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Sample records for trichogramma chilonis ishii

  1. Study of the biology of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Hymenoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Study of the biology of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) in Mauritius. L Unmole*. Entomology Division. Agricultural Research and Extension. Unit, Reduit. Email: lataunmole@yahoo.com. Paper Accepted on 04 February 2010. ABSTRACT. Maruca vitrata F. is a serious pest of bean (Phaseolus ...

  2. Biological parameters of trichogramma chilonis ishii (trichogrammatidae: hymenoptera) feeding on sitotroga cerealella eggs at three constant temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultan, R.; Khan, J.; Haq, E.

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted on the biological parameters of trichogramma chilonis ishii (trichogrammatidae: hymenoptera) feeding on grain moth, sitotroga cereallela eggs at three constant temperatures and five different ages of host eggs at insect pest management programme, national agricultural research centre, (narc) islamabad. The results revealed that maximum rate of parasitism was 95.70 +- 1.94 at 28 +- 1 degree c while minimum was 61.30 +-1.70 at 32 +- 1 degree c. maximum adult emergence and female ratio from parasitized eggs were 96.30% with 59.2+- 5.83 female ratio at 28 +-1 degree c while minimum was 51.10% with female ratio of 58.1 at 32+-1 degree c. The maximum developmental duration (9.6 +- 0.32 days) and adult longevity (4.3 +- 0.38 days) was at 24 +-1 degree degree c while minimum was 7.4 +-0.36 and 2.0 +- 0.56 days at 32 +- 1 degree c. The results indicate that temperature has a significant effect on the biological parameters of trichogramma and with increasing temperature developmental duration decreased. Similarly effect of host eggs age indicates that maximum parasitism and adult emergence were 97.40 +- 0.84% and 98.20 +- 0.94% on 2h old eggs while minimum parasitism was 24.6 +- 4.92% and adult emergence was 21.5 +- 1.33% from 72h old eggs. Adult longevity and female ratio was not significantly different at different ages of host eggs. Thus out of three tested temperatures, 28 +-1 degree c was more suitable for mass rearing of tricho-gramma and feeding 2-12h old eggs for maximum parasitism and adult emergence from parasitized eggs under laboratory condition of 28 +-1 degree c. (author)

  3. Acute toxicities and sublethal effects of some conventional insecticides on Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De-Sen; He, Yu-Rong; Guo, Xiang-Ling; Luo, Yong-Li

    2012-08-01

    The acute toxicity of 10 conventional insecticides to adult of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) was bioassayed by membrane method, and then their sublethal effects on the parasitoid were evaluated in the laboratory. Based on sublethal concentration (LC30) values at 8 h after treatment, we determined that adult T. chilonis were the most susceptible to chlorfenapyr, followed by fipronil, spinosad, avermectins, beta-cypermethrin, and cartap, with lethal concentration (LC)30 values of 0.3133, 0.3269, 1.5408, 3.2961, 6.1469, and 9.021 mg/liter, respectively. The field-recommended concentrations of chlorfluazuron, indoxacarb, Bacillus thuringiensis, and tebufenozide caused Cartap and spinosad also reduced longevity (8 and 7.9 d) and fecundity (110.77 and 117.2) of treated adults, but cartap enhanced the female percentage of F1 offspring (61.6%), resulting a statistical higher R0, r(m), and lambda of treated T. chilonis. In contrast, chlorfluazuron and tebufenozide increased longevity (16.4 and 15.4 d) and fecundity (248 and 256.9) of treated adults but slightly decreased the female percentage of F1 offspring (31.4 and 38.1%). Although chlorfenapyr showed no adverse influence on longevity and fecundity, it remarkably reduced the female percentage of F1 offspring (13.5%), leading to a lower R0, r(m), and lambda of treated T. chilonis. Indoxacarb, B. thuringiensis, and beta-cypermethrin had no obvious sublethal effects on the longevity and fecundity of treated adults. Based on these results, we consider B. thuringienesis, chlorfluazuron, indoxacarb, beta-cypermethrin, and tebufenozide safe to T. chilonis, suggesting that these insecticides are compatible with this parasitoid when being used in the field. However, fipronil, chlorfenapyr, spinosad, and avermectins were very harmful to T. chilonis. Timing of application of these insecticides was critical.

  4. Effects of Insecticides on Oviposition and Host Discrimination Behavior in Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Desen; Lü, Lihua; He, Yurong; Shi, Qingxing; Wang, Guohong

    2016-12-01

    Trichogramma chilonis Ishii is an important natural enemy of many lepidopterous pests on various crops. Effects of two conventional insecticides on oviposition and host discrimination behavior in T. chilonis were evaluated in the laboratory through video tracking. During the oviposition period, when the number of host eggs was limited (only one host egg), females exposed to beta-cypermethrin LC 1 or LC 20 exhibited significantly higher feeding and re-drilling rate and significantly longer post-oviposition duration than control females. Spinosad LC 20 treatment not only decreased the wasp oviposition rate but also significantly extended the oviposition duration. When the number of host eggs was six, similarly, females exposed to spinosad LC 20 exhibited a significantly lower oviposition rate (79.2%) than control ones (100%). In the host discrimination experiment, females exposed to LC 20 of both tested insecticides (beta-cypermethrin and spinosad) spent significantly more time on the extra-patch area. The females that survived spinosad LC 20 could not discriminate between unparasitized and parasitized host eggs. Our study suggests that even the LC 1 and LC 20 of the tested insecticides had negative effects on the oviposition and host discrimination behavior of T. chilonis Thus, the use of these two insecticides should be carefully evaluated. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Effects of the host and parasitoid densities on the quality production of Trichogramma chilonis on lepidopterous (Sitotroga cereallela and Corcyra cephalonica eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Perveen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted for efficient and quality production of the stingless wasp, Trichogramma chilonis Ishii with respect to rearing host and parasitoid densities of the angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cereallela (Olivier and the rice meal moth, Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton on its biology. For host density,percentage parasitism and adult longevity was the highest at 20 eggs whereas emergence was the highest from 10 eggs of S. cereallela while of C. cephalonica percentage parasitism and emergence was the highest at 10 eggs. For parasitoid density, parasitism was the highest at 5 pairs of T. chilonis. Percentage of emergence and longevity remained similar among all the 5 treatments. It is concluded that S. cereallela eggs more suitable as compare to C. cephalonica eggs for mass and quality rearing of parasitoid, T. chilonis.

  6. Role of temperature and hosts (Sitotroga cereallela and Corcyra cephalonica egg age on the quality production of Trichogramma chilonis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Perveen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted for efficient and quality production of the stingless wasp, Trichogramma chilonis Ishii with respect to rearing temperature and host egg age of the angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cereallela (Olivier and the rice meal moth, Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton on its biology. Maximum parasitism was observed 95.7 and 84.3% at 28 C degree, while minimum parasitism was 61.3 and 39.6% at 32 C degree on S. cereallela and C. cephalonica eggs, respectively. The most favorable temperature was 28 oC on which maximum parasitism and adult emergence were obtained from S. cereallela eggs. Maximum parasitism was observed 97.4 and 79.4% in 2 h old, while minimum parasitism was 24.6 and 17.3% in 72 h old eggs of S. cereallela and C. cephalonica eggs, respectively. Parasitism by T. chilonis decreased with increasing host eggs age. Maximum adult T. chilonis emergence was 98.2% in 2 h old eggs, while minimum emergence was 21.5% on 72 h old eggs of S. cereallela. Adult T. chilonis longevity on the host eggs of different ages of female wasp was non-significantly different to each other except the 2 and 12 h old eggs which were significantly different from rest of the treatments in both hosts' eggs of different ages. Maximum female longevity was 4.0 d on 2 h fresh eggs C. cephalonica, while minimum was 3.0 d on 24-48 h old S. cereallela eggs. The female ratio for different host eggs age was almost non-significant to each other except 2 h old eggs with maximum number of female (64. The results showed that T. chilonis preferred young eggs when offered older eggs, simultaneously.

  7. Study of the biology of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Hymenoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They laid 80% of their egg complement within four days after emergence. However, egg production was highest on the first day. The sex ratio of emerging progeny was 1:2.2 (:).One-day old M. vitrata eggs were preferred for oviposition whereas 2 and 3-day old eggs for feeding. No parasitism was observed in 3-day old eggs ...

  8. Side effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki on the hymenopterous parasitic wasp Trichogramma chilonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amichot, Marcel; Curty, Christine; Benguettat-Magliano, Olivia; Gallet, Armel; Wajnberg, Eric

    2016-02-01

    Most of the detrimental effects of using conventional insecticides to control crop pests are now well identified and are nowadays major arguments for replacing such compounds by the use of biological control agents. In this respect, the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki and Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitic wasp species are both effective against lepidopterous pests and can actually be used concomitantly. In this work, we studied the potential side effects of B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki on Trichogramma chilonis females. We first evidenced an acute toxicity of B. thuringiensis on T. chilonis. Then, after ingestion of B. thuringiensis at sublethal doses, we focused on life history traits of T. chilonis such as longevity, reproductive success and the time spent on host eggs patches. The reproductive success of T. chilonis was not modified by B. thuringiensis while a significant effect was observed on longevity and the time spent on host eggs patches. The physiological and ecological meanings of the results obtained are discussed.

  9. Assessment of Trichogramma japonicum and T. chilonis as Potential Biological Control Agents of Yellow Stem Borer in Rice

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    Rui Tang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Trichogramma wasps were assessed for their effectiveness against yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas. A laboratory cage test with T. japonicum and T. chilonis showed that both species parasitized yellow stem borer egg masses at 60.0% ± 9.13% and 40.7% ± 7.11%, respectively, with egg parasitism rates of 15.8% ± 22.2% for T. japonicum and 2.8% ± 5.0% for T. chilonis. Once the host eggs were parasitized, emergence rates were high for both species (95.7% ± 0.12% for T. japonicum and 100% for T. chilonis. In paddy field trials, the two Trichogramma species were released at three densities (50,000/ha, 100,000/ha and 200,000/ha in Southwestern China. Egg mass parasitism was 9% ± 7.7% for T. japonicum and 15% ± 14.1% for T. chilonis, and again only a relatively small fraction of eggs was successfully parasitized. No clear conclusion could be drawn on the most efficient release rate as no significant differences were found among the three release rates. A comparison of field-collected T. japonicum with T. japonicum and T. chilonis mass reared on Corcyra cephalonica showed significantly larger body size and ovipositor length in field-collected wasps, suggesting potentially higher effectiveness on yellow stem borer eggs after at least one generation on the target host. Factors contributing to the low field parasitism rates are discussed.

  10. The genus Odontofroggatia Ishii (Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea, Pteromalidae Epichrysomallinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiebes, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    Descriptions of three new species of Odontofroggatia: corneri (type locality Penang, Malaya; also recorded from Perak, Malaya and from the Solomon Island Ysabel), galili (type locality Ein Geddi, Israel; also recorded from Perak, Malaya) and ishii (type locality Penang, Malaya) are given. For all

  11. Does Wolbachia infection affect Trichogramma atopovirilia behaviour?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida, de R.P.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Stouthamer, R.

    2010-01-01

    Unisexual Trichogramma forms have attracted much attention due to their potential advantages as biocontrol agents. Fitness studies have been performed and understanding the cost that Wolbachia may inflict on their hosts will help in deciding if Wolbachia infected (unisexual) forms are indeed better

  12. Fertility life table of Trichogramma pretiosum and Trichogramma acacioi on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella at different temperatures

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    Pratissoli Dirceu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Species of the Trichogramma genus are among the most important ones for biological control. The objective of this research was to evaluate parasitism potential of two species of Trichogramma on eggs of Anagasta kuheniella through life fertility table, at temperatures between 15ºC and 35ºC. These species were collected in the State of Espírito Santo parasitising eggs of the avocado defoliator Nipteria panacea. Trichogramma pretiosum and T. acacioi showed adequate reproductive potential between 15ºC and 35ºC which indicates possibilities of using them in biological control programs in avocado plantations.

  13. Linhagens de Trichogramma e Trichogrammatoidea para controle de Stenoma catenifer Trichogramma and Trichogrammatoidea strains to control Stenoma catenifer

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    Dori Edson Nava

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar espécies e linhagens de Trichogramma e Trichogrammatoidea, com potencial para controle da broca-do-abacate Stenoma catenifer, considerada a principal praga do abacateiro (Persea americana Mill.. Experimentos em laboratório foram realizados com 12 linhagens das seguintes espécies, sendo: oito de Trichogramma pretiosum; uma de Trichogramma atopovirilia; duas de Trichogramma bruni; e uma de Trichogrammatoidea annulata. Em telado, determinou-se o número de parasitóides a ser liberado por ovo de S. catenifer. Os parâmetros biológicos avaliados em laboratório foram: duração do período ovo-adulto, emergência, parasitismo, razão sexual, número de parasitóides emergidos por ovo de S. catenifer e longevidade de fêmeas e machos. Em telado, avaliou-se o número de ovos parasitados. As espécies Trichogrammatoidea annulata e Trichogramma atopovirilia e suas linhagens foram selecionadas por parasitar maior número de ovos de S. catenifer. Nessas condições, o maior parasitismo foi obtido com uma proporção estimada de 28 e 30 parasitóides, por ovo da praga, respectivamente, para Trichogrammatoidea annulata e Trichogramma atopovirilia.The objective of this work was to select Trichogramma and Trichogrammatoidea species and strains with potential to control the avocado fruit borer Stenoma catenifer, considered the main avocado (Persea americana Mill. pest. Laboratory experiments were carried out with the following strains and species, which comprised eight Trichogramma pretiosum; one Trichogramma atopovirilia; two Trichogramma bruni; and one Trichogrammatoidea annulata. The number of parasitoids to be released per S. catenifer egg under semi-field conditions was studied. Biological parameters evaluated in laboratory were egg-adult development time, survivorship, parasitism, sex ratio, number of parasitoids emerged per S. catenifer egg, and adult longevity. In semi-field experiment, the number of

  14. Natural occurence of Wolbachia-infected and uninfected Trichogramma species in tomato fields in Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonçalves, C.I.; Huigens, M.E.; Verbaarschot, P.G.H.; Duarte, S.; Mexia, A.; Tavares, J.

    2006-01-01

    Minute egg parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma (Hymenoptera; Trichogrammatidae) are promising candidates for biological control of lepidopteran pests in tomato in Portugal. This certainly applies to native Trichogramma strains that have thelytokous reproduction, i.e., produce only daughters. In

  15. Transfer of a parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia endosymbiont derived from Trichogramma dendrolimi into Trichogramma evanescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masaya; Kageyama, Daisuke; Miura, Kazuki

    2013-01-01

    Wolbachia, which are maternally transmitted endosymbionts, are considered to have moved horizontally between invertebrate hosts multiple times. However, it is not well understood how easily Wolbachia are transmitted horizontally between different hosts and how frequently horizontally-transmitted Wolbachia become established in their new hosts. We transferred a parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia endosymbiont derived from the parasitic wasp Trichogramma dendrolimi to Trichogramma evanescens. Specifically, Wolbachia was cultivated in a mosquito cell line and the Wolbachia-infected cells were microinjected into uninfected T. evanescens. Among 276 pupae inoculated with Wolbachia-infected cells, 65 adults emerged (G0). Diagnostic PCR demonstrated that 25 of 37 G0 females (68%) were Wolbachia-positive. Among isofemale lines established from G0 females, the proportions of infected lines were 80% (20 of 25) in G1 and 100% (18 of 18) in G2. In an isofemale line, infection was stably maintained for more than 10 generations. These results indicate invasion of Wolbachia into the germline of the recipient insect. Quantitative PCR demonstrated that the Wolbachia titer in the recipient host was significantly lower than that in the native host. The absence or very low number, if any, of parthenogenetically-reproducing individuals in the recipient host may be caused by the low Wolbachia titer. The Wolbachia titer in the recipients was lower in G11 than in G5, suggesting a decline in the density. Together with a previous report, our study may imply that Wolbachia in Trichogramma species are highly adapted to their hosts, which hinders robust expression of the Wolbachia phenotype in non-native host species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification and evaluation of Trichogramma parasitoids for biological pest control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, e I.M.M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Egg parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma are used as biological control agents against lepidopterous pests. From the 180 species described world-wide, only 5 have large scale application. The development of better methods to select other

  17. Dispersal behaviour of Trichogramma brassicae in maize fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suverkropp, B.P.; Bigler, F.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Glue-sprayed maize plants were used to study dispersal behaviour of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma brassicae Bezdenko (Hymenoptera Trichogrammatidae) in maize fields. To estimate the distance covered during an initial flight, T. brassicae were studied in a field cage with 73 glue-sprayed plants.

  18. Acceptability and suitability of Tuta absoluta eggs from irradiated parents to parasitism by Trichogramma nerudai and Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cagnotti, Cynthia L.; Hernández, Carmen M.; Andormo, Andrea V.; Viscarret, Mariana; Botto, Eduardo N.; López, Silvia N.; Riquelme, María

    2017-01-01

    1. Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is one of the most devastating pests of tomato crops. We studied the acceptability and suitability of eggs laid by irradiated T. absoluta pairs to parasitism by the parasitoids Trichogramma nerudai and Trichogramma pretiosum. 2. Trichogramma absoluta pupae were irradiated with Xradiation (20834 R) and the emerged adults were separated into couples according to the crosses: ♂U × ♀U, ♂I × ♀U, ♂U × ♀I (where ‘U’ is untreated and ‘I’ is irradiated). In a no-choice experiment, 40 eggs from each cross were exposed to a female parasitoid for 24 h. 3. All T. absoluta eggs were accepted for oviposition by T. nerudai and were suitable for its development. However, eggs from irradiated females were significantly less parasitized than those from untreated females. Trichogramma pretiosum showed low parasitism on eggs from all crosses. In a choice experiment, both T. nerudai and T. pretiosum showed no differences in the parasitism of eggs from irradiated (n=40) and non-irradiated female moths (n=40). 4. These results indicate that eggs laid by irradiated parents were acceptable for oviposition and suitable for the development of these parasitoids, and also support the idea that the inherited sterility technique could be used in an integrated approach with egg parasitoids to control T. absoluta. (author)

  19. Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) as biological control agents in the Philippines: history and current practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichogramma parasitoids have long been recognized as important and viable biological control agents against lepidopteran pests of rice, corn and sugarcane in the Philippines. We describe the history of research and use of Trichogramma spp. in the Philippines in three main areas: 1) field surveys – ...

  20. Chemical espionage on species-specific butterfly anti-aphrodisiacs by hitchhiking Trichogramma wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huigens, M.E.; Woelke, J.B.; Pashalidou, F.G.; Bukovinszky, T.; Smid, H.M.; Fatouros, N.E.

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic wasps employ a wide range of chemical cues to find their hosts. Very recently, we discovered how 2 closely related egg parasitoids, Trichogramma brassicae and Trichogramma evanescens, exploit the anti-aphrodisiac pheromone benzyl cyanide of one of their hosts, the gregarious large cabbage

  1. Parasitism Capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum and Trichogramma acacioi (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae on eggs of Sitotroga cerealella (Lep.: Gelechiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and T. acacioi Brun, Moraes and Soares (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae in eggs of the alternative host Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae aiming to use both species in biological control programs of Nipteria panacea Tierry-Mieg (Lepidoptera: Geometridae. The parasitism rhythm and total parasitism of these parasitoid species were affected by the temperature with higher values during the first 24 h of their life. Parasitism period was longer for T. pretiosum and T. acacioi at the lowest temperature.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a capacidade de parasitismo de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley e de Trichogramma acacioi Brun, Moraes and Soares (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae em ovos do hospedeiro alternativo Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, visando o uso desses inimigos naturais em programas de controle biológico da praga do abacateiro Nipteria panacea Tierry-Mieg (Lepidoptera: Geometridae. O ritmo de parasitismo de T. acacioi e T. pretiosum variou com a temperatura, sendo maior nas primeiras 24 horas de vida desses parasitóides. Além disso, o período de parasitismo foi maior para essas duas espécies de parasitóides na menor temperatura, enquanto o parasitismo total por fêmea variou com a temperatura.

  2. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ashraf Khan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbial insecticides are effective, environmental friendly and are widely used worldwide to control insect pests. Nucleopolyhedroviruses and granuloviruses belonging to family Baculoviridae are widely used for control of caterpillar pests on wide varieties of crops and vegetables. The selected baculoviruses (BVs were evaluated for oviposition preference by Trichogramma chilonis (Ishii of virus treated and untreated (water: control host eggs (Sitotroga cerealella Olivier, which revealed no significant difference among the used concentrations regarding oviposition preference. All the used concentrations of Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HaNPV, Spodoptera exigua nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV and Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV including 12.5×, 6.25×, 2.5×, 1.25× and 0.625× were harmless (E > 30% for parasitism by T. chilonis as comparison of virus treated and untreated control eggs showed similar parasitism i.e., ⩽15% reduction over control in parasitism. Thus it was concluded that all three types of baculoviruses were compatible with the parasitism by T. chilonis at all treated concentrations.

  3. Using Trichogramma Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) for insect pest biological control in cotton crops: an Australian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichogramma Westwood egg parasitoids alone generally fail to suppress heliothine pests when released in established cotton growing regions. Factors hindering their success include indiscriminate use of detrimental insecticides, compensation for minimal pest larval hatch due to their activity via re...

