C. The temperature of 25 deg C tended to be more suitable to both emergency rate and female longevity. The egg-adult period for both Trichogramma species was inversely proportional to temperature. The thermal requirements of the two species were very close, about 108 DD (degree days). Neither the natural rearing host, E. aurantiana, nor the alternative host Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae), affected the number of parasitized eggs per Trichogramma female. The parasitism rate and the number of emerged adults per egg on E. aurantiana eggs were higher than on A. kuehniella eggs. However, the emergency rate was higher when the parasitoids were reared on A. kuehniella eggs. Both Trichogramma species could be tested in the field for citrus fruit borer control. The thermal requirements and the parasitism capacity also could be good parameters for selection of Trichogramma species/strains. (author)

  4. Selection of Trichogramma for inundative biological control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pak, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis presents a study of the potential for biological control of lepidopterous pests on cabbage crops in the Netherlands, by means of inundative releases of the egg parasite Trichogramma (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae). The objective of this study is to investigate the

  5. Evaluation of Trichogramma spp. for the control of Trichoplusia ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanez, Andre Malacarne

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological characteristics of the parasitoids Trichogramma acacioi, T. atopovirilia, T. marandobai, T. demoraesi, T. exiguum (two lines), and T. pretiosum (six lines), reared on eggs of Trichoplusia ni. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design, with 15 replicates. The biological characteristics evaluated were: parasitism, viability, sexual ratio and number of individuals per egg. The parasitism percentage varied between 7.66 and 53%, with highest value observed for Trichogramma pretiosum Tspd line, and the lowest for the T. pretiosum Trecife line. There was no significant difference for the viability, which remained higher than 85%. The sex ratio varied from 0.75 to 1, and Tspd line showed the lowest value. The number of individuals per egg varied between 2.39 for T. marandobai (Tm1 line) and 1.34 for T. exiguum (Te1 line). T. pretiosum (Tspd line) was the species with the best performance in laboratory with the highest values observed in parasitism and in viability. (author)

  6. Selectivity of pesticides used in rice crop on Telenomus podisi and Trichogramma pretiosum

    OpenAIRE

    Pazini,Juliano de Bastos; Grützmacher,Anderson Dionei; Martins,José Francisco da Silva; Pasini,Rafael Antônio; Rakes,Matheus

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Telenomus and Trichogramma species stand out as agents for the biological control in rice crops, and the main strategy for preserving them is the use of selective pesticides. This study aimed at evaluating the toxicity of pesticides used in irrigated rice crop on Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) and Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Adults of these parasitoids were exposed to dry residues of pesticides, in a completely randomized exp...

  7. Selection of Trichogramma strains and determination of number of parasitoids to be released to control Gymnandrosoma aurantianum Lima (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, Rosa Maria da Silva; Parra, Jose Roberto Postali

    2006-01-01

    In order to select Trichogramma strains to control G. aurantianum, the biological characteristics of 13 Trichogramma species/strains were evaluated. After selection, the ideal number of T. pretiosum (G18 strain) to be released per G. aurantianum egg was determined in greenhouse tests. The selection test for species/strains was carried out in an incubator adjusted to 25 +- 1 deg C, RH 70 +- 10%, and a 14 h photo phase. The ideal number of parasitoids was estimated in cages covered with a piece of voile-type fabric. The cycle duration for the 13 Trichogramma species/strains varied from 10.2 to 11.9 days. The Atp strain (T. atopovirilia) showed greater parasitism capacity, with an average of 23.3 parasitized eggs and 77.5% parasitism in 24 hours. The G18 strain (T. pretiosum) came next, with an average of 16.8 parasitized eggs and 56.1% parasitism during the same time interval. The emergency, longevity of males, and sex ratio for the 13 species/strains were similar. The number of adults emerged per egg was 1.8 for strains G11 (T. pretiosum) and Br10 (T. bruni), which were different from the G3 strain (T. pretiosum) only, with 1.3 adults per egg. With regard to female longevity, distinct values were observed only between T. pretiosum strains Tp and L2, with 6.3 and 9.3 days, respectively. Under greenhouse conditions, the estimated ratio of 36 T. pretiosum parasitoids per G. aurantianum egg allowed the highest percentage of parasitism (89%). Therefore, Trichogramma spp. has a potential to control G. aurantianum, as long as a large number of parasitoids is released per unit area. (author)

  8. Interaction between Telenomus remus and Trichogramma pretiosum in the management of Spodoptera spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mirmes Paiva Goulart

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Interaction betweeen Telenomus remus and Trichogramma pretiosum in the management of Spodoptera spp. The use of egg parasitoids is a promising strategy for Integrated Pest Management (IPM, but different species of parasitoids have greater or lesser control efficiency, depending on the pest species. Recently, not only Anticarsia gemmatalis and Pseudoplusia includens but also Spodoptera cosmioides and S. eridania have been among the key Lepidoptera larvae attacking soybeans. This study evaluated the combination of Telenomus remus and Trichogramma pretiosum for parasitism of eggs of the Spodoptera complex, for better control efficiency and broader spectrum of action among the key pests of soybeans. The experiment was carried out under controlled environmental conditions (25 ± 2ºC; 70 ± 10% RH; and 14 h photophase in a completely randomized experimental design with seven treatments and 10 replicates with S. frugiperda, S. cosmioides and S. eridania eggs. Each replicate consisted of one egg mass of each Spodoptera species, with approximately 100 eggs offered to the parasitoids. The treatments were: 1 10 females of T. pretiosum; 2 nine females of T. pretiosum and one female of T. remus; 3 eight females of T. pretiosum and two females of T. remus; 4 seven females of T. pretiosum and three females of T. remus; 5 six females of T. pretiosum and four females of T. remus; 6 five females of T. pretiosum and five females of T. remus, and 7 10 females of T. remus. The parameter evaluated was the percentage of parasitized eggs. Results showed that treatments combining both parasitoid species with only 1 T. remus for each 9 T. pretiosum (10% and only 2 T. remus for each 8 T. pretiosum (20% were enough to significantly increase the parasitism observed on eggs of S. cosmioides and S. frugiperda, respectively. This association of T. pretiosum and T. remus in different proportions is very promising for biological control in IPM programs because it provides wide

  9. Evaluation of Trichogramma spp. for the control of Trichoplusia ni;Avaliacao de Trichogramma spp. para o controle de Trichoplusia ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milanez, Andre Malacarne, E-mail: andremalak@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia e Entomologia; Pratissoli, Dirceu; Polanczyk, Ricardo Antonio; Tufik, Camila Borges Antonio, E-mail: pratissoli@cca.ufes.b, E-mail: ricardo@cca.ufes.b, E-mail: camila_btufik@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Alegre, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Producao Vegetal; Bueno, Adeney de Freitas, E-mail: adeney@pq.cnpq.b [EMBRAPA Soja, Londrina, PR (Brazil)

    2009-10-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological characteristics of the parasitoids Trichogramma acacioi, T. atopovirilia, T. marandobai, T. demoraesi, T. exiguum (two lines), and T. pretiosum (six lines), reared on eggs of Trichoplusia ni. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design, with 15 replicates. The biological characteristics evaluated were: parasitism, viability, sexual ratio and number of individuals per egg. The parasitism percentage varied between 7.66 and 53%, with highest value observed for Trichogramma pretiosum Tspd line, and the lowest for the T. pretiosum Trecife line. There was no significant difference for the viability, which remained higher than 85%. The sex ratio varied from 0.75 to 1, and Tspd line showed the lowest value. The number of individuals per egg varied between 2.39 for T. marandobai (Tm1 line) and 1.34 for T. exiguum (Te1 line). T. pretiosum (Tspd line) was the species with the best performance in laboratory with the highest values observed in parasitism and in viability. (author)

  10. Selectivity of pesticides used in rice crop on Telenomus podisi and Trichogramma pretiosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano de Bastos Pazini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Telenomus and Trichogramma species stand out as agents for the biological control in rice crops, and the main strategy for preserving them is the use of selective pesticides. This study aimed at evaluating the toxicity of pesticides used in irrigated rice crop on Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae and Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae. Adults of these parasitoids were exposed to dry residues of pesticides, in a completely randomized experiment, with 25 treatments (24 pesticides + control and four replications. The insecticides clorantraniliprole, flubendiamide and diflubenzuron and the biological insecticides based on Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae were harmless to T. podisi and T. pretiosum. The harmless herbicides were: 2.4-D amine, profoxydim, quinclorac, ethoxysulfuron and saflufenacil. The fungicide epoxiconazole + kresoxim-methyl was also harmless to these two biological control agents. Therefore, these pesticides are indicated for the integrated pest management, in flooded rice areas.

  11. Selection of Trichogramma strains and determination of number of parasitoids to be released to control Gymnandrosoma aurantianum Lima (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae); Selecao de linhagens de Trichogramma (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae) e determinacao do numero de parasitoides a ser liberado para o controle de Gymnandrosoma aurantianum Lima (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Rosa Maria da Silva; Parra, Jose Roberto Postali [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola], e-mail: rmsmolina@ig.com.br, e-mail: jrpparra@esalq.usp.br

    2006-12-15

    In order to select Trichogramma strains to control G. aurantianum, the biological characteristics of 13 Trichogramma species/strains were evaluated. After selection, the ideal number of T. pretiosum (G18 strain) to be released per G. aurantianum egg was determined in greenhouse tests. The selection test for species/strains was carried out in an incubator adjusted to 25 +- 1 deg C, RH 70 +- 10%, and a 14 h photo phase. The ideal number of parasitoids was estimated in cages covered with a piece of voile-type fabric. The cycle duration for the 13 Trichogramma species/strains varied from 10.2 to 11.9 days. The Atp strain (T. atopovirilia) showed greater parasitism capacity, with an average of 23.3 parasitized eggs and 77.5% parasitism in 24 hours. The G18 strain (T. pretiosum) came next, with an average of 16.8 parasitized eggs and 56.1% parasitism during the same time interval. The emergency, longevity of males, and sex ratio for the 13 species/strains were similar. The number of adults emerged per egg was 1.8 for strains G11 (T. pretiosum) and Br10 (T. bruni), which were different from the G3 strain (T. pretiosum) only, with 1.3 adults per egg. With regard to female longevity, distinct values were observed only between T. pretiosum strains Tp and L2, with 6.3 and 9.3 days, respectively. Under greenhouse conditions, the estimated ratio of 36 T. pretiosum parasitoids per G. aurantianum egg allowed the highest percentage of parasitism (89%). Therefore, Trichogramma spp. has a potential to control G. aurantianum, as long as a large number of parasitoids is released per unit area. (author)

  12. Seletividade de herbicidas registrados para a cultura do milho a adultos de Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Selectivity of herbicides registered on corn to Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    G.J. Stefanello Júnior

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A seletividade de 24 herbicidas registrados para a cultura do milho foi avaliada a Trichogramma pretiosum em condições de laboratório (temperatura de 25±1 ºC, umidade relativa de 70±10%, fotofase de 14 horas e luminosidade de 500 lux. Adultos de T. pretiosum foram colocados em contato com uma película seca dos herbicidas pulverizados sobre placas de vidro e avaliou-se a capacidade de parasitismo das fêmeas. A redução na capacidade de parasitismo dos tratamentos foi comparada com a da testemunha (água destilada e utilizada para classificar os herbicidas em 1, inócuo (99%. Os herbicidas Callisto, Equip Plus, Extrazin SC, Primóleo, Provence 750 WG e Siptran 500 SC são inócuos (classe 1; Agrisato 480 SL, Gesaprim GrDA, Glifos, Glyphosate Nortox, Gliz 480 SL, Polaris, Primatop SC, Sanson 40 SC, Trop e Zapp Qi, levemente nocivos (classe 2; Finale, Herbadox, Poast, Roundup Original, Roundup Transorb e Roundup WG, moderadamente nocivos (classe 3; e Gramoxone 200 e Primestra Gold, nocivos (classe 4 aos adultos de T. pretiosum, nas dosagens utilizadas. Os herbicidas nocivos (classes 2, 3 e 4 deverão passar para as etapas seguintes, que envolverão testes sobre as fases imaturas do parasitóide em condições de laboratório e adultos a campo.The selectivity of 24 herbicides registered on corn to Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae was assessed under laboratory conditions (25 ± 1 ºC temperature, 70 ± 10% relative humidity, 14 4 photophase and brightness 500 lux. The adult parasitoids were submitted to a dry film of the herbicides applied on glass plates and the parasitism capacity of the females was evaluated. Reduced parasitism capacity in the treatments was compared with the negative control (distilled water and used to classify the herbicides into four categories: 1, harmless ( 99%. The herbicides Callisto, Equip Plus, Extrazin SC, Primóleo, Provence 750 WG and Siptran 500 SC were found to be harmless (class 1

  13. The potential of Mythimna sequax Franclemont eggs for the production of Trichogramma spp. after cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen

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    Magda Fernanda Paixão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The cryopreservation of noctuid eggs in liquid nitrogen has proved be a promising tool in the mass production of Trichogramma, however studies into this technique have only just begun. This study evaluated the response of different densities of the female of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley to the parasitism of Mythimna sequax eggs stored and not stored in liquid nitrogen, and the performance of females reared only in cryopreserved eggs. The study evaluated the influence of the number of T. pretiosum females (4, 8 and 12 released to parasitise 40 M. sequax eggs, stored and not stored for 15 days in liquid nitrogen, as well as the performance of T. pretiosum females reared in eggs stored for three generations and females reared in non-stored eggs. Parasitism by T. pretiosum in stored eggs was 84%, twice the value obtained in previous studies. The emergence of parasitoids was greater than 95% in both experiments. The performance of females raised in stored eggs did not differ from that of females raised in non-stored eggs. The data show that the technique of cryopreservation of M. sequax eggs may be a viable alternative in the mass production of T. pretiosum.

  14. Selectivity of herbicides registered for corn at the immature stages of Trichogramma pretio sum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanello Jr, G.J; Grutzmacher, A.D; Pasini, R.A; Bonez, C; Moreira, D.C; Spagnol, D

    2011-01-01

    O controle químico tem sido um dos métodos mais utilizados para o manejo de plantas daninhas na cultura do milho, no entanto o uso de herbicidas pode ocasionar efeitos adversos aos insetos benéficos, como os parasitoides de ovos. Nesse sentido, foi avaliada a seletividade de 12 herbicidas registrados para a cultura do milho para as fases imaturas de Trichogramma pretiosum em condições de laboratório (temperatura de 25±1 ºC, umidade relativa de 70±10% e fotofase de 14 horas). Os herbicidas for...

  15. Selectivity of herbicides registered on corn to Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanello Júnior, G.J.; Grützmacher, A.D.; Grützmacher, D.D.; Lima, C.A.B.; Dalmozo, D.O.; Paschoal, M.D.F.

    2008-01-01

    A seletividade de 24 herbicidas registrados para a cultura do milho foi avaliada a Trichogramma pretiosum em condições de laboratório (temperatura de 25±1 ºC, umidade relativa de 70±10%, fotofase de 14 horas e luminosidade de 500 lux). Adultos de T. pretiosum foram colocados em contato com uma película seca dos herbicidas pulverizados sobre placas de vidro e avaliou-se a capacidade de parasitismo das fêmeas. A redução na capacidade de parasitismo dos tratamentos foi comparada com a da testemu...

  16. Selectivity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarrhizium anisopliae to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae); Seletividade de Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae a Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potrich, Michele; Silva, Everton L. da; Neves, Pedro M.O.J. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: profmichele@gmail.com, e-mail: evertonloz@gmail.com, e-mail: pedroneves@uel.br; Alves, Luis F.A.; Daros, Alaxsandra [Universidade do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude. Lab. de Zoologia de Invertebrados], e-mail: lfaalves@unioeste.br; Haas, Jucelaine; Pietrowski, Vanda [Universidade do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: jubarth@gmail.com, e-mail: vandapietrowski@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae are efficient biological control agents and are thought to be used jointly. In here, we investigated if these entomopathogens could have any side-effects on T. pretiosum. Therefore, 1 x 8 cards containing sterilized eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) that were sprayed with 0.2 ml of B. bassiana or M. anisopliae (1.0 X 10{sup 9} conidia/ml) were offered to a T. pretiosum female for 24h (30 cards/fungus = 30 replicates). Afterwards, females were isolated in glass tubes. The control group was sprayed with sterile distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%). In addition, 60 cards with sterilized eggs of A. kuehniella were submitted to parasitism by females of T. pretiosum for 24h. Of these cards, 30 were sprayed with B. bassiana or M. anisopliae and 30 with distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%), and observed daily until parasitoid emergence. Metarhizium anisopliae decreased parasitoid emergence and caused confirmed mortality. Therefore, field and semi-field experiments should be conducted for a final assessment of the side-effects of these entomopathogens on Trichogramma as a ways to develop a control strategy in which both can be used. (author)

  17. Lethal and behavioral effects of selected novel pesticides on adults of Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Ashraf; Khan, Hizbullah; Ruberson, John R

    2015-12-01

    Growing demand for reduced chemical inputs in agricultural systems requires more effective integration of biological control with pesticides. The egg parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum Riley is an important natural enemy of lepidopteran pests, used in biological control. In an investigation of the interaction of T. pretiosum and pesticides, we studied the acute toxicity of 19 pesticides (insecticides, miticides, fungicides and herbicides) to adult parasitoids and the behavioral effects of 11 pesticides on foraging parasitoid females, including host antennation, stinging and host feeding. At recommended field doses, fipronil, dinotefuran, spinetoram, tolfenpyrad and abamectin induced nearly 100% adult mortality within 24 h of exposure to treated cotton leaves by comparison with controls. Acetamiprid was also toxic, but significantly less so than the former materials. The other pesticides had no significant toxic effects. Only glufosinate ammonium exhibited increased toxicity among the non-toxic materials when increased two- or fourfold over recommended rates. The foraging behavior of parasitoids was affected only by tolfenpyrad among the materials tested. Most novel pesticides, except for several insecticides, exhibited little to no acute toxicity to the parasitoid. Parasitoid foraging behavior was only affected by tolfenpyrad, indicating that parasitoids could successfully forage on eggs treated with most pesticides evaluated. Therefore, many of these pesticides may have good compatibility with Trichogramma. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Selectivity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarrhizium anisopliae to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potrich, Michele; Silva, Everton L. da; Neves, Pedro M.O.J.; Alves, Luis F.A.; Daros, Alaxsandra; Haas, Jucelaine; Pietrowski, Vanda

    2009-01-01

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae are efficient biological control agents and are thought to be used jointly. In here, we investigated if these entomopathogens could have any side-effects on T. pretiosum. Therefore, 1 x 8 cards containing sterilized eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) that were sprayed with 0.2 ml of B. bassiana or M. anisopliae (1.0 X 10 9 conidia/ml) were offered to a T. pretiosum female for 24h (30 cards/fungus = 30 replicates). Afterwards, females were isolated in glass tubes. The control group was sprayed with sterile distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%). In addition, 60 cards with sterilized eggs of A. kuehniella were submitted to parasitism by females of T. pretiosum for 24h. Of these cards, 30 were sprayed with B. bassiana or M. anisopliae and 30 with distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%), and observed daily until parasitoid emergence. Metarhizium anisopliae decreased parasitoid emergence and caused confirmed mortality. Therefore, field and semi-field experiments should be conducted for a final assessment of the side-effects of these entomopathogens on Trichogramma as a ways to develop a control strategy in which both can be used. (author)

  19. [Selectivity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potrich, Michele; Alves, Luis F A; Haas, Jucelaine; Da Silva, Everton R L; Daros, Alaxsandra; Pietrowski, Vanda; Neves, Pedro M O J

    2009-01-01

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae are efficient biological control agents and are thought to be used jointly. In here, we investigated if these entomopathogens could have any side-effects on T. pretiosum. Therefore, 1 x 8 cards containing sterilized eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) that were sprayed with 0.2 ml of B. bassiana or M. anisopliae (1.0 x 10(9) conidia/ml) were offered to a T. pretiosum female for 24h (30 cards/fungus = 30 replicates). Afterwards, females were isolated in glass tubes. The control group was sprayed with sterile distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%). In addition, 60 cards with sterilized eggs of A. kuehniella were submitted to parasitism by females of T. pretiosum for 24h. Of these cards, 30 were sprayed with B. bassiana or M. anisopliae and 30 with distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%), and observed daily until parasitoid emergence. Metarhizium anisopliae decreased parasitoid emergence and caused confirmed mortality. Therefore, field and semi-field experiments should be conducted for a final assessment of the side-effects of these entomopathogens on Trichogramma as a ways to develop a control strategy in which both can be used.

  20. Effect of selectivity of herbicides and plant growth regulators used in sugarcane crops on immature stages of Trichogramma galloi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    OpenAIRE

    OLIVEIRA, H. N. de; ANTIGO, M. R.; CARVALHO, G. A.; GLAESER, D. F.

    2014-01-01

    Herbicides and plant growth regulators are often used in sugarcane management. However, the use of non-selective pesticides can cause adverse effects on the efficiency of beneficial insects in integrated pest management. Within this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of such products on the immature stages of the parasitoid Trichogramma galloi. Eggs of Diatraea saccharalis containing the parasitoid at the egg-larva stage and at the prepupal and pupal stages were immersed in test...

  1. Effect of selectivity of herbicides and plant growth regulators used in sugarcane crops on immature stages of Trichogramma galloi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, H.N.; Antigo, M.R.; Carvalho, G.A.; Glaeser, D.F.

    2014-01-01

    Herbicides and plant growth regulators are often used in sugarcane management. However, the use of non-selective pesticides can cause adverse effects on the efficiency of beneficial insects in integrated pest management. Within this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of such products on the immature stages of the parasitoid Trichogramma galloi. Eggs of Diatraea saccharalis containing the parasitoid at the egg-larva stage and at the prepupal and pupal stages were immersed in test...

  2. Effect of Carbon dioxide (CO2 on mortality and reproduction of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller 1879, in mass rearing, aiming at the production of Trichogramma spp.

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    ALOISIO COELHO JUNIOR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller 1879 are widely used for mass rearing of Trichogramma spp. and other parasitoids and predators, largely commercialized in many countries. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of carbon dioxide (CO2 originated from larval metabolism on the biological parameters of A. kuehniella. For that purpose, we assess the production of carbon dioxide (CO2 per rearing tray of A. kuehniella and the effect of CO2 on the viability of egg-to-adult period and oviposition of A. kuehniella. Results allow to estimate that a rearing tray, containing 10,000 larvae between the 4th and 5th instars, produces an average of 30.67 mL of CO2 per hour. The highest egg production of A. kuehniella was obtained when the larvae were kept in rooms with lower concentration of CO2 (1,200 parts per million - ppm, producing 23% more eggs than in rooms with higher CO2 concentrations. In rooms with high density of trays (70 trays/room, CO2 concentration exceeded 4,400 ppm. The viability of the egg-to-adult period was not influenced by carbon dioxide.Ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 são muito utilizados para a criação massal de Trichogramma spp. e de outros parasitóides e predadores, sendo comercializados em muitos países. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do dióxido de carbono (CO2, proveniente do metabolismo larval, em parâmetros biológicos de A. kuehniella, principalmente na postura. Para que este objetivo fosse atingido, foram avaliados a produção de dióxido de carbono (CO2 por bandeja de criação de A. kuehniella e o efeito do CO2 na viabilidade do período ovo-adulto e na postura de A. kuehniella. Por meio dos resultados obtidos pôde-se estimar que uma bandeja de criação, com lagartas entre o 4° e 5° ínstares, inoculada com 10.000 lagartas produz, em média, 30,67 ml de CO2 por hora. A maior produção de ovos de A. kuehniella foi obtida quando as lagartas foram mantidas em salas com concentra

  3. Lethal effects of selected novel pesticides on immature stages of Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Ashraf; Ruberson, John R

    2017-12-01

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley is an important egg parasitoid and biological control agent of caterpillar pests. We studied the acute toxicity of 20 pesticides (14 insecticides/miticides, three fungicides and three herbicides) exposed to recommended field rates. Egg, larval, and pupal stages of the parasitoid in their hosts were dipped in formulated solutions of the pesticides and evaluated 10 days later for percentage of host eggs with holes, number of parasitoids emerged per egg with holes, and stage-specific mortality of immature as well as adult wasps within the host eggs. Seven insecticides (buprofezin, chlorantraniliprole, spirotetramat, flonicamid, flubendiamide) and miticides (spiromesifen, cyflumetofen), one herbicide (nicosulfuron), and three fungicides (myclobutanil, pyraclostrobin, trifloxystrobin + tebuconazole) caused no significant mortality to immature stages or pre-emergent adult parasitoids relative to controls. By contrast, seven insecticides/miticides (abamectin, acetamiprid, dinotefuran, fipronil, novaluron, spinetoram, tolfenpyrad) adversely affected immature and pre-emergent adult T. pretiosum, with tolfenpyrad being particularly lethal. Two herbicides had moderate (glufosinate ammonium) to severe (s-metolachlor) acute lethal effects on the immature parasitoids. This study corroborates earlier findings with adult T. pretiosum. Over half of the pesticides - and all the fungicides - tested in the current study would appear to be compatible with the use of T. pretiosum in integrated pest management programs, with respect to acute parasitoid mortality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Seletividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do pessegueiro a Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Selectivity of pesticides used in peach orchard to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Pinheiro Giolo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A seletividade de dez formulações comerciais de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do pessegueiro foi avaliada em laboratório (25±1 ºC, UR 70±10% e fotofase de 14 horas, através da exposição de adultos de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley a resíduos secos dos produtos pulverizados sobre placas de vidro. O número de ovos parasitados por fêmea, foi mensurado e a redução no parasitismo (RP, em relação à testemunha (água, foi utilizada para classificar os compostos em: inócuos (99% RP. Os produtos fitossanitários captana, ditianona, mancozebe, metoxifenozida e óxido cuproso foram inócuos; glifosato e óleo mineral foram levemente nocivos e abamectina, cianamida e etofenproxi foram nocivos a T. pretiosum.The selectivity of ten commercial pesticide formulations used in peach orchard was evaluated in laboratory tests (25±1 ºC, RH 70±10% and 14 hours photophase by exposing the adult of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley to fresh dry pesticide film applied on glass plates. The number of eggs parasitized per adult female and the reduction in parasitism (RP compared to control (treated with water were used to measure the effect of the chemical in harmless (99% RP. The pesticides captan, copper oxide, dithianon, mancozeb and methoxyfenozide were harmless; gliphosate and mineral oil was slightly harmful and abamectin, cyanamide and etofenprox were harmful to T. pretiosum.

  5. Linhagens de Trichogramma e Trichogrammatoidea para controle de Stenoma catenifer Trichogramma and Trichogrammatoidea strains to control Stenoma catenifer

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    Dori Edson Nava

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar espécies e linhagens de Trichogramma e Trichogrammatoidea, com potencial para controle da broca-do-abacate Stenoma catenifer, considerada a principal praga do abacateiro (Persea americana Mill.. Experimentos em laboratório foram realizados com 12 linhagens das seguintes espécies, sendo: oito de Trichogramma pretiosum; uma de Trichogramma atopovirilia; duas de Trichogramma bruni; e uma de Trichogrammatoidea annulata. Em telado, determinou-se o número de parasitóides a ser liberado por ovo de S. catenifer. Os parâmetros biológicos avaliados em laboratório foram: duração do período ovo-adulto, emergência, parasitismo, razão sexual, número de parasitóides emergidos por ovo de S. catenifer e longevidade de fêmeas e machos. Em telado, avaliou-se o número de ovos parasitados. As espécies Trichogrammatoidea annulata e Trichogramma atopovirilia e suas linhagens foram selecionadas por parasitar maior número de ovos de S. catenifer. Nessas condições, o maior parasitismo foi obtido com uma proporção estimada de 28 e 30 parasitóides, por ovo da praga, respectivamente, para Trichogrammatoidea annulata e Trichogramma atopovirilia.The objective of this work was to select Trichogramma and Trichogrammatoidea species and strains with potential to control the avocado fruit borer Stenoma catenifer, considered the main avocado (Persea americana Mill. pest. Laboratory experiments were carried out with the following strains and species, which comprised eight Trichogramma pretiosum; one Trichogramma atopovirilia; two Trichogramma bruni; and one Trichogrammatoidea annulata. The number of parasitoids to be released per S. catenifer egg under semi-field conditions was studied. Biological parameters evaluated in laboratory were egg-adult development time, survivorship, parasitism, sex ratio, number of parasitoids emerged per S. catenifer egg, and adult longevity. In semi-field experiment, the number of

  6. Seletividade de herbicidas registrados para a cultura do milho aos estádios imaturos de Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Selectivity of herbicides registered for corn at the immature stages of Trichogramma pretio sum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    G.J Stefanello Jr

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O controle químico tem sido um dos métodos mais utilizados para o manejo de plantas daninhas na cultura do milho, no entanto o uso de herbicidas pode ocasionar efeitos adversos aos insetos benéficos, como os parasitoides de ovos. Nesse sentido, foi avaliada a seletividade de 12 herbicidas registrados para a cultura do milho para as fases imaturas de Trichogramma pretiosum em condições de laboratório (temperatura de 25±1 ºC, umidade relativa de 70±10% e fotofase de 14 horas. Os herbicidas foram diluídos em um volume proporcional a 200 L de água por hectare e pulverizados sobre ovos de lepidóptero contendo formas imaturas do parasitoide em seu interior, nas fases de ovo-larva, pré-pupa e pupa. Avaliou-se, então, a porcentagem de emergência dos parasitoides e, em função da comparação com a testemunha, classificaram-se os herbicidas em inócuo (classe 1, 99%. Os herbicidas Agrisato 480 SL, Finale, Glifos, Glifosato Nortox, Gliz 480 SL, Polaris, Roundup Original, Roundup Transorb, Roundup WG, Trop e Zapp Qi foram inócuos (classe 1 às diferentes fases imaturas de T. pretiosum e são considerados seletivos ao parasitoide. Gramoxone 200, embora tenha sido inócuo para as fases de ovo-larva e pré-pupa, foi considerado levemente nocivo (classe 2 para a fase de pupa. Nesse sentido, para melhor compatibilização do manejo químico das plantas daninhas e controle biológico de insetos, sugere-se que sejam utilizados, sempre que possível, aqueles herbicidas que permitem maior sobrevivência de T. pretiosum.- Chemical control has been one of the most widely used methods for weed mana gement in corn. However, the use of herbicides can cause adverse effects on beneficial insects, such as egg parasitoids. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate the selectivity of 12 herbicides regis tered for corn at the immature stages of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae under laboratory conditions (temperature 25±1 o C

  7. Seletividade de formulações de glyphosate aplicado nos estádios imaturos de Trichogramma pretiosum Selectivity of glyphosate formulations applied on immature stages of Trichogramma Pretiosum

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    S.D. Nörnberg

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A seletividade de oito formulações comerciais de glyphosate registradas no Brasil (Roundup®, Roundup® WG, Roundup® Transorb, Polaris®, Gliz® 480 CS, Glifosato Nortox®, Glifosato 480 Agripec® e Zapp® Qi foi avaliada sobre os estádios imaturos do parasitóide de ovos Trichogramma pretiosum, bem como seus efeitos sobre os adultos emergidos, em condições de laboratório (temperatura de 25±1 ºC, umidade relativa de 70±10%, fotofase de 14h e luminosidade de 500 lux. Os bioensaios consistiram na pulverização da calda herbicida, na concentração de 14,4 mg L-1 de equivalente ácido de glyphosate, sobre ovos de Anagasta kuehniella contendo em seu interior o parasitóide nos estádios imaturos de ovo-larva, pré-pupa e pupa. Reduções na emergência de adultos em relação à testemunha foram utilizadas para mensurar os efeitos dos tratamentos. Aos adultos do parasitóide emergidos de pupas pulverizadas foram ofertados ovos do hospedeiro A. kuehniella, sendo avaliado o parasitismo de T. pretiosum de cada tratamento em relação à testemunha. Não houve efeito deletério significativo para nenhum dos herbicidas avaliados quando pulverizados sobre os diferentes estádios imaturos de desenvolvimento de T. pretiosum, de acordo com a IOBC. De forma similar, o parasitismo de adultos emergidos de ovos pulverizados na fase de pupa também não foi afetado.The selectivity of eight commercial herbicide products with glyphosate formulations (Roundup®, Roundup® WG, Roundup® Transorb, Polaris®, Gliz® 480 CS, Glifosato Nortox®, Glifosato 480 Agripec® and Zapp® Qi registered in Brazil, was assessed in relation to the immature stages of the egg-parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum, as well as to their effects on the emerged adults, under laboratory conditions (temperature 25±1 °C, relative humidity 70±10%; photophase 14 hours and brightness 500 lux. The bioassays consisted of herbicide spray at the concentration of 14.4 mg L-1 of equivalent

  8. Herbicide toxicity, selectivity and hormesis of nicosulfuron on 10 Trichogrammatidae (Hymenoptera) species parasitizing Anagasta ( = Ephestia) kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Germano L D; de Paulo, Paula D; Zanuncio, José C; Tavares, Wagner De S; Alvarenga, Anarelly C; Dourado, Luan R; Bispo, Edilson P R; Soares, Marcus A

    2017-01-02

    Selective agrochemicals including herbicides that do not affect non-target organisms such as natural enemies are important in the integrated pest management (IPM) programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the herbicide toxicity, selectivity and hormesis of nicosulfuron, recommended for the corn Zea mays L. (Poaceae) crop, on 10 Trichogrammatidae (Hymenoptera) species. A female of each Trichogramma spp. or Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis, 1972 was individually placed in plastic test tubes (no choice) with a cardboard containing 45 flour moth Anagasta ( = Ephestia) kuehniella Zeller, 1879 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs. Parasitism by these natural enemies was allowed for 48 h and the cardboards were sprayed with the herbicide nicosulfuron at 1.50 L.ha -1 , along with the control (only distilled water). Nicosulfuron reduced the emergence rate of Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja, 1983 females, but increased that of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879, Trichogramma acacioi Brun, Moraes and Smith, 1984 and T. annulata females. Conversely, this herbicide increased the emergence rate of Trichogramma brasiliensis Ashmead, 1904, T. bruni, Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, 1988 and Trichogramma soaresi Nagaraja, 1983 males and decreased those of T. acacioi, Trichogramma atopovilia Oatman and Platner, 1983 and T. pretiosum males. In addition, nicosulfuron reduced the sex ratio of T. galloi, Trichogramma bennetti Nagaraja and Nagarkatti, 1973 and T. pretiosum and increased that of T. acacioi, T. bruni, T. annulata, Trichogramma demoraesi Nagaraja, 1983, T. soaresi and T. brasiliensis. The herbicide nicosulfuron was "harmless" (class 1, <30% reduction) for females and the sex ratio of all Trichogrammatidae species based on the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) classification. The possible hormesis effect of nicosulfuron on Trichogrammatidae species and on the bacterium Wolbachia sp. (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) was also discussed.

  9. Regeneration in selected Cucurbita spp. germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Gisbert Domenech, Maria Carmen; Picó Sirvent, María Belén N:2949; Nuez Viñals, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Gisbert Domenech, MC.; Picó Sirvent, MBN.; Nuez Viñals, F. (2011). Regeneration in selected Cucurbita spp. germplasm. Report- Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative. 33-34:53-54. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/62926 Senia 53 54 33-34

  10. Seletividade de Lecanicillium lecanii (Zimm. Zare & W. Gams (classe-forma: Hyphomycetes ao parasitóide Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Selectivity of Lecanicillium lecanii (Zimm. Zare & W. Gams (class-form: Hyphomycetes to the parasitoid Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    Leandro Pin Dalvi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se no presente trabalho, as características biológicas de Trichogramma atopovirilia em ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda sob influência do fungo Lecanicillium lecanii, com o objetivo de verificar, em laboratório, se este entomopatógeno é seletivo ao parasitóide. Os estudos foram desenvolvidos no setor entomologia do Núcleo de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico em Manejo Fitossanitário "NUDEMAFI". Os indicativos de seletividade adotados foram: número de ovos parasitados, porcentagem de emergência (viabilidade, número de indivíduos por ovo, razão sexual e longevidade das fêmeas que parasitaram. Nenhum desses parâmetros foi afetado pelo fungo, levando à conclusão de que o mesmo é seletivo a T. atopovirilia, possibilitando ser conveniente a utilização simultânea de ambos os agentes de controle biológico no Manejo Integrado de Pragas.The present work studied the biological characteristics of Trichogramma atopovirilia in eggs of Spodoptera frugiperda under influence of the fungus Lecanicillium lecanii, with the aim of verifing in laboratory if this entomopathogenic fungus is selective to the parasitoid. The studies were carried out in the entomology sector of Nucleus of Scientific & Technological Development in Phytossanitary Management (NUDEMAFI. The indicatives of selectivity adapted used were: number of parasited eggs, emergency percentage (viability, number of individuals for egg, sex ratio and longevity of the females that parasited. None of these parameters were affected by the fungus, leading to the conclusion that the same is selective to T. atopovirilia, possibiliting the simultaneous utilization of both agents of biological control into the Integrated Management of Pests.

  11. Seletividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do pessegueiro nos estágios imaturos de Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Selectivity of pesticides used in peach production to immature stages of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    Fabrizio Pinheiro Giolo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi avaliada em condições de laboratório a seletividade dos produtos fitossanitários (g ou mL produto comercial 100L-1 abamectina (80, carbaril (360, deltametrina (40, dimetoato (120, enxofre (600, etofenproxi (150, fentiona (100, fenitrotiona (150, fosmete (200, glufosinato de amônio (2L ha-1, óleo mineral (2000 e triclorfom (300, utilizados na cultura do pessegueiro, em relação a diferentes estágios imaturos de desenvolvimento do parasitóide de ovos Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983. Os bioensaios consistiram na pulverização direta dos produtos fitossanitários sobre ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879, contendo, em seu interior, o parasitóide em distintos estágios de desenvolvimento. A porcentagem de emergência de adultos do parasitóide foi avaliada. Reduções na emergência (RE de adultos em relação à testemunha foram calculadas e os produtos fitossanitários classificados de acordo com índices propostos pela IOBC/WPRS. Produtos fitossanitários à base de abamectina, deltametrina, dimetoato, enxofre, etofenproxi, fosmete, glufosinato de amônio e óleo mineral não apresentaram reduções na emergência e foram classificados como inócuos (The selectivity of the pesticides (g or mL commercial product 100L-1 abamectin (80, carbaryl (360, deltamethrin (40, dimethoate (120, ethofenprox (150, fenthion (100, fenitrothion (150, glufosinate ammonium (2L ha-1, mineral oil (2000, phosmet (200, sulphur (600 and trichlorphon (300 used in peach orchards was evaluated under laboratory conditions, expounded in different immature stages of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983. Bioassays were carried out by direct applied of treatments on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 with the immature stages egg-larva, pre-pupa and pupa of T. atopovirilia. The percentage of emergence adult parasitoids was assessed. Reduction in the emergence adult compared with the control

  12. Las especies de Trichogramma de Uruguay (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Trichogramma species from Uruguay (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    César Basso

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Fueron recolectadas cinco especies de Trichogramma Westwood en Uruguay. La más ampliamente distribuida T. pretiosum Riley parasita Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, Heliothis zea (Boddie, Alabama argillacea (Hübner y Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick. Trichogramma exiguum Pinto & Platner, a menudo confundida con T. fuentesi Torre, parasitan Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick y A. sphaleropa. Otras dos especies T. galloi Zucchi y T. distinctum Zucchi parasita D. saccharalis. Ellas presentan una morfología relativamente similar y, de acuerdo a la información disponible, no es posible decidir si son especies próximas o sinónimas. Finalmente, T. bellaunionense Basso & Pintureau fue recolectada en Uruguay hasta el momento sólo sobre D. saccharalis. Se provee una clave ilustrada para determinar esas cinco especies. Por otra parte, se incluye una revisión del uso actual y proyectado de Trichogramma para controlar diferentes plagas en diversos cultivos en este país.Five Trichogramma Westwood species were collected in Uruguay. The widely distributed T. pretiosum Riley parasitizes Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, Heliothis zea (Boddie, Alabama argillacea (Hübner and Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick. Trichogramma exiguum Pinto & Platner, often confused with T. fuentesi Torre, parasitizes Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick and A. sphaleropa. The two species T. galloi Zucchi and T. distinctum Zucchi parasitize D. saccharalis. Their morphology is relatively close and, from the information available, it is not possible to decide if they are closely related species or synonymous species. Finally, up to now, T. bellaunionense Basso & Pintureau was only collected from Uruguay on D. saccharalis. An illustrated key is provided to identify these five species. Moreover, the present and expected use of Trichogramma to control different pests in different Uruguayan crops is reviewed.

  13. Development of a selective agar plate for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jin-Hee; Choi, Na-Young; Bae, Young-Min; Lee, Jung-Su; Lee, Sun-Young

    2014-10-17

    This study was conducted to develop a selective medium for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce. Campylobacter spp. (n=4), non-Campylobacter (showing positive results on Campylobacter selective agar) strains (n=49) isolated from fresh produce, indicator bacteria (n=13), and spoilage bacteria isolated from fresh produce (n=15) were plated on four Campylobacter selective media. Bolton agar and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) exhibited higher sensitivity for Campylobacter spp. than did Preston agar and Hunt agar, although certain non-Campylobacter strains isolated from fresh produce by using a selective agar isolation method, were still able to grow on Bolton agar and mCCDA. To inhibit the growth of non-Campylobacter strains, Bolton agar and mCCDA were supplemented with 5 antibiotics (rifampicin, polymyxin B, sodium metabisulfite, sodium pyruvate, ferrous sulfate) and the growth of Campylobacter spp. (n=7) and non-Campylobacter strains (n=44) was evaluated. Although Bolton agar supplemented with rifampicin (BR agar) exhibited a higher selectivity for Campylobacter spp. than did mCCDA supplemented with antibiotics, certain non-Campylobacter strains were still able to grow on BR agar (18.8%). When BR agar with various concentrations of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim were tested with Campylobacter spp. (n=8) and non-Campylobacter (n=7), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was inhibitory against 3 of 7 non-Campylobacter strains. Finally, we validated the use of BR agar containing 50mg/L sulfamethoxazole (BRS agar) or 0.5mg/L ciprofloxacin (BRCS agar) and other selective agars for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken and fresh produce. All chicken samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. when tested on mCCDA, BR agar, and BRS agar. In fresh produce samples, BRS agar exhibited the highest selectivity for Campylobacter spp., demonstrating its suitability for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce. Copyright

  14. Fertility life table of Trichogramma pretiosum and Trichogramma acacioi on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella at different temperatures

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    Pratissoli Dirceu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Species of the Trichogramma genus are among the most important ones for biological control. The objective of this research was to evaluate parasitism potential of two species of Trichogramma on eggs of Anagasta kuheniella through life fertility table, at temperatures between 15ºC and 35ºC. These species were collected in the State of Espírito Santo parasitising eggs of the avocado defoliator Nipteria panacea. Trichogramma pretiosum and T. acacioi showed adequate reproductive potential between 15ºC and 35ºC which indicates possibilities of using them in biological control programs in avocado plantations.

  15. Study of the biology of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Hymenoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    oviposit in eggs of Plutella xylostella L. In the no-choice test, parasitism in eggs of H. ... KEYWORDS: Trichogramma chilonis, Maruca vitrata, biology, Plutella xylostella ..... synthetic sex pheromone of P. xylostella (Reddy et al., 2002), it did not.

  16. Does mating interfere in the biological characteristics of a population of Trichogramma pretiosum?

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    DIRCEU PRATISSOLI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Trichogramma spp. are parasitoids used in the regulation of insect populations that can cause economic damage. In order to ensure good performance, understanding some of their biological characteristics is essential. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether mating interferes with the biological characteristics of a population of Trichogramma pretiosum collected in the field. In all experiments, groups of mated and unmated females were used. We also verified any interference from mating on the biological characteristics of the offspring. We found that mating can alter the parasitism and longevity of genitor females, in addition to changing longevity among the descendants, but once parasitized, the eggs develop normally, showing similar emergence percentage and number of offspring as those from unmated females. In addition, we verified that the population of T. pretiosum collected in the field presented individuals with reproductive thelytokous and arrhenotokous characteristics. This fact highlights the importance of careful investigation on the reproduction mode of populations collected in the field, thus avoiding problems in the effective management of insect populations.

  17. Detection of Salmonella spp., Candida albicans, Aspergillus spp., and Antimicrobial Residues in Raw and Processed Cow Milk from Selected Smallholder Farms of Zimbabwe

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    Tryness Anastazia Mhone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to detect the presence of Salmonella spp., Candida albicans, Aspergillus spp., and antimicrobial residues in raw milk (n=120 and processed cow milk (n=20 from smallholder dairy farms from three sites in Zimbabwe. Culture and isolation of Salmonella spp., C. albicans, and Aspergillus spp. were performed using selective media, while antimicrobial residues were detected by a dye reduction test. No Salmonella, but C. albicans (17.5%; 21/120, Aspergillus spp. (0.8%; 1/120, and antimicrobial residues (2.5%; 3/120 were detected from raw milk. C. albicans was isolated from all three sites, while Aspergillus spp. and antimicrobial residues were detected from sites 1 and 3, respectively. From processed milk, only C. albicans (5% was isolated while Aspergillus spp. and antimicrobial residues were not detected. These results suggested low prevalence of Salmonella spp. and Aspergillus spp. and a relatively high prevalence of C. albicans in raw milk from the smallholder farms. The potential public health risks of C. albicans and the detected antimicrobial residues need to be considered. Thus, educating farmers on improving milking hygiene and storage of milk and establishing programmes for monitoring antimicrobial residues may help to improve the safety of milk from smallholder farms.

  18. Side Effects of Fungicides Used in Cucurbitaceous Crop on Trichogrammaatopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogramatidae Efectos Secundarios sobre Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogramatidae de Fungicidas usados en Cucurbitáceas

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    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae can control Diaphania hyalinata Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. On the other hand, pesticides may reduce the efficiency of natural enemies. The objective was to evaluate the side-effects of fungicides used in the production of cucurbitaceous crops on Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner parasitizing D. hyalinata eggs. The fungicides used in bioassays were: azoxystrobin (0.08 g active ingredient [ai] L-1, chlorothalonil (2.00 g ai L-1, mancozeb (1.60 g ai L-1, tebuconazole (0.25 g ai L-1 and thiophanate-methyl (0.49 g ai L-1. Cardboards with 30 D. hyalinata eggs previously immersedin fungicide solutions and distilled water (control were offered separately to 20 newly emerged T. atopovirilia females in glass tubes. Parasitism, parasitism reduction, emergence, sex ratio, and number of individuals per egg were evaluated. The fungicides chlorothalonil, thiophanate-methyl and tebuconazole reduced parasitism of T. atopovirilia by 43.37, 27.64 and 18.51%, respectively. However, parasitism with azoxystrobin (79.21% was higher than the control (67.37% (P ≤ 0.05. Chlorothalonil, thiophanate-methyl and tebuconazole reduced emergence by 73.77, 75.62 and 79.35% (P ≤ 0.05, respectively. Azoxystrobin and thiophanate-methyl reduced the sex ratio by 0.77 and 0.76 (P ≤ 0.05, respectively. Fungicides did not reduce the number of individuals per egg. The fungicides azoxystrobin and mancozeb were selective for T. atopovirilia for most studied parameters suggesting that these products must have the priority in crop disease management to allow efficient biological control of T. atopovirilia against D. hyalinata.Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae pueden controlar Diaphania hyalinata Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. Sin embargo, los plaguicidas pueden reducir la eficiencia de los enemigos naturales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la influencia de los fungicidas utilizados en la

  19. Antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of selected food preservatives against Salmonella spp. isolated from chicken samples.

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    Er, Buket; Demirhan, Burak; Onurdag, Fatma Kaynak; Ozgacar, Selda Özgen; Oktem, Aysel Bayhan

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella spp. are widespread foodborne pathogens that contaminate egg and poultry meats. Attachment, colonization, as well as biofilm formation capacity of Salmonella spp. on food and contact surfaces of food may cause continuous contamination. Biofilm may play a crucial role in the survival of salmonellae under unfavorable environmental conditions, such as in animal slaughterhouses and processing plants. This could serve as a reservoir compromising food safety and human health. Addition of antimicrobial preservatives extends shelf lives of food products, but even when products are supplemented with adequate amounts of preservatives, it is not always possible to inhibit the microorganisms in a biofilm community. In this study, our aims were i) to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBIC) of selected preservatives against planktonic and biofilm forms of Salmonella spp. isolated from chicken samples and Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344 standard strain, ii) to show the differences in the susceptibility patterns of same strains versus the planktonic and biofilm forms to the same preservative agent, and iii) to determine and compare antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of selected food preservatives against Salmonella spp. For this purpose, Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344 standard strain and 4 Salmonella spp. strains isolated from chicken samples were used. Investigation of antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of selected food preservatives against Salmonella spp. was done according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M100-S18 guidelines and BioTimer assay, respectively. As preservative agents, pure ciprofloxacin, sodium nitrite, potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, methyl paraben, and propyl paraben were selected. As a result, it was determined that MBIC values are greater than the MIC values of the preservatives. This result verified the resistance seen in a biofilm community to food

  20. Seletividade de inseticidas reguladores de crescimento e botânico no parasitismo de três espécies de Trichogramma em ovos de Duponchelia fovealis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

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    Renata Rodrigues

    2017-04-01

    Abstract. Duponchelia fovealis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Crambidae is an exotic moth species which has become a key pest of strawberries in Brazil, causing severe damage in leaves and fruits. Insect growth regulators and botanical insecticides are promising chemical groups to control this pest due to their selectivity to natural enemies and to their lower toxicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of five insect growth regulators and one botanical insecticide on the parasitism and emergence of three Trichogramma species on eggs of D. fovealis in the laboratory, in order to develop pest management strategies. The insecticides utilized in the tests were formulated from Diflubenzuron, Lufenuron, Pyriproxyfen, Methoxyfenozide, Tebufenozide, and Azadirachtin. D. fovealis eggs were immersed for five seconds in each of the chemical mixtures and after one-hour were offered to Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, Trichogramma exiguum Pinto & Platner,or Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner for parasitism. The insecticides were tested for their action on the parasitism and emergence of the F1 generation; the chemicals were then classified for their toxicity according to indices proposed by IOBC/WPRS. The insecticides affected parasitism and emergence differently, indicating different tolerances among the three Trichogramma species, and were classified as innocuous or slightly harmful to the three species under evaluation. However, lufenuron was moderately harmful to T. galloi and caused the highest reduction in parasitism by the parasitoid.

  1. Effects of intra- and interpatch host density on egg parasitism by three species of Trichogramma.

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    Grieshop, Matthew J; Flinn, Paul W; Nechols, James R

    2010-01-01

    Host-foraging responses to different intra- and interpatch densities were used to assess three Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) Trichogramma deion Pinto and Oatman, T. ostriniae Pang and Chen, and T. pretiosum Riley - as potential biological control agents for the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Single naïve females were allowed 6 h to forage in Plexiglas arenas with four different spatial arrangements of host eggs, nine single-egg patches), nine four-egg patches, 36 single-egg patches, and 36 four-egg patches. No significant differences were found among species in the number of patches parasitized. As expected, all three species parasitized the most eggs in the 36 four-egg patch treatment and the least in the nine single-egg patch treatment. T. deion parasitized significantly more eggs than T. pretiosum on the nine four-egg patches. T. ostriniae parasitized significantly more patches when intrapatch density was greater, regardless of interpatch density. In contrast, T. deion only parasitized more patches at the greater intrapatch density when the interpatch density was low. Patch density had no effect on T. pretiosum. The spatial pattern of parasitism was more aggregated for T. deion and T. ostriniae in the 36 four-egg patches treatment compared to the 36 single-egg patches treatment. Therefore, intrapatch density was more important than interpatch density for T. ostriniae, and potentially for T. deion, but not for T. pretiosum. T. deion may be the best candidate for augmentative biological control because it parasitized either slightly or significantly more eggs than the other two species in all four treatments. Furthermore, the pattern of parasitism by T. deion in the 36 four-egg patches treatment was the most aggregated among the three species, suggesting a more thorough searching pattern. In contrast, T. pretiosum had the least aggregated pattern of parasitism and therefore may have used a more

  2. Acceptability and suitability of Tuta absoluta eggs from irradiated parents to parasitism by Trichogramma nerudai and Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cagnotti, Cynthia L.; Hernández, Carmen M.; Andormo, Andrea V.; Viscarret, Mariana; Botto, Eduardo N.; López, Silvia N.; Riquelme, María

    2017-01-01

    1. Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is one of the most devastating pests of tomato crops. We studied the acceptability and suitability of eggs laid by irradiated T. absoluta pairs to parasitism by the parasitoids Trichogramma nerudai and Trichogramma pretiosum. 2. Trichogramma absoluta pupae were irradiated with Xradiation (20834 R) and the emerged adults were separated into couples according to the crosses: ♂U × ♀U, ♂I × ♀U, ♂U × ♀I (where ‘U’ is untreated and ‘I’ is irradiated). In a no-choice experiment, 40 eggs from each cross were exposed to a female parasitoid for 24 h. 3. All T. absoluta eggs were accepted for oviposition by T. nerudai and were suitable for its development. However, eggs from irradiated females were significantly less parasitized than those from untreated females. Trichogramma pretiosum showed low parasitism on eggs from all crosses. In a choice experiment, both T. nerudai and T. pretiosum showed no differences in the parasitism of eggs from irradiated (n=40) and non-irradiated female moths (n=40). 4. These results indicate that eggs laid by irradiated parents were acceptable for oviposition and suitable for the development of these parasitoids, and also support the idea that the inherited sterility technique could be used in an integrated approach with egg parasitoids to control T. absoluta. (author)

  3. Biologia e parasitismo de Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner e Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae em ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae Biology and parasitism of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner and Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae on eggs of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae

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    Eduardo B. Beserra

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparou-se a capacidade de paratisimo e o desenvolvimento de Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner e T. pretiosum Riley visando à seleção da espécie mais adequada para o controle de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em laboratório à temperatura de 25±2ºC, U.R. de 70±0% e fotoperíodo de 14L:10E. Tanto T. atopovirilia como T. pretiosum desenvolveram-se bem e mostraram-se adaptados a ovos de S. frugiperda, mesmo após serem criados por várias gerações em ovos de Anagasta kuehniella Zeller. Entretanto, fêmeas de T. atopovirilia foram mais agressivas e de maior especificidade à praga, já que apresentaram maior capacidade de parasitismo em posturas com diferentes barreiras físicas e maior aceitação pelo hospedeiro natural, em relação à A. kuehniella. Por este maior parasitismo e especificidade de T. atopovirilia aos ovos da praga, deve-se dar preferência à utilização desta espécie para controle de S. frugiperda.The parasitism capacity and development of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner and Trichogramma pretiosum Riley were studied in order to select the most suitable species to control Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith. The experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions at 25±2ºC, 70±10% RH and 14L:10D photoperiod. Both T. atopovirilia and T. pretiosum showed good development and adaptation to S. frugiperda eggs even after being reared for several generations in eggs of Anagasta kuehniella Zeller. However, T. atopovirilia females were more aggressive and showed higher specificity to the pest, with a higher parasitism capacity in eggs laid with different physical barriers and were more accepted by the natural host in comparison with A. kuehniella. Because of the higher parasitism rate and specificity of T. atopovirilia to the pest's egg this species should be given preference to control S. frugiperda.

  4. An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.

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    Clifford E. Starliper

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments of captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine whether selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC’s were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBCs (0.02–0.04% were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBCs for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14% to 0.30% and 0.10% to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11% and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5% of Allimed® tested resulted in MBCs to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBCs for all but one isolate.

  5. Parasitism Capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum and Trichogramma acacioi (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae on eggs of Sitotroga cerealella (Lep.: Gelechiidae

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    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and T. acacioi Brun, Moraes and Soares (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae in eggs of the alternative host Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae aiming to use both species in biological control programs of Nipteria panacea Tierry-Mieg (Lepidoptera: Geometridae. The parasitism rhythm and total parasitism of these parasitoid species were affected by the temperature with higher values during the first 24 h of their life. Parasitism period was longer for T. pretiosum and T. acacioi at the lowest temperature.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a capacidade de parasitismo de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley e de Trichogramma acacioi Brun, Moraes and Soares (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae em ovos do hospedeiro alternativo Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, visando o uso desses inimigos naturais em programas de controle biológico da praga do abacateiro Nipteria panacea Tierry-Mieg (Lepidoptera: Geometridae. O ritmo de parasitismo de T. acacioi e T. pretiosum variou com a temperatura, sendo maior nas primeiras 24 horas de vida desses parasitóides. Além disso, o período de parasitismo foi maior para essas duas espécies de parasitóides na menor temperatura, enquanto o parasitismo total por fêmea variou com a temperatura.

  6. Extensive gene rearrangements in the mitochondrial genomes of two egg parasitoids, Trichogramma japonicum and Trichogramma ostriniae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Chen, Peng-Yan; Xue, Xiao-Feng; Hua, Hai-Qing; Li, Yuan-Xi; Zhang, Fan; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2018-05-04

    Animal mitochondrial genomes usually exhibit conserved gene arrangement across major lineages, while those in the Hymenoptera are known to possess frequent rearrangements, as are those of several other orders of insects. Here, we sequenced two complete mitochondrial genomes of Trichogramma japonicum and Trichogramma ostriniae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Trichogrammatidae). In total, 37 mitochondrial genes were identified in both species. The same gene arrangement pattern was found in the two species, with extensive gene rearrangement compared with the ancestral insect mitochondrial genome. Most tRNA genes and all protein-coding genes were encoded on the minority strand. In total, 15 tRNA genes and seven protein-coding genes were rearranged. The rearrangements of cox1 and nad2 as well as most tRNA genes were novel. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequences of protein-coding genes and on gene arrangement patterns produced identical topologies that support the relationship of (Agaonidae + Pteromalidae) + Trichogrammatidae in Chalcidoidea. CREx analysis revealed eight rearrangement operations occurred from presumed ancestral gene order of Chalcidoidea to form the derived gene order of Trichogramma. Our study shows that gene rearrangement information in Chalcidoidea can potentially contribute to the phylogeny of Chalcidoidea when more mitochondrial genome sequences are available.

  7. Ação de produtos naturais sobre a sobrevivência de Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae e seletividade de inseticidas utilizados na produção orgânica de videira sobre Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Action of natural products on the survival of Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae and selectivity of insecticides used in the organic production of vine on Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    Wilson José Morandi Filho

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Nesse trabalho, foi estudado o efeito de formulações comerciais de inseticidas, com ênfase para os produtos permitidos na produção orgânica (nim, piretro natural e extrato pirolenhoso para o controle de Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae e sua atuação sobre o parasitóide de ovos Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, em laboratório. Os inseticidas Natuneem® (1500ppm de Azadirachta indica por litro e o extrato pirolenhoso (Biopirol 7 M®, nas dosagens de 250 e 500mL 100L-1, não foram eficientes no controle de A. sphaleropa quando aplicados sobre folhas de videira (Vitis sp. cultivar "Chardonnay", enquanto que o piretro natural (250 e 500mL 100L-1 resultou em mortalidade significativa de 77,65 e 85,88% dos insetos, respectivamente, 120 horas após a aplicação. O efeito secundário foi avaliado sobre adultos do parasitóide de ovos T. pretiosum, seguindo a metodologia da International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control (IOBC. Os inseticidas Natuneem® (500mL 100L-1, Biopirol 7 M® (500mL 100L-1 e Dipel DF® (100g 100L-1 foram inócuos (99% de redução no parasitismo, respectivamente, equivalendo-se ao efeito do fosforado Lebaycid 500® (100mL 100 L-1.This work was conducted to study the effect of commercial formulations of insecticides with emphasis on that allowed in the organic production (neem, natural piretro and pirolenhoso extract to control Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae and their performance on the egg parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae adults. The insecticides Natuneem® (1500ppm of azadirachtin L-1 and the pirolenhoso extract (Biopirol 7 M® (250 and 500mL 100L-1 were not efficient in the control of A. sphaleropa when applied over grapevine leaves (Vitis sp. cultivate Chardonnay. Natural piretro (250 and 500mL 100L-1 resulted in a mortality of 77.65 and 85.88% of insects, respectively 120 hours

  8. Using Trichogramma Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) for insect pest biological control in cotton crops: an Australian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichogramma Westwood egg parasitoids alone generally fail to suppress heliothine pests when released in established cotton growing regions. Factors hindering their success include indiscriminate use of detrimental insecticides, compensation for minimal pest larval hatch due to their activity via re...

  9. Seletividade de inseticidas, recomendados para cucurbitáceas para Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae em condições de laboratório

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    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available As brocas-das-cucurbitáceas Diaphania spp. são as principais pragas das cucurbitáceas, podendo ocasionar perdas de até 100% na produção. A fim de reduzir o uso de inseticidas, o controle biológico, aplicado com parasitoides do gênero Trichogramma, tem-se destacado. Objetivou-se avaliar a seletividade dos ingredientes ativos abamectina, tiacloprido e clorfenapir, para Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae. Para isso, 20 fêmeas recém-emergidas de T. atopovirilla foram individualizadas, em tubos de vidro (2,5 cm de diâmetro x 8,5 cm de comprimento, e oferecidas cartelas com 30 ovos de Diaphania hyalinata (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, previamente imersas por cinco segundos em calda química. Os ingredientes ativos abamectina, tiacloprido e clorfenapir não afetaram o parasitismo de T. atopovirilia. Clorfenapir reduziu a emergência. Abamectina e tiacloprido são os mais recomendados no manejo integrado de pragas, pois foram os que se mostraram mais seletivos a T. atopovirilia em ovos de D. hyalinata.

  10. Capacidade de dispersão de Trichogramma em tomateiro estaqueado Dispersion capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum in propped up tomato

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    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a capacidade de dispersão de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley em ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, na cultura do tomateiro, em diferentes estágios fenológicos e sistemas de condução das plantas. A dispersão de T. pretiosum, 24 horas após a liberação, foi de 7,37 a 7,94 m. A área de dispersão foi de 120,20 a 138,72 m². O parasitismo foi de 53,1% a 87,3%, e significativo de acordo com o estágio fenológico da cultura. A liberação dos parasitóides para o controle de Tuta absoluta (Meyrick deve ser feita em 75 pontos por hectare.The dispersion capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley was studied on Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller eggs, in tomato field in different phenological stages and systems of conduction of the plants. The dispersion of T. pretiosum, 24 hours after the liberation, attained 7.37 to 7.94 m. The dispersion area was 120.20 to 138.72 m². Parasitism varies from 53.1% to 87.3% and it is significant according to the phenological stage of the crop. The parasitoids liberation for the control of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick should be done in 75 points per hectare.

  11. Seasonal adaptations to day length in ecotypes of Diorhabda spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) inform selection of agents against saltcedars (Tamarix spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Peter; Bean, Daniel W; Dudley, Tom L; Carney, Vanessa A; Eberts, Debra; Gardner, Kevin T; Hebertson, Elizabeth; Jones, Erin N; Kazmer, David J; Michels, G J; O'Meara, Scott A; Thompson, David C

    2010-10-01

    Seasonal adaptations to daylength often limit the effective range of insects used in biological control of weeds. The leaf beetle Diorhabda carinulata (Desbrochers) was introduced into North America from Fukang, China (latitude 44° N) to control saltcedars (Tamarix spp.), but failed to establish south of 38° N latitude because of a mismatched critical daylength response for diapause induction. The daylength response caused beetles to enter diapause too early in the season to survive the duration of winter at southern latitudes. Using climate chambers, we characterized the critical daylength response for diapause induction (CDL) in three ecotypes of Diorhabda beetles originating from 36, 38, and 43° N latitudes in Eurasia. In a field experiment, the timing of reproductive diapause and voltinism were compared among ecotypes by rearing the insects on plants in the field. CDL declined with latitude of origin among Diorhabda ecotypes. Moreover, CDL in southern (42° N latitude) ecotypes, however, CDL was relatively insensitive to temperature. The southern ecotypes produced up to four generations when reared on plants in the field at sites south of 38° N, whereas northern ecotypes produced only one or two generations. The study reveals latitudinal variation in how Diorhabda ecotypes respond to daylength for diapause induction and how these responses affect insect voltinism across the introduced range.

  12. Detection of Salmonella spp. in veterinary samples by combining selective enrichment and real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Laura B; McDonough, Patrick L; Anderson, Renee R; Franklin-Guild, Rebecca J; Ryan, James R; Perkins, Gillian A; Thachil, Anil J; Glaser, Amy L; Thompson, Belinda S

    2017-11-01

    Rapid screening for enteric bacterial pathogens in clinical environments is essential for biosecurity. Salmonella found in veterinary hospitals, particularly Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin, can pose unique challenges for culture and testing because of its poor growth. Multiple Salmonella serovars including Dublin are emerging threats to public health given increasing prevalence and antimicrobial resistance. We adapted an automated food testing method to veterinary samples and evaluated the performance of the method in a variety of matrices including environmental samples ( n = 81), tissues ( n = 52), feces ( n = 148), and feed ( n = 29). A commercial kit was chosen as the basis for this approach in view of extensive performance characterizations published by multiple independent organizations. A workflow was established for efficiently and accurately testing veterinary matrices and environmental samples by use of real-time PCR after selective enrichment in Rappaport-Vassiliadis soya (RVS) medium. Using this method, the detection limit for S. Dublin improved by 100-fold over subculture on selective agars (eosin-methylene blue, brilliant green, and xylose-lysine-deoxycholate). Overall, the procedure was effective in detecting Salmonella spp. and provided next-day results.

  13. Comparative AFLP reveals paternal sex ratio chromosome specific DNA sequences in the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma kaykai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, van J.J.F.A.; Hulst, van der R.G.M.; Pruijssers, A.; Verbaarschot, P.G.H.; Stouthamer, R.; Jong, de H.

    2009-01-01

    The parasitoid wasp Trichogramma kaykai with a haplo-diploid sex determination has a B chromosome called the paternal sex ratio (PSR) chromosome that confers paternal genome loss during early embryogenesis, resulting in male offspring. So far, it is not well known whether the PSR chromosome has

  14. Asymmetric total synthesis of a putative sex pheromone component from the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma turkestanica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, Danny; Buter, Jeffrey; van Beek, Teris A.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.

    2014-01-01

    Virgin females of the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma turkestanica produce minute amounts of a sex pheromone, the identity of which has not been fully established. The enantioselective synthesis of a putative component of this pheromone, (6S,8S,10S)-4,6,8,10-tetramethyltrideca-2E,4E-dien-1-ol (2), is

  15. Differential arrestment of Trichogramma wasps to extreme sex pheromone types of the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, J.; Huigens, M.E.; Orr, D.; Groot, A.T.

    2014-01-01

    1. Chemical espionage in nature may occur when predators or parasitoids home in on animal or plant communication signals. Parasitoid wasps are known to use pheromones emitted by adults hosts to locate host eggs, larvae or pupae. The response of Trichogramma egg parasitoids to a synthetic sex

  16. Variasi Kebugaran Jenis/Strain Trichogramma pada Telur Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Herlinda

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate fitness traits of trichogrammatid species/strains reared on eggs of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.. The experiments used eleven trichogrammatid species/strains collected from different host species and locations. They were Trichogrammatoidea cojuangcoi Nagaraja collected from parasitized P. xylostella eggs in Jarai, Muarasiban, Kerinjing, and Bogar, Trichogrammatoidea sp. A and B collected from parasitized Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner eggs in Bogor, Trichogrammatoidea armigera Nagaraja collected from parasitized H. armigera eggs in Bogor, Trichogramma chilonis Ishii, Trichogramma japanicum Ashmead, Trichogramma australicum Girault, and Trichogrammatoidea nana (Zehntner collected from parasitized Chilo sp. eggs in Cinta Manis, South Sumatera. When a female of Trichogramma was constantly exposed to 100 P. xylostella eggs per day throughout her lifetime, T. cojuangcoi from Jarai produced more parasitized host eggs (50.67% and progenies (50.67 adults/female compared to other species/strains. Sex ratio was predominantly female, the most female progenies were produced ( 38 adults/ female by T. cojuangcoi from Jarai. There were no significant differences in larval (0-3.27% and pupal (0-3.75% mortality of all species/strains. Survival emerging adults of T. japanicum (90.24% were significantly lower than those of other species/strains. These data showed that T. cojuangcoi from Jarai could be developed as biocontrol agents of P. xylostella.

  17. Demineralization of Sargassum spp. Macroalgae Biomass: Selective Hydrothermal Liquefaction Process for Bio-Oil Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz-Vázquez, Liz M., E-mail: limdiaz@uprrp.edu; Rojas-Pérez, Arnulfo; Fuentes-Caraballo, Mariela; Robles, Isis V. [Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico Río Piedras Campus, San Juan, PR (United States); Jena, Umakanta [Bioenergy Laboratory, Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (United States); Das, K. C. [College of Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2015-02-11

    Algae biomasses are considered a viable option for the production of biofuel because of their high yields of oil produced per dry weight. Brown macroalgae Sargassum spp. are one of the most abundant species of algae in the shores of Puerto Rico. Its availability in large quantity presents a great opportunity for use as a source of renewable energy. However, high ash content of macroalgae affects the conversion processes and the quality of resulting fuel products. This research studied the effect of different demineralization treatments of Sargassum spp. biomass, subsequent hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), and bio-oil characterization. Demineralization constituted five different treatments: nanopure water, nitric acid, citric acid, sulfuric acid, and acetic acid. Performance of demineralization was evaluated by analyzing both demineralized biomass and HTL products by the following analyses: total carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, ash content, caloric content, metals analysis, Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and GCMS analysis. HTL of Sargassum spp. before and after citric acid treatment was performed in a 1.8 L batch reactor system at 350°C with a holding time of 60 min and high pressures (5–21 MPa). Demineralization treatment with nitric acid was found the most effective in reducing the ash content of the macroalgae biomass from 27.46 to 0.99% followed by citric acid treatment that could reduce the ash content to 7%. Citric acid did not show significant leaching of organic components such as carbohydrates and proteins, and represented a less toxic and hazardous option for demineralization. HTL of untreated and citric acid treated Sargassum spp. resulted in bio-oil yields of 18.4 ± 0.1 and 22.2 ± 0.1% (ash-free dry basis), respectively.