  4. Evaluation of Trichogramma spp. for the control of Trichoplusia ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanez, Andre Malacarne

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological characteristics of the parasitoids Trichogramma acacioi, T. atopovirilia, T. marandobai, T. demoraesi, T. exiguum (two lines), and T. pretiosum (six lines), reared on eggs of Trichoplusia ni. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design, with 15 replicates. The biological characteristics evaluated were: parasitism, viability, sexual ratio and number of individuals per egg. The parasitism percentage varied between 7.66 and 53%, with highest value observed for Trichogramma pretiosum Tspd line, and the lowest for the T. pretiosum Trecife line. There was no significant difference for the viability, which remained higher than 85%. The sex ratio varied from 0.75 to 1, and Tspd line showed the lowest value. The number of individuals per egg varied between 2.39 for T. marandobai (Tm1 line) and 1.34 for T. exiguum (Te1 line). T. pretiosum (Tspd line) was the species with the best performance in laboratory with the highest values observed in parasitism and in viability. (author)

  5. Selectivity of plant extracts for Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampelotti-Ferreira, Fátima Terezinha; Coelho, Aloisio; Parra, José Roberto Postali; Vendramim, José Djair

    2017-04-01

    We evaluated the selectivity of three plant extracts with potential insecticidal effects for the parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, which is commonly used in biological pest control. The plant extracts assayed were an acetone extract of Toona ciliata M. Roem., commercial neem oil, and a nanoencapsulated formulation of neem oil (NC40). The toxicity of the plant extracts to T. pretiosum was evaluated according to the recommendations of the International Organization for Biological Control- IOBC Working Group. We assessed the susceptibility of adults of the maternal and F1 generations and immature stages of T. pretiosum to the extracts. Females exposed to egg cards treated with commercial neem oil parasitized almost 70% fewer eggs than control eggs treated with water; and this extract was therefore classified as slightly harmful. When the eggs were offered to females 24h after treatment with neem oil and aqueous NC40, the parasitism rate also decreased, and the two extracts were classified as slightly harmful. Adult emergence was lower for parasitoids that fed on host eggs offered 24h after the treatment with the T. ciliata extract, which was considered slightly harmful. The emergence of T. pretiosum from eggs, larvae and pupae treated with the different plant extracts, did not decrease compared to development stages treated with the water control. The use of T. pretiosum, combined with the application of an ethanol extract of T. ciliata and a nanoencapsulated formulation of neem, appears to be feasible in view of these low toxicity indices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Trichogramma acacioi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae parasitism capacity at different temperatures and factitious hosts Capacidade de parasitismo de Trichogramma acacioi em diferentes temperaturas e hospedeiros alternativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It was studied the parasitism capacity of Trichogramma acacioi on Anagasta kuehniella and Sitotroga cerealella eggs at different temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 ± 1°C. The parasitism of T. acacioi varied with temperature and host. The highest parasitism (³80% were observed during the first days after emergence in both hosts, at all tested temperatures. The accumulated parasitism varied with both host and temperature, being higher on A. kuehniella at 20°C, what shows good parasitoid species adaptation to this temperature. Thus, we conclude that the best host and best temperature to be used at mass-rearing of T. acacioi is A. kuehniella and 20ºC, respectively. Moreover, this Trichogramma species has great potential to be used in field releases at regions where average temperature is around 20ºC.Foi estudada a capacidade de parasitismo de Trichogramma acacioi em ovos de Anagasta kuehniella e Sitotroga cerealella em diferentes temperaturas (15, 20, 25, 30 e 35 ± 1°C. O parasitismo de T. acacioi variou com a temperatura e hospedeiro. O maior parasitismo (³80% foi observado durante os primeiros dias após a emergência, em ambos hospedeiros e em todas as temperaturas estudadas. O parasitismo acumulado variou nas diferentes temperaturas e hospedeiros, sendo maior em A. kuehniella a 20ºC, o que mostra uma boa adaptação da espécie do parasitóide a essa temperatura. Assim, concluímos que o melhor hospedeiro alternativo e melhor temperatura para serem usadas em criações massais de T. acacioi é a A. kuehniella e 20ºC, respectivamente. Ainda, esta espécie de Trichogramma tem grande potencial para ser usada em liberações de campo em regiões onde a temperatura média está em torno de 20ºC.

  7. Differential arrestment of Trichogramma wasps to extreme sex pheromone types of the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, J.; Huigens, M.E.; Orr, D.; Groot, A.T.

    2014-01-01

    1. Chemical espionage in nature may occur when predators or parasitoids home in on animal or plant communication signals. Parasitoid wasps are known to use pheromones emitted by adults hosts to locate host eggs, larvae or pupae. The response of Trichogramma egg parasitoids to a synthetic sex

  8. The use of oviposition-induced plant cues by Trichogramma egg parasitoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pashalidou, F.G.; Huigens, M.E.; Dicke, M.; Fatouros, N.E.

    2010-01-01

    1. Female parasitoids have evolved various foraging strategies in order to find suitable hosts. Egg parasitoids have been shown to exploit plant cues induced by the deposition of host eggs. 2. The tiny wasp Trichogramma brassicae uses oviposition-induced cues from Brussels sprouts to locate eggs of

  9. A comparative study on the functional response of Wolbachia-infected and uninfected forms of the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma brassicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farrokhi, S.; Ashouri, A.; Shirazi, J.; Allahyari, H.; Huigens, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Trichogramma species (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) are haplo-diploid egg parasitoids that are frequently used as biological control agents against lepidopteran pests. These wasps display two reproductive modes, including arrhenotoky (bisexuality) and thelytoky (unisexuality). Thelytokous forms

  10. ITS-2 sequences-based identification of Trichogramma species in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Almeida

    Full Text Available Abstract ITS2 (Internal transcribed spacer 2 sequences have been used in systematic studies and proved to be useful in providing a reliable identification of Trichogramma species. DNAr sequences ranged in size from 379 to 632 bp. In eleven T. pretiosum lines Wolbachia-induced parthenogenesis was found for the first time. These thelytokous lines were collected in Peru (9, Colombia (1 and USA (1. A dichotomous key for species identification was built based on the size of the ITS2 PCR product and restriction analysis using three endonucleases (EcoRI, MseI and MaeI. This molecular technique was successfully used to distinguish among seventeen native/introduced Trichogramma species collected in South America.

  11. The North American Trichogramma (Hymenoptera) : Trichogrammatidae parasitizing certain tortricidae (Lepidoptera) on apple and pear, with ITS2 DNA characterizations and description of a new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinto, J.D.; Koopmanschap, A.B.; Platner, G.R.; Stouthamer, R.

    2002-01-01

    Eleven species of Trichogramma are reported parasitizing tortricid eggs on apple and pear in North America. Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), were the primary pest species encountered. Species of the Trichogramma minutum complex were the

  12. Avaliação de Trichogramma spp. para o controle de Trichoplusia ni Evaluation of Trichogramma spp. for the control of Trichoplusia ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Malacarne Milanez

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características biológicas dos parasitoides Trichogramma acacioi, T. atopovirilia, T. marandobai, T. demoraesi, T. exiguum (duas linhagens e T. pretiosum (seis linhagens, criados em ovos de Trichoplusia ni. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 15 repetições. As características biológicas avaliadas foram: parasitismo, viabilidade, razão sexual e número de indivíduos por ovo. A percentagem de parasitismo variou entre 7,66 e 53%, com maior valor observado para a linhagem Tspd de Trichogramma pretiosum, e o menor para a linhagem Trecife de T. pretiosum. Não houve diferença significativa dessa espécie quanto à viabilidade, que ficou acima de 85%. A razão sexual variou de 0,75 a 1, e a linhagem Tspd apresentou o menor valor. O número de parasitoides por ovo variou entre 2,39 para T. marandobai (linhagem Tm1 e 1,34 para T. exiguum (linhagem Te1. A espécie que apresentou o melhor desempenho em laboratório foi T. pretiosum (Tspd, com os maiores valores observados na percentagem de parasitismo e na emergência.The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological characteristics of the parasitoids Trichogramma acacioi, T. atopovirilia, T. marandobai, T. demoraesi, T. exiguum (two lines, and T. pretiosum (six lines, reared on eggs of Trichoplusia ni. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design, with 15 replicates. The biological characteristics evaluated were: parasitism, viability, sexual ratio and number of individuals per egg. The parasitism percentage varied between 7.66 and 53%, whith highest value observed for Trichogramma pretiosum Tspd line, and the lowest for the T. pretiosum Trecife line. There was no significant difference for the viability, which remained higher than 85%. The sex ratio varied from 0.75 to 1, and Tspd line showed the lowest value. The number of individuals per egg varied between 2.39 for T. marandobai (Tm1

  13. SELETIVIDADE DE FUNGICIDAS UTILIZADOS NA CULTURA DO TOMATEIRO (Lycopersicum esculentum, MILL.) A Trichogramma pretiosum

    OpenAIRE

    José Romário Carvalho; Dirceu Pratissoli; João Paulo Pereira Paes; Vitor Zuim; Priscila Stinguel; Kharen Priscilla de Oliveira Silva Salomão

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated under laboratory conditions (25 ± 1 °C, RH 70 ± 10% and 14h photophase), the selectivity of 18 fungicides in tomato to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), which is one of the natural enemies more employees in biocontrol. Cards with Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) were treated with fungicides (treatments) and submitted to parasitism by 24 hours. The parameters evaluated were: percentage of parasitism, percent emergence and s...

  14. Biology and thermal requirements to Trichogramma spp. selection for Ecdytolopha aurantiana control; Selecao de Trichogramma spp., para o controle de Ecdytolopha aurantiana, com base na biologia e exigencias termicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Rosa M.S.; Parra, Jose R.P. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola], e-mail: rmsmolina@ig.com.br, e-mail: jrpparra@esalq.usp.br; Fronza, Vanoli [Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Minas Gerais (EPAMIG), Uberaba, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: vanoli@epamig.br

    2005-03-15

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the potential of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman and Platner, 1983 and T. pretiosum Riley, 1879 as agents of control of Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), an important Citrus pest in Sao Paulo State (South-East Brazil). In order to provide subsidies to programs of biological control with these parasitoids, studies of biology in different temperatures, thermal requirements and parasitism capacity were carried out. The temperatures (18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30, and 32 deg C) did not affect the sex ratio, however, female longevity of both species was higher at 22 and 25 deg C. The temperature of 25 deg C tended to be more suitable to both emergency rate and female longevity. The egg-adult period for both Trichogramma species was inversely proportional to temperature. The thermal requirements of the two species were very close, about 108 DD (degree days). Neither the natural rearing host, E. aurantiana, nor the alternative host Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae), affected the number of parasitized eggs per Trichogramma female. The parasitism rate and the number of emerged adults per egg on E. aurantiana eggs were higher than on A. kuehniella eggs. However, the emergency rate was higher when the parasitoids were reared on A. kuehniella eggs. Both Trichogramma species could be tested in the field for citrus fruit borer control. The thermal requirements and the parasitism capacity also could be good parameters for selection of Trichogramma species/strains. (author)

  15. Characterization of intersex production in Trichogramma kaykai infected with parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulgetske, Genet M.; Stouthamer, Richard

    2012-02-01

    Sexually aberrant individuals, displaying both male and female characteristics, are rare in occurrence but are documented throughout the animal kingdom. In parasitoid wasps of the genus Trichogramma, such individuals typically appear as a result of rearing Wolbachia-infected thelytokous wasps at high temperatures. Sexually aberrant Trichogramma have been referred to interchangeably in the literature as gynandromorphs, sexual mosaics and intersexes. However, accurately used, the terms "gynandromorph" and "sexual mosaic" describe an individual composed of a mixture of genetically distinct tissues corresponding to the sexual phenotypes observed, while "intersex" refers to an individual having a uniform genetic constitution but with some tissues exhibiting sexual phenotypes conflicting with the associated genotype. Here, we investigate the heat-induced production of sexually aberrant offspring by thelytokous Trichogramma kaykai. Aberrant individuals were rare, but each was characterized as one of 11 morphotypes ranging from very feminine to very masculine. Overall, the production of aberrant individuals increased with time from the onset of maternal oviposition. However, while the production of males also increased with time, the degree of masculinity of aberrant individuals did not; the different morphotypes appeared to be produced haphazardly. We conclude that the aberrant individuals produced by T. kaykai are actually intersexes and not gynandromorphs. The wasp's close association with Wolbachia and the absence of intersexes in uninfected populations allow us to discuss a possible origin of the condition.

  16. Mass release of Trichogramma evanescens and T. cacoeciae can reduce damage by the apple codling moth Cydia pomonella in organic orchards under pheromone disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Herz, Annette; Korsgaard, Maren

    2017-01-01

    Cydia pomonella is a major pest in apples in Denmark. Trichogramma spp. are known biocontrol agents of C. pomonella eggs and two naturally occurring species in Denmark, which are also both commercially available, were chosen for mass-release trials. Trichogramma evanescens, T. cacoeciae or a mix...... of the two species were evaluated for mass-release to control C. pomonella in two commercial organic apple orchards, one in 2012 and one in 2013, using a complete randomized block design. Pheromone disruption was used in both orchards, making the study one of the first to evaluate Trichogramma release under...... a mating disruption regime. Trichogramma activity was assessed using bait cards with Sitotroga cerealella eggs. The percent C. pomonella damaged fruit was recorded and the fruit yield was estimated. In 2012 cool and wet weather conditions resulted in low Trichogramma activity (

  17. Mass Release of Trichogramma evanescens and T. cacoeciae Can Reduce Damage by the Apple Codling Moth Cydia pomonella in Organic Orchards under Pheromone Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Herz, Annette; Korsgaard, Maren; Wührer, Bernd

    2017-04-04

    Cydia pomonella is a major pest in apples in Denmark. Trichogramma spp. are known biocontrol agents of C. pomonella eggs and two naturally occurring species in Denmark, which are also both commercially available, were chosen for mass-release trials. Trichogramma evanescens , T. cacoeciae or a mix of the two species were evaluated for mass-release to control C. pomonella in two commercial organic apple orchards, one in 2012 and one in 2013, using a complete randomized block design. Pheromone disruption was used in both orchards, making the study one of the first to evaluate Trichogramma release under a mating disruption regime. Trichogramma activity was assessed using bait cards with Sitotroga cerealella eggs. The percent C. pomonella damaged fruit was recorded and the fruit yield was estimated. In 2012 cool and wet weather conditions resulted in low Trichogramma activity (10 times more frequently found in bait cards than T. cacoeciae . There was a significant effect of the treatment and year ( p = 0.009) and of the sampling period ( p = 0.0008) on Trichogramma activity (proportion bait cards parasitized), with no significant difference between treatments in 2012. In 2013 the highest activity was found in T. evanescens and mixed treatments, in July reaching 69% and 47% bait cards parasitized, respectively. Fruit damage was highest in the control plots (7.1%) compared with Trichogramma treatments ( T. evanescens 2.8%, T. cacoeciae 3.8%, mixed 3.3%) ( p = 0.028). Yield did not differ significantly between treatments. In conclusion, Trichogramma mass release is a promising biocontrol method for use in the Danish climate, but further studies are needed regarding the performance of the two Trichogramma species (and potential other Trichogramma species) towards C. pomonella eggs in the field to identify the best biocontrol candidate.

  18. Mass Release of Trichogramma evanescens and T. cacoeciae Can Reduce Damage by the Apple Codling Moth Cydia pomonella in Organic Orchards under Pheromone Disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Sigsgaard

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cydia pomonella is a major pest in apples in Denmark. Trichogramma spp. are known biocontrol agents of C. pomonella eggs and two naturally occurring species in Denmark, which are also both commercially available, were chosen for mass-release trials. Trichogramma evanescens, T. cacoeciae or a mix of the two species were evaluated for mass-release to control C. pomonella in two commercial organic apple orchards, one in 2012 and one in 2013, using a complete randomized block design. Pheromone disruption was used in both orchards, making the study one of the first to evaluate Trichogramma release under a mating disruption regime. Trichogramma activity was assessed using bait cards with Sitotroga cerealella eggs. The percent C. pomonella damaged fruit was recorded and the fruit yield was estimated. In 2012 cool and wet weather conditions resulted in low Trichogramma activity (<16% bait cards parasitized and only T. evanescens was recovered from bait cards. The conditions in 2013 were warmer but T. evanescens was still >10 times more frequently found in bait cards than T. cacoeciae. There was a significant effect of the treatment and year (p = 0.009 and of the sampling period (p = 0.0008 on Trichogramma activity (proportion bait cards parasitized, with no significant difference between treatments in 2012. In 2013 the highest activity was found in T. evanescens and mixed treatments, in July reaching 69% and 47% bait cards parasitized, respectively. Fruit damage was highest in the control plots (7.1% compared with Trichogramma treatments (T. evanescens 2.8%, T. cacoeciae 3.8%, mixed 3.3% (p = 0.028. Yield did not differ significantly between treatments. In conclusion, Trichogramma mass release is a promising biocontrol method for use in the Danish climate, but further studies are needed regarding the performance of the two Trichogramma species (and potential other Trichogramma species towards C. pomonella eggs in the field to identify the best

  19. Selectivity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarrhizium anisopliae to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae); Seletividade de Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae a Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potrich, Michele; Silva, Everton L. da; Neves, Pedro M.O.J. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: profmichele@gmail.com, e-mail: evertonloz@gmail.com, e-mail: pedroneves@uel.br; Alves, Luis F.A.; Daros, Alaxsandra [Universidade do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude. Lab. de Zoologia de Invertebrados], e-mail: lfaalves@unioeste.br; Haas, Jucelaine; Pietrowski, Vanda [Universidade do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: jubarth@gmail.com, e-mail: vandapietrowski@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae are efficient biological control agents and are thought to be used jointly. In here, we investigated if these entomopathogens could have any side-effects on T. pretiosum. Therefore, 1 x 8 cards containing sterilized eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) that were sprayed with 0.2 ml of B. bassiana or M. anisopliae (1.0 X 10{sup 9} conidia/ml) were offered to a T. pretiosum female for 24h (30 cards/fungus = 30 replicates). Afterwards, females were isolated in glass tubes. The control group was sprayed with sterile distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%). In addition, 60 cards with sterilized eggs of A. kuehniella were submitted to parasitism by females of T. pretiosum for 24h. Of these cards, 30 were sprayed with B. bassiana or M. anisopliae and 30 with distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%), and observed daily until parasitoid emergence. Metarhizium anisopliae decreased parasitoid emergence and caused confirmed mortality. Therefore, field and semi-field experiments should be conducted for a final assessment of the side-effects of these entomopathogens on Trichogramma as a ways to develop a control strategy in which both can be used. (author)

  20. SELETIVIDADE DE FUNGICIDAS UTILIZADOS NA CULTURA DO TOMATEIRO (Lycopersicum esculentum, MILL.) A Trichogramma pretiosum

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, José Romário; Universidade Federal Espírito Santo; Pratissoli, Dirceu; Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo; Paes, João Paulo Pereira; Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo; Zuim, Vitor; Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo; Stinguel, Priscila; Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo; Salomão, Kharen Priscilla de Oliveira Silva; Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo; de Minas, Ramon Santos; Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo

    2012-01-01

    Este estudo avaliou, em condições laboratoriais (25±1oC, UR de 70±10% e fotofase de 14), a seletividade de 18 fungicidas utilizados na cultura do tomateiro a Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), que é um dos inimigos natural mais empregado no controle biológico. Cartelas com ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), foram tratados com os fungicidas (tratamentos) e submetidos ao parasitismo por 24 horas. Como tratamento testemunha foi utilizado ág...

  1. Ação de inseticidas usados na cultura do milho a Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Jander Rodrigues de

    2014-01-01

    No presente trabalho estudou-se a toxicidade dos inseticidas (g i.a. L-1) betacipermetrina (0,03), clorfenapir (0,60), clorpirifós (0,96), espinosade (0,16), etofemproxi (0,10), triflumurom (0,08), alfacipermetrina/teflubenzurom (0,0425/0,0425) e lambdacialotrina/tiametoxam (0,11/0,083) para Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 em suas fases imatura e adulta. As formulações comerciais dos produtos foram diluídas em água destilada, nas maiores concentrações recomendadas pelos fabricantes para o ...

  2. Influence of postzygotic reproductive isolation on the interspecific transmission of the paternal sex ratio chromosome in Trichogramma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeong, G.S.; Stouthamer, R.

    2006-01-01

    The paternal sex ratio (PSR) chromosome is a supernumerary chromosome that causes the destruction of the paternal chromosome set in the first mitosis in a fertilized egg. It is known from parasitoid wasps in the genera Nasonia and Trichogramma (Hymenoptera). In these haplodiploids, the egg

  3. NOR activity and repeat sequences of the paternal sex ratio chromosome of the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma kaykai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, van J.J.F.A.; Nooijer, S.; Stouthamer, R.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Part of the male population of the wasp Trichogramma kaykai carries a B chromosome that manipulates its host sex ratio in favour of males. The only known repeat on this paternal sex ratio (PSR) chromosome is the 45S rDNA, which includes here five different internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2)

  4. The paternal sex ratio chromosome in the parasitic wasp Trichogramma kaykai condenses the paternal chromosomes into a dense chromatin mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, van J.J.F.A.; Salverda, M.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.; Stouthamer, R.

    2003-01-01

    A recently discovered B chromosome in the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma kaykai was found to be transmitted through males only. Shortly after fertilization, this chromosome eliminates the paternal chromosome set leaving the maternal chromosomes and itself intact. Consequently, the sex ratio in these

  5. Lethal and behavioral effects of selected novel pesticides on adults of Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Ashraf; Khan, Hizbullah; Ruberson, John R

    2015-12-01

    Growing demand for reduced chemical inputs in agricultural systems requires more effective integration of biological control with pesticides. The egg parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum Riley is an important natural enemy of lepidopteran pests, used in biological control. In an investigation of the interaction of T. pretiosum and pesticides, we studied the acute toxicity of 19 pesticides (insecticides, miticides, fungicides and herbicides) to adult parasitoids and the behavioral effects of 11 pesticides on foraging parasitoid females, including host antennation, stinging and host feeding. At recommended field doses, fipronil, dinotefuran, spinetoram, tolfenpyrad and abamectin induced nearly 100% adult mortality within 24 h of exposure to treated cotton leaves by comparison with controls. Acetamiprid was also toxic, but significantly less so than the former materials. The other pesticides had no significant toxic effects. Only glufosinate ammonium exhibited increased toxicity among the non-toxic materials when increased two- or fourfold over recommended rates. The foraging behavior of parasitoids was affected only by tolfenpyrad among the materials tested. Most novel pesticides, except for several insecticides, exhibited little to no acute toxicity to the parasitoid. Parasitoid foraging behavior was only affected by tolfenpyrad, indicating that parasitoids could successfully forage on eggs treated with most pesticides evaluated. Therefore, many of these pesticides may have good compatibility with Trichogramma. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. The effect of Wolbachia on diapause, fecundity, and clock gene expression in Trichogramma brassicae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi-Kaldeh, Somayeh; Ashouri, Ahmad; Bandani, Alireza; Tomioka, Kenji

    2017-11-01

    The short day lengths of late summer in moderate regions are used to induce diapause in various insects. Many studies have shown the maternal effect of photoperiod on diapause induction of Trichogramma wasps, but there is no study to show the relationship between photoperiodic regimes and clock genes in these useful biological control agents. Here, we investigated the role of photoperiods on diapause, fecundity, and clock gene expression (clk, cyc, cry2, per, and timeout) in asexual and sexual Trichogramma brassicae as a model insect to find any differences between two strains. Asexual strain was infected by Wolbachia, an endosymbiont bacterium. The diapause percentage was significantly higher under short days (8 h in sexual and 12 h in the asexual T. brassicae), although the diapause percentage of the sexual strain was significantly higher than the asexual one in all the photoperiods. The ANOVA revealed no significant changes between different photoperiods in the clock gene expression in the sexual strain but significant photoperiodic changes in clk, cyc, and timeout in the asexual strain. Our results showed that the mRNA levels of clock genes of asexual T. brassicae were significantly lower than those of sexual strain. The fecundity was significantly higher in the asexual strain. These results suggest that Wolbachia infection makes disturbance on the clock gene expression which consequently reduces the percentage of diapause but increases the fecundity in asexual T. brassicae.

  7. Does mating interfere in the biological characteristics of a population of Trichogramma pretiosum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIRCEU PRATISSOLI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Trichogramma spp. are parasitoids used in the regulation of insect populations that can cause economic damage. In order to ensure good performance, understanding some of their biological characteristics is essential. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether mating interferes with the biological characteristics of a population of Trichogramma pretiosum collected in the field. In all experiments, groups of mated and unmated females were used. We also verified any interference from mating on the biological characteristics of the offspring. We found that mating can alter the parasitism and longevity of genitor females, in addition to changing longevity among the descendants, but once parasitized, the eggs develop normally, showing similar emergence percentage and number of offspring as those from unmated females. In addition, we verified that the population of T. pretiosum collected in the field presented individuals with reproductive thelytokous and arrhenotokous characteristics. This fact highlights the importance of careful investigation on the reproduction mode of populations collected in the field, thus avoiding problems in the effective management of insect populations.

  8. Biologia e parasitismo de Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner e Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae em ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae Biology and parasitism of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner and Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae on eggs of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo B. Beserra

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparou-se a capacidade de paratisimo e o desenvolvimento de Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner e T. pretiosum Riley visando à seleção da espécie mais adequada para o controle de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em laboratório à temperatura de 25±2ºC, U.R. de 70±0% e fotoperíodo de 14L:10E. Tanto T. atopovirilia como T. pretiosum desenvolveram-se bem e mostraram-se adaptados a ovos de S. frugiperda, mesmo após serem criados por várias gerações em ovos de Anagasta kuehniella Zeller. Entretanto, fêmeas de T. atopovirilia foram mais agressivas e de maior especificidade à praga, já que apresentaram maior capacidade de parasitismo em posturas com diferentes barreiras físicas e maior aceitação pelo hospedeiro natural, em relação à A. kuehniella. Por este maior parasitismo e especificidade de T. atopovirilia aos ovos da praga, deve-se dar preferência à utilização desta espécie para controle de S. frugiperda.The parasitism capacity and development of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner and Trichogramma pretiosum Riley were studied in order to select the most suitable species to control Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith. The experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions at 25±2ºC, 70±10% RH and 14L:10D photoperiod. Both T. atopovirilia and T. pretiosum showed good development and adaptation to S. frugiperda eggs even after being reared for several generations in eggs of Anagasta kuehniella Zeller. However, T. atopovirilia females were more aggressive and showed higher specificity to the pest, with a higher parasitism capacity in eggs laid with different physical barriers and were more accepted by the natural host in comparison with A. kuehniella. Because of the higher parasitism rate and specificity of T. atopovirilia to the pest's egg this species should be given preference to control S. frugiperda.

  9. Insecticide toxicity to Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) females and effect on descendant generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Ulysses R; Pratissoli, Dirceu; Zanuncio, José C; Lima, Eraldo R; Brunner, Jay; Pereira, Fabrício F; Serrão, José E

    2009-02-01

    The effect of nine insecticides used in tomato production was evaluated on adults of two Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) populations from Rive and Afonso Cláudio, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The experiment was developed in an acclimatized chamber at 25 +/- 1 degrees C, 70 +/- 10% relative humidity and 14 h photophase. Eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), previously immersed in insecticides solutions were offered to females of both T. pretiosum populations. Bacillus thuringiensis, lufenuron and triflumuron had lowest negative effects on parasitism and viability of individuals of these populations; however, abamectin and pyrethroids (betacyflurin 50 and 125 g/l and esfenvalerate) insecticides reduced parasitism rates. T. pretiosum emerged from A. kuehniella eggs treated with esfenvalerate but were not able to parasitize non treated eggs of this host. B. thuringiensis, lufenuron and triflumuron may be used in integrated pest management programs to control tomato pests, because they have moderated negative effect on parasitoid wasps.

  10. Side effects of pesticides used in integrated production of apple in adults of Trichogramma pretiosum

    OpenAIRE

    Manzoni, Cristiane Gindri; Grützmacher, Anderson Dionei; Giolo, Fabrizio Pinheiro; Härter, Wagner da Roza; Müller, Cristiane

    2006-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a seletividade de 12 agrotóxicos usados na produção integrada de maçã, em laboratório (temperatura 25±1ºC, umidade relativa 70±10% e fotófase de 14 horas), tendo-se exposto adultos de Trichogramma pretiosum a resíduos secos dos agrotóxicos, na máxima dosagem recomendada para uso em campo, e tendo-se posteriormente mensurado o número de ovos parasitados por fêmea. Reduções no parasitismo, em relação à testemunha (água), foram utilizadas para classific...

  11. Side-effects of glyphosate formulations on Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Giolo, F.P.; Grützmacher, A.D.; Procópio, S.O.; Manzoni, C.G.; Lima, C.A.B.; Nörnberg, S.D.

    2005-01-01

    O estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a seletividade de oito formulações de glyphosate (Roundup®, Roundup® WG, Roundup® Transorb, Polaris®, Gliz® 480 CS, Glifosato Nortox®, Glifosato 480 Agripec® e Zapp® Qi) registradas no Brasil sobre o parasitóide de ovos Trichogramma pretiosum (Hym., Trichogrammatidae). Os experimentos consistiram na exposição de adultos do parasitóide a resíduos secos das formulações pulverizadas sobre placas de vidro, na concentração de 14,4 mg L-1 de equivalente ácido de ...

  12. Effects of various insecticides on the development of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma dendrolimi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Y; Kawamura, S; Tanaka, T

    2001-12-01

    The toxicity of six insecticides, acephate, methomyl, ethofenprox, cartap, chlorfluazuron, and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) was tested on different developmental stages of the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma dendrolimi (Matsumura). Each of the insecticides tested showed different degrees of toxicity to the parasitoid, Ethofenprox showed the highest toxicity and cartap showed relatively higher toxicity compared with the other insecticides. The development of the parasitoids treated with these two insecticides was normal, similar to that of the control group. Only the emergence of adult wasps from host eggs was disturbed. Emergence of the host, Mamestra brassicae larva was reduced following treatment with ethofenprox, cartap and methomyl. However, adult female wasps, which emerged from host eggs treated with the insecticides had the ability to oviposit normally.

  13. NOR activity and repeat sequences of the paternal sex ratio chromosome of the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma kaykai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, Joke J F A; de Nooijer, Silvester; Stouthamer, Richard; de Jong, Hans

    2005-12-01

    Part of the male population of the wasp Trichogramma kaykai carries a B chromosome that manipulates its host sex ratio in favour of males. The only known repeat on this paternal sex ratio (PSR) chromosome is the 45S rDNA, which includes here five different internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences. In this report, we describe that only part of these ITS2 sequences is transcribed. The absence of transcription of some ITS2 sequences might explain the presence of multiple ITS2 sequences on the PSR chromosome since homogenization of rDNA spacers is thought to occur only in transcribed regions. Analysis of the only other known tandem repeat in Trichogramma, the EcoRI repeat, showed that it is absent from the PSR chromosome, and that the T. kaykai EcoRI repeat has 98 and 77% DNA sequence homology with the T. deion and T. brassicae EcoRI repeats, respectively. The size of the PSR chromosome measures 9 Mbp and is equal to 3.9% of the haploid T. kaykai genome. Finally, fluorescent in situ hybridization with a pool of high and moderate repetitive T. kaykai DNA (C0t-50) revealed only a very few major tandem repeats on the Trichogramma genome and only 45S rDNA on the PSR chromosome.

  14. Seletividade de herbicidas registrados para a cultura do milho a adultos de Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Selectivity of herbicides registered on corn to Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. Stefanello Júnior

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A seletividade de 24 herbicidas registrados para a cultura do milho foi avaliada a Trichogramma pretiosum em condições de laboratório (temperatura de 25±1 ºC, umidade relativa de 70±10%, fotofase de 14 horas e luminosidade de 500 lux. Adultos de T. pretiosum foram colocados em contato com uma película seca dos herbicidas pulverizados sobre placas de vidro e avaliou-se a capacidade de parasitismo das fêmeas. A redução na capacidade de parasitismo dos tratamentos foi comparada com a da testemunha (água destilada e utilizada para classificar os herbicidas em 1, inócuo (99%. Os herbicidas Callisto, Equip Plus, Extrazin SC, Primóleo, Provence 750 WG e Siptran 500 SC são inócuos (classe 1; Agrisato 480 SL, Gesaprim GrDA, Glifos, Glyphosate Nortox, Gliz 480 SL, Polaris, Primatop SC, Sanson 40 SC, Trop e Zapp Qi, levemente nocivos (classe 2; Finale, Herbadox, Poast, Roundup Original, Roundup Transorb e Roundup WG, moderadamente nocivos (classe 3; e Gramoxone 200 e Primestra Gold, nocivos (classe 4 aos adultos de T. pretiosum, nas dosagens utilizadas. Os herbicidas nocivos (classes 2, 3 e 4 deverão passar para as etapas seguintes, que envolverão testes sobre as fases imaturas do parasitóide em condições de laboratório e adultos a campo.The selectivity of 24 herbicides registered on corn to Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae was assessed under laboratory conditions (25 ± 1 ºC temperature, 70 ± 10% relative humidity, 14 4 photophase and brightness 500 lux. The adult parasitoids were submitted to a dry film of the herbicides applied on glass plates and the parasitism capacity of the females was evaluated. Reduced parasitism capacity in the treatments was compared with the negative control (distilled water and used to classify the herbicides into four categories: 1, harmless ( 99%. The herbicides Callisto, Equip Plus, Extrazin SC, Primóleo, Provence 750 WG and Siptran 500 SC were found to be harmless (class 1

  15. Toxicidade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do pessegueiro sobre adultos de Trichogramma pretiosum Toxicity of pesticides used in peach orchard on adults Trichogramma pretiosum

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    Fabrizio Pinheiro Giolo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A toxicidade de dezesseis formulações comerciais de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do pessegueiro foi avaliada para adultos de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae. Os experimentos foram desenvolvidos utilizando-se a metodologia padrão da International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants, West Palaearctic Regional Section (IOBC/WPRS, em condições de laboratório, sob temperatura de 25 ± 1 ºC, umidade relativa de 70 ± 10% e fotofase de 14 horas. Os testes consistiram na exposição de adultos do parasitóide a resíduos secos dos produtos fitossanitários pulverizados sobre placas de vidro e mensuração do número de ovos parasitados por fêmea. Reduções no número de ovos parasitados por fêmea de T. pretiosum em relação à testemunha (somente água foram utilizadas para classificar os produtos segundo a IOBC/WPRS nas classes: 1, inócuo (99%. Os fungicidas (g ingrediente ativo 100 L-1 de água cálcio + cobre (40+100, dodina (79, folpete (125, iprodione (75, mancozebe (160, mancozebe + óxicloreto de cobre (88+60 e triforina (24 e o inseticida teflubenzurom (3,75 foram inócuos (classe 1; o fungicida tebuconazol (20 e óleo mineral (800 foram levemente nocivos (classe 2; o fungicida-acaricida enxofre (480 e o herbicida glufosinato de amônio (200 foram moderadamente nocivos (classe 3; os inseticidas espinosade (6, fenitrotiona (75, fosmete (100 e malationa (200 foram nocivos (classe 4 a T. pretiosum.The toxicity of sixteen commercial formulations of pesticides used in peach orchard was assessed on adults of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae. The experiments were carried out using the International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants, West Palaearctic Regional Section (IOBC/WPRS standard methodology, under laboratory conditions at temperature of 25±1ºC, relative

  16. Seletividade de formulações de glyphosate a Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Side-effects of glyphosate formulations on Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. Giolo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a seletividade de oito formulações de glyphosate (Roundup®, Roundup® WG, Roundup® Transorb, Polaris®, Gliz® 480 CS, Glifosato Nortox®, Glifosato 480 Agripec® e Zapp® Qi registradas no Brasil sobre o parasitóide de ovos Trichogramma pretiosum (Hym., Trichogrammatidae. Os experimentos consistiram na exposição de adultos do parasitóide a resíduos secos das formulações pulverizadas sobre placas de vidro, na concentração de 14,4 mg L-1 de equivalente ácido de glyphosate. O tratamento controle recebeu água destilada. Ovos do hospedeiro alternativo Anagasta kuehniella (Lep., Pyralidae foram ofertados para parasitismo. A capacidade de parasitismo por fêmea de T. pretiosum e a redução na capacidade, comparada com o tratamento controle, foram utilizadas para estimar a toxicidade do produto. As formulações foram classificadas em quatro categorias, conforme a redução no parasitismo: inócuo (99%. Os produtos fitossanitários afetaram diferentemente a capacidade de parasitismo de T. pretiosum. A seletividade das formulações de glyphosate foi dependente do tipo de sal. Aquelas à base de sal potássico (Zapp® Qi e de sal de amônio (Roundup® WG foram levemente nocivas a adultos do parasitóide. As demais à base de sal isopropilamina (Roundup®, Polaris®, Gliz® 480 CS, Glifosato Nortox®, Glifosato 480 Agripec® e Roundup® Transorb foram moderadamente nocivas a adultos de T. pretiosum.A study was carried out in the laboratory to investigate the side-effects reported in Brazil of eight glyphosate formulations (Roundup®, Roundup® WG, Roundup® Transorb, Polaris®, Gliz® 480 CS, Glifosato Nortox®, Glifosato 480 Agripec® and Zapp® Qi on the egg parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum (Hym., Trichogrammatidae. The experiments were carried out by exposing the adult parasitoids to fresh pesticide residues applied on glass plates at a concentration of 14.4 mg L-1 of acid equivalent of glyphosate

  17. Capacidade de parasitismo de Trichogramma exiguum Pinto & Platner, 1978 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae criado em dois hospedeiros por diversas gerações Parasitism capacity of Trichogramma exiguum Pinto & Platner, 1978 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae reared in two hosts for several generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley Nonato de Oliveira

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O Trichogramma é um inimigo natural dos mais estudados e utilizados atualmente no mundo. A qualidade e o desempenho de Trichogramma podem ser influenciados por alguns fatores, tal como o hospedeiro alternativo utilizado na criação massal. Objetivou-se com este trabalho foi obter informações básicas sobre os aspectos biológicos de Trichogramma exiguum Pinto & Platner, 1983 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, criado nos hospedeiros alternativos Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae e Sitotroga cerealella (Oliv., 1819 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae por 10, 20 e 30 gerações, e os possíveis efeitos nas características biológicas desse parasitóide. Em cada uma das gerações avaliadas, foram utilizadas 25 fêmeas de T. exiguum recém-emergidas de cada hospedeiro, as quais foram individualizadas em tubos de vidro que continham gotículas de mel de abelha. Cada fêmea recebeu uma cartela contendo 40 ovos do hospedeiro na qual estava sendo mantido. Foi permitido um parasitismo de 24 horas para essas cartelas, sendo as mesmas trocadas diariamente até a morte da fêmea.O número de ovos parasitados no primeiro dia, a capacidade de parasitismo e a longevidade de T. exiguum foi superior quando se utilizou ovos de A. kuehniella, ao longo das diferentes gerações, mostrando ser esse hospedeiro mais indicado para a criação massal de T. exiguum.Trichogramma is one the most studied and used natural enemies of insect pests in the world. The quality and the performance of Trichogramma can be influenced by some factors, like the kind of host used for its mass rearing. The objective of this research was to obtain some basic informations about the biological aspects of Trichogramma exiguum Pinto & Platner, 1983 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, reared on Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae and Sitotroga cerealella (Oliv., 1819 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae for 10, 20 e 30 generations, and the effect of something on the

  18. Interação entre inimigos naturais: Trichogramma e Bacillus thuringiensis no controle biológico de pragas agrícolas = Interaction between natural enemies: Trichogramma and Bacillus thuringiensis in pest control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio Polanczyk

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos adversos de Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt nos parasitóides de ovos Trichogramma pratissolii e Trichogramma pretiosum. Suspensões de 6 isolados de Bt: E-3, E-10, E-15, E-16, E-19, E-20 e Bt kurstaki foram misturadas com mel (1:1, como fonte de alimento, e cartelas com ovos de Anagasta kuehniella foram fornecidas para o parasitismo. O experimento foi mantido em BOD a 25 + 1ºC, umidade relativa de 70+ 10% e fotofase de 14 horas. Foram analisados a longevidade, os parasitismos diário, acumulado e total. Não houve influência dos tratamentos sobre a longevidade e todos ostratamentos em T. pratissolii e E-3, E-10, E-16 e E- 19 em T. pretiosum diminuíram o tempo necessário para os parasitóides atingirem 80% de parasitismo. Apesar dessa aceleração do parasitismo, o Bt não influenciou o total de ovos parasitados, mostrando-se como tática de controle que pode ser usada com Trichogramma em programas de MIP.The goal of this work was to detect the possible side-effectsprovoked by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt strains on eggs parasitoids Thichogramma pratissolii and Trichogramma pretiosum. Six strains of Bt: E-3, E-10, E-15, E-16, E-19, and E-20 and Bt kurstaki were assayed in honey drop to stimulate the feeding of the parasitoids in each treatment and offered simultaneously displays with Anagasta kuehniella eggs. The experiment was maintained in a climatized chamber at 25+ 1ºC, RH 70+ 10%, and photophase of 14 hours. The longevity, the daily, the accumulated, and the total parasitism were observed. No treatments affected the longevity of both parasitoids. All treatments in T. pratissolii and E-3, E-10, E-16, and E-19 in T. pretiosum decreased the time necessary to reach 80% of parasitism. The lack of deleterious effects of Bt on these parasitoids suggests that these natural enemies can be used together in IPM programs.

  19. Impact of the number of Spodoptera frugiperda egg layers on parasitism by Trichogramma atopovirilia Impacto do número de camadas de ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda no parasitismo por Trichogramma atopovirilia

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    Eduardo Barbosa Beserra

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Egg parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae can be found in several crops attacking Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae eggs. It is therefore necessary to demonstrate the capacity of these natural enemies in suppressing populations of the pest to allow them to be used in biological control programs against that species. This work had the objective of evaluating the impact of egg layer distribution in S. frugiperda egg masses on the parasitism capacity of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983. Masses containing one, two, and three layers were used as treatments, and 1.6 parasitoid per egg of the pest were released. Parasitism percentage differences were observed among the three types of masses under study, on average 66.24 ± 8.56%, 45.20 ± 6.20%, and 40.10± 3.46% for egg masses with one, two, and three layers, respectively, demonstrating the potential of use of the parasitoid for the control of fall armyworm.Parasitóides de ovos do gênero Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae ocorrem em diversas culturas atacando ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae sendo necessário que se demonstre a capacidade desses inimigos naturais em suprimir a população da praga para que eles possam ser utilizados em programas de controle biológico daquela espécie. O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o impacto da distribuição dos ovos em camadas nas posturas de S. frugiperda sobre a capacidade de parasitismo de Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983. Foram utilizadas como tratamentos posturas com uma, duas e três camadas e liberado 1.6 parasitóide por ovo da praga. Observaram-se diferenças quanto à porcentagem de parasitismo entre os três tipos de posturas estudados, sendo em média de 66,24 ± 8,56%, 45,20 ± 6,20% e 40,10 ± 3,46% para posturas com uma, duas e três camadas respectivamente, mostrando o potencial de utilização do

  20. Seletividade de formulações de glyphosate aplicado nos estádios imaturos de Trichogramma pretiosum Selectivity of glyphosate formulations applied on immature stages of Trichogramma Pretiosum

    OpenAIRE

    S.D. Nörnberg; A.D. Grützmacher; F.P. Giolo; G.J.E. Júnior; C.A.B. Lima; D.D. Grützmacher

    2008-01-01

    A seletividade de oito formulações comerciais de glyphosate registradas no Brasil (Roundup®, Roundup® WG, Roundup® Transorb, Polaris®, Gliz® 480 CS, Glifosato Nortox®, Glifosato 480 Agripec® e Zapp® Qi) foi avaliada sobre os estádios imaturos do parasitóide de ovos Trichogramma pretiosum, bem como seus efeitos sobre os adultos emergidos, em condições de laboratório (temperatura de 25±1 ºC, umidade relativa de 70±10%, fotofase de 14h e luminosidade de 500 lux). Os bioensaios consistiram na pul...