  18. Demineralization of Sargassum spp. Macroalgae Biomass: Selective Hydrothermal Liquefaction Process for Bio-Oil Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz-Vázquez, Liz M.; Rojas-Pérez, Arnulfo; Fuentes-Caraballo, Mariela; Robles, Isis V.; Jena, Umakanta; Das, K. C.

    2015-01-01

    Algae biomasses are considered a viable option for the production of biofuel because of their high yields of oil produced per dry weight. Brown macroalgae Sargassum spp. are one of the most abundant species of algae in the shores of Puerto Rico. Its availability in large quantity presents a great opportunity for use as a source of renewable energy. However, high ash content of macroalgae affects the conversion processes and the quality of resulting fuel products. This research studied the effect of different demineralization treatments of Sargassum spp. biomass, subsequent hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), and bio-oil characterization. Demineralization constituted five different treatments: nanopure water, nitric acid, citric acid, sulfuric acid, and acetic acid. Performance of demineralization was evaluated by analyzing both demineralized biomass and HTL products by the following analyses: total carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, ash content, caloric content, metals analysis, Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and GCMS analysis. HTL of Sargassum spp. before and after citric acid treatment was performed in a 1.8 L batch reactor system at 350°C with a holding time of 60 min and high pressures (5–21 MPa). Demineralization treatment with nitric acid was found the most effective in reducing the ash content of the macroalgae biomass from 27.46 to 0.99% followed by citric acid treatment that could reduce the ash content to 7%. Citric acid did not show significant leaching of organic components such as carbohydrates and proteins, and represented a less toxic and hazardous option for demineralization. HTL of untreated and citric acid treated Sargassum spp. resulted in bio-oil yields of 18.4 ± 0.1 and 22.2 ± 0.1% (ash-free dry basis), respectively.

  19. Demineralization of Sargassum spp. macroalgae biomass: selective hydrothermal liquefaction process for bio-oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz M Díaz-Vázquez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Algae biomasses are considered a viable option for the production of biofuel because of their high yields of oil produced per dry weight. Brown macroalgae Sargassum spp. are one of the most abundant species of algae in the shores of Puerto Rico. Its availability in large quantity presents a great opportunity for use as a source of renewable energy. However, high ash content of macroalgae affects the conversion processes and the quality of resulting fuel products. This research studied the effect of different demineralization treatments of Sargassum spp. biomass, subsequent hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL and bio-oil characterization. Demineralization constituted five different treatments: nanopure water, nitric acid, citric acid, sulfuric acid, and acetic acid. Performance of demineralization was evaluated by analyzing both demineralized biomass and HTL products by the following analyses: total carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, ash content, caloric content, metals analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared - Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, and GCMS analysis. HTL of Sargassum spp. before and after citric acid treatment, was performed in a 1.8 L batch reactor system at 350°C with a holding time of 60 min and high pressures (5-21 MPa. Demineralization treatment with nitric acid was found the most effective in reducing the ash content of the macroalgae biomass from 27.46% to 0.99% followed by citric acid treatment that could reduce the ash content to 7%. Citric acid did not show significant leaching of organic components such as carbohydrates and proteins, and represented a less toxic and hazardous option for demineralization. HTL of untreated and citric acid treated Sargassum spp. resulted in bio-oil yields of 18.4±0.1 % and 22.2±0.1 % (ash free dry basis, respectively.

  20. Demineralization of Sargassum spp. Macroalgae Biomass: Selective Hydrothermal Liquefaction Process for Bio-Oil Production

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Vázquez, Liz M.; Rojas-Pérez, Arnulfo; Fuentes-Caraballo, Mariela; Robles, Isis V.; Jena, Umakanta; Das, K. C.

    2015-01-01

    Algae biomasses are considered a viable option for the production of biofuel because of their high yields of oil produced per dry weight. Brown macroalgae Sargassum spp. are one of the most abundant species of algae in the shores of Puerto Rico. Its availability in large quantity presents a great opportunity for use as a source of renewable energy. However, high ash content of macroalgae affects the conversion processes and the quality of resulting fuel products. This research studied the eff...

  1. Toxicity of some insecticides used in maize crop on Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae immature stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jander R Souza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is an important pest of maize (Zea mays L. crops in Brazil. The effects of beta-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr, chlorpyrifos, spinosad, etofenprox, triflumuron, alpha-cypermethrin/teflubenzuron, and lambda-cyhalothrin/thiamethoxam on Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae immature stages were evaluated. Eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, containing immature stages of the parasitoid were dipped in water solution pesticides, to evaluate their effects on emergence and sex ratio of F1 parasitoids. For F2 parasitoids, emergence, parasitism capacity, and sex ratio were evaluated. Beta-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr, chlorpyrifos, and spinosad affected the emergence success of F1 T. pretiosum. Insects exposed to etofenprox and alpha-cypermethrin/teflubenzuron during the egg-larval period and to lambda-cyhalothrin/thiamethoxam during the pupal stage also suffered reduction in the emergence. Beta-cypermethrin affected the sex ratio of F1 T. pretiosum from host eggs treated during the egg-larval period; spinosad affected it during the egg-larval period and the pupal stage, whereas chlorpyrifos did the same when applied during the pupal stage. Chlorpyrifos also affected the sex ratio of F2 parasitoids, but only when applied during the egg-larval period, whereas chlorfenapyr reduced this trait when applied during the pre-pupal phase. Chlorpyrifos and alpha-cypermethrin/teflubenzuron affected the parasitism capacity of F1 females from eggs treated during the egg-larval period. Considering the overall effects, only etofenprox and triflumuron were selective on T. pretiosum when applied on parasitized A. kuehniella eggs. Further studies need to be carried out to verify the toxicity of the other pesticides under semi-field and field conditions.

  2. Microbiological quality of selected spices and herbs including the presence of Cronobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbowska, M; Berthold-Pluta, A; Stasiak-Różańska, L

    2015-08-01

    The cultivation of spices and herbs in parts of the world characterized by warm climate and high humidity provides excellent conditions for the development of microorganisms, including the undesirable ones. The aim of this study was to determine the microbiological quality of spices and herbs available on the Polish market, considering the occurrence of Cronobacter species bacteria. Analyses covered 60 samples of commercial spices and herbs, including 38 samples of dried herbs (basil, bay leaves, thyme, oregano, tarragon, marjoram, dill, parsley, rosemary, lovage) and 16 samples of seasoning blends as well as 6 samples of spices seeds and fruits (pimento, black pepper, coriander). All samples were tested for the total count of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB) and for the presence of Cronobacter spp. In most of the samples of spices and herbs (60.0%), the TAMB did not exceed 10(4) CFU/g, and the level regarded as unacceptable (>10(6) CFU/g) was not identified in any of the samples. The presence of Cronobacter spp. was demonstrated in 10 (16.7%) samples of the analyzed products, however these were mainly samples of herbs (basil, tarragon, parsley) and one sample of a seasoning blend (Provence herbs). The highest microbiological contamination (TAMB) was found in samples of herbs (oregano, tarragon, basil) and in ready seasoning blends, in 21.1% and 25.0% of which the total count of aerobic mesophiles was in the range of 10(5)-10(6) CFU/g. In all samples of spices seeds and fruits (coriander, black pepper and pimento), the total count of aerobic bacteria reached spices and herbs available on the Polish market. The study demonstrated also that dried spices and herbs may be carriers of Cronobacter species bacteria, though their presence in not often detected in products of this type. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. ITS-2 sequences-based identification of Trichogramma species in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Almeida

    Full Text Available Abstract ITS2 (Internal transcribed spacer 2 sequences have been used in systematic studies and proved to be useful in providing a reliable identification of Trichogramma species. DNAr sequences ranged in size from 379 to 632 bp. In eleven T. pretiosum lines Wolbachia-induced parthenogenesis was found for the first time. These thelytokous lines were collected in Peru (9, Colombia (1 and USA (1. A dichotomous key for species identification was built based on the size of the ITS2 PCR product and restriction analysis using three endonucleases (EcoRI, MseI and MaeI. This molecular technique was successfully used to distinguish among seventeen native/introduced Trichogramma species collected in South America.

  4. Effect of host and food availability on the biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratissoli, Dirceu; Oliveira, Harley N. de; Oliveira, Regiane C. de; Zago, Hugo B.; Vieira, Stella M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Effect of host and food availability on the biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae). Biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, 1988 were evaluated in laboratory where these parasitoids were reared on eggs of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) with or without honey, and exposed to eggs of the host after 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 and 84 hours of emergence. The parasitism rate and viability showed higher for individuals that received food. The sex ratio was not influenced by food. The number of individuals per egg only showed difference for those adults that did not receive food and stayed six hours without the host eggs. Checking the effect of the availability of eggs, only the sex ratio, with or without honey, did not show differences. The results show that T. galloi needs a carbohydrate supply and the time can influence the reproductive capacity. (author)

  5. Isolation of saprophytic Leptospira spp. from a selected environmental water source of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scialfa, Exequiel; Grune, Sylvia; Brihuega, Bibiana; Aguirre, Pablo; Rivero, Marina

    2017-11-29

    Ten Leptospira spp. strains were isolated from water samples from Nievas stream, Olavarría, Buenos Aires province (Argentina). The isolates showed the typical motility and morphology of the genus Leptospira under dark field microscopy, developing in liquid EMJH medium after eight days of incubation at 13°C and 30°C. All isolates were negative by the Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA). Molecular identification by 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified all isolates as nonpathogenic leptospires. Four isolates showed a genetic profile identical to that of the reference strain Leptospira biflexa serovar Patoc, and six isolates revealed sequence similarities within the 97-98% range, closely related to Leptospira yanagawae and Leptospira meyeri, respectively. Strains ScialfaASA42, ScialfaASA45, ScialfaASA44, ScialfaASA47, ScialfaASA49, ScialfaASA50 and ScialfaASA51 possibly represent a novel species of the genus Leptospira. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Structure elucidation of female-specific volatiles released by the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma turkestanica (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Tröger

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Females of the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma turkestanica produce the putative polydeoxypropionates (2E,4E,6S,8S,10S-4,6,8,10-tetramethyltrideca-2,4-diene and (2E,4E,6S,8S,10S-4,6,8,10-tetramethyltrideca-2,4-dien-1-ol or their enantiomers as sex specific volatiles. The structures were assigned on the basis of GC–MS investigations using synthetic reference compounds.

  7. Effect of Selected Light Spectra on the Growth of Chlorella spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possibility for simultaneous production of chemical and electrical energies from a single microalgae cultivation plant is opening a new chapter in the efficient use of resources to maximize biomass productivity. In the current study, the effect of selected monochromatic lights (blue, red and pink) from spectrally selective ...

  8. Interspecific interaction between Telenomus remus (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) and Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Tatiana R; Fernandes, Odair A

    2012-12-01

    This work aims to evaluate the interspecific interaction between Trichogramma pretiosum and Telenomus remus, two biological control agents of fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) eggs. Eggs of Spodoptera frugiperda previously parasitized by Telenomus remus were offered to Trichogramma pretiosum, and those parasitized by Trichogramma pretiosum were offered to Telenomus remus. The previously parasitized eggs were tested at different embryonic development stages for each parasitoid. In addition, to evaluate the competition between species, Spodoptera frugiperda eggs were offered to the parasitoids simultaneously. The behavior of the insects was recorded under a stereomicroscope. When Spodoptera frugiperda eggs were previously exposed to either parasitoid, there was no emergence of the other parasitoid. When the Telenomus remus and Trichogramma pretiosum females were placed together with Spodoptera frugiperda eggs, Telenomus remus had a greater parasitism rate. Except searching time, all Trichogramma pretiosum behaviors took a longer time than Telenomus remus behaviors. Thus, despite belonging to different families, each of these parasitoids is able to recognize host eggs previously parasitized by the other. So, this suggests that the recognition mechanism involved is not exclusively specific.

  9. Genetic analysis of a red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) population undergoing three generations of selection for increased body weight at harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Azhar; Thoa, Ngo Phu; Nguyen, Nguyen Hong

    2017-11-01

    Quantitative genetic analysis was performed on 10,919 data records collected over three generations from the selection programme for increased body weight at harvest in red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.). They were offspring of 224 sires and 226 dams (50 sires and 60 dams per generation, on average). Linear mixed models were used to analyse body traits (weight, length, width and depth), whereas threshold generalised models assuming probit distribution were employed to examine genetic inheritance of survival rate, sexual maturity and body colour. The estimates of heritability for traits studied (body weight, standard length, body width, body depth, body colour, early sexual maturation and survival) across statistical models were moderate to high (0.13-0.45). Genetic correlations among body traits and survival were high and positive (0.68-0.96). Body length and width exhibited negative genetic correlations with body colour (- 0.47 to - 0.25). Sexual maturity was genetically correlated positively with measurements of body traits (weight and length). Direct and correlated genetic responses to selection were measured as estimated breeding values in each generation and expressed in genetic standard deviation units (σ G ). The cumulative improvement achieved for harvest body weight was 1.72 σ G after three generations or 12.5% per generation when the gain was expressed as a percentage of the base population. Selection for improved body weight also resulted in correlated increase in other body traits (length, width and depth) and survival rate (ranging from 0.25 to 0.81 genetic standard deviation units). Avoidance of black spot parent matings also improved the overall red colour of the selected population. It is concluded that the selective breeding programme for red tilapia has succeeded in achieving significant genetic improvement for a range of commercially important traits in this species, and the large genetic variation in body colour and survival also shows that

  10. Evaluation of indicators for the early selection of the height character in Musa spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes García Rodríguez

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In the plant breeding programs attended by Biotechnology and using the induction of mutations becomes necessary to work with big populations of plants to guarantee bigger possibilities to be successful in the work. For what to have a selection system that allows to carry out the same one in acclimatization phase would allow to shorten the outlines of improvement and to diminish the population’s size notably to evaluate in field phase, what would bear to diminish the expenses in the whole process of studies clones them. With the aim of determining possible morphological indicators that could be used as markers for the selection of low bearing in the clones of the FHIA were studied in conditions of acclimatization different cultivars and banana mutants, being evaluated several morphological characters as: the height of the plant, number of leaves, long and wide of the penultimate emitted leaf, as well as the long of their petiole and the distance between two serial leaves. It was also evaluated the height of the plants under conditions in vitro when they were subcultivate in a culture medium with different concentration of AG3. The results indicate that inside the evaluated morphological characters, those that more early allowed to distinguish among plants of low bearing were: the long of the petiole and the height of the plants and that the moment of the selection should be to the 60 days. Not differences were observed between genotypes when they were subcultivate in the culture medium enriched with AG3. Key words: banana, early selection, low bearing, morphological markers, plantain

  11. Breeding schemes for the implementation of genomic selection in wheat (Triticum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Filippo M; Bentley, Alison R; Charmet, Gilles; Ortiz, Rodomiro; Crossa, Jose

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade the breeding technology referred to as 'genomic selection' (GS) has been implemented in a variety of species, with particular success in animal breeding. Recent research shows the potential of GS to reshape wheat breeding. Many authors have concluded that the estimated genetic gain per year applying GS is several times that of conventional breeding. GS is, however, a new technology for wheat breeding and many programs worldwide are still struggling to identify the best strategy for its implementation. This article provides practical guidelines on the key considerations when implementing GS. A review of the existing GS literature for a range of species is provided and used to prime breeder-oriented considerations on the practical applications of GS. Furthermore, this article discusses potential breeding schemes for GS, genotyping considerations, and methods for effective training population design. The components of selection intensity, progress toward inbreeding in half- or full-sibs recurrent schemes, and the generation of selection are also presented. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Antifungal activity and genetic diversity of selected Pseudomonas spp. from maize rhizosphere in Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jošić Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic production by plant-associated microorganisms represents an environmentally compatible method of disease control in agriculture. However, a vide application of bacterial strains needs careful selection and genetic characterization. In this investigation, selected Pseudomonas strains were characterized by rep-PCR methods using ERIC and (GTG5 primers, and partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis. None of strains produced homoserine lactones (C4, C6, C8 as quorum sensing signal molecules. Very poor production of phenazines and no significant fungal inhibition was observed for PS4 and PS6 strains. High amount of phenazines were produced by Pseudomonas sp. strain PS2, which inhibited mycelial growth of 10 phytopatogenic fungi in percent of 25 (Verticillium sp. to 65 (Fusarium equiseti. Genetic characterization of the Pseudomonas sp. PS2 and evaluation of phenazines production, as the main trait for growth inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi, will allow its application as a biosafe PGPR for field experiments of plant disease control. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46007: New indigenous bacterial isolates Lysobacter and Pseudomonas as an important sources of metabolites useful for biotechnology, plant growth stimulation and disease control: From isolates to inoculants

  13. Effect of Bacillus spp. on seed germination of selected species of the genus Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Hadizadeh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Cuscuta are annual angiospermic rootless and leafless (achlorophyllous parasitic plants. Bacillus is an example of PGPR bacteria exhibiting plant growth promoting activity. In this study the effects of bacterial suspension on germination of dodder’s seed has been determinated. Seeds of three Cuscuta species were collected from field for evaluating effects of three different Bacillus on its germination. Results show that seed germination of the C. monogyna and C. campestris is inhibited by all three bacterial species. Based on Tukey analysis, the highest inhibitory activity on seed germination of C. monogyna was shown with B. pumilus (68.88%; as well as C. campestris with B. megaterium (95.76% and B. pumilus (91.53%, whilst seed germination of C. europaea was almost identically inhibited by all three bacterial species. This paper reports the variable effects of Bacillus species on the seed germination of selected Cuscuta species.

  14. Analytical profiling of selected antioxidants and total antioxidant capacity of goji (Lycium spp.) berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protti, Michele; Gualandi, Isacco; Mandrioli, Roberto; Zappoli, Sergio; Tonelli, Domenica; Mercolini, Laura

    2017-09-05

    Goji berries and derived products represent a relevant source of micronutrients, most of which are natural antioxidants and contribute to the high nutritional quality of these fruits. Three brands of dried goji berries have been analysed by a multidisciplinary approach to get an insight into both their content of selected antioxidants and their antioxidant capacity (AC). The former goal has been achieved by developing a liquid chromatographic method coupled to mass spectrometry and combined to a fast solid phase extraction. Several significant representative antioxidant compounds belonging to the following classes: flavonoids, flavan-3-ols, phenolic acids, amino acids and derivatives, and carotenoids have been taken into account. Quercetin and rutin were found to be the predominant flavonoids, chlorogenic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid and zeaxanthin was the major carotenoid. The AC of the goji berries has been evaluated by four analytical methods in order to estimate the contributions of different reactions involved in radicals scavenging. In particular, AC has been determined using 3 standardised methods (DPPH, ABTS, ORAC) and a recently proposed electrochemical method, which measures the scavenging activity of antioxidants towards OH radicals generated both by hydrogen peroxide photolysis and the Fenton reaction. The results obtained from chemical composition and antioxidant capacity assays confirm the high nutritional and commercial value of goji berries and highlight that the three brands do not exhibit significant differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of pesticides used in soybean crops to the egg parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum.

    OpenAIRE

    BUENO, A. de F.; BUENO, R. C. O. de F.; PARRA, J. R. P.; VIEIRA, S. S.

    2008-01-01

    This research aimed to study the effects of different insecticides, herbicides and fungicides on eggs, larvae and pupae of Trichogramma pretiosum. The results showed that studied pesticides had different impact on T. pretiosum. Esfenvalerate 7.5 and spinosad 24.0 grams ha-1 were classified as harmfull (class 4) while clorfluazuron 10.0, methoxyfenozide 19.2, lactofen 165.0, fomesafen 250.0, fluazifop 125.0, glyphosate 960.0 (Gliz® and Roundup Transorb®), azoxistrobin + ciproconazol 60.0 + 24....

  16. Ação de inseticidas usados na cultura do milho a Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Jander Rodrigues de

    2014-01-01

    No presente trabalho estudou-se a toxicidade dos inseticidas (g i.a. L-1) betacipermetrina (0,03), clorfenapir (0,60), clorpirifós (0,96), espinosade (0,16), etofemproxi (0,10), triflumurom (0,08), alfacipermetrina/teflubenzurom (0,0425/0,0425) e lambdacialotrina/tiametoxam (0,11/0,083) para Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 em suas fases imatura e adulta. As formulações comerciais dos produtos foram diluídas em água destilada, nas maiores concentrações recomendadas pelos fabricantes para o ...

  17. Influence of postzygotic reproductive isolation on the interspecific transmission of the paternal sex ratio chromosome in Trichogramma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeong, G.S.; Stouthamer, R.

    2006-01-01

    The paternal sex ratio (PSR) chromosome is a supernumerary chromosome that causes the destruction of the paternal chromosome set in the first mitosis in a fertilized egg. It is known from parasitoid wasps in the genera Nasonia and Trichogramma (Hymenoptera). In these haplodiploids, the egg

  18. The origin of a selfish B chromosome triggering paternal sex ratio in the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma kaykai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, van J.J.F.A.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.; Stouthamer, R.

    2009-01-01

    This study uses molecular and cytogenetic methods to determine the origin of a B chromosome in some males of the wasp Trichogramma kaykai. This so-called paternal sex ratio (PSR) chromosome transmits only through sperm and shortly after fertilization triggers degeneration of the paternal genome,

  19. The preliminary studies on parasitization of Trichogramma chilonis on Helicoverpa armigera eggs and eggs from irradiated Helicoverpa armigera moths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Endong; Lu Daguang; Liu Xiaohui; Li Yongjun; Zhang Shuyong; Liu Qiongru; Wang Huasong

    2002-01-01

    The parasitization rates of Trichogramma chilonis on 250 Gy irradiated and unirradiated fresh eggs of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, were not significantly different. The parasitization rate on irradiated chill-stored eggs of H. armigera was lower than that on irradiated fresh eggs. The parasitization rates on eggs from 250 Gy irradiated H. armigera moths depended on their embryonated rates

  20. [The study of the contamination and the levels of Campylobacter spp. during the processing of selected types of foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimochkina, N R; Bykova, I B; Stetsenko, V V; Minaeva, L P; Pichugina, T V; Markova, Yu M; Korotkevich, Yu V; Kozak, S S; Sheveleva, S A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the work was to study the nature of the Campylobacter spp. contamination during the processing of food products of plant and animal origin (raw poultry and beef meat, raw milk, leafy salads, sliced raw vegetables). In the study of 148 samples 50 strains of Campylobacter spp. (33.8%) were found. For the main phenotypic characteristics they were identified as C. jejuni spp. jejuni and C. jejuni spp. doylei (over 75%). The highest level of detection of campylobacteria (over 45%) was set for raw poultry, including the carcasses of chickens broilers, quails, turkeys and their semi-finished products. 19 of the 27 strains from poultry were identified as C. jejuni. Among the strains isolated from the environment, including swabs from equipment surfaces, 91% of the isolates were also presented by C. jejuni. It was found that the investigated foodstuffs were characterized by high levels of contamination with bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae, the content of which was comparable with the identified values of total viable bacteria (cfu). Salmonella was detected in 19% of the investigated poultry samples and in 14.3% of raw cow milk. In the study of swabs from surfaces of poultry processing equipment, the frequency of detection of Campylobacter strains was 38.7%, Salmonella - 12.9%. Most commonly Campylobacter and Salmonella were detected in the zones of primary processing of poultry: the frequency of isolation of Salmonella in slaughter corner was 25%, Campylobacter - 43%. When testing the swabs taken in the cooking zone of «fast food» restaurants Campylobacter and Salmonella were not detected. For studying the swabs from equipment surfaces and the environment for the presence of Campylobacter spp. a modified technique of sampling was developed. The method includes a comprehensive analysis in the test area with the use of three types of media for transportation and incubation of Campylobacter spp. (Preston broth with blood, Brucella broth, Cary

  1. Screening of Probiotic Activities of Forty-Seven Strains of Lactobacillus spp. by In Vitro Techniques and Evaluation of the Colonization Ability of Five Selected Strains in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsen, C. N.; Rosenfeldt Nielsen, V.; Hayford, A. E.; Møller, P. L.; Michaelsen, K. F.; Pærregaard, A.; Sandström, B.; Tvede, M.; Jakobsen, M.

    1999-01-01

    The probiotic potential of 47 selected strains of Lactobacillus spp. was investigated. The strains were examined for resistance to pH 2.5 and 0.3% oxgall, adhesion to Caco-2 cells, and antimicrobial activities against enteric pathogenic bacteria in model systems. From the results obtained in vitro, five strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus 19070-2, L. reuteri DSM 12246, L. rhamnosus LGG, L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis CHCC 2329, and L. casei subsp. alactus CHCC 3137, were selected for in vivo studi...

  2. IL-27 Induced by Select Candida spp. via TLR7/NOD2 Signaling and IFN-β Production Inhibits Fungal Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patin, Emmanuel C.; Jones, Adam V.; Thompson, Aiysha; Clement, Mathew; Liao, Chia-Te; Griffiths, James S.; Wallace, Leah E.; Bryant, Clare E.; Lang, Roland; Rosenstiel, Philip; Humphreys, Ian R.; Taylor, Philip R.

    2016-01-01

    Candida spp. elicit cytokine production downstream of various pathogen recognition receptors, including C-type lectin-like receptors, TLRs, and nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)–like receptors. IL-12 family members IL-12p70 and IL-23 are important for host immunity against Candida spp. In this article, we show that IL-27, another IL-12 family member, is produced by myeloid cells in response to selected Candida spp. We demonstrate a novel mechanism for Candida parapsilosis–mediated induction of IL-27 in a TLR7-, MyD88-, and NOD2-dependent manner. Our data revealed that IFN-β is induced by C. parapsilosis, which in turn signals through the IFN-α/β receptor and STAT1/2 to induce IL-27. Moreover, IL-27R (WSX-1)–deficient mice systemically infected with C. parapsilosis displayed enhanced pathogen clearance compared with wild-type mice. This was associated with increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the serum and increased IFN-γ and IL-17 responses in the spleens of IL-27R–deficient mice. Thus, our data define a novel link between C. parapsilosis, TLR7, NOD2, IFN-β, and IL-27, and we have identified an important role for IL-27 in the immune response against C. parapsilosis. Overall, these findings demonstrate an important mechanism for the suppression of protective immune responses during infection with C. parapsilosis, which has potential relevance for infections with other fungal pathogens. PMID:27259855

  3. Spatial and simultaneous seroepidemiology of anti-Leishmania spp. antibodies in dog owners and their dogs from randomly selected households in a major city of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Aline do Nascimento; Martins, Felippe Danyel Cardoso; Mareze, Marcelle; Nino, Beatriz de Souza Lima; Caldart, Eloiza Teles; Ferreira, Fernanda Pinto; Mitsuka-Breganó, Regina; Freire, Roberta Lemos; Galhardo, Juliana Arena; Martins, Camila Marinelli; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico

    2018-06-01

    Although leishmaniasis has been described as a classic example of a zoonosis requiring a comprehensive approach for control, to date, no study has been conducted on the spatial distribution of simultaneous Leishmania spp. seroprevalence in dog owners and dogs from randomly selected households in urban settings. Accordingly, the present study aimed to simultaneously identify the seroprevalence, spatial distribution and associated factors of infection with Leishmania spp. in dog owners and their dogs in the city of Londrina, a county seat in southern Brazil with a population of half a million people and ranked 18th in population and 145th in the human development index (HDI) out of 5570 Brazilian cities. Overall, 564 households were surveyed and included 597 homeowners and their 729 dogs. Anti-Leishmania spp. antibodies were detected by ELISA in 9/597 (1.50%) dog owners and in 32/729 (4.38%) dogs, with significantly higher prevalence (p = 0.0042) in dogs. Spatial analysis revealed associations between seropositive dogs and households located up to 500 m from the local railway. No clusters were found for either owner or dog case distributions. In summary, the seroepidemiological and spatial results collectively show a lack of association of the factors for infection, and the results demonstrated higher exposure for dogs than their owners. However, railway areas may provide favorable conditions for the maintenance of infected phlebotomines, thereby causing infection in nearby domiciled dogs. In such an urban scenario, local sanitary barriers should be focused on the terrestrial routes of people and surrounding areas, particularly railways, via continuous vector surveillance and identification of phlebotomines infected by Leishmania spp. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Effect of host and food availability on the biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae); Efeito da disponibilidade de hospedeiro e de alimento nas caracteristicas biologicas de Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratissoli, Dirceu; Oliveira, Harley N. de; Oliveira, Regiane C. de; Zago, Hugo B. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Alegre, ES (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: dirceu@npd.ufes.br, e-mail: hnoliveira@insecta.ufv.br; Vieira, Stella M.J. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2004-03-15

    Effect of host and food availability on the biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae). Biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, 1988 were evaluated in laboratory where these parasitoids were reared on eggs of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) with or without honey, and exposed to eggs of the host after 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 and 84 hours of emergence. The parasitism rate and viability showed higher for individuals that received food. The sex ratio was not influenced by food. The number of individuals per egg only showed difference for those adults that did not receive food and stayed six hours without the host eggs. Checking the effect of the availability of eggs, only the sex ratio, with or without honey, did not show differences. The results show that T. galloi needs a carbohydrate supply and the time can influence the reproductive capacity. (author)

  5. Insecticide toxicity to Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) females and effect on descendant generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Ulysses R; Pratissoli, Dirceu; Zanuncio, José C; Lima, Eraldo R; Brunner, Jay; Pereira, Fabrício F; Serrão, José E

    2009-02-01

    The effect of nine insecticides used in tomato production was evaluated on adults of two Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) populations from Rive and Afonso Cláudio, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The experiment was developed in an acclimatized chamber at 25 +/- 1 degrees C, 70 +/- 10% relative humidity and 14 h photophase. Eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), previously immersed in insecticides solutions were offered to females of both T. pretiosum populations. Bacillus thuringiensis, lufenuron and triflumuron had lowest negative effects on parasitism and viability of individuals of these populations; however, abamectin and pyrethroids (betacyflurin 50 and 125 g/l and esfenvalerate) insecticides reduced parasitism rates. T. pretiosum emerged from A. kuehniella eggs treated with esfenvalerate but were not able to parasitize non treated eggs of this host. B. thuringiensis, lufenuron and triflumuron may be used in integrated pest management programs to control tomato pests, because they have moderated negative effect on parasitoid wasps.

  6. Effects of various insecticides on the development of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma dendrolimi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Y; Kawamura, S; Tanaka, T

    2001-12-01

    The toxicity of six insecticides, acephate, methomyl, ethofenprox, cartap, chlorfluazuron, and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) was tested on different developmental stages of the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma dendrolimi (Matsumura). Each of the insecticides tested showed different degrees of toxicity to the parasitoid, Ethofenprox showed the highest toxicity and cartap showed relatively higher toxicity compared with the other insecticides. The development of the parasitoids treated with these two insecticides was normal, similar to that of the control group. Only the emergence of adult wasps from host eggs was disturbed. Emergence of the host, Mamestra brassicae larva was reduced following treatment with ethofenprox, cartap and methomyl. However, adult female wasps, which emerged from host eggs treated with the insecticides had the ability to oviposit normally.

  7. Assessing the Total Mortality Caused by Two Species of Trichogramma on Its Natural Host Plutella xylostella (L.) at Different Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioro, C A; Krechemer, F S; Foerster, L A

    2015-06-01

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner are natural enemies of Plutella xylostella (L.) in Southern Brazil. Laboratory studies to evaluate parasitoids performance under different conditions, such as temperature regimes, are necessary to assess their potential as biocontrol agents of P. xylostella. In most studies involving Trichogramma, parasitism rate is the main parameter used to evaluate parasitoid performance, ignoring that parasitoids can cause egg mortality by feeding on the host content and/or to multiple drilling without laying eggs. This study was conducted to investigate three main issues: how temperature affects T. pretiosum and T.atopovirilia development on eggs of P. xylostella, whether or not these species respond differently to temperature, and how important is the mortality they cause besides parasitism on P. xylostella. Temperature effects (from 10 to 30°C) on development, survival, parasitism rate, mortality, and total mortality caused by T. pretiosum and T. atopovirilia on eggs of P. xylostella were evaluated. Temperature affected the development time, female longevity, parasitism rate, mortality not directly related to parasitoid larval development, and total mortality caused on the host. No significant differences were recorded for the estimated thermal requirements for T. pretiosum and T. atopovirilia. However, the higher mortality caused by T. pretiosum indicates that this parasitoid is the most suitable to be used against P. xylostella. Also, the results suggest that the use of parasitism rate as the only parameter to evaluate the performance of T. pretiosum and T. atopovirilia may underestimate the potential of these parasitoids in regulating pest populations.

  8. Effects of Royal Jelly and Bee Pollen on the Growth of Selected Probiotic Bacteria (Bf. animalis Spp. Lactis, L. acidophilus and L. casei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guldas Metin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research article, the effects of bee pollen and royal jelly on the selected probiotic bacteria, as growth factors, were investigated. The probiotic cultures were activated in MRS broth at 37°C. Then, bee pollen and royal jelly (10 mg/100 μL, 25 mg/250 μL, 50 mg/500 μL, 75 mg/750 μL, and 100 mg/1000 μL were added on the probiotic cultures in MRS broth and sampled at 0, 24, and 48 hours of incubation. The medias used for enumeration of the probiotic cultures were RCA (Reinforced Clostridial Agar for Bf. animalis spp. lactis, MRS (deMann, Rogosa and Sharpe Agar with D-sorbitol for Lb. acidophilus and MRS-Vancomycine Agar for Lb. casei. The lactic acid production by Lb. acidophilus, Lb. casei, and Bf. animalis spp. lactis, and acetic acid production by Bf. animalis spp. lactis, were determined to compare the bacterial proliferation. The probiotic cultures were mainly affected by the bee pollen and royal jelly during the first 24 hours. The changes observed in the number of probiotic counts between 24 and 48 hours were not significant, statistically (P<0.05. Generally, the probiotic bacterial counts increased parallel to the concentration of bee pollen or royal jelly up to 75mg, and remained unchanged above this concentration. In terms of lactic acid production and bacterial growth, the most significant growth was observed on Lb. acidophilus when bee pollen or royal jelly was added.

  9. Toxicidade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do pessegueiro sobre adultos de Trichogramma pretiosum Toxicity of pesticides used in peach orchard on adults Trichogramma pretiosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Pinheiro Giolo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A toxicidade de dezesseis formulações comerciais de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do pessegueiro foi avaliada para adultos de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae. Os experimentos foram desenvolvidos utilizando-se a metodologia padrão da International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants, West Palaearctic Regional Section (IOBC/WPRS, em condições de laboratório, sob temperatura de 25 ± 1 ºC, umidade relativa de 70 ± 10% e fotofase de 14 horas. Os testes consistiram na exposição de adultos do parasitóide a resíduos secos dos produtos fitossanitários pulverizados sobre placas de vidro e mensuração do número de ovos parasitados por fêmea. Reduções no número de ovos parasitados por fêmea de T. pretiosum em relação à testemunha (somente água foram utilizadas para classificar os produtos segundo a IOBC/WPRS nas classes: 1, inócuo (99%. Os fungicidas (g ingrediente ativo 100 L-1 de água cálcio + cobre (40+100, dodina (79, folpete (125, iprodione (75, mancozebe (160, mancozebe + óxicloreto de cobre (88+60 e triforina (24 e o inseticida teflubenzurom (3,75 foram inócuos (classe 1; o fungicida tebuconazol (20 e óleo mineral (800 foram levemente nocivos (classe 2; o fungicida-acaricida enxofre (480 e o herbicida glufosinato de amônio (200 foram moderadamente nocivos (classe 3; os inseticidas espinosade (6, fenitrotiona (75, fosmete (100 e malationa (200 foram nocivos (classe 4 a T. pretiosum.The toxicity of sixteen commercial formulations of pesticides used in peach orchard was assessed on adults of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae. The experiments were carried out using the International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants, West Palaearctic Regional Section (IOBC/WPRS standard methodology, under laboratory conditions at temperature of 25±1ºC, relative

  10. Selection and differentiation of Bacillus spp. Antagonistic to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and Alternaria solani infecting Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Veerubommu; Atri, Kamini; Gupta, Samriti; Kanoujia, Nandina; Naruka, Digvijay Singh

    2011-03-01

    Antagonistic Bacillus spp. displaying in vitro production of siderophore, chitinase, and β-1,3-glucanase were identified from dual culture assays. In independent greenhouse studies, seed bacterization and soil application of Bacillus atrophaeus S2BC-2 challenge inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (FOL) and Alternaria solani (AS) recorded low percent disease index of 25.3 and 28.7, respectively, over nonbacterised pathogen control (44.3 and 56.4). The low disease incidence corroborated with tomato growth promotion with high vigor index (8,041.2) and fresh plant weight (82.5 g) on challenge inoculation with FOL. Analysis of root and leaf samples in rhizobacterial treatment challenged with FOL and AS revealed maximum induction of chitinase (1.9 and 1.7 U/mg of protein, respectively) and β-1,3-glucanase (23.5 and 19.2 U/mg of protein, respectively). In native gel activity assays, the rhizobacterial treatment on challenge inoculation strongly expressed three high intensity PO isoforms along with one low intensity isoform. In studies on genetic diversity of the Bacillus strains by repetitive extragenomic palindromic-polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR) and amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) patterns, ARDRA was more highly discriminant than REP-PCR and allowed grouping of the strains and differentiation of the antagonistic strains from other isolates.

  11. Interação entre inimigos naturais: Trichogramma e Bacillus thuringiensis no controle biológico de pragas agrícolas = Interaction between natural enemies: Trichogramma and Bacillus thuringiensis in pest control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio Polanczyk

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos adversos de Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt nos parasitóides de ovos Trichogramma pratissolii e Trichogramma pretiosum. Suspensões de 6 isolados de Bt: E-3, E-10, E-15, E-16, E-19, E-20 e Bt kurstaki foram misturadas com mel (1:1, como fonte de alimento, e cartelas com ovos de Anagasta kuehniella foram fornecidas para o parasitismo. O experimento foi mantido em BOD a 25 + 1ºC, umidade relativa de 70+ 10% e fotofase de 14 horas. Foram analisados a longevidade, os parasitismos diário, acumulado e total. Não houve influência dos tratamentos sobre a longevidade e todos ostratamentos em T. pratissolii e E-3, E-10, E-16 e E- 19 em T. pretiosum diminuíram o tempo necessário para os parasitóides atingirem 80% de parasitismo. Apesar dessa aceleração do parasitismo, o Bt não influenciou o total de ovos parasitados, mostrando-se como tática de controle que pode ser usada com Trichogramma em programas de MIP.The goal of this work was to detect the possible side-effectsprovoked by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt strains on eggs parasitoids Thichogramma pratissolii and Trichogramma pretiosum. Six strains of Bt: E-3, E-10, E-15, E-16, E-19, and E-20 and Bt kurstaki were assayed in honey drop to stimulate the feeding of the parasitoids in each treatment and offered simultaneously displays with Anagasta kuehniella eggs. The experiment was maintained in a climatized chamber at 25+ 1ºC, RH 70+ 10%, and photophase of 14 hours. The longevity, the daily, the accumulated, and the total parasitism were observed. No treatments affected the longevity of both parasitoids. All treatments in T. pratissolii and E-3, E-10, E-16, and E-19 in T. pretiosum decreased the time necessary to reach 80% of parasitism. The lack of deleterious effects of Bt on these parasitoids suggests that these natural enemies can be used together in IPM programs.

  12. Impact of the number of Spodoptera frugiperda egg layers on parasitism by Trichogramma atopovirilia Impacto do número de camadas de ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda no parasitismo por Trichogramma atopovirilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Barbosa Beserra

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Egg parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae can be found in several crops attacking Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae eggs. It is therefore necessary to demonstrate the capacity of these natural enemies in suppressing populations of the pest to allow them to be used in biological control programs against that species. This work had the objective of evaluating the impact of egg layer distribution in S. frugiperda egg masses on the parasitism capacity of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983. Masses containing one, two, and three layers were used as treatments, and 1.6 parasitoid per egg of the pest were released. Parasitism percentage differences were observed among the three types of masses under study, on average 66.24 ± 8.56%, 45.20 ± 6.20%, and 40.10± 3.46% for egg masses with one, two, and three layers, respectively, demonstrating the potential of use of the parasitoid for the control of fall armyworm.Parasitóides de ovos do gênero Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae ocorrem em diversas culturas atacando ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae sendo necessário que se demonstre a capacidade desses inimigos naturais em suprimir a população da praga para que eles possam ser utilizados em programas de controle biológico daquela espécie. O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o impacto da distribuição dos ovos em camadas nas posturas de S. frugiperda sobre a capacidade de parasitismo de Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983. Foram utilizadas como tratamentos posturas com uma, duas e três camadas e liberado 1.6 parasitóide por ovo da praga. Observaram-se diferenças quanto à porcentagem de parasitismo entre os três tipos de posturas estudados, sendo em média de 66,24 ± 8,56%, 45,20 ± 6,20% e 40,10 ± 3,46% para posturas com uma, duas e três camadas respectivamente, mostrando o potencial de utilização do

  13. Assessing risks of pesticides targeting lepidopteran pests in cruciferous ecosystems to eggs parasitoid, Trichogramma brassicae (Bezdenko

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Thubru

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Lethal and sub lethal effects of fresh and old residues of azadirachtin, spinosad, Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Bt var. k, and deltamethrin, were evaluated at their recommended field doses against adult and immature stages of Trichogramma brassicae under in vitro conditions. The experiments were carried out at the Entomology section of Division of Crop Protection, ICAR Research Complex for NEH region, Umiam, Meghalaya, in 2012–2013. The effects of different pesticides were determined by bioassays using the residual film method, the diet contamination method, the pupal dip method and the topical application technique. The four pesticides were found harmful to adult T. brassicae after ingestion, however surface contact bioassays revealed that Bt var. k was the least toxic pesticide. Except Bt var. k, other three pesticides were found harmful also to the immature stages of T. brassicae and significantly affected parasitism potential, adult emergence, longevity of adults, and sex ratio of the progeny. Deltamethrin and azadirachtin were the most harmful, even after 15 days of application. Spinosad was found to be relatively safe to T. brassicae after 15 days of application. As Bt appeared to be the least toxic pesticide for T. brassicae, it could be used for the management of severe infestations of lepidopteran pests in cruciferous ecosystems.If essential, spinosad may be used 15 days after parasitoid release, thus minimizing the chances of parasitoid exposure. Keywords: Azadirachtin, Bacillus thuringiensis, Deltamethrin, Spinosad

  14. Toxicity risk of insecticides to the insect egg parasitoid Trichogramma evanescens Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhua; Wu, Changxing; Cang, Tao; Yang, Lizhi; Yu, Weihua; Zhao, Xueping; Wang, Qiang; Cai, Leiming

    2014-03-01

    Natural populations of Trichogramma evanescens contribute to the control of lepidopterous pests. The toxic effects of insecticides have been extensively reported on trichogrammatids, but are largely unknown on T. evanescens. In this study, the toxicities of seven classes of chemicals against the parasitoid were investigated. Among these classes, organophosphates and carbamates exhibited the highest levels of intrinsic toxicity, with LC50 values ranging from 0.025 (0.023-0.028) to 2.20 (1.71-3.09) and from 0.040 (0.032-0.053) to 1.84 (1.53-2.30) mg AI L(-1) respectively. Among the phenylpyrazoles, only ethiprole can be considered to be less toxic in the group. Avermectins, pyrethroids and neonicotinoids were less toxic, with LC50 values ranging from 1.29 to 2.57, from 2.26 to 14.03 and from 1.12 to 239.1 mg AI L(-1) respectively. In contrast, insect growth regulators (IGRs) showed the lowest toxicity to the parasitoid, with LC50 values ranging from 3383 (2406-5499) to 5650 (4228-8579) mg AI L(-1) . The results of risk quotient analysis indicated that neonicotinoids, avermectins, pyrethroids and IGRs were less hazardous, but phenylpyrazoles (except for ethiprole), organophosphates and carbamates were slightly to moderately or dangerously toxic to T. evanescens. The present results provide informative data for implementing biological and chemical control strategies in integrated pest management of lepidopterans. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Intraspecific variation in Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja, 1983 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) associated with different hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querino, R B; Zucchi, R A

    2002-11-01

    Trichogramma bruni is an insufficiently studied South American species whose limits are still not well defined. Thus, the objective of the present study was to characterize T. bruni taxonomically and to determine the association between morphological variations as well as host and habitat, based on morphological and biological studies. Specimens from the Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" (ESALQ) collection, and from the University of California Riverside (UCR) and specimens collected from the vegetation of forest parks with native areas planted with eucalyptus in Piracicaba and Itatinga, State of São Paulo, were also analyzed. The holotype deposited at Univeridade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG) collection was also examined. The variability in the genital capsule of T. bruni observed both among individuals of the same progeny and among specimens from different hosts is remarkable and is mainly related to the dorsal lamina. Therefore, an association of diagnostic characters rather than the dorsal lamina alone should be used for the identification of T. bruni and intraspecific variations should be considered. The intraspecific variation observed for T. bruni is a factor that should be considered for its identification, since the influence of the environment (habitat + host) and the variation among individuals itself is responsible for the plasticity observed in the genital capsule. Heliconius erato phyllis, Hamadryas feronia, Erosina hyberniata and Mechanitis lysiminia are new hosts of T. bruni.

  16. Toxicity of Insecticides Targeting Rice Planthoppers to Adult and Immature Stages of Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ko; Liu, Yudi; Hou, Maolin; Babendreier, Dirk; Zhang, Feng; Song, Kai

    2015-02-01

    Planthopper-targeting insecticides, pymetrozine, thiamethoxam, buprofezin, and nitenpyram, were tested under laboratory conditions for toxicity to adults and immatures of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii, using standard tests described by International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC). In the dry film residue test, all insecticides resulted in >90% mortality in T. chilonis adults and were ranked as moderately harmful. Persistent toxicity tests revealed that nitenpyram was short-lived and the other three insecticides were of slightly persistent toxicity to the wasp adults. Effects of the insecticides on egg, larval, and prepupal stages of T. chilonis were investigated with striped stem borer as host. At the three stages of T. chilonis (within the host egg), all the insecticides reduced parasitism rate, but nitenpyram and pymetrozine applied at egg stage, buprofezin and nitenpyram at larval stage, and buprofezin and thiamethoxam at prepupal stage of T. chilonis reduced parasitism by buprofezin at prepupal stage resulted in >30% reduction in emergence rate as compared with the control and were categorized as harmful. Immature duration of T. chilonis was only significantly extended by nitenpyram applied to egg stage than the control. Sex ratio of emerged wasps was not affected by the treatment to immature stages. The data are of significance for IPM programs incorporating inundative release of T. chilonis for control of lepidopteran rice pests where there is heavy co-occurrence of planthoppers. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Biological parameters of trichogramma chilonis ishii (trichogrammatidae: hymenoptera) feeding on sitotroga cerealella eggs at three constant temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultan, R.; Khan, J.; Haq, E.

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted on the biological parameters of trichogramma chilonis ishii (trichogrammatidae: hymenoptera) feeding on grain moth, sitotroga cereallela eggs at three constant temperatures and five different ages of host eggs at insect pest management programme, national agricultural research centre, (narc) islamabad. The results revealed that maximum rate of parasitism was 95.70 +- 1.94 at 28 +- 1 degree c while minimum was 61.30 +-1.70 at 32 +- 1 degree c. maximum adult emergence and female ratio from parasitized eggs were 96.30% with 59.2+- 5.83 female ratio at 28 +-1 degree c while minimum was 51.10% with female ratio of 58.1 at 32+-1 degree c. The maximum developmental duration (9.6 +- 0.32 days) and adult longevity (4.3 +- 0.38 days) was at 24 +-1 degree degree c while minimum was 7.4 +-0.36 and 2.0 +- 0.56 days at 32 +- 1 degree c. The results indicate that temperature has a significant effect on the biological parameters of trichogramma and with increasing temperature developmental duration decreased. Similarly effect of host eggs age indicates that maximum parasitism and adult emergence were 97.40 +- 0.84% and 98.20 +- 0.94% on 2h old eggs while minimum parasitism was 24.6 +- 4.92% and adult emergence was 21.5 +- 1.33% from 72h old eggs. Adult longevity and female ratio was not significantly different at different ages of host eggs. Thus out of three tested temperatures, 28 +-1 degree c was more suitable for mass rearing of tricho-gramma and feeding 2-12h old eggs for maximum parasitism and adult emergence from parasitized eggs under laboratory condition of 28 +-1 degree c. (author)

  18. Selective and differential enumerations of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium spp. in yoghurt--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Rabia; Shah, Nagendra P

    2011-10-03

    Yoghurt is increasingly being used as a carrier of probiotic bacteria for their potential health benefits. To meet with a recommended level of ≥10(6) viable cells/g of a product, assessment of viability of probiotic bacteria in market preparations is crucial. This requires a working method for selective enumeration of these probiotic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria in yoghurt such as Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lb. acidophilus, Lb. casei and Bifidobacterium. This chapter presents an overview of media that could be used for differential and selective enumerations of yoghurt bacteria. De Man Rogosa Sharpe agar containing fructose (MRSF), MRS agar pH 5.2 (MRS 5.2), reinforced clostridial prussian blue agar at pH 5.0 (RCPB 5.0) or reinforced clostridial agar at pH 5.3 (RCA 5.3) are suitable for enumeration of Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus when the incubation is carried out at 45°C for 72h. S. thermophilus (ST) agar and M17 are recommended for selective enumeration of S. thermophilus. Selective enumeration of Lb. acidophilus in mixed culture could be made in Rogosa agar added with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (X-Glu) or MRS containing maltose (MRSM) and incubation in a 20% CO2 atmosphere. Lb. casei could be selectively enumerated on specially formulated Lb. casei (LC) agar from products containing yoghurt starter bacteria (S. thermophilus and Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus), Lb. acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp. and Lb. casei. Bifidobacterium could be enumerated on MRS agar supplemented with nalidixic acid, paromomycin, neomycin sulphate and lithium chloride (MRS-NPNL) under anaerobic incubation at 37°C for 72h. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Evaluación y selección de accesiones en una colección de Teramnus spp: Etapa de establecimiento. Evaluation and selection of accessions in a Teramnus spp. collection.: Establishment stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuseika Olivera

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó una colección de 50 accesiones de Teramnus spp, con el objetivo de seleccionar las de mejor comportamiento durante la etapa de establecimiento. El estudio se realizó en la EEPF «Indio Hatuey», en un suelo Ferralítico Rojo compactado. Para ello se dividió esta etapa en dos fases, la primera correspondió al monitoreo durante el tiempo que estuvieron las plantas en bolsas y la segunda desde que se pasaron a campo hasta que se completó dicha etapa; en esta segunda fase se estimó cada 15 días la cobertura y se utilizó la siguiente escala: 1= 10-20% de área cubierta (muy poco cubierta, 2= 21-40% de área cubierta (poco cubierta, 3= 41-60% de área cubierta (parcialmente cubierta, 4= 61-80% de área cubierta (cubierta y 5= > 80% de área cubierta (bien cubierta. Al realizar el monitoreo en la primera fase del establecimiento se constató que se sembraron en bolsas el 98% (49 accesiones, ya que de una no se obtuvo semilla; de estas accesiones solo fue posible pasar a campo el 67,3% (33 accesiones, ya que el resto (16 accesiones murieron antes que alcanzaran el tamaño establecido para ello. De las pasadas a campo cinco murieron durante los primeros 15 días de evaluación, por lo que se mantuvieron 28. De estas, el 67,8% (19 accesiones mostraron los mejores valores de cobertura durante el establecimiento, por lo que se recomienda realizar su evaluación durante la fase de explotación.A collection of 50 Teramnus spp. accessions was evaluated, with the objective of selecting those with better performance during the establishment stage. The study was conducted at the EEPF «Indio Hatuey», on a compacted Ferralitic Red soil. For that this stage was divided in two phases, the first one corresponded to monitoring during the time the plants were kept in bags and the second phase since they were transferred to the field until such stage was completed; in this second phase cover was estimated every 15 days and the following scale was

  20. Prediction of Cacao (Theobroma cacao) Resistance to Moniliophthora spp. Diseases via Genome-Wide Association Analysis and Genomic Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Michel S; Navarro, Alberto J R; Mustiga, Guiliana; Stack, Conrad; Gezan, Salvador; Peña, Geover; Sarabia, Widem; Saquicela, Diego; Sotomayor, Ignacio; Douglas, Gavin M; Migicovsky, Zoë; Amores, Freddy; Tarqui, Omar; Myles, Sean; Motamayor, Juan C

    2018-01-01

    Cacao ( Theobroma cacao ) is a globally important crop, and its yield is severely restricted by disease. Two of the most damaging diseases, witches' broom disease (WBD) and frosty pod rot disease (FPRD), are caused by a pair of related fungi: Moniliophthora perniciosa and Moniliophthora roreri , respectively. Resistant cultivars are the most effective long-term strategy to address Moniliophthora diseases, but efficiently generating resistant and productive new cultivars will require robust methods for screening germplasm before field testing. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) and genomic selection (GS) provide two potential avenues for predicting the performance of new genotypes, potentially increasing the selection gain per unit time. To test the effectiveness of these two approaches, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and GS on three related populations of cacao in Ecuador genotyped with a 15K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray for three measures of WBD infection (vegetative broom, cushion broom, and chirimoya pod), one of FPRD (monilia pod) and two productivity traits (total fresh weight of pods and % healthy pods produced). GWAS yielded several SNPs associated with disease resistance in each population, but none were significantly correlated with the same trait in other populations. Genomic selection, using one population as a training set to estimate the phenotypes of the remaining two (composed of different families), varied among traits, from a mean prediction accuracy of 0.46 (vegetative broom) to 0.15 (monilia pod), and varied between training populations. Simulations demonstrated that selecting seedlings using GWAS markers alone generates no improvement over selecting at random, but that GS improves the selection process significantly. Our results suggest that the GWAS markers discovered here are not sufficiently predictive across diverse germplasm to be useful for MAS, but that using all markers in a GS framework holds

  1. Prediction of Cacao (Theobroma cacao Resistance to Moniliophthora spp. Diseases via Genome-Wide Association Analysis and Genomic Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel S. McElroy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cacao (Theobroma cacao is a globally important crop, and its yield is severely restricted by disease. Two of the most damaging diseases, witches’ broom disease (WBD and frosty pod rot disease (FPRD, are caused by a pair of related fungi: Moniliophthora perniciosa and Moniliophthora roreri, respectively. Resistant cultivars are the most effective long-term strategy to address Moniliophthora diseases, but efficiently generating resistant and productive new cultivars will require robust methods for screening germplasm before field testing. Marker-assisted selection (MAS and genomic selection (GS provide two potential avenues for predicting the performance of new genotypes, potentially increasing the selection gain per unit time. To test the effectiveness of these two approaches, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS and GS on three related populations of cacao in Ecuador genotyped with a 15K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP microarray for three measures of WBD infection (vegetative broom, cushion broom, and chirimoya pod, one of FPRD (monilia pod and two productivity traits (total fresh weight of pods and % healthy pods produced. GWAS yielded several SNPs associated with disease resistance in each population, but none were significantly correlated with the same trait in other populations. Genomic selection, using one population as a training set to estimate the phenotypes of the remaining two (composed of different families, varied among traits, from a mean prediction accuracy of 0.46 (vegetative broom to 0.15 (monilia pod, and varied between training populations. Simulations demonstrated that selecting seedlings using GWAS markers alone generates no improvement over selecting at random, but that GS improves the selection process significantly. Our results suggest that the GWAS markers discovered here are not sufficiently predictive across diverse germplasm to be useful for MAS, but that using all markers in a GS framework holds

  2. Mass release of Trichogramma evanescens and T. cacoeciae can reduce damage by the apple codling moth Cydia pomonella in organic orchards under pheromone disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Herz, Annette; Korsgaard, Maren

    2017-01-01

    of the two species were evaluated for mass-release to control C. pomonella in two commercial organic apple orchards, one in 2012 and one in 2013, using a complete randomized block design. Pheromone disruption was used in both orchards, making the study one of the first to evaluate Trichogramma release under...

  3. Effects of temperature and nonionizing ultraviolet radiation treatments of eggs of five host insects on production of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) for biological control applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichogramma are used worldwide as biological control against insect pests, attacking eggs of over 200 species. Eggs of Spodoptera litura, Corcyra cephalonica, Plutella xylostella and Helicoverpa armigera were tested to consider the effect of temperature and radiation on parasitization, emergence of...

  4. Parasitism and super parasitism of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) on Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) eggs; Parasitismo e superparasitismo de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) em ovos de Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Marciene D.; Torres, Jorge B. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia. Entomologia; Santos, Maria C.F. dos; Beserra, Eduardo B. [Universidade Estadual da Paraiba, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia; Almeida, Raul P. de [EMBRAPA Algodao, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2009-03-15

    The parasitoid Trichogramma has been used worldwide as biological control agent due to its wide geographic distribution, high specialization and efficacy against many lepidopteran pests. Biological and behavioral traits of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley parasitizing Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver) eggs were studied aiming to a better understanding of the Results from parasitism and super parasitism. The variables investigated were: host acceptance and contact time by T. pretiosum on parasitized host, percentage of parasitoid emergence, number of deformed individuals produced, egg-adult period, sex ratio, offspring female body size and longevity, and number of S. cerealella eggs parasitized/female. Parasitism rejection was observed on parasitized host eggs after 24, 72 and 120h of parasitism. The rejection was higher for eggs parasitized after 72h and 120h of parasitism as compared to the eggs after 24h of parasitism. T. pretiosum contact time on eggs after 24h of parasitism was greater than on 72 and 120h. The offspring produced from hosts from which a single parasitoid emerged were larger, exhibited no deformities and greater capacity of parasitism, different from those produced from eggs where two parasitoids emerged. Offspring longevity, however, was similar for females emerged from hosts from which one or two adults emerged. In Conclusion, T. pretiosum was able to recognize previously parasitized eggs and the super parasitism reduced the parasitoid.reproductive success. (author)

  5. Validation of a modification to Performance-Tested Method 010403: microwell DNA hybridization assay for detection of Listeria spp. in selected foods and selected environmental surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alles, Susan; Peng, Linda X; Mozola, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    A modification to Performance-Tested Method 010403, GeneQuence Listeria Test (DNAH method), is described. The modified method uses a new media formulation, LESS enrichment broth, in single-step enrichment protocols for both foods and environmental sponge and swab samples. Food samples are enriched for 27-30 h at 30 degrees C, and environmental samples for 24-48 h at 30 degrees C. Implementation of these abbreviated enrichment procedures allows test results to be obtained on a next-day basis. In testing of 14 food types in internal comparative studies with inoculated samples, there were statistically significant differences in method performance between the DNAH method and reference culture procedures for only 2 foods (pasteurized crab meat and lettuce) at the 27 h enrichment time point and for only a single food (pasteurized crab meat) in one trial at the 30 h enrichment time point. Independent laboratory testing with 3 foods showed statistical equivalence between the methods for all foods, and results support the findings of the internal trials. Overall, considering both internal and independent laboratory trials, sensitivity of the DNAH method relative to the reference culture procedures was 90.5%. Results of testing 5 environmental surfaces inoculated with various strains of Listeria spp. showed that the DNAH method was more productive than the reference U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) culture procedure for 3 surfaces (stainless steel, plastic, and cast iron), whereas results were statistically equivalent to the reference method for the other 2 surfaces (ceramic tile and sealed concrete). An independent laboratory trial with ceramic tile inoculated with L. monocytogenes confirmed the effectiveness of the DNAH method at the 24 h time point. Overall, sensitivity of the DNAH method at 24 h relative to that of the USDA-FSIS method was 152%. The DNAH method exhibited extremely high specificity, with only 1% false

  6. Parasitism and super parasitism of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) on Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Marciene D.; Torres, Jorge B.

    2009-01-01

    The parasitoid Trichogramma has been used worldwide as biological control agent due to its wide geographic distribution, high specialization and efficacy against many lepidopteran pests. Biological and behavioral traits of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley parasitizing Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver) eggs were studied aiming to a better understanding of the Results from parasitism and super parasitism. The variables investigated were: host acceptance and contact time by T. pretiosum on parasitized host, percentage of parasitoid emergence, number of deformed individuals produced, egg-adult period, sex ratio, offspring female body size and longevity, and number of S. cerealella eggs parasitized/female. Parasitism rejection was observed on parasitized host eggs after 24, 72 and 120h of parasitism. The rejection was higher for eggs parasitized after 72h and 120h of parasitism as compared to the eggs after 24h of parasitism. T. pretiosum contact time on eggs after 24h of parasitism was greater than on 72 and 120h. The offspring produced from hosts from which a single parasitoid emerged were larger, exhibited no deformities and greater capacity of parasitism, different from those produced from eggs where two parasitoids emerged. Offspring longevity, however, was similar for females emerged from hosts from which one or two adults emerged. In Conclusion, T. pretiosum was able to recognize previously parasitized eggs and the super parasitism reduced the parasitoid.reproductive success. (author)

  7. Assessment of Trichogramma japonicum and T. chilonis as Potential Biological Control Agents of Yellow Stem Borer in Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rui; Babendreier, Dirk; Zhang, Feng; Kang, Min; Song, Kai; Hou, Mao-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Two species of Trichogramma wasps were assessed for their effectiveness against yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas. A laboratory cage test with T. japonicum and T. chilonis showed that both species parasitized yellow stem borer egg masses at 60.0% ± 9.13% and 40.7% ± 7.11%, respectively, with egg parasitism rates of 15.8% ± 22.2% for T. japonicum and 2.8% ± 5.0% for T. chilonis. Once the host eggs were parasitized, emergence rates were high for both species (95.7% ± 0.12% for T. japonicum and 100% for T. chilonis). In paddy field trials, the two Trichogramma species were released at three densities (50,000/ha, 100,000/ha and 200,000/ha) in Southwestern China. Egg mass parasitism was 9% ± 7.7% for T. japonicum and 15% ± 14.1% for T. chilonis, and again only a relatively small fraction of eggs was successfully parasitized. No clear conclusion could be drawn on the most efficient release rate as no significant differences were found among the three release rates. A comparison of field-collected T. japonicum with T. japonicum and T. chilonis mass reared on Corcyra cephalonica showed significantly larger body size and ovipositor length in field-collected wasps, suggesting potentially higher effectiveness on yellow stem borer eggs after at least one generation on the target host. Factors contributing to the low field parasitism rates are discussed. PMID:28208706

  8. Screening of probiotic activities of forty-seven strains of Lactobacillus spp. by in vitro techniques and evaluation of the colonization ability of five selected strains in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, C N; Rosenfeldt Nielsen, V; Hayford, A E; Møller, P L; Michaelsen, K F; Paerregaard, A; Sandström, B; Tvede, M; Jakobsen, M

    1999-11-01

    The probiotic potential of 47 selected strains of Lactobacillus spp. was investigated. The strains were examined for resistance to pH 2.5 and 0.3% oxgall, adhesion to Caco-2 cells, and antimicrobial activities against enteric pathogenic bacteria in model systems. From the results obtained in vitro, five strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus 19070-2, L. reuteri DSM 12246, L. rhamnosus LGG, L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis CHCC 2329, and L. casei subsp. alactus CHCC 3137, were selected for in vivo studies. The daily consumption by 12 healthy volunteers of two doses of 10(10) freeze-dried bacteria of the selected strains for 18 days was followed by a washout period of 17 days. Fecal samples were taken at days 0 and 18 and during the washout period at days 5 and 11. Lactobacillus isolates were initially identified by API 50CHL and internal transcribed spacer PCR, and their identities were confirmed by restriction enzyme analysis in combination with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Among the tested strains, L. rhamnosus 19070-2, L. reuteri DSM 12246, and L. rhamnosus LGG were identified most frequently in fecal samples; they were found in 10, 8, and 7 of the 12 samples tested during the intervention period, respectively, whereas reisolations were less frequent in the washout period. The bacteria were reisolated in concentrations from 10(5) to 10(8) cells/g of feces. Survival and reisolation of the bacteria in vivo appeared to be linked to pH tolerance, adhesion, and antimicrobial properties in vitro.

  9. Biotechnological approaches to enhance salidroside, rosin and its derivatives production in selected Rhodiola spp. in vitro cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech-Baran, Marta; Sykłowska-Baranek, Katarzyna; Pietrosiuk, Agnieszka

    Rhodiola (Crassulaceae) an arctic-alpine plant, is extensively used in traditional folk medicine in Asian and European countries. A number of investigations have demonstrated that Rhodiola preparations exhibit adaptogenic, neuroprotective, anti-tumour, cardioprotective, and anti-depressant effects. The main compounds responsible for these activities are believed to be salidroside, rosin and its derivatives which became the target of biotechnological investigations. This review summarizes the results of the diverse biotechnological approaches undertaken to enhance the production of salidroside, rosin and its derivatives in callus, cell suspension and organ in vitro cultures of selected Rhodiola species.

  10. Impact of insecticides used to control Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith in corn on survival, sex ratio, and reproduction of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jander R Souza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Corn (Zea mays L. is cultivated in large areas and considered one of the world's major cereal crops. There are several arthropod pests that can reduce its production such as the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lep.: Noctuidae, which is considered to be the main pest for corn. Fall armyworm is primarily controlled by insecticides. The use of biological control agents to manage this pest is growing with an emphasis on the egg parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae. Thus, the aim of this research was to evaluate the impact of the following insecticides (g ai L-1 beta-cypermethrin (0.03, chlorfenapyr (0.60, chlorpyrifos (0.96, spinosad (0.16, etofenprox (0.10, triflumuron (0.08, alfa-cypermethrin/teflubenzuron (0.0425/0.0425, and lambda-cyhalothrin/thiamethoxam (0.11/0.083 on survival, sex ratio, reproduction, and T. pretiosum offspring. Distilled water was used as a control. Commercial insecticide formulations were diluted in distilled water. Bioassays used Anagasta kuehniella eggs treated with insecticides which were afterwards exposed to parasitism. Bioassays were conducted under controlled conditions at 25 ± 2 °C, 70 ± 10% RH, and 12:12 h photoperiod. Alfa-cypermethrin/teflubenzuron, beta-cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, chlorfenapyr, spinosad, etofenprox, and lambda-cyhalothrin/thiamethoxam reduced parasitism capacity of maternal generation females as well as the percentage of insect emergence from the F1 generation. Only triflumuron was selective for T. pretiosum and can be recommended along with this parasitoid in fall armyworm management programs in corn.

  11. Acute toxicities and sublethal effects of some conventional insecticides on Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De-Sen; He, Yu-Rong; Guo, Xiang-Ling; Luo, Yong-Li

    2012-08-01

    The acute toxicity of 10 conventional insecticides to adult of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) was bioassayed by membrane method, and then their sublethal effects on the parasitoid were evaluated in the laboratory. Based on sublethal concentration (LC30) values at 8 h after treatment, we determined that adult T. chilonis were the most susceptible to chlorfenapyr, followed by fipronil, spinosad, avermectins, beta-cypermethrin, and cartap, with lethal concentration (LC)30 values of 0.3133, 0.3269, 1.5408, 3.2961, 6.1469, and 9.021 mg/liter, respectively. The field-recommended concentrations of chlorfluazuron, indoxacarb, Bacillus thuringiensis, and tebufenozide caused Cartap and spinosad also reduced longevity (8 and 7.9 d) and fecundity (110.77 and 117.2) of treated adults, but cartap enhanced the female percentage of F1 offspring (61.6%), resulting a statistical higher R0, r(m), and lambda of treated T. chilonis. In contrast, chlorfluazuron and tebufenozide increased longevity (16.4 and 15.4 d) and fecundity (248 and 256.9) of treated adults but slightly decreased the female percentage of F1 offspring (31.4 and 38.1%). Although chlorfenapyr showed no adverse influence on longevity and fecundity, it remarkably reduced the female percentage of F1 offspring (13.5%), leading to a lower R0, r(m), and lambda of treated T. chilonis. Indoxacarb, B. thuringiensis, and beta-cypermethrin had no obvious sublethal effects on the longevity and fecundity of treated adults. Based on these results, we consider B. thuringienesis, chlorfluazuron, indoxacarb, beta-cypermethrin, and tebufenozide safe to T. chilonis, suggesting that these insecticides are compatible with this parasitoid when being used in the field. However, fipronil, chlorfenapyr, spinosad, and avermectins were very harmful to T. chilonis. Timing of application of these insecticides was critical.