  1. Intraspecific variation in Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja, 1983 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) associated with different hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querino, R B; Zucchi, R A

    2002-11-01

    Trichogramma bruni is an insufficiently studied South American species whose limits are still not well defined. Thus, the objective of the present study was to characterize T. bruni taxonomically and to determine the association between morphological variations as well as host and habitat, based on morphological and biological studies. Specimens from the Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" (ESALQ) collection, and from the University of California Riverside (UCR) and specimens collected from the vegetation of forest parks with native areas planted with eucalyptus in Piracicaba and Itatinga, State of São Paulo, were also analyzed. The holotype deposited at Univeridade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG) collection was also examined. The variability in the genital capsule of T. bruni observed both among individuals of the same progeny and among specimens from different hosts is remarkable and is mainly related to the dorsal lamina. Therefore, an association of diagnostic characters rather than the dorsal lamina alone should be used for the identification of T. bruni and intraspecific variations should be considered. The intraspecific variation observed for T. bruni is a factor that should be considered for its identification, since the influence of the environment (habitat + host) and the variation among individuals itself is responsible for the plasticity observed in the genital capsule. Heliconius erato phyllis, Hamadryas feronia, Erosina hyberniata and Mechanitis lysiminia are new hosts of T. bruni.

  2. Assessing risks of pesticides targeting lepidopteran pests in cruciferous ecosystems to eggs parasitoid, Trichogramma brassicae (Bezdenko

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    D.P. Thubru

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Lethal and sub lethal effects of fresh and old residues of azadirachtin, spinosad, Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Bt var. k, and deltamethrin, were evaluated at their recommended field doses against adult and immature stages of Trichogramma brassicae under in vitro conditions. The experiments were carried out at the Entomology section of Division of Crop Protection, ICAR Research Complex for NEH region, Umiam, Meghalaya, in 2012–2013. The effects of different pesticides were determined by bioassays using the residual film method, the diet contamination method, the pupal dip method and the topical application technique. The four pesticides were found harmful to adult T. brassicae after ingestion, however surface contact bioassays revealed that Bt var. k was the least toxic pesticide. Except Bt var. k, other three pesticides were found harmful also to the immature stages of T. brassicae and significantly affected parasitism potential, adult emergence, longevity of adults, and sex ratio of the progeny. Deltamethrin and azadirachtin were the most harmful, even after 15 days of application. Spinosad was found to be relatively safe to T. brassicae after 15 days of application. As Bt appeared to be the least toxic pesticide for T. brassicae, it could be used for the management of severe infestations of lepidopteran pests in cruciferous ecosystems.If essential, spinosad may be used 15 days after parasitoid release, thus minimizing the chances of parasitoid exposure. Keywords: Azadirachtin, Bacillus thuringiensis, Deltamethrin, Spinosad

  3. Age and density of eggs of Helicoverpa armigera influence on Trichogramma pretiosum parasitism

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    Vitor Zuim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the parasitism of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae on eggs of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae at different ages and densities. The rates of parasitism and emergence, the number of parasitoids emerged per egg and sex ratio of offspring were evaluated in both experiments. Eggs of H. armigera up to 36 hours provided greater parasitism and emergence of adults compared to eggs up to 60 hours old. The number of parasitoids, which emerged per host egg, was greater than one and the sex ratio remained around 80% of females, regardless of the egg development stage. Females of T. pretiosum responded with superior rates of parasitism, emergence and number of parasitoids per egg at the densities of 20 and 25 eggs of H. armigera. These results indicate that T. pretiosum parasite with superior performance in eggs of up to 36h of age and densities of 20 eggs per female day-1 in laboratory conditions. These results will help to establish the intervals between releases of parasitoids, aiming to control this pest, when adjusted with knowledge of the survival of the parasitoids in the field and in pest infestation.

  4. Toxicity risk of insecticides to the insect egg parasitoid Trichogramma evanescens Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhua; Wu, Changxing; Cang, Tao; Yang, Lizhi; Yu, Weihua; Zhao, Xueping; Wang, Qiang; Cai, Leiming

    2014-03-01

    Natural populations of Trichogramma evanescens contribute to the control of lepidopterous pests. The toxic effects of insecticides have been extensively reported on trichogrammatids, but are largely unknown on T. evanescens. In this study, the toxicities of seven classes of chemicals against the parasitoid were investigated. Among these classes, organophosphates and carbamates exhibited the highest levels of intrinsic toxicity, with LC50 values ranging from 0.025 (0.023-0.028) to 2.20 (1.71-3.09) and from 0.040 (0.032-0.053) to 1.84 (1.53-2.30) mg AI L(-1) respectively. Among the phenylpyrazoles, only ethiprole can be considered to be less toxic in the group. Avermectins, pyrethroids and neonicotinoids were less toxic, with LC50 values ranging from 1.29 to 2.57, from 2.26 to 14.03 and from 1.12 to 239.1 mg AI L(-1) respectively. In contrast, insect growth regulators (IGRs) showed the lowest toxicity to the parasitoid, with LC50 values ranging from 3383 (2406-5499) to 5650 (4228-8579) mg AI L(-1) . The results of risk quotient analysis indicated that neonicotinoids, avermectins, pyrethroids and IGRs were less hazardous, but phenylpyrazoles (except for ethiprole), organophosphates and carbamates were slightly to moderately or dangerously toxic to T. evanescens. The present results provide informative data for implementing biological and chemical control strategies in integrated pest management of lepidopterans. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Biologia de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley em ovos de Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALENCAR JOSÉ ADALBERTO DE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se, em laboratório, aspectos biológicos de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae em ovos do hospedeiro alternativo Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, visando à obtenção de informações básicas sobre a biologia desse parasitóide em condições de laboratório. Não houve controle de temperatura, umidade relativa e fotoperíodo, com o objetivo de simular as condições do Submédio do Vale do São Francisco, Estado de Pernambuco. A temperatura média registrada durante o desenvolvimento do trabalho foi 25,9±0,9°C. Os resultados mostraram uma duração média do período ovo-adulto de 9,42 dias e uma viabilidade de ovos parasitados de 88%. O número médio de T. pretiosum emergido por ovo do hospedeiro foi de 1,41, com um máximo de dois indivíduos/ovo. As fêmeas viveram, em média, 5,53 dias, enquanto os machos apresentaram longevidade média de 3,08 dias, quando ambos os sexos foram alimentados com mel puro.

  6. Parasitism and super parasitism of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) on Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) eggs; Parasitismo e superparasitismo de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) em ovos de Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Marciene D.; Torres, Jorge B. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia. Entomologia; Santos, Maria C.F. dos; Beserra, Eduardo B. [Universidade Estadual da Paraiba, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia; Almeida, Raul P. de [EMBRAPA Algodao, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2009-03-15

    The parasitoid Trichogramma has been used worldwide as biological control agent due to its wide geographic distribution, high specialization and efficacy against many lepidopteran pests. Biological and behavioral traits of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley parasitizing Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver) eggs were studied aiming to a better understanding of the Results from parasitism and super parasitism. The variables investigated were: host acceptance and contact time by T. pretiosum on parasitized host, percentage of parasitoid emergence, number of deformed individuals produced, egg-adult period, sex ratio, offspring female body size and longevity, and number of S. cerealella eggs parasitized/female. Parasitism rejection was observed on parasitized host eggs after 24, 72 and 120h of parasitism. The rejection was higher for eggs parasitized after 72h and 120h of parasitism as compared to the eggs after 24h of parasitism. T. pretiosum contact time on eggs after 24h of parasitism was greater than on 72 and 120h. The offspring produced from hosts from which a single parasitoid emerged were larger, exhibited no deformities and greater capacity of parasitism, different from those produced from eggs where two parasitoids emerged. Offspring longevity, however, was similar for females emerged from hosts from which one or two adults emerged. In Conclusion, T. pretiosum was able to recognize previously parasitized eggs and the super parasitism reduced the parasitoid.reproductive success. (author)

  7. The genetics and evolution of obligate reproductive parasitism in Trichogramma pretiosum infected with parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J E; Stouthamer, R

    2011-01-01

    Parthenogenesis-inducing (PI) Wolbachia belong to a class of intracellular symbionts that distort the offspring sex ratio of their hosts toward a female bias. In many PI Wolbachia-infected species sex ratio distortion has reached its ultimate expression-fixation of infection and all-female populations. This is only possible with thelytokous PI symbionts as they provide an alternative form of reproduction and remove the requirement for males and sexual reproduction. Many populations fixed for PI Wolbachia infection have lost the ability to reproduce sexually, even when cured of the infection. We examine one such population in the species Trichogramma pretiosum. Through a series of backcrossing experiments with an uninfected Trichogramma pretiosum population we were able to show that the genetic basis for the loss of female sexual function could be explained by a dominant nuclear effect. Male sexual function had not been completely lost, though some deterioration of male sexual function was also evident when males from the infected population (created through antibiotic curing of infected females) were mated to uninfected females. We discuss the dynamics of sex ratio selection in PI Wolbachia-infected populations and the evolution of non-fertilizing mutations. PMID:20442735

  8. The genetics and evolution of obligate reproductive parasitism in Trichogramma pretiosum infected with parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J E; Stouthamer, R

    2011-01-01

    Parthenogenesis-inducing (PI) Wolbachia belong to a class of intracellular symbionts that distort the offspring sex ratio of their hosts toward a female bias. In many PI Wolbachia-infected species sex ratio distortion has reached its ultimate expression-fixation of infection and all-female populations. This is only possible with thelytokous PI symbionts as they provide an alternative form of reproduction and remove the requirement for males and sexual reproduction. Many populations fixed for PI Wolbachia infection have lost the ability to reproduce sexually, even when cured of the infection. We examine one such population in the species Trichogramma pretiosum. Through a series of backcrossing experiments with an uninfected Trichogramma pretiosum population we were able to show that the genetic basis for the loss of female sexual function could be explained by a dominant nuclear effect. Male sexual function had not been completely lost, though some deterioration of male sexual function was also evident when males from the infected population (created through antibiotic curing of infected females) were mated to uninfected females. We discuss the dynamics of sex ratio selection in PI Wolbachia-infected populations and the evolution of non-fertilizing mutations.

  9. The potential of Mythimna sequax Franclemont eggs for the production of Trichogramma spp. after cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Fernanda Paixão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The cryopreservation of noctuid eggs in liquid nitrogen has proved be a promising tool in the mass production of Trichogramma, however studies into this technique have only just begun. This study evaluated the response of different densities of the female of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley to the parasitism of Mythimna sequax eggs stored and not stored in liquid nitrogen, and the performance of females reared only in cryopreserved eggs. The study evaluated the influence of the number of T. pretiosum females (4, 8 and 12 released to parasitise 40 M. sequax eggs, stored and not stored for 15 days in liquid nitrogen, as well as the performance of T. pretiosum females reared in eggs stored for three generations and females reared in non-stored eggs. Parasitism by T. pretiosum in stored eggs was 84%, twice the value obtained in previous studies. The emergence of parasitoids was greater than 95% in both experiments. The performance of females raised in stored eggs did not differ from that of females raised in non-stored eggs. The data show that the technique of cryopreservation of M. sequax eggs may be a viable alternative in the mass production of T. pretiosum.

  10. Seletividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do pessegueiro a Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Selectivity of pesticides used in peach orchard to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Pinheiro Giolo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A seletividade de dez formulações comerciais de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do pessegueiro foi avaliada em laboratório (25±1 ºC, UR 70±10% e fotofase de 14 horas, através da exposição de adultos de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley a resíduos secos dos produtos pulverizados sobre placas de vidro. O número de ovos parasitados por fêmea, foi mensurado e a redução no parasitismo (RP, em relação à testemunha (água, foi utilizada para classificar os compostos em: inócuos (99% RP. Os produtos fitossanitários captana, ditianona, mancozebe, metoxifenozida e óxido cuproso foram inócuos; glifosato e óleo mineral foram levemente nocivos e abamectina, cianamida e etofenproxi foram nocivos a T. pretiosum.The selectivity of ten commercial pesticide formulations used in peach orchard was evaluated in laboratory tests (25±1 ºC, RH 70±10% and 14 hours photophase by exposing the adult of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley to fresh dry pesticide film applied on glass plates. The number of eggs parasitized per adult female and the reduction in parasitism (RP compared to control (treated with water were used to measure the effect of the chemical in harmless (99% RP. The pesticides captan, copper oxide, dithianon, mancozeb and methoxyfenozide were harmless; gliphosate and mineral oil was slightly harmful and abamectin, cyanamide and etofenprox were harmful to T. pretiosum.

  11. Effects of gamma radiation on the Mediterranean flour moth eggs and acceptability of irradiated eggs by trichogramma cacoeciae females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.

    2008-12-01

    The sensitivity of the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella, eggs in different stages of development to gamma irradiation was studied and the acceptability of irradiated eggs by Trichogramma cacoeciae females was examined. In addition, the developmental rate of immature stages (larvae and pupae), resulting from irradiated eggs, to the adult stage was examined and the acceptance of irradiated eggs to T. cacoeciae females was evaluated. Results showed that the radio-sensitivity of E. kuehniella eggs decreased with increasing age. Irradiation also negatively affected survival to the adult stage and the rate of development of immature stages (larvae and pupae) to adults. In addition, the rate of development of immature stages resulting from irradiated eggs was negatively affected. Furthermore, irradiation positively affected the degree of acceptance of eggs to parasitization; irradiated eggs were more acceptable to T. cacoeciae than cold treated ones. (Author)

  12. Seletividade de inseticidas reguladores de crescimento e botânico no parasitismo de três espécies de Trichogramma em ovos de Duponchelia fovealis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

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    Renata Rodrigues

    2017-04-01

    Abstract. Duponchelia fovealis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Crambidae is an exotic moth species which has become a key pest of strawberries in Brazil, causing severe damage in leaves and fruits. Insect growth regulators and botanical insecticides are promising chemical groups to control this pest due to their selectivity to natural enemies and to their lower toxicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of five insect growth regulators and one botanical insecticide on the parasitism and emergence of three Trichogramma species on eggs of D. fovealis in the laboratory, in order to develop pest management strategies. The insecticides utilized in the tests were formulated from Diflubenzuron, Lufenuron, Pyriproxyfen, Methoxyfenozide, Tebufenozide, and Azadirachtin. D. fovealis eggs were immersed for five seconds in each of the chemical mixtures and after one-hour were offered to Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, Trichogramma exiguum Pinto & Platner,or Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner for parasitism. The insecticides were tested for their action on the parasitism and emergence of the F1 generation; the chemicals were then classified for their toxicity according to indices proposed by IOBC/WPRS. The insecticides affected parasitism and emergence differently, indicating different tolerances among the three Trichogramma species, and were classified as innocuous or slightly harmful to the three species under evaluation. However, lufenuron was moderately harmful to T. galloi and caused the highest reduction in parasitism by the parasitoid.

  13. Tabela de vida de fertilidade de Trichogramma pratissolii Querino & Zucchi, 2003 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae em hospedeiros alternativos, sob diferentes temperaturas Fertility life table of Trichogramma pratissolii Querino & Zucchi, 2003 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae in alternative hosts, under different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Bolsoni Zago

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A espécie, Trichogramma pratissolii Querino & Zucchi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae foi recentemente coletada em plantios de abacate, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae, e pode representar uma alternativa no controle biológico de lepidópteros pragas dessa cultura. Assim, objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar o desempenho de T. pratissolii criado em ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae e Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae,sob diferentes temperaturas utilizando tabelas de vida de fertilidade. A criação de A. kuehniella foi mantida com dieta à base de farinha de trigo integral, milho e levedura de cerveja, enquanto para C. cephalonica foi utilizada dieta à base de farelo de arroz, levedura de cerveja e açúcar. T. pratissolii foi criado nos hospedeiros, utilizando-se a técnica de colagem de ovos em cartolina azul. Foram determinadas a duração média da geração (T, taxa líquida de reprodução (Ro, razão infinitesimal de aumento (r m e razão infinita de aumento (λ para as temperaturas de 15; 21; 24; 27; 30 e 33 ±1ºC, com 70±10% de umidade relativa e fotofase de 14 horas. A melhor condição térmica para desenvolvimento de T. pratissolii em A. kuehniella e C. cephalonica foi a 27ºC, enquanto o melhor hospedeiro nessa temperatura é C. cephalonica.The specie, Trichogramma pratissolii Querino & Zucchi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae was recently collected in avocado plantations, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae, and therefore might be an alternative biological control agent for lepidopteran pests in this crop. Thus, this work evaluated the performance of T. pratissolii parasitizing eggs of Anagasta kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae and Corcyra cephalonica Stainton (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, under different temperature regimes through fertility life table method. The host A. kuehniella was reared using diet constituted of whole wheat meal, corn meal and yeast, while C. cephalonica was

  14. Efeito residual de inseticidas sintéticos sobre Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hym., Trichogrammatidae em diferentes gerações = Residual effect of synthetic insecticides on Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hym., Trichogrammatidae in different generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Fonseca Moscardini

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a ação residual dos produtos etofemprox, fenitrotiom, metidatiom e triclorfom sobre adultos de Trichogramma pretiosum, bem como sobre as gerações F1 e F2 desse parasitóide, em condições de laboratório. Ovos do hospedeiro alternativo Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller (Lep., Pyralidae foram aderidos em cartelas de cartolina azul, inviabilizados sob lâmpada germicida e tratados por imersão nas soluções inseticidas e em água destilada (testemunha por cinco segundos. Os ovos foram expostos ao parasitismo uma, 24 e 48 horas após o tratamento, por um período de 24 horas, e posteriormente mantidos em câmara climatizada a 24±1ºC, UR de 70±10% e 12 horas de fotofase até a emergência dos parasitóides. Etofemprox, fenitrotiom e metidatiom são prejudiciais a T. pretiosum, enquanto triclorfom é seletivo e pode ser utilizado em associação com esse parasitóide no controle de pragas da cultura do algodoeiro.This work aimed to evaluate the residual effects of the pesticides etofenprox, fenitrothion, methidathion and trichlorfon on adults of Trichogramma pretiosum, as well as on F1 and F2 generations of thisparasitoid species, under laboratory conditions. Eggs of the factitious host Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller (Lep., Pyralidae were glued to blue paper cards, UV-killed and treated by dippingin the aqueous solutions of the pesticides and in distilled water (control during five seconds. Then, the eggs were exposed to parasitization 1, 24 and 48 hours after the treatment, during a period of 24 hours. Afterwards, the eggs were maintained undercontrolled conditions at 24±1oC, RH of 70±10% and 12 hour-photophase, until the emergence of parasitoids. Etofenprox, fenitrothion and methidathion are toxic to T. pretiosum, whereas trichlorfon is selective and can be used together with this parasitoid species to control cotton pests.

  15. Seletividade de agrotóxicos usados na produção integrada de maçã para adultos de Trichogramma pretiosum Side effects of pesticides used in integrated production of apple in adults of Trichogramma pretiosum

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    Cristiane Gindri Manzoni

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a seletividade de 12 agrotóxicos usados na produção integrada de maçã, em laboratório (temperatura 25±1ºC, umidade relativa 70±10% e fotófase de 14 horas, tendo-se exposto adultos de Trichogramma pretiosum a resíduos secos dos agrotóxicos, na máxima dosagem recomendada para uso em campo, e tendo-se posteriormente mensurado o número de ovos parasitados por fêmea. Reduções no parasitismo, em relação à testemunha (água, foram utilizadas para classificar os agrotóxicos em inócuo (99%. Foram inócuos os acaricidas Envidor (espirodiclofeno, Kendo 50 SC (fenpiroximato e Ortus 50 SC (fenpiroximato, os fungicidas Antracol 700 PM (propinebe, Midas BR (famoxadona + mancozebe, Palisade (fluquinconazol, Persist SC (mancozebe e Systhane PM (miclobutanil e o inseticida Mimic 240 SC (tebufenozida; o herbicida Polaris (glifosato foi levemente nocivo; os herbicidas Finale (glufosinato sal de amônio e Roundup Original (glifosato foram moderadamente nocivos a T. pretiosum.The objective of this work was to evaluate the side effects of 12 pesticides used in the integrated production of apple, in laboratory (25±1ºC temperature, 70±10% relative humidity and 14 hours photophase, exposing adults of Trichogramma pretiosum to fresh dry pesticide film, in the maximum dosage recommended for field use, with subsequent assessement of the number of eggs parasitized per female. The reduction in the parasitism, compared with the control (water, was used to classify the pesticides as harmless (99%. The acaricides Envidor (spirodiclofen, Kendo 50 SC (fenpyroximate and Ortus 50 SC (fenpyroximate, the fungicides Antracol 700 PM (propineb, Midas BR (famoxadone + mancozeb, Palisade (fluquinconazole, Persist SC (mancozeb and Systhane PM (myclobutanil and the insecticide Mimic 240 SC (tebufenozide were harmless; the herbicide Polaris (glyphosate was slightly harmful; the herbicides Finale (gluphosinate-ammonium and Roundup

  16. Effects of pesticides used in soybean crops to the egg parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum Efeitos dos agroquímicos utilizados na cultura da soja ao parasitóide de ovos Trichogramma pretiosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeney de Freitas Bueno

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the effects of different insecticides, herbicides and fungicides on eggs, larvae and pupae of Trichogramma pretiosum. The results showed that studied pesticides had different impact on T. pretiosum. Esfenvalerate 7.5 and spinosad 24.0 grams ha-1 were classified as harmfull (class 4 while clorfluazuron 10.0, methoxyfenozide 19.2, lactofen 165.0, fomesafen 250.0, fluazifop 125.0, glyphosate 960.0 (Gliz® and Roundup Transorb®, azoxistrobin + ciproconazol 60.0 + 24.0, azoxistrobin 50.0 and myclobutanil 125.0 grams ha-1 were chemicals classified as harmless to all imature T. pretiosum stages. All the other chemicals evaluated had different impact on T. pretiosum being classified from harmless (class 1 to harmful (class 4 varying the impact accordingly to the different parasitoid stage. Then, less noxious products should be chosen whenever possible to be used in a soybean IPM program.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar os efeitos de diferentes inseticidas, herbicidas e fungicidas em ovos, larvas e pupas de Trichogramma pretiosum. Os resultados mostraram que os pesticidas estudados tiveram efeitos diferentes sobre T. pretiosum. Esfenvalerato 7,5 e espinosade 24,0 gramas ha-1 foram classificados como nocivos (classe 4, enquanto que clorfluazurom 10,0, metoxifenozida 19,2, lactofem 165,0, fomesafem 250,0, fluazifope 125,0, glifosato 960,0 (Gliz® e Roundup Transorb®, azoxistrobina + ciproconazole 60,0 + 24,0, azoxistrobina 50,0 e miclobutanil 125,0 gramas ha-1 foram classificados como seletivos (classe 1 para todas as fases imaturas de T. pretiosum. Todos os demais agroquímicos avaliados tiveram diferentes efeitos em T. pretiosum, sendo classificados de seletivo (classe 1 a nocivo (classe 4, variando o impacto de acordo com as diferentes fases do parasitóide. Portanto, produtos menos nocivos aos inimigos naturais devem ser escolhidos, sempre que possível, para serem usados em um programa de MIP-soja.