  12. Modification of Sunlight Radiation through Colored Photo-Selective Nets Affects Anthocyanin Profile in Vaccinium spp. Berries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Zoratti

    Full Text Available In recent years, the interest on the effects of the specific wavelengths of the light spectrum on growth and metabolism of plants has been increasing markedly. The present study covers the effect of modified sunlight conditions on the accumulation of anthocyanin pigments in two Vaccinium species: the European wild bilberry (V. myrtillus L. and the cultivated highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum L..The two Vaccinium species were grown in the same test field in the Alps of Trentino (Northern Italy under modified light environment. The modification of sunlight radiation was carried out in field, through the use of colored photo-selective nets throughout the berry ripening during two consecutive growing seasons. The anthocyanin profile was then assessed in berries at ripeness.The results indicated that the light responses of the two Vaccinium species studied were different. Although both studied species are shade-adapted plants, 90% shading of sunlight radiation was beneficial only for bilberry plants, which accumulated the highest content of anthocyanins in both seasons. The same condition, instead, was not favorable for blueberries, whose maturation was delayed for at least two weeks, and anthocyanin accumulation was significantly decreased compared to berries grown under sunlight conditions. Moreover, the growing season had strong influence on the anthocyanin accumulation in both species, in relation to temperature flow and sunlight spectra composition during the berry ripening period.Our results suggest that the use of colored photo-selective nets may be a complementary agricultural practice for cultivation of Vaccinium species. However, further studies are needed to analyze the effect of the light spectra modifications to other nutritional properties, and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind the detected differences between the two relative Vaccinium species.

  13. Modification of Sunlight Radiation through Colored Photo-Selective Nets Affects Anthocyanin Profile in Vaccinium spp. Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoratti, Laura; Jaakola, Laura; Häggman, Hely; Giongo, Lara

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the interest on the effects of the specific wavelengths of the light spectrum on growth and metabolism of plants has been increasing markedly. The present study covers the effect of modified sunlight conditions on the accumulation of anthocyanin pigments in two Vaccinium species: the European wild bilberry (V. myrtillus L.) and the cultivated highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum L.). The two Vaccinium species were grown in the same test field in the Alps of Trentino (Northern Italy) under modified light environment. The modification of sunlight radiation was carried out in field, through the use of colored photo-selective nets throughout the berry ripening during two consecutive growing seasons. The anthocyanin profile was then assessed in berries at ripeness. The results indicated that the light responses of the two Vaccinium species studied were different. Although both studied species are shade-adapted plants, 90% shading of sunlight radiation was beneficial only for bilberry plants, which accumulated the highest content of anthocyanins in both seasons. The same condition, instead, was not favorable for blueberries, whose maturation was delayed for at least two weeks, and anthocyanin accumulation was significantly decreased compared to berries grown under sunlight conditions. Moreover, the growing season had strong influence on the anthocyanin accumulation in both species, in relation to temperature flow and sunlight spectra composition during the berry ripening period. Our results suggest that the use of colored photo-selective nets may be a complementary agricultural practice for cultivation of Vaccinium species. However, further studies are needed to analyze the effect of the light spectra modifications to other nutritional properties, and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind the detected differences between the two relative Vaccinium species.

  14. The EG95 Antigen of Echinococcus spp. Contains Positively Selected Amino Acids, which May Influence Host Specificity and Vaccine Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Karen Luisa; Gottstein, Bruno; Ayala, Francisco Jose

    2009-01-01

    Echinococcosis is a worldwide zoonotic parasitic disease of humans and various herbivorous domestic animals (intermediate hosts) transmitted by the contact with wild and domestic carnivores (definitive hosts), mainly foxes and dogs. Recently, a vaccine was developed showing high levels of protection against one parasite haplotype (G1) of Echinococcus granulosus, and its potential efficacy against distinct parasite variants or species is still unclear. Interestingly, the EG95 vaccine antigen is a secreted glycosylphosphatydilinositol (GPI)-anchored protein containing a fibronectin type III domain, which is ubiquitous in modular proteins involved in cell adhesion. EG95 is highly expressed in oncospheres, the parasite life cycle stage which actively invades the intermediate hosts. After amplifying and sequencing the complete CDS of 57 Echinococcus isolates belonging to 7 distinct species, we uncovered a large amount of genetic variability, which may influence protein folding. Two positively selected sites are outside the vaccine epitopes, but are predicted to alter protein conformation. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses indicate that EG95 isoform evolution is convergent with regard to the number of beta-sheets and alpha-helices. We conclude that having a variety of EG95 isoforms is adaptive for Echinococcus parasites, in terms of their ability to invade different hosts, and we propose that a mixture of isoforms could possibly maximize vaccine efficacy. PMID:19401778

  15. Identification, genetic localization, and allelic diversity of selectively amplified microsatellite polymorphic loci in lettuce and wild relatives (Lactuca spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witsenboer, H; Michelmore, R W; Vogel, J

    1997-12-01

    Selectively amplified microsatellite polymorphic locus (SAMPL) analysis is a method of amplifying microsatellite loci using generic PCR primers. SAMPL analysis uses one AFLP primer in combination with a primer complementary to microsatellite sequences. SAMPL primers based on compound microsatellite sequences provided the clearest amplification patterns. We explored the potential of SAMPL analysis in lettuce to detect PCR-based codominant microsatellite markers. Fifty-eight SAMPLs were identified and placed on the genetic map. Seventeen were codominant. SAMPLs were dispersed with RFLP markers on 11 of the 12 main linkage groups in lettuce, indicating that they have a similar genomic distribution. Some but not all fragments amplified by SAMPL analysis were confirmed to contain microsatellite sequences by Southern hybridization. Forty-five cultivars of lettuce and five wild species of Lactuca were analyzed to determine the allelic diversity for codominant SAMPLs. From 3 to 11 putative alleles were found for each SAMPL; 2-6 alleles were found within Lactuca sativa and 1-3 alleles were found among the crisphead genotypes, the most genetically homogeneous plant type of L. sativa. This allelic diversity is greater than that found for RFLP markers. Numerous new alleles were observed in the wild species; however, there were frequent null alleles. Therefore, SAMPL analysis is more applicable to intraspecific than to interspecific comparisons. A phenetic analysis based on SAMPLs resulted in a dendrogram similar to those based on RFLP and AFLP markers.

  16. Efeito da disponibilidade de hospedeiro e de alimento nas características biológicas de Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae Efect of host and food availability on the biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Características biológicas de Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, 1988 foram avaliadas em laboratório onde esses parasitóides foram criados com ovos de Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae, com ou sem mel, e expostos a ovos do hospedeiro após 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 e 84 horas da emergência. As taxas de parasitismo e de viabilidade mostraram-se elevadas para indivíduos que receberam alimento. A razão sexual não foi influenciada pelo alimento. O número de indivíduos por ovo somente mostrou diferença para aqueles adultos que não receberam alimento e permaneceram 6 horas sem ovos do hospedeiro. Conferindo o efeito da disponibilidade de ovos, somente a razão sexual, com ou sem mel, não mostrou diferenças. Os resultados mostram que T. galloi necessita de um suprimento de carboidratos e que o tempo pode influenciar a capacidade reprodutiva.Biological characteristics of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, 1988 were evaluated in laboratory where these parasitoids were reared on eggs of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae with or without honey, and exposed to eggs of the host after 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 and 84 hours of emergence. The parasitism rate and viability showed higher for individuals that received food. The sex ratio was not influenced by food. The number of individuals per egg only showed difference for those adults that did not receive food and stayed six hours without the host eggs. Checking the effect of the availability of eggs, only the sex ratio, with or without honey, did not show differences. The results show that T. galloi needs a carbohydrate supply and the time can influence the reproductive capacity.

  17. Effects of gamma radiation on the Mediterranean flour moth eggs and acceptability of irradiated eggs by trichogramma cacoeciae females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.

    2008-12-01

    The sensitivity of the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella, eggs in different stages of development to gamma irradiation was studied and the acceptability of irradiated eggs by Trichogramma cacoeciae females was examined. In addition, the developmental rate of immature stages (larvae and pupae), resulting from irradiated eggs, to the adult stage was examined and the acceptance of irradiated eggs to T. cacoeciae females was evaluated. Results showed that the radio-sensitivity of E. kuehniella eggs decreased with increasing age. Irradiation also negatively affected survival to the adult stage and the rate of development of immature stages (larvae and pupae) to adults. In addition, the rate of development of immature stages resulting from irradiated eggs was negatively affected. Furthermore, irradiation positively affected the degree of acceptance of eggs to parasitization; irradiated eggs were more acceptable to T. cacoeciae than cold treated ones. (Author)

  18. Ação transovariana de lufenuron (50 g/l sobre adultos de Spodoptera Frugiperda (j. e. smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae e seu efeito sobre o parasitóide de ovos Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Transovarian action of lufenuron on adults of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae and its effect on the parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a ação transovariana do lufenuron em Spodoptera frugiperda e sua seletividade ao parasitóide de ovos Trichogramma pretiosum. Casais da praga foram isolados em gaiolas de PVC e alimentados com solução de mel a 10% na testemunha, e nos outros tratamentos, foi adicionado à solução de mel o regulador de crescimento de insetos Match® CE nas proporções de 12,5; 15,0 e 17,5 g i.a/l. Para verificação da ação transovariana, diariamente foram coletadas as posturas, contado o número de ovos e, posteriormente, o número de larvas eclodidas. Quarenta ovos provenientes de cada tratamento foram colados em cartelas de papel (cartolina e expostos ao parasitismo, dentro de tubos de vidro de 1,0 x 3,5 cm, contendo uma fêmea de T. pretiosum no seu interior. Cartelas contendo 40 ovos de S. frugiperda foram imersas em soluções de lufenuron com a mesma concentração dos tratamentos anteriores e, posteriormente, expostas ao parasitismo por T. pretiosum. O lufenuron afetou consideravelmente a viabilidade dos ovos de S. frugiperda. Pelos resultados obtidos nos ensaios, relativos ao parasitóide, demonstram-se a seletividade do regulador de crescimento lufenuron e a possibilidade de sua utilização em programas de Manejo Integrado, juntamente com o parasitóide de ovos T. pretiosum.The transovarian action of insect growth regulator lufenuron in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae and its effects on the egg parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, were evaluated. Pest couples were isolated in PVC's cages and provided with 10% honey solution as control. In the others treatments, the honey solution was mixed with the insect growth regulator Match® CE using the following concentrations of 12.5; 15.0 and 17.5 g i.a./l. For verification of the transovarian action, the eggs were collected daily, with the number of the hatched larvae being subsequently counted. Forty eggs from each treatment were fixed in

  19. Malus spp.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-11

    Jul 11, 2011 ... differences in cultivars and plant materials, technology steps such as preventing the explants contamination, selecting culture medium, regulating hormone proportion and exercising seedlings outdoor have been the difficulties in the establishment of regeneration system for. Malus plant, especially for ...

  20. Microbiological quality of selected ready-to-eat leaf vegetables, sprouts and non-pasteurized fresh fruit-vegetable juices including the presence of Cronobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold-Pluta, Anna; Garbowska, Monika; Stefańska, Ilona; Pluta, Antoni

    2017-08-01

    Bacteria of the genus Cronobacter are emerging food-borne pathogens. Foods contaminated with Cronobacter spp. may pose a risk to infants or adults with suppressed immunity. This study was aimed at determining the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat (RTE) plant-origin food products available on the Polish market with special emphasis on the prevalence of Cronobacter genus bacteria. Analyses were carried out on 60 samples of commercial RTE type plant-origin food products, including: leaf vegetables (20 samples), sprouts (20 samples) and non-pasteurized vegetable, fruit and fruit-vegetable juices (20 samples). All samples were determined for the total count of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB) and for the presence of Cronobacter spp. The isolates of Cronobacter spp. were subjected to genetic identification and differentiation by 16S rDNA sequencing, PCR-RFLP analysis and RAPD-PCR and evaluation of antibiotic susceptibility by the disk diffusion assay. The TAMB count in samples of lettuces, sprouts and non-pasteurized fruit, vegetable and fruit-vegetable juices was in the range of 5.6-7.6, 6.7-8.4 and 2.9-7.7 log CFU g -1 , respectively. The presence of Cronobacter spp. was detected in 21 (35%) samples of the products, including in 6 (30%) samples of leaf vegetables (rucola, lamb's lettuce, endive escarola and leaf vegetables mix) and in 15 (75%) samples of sprouts (alfalfa, broccoli, small radish, lentil, sunflower, leek and sprout mix). No presence of Cronobacter spp. was detected in the analyzed samples of non-pasteurized fruit, vegetable and fruit-vegetable juices. The 21 strains of Cronobacter spp. isolated from leaf vegetable and sprouts included: 13 strains of C. sakazakii, 4 strains of C. muytjensii, 2 strains of C. turicensis, one strain of C. malonaticus and one strain of C. condimenti. All isolated C. sakazakii, C. muytjensii, C. turicensis and C. malonaticus strains were sensitive to ampicillin, cefepime, chloramphenicol, gentamycin

  1. Seletividade de agrotóxicos usados na produção integrada de maçã para adultos de Trichogramma pretiosum Side effects of pesticides used in integrated production of apple in adults of Trichogramma pretiosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Gindri Manzoni

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a seletividade de 12 agrotóxicos usados na produção integrada de maçã, em laboratório (temperatura 25±1ºC, umidade relativa 70±10% e fotófase de 14 horas, tendo-se exposto adultos de Trichogramma pretiosum a resíduos secos dos agrotóxicos, na máxima dosagem recomendada para uso em campo, e tendo-se posteriormente mensurado o número de ovos parasitados por fêmea. Reduções no parasitismo, em relação à testemunha (água, foram utilizadas para classificar os agrotóxicos em inócuo (99%. Foram inócuos os acaricidas Envidor (espirodiclofeno, Kendo 50 SC (fenpiroximato e Ortus 50 SC (fenpiroximato, os fungicidas Antracol 700 PM (propinebe, Midas BR (famoxadona + mancozebe, Palisade (fluquinconazol, Persist SC (mancozebe e Systhane PM (miclobutanil e o inseticida Mimic 240 SC (tebufenozida; o herbicida Polaris (glifosato foi levemente nocivo; os herbicidas Finale (glufosinato sal de amônio e Roundup Original (glifosato foram moderadamente nocivos a T. pretiosum.The objective of this work was to evaluate the side effects of 12 pesticides used in the integrated production of apple, in laboratory (25±1ºC temperature, 70±10% relative humidity and 14 hours photophase, exposing adults of Trichogramma pretiosum to fresh dry pesticide film, in the maximum dosage recommended for field use, with subsequent assessement of the number of eggs parasitized per female. The reduction in the parasitism, compared with the control (water, was used to classify the pesticides as harmless (99%. The acaricides Envidor (spirodiclofen, Kendo 50 SC (fenpyroximate and Ortus 50 SC (fenpyroximate, the fungicides Antracol 700 PM (propineb, Midas BR (famoxadone + mancozeb, Palisade (fluquinconazole, Persist SC (mancozeb and Systhane PM (myclobutanil and the insecticide Mimic 240 SC (tebufenozide were harmless; the herbicide Polaris (glyphosate was slightly harmful; the herbicides Finale (gluphosinate-ammonium and Roundup

  2. Parasitismo de Trichogramma pretiosum em ovos da traça-das-crucíferas sob diferentes temperaturas Parasitism of Trichogramma pretiosum on diamondback moth eggs under different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a capacidade de parasitismo de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, em ovos de Plutella xylostella (L.(Leptoptera: Plutellidae nas temperaturas de 18; 20; 22; 25; 28; 30 e 32ºC, avaliando-se número de ovos parasitados diariamente, porcentagem acumulada de parasitismo, número total de ovos parasitados por fêmea e longevidade de fêmeas. O ritmo de parasitismo durante as primeiras 24 horas, oscilou de 1,6 a 16 ovos parasitados por fêmea de T. pretiosum nas temperaturas entre 18 e 32ºC. O parasitismo acumulado de ovos de P. xylostella, nas temperaturas de 18; 20; 22; 25; 28; 30 e 32ºC, atingiu 80%, aos 2; 16; 11; 3; 5; 4 e 7 dias, por T. pretiosum. As maiores taxas de parasitismo ocorreram nas faixas térmicas de 25; 28 e 30ºC. A longevidade média de fêmeas de T. pretiosum nas faixas térmicas compreendidas entre 18 e 32ºC, variaram de 2,3 a 13,3 dias.The parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae on eggs of Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae was studied, under temperatures of 18; 20; 22; 25; 28; 30 and 32°C aiming to evaluate the number of days with parasitism, cumulated parasitism, total number of eggs parasitized per female and their longevity. Parasitism during the first 24 hours ranged from 1.6 to 16 eggs of P. xylostella per T. pretiosum female in the range of 18 to 32°C. Cumulated egg parasitism of P. xylostella by T. pretiosum reached 80% after 2; 16; 11; 3; 5; 4 and 7 days at 18; 20; 22; 25; 28; 30 and 32°C. Higher parasitism rates were recorded at 25; 28 and 30°C while longevity of T. pretiosum females varied from 2.3 to 13.3 days under temperatures of 18 to 32°C.

  3. Effects of pesticides used in soybean crops to the egg parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum Efeitos dos agroquímicos utilizados na cultura da soja ao parasitóide de ovos Trichogramma pretiosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeney de Freitas Bueno

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the effects of different insecticides, herbicides and fungicides on eggs, larvae and pupae of Trichogramma pretiosum. The results showed that studied pesticides had different impact on T. pretiosum. Esfenvalerate 7.5 and spinosad 24.0 grams ha-1 were classified as harmfull (class 4 while clorfluazuron 10.0, methoxyfenozide 19.2, lactofen 165.0, fomesafen 250.0, fluazifop 125.0, glyphosate 960.0 (Gliz® and Roundup Transorb®, azoxistrobin + ciproconazol 60.0 + 24.0, azoxistrobin 50.0 and myclobutanil 125.0 grams ha-1 were chemicals classified as harmless to all imature T. pretiosum stages. All the other chemicals evaluated had different impact on T. pretiosum being classified from harmless (class 1 to harmful (class 4 varying the impact accordingly to the different parasitoid stage. Then, less noxious products should be chosen whenever possible to be used in a soybean IPM program.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar os efeitos de diferentes inseticidas, herbicidas e fungicidas em ovos, larvas e pupas de Trichogramma pretiosum. Os resultados mostraram que os pesticidas estudados tiveram efeitos diferentes sobre T. pretiosum. Esfenvalerato 7,5 e espinosade 24,0 gramas ha-1 foram classificados como nocivos (classe 4, enquanto que clorfluazurom 10,0, metoxifenozida 19,2, lactofem 165,0, fomesafem 250,0, fluazifope 125,0, glifosato 960,0 (Gliz® e Roundup Transorb®, azoxistrobina + ciproconazole 60,0 + 24,0, azoxistrobina 50,0 e miclobutanil 125,0 gramas ha-1 foram classificados como seletivos (classe 1 para todas as fases imaturas de T. pretiosum. Todos os demais agroquímicos avaliados tiveram diferentes efeitos em T. pretiosum, sendo classificados de seletivo (classe 1 a nocivo (classe 4, variando o impacto de acordo com as diferentes fases do parasitóide. Portanto, produtos menos nocivos aos inimigos naturais devem ser escolhidos, sempre que possível, para serem usados em um programa de MIP-soja.

  4. Tabela de vida de fertilidade de Trichogramma pratissolii Querino & Zucchi, 2003 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae em hospedeiros alternativos, sob diferentes temperaturas Fertility life table of Trichogramma pratissolii Querino & Zucchi, 2003 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae in alternative hosts, under different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Bolsoni Zago

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A espécie, Trichogramma pratissolii Querino & Zucchi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae foi recentemente coletada em plantios de abacate, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae, e pode representar uma alternativa no controle biológico de lepidópteros pragas dessa cultura. Assim, objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar o desempenho de T. pratissolii criado em ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae e Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae,sob diferentes temperaturas utilizando tabelas de vida de fertilidade. A criação de A. kuehniella foi mantida com dieta à base de farinha de trigo integral, milho e levedura de cerveja, enquanto para C. cephalonica foi utilizada dieta à base de farelo de arroz, levedura de cerveja e açúcar. T. pratissolii foi criado nos hospedeiros, utilizando-se a técnica de colagem de ovos em cartolina azul. Foram determinadas a duração média da geração (T, taxa líquida de reprodução (Ro, razão infinitesimal de aumento (r m e razão infinita de aumento (λ para as temperaturas de 15; 21; 24; 27; 30 e 33 ±1ºC, com 70±10% de umidade relativa e fotofase de 14 horas. A melhor condição térmica para desenvolvimento de T. pratissolii em A. kuehniella e C. cephalonica foi a 27ºC, enquanto o melhor hospedeiro nessa temperatura é C. cephalonica.The specie, Trichogramma pratissolii Querino & Zucchi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae was recently collected in avocado plantations, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae, and therefore might be an alternative biological control agent for lepidopteran pests in this crop. Thus, this work evaluated the performance of T. pratissolii parasitizing eggs of Anagasta kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae and Corcyra cephalonica Stainton (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, under different temperature regimes through fertility life table method. The host A. kuehniella was reared using diet constituted of whole wheat meal, corn meal and yeast, while C. cephalonica was

  5. Commensal Staphylococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp. and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANTHONY

    2012-07-31

    Jul 31, 2012 ... Intermittent assessment of resistance genes in the ecosystem should be ..... among resistant Acinetobacter spp. isolated from integrated fish .... independent studies on the emerging phylogenetic view of bacterial .... Functional.

  6. Parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) reared under different temperatures on Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs; Capacidade de parasitismo de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) em ovos de Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) sob diferentes temperaturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastori, Patrik L. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Setor de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Zoologia]. E-mail: plpastori@yahoo.com.br; Monteiro, Lino B. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Setor de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Fitotecnia e Fitossanitarismo]. E-mail: lbmonteiro@terra.com.br; Botton, Marcos [EMBRAPA, Bento Goncalves, RS (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa Uva e Vinho]. E-mail: marcos@cnpuv.embrapa.br; Pratissoli, Dirceu [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Alegre, ES (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Producao Vegetal). E-mail: pratissoli@cca.ufes.br

    2007-11-15

    The parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley strain bonagota on Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) eggs was studied under the temperatures of 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30 and 32 deg C. The number of days with parasitism, accumulated parasitism, total number of eggs parasitized per female and parasitoid longevity was evaluated. In the first 24h, parasitism ranged from 1.6 (32 deg C) to 8.8 (22 deg C) eggs of B. salubricola. Accumulated egg parasitism of B. salubricola reached 80% in 1st to 4th day at 20 deg C to 32 deg C, respectively, and in the 7th day at 18 deg C. Temperatures from 18 deg C to 22 deg C were the best suited for the total eggs parasitized for female, resulting in 35.4 and 24.6 eggs/male respectively. T. pretiosum female longevity ranged from 7.8 to 2.5 days, at 18 deg C and 32 deg C, respectively. The results showed that T. pretiosum strain bonagota is better adapted to temperatures from 18 deg C to 22 deg C. (author)

  7. ESPECIES NATIVAS DE Trichogramma (HYMENOPTERA: TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE COLECTADAS EN CULTIVOS AGRÍCOLAS DEL NORTE DE MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián García-González

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman y Platner, T. deion Pinto y Oatman, T. exiguum Pinto y Platner, T. fuentesi Torre y T. pretiosum Riley, fueron determinadas de 27 muestras colectadas en los siguientes cultivos: algodonero, caña de azúcar, chile serrano, col, girasol, maíz, naranjo, nogal, soya y tomate, establecidos en ocho estados del norte de México. T. pretiosum se determinó en algodonero, chile serrano, col, girasol, maíz, naranjo, nogal, soya y tomate; T. fuentesi en muestras de maíz y nogal; en muestras de maíz a T. exiguum y T. deion; y T. atopovirilia en caña de azúcar. T. pretiosum fue encontrada en 19 de las 27 muestras revisadas, en contraste T. atopovirilia y T. exiguum se determinaron en una muestra cada una. La determinación de T. deion y T. fuentesi en las muestras de maíz, se consideran como nuevos reportes para México.

  8. Effect of ionizing (gamma and non-ionizing (UV radiation on the development of Trichogramma euproctidis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncbilek Aydin S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of using gamma and ultraviolet radiation as an alternative treatment to increase the efficiency of Trichogramma euproctidis (Girault 1911 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae was investigated in the laboratory. The developmental and adult stages of T. euproctidis were exposed to gamma radiation of different doses (0-30 Gy and ultraviolet radiation of 254 nm wavelengths (UV-C for different durations (0-10 min to assess their effect on each of the instars and their potential in breaking the developmental cycle of the egg parasitoid. The LD50 values for eggs, prepupae, pupae and adults were 8.1, 10.0, 22.7 and 9.5 Gy for gamma radiation and 9.5, 0.12, 2.0 and 11.9 min for UV radiation, respectively. The pupa and adult stages were more radioresistant to both gamma and UV radiation. The most interesting and unexpected result obtained for the prepupal stage was that UV radiation has a greater effect on prepupal stages than gamma radiation.

  9. Parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) reared under different temperatures on Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastori, Patrik L.; Monteiro, Lino B.; Botton, Marcos; Pratissoli, Dirceu

    2007-01-01

    The parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley strain bonagota on Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) eggs was studied under the temperatures of 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30 and 32 deg C. The number of days with parasitism, accumulated parasitism, total number of eggs parasitized per female and parasitoid longevity was evaluated. In the first 24h, parasitism ranged from 1.6 (32 deg C) to 8.8 (22 deg C) eggs of B. salubricola. Accumulated egg parasitism of B. salubricola reached 80% in 1st to 4th day at 20 deg C to 32 deg C, respectively, and in the 7th day at 18 deg C. Temperatures from 18 deg C to 22 deg C were the best suited for the total eggs parasitized for female, resulting in 35.4 and 24.6 eggs/male respectively. T. pretiosum female longevity ranged from 7.8 to 2.5 days, at 18 deg C and 32 deg C, respectively. The results showed that T. pretiosum strain bonagota is better adapted to temperatures from 18 deg C to 22 deg C. (author)

  10. In vitro fermentation of sugar beet arabino-oligosaccharides by fecal microbiota obtained from patients with ulcerative colitis to selectively stimulate the growth of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine; Holck, Jesper; Meyer, Anne S.

    in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC), an inflammatory bowel disease, and compositional changes have been observed in the colonic microbiota by us as well as by other research groups 1-3. Since bifidobacteria and lactobacilli may excert anti-inflammatory effects, a reduced level of these commensal bacteria...... may compromise the colon health and favor intestinal inflammation. In this study, selective stimulation of fecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli from healthy subjects and UC patients in remission or with active disease were investigated using arabino-oligosaccharides (AOS; DP2-10) derived from sugar...... beet pulp. The fermentative-induced changes were compared to those for fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), which are known to have a prebiotic effect. The fermentation studies were carried out using a validated small-scale static batch system, and changes in the fecal microbial communities and metabolites...

  11. Influência do Fotoperíodo no Parasitismo de Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae em Ovos de Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Santana

    2013-07-01

    Abstract. Trichogramma species are an important group of parasitoids that attack especially lepidopteran eggs. The quality and performance of this natural enemy may be influenced by factors such as alternative host used in the massal rearing, and differences in the temperature and photoperiod. Based on this, this study aimed to evaluate the number of parasitized eggs, % of females that parasitized, % emergence, sex ratio and number of individuals of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi per egg of Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius in the presence and absence of light. The experimental design was completely randomized with two treatments (light and dark and 60 replications, being each experimental unit composed by 40 eggs of D. saccharalis which were placed in a glass tube with one female of T. galloi with age of 24 hours, previously fed with honey. The experiment was carried out at 25 ± 2 °C and 70 ± 10% relative humidity. In each one of the treatments, the parasitoid was removed from the tube after 12 hours. The highest number of parasitized eggs (12.9 and % of females that parasitized (83.3% was observed during the period with light. For the emergence, sex ratio and number of individuals per egg, there was no statistical difference. The results showed that the presence of light is essential for this biological control agent.

  12. Decision-making in a bisexual line and a thelytokous Wolbachia-infected line of Trichogramma dendrolimi Matsumura (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) regarding behavior toward their hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan-Quan; Zhang, Tong-Shu; Li, Chun-Xue; Gu, Jun-Wen; Hou, Jie-Bin; Dong, Hui

    2018-07-01

    The use of thelytokous Wolbachia-infected Trichogramma (parasitic wasps) has long been considered as a way to enhance the efficacy of biocontrol. However, Wolbachia can affect the host physiology. We compared decision-making between bisexual and thelytokous Wolbachia-infected lines of Trichogramma dendrolimi Matsumura regarding behavior toward fresh and old eggs of Corcyra cephalonica at 25 ± 1 °C and 70 ± 5% relative humidity. The behavioral patterns and sequences of the two lines were basically the same. The durations of various behavioral patterns and values of fitness indicators of the bisexual line on fresh eggs were generally significantly shorter and better, respectively, than on old eggs, whereas the thelytokous line behaved similarly toward the two types of eggs, and differences in most fitness indicators between fresh and old eggs were not significant. On fresh eggs, the durations of various behaviors in the bisexual line were generally significantly shorter than in the thelytokous line and the fitness indicators were generally significantly better. Wolbachia affected the fitness of T. dendrolimi negatively. The potential of the thelytokous line as a biocontrol agent would not be as good as that of the bisexual line when decision-making only is considered. Therefore, further evaluations need to be carried out before the thelytokous line can be used in practical biocontrol. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. A selection of reference genes and early-warning mRNA biomarkers for environmental monitoring using Mytilus spp. as sentinel species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, C; Coquillé, V; Guyomarch, J; Auffret, M; Moraga, D

    2014-09-15

    mRNA biomarkers are promising tools for environmental health assessment and reference genes are needed to perform relevant qPCR analyses in tissue samples of sentinel species. In the present study, potential reference genes and mRNA biomarkers were tested in the gills and digestive glands of native and caged mussels (Mytilus spp.) exposed to harbor pollution. Results highlighted the difficulty to find stable reference genes in wild, non-model species and suggested the use of normalization indices instead of single genes as they exhibit a higher stability. Several target genes were found differentially expressed between mussel groups, especially in gills where cyp32, π-gst and CuZn-sod mRNA levels could be biomarker candidates. Multivariate analyses confirmed the ability of mRNA levels to highlight site-effects and suggested the use of several combined markers instead of individual ones. These findings support the use of qPCR technology and mRNA levels as early-warning biomarkers in marine monitoring programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Different Diets of Flour Moth on its Parasitoid Wasp Fitness, Trichogramma brassicae (Hym.:Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paria Soltaninejad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Parasitoid wasp, Trichogramma brassicae (Bezdenko (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae has excellent position in mass production technology, scope of application, wide geographical distribution and unmatched talent to adapt to different climatic conditions that can be easily reared on Mediterranean flour moth (MFM, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lep.: Pyralidae. The parasitoid use is in order to control Chilo suppressalis (Walker (Lep.: Pyralidae, Helicoverpa armigera (Lep.: Noctuidae, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner (Lep.: Pyralidae, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller (Lep.: Phycitidae and Cydia pomonella (Lep.: Tortricidae (38. The studies have been shown that the quantity and quality of the host diet affect growth period, size of adults, adult longevity, fecundity and sex ratio of the parasitoid. The objective of current research was to evaluate the effect of four different MFM diets on the fitness of second and forth generations of the parasitoid wasp, T. brassicae. Materials and Methods: The four diets ((I wheat flour, wheat bran, corn flour, bread yeast and glycerin; (II wheat flour, wheat bran, barley flour, bread yeast and glycerin; (III barley flour, bread yeast and glycerin and (IV wheat flour, barley flour and corn flour were sterilized at 51 °C for 24 hours. After cooling at ambient temperature, the diets were contaminated with the eggs of MFM and then were maintained at 25±1° C, 60±5 % RH and a photoperiod of 14 L: 10 D. The MFM adults emerged after 35 to 40 days and their eggs were collected daily to use for investigation of the parasitoid biology. For rearing the parasitoid wasps on the MFM eggs obtained from each diet, some cards containing the parasitoid pre-pupae were put inside cages (25 × 25 × 25 cm and reared for one generation. The adults were fed honey (20% for one day and then were provided with one-day-old sterile MFM eggs. To prevent egg hatching and sterile them, they were kept at 15°C for four h. The tests were

  15. due to Klebsiella spp.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary acute conununity-acquired pneumonia was unconunon. ... organisms such as Klebsiella spp. are frequent causes of nosocomial infections."o The larrer ... Accepted 11 Sep 1992. recognised cause of community-acquired Gram-nega-.

  16. Influence of Atlantic Rain Forest remnants on the biological control of Euselasia apisaon (Dahman) (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) by Trichogramma maxacalii (Voegele and Pointel) (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae); Efeitos de remanescentes de Mata Atlantica no controle biologico de Euselasia apisaon (Dahman) (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) por Trichogramma maxacalii (Voegele e Pointel) (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murta, Aline F.; Ker, Fabricio T.O.; Costa, Dalbert B. [Centro Universitario do Leste de Minas Gerais (UnilesteMG), Coronel Fabriciano, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Controle Biologico de Pragas; Espirito-Santo, Mario M.; Faria, Mauricio L. [Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros, MG (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude. Dept. de Biologia Geral

    2008-03-15

    This study evaluated the effects of Atlantic Rain Forest remnants on the natural biological control of Euselasia apisaon (Dahman) by the parasitoid Trichogramma maxacalii (Voegele and Pointel) in Eucalyptus plantations. The number of E. apisaon eggs/leaf was higher in the center than in the edge of the plantations (23.5 {+-} 7.61 vs. 14.8 {+-} 3.14), but parasitism showed the reversed pattern (72.4% in the center and 80.5% in the edge). The results indicated that natural regulation exerted by T. maxacalii on populations of E. apisaon may be enhanced by the preservation of fragments of native vegetation surrounding Eucalyptus plantations. (author)

  17. Características biológicas de linhagens de Trichogramma pretiosum, criados em ovos de Sitotroga cerealella e Anagasta kuehniella Biological characteristics of Trichogramma pretiosum lineages, reared in Anagasta kuehniella and Sitotroga cerealella eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as características biológicas de cinco linhagens de T. pretiosum Riley (Hym.:Trichogrammatidae, coletadas em plantios comerciais de tomate, e criados em ovos de A. kuehniella (Zeller e S. cerealella (Olivier. A taxa de parasitismo das cinco linhagens variou de 56,1 a 68,6%, quando o hospedeiro foi A. kuehniella, sendo superior à do hospedeiro S. cerealella. A viabilidade de todas as linhagens, quando criadas em ovos de S. cerealella, foi superior a 90%; no entanto, somente nas linhagens provenientes de Afonso Cláudio e Venda Nova do Imigrante é que a viabilidade das linhagens de Trichogramma criadas em ovos de S. cerealella, foram significativamente maiores que as criadas sobre A. kuehniella. A longevidade dos descendentes submetidos ao parasitismo foi superior para todas as linhagens quando criadas em ovos de A. kuehniella. Ambos os hospedeiros podem ser empregados na criação massal das cinco linhagens estudadas. Contudo, tomando-se por base a taxa de parasitismo e a qualidade da progênie, o hospedeiro A. kuehniella demonstrou ser superior a S. cerealella.The biological characteristics of five lineages of T. pretiosum Riley (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae, collected from tomato crops, and reared in A. kuehniella (Zeller and S. cerealella (Olivier eggs were evaluated. The parasitism rate of the lineages, varied from 56,1 to 68.6%, when the host was A. kuehniella, being higher than for S. cerealella. The viability of all lineages, when reared in S. cerealella eggs, was superior to 90%; however, only those lineages reared in S. cerealella eggs and collected in Afonso Cláudio and Venda Nova dos Imigrantes (Espirito Santo State, Brazil were significantly higher than those reared on A. kuehniella. The longevity of the offspring submitted to the parasitism, was higher in all the lineages reared in A. kuehniella eggs. All five lineages can be mass reared using both hosts. However, considering the parasitism rate and the quality of the

  18. Influence of Atlantic Rain Forest remnants on the biological control of Euselasia apisaon (Dahman) (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) by Trichogramma maxacalii (Voegele and Pointel) (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murta, Aline F.; Ker, Fabricio T.O.; Costa, Dalbert B.; Espirito-Santo, Mario M.; Faria, Mauricio L.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Atlantic Rain Forest remnants on the natural biological control of Euselasia apisaon (Dahman) by the parasitoid Trichogramma maxacalii (Voegele and Pointel) in Eucalyptus plantations. The number of E. apisaon eggs/leaf was higher in the center than in the edge of the plantations (23.5 ± 7.61 vs. 14.8 ± 3.14), but parasitism showed the reversed pattern (72.4% in the center and 80.5% in the edge). The results indicated that natural regulation exerted by T. maxacalii on populations of E. apisaon may be enhanced by the preservation of fragments of native vegetation surrounding Eucalyptus plantations. (author)

  19. Tabela de Esperança de Vida de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley em Ovos de Trichoplusia ni Hübner em Diferentes Condicionamentos Térmicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Carvalho

    2012-11-01

    Table of life Expectancy of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley in Eggs of Trichoplusia ni Hübner Different Thermal Conditioning Abstract. The objective of this work was to study the influence of temperature on demographic parameters of the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae reared on eggs of cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in conditions the laboratory. To this end, we made sky blue cards containing eggs of T. ni that were offered to the parasitism of T. pretiosum for 24 hours at temperatures of 18, 21, 24, 27, 30 and 33 °C. After this period, the parasitoids were removed and kept the cards in the same thermal constraints to the emergence of offspring. From the emergence of offspring, females of T. pretiosum were individually placed in Eppendorf tubes being fed honey and kept at temperatures of origin. The duration of egg-adult period and female longevity were strongly influenced by thermal regime, being opposite to its increase (16.5 to 4.5 days, for the duration of egg-adult period; and 11.9 to 5.5 days, for and female longevity. The percentage of emergence of offspring, number of offspring per egg and sex ratio were not influenced statistically significant. The survival (Lx of T. pretiosum was more influenced at temperatures 27, 30 and 33 ° C. Life expectancy of adults (ex was higher in lower temperatures (18, 21 and 24 ° C, being verified, on average, life expectancy of 32, 28 and 26 days, respectively. Thus it was found that the temperature can be the limiting factor for the development and survival of T. pretiosum in biological control programs of T. ni.

  20. Desempenho de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley e T. exiguum Pinto & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae submetidos a diferentes densidades de ovos de Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Fabricio Fagundes

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desempenho de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley e de Trichogramma exiguum Pinto & Platner submetidos a diferentes densidades de ovos de Plutella xylostella (L.. Para cada espécie, grupos compostos por uma, duas e quatro fêmeas do parasitóide, foram confinadas em tubos de vidro juntamente com 15, 30, 45 e 60 ovos de P. xylostella por 24h. A duração do ciclo (ovo-adulto foi uniforme e exatamente igual a nove dias, tanto para T. pretiosum como para T. exiguum. A porcentagem de parasitismo de T. pretiosum e T. exiguum mais elevada foi encontrada nas combinações de 15 ovos quatro fêmeas-1 e duas fêmeas 15 ovos-1, respectivamente. A viabilidade do parasitismo para T. pretiosum e T. exiguum não foi afetada pelas combinações de parasitóides e ovos para ambas as espécies. A razão sexual foi igual a um para T. pretiosum e variando de 0,6 a 0,8 para T. exiguum. O número de parasitóides emergidos por ovo, de modo geral, foi um. As maiores porcentagens de deformação foram de 33,9 e 17,5% dos descendentes para T. pretiosum e T. exiguum, nos tubos contendo quatro fêmeas para 15 ovos, respectivamente. A combinação mais indicada para T. pretiosum e T. exiguum foi uma fêmea 25 ovos-1 e duas fêmeas 15 ovos-1, respectivamente.

  1. Humic Fertilizer and Vermicompost Applied to the Soil Can Positively Affect Population Growth Parameters of Trichogramma brassicae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) on Eggs of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadi, P; Razmjou, J; Naseri, B; Hassanpour, M

    2017-12-01

    The tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), is a devastating pest of tomato worldwide. One of the control measures of T. absoluta is the use of biological control agents, such as Trichogramma wasps. Interactions between natural enemies and insect pests may be affected by application of fertilizers, because changes in plant quality through the fertilizer application may therefore affect herbivore characteristics and suitability of them to parasitism. Laboratory tests were carried out to evaluate the life table parameters of Trichogramma brassicae Bezdenko on T. absoluta eggs reared on tomato plants treated either with vermicompost (40%), humic fertilizer (2 g/kg soil), or control (suitable mixture of field soil and sand). Population growth parameters of T. brassicae were affected by fertilizer treatments. Significant differences were found for immature life period and total fecundity of T. brassicae on the treatments. Differences of intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m ), finite rate of increase (λ), net reproductive rate (R 0 ), mean generation time (T), and doubling time (DT) of T. brassicae among treatments were also significant. The lowest values of r m , λ, and R 0 were recorded for T. brassicae developed on T. absoluta eggs on control treatment, whereas the highest values of these parameters were observed on 2 g/kg humic fertilizer. Furthermore, T. brassicae had the shortest T and DT values on 2 g/kg humic fertilizer and 40% vermicompost treatments. Our results showed that application of humic fertilizer and vermicompost could positively affect population growth parameters of T. brassicae on eggs of T. absoluta fed on tomato plants.

  2. Herbicidas e Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas Utilizados na Cana-de-Açúcar e sua Ação sobre Adultos de Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Antigo

    2016-04-01

    Herbicides and Plant Growth Regulators Used in SUGARCANE and their Action on Adult Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Abstract. During crop sugarcane management, several used pesticides can affect the performance of parasitoids, natural enemies of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharallis (Fabricius and consequently the biological control ofit. Thus, the objective was to evaluate in laboratory the effect of herbicides and plant growth regulators used in the sugarcane crops on survival and parasitism in adults of the eggs parasitoids, Trichogramma galloi Zucchi. The products tested were the herbicides Clomazone and Diuron + Hexazinone, and the plant regulators Sulfometuron-methyl and Trinexapac-ethyl, all in the higher recommended dosages for sugarcane. The eggs of D. saccharalis were immersed during 5 seconds in chemical solutions and, after dry for 1 hour, offered to T. galloi females with 20 repetitions. We evaluated the mortality and number of eggs parasitized by the F0 generation of T. galloi, as well as the emergence of the F1. The products were classified by their toxicity, according to the percentage of reduction in the survival, parasitism and emergence of the parasitoid. In relation to the survival of adult T. galloi, the number of eggs parasitized by F0 as well as the percentage of F1 emergence, clomazone and trinexapac-ethyl were classified as slightly harmful. Diuron+hexazinone and sulfometuron-methyl were harmless in all parameters, except for parasitism, where diuron+hexazinone was classified as slightly harmful. We conclude that clomazone, diuron+hexazinone, trinexapac-ethyl and sulfometuron-methyl, are harmless or slightly harmful the survival and parasitism (F0 of T. galloi adults and emergence (F1 of this parasitoid in the laboratory.

  3. Uji Infeksi Mycosphaerella spp Terhadap Bibit Eucalyptus spp

    OpenAIRE

    Lidya Morita Sondang

    2009-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui tingkat ketahanan 2 klon Eucalyptus spp yaitu Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus pellita dan Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla terhadap Mycosphaerella spp serta mengetahui virulensi Mycospaherella spp pada 2 kelas umur (2 dan 3 bulan) pada tanaman Eucalyptus spp. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan pengambilan sampel bibit tanaman Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus pellita dan Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla dari pembibitan PT.Toba Pulp...

  4. Induced Effects on Red Imported Fire Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Forager Size Ratios by Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae): Implications on Bait Size Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, J J; Puckett, R T; Gold, R E

    2015-10-01

    Red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, are adversely affected by phorid flies in the genus Pseudacteon by instigating defensive behaviors in their hosts, and in turn reducing the efficiency of S. invicta foraging. Multiple Pseudacteon species have been released in Texas, and research has been focused on the establishment and spread of these introduced biological control agents. Field experiments were conducted to determine bait particle size selection of S. invicta when exposed to phorid populations. Four different particle sizes of two candidate baits were offered to foragers (one provided by a pesticide manufacturer, and a laboratory-created bait). Foragers selectively were attracted to, and removed more 1-1.4-mm particles than any other bait size. The industry-provided bait is primarily made of particles in the 1.4-2.0 mm size, larger than what was selected by the ants in this study. While there was a preference for foragers to be attracted to and rest on the industry-provided blank bait, S. invicta removed more of the laboratory-created bait from the test vials. There was an abundance of workers with head widths ranging from 0.5-0.75 mm collected from baits. This was dissimilar from a previous study wherein phorid flies were not active and in which large workers were collected in higher abundance at the site. This implies that phorid fly activity caused a shift for red imported fire ant colonies to have fewer large foragers. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. EFECTOS TOXICOLÓGICOS DE EXTRACTOS DE MOLLE (Schinus molle) Y LANTANA (Lantana camara) SOBRE Chrysoperla externa (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE), Trichogramma pintoi (HYMENOPTERA: TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE) Y Copidosoma koehleri (HYMENOPTERA: ENCYRTIDAE) EN EL PERÚ

    OpenAIRE

    Iannacone O., José; Lamas M., Gerardo

    2003-01-01

    Extractos de dos plantas; el molle (Schinus molle L., Anacardiaceae) y la lantana (Lantana camara L., Verbenaceae), se evaluaron sobre huevos, larvas de primer estadio y pupas de Chrysoperla externa Hagen (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), y sobre estados inmaduros y adultos de los microhimenopteros Trichogramma pintoi Voegelé (Trichogrammatidae) y Copidosoma koehleri Blanchard (Encyrtidae), en bioensayos toxicológicos bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Los extractos acuosos (F1) del molle y la lantana...

  6. Transcriptome-wide selection of a reliable set of reference genes for gene expression studies in potato cyst nematodes (Globodera spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeh, Michael; Duceppe, Marc-Olivier; St-Arnaud, Marc; Mimee, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    Relative gene expression analyses by qRT-PCR (quantitative reverse transcription PCR) require an internal control to normalize the expression data of genes of interest and eliminate the unwanted variation introduced by sample preparation. A perfect reference gene should have a constant expression level under all the experimental conditions. However, the same few housekeeping genes selected from the literature or successfully used in previous unrelated experiments are often routinely used in new conditions without proper validation of their stability across treatments. The advent of RNA-Seq and the availability of public datasets for numerous organisms are opening the way to finding better reference genes for expression studies. Globodera rostochiensis is a plant-parasitic nematode that is particularly yield-limiting for potato. The aim of our study was to identify a reliable set of reference genes to study G. rostochiensis gene expression. Gene expression levels from an RNA-Seq database were used to identify putative reference genes and were validated with qRT-PCR analysis. Three genes, GR, PMP-3, and aaRS, were found to be very stable within the experimental conditions of this study and are proposed as reference genes for future work.

  7. Evaluation of the 3M™ Molecular Detection Assay (MDA) 2 - Salmonella for the Detection of Salmonella spp. in Select Foods and Environmental Surfaces: Collaborative Study, First Action 2016.01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Patrick; Flannery, Jonathan; Crowley, Erin; Agin, James R; Goins, David; Monteroso, Lisa

    2016-07-01

    The 3M™ Molecular Detection Assay (MDA) 2 - Salmonella uses real-time isothermal technology for the rapid and accurate detection of Salmonella spp. from enriched select food, feed, and food-process environmental samples. The 3M MDA 2 - Salmonella was evaluated in a multilaboratory collaborative study using an unpaired study design. The 3M MDA 2 - Salmonella was compared to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual Chapter 5 reference method for the detection of Salmonella in creamy peanut butter, and to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook Chapter 4.08 reference method "Isolation and Identification of Salmonella from Meat, Poultry, Pasteurized Egg and Catfish Products and Carcass and Environmental Samples" for the detection of Salmonella in raw ground beef (73% lean). Technicians from 16 laboratories located within the continental United States participated. Each matrix was evaluated at three levels of contamination: an uninoculated control level (0 CFU/test portion), a low inoculum level (0.2-2 CFU/test portion), and a high inoculum level (2-5 CFU/test portion). Statistical analysis was conducted according to the probability of detection (POD) statistical model. Results obtained for the low inoculum level test portions produced difference in collaborator POD values of 0.03 (95% confidence interval, -0.10 to 0.16) for raw ground beef and 0.06 (95% confidence interval, -0.06 to 0.18) for creamy peanut butter, indicating no statistically significant difference between the candidate and reference methods.

  8. Ocorrência de Trichogramma pretiosum em áreas comerciais de tomate, no Espírito Santo, em regiões de diferentes altitudes Occurrence of Trichogramma pretiosum in commercial fields of tomato, in Espírito Santo State (Brazil, in areas with different altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram instalados sete campos experimentais em altitudes entre 200 e 1050 metros, nos municípios de Afonso Cláudio e Venda Nova do Imigrante no Espírito Santo, para desenvolvimento de avaliações pré-introdutórias de Trichogramma. Visou-se determinar as espécies nativas e conhecer o índice de parasitismo natural, para utilização em programas de manejo integrado da traça-do-tomateiro. Em todos os campos comerciais de tomateiros foram coletados apenas Trichogramma pretiosum Riley. No primeiro ano de coleta, o número médio de amostras de cartelas com parasitismo, bem como o número médio de ovos parasitados, apresentaram uma relação inversa, quando comparado com as regiões de altitudes entre 200 e 850 metros. Em regiões de menor altitude (200, 380 e 450 metros, foram observadas presença constante desses parasitóides de ovos em todas as áreas amostradas. No segundo ano de coleta não foi observado o mesmo comportamento em relação ao primeiro, tendo os valores médios dos parâmetros sido inferiores, com o número médio de ovos parasitados por cartela reduzido pela metade. Os resultados de dois anos de coleta mostraram que a agressividade das linhagens de T. pretiosum foi diferenciada em função das áreas.Seven experimental fields were installed in altitudes varying from 200 to 1050 meters, located in Afonso Cláudio and Venda Nova do Imigrante in Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The evaluations of Trichogramma presence were done to determine the native species, know the natural parasitism rate in order to use the obtained results in programs of pest management of Tuta absoluta. In all commercial tomato fields only Trichogramma pretiosum Riley was collected. In the first year the medium number of egg-cards sample with parasitism, as well as the medium number of parasitized eggs, presented an inverse relationship when compared to the areas of altitude between 200 and 850 meters. In the lower areas (200, 380 and 450 m a constant

  9. Viabilidade econômica de biofábrica de Trichogramma pretiosum para uso contra pragas agrícolas da ordem Lepidoptera = Economic feasibility of bio-factory of Trichogramma pretiosum, for use against agricultural pest of the Lepidoptera Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinval Resende Lopes

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil vem se tornando um dos principais fornecedores internacionais de produtos agropecuários. Esses produtos são responsáveis por metade das exportações e por 21% do Produto Interno Bruto [PIB], mostrando a importância do setor para a economia. Paradoxalmente nota-se um aumento do uso de produtos químicos na produção agrícola, o que constitui barreira as exportações e até redução no consumo interno. A produção sob boas práticas agrícolas é uma demanda mundial, uma vez que barreiras ecológicas e/ou resíduos químicos ainda são empecilhos a expansão das exportações. Uma alternativa para mitigar o problema com os resíduos químicos, é o controle biológico de pragas fazendo uso de Trichogramma pretiosum pela sua eficiência no controle de pragas da ordem Lepidoptera e por ser fácil a sua criação em escala comercial em biofábricas. No entanto, existem poucas referências na literatura sobre a relação custo benefício deste empreendimento, visto que as metodologias utilizadas na criação de insetos não são divulgadas pelas empresas do setor. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade econômica da construção e da implantação de uma Biofábrica de produção de Trichogramma, para controle biológico. O estudo indicou que o projeto é viável, com uma boa rentabilidade e um bom retorno sobre o investimento. = Brazil has become one of the main international suppliers of agricultural products. The products account for half of the exports and for 21% of the Gross Domestic Product [GDP], which shows the importance of the sector to the economy. Paradoxically, there is an increase in the use of chemical products in agricultural production, which constitutes a barrier to exports and even a reduction in domestic consumption. Production under good agricultural practices is a global demand since ecological barriers and/or chemical residues are still obstacles to the expansion of exports. An alternative to

  10. Persistência de agrotóxicos indicados na produção integrada de pêssego a Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Persistence of pesticides used in integrated peach production on Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Pinheiro Giolo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A persistência (duração da atividade nociva de cinco agrotóxicos indicados na Produção Integrada de Pêssego (PIP foi avaliada, expondo-se adultos de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae ao contato com resíduos de inseticidas, pulverizados sobre folhas, a diferentes intervalos de tempo, baseando-se na metodologia sugerida pela International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants (IOBC. Os resultados obtidos em relação à persistência, permitiu classificar os agrotóxicos, produto comercial/ingrediente ativo (g ou mL de produto comercial 100L-1, Dipterex 500/triclorfom (300, Sumithion 500 CE/fenitrotiona (150 e Tiomet 400 CE/dimetoato (120 como levemente persistentes (5-15 dias; o inseticida Malathion 1000 CE/malationa (200 como moderadamente persistente (16-30 dias e o fungicida/acaricida Kumulus DF/enxofre (600 como persistente (> 31 dias a adultos de T. pretiosum.The persistence (duration of harmful activity of five insecticides indicated in the Integrated Peach Production (IPP was evaluated by adult exposure of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae to insecticide residues on plant leaves at different time intervals after treatment using the International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants (IOBC based on the suggested methodology.The results obtained in relation to the disease persistence will permit to classify the pesticides, commercial formulation/active ingredient (g or mL commercial formulation 100L-1, Dipterex 500/trichlorphon (300, Sumithion 500 CE/fenitrothion (150 and Tiomet 400 CE/dimethoate (120 as slightly persistent (5-15 days; the insecticide Malathion 1000 CE/malathion (200 as moderately persistent (16-30 days and the fungicide Kumulus DF/sulphur (600 as persistent (>31 days to T. pretiosum adults.

  11. IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENT FUSARIUM SPP. IN ALLIUM SPP. IN GERMANY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, B; Karlovsky, P; Pfohl, K; Gamliel, A; Isack, Y; Dehne, H W

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 Allium cepa bulbs from different fields in Northern and Southern Germany, seeds and sets from onion breeders were analysed for infestation with Fusarium species. The same investigation was done in 2014 with different edible Allium spp. from local markets. Different Fusarium spp. were isolated and identified by morphological characterisation. 24 different Fusarium spp. were identified. The diversity of Fusarium spp. and the intensity of infestation was higher on edible bulbs compared to the younger sets and seeds. The analysed onions and other edible Allium spp. from local markets showed also high contents of different Fusarium species. The most prevalent identified Fusarium sp. in the analysed Allium spp. in Germany was Fusarium oxysporum which can cause the Fusarium Basal Rot, followed by Fusarium solani. Fusarium proliferatum, which can cause the Fusarium Salmon Blotch in onions, could be detected in about half of the sampled onion fields and in approximately 10% of all analysed onions from fields. Also in the onion sets, on the surface of the seeds and in other edible Allium spp. F. proliferatum could be identified. Besides F. proliferatum, further mycotoxin producing Fusarium spp. like Fusarium equiseti or Fusarium tricinctum were identified. Other Fusarium spp. like Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium poae were first described in Allium sp. in this study. The two most prevalent Fusarium spp. F. oxysporum and F. solani are able to produce mycotoxins like enniatins, fumonisins, moniliformin and T-2 toxins. Fusarium sp. like F. proliferatum, F. equiseti and F. tricinctum are able to produce additional toxins like beauvericins, zearalenone and diacetoscirpenol. This high number of Fusarium spp., which are able to produce a broad spectrum of different mycotoxins, could be a potential health risk for human beings and livestock.

  12. INK128 Exhibits Synergy with Azoles against Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lujuan; Sun, Yi; He, Chengyan; Li, Ming; Zeng, Tongxiang; Lu, Qiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Infections of Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp. are often chronic and recalcitrant. Systemic disseminations, which mostly occur in immunocompromised patients, are often refractory to available antifungal therapies. The conserved target of rapamycin (TOR) orchestrates cell growth and proliferation in response to nutrients and growth factors, which are important for pathogenicity and virulence. INK128 is a second-generation ATP-competitive TOR inhibitor, which binds the TOR catalytic domain and selectively inhibits TOR. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro activities of INK128 alone and the interactions of INK128 with conventional antifungal drugs including itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and amphotericin B against 18 strains of Exophiala spp. and 10 strains of Fusarium spp. via broth microdilution checkerboard technique system adapted from Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method M38-A2. INK128 alone was inactive against all isolates tested. However, favorable synergistic effects between INK128 and voriconazole were observed in 61% Exophiala strains and 60% Fusarium strains, despite Fusarium strains exhibited high MIC values (4-8 μg/ml) against voriconazole. In addition, synergistic effects of INK128/itraconazole were shown in 33% Exophiala strains and 30% Fusarium strains, while synergy of INK128/posaconazole were observed in 28% Exophiala strains and 30% Fusarium strains. The effective working ranges of INK128 were 0.125-2 μg/ml and 1-4 μg/ml against Exophiala isolates and Fusarium isolates, respectively. No synergistic effect was observed when INK128 was combined with amphotericin B. No antagonism was observed in all combinations. In conclusion, INK128 could enhance the in vitro antifungal activity of voriconazole, itraconazole and posaconazole against Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp., suggesting that azoles, especially voriconazole, combined with TOR kinase inhibitor might provide a potential strategy to

  13. Radiation-induced substerility of Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) integrated with the release of Trichogramma ostriniae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) for area-wide control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.S.; Liu, Q.R.; Lu, D.G.; Wang, E.D.; Kang, W.; Liu, X.H.; Li, Y.J.; He, Q.L.; Zhang, H.Q.

    2002-01-01

    The mating competitiveness of Ostrinia furnacalis F 1 male moths (progeny of male parents irradiated with 200 Gy) was compared with the mating competitiveness of untreated moths. These studies revealed that F 1 male moths were involved in more than 50% of the matings with normal females. The flight ability and response towards sex pheromone was similar for F 1 and untreated moths, although the number of F 1 moths captured was slightly less than the number of untreated moths captured. The number of eupyrene sperm in the testes of P 1 moths treated with 200 Gy was similar to the number of eupyrene sperm in the testes of normal moths. However, the number of sperm bundles was significantly reduced in the testes of 200 Gy F 1 moths. Compared to normal moths, daily sperm descent into the duplex ejaculatorius was affected only at day 3 after eclosion of F 1 moths. Sperm transfer to spermatheca by 200 Gy F 1 male moths was less than that of their irradiated (200 Gy) parents and of normal moths. Successive releases of Trichogramma ostriniae in the egg stage of first and second generation Ostrinia furnacalis were combined with the release of F 1 moths from male parents treated with 200 Gy. The combination of the F 1 sterility technique with augmentative biological control suppressed the wild population of this pest in 500 hectares of field corn. (author)

  14. Assessment of microbial profile of selected proprietary broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial and fungal isolates recovered include Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus albus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus spp, Pseudomonas spp, Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, Fusarium spp, Mucor spp, and Penicillium notatum. Total microbial counts were significantly different (P<0.05) among the selected feed ...

  15. Enrichment of Acinetobacter spp. from food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalheira, Ana; Ferreira, Vânia; Silva, Joana; Teixeira, Paula

    2016-05-01

    Relatively little is known about the role of foods in the chain of transmission of acinetobacters and the occurrence of different Acinetobacter spp. in foods. Currently, there is no standard procedure to recover acinetobacters from food in order to gain insight into the food-related ecology and epidemiology of acinetobacters. This study aimed to assess whether enrichment in Dijkshoorn enrichment medium followed by plating in CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter medium is a useful method for the isolation of Acinetobacter spp. from foods. Recovery of six Acinetobacter species from food spiked with these organisms was compared for two selective enrichment media (Baumann's enrichment and Dijkshoorn's enrichment). Significantly (p enrichment. Next, the Dijkshoorn's enrichment followed by direct plating on CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter was applied to detect Acinetobacter spp. in different foods. Fourteen different presumptive acinetobacters were recovered and assumed to represent nine different strains on the basis of REP-PCR typing. Eight of these strains were identified by rpoB gene analysis as belonging to the species Acinetobacter johnsonii, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Acinetobacter guillouiae and Acinetobacter gandensis. It was not possible to identify the species level of one strain which may suggests that it represents a distinct species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Potensi Trichoderma Spp. Sebagai Agens Pengendali Fusarium Spp. Penyebab Penyakit Layu Pada Tanaman Stroberi

    OpenAIRE

    Dwiastuti, Mutia Erti; Fajri, Melisa N; Yunimar, Yunimar

    2015-01-01

    Layu yang disebabkan oleh Fusarium spp. merupakan salah satu penyakit penting tanaman stroberi (Fragaria x ananassa Dutch.) di daerah subtropika, yang dapat menggagalkan panen. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mempelajari potensi Trichoderma spp. dalam mengendalikan Fusarium spp. Isolat Trichoderma spp. diisolasi dari rizosfer tanaman stroberi dan Fusarium spp. diisolasi dari tanaman stroberi yang mengalami layu fusarium. Isolat cendawan dimurnikan, dikarakterisasi, dan dibandingkan dengan isolat c...

  17. Inseticidas para o controle da traça-do-tomateiro e broca-grande e seu impacto sobre Trichogramma pretiosum Insecticides for the control of the South American tomato pinworm and the corn earworm and impact of those products on Trichogramma pretiosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Castelo Branco

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimentos de campo foram conduzidos entre maio e outubro de 2000 para determinar a eficiência de diversos inseticidas para o controle de Tuta absoluta e Helicoverpa zea e o impacto desses produtos sobre a emergência do parasitóide Trichogramma pretiosum. Os inseticidas testados, bem como as doses em g i.a./ha foram: metoxifenozide (120; 144, clorpirifós (540; 675, tiacloprid (72; 96 e triflumuron (144. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com oito tratamentos (inseticidas e testemunha e cinco repetições, com 40 plantas/parcela. Frutos de tomate foram coletados aos 58, 80 e 87 dias após o transplante das mudas para a determinação da percentagem de frutos danificados pelos insetos. O impacto dos inseticidas sobre T. pretiosum foi avaliado mediante a coleta de 20 ovos de H. zea por parcela aos 61 dias após o transplante, onde foi realizada a avaliação da emergência do parasitóide. Todos os inseticidas reduziram significativamente os danos causados por H. zea. Contudo, nenhum deles foi eficiente para o controle de T. absoluta. Metoxifenozide e clorpirifós (540 não reduziram significativamente o número de ovos parasitados por T. pretiosum quando comparados à testemunha.Field studies were conducted from May to October 2000 to determine the effectiveness of several insecticides in controlling Tuta absoluta and Helicoverpa zea and their impact on emergence of the parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum. The insecticides tested were: methoxyfenozide (120; 144, clorpirifós (540; 675, tiacloprid (72; 96 and triflumuron (144. Application rates of all insecticides are expressed as g a.i./ha. The experiment was designed as randomized complete block with eight treatments (insecticides and untreated plots with five replications. Tomato fruits were harvested 58; 80 and 87 days after transplanting and the percentage of damaged fruits by both pests determined. The impact of insecticides on T. pretiosum survival was determined

  18. Desenvolvimento e exigências térmicas de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, criados em duas traças do tomateiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRATISSOLI DIRCEU

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a biologia de Trichogramma pretiosum em ovos de Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller e Tuta absoluta (Meyrick em diferentes temperaturas (18, 20, 22, 25, 30 e 32ºC, 70±10% de umidade relativa e fotofase de 14 horas, com o objetivo de se determinarem as exigências térmicas, bem como o número de gerações durante o ano. Houve correlação inversa entre a duração do ciclo e o aumento de temperatura na faixa térmica estudada. A razão sexual, no entanto, não foi afetada pela temperatura quando o hospedeiro foi T. absoluta. A viabilidade de T. pretiosum, criado em P. operculella foi mais afetada que em T. absoluta. A exigência térmica, calculada pelo método da hipérbole, foi maior no tocante a T. absoluta (131,3 graus dia em relação a P. operculella (120,9 graus dia, e o limiar térmico inferior, respectivamente, 12,98 e 13,53°C. No que tange a ambas as espécies de traças, a longevidade do parasitóide sempre obedeceu à distribuição de Weibull. O potencial de aumento foi avaliado, em ambas as espécies de traças, com base no número de gerações anuais.

  19. Prevalence and antibiotics susceptibility profile of Enterococcus spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the prevalence and antibiotics susceptibility of Enterococcus spp. isolated from patients and some selected hospital environment in Abuja, Nigeria. The samples included clinical and environmental. The clinical samples included stool, urine and wound swabs while the environmental samples ...

  20. Incidência natural e biologia de Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983 (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae em ovos de Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae Natural incidence and biology of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983 (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae in eggs of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina L. Cañete

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner is an egg parasitoid of the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, and has recently been collected from eggs of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner on soybeans. In order to evaluate the suitability of A. gemmatalis eggs as hosts of T. atopovirilia, field surveys were conducted in 1999 and 2000 on corn and soybeans, and a colony of the parasitoid was established in laboratory. At 25 ºC, development from oviposition to emergence lasted nine days and a sex-ratio of 0.58 (females:males was obtained. Females lived significantly longer (11.4 days when kept in ovipositional activity, than in the absence of host eggs (6.6 days. Total fecundity averaged 104.5 parasitized eggs, resulting in the emergence of 138.3 descendents. Mean daily fecundity was highest (30 eggs/female on the first day. Oviposition continued until one day before the death of the females, however 70% of the eggs were laid during the first four days after emergence. A female-biased progeny was produced during the first three days of oviposition, whereas further ovipositions were male-biased. Females lived significantly longer when exposed to host eggs in comparison to females deprived of eggs. The results show that eggs of A. gemmatalis are suitable for the development of T. atopovirilia, and this parasitoid should be considered in future programs of biological control of the velvetbean caterpillar.

  1. Presence of Campylobacter spp. in refrigerated chicken cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Alves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. is a common cause of bacterial food-borne illness. Birds, especially poultry are primary reservoirs of C. jejuni. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken cuts purchased in supermarkets of Londrina, Parana. A total of 50 samples of chicken cuts, such as breasts, thighs and drumsticks were analyzed. The confirmation of the presence of Campylobacter spp. was performed by identifying the suspected colonies on the selective medium using the polymerase chain reaction. Of the 50 samples analyzed, 28 (56% were positive for Campylobacter spp. Chicken meat, as observed in this study, is a possible source of Campylobacter transmission to humans. This study alerts for the importance to analyze the occurrence of Campylobacter in chicken meat, due to the significant number of positive samples observed and no available epidemiological data in Brazil. The correct orientation about handling and cooking of chicken meat is also necessary to prevent human infection by Campylobacter spp.

  2. Bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yaxin; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2006-01-01

    Bermudagrass is an important warm-season forage and turf species widely grown in the southern United States. This chapter describes a rapid and efficient protocol that allows for the generation of a large number of transgenic bermudagrass plants, bypassing the callus formation phase. Stolon nodes are infected and co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring pCAMBIA binary vectors. Hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hph) is used as the selectable marker and hygromycin is used as the selection agent. Green shoots are directly produced from infected stolon nodes 4 to 5 wk after hygromycin selection. Without callus formation and with minimum tissue culture, this procedure allowed us to obtain well-rooted transgenic plantlets in only 7 wk and greenhouse-grown plants in only 9 wk.

  3. Occurrence of Campylobacter spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in seagulls (Larus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John E; Gilpin, Deidre; Crothers, Elizabeth; Canney, Anne; Kaneko, Aki; Matsuda, Motoo

    2002-01-01

    An investigation was carried out into the prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter subspecies (spp.) and Cryptosporidium spp. in fresh fecal specimens collected from members of the gull family (Larus spp.) from three coastal locations of Northern Ireland. A total of 205 fresh fecal specimens were collected from gulls, of which 28 of 205 (13.7%) were positive for Campylobacter spp. and none of 205 for Cryptosporidium spp. Of these campylobacters, 21 of 28 (75%) isolates obtained belonged to the urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC) taxon, followed by five of 28 (17.9%) Campylobacter lari and 2/28 (7.1%) Campylobacter jejuni. It is significant that seagulls are the sole warm-blooded animal host of this bacterial taxon in Northern Ireland. It is proposed that physiological adaptation to starvation by gulls may lead to increased concentrations of urea through energy production from protein, yielding increased levels of urea for metabolism by UPTC organisms. In general, the possibility exists that environmental contamination of surface waters with campylobacters might be mediated by wild birds (such as gulls), where such waters are used for recreational purposes or where such waters are consumed untreated, might represent a risk to public health.

  4. Aeromonas spp.: an emerging pathogen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bartolini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify and monitor the presence of Aeromonas spp. strains in stool cultures. We analyzed 5564 stool cultures from September 2012 to August 2013. Sixty-three patients were positive for Aeromonas spp. The most frequent symptoms were: diarrhea (46.0% and abdominal pain (12.7%. Pediatric subjects were 28. Samples’ microscopic examination showed leukocytes in 38.1% of cases. It is still controversial whether Aeromonas are responsible for human gastroenteritis, but their presence in faecies of symptomatic patients supports their etiologic role. We propose search for toxins by polymerase chain reaction to identify strains that require an antibiotic therapy.

  5. Influência da idade do hospedeiro e da aprendizagem no comportamento quimiotáxico e no parasitismo de Trichogramma pretiosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila C. Vargas

    Full Text Available RESUMO Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 mantido em ovos de Ephestia kuehniella Zeller, 1879, tem sido utilizado no controle biológico de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797. No entanto, fatores como idade do hospedeiro e experiência prévia, podem influenciar o parasitismo e o comportamento do parasitoide. Esse estudo avaliou a influência da idade dos ovos e da experiência em ovos e extrato de ovos de S. frugiperda no comportamento quimiotáxico e no parasitismo de T. pretiosum. Ovos de S. frugiperda com 24, 48 e 72 horas, foram expostos a fêmeas de T. pretiosum. Também foi avaliado o tempo de experiência do parasitoide, no mesmo hospedeiro, por 1, 3, 4, 5, 6 e 24 horas, assim como, seu tempo de exposição (1, 2, 3 e 24 horas. As respostas quimiotáxicas de T. pretiosum (experiente e não experiente em extrato de ovos de S. frugiperda foram observadas em olfatômetro tipo Y. As taxas de parasitismo foram registradas em teste de escolha, com insetos experientes e inexperientes com ovos e extrato de ovos de S. frugiperda. O parasitismo em S. frugiperda foi significativamente maior em ovos com 24 horas de idade. Fêmeas inexperientes e experientes por 1, 3 e 4 horas, apresentaram uma menor taxa de parasitismo, quando comparadas a fêmeas expostas por 5, 6 e 24 horas. Não houve diferença de parasitismo em fêmeas expostas por 2, 3 e 24 horas, comparadas às expostas por uma hora. Fêmeas experientes foram mais atraídas ao extrato de ovos de S. frugiperda, do que ao controle (hexano. A porcentagem de parasitismo, em fêmeas inexperientes, foi maior em ovos de E. kuehniella (hospedeiro de origem, no entanto, o mesmo resultado não foi observado em fêmeas experientes.

  6. Effect of early oviposition experience on host acceptance in Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) and application of F1 sterility and T.principium to suppress the potato tuber moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saour, G.

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory experiments with Trichogramma principium Sugonyaev and Sorokina females offered potato tuber moth Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) eggs demonstrated that wasps rates of oviposition were highest the first day and decreased gradually thereafter. In addition, when T. principium females were sequentially offered eggs from 250-Gy irradiated parents or obtained from non-irradiated moths, the probability of host acceptance was not influenced by treatment of host eggs. In a concurrent laboratory study, a large cage test with combinant releases of T. principium and 250-Gy irradiated moths produced the greatest reduction in potato tuber moth F3-emerged progeny. Reductions obtained with irradiated moths alone, single release of irradiated moths with T. principium, and one or three releases of parasitoids were significantly higher than those in the control. From a pest management perspective, T. principium releases would synergistically complement the effects of F1 sterility against potato tuber moth infestation. (author)

  7. Methylobacterium spp. as an indicator for the presence or absence of Mycobacterium spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Falkinham III, Joseph O.; Williams, Myra D.; Kwait, Rebecca; Lande, Leah

    2016-01-01

    Objective/Background: A published survey of bacteria in showerhead biofilm samples revealed that Methylobacterium spp. and Mycobacterium spp. seldom coexisted in biofilms. Method: To confirm that information, biofilm samples were collected from household plumbing of Mycobacterium avium patients and Methylobacterium spp. and M. avium numbers were measured by direct colony counts. Results: The results demonstrated that if Methylobacterium spp. were present, Mycobacterium spp. were absent,...

  8. Influência da fase embrionária dos ovos da traça-das-crucíferas sobre fêmeas de Trichogramma pretiosum com diferentes idades Influence of diamondback moth embrionary egg stage on Trichogramma pretiosum females of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Plutella xylostella é considerada a praga mais importante das crucíferas. O método de controle mais utilizado para essa praga é o químico. Contudo, esta espécie de inseto vem desenvolvendo resistência aos inseticidas aplicados. O controle biológico com espécies do gênero Trichogramma é considerado uma alternativa no controle dessa praga. Porém, poucos são os trabalhos que mencionam aspectos biológicos desse parasitóide sobre esta praga. Neste trabalho avaliou-se a influência da fase embrionária dos ovos do hospedeiro P. xylostella sobre fêmeas de T. pretiosum com diferentes idades. Fêmeas do parasitóide foram divididas em cinco lotes, compostos por espécimes recém-emergidos com 24; 48; 72 e 96 horas de idade. Cada lote continha dez fêmeas de T. pretiosum. Para cada fêmea de cada lote, foi oferecida uma cartela contendo 30 ovos de P. xylostella com um, dois e três dias de idade. As maiores taxas de parasitismo foram observadas em fêmeas com idade superior a 48 horas, independente do desenvolvimento embrionário do hospedeiro. Em ovos com três dias de desenvolvimento embrionário verificou-se que, para fêmeas recém-emergidas e com 48 horas de idade, a taxa de viabilidade foi superior apenas em relação àquelas com 96 horas de idade. Ao se avaliar os descendentes de T. pretiosum provenientes de ovos com um dia de desenvolvimento embrionário, verificou-se que os maiores valores de longevidade foram obtidos quando as fêmeas desse parasitóide eram recém-emergidas.Plutella xylostella is one of the most important pests of Cruciferae. Chemicals have been used to control this insect, but the rapid development of resistance is a serious constraint to this method. Biological control with Trichogramma species has been reported as an alternative to control diamondback moth. However few works report biological parameters of this parasitoid interacting with this pest. This work was carried out to evaluate the influence of egg

  9. Bioatividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. a Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae nas gerações F1 e F2 Bioactivity of pesticides used in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. crop to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae in F1 and F2 generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Andrade Carvalho

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A bioatividade de dezoito produtos químicos utilizados no controle de pragas e doenças do tomateiro, sobre duas linhagens de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (L9=Alegre, ES e L10= Venda Nova do Imigrante, ES, nas gerações F1 e F2, foi investigada em laboratório. Ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller contendo o parasitóide em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento (ovo-larva, pré-pupa e pupa foram tratados por meio de imersão nas respectivas caldas químicas. Os inseticidas triflumuron, clorfluazuron, deltametrina, Bacillus thuringiensis, lambdacialotrina, teflubenzuron, acefato, pirimicarb e ciromazina, e os fungicidas benomil, iprodiona, clorotalonil e dimetomorf, independente da linhagem, não reduziram a longevidade das fêmeas de T. pretiosum da geração F1. Os inseticidas abamectin, cartap, metamidofós e lambdacialotrina afetaram a razão sexual de indivíduos da geração F1, e não reduziram a taxa de emergência de parasitóides da F2, independente do estágio de desenvolvimento e da origem da população de T. pretiosum. Parasitóides de Venda Nova do Imigrante, ES (L10 mostraram-se mais susceptíveis que os de Alegre, ES (L9 aos efeitos dos compostos avaliados. De modo geral, a fase de pupa de T. pretiosum, independente da população, apresentou maior tolerância aos produtos testados. Recomenda-se a realização de novos testes para outras populações desse parasitóide que serão utilizadas no controle de pragas, pois podem responder de forma diversa aos produtos fitossanitários avaliados.The bioactivity of eighteen pesticides commonly used to pests and diseases control on tomato, in two strains of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (L9=Alegre, ES and L10= Venda Nova do Imigrante, ES, Brazil in F1 and F2 generations, was evaluated under laboratory conditions. The bioassays were conducted in a climatic chamber at 25 ± 2 ºC, 60 ± 10% RH and 14 hours of photophase. Eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller containing the

  10. Efeito de beauveria bassiana (bals. Vuillemin e Metarhizium anisopliae (metsch. sorokin nos parâmetros biológicos de trichogramma atopovirilia oatman & platner, 1983 (hymenoptera: trichogrammatidae Effect of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin on the biological parameters of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    Ricardo Antonio Polanczyk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram realizados para avaliar o efeito de duas formulações comerciais à base de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch., Sorokin sobre os parâmetros biológicos de Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983. No primeiro experimento, cartelas com ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda, 1797 foram mergulhadas em suspensões preparadas com os produtos e, em seguida, colocadas à disposição dos parasitóides para oviposição, durante um período de 24 horas. No segundo, fêmeas do parasitóide foram alimentadas com uma solução mel e suspensão de conídios. Em ambos os experimentos as fêmeas mortas foram colocadas em uma câmara úmida para observar a esporulação dos fungos. Os tratamentos foram mantidos em câmara climatizada com temperatura de 25±1º C, umidade relativa de 70±10% e fotofase de 14 horas. Avaliou-se a longevidade e mortalidade dos adultos, índice de parasitismo, emergência do parasitóide, número de indivíduos por ovo e razão sexual dos descendentes. As formulações não interferiram nos parâmetros avaliados e não foi observada a esporulação do fungo no cadáver do parasitóide adulto. É possível inferir que T. atopovirilia e os fungos entomopatogênicos B. bassiana e M. anisopliae são compatíveis e podem ser empregados simultaneamente em programas de manejo integrado de S. frugiperda.Two bioassays were performed to evaluate the effect of two biopesticides based on Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin on the biological parameters of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983. In the first one, displays with S. frugiperda, 1797 eggs were dropped into the biopesticide suspension and offered to the parasitoid females for 24 hours. In the second one, parasitoid females were fed with a suspension containing honey and biopesticide suspension. In both cases, after the parasitoid death they were mantained into a humid

  11. Resistance to Antibiotics in Strains of Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli Isolated from Rectal Swabs of Pigs

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    M. Kolář

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at determining the level of resistance of selected bacterial species (Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli isolated from rectal swabs of pigs to antimicrobial agents. The tested strains were isolated from piglets aged 7 to 30 days. Bacterial species were identified by standard microbiological techniques and susceptibility to antibiotics was determined quantitatively by the standard microdilution method. Resistance of the Staphylococcus aureus strain to oxacillin was confirmed by detection of the mecA gene and PBP2a. A total of 115 Staphylococcus spp. isolates were collected. In the case of Staphylococcus aureus, the methicillin-resistant strain (MRSA was identified. Moreover, higher frequency of coagulase-negative staphylococci with minimum inhibitory concentration of oxacillin ≥ 0.5 mg/l was noticed. Inducible resistance to clindamycin in the Staphylococcus hominis strain was also detected. The strains of Enterococcus spp. (61 isolates exhibited high resistance to tetracycline (98.5%, erythromycin (86.8% and chloramphenicol (54.4%. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci were not isolated. In the case of Escherichia coli strains (111 isolates, higher frequency of resistant strains to tetracycline (81.1% and ampicillin (62.2% was documented. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and production of broad-spectrum β-lactamases was not noticed. The presented study may be considered as a pilot project assessing the prevalence of resistant bacteria in piglets kept on a single farm. It demonstrated the presence of resistant strains of Staphylococcus spp., including one MRSA strain, Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli. These strains may be present as a result of postnatal colonization with both bacterial microflora of dams and environmental microflora.

  12. Development of a Novel Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Assay for the Detection of Rickettsia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaoka, Nozomu; Matsutani, Minenosuke; Satoh, Masaaki; Ogawa, Motohiko; Shirai, Mutsunori; Ando, Shuji

    2017-01-24

    We developed a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method to detect Rickettsia spp., including Rickettsia prowazekii and R. typhi. Species-specific LAMP primers were developed for orthologous genes conserved among Rickettsia spp. The selected modified primers could detect all the Rickettsia spp. tested. The LAMP method was successfully used to detect 100 DNA copies of Rickettsia spp. within approximately 60 min at 63℃. Therefore, this method may be an excellent tool for the early diagnosis of rickettsiosis in a laboratory or in the field.

  13. Characterization of Lavandula spp. Honey Using Multivariate Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevinho, Leticia M; Chambó, Emerson Dechechi; Pereira, Ana Paula Rodrigues; Carvalho, Carlos Alfredo Lopes de; Toledo, Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, melissopalynological and physicochemical analyses have been the most used to determine the botanical origin of honey. However, when performed individually, these analyses may provide less unambiguous results, making it difficult to discriminate between mono and multifloral honeys. In this context, with the aim of better characterizing this beehive product, a selection of 112 Lavandula spp. monofloral honey samples from several regions were evaluated by association of multivariate statistical techniques with physicochemical, melissopalynological and phenolic compounds analysis. All honey samples fulfilled the quality standards recommended by international legislation, except regarding sucrose content and diastase activity. The content of sucrose and the percentage of Lavandula spp. pollen have a strong positive association. In fact, it was found that higher amounts of sucrose in honey are related with highest percentage of pollen of Lavandula spp.. The samples were very similar for most of the physicochemical parameters, except for proline, flavonoids and phenols (bioactive factors). Concerning the pollen spectrum, the variation of Lavandula spp. pollen percentage in honey had little contribution to the formation of samples groups. The formation of two groups regarding the physicochemical parameters suggests that the presence of other pollen types in small percentages influences the factor termed as "bioactive", which has been linked to diverse beneficial health effects.

  14. Endophytic Streptomyces spp. as Biocontrol Agents of Rice Bacterial Leaf Blight Pathogen (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

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    RATIH DEWI HASTUTI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo, a causal agent of bacterial leaf blight (BLB, is one of the most important pathogens of rice. The effectiveness of ten Streptomyces spp. isolates in suppressing Xoo disease was assessed in planta and in vitro. In planta experiments were carried out in a greenhouse and arranged in a randomized completely block design (RCBD with three replications. Twenty treatments were tested which included plants inoculated with both Streptomyces spp. and Xoo, and plants inoculated with only Streptomyces spp. Plants inoculated with Xoo and sprayed with a chemical bactericide, and plants inoculated with only Xoo served as positive controls, whereas plants not inoculated with either Streptomyces spp. or Xoo were used as negative controls. The results showed that the effect of endophytic Streptomyces spp. on BLB disease expressed as area under disease progress curve (AUDPC was not significantly different to that on control plants (P > 0.05. However, plants inoculated with endophytic Streptomyces spp. were significantly taller and produced higher tiller number than control plants (P < 0.05. Streptomyces spp. isolate AB131-1 gave the highest plant height. In vitro studies on biocontrol mechanisms of selected Streptomyces spp. isolates showed that isolate LBR02 gave the highest inhibition activity on Xoo growth, followed by AB131-1 and AB131-2. Two isolates (AB131-1 and LBR02 were able to produce chitinase, phosphatase, and siderophore which included biocontrol characteristics. Morphological and colonization studies under SEM and light microscopy confirmed that the three isolates were endophytic Streptomyces spp. from different species. These studies found that the paddy plant which was inoculated with endophytic Streptomyces spp. AB131-1 and infected by Xoo could increase the height of plant and number of tillers.

  15. Assessment of metal contamination in an urban drainage system (using water and tilapia, Oreochromis spp.) in view of human health effect. A case study of some selected communities in Cape Coast township in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baidoo, I.K.; Opata, N.S.; Sarfo, D.K.; Sarsah, L.A.; Appenteng, M.K.; Kaka, E.A.; Serfor-Armah, Y.

    2012-01-01

    This research work aimed at studying the metal content of water and tilapia fish sample, Oreochromis spp., from a wastewater-fed pond around the University of Cape Coast community using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The metals studied were Al, As, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, V and Zn. In the water samples the order of elemental concentrations at sampling point 1, in μg/g, was K (75.96 ± 0.92), Na (18.52 ± 0.35), Al (6.00 ± 0.89), Mn (3.28 ± 0.44), As (3.08 ± 0.40), Mg (1.56 ± 0.17), Ca (0.70 ± 0.08), Cu (0.54 ± 0.08) and V (0.04 ± 0.01). Co, Cr, Fe and Zn were below detection limits of INAA. The order of elemental concentrations in the water at point 2 was as follows: Na (4.99 ± 0.14), K (4.82 ± 0.89), Mn (4.40 ± 0.53), Mg (2.92 ± 0.37), Al (1.98 ± 0.21), As (0.69 ± 0.10), Ca (0.24 ± 0.07) and V (0.23 ± 0.06) with Co, Cr, Cu, Fe and Zn falling below the detection limit of INAA. The concentrations recorded for Al, As, Cu and Mn in the water samples were all above WHO permissible limits. The mean levels of heavy metals in the soft tissue of tilapia was of the order: K > Mg > Fe > Ca > Na > Al > Mn > Zn > V > Cu > Cr > Co. Arsenic was below detection limit. The transfer factor values calculated for the metals Al, Ca, K, Mg, Mn, Na and V were all greater than one indicating movement of metals from the water column to the tilapia species. The hazard index (HI) calculated for Al, Fe, Mn and V suggested possible occurrence of adverse health effects (HI > 1) where as the HI value obtained for Cr, Cu and Zn (i.e., HI < 1) suggested unlikely adverse effects occurring. (author)

  16. Development of novel Alicyclobacillus spp. isolation medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S; Kang, D-H

    2005-01-01

    To develop a new isolation medium with higher recovery rates of Alicyclobacillus spp. SK agar was developed with optimized incubation temperature, pH, acidulant, Tween 80 concentration and divalent cation addition. Results indicate that detection of Alicyclobacillus spp. by SK agar was significantly higher (P > 0.05) than those obtained by K agar, orange serum agar, and potato dextrose agar. Current media used for Alicyclobacillus spp. isolation still resulted in high numbers of false negative products. The sensitivity of SK agar to Alicyclobacillus spp. allows detection of low numbers of Alicyclobacillus spp. and also provides a more higher isolation results compared with currently used media. SK agar will be useful to the fruit juice industry to obtain more accurate numbers of contaminant Alicyclobacillus spp. With this media, false negative samples can be reduced, and the likelihood of exported products being rejected can be greatly reduced.

  17. Incidence and virulence characteristics of Aeromonas spp. in fish

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    Ashraf M. Abd-El-Malek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the presence of Aeromonas spp. in raw and ready-to-eat (RTE fish commonly consumed in Assiut city, Egypt, and to determine virulence factors due to they play a key role in their pathogenicity. Materials and Methods: A total of 125 samples of raw and RTE fish samples were taken from different fish markets and fish restaurants in Assiut Governorate and screened for the presence of Aeromonas spp. by enrichment on tryptic soy broth then incubated at 30°C for 24 h. Plating unto the sterile Petri dishes containing Aeromonas agar base to which Aeromonas selective supplement was added. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Presumptive Aeromonas colonies were biochemically confirmed and analyzed for pathogenicity by hemolysin production, protease, and lipase detection. Results: The results indicated that raw fish were contaminated with Aeromonas spp. (40% in wild and 36% in cultured Nile tilapia. Regarding RTE, Aeromonas spp. could be isolated with the percentage of 16%, 28% and 20% in fried Bolti, grilled Bolti and fried Bayad, respectively. Out of 35 isolates obtained, 22 were categorized as Aeromonas hydrophila, 12 were classified as Aeromonas sobria and Aeromonas caviae were found in only one isolate. The virulence factors of Aeromonas spp. were detected and the results showed that all isolates produced of hemolysin (91.4%, protease (77.1%, and lipase enzyme (17.1%. Conclusion: This study indicates that the presence of A. hydrophila with virulence potential in fresh and RTE fish may be a major threat to public health.

  18. Salmonella spp. on chicken carcasses in processing plants in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczyk, Anita; Radkowski, Mieczysław

    2002-09-01

    Chickens at selected points in the slaughter process and after slaughter on the dressing line in poultry plants were sampled and analyzed for Salmonella. These chickens came from the northeast part of Poland. The examinations were carried out in quarters I, II, III, and IV of 1999. All the birds were determined to be healthy by a veterinary inspection. Swab samples were taken from the cloaca after stunning and from the skin surface and body cavity of the whole bird after evisceration, after rinsing at the final rinse station but before chilling in the spin-chiller, and after cooling in the continuous cooling plant at the end of the production day. In 1999, 400 whole chickens were examined. The percentage of these 400 chickens from which Salmonella spp. were isolated was relatively high (23.75%; Salmonella-positive results were observed in 95 cases). Salmonella spp. were found after stunning in 6% of the chickens (6 of 100 samples), after evisceration in 24% (24 of 100), before cooling in 52% (52 of 100), and after cooling in 13% (13 of 100). These results show that Salmonella spp. were found more often at some processing points than at others. The lowest Salmonella spp. contamination rate (6%) for slaughter birds was found after stunning, and the highest contamination rate was found before chilling (52%). The serological types of Salmonella spp. isolated from whole chickens were Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Saintpaul, Salmonella Agona, and Salmonella Infantis. The results of these investigations indicate that Salmonella Enteritidis is the dominant serological type in infections of slaughter chickens, as it is in many countries.

  19. Population structure of Legionella spp. from environmental samples in Gabon, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, Jonas; Alabi, Abraham S; Kuczius, Thorsten; Tsombeng, Francis Foguim; Becker, Karsten; Kremsner, Peter G; Schaumburg, Frieder; Esen, Meral

    2015-07-01

    Aquatic environments are the most important source for Legionella spp. infections such as Legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever. The reservoirs of Legionella spp. are mostly unclear in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study, conducted in 2013, was to identify geographical areas of an increased risk for exposure to Legionella spp., and to describe the population structure of Legionella spp. from different water sources in a cross-sectional study in Gabon. Fresh water samples (n = 200) were cultured on Legionella selective agar; species were confirmed by MALDI-TOF, a Legionella pneumophila specific real-time PCR and 16S RNA gene sequencing. Serogroups were identified by agglutination test. The population structure was assessed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Legionella spp. isolates (n = 29) were frequently found in the hospital setting particularly in hot water systems. Open water bodies (i.e. rivers, lakes) were not contaminated with Legionella spp. Isolated L. pneumophila mainly belonged to serogroups 2-14 (n = 19) and MLST sequence type ST1, ST75 (and related STs) and ST1911. In conclusion, hospitalized patients might have an increased risk to become infected with Legionella spp. in the studied areas in Gabon, particularly if they have risk factors such as comorbidities. Both broadly extended (ST1, ST75) and local lineages (ST1911) were present in our setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Trichocomaceae: biodiversity of Aspergillus spp and Penicillium spp residing in libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Diniz Pereira; Yamamoto, Ana Caroline Akeme; Amadio, Janaína Vasconcellos Ribeiro de Souza; Martins, Evelin Rodrigues; do Santos, Fábio Alexandre Leal; Simões, Sara de Almeida Alves; Hahn, Rosane Christine

    2012-10-19

    Atmospheric air is the most common vehicle for the dispersion of fungi. Fungi belonging to the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are cosmopolitan and are classified in the family Trichocomaceae. Species of the genera are commonly found in soil, decaying organic materials, animal feed, stored grains, and other materials. This study aimed to determine the taxonomic diversity of airborne fungi of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium residing in the dust of library environments to contribute to current knowledge of these characteristic genera. Three libraries in the city of Cuiaba, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, were selected as the study areas. A total of 168 samples were collected at randomized sites within each library in areas containing journals, archives, in study rooms, and in collection storage areas in two different periods, the dry season (n = 42)  and the rainy season (n = 42). Samples were collected by exposing Petri dishes containing Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol to the environmental air. Additional samples were collected with sterile swabs which were rubbed over the surface of randomly chosen books on the shelves; the swabs were subsequently incubated in the laboratory. The genus Aspergillus was highlighted as one of the principal airborne fungi present in indoor environments. Aspergillus spp was identified in 1,277 (89.6%) samples and Penicillium spp in 148 (10.4%). The dry period exhibited a greater number of isolates of the two taxons.

  1. Tabela de vida de fertilidade de três espécies neotropicais de Trichogrammatidae em ovos de hospedeiros alternativos como critério de seleção hospedeira Fertility life table of three neotropical species of Trichogrammatidae on factitious hosts as a criterion for selection of hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivia da Silva Dias

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Tabela de vida de fertilidade de três espécies neotropicais de Trichogrammatidae em ovos de hospedeiros alternativos como critério de seleção hospedeira. O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar o hospedeiro alternativo que permita o melhor desenvolvimento das três espécies neotropicais de tricogramatídeos, Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983; Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja, 1983 e Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis, 1972, utilizando-se como parâmetro comparativo as tabelas de vida de fertilidade nos respectivos hospedeiros. Foram estimados a duração média de uma geração (T, taxa líquida de reprodução (Ro, razão infinitesimal (r m e a razão finita de aumento (λ. A tabela de vida de fertilidade pode ser utilizada para selecionar o hospedeiro alternativo mais adequado para as espécies de tricogramatídeos. Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton, 1865 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae foi o hospedeiro alternativo mais adequado para criação de T. annulata e de T. bruni, enquanto que para T. atopovirilia, Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae e/ou C. cephalonica foram os hospedeiros mais adequados. Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier, 1819 (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae apresentou baixa capacidade de aumento populacional para as três espécies de parasitóides, sendo, portanto, uma espécie inadequada como hospedeiro alternativo para as mesmas.The objective of this work was to select the factitious host that permit the best development of three neotropical Trichogrammatidae species, Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983; Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja, 1983, and Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis, 1972, using the fertility life table on their respective hosts as a comparative parameter. Mean generation time (T, net reproductive rate (Ro, intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m and the finite rate of increase (λ were estimated. A fertility life table is useful to select the most adequate factitious hosts for the

  2. Estudo preliminar do controle biológico da traça-do-tomateiro com o parasitóide Trichogramma pretiosum em ambientes protegidos A preliminar survey on the biological control of South American tomato pinworm with the parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum in greenhouse models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice de Medeiros

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo de tomate em ambiente protegido é economicamente vantajoso para os produtores. No entanto, o ambiente interno da casa de vegetação, quente e seco, favorece o crescimento populacional da traça-do-tomateiro Tuta absoluta (Meyrick dificultando seu controle, geralmente realizado com inseticidas químicos. O controle biológico da traça-do-tomateiro utilizando o parasitóide Trichogramma pretiosum Riley é indicado como método alternativo aos inseticidas e foi avaliado em ambiente protegido. O experimento foi conduzido com plantas de tomateiro tutoradas, cv. Larissa, em três modelos de casas de vegetação (arco, capela e convectivo, com 288 plantas em uma área de 160 m² em cada modelo. Todos os tratamentos foram associados com uma aplicação semanal do inseticida biológico Bacillus thuringiensis e liberações semanais do parasitóide: 1 casa de vegetação com teto convectivo: 200 cm² de ovos parasitados em liberação única, ou seja, apenas uma vez por semana; 2 teto em arco: 200 cm² de ovos parasitados liberados duas vezes por semana, ou seja, 100 cm² a cada liberação; 3 capela: 400 cm² de ovos parasitados liberados duas vezes por semana, ou seja, 200 cm² a cada liberação. A população da traça-do-tomateiro foi amostrada semanalmente, coletando-se 50 folíolos de tomateiro ao acaso, em cada casa de vegetação. Em laboratório, os ovos foram contados, individualizados e mantidos em câmara climatizada para se determinar o número de larvas emergidas e o número de ovos parasitados. A produtividade e o dano causado pela traça foram avaliados em 50 frutos colhidos ao acaso em cada tratamento. A eficiência técnica e econômica do sistema de produção foi analisada em cada modelo de casa de vegetação. Os principais resultados foram: a as diferentes condições de temperatura e umidade proporcionadas pelas casas de vegetação têm influência sobre o desempenho do parasitóide; b o uso exclusivo do controle biol

  3. Strongyloides spp. infections of veterinary importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, Stig M.; Ketzis, Jennifer; Horii, Yoichiro

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the occurrence and impact of threadworms, Strongyloides spp., in companion animals and large livestock, the potential zoonotic implications and future research. Strongyloides spp. infect a range of domestic animal species worldwide and clinical disease is most often encountered...

  4. Efeito de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. sobre Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 nas gerações F1 e F2 em ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 Effect of pesticides used on tomato crop (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. on Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 in F1 and F2 generations on Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Andrade Carvalho

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Duas populações de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879, provenientes de Alegre, ES = L9 e Venda Nova do Imigrante, ES = L10, foram submetidas aos principais produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do tomateiro, após serem multiplicadas em ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller. Os ovos desse hospedeiro foram tratados e oferecidos ao parasitismo decorridas 0, 24 e 48 horas após o tratamento, e mantidos em câmaras climáticas a 25 ± 2ºC, UR de 60 ± 10% e fotofase de 14 horas. Os inseticidas deltametrina, abamectin e metamidofós, independentemente da linhagem de T. pretiosum, reduziram a longevidade de fêmeas da geração maternal. Triflumuron, clorfluazuron, benomil, clorotalonil, Bacillus thuringiensis, mancozeb, dimetomorf, tebufenozide, teflubenzuron, acefato, pirimicarbe, iprodiona, metamidofós e ciromazina não afetaram a capacidade de parasitismo de T. pretiosum na geração F1, independentemente da origem da população, e não afetaram a porcentagem de emergência dos indivíduos da geração F2, das duas linhagens.Two Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 populations from Alegre ES = L9 and Venda Nova do Imigrante, ES = L10 (Brazil were treated with the main pesticides used on tomato crop after reared on Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller eggs. The eggs were treated and submitted to parasitism on 0, 24 and 48 hours and kept in climatic chambers at 25 ± 2 ºC, 60 ± 10% RH and 14 hours photophase. The longevity of T. pretiosum (mother females, independently of strain, was decreased for insecticides deltamethrin, abamectin and methamidophos. No influence was detected in the parasitism capacity in F1 generation of T. pretiosum with the products triflumuron, chlorfluazuron, benomyl, chlorotalonil, Bacillus thuringiensis, mancozeb, dimetomorf, tebufenozide, teflubenzuron, acefate, pirimicarb, iprodione, methamidophos and ciromazine, and these compounds did not effected the emergence in F2 generation of this parasitoid, independently of

  5. Leptospira spp. y leptospirosis humana

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    Claudia M. Romero-Vivas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La leptospirosis, la enfermedad bacteriana zoonótica y emergente más importante en el mundo, es causada por las especies patógenas de Leptospira spp. Han sido descritas veinte especies de Leptospira spp.; se ha determinado la secuencia del ADN genómico de algunas cepas patógenas; la función de la mayoría de los genes involucrados en su patogénesis permanece desconocida. La leptospirosis humana presenta un rango de síntomas que van desde una fiebre indiferenciada hasta una ictericia, hemorragia, fallas renales y pulmonares severas. La administración temprana e intravenosa de penicilina G es requerida para reducir las tasas de mortalidad, pero los antibióticos pueden no ser efectivos en la enfermedad pulmonar severa. En las Américas, las áreas de alto riesgo son Brasil, Centroamérica y el Caribe. En Colombia se han realizado pocos estudios. La prueba serológica de oro, la microaglutinación, tiene alta sesibilidad y especificidad cuando se usan baterías de serovariedades locales, pero es serogrupo específica. Las vacunas generan respuestas específicas para la serovariedad usada, pero no previenen la infección o trasmisión. Problemas en el diagnóstico de laboratorio de la leptospirosis conllevan a un subregistro en el número de casos; altas tasas de mortalidad asociadas a fallas renal y pulmonar son resultado de las dificultades en el manejo de los casos.

  6. Brachiaria spp. poisoning of ruminants in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Riet-Correa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Brachiaria species are the most important grasses for cattle production in Brazil. However, a limiting factor for the use of Brachiaria spp. is their toxicity. Most outbreaks of hepatogenous photosensitization are caused by B. decumbens; however B. brizantha, B. humidicola and B. ruziziensis can also cause poisoning. The poisoning affects cattle, sheep, goats and buffalo. Sheep are more susceptible than other animal species and the young are more susceptible than adults. There are differences in susceptibility among animals of the same species and it has been suggested that this resistance is genetic. Also has been suggested that buffalo and probably some sheep are resilient, i.e. when poisoned these animals have histologic lesions and high GGT serum concentrations, but do not show clinical signs. In general, saponin concentrations are higher in growing plants, but outbreaks occur all over the year, probably due to unexplained rise in saponin concentration in the plant. A clinical syndrome of progressive weight loss and death, without photosensitization, has been reported in cattle poisoned by B. decumbens. Main preventive measures are based on the selection of resistant or resilient animals and on the development of Brachiaria species or varieties with low saponin concentration.

  7. Phylogeny of Cirsium spp. in North America: Host Specificity Does Not Follow Phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey A. Bodo Slotta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Weedy invasive Cirsium spp. are widespread in temperate regions of North America and some of their biological control agents have attacked native Cirsium spp. A phylogenetic tree was developed from DNA sequences for the internal transcribed spacer and external transcribed spacer regions from native and non-native Great Plains Cirsium spp. and other thistles to determine if host specificity follows phylogeny. The monophyly of Cirsium spp. and Carduus within the tribe Cardinae was confirmed with native North American and European lineages of the Cirsium spp. examined. We did not detect interspecific hybridization between the introduced invasive and the native North American Cirsium spp. Selected host-biological control agent interactions were mapped onto the phylogenic tree derived by maximum likelihood analysis to examine the co-occurrence of known hosts with biological control agents. Within Cirsium-Cardueae, the insect biological control agents do not associate with host phylogenetic lines. Thus, more comprehensive testing of species in host-specificity trials, rather than relying on a single representative of a given clade may be necessary; because the assumption that host-specificity follows phylogeny does not necessarily hold. Since the assumption does not always hold, it will also be important to evaluate ecological factors to provide better cues for host specificity.

  8. SPP will decrease price of transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.

    2003-01-01

    Starting next year gas utility Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, a.s., Bratislava (SPP) will decrease the fees for transport of gas to its client from third parties. This decision should have a positive effect mainly on large industrial customers. The fact that SPP decided not to apply the approved ruling to its full extent was the result of negotiations with the regulator and the Ministry of Economy. SPP is not afraid it might lose customers. This decision only gives them a competitive advantage. (Author)

  9. Desempenho de Trichogramma pratissolii Querino & Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae em ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae sob efeito de Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner Trichogramma pratissolii Querino & Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae performance in Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae eggs affected by Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Visando estudar o efeito da bactéria entomopatogênica Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt sobre fêmeas adultas de Trichogramma pratissolii e sua progênie, este trabalho foi realizado com diferentes isolados de Bt e Bt kurstaki misturados ao alimento fornecido para o parasitóide antes de parasitar ovos de Anagasta kuehniella. Para tanto, suspensões de seis isolados de Bt E-3, E-10, E-15, E-16, E-19, E-20 e o Bt kurstaki foram misturados em gotícula de mel (1:1, como fonte de alimento e mel puro como testemunha, e, em seguida, foram oferecidos simultaneamente cartelas com ovos do hospedeiro para o parasitismo. Foram utilizadas 20 repetições por tratamento. O experimento foi mantido em câmara climatizada a 25 ± 1ºC, UR 70 ± 10% e fotofase de 14h. Foram avaliados os parasitismos diários, totais e acumulados; sobrevivência; emergência e razão sexual da progênie. Os tratamentos não afetaram o parasitismo, razão sexual e a longevidade, porém em alguns tratamentos (E-3, E-10, E-16 e E-20 foi observado efeito indireto sobre a emergência da progênie, o que implicaria a necessidade de mais liberações massais do parasitóide para alcançar os resultados esperados. Por outro lado, a aceleração do parasitismo verificada em todos os tratamentos sugere que adultos de T. pratissolii, quando submetidos à pressão de algum fator externo tendem a parasitar o mais rápido possível para assegurar a sobrevivência da progênie. Portanto, a combinação Bt + T. pratissolii pode favorecer a atuação do parasitóide em campo, principalmente em casos em que é necessária uma rápida redução dos níveis populacionais da praga.This work was carried out to detect at laboratory the possible side-effects provoked by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt strains on egg parasitoid Thichogramma pratissolii and its progeny. Six strains of Bt E-3, E-10, E-15, E-16, E-19, E-20 and Bt kurstaki were assayed in honey drop to stimulate the feeding of the parasitoids in each

  10. Molecular characterization of the presence of Eubacterium spp and Streptococcus spp in endodontic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, A F; Kum, K-Y; Clawson, M L; Barry, J; Abenoja, C; Zhu, Q; Caimano, M; Radolf, J D

    2003-08-01

    Eubacterium spp. and Streptococcus spp. are virulent, commonly identified microorganisms in endodontic infections. The purpose of this study was to use molecular methods to identify these organisms in 22 infected root canals that include eight cases with preoperative clinical symptoms and five cases with a history of diabetes mellitus. The presence of Streptococcus spp. and Eubacterium spp. was examined using two sets of PCR primers specific with multiple species within the respective genera. Positive specimens had their PCR products sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed to identify the specific species. Sixteen specimens (73%) contained Eubacterium spp. and nine (41%) were positive for Streptococcus spp. Eubacterium infirmum was the most prevalent Eubacterium sp. This organism was significantly associated with a history of diabetes (OR = 9.6; P = 0.04). Streptococcus anginosus was the most common Streptococcus sp., but neither it nor any of the other streptococci were significantly associated with the clinical parameters evaluated.

  11. Screening of Lactobacillus spp. and Pediococcus spp. for glycosidase activities that are important in oenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, A; Bartowsky, E; Jiranek, V

    2005-01-01

    To assess glycosidase activities from a range of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus species and characterize these activities under conditions pertinent to the wine industry. Lactic acid bacteria were cultured in MRS broth supplemented with apple juice before being harvested, washed and assayed for glycosidase activity using p-nitrophenol-linked substrates. All strains exhibited a detectable capacity for the hydrolysis of the beta- and alpha-d-glucopyranosides. The magnitude of these activities and their response to the physico-chemical parameters investigated varied in a strain-dependent manner. The use of an assay buffer with a pH below 4 generally resulted in a reduced hydrolysis of both substrates while temperature optima ranged between 35 and 45 degrees C. The effect of the inclusion of ethanol in the assay buffer (up to 12%, v/v) ranged from near complete inhibition to increases in activity approaching 80%. With the clear exception of a single strain, glucose and fructose (0.1-20 g l(-1)) acted as inhibitors. An assessment of glycosidase activity during simultaneous exposure to glucose and ethanol at a pH of 3.5 suggested that ethanol decreased loss of activity under these wine-like conditions. Lactobacillus spp. and Pediococcus spp. possess varying degrees of beta- and alpha-d-glucopyranosidase activities, which in turn are influenced differently by exposure to ethanol and/or sugars, temperature and pH. Several strains appeared suited for further evaluation under winemaking conditions. This work highlights the fact that strains of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus have the potential to influence the glycoside composition of wine. Tailoring of wine may therefore be possible through selective application of strains or enzymatic extracts thereof.

  12. Herbal products containing Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Crataegus spp., and Panax spp.: Labeling and safety concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Maria Antónia; Rodrigues, Francisca; Alves, Rita C; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P

    2017-10-01

    Herbs have been used from ancient times for infusion preparation based on their potential health effects. In particular, the consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Crataegus spp. and Panax spp. has been largely associated to cardiovascular benefits. In this work, the label information of 52 herbal products for infusion preparation containing the referred herbs was analyzed and discussed, taking into consideration the European Union regulation for herbal products, which intends to protect public health and harmonize the legal framework in Member States. Details about the cardiovascular-related statements and warning notifications about consumption were considered. Also, regulatory issues and possible herb-drug interactions were explored and discussed. A total of 14 of the 52 herbal products selected presented health claims/statements on the label. Hibiscus was present in the majority of the products and, in some cases, it was mentioned only in the ingredients list and not on the product front-of-pack. Despite the promising outcomes of these plants to modulate cardiovascular risk markers, consumers with some sort of cardiovascular dysfunction and/or under medication treatments should be aware to carefully analyze the labels and consult additional information related to these herbal products. Manufacturers have also a huge responsibility to inform consumers by presenting awareness statements. Lastly, health professionals must advise and alert their patients about possible interactions that could occur between the concomitant consumption of drugs and herbs. Overall, there is still a real need of additional studies and clinical trials to better understand herbs effects and establish a science-based guidance to assess their safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Regine Adelheid Kohler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the third domain of life, the Archaea, is one of the most exciting findings of the last century. These remarkable prokaryotes are well known for their adaptations to extreme environments; however, Archaea have also conquered moderate environments. Many of the archaeal biochemical processes, such as methane production, are unique in nature and therefore of great scientific interest. Although formerly restricted to biochemical and physiological studies, sophisticated systems for genetic manipulation have been developed during the last two decades for methanogenic archaea, halophilic archaea and thermophilic, sulfur-metabolizing archaea. The availability of these tools has allowed for more complete studies of archaeal physiology and metabolism and most importantly provides the basis for the investigation of gene expression, regulation and function. In this review we provide an overview of methods for genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp., a group of methanogenic archaea that are key players in the global carbon cycle and which can be found in a variety of anaerobic environments.

  14. Reassessment of MLST schemes for Leptospira spp. typing worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varni, Vanina; Ruybal, Paula; Lauthier, Juan José; Tomasini, Nicolás; Brihuega, Bibiana; Koval, Ariel; Caimi, Karina

    2014-03-01

    Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonosis of global importance. Several multilocus sequence typing (MLST) methods have been developed for Leptospira spp., the causative agent of leptospirosis. In this study we reassessed the most commonly used MLST schemes in a set of worldwide isolates, in order to select the loci that achieve the maximum power of discrimination for typing Leptospira spp. Global eBURST algorithm was used to detect clonal complexes among STs and phylogenetic relationships among concatenated and individual sequences were inferred through maximum likelihood (ML) analysis. The evaluation of 12 loci combined to type a subset of strains rendered 57 different STs. Seven of these loci were selected into a final scheme upon studying the number of alleles and polymorphisms, the typing efficiency, the discriminatory power and the ratio dN/dS per nucleotide site for each locus. This new 7-locus scheme was applied to a wider collection of worldwide strains. The ML tree constructed from concatenated sequences of the 7 loci identified 6 major clusters corresponding to 6 Leptospira species. Global eBURST established 8 CCs, which showed that genotypes were clearly related by geographic origin and host. ST52 and ST47, represented mostly by Argentinian isolates, grouped the higher number of isolates. These isolates were serotyped as serogroups Pomona and Icterohaemorrhagiae, showing a unidirectional correlation in which the isolates with the same ST belong to the same serogroup. In summary, this scheme combines the best loci from the most widely used MLST schemes for Leptospira spp. and supports worldwide strains classification. The Argentinian isolates exhibited congruence between allelic profile and serogroup, providing an alternative to serological methods. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany

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    Mahling Monia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010 and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. Results The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25, B. divergens (n = 1, B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1, B. gibsoni-like (n = 1, R. helvetica (n = 272, R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12 and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1. The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27, but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. Conclusions I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green

  16. Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorn, Sabine; Pfister, Kurt; Reulen, Holger; Mahling, Monia; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2011-07-15

    Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010) and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae) in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae) in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae) in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25), B. divergens (n = 1), B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1), B. gibsoni-like (n = 1), R. helvetica (n = 272), R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12) and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1). The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27), but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green areas are likely to remain in the research focus on

  17. Esterase and protease activities of Bacillus spp. from afitin, iru and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The electrophoretic profiles of fermented African locust bean protein (ALBP), using strains presenting the highest protease activities in casein agar, were analyzed by SDS-PAGE to select strains with good ability to be used as starter cultures. All the Bacillus spp. tested showed esterase activity against tributyrin with high ...

  18. Identification and typing of Brucella spp. in stranded harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) on the Dutch coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maio, Elisa; Begeman, Lineke; Bisselink, Yvette; van Tulden, Peter; Wiersma, Lidewij; Hiemstra, Sjoukje; Ruuls, Robin; Gröne, Andrea; Roest, Hendrik-Ido-Jan; Willemsen, Peter; van der Giessen, Joke

    2014-01-01

    The presence of Brucella (B.) spp. in harbour porpoises stranded between 2008 and 2011 along the Dutch coast was studied. A selection of 265 tissue samples from 112 animals was analysed using conventional and molecular methods. In total, 4.5% (5/112) of the animals corresponding with 2.3% (6/265)

  19. Identification and typing of Brucella spp. in stranded harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) on the Dutch coast.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maio, E.; Begeman, L.; Bisselink, Y.J.W.M.; Tulden, van P.W.; Wiersma, L.; Hiemstra, S.; Ruuls, R.; Gröne, A.; Roest, H.I.J.; Willemsen, P.T.J.; Giessen, van der J.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of Brucella (B.) spp. in harbour porpoises stranded between 2008 and 2011 along the Dutch coast was studied. A selection of 265 tissue samples from 112 animals was analysed using conventional and molecular methods. In total, 4.5% (5/112) of the animals corresponding with 2.3% (6/265)

  20. Evidence of Ash Tree (Fraxinus spp.) Specific Associations with Soil Bacterial Community Structure and Functional Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael P. Ricketts; Charles E. Flower; Kathleen S. Knight; Miquel A. Gonzalez-Meler

    2018-01-01

    The spread of the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB) across North America has had enormous impacts on temperate forest ecosystems. The selective removal of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) has resulted in abnormally large inputs of coarse woody debris and altered forest tree community composition, ultimately affecting a variety of ecosystem processes. The...

  1. Molecular identification and genetic diversity analysis of Chinese sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) varieties using SSR markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) is an important sugar and renewable bioenergy crop. However, its complex aneupolyploidy genome and vegetative mode of propagation often cause difficulty in selection and some variety identity issues in a breeding program. Therefore, the present study was set up to ...

  2. Epidemiology of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter spp., in the poultry chain production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Realpe-Delgado, María Elena

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and L. monocytogenes are zoonotic foodborne pathogens, associated with the consumption of contaminated foods of animal origin. In this study we determined the prevalence and risk factors associated with the presence of these microorganisms at all stages of the production system, in two Colombian poultry companies (EI-EI-I and II. In EI-I, Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp., were isolated from 10 % and 4.4 % of the specimens, and S. Heidelberg was the predominant serotype. Salmonella spp., was found in 6 % of hands and stool samples of workers. S. Saphra was the most prevalent serotype. In EI-II, the prevalence of Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp., from animal specimens was 7 % and 17 %, respectively. L. monocytogenes was not detected. This study established the prevalence of these zoonotic pathogens through the production chain and showed the presence of pathogen carriers among workers/food handlers. “Lack of medical examination of employees in the previous year” was found to be a possible risk factor for carriage of Salmonella spp.

  3. Isothermal microcalorimetry for antifungal susceptibility testing of Mucorales, Fusarium spp., and Scedosporium spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furustrand Tafin, U.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Trampuz, A.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated isothermal microcalorimetry for real-time susceptibility testing of non-Aspergillus molds. MIC and minimal effective concentration (MEC) values of Mucorales (n = 4), Fusarium spp. (n = 4), and Scedosporium spp. (n = 4) were determined by microbroth dilution according to the Clinical

  4. Transferability of SSR and RGA markers developed in Cynodon spp. to Zoysia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) and zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.), which are both used as warm-season turfgrasses in the United States, are members of subfamily Chloridoideae and are reported to be at least 55% genetically similar. To assess if molecular tools between the two species can be interchanged, 93...

  5. Methylobacterium spp. as an indicator for the presence or absence of Mycobacterium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkinham, Joseph O; Williams, Myra D; Kwait, Rebecca; Lande, Leah

    2016-06-01

    A published survey of bacteria in showerhead biofilm samples revealed that Methylobacterium spp. and Mycobacterium spp. seldom coexisted in biofilms. To confirm that information, biofilm samples were collected from household plumbing of Mycobacterium avium patients and Methylobacterium spp. and M. avium numbers were measured by direct colony counts. The results demonstrated that if Methylobacterium spp. were present, Mycobacterium spp. were absent, and the opposite. The data demonstrate that microbial populations in biofilms can influence the presence or absence of opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens and, thereby, increase the range of strategies to reduce exposure to waterborne pathogens. Finally, by assessing for the visual presence of methylobacteria as pink pigmentation on showers and shower curtains, homeowners and managers of hospitals and other buildings can quickly determine whether a premise plumbing biofilm sample has mycobacteria with a high degree of assurance. Copyright © 2016 Asian African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification and discrimination of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. by righ-resolution melting analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hllytchaikra Ferraz Fehlberg

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to standardize the high-resolution melting method for identification and discrimination of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. by amplification of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA using a single primer pair. The analyses were performed on individual reactions (containing DNA from a single species of a protozoan, on duplex reactions (containing DNA from two species of protozoa in each reaction, and on a multiplex reaction (containing DNA of four parasites in a single reaction. The proposed method allowed us to identify and discriminate the four species by analyzing the derivative, normalized, and difference melting curves, with high reproducibility among and within the experiments, as demonstrated by low coefficients of variation (less than 2.2% and 2.0%, respectively. This is the first study where this method is used for discrimination of these four species of protozoa in a single reaction.

  7. Prevalence and risk factors for Salmonella spp. colonization in broiler flocks in Shiraz, southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ansari-Lari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp. are important food borne pathogens worldwide that frequently infect poultry flocks. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Salmonella spp. colonization in broiler flocks in Shiraz (southern Iran and to find the possible association of infection status with some potential risk factors including vaccination program and use of antibiotics. During October 2009 to April 2010, a total of 40 broiler flocks were selected in slaughterhouse and 20 cloacae contents were collected from each flock. Every five cloacae contents were pooled and investigated for Salmonella spp. using appropriate culture methods. The flock was considered positive if any of the pooled samples turned positive in culture. Statistical analysis was performed using multiple logistic regression. Nine out of 40 flocks (22.50%, 95% CI: 9-36 were positive for Salmonella spp. colonization. Nearly 75.00% of flock owners reported that they used antibiotics during production period, more frequently fluoroquinolones, combination of trimethoprim-sulfonamides (TMP/SU and tetracycline. Nearly 60.00% of the flocks which had used TMP/SU were positive for Salmonella spp. compared with 10.00% of the flocks which did not use this antibiotic (p = 0.006. Increasing flock age was associated with a decreased chance of Salmonella spp. detection (p = 0.003. In flocks which received infectious bronchitis vaccine, 36.00% were positive for Salmonella spp. whereas this was 15.00% for flocks which did not receive this vaccine (p = 0.08. Careful monitoring of antibiotics use and further studies to determine the most appropriate vaccination program in the field is recommended.

  8. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Efeito da idade de Trichogramma exiguum e do desenvolvimento embrionário da Traça-das-Crucíferas sobre as características biológicas do parasitóide - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i2.522 Effect of the age of Trichogramma exiguum and diamondback moth embryonic development on the biological characteristics of the parasitoid - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i2.522

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cácia Leila Tigre Pereira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência do desenvolvimento embrionário dos ovos do hospedeiro P. xylostella sobre fêmeas de Trichogramma exiguum, com diferentes idades. Para tanto, cinquenta fêmeas recém-emergidas ou com 24, 48, 72, e 96 horas após a emergência deste parasitóide foram divididas em cinco lotes. Para cada fêmea, foi oferecida uma cartela, contendo 30 ovos de P. xylostella com um, dois e três dias de idade. As maiores taxas de parasitismo foram observadas em ovos de três dias de desenvolvimento embrionário, independente da idade do parasitóide, com exceção daqueles com 72 horas de idade. A viabilidade não foi influenciada pela idade do parasitóide e nem pela fase embrionária do hospedeiro. A razão sexual foi semelhante nas três fases embrionárias do hospedeiro para fêmeas de T. exiguum com 24, 48 e 72 horas de idade. Ao avaliar os descendentes do parasitóide provenientes de ovos com três, dois e um dia de desenvolvimento embrionário, verificou-se que os maiores valores de longevidade foram obtidos quando foram usadas fêmeas recém-emergidas ou com 48 e 72 horas de vida, respectivamente. Estes resultados indicam a importância da idade do parasitóide, bem como o perído de desenvolvimento embrionário do hospedeiro para manter a qualidade de T. exiguum em laboratório, em uma criação massal, e também nas liberações de campo para o controle biológico de pragas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the embryonic development of eggs from the P. xylostella host on Trichogramma exiguum females of different ages. Fifty females – either just-emerged or 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after emergence of this parasitoid were divided into five groups. Each female was offered a recipient with 30 P. xylostella eggs, which were 1-, 2- and 3-days-old. The greatest rates of parasitism were observed on eggs with 3 days of embryonic development, with exception of those 72-hours

  10. Identification of non-Listeria spp. bacterial isolates yielding a β-D-glucosidase-positive phenotype on Agar Listeria according to Ottaviani and Agosti (ALOA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidis, Apostolos S; Kalamaki, Mary S; Georgiadou, Sofia S

    2015-01-16

    Agar Listeria according to Ottaviani and Agosti (ALOA) is the mandatory medium used for the detection and enumeration of Listeria monocytogenes in foods according to the official International Organization for Standardization (ISO) methods. On ALOA, Listeria spp. appear as bluish-green colonies due to the production of β-D-glucosidase, an enzyme that cleaves 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, a chromogenic substrate included in the formulation of the medium. The present work reports on bacterial isolates (n=64) from ready-to-eat soft cheeses, which are able to grow on ALOA, forming bluish-green colonies and therefore phenotypically resemble Listeria spp. All isolates were also capable of growing on the selective media PALCAM and RAPID L'mono. The isolates were characterised with biochemical tests including those specified in the ISO standards for the confirmation of Listeria spp. and identified via partial sequencing of their 16S rRNA gene. According to sequencing results the isolates represented 12 different bacterial species or species-groups belonging to seven different genera: Bacillus spp. (B. circulans, B. clausii, B. licheniformis and B. oleronius), Cellulosimicrobium spp. (C. funkei), Enterococcus spp. (E. faecalis, E. faecium/durans), Kocuria spp. (K. kristinae), Marinilactibacillus spp. (M. psychrotolerans), Rothia spp. (R. terrae) and Staphylococcus spp. (S. sciuri and S. saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus/xylosus). Cellulosimicrobium spp. have never been previously isolated from foods. These results significantly extend the list of bacteria previously known as capable of growing on ALOA as bluish-green colonies and suggest that there may be room for further improvement in the medium's inhibitory properties towards non-Listeria spp., Gram-positive bacteria present in foods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bioremediation of coractive blue dye by using Pseudomonas spp. isolated from the textile dye wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunar, N. M.; Mon, Z. K.; Rahim, N. A.; Leman, A. M.; Airish, N. A. M.; Khalid, A.; Ali, R.; Zaidi, E.; Azhar, A. T. S.

    2018-04-01

    Wastewater released from the textile industry contains variety substances, mainly dyes that contains a high concentration of color and organic. In this study the potential for bacterial decolorization of coractive blue dye was examined that isolated from textile wastewater. The optimum conditions were determined for pH, temperature and initial concentration of the dye. The bacteria isolated was Pseudomonas spp. The selected bacterium shows high decolorization in static condition at an optimum of pH 7.0. The Pseudomonas spp. could decolorize coractive blue dye by 70% within 24 h under static condition, with the optimum of pH 7.0. Decolorization was confirmed by using UV-VIS spectrophotometer. This present study suggests the potential of Pseudomonas spp. as an approach in sustainable bioremediation that provide an efficient method for decolorizing coractive blue dye.

  12. Comparison of techniques to evaluate the quantification of Candida spp. in HIV-infected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Daniella Ferraz; Portela, Maristela Barbosa; Soares, Rosangela Maria De Araujo; De Souza, Ivete Pomarico Ribeiro; Castro, Gloria Fernanda

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to compare techniques used to make a quantified evaluation of Candida spp. in children infected with HIV. Twenty-four HIV-infected children (age 3 to 13) were selected. Three sterilized swabs were used for each child: one for the dorsum of the tongue, one for the hard palate mucosa, and one for the right jugal mucosa; each swab was rubbed for 10 seconds and transferred to sterilized test tubes containing 1 mL of 0.9% saline solution. Candida spp. growth was observed in 95.8% of all samples, including 95.7% of tongue samples (Group T), 87.0% of saliva samples, 56.6% of hard palate mucosa samples (Group P), and 47.8% of right jugal mucosa samples (Group J). There was no statistical difference in Candida spp. growth between saliva samples and Group T samples, although both had higher growth compared to Groups P and J (p < 0.05; chi(2)). Regarding the sensitivity of each site for positive Candida spp. growth, Group T samples showed 69.5%, while saliva samples showed 52.2%, Group P samples showed 21.7%, and Group J samples showed 13.04%, with no significant statistical difference between Group T and saliva; however, both were more sensitive than Groups J and P (p < 0.05, chi(2)). It was concluded that whole stimulated saliva and swabbing the tongue were considered satisfactory for measuring Candida spp. in HIV-infected children.

  13. Survey of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus in Rose and Its Variability in Rose and Prunus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moury, B; Cardin, L; Onesto, J P; Candresse, T; Poupet, A

    2001-01-01

    ABSTRACT A survey for viruses in rose propagated in Europe resulted in detection of only Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) among seven viruses screened. Four percent of cut-flower roses from different sources were infected with PNRSV. Progression of the disease under greenhouse conditions was very slow, which should make this virus easy to eradicate through sanitary selection. Comparison of the partial coat protein gene sequences for three representative rose isolates indicated that they do not form a distinct phylogenetic group and show close relations to Prunus spp. isolates. However, a comparison of the reactivity of monoclonal antibodies raised against these isolates showed that the most prevalent PNRSV serotype in rose was different from the most prevalent serotype in Prunus spp. All of the 27 rose isolates tested infected P. persica seedlings, whereas three of the four PNRSV isolates tested from Prunus spp. were poorly infectious in Rosa indica plants. These data suggest adaptation of PNRSV isolates from Prunus spp., but not from rose, to their host plants. The test methodologies developed here to evaluate PNRSV pathogenicity in Prunus spp. and rose could also help to screen for resistant genotypes.

  14. Epidemiological characterization and risk evaluation associated with the presence of Megninia spp. in posture farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Mendonça de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study was accomplished with the aim to evaluate and to characterize the risks for the presence of Megninia spp. in poultry farms from Minas Gerais, using for that Correspondence Analysis (CA. A secondary database was used and adapted for this study, with information from 402 chicken houses of 42 laying hens commercial properties. Variables used to compose the correspondence model were selected through tests of Qui-square being considered the significant result of P≤0,05. A risk index was built to the presence of Megninia spp. starting from variables considered as risk factors for the presence of those ectoparasites. The CA graph produced for the epidemiological characterization of the presence of Megninia spp. presented an accumulated qui-square value of 58,55%. There was an association of the risk index with the age ranges of the poultry, among the presence Megninia spp. and the use of mineral oil and acaricide in the ration and; finally, an association between the ruddy ground-dove (Columbina talpacoti presence and the absence of mites of the Megninia genus. The results supply knowledge on the epidemiology of Megninia spp. In addition, these information can contribute in the decision, reducing the risks of possible infestations in poultry farms and the negative effects of that parasitism.

  15. Prevalence of Brucella spp in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina de Paula Oliveira Cavalcanti Soares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp in humans.Method: this is an observational study, developed with 455 individuals between 18 and 64 years old, who use the Estratégia de Saúde da Família (Brazil's family health strategy. The serum samples of volunteers underwent buffered acid antigen tests, such as screening, agar gel immunodiffusion and slow seroagglutination test in tubes and 2-Mercaptoethanol.Results: among the samples, 1.98% has responded to buffered-acid antigen, 2.85% to agar gel immunodiffusion test and 1.54% to the slow seroagglutination tests on tubes/2-Mercaptoethanol. The prevalence of Brucella spp was 4.4%, represented by the last two tests.Conclusion: the results of this research suggest that the studied population is exposed to Brucella spp infection.

  16. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    加藤, 行男; 村上, 賢

    2007-01-01

    A total of 291 fecal samples from 252 wild reptiles and 39 pet reptiles were examined for the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in Japan. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 29 (11.5%) of 252 wild reptiles and 22 (55.6%) of 39 pet reptiles. The isolates were identified into subspecies I to IV. The majority of isolates (43.6%) belonged to subspecies I and these isolates could be identified into 9 serovars. The serovars isolated were found to be S. Newport, S. Litchifield and S. Thompson which cause...

  17. Optimization of medium for antimycotic production by Streptomyces spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić Bojana Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous species of the genus Streptomyces, on the appropriate cultivation medium in the process of submerged biosynthesis, as a product of the secondary metabolism, and under aerobic conditions synthesize pharmacologically active compounds. The aim of presented study was optimization of different nitrogen sources in the cultivation medium for the production of antimycotics using a strain of Streptomyces spp. isolated from the environment. Experiments were carried out in accordance with Box-Behnken design with three factors at three levels (peptone: 3.0 g/l, 7.0 g/l and 11.0 g/l; yeast extract: 1.0 g/l, 3.0 g/l and 5.0 g/l; soybean meal: 5.0 g/l, 15.0 g/l and 25.0 g/l and three repetitions in the central point. Cultivation mediums were analyzed for determination of residual sugar, residual nitrogen, pellet diameter and RNA. Also, antimycotic activity of the obtained culti­vation mediums was determined using diffusion disc method on the Aspergillus spp. as the test microorganism. For the optimization of selected parameters, a Response Surface Methodology was used and the obtained data were analyzed using the software package DESIGN EXPERT 8.1. Achieved model with a coefficient of determination (R of 0.952 predicted that the maximum inhibition zone diameter (24.0 mm against microorganism Aspergillus spp. and the minimum amount of residual sugar (0.551528 g/l under applied experimental conditions was produced when the contents of varied nitrogen sources were: peptone 11.0 g/l, yeast extract 4.32 g/l and soybean meal 25.00 g/l.

  18. 21 CFR 866.3630 - Serratia spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3630 Serratia spp... antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify Serratia spp. from cultured isolates. The...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3660 Shigella spp...), used in serological tests to identify Shigella spp. from cultured isolates. The identification aids in...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3035 - Arizona spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3035 Arizona spp... antisera and antigens used to identify Arizona spp. in cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens...

  1. EKOLOGI Anopheles spp. DI KABUPATEN LOMBOK TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majematang Mading

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a public health problem in West Nusa Tenggara Province. Central Lombok District is one of the areas with high case of malaria. Annual Malaria Incidence (AMI was increased from 5.9 ‰ in 2006, 6.7‰ up to 8.1‰ in 2008. The objective of the study is to describe the ecological condition of Anopheles spp. through observation, measurement of environmental variables, larvae and adult collection. This research was an observational research with cross-sectional study. The population of this study is all mosquitos and breeding habitats of Anopheles spp. that exist in the research location. Ecological observations carried out on anopheles breeding habitats including acidity, salinity, shaded places and aquatic biota. Air temperature and humidity measured at the adult mosquitoes trapping sites. The result showed that pH values of water is around 9.00, salinity in the breeding habitats around 14 ppm, and water biota (i.e. moss, grass, shrimps, fishes, tadpoles and crabs surrounded by bushes with larvae density 0,1-28,8 each dipping. The air measurement at the time was between 23°-27° Celsius and 65%-84% humidity. This research concludes that ecology and environmental conditions were supporting the development of larvae and adult mosquito of Anopheles spp.Keywords: ecology, Anopheles spp., Central Lombok

  2. Occurrence of Pasteuria spp. in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewlett, T. E.; Cox, R.; Dickson, D. W.; Dunn, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Two years of data collected from the Florida Nematode Assay Laboratory of the Florida Cooperative Extension Service and 4 years of data from the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry, were compiled to find out the distribution of Pasteuria spp. on nematodes in Florida soils. Information recorded came from 335 samples and included nematode genera with Pasteuria endospores attached, host plants associated with the samples, and the origins of the samples. Pasteuria spp. were detected on 14 different plant-parasitic nematode genera in 41 Florida counties and associated with over 39 different plant species and in seven fallow fields. Pasteuria-infected nematodes were associated with a wide range of plant hosts, although frequency of associations with these hosts reflected the sample bias of the laboratories involved. Meloidogyne and Hoplolaimus spp. were the two nematode genera most frequently associated with Pasteuria. Pasteuria spp. were observed attached to members of these two genera in 176 and 59 soil samples, respectively. PMID:19279936

  3. Occurrence of Cronobacter spp. in retail foods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hochel, I.; Růžičková, H.; Krásný, Lukáš; Demnerová, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 6 (2012), s. 1257-1265 ISSN 1364-5072 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/10/0664 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : biotype * antibiotic resistance * Cronobacter spp Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.196, year: 2012

  4. Identification and pathogenicity assessment of Fusarium spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Durum wheat is the major cereal crop cultivated in Tunisia; covering over 40% of the cereal growing areas. Durum wheat production remains below expectation due to its low productivity that is attributed to the chronically abiotic and biotic stresses. Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium spp. has become an ...

  5. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats.

  6. 21 CFR 866.3200 - Echinococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3200... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3200 Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Echinococcus spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  7. Occurrence of Pasteuria spp. in the northeastern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Verdejo Lucas, Soledad; Español Pons, Montserrat; Ornat Longarón, Cèsar; Sorribas Royo, Francisco Javier

    1997-01-01

    The occurrence of Pasteuria spp. In Spanish oils is reported. A total of 160 soil samples were collected from vegetable crops, kiwi and citrus orchards, and deciduous fruit trees. Bacteria were found associated with six nematode genera but they were only observed within females of Meloidogyne spp., second-stage juveniles and males of Tylenchulus semipenetrans, and juveniles of Pratylenchus spp.

  8. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415 Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3350 - Leptospira spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leptospira spp. serological reagents. 866.3350... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3350 Leptospira spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Leptospira spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3085 - Brucella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3085 Brucella spp... from clinical specimens or to identify antibodies to Brucella spp. in serum. Additionally, some of... to identify Brucella spp. directly from clinical specimens or cultured isolates derived from clinical...

  11. Culturing Stool Specimens for Campylobacter spp., Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    M’ikanatha, Nkuchia M.; Dettinger, Lisa A.; Perry, Amanda; Rogers, Paul; Reynolds, Stanley M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, we surveyed 176 clinical laboratories in Pennsylvania regarding stool specimen testing practices for enteropathogens, including Campylobacter spp. Most (96.3%) routinely test for Campylobacter spp. In 17 (15.7%), a stool antigen test is the sole method for diagnosis. We recommend that laboratory practice guidelines for Campylobacter spp. testing be developed. PMID:22377086

  12. Biological control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) by saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda spp.): effects on small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spread of introduced saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) throughout many riparian systems across the western United States motivated the introduction of biological control agents that are specific to saltcedar, saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda carinulata, D. elongata; Chrysomelidae). I monitored small mam...

  13. Suppressive effects of metabolites from Photorhabdus spp. and Xenorhabdus spp. on phytopathogens of peach and pecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to determine the suppressive abilities of bacterial metabolites derived from Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus spp. on Glomerella cingulata, Phomopsis sp., Phytophthora cactorum, and Fusicladosporium effusum, which are fungal or oomycete pathogens of pecan, and Monilinia fructicola, a f...

  14. Antimicrobial resistance among Pseudomonas spp. and the Bacillus cereus group isolated from Danish agricultural soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Bogø; Baloda, S.; Boye, Mette

    2001-01-01

    From four Danish pig farms, bacteria of Pseudomonas spp. and the Bacillus cereus group were isolated from soil and susceptibility towards selected antimicrobials was tested. From each farm, soil samples representing soil just before and after spread of animal waste and undisturbed agricultural so...... spp., and for bacitracin, erythromycin, penicillin and streptomycin for the B. cereus group. Variations in resistance levels were observed when soil before and after spread of animal waste was compared, indicating an effect from spread of animal waste.......From four Danish pig farms, bacteria of Pseudomonas spp. and the Bacillus cereus group were isolated from soil and susceptibility towards selected antimicrobials was tested. From each farm, soil samples representing soil just before and after spread of animal waste and undisturbed agricultural soil......, when possible, were collected. Soil from a well-characterized Danish farm soil (Hojbakkegaard) was collected for comparison. The Psudomonas spp. and B. cereus were chosen as representative for Gram-negative and Gram-positive indigenous soil bacteria to test the effect of spread of animal waste...

  15. Presence of Staphylococcus spp. and Candida spp. in the human oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Clélia Aparecida de Paiva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of yeasts and staphylococci in the oral cavity is important because they can act as supplementary microbiota and in certain situations can cause oral or systemic diseases. The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in the human oral cavity. Oral rinses were collected from sixty-eight individuals according to the technique described by Samaranayake and MacFarlane and then cultured on Sabouraud medium supplemented with chloramphenicol and Baird-Parker agar. After the incubation period, the microorganisms were isolated and identified through biochemical tests. The data obtained were statistically analysed by ANOVA. Candida spp. were isolated from 61.76% of the examined individuals and C. albicans was the more frequently isolated specie. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 95.60% of the individuals and 41 strains were coagulase negative (63%. Among the coagulase positive strains, nine were S. aureus, 11 S. hyicus and 4 S. schleiferi subspecie coagulans. No correlation was observed between the counts (cfu of the isolated Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp.

  16. Coagulation, flocculation, dissolved air flotation and filtration in the removal of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. from water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, Fernando César; Sabogal-Paz, Lyda Patricia

    2017-11-15

    Removing protozoa from a water supply using coagulation, flocculation, dissolved air flotation (DAF) and filtration on a bench scale was evaluated. Calcium carbonate flocculation with and without immunomagnetic separation (IMS) was chosen to detect Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in the studied samples. The results indicated that DAF removed between 1.31 log and 1.79 log of cysts and between 1.08 log and 1.42 log of oocysts. The performance was lower in filtration, with the removal of 1.07 log-1.44 log for cysts and 0.82 log-0.98 log for oocysts. The coagulation, flocculation, DAF and filtration steps removed more than 2.2 log of cysts and oocysts from the water studied. However, protozoa were detected in the filtered water, even with turbidity values of 0.2 NTU. The recovery of the detection method met the international criteria and was higher when there was no IMS. Including the third acid dissociation in the IMS was critical to improve the performance of the protocol tested. However, there was an increase in the technical and analytical complexity and costs. It was also observed that the efficiency of the treatment was linked to the performance of the selected method of detecting protozoa.