  17. Effect of host availability and egg load in Trichogramma platneri Nagarkatti (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae and its consequences on progeny quality

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    Celso L. Hohmann

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted to determine whether Trichogramma platneri Nagarkatti manifested a somatic-gametic trade-off and whether it was affected by host availability and host size. Large wasps produced on Trichoplusia ni Hübner and limited to five or 15 T. ni eggs daily, produced a similar number of progeny as wasps offered hosts from emergence. Similar results were obtained when they were deprived of T. ni eggs for one, three, five, or ten days and then provided with unlimited hosts daily until death. In contrast, small wasps produced from Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier and deprived of T. ni eggs for one to three days suffered a significant reduction in progeny production. Regardless of size, the egg load of non-ovipositing wasps increased significantly with time and a positive relationship existed between the life span of a female and the length of time she was deprived of hosts.Experimentos foram conduzidos para determinar se fêmeas de Trichogramma platneri Nagarkatti (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae têm a habilidade de direcionar a alocação de recursos (reprodução/longevidade e se esse comportamento é afetado pela disponibilidade e pelo tamanho dos hospedeiros. Fêmeas de parasitóides grandes, oriundas de ovos de Trichoplusia ni Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, expostas a cinco ou 15 ovos de T. ni, diariamente, produziram número similar de descendentes que aquelas fêmeas que tiveram acesso a número ilimitado de hospedeiros desde a emergência. Resultados similares foram obtidos quando elas foram mantidas temporariamente sem ovos de T. ni durante um, três, cinco ou dez dias, e então providas com um suplemento ilimitado de hospedeiros. Contrariamente, fêmeas pequenas, oriundas de ovos de Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, mantidas temporariamente sem ovos de T. ni durante um período de um a três dias, apresentaram uma redução significativa no número de descendentes produzidos. Independentemente do

  18. Parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) reared under different temperatures on Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs; Capacidade de parasitismo de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) em ovos de Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) sob diferentes temperaturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastori, Patrik L. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Setor de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Zoologia]. E-mail: plpastori@yahoo.com.br; Monteiro, Lino B. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Setor de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Fitotecnia e Fitossanitarismo]. E-mail: lbmonteiro@terra.com.br; Botton, Marcos [EMBRAPA, Bento Goncalves, RS (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa Uva e Vinho]. E-mail: marcos@cnpuv.embrapa.br; Pratissoli, Dirceu [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Alegre, ES (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Producao Vegetal). E-mail: pratissoli@cca.ufes.br

    2007-11-15

    The parasitism capacity of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley strain bonagota on Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) eggs was studied under the temperatures of 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30 and 32 deg C. The number of days with parasitism, accumulated parasitism, total number of eggs parasitized per female and parasitoid longevity was evaluated. In the first 24h, parasitism ranged from 1.6 (32 deg C) to 8.8 (22 deg C) eggs of B. salubricola. Accumulated egg parasitism of B. salubricola reached 80% in 1st to 4th day at 20 deg C to 32 deg C, respectively, and in the 7th day at 18 deg C. Temperatures from 18 deg C to 22 deg C were the best suited for the total eggs parasitized for female, resulting in 35.4 and 24.6 eggs/male respectively. T. pretiosum female longevity ranged from 7.8 to 2.5 days, at 18 deg C and 32 deg C, respectively. The results showed that T. pretiosum strain bonagota is better adapted to temperatures from 18 deg C to 22 deg C. (author)

  19. Selection of Trichogramma strains and determination of number of parasitoids to be released to control Gymnandrosoma aurantianum Lima (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae); Selecao de linhagens de Trichogramma (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae) e determinacao do numero de parasitoides a ser liberado para o controle de Gymnandrosoma aurantianum Lima (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Rosa Maria da Silva; Parra, Jose Roberto Postali [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola], e-mail: rmsmolina@ig.com.br, e-mail: jrpparra@esalq.usp.br

    2006-12-15

    In order to select Trichogramma strains to control G. aurantianum, the biological characteristics of 13 Trichogramma species/strains were evaluated. After selection, the ideal number of T. pretiosum (G18 strain) to be released per G. aurantianum egg was determined in greenhouse tests. The selection test for species/strains was carried out in an incubator adjusted to 25 +- 1 deg C, RH 70 +- 10%, and a 14 h photo phase. The ideal number of parasitoids was estimated in cages covered with a piece of voile-type fabric. The cycle duration for the 13 Trichogramma species/strains varied from 10.2 to 11.9 days. The Atp strain (T. atopovirilia) showed greater parasitism capacity, with an average of 23.3 parasitized eggs and 77.5% parasitism in 24 hours. The G18 strain (T. pretiosum) came next, with an average of 16.8 parasitized eggs and 56.1% parasitism during the same time interval. The emergency, longevity of males, and sex ratio for the 13 species/strains were similar. The number of adults emerged per egg was 1.8 for strains G11 (T. pretiosum) and Br10 (T. bruni), which were different from the G3 strain (T. pretiosum) only, with 1.3 adults per egg. With regard to female longevity, distinct values were observed only between T. pretiosum strains Tp and L2, with 6.3 and 9.3 days, respectively. Under greenhouse conditions, the estimated ratio of 36 T. pretiosum parasitoids per G. aurantianum egg allowed the highest percentage of parasitism (89%). Therefore, Trichogramma spp. has a potential to control G. aurantianum, as long as a large number of parasitoids is released per unit area. (author)

  20. Efeito da ausência de hospedeiro e de alimento sobre aspectos biológicos de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i3.1540 Effect of the absence of host and of food on biological aspects of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i3.1540

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    Ulysses Rodrigues Vianna

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O potencial de uso de parasitóides do gênero Trichogramma é grande para vários insetos-praga de importância agrícola. No entanto, aspectos biológicos, como a capacidade de parasitismo, a viabilidade e a razão sexual, são dependentes da disponibilidade de hospedeiro e do suprimento alimentar. Por esta razão, objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o efeito da ausência de alimento e do hospedeiro alternativo Sitotroga cerealella Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, em diferentes intervalos de tempo, sobre aspectos biológicos de três linhagens de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae. As linhagens alimentadas parasitaram até 96 horas, e quando não foram alimentadas as linhagens um, dois e três de T. pretiosum parasitaram até às 60, 84 e 72 horas, respectivamente. Esses resultados indicam que o estresse alimentar afeta a capacidade de parasitismo de T. pretiosum após um período de ausência do hospedeiroThe use potential of Trichogramma genus parasitoids is huge for several insect-pests of agricultural importance. However, some biological aspects, such as parasitism capacity, viability and sexual ratio are dependent of the host availability and of food supply. This work evaluated the effect of food absence and of alternative host Sitotroga cerealella Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, absence, in different time intervals, over biological aspects of three Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae strains. The fed strains sponged up to 96 hours, and when the strains were not fed one, two and three of T. pretiosum sponged for 60, 84 and 72 hours, respectively. The results indicate that alimentary stress affects the parasitism capacity of T. pretiosum, after a period of host absence

  1. Effect of ionizing (gamma and non-ionizing (UV radiation on the development of Trichogramma euproctidis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    Tuncbilek Aydin S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of using gamma and ultraviolet radiation as an alternative treatment to increase the efficiency of Trichogramma euproctidis (Girault 1911 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae was investigated in the laboratory. The developmental and adult stages of T. euproctidis were exposed to gamma radiation of different doses (0-30 Gy and ultraviolet radiation of 254 nm wavelengths (UV-C for different durations (0-10 min to assess their effect on each of the instars and their potential in breaking the developmental cycle of the egg parasitoid. The LD50 values for eggs, prepupae, pupae and adults were 8.1, 10.0, 22.7 and 9.5 Gy for gamma radiation and 9.5, 0.12, 2.0 and 11.9 min for UV radiation, respectively. The pupa and adult stages were more radioresistant to both gamma and UV radiation. The most interesting and unexpected result obtained for the prepupal stage was that UV radiation has a greater effect on prepupal stages than gamma radiation.

  2. Sensory and immune genes identification and analysis in a widely used parasitoid wasp Trichogramma dendrolimi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Su-Fang; Kong, Xiang-Bo; Wang, Hong-Bin; Zhou, Gang; Yu, Jin-Xiu; Liu, Fu; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-06-01

    Trichogramma dendrolimi Matsumura (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is one of the preponderant egg parasitoids of Dendrolimus spp., which are important defoliators of coniferous forests. This parasitoid wasp has been widely released to control pine caterpillar and other lepidopteran pests, but its control efficiency needs to be improved. Sensory systems are crucial for T. dendrolimi to locate hosts, and immunity is probably involved after egg deposition in the host cavity; however, few reports have focused on the molecular mechanism of olfactory detection and survival of T. dendrolimi. It is necessary to identify these genes before further functional research is conducted. In this study, we assembled and analyzed the transcriptome of T. dendrolimi using next-generation sequencing technology. The sequencing and assembly resulted in 38 565 contigs with N50 of 3422 bp. Sequence comparison indicate that T. dendrolimi sequences are very similar to those of another parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis. Then the olfactory, vision, and immune-related gene families were identified, and phylogenetic analyses were performed with these genes from T. dendrolimi and other model insect species. Furthermore, phylogenetic tree with odorant binding proteins of T. dendrolimi and their host Dendrolimus was constructed to determine whether convergent evolution exists. These genes can be valid targets for further gene function research. The present study may help us to understand host location and survival mechanisms of T. dendrolimi and to use them more efficiently for pest control in the future. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  3. Effect of pesticides on Colpoclypeus florus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Trichogramma platneri (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), parasitoids of leafrollers in Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, J F; Dunley, J E; Doerr, M D; Beers, E H

    2001-10-01

    Pesticides were evaluated for their effect on two parasitoid species, Colpoclypeus flouts and Trichogramma platneri, that are potential biological control agents of leafrollers in apple orchards. Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides were highly toxic to both parasitoids in topical applications, but foliar residues of some products were nontoxic after 7 d. At reduced rates, topically applied pyrethroids were low in toxicity to C. florus were highly toxic to T. platneri, and foliar residues were nontoxic after about 7 d. Imidacloprid and abamectin were highly toxic when applied topically to both parasitoids but were not toxic as 1-d-old residues. Insect growth regulators did not cause mortality either as topical applications or residues; however, diflubenzuron caused severe sublethal effects, completely blocking the production of C. florus offspring. Biorational pesticides, such as soap, oil, and B. thuringiensis products, caused no toxicity to C. florus but had a direct impact on T. platneri as topical applications through physical immobilization. The potential to integrate different pesticides with biological control of leafrollers and the need for a step-wise approach to evaluate the impact of pesticides against natural enemies is discussed.

  4. EFEITO DA TEMPERATURA NO PARASITISMO DE Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 SOBRE OVOS DE Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier, 1819

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    INOUE M.S.R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da temperatura no parasitismo de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 sobre ovos de Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier, 1819, para sua utilização em criações massais e/ou para o controle biológico desta traça de grãos armazenados. Os parasitóides foram mantidos sob as temperaturas de 18, 20, 22, 25, 30 e 32°C, durante 48 horas, com umidade relativa de 60±10% e fotofase de 14 horas, em todas as condições. O parasitismo foi avaliado pela contagem do número de ovos pretos (característica do parasitismo e pelo número de parasitóides emergidos. As altas temperaturas foram favoráveis ao desempenho de T. pretiosum que, a 30°C teve 97,6% das fêmeas parasitando, com uma média de 18,8 ovos parasitados em 48 horas e com uma viabilidade de 88,5%.

  5. Biologia, Seleção e Avaliação de Linhagens de Trichogramma spp. para o Controle da Lagarta-da-Espiga em Milho Semente

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    Josemar Foresti

    2012-03-01

    Abstract. The objective was to study the biology of Trichogramma spp. in eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller and Helicoverpa zea (Boddie, select and evaluate a strain of the parasitoid to control of H. zea in corn seed. In the biology study was offered eggs of the natural and alternative host to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner. To verify the potential of parasitism were offered 40 eggs of both hosts per parasitoid. In greenhouse, a study was conducted to determine the optimal number of parasitoids to be released by egg of H. zea. It was established 60 eggs of H. zea and varied the number of parasitoids. In the field were evaluated of parasitism with the release of 100, 200, 400 and 800 thousand parasitoids per hectare, chemical control and treatment without released and insecticide. In the biology study, the duration of egg – adult period and sex ratio of parasitoids were similar in the two hosts. The number of parasitoids generated per egg of A. kuehniella and H. zea varied from 1.10 to 1.20 and from 2.22 to 2.67, respectively. The capacity of parasitism of T. pretiosum female was 93.70 and 82.75 eggs of A. kuehniella and H. zea, respectively. In greenhouse, the percentage of parasitism of T. pretiosum had established when released 5.33 parasitoids per egg of H. zea. In field, the greater efficiency of control occurred where released 100 thousand parasitoids per hectare in four seasons from the observation of early infestation of H. zea.

  6. Seletividade de formulações de glyphosate aplicado nos estádios imaturos de Trichogramma pretiosum Selectivity of glyphosate formulations applied on immature stages of Trichogramma Pretiosum

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    S.D. Nörnberg

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A seletividade de oito formulações comerciais de glyphosate registradas no Brasil (Roundup®, Roundup® WG, Roundup® Transorb, Polaris®, Gliz® 480 CS, Glifosato Nortox®, Glifosato 480 Agripec® e Zapp® Qi foi avaliada sobre os estádios imaturos do parasitóide de ovos Trichogramma pretiosum, bem como seus efeitos sobre os adultos emergidos, em condições de laboratório (temperatura de 25±1 ºC, umidade relativa de 70±10%, fotofase de 14h e luminosidade de 500 lux. Os bioensaios consistiram na pulverização da calda herbicida, na concentração de 14,4 mg L-1 de equivalente ácido de glyphosate, sobre ovos de Anagasta kuehniella contendo em seu interior o parasitóide nos estádios imaturos de ovo-larva, pré-pupa e pupa. Reduções na emergência de adultos em relação à testemunha foram utilizadas para mensurar os efeitos dos tratamentos. Aos adultos do parasitóide emergidos de pupas pulverizadas foram ofertados ovos do hospedeiro A. kuehniella, sendo avaliado o parasitismo de T. pretiosum de cada tratamento em relação à testemunha. Não houve efeito deletério significativo para nenhum dos herbicidas avaliados quando pulverizados sobre os diferentes estádios imaturos de desenvolvimento de T. pretiosum, de acordo com a IOBC. De forma similar, o parasitismo de adultos emergidos de ovos pulverizados na fase de pupa também não foi afetado.The selectivity of eight commercial herbicide products with glyphosate formulations (Roundup®, Roundup® WG, Roundup® Transorb, Polaris®, Gliz® 480 CS, Glifosato Nortox®, Glifosato 480 Agripec® and Zapp® Qi registered in Brazil, was assessed in relation to the immature stages of the egg-parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum, as well as to their effects on the emerged adults, under laboratory conditions (temperature 25±1 °C, relative humidity 70±10%; photophase 14 hours and brightness 500 lux. The bioassays consisted of herbicide spray at the concentration of 14.4 mg L-1 of equivalent

  7. Influência do Fotoperíodo no Parasitismo de Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae em Ovos de Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

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    Danilo Santana

    2013-07-01

    Abstract. Trichogramma species are an important group of parasitoids that attack especially lepidopteran eggs. The quality and performance of this natural enemy may be influenced by factors such as alternative host used in the massal rearing, and differences in the temperature and photoperiod. Based on this, this study aimed to evaluate the number of parasitized eggs, % of females that parasitized, % emergence, sex ratio and number of individuals of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi per egg of Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius in the presence and absence of light. The experimental design was completely randomized with two treatments (light and dark and 60 replications, being each experimental unit composed by 40 eggs of D. saccharalis which were placed in a glass tube with one female of T. galloi with age of 24 hours, previously fed with honey. The experiment was carried out at 25 ± 2 °C and 70 ± 10% relative humidity. In each one of the treatments, the parasitoid was removed from the tube after 12 hours. The highest number of parasitized eggs (12.9 and % of females that parasitized (83.3% was observed during the period with light. For the emergence, sex ratio and number of individuals per egg, there was no statistical difference. The results showed that the presence of light is essential for this biological control agent.

  8. Seletividade de inseticidas, recomendados para cucurbitáceas para Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae em condições de laboratório

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    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available As brocas-das-cucurbitáceas Diaphania spp. são as principais pragas das cucurbitáceas, podendo ocasionar perdas de até 100% na produção. A fim de reduzir o uso de inseticidas, o controle biológico, aplicado com parasitoides do gênero Trichogramma, tem-se destacado. Objetivou-se avaliar a seletividade dos ingredientes ativos abamectina, tiacloprido e clorfenapir, para Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae. Para isso, 20 fêmeas recém-emergidas de T. atopovirilla foram individualizadas, em tubos de vidro (2,5 cm de diâmetro x 8,5 cm de comprimento, e oferecidas cartelas com 30 ovos de Diaphania hyalinata (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, previamente imersas por cinco segundos em calda química. Os ingredientes ativos abamectina, tiacloprido e clorfenapir não afetaram o parasitismo de T. atopovirilia. Clorfenapir reduziu a emergência. Abamectina e tiacloprido são os mais recomendados no manejo integrado de pragas, pois foram os que se mostraram mais seletivos a T. atopovirilia em ovos de D. hyalinata.

  9. Operational considerations for augmentation of Trichogramma exiguum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) for suppression of Rhyacionia frustrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Pinus taeda plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Michael M; Orr, David B

    2008-04-01

    Studies were performed to assess the operational feasibility of Trichogramma exiguum Pinto & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) augmentation for suppression of the Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in commercial loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., plantations. Single inundative releases containing two cohorts of encapsulated T. exiguum at a potential rate of 224,200 +/- 27,600 females per ha per cohort were made into two 4-ha plots during the second R. frustrana generation in 2000. Augmentation failed to increase parasitism rates above those occurring naturally; yet, 10% fewer shoots were attacked by R. frustrana, but not below acceptable levels. Quality control data suggest that low emergence levels and intense predation by ants upon developing T. exiguum lowered actual release rates to 13,000 +/- 900 females per ha per cohort. The effect of capsule distribution and microclimate on the discovery of capsules by predators (indicated by some E. kuehniella egg removal), parasitoid predation (percentage of eggs removed or destroyed), and subsequent parasitoid emergence was investigated. Uniformly distributed capsules experienced significantly higher predation levels than clustered capsules, and capsules exposed to field conditions for 5 d experienced higher predation than those exposed for 3 d, independently of distribution. Discovery of capsules by predators was unaffected by distribution or exposure period. Microhabitat significantly impacted average maximum daily temperature, the number of consecutive hours per day at or above 35 degrees C, and parasitoid emergence percentages. Parasitoid emergence declined significantly in response to increasing number of consecutive hours per day above 35 degrees C. Microclimate did not impact capsule discovery by predators or predation levels. Augmentation of T. exiguum for suppression of R. frustrana damage may not be practical within P. taeda plantations.