  17. Mathematical modelling of temperature effect on growth kinetics of Pseudomonas spp. on sliced mushroom (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlak, Fatih; Ozdemir, Murat; Melikoglu, Mehmet

    2018-02-02

    The growth data of Pseudomonas spp. on sliced mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) stored between 4 and 28°C were obtained and fitted to three different primary models, known as the modified Gompertz, logistic and Baranyi models. The goodness of fit of these models was compared by considering the mean squared error (MSE) and the coefficient of determination for nonlinear regression (pseudo-R 2 ). The Baranyi model yielded the lowest MSE and highest pseudo-R 2 values. Therefore, the Baranyi model was selected as the best primary model. Maximum specific growth rate (r max ) and lag phase duration (λ) obtained from the Baranyi model were fitted to secondary models namely, the Ratkowsky and Arrhenius models. High pseudo-R 2 and low MSE values indicated that the Arrhenius model has a high goodness of fit to determine the effect of temperature on r max . Observed number of Pseudomonas spp. on sliced mushrooms from independent experiments was compared with the predicted number of Pseudomonas spp. with the models used by considering the B f and A f values. The B f and A f values were found to be 0.974 and 1.036, respectively. The correlation between the observed and predicted number of Pseudomonas spp. was high. Mushroom spoilage was simulated as a function of temperature with the models used. The models used for Pseudomonas spp. growth can provide a fast and cost-effective alternative to traditional microbiological techniques to determine the effect of storage temperature on product shelf-life. The models can be used to evaluate the growth behaviour of Pseudomonas spp. on sliced mushroom, set limits for the quantitative detection of the microbial spoilage and assess product shelf-life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Isolation and identification of Salmonella spp. in drinking water, streams, and swine wastewater by molecular techniques in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, C.; Hsu, B.; Shen, T.; Tseng, S.; Tsai, J.; Huang, K.; Kao, P.; Chen, J.

    2013-12-01

    Salmonella spp. is a common water-borne pathogens and its genus comprises more than 2,500 serotypes. Major pathogenic genotypes which cause typhoid fever, enteritis and other intestinal-type diseases are S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Stanley, S. Agona, S.Albany, S. Schwarzengrund, S. Newport, S. Choleraesuis, and S. Derby. Hence, the identification of the serotypes of Salmonella spp. is important. In the present study, the analytical procedures include direct concentration method, non-selective pre-enrichment method and selective enrichment method of Salmonella spp.. Both selective enrichment method and cultured bacteria were detected with specific primers of Salmonella spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). At last, the serotypes of Salmonella were confirmed by using MLST (multilocus sequence typing) with aroC, dnaN, hemD, hisD, purE, sucA, thrA housekeeping genes to identify the strains of positive samples. This study contains 121 samples from three different types of water sources including the drinking water (51), streams (45), and swine wastewater (25). Thirteen samples with positive invA gene are separated from culture method. The strains of these positive samples which identified from MLST method are S. Albany, S. Typhimurium, S. Newport, S. Bareilly, and S. Derby. Some of the serotypes, S. Albany, S. Typhimurium and S. Newport, are highly pathogenic which correlated to human diarrhea. In our results, MLST is a useful method to identify the strains of Salmonella spp.. Keywords: Salmonella, PCR, MLST.

  19. Chlamydiaceae family, Parachlamydia spp., and Waddlia spp. in porcine abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschwanez, Maria; Meli, Marina; Vögtlin, Andrea; Greub, Gilbert; Sidler, Xaver; Handke, Martin; Sydler, Titus; Kaiser, Carmen; Pospischil, Andreas; Borel, Nicole

    2012-09-01

    At present, despite extensive laboratory investigations, most cases of porcine abortion remain without an etiological diagnosis. Due to a lack of recent data on the abortigenic effect of order Chlamydiales, 286 fetuses and their placentae of 113 abortion cases (1-5 fetuses per abortion case) were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for family Chlamydiaceae and selected Chlamydia-like organisms such as Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and Waddlia chondrophila. In 0.35% of the cases (1/286 fetuses), the Chlamydiaceae real-time PCR was positive. In the Chlamydiaceae-positive fetus, Chlamydia abortus was detected by a commercial microarray and 16S ribosomal RNA PCR followed by sequencing. The positive fetus had a Porcine circovirus-2 coinfection. By the Parachlamydia real-time PCR, 3.5% (10/286 fetuses of 9 abortion cases) were questionable positive (threshold cycle values: 35.0-45.0). In 2 of these 10 cases, a confirmation by Chlamydiales-specific real-time PCR was possible. All samples tested negative by the Waddlia real-time PCR. It seems unlikely that Chlamydiaceae, Parachlamydia, and Waddlia play an important role as abortigenic agents in Swiss sows.

  20. The sylvatic and synanthropic cycles of Echinococcus SPP., Taenia SPP. and Toxocara SPP. in Portugal : coprologic and molecular diagnosis in canids

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra, Diogo Ribeiro Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária Echinococcus spp., Taenia spp. and Toxocara spp. are important parasites of domestic and wild canids and neglected zoonotic helminths. Despite their relevance in Public Health, little is known about their prevalence in Portugal. An epidemiological study was conducted to clarify the role of canids in the sylvatic and synanthropic cycles of these pathogens in our country. Fecal samples from dog (n = 51), red fox (n = 62) and Iberia...

  1. Matrix evaluation for Pseudomonas spp. immobilisation in phenol bioremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Chitiva Urbina

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas spp. were cultivated in a free cell suspension and also immobilised in three different matrices to observe the influence of a contaminant like phenol on degradation velocity and compare each one's results. Polyurethane polymers, alginate (Manohar et al, 2001 and a mixture of alginate and polyvinyl alcohol (Doria et al, 2002 were selected and tested as matrices; all of them proved viable as matrices for cell immobilisation. Pseudomonas were cultivated in an initial 10 cfu/ml concentration in each one of the matrices for comparison purposes and in a medium without matrix; all mediums were supplemented with a minimum salt medium and 200 ppm phenol. A removal time of 23 days was observed in the medium without matrix, 15 days in the polyurethane matrix and 7 days in the alginate matrices. Improved removal times were observed in all matrices when compared to the free cell suspension.

  2. CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp and Escherichia coli isolates in Iranian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialvaei, Abed Zahedi; Kafil, Hossein Samadi; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in Iran in order to assess the distribution of CTX-M type ESBLs producing Enterobacteriaceae. From January 2012 to December 2013, totally 198 E. coli, 139 Klebsiella spp, 54 Salmonella spp and 52 Shigella spp from seven hospitals of six provinces in Iran were screened for resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. After identification and susceptibility testing, isolates presenting multiple-drug resistance (MDR) were evaluated for ESBL production by the disk combination method and by Etest using (cefotaxime and cefotaxime plus clavulanic acid). All isolates were also screened for blaCTX-M using conventional PCR. A total of 42.92%, 33.81%, 14.81% and 7.69% of the E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp isolates were MDR, respectively. The presence of CTX-M enzyme among ESBL-producing isolates was 85.18%, 77.7%, 50%, and 66.7%, in E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp respectively. The overall presence of CTX-M genes in Enterobacteriaceae was 15.4% and among the resistant isolates was 47.6%. This study indicated that resistance to β-lactams mediated by CTX-M enzymes in Iran had similar pattern as in other parts of the world. In order to control the spread of resistance, comprehensive studies and programs are needed. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Detection of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. and antagonism of Trichoderma sp. in soybean under no-tillage

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Mendes Milanesi; Elena Blume; Marlove Fátima Brião Muniz; Lia Rejane Silveira Reiniger; Zaida Inês Antoniolli; Emanuele Junges; Manoeli Lupatini

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed i) to quantify the occurrence of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. in rhizospheric soil, with and without symptoms of Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS) in eight soybean genotypes; ii) morphologically identify isolates of Fusarium spp. from roots with SDS; iii) evaluate the antagonism between Trichoderma spp. and Fusarium spp. isolates from rhizospheric soil and roots from with and without SDS, respectively; and iv) characterize through the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA the isolate...

  4. PREVALENCE OF BABESIA SPP., EHRLICHIA SPP., AND TICK INFESTATIONS IN OKLAHOMA BLACK BEARS (URSUS AMERICANUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Delaina; Mitcham, Jessica R; Starkey, Lindsay A; Noden, Bruce H; Fairbanks, W Sue; Little, Susan E

    2017-10-01

    American black bears (Ursus americanus) are commonly infested with ticks throughout their range, but there are few surveys for tick-borne disease agents in bears. To characterize tick infestations and determine the prevalence of current infection with Babesia spp. and past or current infection with Ehrlichia spp. in newly re-established populations of black bears in east central and southeastern Oklahoma, US, we identified adult (n=1,048) and immature (n=107) ticks recovered from bears (n=62). We evaluated serum and whole blood samples from a subset (n=49) for antibodies reactive to, and characteristic DNA fragments of, Ehrlichia spp., as well as characteristic DNA fragments of Babesia spp. Amblyomma americanum, the most common tick identified, was found on a majority (56/62; 90%) of bears and accounted for 697/1,048 (66.5%) of all ticks recovered. Other ticks included Dermacentor variabilis (338/1,048; 32.3%) from 36 bears, Amblyomma maculatum (9/1,048; 0.9%) from three bears, and Ixodes scapularis (4/1,048; 0.4%) from three bears. Antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia spp. were detected in every bear tested (49/49; 100%); maximum inverse titers to Ehrlichia chaffeensis ranged from 64-4,096 (geometric mean titer 1,525). However, PCR failed to identify active infection with E. chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, or an Ehrlichia ruminantium-like agent. Infection with Babesia spp. was detected by PCR in 3/49 (6%) bears. Together these data confirm that tick infestations and infection with tick-borne disease agents are common in bears in the southern US. The significance of these infestations and infections to the health of bears, if any, and the identity of the Ehrlichia spp. responsible for the antibody reactivity seen, warrant further evaluation.

  5. Post-harvest Salmonella spp. prevalence in turkey carcasses in processing plant in the northeast part of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrodowska, B; Liedtke, K; Radkowski, M

    2014-01-01

    Turkeys carcasses at selected point after slaughter on dressing line in poultry were sampled and analyzed for Salmonella. These slaughter turkeys came from the northeast part of Poland. The examinations were carried out in each month of 2009. Three hundred turkeys were selected at random from a commercial slaughter line, immediately after completing the cooling process. The percentage of these 300 turkeys from which Salmonella spp. were isolated was relatively high (8.3%; Salmonella positive results were observed in 25 cases). The lowest Salmonella spp. rate (1.3 %) for slaughter birds was found in the fourth quarter, and the highest contamination rate at 18.6% was found, in the third quarter. The serological types of Salmonella spp. isolated from the whole turkey carcasses were S. Saintpaul, S. Senftenberg, S. Anatum, S. Heidelberg, S. Hadar, S. Typhimurium and S. Infantis.

  6. Isolation, Identification and Antibacterial Susceptibility of Staphylococcus spp. Associated with the Mobile Phones of University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhata, Katsunori; Ishizaki, Naoto; Sogawa, Kazuyuki; Kawakami, Yasushi; Lee, Shin-Ichi; Sato, Masahiro; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    From May 2014 to February 2015, 319 university students (male, n=173; female n=146) of 18 to 24 years of age who carried mobile phones or computer tablets were selected as subjects. Staphylococcus spp. were detected in 101 of 319 samples (31.7%). In the present study, 11 strains of S. aureus were isolated and identified, not all of which were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Overall, 14 species were identified, with 11 strains (10.9%) of S. xylosus being isolated at the highest frequency. Following this were eight strains (7.9%) of S. cohnii and seven strains (6.9%) each of S. capitis and S. haemolyticus. Staphylococcus spp. isolation was performed with bacterial samples obtained from the mobile phones of 22 specific subjects (males, n=12; females, n=10). Staphylococcus spp. isolation was performed on days -1, 7 and 30 of the experiment. Staphylococcus spp. were positively detected one or more times in 12 subjects (54.5%). In one subject (8.3%), all three tests were positive. Furthermore, two tests were positive in three (25.0%). In the eight remaining subjects (66.7%) Staphylococcus spp. were detected only once. For the three abovementioned tests, we investigated the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of the strains derived from the mobile phone and from the fingers of three subjects in whom the same bacterial species were isolated twice. From the cases with similarities between strains derived from the fingers and the mobile phones and cases, with consistency in the strains derived from the mobile phone at different times, commonality was observed in the strains derived from the fingers and mobile phones along with chronological uniformity in the strains derived from the mobile phones. A total of 101 Staphylococcus spp. strains were isolated from mobile phones. According to drug susceptibility tests, 99 strains (98.0%) were found to have some degree of resistance to drugs (excluding one strain each of S. aureus and S. haemolyticus

  7. Prevalence of Bartonella spp. by culture, PCR and serology, in veterinary personnel from Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Oteo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Bartonella includes fastidious, facultative intracellular bacteria mainly transmitted by arthropods and distributed among mammalian reservoirs. Bartonella spp. implicated as etiological agents of zoonoses are increasing. Apart from the classical Bartonella henselae, B. bacilliformis or B. quintana, other species (B. elizabethae, B. rochalimae, B. vinsonii arupensis and B. v. berkhoffii, B. tamiae or B. koehlerae, among others have also been associated with human and/or animal diseases. Laboratory techniques for diagnosis (culture, PCR assays and serology usually show lack of sensitivity. Since 2005, a method based on a liquid enrichment Bartonella alphaproteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM followed by PCRs for the amplification of Bartonella spp. has been developed. We aimed to assess culture, molecular and serological prevalence of Bartonella infections in companion animal veterinary personnel from Spain. Methods Each of 89 participants completed a questionnaire. Immunofluorescence assays (IFA using B. vinsonii berkhoffii (genotypes I, II and III, B. henselae, B. quintana and B. koehlerae as antigens were performed. A cut-off of 1:64 was selected as a seroreactivity titer. Blood samples were inoculated into BAPGM and subcultured onto blood agar plates. Bartonella spp. was detected using conventional and quantitative real-time PCR assays and DNA sequencing. Results Among antigens corresponding to six Bartonella spp. or genotypes, the lowest seroreactivity was found against B. quintana (11.2% and the highest, against B. v. berkhoffii genotype III (56%. A total of 27% of 89 individuals were not seroreactive to any test antigen. Bartonella spp. IFA seroreactivity was not associated with any clinical sign or symptom. DNA from Bartonella spp., including B. henselae (n = 2, B. v. berkhoffii genotypes I (n = 1 and III (n = 2, and B. quintana (n = 2 was detected in 7/89 veterinary personnel. PCR and DNA sequencing

  8. Genetic analysis of resistance to ticks, gastrointestinal nematodes and Eimeria spp. in Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passafaro, Tiago Luciano; Carrera, Juan Pablo Botero; dos Santos, Livia Loiola; Raidan, Fernanda Santos Silva; dos Santos, Dalinne Chrystian Carvalho; Cardoso, Eduardo Penteado; Leite, Romário Cerqueira; Toral, Fabio Luiz Buranelo

    2015-06-15

    The aim of the present study was to obtain genetic parameters for resistance to ticks, gastrointestinal nematodes (worms) and Eimeria spp. in Nellore cattle, analyze the inclusion of resistance traits in Nellore breeding programs and evaluate genetic selection as a complementary tool in parasite control programs. Counting of ticks, gastrointestinal nematode eggs and Eimeria spp. oocysts per gram of feces totaling 4270; 3872 and 3872 records from 1188; 1142 and 1142 animals, respectively, aged 146 to 597 days were used. The animals were classified as resistant (counts equal to zero) or susceptible (counts above zero) to each parasite. The statistical models included systematics effects of contemporary groups and the mean trajectory. The random effects included additive genetic effects, direct permanent environmental effects and residual. The mean trajectory and random effects were modeled with linear Legendre polynomials for all traits except for the mean trajectory of resistance to Eimeria spp., which employed the cubic polynomial. Heritability estimates were of low to moderate magnitude and ranged from 0.06 to 0.30, 0.06 to 0.33 and 0.04 to 0.33 for resistance to ticks, gastrointestinal nematodes and Eimeria spp., respectively. The posterior mean of genetic and environmental correlations for the same trait at different ages (205, 365, 450 and 550 days) were favorable at adjacent ages and unfavorable at distant ages. In general, the posterior mean of the genetic and environmental correlations between traits of resistance were low and high-density intervals were large and included zero in many cases. The heritability estimates support the inclusion of resistance to ticks, gastrointestinal nematodes and Eimeria spp. in Nellore breeding programs. Genetic selection can increase the frequency of resistant animals and be used as a complementary tool in parasite control programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Brachiaria spp. poisoning of ruminants in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    B. Riet-Correa; M.B. Castro; R.A. Lemos; G. Riet-Correa; V. Mustafa; F. Riet-Correa

    2011-01-01

    Brachiaria species are the most important grasses for cattle production in Brazil. However, a limiting factor for the use of Brachiaria spp. is their toxicity. Most outbreaks of hepatogenous photosensitization are caused by B. decumbens; however B. brizantha, B. humidicola and B. ruziziensis can also cause poisoning. The poisoning affects cattle, sheep, goats and buffalo. Sheep are more susceptible than other animal species and the young are more susceptible than adults. There are differences...

  10. Molecular detection of Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. in bat ectoparasites in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Amaral, Renan Bressianini; Lourenço, Elizabete Captivo; Famadas, Kátia Maria; Garcia, Amanda Barbosa; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; André, Marcos Rogério

    2018-01-01

    The family Streblidae comprises a monophyletic group of Hippoboscoidea, hematophagous dipterans that parasitize bats. Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. have been reported in bats sampled in Europe, Africa, Asia, North, Central and South America. However, there are few reports on the Bartonella and Rickettsia bacteria infecting Hippoboscoidea flies and mites. While Spinturnicidae mites are ectoparasites found only in bats, those belonging to the family Macronyssidae comprise mites that also parasitize other mammal species. This study investigates the occurrence and assesses the phylogenetic positioning of Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. found in Streblidae flies and Spinturnicidae and Macronyssidae mites collected from bats captured in Brazil. From May 2011 to April 2012 and September 2013 to December 2014, 400 Streblidae flies, 100 Macronyssidaes, and 100 Spinturnicidae mites were collected from bats captured in two sites in northeastern Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Forty (19.8%) out of 202 Streblidae flies were positive for Bartonella spp. in qPCR assays based on the nuoG gene. Among the flies positive for the bacterium, six (18%) were Paratrichobius longicrus, seven (29%) Strebla guajiro, two (40%) Aspidoptera phyllostomatis, five (11%) Aspidoptera falcata, one (10%) Trichobius anducei, one (25%) Megistopoda aranea, and 18 (32%) Trichobius joblingi, and collected from bats of the following species: Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus planirostris, Sturnira lilium, and Artibeus obscurus. Six sequences were obtained for Bartonella (nuoG [n = 2], gltA [n = 2], rpoB [n = 1], ribC = 1]). The phylogenetic analysis based on gltA (750pb) gene showed that the Bartonella sequences clustered with Bartonella genotypes detected in bats and ectoparasites previously sampled in Latin America, including Brazil. Only one sample (0.49%) of the species Trichobius joblingi collected from a specimen of Carollia perspicillata was positive

  11. Micropropagation of Rubus and Ribes spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziedzic, Ewa; Jagła, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Micropropagation is the most appropriate method for large-scale production of Rubus and Ribes spp. The proliferation rate of Rubus spp. differs in shoot tips and nodal segments. The culture media used for raspberry and blackberry propagation are MS-based supplemented with different combination and ratio of plant growth regulators, depending on the stage of culture. The initiation medium containing 0.4 mg L(-1) BA and 0.1 mg L(-1) IBA is used to stabilize shoot cultures. In multiplication media, concentration of cytokinin is doubled. In vitro rooting of shoots is achieved on media supplemented with 1.0 mg L(-1) IBA. Ribes spp. cultures are initiated from shoot tips, meristem, or dormant buds on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L(-1) BA, 0.5 mg L(-1) IBA, and 0.1 mg L(-1) GA(3.) After stabilization of shoot cultures in 3-4-week time, shoot multiplication is carried out on MS medium containing 1.0 mg L(-1) BA and 0.1 mg L(-1) IBA. Shoots 2 cm long are cultured to rooting on a medium amended with 2.0 mg L(-1) IBA and 5.0 mg L(-1) IAA. Rooted plantlets are transferred to universal peat substrate and acclimatized in the greenhouse.

  12. Legionella spp. in dental unit waterlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlata Juraskova, E; Sedlackova, H; Janska, J; Holy, O; Lalova, I; Matouskova, I

    2017-01-01

    To determine the current presence of Legionella spp. in the output water of dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) and examine its mitigation by disinfection at the Institute of Dentistry and Oral Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc and University Hospital Olomouc. The first stage of our survey involved collecting samples of DUWL output water from 50 dental chair units (DCUs), and 2 samples of the incoming potable water. In October 2015, a one-time disinfection (1 % Stabimed) of DUWLs was conducted. This was followed by collecting 10 control samples (survey stage 2). From the total of 50 samples (survey stage 1), 18 samples (36.0 %) tested positive for Legionella spp. Following the disinfection, nine of the ten samples no longer showed any presence of Legionella. Based on culture results, the one-time disinfection (1 % Stabimed) was effective. We are unable to comment on the duration of positive effect of disinfection on the occurrence of Legionella spp. in the outlet water. It was a one-time survey (Tab. 2, Ref. 32).

  13. Diversity of Leptospira spp. in Rats and Environment from Urban Areas of Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pui, Chai Fung; Apun, Kasing; Su'ut, Lela

    2017-01-01

    Various prevalence studies on Leptospira in animals and humans, as well as environmental samples, had been conducted worldwide, including Malaysia. However, limited studies have been documented on the presence of pathogenic, intermediate, and saprophytic Leptospira in selected animals and environments. This study was therefore conducted to detect Leptospira spp. in rats, soil, and water from urban areas of Sarawak using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. A total of 107 rats, 292 soil samples, and 324 water samples were collected from April 2014 to February 2015. Pathogenic Leptospira was present in 5.6% (6/107) of rats, 11.6% (34/292) of soil samples, and 1.9% (6/324) of water samples. Intermediate Leptospira was present in 2.7% (8/292) of soil samples and 1.9% (6/324) of water samples. Saprophytic Leptospira was present in 10.3% (11/107) of rats, 1.4% (4/292) of soil samples, and 0.3% (1/324) of water samples. From this study, 76 Leptospira spp. were isolated. Based on DNA sequencing, the dominant Leptospira spp. circulating in urban areas of Sarawak are pathogenic Leptospira noguchii, intermediate Leptospira wolffii serovar Khorat, and saprophytic Leptospira meyeri, respectively. Overall, this study provided important surveillance data on the prevalence of Leptospira spp. from rats and the environment, with dominant local serovars in urban areas of Sarawak. PMID:28348601

  14. Diversity of Leptospira spp. in Rats and Environment from Urban Areas of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pui, Chai Fung; Bilung, Lesley Maurice; Apun, Kasing; Su'ut, Lela

    2017-01-01

    Various prevalence studies on Leptospira in animals and humans, as well as environmental samples, had been conducted worldwide, including Malaysia. However, limited studies have been documented on the presence of pathogenic, intermediate, and saprophytic Leptospira in selected animals and environments. This study was therefore conducted to detect Leptospira spp. in rats, soil, and water from urban areas of Sarawak using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. A total of 107 rats, 292 soil samples, and 324 water samples were collected from April 2014 to February 2015. Pathogenic Leptospira was present in 5.6% (6/107) of rats, 11.6% (34/292) of soil samples, and 1.9% (6/324) of water samples. Intermediate Leptospira was present in 2.7% (8/292) of soil samples and 1.9% (6/324) of water samples. Saprophytic Leptospira was present in 10.3% (11/107) of rats, 1.4% (4/292) of soil samples, and 0.3% (1/324) of water samples. From this study, 76 Leptospira spp. were isolated. Based on DNA sequencing, the dominant Leptospira spp. circulating in urban areas of Sarawak are pathogenic Leptospira noguchii , intermediate Leptospira wolffii serovar Khorat, and saprophytic Leptospira meyeri , respectively. Overall, this study provided important surveillance data on the prevalence of Leptospira spp. from rats and the environment, with dominant local serovars in urban areas of Sarawak.

  15. Analysis of pan-genome to identify the core genes and essential genes of Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaowen; Li, Yajie; Zang, Juan; Li, Yexia; Bie, Pengfei; Lu, Yanli; Wu, Qingmin

    2016-04-01

    Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular pathogens, that cause a contagious zoonotic disease, that can result in such outcomes as abortion or sterility in susceptible animal hosts and grave, debilitating illness in humans. For deciphering the survival mechanism of Brucella spp. in vivo, 42 Brucella complete genomes from NCBI were analyzed for the pan-genome and core genome by identification of their composition and function of Brucella genomes. The results showed that the total 132,143 protein-coding genes in these genomes were divided into 5369 clusters. Among these, 1710 clusters were associated with the core genome, 1182 clusters with strain-specific genes and 2477 clusters with dispensable genomes. COG analysis indicated that 44 % of the core genes were devoted to metabolism, which were mainly responsible for energy production and conversion (COG category C), and amino acid transport and metabolism (COG category E). Meanwhile, approximately 35 % of the core genes were in positive selection. In addition, 1252 potential essential genes were predicted in the core genome by comparison with a prokaryote database of essential genes. The results suggested that the core genes in Brucella genomes are relatively conservation, and the energy and amino acid metabolism play a more important role in the process of growth and reproduction in Brucella spp. This study might help us to better understand the mechanisms of Brucella persistent infection and provide some clues for further exploring the gene modules of the intracellular survival in Brucella spp.

  16. Diversity of Leptospira spp. in Rats and Environment from Urban Areas of Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chai Fung Pui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Various prevalence studies on Leptospira in animals and humans, as well as environmental samples, had been conducted worldwide, including Malaysia. However, limited studies have been documented on the presence of pathogenic, intermediate, and saprophytic Leptospira in selected animals and environments. This study was therefore conducted to detect Leptospira spp. in rats, soil, and water from urban areas of Sarawak using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR method. A total of 107 rats, 292 soil samples, and 324 water samples were collected from April 2014 to February 2015. Pathogenic Leptospira was present in 5.6% (6/107 of rats, 11.6% (34/292 of soil samples, and 1.9% (6/324 of water samples. Intermediate Leptospira was present in 2.7% (8/292 of soil samples and 1.9% (6/324 of water samples. Saprophytic Leptospira was present in 10.3% (11/107 of rats, 1.4% (4/292 of soil samples, and 0.3% (1/324 of water samples. From this study, 76 Leptospira spp. were isolated. Based on DNA sequencing, the dominant Leptospira spp. circulating in urban areas of Sarawak are pathogenic Leptospira noguchii, intermediate Leptospira wolffii serovar Khorat, and saprophytic Leptospira meyeri, respectively. Overall, this study provided important surveillance data on the prevalence of Leptospira spp. from rats and the environment, with dominant local serovars in urban areas of Sarawak.

  17. Fermentability of an enzymatically modified solubilised potato polysaccharide (SPP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, M.; Gudmund-Høyer, E.; Norsker, Merete

    1998-01-01

    : Seven healthy volunteers ingested in random order on seven different days: 20 g SPP; bread made of 180 g wheat flour served with 20 g raw SPP; bread baked of 180 g wheat flour and 20 g SPP; bread made from 180 g what flour; 20 g lactulose; 20 g oat bran; and 20 g wheat bran. The hydrogen breath test...... was used to evaluate oro-coecal transit time (OCTT) and fermentation. RESULTS: Fermentation of SPP yielded a measurable increase in end-expiratory H2. The total incremental increase in end expiratory H2 due to SPP was unaffected of whether SPP was served alone, as the raw flour served with bread, or baked...... into bread. The OCTT for raw SPP was significantly delayed compared to lactulose (P = 0.01). The OCTT for SPP baked into bread was significantly delayed compared to raw SPP (P = 0.01), indicating that SPP may be used as a marker of oro-coecal transit time for as well the fluid phase as the solid phase...

  18. Diversity of Leptospira spp. in Rats and Environment from Urban Areas of Sarawak, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Pui, Chai Fung; Bilung, Lesley Maurice; Apun, Kasing; Su’ut, Lela

    2017-01-01

    Various prevalence studies on Leptospira in animals and humans, as well as environmental samples, had been conducted worldwide, including Malaysia. However, limited studies have been documented on the presence of pathogenic, intermediate, and saprophytic Leptospira in selected animals and environments. This study was therefore conducted to detect Leptospira spp. in rats, soil, and water from urban areas of Sarawak using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. A total of 107 rats, 292 soil...

  19. Quantification of viable but nonculturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during sludge anaerobic digestion and their reactivation during cake storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, B; Jiang, Q; Liu, H-B; Liu, H

    2015-10-01

    The presence of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) bacterial pathogens which often fail to be detected by cultivation and can regain the cultivability if the living conditions improve were reported. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in the biosolids during anaerobic digestion and its reactivation during the cake storage. The occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during mesophilic, temperature-phased, thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and the subsequent storage were studied by RT-qPCR and most probable number (MPN) method. The VBNC incidence of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during thermophilic digestion was four orders of magnitude higher than those of mesophilic digestion. Accordingly, higher resuscitation ratio of VBNC pathogens was also achieved in thermophilic digested sludge. As a result, the culturable Salmonella typhimurium contents in thermophilic digested sludge after cake storage were two orders of magnitude higher than mesophilic digestion. Both quantitative PCR and reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay results showed the two bacterial counting numbers remained stable throughout the cake storage. The results indicate that the increase in the culturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. after centrifugal dewatering was attributed to the resuscitation from the VBNC state to the culturable state. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion mainly induced Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. into VBNC state rather than killed them, suggesting that the biological safety of sewage sludge by temperature-phased anaerobic digestion should be carefully assessed. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Detection of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. and antagonism of Trichoderma sp. in soybean under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Mendes Milanesi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed i to quantify the occurrence of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. in rhizospheric soil, with and without symptoms of Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS in eight soybean genotypes; ii morphologically identify isolates of Fusarium spp. from roots with SDS; iii evaluate the antagonism between Trichoderma spp. and Fusarium spp. isolates from rhizospheric soil and roots from with and without SDS, respectively; and iv characterize through the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA the isolates of Trichoderma spp. with better performance in the direct confrontation. The sampling of soil and roots was performed in an experimental area located in Cruz Alta, RS, Brazil. In the laboratory, serial dilutions of soil samples, counting of the number of Colony Forming Units (UFCs/g-1 of rhizospheric soil were performed as well as isolation for identification of isolates of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. and testing of direct confrontation. There were significant differences between the population of Trichoderma spp. in the rhizosphere of plants with and without symptoms of SDS. For the population of Fusarium spp., significant difference was observed only in the rhizosphere of plants without symptoms of SDS. In diseased roots the following species were identified: F. solani, F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. oxysporum and F. verticillioides. In the test of direct confrontation, eight isolates of Trichoderma spp. achieved the best performance in the antagonism to Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. from areas with symptoms of SDS had a higher control efficiency in vitro. These isolates showed high similarity to the species of T. koningii agregate.

  1. Pathogenic Leptospira spp. in bats: Molecular investigation in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Fabiana Quoos; Dos Reis, Emily Marques; Bezerra, André Vinícius Andrade; Cerva, Cristine; Rosa, Júlio; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Lima, Francisco Esmaile Sales; Pacheco, Susi Missel; Rodrigues, Rogério Oliveira

    2017-06-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the frequency of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in Brazilian bats and to determine possible risk factors associated to it. Ninety two bats of 12 species were evaluated. Whole genomic DNA from kidneys was extracted and real-time PCR specific to pathogenic Leptospira spp. was applied. Association between the frequency of specimens positive for Leptospira spp. and sex, age, bat species or family, season of collection, geographic localization and feeding habits was evaluated. The results showed that 39.13% of analyzed bats were found positive for Leptospira spp. Nine bat species had at least one positive result. There was no association among the evaluated variables and frequency of pathogenic Leptospira spp. Although the limitations due to lack of Leptospira spp. isolation, leptospiral carriage was demonstrated in bats of different species from southern Brazil, which reinforces the need for surveillance of infectious agents in wild animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Contamination by Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. of most popular chicken- and pork-sausages sold in Reunion Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimoulinard, A; Beral, M; Henry, I; Atiana, L; Porphyre, V; Tessier, C; Leclercq, A; Cardinale, E

    2017-06-05

    One of the most popular meat products of the local "cuisine" is sausage composed with 100% chicken or 100% pork. In this study, we aimed to determine the presence of Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. in chicken- and pork-sausages, quantify Salmonella spp. population and identify the factors that could be associated with contamination in the outlets. Two hundred and three batches of pork and chicken sausages were randomly collected from 67 local outlets (supermarkets, groceries and butcher shops). Salmonella spp. was detected in 11.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): [10.0; 13.5]) of samples, Campylobacter spp. in 1.5% [0.7; 4.2] and Listeria monocytogenes in 5.9% [4.4; 7.3]. Most probable number of Salmonella spp. varied between 6cfu per gram to 320cfu per gram. Salmonella serotypes isolated from pork and chicken sausages were S. Typhimurium (45.8%), S. London (20.8%), S. Derby (16.7%), S. Newport (8.33%), S. Blockley (4.2%) and S. Weltevreden (4.17%). Using a logistic (mixed-effect) regression model, we found that Salmonella spp. contamination was positively associated with sausages sold in papers or plastic bags and no control of rodents. Chicken sausages were associated with a decreasing risk of Salmonella contamination. Listeria monocytogenes contamination was positively associated with the presence of fresh rodent droppings in the outlet and negatively when the staff was cleaning regularly their hands with soap and water or water only. All the sampled outlets of Reunion Island were not equivalent in terms of food safety measures. Increasing awareness of these traders remains a cornerstone to limit the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. in sausages, particularly in a tropical context (high temperature and humidity). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Screening of Gibberellic Acid Production by Pseudomonas SPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khine Zar Wynn Myint; Khin Mya Lwin; Myo Myint

    2010-12-01

    The microbial gibberellic acid (GA3) production of Pseudomonas spp., was studied and qualitatively indentified by UV spectrophotometer. 20 strains of Pseudomonas spp., were isolated and screened the gibberellic acid productivily in King's B medium. Among them, only four strains can produce microbial gibberellic acid. The Rf values and colour appearance under UV were the same as authentic gibberellic acid. Moreover, the gibberellic acid producer strains were identified as Pseudomonas spp., by cultural, biochemical and drug sensitivity pattern.

  4. Chemical Components and Cardiovascular Activities of Valeriana spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng-Wen Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Valeriana spp. is a flowering plant that is well known for its essential oils, iridoid compounds such as monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, amino acids, and lignanoids. Valeriana spp. exhibits a wide range of biological activities such as lowering blood pressure and heart rate, antimyocardial ischemia reperfusion injury, antiarrhythmia, and regulation of blood lipid levels. This review focuses on the chemical constituents and cardiovascular activities of Valeriana spp.

  5. [Seroprevalence of Leptospira spp in population groups of Villavicencio, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góngora, Agustín; Parra, Jorge; Aponte, Luz; Gómez, Luz

    2008-01-01

    Determining Leptospira spp . antibody seroprevalence in an apparently healthy population and in groups at risk plus their associated factors in the town of Villavicencio in the Meta department of Colombia A cross-sectional epidemiological model was used (subjects being selected by convenience sampling). Blood-samples were obtained by cubital puncture from (n: 503) people, consisting of 230 first semester students from different programmes at the Universidad de los Llanos and 273 people corresponding to 8 groups at risk. Information regarding risk factor was obtained from interviewing the 503 people. A commercial indirect ELISA kit (Pambio) was used for determining IgM antibodies. Seroprevalence was 5,2 % in the low risk group. There was 19 % seroprevalence for groups at risk, 7 % for the group of people working in slaughterhouses, 17 % for vets and small animal clinic assistants, 17 % for students in their last year of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnia, 21 % for people milking cows on dual-purpose farms, 23 % for people working in rice-fields, 35 % for people working on pig-farms and 48 % for those working on fish-farms. Three factors were found to be associated: rural social level, having a pet dog and coming into contact with rodents in the workplace. A high seroprevalence for Leptospira spp was found in the groups at risk, people working on pig-farms and fish-farms being those most affected. There was a 1,86 relative risk in both groups indicated as having a greater risk of contagion amongst the population suffering occupational exposure.

  6. Plant growth and resistance promoted by Streptomyces spp. in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maila P; Bastos, Matheus S; Xavier, Vanessa B; Cassel, Eduardo; Astarita, Leandro V; Santarém, Eliane R

    2017-09-01

    Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) represent an alternative to improve plant growth and yield as well as to act as agents of biocontrol. This study characterized isolates of Streptomyces spp. (Stm) as PGPR, determined the antagonism of these isolates against Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis (Pcb), evaluated the ability of Stm on promoting growth and modulating the defense-related metabolism of tomato plants, and the potential of Stm isolates on reducing soft rot disease in this species. The VOC profile of Stm was also verified. Promotion of plant growth was assessed indirectly through VOC emission and by direct interaction with Stm isolates in the roots. Evaluation of soft rot disease was performed in vitro on plants treated with Stm and challenged with Pcb. Enzymes related to plant defense were then analyzed in plants treated with three selected isolates of Stm, and PM1 was chosen for further Pcb-challenging experiment. Streptomyces spp. isolates displayed characteristics of PGPR. PM3 was the isolate with efficient antagonism against Pcb by dual-culture. Most of the isolates promoted growth of root and shoot of tomato plants by VOC, and PM5 was the isolate that most promoted growth by direct interaction with Stm. Soft rot disease and mortality of plants were significantly reduced when plants were treated with StmPM1. Modulation of secondary metabolism was observed with Stm treatment, and fast response of polyphenoloxidases was detected in plants pretreated with StmPM1 and challenged with Pcb. Peroxidase was significantly activated three days after infection with Pcb in plants pretreated with StmPM1. Results suggest that Streptomyces sp. PM1 and PM5 have the potential to act as PGPR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Transpiration rates of rice plants treated with Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, Febri; Anizan, I.; Che Radziah C. M., Z.; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2014-09-01

    Trichoderma spp. are considered as successful plant growth promoting fungi and have positive role in habitat engineering. In this study, the potential for Trichoderma spp. to regulate transpiration process in rice plant was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. The study revealed that Trichoderma spp. have potential to enhance growth of rice plant through transpirational processes. The results of the study add to the advancement of the understanding as to the role of Trichoderma spp. in improving rice physiological process.

  8. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3375 Mycoplasma... fluorescent dye (immunofluorescent reagents) used to identify Mycoplasma spp. directly from clinical specimens...

  9. Molecular Survey on Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato, and Babesia spp. in Ixodes ricinus Ticks Infesting Dogs in Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganti, Giulia; Gavaudan, Stefano; Canonico, Cristina; Ravagnan, Silvia; Olivieri, Emanuela; Diaferia, Manuela; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Antognoni, Maria Teresa; Capelli, Gioia; Silaghi, Cornelia; Veronesi, Fabrizia

    2017-11-01

    Dogs are a common feeding hosts for Ixodes ricinus and may act as reservoir hosts for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) and as carriers of infected ticks into human settings. The aim of this work was to evaluate the presence of several selected TBPs of significant public health concern by molecular methods in I. ricinus recovered from dogs living in urban and suburban settings in central Italy. A total of 212 I. ricinus specimens were collected from the coat of domestic dogs. DNA was extracted from each specimen individually and tested for Rickettsia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Babesia spp., and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, using real-time and conventional PCR protocols, followed by sequencing. Sixty-one ticks (28.8%) tested positive for TBPs; 57 samples were infected by one pathogen, while four showed coinfections. Rickettsia spp. was detected in 39 specimens (18.4%), of which 32 were identified as Rickettsia monacensis and seven as Rickettsia helvetica. Twenty-two samples (10.4%) tested positive for A. phagocytophilum; Borrelia lusitaniae and Borrelia afzelii were detected in two specimens and one specimen, respectively. One tick (0.5%) was found to be positive for Babesia venatorum (EU1). Our findings reveal the significant exposure of dogs to TBPs of public health concern and provide data on the role of dogs in the circulation of I. ricinus-borne pathogens in central Italy.

  10. SPP retains interest in geothermal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2007-01-01

    Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) officially indicated that it intended to drop its project of using geothermal energy in the Kosicka kotlina. This spring it published an advert that it was looking for a company that wished to acquire a majority stake in the company, Geoterm Kosice. The company was established to commercially develop this geothermal source. But it seems SPP does not want to drop the project completely. It has kept some important cards, such as control over the land where the boreholes are located Any company that wants to use geothermal energy needs a ruling issued by the Ministry of Environment defining the exploration area. Geothermal sources were found in the villages of Durkov, Svinica, Bidovce and Olsovany. Not so long ago the area was assigned to Geoterm but from May 9 the area can be explored by Slovgeoterm. Both companies have the same majority shareholder - SPP. It controls 96% of Geoterm shares and 50% of Slovgeoterm. So far it has only officially announced its intention to sell the Geoterm shares. But as far as the use of the geothermal resource is concerned since May Slovgeoterm has played a key role.The company focuses on the utilization of geothermal energy. In addition to the project in the Kosice region, it has also participated in a project to heat more than a thousand flats using geothermal water in Galanta and a project to heat greenhouses in Podhajske. There are also other geothermal projects running in Presov and Michalovce. Icelandic company, Enex, with the same specialisation controls 28% of the company and a further 20% is owned by the investment group, NEFCO based in Helsinki. Two percent of the company is owned by its general director and the general proxy of Geoterm, Otto Halas. And so without the agreement of this company no-one can start any activities related to the utilization of geothermal energy. (authors)

  11. Deteksi Keberadaan Phytophthora Spp. Di Air

    OpenAIRE

    Sulistyawati, Purnamila

    2014-01-01

    The genus of Phytophthora is a destructive plants pathogen. However the existence of these species in plant tissue was hardly to detect because the fungus may also be present as resistant propagules in soil or spread through waterways. This study aimed to test the FTA card as a direct bait to obtain the DNA of Phytophthora spp and also to investigate the suitability of FTA card as a sampling method. This research used several Phytophthora baits including FTA card followed by DNA extraction a...

  12. Comparative of Quercus spp. and Salix spp. for phytoremediation of Pb/Zn mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiang; Wang, Shufeng; Sun, Haijing; Chen, Yitai; Wang, Dongxue; Pan, Hongwei; Zou, Yazhu; Liu, Jianfeng; Zheng, Linyu; Zhao, Xiulian; Jiang, Zeping

    2017-02-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using tree seedlings for the phytoremediation of lead/zinc (Pb/Zn) mine tailings. Seedlings of three Quercus spp. (Q. shumardii, Q. phellos, and Q. virginiana) and rooted cuttings of two Salix spp. (S. matsudana and S. integra) were transplanted into pots containing 50 and 100 % Pb/Zn mine tailings to evaluate their tolerance of heavy metals. The five species showed different tolerance levels to the Pb/Zn tailings treatments. Q. virginiana was highly tolerant to heavy metals and grew normally in the Pb/Zn tailings. The root systems showed marked differences between the Quercus spp. and Salix spp., indicating that different mechanisms operated to confer tolerance of heavy metals. The maximum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry value of the five species showed no differences among the treatments, except for Q. shumardii. All species showed low metal translocation factors (TFs). However, S. integra had significantly higher TF values for Zn (1.42-2.18) and cadmium (1.03-1.45) than did the other species. In this respect, Q. virginiana showed the highest tolerance and a low TF, implying that it is a candidate for phytostabilization of mine tailings in southern China. S. integra may be useful for phytoextraction of tailings in temperate regions.

  13. Histological Comparisons of Parasitism by Schistonchus spp. (Nemata: Aphelenchoididae) in Neotropical Ficus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center, Barbara J.; Giblin-Davis, Robin M.; Herre, E. Allen; Chung-Schickler, Genevieve C.

    1999-01-01

    Syconia (enclosed infructescences) infested with host-specific species of Schistonchus (Aphelenchoididae) were collected from six species of Ficus (Moraceae) native to Florida or Panama. They were sectioned and histologically examined to assess the effects of parasitism. Parasitism by Schistonchus spp. was associated with hypertrophied cells, tissue necrosis, and the presence of an exudate in all species. Occasional hypertrophy of the outer epidermal cells occurred on seed florets, wasp florets, and on the endothecial cells of male florets in F. aurea (subgenus Urostigma) from Florida. Aberrations of the inner mesocarp occurred under the hypertrophied cells on seed florets. In F. laevigata (subgenus Urostigma) from Florida, Schistonchus sp. infested immature male florets and was associated with hypertrophy of endothecial cells, epidermal cells of the anther filaments, and anthers. Schistonchus sp. also caused aberrations of the anther filament, anthers, and pollen. Ficus poponoei (subgenus Urostigma) and F. glabrata (subgenus Pharmacosycea), both from Panama, had hypertrophied outer epidermal cells on seed florets. Ficus poponoei also had Schistonchus sp. within the pedicel of an aborted floret, with hypertrophy of the cortical parenchyma. Ficus trigonata (subgenus Urostigma) from Panama had hypertrophy of the outer epidermis of seed florets. When the outer epidermis on these florets was missing, the inner mesocarp was hypertrophied. Ficus maxima (subgenus Pharmacosycea) from Panama had hypertrophy on the outer epidermis of seed and aborted florets. Schistonchus spp. were not found in wasp larvae or pupae in any of the Ficus spp. examined. Hypertrophy was never observed in the absence of Schistonchus spp. PMID:19270912

  14. First report of Colletotrichum spp. causing diseases on Capsicum spp. in Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Yun

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Blackish or orange liquid-like spots were found on (n=100 fruits of chillies (Capsicum sold in five local markets in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici were identified as the causal agents of an anthracnose disease. This is the first report of Colletotrichum spp. as the causal agent of anthracnose infected chillies in Sabah.

  15. Control potential of Meloidogyne javanica and Ditylenchus spp. using fluorescent Pseudomonas and Bacillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcielly F. Turatto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR have different mechanisms of action in the development of plants, such as growth promotion, production of phytohormones and antibiotic substances and changes in root exudates. These help to control plant diseases. In order to evaluate the potential of microorganisms in the control of Meloidogyne javanica and Ditylenchus spp., five rhizobacteria isolated from rhizosphere of garlic cultivated in the Curitibanos (SC region were tested. Hatching chambers were set on Petri dishes, in which were added 10 mL of bacterial suspension and 1 mL of M. javanica eggs suspension, at the rate of 4500, on the filter paper of each chamber. The same procedure was performed with 300 juvenile Ditylenchus spp. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replications. The evaluations were performed every 72 h for nine days. The antagonized population of nematodes was determined in Peters counting chamber, determining the percentage hatching (for M. javanica and motility (for Ditylenchus spp. Isolates CBSAL02 and CBSAL05 significantly reduced the hatching of M. javanica eggs (74% and 54.77%, respectively and the motility of Ditylenchus spp. (55.19% and 53.53%, respectively in vitro. Isolates were identified as belonging to the genera Pseudomonas (CBSAL05 and Bacillus (CBSAL02.

  16. Isothermal microcalorimetry for antifungal susceptibility testing of Mucorales, Fusarium spp., and Scedosporium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furustrand Tafin, Ulrika; Meis, Jacques F; Trampuz, Andrej

    2012-08-01

    We evaluated isothermal microcalorimetry for real-time susceptibility testing of non-Aspergillus molds. MIC and minimal effective concentration (MEC) values of Mucorales (n = 4), Fusarium spp. (n = 4), and Scedosporium spp. (n = 4) were determined by microbroth dilution according to the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute M38-A2 guidelines. Heat production of molds was measured at 37 °C in Sabouraud dextrose broth inoculated with 2.5 × 10(4) spores/mL in the presence of amphotericin B, voriconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin, and anidulafungin. As determined by microcalorimetry, amphotericin B was the most active agent against Mucorales (MHIC 0.06-0.125 μg/mL) and Fusarium spp. (MHIC 1-4 μg/mL), whereas voriconazole was the most active agent against Scedosporium spp. (MHIC 0.25 to 8 μg/mL). The percentage of agreement (within one 2-fold dilution) between the MHIC and MIC (or MEC) was 67%, 92%, 75%, and 83% for amphotericin B, voriconazole, posaconazole, and caspofungin, respectively. Microcalorimetry provides additional information on timing of antifungal activity, enabling further investigation of drug-mold and drug-drug interaction, and optimization of antifungal treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. POTENSI BAKTERI ENDOFIT AKAR UBI JALAR (IPOMOEA BATATAS L. ASAL KABUPATEN SORONG PAPUA BARAT SEBAGAI AGENSIA BIOKONTROL MELOIDOGYNE SPP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuminem .

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Potency of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L. root endophytic bacteria from Sorong District West Papua as biocontrol agent of Meloidogyne spp. Root knot nematodes/RKN, Meloidogyne spp. is one of the important pathogens in sweet potato plant. The disease incidence rate by the RKN on sweetpotato crop in Sorong District reached 88.77%. This study aims to get the sweet potato root endophytic bacteria that have potential as biocontrol agents against Meloidogyne spp. Endophytic bacteria was isolated from the roots of healthy sweet potato sampled from Sorong District, West Papua Province. Isolation and selection of bacteria using TSA media. Selected bacterial isolates, which were non-pathogenic to plants and humans then were identified with PCR technique using universal primer 63-F / 1387-R. The ability of bacteria to produce the lipase enzyme was selected using the media NB agar and rhodamine B. The protease enzyme-producing bacteria were selected using skim milk media. The chitinase enzyme-producing bacteria were selected using the colloidal chitin media. Production of cyanide was detected using filter paper soaked in a solution of CDS. The effectiveness of culture filtrate of bacteria as biocontrol agents was measured based on the percentage of 2nd juvenile mortality and egg hatching of Meloidogyne spp. Four isolates of endophytic bacteria, that were Enterobacter sp EAS (1a, Enterobacter sp. EAS (3a Enterobacter ludwigii EAS (4, and Burkholderia cepacia EAS (6 produced lipase and protease. In addition, B. cepacia EAS (6 also produced chitinase. Those isolates caused mortality of the 2nd juvenile 81.4 to 95.2% and inhibited the egg hatching of Meloidogyne spp. 53.13 to 81.92%.

  18. A survey of Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. in wild canids in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalit Levi, Maayan; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; King, Roni; Baneth, Gad

    2018-03-20

    Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. are apicomplexan parasites that infect a variety of animals, including canids. Their life-cycle includes an invertebrate hematophagous vector as a definitive host and vertebrates as intermediate hosts. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. infections in wild golden jackals (Canis aureus) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Israel and to compare spleen with blood sample polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of infection. Blood and spleen samples from 109 golden jackals and 21 red foxes were tested by PCR for the detection of Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. using primers for the 18S ribosomal (r) RNA gene. Hepatozoon canis was detected in 50/109 (46%) of the jackals and 9/21 (43%) of the foxes. "Babesia vulpes" (the Babesia microti-like piroplasm) was detected in 4/21 (19%) of the foxes and in none of the jackals. A previously unknown genotype termed Babesia sp. MML related to Babesia lengau (96-97% identity) was detected in 1/109 (1%) of the jackals and 4/21 (19%) of the foxes. Further characterization of this genotype carried out by PCR of the rRNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) indicated that it had only 87% identity with the B. lengau ITS2. Sex (male or female), age (juvenile or adult) and geographic zone (North, Central or South Israel) were not found to be significant risk factors for these protozoan infections. The prevalence of "B. vulpes" and Babesia sp. MML infections was significantly higher in foxes compared to jackals (χ 2  = 15.65, df = 1, P < 0.005), while there was no statistically significant difference in the rate of H. canis infection between these two canid species. A fair agreement beyond chance between identification in the blood and spleen of H. canis was found in 21 animals from which both blood and spleen samples were available (k = 0.33). This study describes a high prevalence of H. canis infection in

  19. Comparative analysis on antibiotic resistance characteristics of Listeria spp. and Enterococcus spp. isolated from laying hens and eggs in conventional and organic keeping systems in Bavaria, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiger, K; Schmied, E-M V; Bauer, J

    2010-05-01

    By investigating the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance characteristics of Gram-positive bacteria from organic and conventional keeping systems of laying hens, it was to be determined to what extent these properties are influenced by the different systems. For this purpose, a total of 799 cloacal swabs and 800 egg samples were examined. Prevalences for all selected bacteria from cloacal swabs were much the same for both organic and caged birds: Listeria spp.1.3%[org] versus 1.6%[con]; Enterococcus spp. 95.5%[org] versus 97.5%[con]. Egg contents and eggshells were generally contaminated to a lesser extent, primarily with Enterococcus spp. Listeria isolates were susceptible to almost all tested antibiotics, only three Listeria innocua from conventional keepings were resistant to clindamycin; one isolate additionally to imipenem. High percentages of Enterococcus faecalis were resistant to doxycycline and macrolides. Enterococcus faecium proved to have high resistance rates to clindamycin, fosfomycin and erythromycin; 9.1% were even resistant to the reserve antibiotic synercid. Further, Enterococcus spp. showed higher resistance rates to doxycycline, erythromycin, fosfomycin and rifampicin. No glycopeptide resistant enterococci were detected. A correlation between keeping system and resistance/susceptibility rates could be demonstrated. In detail, E. faecalis from organic laying hen husbandries showed significant lower resistance prevalences to tylosin, streptomycin and doxycycline; susceptibility rates were higher for enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Rifampicin and imipenem were more effective in isolates from conventional keepings (P < 0.05). The amounts of resistant isolates of the Enterococcus raffinosus from organic farms were significantly lower, the amounts of sensitive isolates were significantly higher than from conventional farms concerning eight antibiotics (P < 0.05). When comparing the susceptibility/resistance rates, as well as the mean minimum

  20. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Potential Plant Growth Promoting Bacillus cereus GGBSTD1 and Pseudomonas spp. GGBSTD3 from Vermisources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balayogan Sivasankari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vermicompost was prepared from leaf materials of Gliricidia sepium + Cassia auriculata + Leucaena leucocephala with cow dung (1 : 1 : 2 using Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg and Eisenia fetida for 60 days. Nineteen bacterial strains which have the capability to fix nitrogen, solubilize inorganic phosphate, and produce phytohormones were isolated from vermicompost, vermisources, and earthworm (fore, mid, and hind guts and tested for plant growth studies. Among the bacterial strains only five strains had both activities; among the five Bacillus spp. showed more nitrogen fixing activity and Pseudomonas spp. showed more phosphate solubilizing activity. Hence these bacterial strains were selected for further molecular analysis and identified Bacillus cereus GGBSTD1 and Pseudomonas spp. GGBSTD3. Plant growth studies use these two organisms separately and as consortium (Bacillus cereus + Pseudomonas spp. in (1 : 1 ratio at different concentrations using Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. at different day intervals. The germination percent, shoot length, root length, leaf area, chlorophyll a content of the leaves, chlorophyll b content of the leaves, total chlorophyll content of the leaves, fresh weight of the whole plant, and dry weight of the whole plant were significantly enhanced by the consortium (Bacillus cereus + Pseudomonas spp. of two organisms at 5 mL concentrations on the 15th day compared to others.

  1. PREVALENCE AND IDENTIFICATION OF VIBRIO SPP. ISOLATED ON AQUACULTURED GILTHEAD SEA BREAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Scarano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Vibrio spp isolated from gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata farmed on sea cages and to identify and characterize the pathogen by molecular techniques. Eighty fish were collected from two hatcheries located on the North-Est Sardinian Mediterranean coast, and microbiological analysis were performed on different body parts such as skin, gills, muscle and intestinal tract. Subsequently 100 pure colonies with typical morphology and phenotypic characteristics were selected and submitted to the molecular identification. The analysis on the prevalence of Vibrio spp showed the effect of the hatchery rearing system (P<0.001, of the date of sampling (P<0.001, and of the body part (P<0.001. All the strains selected were confirmed to be members of the genus Vibrio spp by the molecular method/techinique/identification, whereas the rpoA gene sequence analyses allowed to identify 89 strains belonging to the species Vibrio harveyi, 6 to V. diabolicus, 2 to V. parahaemolyticus and 1 to V. mediterranei.

  2. A modified scintigrafic technique for amputation level selection in diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwars, B.J.; Rauwerda, J.A.; Broek, T.A.A. van den; Rij, G.L. van; Hollander, W. den; Heidendal, G.A.K.

    1989-01-01

    A modified 123 I-antipyrine cutaneous washout technique for the selection of amputation levels is described. The modifications imply a reduction of time needed for the examination by simultaneous recordings on different levels, and a better patient acceptance by reducing inconvenience. Furthermore, both skin perfusion pressure (SPP) and skin blood flow (SBF) are determined from each clearance curve. In a prospective study among 26 diabetic patients presenting with ulcers or gangrene of the foot, both SPP and SBF were determined preoperatively on the selected level of surgery and on adjacent amputation sites. These 26 patients underwent 12 minor foot amputations and 17 major lower limb amputations. Two of these amputations failed to heal. SBF values appeared indicative for the degree of peripheral vascular disease, as low SBF values were found with low SPP values. SPP determinations revealed good predictive values: All surgical procedures healed when SPP>20 mmHg, but 2 out of 3 failed when SPP<2 mmHg. If SPP values would have been decisive, the amputation would have been converted to a lower level in 6 out of 17 cases. This modified scintigrafic technique provides accurate objective information for amputation level selection. (orig.)

  3. Modified scintigrafic technique for amputation level selection in diabetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwars, B.J.; Rauwerda, J.A.; Broek, T.A.A. van den; Rij, G.L. van; Hollander, W. den; Heidendal, G.A.K.

    1989-01-01

    A modified /sup 123/I-antipyrine cutaneous washout technique for the selection of amputation levels is described. The modifications imply a reduction of time needed for the examination by simultaneous recordings on different levels, and a better patient acceptance by reducing inconvenience. Furthermore, both skin perfusion pressure (SPP) and skin blood flow (SBF) are determined from each clearance curve. In a prospective study among 26 diabetic patients presenting with ulcers or gangrene of the foot, both SPP and SBF were determined preoperatively on the selected level of surgery and on adjacent amputation sites. These 26 patients underwent 12 minor foot amputations and 17 major lower limb amputations. Two of these amputations failed to heal. SBF values appeared indicative for the degree of peripheral vascular disease, as low SBF values were found with low SPP values. SPP determinations revealed good predictive values: All surgical procedures healed when SPP>20 mmHg, but 2 out of 3 failed when SPP<2 mmHg. If SPP values would have been decisive, the amputation would have been converted to a lower level in 6 out of 17 cases. This modified scintigrafic technique provides accurate objective information for amputation level selection.

  4. Anti- Sporothrix spp. activity of medicinal plants

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    Stefanie Bressan Waller

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cases of sporotrichosis in humans and animals without satisfactory clinical response have increased, a warning sign of strains resistant to conventional antifungal agents. The urgent search for alternative therapies was an incentive for research on medicinal plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. properties. A bibliographic survey was performed based on scientific papers about in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of essential oils and extracts of plants in differents solvents against the fungal of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. The study methodology consisted of a literature review in Google Scholar, Science Direct, Pubmed, Bireme and Springer link with papers from 1986 to 2015. We found 141 species of plants that were investigated, of which 100 species were concentrated in 39 botanical families that had confirmed anti-Sporothrix activity. Combretaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae represented the botanical families with the greatest number of plants species with antifungal potential, using different methodologies. However, there are few studies with medicinal plants in experimental infection in animals that prove their activity in the treatment of sporotrichosis. It reinforces the need for further research related to standardization of in vitro methodologies and in vivo studies related to safety and to toxicity potential of these plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. activity.

  5. Bacterial strains diversity in Musa spp. phyllosphere with antifungal activity against Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mileidy Cruz-Martín

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for alternatives to agricultural pesticides used for the management of black Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet includes the selection of microorganisms strains with potential for the control of this pathogen. The objective of the work was to characterize bacterial strains isolated from the phylosphere of Musa spp. with antifungal effect against M. fijiensis. A morphological, cultural, physiological and molecular characterization of the strains was performed and the antifungal activity of these strains was quantified by dual culture. It was verified the diversity of bacteria with antifungal properties against M. fijiensis present in the phylosphere of Musa spp.  In addition, it was found that the phyllosphere of these crops can be used as a source of obtaining possible biological controls of M. fijiensis.   Keywords: bacteria, biocontrol, Black Sigatoka, epiphytes

  6. CERAMBYCIDAE BEETLES ASSOCIATED TO Eucalyptus spp. IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF PINHEIRO MACHADO, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oderlei Bernardi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to collect, identify and carry out a faunistic characterization of Cerambycidae occurring in a forest of Eucalyptus spp., on São Manoel farm, in the municipality of Pinheiro Machado, RS. In the period from February 2006 to October 2007, collections of insects were performed every 15 days, with three ethanol traps. After selection procedures, the Cerambycidae were identified based on entomological collections and specialized literature. We collected 692 insects, distributed among 29 genera and 40 species. The most abundant species were Acanthoderes jaspidea, Chlorida costata, Compsocerus barbicornis, Eburodacrys sp., Eurysthea hirta, Neoclytus curvatus and Nyssodrysina lignaria, which represented 81.17% of the total individuals. Cerambycidae were collected during practically the entire sampling period, but the largest number at a single collection occurred in the month of December. Several species demonstrate potential for damaging Eucalyptus spp., of which Neoclytus curvatus deserves the most attention, because it represented almost half of the insects collected.

  7. Lactic acid bacteria from chicken carcasses with inhibitory activity against Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaridis, I; Soultos, N; Dovas, C I; Papavergou, E; Ambrosiadis, I; Koidis, P

    2012-02-01

    This study was conducted to isolate psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from chicken carcasses with inhibitory activity against strains of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. A total of 100 broiler samples were examined for the presence of LAB. Ninety-two LAB isolates that showed antimicrobial effects against Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes were further analysed to examine their LAB (Gram-positive, catalase negative, oxidase negative) and psychrotrophic characteristics (ability to grow at 7 °C). Fifty isolates were further selected and identified initially using standard biochemical tests in miniature (Micro-kits API CH 50) and then by sequencing of the 16s-23s rRNA gene boundary region (Intergenic Spacer Region). By molecular identification, these isolates were classified into 5 different LAB species: Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus johnsonii, Pediococcus acidilactici, and Lactobacillus paralimentarius. None of the isolates produced tyramine or histamine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 21 CFR 866.3355 - Listeria spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3355 Listeria spp... from clinical specimens. Additionally, some of these reagents consist of Listeria spp. antisera... clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of listeriosis, a disease caused by bacteria...

  9. Isolation and identification of Salmonella spp. in environmental water by molecular technology in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chun Wei; Hao Huang, Kuan; Hsu, Bing Mu; Tsai, Hsien Lung; Tseng, Shao Feng; Shen, Tsung Yu; Kao, Po Min; Shen, Shu Min; Chen, Jung Sheng

    2013-04-01

    Salmonella spp. is one of the most important causal agents of waterborne diseases. The taxonomy of Salmonella is very complicated and its genus comprises more than 2,500 serotypes. The detection of Salmonella in environmental water samples by routines culture methods using selective media and characterization of suspicious colonies based on biochemical tests and serological assay are generally time consuming. To overcome this drawback, it is desirable to use effective method which provides a higher discrimination and more rapid identification about Salmonella in environmental water. The aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence of Salmonella using molecular technology and to identify the serovars of Salmonella isolates from 70 environmental water samples in Taiwan. The analytical procedures include membrane filtration, non-selective pre-enrichment, selective enrichment of Salmonella. After that, we isolated Salmonella strains by selective culture plates. Both selective enrichment and culture plates were detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Finally, the serovars of Salmonella were confirmed by using biochemical tests and serological assay. In this study, 15 water samples (21.4%) were identified as Salmonella by PCR. The positive water samples will further identify their serotypes by culture method. The presence of Salmonella in environmental water indicates the possibility of waterborne transmission in drinking watershed. Consequently, the authorities need to provide sufficient source protection and to maintain the system for disease prevention. Keywords: Salmonella spp., serological assay, PCR

  10. Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. In the Ivaí Indigenous Land, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Letícia; Bergamasco, Rosângela; Toledo, Max Jean de Ornelas; Falavigna, Dina Lúcia Morais; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia; Mota, Lúcio Tadeu; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lúcia

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of cysts of Giardia spp. and oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. in waters of the Ivaí Indigenous Land, Brazil. Samples of river and spring water and of treated water were filtered and analyzed by direct immunofluorescence (Merifluor kit, Meridian Bioscience, Cincinnati, Ohio). Of 21 samples, 7 from each locality, 3 (3/7, 42.8%) from a river were positive for Giardia (mean concentration 2.57 cysts/L), and 1 (1/7, 14.3%) was positive for Cryptosporidium (6 oocysts/L). From springs, 1 sample (1/7, 14.3%) was positive for Cryptosporidium (6 oocysts/L). One sample (1/7, 14.3%) from treated water was positive for both, with 4 oocysts/L and 2 cysts/L. Giardia was the more frequent protozoan present.

  11. [Amblyomma spp. case related to overseas travel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyhan, Yunus Emre; Mungan, Mesut; Babür, Cahit

    2014-01-01

    Ticks are a threat to human health by blood sucking and vectoring many disease agents. Tick-borne diseases are seen all over the world and play an important role in the dissemination of diseases. Although many of the tick species are present in Turkey, Amblyomma genus is seen more in South America and Africa. In this case,a person returning to the country after travelling to Africa who presented to the hospital complaining of tick bites and brought ticks to the parasitology laboratory was identified as Ablyomma spp. nymph. This case is a report concerning care of tick bites when travelling abroad and shows that these ticks can transmit disease agents from abroad.

  12. with Candida spp. aetiology in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Tomczak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs in women are a growing clinical concern. The most frequent risk factors of UTIs with fungal aetiology in women are: antibiotic therapy (especially broad-spectrum antibiotics, immunosuppressive therapy, diabetes, malnutrition, pregnancy, and frequent intercourse. The aim of the study was to analyse urinary tract infections with Candida spp. aetiology in women hospitalised at the Clinical Hospital in Poznań, Poland, between 2009 and 2011. The investigations revealed that as many as 71% of positive urine cultures with Candida fungi came from women. The following fungi were most frequently isolated from the patients under analysis: C. albicans (47%, C. glabrata (31%, C. tropicalis (6%, C. krusei (3%. In order to diagnose a UTI the diagnosis cannot be based on a single result of a urine culture. Due to the small number of antifungal drugs and high costs of treatment, antifungal drugs should be applied with due consideration and care.

  13. Detection of relapsing fever Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp. and Anaplasmataceae bacteria in argasid ticks in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafri, Ismail; El Hamzaoui, Basma; Bitam, Idir; Leulmi, Hamza; Lalout, Reda; Mediannikov, Oleg; Chergui, Mohamed; Karakellah, Mohamed; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    Argasid ticks (soft ticks) are blood-feeding arthropods that can parasitize rodents, birds, humans, livestock and companion animals. Ticks of the Ornithodoros genus are known to be vectors of relapsing fever borreliosis in humans. In Algeria, little is known about relapsing fever borreliosis and other bacterial pathogens transmitted by argasid ticks. Between May 2013 and October 2015, we investigated the presence of soft ticks in 20 rodent burrows, 10 yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) nests and animal shelters in six locations in two different bioclimatic zones in Algeria. Six species of argasid ticks were identified morphologically and through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The presence and prevalence of Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasmataceae was assessed by qPCR template assays in each specimen. All qPCR-positive samples were confirmed by standard PCR, followed by sequencing the amplified fragments. Two Borrelia species were identified: Borrelia hispanica in Ornithodoros occidentalis in Mostaganem, and Borrelia cf. turicatae in Carios capensis in Algiers. One new Bartonella genotype and one new Anaplasmataceae genotype were also identified in Argas persicus. The present study highlights the presence of relapsing fever borreliosis agents, although this disease is rarely diagnosed in Algeria. Other bacteria of unknown pathogenicity detected in argasid ticks which may bite humans deserve further investigation.

  14. Detection of relapsing fever Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp. and Anaplasmataceae bacteria in argasid ticks in Algeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Lafri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Argasid ticks (soft ticks are blood-feeding arthropods that can parasitize rodents, birds, humans, livestock and companion animals. Ticks of the Ornithodoros genus are known to be vectors of relapsing fever borreliosis in humans. In Algeria, little is known about relapsing fever borreliosis and other bacterial pathogens transmitted by argasid ticks.Between May 2013 and October 2015, we investigated the presence of soft ticks in 20 rodent burrows, 10 yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis nests and animal shelters in six locations in two different bioclimatic zones in Algeria. Six species of argasid ticks were identified morphologically and through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The presence and prevalence of Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasmataceae was assessed by qPCR template assays in each specimen. All qPCR-positive samples were confirmed by standard PCR, followed by sequencing the amplified fragments. Two Borrelia species were identified: Borrelia hispanica in Ornithodoros occidentalis in Mostaganem, and Borrelia cf. turicatae in Carios capensis in Algiers. One new Bartonella genotype and one new Anaplasmataceae genotype were also identified in Argas persicus.The present study highlights the presence of relapsing fever borreliosis agents, although this disease is rarely diagnosed in Algeria. Other bacteria of unknown pathogenicity detected in argasid ticks which may bite humans deserve further investigation.

  15. Waterborne parasites and physico-chemical assessment of selected lakes in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onichandran, Subashini; Kumar, Thulasi; Lim, Yvonne A L; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Andiappan, Hemah; Salibay, Cristina C; Chye, Tan Tian; Ithoi, Init; Dungca, Julieta Z; Sulaiman, Wan Y W; Ling, Lau Yee; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the physico-chemical parameters and waterborne parasites in selected recreational lakes from Malaysia. Samples were collected from seven stations of Recreational Lake A (RL-A) and six stations of Recreational Lake B (RL-B). The samples were processed to detect the presence of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. using immunomagnetic separation kit, helminth eggs or ova by bright field microscopy and Acanthamoeba spp. by cultivation in non-nutrient agar. Chemical parameters such as ammonia, chlorine, fluoride, nitrate and nitrite and physical parameters such as dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, pH, salinity, temperature and total dissolved solid were also measured. Both lakes were freshwater with salinity ranging from 0.05 to 0.09 ppt. Most stations of these lakes were contaminated with Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., Ascaris spp. and hookworm. Schistosoma spp. was found in RL-B only, while Acanthamoeba spp. was found in all stations. Of all sampling sites, station 5 of RL-B is the most contaminated. Linear regression and correlation analysis revealed that Giardia spp. and Schistosoma spp. showed a significant negative correlation with turbidity (p Malaysia. Future work on heavy metals (chromium, copper, mercury and zinc) is recommended to enhance the overall water quality monitoring and to take appropriate safety measures to ensure maintenance of good water standards.

  16. Comparison of selected methods for the enumeration of fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabow, W O; De Villiers, J C; Schildhauer, C I

    1992-09-01

    In a comparison of five selected methods for the enumeration of fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in naturally contaminated and sewage-seeded mussels (Choromytilus spp.) and oysters (Ostrea spp.), a spread-plate procedure with mFC agar without rosolic acid and preincubation proved the method of choice for routine quality assessment.

  17. Pathogenic Streptomyces spp. abundance affected by potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Kamrun; Goyer, Claudia; Zebarth, Bernie J; Burton, David L; Whitney, Sean

    2018-04-16

    Potato cultivars vary in their tolerance to common scab (CS), however how they affect CS-causing Streptomyces spp. populations over time is poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of potato cultivar on pathogenic Streptomyces spp. abundance, measured using quantitative PCR, in three spatial locations in a CS-infested field: 1) soil close to the plant (SCP); 2) rhizosphere (RS); and 3) geocaulosphere (GS) soils. Two tolerant (Gold Rush, Hindenburg) and two susceptible cultivars (Green Mountain, Agria) were tested. The abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp. significantly increased in late August compared with other dates in RS of susceptible cultivars in both years. Abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp., when averaged over locations and time, was significantly greater in susceptible cultivars compared with tolerant cultivars in 2014. Principal coordinates analysis showed that SCP and RS soil properties (pH, organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations) explained 68% and 76% of total variation in Streptomyces spp. abundance among cultivars in 2013, respectively, suggesting that cultivars influenced CS pathogen growth conditions. The results suggested that the genetic background of potato cultivars influenced the abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp., with 5 to 6 times more abundant Streptomyces spp. in RS of susceptible cultivars compared with tolerant cultivars, which would result in substantially more inoculum left in the field after harvest.  .

  18. Determination of Juglone concentration for differentiate two Musa spp cultivars

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    Michel Leiva Mora

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The toxins production by fungal pathogenic can enhance penetration and colonization of the host tissues and reproduce symptoms of diseases. Juglone is the main and the most toxic metabolite characterized from the culture filtrate of Mycosphaerella fijiensis. In the present work it was used different concentrations of juglone (10, 25, 50 and 100 mg.l-1 and a control solution of methanol 10%. Foliar injections were performed in the underside of two last open leaves of Grande naine (AAA and Fougamou (ABB cultivars. The percentage of necrosis per plant was evaluated at 24 hours after the injection. The concentration of 100 mg.l-1 was able to produce necrotic symptoms in both cultivars; nevertheless with the 50 mg.l-1 was possible to obtain differences between the two cultivars. This result established a concentration for screening two Musa spp cultivars with different resistance levels to Black Leaf Streak by the use of juglone. Key word: banana leaf streak, Mycosphaerella fijiensis, selection, toxins

  19. Efficacy of a variety of disinfectants against Listeria spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, M; Kennedy, M E; Coates, F

    1990-02-01

    The efficacy of 14 disinfectants against Listeria innocua and two strains of Listeria monocytogenes in the presence of organic matter was studied. Quantitative efficacy tests were used. Many of the disinfectants tested were not as effective on Listeria spp. when the test organisms were dried onto the surface of steel disks (carrier tests) as they were when the organisms were placed in suspension (suspension test). The presence of whole serum and milk (2% fat) further reduced the disinfectant capacities of most of the formulations studied. Only three disinfectants (povidone-iodine, chlorhexidine gluconate, and glutaraldehyde) were effective in the carrier test in the presence of serum; however, all three were ineffective when challenged with milk (2% fat). Only one solution, sodium dichloroisocyanurate, was effective in the presence of milk. All but four formulations (chloramine-T, phosphoric acid, an iodophor, and formaldehyde) were effective in the suspension tests, regardless of the organic load. L. monocytogenes was observed to be slightly more resistant to disinfection than L. innocua was. There was no difference in disinfectant susceptibility between the two strains of L. monocytogenes. These findings emphasize the need for caution in selecting an appropriate disinfectant for use on contaminated surfaces, particularly in the presence of organic material.

  20. Untargeted Metabolomic Analysis of Capsicum spp. by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranha, Bianca Camargo; Hoffmann, Jessica Fernanda; Barbieri, Rosa Lia; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor; Chaves, Fábio Clasen

    2017-09-01

    In order to conserve the biodiversity of Capsicum species and find genotypes with potential to be utilised commercially, Embrapa Clima Temperado maintains an active germplasm collection (AGC) that requires characterisation, enabling genotype selection and support for breeding programmes. The objective of this study was to characterise pepper accessions from the Embrapa Clima Temperado AGC and differentiate species based on their metabolic profile using an untargeted metabolomics approach. Cold (-20°C) methanol extraction residue of freeze-dried fruit samples was partitioned into water/methanol (A) and chloroform (B) fractions. The polar fraction (A) was derivatised and both fractions (A and B) were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Data from each fraction was analysed using a multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) with XCMS software. Amino acids, sugars, organic acids, capsaicinoids, and hydrocarbons were identified. Outlying accessions including P116 (C. chinense), P46, and P76 (C. annuum) were observed in a PCA plot mainly due to their high sucrose and fructose contents. PCA also indicated a separation of P221 (C. annuum) and P200 (C. chinense), because of their high dihydrocapsaicin content. Although the metabolic profiling did not allow for grouping by species, it permitted the simultaneous identification and quantification of several compounds complementing and expanding the metabolic database of the studied Capsicum spp. in the AGC. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. In vitro effects of various xenobiotics on Fusarium spp. strains isolated from cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolny-Koładka, Katarzyna A

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the susceptibility of Fusarium spp. strains isolated from cereals to selected heavy metals, fungicides and silver nanoparticles. The experiments were conducted using 50 Fusarium strains belonging to five species: F. graminearum, F. culmorum, F. oxysporum, F. sporotrichioides and F. avenaceum. The strains were found to be highly resistant to Pb(2+) and Zn(2+). Medium resistance to Cu(2+) and Mn(2+) and low resistance to Cd(2+) and Fe(3+) was also observed. Among the tested fungicides, formulations containing azoxystrobin, prochloraz and tebuconazole proved to be the most effective in inhibiting the growth of fungi, as they affected fungal growth in each of the applied doses. Susceptibility of Fusarium spp. to nanosilver, demonstrated in this study, shows the legitimacy of using nanostructures as fungicidal agents. The results confirm high diversity of the analyzed fungal species in terms of susceptibility to the tested substances, and encourage to continue research on the resistance of Fusarium spp. to various fungicidal agents.

  2. Identification and typing of Brucella spp. in stranded harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) on the Dutch coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maio, Elisa; Begeman, Lineke; Bisselink, Yvette; van Tulden, Peter; Wiersma, Lidewij; Hiemstra, Sjoukje; Ruuls, Robin; Gröne, Andrea; Roest, Hendrik-Ido-Jan; Willemsen, Peter; van der Giessen, Joke

    2014-09-17

    The presence of Brucella (B.) spp. in harbour porpoises stranded between 2008 and 2011 along the Dutch coast was studied. A selection of 265 tissue samples from 112 animals was analysed using conventional and molecular methods. In total, 4.5% (5/112) of the animals corresponding with 2.3% (6/265) Brucella positive tissue samples were Brucella positive by culture and these were all confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) based on the insertion element 711 (IS711). In addition, two more Brucella-positive tissue samples from two animals collected in 2011 were identified using real-time PCR resulting in an overall Brucella prevalence of 6.3% (7/112 animals). Brucella spp. were obtained from lungs (n=3), pulmonary lymph node (n=3) and lungworms (n=2). Multi Locus Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) Analysis (MLVA) typing based on the MLVA-16 showed that the Brucella isolates were B. ceti. Additional in silico Multi Locus Sequence typing (MLST) after whole genome sequencing of the 6 Brucella isolates confirmed B. ceti ST 23. According to the Brucella 2010 MLVA database, the isolated Brucella strains encountered were of five genotypes, in two distinct subclusters divided in two different time periods of harbour porpoises collection. This study is the first population based analyses for Brucella spp. infections in cetaceans stranded along the Dutch coast. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Neospora caninum versus Brucella spp. exposure among dairy cattle in Ethiopia: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Kassahun

    2014-08-01

    This case-control study aimed at assessing the relative association of Neospora caninum and Brucella species exposure with reproductive disorders. The study was carried out between October 2011 and June 2012 on 731 dairy cows sampled from 150 dairy farms in selected 17 conurbations of Ethiopia. Two hundred sixty-six of the cows were categorized as cases based on their history of abortion or stillbirth while the remaining 465 were controls. The presence of antibody to N. caninum was screened using indirect ELISA, while Brucella spp. exposure was assayed serially using Rose Bengal Plate Test and Complement Fixation Test. Exposure to N. caninum was more frequently observed among cases (23.8%) than controls (12.7%), while no significant difference (p > 0.05) was noted for Brucella exposure between the two groups. Moreover, the proportion of cows with disorders like retention of fetal membrane, endometritis and increased inter-calving period were significantly higher (p Brucella spp. exposure. However, neither N. caninum nor Brucella spp. could explain the majority (73.2%) of the reported abortions and stillbirths in cattle. Hence, this observation underscores the need for more intensive investigation on the identification of causes of the aforementioned disorders in dairy cattle of Ethiopia.

  4. Divergent homologs of the predicted small RNA BpCand697 in Burkholderia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiri, Nadzirah; Mohd-Padil, Hirzahida; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd

    2015-09-01

    The small RNA (sRNA) gene candidate, BpCand697 was previously reported to be unique to Burkholderia spp. and is encoded at 3' non-coding region of a putative AraC family transcription regulator gene. This study demonstrates the conservation of BpCand697 sequence across 32 Burkholderia spp. including B. pseudomallei, B. mallei, B. thailandensis and Burkholderia sp. by integrating both sequence homology and secondary structural analyses of BpCand697 within the dataset. The divergent sequence of BpCand697 was also used as a discriminatory power in clustering the dataset according to the potential virulence of Burkholderia spp., showing that B. thailandensis was clearly secluded from the virulent cluster of B. pseudomallei and B. mallei. Finally, the differential co-transcript expression of BpCand697 and its flanking gene, bpsl2391 was detected in Burkholderia pseudomallei D286 after grown under two different culture conditions using nutrient-rich and minimal media. It is hypothesized that the differential expression of BpCand697-bpsl2391 co-transcript between the two standard prepared media might correlate with nutrient availability in the culture media, suggesting that the physical co-localization of BpCand697 in B. pseudomallei D286 might be directly or indirectly involved with the transcript regulation of bpsl2391 under the selected in vitro culture conditions.

  5. A simple method for DNA isolation from Xanthomonas spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Luiz Humberto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple DNA isolation method was developed with routine chemicals that yields high quality and integrity preparations when compared to some of the most well known protocols. The method described does not require the use of lysing enzymes, water bath and the DNA was obtained within 40 minutes The amount of nucleic acid extracted (measured in terms of absorbancy at 260 nm from strains of Xanthomonas spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Erwinia spp. was two to five times higher than that of the most commonly used method.

  6. Chemical and ecological control methods for Epitrix spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. S. Cuthbertson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Very little information exists in regards to the control options available for potato flea beetles, Epitrix spp. This short review covers both chemical and ecological options currently available for control of Epitrix spp. Synthetic pyrethroids are the weapon of choice for the beetles. However, the impetus in integrated pest management is to do timely (early-season applications with something harsh which will give long-term protection at a time when there are not a lot of beneficials in the field. Finding the balance for control of Epitrix spp. is proving difficult.

  7. Molecular methods as tools to control plant diseases caused by Dickeya and Pectobacterium spp: A minireview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motyka, Agata; Zoledowska, Sabina; Sledz, Wojciech; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2017-10-25

    Dickeya spp. and Pectobacterium spp. are etiological agents of soft rot on crops, vegetables, and ornamentals. They also cause blackleg on potato. These pectinolytic phytopathogens are responsible for significant economic losses, mostly within the potato production sector. Importantly, there are no methods to eradicate these microorganisms once they have infected plant material. Solely preventive measures remain, including early detection and identification of the pathogens, monitoring of their spread in addition to planting certified seed material tested for latent infections. As proper identification of the causative agent allows for efficient limitation of disease spread, numerous detection and differentiation methods have been developed. Most commonly followed procedures involve: isolation of viable bacterial cells (alternatively post-enrichment) on semi-selective media, identification to species level by PCR (single, multiplex, Real time), serology or fatty acids profiling. Differentiation of the isolates is often accomplished by sequencing the housekeeping genes or molecular fingerprinting. In view of lowering total costs of next-generation sequencing (NGS), a huge amount of generated data reveals subtle differences between strains that have proven to be potentially useful for the establishment of specific novel detection pipelines. Successful implementation of molecular diagnostic methods is exemplified by 20-year studies on the populations of pectinolytic bacteria on potatoes in Poland. The presented work aims to gather the characteristics of Dickeya spp. and Pectobacterium spp. important for the identification process in addition to providing an overview of modern and newly developed specific, rapid, high-throughput and cost-effective screening methods for the detection and identification of these phytopathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system, Paraná, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatas Campos Almeida

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system. Samples of raw and treated water were collected and concentrated using the membrane filtration technique. Direct Immunofluorescence Test was performed on the samples. DNA extraction using a commercial kit was performed and the DNA extracted was submitted to a nested-PCR reaction (n-PCR and sequencing. In the immunofluorescence, 2/24 (8.33% samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp.. In n-PCR and sequencing, 2/24 (8.33% samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp., and 2/24 (8.33% samples were positive for Cryptosporidium spp.. The sequencing showed Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis DNA. In raw water, there was moderate correlation among turbidity, color and Cryptosporidium spp. and between turbidity and Giardia spp.. The presence of these protozoans in the water indicates the need for monitoring for water-treatment companies.

  9. Mechanisms of quinolone resistance in Salmonella spp. / Mecanismos de resistência às quinolonas em Salmonella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Cristina Rocha Moreira de Oliveira

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Salmonellosis is a common and widespread zoonotic disease of humans and a frequent cause of foodborne disease. Treatment of severe and systemic salmonellosis is usually done with fluoroquinolones. In this review resistance mechanisms of Salmonella to quinolones are discussed. Single point mutations in the quinolone resistant determining region (QRDR of the gyrA gene may be sufficient to generate high levels of resistance to non-fluorated quinolones and also may decrease the fluoroquinolones susceptibility. Other resistance mechanisms that should be considered are mutations in parC gene, the possibility of acquiring resistance through plasmidial transference and hyper-expression of efflux pumps. Fluoroquinolones resistance is still relatively uncommon in Salmonella compared to other species belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. However, the more careful use of fluoroquinolones in veterinary and human medicine is essential to decrease the selective pressure which can avoid the emergence and spread of resistant clones and consequently maintain the clinical efficacy of this group of antibiotics.A salmonelose é uma zoonose de importância mundial e uma das mais freqüentes doenças de origem alimentar. As fluoroquinolonas são a principal opção para o tratamento de salmoneloses graves ou sistêmicas. Esta revisão de literatura teve como objetivo apresentar os principais mecanismos envolvidos na resistência de Salmonella spp a estes antimicrobianos. Mutações de ponto na Região Determinante de Resistência à Quinolona (QRDR do gene gyrA podem gerar altos níveis de resistência a quinolonas não-fluoradas, além de reduzir a suscetibilidade as fluoroquinolonas. Outros mecanismos de resistência que também precisam ser considerados são as mutações no gene parC, a possibilidade do envolvimento de plasmídios de resistência e o sistema de efluxo ativo. A resistência às fluoroquinolonas ainda é incomum em Salmonella spp., quando

  10. RESEARCH ARTICLE Analysis of polymorphisms and selective ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-01-27

    Jan 27, 2017 ... The presence of purifying selection and low nucleotide diversity indicated that ... protein in Plasmodium spp., and they are mainly due to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) ... This study was approved by Medical Research & Ethics Committee of the Ministry of. Health ..... X. Asembo Bay Cohort Project.

  11. Application of the biosurfactants produced by Bacillus spp. (SH 20 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of the biosurfactants produced by Bacillus spp. (SH 20 and SH 26) and P. aeruginosa SH 29 isolated from the rhizosphere soil of an Egyptian salt marsh plant for the cleaning of oil - contaminataed vessels and enhancing the biodegradat.

  12. Bacillus Spp. isolated from the conjunctiva and their potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... Introduction. Application of antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial ... Keywords: Bacillus spp, antibacterial activity, eyes pathogens, conjunctiva. African Health ... ml of respective test organism and allowed to dry. In the agar ...

  13. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Holospora spp., Intranuclear Symbionts of Paramecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofya K. Garushyants

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available While most endosymbiotic bacteria are transmitted only vertically, Holospora spp., an alphaproteobacterium from the Rickettsiales order, can desert its host and invade a new one. All bacteria from the genus Holospora are intranuclear symbionts of ciliates Paramecium spp. with strict species and nuclear specificity. Comparative metabolic reconstruction based on the newly sequenced genome of Holospora curviuscula, a macronuclear symbiont of Paramecium bursaria, and known genomes of other Holospora species shows that even though all Holospora spp. can persist outside the host, they cannot synthesize most of the essential small molecules, such as amino acids, and lack some central energy metabolic pathways, including glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. As the main energy source, Holospora spp. likely rely on nucleotides pirated from the host. Holospora-specific genes absent from other Rickettsiales are possibly involved in the lifestyle switch from the infectious to the reproductive form and in cell invasion.

  14. Physiology and immunology of mucosal barriers in catfish (Ictalurus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mucosal barriers of catfish (Ictalurus spp.) constitute the first line of defense against pathogen invasion while simultaneously carrying out a diverse array of other critical physiological processes, including nutrient adsorption, osmoregulation, waste excretion, and environmental sensing. Catf...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3870 - Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3870 Trypanosoma... consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to Trypanosoma spp. in...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3065 Bordetella... serological tests to identify Bordetella spp. from cultured isolates or directly from clinical specimens. The...

  17. Studies on Thiobacilli spp. isolated from sandy beaches of Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gore, P.S.; Raveendran, O.; Unnithan, R.V.

    Occurrence, isolation and oxidative activity of Thiobacilli spp. from some sandy beaches of Kerala are reported. These organisms were encountered in polluted beaches and were dominant during monsoon in all the beaches...

  18. SPP propagation in nonlinear glass-metal interface

    KAUST Repository

    Sagor, Rakibul Hasan; Alsunaidi, Mohammad A.; Ooi, Boon S.

    2011-01-01

    The non-linear propagation of Surface-Plasmon-Polaritons (SPP) in single interface of metal and chalcogenide glass (ChG) is considered. A time domain simulation algorithm is developed using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method

  19. Interlaboratorium vergelijking van het onderzoek naar Aeromonas spp. in drinkwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar AH; During M; Versteegh JFM

    1986-01-01

    Door middel van onderzoek van zes kunstmatig besmette gesimuleerde monsters drinkwater ( 4 Aeromonas spp., 1 Klebsiella oxytoca, 1 Pseudomonas aeruginosa) werd een vergelijking gemaakt van de resultaten van Aeromonas onderzoek in 14 laboratoria. De tellingen in de deelnemende laboratoria

  20. Growth Performance of Five Bean (Phaseolus spp) Varieties as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    had significant (P≤ 0.05) effect on bean plant girth, number of leaves, number of branches, mean number of flowers, total fresh ... Beans (Phaseolus spp) belong to one of several genera .... Meng (2016), that found that applying coffee pulp.

  1. Molecular characterization of Azotobacter spp. nifH gene Isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB. ISSN 1684–5315 ... Molecular characterization of Azotobacter spp. nifH .... MATERIALS AND METHODS ..... rapidly expanding and is currently composed of over.

  2. MÉTODOS DE DETECÇÃO, TRANSMISSÃO E PATOGENICIDADE DE Fusarium spp. EM SEMENTES DE Pinus taeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaisa Wendhausen Ramos da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The root rots (RR, caused by the Fusarium spp., causes loss of seedling in the nursery that show, initially, discoloration of the needles to a yellowish-green tone followed by apical curvature, wilt and the consequent death of the seedling. The objectives of this work were to: a define the most appropriate and efficient method to detect Fusarium spp. in Pinus taeda seeds; b verify if there is transmission of Fusarium spp. from seeds to Pinus taeda seedlings; c develop a descriptive scale to evaluate the severity of the RR in Pinus taeda seedlings; d evaluate the pathogenicity, aggressiveness and area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC of isolated Fusarium subglutinans . For detection three treatments were applied to six lots of Pinus taeda seeds, bein four repetitions of 25 seeds: blotter test, paper card and selective medium. The transmission was evaluated in seeds from six lots of Pinus taeda during 60 days counting the percentage of emerged plantlet (EP, non-germinated seeds (NGS and from NGS seeds with Fusarium spp. A descriptive scale of grades was developed to evaluate the severity of RR in Pinus taeda seedlings. The severity and the incidence of the illness were evaluated at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after the inoculation from Pinus taeda seedlings of six months of age. The pathogenicity, severity and incidence of twelve isolated Fusarium subglutinans obtained in the detection test. To test for pathogenicity and aggressiveness 13 treatments with 15 replications were applied. The most sensitive detection method to detect Fusarium spp. on Pinus taeda seeds was the selective medium; transmission was not observed of Fusarium spp. from seeds to the seedlings; the descriptive scale allowed evaluating the progression of RR symptoms; nine isolated of Fusarium spp. were found to be pathogenic to Pinus taeda seedlings, reproducing typical symptoms of RR, being isolated L3R2, the most aggressive and that exhibited higher AUDPC.

  3. Isolation of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii from artisanal mozzarella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen capable of causing disease and even fatalities in newborn infants within the first weeks of life if consumed as part of the diet. Premature and immunocompromised newborn infants are at particular risk. The microorganism has been isolated from a variety of foods including contaminated infant milk formula powder and milk powder substitute. The study aimed to evaluate the level of microbiological contamination in 47 samples of mozzarella cheese made with cow’s milk collected from artisan cheese producers in Southern Italy. Samples were collected from commercial sales points and underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological analyses to test for the bacterial contaminants most commonly found in milk and cheese products. The 47 samples underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological tests according to ISO UNI EN standards. Analyses focused on Staphylococcus aures, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas spp., E. coli, Yersinia spp., total coliforms and Cronobacter sakazakii. The ISO/TS 22964:2006 method was used to investigate possible contamination by C. sakazakii. Biochemical identification was carried out using an automated system for identification and susceptibility tests. None of the samples examined resulted positive for Salmonella spp. or Listeria spp. Only one sample resulted positive for Staphylococcus aureus. Pseudomonas spp. was isolated in 10 (21% of 47 samples. High levels of total coliforms were found in 10 of 47 samples. Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii was isolated in one sample. This is the first study to confirm isolation of C. sakazakii in artisan mozzarella cheese made from cow’s milk. The presence of C. sakazakii could be related to external contamination during the phases of production or to the use of contaminated milk. Since mozzarella is recommended in the diet of children and adults of all ages, this

  4. POTENSI BEBERAPA ISOLAT PROBIOTIK SEBAGAI ANTIBAKTERI TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN Vibrio spp.

    OpenAIRE

    HASBIAH

    2015-01-01

    The research about potential of some probiotic isolates as an antibacterial on the growth of Vibrio spp had been done. This research aimed to know the antibacterial potency from some isolates probiotic on the growth of Vibrio spp. This research to tested the inhibition on the three species of Vibrio that are Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio prahaemolyticus, and Vibrio cholerae using agar diffusion method. Probiotic isolates come from lactic acid bacteria group that provide beneficial effects on health ...

  5. Phenotypic characterization of canine Malassezia spp., isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Hurtado-Suárez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To characterize and identify yeasts of the genus Malassezia by phenotypic features. Materials and methods. First, the macroscopic and microscopic morphological characteristics were described. In addition we performed biochemical and physiological assays as Tweens and Cremophor, including more. Results. Our results evidenced of 105 isolates obtained from dogs diagnosed with external otitis, it was possible to identify two distinct species from 46 isolates within the Malassezia genus: 36.19% (n=38 were identified as M. pachydermatis and 7.62% (n=8 as M. furfur. According to phenotypic patterns the remaining 56.19% (n=59 were reported as Malassezia spp., possibly corresponding to M. furfur and/or M. pachydermatis. Conclusions. Results emphasize the necessity to characterize according to species. It is not feasible to define Malassezia by species based on morphological, biochemical, and physiological findings. Therefore, molecular genotyping should be performed to identify markers allowing a more precise isolate identification. This would broaden our epidemiological knowledge regarding different species involved in canine otitis pathologies.

  6. Biopharmaceutical potentials of Prosopis spp. (Mimosaceae, Leguminosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhaseelan Henciya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis is a commercially important plant genus, which has been used since ancient times, particularly for medicinal purposes. Traditionally, Paste, gum, and smoke from leaves and pods are applied for anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial purposes. Components of Prosopis such as flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, quinones, or phenolic compounds demonstrate potentials in various biofunctions, such as analgesic, anthelmintic, antibiotic, antiemetic, microbial antioxidant, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antipustule, and antiulcer activities; enhancement of H+, K+, ATPases; oral disinfection; and probiotic and nutritional effects; as well as in other biopharmaceutical applications, such as binding abilities for tablet production. The compound juliflorine provides a cure in Alzheimer disease by inhibiting acetylcholine esterase at cholinergic brain synapses. Some indirect medicinal applications of Prosopis spp. are indicated, including antimosquito larvicidal activity, chemical synthesis by associated fungal or bacterial symbionts, cyanobacterial degradation products, “mesquite” honey and pollens with high antioxidant activity, etc. This review will reveal the origins, distribution, folk uses, chemical components, biological functions, and applications of different representatives of Prosopis.

  7. Banana (Musa. spp.) strain HD-1 appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longyan, G.; Xinguo, L.; Lingxia, W.; Xuefei, J.

    2016-01-01

    Being one of the important tropical and subtropical fruit trees, banana (Musa spp.) belongs to the family Musaceae and the order Scitaminae with two genera, Musa and Ensete. In a field survey, research team has discovered a potential banana mutant strain HD-1 with a sound economic value. The results of the finding are as follows: based on Simmonds classification, the pseudostem of banana strain HD-1 is relatively short and purplish red; its upright outward petiole groove has red edges and wraps its pseudostem loosely. Its ploidy is 3, AAA type. Karyotype analysis shows that the number of chromosomes is 33, the karyotype formula is 2n=3x=33=2L + 3 M2 + 4 M1 + 2 S, HD-1 is classified as 1B type. With the help of ISSR molecular markers, we find thatbanana HD-1 has the closest relationship with Pubei and Tianbao dwarf banana; the similarity coefficient is 0.81. In an artificial simulation tests of cold, drought and salt resistance environment changes of physiological and biochemical indexes indicate that HD-1 exhibits stronger defense capability than Brazil banana. By way of inoculation with injury of root dipping method, we respectively treat two kinds of banana seedlings inoculated Banana Fusarium wilt race 4 small species. The results show that their resistance evaluation scores are 3 and 4, disease levels are susceptible and high sensitivity respectively. We conclude that HD-1 has stronger resistance ability to Fusarium wilt than Brazil banana. (author)

  8. Management of Root-Nematode (Meloidogyne SPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miano, D.W

    2002-01-01

    Greenhouse and field experiments were undertaken to determine the possibility of using soil amendments with different C:N levels or applied at different rates and times in the control of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.)in tomato c.v Cal J.A naturally infested field was used while artificial inoculation was done in the greenhouse. Root galling was rated on a scale of 0-10, nematode population was estimated by counting second stage juveniles extracted from 200 cm 3 soil and fruit yields were recorded at the end of the season. Nematode population densities and galling indices were significantly (P< or=0.05) lower in amended soils compared to the control. Application of the amendments also resulted in significant (P< or=0.05) increase in yields. Chicken manure, compost manure, neem products and pig manure were were the most effective amendments. Fresh chicken manure had a more suppressive effect on nematode than when the manure was decomposed within or outside a nematode infested field. A general decrease in juvenile populations and galling was observed with increase of organic amendments applied

  9. Multiple genetic resistances in Capsicum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, C S; de Souza, A G; Sudré, C P; Pimenta, S; Rodrigues, R

    2017-09-27

    This study aimed to identify Capsicum genotypes with resistance to bacterial spot (BS), anthracnose and Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV). Fifty-four genotypes of Capsicum spp were evaluated. Resistance reaction against BS was evaluated using three replicates, testing hypersensitivity and quantitative resistance in leaves. After evaluation, inoculated leaves were detached from the plants, being then cultivated until reproductive stage for evaluations anthracnose resistance in immature and mature fruit, totalizing 18 fruits per genotype. For PepYMV resistance was performed with five replications. Each genotype reaction was evaluated by a scoring scale, using the area under the disease progress curve for each pathosystem, and incubation period for the three systems. The latent period was evaluated only for the pathosystem Capsicum-Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Means were grouped by the Scott-Knott test. Measures of dissimilarity matrix among the genotypes were obtained by Gower's algorithm and the grouping was obtained by the UPGMA clustering method. The accessions belonging to the Capsicum frutescens were the most susceptible to the three diseases. At least one genotype of Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum, Capsicum annuum, and Capsicum chinense showed resistance potential to BS and PepYMV, for use in breeding programs. The accession UENF 1381 (C. annuum) was resistant to the three pathogens.

  10. Radiosensitization of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. in ready-to-eat baby spinach leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Carmen; Moreira, Rosana G; Castell-Perez, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The FDA recently approved irradiation treatment of leafy greens such as spinach up to 1 kGy; however, it is important to reduce the dose required to decontaminate the produce while maintaining its quality. Thus, the objectives of this study were: (1) to assess the radiation sensitivities of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. inoculated in ready-to-eat baby spinach leaves under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and irradiated using a 1.35-MeV Van de Graff accelerator (the leaves were irradiated both at room temperature and at -5 °C); and (2) to understand and optimize the synergistic effect of MAP and irradiation by studying the radiolysis of ozone formation under different temperatures, the effect of dose rate on its formation, and its decomposition. Results showed that increased concentrations of oxygen in the packaging significantly increased the radiation sensitivity of the test organisms, ranging from 7% up to 25% reduction in D(10)-values. In particular, radiosensitization could be effected (P radiation under modified atmosphere packaging (100% O(2) and N(2):O(2)[1:1]) may be a viable tool for reducing microbial populations or eliminating Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. from baby spinach. A suggested treatment to achieve a 5-log reduction of the test organisms would be irradiation at room temperature under 100% O(2) atmosphere at a dose level of 0.7 kGy. Practical Application: Decontamination of minimally processed fruits and vegetables from food-borne pathogens presents technical and economical challenges to the produce industry. Internalized microorganisms cannot be eliminated by the current procedure (water-washed or treated with 200-ppm chlorine). The only technology available commercially is ionizing radiation; however, the actual radiation dose required to inactivate pathogens is too high to be tolerated by the product without unwanted changes. This study shows a new approach in using MAP with 100% O(2), which is converted to ozone to radiosensitize

  11. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelpud Chaves Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L. presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne  spp., en el Departamento  de Nariño (Colombia, se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%.   En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense  L. en los Departamentos  de Nariño  y Putumayo  y 4 genotipos  silvestres  (S. mammosum, S. hirtum,       S. marginatum  y S. umbellatum buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en  todos  los  genotipos,  2.04%  genotipos  resistentes,  34.7%  moderadamente  resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raIz, (R2 = 0.71 y 0.98,el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.

  12. A review of Sarcocystis spp. shed by opossums (Didelphis spp. in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Yuri Oshiro Branco Valadas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available South American opossums are the definitive hosts of Sarcocystis neurona, Sarcocystis falcatula, Sarcocystis speeri and Sarcocystis lindsayi. The sporocysts of these species of Sarcocystis are morphologically similar and methods like infectivity and pathogenicity for intermediate hosts (immunodeficient mice and psittacine birds and molecular tools are used for identification. Opossums are synanthropic wild animals, and widely distributed in Brazilian territory. Previous studies have shown high environmental contamination with S. neurona sporocysts in several Brazilian regions. This paper reviews information on Sarcocystis spp. shed by various opossum species and its occurrence in Brazil.

  13. Understanding serine proteases implications on Leishmania spp lifecycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Carlos Roberto; Souza, Raquel Santos de; Charret, Karen Dos Santos; Côrtes, Luzia Monteiro de Castro; Sá-Silva, Matheus Pereira de; Barral-Veloso, Laura; Oliveira, Luiz Filipe Gonçalves; da Silva, Franklin Souza

    2018-01-01

    Serine proteases have significant functions over a broad range of relevant biological processes to the Leishmania spp lifecycle. Data gathered here present an update on the Leishmania spp serine proteases and the status of these enzymes as part of the parasite degradome. The serine protease genes (n = 26 to 28) in Leishmania spp, which encode proteins with a wide range of molecular masses (35 kDa-115 kDa), are described along with their degrees of chromosomal and allelic synteny. Amid 17 putative Leishmania spp serine proteases, only ∼18% were experimentally demonstrated, as: signal peptidases that remove the signal peptide from secretory pre-proteins, maturases of other proteins and with metacaspase-like activity. These enzymes include those of clans SB, SC and SF. Classical inhibitors of serine proteases are used as tools for the characterization and investigation of Leishmania spp. Endogenous serine protease inhibitors, which are ecotin-like, can act modulating host actions. However, crude or synthetic based-natural serine protease inhibitors, such as potato tuber extract, Stichodactyla helianthus protease inhibitor I, fukugetin and epoxy-α-lapachone act on parasitic serine proteases and are promising leishmanicidal agents. The functional interrelationship between serine proteases and other Leishmania spp proteins demonstrate essential functions of these enzymes in parasite physiology and therefore their value as targets for leishmaniasis treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [The relevance of Candida spp. in chronic periodontal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razina, I N; Chesnokova, M G; Nedoseko, V B

    The aim of the study was to assess the correlation of Candida spp. incidence in periodontal tissues with various clinical manifestations of chronic periodontal disease (CPD). Ninety patients with CPD were included in the study in which Candida spp. was evaluated in periodontal pockets content and gingival biopsy material. In severe CPD more Candida spp. were seen in gingival biopsy than in periodontal pockets (p=0.0006). Candida spp. incidence and quantity correlated directly with the disease grade showing incidence increase from 40 to 73.3% and quantity increase from 0.8±0.18 до 3.6±0.49 lg CFU/ml in light and severe CPD, correspondingly Candida spp. had statistically significant association with cyanotic gingival color (p=0.0018), tongue plaque and swelling (р=0.0042), lip exfoliation (р=0.0030), periodontal pockets depth >5 mm (р=0.0030), oral mucosa hyperemia (р=0.0157), alveolar bone destruction >1/2 of root length (р=0.0157). These data prove the relevance of Candida spp. and mycological assessment of gingival biopsy in CPD patients.

  15. A reverse-phase protein microarray-based screen identifies host signaling dynamics upon Burkholderia spp. infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yuan eChiang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia is a diverse genus of Gram-negative bacteria that cause high mortality rate in humans and cattle. The lack of effective therapeutic treatments poses serious public health threats. Insights toward host-Burkholderia spp. interaction are critical in understanding the pathogenesis of the infection as well as identifying therapeutic targets for drug development. Reverse-phase protein microarray (RPMA technology was previously proven to characterize novel biomarkers and molecular signatures associated with infectious diseases and cancers. In the present study, this technology was utilized to interrogate changes in host protein expression and post-translational phosphorylation events in macrophages infected with a collection of geographically diverse strains of Burkholderia spp. The expression or phosphorylation state of 25 proteins was altered during Burkholderia spp. infections and of which eight proteins were selected for further validation by immunoblotting. Kinetic expression patterns of phosphorylated AMPK-α1, Src, and GSK3β suggested the importance of their roles in regulating Burkholderia spp. mediated innate immune responses. Modulating inflammatory responses by perturbing AMPK-α1, Src, and GSK3β activities may provide novel therapeutic targets for future treatments.

  16. Trichoderma spp. dan Penicillium spp. dari Tanah Rizosfer Lahan Rawa Lebak dalam Menginduksi Ketahanan Tanaman Cabai Terhadap Serangan Penyakit Rebah Kecambah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Muslim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil microbes associated with rhizosphere are important for promoting plant growth and inducing resistance to diseases. The research was conducted to study the ability of Trichoderma spp. and Penicillium spp. isolated from rhizosphere in lowland swampy area for controlling damping-off disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani Khun. Trichoderma spp. and Penicillium spp. were cultured in bran, corn meal, and rice straw containing media and applied as inoculum to 2-weeks old seedlings. Application of two fungi isolates effectively induced resistance of chili plants to damping-off disease. Trichoderma spp. and Penicillium spp. were significantly reduced disease incidence by 61.5–100% to 46.2–100%, respectively and disease severity by 50–100% and 30–95.9%, respectively. This experiment showed the potential of Trichoderma spp. and Penicillium spp. as biocontrol agents to control damping-off disease on chili.  

  17. Molecular Detection of Legionella spp. and their associations with Mycobacterium spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and amoeba hosts in a drinking water distribution system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Quantity of Legionella spp., Mycobacterium spp., Acanthamoeba,Vermamoeba vermiformis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were estimated using qPCR methods. This dataset is...

  18. Development of multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection of Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and Campylobacter foetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfattah M. Selim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abortion among dairy cattle is one of the major causes of economic losses in the livestock industry. This study describes a 1-step multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR to detect Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and Campylobacter foetus, these are significant bacteria commonly implicated in bovine abortion. ß-actin was added to the same PCR reaction as an internal control to detect any extraction failure or PCR inhibition. The detection limit of multiplex real-time PCR using purified DNA from cultured organisms was set to 5 fg for Leptospira spp. and C. foetus and to 50 fg for Brucella spp. The multiplex real-time PCR did not produce any non-specific amplification when tested with different strains of the 3 pathogens. This multiplex real-time PCR provides a valuable tool for diagnosis, simultaneous and rapid detection for the 3 pathogens causing abortion in bovine.

  19. Biomass equations and biomass expansion factors (BEFs) for pine (pinus spp.), spruce (picea spp.) and broadleaved dominated stands in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Viken, Knut Ole

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The objectives of this study were (1) to develop models for estimation of stand-level tree biomass for spruce (picea spp.)- pine (pinus spp.)- and broadleaved-dominated forest in Norway and, (2) develop biomass expansion factors (BEFs; ratio of stem volume to biomass) which convert stem volume to whole tree biomass for Norwegian forest conditions. A dataset from a 5 year period (2006 – 2010) from the Norwegian National Forest Inventory (NFI) were used to develop the...

  20. Development of duplex PCR for simultaneous detection of Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp. in sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanyan; Zhang, Yan; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Longxian; Wang, Rongjun; Cao, Shuxuan; Wang, Xiaoxing; Yan, Yaqun; Ning, Changshen

    2017-05-01

    Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp., which are important tick-borne pathogens (TBPs), impact the health of humans and animals in tropical and subtropical areas. Theileria and Anaplasma co-infections are common in sheep and goats. Following alignment of the relevant DNA sequences, two primer sets were designed to specifically target the Theileria spp. 18S rRNA and Anaplasma spp. 16S rRNA gene sequences. Genomic DNA from the two genera was serially diluted tenfold for testing the sensitivities of detection of the primer sets. The specificities of the primer sets were confirmed when DNA from Anaplasma and Theileria (positive controls), other related hematoparasites (negative controls) and ddH 2 O were used as templates. Fifty field samples were also used to evaluate the utility of single PCR and duplex PCR assays, and the detection results were compared with those of the PCR methods previously published. An optimized duplex PCR assay was established from the two primer sets based on the relevant genes from the two TBPs, and this assay generated products of 298-bp (Theileria spp.) and 139-bp (Anaplasma spp.). The detection limit of the assay was 29.4 × 10 -3  ng per μl, and there was no cross-reaction with the DNA from other hematoparasites. The results showed that the newly developed duplex PCR assay had an efficiency of detection (P > 0.05) similar to other published PCR methods. In this study, a duplex PCR assay was developed that can simultaneously identify Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp. in sheep and goats. This duplex PCR is a potentially valuable assay for epidemiological studies of TBPs in that it can detect cases of mixed infections of the pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of Duplex PCR for the simultaneous diagnose of Mycobacterium spp. and Brucella spp. in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Escobar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis and brucellosis remain important causes of morbidity and mortality in many countries, for the detection of both diseases requires efficient and sensitive tool for effectuate the diagnosis. This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the duplex PCR versus the nested PCR, for detection of Brucella spp. (BR and Mycobacterium spp. (TB. A total of 100 samples of tissues from tracheo-bronchial lymph nodes, bovine lung and bacterial isolate as positive controls were used. Were evaluated ten combinations of primers which were designed to flank the segment of the 16S rRNA sequence (RB and antigen gen MPB70 (TB, the best result for the Duplex PCR was obtained with the primers Bru-2F/Bru-2R for BR and Tub-1F/Tub-N-R for TB. The amplification of the products was 225 and 230-bp respectively. In order to compare the results of the proposed technique, all samples were initially analyzed and compared between PCR and nested PCR (Kappa, k = 0.85 and the concordance between Duplex PCR and nested PCR (k = 0.88 for the two bacteria was very good.

  2. Prevalence of antibiotic resistant coliform bacteria, Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in wastewater sewerage biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépesová, Kristína; Kraková, Lucia; Pangallo, Domenico; Medveďová, Alžbeta; Olejníková, Petra; Mackuľak, Tomáš; Tichý, Jozef; Grabic, Roman; Birošová, Lucia

    2018-03-28

    Urban wastewater contains different micropollutants and high number of different microorganisms. Some bacteria in wastewater can attach to the surfaces and form biofilm, which gives bacteria advantage in fight against environmental stress. This work is focused on bacterial community analysis in biofilms isolated from influent and effluent sewerage of wastewater treatment plant in Bratislava. Biofilm microbiota detection was performed by culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches. Composition of bacterial strains was detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting coupled with the construction of 16S rRNA clone libraries. The biofilm collected at the inlet point was characterized primarily by the presence of Pseudomonas sp., Acinetobacter sp. and Janthinobacterium sp. clones, while in the biofilm isolated at outflow of wastewater treatment plant members of Pseudomonas genus were largely detected. Beside this analysis prevalence of antibiotics and resistant coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in sewerage was studied. In influent wastewater were dominant antibiotics like azithromycin, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin. Removal efficiency of these antibiotics notably azithromycin and clarithromycin were 30% in most cases. The highest number of resistant bacteria with predominance of coliforms was detected in sample of effluent biofilm. Multidrug resistant strains in effluent biofilm showed very good ability to form biofilm. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Infestation of Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Carica spp. and Vasconcella spp. genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fancelli, Marilene; Sanches, Nilton F.; Dantas, Jorge L.L.; Caldas, Ranulfo C.; Morales, Cinara F.G.

    2008-01-01

    The papaya borer weevil, Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall), is generally considered a secondary pest, but it has been reported in high infestations in Northeast Brazil. This work aimed at evaluating the occurrence of P. papayanus and reporting its infestation level in papaya genotypes kept at the germplasm bank of EMBRAPA Cassava and Tropical Fruits (Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil). The number of larvae, pupae and adults found in each plant of 65 Carica spp. genotypes and of three Vasconcella spp. genotypes was registered in three to five plants of each genotype, by cutting the exsudating trunks lengthwise. Papaya borer weevil was found in C. papaya and V. cauliflora but not in those of V. quercifolia. Among the evaluated genotypes, 52.4% of those belonging to the Solo group were infested, against 25.0% of the Formosa group. Larval infestation was the best criterion for sorting out genotypes concerning this insect infestation. This is also the first occurrence of the papaya borer weevil . (author)

  4. Rangelia vitalii, Babesia spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in dogs in Passo Fundo, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Gottlieb

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pathogens transmitted by ticks are an emerging problem worldwide, this study aimed to diagnose the causal agents of infection in dogs presenting suspected hemoparasitoses. Fifty-eight dogs with clinical signs such as depression, hemorrhagic diathesis and fever were evaluated regarding clinical presentation, hemogram, blood smears and serological tests, using the indirect immunofluorescence method for the agents Babesia vogeli and Ehrlichia canis and conventional PCR for Babesia spp. (gene 18S rRNA, Rangelia vitalii (gene 18S rRNA and Ehrlichia spp. (gene dsb. Five (8.6% of the 58 dogs were serologically positive for Babesia spp. and three (5.1% for E. canis. Four dogs (6.8% were positive for R. vitalii through the molecular diagnosis. The PCR products were sequenced and the DNA from R. vitalii was found to be 99% genetically identical to samples of R. vitalii that had been isolated in Brazil. No presence of Babesia spp. or E. canis was observed through PCR on the dogs evaluated here. The results indicate the presence of R. vitalii and exposure to Babesia spp. and Ehrlichia spp. among the dogs analyzed.

  5. Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection in birds of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest detected by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Tostes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years haemosporidian infection by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium and Haemoproteus, has been considered one of the most important factors related to the extinction and/or population decline of several species of birds worldwide. In Brazil, despite the large avian biodiversity, few studies have been designed to detect this infection, especially among wild birds in captivity. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection in wild birds in captivity in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil using microscopy and the polymerase chain reaction. Blood samples of 119 different species of birds kept in captivity at IBAMA during the period of July 2011 to July 2012 were collected. The parasite density was determined based only on readings of blood smears by light microscopy. The mean prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection obtained through the microscopic examination of blood smears and PCR were similar (83.19% and 81.3%, respectively, with Caracara plancus and Saltator similis being the most parasitized. The mean parasitemia determined by the microscopic counting of evolutionary forms of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. was 1.51%. The results obtained from this study reinforce the importance of the handling of captive birds, especially when they will be reintroduced into the wild.

  6. Integrated control of wood destroying basidiomycetes combining Cu-based wood preservatives and Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ribera

    Full Text Available The production of new generation of wood preservatives (without addition of a co-biocide in combination with an exchange of wood poles on identical sites with high fungal inoculum, has resulted in an increase of premature failures of wood utility poles in the last decades. Wood destroying basidiomycetes inhabiting sites where poles have been installed, have developed resistance against wood preservatives. The objective of the in vitro studies was to identify a Trichoderma spp. with a highly antagonistic potential against wood destroying basidiomycetes that is capable of colonizing Cu-rich environments. For this purpose, the activity of five Trichoderma spp. on Cu-rich medium was evaluated according to its growth and sporulation rates. The influence of the selected Trichoderma spp. on wood colonization and degradation by five wood destroying basidiomycetes was quantitatively analyzed by means of dry weight loss of wood specimens. Furthermore, the preventative effect of the selected Trichoderma spp. in combination with four Cu-based preservatives was also examined by mass loss and histological changes in the wood specimens. Trichoderma harzianum (T-720 was considered the biocontrol agent with higher antagonistic potential to colonize Cu-rich environments (up to 0.1% CuSO4 amended medium. T. harzianum demonstrated significant preventative effect on wood specimens against four wood destroying basidiomycetes. The combined effect of T. harzianum and Cu-based wood preservatives demonstrated that after 9 months incubation with two wood destroying basidiomycetes, wood specimens treated with 3.8 kg m-3 copper-chromium had weight losses between 55-65%, whereas containers previously treated with T. harzianum had significantly lower weight losses (0-25%. Histological studies on one of the wood destroying basidiomycetes revealed typical decomposition of wood cells by brown-rot fungi in Cu-impregnated samples, that were notably absent in wood specimens

  7. Integrated control of wood destroying basidiomycetes combining Cu-based wood preservatives and Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribera, Javier; Fink, Siegfried; Bas, Maria Del Carmen; Schwarze, Francis W M R

    2017-01-01

    The production of new generation of wood preservatives (without addition of a co-biocide) in combination with an exchange of wood poles on identical sites with high fungal inoculum, has resulted in an increase of premature failures of wood utility poles in the last decades. Wood destroying basidiomycetes inhabiting sites where poles have been installed, have developed resistance against wood preservatives. The objective of the in vitro studies was to identify a Trichoderma spp. with a highly antagonistic potential against wood destroying basidiomycetes that is capable of colonizing Cu-rich environments. For this purpose, the activity of five Trichoderma spp. on Cu-rich medium was evaluated according to its growth and sporulation rates. The influence of the selected Trichoderma spp. on wood colonization and degradation by five wood destroying basidiomycetes was quantitatively analyzed by means of dry weight loss of wood specimens. Furthermore, the preventative effect of the selected Trichoderma spp. in combination with four Cu-based preservatives was also examined by mass loss and histological changes in the wood specimens. Trichoderma harzianum (T-720) was considered the biocontrol agent with higher antagonistic potential to colonize Cu-rich environments (up to 0.1% CuSO4 amended medium). T. harzianum demonstrated significant preventative effect on wood specimens against four wood destroying basidiomycetes. The combined effect of T. harzianum and Cu-based wood preservatives demonstrated that after 9 months incubation with two wood destroying basidiomycetes, wood specimens treated with 3.8 kg m-3 copper-chromium had weight losses between 55-65%, whereas containers previously treated with T. harzianum had significantly lower weight losses (0-25%). Histological studies on one of the wood destroying basidiomycetes revealed typical decomposition of wood cells by brown-rot fungi in Cu-impregnated samples, that were notably absent in wood specimens previously exposed to T

  8. The effect of high-power ultrasound and gas phase plasma treatment on Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. count in pure culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herceg, Z; Režek Jambrak, A; Vukušić, T; Stulić, V; Stanzer, D; Milošević, S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare two nonthermal techniques in the inactivation of moulds. High power ultrasound (20 kHz) and nonthermal gas phase plasma treatments were studied in the inactivation of selected moulds. Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. were chosen as the most common mould present in or on food. Experimental design was introduced to establish and optimize working variables. For high power ultrasound, the greatest reduction of moulds (indicated by the total removal of viable cells) was obtained after ultrasound treatments at 60°C (thermosonication) for 6 and 9 min (power applied, 20-39 W). For plasma treatment, the greatest inactivation of moulds was observed for the longest treatment time (5 min) and lowest sample volume (2 ml), (AP12, AP13, PP12 and PP13). The great amount of applied energy required for achieving a partial log reduction in viable cells is the limiting factor for using high-power ultrasound. However, both treatment methods could be combined in the future to produce beneficial outcomes. This study deals with nonthermal food processing techniques and the results and findings present in this study are the root for further prospective studies. The food industry is looking for nonthermal methods that will enable food preservation, reduce deterioration of food compounds and structure and prolong food shelf life. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Mapping Prosopis spp. within the Tarach water basin, Turkana, Kenya using Sentinel-2 imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wai-Tim; Immitzer, Markus; Floriansitz, Matthias; Vuolo, Francesco; Luminari, Luigi; Adede, Chrisgone; Wahome, Raphael; Atzberger, Clement

    2016-10-01

    Prosopis spp. are a fast growing invasive tree originating from the American dry zones, introduced to Kenya in the 1970s for the restoration of degraded pastoral lands after prolonged droughts and overgrazing. Its deep rooting system is capable of tapping into the ground water table reducing its dependency on rain water and increasing its drought tolerance. It is believed that the Prosopis invasion was eased by a hybridization process, described as the Prosopis Juliflora - Prosopis Pallida complex, suggesting that introduced Prosopis spp. evolved into a hybrid, specifically adapted to the environmental conditions, rendering it a superior and aggressive competitor to endemic species. In many dry lands in Kenya Prosopis has expanded rapidly and has become challenging to control. On the other hand, in some cases, an economic use seems possible. In both cases, detailed and accurate maps are necessary to support stakeholders and design management strategies. The aim of this study is to map the distribution of Prosopis spp. in a selected area in north-west Turkana (Kenya), covering a section of the Tarach water basin. The study is funded by the European Union through the National Drought Management Authority (NDMA) in Kenya, and the main purpose is to assess the potential production of Prosopis pods, which can be used to manufacture emergency livestock feeds to support animals during drought events. The classification was performed using novel Sentinel-2 data through a non-parametric Random Forest classifier. A selection of reference sites was visited in the field and used to train the classifier. Very high classification accuracies were obtained.

  10. Transcriptomic signatures of ash (Fraxinus spp. phloem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Bai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ash (Fraxinus spp. is a dominant tree species throughout urban and forested landscapes of North America (NA. The rapid invasion of NA by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis, a wood-boring beetle endemic to Eastern Asia, has resulted in the death of millions of ash trees and threatens billions more. Larvae feed primarily on phloem tissue, which girdles and kills the tree. While NA ash species including black (F. nigra, green (F. pennsylvannica and white (F. americana are highly susceptible, the Asian species Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica is resistant to A. planipennis perhaps due to their co-evolutionary history. Little is known about the molecular genetics of ash. Hence, we undertook a functional genomics approach to identify the repertoire of genes expressed in ash phloem.Using 454 pyrosequencing we obtained 58,673 high quality ash sequences from pooled phloem samples of green, white, black, blue and Manchurian ash. Intriguingly, 45% of the deduced proteins were not significantly similar to any sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database. KEGG analysis of the ash sequences revealed a high occurrence of defense related genes. Expression analysis of early regulators potentially involved in plant defense (i.e. transcription factors, calcium dependent protein kinases and a lipoxygenase 3 revealed higher mRNA levels in resistant ash compared to susceptible ash species. Lastly, we predicted a total of 1,272 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 980 microsatellite loci, among which seven microsatellite loci showed polymorphism between different ash species.The current transcriptomic data provide an invaluable resource for understanding the genetic make-up of ash phloem, the target tissue of A. planipennis. These data along with future functional studies could lead to the identification/characterization of defense genes involved in resistance of ash to A. planipennis, and in future ash breeding programs for marker development.

  11. Larkspur (Delphinium spp.) poisoning in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, J A; Gardner, D R; Panter, K E; Manners, G D; Ralphs, M H; Stegelmeier, B L; Schoch, T K

    1999-02-01

    Larkspurs (Delphinium spp.) are toxic plants that contain numerous diterpenoid alkaloids which occur as one of two structural types: (1) lycotonine, and (2) 7,8-methylenedioxylycoctonine (MDL-type). Among the lycoctonine type alkaloids are three N-(methylsuccinimido) anthranoyllycoctonine (MSAL-type) alkaloids which appear to be most toxic: methyllycaconitine (MLA), 14-deacetylnudicauline (DAN), and nudicauline. An ester function at C-18 is an important structural requirement for toxicity. Intoxication results from neuromuscular paralysis, as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the muscle and brain are blocked by toxic alkaloids. Clinical signs include labored breathing, rapid and irregular heartbeat, muscular weakness, and collapse. Toxic alkaloid concentration generally declines in tall larkspurs with maturation, but alkaloid concentration varies over years and from plant to plant, and is of little use for predicting consumption by cattle. Knowledge of toxic alkaloid concentration is valuable for management purposes when cattle begin to eat larkspur. Cattle generally begin consuming tall larkspur after flowering racemes are elongated, and consumption increases as larkspur matures. Weather is also a major factor in cattle consumption, as cattle tend to eat more larkspur during or just after summer storms. Management options that may be useful for livestock producers include conditioning cattle to avoid larkspur (food aversion learning), grazing tall larkspur ranges before flowering (early grazing) and after seed shatter (late grazing), grazing sheep before cattle, herbicidal control of larkspur plants, and drug therapy for intoxicated animals. Some potentially fruitful research avenues include examining alkaloid chemistry in low and plains larkspurs, developing immunologic methods for analyzing larkspur alkaloids, developing drug therapy, and devising grazing regimes specifically for low and plains larkspur.

  12. EST-derived SSR markers used as anchor loci for the construction of a consensus linkage map in ryegrass (Lolium spp.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studer, Bruno; Kölliker, Roland; Muylle, Hilde

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetic markers and linkage mapping are basic prerequisites for marker-assisted selection and map-based cloning. In the case of the key grassland species Lolium spp., numerous mapping populations have been developed and characterised for various traits. Although some genetic linkage maps...

  13. EST-derived SSR markers used as anchor loci for the construction of a consensus linkage map in ryegrass (Lolium spp.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Studer, B.; Kolliker, R.; Muylle, H.; Asp, T.; Frei, U.; Roldan-Ruiz, I.; Barre, P.; Tomaszewski, C.; Meally, H.; Barth, S.; Skot, L.; Armstead, I.P.; Dolstra, O.; Lubberstedt, T.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Genetic markers and linkage mapping are basic prerequisites for marker-assisted selection and map-based cloning. In the case of the key grassland species Lolium spp., numerous mapping populations have been developed and characterised for various traits. Although some genetic linkage maps

  14. Colonization of the Arabidopsis rhizosphere by fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. activates a root-specific, ethylene-responsive PR-5 gene in the vascular bundle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Léon-Kloosterziel, K.M.; Verhagen, B.W.M.; Keurentjes, J.J.B.; Pelt, J.A. van; Rep, M.; Loon, L.C. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Plants of which the roots are colonized by selected strains of non-pathogenic, fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. develop an enhanced defensive capacity against a broad spectrum of foliar pathogens. In Arabidopsis thaliana, this rhizobacteria-induced systemic resistance (ISR) functions independently of

  15. Environmental DNA for Detection of Endangered Grouper Species (Epinephelus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet A. Doğdu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine ecosystems nestle species or populations known to be threatened due to human overexploitation. Reliable detection and monitoring of threatened organisms is crucial for data-driven conservation actions. Furthermore, misidentification of species represents a major problem. Here, we investigate the potential of using metabarcoding of environmental DNA (eDNA obtained directly from seawater samples to detect endangered grouper species (Epinephelus spp.. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI fragment of mtDNA was used to detect groupers species in the Mediterranean Coasts. We conducted eDNA sampling at sites by underwater diving across the range of the Grouper species habitats in Northeastern Mediterranean (Antalya-Kas Region and Iskenderun Bay. eDNA was isolated from 2 liter seawater samples which were vacuum-filtered onto 0.45-mm membrane filters. Filters were then folded inwards, placed in 2 ml tubes and stored at -20 oC until DNA extraction, which took place within 24 hours. DNA was extracted from the water sample filters using the DNeasy Blood and Tissue Kit (Qiagen, USA. Manufacturer’s protocols were used during all steps. PCR amplification of eDNA samples were done using selective primers of COI region of mitochondrial DNA, and next-generation DNA sequencing of PCR application was conducted. For the successfully obtained COI sequences, maximum matching rates were revealed as 80% for Epinephelus marginatus, 78,95% for Epinephelus aeneus, 73,48% for Epinephelus costae, 63,45% for Epinephelus caninus, 60,12% for Mycteroperca rubra and 57,12% for Hyporthodus haifensis. Despite the methodological challenges inherent in eDNA analysis, the results demonstrated that eDNA method may be proved to step towards a new beginning to detect and monitor endangered grouper species.

  16. Black-pigmented Bacteroides spp. in human apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapasalo, M; Ranta, H; Ranta, K; Shah, H

    1986-07-01

    The incidence of black-pigmented (BP) Bacteroides spp. in 62 human dental root canal infections (35 acute and 27 clinically asymptomatic cases of apical periodontitis) in 57 adults was studied. Altogether 37 strains of BP Bacteroides were found in 31 infections, always in mixed anaerobic infections. Two different BP Bacteroides species were present in six infections. B. intermedius was most frequently isolated (15 of 62 canals; 24%) followed by B. denticola which was present in 12 cases. Asaccharolytic BP Bacteroides species, B. gingivalis and B. endodontalis, were found in eight cases. BP Bacteroides species were found both from symptomatic and asymptomatic infections, but there were also several symptomatic cases from which BP Bacteroides species were not isolated. B. gingivalis and B. endodontalis were present only in acute infections, B. intermedius was found both in symptomatic and asymptomatic infections, and B. denticola occurred mostly in asymptomatic infections. BP Bacteroides species were isolated initially from 9 of the 11 teeth with symptoms at 1 week, but only from 22 of the 51 teeth that were symptomless at 1 week. Two strains of B. denticola were resistant to penicillin G at a concentration of 2.4 micrograms/ml, but the MIC of penicillin G for all other strains was 0.6 micrograms/ml or lower. Forty-two randomly selected patients received penicillin V (oral administration, 650 mg, three times daily) during the first week of endodontic therapy. Penicillin had no effect on the occurrence of symptoms after 1 week compared with the control group (20 patients).

  17. Antibiotic resistance among Ureaplasma spp. isolates: cause for concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeton, M L; Spiller, O B

    2017-02-01

    There is growing global concern regarding the rise of antibiotic-resistant organisms. Many of these reports have focused on various Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, with little attention to the genus Ureaplasma. Ureaplasma spp. are associated with numerous infectious diseases affecting pregnant women, neonates and the immunocompromised. Treatment options are extremely limited due to high levels of intrinsic resistance resulting from the unique physiology of these organisms and further restricted in cases of the developing fetus or neonate, often limiting therapeutic options to predominantly macrolides or rarely fluoroquinolones. The increasing presence of macrolide- and fluoroquinolone-resistant strains among neonatal infections may result in pan-drug resistance and potentially untreatable conditions. Here, we review the requirements for accurate measurement of antimicrobial susceptibility, provide a comprehensive review of the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) for Ureaplasma species in the literature and contextualize these results relative to some investigators' reliance on commercial kits that are not CLSI compliant when determining AMR. The dramatic variation in the resistance patterns and impact of high levels of AMR amongst neonatal populations suggests the need for continued surveillance. Commercial kits represent an excellent tool for initial antibiotic susceptibility determination and screening. However, AMR reporting must utilize internationally standardized methods, as high-titre samples, or Mycoplasma hominis-contaminated samples routinely give false AMR results. Furthermore, there is a requirement for future reports to determine the underlying AMR mechanisms and determine whether expanding AMR is due to spontaneous mutation, transmission of resistance genes on mobile elements or selection and expansion of resistant clones. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

  18. How a routine checking of Escherichia coli in retailed food of animal origin can protect consumers against exposition to Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trajković-Pavlović Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. According to the literature that has been published over the last two decades Campylobacter spp i Listeria monocitogens can be identified as causes of numerous diseases derived by consuming food of animal origin. The purpose of this paper was to find out how established national microbiological criteria of the Republic of Serbia on food safety in retailed food of animal origin could contribute to consumer's protection against exposition to foodborne pathogens such as Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. Methods. During a routine microbiological safety control of randomly selected 60 samples of fresh poultry meat, 30 samples of other fresh meat readymade for grilling, 30 samples of sausage products, 37 samples of heattreated meat, 39 samples of toppings for fast food of animal origin and 31 samples of dairy products a national food safety criteria (Escherichia coli, aerobic plate count, Salmonella spp., coagulasa positive Staphylococcus, Proteus spp., sulphitoreducting Clostridia were applied and, as well as, testing to Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocitogens. In determination of Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, food quality control methods of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO were applied, while in determination of the other above motioned bacteria, national provisions on microbiological methods were applied who are adjusted to the FAO ones. Results. Related to the national criteria on microbiological food safety, 88 (38.8% samples, out of the total 227 tested, were rejected. When to these results, the results of laboratory tests on Listeria monocytogens were added, a terminal number of rejected samples were not changed. When to these results, the results of Campylobacter spp. testing were added, 91 (40.1% out of the 227 samples were unsatisfied. Results of logistic regression model with occurrence of Escherichia coli as dependent variable indicated that Escherichia coli was 4.5 times likely

  19. How a routine checking of Escherichia coli in retailed food of animal origin can protect consumers against exposition to Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajković-Pavlović, Ljiljana; Novaković, Budimka; Martinov-Cvejin, Mirjana; Gusman, Vera; Bijelović, Sanja; Dragnić, Natasa; Balać, Dragana

    2010-08-01

    According to the literature that has been published over the last two decades Campylobacter spp i Listeria monocitogens can be identified as causes of numerous diseases derived by consuming food of animal origin. The purpose of this paper was to find out how established national microbiological criteria of the Republic of Serbia on food safety in retailed food of animal origin could contribute to consumer's protection against exposition to foodborne pathogens such as Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. During a routine microbiological safety control of randomly selected 60 samples of fresh poultry meat, 30 samples of other fresh meat readymade for grilling, 30 samples of sausage products, 37 samples of heat-treated meat, 39 samples of toppings for fast food of animal origin and 31 samples of dairy products a national food safety criteria (Escherichia coli, aerobic plate count, Salmonella spp., coagulasa positive Staphylococcus, Proteus spp., sulphito-reducting Clostridia) were applied and, as well as, testing to Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocitogens. In determination of Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, food quality control methods of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) were applied, while in determination of the other above motioned bacteria, national provisions on microbiological methods were applied who are adjusted to the FAO ones. Related to the national criteria on microbiological food safety, 88 (38.8%) samples, out of the total 227 tested, were rejected. When to these results, the results of laboratory tests on Listeria monocytogens were added, a terminal number of rejected samples were not changed. When to these results, the results of Campylobacter spp. testing were added, 91 (40.1%) out of the 227 samples were unsatisfied. Results of logistic regression model with occurrence of Escherichia coli as dependent variable indicated that Escherichia coli was 4.5 times likely to occur among samples with Campylobacter spp

  20. Presence of Borrelia spp. DNA in ticks, but absence of Borrelia spp. and of Leptospira spp. DNA in blood of fever patients in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Frickmann, Hagen; Ehlers, Julian; Krüger, Andreas; Margos, Gabriele; Hizo-Teufel, Cecilia; Fingerle, Volker; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael; Kalckreuth, Vera von; Im, Justin; Pak, Gi Deok; Jeon, Hyon Jin; Rakotondrainiarivelo, Jean Philibert; Heriniaina, Jean Noël; Razafindrabe, Tsiry; Konings, Frank; May, Jürgen; Hogan, Benedikt; Ganzhorn, Jörg; Panzner, Ursula; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Dekker, Denise; Marks, Florian; Poppert, Sven

    2018-01-01

    The occurrence of tick-borne relapsing fever and leptospirosis in humans in Madagascar remains unclear despite the presence of their potential vectors and reservoir hosts. We screened 255 Amblyomma variegatum ticks and 148 Rhipicephalus microplus ticks from Zebu cattle in Madagascar for Borrelia-specific DNA. Borrelia spp. DNA was detected in 21 Amblyomma variegatum ticks and 2 Rhipicephalus microplus ticks. One Borrelia found in one Rhipicephalus microplus showed close relationship to Borrelia theileri based on genetic distance and phylogenetic analyses on 16S rRNA and flaB sequences. The borreliae from Amblyomma variegatum could not be identified due to very low quantities of present DNA reflected by high cycle threshold values in real-time-PCR. It is uncertain whether these low numbers of Borrelia spp. are sufficient for transmission of infection from ticks to humans. In order to determine whether spirochaete infections are relevant in humans, blood samples of 1009 patients from the highlands of Madagascar with fever of unknown origin were screened for Borrelia spp. - and in addition for Leptospira spp. - by real-time PCR. No target DNA was detected, indicating a limited relevance of these pathogens for humans in the highlands of Madagascar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular Detection of Legionella spp. and their associations with Mycobacterium spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and amoeba hosts in a drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J; Struewing, I; Vereen, E; Kirby, A E; Levy, K; Moe, C; Ashbolt, N

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated waterborne opportunistic pathogens (OPs) including potential hosts, and evaluated the use of Legionella spp. for indicating microbial water quality for OPs within a full-scale operating drinking water distribution system (DWDS). To investigate the occurrence of specific microbial pathogens within a major city DWDS we examined large volume (90 l drinking water) ultrafiltration (UF) concentrates collected from six sites between February, 2012 and June, 2013. The detection frequency and concentration estimates by qPCR were: Legionella spp. (57%/85 cell equivalent, CE l(-1) ), Mycobacterium spp. (88%/324 CE l(-1) ), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (24%/2 CE l(-1) ), Vermamoeba vermiformis (24%/2 CE l(-1) ) and Acanthamoeba spp. (42%/5 cyst equivalent, CE l(-1) ). There was no detection of the following microorganisms: human faecal indicator Bacteroides (HF183), Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium spp. or Naegleria fowleri. There were significant correlations between the qPCR signals of Legionella spp. and Mycobacterium spp., and their potential hosts V. vermiformis and Acanthamoeba spp. Sequencing of Legionella spp. demonstrated limited diversity, with most sequences coming from two dominant groups, of which the larger dominant group was an unidentified species. Other known species including Legionella pneumophila were detected, but at low frequency. The densities of Legionella spp. and Mycobacterium spp. were generally higher (17 and 324 folds, respectively) for distal sites relative to the entry point to the DWDS. Legionella spp. occurred, had significant growth and were strongly associated with free-living amoebae (FLA) and Mycobacterium spp., suggesting that Legionella spp. could provide a useful DWDS monitoring role to indicate potential conditions for non-faecal OPs. The results provide insight into microbial pathogen detection that may aid in the monitoring of microbial water

  2. Sarcocystis spp. in red deer (Cervus elaphus, fallow deer (Dama dama, and pudu (Pudu pudu in southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Reyes Lobão-Tello

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Worldwinde, cervids are considered an important source of infection and dissemination of a wide variety of pathogens, both for farm animals and humans. Among this diseases is sarcosporidiosis, which is a parasitic disease caused by Sarcocystis spp. (Protozoa: Apicomplexa. Most frequent clinical signs are hemolytic anemia, weakness, weight loss and decrease of growth and some species of Sarcocystis might cause abortions. The clinical disease in ruminants is fairly rare but the infection is very frequent. Infections are accumulative and the parasite does not generate immunity in any of the hosts. Ovine sarcosporidiosis is a serious issue in the some regions of Chile due to the macrocysts located in the muscle which means condemnation of the whole carcass. Sarcocystis spp. has been widely reported in red deer and other cervid species but in Chile the situation remains unknown. Nowadays there is little to no evidence of Sarcocystis in foreign deer in Chile and there is only one report of the parasite on pudu. The main goal of this study is to demonstrate the presence of Sarcocystis spp. in myocardium of red deer and fallow deer in Chile, and confirm the presence of Sarcocystis spp. in pudu. All cervid cases from 1994 to 2013 of the Institute of Animal Pathology of the Universidad Austral de Chile were reviewed. The animals selected were those in which a myocardium sample was taken. From the histopathological samples observed, it was found that 5 of the 9 red deer, 1 of the 4 fallow deer and in 11 of the 23 pudu there were Sarcocystis cysts in the myocardium. This study represents the first record for Chile of Sarcocystis spp. in myocardium of red deer and fallow deer. Stablishing the red deer, fallow deer and pudu as hosts of Sarcocystis aids to have a better understanding of the parasite epidemiology in Chile and the role of wild and captive cervids in the maintenance and spread of these parasites.