  10. Biologia e exigências térmicas de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae sobre ovos de Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae Biology and thermal requirements of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae on eggs of Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

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    Regina da Silva Borba

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a biologia de Trichogramma em laboratório, visando a sua utilização em programas de manejo integrado para o controle de Bonagota cranaodes na cultura da macieira. A biologia de Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja e de duas linhagens (L3 e L4 de Trichogramma pretiosum foi realizada sobre ovos de B. cranaodes. Além disso, suas exigências térmicas e o número anual de gerações também foram determinados. A linhagem L3 apresentou maior parasitismo (52,3%, no entanto, a viabilidade foi semelhante entre as linhagens estudadas, com ciclo evolutivo de 8,7 dias, longevidade de fêmeas de 10,65 dias, temperatura base de 11,35°C e constante térmica de 128,70GD. O número de gerações anuais dessa linhagem em laboratório foi de 47,22 e de 13,59 gerações para as condições da região de Vacaria - RS. O baixo parasitismo de T. bruni e da linhagem L4 de T. pretiosum pode estar ligado à camada de secreção existente sobre as posturas da praga. Embora este parasitismo seja considerado baixo, a utilização destas linhagens não pode ser descartada dentro do sistema de Produção Integrada da Maçã, devendo novos estudos serem realizados em condições de campo.This work was aimed at studyng the biology of Trichogramma in laboratory, in search of its use in integrated management programs to control Bonagota cranaodes in culture of the apple. The biology of Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja and of two lineages (L3 and L4 of Trichogramma pretiosum on eggs of B. cranaodes was done such their thermal demands and annual number of generations. The line L3 presented more parasitism (52.3%, however, the feseability was similar among the lineages studied; with biological cycle of 8.7 days; the longevity of females was 10.65 days; low threshold temperature of 11.35°C and thermal requirement of 128.70 GD, the number of annual generations this line in laboratory was 47.22 and 13.59 for Vacaria-RS climate conditions. The low

  11. Características biológicas de linhagens de Trichogramma pretiosum, criados em ovos de Sitotroga cerealella e Anagasta kuehniella Biological characteristics of Trichogramma pretiosum lineages, reared in Anagasta kuehniella and Sitotroga cerealella eggs

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    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as características biológicas de cinco linhagens de T. pretiosum Riley (Hym.:Trichogrammatidae, coletadas em plantios comerciais de tomate, e criados em ovos de A. kuehniella (Zeller e S. cerealella (Olivier. A taxa de parasitismo das cinco linhagens variou de 56,1 a 68,6%, quando o hospedeiro foi A. kuehniella, sendo superior à do hospedeiro S. cerealella. A viabilidade de todas as linhagens, quando criadas em ovos de S. cerealella, foi superior a 90%; no entanto, somente nas linhagens provenientes de Afonso Cláudio e Venda Nova do Imigrante é que a viabilidade das linhagens de Trichogramma criadas em ovos de S. cerealella, foram significativamente maiores que as criadas sobre A. kuehniella. A longevidade dos descendentes submetidos ao parasitismo foi superior para todas as linhagens quando criadas em ovos de A. kuehniella. Ambos os hospedeiros podem ser empregados na criação massal das cinco linhagens estudadas. Contudo, tomando-se por base a taxa de parasitismo e a qualidade da progênie, o hospedeiro A. kuehniella demonstrou ser superior a S. cerealella.The biological characteristics of five lineages of T. pretiosum Riley (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae, collected from tomato crops, and reared in A. kuehniella (Zeller and S. cerealella (Olivier eggs were evaluated. The parasitism rate of the lineages, varied from 56,1 to 68.6%, when the host was A. kuehniella, being higher than for S. cerealella. The viability of all lineages, when reared in S. cerealella eggs, was superior to 90%; however, only those lineages reared in S. cerealella eggs and collected in Afonso Cláudio and Venda Nova dos Imigrantes (Espirito Santo State, Brazil were significantly higher than those reared on A. kuehniella. The longevity of the offspring submitted to the parasitism, was higher in all the lineages reared in A. kuehniella eggs. All five lineages can be mass reared using both hosts. However, considering the parasitism rate and the quality of the

  12. Influence of Atlantic Rain Forest remnants on the biological control of Euselasia apisaon (Dahman) (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) by Trichogramma maxacalii (Voegele and Pointel) (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae); Efeitos de remanescentes de Mata Atlantica no controle biologico de Euselasia apisaon (Dahman) (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) por Trichogramma maxacalii (Voegele e Pointel) (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murta, Aline F.; Ker, Fabricio T.O.; Costa, Dalbert B. [Centro Universitario do Leste de Minas Gerais (UnilesteMG), Coronel Fabriciano, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Controle Biologico de Pragas; Espirito-Santo, Mario M.; Faria, Mauricio L. [Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros, MG (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude. Dept. de Biologia Geral

    2008-03-15

    This study evaluated the effects of Atlantic Rain Forest remnants on the natural biological control of Euselasia apisaon (Dahman) by the parasitoid Trichogramma maxacalii (Voegele and Pointel) in Eucalyptus plantations. The number of E. apisaon eggs/leaf was higher in the center than in the edge of the plantations (23.5 {+-} 7.61 vs. 14.8 {+-} 3.14), but parasitism showed the reversed pattern (72.4% in the center and 80.5% in the edge). The results indicated that natural regulation exerted by T. maxacalii on populations of E. apisaon may be enhanced by the preservation of fragments of native vegetation surrounding Eucalyptus plantations. (author)

  13. Persistência de herbicidas dessecantes aplicados em milho transgênico sobre Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    Rafael Antonio Pasini

    Full Text Available RESUMO O milho é um dos cereais mais cultivados no mundo e para a obtenção de altas produtividades é imprescindível o controle adequado das plantas daninhas. Contudo, a utilização de herbicidas pode comprometer os efeitos benéficos da ação dos inimigos naturais, entre eles o parasitoide de ovos Trichogramma pretiosum. O objetivo deste trabalho, foi estimar a duração da atividade nociva de herbicidas dessecantes aplicados em milho transgênico ao parasitoide T. pretiosum através de testes de persistência. Foram realizados bioensaios em laboratório, expondo-se os adultos do parasitoide aos resíduos dos herbicidas, utilizando-se as metodologias propostas pela "International Organization for Biological Control of Noxious Animals and Plants" (IOBC. Os herbicidas foram pulverizados sobre as folhas das plantas de milho transgênico, que foram levadas ao laboratório para a confecção de gaiolas de exposição, onde adultos de T. pretiosum foram expostos aos 3; 10; 17; 24 e 31 dias após esta aplicação. Foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições para cada tratamento. A redução do parasitismo em relação à testemunha foi utilizada para classificar os agrotóxicos quanto à seletividade e, posteriormente quanto à persistência. Os herbicidas dessecantes à base de sal de isopropilamina (Glifosato® Atanor 48, Gli-Up® 480 SL, Roundup® Original, Roundup® Transorb, Roundup® WG, Shadow® 480 SL, Stinger® e Trop®, sal de potássio (Zapp® Qi 620 e de sal de amônio (Finale® foram considerados de vida curta, tendo menos de cinco dias de atividade nociva sobre o parasitoide. Assim, liberações inundativas de T. pretiosum podem ser realizadas aos três dias após pulverização destes herbicidas dessecantes.

  14. Seletividade de agrotóxicos usados na produção integrada de maçã para adultos de Trichogramma pretiosum.

    OpenAIRE

    MANZONI, C.G.; GRÜTZMACHER, A.D.; GIOLO, F.P.; HÄRTER, W. da R.; MÜLLER, C.

    2007-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a seletividade de 12 agrotóxicos usados na produção integrada de maçã, em laboratório (temperatura 25±1ºC, umidade relativa 70±10% e fotófase de 14 horas), tendo-se exposto adultos de Trichogramma pretiosum a resíduos secos dos agrotóxicos, na máxima dosagem recomendada para uso em campo, e tendo-se posteriormente mensurado o número de ovos parasitados por fêmea. Reduções no parasitismo, em relação à testemunha (água), foram utilizadas para classific...

  15. Tabela de Esperança de Vida de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley em Ovos de Trichoplusia ni Hübner em Diferentes Condicionamentos Térmicos

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    José de Carvalho

    2012-11-01

    Table of life Expectancy of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley in Eggs of Trichoplusia ni Hübner Different Thermal Conditioning Abstract. The objective of this work was to study the influence of temperature on demographic parameters of the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae reared on eggs of cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in conditions the laboratory. To this end, we made sky blue cards containing eggs of T. ni that were offered to the parasitism of T. pretiosum for 24 hours at temperatures of 18, 21, 24, 27, 30 and 33 °C. After this period, the parasitoids were removed and kept the cards in the same thermal constraints to the emergence of offspring. From the emergence of offspring, females of T. pretiosum were individually placed in Eppendorf tubes being fed honey and kept at temperatures of origin. The duration of egg-adult period and female longevity were strongly influenced by thermal regime, being opposite to its increase (16.5 to 4.5 days, for the duration of egg-adult period; and 11.9 to 5.5 days, for and female longevity. The percentage of emergence of offspring, number of offspring per egg and sex ratio were not influenced statistically significant. The survival (Lx of T. pretiosum was more influenced at temperatures 27, 30 and 33 ° C. Life expectancy of adults (ex was higher in lower temperatures (18, 21 and 24 ° C, being verified, on average, life expectancy of 32, 28 and 26 days, respectively. Thus it was found that the temperature can be the limiting factor for the development and survival of T. pretiosum in biological control programs of T. ni.

  16. Herbicidas e Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas Utilizados na Cana-de-Açúcar e sua Ação sobre Adultos de Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    Marina Antigo

    2016-04-01

    Herbicides and Plant Growth Regulators Used in SUGARCANE and their Action on Adult Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Abstract. During crop sugarcane management, several used pesticides can affect the performance of parasitoids, natural enemies of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharallis (Fabricius and consequently the biological control ofit. Thus, the objective was to evaluate in laboratory the effect of herbicides and plant growth regulators used in the sugarcane crops on survival and parasitism in adults of the eggs parasitoids, Trichogramma galloi Zucchi. The products tested were the herbicides Clomazone and Diuron + Hexazinone, and the plant regulators Sulfometuron-methyl and Trinexapac-ethyl, all in the higher recommended dosages for sugarcane. The eggs of D. saccharalis were immersed during 5 seconds in chemical solutions and, after dry for 1 hour, offered to T. galloi females with 20 repetitions. We evaluated the mortality and number of eggs parasitized by the F0 generation of T. galloi, as well as the emergence of the F1. The products were classified by their toxicity, according to the percentage of reduction in the survival, parasitism and emergence of the parasitoid. In relation to the survival of adult T. galloi, the number of eggs parasitized by F0 as well as the percentage of F1 emergence, clomazone and trinexapac-ethyl were classified as slightly harmful. Diuron+hexazinone and sulfometuron-methyl were harmless in all parameters, except for parasitism, where diuron+hexazinone was classified as slightly harmful. We conclude that clomazone, diuron+hexazinone, trinexapac-ethyl and sulfometuron-methyl, are harmless or slightly harmful the survival and parasitism (F0 of T. galloi adults and emergence (F1 of this parasitoid in the laboratory.

  17. Thermal requirements of Trichogramma pretiosum and T. acacioi (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae, parasitoids of the avocado defoliator Nipteria panacea (Lep.: Geometridae, in eggs of two alternative hosts

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    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the thermal requirements of Trichogramma pretiosum and T. acacioi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, parasitoids of Nipteria panacea (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, with eggs of the alternative hosts Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae and Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae aiming to use these natural enemies in biological control programs of this pest in avocado orchards. T. pretiosum needed 151.83 and 160.04 degree-days, above threshold of 10.70 and 10.75°C, while these values were 158.50 and 155.46 degree-days, above threshold of 10.67 and 10.46°C for T. acacioi when exposed to eggs of A. kuehniella and S. cerealella, respectively.O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar as exigências térmicas de Trichogramma pretiosum e T. acacioi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, parasitóides de Nipteria panacea (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, em ovos dos hospedeiros alternativos Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae e Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae visando utilizar estes inimigos naturais em programas de controle biológico desta praga em pomares de abacate. T. pretiosum apresentou temperaturas base (Tb de 10.70 e 10.75°C e constantes térmicas (K de 151.83 e 160.04 graus-dia, sendo estes valores de 10.67 e 10.46°C e 158.50 e 155.46 graus-dia para T. acacioi em ovos de A. kuehniella e S. cerealella, respectivamente.

  18. REGISTRO DE ESPÉCIES DE Trichogramma (HYMENOPTERA: TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE EM OVOS DE Erinnyis ello LINNAEUS (LEPIDOPTERA: SPHINGIDAE, EM MATO GROSSO DO SUL RECORD OF Trichogramma (HYMENOPTERA: TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE SPECIES ON Erinnyis ello LINNAEUS (LEPIDOPTERA: SPHINGIDAE EGGS IN MATO GROSSO DO SUL STATE, BRAZIL

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    Marcela Marcelino Duarte

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Erinnyis ello (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae é uma das principais pragas da cultura da mandioca e, dentre seus inimigos naturais, destaca-se o parasitóide de ovos Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae. Este trabalho registra a ocorrência de Trichogramma manicobai, Trichogramma marandobai e Trichogramma pretiosum em ovos de E. ello, encontrados em plantios de mandioca, no Mato Grosso do Sul.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Controle biológico; mandarová-da-mandioca; agricultura.

  19. Ocorrência de Trichogramma pretiosum em áreas comerciais de tomate, no Espírito Santo, em regiões de diferentes altitudes Occurrence of Trichogramma pretiosum in commercial fields of tomato, in Espírito Santo State (Brazil, in areas with different altitudes

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    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram instalados sete campos experimentais em altitudes entre 200 e 1050 metros, nos municípios de Afonso Cláudio e Venda Nova do Imigrante no Espírito Santo, para desenvolvimento de avaliações pré-introdutórias de Trichogramma. Visou-se determinar as espécies nativas e conhecer o índice de parasitismo natural, para utilização em programas de manejo integrado da traça-do-tomateiro. Em todos os campos comerciais de tomateiros foram coletados apenas Trichogramma pretiosum Riley. No primeiro ano de coleta, o número médio de amostras de cartelas com parasitismo, bem como o número médio de ovos parasitados, apresentaram uma relação inversa, quando comparado com as regiões de altitudes entre 200 e 850 metros. Em regiões de menor altitude (200, 380 e 450 metros, foram observadas presença constante desses parasitóides de ovos em todas as áreas amostradas. No segundo ano de coleta não foi observado o mesmo comportamento em relação ao primeiro, tendo os valores médios dos parâmetros sido inferiores, com o número médio de ovos parasitados por cartela reduzido pela metade. Os resultados de dois anos de coleta mostraram que a agressividade das linhagens de T. pretiosum foi diferenciada em função das áreas.Seven experimental fields were installed in altitudes varying from 200 to 1050 meters, located in Afonso Cláudio and Venda Nova do Imigrante in Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The evaluations of Trichogramma presence were done to determine the native species, know the natural parasitism rate in order to use the obtained results in programs of pest management of Tuta absoluta. In all commercial tomato fields only Trichogramma pretiosum Riley was collected. In the first year the medium number of egg-cards sample with parasitism, as well as the medium number of parasitized eggs, presented an inverse relationship when compared to the areas of altitude between 200 and 850 meters. In the lower areas (200, 380 and 450 m a constant

  20. Viabilidade econômica de biofábrica de Trichogramma pretiosum para uso contra pragas agrícolas da ordem Lepidoptera = Economic feasibility of bio-factory of Trichogramma pretiosum, for use against agricultural pest of the Lepidoptera Order

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    Sinval Resende Lopes

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil vem se tornando um dos principais fornecedores internacionais de produtos agropecuários. Esses produtos são responsáveis por metade das exportações e por 21% do Produto Interno Bruto [PIB], mostrando a importância do setor para a economia. Paradoxalmente nota-se um aumento do uso de produtos químicos na produção agrícola, o que constitui barreira as exportações e até redução no consumo interno. A produção sob boas práticas agrícolas é uma demanda mundial, uma vez que barreiras ecológicas e/ou resíduos químicos ainda são empecilhos a expansão das exportações. Uma alternativa para mitigar o problema com os resíduos químicos, é o controle biológico de pragas fazendo uso de Trichogramma pretiosum pela sua eficiência no controle de pragas da ordem Lepidoptera e por ser fácil a sua criação em escala comercial em biofábricas. No entanto, existem poucas referências na literatura sobre a relação custo benefício deste empreendimento, visto que as metodologias utilizadas na criação de insetos não são divulgadas pelas empresas do setor. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade econômica da construção e da implantação de uma Biofábrica de produção de Trichogramma, para controle biológico. O estudo indicou que o projeto é viável, com uma boa rentabilidade e um bom retorno sobre o investimento. = Brazil has become one of the main international suppliers of agricultural products. The products account for half of the exports and for 21% of the Gross Domestic Product [GDP], which shows the importance of the sector to the economy. Paradoxically, there is an increase in the use of chemical products in agricultural production, which constitutes a barrier to exports and even a reduction in domestic consumption. Production under good agricultural practices is a global demand since ecological barriers and/or chemical residues are still obstacles to the expansion of exports. An alternative to

  1. Persistência de agrotóxicos indicados na produção integrada de pêssego a Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Persistence of pesticides used in integrated peach production on Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    Fabrizio Pinheiro Giolo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A persistência (duração da atividade nociva de cinco agrotóxicos indicados na Produção Integrada de Pêssego (PIP foi avaliada, expondo-se adultos de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae ao contato com resíduos de inseticidas, pulverizados sobre folhas, a diferentes intervalos de tempo, baseando-se na metodologia sugerida pela International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants (IOBC. Os resultados obtidos em relação à persistência, permitiu classificar os agrotóxicos, produto comercial/ingrediente ativo (g ou mL de produto comercial 100L-1, Dipterex 500/triclorfom (300, Sumithion 500 CE/fenitrotiona (150 e Tiomet 400 CE/dimetoato (120 como levemente persistentes (5-15 dias; o inseticida Malathion 1000 CE/malationa (200 como moderadamente persistente (16-30 dias e o fungicida/acaricida Kumulus DF/enxofre (600 como persistente (> 31 dias a adultos de T. pretiosum.The persistence (duration of harmful activity of five insecticides indicated in the Integrated Peach Production (IPP was evaluated by adult exposure of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae to insecticide residues on plant leaves at different time intervals after treatment using the International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants (IOBC based on the suggested methodology.The results obtained in relation to the disease persistence will permit to classify the pesticides, commercial formulation/active ingredient (g or mL commercial formulation 100L-1, Dipterex 500/trichlorphon (300, Sumithion 500 CE/fenitrothion (150 and Tiomet 400 CE/dimethoate (120 as slightly persistent (5-15 days; the insecticide Malathion 1000 CE/malathion (200 as moderately persistent (16-30 days and the fungicide Kumulus DF/sulphur (600 as persistent (>31 days to T. pretiosum adults.

  2. Seletividade de agrotóxicos recomendados na produção integrada da maçã a Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae em condições de laboratório Selectivity of pesticides used in intregated production of apple on Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae in laboratory conditions

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    Cristiane Gindri Manzoni

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A seletividade de oito agrotóxicos recomendados na Produção Integrada da Maçã (PIM foi avaliada sobre Trichogramma pretiosum Riley em laboratório, utilizando-se da metodologia padronizada pela International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants (IOBC. Os produtos (% da formulação comercial na calda Captan 500 PM (0,240 e Delan (0,125 foram inócuos; Promalin (9,000 foi levemente nocivo; Assist (4,000 e Dormex (1,200 foram moderadamente nocivos; Vertimec 18 CE (0,100, Malathion 1000 CE (0,100 e Supracid 400 CE (0,100 foram nocivos a adultos de T. pretiosum no teste de toxicidade em laboratório. Os agrotóxicos classificados como moderadamente nocivos e nocivos requerem testes subseqüentes de persistência biológica do produto em casa de vegeta��ão e de campo.The side effects of eight pesticides recommended in the Integrated Production of Apple (IPA was evaluated on Trichogramma pretiosum Riley in laboratory, using the International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants (IOBC standard methodology. The pesticides (% commercial formulation in spray water Captan 500 PM (0.240 and Delan (0.125 were harmless; Promalin (9.000 was slightly harmful; Assist (4.000 and Dormex (1.200 were moderately harmful; Vertimec 18 CE (0.100, Malathion 1000 CE (0.100 and Supracid 400 CE (0.100 were harmful to parasitoids in toxicity test on egg parasitoid T. pretiosum. The pesticides classified as moderately harmful and harmful, request subsequent tests of biological persistence of the product in greenhouse and on field.

  3. Seletividade de Lecanicillium lecanii (Zimm. Zare & W. Gams (classe-forma: Hyphomycetes ao parasitóide Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Selectivity of Lecanicillium lecanii (Zimm. Zare & W. Gams (class-form: Hyphomycetes to the parasitoid Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    Leandro Pin Dalvi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se no presente trabalho, as características biológicas de Trichogramma atopovirilia em ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda sob influência do fungo Lecanicillium lecanii, com o objetivo de verificar, em laboratório, se este entomopatógeno é seletivo ao parasitóide. Os estudos foram desenvolvidos no setor entomologia do Núcleo de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico em Manejo Fitossanitário "NUDEMAFI". Os indicativos de seletividade adotados foram: número de ovos parasitados, porcentagem de emergência (viabilidade, número de indivíduos por ovo, razão sexual e longevidade das fêmeas que parasitaram. Nenhum desses parâmetros foi afetado pelo fungo, levando à conclusão de que o mesmo é seletivo a T. atopovirilia, possibilitando ser conveniente a utilização simultânea de ambos os agentes de controle biológico no Manejo Integrado de Pragas.The present work studied the biological characteristics of Trichogramma atopovirilia in eggs of Spodoptera frugiperda under influence of the fungus Lecanicillium lecanii, with the aim of verifing in laboratory if this entomopathogenic fungus is selective to the parasitoid. The studies were carried out in the entomology sector of Nucleus of Scientific & Technological Development in Phytossanitary Management (NUDEMAFI. The indicatives of selectivity adapted used were: number of parasited eggs, emergency percentage (viability, number of individuals for egg, sex ratio and longevity of the females that parasited. None of these parameters were affected by the fungus, leading to the conclusion that the same is selective to T. atopovirilia, possibiliting the simultaneous utilization of both agents of biological control into the Integrated Management of Pests.

  4. Ten years of transition and... / Rika Ishii, Nick Sten

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ishii, Rika

    1999-01-01

    Ülevaade majandusreformidest Baltimaades ja Baltimaade majandussuhetest Euroopa Liidu ning Venemaaga. Tabel: SKP, inflatsioon, väliskaubandus ja välisinvesteeringud Eestis, Lätis, Leedus ja Kesk- ja Ida-Euroopa riikides aastatel 1991-1998

  5. Effect of Carbon dioxide (CO2 on mortality and reproduction of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller 1879, in mass rearing, aiming at the production of Trichogramma spp.