  3. The tetracycline resistance determinant Tet 39 and the sulphonamide resistance gene sulII are common among resistant Acinetobacter spp. isolated from integrated fish farms in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Petersen, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the genetic basis for tetracycline and sulphonamide resistance and the prevalence of class I and II integrons in oxytetracycline-resistant Acinetobacter spp. from integrated fish farms in Thailand. Methods: A total of 222 isolates were screened for tetracycline resistance...... and Southern blots with sulII and tet(39) probes were performed on selected isolates. Results: The recently identified tetracycline resistance gene tet(39) was demonstrated in 75% (166/222) of oxytetracycline-resistant Acinetobacter spp. from integrated fish farms in Thailand. Isolates that were also...

  4. Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella spp., haemoplasma species and Hepatozoon spp. in ticks infesting cats: a large-scale survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplan, Florent; Davies, Saran; Filler, Serina; Abdullah, Swaid; Keyte, Sophie; Newbury, Hannah; Helps, Chris R; Wall, Richard; Tasker, Séverine

    2018-03-20

    Ticks derived from cats have rarely been evaluated for the presence of pathogens. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella spp., haemoplasma species and Hepatozoon spp. in ticks collected from cats in the UK. Five hundred and forty DNA samples extracted from 540 ticks collected from cats presenting to veterinarians in UK practices were used. Samples underwent a conventional generic PCR assay for detection of Hepatozoon spp. and real-time quantitative PCR assays for detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and three feline haemoplasma species and a generic qPCR for detection of Bartonella spp. Feline 28S rDNA served as an endogenous internal PCR control and was assessed within the haemoplasma qPCR assays. Samples positive on the conventional and quantitative generic PCRs were submitted for DNA sequencing for species identification. Feline 28S rDNA was amplified from 475 of the 540 (88.0%) ticks. No evidence of PCR inhibition was found using an internal amplification control. Of 540 ticks, 19 (3.5%) contained DNA from one of the tick-borne pathogens evaluated. Pathogens detected were: A. phagocytophilum (n = 5; 0.9%), Bartonella spp. (n = 7; 1.3%) [including Bartonella henselae (n = 3; 0.6%) and Bartonella clarridgeiae (n = 1; 0.2%)], haemoplasma species (n = 5; 0.9%), "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" (n = 3; 0.6%), Mycoplasma haemofelis (n = 1; 0.2%), "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" (n = 1; 0.2%), Hepatozoon spp. (n = 2; 0.4%), Hepatozoon felis (n = 1; 0.2%) and Hepatozoon silvestris (n = 1; 0.2%). These data provide important information on the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in ticks infesting cats, with the identification of haemoplasma species, A. phagocytophilum, H. felis and Bartonella spp. (including B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae). This study also documents the first report of H. silvestris in ticks collected from domestic cats.

  5. Opuntia spp.: Characterization and Benefits in Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Socorro Santos Díaz, María; Barba de la Rosa, Ana-Paulina; Héliès-Toussaint, Cécile; Guéraud, Françoise

    2017-01-01

    Opuntia species have been used for centuries as food resources and in traditional folk medicine for their nutritional properties and their benefit in chronic diseases, particularly diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. These plants are largely distributed in America, Africa, and the Mediterranean basin. Opuntia spp. have great economic potential because they grow in arid and desert areas, and O. ficus-indica, the domesticated O. species, is used as a nutritional and pharmaceutical agent in various dietary and value-added products. Though differences in the phytochemical composition exist between wild and domesticated (O. ficus-indica) Opuntia spp., all Opuntia vegetatives (pear, roots, cladodes, seeds, and juice) exhibit beneficial properties mainly resulting from their high content in antioxidants (flavonoids, ascorbate), pigments (carotenoids, betalains), and phenolic acids. Other phytochemical components (biopeptides, soluble fibers) have been characterized and contribute to the medicinal properties of Opuntia spp. The biological properties of Opuntia spp. have been investigated on cellular and animal models and in clinical trials in humans, allowing characterization and clarification of the protective effect of Opuntia-enriched diets in chronic diseases. This review is an update on the phytochemical composition and biological properties of Opuntia spp. and their potential interest in medicine. PMID:28491239

  6. Opuntia spp.: Characterization and Benefits in Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Socorro Santos Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia species have been used for centuries as food resources and in traditional folk medicine for their nutritional properties and their benefit in chronic diseases, particularly diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. These plants are largely distributed in America, Africa, and the Mediterranean basin. Opuntia spp. have great economic potential because they grow in arid and desert areas, and O. ficus-indica, the domesticated O. species, is used as a nutritional and pharmaceutical agent in various dietary and value-added products. Though differences in the phytochemical composition exist between wild and domesticated (O. ficus-indica Opuntia spp., all Opuntia vegetatives (pear, roots, cladodes, seeds, and juice exhibit beneficial properties mainly resulting from their high content in antioxidants (flavonoids, ascorbate, pigments (carotenoids, betalains, and phenolic acids. Other phytochemical components (biopeptides, soluble fibers have been characterized and contribute to the medicinal properties of Opuntia spp. The biological properties of Opuntia spp. have been investigated on cellular and animal models and in clinical trials in humans, allowing characterization and clarification of the protective effect of Opuntia-enriched diets in chronic diseases. This review is an update on the phytochemical composition and biological properties of Opuntia spp. and their potential interest in medicine.

  7. Opuntia spp.: Characterization and Benefits in Chronic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Socorro Santos Díaz, María; Barba de la Rosa, Ana-Paulina; Héliès-Toussaint, Cécile; Guéraud, Françoise; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Opuntia species have been used for centuries as food resources and in traditional folk medicine for their nutritional properties and their benefit in chronic diseases, particularly diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. These plants are largely distributed in America, Africa, and the Mediterranean basin. Opuntia spp. have great economic potential because they grow in arid and desert areas, and O. ficus-indica , the domesticated O . species, is used as a nutritional and pharmaceutical agent in various dietary and value-added products. Though differences in the phytochemical composition exist between wild and domesticated ( O. ficus-indica ) Opuntia spp., all Opuntia vegetatives (pear, roots, cladodes, seeds, and juice) exhibit beneficial properties mainly resulting from their high content in antioxidants (flavonoids, ascorbate), pigments (carotenoids, betalains), and phenolic acids. Other phytochemical components (biopeptides, soluble fibers) have been characterized and contribute to the medicinal properties of Opuntia spp. The biological properties of Opuntia spp. have been investigated on cellular and animal models and in clinical trials in humans, allowing characterization and clarification of the protective effect of Opuntia -enriched diets in chronic diseases. This review is an update on the phytochemical composition and biological properties of Opuntia spp. and their potential interest in medicine.

  8. Quantification of natural populations of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and Herbaspirillum spp. In sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) Using differente polyclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva-Froufe, Lúcia Gracinda; Boddey, Robert Michael; Reis, Veronica Massena

    2009-01-01

    The species Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, Herbaspirillum seropedicae and H. rubrisubalbicans are endophytic N2-fixing [diazotrophic] bacteria which colonise not only roots, but also the aerial tissue of sugar cane. However, the technique most commonly used to quantify the populations of these microbes in plants is by culturing serial dilutions of macerates of plant tissues in N free semi-solid media which are only semi-selective for the species/genera [the Most Probable Number (MPN) Technique] and each culture must be further subjected to several tests to identify the isolates at the species level. The use of species-specific polyclonal antibodies with the indirect ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) can be an alternative which is rapid and specific to quantify these populations of bacteria. This study was performed to investigate the viability of adapting the indirect ELISA technique to quantify individually the populations of these three species of diazotroph within the root and shoot tissues of sugarcane. The results showed that species-specific polyclonal antibodies could be obtained by purifying sera in protein-A columns which removed non-specific immuno-globulins. It was possible to quantify the three bacterial species in the Brazilian sugarcane variety SP 70-1143 in numbers above 105 cells per g fresh weight in roots, rhizomes and leaves. The numbers of the different bacterial species evaluated using the ELISA technique were found to be higher than when the same populations were evaluated using the MPN technique, reaching 1400 times greater for G. diazotrophicus and 225 times greater for Herbaspirillum spp. These results constitute the first quantification of Herbaspirillum using immunological techniques. PMID:24031435

  9. Quantification of natural populations of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and Herbaspirillum spp. In sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) Using differente polyclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva-Froufe, Lúcia Gracinda; Boddey, Robert Michael; Reis, Veronica Massena

    2009-10-01

    The species Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, Herbaspirillum seropedicae and H. rubrisubalbicans are endophytic N2-fixing [diazotrophic] bacteria which colonise not only roots, but also the aerial tissue of sugar cane. However, the technique most commonly used to quantify the populations of these microbes in plants is by culturing serial dilutions of macerates of plant tissues in N free semi-solid media which are only semi-selective for the species/genera [the Most Probable Number (MPN) Technique] and each culture must be further subjected to several tests to identify the isolates at the species level. The use of species-specific polyclonal antibodies with the indirect ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) can be an alternative which is rapid and specific to quantify these populations of bacteria. This study was performed to investigate the viability of adapting the indirect ELISA technique to quantify individually the populations of these three species of diazotroph within the root and shoot tissues of sugarcane. The results showed that species-specific polyclonal antibodies could be obtained by purifying sera in protein-A columns which removed non-specific immuno-globulins. It was possible to quantify the three bacterial species in the Brazilian sugarcane variety SP 70-1143 in numbers above 10(5) cells per g fresh weight in roots, rhizomes and leaves. The numbers of the different bacterial species evaluated using the ELISA technique were found to be higher than when the same populations were evaluated using the MPN technique, reaching 1400 times greater for G. diazotrophicus and 225 times greater for Herbaspirillum spp. These results constitute the first quantification of Herbaspirillum using immunological techniques.

  10. Quantification of natural populations of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and Herbaspirillum spp. In sugar cane (Saccharum spp. Using differente polyclonal antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Gracinda da Silva-Froufe

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The species Gluconacetobacterdiazotrophicus, Herbaspirillum seropedicae and H. rubrisubalbicans are endophytic N2-fixing [diazotrophic] bacteria which colonise not only roots, but also the aerial tissue of sugar cane. However, the technique most commonly used to quantify the populations of these microbes in plants is by culturing serial dilutions of macerates of plant tissues in N free semi-solid media which are only semi-selective for the species/genera [the Most Probable Number (MPN Technique] and each culture must be further subjected to several tests to identify the isolates at the species level. The use of species-specific polyclonal antibodies with the indirect ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay can be an alternative which is rapid and specific to quantify these populations of bacteria. This study was performed to investigate the viability of adapting the indirect ELISA technique to quantify individually the populations of these three species of diazotroph within the root and shoot tissues of sugarcane. The results showed that species-specific polyclonal antibodies could be obtained by purifying sera in protein-A columns which removed non-specific immuno-globulins. It was possible to quantify the three bacterial species in the Brazilian sugarcane variety SP 70-1143 in numbers above 10(5 cells per g fresh weight in roots, rhizomes and leaves. The numbers of the different bacterial species evaluated using the ELISA technique were found to be higher than when the same populations were evaluated using the MPN technique, reaching 1400 times greater for G. diazotrophicus and 225 times greater for Herbaspirillum spp. These results constitute the first quantification of Herbaspirillum using immunological techniques.

  11. Association of nuisance filamentous algae Cladophora spp. with E. coli and Salmonella in public beach waters: impacts of UV protection on bacterial survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckinghausen, Aubrey; Martinez, Alexia; Blersch, David; Haznedaroglu, Berat Z

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated whether filamentous algal species commonly found in nearshore public beach water systems provide protection from natural UV to bacteria present in the same environmental settings. To test this hypothesis, Cladophora spp., a filamentous nuisance algae group causing undesired water quality in the Great Lakes region was selected and its interactions with a non-pathogenic indicator organism Escherichia coli and a pathogenic strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium were tested. In laboratory microcosms where the lake environment and natural sunlight conditions were simulated, a 7-log removal of E. coli was observed in only six hours of exposure to UV with an initial seed concentration of 10(3) CFU mL(-1). With the presence of algae, the same log removal was achieved in 16 hours. At higher seed concentrations of 10(5) CFU mL(-1), E. coli survived for two days with an extended survival up to 11 days in the presence of Cladophora spp. S. typhimurium has shown more resilient survival profiles, with the same log removals achieved in 14 and 20 days for low and high seed concentrations respectively, in the absence of algae. Cladophora spp. caused extended protection for S. typhimurium with much less log reductions reported. Algae-mediated protection from UV irradiation was attributed to certain organic carbon exuded from Cladophora spp. In addition, confocal microscopy images confirmed close interaction between bacteria and algae, more prominent with thin filamentous Cladophora spp.

  12. PCR detection of Bartonella spp. in the dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Konvalinová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study aimed at using PCR to identify the incidence of Bartonella spp. in blood of dogs. Altogether 286 dogs of 92 breeds aged 3 month to 17 years were tested from October 2008 to December 2009. Healthy dogs as well as dogs with various clinical symptoms of disease were included in the group. Samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR specific for the presence of Bartonella spp. Following the DNA examination in 286 dogs by PCR and subsequent sequencing, two samples were identified as Bartonella henselae (0.7%. Other species of Bartonella were not found. It was the first time in the Czech Republic when incidence of Bartonella spp. was determined in dogs.

  13. Frecuencia de aislamiento de Staphylococcus spp meticilina resistentes y Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistentes en hospitales de Cuba Frequency of methicilline-resistant Staphylococcus spp and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp isolates in Cuban hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora González Mesa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La resistencia a meticilina en el género Staphylococcus spp es un problema creciente en el ámbito mundial. La producción de una PBP alterada (PBP2a con baja afinidad a betalactámicos, mediada por el gen mec A, es la responsable de esta resistencia. Mientras que los Staphylococcus spp todavía permanecen sensibles a vancomicina, algunos Enterococcus spp han adquirido la capacidad de neutralizar esta droga. En nuestro país no se conocen datos actualizados sobre la tasa de infección por S. aureus meticilina resistente (SAMR, ni sobre la circulación de este germen en la comunidad, tampoco existen reportes de Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistente (EVR. En este estudio fueron analizadas 774 cepas, colectadas en hospitales del país. Se determinó el mecanismo de resistencia utilizando métodos sugeridos por las guías NCCLS. El 9.3 % (23 de los S. aureus aislados en los hospitales y 4.0% (7 S. aureus aislados en la comunidad, fueron SAMR, portadores del gen mec A, el 69.9 % (72 de Staphylococcus coagulasa negativo, fueron resistentes a oxacilina. En la detección del Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistente (EVR, se encontró una cepa portadora de este fenotipo. Nuestros resultados revelan que en nuestro país los SAMR no son un problema en los hospitales, ni en el ambiente comunitario, a pesar de que se reporta por primera vez la circulación de estos en la comunidad y la circulación de EVR en el ambiente hospitalario, su frecuencia es muy baja lo que refleja los avances obtenidos en la aplicación de políticas encaminadas a racionalizar el uso y consumo de antibióticos.Resistance to methicilline in Staphylococcus spp genus is a growing problem worldwide. The production of an altered penicillin-fixing protein with low mecA gen-mediated affinity to beta-lactams is responsible for this resistance. Although Staphylococcus spp still remain susceptible to vancomycin, some Enterococcus spp have acquired the capacity of neutralizing this drug. In

  14. SPPTOOLS: Programming tools for the IRAF SPP language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, M.

    1992-01-01

    An IRAF package to assist in SPP code development and debugging is described. SPP is the machine-independent programming language used by virtually all IRAF tasks. Tools have been written to aide both novice and advanced SPP programmers with development and debugging by providing tasks to check the code for the number and type of arguments in all calls to IRAF VOS library procedures, list the calling sequences of IRAF tasks, create a database of identifiers for quick access, check for memory which is not freed, and a source code formatter. Debugging is simplified since the programmer is able to get a better understanding of the structure of his/her code, and IRAF library procedure calls (probably the most common source of errors) are automatically checked for correctness.

  15. Contamination of poultry environment with campylobacter Spp. and significance for colonisation of broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lydekaitiene, Viktorija Legaudaite; Malakauskas, Mindangas; Kudirkiene, Egle

    2016-01-01

    to identify the sources of Campylobacter in poultry farm environment and their significance for broiler colonisation. For this purpose, Campylobacter spp. were isolated from broilers and their environment (litter, water of puddle, concentric zones, tap water) by both direct inoculation on mCCDA selective......Various animal species, wild birds, rodents and pets are the main source of Campylobacter contamination in broiler farms. However, little is known about the ability of these bacteria to survive outside the host and their role in the colonisation of broilers. Therefore, in this study we aimed...... medium and selective enrichment into Exeter broth. Campylobacter isolates were identified to the species level by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The genetic diversity of Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from broilers and the environment was examined by PCR-based restriction fragment length...

  16. Investigating the diversity of Pseudomonas spp. in soil using culture dependent and independent techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Lili; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Bergmark, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    Less than 1% of bacterial populations present in environmental samples are culturable, meaning that cultivation will lead to an underestimation of total cell counts and total diversity. However, it is less clear whether this is also true for specific well-defined groups of bacteria for which sele...... selective culture media is available. In this study, we use culture dependent and independent techniques to describe whether isolation of Pseudomonas spp. on selective nutrient-poor NAA 1: 100 agar-medium can reflect the full diversity, found by ...

  17. High Prevalence of Anaplasma spp. in Small Ruminants in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Lbacha, H; Alali, S; Zouagui, Z; El Mamoun, L; Rhalem, A; Petit, E; Haddad, N; Gandoin, C; Boulouis, H-J; Maillard, R

    2017-02-01

    The prevalence of infection by Anaplasma spp. (including Anaplasma phagocytophilum) was determined using blood smear microscopy and PCR through screening of small ruminant blood samples collected from seven regions of Morocco. Co-infections of Anaplasma spp., Babesia spp, Theileria spp. and Mycoplasma spp. were investigated and risk factors for Anaplasma spp. infection assessed. A total of 422 small ruminant blood samples were randomly collected from 70 flocks. Individual animal (breed, age, tick burden and previous treatment) and flock data (GPS coordinate of farm, size of flock and livestock production system) were collected. Upon examination of blood smears, 375 blood samples (88.9%) were found to contain Anaplasma-like erythrocytic inclusion bodies. Upon screening with a large spectrum PCR targeting the Anaplasma 16S rRNA region, 303 (71%) samples were found to be positive. All 303 samples screened with the A. phagocytophilum-specific PCR, which targets the msp2 region, were found to be negative. Differences in prevalence were found to be statistically significant with regard to region, altitude, flock size, livestock production system, grazing system, presence of clinical cases and application of tick and tick-borne diseases prophylactic measures. Kappa analysis revealed a poor concordance between microscopy and PCR (k = 0.14). Agreement with PCR is improved by considering microscopy and packed cell volume (PCV) in parallel. The prevalence of double infections was found to be 1.7, 2.5 and 24% for Anaplasma-Babesia, Anaplasma-Mycoplasma and Anaplasma-Theileria, respectively. Co-infection with three or more haemoparasites was found in 1.6% of animals examined. In conclusion, we demonstrate the high burden of anaplasmosis in small ruminants in Morocco and the high prevalence of co-infections of tick-borne diseases. There is an urgent need to improve the control of this neglected group of diseases. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. [Staphylococcus cohnii spp urealyticus: case report on an uncommon pathogen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Azevedo, Pedro Alves; Antunes, Ana Lúcia Sousa; Martino, Marinês Dalla Valle; Pignatari, Antonio Carlos Campos

    2008-01-01

    Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus has emerged as an important agent in nosocomial infections. In this study, we report a case of bacteremia associated with a central venous catheter, caused by Staphylococcus cohnii spp urealyticus that was isolated in blood cultures from a 53-year-old male patient who was admitted to a general hospital in the city of São Paulo. We discuss in this report the difficulty in routinely identifying this microorganism in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Staphylococcus cohnii spp urealyticus is a microorganism found in human skin as part of the normal microbiota, and it can cause serious infections in humans, in some situations.

  19. High prevalence of Leptospira spp. in sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøjgaard, L H; Villumsen, S; Markussen, M D K

    2009-01-01

    Earlier studies on the ecology of leptospirosis in temperate regions focused mainly on free-ranging rats in rural areas. Here we report on the occurrence of Leptospira spp. in Rattus norvegicus living in sewers in a suburban area in Copenhagen, Denmark. In 2006-2007, about 30 rats were captured...... in sewers at each of six different locations. Rat kidneys were screened by PCR for pathogenic Leptospira spp. In one location no infected rats were found, whereas the prevalence in the remaining five locations ranged between 48% and 89%. Micro-agglutination tests showed that serogroup Pomona, Sejroe...

  20. An Ectopic Case of Tunga spp. Infection in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maco, Vicente; Maco, Vicente P.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Tungiasis is a neglected ectoparasitism of impoverished areas in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. The sand flea Tunga spp. preferably infests the soles and the periungueal and interdigital regions of the feet. Ectopic tungiasis is rare, even in highly endemic areas. We describe a case of an indigenous patient in Peru who presented with a nodular lesion in the extensor aspect of the knee and whose biopsy was compatible with Tunga spp. This is the first documented case of knee tungiasis in an endemic country. The historical, clinical, histological, and current epidemiological aspects of tungiasis in Peru are discussed here. PMID:20519602

  1. SPP propagation in nonlinear glass-metal interface

    KAUST Repository

    Sagor, Rakibul Hasan

    2011-12-01

    The non-linear propagation of Surface-Plasmon-Polaritons (SPP) in single interface of metal and chalcogenide glass (ChG) is considered. A time domain simulation algorithm is developed using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. The general polarization algorithm incorporated in the auxiliary differential equation (ADE) is used to model frequency-dependent dispersion relation and third-order nonlinearity of ChG. The main objective is to observe the nonlinear behavior of SPP propagation and study the dynamics of the whole structure. © 2011 IEEE.

  2. Findings of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. in homemade cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambur Zoran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During the period from February until March 2004, 108 samples of soft cheese originating from markets of Pancevo, Subotica and Belgrade were examined. Microbiological analyses of the cheese samples to the presence of Escherichia coli was performed using methods described in the Regulations on methods for performing microbiological analyses and super analyses of consumer articles, while the presence of bacteria Enteroccocus spp. was performed on the dexter agar. From 108 samples of soft cheese from the territories of Pancevo, Belgrade and Subotica were isolated: Enterococcus spp. from 96% and Escherichia coli from 69%, cheese samples. Verocytotoxic E.coli was not isolated from any of the taken cheese samples.

  3. Loads and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. on fresh chicken meat in Nueva Ecija, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sison, F B; Chaisowwong, W; Alter, T; Tiwananthagorn, S; Pichpol, D; Lampang, K N; Baumann, M P O; Gölz, G

    2014-05-01

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence and to semiquantify Campylobacter spp. on chicken meat samples at 4 selected local wet markets in Nueva Ecija, Philippines, and to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of the Campylobacter isolates. Out of 120 chicken meat samples, 57 (47.5%) were Campylobacter spp. positive. The majority of isolated Campylobacter strains were identified as Campylobacter coli (54.4%) and 45.6% as Campylobacter jejuni. Most of these positive samples (52.6%) showed a very high quantitative Campylobacter contamination (most probable number > 2,400/g, lower confidence limit 580/g). For antimicrobial resistance testing, 44 C. coli/jejuni isolates were tested using the agar disk diffusion method. Out of these, 77.3% were resistant to ampicillin, followed by ciprofloxacin (70.4%), tetracycline (54.6%), erythromycin (20.2%), and gentamicin (11.4%). Of the isolates, 36.4% (n = 16) were resistant to 1 antimicrobial agent, 34.1% (n = 15) were resistance to 3 antimicrobial agents, 13.6% (n = 6) to 2 antimicrobial agents, 9.1% (n = 4) to 4 antimicrobial agents, and 6.8% (n = 3) to all 5 antimicrobial agents tested. Our data demonstrate a high contamination of fresh chicken meat with Campylobacter spp. at retail in the Philippines. The detected high Campylobacter prevalences and quantitative loads on chicken meat at retail in the Philippines highlight the need to implement efficient intervention measures along the food chain and to encourage sanitary handling of poultry meat.

  4. [Respiratory infections caused by Aspergillus spp. in critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez Lerma, F; Olaechea Astigarraga, P; Palomar Martínez, M; Rodríguez Carvajal, M; Machado Casas, J F; Jiménez Quintana, M M; Esteve Urbano, F; Ballesteros Herráez, J C; Zavala Zegarra, E

    2015-04-01

    The presence of respiratory fungal infection in the critically ill patient is associated with high morbidity and mortality. To assess the incidence of respiratory infection caused by Aspergillus spp. independently of the origin of infection in patients admitted to Spanish ICUs, as well as to describe the rates, characteristics, outcomes and prognostic factors in patients with this type of infection. An observational, retrospective, open-label and multicenter study was carried out in a cohort of patients with respiratory infection caused by Aspergillus spp. admitted to Spanish ICUs between 2006 and 2012 (months of April, May and June), and included in the ENVIN-HELICS registry (108,244 patients and 825,797 days of ICU stay). Variables independently related to in-hospital mortality were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis. A total of 267 patients from 79 of the 198 participating ICUs were included (2.46 cases per 1000 ICU patients and 3.23 episodes per 10,000 days of ICU stay). From a clinical point of view, infections were classified as ventilator-associated pneumonia in 93 cases (34.8%), pneumonia unrelated to mechanical ventilation in 120 cases (44.9%), and tracheobronchitis in 54 cases (20.2%). The study population included older patients (mean 64.8±17.1 years), with a high severity level (APACHE II score 22.03±7.7), clinical diseases (64.8%) and prolonged hospital stay before the identification of Aspergillus spp. (median 11 days), transferred to the ICU mainly from hospital wards (58.1%) and with high ICU (57.3%) and hospital (59.6%) mortality rates, exhibiting important differences depending on the type of infection involved. Independent mortality risk factors were previous admission to a hospital ward (OR=7.08, 95%CI: 3.18-15.76), a history of immunosuppression (OR=2.52, 95%CI: 1.24-5.13) and severe sepsis or septic shock (OR=8.91, 95%CI: 4.24-18.76). Respiratory infections caused by Aspergillus spp. in critically ill patients admitted to

  5. Genetic diversity analysis of mustard ( Brassica spp.) germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular characterization of 16 mustard (Brassica spp.) genotypes by using 12 RAPD markers revealed that three primers GLA-11, OPB-04 and OPD-02 showed good technical resolution and sufficient variations among different genotypes. A total of 40 RAPD bands were scored of which 38 (94.87%) polymorphic ...

  6. Banana (Musa spp.) Production Characteristics and Performance in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagamba, F.; Burger, C.P.J.; Tushemereirwe, W.K.

    2010-01-01

    The highland cooking banana (Musa spp., AAA-EA genome) is the most important crop in the East African Great Lakes region. In Uganda, production has expanded and productivity increased in the country’s southwest and declined in the Central region where the crop has traditional roots. Analyzing crop

  7. Candida spp. in oral cancer and oral precancerous lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Francesca; Colella, Giuseppe; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Rossiello, Raffaele; Angelillo, Italo Francesco; Liguori, Giorgio

    2013-07-01

    To assess the presence of Candida spp. in lesions of the oral cavity in a sample of patients with precancer or cancer of the mouth and evaluate the limitations and advantages of microbiological and histological methods, 103 subjects with precancerous or cancerous lesions and not treated were observed between 2007 and 2009. The presence of Candida in the lesions was analyzed by microbiological and histological methods. Cohen's k statistic was used to assess the agreement between culture method and staining techniques. Forty-eight (47%) patients had cancer and 55 (53%) patients had precancerous lesions. Candida spp. were isolated from 31 (30%) patients with cancerous lesions and 33 (32%) with precancerous lesions. C. albicans was the most frequent species isolated in the lesions. The k value showed a fair overall agreement for comparisons between culture method and PAS (0.2825) or GMS (0.3112). This study supports the frequent presence of Candida spp. in cancer and precancerous lesions of the oral cavity. Both microbiological investigations and histological techniques were reliable for detection of Candida spp. It would be desirable for the two techniques to be considered complementary in the detection of yeast infections in these types of lesions.

  8. Campylobacter spp among Children with acute diarrhea attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation rate in developing countries is between 5-35%. This study aimed at finding prevalence of children with campylobacter infection among children with acute diarrhea attending Mulago hospital. Objective: The objective was to establish the proportion of children infected with Campylobacter spp among children with ...

  9. Identification of intergeneric hybrids between Saccharum spp. and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-27

    Feb 27, 2009 ... The reason was that there might be a certain maternal-specific marker just on one homologous chromosome, while the other one without this marker, among the highly heterozygous genome of Saccharum spp., and that the recombination of genes and chromosome happened in the period of meiosis might ...

  10. Susceptibility Breakpoint for Enrofloxacin against Swine Salmonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Haihong; Pan, Huafang; Ahmad, Ijaz; Cheng, Guyue; Wang, Yulian; Dai, Menghong; Tao, Yanfei; Chen, Dongmei; Peng, Dapeng; Liu, Zhenli

    2013-01-01

    Susceptibility breakpoints are crucial for prudent use of antimicrobials. This study has developed the first susceptibility breakpoint (MIC ≤ 0.25 μg/ml) for enrofloxacin against swine Salmonella spp. based on wild-type cutoff (COWT) and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) cutoff (COPD) values, consequently providing a criterion for susceptibility testing and clinical usage of enrofloxacin. PMID:23784134

  11. Preliminary studies on pathogenic Leptospira spp . In slaughtered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of pathogenic Leptospira spp. and the associated renal morphological changes in pigs slaughtered in slaughter slabs within Abeokuta metropolis, Nigeria. A total of 42 pigs' kidney samples were randomly collected for the study. The samples were examined using ...

  12. Contamination of bovine, sheep and goat meat with Brucella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%: 1 bovine (2.5%, 9 sheep (15% and 15 goats (7.2% and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%. Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method.

  13. 21 CFR 866.3300 - Haemophilus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... serological tests to identify Haemophilus spp. directly from clinical specimens or tissue culture isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Haemophilus and provides epidemiological information on diseases cause by these...

  14. Biological response of Azospirillum spp. to different types of stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Sangoquiza Caiza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Azospirillum is one of the most studied free-living rhizobacteria currently of great agricultural interest because of its ability to bind biological nitrogen and produce phytohormones. The present research aimed at the biological response of Azospirillum spp. facing different types of stress. For this purpose, the micro and macro morphological characterization of Azospirillum spp. And its biological response to stress temperature, pH, salinity. The results revealed that the isolates (C2, C3 and C4 of Azospirillum spp. Grow in greater abundance at temperatures between 28-38 °C and pH between 7-8. The C2 and C3 isolates showed good growth up to 3.5 % (m / v NaCl, whereas the C4 strain was less tolerant. These results have biotechnological applicability and are of great importance when defining and controlling the mass production conditions of Azospirillum spp. for future formulations as biofertilizer in several crops of interest in Ecuador.

  15. Antifungals susceptibility pattern of Candida spp . isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest susceptibility of the isolates was seen for nystatin 62 (83.78%), ketoconazole 61 (82.43%) and fluconazole 60 (81.08%). Conclusion: Despite the noticeable resistance of Candida spp. isolates to miconazole and itraconazole, the results indicate that nystatin, ketoconazole and fluconazole are the drugs of choice ...

  16. Effect of Trichoderma spp. inoculation on the chemical composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in this study was complete randomized design (CRD) through factorial experiment with 2 factors (factor A = effects of sterilization, factor B = effects of Trichoderma spp.) in three replicates for each treatment. Effects of the Trichoderma isolates on the substrate neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and pH as ...

  17. Taxonomic variation in oviposition by tailed frogs (Aschaphus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy E. Karraker; David S. Pilliod; Michael J. Adams; Evelyn L. Bull; Paul Stephen Corn; Lowell V. Diller; Linda A. Dupuis; Marc P. Hayes; Blake R. Hossack; Garth R. Hodgson; Erin J. Hyde; Kirk Lohman; Bradford R. Norman; Lisa M. Ollivier; Christopher A. Pearl; Charles R. Peterson

    2006-01-01

    Tailed frogs (Ascaphus spp.) oviposit in cryptic locations in streams of the Pacific Northwest and Rocky Mountains. This aspect of their life history has restricted our understanding of their reproductive ecology. The recent split of A. montanus in the Rocky Mountains from A. truei was based on molecular...

  18. Molecular characterization of Azotobacter spp. nifH gene Isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Azotobacter species was isolated from marine source in two different seasons. They were cultivated under laboratory conditions using Nitrogen free Azotobacter specific medium. We observed that they were present in both seasons. The phylogenetic tree revealed that our isolated Azotobacter spp. was distantly related ...

  19. Salmonella spp. dynamics in wild blueberry, Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton

    Science.gov (United States)

    A six-year field study was conducted in the two major wild, or lowbush, blueberry growing regions in Maine, Midcoast and Downeast. This study used data from two cropping cycles (four years) to model the dynamics of Salmonella spp. prevalence in wild blueberry fields (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton). ...

  20. Characteristics of micro-propagated banana (Musa spp.) cultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-23

    May 23, 2011 ... was conducted to assess the effect of NaCl and PEG separately as well as in combination on plant micro- propagation efficiency of banana (Musa spp.) cv., Basrai. In this experiment, 4-weeks old plantlets of the 3rd sub- culture with well propagation on MS2b nutrient were sub- cultured on three differentially ...

  1. The copepod Calanus spp. (Calanidae) is repelled by polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Amit; Browman, Howard I.

    2016-10-01

    Both attraction and repulsion from linearly polarized light have been observed in zooplankton. A dichotomous choice experiment, consisting of plankton light traps deployed in natural waters at a depth of 30 m that projected either polarized or unpolarized light of the same intensity, was used to test the hypothesis that the North Atlantic copepod, Calanus spp., is linearly polarotactic. In addition, the transparency of these copepods, as they might be seen by polarization insensitive vs. sensitive visual systems, was measured. Calanus spp. exhibited negative polarotaxis with a preference ratio of 1.9:1. Their transparency decreased from 80% to 20% to 30% in the unpolarized, partially polarized, and electric (e-) vector orientation domains respectively - that is, these copepods would appear opaque and conspicuous to a polarization-sensitive viewer looking at them under conditions rich in polarized light. Since the only difference between the two plankton traps was the polarization cue, we conclude that Calanus spp. are polarization sensitive and exhibit negative polarotaxis at low light intensities (albeit well within the sensitivity range reported for copepods). We hypothesize that Calanus spp. can use polarization vision to reduce their risk of predation by polarization-sensitive predators and suggest that this be tested in future experiments.

  2. Prevalence of Demodex spp among alcohol-dependent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Hanifi Kokacya

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Demodex spp. are more common in alcohol-dependent patients due conditions of reduced self-care and immunosuppression. Demodex parasites should be considered in alcohol-dependent patients with skin lesions, especially on the face, and should to be treated if needed. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(2.000: 259-263

  3. Anti-inflammatory of both Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus are among the Palestinian trees that are traditionally used in folkloric medicine in treating many diseases; leaves of which are thought to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antioxidant effects. The goal of this study is to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory effect of ...

  4. Aeromonas spp. in het Nederlandse drinkwater; een orienterend onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh JFM; During M; Havelaar AH; Koot W

    1986-01-01

    In dit rapport worden uitvoering en resultaten van een orienterend onderzoek naar het voorkomen van Aeromonas spp. in het Nederlandse drinkwater in 1985 besproken. Het bleek dat in 71% van de onderzochte monsters (rein water "af pompstation" en water uit het distributienet) in 100 ml

  5. Cement bonded wood wool boards from podocarpus spp. for low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... sound insulation in walls, ceilings and floors, roofs, sound barriers and thermal insulation. Further research is required to investigate the use of different wood species and different mineral binders. Keywords: podocarpus spp, wood-wool, wood-cement composites. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol.

  6. Isolation and molecular identification of Vibrio spp. by sequencing of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Out of the 93 cultured samples only 48 (51.6%) yielded colonies on Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt agar (TCBS) with culture characteristics of Vibrio spp. More than half (n=27) of processed seafood samples (n=46) yielded colonies on TCBS, while only 44.6% of samples of meat and meat products showed colonies on TCBS.

  7. Identification and characterisation of Thiobacilli spp. from Chaliyar Estuary - Malabar

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raveendran, O.; Kumaran, S.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Thiobacilli spp. occurring in surface and bottom water and sediment from seven stations in the Chaliyar Estuary, for a period of one year, were isolated and cultured. A total of 231 sample of water and sediments were analysed of which 77 gave...

  8. Analysis of genetic diversity of Piper spp. in Hainan Island (China ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis was used to evaluate the genetic variation of Piper spp. from Hainan, China. 247 polymorphic bands out of a total of 248 (99.60%) were generated from 74 individual plants of Piper spp. The overall level of genetic diversity among Piper spp. in Hainan was high, with the mean ...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3720 - Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. 866.3720... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3720 Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. exoenzyme reagents are devices used...

  10. Isothermal Amplification and Lateral-Flow Assay for Detecting Crown-Gall-Causing Agrobacterium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Skylar L; Savory, Elizabeth A; Weisberg, Alexandra J; Buser, Jessica Z; Gordon, Michael I; Putnam, Melodie L; Chang, Jeff H

    2017-09-01

    Agrobacterium is a genus of soilborne gram-negative bacteria. Members carrying oncogenic plasmids can cause crown gall disease, which has significant economic costs, especially for the orchard and nursery industries. Early and rapid detection of pathogenic Agrobacterium spp. is key to the management of crown gall disease. To this end, we designed oligonucleotide primers and probes to target virD2 for use in a molecular diagnostic tool that relies on isothermal amplification and lateral-flow-based detection. The oligonucleotide tools were tested in the assay and evaluated for detection limit and specificity in detecting alleles of virD2. One set of primers that successfully amplified virD2 when used with an isothermal recombinase was selected. Both tested probes had detection limits in picogram amounts of DNA. Probe 1 could detect all tested pathogenic isolates that represented most of the diversity of virD2. Finally, the coupling of lateral-flow detection to the use of these oligonucleotide primers in isothermal amplification helped to reduce the onerousness of the process, and alleviated reliance on specialized tools necessary for molecular diagnostics. The assay is an advancement for the rapid molecular detection of pathogenic Agrobacterium spp.

  11. Antimicrobial sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. Isolated from clinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamires Martins

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation of the mammary gland, which is also known as mastitis, occupies a prominent place among the diseases that affect dairy cattle, having a great economic importance in the dairy sector. Mastitis may have different origins, however, infectious mastitis is the most frequent and represents a risk to public health due to the propagation of microorganisms through milk. Staphylococcus spp. are considered the microorganisms that cause the greatest losses in milk production, being that Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogen of major importance because they present high resistence to antimicrobials. Empirical treatment, without prior identification of the pathogens and their resistance profile, may contribute to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains and risk the efficiency of the antimicrobial. In that scenery, the study aimed to evaluate the resistance profile of Staphylococcus spp. against some antimicrobials used in the treatment of cows with clinical mastitis. The study was conducted on a property in the state of São Paulo from January 2011 to June 2012. We evaluated 29 lactating cows that present clinical mastitis in, at least, one mammary quarter. The diagnosis of clinical mastitis was performed by evaluating the clinical signs and also by Tamis test. Samples of milk from mammary quarters were collected aseptically in sterile tubes for microbiological evaluation. Microorganisms were isolated on sheep blood agar 5% and Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol. The sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. to the antibiotics ampicillin, cephalexin, ceftiofur, cefaclor, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, penicillin G and oxacillin, was tested by disk diffusion test on Mueller-Hinton agar. From a total of 106 samples of milk analyzed, 64 (60.38% presented microbiological growth, being observed isolation of Streptococcus spp. 29 (34.52%, Staphylococcus spp. 28 (33.33%, Corynebacterium spp. 17 (20.24%, filamentous fungi 4 (4.76%, yeast 4 (4

  12. Polyploidization altered gene functions in cotton (Gossypium spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhanyou; Yu, John Z; Cho, Jaemin; Yu, Jing; Kohel, Russell J; Percy, Richard G

    2010-12-16

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is an important crop plant that is widely grown to produce both natural textile fibers and cottonseed oil. Cotton fibers, the economically more important product of the cotton plant, are seed trichomes derived from individual cells of the epidermal layer of the seed coat. It has been known for a long time that large numbers of genes determine the development of cotton fiber, and more recently it has been determined that these genes are distributed across At and Dt subgenomes of tetraploid AD cottons. In the present study, the organization and evolution of the fiber development genes were investigated through the construction of an integrated genetic and physical map of fiber development genes whose functions have been verified and confirmed. A total of 535 cotton fiber development genes, including 103 fiber transcription factors, 259 fiber development genes, and 173 SSR-contained fiber ESTs, were analyzed at the subgenome level. A total of 499 fiber related contigs were selected and assembled. Together these contigs covered about 151 Mb in physical length, or about 6.7% of the tetraploid cotton genome. Among the 499 contigs, 397 were anchored onto individual chromosomes. Results from our studies on the distribution patterns of the fiber development genes and transcription factors between the At and Dt subgenomes showed that more transcription factors were from Dt subgenome than At, whereas more fiber development genes were from At subgenome than Dt. Combining our mapping results with previous reports that more fiber QTLs were mapped in Dt subgenome than At subgenome, the results suggested a new functional hypothesis for tetraploid cotton. After the merging of the two diploid Gossypium genomes, the At subgenome has provided most of the genes for fiber development, because it continues to function similar to its fiber producing diploid A genome ancestor. On the other hand, the Dt subgenome, with its non-fiber producing D genome ancestor

  13. [Incidence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. in raw and roasted chicken in Guadalajara, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Ayala, A; Salas-Ubiarco, M G; Márquez-Padilla, M L; Osorio-Hernández, M D

    1993-01-01

    The presence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella was studied in 70 samples of fresh retail chicken pieces and in 40 samples of roast chicken. Total plate count was performed in every sample as well. Most of the samples of fresh chicken yielded total plate counts > 10(8)/piece (thigh), while in roast chicken these counts ranged from 10(3) to 10(5)/piece (leg and thigh). Campylobacter was isolated from 33% of fresh chicken and from no sample of roast chicken. Salmonella was isolated from 69% of fresh chicken and 2.5% of roast chicken. There was no relationship between total plate counts in fresh chicken and isolation of either Campylobacter or Salmonella. Sixty percent of the Salmonella isolates belonged to serotype S. anatum, and about 50% of the isolates of Campylobacter were identified as being C. coli. The only Salmonella-positive sample of roast chicken yielded three serotypes: S. give, S. muenster, and S. manhattan. Presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in chicken is of concern, due to the risk of spreading from the raw food to other cooked foods. The isolation of pathogens from roast chicken indicates mishandling during processing and/or storage of the product.

  14. A Ribeiroia spp. (Class: Trematoda) - Specific PCR-based diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinitz, David M.; Yoshino, T.P.; Cole, Rebecca A.

    2007-01-01

    Increased reporting of amphibian malformations in North America has been noted with concern in light of reports that amphibian numbers and species are declining worldwide. Ribeiroia ondatrae has been shown to cause a variety of types of malformations in amphibians. However, little is known about the prevalence of R. ondatrae in North America. To aid in conducting field studies of Ribeiroia spp., we have developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic. Herein, we describe the development of an accurate, rapid, simple, and cost-effective diagnostic for detection of Ribeiroia spp. infection in snails (Planorbella trivolvis). Candidate oligonucleotide primers for PCR were designed via DNA sequence analyses of multiple ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-2 regions from Ribeiroia spp. and Echinostoma spp. Comparison of consensus sequences determined from both genera identified areas of sequence potentially unique to Ribeiroia spp. The PCR reliably produced a diagnostic 290-base pair (bp) product in the presence of a wide concentration range of snail or frog DNA. Sensitivity was examined with DNA extracted from single R. ondatrae cercaria. The single-tube PCR could routinely detect less than 1 cercariae equivalent, because DNA isolated from a single cercaria could be diluted at least 1:50 and still yield a positive result via gel electrophoresis. An even more sensitive nested PCR also was developed that routinely detected 100 fg of the 290-bp fragment. The assay did not detect furcocercous cercariae of certain Schistosomatidae, Echinostoma sp., or Sphaeridiotrema globulus nor adults of Clinostomum sp. or Cyathocotyle bushiensis. Field testing of 137 P. trivolvis identified 3 positives with no overt environmental cross-reactivity, and results concurred with microscopic examinations in all cases. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2007.

  15. Natural production of Tuber aestivum in central Spain: Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp. brûlés

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis G. Garcia-Montero; Domingo Moreno; Vicente J. Monleon; Fernando Arredondo-Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    Aim of study: Tuber aestivum is the most widespread edible truffle, with increasing commercial interest. This species can produce carpophores with conifer hosts, in contrast with the inability of Pinus spp. to induce fruiting in other truffle species such as Tuber melanosporum. Therefore the objective is to...

  16. Survey of Ehrlichia canis, Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. in dogs from a semiarid region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Emmanuelle de Farias Rotondano

    Full Text Available This study assessed the occurrence of Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. infections in 100 tick-harboring dogs from a semiarid region of the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples and ticks were collected from the animals, and a questionnaire was submitted to dog owners to obtain general data. Blood samples were used to perform hemogram, direct blood smear and immunological and molecular hemoparasite detection. The 1,151 ticks collected were identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus; direct smears revealed E. canis-like morulae in the monocytes of 4% (4/100 of the non-vaccinated female dogs, and 34% and 25% of the dogs tested positive for Ehrlichia canis by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR, respectively. Blood smear examination revealed Babesia-suggestive merozoites in the erythrocytes of 2% (2/100 of the animals. Babesia vogeli was detected by PCR in ten animals (10% and was correlated with young age (p = 0.007 and thrombocytopenia (p = 0.01. None of the animals showed Hepatozoon spp. positivity. These results indicate that E. canis is the main tick-borne canine pathogen in the study area and provide the first report of B. vogeli infection in dogs from Paraiba State.

  17. Survey of Ehrlichia canis, Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. in dogs from a semiarid region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondano, Tereza Emmanuelle de Farias; Almeida, Herta Karyanne Araújo; Krawczak, Felipe da Silva; Santana, Vanessa Lira; Vidal, Ivana Fernandes; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Ade lmeida, Alzira Maria Paiva; de Melo, Marcia Almeida

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the occurrence of Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. infections in 100 tick-harboring dogs from a semiarid region of the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples and ticks were collected from the animals, and a questionnaire was submitted to dog owners to obtain general data. Blood samples were used to perform hemogram, direct blood smear and immunological and molecular hemoparasite detection. The 1,151 ticks collected were identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus; direct smears revealed E. canis-like morulae in the monocytes of 4% (4/100) of the non-vaccinated female dogs, and 34% and 25% of the dogs tested positive for Ehrlichia canis by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. Blood smear examination revealed Babesia-suggestive merozoites in the erythrocytes of 2% (2/100) of the animals. Babesia vogeli was detected by PCR in ten animals (10%) and was correlated with young age (p = 0.007) and thrombocytopenia (p = 0.01). None of the animals showed Hepatozoon spp. positivity. These results indicate that E. canis is the main tick-borne canine pathogen in the study area and provide the first report of B. vogeli infection in dogs from Paraiba State.

  18. Canine infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, Dirofilaria immitis, Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in Canada, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrin, Brian H; Peregrine, Andrew S; Goring, Jonas; Beall, Melissa J; Little, Susan E

    2017-05-19

    Canine test results generated by veterinarians throughout Canada from 2013-2014 were evaluated to assess the geographical distribution of canine infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia spp., and Anaplasma spp. The percent positive test results of 115,636 SNAP® 4Dx® Plus tests from dogs tested were collated by province and municipality to determine the distribution of these vector-borne infections in Canada. A total of 2,844/115,636 (2.5%) dogs tested positive for antibody to B. burgdorferi. In contrast, positive test results for D. immitis antigen and antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp. were low, with less than 0.5% of dogs testing positive for any one of these three agents nationwide. Provincial seroprevalence for antibodies to B. burgdorferi ranged from 0.5% (Saskatchewan)-15.7% (Nova Scotia); the areas of highest percent positive test results were in proximity to regions in the USA considered endemic for Lyme borreliosis, including Nova Scotia (15.7%) and Eastern Ontario (5.1%). These high endemic foci, which had significantly higher percent positive test results than the rest of the nation (P Canada. Using dogs as sentinels for these pathogens can aid in recognition of the public and veterinary health threat that each pose.

  19. ESCMID and ECMM joint guidelines on diagnosis and management of hyalohyphomycosis: Fusarium spp., Scedosporium spp. and others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortorano, A M; Richardson, M; Roilides, E; van Diepeningen, A; Caira, M; Munoz, P; Johnson, E; Meletiadis, J; Pana, Z-D; Lackner, M; Verweij, P; Freiberger, T; Cornely, O A; Arikan-Akdagli, S; Dannaoui, E; Groll, A H; Lagrou, K; Chakrabarti, A; Lanternier, F; Pagano, L; Skiada, A; Akova, M; Arendrup, M C; Boekhout, T; Chowdhary, A; Cuenca-Estrella, M; Guinea, J; Guarro, J; de Hoog, S; Hope, W; Kathuria, S; Lortholary, O; Meis, J F; Ullmann, A J; Petrikkos, G; Lass-Flörl, C

    2014-04-01

    Mycoses summarized in the hyalohyphomycosis group are heterogeneous, defined by the presence of hyaline (non-dematiaceous) hyphae. The number of organisms implicated in hyalohyphomycosis is increasing and the most clinically important species belong to the genera Fusarium, Scedosporium, Acremonium, Scopulariopsis, Purpureocillium and Paecilomyces. Severely immunocompromised patients are particularly vulnerable to infection, and clinical manifestations range from colonization to chronic localized lesions to acute invasive and/or disseminated diseases. Diagnosis usually requires isolation and identification of the infecting pathogen. A poor prognosis is associated with fusariosis and early therapy of localized disease is important to prevent progression to a more aggressive or disseminated infection. Therapy should include voriconazole and surgical debridement where possible or posaconazole as salvage treatment. Voriconazole represents the first-line treatment of infections due to members of the genus Scedosporium. For Acremonium spp., Scopulariopsis spp., Purpureocillium spp. and Paecilomyces spp. the optimal antifungal treatment has not been established. Management usually consists of surgery and antifungal treatment, depending on the clinical presentation. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  20. Comparing root knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) effects on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and grapevine (Vitis spp.) metabolic profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp., RKN) can negatively impact both herbaceous annual and woody perennial hosts. RKN infestations also may increase plant host susceptibility to other stresses such as those imposed by water deficits or various diseases. However, little is known about direct or ind...

  1. Agronomic traits and deoxynivalenol contamination of two tetraploid wheat species (Triticum turgidum spp. durum, Triticum turgidum spp. turanicum grown strictly under low input conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Dinelli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of the agronomic performance of two tetraploid wheat varieties (Triticum turgidum spp. durum, Claudio; Triticum turgidum spp. turanicum, Kamut® grown strictly under low input conditions was carried out over three consecutive cropping years. The study reported grain yield values ranging from 1.8 to 2.6 t ha-1. Productivity showed to be primarily affected by environmental conditions, while no differences were observed between the two genotypes. The study of the yield components highlighted that the durum wheat variety had a higher plant density than Kamut®, but this discrepancy was offset by a greater number of kernels per spike and the kernel weight of khorasan wheat. The investigated wheat genotypes were also analysed to assess the mycotoxin (DON levels of wholegrain semolina and the efficiency of cleaning treatments to reduce contamination. Results showed that both wheat varieties had a good hygienic and sanitary quality with a DON content ranging from 0.35 to 1.31 mg kg-1, which was lower than the maximum acceptable level set by the European regulation at 1.75 mg kg-1. In addition, our research work investigated the effects of premilling cleaning procedures, such as water washing and brushing, on mycotoxin levels, which yielded interesting results in terms of decontamination efficiency. These methods were particularly efficient with Kamut® semolina (46-93% DON reduction, suggesting that mycotoxins accumulate in this variety at more superficial levels than in the durum wheat variety. On the whole, our study provided additional knowledge on the traits to be further improved to respond to low input requirements and to enhance the potential adaptability of wheat genotypes to organic agriculture. Our results emphasized the need to develop wheat varieties that can provide adequate performance without high levels of nitrogen inputs by selecting specific traits, such as kernel weight, spike length and kernel/spike. This may help

  2. Prevalence and relative risk of Cronobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes associated with the body surfaces and guts of individual filth flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pava-Ripoll, Monica; Pearson, Rachel E Goeriz; Miller, Amy K; Ziobro, George C

    2012-11-01

    Although flies are important vectors of food-borne pathogens, there is little information to accurately assess the food-related health risk of the presence of individual flies, especially in urban areas. This study quantifies the prevalence and the relative risk of food-borne pathogens associated with the body surfaces and guts of individual wild flies. One hundred flies were collected from the dumpsters of 10 randomly selected urban restaurants. Flies were identified using taxonomic keys before being individually dissected. Cronobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes were detected using the PCR-based BAX system Q7. Positive samples were confirmed by culture on specific media and through PCR amplification and sequencing or ribotyping. Among collected flies were the housefly, Musca domestica (47%), the blowflies, Lucilia cuprina (33%) and Lucilia sericata (14%), and others (6%). Cronobacter species were detected in 14% of flies, including C. sakazakii, C. turicensis, and C. universalis, leading to the proposal of flies as a natural reservoir of this food-borne pathogen. Six percent of flies carried Salmonella enterica, including the serovars Poona, Hadar, Schwarzengrund, Senftenberg, and Brackenridge. L. monocytogenes was detected in 3% of flies. Overall, the prevalence of food-borne pathogens was three times greater in the guts than on the body surfaces of the flies. The relative risk of flies carrying any of the three pathogens was associated with the type of pathogen, the body part of the fly, and the ambient temperature. These data enhance the ability to predict the microbiological risk associated with the presence of individual flies in food and food facilities.

  3. Prevalence and risk factors for Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. caecal colonization in broiler chicken and turkey flocks slaughtered in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Julie; Letellier, Ann; Quessy, Sylvain; Normand, Valérie; Boulianne, Martine

    2007-10-16

    We conducted an observational study to estimate prevalence and risk factors for Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. caecal colonization in poultry. Eighty-one broiler chicken and 59 turkey flocks selected among flocks slaughtered in the province of Quebec, Canada, were included in the study. Flock status was evaluated by culturing pooled caecal contents from about 30 birds per flock. Exposure to potential risk factors was evaluated with a questionnaire. Odds ratios were computed using multivariable logistic regression. The prevalence of Salmonella-positive flocks was 50% (95% CI: 37, 64) for chickens and 54% (95% CI: 39, 70) for turkeys, respectively. Odds of Salmonella colonization were 2.6 times greater for chicken flocks which failed to lock the chicken house permanently. In turkeys, odds of Salmonella colonization were 4.8-7.7 times greater for flocks which failed to be raised by hatchery. The prevalence of Campylobacter-positive flocks was 35% (95% CI: 22, 49) for chickens and 46% (95% CI: 30, 62) for turkeys. Odds of colonization were 4.1 times higher for chicken flocks raised on farms with professional rodent control and 5.2 times higher for flocks with manure heap >200m from the poultry house, and also increased with the number of birds raised per year on the farm and with the age at slaughter. For turkeys, odds of Campylobacter flock colonization were 3.2 times greater in flocks having a manure heap at

  4. Seasonal distribution of Legionella spp. and L. pneumophila in a river in Taiwan evaluated with culture-confirmed and direct DNA extraction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Min-Che; Chang, Tien-Yu; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Shen, Shu-Min; Huang, Jen-Te; Kao, Po-Min; Chiu, Yi-Chou; Fan, Cheng-Wei; Huang, Yu-Li

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the presence and amount of Legionella in along a river in Taiwan, and the relations between seasonal distribution of Legionella spp. and geographic characteristics in the watershed were also evaluated. Water samples were pre-treated and analyzed with culture-confirmed and direct DNA extraction methods. For culture-confirmed method, water samples were cultivated through a series of selective media, and candidate colonies were confirmed by PCR. For direct DNA extraction method, direct DNA extraction was performed from pre-treated water samples. The DNA extracts were analyzed with PCR and DNA sequence analysis for species determination, quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed to quantify Legionella concentration in the water sample. In all, 150 water samples were included in this study, with 73 (48.6%) water samples detected with Legionella spp., and 17 with L. pneumophila. Over 80% Legionella spp. detections were through direct DNA extraction method, but more than 80% L. pneumophila detections were through culture-confirmed method. While detection of Legionella spp. was done with two methods, positive results were found through only one method. Legionella spp. was detected in all seasons with detection rate ranging between 34.3-58.8% and seasonal average concentration from 1.9 × 102 to 7.1 × 103 CFU/L. Most of the L. pneumophila detections were from samples collected in fall (38.2%) and summer (6.0%), which also coincided with increased cases of Legionellosis reported through Center of Disease Control in Taiwan. The high prevalence and concentration of Legionella spp. and L. pneumophila in the surface waters should be further evaluated for potential health risks.

  5. Isolation, antibiogram and pathogenicity of Salmonella spp. Recovered from slaughtered food animals in Nagpur region of Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Kalambhe

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the prevalence, antibiogram and pathogenicity of Salmonella spp. in the common food animals slaughtered for consumption purpose at government approved slaughter houses located in and around Nagpur region during a period of 2010-2012. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 samples comprising 50 each of blood and meat from each slaughtered male cattle, buffaloes, pigs and goats were collected. Isolation was done by pre-enrichment in buffered peptone water and enrichment in Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth with subsequent selective plating onto xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. Presumptive Salmonella colonies were biochemically confirmed and analyzed for pathogenicity by hemolysin production and Congo red dye binding assay (CRDA. An antibiotic sensitivity test was performed to assess the antibiotic resistance pattern of the isolates. Results: A total of 10 isolates of Salmonella spp. from meat (3 from cattle, 1 from buffaloes and 6 from pigs with an overall prevalence of 5% among food animals was recorded. No isolation was reported from any blood samples. Pathogenicity assays revealed 100% and 80% positivity for CRDA and hemolytic activity, respectively. Antimicrobial sensitivity test showed multi-drug resistance. The overall resistance of 50% was noted for trimethoprim followed by ampicillin (20%. A maximum sensitivity (80% was reported to gentamycin followed by 40% each to ampicillin and trimethoprim, 30% to amikacin and 10% to kanamycin. Conclusion: The presence of multidrug resistant and potentially pathogenic Salmonella spp. in slaughtered food animals in Nagpur region can be a matter of concern for public health.

  6. Effect of Iron Availability on Induction of Systemic Resistance to Fusarium Wilt of Chickpea by Pseudomonas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Ratul; Srivastava, Alok K; Singh, Kiran; Arora, Dilip K; Lee, Min-Woong

    2005-03-01

    Selected isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf4-92 and PfRsC5) and P. aeruginosa (PaRsG18 and PaRsG27) were examined for growth promotion and induced systemic resistance against Fusarium wilt of chickpea. Significant increase in plant height was observed in Pseudomonas treated plants. However, plant growth was inhibited when isolates of Pseudomonas were used in combination with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (FocRs1). It was also observed that the Pseudomonas spp. was colonized in root of chickpea and significantly suppressed the disease in greenhouse condition. Rock wool bioassay technique was used to study the effect of iron availability on the induction of systemic resistance to Fusarium wilt of chickpea mediated by the Pseudomonas spp. All the isolates of Pseudomonas spp. showed greater disease control in the induced systemic resistance (ISR) bioassay when iron availability in the nutrient solution was low. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that all the bacterial isolates produced more salicylic acid (SA) at low iron (10µM EDDHA) than high iron availability (10µFe(3+) EDDHA). Except PaRsG27, all the three isolates produced more pseudobactin at low iron than high iron availability.

  7. Inhibitory effect of chromogenic culture media on the growth of Rhodotorula: relevance to the diagnosis of Rhodotorula spp. infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellanger, Anne-Pauline; Grenouillet, Frédéric; François, Nadine; Skana, Florence; Millon, Laurence

    2013-11-01

    With the increasing incidence and diverse etiologies of fungal infections, chromogenic yeast culture media are increasingly used for routine diagnosis. Rhodotorula species, which are characterized by the production of carotenoid pigments, are considered as emerging opportunistic pathogens. We recently diagnosed two fungemia due to Rhodotorula spp. and noticed that in both cases, the yeast failed to grow in subculture on the chromogenic yeast culture medium. This study was thus undertaken to investigate more thoroughly the ability (or inability) of Rhodotorula species to grow on different commercially available chromogenic media for yeast. Eighteen Rhodotorula spp. were checked for their ability to grow on four chromogenic yeast culture media: CHROMagar Candida (BD), Candi 4 Select (Biorad), Brilliance Candida (Oxoid), and Candida ID 2 (BioMerieux). All the Rhodotorula spp. strains grew on Brilliance and Candida ID 2, while only six isolates grew on Candi 4, and seven on CHROMagar. Two chromogenic yeast culture media showed a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of Rhodotorula species. As all Rhodotorula species are resistant to echinocandins and fluconazole, it is essential to isolate and identify these yeast quickly to initiate appropriate amphotericin B antifungal treatment as early as possible. The choice of media for routine use should take into account the ability of different media to allow all emerging fungal pathogens to grow. © 2013 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Occurrence of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. spores in Western, Northern and Central-Eastern Poland in 2004-2006 and relation to some meteorological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Rapiejko, Piotr

    2009-08-01

    The concentration of airborne spores of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. has been investigated at three monitoring stations situated along the west-north and central-east transect in Poland (Szczecin, Olsztyn, Warszawa,) i.e. from a height of 100 m to 149 m above sea level. The aerobiological monitoring of fungal spores was performed by means of three Lanzoni volumetric spore traps. Cladosporium spp. spores were dominant at all the stations. The highest Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. numbers of spores were observed at all the cities in July and August. Statistically significant correlations have been found between the Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. concentration in the air and the mean air temperature, amount of precipitation, air pressure and relative air humidity. The spore count of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. is determined by the diversity of local flora and weather conditions, especially by the air temperature. The identification of factors, which influence and shape spore concentrations, may significantly improve the current methods of allergy prevention.

  9. Environmental determinants of the spatial distribution of Mesocestoides spp. and sensitivity of flotation method for the diagnosis of mesocestoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Széll, Z; Tolnai, Z; Sréter, T

    2015-09-15

    Mesocestoides spp. are zoonotic cestodes of wild and domesticated carnivores. Although the adult stages are relatively harmless intestinal parasites, the metacestode stages (tetrathyridia) can be responsible for life-threatening peritonitis and pleuritis in several species including dogs, cats, non-human primates and probably man. The aim of the present study was to reveal the spatial distribution pattern of Mesocestoides spp. in the most important final hosts, red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), to analyse the relationship of these patterns with landscape and climate by geographical information systems and to evaluate faecal flotation method for the detection of infection in the final host. Fox carcasses, representing 0.5% of the total fox population were randomly selected out of all the foxes of Hungary. The intestinal tract was examined by sedimentation and counting technique. The sensitivity of the flotation method was evaluated by the testing of the faecal samples of 180 foxes infected with Mesocestoides spp. The prevalence of infection was high in foxes (45.8%; 95% CI=41.0-50.6%), and the parasite was detected in all areas of Hungary. The high prevalence of the parasite in foxes suggests that the infection might also be common in outdoor dogs and cats. Mesocestoides infection could not be detected in any of the foxes by flotation method indicating that the sensitivity of the method is less than 0.6%. Therefore, almost all canine and feline infections remain undetected in the veterinary practice. Based on the statistical analysis, the altitude was the only determinant of the spatial distribution of Mesocestoides spp. indicating that infections in carnivores including dogs and cats can be expected mainly in midland regions (150-750 m above sea level). It might be attributed to the altitude-dependent species richness and abundance of the intermediate and final hosts of the parasite. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Management practices associated with the bulk tank milk prevalence of Mycoplasma spp. in dairy herds in Northwestern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, L; Thompson, G; Machado, M; Carvalheira, J

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of some management practices on the prevalence of Mycoplasma spp. in Northwestern Portuguese dairy farms from bulk tank milk (BTM) samples. Additionally, the within-herd prevalence of Mycoplasma spp. was also determined, but only in BTM positive herds. From May 2007 to November 2008, 492 BTM samples from 164 dairies randomly chosen in a population of 1234 dairy farms were analyzed. Five herds (3.0%) had positive mycoplasmal culture results, from which 4 out of 164 (2.4%) were Mycoplasma bovis, with simultaneous presence of Mycoplasma bovigenitalium or Mycoplasma canadense in two of those samples. In one out of 164 (0.6%) herds Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum was also found. In BTM positive Mycoplasma spp. herds, the apparent intra-herd prevalence was low and varied between 2.5% and 4.5%. Multiple locus variable-number of tandem-repeat analysis was conducted in order to compare the genetic relationship between the isolates. Mycoplasma spp. was found to be present in cows with subclinical mastitis with or without California Mastitis Test positive results, hence all cows should be tested when the agent is isolated from bulk tank rather than selecting suspected cows. A multivariable logistic regression using the Firth's penalized maximum likelihood estimation was performed showing that increasing number of lactating cows (OR=1.05; Pagent in mastitis control protocols in national dairies and in sanitary controls of transitioned animals between European countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. In vitro propagation of ‘FHIA-25’ (Musa spp., AAB in Temporary Immersion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Basail Pérez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Necessity to produce high quality planting material has required searching new alternatives to increase the efficiency of in vitro propagation methods and their automation, as in Temporary Immersion Systems (TIS. This work was aimed to multiply the hybrid ‘FHIA-25’ (Musa spp. AAB in TIS. The effect of different culture medium volumes per explant and densities of planting materials per culture flask at the same immersion frequency was determined. These two factors showed influence on the evaluated variables. A volume of 40 ml of culture medium per explant and densities of 80 explants per flask were selected to multiply this cultivar in TIS. These results permitted to increase in vitro production of high-quality plants for rooting stage. Key words: multiplication coefficient, culture flasks, liquid culture medium

  12. Functional characteristics of Lactobacillus spp. from traditional Maasai fermented milk products in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathara, Julius Maina; Schillinger, Ulrich; Guigas, Claudia; Franz, Charles; Kutima, Phillip Museve; Mbugua, Samuel K; Shin, H-K; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

    2008-08-15

    In this study functional characteristics of 23 representative Lactobacillus strains isolated from the Maasai traditional fermented milk 'Kule naoto' were determined. The Lb. acidophilus group strains showed resistance to gastric juice and bile. In addition, some Lb. acidophilus strains expressed bile salt hydrolase activity, and had ability to assimilate cholesterol in vitro. In-vitro adhesion to HT29 MTX cells of up to 70% was recorded. Lb. fermentum strains showed almost 100% survival under simulated stomach acidic conditions and physiological salt concentrations of bile salts, hydrophobicity values were over 80%. Most strains of the Lb. casei and Lb. acidophilus groups showed aggregation abilities of above 50%. Many strains expressed a protective effect against N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine induced DNA damage according to the 'comet assay' and none was virulent. The antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentration of selected strains was established. According to these results, the Lactobacillus spp associated with 'Kule naoto', contain potentially probiotic (functional) strains.