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    ALOISIO COELHO JUNIOR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller 1879 are widely used for mass rearing of Trichogramma spp. and other parasitoids and predators, largely commercialized in many countries. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of carbon dioxide (CO2 originated from larval metabolism on the biological parameters of A. kuehniella. For that purpose, we assess the production of carbon dioxide (CO2 per rearing tray of A. kuehniella and the effect of CO2 on the viability of egg-to-adult period and oviposition of A. kuehniella. Results allow to estimate that a rearing tray, containing 10,000 larvae between the 4th and 5th instars, produces an average of 30.67 mL of CO2 per hour. The highest egg production of A. kuehniella was obtained when the larvae were kept in rooms with lower concentration of CO2 (1,200 parts per million - ppm, producing 23% more eggs than in rooms with higher CO2 concentrations. In rooms with high density of trays (70 trays/room, CO2 concentration exceeded 4,400 ppm. The viability of the egg-to-adult period was not influenced by carbon dioxide.Ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 são muito utilizados para a criação massal de Trichogramma spp. e de outros parasitóides e predadores, sendo comercializados em muitos países. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do dióxido de carbono (CO2, proveniente do metabolismo larval, em parâmetros biológicos de A. kuehniella, principalmente na postura. Para que este objetivo fosse atingido, foram avaliados a produção de dióxido de carbono (CO2 por bandeja de criação de A. kuehniella e o efeito do CO2 na viabilidade do período ovo-adulto e na postura de A. kuehniella. Por meio dos resultados obtidos pôde-se estimar que uma bandeja de criação, com lagartas entre o 4° e 5° ínstares, inoculada com 10.000 lagartas produz, em média, 30,67 ml de CO2 por hora. A maior produção de ovos de A. kuehniella foi obtida quando as lagartas foram mantidas em salas com concentra

  6. Inseticidas para o controle da traça-do-tomateiro e broca-grande e seu impacto sobre Trichogramma pretiosum Insecticides for the control of the South American tomato pinworm and the corn earworm and impact of those products on Trichogramma pretiosum

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    Marina Castelo Branco

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimentos de campo foram conduzidos entre maio e outubro de 2000 para determinar a eficiência de diversos inseticidas para o controle de Tuta absoluta e Helicoverpa zea e o impacto desses produtos sobre a emergência do parasitóide Trichogramma pretiosum. Os inseticidas testados, bem como as doses em g i.a./ha foram: metoxifenozide (120; 144, clorpirifós (540; 675, tiacloprid (72; 96 e triflumuron (144. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com oito tratamentos (inseticidas e testemunha e cinco repetições, com 40 plantas/parcela. Frutos de tomate foram coletados aos 58, 80 e 87 dias após o transplante das mudas para a determinação da percentagem de frutos danificados pelos insetos. O impacto dos inseticidas sobre T. pretiosum foi avaliado mediante a coleta de 20 ovos de H. zea por parcela aos 61 dias após o transplante, onde foi realizada a avaliação da emergência do parasitóide. Todos os inseticidas reduziram significativamente os danos causados por H. zea. Contudo, nenhum deles foi eficiente para o controle de T. absoluta. Metoxifenozide e clorpirifós (540 não reduziram significativamente o número de ovos parasitados por T. pretiosum quando comparados à testemunha.Field studies were conducted from May to October 2000 to determine the effectiveness of several insecticides in controlling Tuta absoluta and Helicoverpa zea and their impact on emergence of the parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum. The insecticides tested were: methoxyfenozide (120; 144, clorpirifós (540; 675, tiacloprid (72; 96 and triflumuron (144. Application rates of all insecticides are expressed as g a.i./ha. The experiment was designed as randomized complete block with eight treatments (insecticides and untreated plots with five replications. Tomato fruits were harvested 58; 80 and 87 days after transplanting and the percentage of damaged fruits by both pests determined. The impact of insecticides on T. pretiosum survival was determined

  7. Incidência natural e biologia de Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983 (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae em ovos de Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae Natural incidence and biology of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983 (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae in eggs of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae

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    Carolina L. Cañete

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner is an egg parasitoid of the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, and has recently been collected from eggs of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner on soybeans. In order to evaluate the suitability of A. gemmatalis eggs as hosts of T. atopovirilia, field surveys were conducted in 1999 and 2000 on corn and soybeans, and a colony of the parasitoid was established in laboratory. At 25 ºC, development from oviposition to emergence lasted nine days and a sex-ratio of 0.58 (females:males was obtained. Females lived significantly longer (11.4 days when kept in ovipositional activity, than in the absence of host eggs (6.6 days. Total fecundity averaged 104.5 parasitized eggs, resulting in the emergence of 138.3 descendents. Mean daily fecundity was highest (30 eggs/female on the first day. Oviposition continued until one day before the death of the females, however 70% of the eggs were laid during the first four days after emergence. A female-biased progeny was produced during the first three days of oviposition, whereas further ovipositions were male-biased. Females lived significantly longer when exposed to host eggs in comparison to females deprived of eggs. The results show that eggs of A. gemmatalis are suitable for the development of T. atopovirilia, and this parasitoid should be considered in future programs of biological control of the velvetbean caterpillar.

  8. Side Effects of Fungicides Used in Cucurbitaceous Crop on Trichogrammaatopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogramatidae Efectos Secundarios sobre Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogramatidae de Fungicidas usados en Cucurbitáceas

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    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae can control Diaphania hyalinata Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. On the other hand, pesticides may reduce the efficiency of natural enemies. The objective was to evaluate the side-effects of fungicides used in the production of cucurbitaceous crops on Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner parasitizing D. hyalinata eggs. The fungicides used in bioassays were: azoxystrobin (0.08 g active ingredient [ai] L-1, chlorothalonil (2.00 g ai L-1, mancozeb (1.60 g ai L-1, tebuconazole (0.25 g ai L-1 and thiophanate-methyl (0.49 g ai L-1. Cardboards with 30 D. hyalinata eggs previously immersedin fungicide solutions and distilled water (control were offered separately to 20 newly emerged T. atopovirilia females in glass tubes. Parasitism, parasitism reduction, emergence, sex ratio, and number of individuals per egg were evaluated. The fungicides chlorothalonil, thiophanate-methyl and tebuconazole reduced parasitism of T. atopovirilia by 43.37, 27.64 and 18.51%, respectively. However, parasitism with azoxystrobin (79.21% was higher than the control (67.37% (P ≤ 0.05. Chlorothalonil, thiophanate-methyl and tebuconazole reduced emergence by 73.77, 75.62 and 79.35% (P ≤ 0.05, respectively. Azoxystrobin and thiophanate-methyl reduced the sex ratio by 0.77 and 0.76 (P ≤ 0.05, respectively. Fungicides did not reduce the number of individuals per egg. The fungicides azoxystrobin and mancozeb were selective for T. atopovirilia for most studied parameters suggesting that these products must have the priority in crop disease management to allow efficient biological control of T. atopovirilia against D. hyalinata.Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae pueden controlar Diaphania hyalinata Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. Sin embargo, los plaguicidas pueden reducir la eficiencia de los enemigos naturales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la influencia de los fungicidas utilizados en la

  9. Influência da fase embrionária dos ovos da traça-das-crucíferas sobre fêmeas de Trichogramma pretiosum com diferentes idades Influence of diamondback moth embrionary egg stage on Trichogramma pretiosum females of different ages

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    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Plutella xylostella é considerada a praga mais importante das crucíferas. O método de controle mais utilizado para essa praga é o químico. Contudo, esta espécie de inseto vem desenvolvendo resistência aos inseticidas aplicados. O controle biológico com espécies do gênero Trichogramma é considerado uma alternativa no controle dessa praga. Porém, poucos são os trabalhos que mencionam aspectos biológicos desse parasitóide sobre esta praga. Neste trabalho avaliou-se a influência da fase embrionária dos ovos do hospedeiro P. xylostella sobre fêmeas de T. pretiosum com diferentes idades. Fêmeas do parasitóide foram divididas em cinco lotes, compostos por espécimes recém-emergidos com 24; 48; 72 e 96 horas de idade. Cada lote continha dez fêmeas de T. pretiosum. Para cada fêmea de cada lote, foi oferecida uma cartela contendo 30 ovos de P. xylostella com um, dois e três dias de idade. As maiores taxas de parasitismo foram observadas em fêmeas com idade superior a 48 horas, independente do desenvolvimento embrionário do hospedeiro. Em ovos com três dias de desenvolvimento embrionário verificou-se que, para fêmeas recém-emergidas e com 48 horas de idade, a taxa de viabilidade foi superior apenas em relação àquelas com 96 horas de idade. Ao se avaliar os descendentes de T. pretiosum provenientes de ovos com um dia de desenvolvimento embrionário, verificou-se que os maiores valores de longevidade foram obtidos quando as fêmeas desse parasitóide eram recém-emergidas.Plutella xylostella is one of the most important pests of Cruciferae. Chemicals have been used to control this insect, but the rapid development of resistance is a serious constraint to this method. Biological control with Trichogramma species has been reported as an alternative to control diamondback moth. However few works report biological parameters of this parasitoid interacting with this pest. This work was carried out to evaluate the influence of egg

  10. Efeito de beauveria bassiana (bals. Vuillemin e Metarhizium anisopliae (metsch. sorokin nos parâmetros biológicos de trichogramma atopovirilia oatman & platner, 1983 (hymenoptera: trichogrammatidae Effect of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin on the biological parameters of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio Polanczyk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram realizados para avaliar o efeito de duas formulações comerciais à base de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch., Sorokin sobre os parâmetros biológicos de Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983. No primeiro experimento, cartelas com ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda, 1797 foram mergulhadas em suspensões preparadas com os produtos e, em seguida, colocadas à disposição dos parasitóides para oviposição, durante um período de 24 horas. No segundo, fêmeas do parasitóide foram alimentadas com uma solução mel e suspensão de conídios. Em ambos os experimentos as fêmeas mortas foram colocadas em uma câmara úmida para observar a esporulação dos fungos. Os tratamentos foram mantidos em câmara climatizada com temperatura de 25±1º C, umidade relativa de 70±10% e fotofase de 14 horas. Avaliou-se a longevidade e mortalidade dos adultos, índice de parasitismo, emergência do parasitóide, número de indivíduos por ovo e razão sexual dos descendentes. As formulações não interferiram nos parâmetros avaliados e não foi observada a esporulação do fungo no cadáver do parasitóide adulto. É possível inferir que T. atopovirilia e os fungos entomopatogênicos B. bassiana e M. anisopliae são compatíveis e podem ser empregados simultaneamente em programas de manejo integrado de S. frugiperda.Two bioassays were performed to evaluate the effect of two biopesticides based on Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin on the biological parameters of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983. In the first one, displays with S. frugiperda, 1797 eggs were dropped into the biopesticide suspension and offered to the parasitoid females for 24 hours. In the second one, parasitoid females were fed with a suspension containing honey and biopesticide suspension. In both cases, after the parasitoid death they were mantained into a humid

  11. Ação transovariana de lufenuron (50 g/l sobre adultos de Spodoptera Frugiperda (j. e. smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae e seu efeito sobre o parasitóide de ovos Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Transovarian action of lufenuron on adults of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae and its effect on the parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a ação transovariana do lufenuron em Spodoptera frugiperda e sua seletividade ao parasitóide de ovos Trichogramma pretiosum. Casais da praga foram isolados em gaiolas de PVC e alimentados com solução de mel a 10% na testemunha, e nos outros tratamentos, foi adicionado à solução de mel o regulador de crescimento de insetos Match® CE nas proporções de 12,5; 15,0 e 17,5 g i.a/l. Para verificação da ação transovariana, diariamente foram coletadas as posturas, contado o número de ovos e, posteriormente, o número de larvas eclodidas. Quarenta ovos provenientes de cada tratamento foram colados em cartelas de papel (cartolina e expostos ao parasitismo, dentro de tubos de vidro de 1,0 x 3,5 cm, contendo uma fêmea de T. pretiosum no seu interior. Cartelas contendo 40 ovos de S. frugiperda foram imersas em soluções de lufenuron com a mesma concentração dos tratamentos anteriores e, posteriormente, expostas ao parasitismo por T. pretiosum. O lufenuron afetou consideravelmente a viabilidade dos ovos de S. frugiperda. Pelos resultados obtidos nos ensaios, relativos ao parasitóide, demonstram-se a seletividade do regulador de crescimento lufenuron e a possibilidade de sua utilização em programas de Manejo Integrado, juntamente com o parasitóide de ovos T. pretiosum.The transovarian action of insect growth regulator lufenuron in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae and its effects on the egg parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae, were evaluated. Pest couples were isolated in PVC's cages and provided with 10% honey solution as control. In the others treatments, the honey solution was mixed with the insect growth regulator Match® CE using the following concentrations of 12.5; 15.0 and 17.5 g i.a./l. For verification of the transovarian action, the eggs were collected daily, with the number of the hatched larvae being subsequently counted. Forty eggs from each treatment were fixed in

  12. Bioatividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. a Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae nas gerações F1 e F2 Bioactivity of pesticides used in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. crop to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae in F1 and F2 generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Andrade Carvalho

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A bioatividade de dezoito produtos químicos utilizados no controle de pragas e doenças do tomateiro, sobre duas linhagens de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (L9=Alegre, ES e L10= Venda Nova do Imigrante, ES, nas gerações F1 e F2, foi investigada em laboratório. Ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller contendo o parasitóide em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento (ovo-larva, pré-pupa e pupa foram tratados por meio de imersão nas respectivas caldas químicas. Os inseticidas triflumuron, clorfluazuron, deltametrina, Bacillus thuringiensis, lambdacialotrina, teflubenzuron, acefato, pirimicarb e ciromazina, e os fungicidas benomil, iprodiona, clorotalonil e dimetomorf, independente da linhagem, não reduziram a longevidade das fêmeas de T. pretiosum da geração F1. Os inseticidas abamectin, cartap, metamidofós e lambdacialotrina afetaram a razão sexual de indivíduos da geração F1, e não reduziram a taxa de emergência de parasitóides da F2, independente do estágio de desenvolvimento e da origem da população de T. pretiosum. Parasitóides de Venda Nova do Imigrante, ES (L10 mostraram-se mais susceptíveis que os de Alegre, ES (L9 aos efeitos dos compostos avaliados. De modo geral, a fase de pupa de T. pretiosum, independente da população, apresentou maior tolerância aos produtos testados. Recomenda-se a realização de novos testes para outras populações desse parasitóide que serão utilizadas no controle de pragas, pois podem responder de forma diversa aos produtos fitossanitários avaliados.The bioactivity of eighteen pesticides commonly used to pests and diseases control on tomato, in two strains of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (L9=Alegre, ES and L10= Venda Nova do Imigrante, ES, Brazil in F1 and F2 generations, was evaluated under laboratory conditions. The bioassays were conducted in a climatic chamber at 25 ± 2 ºC, 60 ± 10% RH and 14 hours of photophase. Eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller containing the

  13. Estudo preliminar do controle biológico da traça-do-tomateiro com o parasitóide Trichogramma pretiosum em ambientes protegidos A preliminar survey on the biological control of South American tomato pinworm with the parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum in greenhouse models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice de Medeiros

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo de tomate em ambiente protegido é economicamente vantajoso para os produtores. No entanto, o ambiente interno da casa de vegetação, quente e seco, favorece o crescimento populacional da traça-do-tomateiro Tuta absoluta (Meyrick dificultando seu controle, geralmente realizado com inseticidas químicos. O controle biológico da traça-do-tomateiro utilizando o parasitóide Trichogramma pretiosum Riley é indicado como método alternativo aos inseticidas e foi avaliado em ambiente protegido. O experimento foi conduzido com plantas de tomateiro tutoradas, cv. Larissa, em três modelos de casas de vegetação (arco, capela e convectivo, com 288 plantas em uma área de 160 m² em cada modelo. Todos os tratamentos foram associados com uma aplicação semanal do inseticida biológico Bacillus thuringiensis e liberações semanais do parasitóide: 1 casa de vegetação com teto convectivo: 200 cm² de ovos parasitados em liberação única, ou seja, apenas uma vez por semana; 2 teto em arco: 200 cm² de ovos parasitados liberados duas vezes por semana, ou seja, 100 cm² a cada liberação; 3 capela: 400 cm² de ovos parasitados liberados duas vezes por semana, ou seja, 200 cm² a cada liberação. A população da traça-do-tomateiro foi amostrada semanalmente, coletando-se 50 folíolos de tomateiro ao acaso, em cada casa de vegetação. Em laboratório, os ovos foram contados, individualizados e mantidos em câmara climatizada para se determinar o número de larvas emergidas e o número de ovos parasitados. A produtividade e o dano causado pela traça foram avaliados em 50 frutos colhidos ao acaso em cada tratamento. A eficiência técnica e econômica do sistema de produção foi analisada em cada modelo de casa de vegetação. Os principais resultados foram: a as diferentes condições de temperatura e umidade proporcionadas pelas casas de vegetação têm influência sobre o desempenho do parasitóide; b o uso exclusivo do controle biol

  14. Efeito de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. sobre Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 nas gerações F1 e F2 em ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 Effect of pesticides used on tomato crop (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. on Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 in F1 and F2 generations on Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Andrade Carvalho

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Duas populações de Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879, provenientes de Alegre, ES = L9 e Venda Nova do Imigrante, ES = L10, foram submetidas aos principais produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do tomateiro, após serem multiplicadas em ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller. Os ovos desse hospedeiro foram tratados e oferecidos ao parasitismo decorridas 0, 24 e 48 horas após o tratamento, e mantidos em câmaras climáticas a 25 ± 2ºC, UR de 60 ± 10% e fotofase de 14 horas. Os inseticidas deltametrina, abamectin e metamidofós, independentemente da linhagem de T. pretiosum, reduziram a longevidade de fêmeas da geração maternal. Triflumuron, clorfluazuron, benomil, clorotalonil, Bacillus thuringiensis, mancozeb, dimetomorf, tebufenozide, teflubenzuron, acefato, pirimicarbe, iprodiona, metamidofós e ciromazina não afetaram a capacidade de parasitismo de T. pretiosum na geração F1, independentemente da origem da população, e não afetaram a porcentagem de emergência dos indivíduos da geração F2, das duas linhagens.Two Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 populations from Alegre ES = L9 and Venda Nova do Imigrante, ES = L10 (Brazil were treated with the main pesticides used on tomato crop after reared on Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller eggs. The eggs were treated and submitted to parasitism on 0, 24 and 48 hours and kept in climatic chambers at 25 ± 2 ºC, 60 ± 10% RH and 14 hours photophase. The longevity of T. pretiosum (mother females, independently of strain, was decreased for insecticides deltamethrin, abamectin and methamidophos. No influence was detected in the parasitism capacity in F1 generation of T. pretiosum with the products triflumuron, chlorfluazuron, benomyl, chlorotalonil, Bacillus thuringiensis, mancozeb, dimetomorf, tebufenozide, teflubenzuron, acefate, pirimicarb, iprodione, methamidophos and ciromazine, and these compounds did not effected the emergence in F2 generation of this parasitoid, independently of

  15. Molecular and biological characterization of Trichogramma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, different molecular markers were employed to characterize this species, including direct amplification of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA and by restriction fragment length polymorphism followed by sequencing. The results show that ITS2 region is 491 bp and indicated that this is a new ...

  16. Une stratégie efficace de lutte biologique en combinant lâchers inondatifs et conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Tabone, Elisabeth; Roux, Estelle; Goebel, Regis; Colombel, Etty; Clain, Clarisse; Marquier, Marlène; Frandon, Jacques; Bodendörfer, Johanna; Bonnet, Adrien; Do Thi Khanh, Hong

    2010-01-01

    La lutte biologique par lâchers inondatifs de trichogrammes contre les lépidoptères ravageurs est une stratégie communément utilisée dans de nombreux pays. A l’île de la Réunion, le contrôle biologique d’un ravageur-clé de la canne à sucre, Chilo sacchariphagus, par l’utilisation de son parasitoïde oophage, Trichogramma chilonis, a été le sujet d’une recherche intensive depuis 10 ans. Ce travail est le fruit d’une collaboration entre l’INRA Sophia-Antipolis, le CIRAD Montpellier et la FDGDON ...

  17. Integration of pheromones and biological control for the management of cotton bollworms in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.; Ashraf, M.; Hussain, T.; Fatima, B.

    2002-01-01

    The management of cotton bollworms in a semi-isolated area through the use of inundative releases of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) in conjunction with pheromones suppressed populations of the pink and spotted bollworms to sub-economic levels. The parasitoid was more effective against pink bollworm than spotted bollworm. Applications of either pheromones or parasitoids by themselves were less effective when compared to the combined treatment. The level of parasitism in the cotton field was comparatively low in June and July but gradually increased during August and September. Maximum parasitism was recorded in November. Studies indicated that temperature affected the establishment of the parasitoid, and populations increased significantly when favourable conditions prevailed in the cotton field. (author)

  18. Protein discovery: combined transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of venom from the endoparasitoid Cotesia chilonis (Hymenoptera: Brachonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Many species of endoparasitoid wasps provide biological control services in agroecosystems. Although there is a great deal of information on the ecology and physiology of host/parasitoid interactions, relatively little is known on the protein composition of venom and how specific venom p...

  19. Olfactory responses of Plutella xylostella natural enemies to host pheromone, larval frass, and green leaf cabbage volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, G V P; Holopainen, J K; Guerrero, A

    2002-01-01

    The parasitoids Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) and Cotesia plutellae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), and the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), are potential biological control agents for the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae). We present studies on the interactions between these bioagents and various host-associated volatiles using a Y olfactometer. T chilonis was attracted to a synthetic pheromone blend (Z11-16:Ald, Z11-16:Ac, and Z11-16:OH in a 1:1:0.01 ratio), to Z11-16:Ac alone, and to a 1:1 blend of Z11-16:Ac and Z11-16:Ald. C. plutellae responded to the blend and to Z11-16:Ac and Z11-16:Ald. Male and female C. carnea responded to the blend and to a 1:1 blend of the major components of the pheromone, although no response was elicited by single compounds. Among the four host larval frass volatiles tested (dipropyl disulfide, dimethyl disulfide, allyl isothiocyanate, and dimethyl trisulfide), only allyl isothiocyanate elicited significant responses in the parasitoids and predator, but C. plutellae and both sexes of C. carnea did respond to all four volatiles. Among the green leaf volatiles of cabbage (Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata), only Z3-6:Ac elicited significant responses from T. chilonis, C. plutellae, and C. carnea, but C. plutellae also responded to E2-6:Ald and Z3-6:OH. When these volatiles were blended with the pheromone, the responses were similar to those elicited by the pheromone alone, except for C. carnea males, which had an increased response. The effect of temperature on the response of the biological agents to a mixture of the pheromone blend and Z3-6:Ac was also studied. T. chilonis was attracted at temperatures of 25-35 degrees C, while C. plutellae and C. carnea responded optimally at 30-35 degrees C and 20-25 degrees C, respectively. These results indicate that the sex pheromone and larval frass volatiles from the diamondback moth, as well as volatile compounds from

  20. Feasibility of integrating radiation-induced F1 sterility and biological control for population suppression of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella, in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.; Ashraf, M.; Hussain, T.; Qureshi, Z.A.