  13. Is the plant-associated microbiota of Thymus spp. adapted to plant essential oil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checcucci, Alice; Maida, Isabel; Bacci, Giovanni; Ninno, Cristina; Bilia, Anna Rita; Biffi, Sauro; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Flamini, Guido; Fani, Renato; Mengoni, Alessio

    2017-04-01

    We examined whether the microbiota of two related aromatic thyme species, Thymus vulgaris and Thymus citriodorus, differs in relation to the composition of the respective essential oil (EO). A total of 576 bacterial isolates were obtained from three districts (leaves, roots and rhizospheric soil). They were taxonomically characterized and inspected for tolerance to the EO from the two thyme species. A district-related taxonomic pattern was found. In particular, high taxonomic diversity among the isolates from leaves was detected. Moreover, data obtained revealed a differential pattern of resistance of the isolates to EOs extracted from T. vulgaris and T. citriodorus, which was interpreted in terms of differing chemical composition of the EO of their respective host plants. In conclusion, we suggest that bacterial colonization of leaves in Thymus spp. is influenced by the EO present in leaf glandular tissue as one of the selective forces shaping endophytic community composition. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of technical and economic performance on costs of campylobacter spp. interventions on broiler farms in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Horne, van P.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. is one of the leading causes of acute diarrheal disease in humans worldwide and human Campylobacter spp. infections can result in severe sequelae. Because broilers are an important reservoir for human Campylobacter spp. infections, it is relevant to control Campylobacter spp.

  15. Detection of Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., and other eubacteria in ticks from the Thai-Myanmar border and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parola, Philippe; Cornet, Jean-Paul; Sanogo, Yibayiri Osée; Miller, R Scott; Thien, Huynh Van; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Raoult, Didier; Telford III, Sam R; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda

    2003-04-01

    A total of 650 ticks, including 13 species from five genera, were collected from animals, from people, or by flagging of the vegetation at sites on the Thai-Myanmar border and in Vietnam. They were tested by PCR to detect DNA of bacteria of the order RICKETTSIALES: Three Anaplasma spp. were detected in ticks collected in Thailand, including (i) Anaplasma sp. strain AnDa465, which was considered a genotype of Anaplasma platys (formerly Ehrlichia platys) and which was obtained from Dermacentor auratus ticks collected from dogs; (ii) Anaplasma sp. strain AnAj360, which was obtained from Amblyomma javanense ticks collected on a pangolin; and (iii) Anaplasma sp. strain AnHl446, which was closely related to Anaplasma bovis and which was detected in Haemaphysalis lagrangei ticks collected from a bear. Three Ehrlichia spp. were identified, including (i) Ehrlichia sp. strain EBm52, which was obtained from Boophilus microplus ticks collected from cattle from Thailand; (ii) Ehrlichia sp. strain EHh324, which was closely related to Ehrlichia chaffeensis and which was detected in Haemaphysalis hystricis ticks collected from wild pigs in Vietnam; and (iii) Ehrlichia sp. strain EHh317, which was closely related to Ehrlichia sp. strain EBm52 and which was also detected in H. hystricis ticks collected from wild pigs in Vietnam. Two Rickettsia spp. were detected in Thailand, including (i) Rickettsia sp. strain RDla420, which was detected in Dermacentor auratus ticks collected from a bear, and (ii) Rickettsia sp. strain RDla440, which was identified from two pools of Dermacentor larvae collected from a wild pig nest. Finally, two bacteria named Eubacterium sp. strain Hw124 and Eubacterium sp. strain Hw191 were identified in Haemaphysalis wellingtoni ticks collected from chicken in Thailand; these strains could belong to a new group of bacteria.

  16. Identification of Burkholderia spp. in the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory: Comparison of Conventional and Molecular Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pelt, Cindy; Verduin, Cees M.; Goessens, Wil H. F.; Vos, Margreet C.; Tümmler, Burkhard; Segonds, Christine; Reubsaet, Frans; Verbrugh, Henri; van Belkum, Alex

    1999-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) predisposes patients to bacterial colonization and infection of the lower airways. Several species belonging to the genus Burkholderia are potential CF-related pathogens, but microbiological identification may be complicated. This situation is not in the least due to the poorly defined taxonomic status of these bacteria, and further validation of the available diagnostic assays is required. A total of 114 geographically diverse bacterial isolates, previously identified in reference laboratories as Burkholderia cepacia (n = 51), B. gladioli (n = 14), Ralstonia pickettii (n = 6), B. multivorans (n = 2), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n = 3), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 11), were collected from environmental, clinical, and reference sources. In addition, 27 clinical isolates putatively identified as Burkholderia spp. were recovered from the sputum of Dutch CF patients. All isolates were used to evaluate the accuracy of two selective growth media, four systems for biochemical identification (API 20NE, Vitek GNI, Vitek NFC, and MicroScan), and three different PCR-based assays. The PCR assays amplify different parts of the ribosomal DNA operon, either alone or in combination with cleavage by various restriction enzymes (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism [RFLP] analysis). The best system for the biochemical identification of B. cepacia appeared to be the API 20NE test. None of the biochemical assays successfully grouped the B. gladioli strains. The PCR-RFLP method appeared to be the optimal method for accurate nucleic acid-mediated identification of the different Burkholderia spp. With this method, B. gladioli was also reliably classified in a separate group. For the laboratory diagnosis of B. cepacia, we recommend parallel cultures on blood agar medium and selective agar plates. Further identification of colonies with a Burkholderia phenotype should be performed with the API 20NE test. For final confirmation of species identities, PCR

  17. Detection of Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., and Other Eubacteria in Ticks from the Thai-Myanmar Border and Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Parola, Philippe; Cornet, Jean-Paul; Sanogo, Yibayiri Osée; Miller, R. Scott; Thien, Huynh Van; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Raoult, Didier; Telford III, Sam R.; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda

    2003-01-01

    A total of 650 ticks, including 13 species from five genera, were collected from animals, from people, or by flagging of the vegetation at sites on the Thai-Myanmar border and in Vietnam. They were tested by PCR to detect DNA of bacteria of the order Rickettsiales. Three Anaplasma spp. were detected in ticks collected in Thailand, including (i) Anaplasma sp. strain AnDa465, which was considered a genotype of Anaplasma platys (formerly Ehrlichia platys) and which was obtained from Dermacentor ...

  18. Toxocara spp. eggs in public squares of Sorocaba, São Paulo State, Brazil Ovos de Toxocara spp. em praças públicas no município de Sorocaba, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maria De Petrini da Silva COELHO

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The visceral larva migrans (VLM is a syndrome observed in human infection with helminth larval eggs such as the Toxocara spp. that usually infects dogs and cats. Among the risk factors involved in the occurrence of VLM, particularly important is the size of these animal populations. Sorocaba is a city with a dog population twice as large as that recommended by the World Health Organization. This fact has led to a survey of the presence of Toxocara spp. eggs in public square soils of this city. Thirty squares were selected, fifteen located in the outskirts of the city and fifteen downtown. Soil samples were collected from five distinct sites in the same area. The material was homogenized and drained and 100 g was mixed with a saturated solution of magnesium sulfate and 5% potassium iodine. The floating material was analyzed under the light microscope. Toxocara spp. eggs were found in 16 squares, nine of which were located in the outskirts of the city and seven downtown. It was concluded that Sorocaba squares present a high rate of contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs. The squares in the outskirts of the city presented a higher occurrence of these eggs in comparison with those downtown, although the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05.A larva migrans visceral - LMV - é uma síndrome causada pela infecção humana por ovos larvados de helmintos como o Toxocara spp., que usualmente compromete o cão e o gato. Dentre os fatores de risco para a ocorrência da LMV, destaca-se o tamanho da população desses animais. Sorocaba é uma cidade com uma população canina duas vezes superior à recomendada pela Organização Mundial de Saúde. Este fato levou à pesquisa da presença de ovos de Toxocara spp. no solo de áreas públicas nessa cidade. Foram escolhidas 30 praças, sendo 15 de regiões periféricas e 15 centrais. Coletaram-se amostras de solo de 5 locais distintos da mesma área. O material foi homogeneizado, tamisado e, em

  19. Acinetobacter spp. as nosocomial pathogens: Epidemiology and resistance features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad B. Almasaudi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Acinetobacter is a major cause of nosocomial infections; it is increasingly being associated with various epidemics and has become a widespread concern in a variety of hospitals worldwide. Multi-antibiotic resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, is now recognized to be of great clinical significance. Numerous reports relay to the spread of A. baumannii in the hospital settings which leads to enhanced nosocomial outbreaks associated with high death rates. However, many other Acinetobacter spp. also can cause nosocomial infections. This review focused on the role of Acinetobacter spp. as nosocomial pathogens in addition to their persistence, antimicrobial resistance patterns and epidemiology. Keywords: Acinetobacter, Nosocomial infections, Multi-drug resistance, Epidemiology, Characteristics

  20. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood) Susceptibility of genotypes of Solanum spp. to the nematode causative of the root knot Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood)

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Gelpud Chaves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L.) presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp., en el Departamento de Nariño (Colombia), se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%. En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense L.) en los Departamentos de Nariño y Putumayo y 4 genotipos silvestres (S. mammosum, S. hirtum, S. marginatum y S. umbellatum) buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz) y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en todos los genotipos, 2.04% genotipos resistentes, 34.7% moderadamente resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raíz, (R² = 0.71 y 0.98), el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum) es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.The green orange (Solanum quitoense L.) crop has decreased in its productivity due to the pathogens attack such as the root knot nematode Meloidogyne spp. In the Nariño Department of Colombia, pest incidences near to 79% and losses of 50% have been reported. In this study, 45 genotypes of Solanum quitoense were collected in Nariño and Putumayo

  1. Multiplex PCR identification of Taenia spp. in rodents and carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad N S; Kapel, Christian M O

    2011-11-01

    The genus Taenia includes several species of veterinary and public health importance, but diagnosis of the etiological agent in definitive and intermediate hosts often relies on labor intensive and few specific morphometric criteria, especially in immature worms and underdeveloped metacestodes. In the present study, a multiplex PCR, based on five primers targeting the 18S rDNA and ITS2 sequences, produced a species-specific banding patterns for a range of Taenia spp. Species typing by the multiplex PCR was compared to morphological identification and sequencing of cox1 and/or 12S rDNA genes. As compared to sequencing, the multiplex PCR identified 31 of 32 Taenia metacestodes from rodents, whereas only 14 cysts were specifically identified by morphology. Likewise, the multiplex PCR identified 108 of 130 adult worms, while only 57 were identified to species by morphology. The tested multiplex PCR system may potentially be used for studies of Taenia spp. transmitted between rodents and carnivores.

  2. First Isolates of Leptospira spp., from Rodents Captured in Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes-Gabriel, Elsa; Carreira, Teresa; Vieira, Maria Luísa

    2016-01-01

    Rodents play an important role in the transmission of pathogenic Leptospira spp. However, in Angola, neither the natural reservoirs of these spirochetes nor leptospirosis diagnosis has been considered. Regarding this gap, we captured rodents in Luanda and Huambo provinces to identify circulating Leptospira spp. Rodent kidney tissue was cultured and DNA amplified and sequenced. Culture isolates were evaluated for pathogenic status and typing with rabbit antisera; polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing were also performed. A total of 37 rodents were captured: Rattus rattus (15, 40.5%), Rattus norvegicus (9, 24.3%), and Mus musculus (13, 35.2%). Leptospiral DNA was amplified in eight (21.6%) kidney samples. From the cultures, we obtained four (10.8%) Leptospira isolates belonging to the Icterohaemorrhagiae and Ballum serogroups of Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira borgpetersenii genospecies, respectively. This study provides information about circulating leptospires spread by rats and mice in Angola. PMID:26928840

  3. Vaginal Candida spp. genomes from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, L Latéy; Chibucos, Marcus C; Ma, Bing; Bruno, Vincent; Ravel, Jacques

    2017-08-31

    Candida albicans is the predominant cause of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Little is known regarding the genetic diversity of Candida spp. in the vagina or the microvariations in strains over time that may contribute to the development of VVC. This study reports the draft genome sequences of four C. albicans and one C. glabrata strains isolated from women with VVC. An SNP-based whole-genome phylogeny indicates that these isolates are closely related; however, phylogenetic distances between them suggest that there may be genetic adaptations driven by unique host environments. These sequences will facilitate further comparative analyses and ultimately improve our understanding of genetic variation in isolates of Candida spp. that are associated with VVC. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Induction of conidiation by endogenous volatile compounds in Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemcovic, Marek; Jakubíková, Lucia; Víden, Ivan; Farkas, Vladimír

    2008-07-01

    Light and starvation are two principal environmental stimuli inducing conidiation in the soil micromycete Trichoderma spp. We observed that volatiles produced by conidiating colonies of Trichoderma spp. elicited conidiation in colonies that had not been induced previously by exposure to light. The inducing effect of volatiles was both intra- and interspecific. Chemical profiles of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the nonconidiated colonies grown in the dark and by the conidiating colonies were compared using solid-phase microextraction of headspace samples followed by tandem GC-MS. The conidiation was accompanied by increased production of eight-carbon compounds 1-octen-3-ol and its analogs 3-octanol and 3-octanone. When vapors of these compounds were applied individually to dark-grown colonies, they elicited their conidiation already at submicromolar concentrations. It is concluded that the eight-carbon VOCs act as signaling molecules regulating development and mediating intercolony communication in Trichoderma.

  5. SPP: A data base processor data communications protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishwick, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    The design and implementation of a data communications protocol for the Intel Data Base Processor (DBP) is defined. The protocol is termed SPP (Service Port Protocol) since it enables data transfer between the host computer and the DBP service port. The protocol implementation is extensible in that it is explicitly layered and the protocol functionality is hierarchically organized. Extensive trace and performance capabilities have been supplied with the protocol software to permit optional efficient monitoring of the data transfer between the host and the Intel data base processor. Machine independence was considered to be an important attribute during the design and implementation of SPP. The protocol source is fully commented and is included in Appendix A of this report.

  6. Raoultella spp.-clinical significance, infections and susceptibility to antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sękowska, Alicja

    2017-05-01

    The genus Raoultella belongs to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. Raoultella spp. are Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile rods. This genus can be distinguished from the genus Klebsiella, in that genus use histamine as the only source of carbon in the medium. Also, Raoultella grow at 4 °C and do not produce gas from lactose at 44.5 °C. Raoultella sp. is known to inhabit natural environments (water, soil, plants). The reservoir of Raoultella is the gastrointestinal tract and upper respiratory tract. Raoultella spp. are opportunistic bacteria, which usually cause infections of the biliary tract, pneumonia and bacteraemia in oncologic and with lower immunity patients. Raoultella planticola and Raoultella ornithinolytica are the most frequently encountered human pathogens among the genus Raoultella. In this review, the current knowledge on Raoultella infections is summarized.

  7. First Isolates of Leptospira spp., from Rodents Captured in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes-Gabriel, Elsa; Carreira, Teresa; Vieira, Maria Luísa

    2016-05-04

    Rodents play an important role in the transmission of pathogenic Leptospira spp. However, in Angola, neither the natural reservoirs of these spirochetes nor leptospirosis diagnosis has been considered. Regarding this gap, we captured rodents in Luanda and Huambo provinces to identify circulating Leptospira spp. Rodent kidney tissue was cultured and DNA amplified and sequenced. Culture isolates were evaluated for pathogenic status and typing with rabbit antisera; polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing were also performed. A total of 37 rodents were captured: Rattus rattus (15, 40.5%), Rattus norvegicus (9, 24.3%), and Mus musculus (13, 35.2%). Leptospiral DNA was amplified in eight (21.6%) kidney samples. From the cultures, we obtained four (10.8%) Leptospira isolates belonging to the Icterohaemorrhagiae and Ballum serogroups of Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira borgpetersenii genospecies, respectively. This study provides information about circulating leptospires spread by rats and mice in Angola. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  8. Algal Meningoencephalitis due to Prototheca spp. in a Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Le Roux

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 6-year-old Boxer was examined because of progressive neurologic signs, with severe hindlimb ataxia and head tilt on presentation. There was no history of diarrhea or vomiting. MRI of the brain revealed multifocal ill-defined T1-enhancing lesions affecting the cerebrum, brainstem, and cervical meninges, without associated mass effect. Meningoencephalitis was considered the most likely diagnosis. Multiple algae were observed on the cytology of the CSF and were most consistent with Prototheca spp. Antiprotozoal treatment was denied by the owners, and 5 weeks after diagnosis, the dog was euthanized due to progression of the neurologic deficits, and a necropsy was performed. Histological changes in the brain were compatible with severe multifocal protothecal meningoencephalitis. The specific Prototheca species was not identified. The gastrointestinal tract was unremarkable on histology. According to this report, Prototheca spp. should be included in the differentials for neurological deficits even in the absence of gastrointestinal signs.

  9. Natural production of Tuber aestivum in central Spain: Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp. brûlés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis G. Garcia-Montero

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Tuber aestivum is the most widespread edible truffle, with increasing commercial interest. This species can produce carpophores with conifer hosts, in contrast with the inability of Pinus spp. to induce fruiting in other truffle species such as Tuber melanosporum. Therefore the objective is to compare the characteristics and carpophore production of T. aestivum brûlés associated with Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp.Area of study: We studied the natural habitats of T. aestivum in the Alto Tajo Nature Reserve in central Spain.Material and methods: During 5 years, we monitored the production of carpophores and brûlé size of 145 T. aestivum brûlés associated with Pinus nigra subsp. salzmanni and P. sylvestris and Quercus ilex subsp. ballota and Q. faginea hosts. Statistical treatment was performed using the Statistica Program v. 6.Main Results: The size of brûlés associated with Pinus was significantly smaller than that of brûlés associated with Quercus. However, carpophore production per brûlé, and especially for brûlés of similar size, was greater when the host plant was a pine. After accounting for brûlé size, the production of brûlés associated with Pinus spp. was 2.23 (95% CI, between 1.35 and 3.69 and 1.61 (95% CI, between 1.02 and 2.54 times greater than the production of brûlés associated with Quercus faginea and Q. ilex subsp. ballota, respectively.Research highlights: The considerable ability of Pinus nigra subsp. salzmanni and P. sylvestris to form effective brûlés and to produce carpophores of Tuber aestivum in natural conditions was clearly demonstrated, and suggest that those species can be of use in the culture of T. aestivum.Key words: Summer truffle; Tuber aestivum; truffle culture; truffle ecology; Pinus spp.; Quercus spp.

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Stomatococcus mucilaginosus and of Micrococcus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    von Eiff, C; Herrmann, M; Peters, G

    1995-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of 63 isolates of Stomatococcus mucilaginosus and of 188 isolates of Micrococcus spp. to 18 antimicrobial agents were determined by the agar dilution method. Many beta-lactams, imipenem, rifampin, and the glycopeptides were shown to be active in vitro against Stomatococcus and Micrococcus isolates, whereas the activities of antibiotics such as some aminoglycosides, erythromycin, and fosfomycin against an important number of these microorganisms are limited.

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Stomatococcus mucilaginosus and of Micrococcus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Eiff, C; Herrmann, M; Peters, G

    1995-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of 63 isolates of Stomatococcus mucilaginosus and of 188 isolates of Micrococcus spp. to 18 antimicrobial agents were determined by the agar dilution method. Many beta-lactams, imipenem, rifampin, and the glycopeptides were shown to be active in vitro against Stomatococcus and Micrococcus isolates, whereas the activities of antibiotics such as some aminoglycosides, erythromycin, and fosfomycin against an important number of these microorganisms are limited. PMID:7695321

  12. Bartonella spp. bacteremia in blood donors from Campinas, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Helena Urso Pitassi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bartonella species are blood-borne, re-emerging organisms, capable of causing prolonged infection with diverse disease manifestations, from asymptomatic bacteremia to chronic debilitating disease and death. This pathogen can survive for over a month in stored blood. However, its prevalence among blood donors is unknown, and screening of blood supplies for this pathogen is not routinely performed. We investigated Bartonella spp. prevalence in 500 blood donors from Campinas, Brazil, based on a cross-sectional design. Blood samples were inoculated into an enrichment liquid growth medium and sub-inoculated onto blood agar. Liquid culture samples and Gram-negative isolates were tested using a genus specific ITS PCR with amplicons sequenced for species identification. Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana antibodies were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence. B. henselae was isolated from six donors (1.2%. Sixteen donors (3.2% were Bartonella-PCR positive after culture in liquid or on solid media, with 15 donors infected with B. henselae and one donor infected with Bartonella clarridgeiae. Antibodies against B. henselae or B. quintana were found in 16% and 32% of 500 blood donors, respectively. Serology was not associated with infection, with only three of 16 Bartonella-infected subjects seropositive for B. henselae or B. quintana. Bartonella DNA was present in the bloodstream of approximately one out of 30 donors from a major blood bank in South America. Negative serology does not rule out Bartonella spp. infection in healthy subjects. Using a combination of liquid and solid cultures, PCR, and DNA sequencing, this study documents for the first time that Bartonella spp. bacteremia occurs in asymptomatic blood donors. Our findings support further evaluation of Bartonella spp. transmission which can occur through blood transfusions.

  13. Staphylococcus cohnii spp urealyticus: case report on an uncommon pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    d'Azevedo, Pedro Alves [UNIFESP; Antunes, Ana Lúcia Sousa; Martino, Marinês Dalla Valle; Pignatari, Antonio Carlos Campos [UNIFESP

    2008-01-01

    Staphylococcus coagulase negativos tem surgido como importantes agentes em infecções de pacientes hospitalizados. Neste estudo, relatamos o caso de bacteremia associada a cateter venoso central devido a Staphylococcus cohnii spp urealyticus isolado em hemocultura de um paciente do sexo masculino, 53 anos, internado em hospital geral da cidade de São Paulo. Discutimos nesse relato a dificuldade em identificar rotineiramente esse microrganismo no Laboratório de Microbiologia Clínica. Staphyloco...

  14. Bartonella spp. bacteremia in blood donors from Campinas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitassi, Luiza Helena Urso; de Paiva Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto; Scorpio, Diana Gerardi; Drummond, Marina Rovani; Lania, Bruno Grosselli; Barjas-Castro, Maria Lourdes; Gilioli, Rovilson; Colombo, Silvia; Sowy, Stanley; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Nicholson, William L; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Bartonella species are blood-borne, re-emerging organisms, capable of causing prolonged infection with diverse disease manifestations, from asymptomatic bacteremia to chronic debilitating disease and death. This pathogen can survive for over a month in stored blood. However, its prevalence among blood donors is unknown, and screening of blood supplies for this pathogen is not routinely performed. We investigated Bartonella spp. prevalence in 500 blood donors from Campinas, Brazil, based on a cross-sectional design. Blood samples were inoculated into an enrichment liquid growth medium and sub-inoculated onto blood agar. Liquid culture samples and Gram-negative isolates were tested using a genus specific ITS PCR with amplicons sequenced for species identification. Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana antibodies were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence. B. henselae was isolated from six donors (1.2%). Sixteen donors (3.2%) were Bartonella-PCR positive after culture in liquid or on solid media, with 15 donors infected with B. henselae and one donor infected with Bartonella clarridgeiae. Antibodies against B. henselae or B. quintana were found in 16% and 32% of 500 blood donors, respectively. Serology was not associated with infection, with only three of 16 Bartonella-infected subjects seropositive for B. henselae or B. quintana. Bartonella DNA was present in the bloodstream of approximately one out of 30 donors from a major blood bank in South America. Negative serology does not rule out Bartonella spp. infection in healthy subjects. Using a combination of liquid and solid cultures, PCR, and DNA sequencing, this study documents for the first time that Bartonella spp. bacteremia occurs in asymptomatic blood donors. Our findings support further evaluation of Bartonella spp. transmission which can occur through blood transfusions.

  15. Antimicrobial sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. Isolated from clinical mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Thamires Martins; Adriana Frizzarin; Lívia Castelani; Heloisa Solda de Azevedo; Juliana Rodrigues Pozzi Arcaro; Cláudia Rodrigues Pozzi

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation of the mammary gland, which is also known as mastitis, occupies a prominent place among the diseases that affect dairy cattle, having a great economic importance in the dairy sector. Mastitis may have different origins, however, infectious mastitis is the most frequent and represents a risk to public health due to the propagation of microorganisms through milk. Staphylococcus spp. are considered the microorganisms that cause the greatest losses in milk production, being that Stap...

  16. [Evaluation of Fusarium spp. pathogenicity in plant and murine models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero-Reyes, Consuelo M; Alvarado-Fernández, Angela M; Ceballos-Rojas, Ana M; González-Carmona, Lady C; Linares-Linares, Melva Y; Castañeda-Salazar, Rubiela; Pulido-Villamarín, Adriana; Góngora-Medina, Manuel E; Cortés-Vecino, Jesús A; Rodríguez-Bocanegra, María X

    The genus Fusarium is widely recognized for its phytopathogenic capacity. However, it has been reported as an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Thus, it can be considered a microorganism of interest in pathogenicity studies on different hosts. Therefore, this work evaluated the pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. isolates from different origins in plants and animals (murine hosts). Twelve isolates of Fusarium spp. from plants, animal superficial mycoses, and human superficial and systemic mycoses were inoculated in tomato, passion fruit and carnation plants, and in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed BALB/c mice. Pathogenicity tests in plants did not show all the symptoms associated with vascular wilt in the three plant models; however, colonization and necrosis of the vascular bundles, regardless of the species and origin of the isolates, showed the infective potential of Fusarium spp. in different plant species. Moreover, the pathogenicity tests in the murine model revealed behavioral changes. It was noteworthy that only five isolates (different origin and species) caused mortality. Additionally, it was observed that all isolates infected and colonized different organs, regardless of the species and origin of the isolates or host immune status. In contrast, the superficial inoculation test showed no evidence of epidermal injury or colonization. The observed results in plant and murine models suggest the pathogenic potential of Fusarium spp. isolates in different types of hosts. However, further studies on pathogenicity are needed to confirm the multihost capacity of this genus. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Production of a Functional Frozen Yogurt Fortified with Bifidobacterium spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelazez, Amro; Muhammad, Zafarullah; Zhang, Qiu-Xue; Zhu, Zong-Tao; Abdelmotaal, Heba; Sami, Rokayya; Meng, Xiang-Chen

    2017-01-01

    Frozen dairy products have characteristics of both yogurt and ice cream and could be the persuasive carriers of probiotics. Functions of the frozen yogurt containing viable bifidobacterial cells are recognized and favored by the people of all ages. We developed a kind of yogurt supplemented by Bifidobacterium species. Firstly, five strains of Bifidobacterium spp. (Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 11547, Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 11549, Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 11551, Bifidobacterium adoles...

  18. Survey of Legionella spp. in Mud Spring Recreation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, B.-M.; Ma, P.-H.; Su, I.-Z.; Chen, N.-S.

    2009-04-01

    Legionella genera are parasites of FLA, and intracellular bacterial replication within the FLA plays a major role in the transmission of disease. At least 13 FLA species—including Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria spp., and Hartmannella spp.—support intracellular bacterial replication. In the study, Legionellae were detected with microbial culture or by direct DNA extraction and analysis from concentrated water samples or cultured free-living amoebae, combined with molecular methods that allow the taxonomic identification of these pathogens. The water samples were taken from a mud spring recreation area located in a mud-rock-formation area in southern Taiwan. Legionella were detected in 15 of the 34 samples (44.1%). Four of the 34 samples analyzed by Legionella culture were positive for Legionella, five of 34 were positive for Legionella when analyzed by direct DNA extraction and analysis, and 11 of 34 were positive for amoebae-resistant Legionella when analyzed by FLA culture. Ten samples were shown to be positive for Legionella by one analysis method and five samples were shown to be positive by two analysis methods. However, Legionella was detected in no sample by all three analysis methods. This suggests that the three analysis methods should be used together to detect Legionella in aquatic environments. In this study, L. pneumophila serotype 6 coexisted with A. polyphaga, and two uncultured Legionella spp. coexisted with either H. vermiformis or N. australiensis. Of the unnamed Legionella genotypes detected in six FLA culture samples, three were closely related to L. waltersii and the other three were closely related to L. pneumophila serotype 6. Legionella pneumophila serotype 6, L. drancourtii, and L. waltersii are noted endosymbionts of FLA and are categorized as pathogenic bacteria. This is significant for human health because these Legionella exist within FLA and thus come into contact with typically immunocompromised people.

  19. Testing in Vitro of an Apifitoterapeutic Formula Against Nosema spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilica Savu; Ion Rădoi; Maria Magdici; Silvia Patruica; Nicoleta Ion; Agripina Sapcaliu

    2015-01-01

    Nosema, a parasitic disease that affects adult honey bees, has a directly correlation with the losses of bee colonies, until to depopulation. The target of our study was to determine the antinosema action of an apifitoterapeutic formula that was obtained in an earlier phase of our researches. In the present study, we have had two experiences (F and N) formed by clinically healthy bees. The experimental bees have received, in vitro, naturally infested honey (7 spores by Nosema spp / field). Th...

  20. Characterization of dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.) components with valorization potential

    OpenAIRE

    Liaotrakoon, Wijitra

    2013-01-01

    Dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.), also known as pitaya or pitahaya, is increasingly gaining interest in many countries, including Thailand which is a country with a climate ideal for breeding different varieties of tropical and subtropical fruits in general, and dragon fruit more specifically. The benefits of dragon fruit for human health can be explained by its essential nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, complex carbohydrates, dietary fibres and antioxidants. Dragon fruit is also an essent...

  1. Efficacy of a variety of disinfectants against Listeria spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Best, M; Kennedy, M E; Coates, F

    1990-01-01

    The efficacy of 14 disinfectants against Listeria innocua and two strains of Listeria monocytogenes in the presence of organic matter was studied. Quantitative efficacy tests were used. Many of the disinfectants tested were not as effective on Listeria spp. when the test organisms were dried onto the surface of steel disks (carrier tests) as they were when the organisms were placed in suspension (suspension test). The presence of whole serum and milk (2% fat) further reduced the disinfectant ...

  2. Combating Acanthamoeba spp. cysts: what are the options?

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar, Ayaz; Khan, Naveed Ahmed; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah

    2018-01-01

    Acanthamoeba spp. are protist pathogens and causative agents of serious infections including keratitis and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. Its ability to convert into dormant and highly resistant cysts form limits effectiveness of available therapeutic agents and presents a pivotal challenge for drug development. During the cyst stage, Acanthamoeba is protected by the presence of hardy cyst walls, comprised primarily of carbohydrates and cyst-specific proteins, hence synthesis inhibition ...

  3. Possible environmental sources of Acanthamoeba spp in contact lens wearers.

    OpenAIRE

    Seal, D; Stapleton, F; Dart, J

    1992-01-01

    The water supply and dust samples from the home environment (bathrooms and kitchens) of 50 wearers of contact lenses (CLs) were cultured for the presence of free-living amoebae. CL cases, solutions, and water taps were cultured for bacteria, which amoebae require for growth. Acanthamoeba spp were isolated from water drawn from six bathroom cold water taps (tank supplied), five in the presence of limescale, and from one kitchen cold water tap (mains supplied). There was an association between ...

  4. Deregulation led to record-breaking profit for SPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.

    2004-01-01

    The state collected close to 15 bn Sk of SPP's last year profits. The income tax represents about 5,2 bn Sk and the dividends paid to state as owner of 51 percent of the stock of Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, a.s., Bratislava (SPP) amount up to 9,5 billion Sk. Investors Ruhrgas and Gaz de France will split 9 billion Sk. This was possible thank to a record-breaking net profit of 20.5 billion Sk made by the company due to deregulation of the distorted gas prices for consumers that lead to an average price increase by over 30 percent. A positive impact on the company's economy had also the dissolving of provisions and reserves but on the other hand the sales went down by close to 5 percent due to higher temperatures. Another factor that had a positive impact on the company revenues was the increase of gas volumes transported through the SPP network to Western Europe. Expenditures related to purchase of gas increased last year and not even the decrease USD exchange rates could eliminate the impact of increasing gas prices. The decrease of sales on the domestic market was one of the major factors that allowed the total cost to decrease on year-to-year basis by ten percent. A restructuring of SPP should bring along further savings but the company has not calculated the total effect of a restructuring yet. The strong positive impact the restructuring may have on the company should show in 2004 and later. Last year the company concentrated on savings in area of maintenance and repairs and this year it should be the procurement expenditures that should be decreased. The future economic result of the company would depend on several factors like exchange rates, sale volumes and price of natural gas. Oils prices have reached their new maximums and the gas prices, in general, follow the oil price

  5. Effects of Earthworms on the Dispersal of Steinernema spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, D. I.; Tylka, G. L.; Berry, E. C.; Lewis, L. C.

    1995-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that dispersal of S. carpocapsae may be enhanced in soil with earthworms. The objective of this research was to determine and compare the effects of earthworms on dispersal of other Steinernema spp. Vertical dispersal of Steinernema carpocapsae, S. feltiae, and S. glaseri was tested in soil columns in the presence and absence of earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris). Dispersal was evaluated by a bioassay and by direct extraction of nematodes from soil. Upward dispersal ...

  6. Vegetable exudates as food for Callithrix spp. (Callitrichidae: exploratory patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talitha Mayumi Francisco

    Full Text Available Marmosets of the genus Callithrix are specialized in the consumption of tree exudates to obtain essential nutritional resource by boring holes into bark with teeth. However, marmoset preferences for particular tree species, location, type, and other suitable factors that aid in exudate acquisition need further research. In the current study, the intensity of exudate use from Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina trees by hybrid marmosets Callithrix spp. groups was studied in five forest fragments in Viçosa, in the state of Minas, Brazil. Thirty-nine A. peregrina var. peregrina trees were examined and 8,765 active and non-active holes were analyzed. The trunk of A. peregrina var. peregrina had a lower number of holes than the canopy: 11% were found on the trunk and 89% were found on the canopy. The upper canopy was the preferred area by Callithrix spp. for obtaining exudates. The intensity of tree exploitation by marmosets showed a moderate-to-weak correlation with diameter at breast height (DBH and total tree height. The overall results indicate that Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina provides food resources for hybrid marmosets (Callithrix spp. and these animals prefer to explore this resource on the apical parts of the plant, where the thickness, location, and age of the branches are the main features involved in the acquisition of exudates.

  7. Ecology of Anopheles spp. in Central Lombok Regency

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    Majematang Mading

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a public health problem in West Nusa Tenggara Province. Central Lombok District is one of the areas with high case of malaria. Annual Malaria Incidence (AMI was increased from 5.9 ‰ in 2006, 6.7‰ up to 8.1‰ in 2008. The objective of the study is to describe the ecological condition of Anopheles spp. through observation, measurement of environmental variables, larvae and adult collection. This research was an observational research with cross-sectional study. The population of this study is all mosquitos and breeding habitats of Anopheles spp. that exist in the research location. Ecological observations carried out on anopheles breeding habitats including acidity, salinity, shaded places and aquatic biota. Air temperature and humidity measured at the adult mosquitoes trapping sites. The result showed that pH values of water is around 9.00, salinity in the breeding habitats around 14 ppm, and water biota (i.e. moss, grass, shrimps, fishes, tadpoles and crabs surrounded by bushes with larvae density 0,1-28,8 each dipping. The air measurement at the time was between 23°-27° Celsius and 65%-84% humidity. This research concludes that ecology and environmental conditions were supporting the development of larvae and adult mosquito of Anopheles spp.

  8. Cryobiotechnology of apple (Malus spp.): development, progress and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min-Rui; Chen, Long; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Volk, Gayle M; Wang, Qiao-Chun

    2018-05-01

    Cryopreservation provides valuable genes for further breeding of elite cultivars, and cryotherapy improves the production of virus-free plants in Malus spp., thus assisting the sustainable development of the apple industry. Apple (Malus spp.) is one of the most economically important temperate fruit crops. Wild Malus genetic resources and existing cultivars provide valuable genes for breeding new elite cultivars and rootstocks through traditional and biotechnological breeding programs. These valuable genes include those resistant to abiotic factors such as drought and salinity, and to biotic factors such as fungi, bacteria and aphids. Over the last three decades, great progress has been made in apple cryobiology, making Malus one of the most extensively studied plant genera with respect to cryopreservation. Explants such as pollen, seeds, in vivo dormant buds, and in vitro shoot tips have all been successfully cryopreserved, and large Malus cryobanks have been established. Cryotherapy has been used for virus eradication, to obtain virus-free apple plants. Cryopreservation provided valuable genes for further breeding of elite cultivars, and cryotherapy improved the production of virus-free plants in Malus spp., thus assisting the sustainable development of the apple industry. This review provides updated and comprehensive information on the development and progress of apple cryopreservation and cryotherapy. Future research will reveal new applications and uses for apple cryopreservation and cryotherapy.

  9. Synanthropic Cockroaches (Blattidae: Periplaneta spp.) Harbor Pathogenic Leptospira in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Astudillo, Viviana; Bustamante-Rengifo, Javier A; Bonilla, Álvaro; Lehmicke, Anna Joy J; Castillo, Andrés; Astudillo-Hernández, Miryam

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis cases in Colombia are typically linked to peridomestic rodents; however, empirical data suggest that Leptospira-infected patients with no apparent exposure to these reservoirs are common. Cockroaches (Periplaneta spp.) have equal or greater interaction with humans than rodents, yet their potential role as carriers of Leptospira has not been assessed. We determined if pathogenic Leptospira is harbored by Periplaneta spp. in Cali (Colombia) and the variables influencing this relationship. Fifty-nine cockroaches were captured from seven sites and DNA was extracted from the body surface and digestive tract for a multiplex polymerase chain reaction, targeting genes secY and flaB. Logistic regression models and proportion tests showed a higher likelihood for Leptospira to be isolated from body surfaces (P > 0.001) and from individuals inside houses (six times more likely). These findings are the first to demonstrate an association between Periplaneta spp. and Leptospira, suggesting the need to investigate the potential for cockroaches to serve as reservoirs or transport hosts for Leptospira. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Fungicidal effect of bacteriocins harvested from Bacillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetunji, V. O.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study investigated the ability of bacteriocins isolated from Bacillus spp. (Bacillus species to inhibit fourdifferent yeast isolates obtained from common food products (nono, yoghurt, ogi and cheese commonly consumed byNigerians with minimal heat treatment.Methodology and results: Forty-five Bacillus spp. was isolated and identified from common food products usingcultural, morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. These isolates were tested for antimicrobialactivity against Salmonella enteritidis (3, Micrococcus luteus (1 and Staphylococcus aureus (2. Eight bacteriocinproducing strains were identified from an over- night broth culture centrifugated at 3500 revolutions for five minutes.Fungicidal effects of these bacteriocins were tested against four yeast strains using the Agar Well Diffusion method. Thebacteriocins produced wide zones of inhibition ranging from 5.9±0.000 to 24.00±0.000 mm against the 4 yeast strainstested. There was a significant difference (at p<0.05 between the yeast organisms and the bacteriocins from theBacillus spp.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The study reveals the antifungal property of bacteriocins from Bacillusspp. and serves therefore as a base for further studies in its use in the control of diseases and extension of shelf-life ofproducts prone to fungi contamination.

  11. Intra-uterine exposure of horses to Sarcocystis spp. antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Antonello

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the intra-uterine exposure to Sarcocystis spp. antigens, determining the number of foals with detectable concentrations of antibodies against these agents in the serum, before colostrum ingestion and collect data about exposure of horses to the parasite. Serum samples were collected from 195 thoroughbred mares and their newborns in two farms from southern Brazil. Parasite specific antibody responses to Sarcocystis antigens were detected using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT and immunoblot analysis. In 84.1% (159/189 of the pregnant mares and in 7.4% (14/189 of foals we detected antibodies anti-Sarcocystis spp. by IFAT. All samples seropositive from foals were also positive in their respective mares. Serum samples of seropositive foals by IFAT, showed no reactivity on the immunoblot, having as antigens S. neurona merozoites. In conclusion, the intra-uterine exposure to Sarcocystis spp. antigens in horses was demonstrated, with occurrence not only in mares, but also in their foals, before colostrum ingestion these occurrences were reduced.

  12. QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF CAMPYLOBACTER SPP. ON POULTRY CARCASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alberghini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are bacterial pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. In Europe, campylobacteriosis is one of the leading food-borne bacterial diseases and the consumption of poultry meats is suspected to be one of the major causes of illness. The aim of our research was to determine the number of Campylobacter spp. in poultry carcasses and in poultry meat samples during their storage till to retail markets. The study was conducted from February 2009 to February 2010 at slaughterhouse in Veneto region, followed by a test of fresh poultry meat placed on the market for sale. A total of 90 poultry carcass and 90 samples of poultry meat were examined. The quantitative examination resulted in Campylobacter spp. counts (mean: for carcasses between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 1,5 ∙103 ufc/g (4,2 ∙102 and poultry meat between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 3,7 ∙102 ufc/g (8,1 ∙101. The majority of isolates were classified as Campylobacter jejuni (58,3%, Campylobacter coli (22,9% or Arcobacter cryaerophilus (4,2%. Acknowledgments: The project was funded with grants from Fondazione Cariverona 2007.

  13. Volatiles from a rare Acer spp. honey sample from Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerković, Igor; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Malenica-Staver, Mladenka; Lusić, Drazen

    2010-06-24

    A rare sample of maple (Acer spp.) honey from Croatia was analysed. Ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE) using: 1) pentane, 2) diethyl ether, 3) a mixture of pentane and diethyl ether (1:2 v/v) and 4) dichloromethane as solvents was applied. All the extracts were analysed by GC and GC/MS. The most representative extracts were 3) and 4). Syringaldehyde was the most striking compound, being dominant in the extracts 2), 3) and 4) with percentages 34.5%, 33.1% and 35.9%, respectively. In comparison to USE results of other single Croatian tree honey samples (Robinia pseudoacacia L. nectar honey, Salix spp. nectar and honeydew honeys, Quercus frainetto Ten. honeydew as well as Abies alba Mill. and Picea abies L. honeydew) and literature data the presence of syringaldehyde, previously identified in maple sap and syrup, can be pointed out as a distinct characteristic of the Acer spp. honey sample. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with GC and GC/MS identified benzaldehyde (16.5%), trans-linalool oxide (20.5%) and 2-phenylethanol (14.9%) as the major compounds that are common in different honey headspace compositions.

  14. Biological control of Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca using Fusarium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ghannam

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The broomrape (Orobanche spp. is an obligate holoparasitic weed that causes severe damage to many important vegetable crops. Many broomrape control strategies have been tested over the years. In this investigation, 125 Fusarium spp. isolates were recovered from diseased broomrape spikes collected from fields in agricultural areas near Hebron. The pathogenicity of isolates on broomrape was evaluated using an inoculum suspension containing mycelia and conidia. The most effective Fusarium isolates significantly increased the dead spikes of broomrape by 33.6–72.7% compared to the control; there was no obvious pathogenic effect on the tomato plants. Fusarium spp. isolates Fu 20, 25 and 119 were identified as F. solani, while Fu 30, 52, 59, 87 and 12-04 were F. oxysporum. In addition, the two previously known Fusarium strains, F. oxysporum strain EId (CNCM-I-1622 (Foxy and F. arthrosporioides strain E4a (CNCM-I-1621 (Farth were equally effective in controlling broomrape parasitizing tomato plants grown in pots, where the dead spikes of broomrape increased by 50.0 and 51.6%, respectively.

  15. The genotypic characterization of Cronobacter spp. isolated in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghua Cui

    Full Text Available Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii is an important pathogen contaminating powdered infant formula (PIF. To describe the genotypic diversity of Cronobacter isolated in China, we identified the isolates using fusA allele sequencing, and subtyped all of the isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST, and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA. A total of 105 isolates were identified, which included C. sakazakii (58 isolates, C. malonaticus (30 isolates, C. dublinensis (11 isolates, C. turicensis (5 isolates, and C. muytjensii (1 isolate. These isolates were showed to have 85 PFGE-patterns, 71 sequence types (STs, and 55 MLVA-patterns. Comparisons among the three molecular subtyping methods revealed that the PFGE method was the most distinguishable tool in identifying clusters of Cronobacter spp. through DNA fingerprinting, and MLST method came second. However, ESTR-1, ESTR-2, ESTR-3, and ESTR-4 were not effective loci for subtyping Cronobacter spp. such that the MLVA method requires further improvement.

  16. Detection and Identification of Salmonella spp. in Surface Water by Molecular Technology in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, S. F.; Hsu, B. M.; Huang, K. H.; Hsiao, H. Y.; Kao, P. M.; Shen, S. M.; Tsai, H. F.; Chen, J. S.

    2012-04-01

    Salmonella spp. is classified to gram-negative bacterium and is one of the most important causal agents of waterborne diseases. The genus of Salmonella comprises more than 2,500 serotypes and its taxonomy is also very complicated. In tradition, the detection of Salmonella in environmental water samples by routines culture methods using selective media and characterization of suspicious colonies based on biochemical tests and serological assay are generally time and labor consuming. To overcome this disadvantage, it is desirable to use effective method which provides a higher discrimination and more rapid identification about Salmonella in environmental water. The aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence of Salmonella using novel procedures of detection method and to identify the serovars of Salmonella isolates from 157 surface water samples in Taiwan. The procedures include membrane filtration, non-selective pre-enrichment, selective enrichment of Salmonella, and then isolation of Salmonella strains by selective culture plates. The selective enrichment and culture plates were both detected by PCR. Finally, we used biochemical tests and serological assay to confirm the serovars of Salmonella and also used Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to identify their sarovar catagories by the genetic pattern. In this study, 44 water samples (28%) were indentified as Salmonella. The 44 positive water samples by culture method were further identified as S. Agona(1/44), S. Albany (10/44), S. Bareilly (13/44),S. Choleraesuis (2/44),S. Derby (4/44),S. Isangi (3/44),S.Kedougou(3/44),S. Mbandaka(1/44),S.Newport (3/44), S. Oranienburg(1/44), S. Potsdam (1/44),S. Typhimurium (1/44), andS. Weltevreden(1/44) by PFGE. The presence of Salmonella in surface water indicates the possibility of waterborne transmission in drinking watershed if water is not adequately treated. Therefore, the authorities need to have operating systems that currently provide adequate source

  17. Tingkat Keberhasilan Perpindahan Koloni Trigona Spp. pada Sarang Buatan di Hutan Larangan Adat Desa Rumbio Kabupaten Kampar

    OpenAIRE

    Azlan, Asprizatul; Yoza, Defri; Mardhiansyah, M

    2016-01-01

    Trigona spp. is include into stingless bee honey. Trigona spp. has another names, such as, galo-galo (Sumatera), klanceng, lenceng (Jawa), andteuweul (Sunda). The population of Trigona spp. in many areas in Indonesia. Trigona spp. produce are honey, pollen, royal jelly, propolis and beeswax. People do not know much yet about the benefit and how to cultivation of Trigona spp. type, material and size of bee's nest. The purpose of this research is to know successfull affectiveness movement of Tr...

  18. Preliminary findings of Salmonella spp. in captive green iguanas (Iguana iguana) and their environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M A; Shane, S M

    2000-06-12

    Captive reptiles are routinely identified as reservoirs of Salmonella spp. and reports of reptile-associated salmonellosis are increasing. Unfortunately, little is known about the epidemiology of Salmonella spp. and green iguanas. We did a limited survey of a green-iguana farm in El Salvador to identify sources of Salmonella spp. in green iguanas and their environment. A limited number of samples for microbiological culture were collected from iguanas (adult, hatchling, and embryos) and their environment (food, water, soil, shelter, insects, and wild-caught lizards). Salmonella spp. was isolated from the intestine of both adult (3/20) and hatchling iguanas (8/20). There was no evidence of Salmonella spp. in the reproductive tracts of female iguanas (0/10). Salmonella spp. was isolated from the surface of 40% (7/16) of the egg surfaces tested. Salmonella spp. was not identified from the externalized yolk-sac of the iguana embryos tested. Soil samples from a breeding pen and a nest were both positive for Salmonella spp. Eight different Salmonella spp. serotypes were identified in this survey. These results suggest that horizontal transmission of Salmonella spp. is a potential source of exposure to hatchling iguanas at this facility.

  19. Alicyclobacillus spp. in the fruit juice industry: history, characteristics, and current isolation/detection procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Su-Sen; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2004-01-01

    The first Alicyclobacillus spp. was isolated in 1982, and was originally thought to be strictly limited to thermophilic and acidic environments. Two years later, another Alicyclobacillus sp., A. acidoterrestris, was identified as the causative agent in spoilage of commercially pasteurized apple juice. Subsequent studies soon found that Alicyclobacillus spp. are soilborne bacteria, and do not strictly require thermophilic and acidic environments. Alicyclobacillus spp. posess several distinct characteristics; the major one is their ability to survive commercial pasteurization processes and produce off-flavors in fruit juices. The fruit juice industry has acknowledged Alicyclobacillus spp. as a major quality control target microorganism. Guaiacol and halophenols were identified as the offensive smelling agent in many Alicyclobacillus spp. related spoilage. Though the exact formation pathway of these off-flavors by Alicyclobacillus spp. are not yet identified, studies report that the presence of Alicyclobacillus spp. in the medium may be a major contributor to the formation of these off-flavors. Many identification methods and isolation media were developed in the last two decades. However, most of these methods were developed specifically for A. acidoterrestris, which was the first identified off-flavor producing Alicyclobacillus. However, recent studies indicate that other species of Alicyclobacillus may also produce guaiacol or the halophenols. In this respect, all Alicyclobacillus spp. should be monitored as potential spoilage bacteria in fruit juices. This article includes an overall review of the history of Alicyclobacillus spp., characteristics, suggested off-flavor production pathways, and commonly used identification methods for the currently identified Alicyclobacillus spp.

  20. Nasonia Parasitic Wasps Escape from Haller's Rule by Diphasic, Partially Isometric Brain-Body Size Scaling and Selective Neuropil Adaptations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, Jitte; Smid, Hans M.

    2017-01-01

    Haller's rule states that brains scale allometrically with body size in all animals, meaning that relative brain size increases with decreasing body size. This rule applies both on inter- and intraspecific comparisons. Only 1 species, the extremely small parasitic wasp Trichogramma evanescens, is

  1. Uso de cal virgem para o controle de Salmonella spp. e Clostridium spp. em camas de aviário Quicklime for controlling Salmonella spp. and Clostridium spp in litter from floor pens of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Dai Pra

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficácia do uso de cal virgem (CaO para a redução de Salmonella spp. e Clostridium spp. em cama de aviário. Foram aplicados quatro tratamentos: T1- sem adição de cal virgem (controle, T2- aplicação de cal virgem na dose de 300g m-2, T3- aplicação de cal virgem na dose de 600g m-2 e T4- aplicação de cal virgem na dose de 900g m-2. Os valores médios observados para o pH da cama após o 12° dia de aplicação de cal virgem foram 8,95 e 9,91, 10,75 e 11,11 para os tratamentos 1, 2, 3 e 4, respectivamente. O número mais provável Log10 (UFC de Salmonella spp. e Clostridium spp foi reduzido em 82 e 97% com a aplicação de cal na dosagem de 300g m-2 e 100% na dosagem de 600 e 900g m-2, ambos diferindo significativamente em relação ao controle (antes da aplicação da cal. A atividade de água da cama reduziu progressivamente (de 0,2 a 3,82% com a utilização de níveis crescentes de cal. Conclui-se que o uso da cal na cama de aviário, mesmo nas doses mais baixas, reduz o número mais provável de Salmonella e Clostridium ssp.This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of quicklime (CaO for reducing Salmonella and Clostridium spp. population in used litter from floor pens of broilers. Four treatments were tested: (T1 control (without quicklime; (T2 300g quicklime m-2; (T3 600g quicklime m-2; and (T4 900g quicklime m-2. The following average pH values were observed 12 days after adding quicklime: 8.95, 9.91, 10.75 and 11.11 for treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. An 82 and 97% reduction in the most probable number Log10 (CFU of Salmonella and Clostridium spp, respectively, was observed when 300g m-2 of quicklime was added to the used litter from floor pens of broilers. Additionally, a 100% reduction was obtained when both 600 and 900g m-2 of quicklime were added, differing significantly from control (before adding quicklime. A progressive reduction in water activity (from 0.2 to 3.82% was

  2. Demonstration of the economic feasibility of plant tissue culture for jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) and Euphorbia spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluis, C.

    1980-09-01

    The economic feasibility of plant tissue culture was demonstrated as applied to two plants: jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) and Euphorbia spp. The gopher weed (Euphorbia lathyris) was selected as the species of Euphorbia to research due to the interest in this plant as a potential source of hydrocarbon-like compounds. High yield female selections of jojoba were chosen from native stands and were researched to determine the economic feasibility of mass producing these plants via a tissue culture micropropagation program. The female jojoba selection was successfully mass produced through tissue culture. Modifications in initiation techniques, as well as in multiplication media and rooting parameters, were necessary to apply the tissue culture system, which had been developed for juvenile seedling tissue, to mature jojobas. Since prior attempts at transfer of tissue cultured plantlets were unsuccessful, transfer research was a major part of the project and has resulted in a system for transfer of rooted jojoba plantlets to soil. Euphorbia lathyris was successfully cultured using shoot tip cultures. Media and procedures were established for culture initiation, multiplication of shoots, callus induction and growth, and root initiation. Well-developed root systems were not attained and root initiation percentages should be increased if the system is to become commercially feasible.

  3. Beans (Phaseolus spp.) - model food legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broughton, W.J.; Hemandez, H.; Blair, M.; Beebe, S.; Gepts, P.; Vanderleyden, J.

    2001-01-01

    Globally, 800 million people are malnourished. Heavily subsidised farmers in rich countries produce sufficient surplus food to feed the hungry, but not at a price the poor can afford. Even donating the rich world's surplus to the poor would not solve the problem. Most poor people earn their living from agriculture, so a deluge of free food would destroy their livelihoods. Thus, the only answer to world hunger is to safeguard and improve the productivity of farmers in poor countries. Diets of subsistence level farmers in Africa and Latin America often contain sufficient carbohydrates (through cassava, corn/maize, rice, wheat, etc.), but are poor in proteins. Dietary proteins can take the form of scarce animal products (eggs, milk, meat, etc.), but are usually derived from legumes (plants of the bean and pea family). Legumes are vital in agriculture as they form associations with bacteria that 'fix-nitrogen' from the air. Effectively this amounts to internal fertilisation and is the main reason that legumes are richer in proteins than all other plants. Thousands of legume species exist but more common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are eaten than any other. In some countries such as Mexico and Brazil, beans are the primary source of protein in human diets. As half the grain legumes consumed worldwide are common beans, they represent the species of choice for the study of grain legume nutrition. Unfortunately, the yields of common beans are low even by the standards of legumes, and the quality of their seed proteins is sub-optimal. Most probably this results from millennia of selection for stable rather than high yield, and as such, is a problem that can be redressed by modem genetic techniques. We have formed an international consortium called 'Phaseomics' to establish the necessary framework of knowledge and materials that will result in disease-resistant, stress-tolerant, high-quality protein and high-yielding beans. Phaseomics will be instrumental in improving

  4. Phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Streptococcus spp. isolated from cases of clinical mastitis in dairy cattle in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczorek, E; Małaczewska, J; Wójcik, R; Rękawek, W; Siwicki, A K

    2017-08-01

    Mastitis of dairy cattle is one of the most frequently diagnosed diseases worldwide. The main etiological agents of mastitis are bacteria of the genus Streptococcus spp., in which several antibiotic resistance mechanisms have been identified. However, detailed studies addressing this problem have not been conducted in northeastern Poland. Therefore, the aim of our study was to analyze, on phenotypic and genotypic levels, the antibiotic resistance pattern of Streptococcus spp. isolated from clinical cases of mastitis from dairy cattle in this region of Poland. The research was conducted using 135 strains of Streptococcus (Streptococcus uberis, n = 53; Streptococcus dysgalactiae, n = 41; Streptococcus agalactiae, n = 27; other streptococci, n = 14). The investigation of the antimicrobial susceptibility to 8 active substances applied in therapy in the analyzed region, as well as a selected bacteriocin (nisin), was performed using the minimum inhibitory concentration method. The presence of selected resistance genes (n = 14) was determined via PCR. We also investigated the correlation between the presence of resistance genes and the antimicrobial susceptibility of the examined strains in vitro. The highest observed resistance of Streptococcus spp. was toward gentamicin, kanamycin, and tetracycline, whereas the highest susceptibility occurred toward penicillin, enrofloxacin, and marbofloxacin. Additionally, the tested bacteriocin showed high efficacy. The presence of 13 analyzed resistance genes was observed in the examined strains [gene mef(A) was not detected]. In most strains, at least one resistance gene, mainly responsible for resistance to tetracyclines [tet(M), tet(K), tet(L)], was observed. However, a relationship between the presence of a given resistance gene and antimicrobial susceptibility on the phenotypic level was not always observed. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora caninum in Brazilian opossums (Didelphis spp.): Molecular investigation and in vitro isolation of Sarcocystis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondim, Leane S Q; Jesus, Rogério F; Ribeiro-Andrade, Müller; Silva, Jean C R; Siqueira, Daniel B; Marvulo, Maria F V; Aléssio, Felipe M; Mauffrey, Jean-François; Julião, Fred S; Savani, Elisa San Martin Mouriz; Soares, Rodrigo M; Gondim, Luís F P

    2017-08-30

    Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora spp. are protozoan parasites that induce neurological diseases in horses and other animal species. Opossums (Didelphis albiventris and Didelphis virginiana) are definitive hosts of S. neurona, which is the major cause of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Neospora caninum causes abortion in cattle and infects a wide range of animal species, while N. hughesi is known to induce neurologic disease in equids. The aims of this study were to investigate S. neurona and N. caninum in tissues from opossums in the northeastern Brazil, and to isolate Brazilian strains of Sarcocystis spp. from wild opossums for comparison with previously isolated strains. Carcasses of 39 opossums from Bahia state were available for molecular identification of Sarcocystis spp. and N. caninum in their tissues, and for sporocyst detection by intestinal scraping. In addition, Sarcocystis-like sporocysts from nine additional opossums, obtained in São Paulo state, were tested. Sarcocystis DNA was found in 16 (41%) of the 39 opossums' carcasses; N. caninum DNA was detected in tissues from three opossums. The sporocysts from the nine additional opossums from São Paulo state were tested by bioassay and induced infection in nine budgerigars, but in none of the gamma-interferon knockout mice. In vitro isolation was successful using tissues from all nine budgerigars. The isolated strains were maintained in CV-1 and Vero cells. Three of nine isolates presented contamination in cell culture and were discarded. Analysis of six isolates based on five loci showed that these parasites were genetically different from each other and also distinct from S. neurona, S. falcatula, S. lindsayi, and S. speeri. In conclusion, opossums in the studied regions were infected with N. caninum and Sarcocystis spp. and represent a potential source of infection to other animals. This is the first report of N. caninum infection in tissues from black-eared opossum (D. aurita or D

  6. Desmodus rotundus and Artibeus spp. bats might present distinct rabies virus lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Oliveira Fahl

    Full Text Available In Brazil, bats have been assigned an increasing importance in public health as they are important rabies reservoirs. Phylogenetic studies have shown that rabies virus (RABV strains from frugivorous bats Artibeus spp. are closely associated to those from the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, but little is known about the molecular diversity of RABV in Artibeus spp. The N and G genes of RABV isolated from Artibeus spp. and cattle infected by D. rotundus were sequenced, and phylogenetic trees were constructed. The N gene nucleotides tree showed three clusters: one for D. rotundus and two for Artibeus spp. Regarding putative N amino acid-trees, two clusters were formed, one for D. rotundus and another for Artibeus spp. RABV G gene phylogeny supported the distinction between D. rotundus and Artibeus spp. strains. These results show the intricate host relationship of RABV's evolutionary history, and are invaluable for the determination of RABV infection sources.

  7. Desmodus rotundus and Artibeus spp. bats might present distinct rabies virus lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Oliveira Fahl

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, bats have been assigned an increasing importance in public health as they are important rabies reservoirs. Phylogenetic studies have shown that rabies virus (RABV strains from frugivorous bats Artibeus spp. are closely associated to those from the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, but little is known about the molecular diversity of RABV in Artibeus spp. The N and G genes of RABV isolated from Artibeus spp. and cattle infected by D. rotundus were sequenced, and phylogenetic trees were constructed. The N gene nucleotides tree showed three clusters: one for D. rotundus and two for Artibeus spp. Regarding putative N amino acid-trees, two clusters were formed, one for D. rotundus and another for Artibeus spp. RABV G gene phylogeny supported the distinction between D. rotundus and Artibeus spp. strains. These results show the intricate host relationship of RABV's evolutionary history, and are invaluable for the determination of RABV infection sources.

  8. Desmodus rotundus and Artibeus spp. bats might present distinct rabies virus lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahl, Willian Oliveira; Carnieli, Pedro; Castilho, Juliana Galera; Carrieri, Maria Luiza; Kotait, Ivanete; Iamamoto, Keila; Oliveira, Rafael Novaes; Brandão, Paulo Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    In Brazil, bats have been assigned an increasing importance in public health as they are important rabies reservoirs. Phylogenetic studies have shown that rabies virus (RABV) strains from frugivorous bats Artibeus spp. are closely associated to those from the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, but little is known about the molecular diversity of RABV in Artibeus spp. The N and G genes of RABV isolated from Artibeus spp. and cattle infected by D. rotundus were sequenced, and phylogenetic trees were constructed. The N gene nucleotides tree showed three clusters: one for D. rotundus and two for Artibeus spp. Regarding putative N amino acid-trees, two clusters were formed, one for D. rotundus and another for Artibeus spp. RABV G gene phylogeny supported the distinction between D. rotundus and Artibeus spp. strains. These results show the intricate host relationship of RABV's evolutionary history, and are invaluable for the determination of RABV infection sources. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. A preliminary parasitological survey of hepatozoon spp. Infection in dogs in mashhad, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoli, Aa Rahmani; Khoshnegah, J; Razmi, Ghr

    2012-01-01

    We attempted to determine the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection in Mashhad, northeast of Iran, via blood smear parasitology. The prevalence was investigated by examination of blood smear parasitology, using blood samples collected from 254 dogs (51 strays and 203 privately owned-dogs). Two stray dogs (2/51; 3.92%) and two privately-owned dogs (2/203; 0.98%) were infected with Hepatozoon spp. Therefore, as per blood smear parasitology, the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection was 1.57% (4/254). Sixteen out of 254 dogs (6.29%) were infested with ticks; all of which were Rhipicephalus sanguineus. One of the dogs infected with Hepatozoon spp. exhibited ticks at the time of examination. Concurrent infection with Ehrlichia canis and Leishmania infantum was not detected in the four Hepatozoon spp. infected dogs. This is the first epidemiological study on the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection in dogs in Iran.

  10. [TYPING OF LEPTOSPIRA SPP. STRAINS BASED ON 16S rRNA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostankova, Yu V; Semenov, A V; Stoyanova, N A; Tokarevich, N K; Lyubimova, N E; Petrova, O A; Ananina, Yu V; Petrov, E M

    2016-01-01

    Comparative typing of Leptospira spp. strain collection based on analysis of 16S RNA fragment. 2 pairs of primers were used for PCR, that jointly flank 1423b.p. sized fragment. Sequences of Leptospira spp. strain 16S rRNA, presented in the international database, were used for phylogenetic analysis. A high similarity, including interspecies, of the 16S fragment in Leptospira spp. strains was shown independently of the source, serovar and serogroup. Heterogeneity of the primary matrix, spontaneous mutations of hotspots and erroneous nucleotide couplings, characteristic for 16S sequence of pathogenic Leptospira spp. strains, are discussed. Molecular-genetic characteristic of certain reference Leptospira spp. strains by 16S sequence is obtained. Results of the studies give evidence on expedience of introduction into clinical practice of identification of Leptospira spp. by 16S sequence directly from the clinical material, that would allow to significantly reduce identification time, dismiss complex type-specific sera and other labor-intensive methods.

  11. [Research advances in the effects of environmental factors on the growth and development of Aurelia spp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Yan; Yu, Zhi-Gang; Zhen, Yu; Mi, Tie-Zhu; Yao, Qing-Zhen; Wang, Guo-Shan

    2012-11-01

    Aurelia spp. is a cosmopolitan coastal species, and also, one dominant species of large jellyfish in the coastal waters of China. In recent years, Aurelia spp. bloom events occur frequently in the world, causing severe damage to marine ecosystems, coastal economy, and society development. Aurelia spp. has a complicated life history comprising a benthic asexually-reproducing polyp generation and a sexually-reproducing medusa generation, and various vegetative reproduction (budding, strobilation, and podocyst production) and sexual reproduction. Surrounding physical and biological factors affect each growth stage of Aurelia spp., especially the juvenile stage of planktonic-benthic life cycle, which has major effect on the population dynamics of Aurelia spp. This paper reviewed the research advances in the effects of environmental factors on Aurelia spp. at its different growth and development stages, and discussed some problems worthy of further study, aimed to provide useful reference for the research of the key factors controlling the jellyfish blooms in coastal waters of China.

  12. Nafion/ZrSPP composite membrane for high temperature operation of PEMFCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-Taek; Song, Min-Kyu; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Park, Seung-Bae; Min, Sung-Kyu; Rhee, Hee-Woo

    2004-01-01

    Nafion/zirconium sulphophenyl phosphate (ZrSPP) composite membranes were prepared to maintain proton conductivity at elevated temperatures. ZrSPP was precipitated by the reaction of Zr 4+ ion and m-sulphophenyl phosphonic (SPP) acid with a stoichiometric ratio P/Zr = 2. The synthesis of ZrSPP was confirmed by phosphonate (P-O) stretching band, assigned at 900-1300 cm -1 in FTIR spectra. The sharp diffraction pattern at 2θ = 5 deg. indicated crystalline α-layered structure of ZrSPP. The proton conductivity of Nafion/ZrSPP (12.5 wt.%) composite membrane reached ca. 0.07 S/cm at 140 deg. C without extra humidification

  13. Selection of Clostridium spp. in biological sand filters neutralizing synthetic acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramond, Jean-Baptiste; Welz, Pamela J; Le Roes-Hill, Marilize; Tuffin, Marla I; Burton, Stephanie G; Cowan, Don A

    2014-03-01

    In this study, three biological sand filter (BSF) were contaminated with a synthetic iron- [1500 mg L⁻¹ Fe(II), 500 mg L⁻¹ Fe(III)] and sulphate-rich (6000 mg L⁻¹ SO₄²⁻) acid mine drainage (AMD) (pH = 2), for 24 days, to assess the remediation capacity and the evolution of autochthonous bacterial communities (monitored by T-RFLP and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries). To stimulate BSF bioremediation involving sulphate-reducing bacteria, a readily degradable carbon source (glucose, 8000 mg L⁻¹) was incorporated into the influent AMD. Complete neutralization and average removal efficiencies of 81.5 (±5.6)%, 95.8 (±1.2)% and 32.8 (±14.0)% for Fe(II), Fe(III) and sulphate were observed, respectively. Our results suggest that microbial iron reduction and sulphate reduction associated with iron precipitation were the main processes contributing to AMD neutralization. The effect of AMD on BSF sediment bacterial communities was highly reproducible. There was a decrease in diversity, and notably a single dominant operational taxonomic unit (OTU), closely related to Clostridium beijerinckii, which represented up to 65% of the total community at the end of the study period. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Susceptibility of human and probiotic Bifidobacterium spp. to selected antibiotics as determined by the Etest method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matto, J.; Hoek, van A.H.A.M.; Domig, K.J.; Saarela, M.; Flórez, A.B.; Brockmann, E.; Amtmann, E.; Mayo, B.; Aarts, H.J.M.; Danielsen, M.

    2007-01-01

    This study reports the antibiotic susceptibility of 203 strains representing human or probiotic associated Bifidobacterium species as determined by the Etest method. Strains showing minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for tetracycline >= 16 mu g mL(-1) were detected in all studied

  15. Effect of Selected Light Spectra on the Growth of Chlorella spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emeka

    light filtration, reasonable portions of the solar electromagnetic spectrum that are incident on cultivation systems and poorly utilized by microalgae be transformed to electricity. (Figure 1). The electricity generated can be used to drive microalgae production operations. (e.g. harvesting, mixing and dewatering) and/or produce ...

  16. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Fragrant Mexican Copal (Bursera spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliarelli, Giulia; Becerra, Judith X; Curini, Massimo; Marcotullio, Maria Carla

    2015-12-12

    Copal is the Spanish word used to describe aromatic resins from several genera of plants. Mexican copal derives from several Bursera spp., Protium copal, some Pinus spp. (e.g., P. pseudostrobus) and a few Fabaceae spp. It has been used for centuries as incense for religious ceremonies, as a food preservative, and as a treatment for several illnesses. The aim of this review is to analyze the chemical composition and biological activity of commercial Mexican Bursera copal.

  17. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Fragrant Mexican Copal (Bursera spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Gigliarelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Copal is the Spanish word used to describe aromatic resins from several genera of plants. Mexican copal derives from several Bursera spp., Protium copal, some Pinus spp. (e.g., P. pseudostrobus and a few Fabaceae spp. It has been used for centuries as incense for religious ceremonies, as a food preservative, and as a treatment for several illnesses. The aim of this review is to analyze the chemical composition and biological activity of commercial Mexican Bursera copal.

  18. Relationship among fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. in shellfish.

    OpenAIRE

    Hood, M A; Ness, G E; Blake, N J

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. was examined in freshly harvested and stored shellfish. In 16 of 40 freshly collected oyster samples, fecal coliform levels were above the recommended wholesale level suggested by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program (less than or equal to 230/100 g), and Salmonella spp. were present in three of these samples. Salmonella spp. were not, however, present in any sample containing less than 230 fecal coliforms per 100...

  19. PENGENDALIAN SERANGAN GANODERMA SPP. (60-80% PADA TANAMAN SENGON SEBAGAI PELINDUNG TANAMAN KOPI DAN KAKAO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Nina Herliyana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Information about genetic variation of Ganoderma spp. As a cause of rot disease on plantation crops is necessary for consideration in efforts to protect crops. Exploration of the use of biological agents, especially Trichoderma