    2002-01-01

    Substitution of casein and wheat germ with locally available ingredients (chickpea flour, soybean flour, wheat husk and sawdust) in the specified casein-wheat germ diet affected various biological parameters of pink bollworm (PBW), Pectinophora gossypiella. The diet containing chickpea flour performed significantly better and is more economical than the other diets tested. The highest PBW field populations were recorded in the month of October when large numbers of fruiting bodies were present in the cotton. Field behavioural observations revealed that mating and other sexual activities of treated and native moths varied significantly with time of night and peak activity was during 03:00-04:00 hours. Male moths treated with 100 Gy as mature pupae responded well to gossyplure baited traps. The attraction of male moths to irradiated virgin females decreased significantly with increasing doses of radiation. Male moths responded more readily to virgin untreated females than to irradiated females. Field-cage studies demonstrated that irradiated moths (100 Gy) released at a 50:1 treated to normal ratio at three week intervals reduced larval infestations inside the cages to subeconomic level. Studies suggested that there is a great potential for integrating the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma chilonis, with the sterile insect technique to control cotton bollworms. (author)

  1. Trichogramma chilotraeae PARASITOID TELUR Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner PADA POPULASI INANG RENDAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Sujak

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Helicoverpa armigera Hubner is an insect pest of corn and cotton crops. Eggs are laid by  H. armigera imago on corn silk and cotton crops often have high mortality, mainly caused by egg parasitoid. H. armigera egg on various agroecosystem reported can  be parasited by at least 12 species of  Trichogrammatidae. The purpose of this study was to determine the diversity of  Trichogrammatidae family as  parasitoid eggs of  H. armigera on  low population. H. armigera egg sample taken from Asembagus, Lamongan and Blora at 1 m2 field  both monoculture and intercropping. Observation of parasitoids and predators  done at the Laboratory of Biological Control Balittas Malang. Parasitoid that appears preserved in the Hoyer medium for identification purposes. low population of  H. armigera Egg in Asembagus is  4 eggs/m2 in both monoculture maize and intercropping with 86-100 days after transplanting (DAT cotton and  4.5 egg/m2 on cotton monoculture and intercropping with 75  DAT soybean, while 2 eggs/m2 in the Lamongan and Blora corn agroecosystem. The dominant egg parasitoid in Asembagus is T. chilotraea, as well as in Lamongan and Blora.

  2. On the evolution of Wolbachia-induced parthenogenesis in Trichogramma wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huigens, M.E.

    2003-01-01

    Organisms display a great variety of sex ratios (ratios of females vs. males), ranging from 100% females to a male bias. These sex ratios are not always only determined by the genes of the organism itself but may actually often be manipulated or distorted by "sex ratio distorters". One sex ratio

  3. Chemical espionage by parasitic wasps : how Trichogramma species exploit moth sex pheromone systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noldus, L.P.J.J.

    1989-01-01

    Interactions between insects are for a great deal mediated by semiochemicals. For instance, female moths release specific volatile chemicals in order to attract males of the same species. These substances are called sex pheromones. Egg parasitoids use various chemical cues in their search

  4. Oviposition behaviour and egg distribution of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, on maize, and its effect on host finding by Trichogramma egg parasitoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suverkropp, B.P.; Dutton, A.; Bigler, F.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Oviposition behaviour and egg distribution of Ostrinia nubilalis is reviewed based on published information and new research. The position of egg masses of O. nubilalis on maize plants and leaves were sampled in the field. Most egg masses were found on the lower leaf side, on the middle part of the

  5. Poaceae: Triticeae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sequence conservation has been tested in a variety of plant species (Ishii and McCouch 2000; Vogel et al. 2003; Provan et al. 2004; Mcgrath et al. 2006). For example, Ishii and Mc-. Couch (2000) tested the transferability of Oryza sativa cv. Nipponbare cpSSRs within the genus and within eight other. Gramineae species.

  6. DMPD: Intracellular DNA sensors in immunity. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18573338 Intracellular DNA sensors in immunity. Takeshita F, Ishii KJ. Curr Opin Im...munol. 2008 Aug;20(4):383-8. Epub 2008 Jun 23. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Intracellular DNA sensors ...in immunity. PubmedID 18573338 Title Intracellular DNA sensors in immunity. Authors Takeshita F, Ishii KJ. P

  7. Herbicide toxicity, selectivity and hormesis of nicosulfuron on 10 Trichogrammatidae (Hymenoptera) species parasitizing Anagasta ( = Ephestia) kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Germano L D; de Paulo, Paula D; Zanuncio, José C; Tavares, Wagner De S; Alvarenga, Anarelly C; Dourado, Luan R; Bispo, Edilson P R; Soares, Marcus A

    2017-01-02

    Selective agrochemicals including herbicides that do not affect non-target organisms such as natural enemies are important in the integrated pest management (IPM) programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the herbicide toxicity, selectivity and hormesis of nicosulfuron, recommended for the corn Zea mays L. (Poaceae) crop, on 10 Trichogrammatidae (Hymenoptera) species. A female of each Trichogramma spp. or Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis, 1972 was individually placed in plastic test tubes (no choice) with a cardboard containing 45 flour moth Anagasta ( = Ephestia) kuehniella Zeller, 1879 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs. Parasitism by these natural enemies was allowed for 48 h and the cardboards were sprayed with the herbicide nicosulfuron at 1.50 L.ha -1 , along with the control (only distilled water). Nicosulfuron reduced the emergence rate of Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja, 1983 females, but increased that of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879, Trichogramma acacioi Brun, Moraes and Smith, 1984 and T. annulata females. Conversely, this herbicide increased the emergence rate of Trichogramma brasiliensis Ashmead, 1904, T. bruni, Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, 1988 and Trichogramma soaresi Nagaraja, 1983 males and decreased those of T. acacioi, Trichogramma atopovilia Oatman and Platner, 1983 and T. pretiosum males. In addition, nicosulfuron reduced the sex ratio of T. galloi, Trichogramma bennetti Nagaraja and Nagarkatti, 1973 and T. pretiosum and increased that of T. acacioi, T. bruni, T. annulata, Trichogramma demoraesi Nagaraja, 1983, T. soaresi and T. brasiliensis. The herbicide nicosulfuron was "harmless" (class 1, <30% reduction) for females and the sex ratio of all Trichogrammatidae species based on the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) classification. The possible hormesis effect of nicosulfuron on Trichogrammatidae species and on the bacterium Wolbachia sp. (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) was also discussed.

  8. Efeito do armazenamento de ovos de Anagasta kuehniella, Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae nas características biológicas de duas gerações sucessivas de Trichogramma pretiosum, Riley (Hymenopitera: Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Elizabete Medeiros Marques

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito do armazenamento de ovos de A. kuehniella, em condições de baixas temperaturas, sobre os seguintes parâmetros biológicos do T. pretiosum: Capacidade de parasitismo, Viabilidade Aparente e Razão sexual. Este bioensaio foi composto de seis tratamentos, sendo: 0 (testemunha, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25 dias de armazenamento numa temperatura de 4 ± 1°C. Após cada período de armazenamento, os ovos foram submetidos ao parasitismo por um período de 24 horas, em sala climatizada com temperatura de 25 ± 1°C, umidade relativa de 70 ± 10% e fotofase de 12 horas. Observou-se que, a capacidade de parasitismo do T. pretiosum não é afetada com o armazenamento de ovos de A. kuehniella por um período de até 20 dias em ambas as gerações. A porcentagem de emergência foi maior na geração F1. O período de armazenamento não afetou a razão sexual. O armazenamento de ovos inviabilizados de ovos A. kuehnella pode ser incorporado como importante etapa no estabelecimento de técnica de criação de T. pretiosum para pesquisa ou mesmo em programas de controle biológico aplicado.

  9. DMPD: TLR ignores methylated RNA? [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16111629 TLR ignores methylated RNA? Ishii KJ, Akira S. Immunity. 2005 Aug;23(2):11...1-3. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show TLR ignores methylated RNA? PubmedID 16111629 Title TLR ignores methylated RNA

  10. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    program” organismal characters. ... may be determinants of morphological deve- lopment, by working backward from modern gene-form ..... starvation and other conditions (Braun and Johnson 1997;. Ishii et al 1997). The general transcriptional ...

  11. Assessing European egg parasitoids as a mean of controlling the invasive South American tomato pinworm Tuta absoluta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaïs Chailleux

    Full Text Available The South American tomato pinworm (Tuta absoluta has recently invaded Europe and is rapidly spreading in the Afro-Eurasian continent where it is becoming a major pest on tomato crops. Laboratory tests were undertaken to evaluate the potential of 29 European strains of Trichogramma parasitoids to control T. absoluta. In addition to the host itself, the host plant (tomato was used during the laboratory tests in order to increase the chance of selecting the best parasitoid strains. Trichogramma females were placed with T. absoluta eggs on a tomato leaflet in tubes. We compared the parasitism of T. absoluta by the various Trichogramma species tested to the Trichogramma species currently commercially available for the pest control in Europe, i.e. Trichogramma achaeae. Thereafter, the more promising strains were tested on a larger scale, in mesocosm (i.e. cages in greenhouses and in greenhouse compartments to evaluate efficiency of laboratory selected strains under cropping conditions. The most efficient strain from the laboratory screening trials did not perform as efficiently under the greenhouse conditions. We discuss differences in parasitism levels among species and strains and among the different scales tested in the experiments, as well as implications of these results for further screening for biocontrol agents.

  12. Seleção de hospedeiro alternativo para três espécies de tricogramatídeos neotropicais Selection of factitious hosts for three neotropical trichogrammatid species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivia da Silva Dias

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características biológicas dos parasitóides Trichogrammatoidea annulata, Trichogramma atopovirilia e Trichogramma bruni, criados em hospedeiros alternativos durante diferentes gerações, para selecionar o melhor hospedeiro para a criação massal desses parasitóides. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3x3 (três hospedeiros - Anagasta kuehniella, Corcyra cephalonica e Sitotroga cerealella - e três gerações - 1ª, 10ª e 28ª. Avaliaram-se: o total de ovos parasitados por fêmea; a longevidade de fêmeas e machos; a duração do período ovo-adulto; a razão sexual; e a viabilidade dos parasitóides. Os parasitóides Trichogrammatoidea annulata e Trichogramma bruni apresentaram melhores resultados em C. cephalonica. Para Trichogramma atopovirilia, o hospedeiro alternativo é C. cephalonica ou A. kuehniella. O hospedeiro S. cerealella foi o menos adequado para as três espécies de parasitóides. Os tricogramatídeos avaliados apresentaram capacidade adaptativa aos hospedeiros alternativos preferenciais, ao longo das gerações.The objective of this work was to assess the biological characteristics of the parasitoids Trichogrammatoidea annulata, Trichogramma atopovirilia e Trichogramma bruni, reared on factitious hosts, through different generations, in order to select the best host for parasitoid mass rearing. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design, in a 3x3 factorial arrangement (three hosts - Anagasta kuehniella, Corcyra cephalonica and Sitotroga cerealella - and three generations - 1st, 10th and 28th. Evaluations were made for: the total parasitized eggs by each female; viability; longevity of male and female; duration of the egg-adult period; sexual ratio; and viability of the parasitoids. The parasitoids Trichogrammatoidea annulata and Trichogramma bruni showed better development on C. cephalonica. For Trichogramma

  13. Investigation of the ultrastructural and histopathological changes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-11

    Oct 11, 2010 ... Vet. Fak. Derg. 3: 89-98. Horiuchi K , Takatori A, Inenaga T, Ohta E, Yamanouchi J, Kawamura. S, Ishii Y, Kyuwa S, Yoshikava Y (2002). The effect of probucol on atherosclerosis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic hyperlipidemic APA hamsters in different stages of atherosclerosis. Exp. Anim., 51: 457-. 464.

  14. Temperature and depth error in the mechanical bathythermograph data from the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gautham, S.; Pankajakshan, T.

    is the ocean really warming?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34 (2007), L01610, doi: 10.1029/ 2006GL027834. 8. Ishii, M., and Kimoto ,M., Reevaluation of historical ocean heat content variations with time-varying XBT and MBT depth bias corrections, J. Oceanogr...

  15. Electronic absorption spectra and nonlinear optical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    To calculate the spectroscopic and NLO properties, we use correction vector method,. 24 which implicitly ... Lewis acid–Lewis base interactions within the CO2 molecules. The O–C–O angle in this case becomes ..... Ishii R, Okazaki S, Odawara O, Okada I, Misawa M and Fukunaga T 1995 Fluid Phase Equilibria 104 291. 16.

  16. Viral mimicry of the complement system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    et al 2002), hepatitis C virus (Ishii et al 2001) and HIV. (Ezekowitz et al 1989; Saifuddin et al 2000). Activation of the complement system in the absence of proper regulation can lead to virus neutralization. The various mechanisms which are known to inactivate viruses are: (i) neutralization by complement dependant ...

  17. Disease: H00164 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sodium benzoate [DR:D02277] ... ICD-10: E72.2 MeSH: D020165 OMIM: 237300 PMID:17310273 ... AUTHORS ... Kurokawa... K, Yorifuji T, Kawai M, Momoi T, Nagasaka H, Takayanagi M, Kobayashi K, Yoshino M, ...Kosho T, Adachi M, Otsuka H, Yamamoto S, Murata T, Suenaga A, Ishii T, Terada K, Shimura N, Kiwaki K, Shintaku H, Yamakawa

  18. Disease: H01403 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available , Kosho T, Imai Y, Hibi-Ko Y, Kaname T, Naritomi K, Kawame H, Wakui K, Fukushima Y, Homma T, Kato M, Hiraki ...Y, Yamagata T, Yano S, Mizuno S, Sakazume S, Ishii T, Nagai T, Shiina M, Ogata K, Ohta T, Niikawa N, Miyatak

  19. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, for two-phase flows, such local instant field equations have not been attainable without adopting appropriate averaging. Several different averaging methods were used in the past. Ishii (1975) and Drew (1983) used time- averaging while Harlow & Amsden (1975), Nigmatulin (1979), Hassanizadeh & Gray. (1979) ...

  20. DMPD: Innate immune response to viral infection. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18694646 Innate immune response to viral infection. Koyama S, Ishii KJ, Coban C, Ak...ira S. Cytokine. 2008 Sep;43(3):336-41. Epub 2008 Aug 9. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Innate immune response to viral infection.... PubmedID 18694646 Title Innate immune response to viral infection. Authors Koyama

  1. DMPD: Innate immune recognition of, and regulation by, DNA. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16979939 Innate immune recognition of, and regulation by, DNA. Ishii KJ, Akira S. T...rends Immunol. 2006 Nov;27(11):525-32. Epub 2006 Sep 18. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Innate immune reco...gnition of, and regulation by, DNA. PubmedID 16979939 Title Innate immune recognition of, and regulation b

  2. Written Corrective Feedback: The Perception of Korean EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Bohyon

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the perception of Korean EFL learners toward feedback types on their written errors. The survey was administered using an adopted questionnaire from previous studies (Ishii 2011; Leki, 1991). This further allows a comparison of Korean EFL learners' attitudes with the responses to an identical questionnaire by Japanese EFL…

  3. DMPD: Lysophospholipid receptors: signaling and biology. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15189145 Lysophospholipid receptors: signaling and biology. Ishii I, Fukushima N, Y...e X, Chun J. Annu Rev Biochem. 2004;73:321-54. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Lysophospholipid receptors: signaling and biology.... PubmedID 15189145 Title Lysophospholipid receptors: signaling and biology. Authors

  4. Morphological and molecular data for larval stages of four species of Petasiger Dietz, 1909 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) with an updated key to the known cercariae from the Palaearctic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Selbach, C.; Soldánová, Miroslava; Georgieva, Simona; Kostadinova, Aneta; Kalbe, M.; Sures, B.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 2 (2014), s. 153-166 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Grandivesicularis ishii * life cycle * Trematoda * Platyhelminthes * phylogeny Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.336, year: 2014

  5. "Material interactions": from atoms & bits to entangled practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna

    and intellectually stimulating panel moderated by Prof. Mikael Wiberg consisting of a number of scholars with a well-developed view on digital materialities to fuel a discussion on material interactions - from atoms & bits to entangled practices. These scholars include: Prof. Hiroshi Ishii, Prof. Paul Dourish...

  6. Identification of novel insertion–deletion markers for Dongxiang wild ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) is considered to be the ancestor of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) (Ishii et al. 2011). During the domestication process from wild rice to cultivated rice, many genes of the wild rice were fil- tered either by drift or naturally and human selection or both, resulting in a significant reduction ...

  7. Integrated pest management strategies to sustain corn productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corpuz, M R; Raymundo, P P

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the economics and effectiveness of Trichogramma and earwigs in the suppression of corn borer and identify other corn pest associated during vegetative stage using light trapping. A Randomized Complete Block Design was used in laying out the experiments with five treatments as follows: Treatment 1-Control, Treatment 2-Trichogramma, Treatment 3-Earwigs, Treatment 4-Light Trapping and Treatment 5-Trichogramma + earwigs. Based on the analysis of variance it revealed highly significant variations among treatments with regards to number of parasitized and unparasitized egg mass of corn borer at 35 and 45 days after planting. In like manner, the damage assessment done by corn borer differed significantly at 35 and 45 days after planting. With regards to weight of green corn grains per sampling area, a highly significant differences was observed among the treatment means. The combination of Trichogramma and Earwigs showed high effectively in the field by exhibiting the highest computed yield per hectare and higher return of investment per peso invested.

  8. Nasonia Parasitic Wasps Escape from Haller's Rule by Diphasic, Partially Isometric Brain-Body Size Scaling and Selective Neuropil Adaptations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, Jitte; Smid, Hans M.

    2017-01-01

    Haller's rule states that brains scale allometrically with body size in all animals, meaning that relative brain size increases with decreasing body size. This rule applies both on inter- and intraspecific comparisons. Only 1 species, the extremely small parasitic wasp Trichogramma evanescens, is

  9. How to escape from haller's rule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woude, van der Emma; Smid, Hans M.

    2016-01-01

    While Haller's rule states that small animals have relatively larger brains, minute Trichogramma evanescens Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitic wasps scale brain size linearly with body size. This linear brain scaling allows them to decrease brain size beyond the predictions of

  10. Effects of Isometric Brain-Body Size Scaling on the Complexity of Monoaminergic Neurons in a Minute Parasitic Wasp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woude, van der Emma; Smid, Hans M.

    2017-01-01

    Trichogramma evanescens parasitic wasps show large phenotypic plasticity in brain and body size, resulting in a 5-fold difference in brain volume among genetically identical sister wasps. Brain volume scales linearly with body volume in these wasps. This isometric brain scaling forms an exception to

  11. Population of Tuta absoluta and natural enemies after releasing on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the population of tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and efficiency of natural enemies on tomato grown greenhouse in Mediterranean Region of Turkey during 2010 and 2011. Trichogramma evanescens Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) ...

  12. Editorial: Butterfly anti-aphrodisiac lures parasitic wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatouros, N.E.; Huigens, M.E.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.; Hilker, M.

    2005-01-01

    To locate their hosts, parasitic wasps can 'eavesdrop' on the intraspecific chemical communications of their insect hosts1, 2, 3. Here we describe an example in which the information exploited by the parasitic wasp Trichogramma brassicae is a butterfly anti-aphrodisiac that is passed from male to

  13. Community Composition of Bacterial Biofilms Formed on Simple Soil Based Bioelectrochemical Cell Anodes and Cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    miniaturization of BES. Novel designs have been used to minimize an- ode cathode distances and to take advantage of 3D electrode materials to significantly... print . ERDC/CRREL TR-12-2 24 Hou, H., L. Li, P. de Figueiredo, and A. Han. 2011. Air-cathode microbial fuel cell array: a device for identifying...2008a. Characterization of a filamentous biofilm community established in a cellulose -fed microbial fuel cell. BMC Microbiol 8: 6.  Ishii, S., Y

  14. Efficient asymmetric Baeyer–Villiger oxidation of prochiral ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bolm C, Khanh Luong T K and Schlingloff G 1997. Synlett. 1151. 7. (a) Ito K, Ishii A, Kuroda T and Katsuki T 2003 Synlett. 0643; (b) Malkov A V, Friscourt F, Bell M, Swarbrick. M E and Kochovsky P 2008 J. Org. Chem. 73 3996; (c). Uchida T and KatsukiHelvetica T 2002 Chemica. Acta. 85 3078. 8. Paneghetti C, Gavagnin R, ...

  15. Molecular characterisation of four echinostomes (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) from birds in New Zealand, with descriptions of Echinostoma novaezealandense n. sp and Echinoparyphium poulini n. sp.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Georgieva, Simona; Blasco-Costa, Maria Isabel; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 4 (2017), s. 477-497 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : phylogenetic-relationships * maximum-likelihood * morphological data * miyagawai ishii * nuclear rdna * trematoda * platyhelminthes * systematics * genes * diversity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 1.181, year: 2016

  16. Replication of Japanese Encephalitis Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-10

    several reasons: 1) All flaviviruses appear to be human pathogens and thus require special laboratory hand- ling. 2) Most flaviviruses grow more slowly...Ishii et al., 1968). In view of the growing realization of the role of persis- tent viruses in some chronic human disease (Nathanson, 1977), it...Tamm. (1970) The role of cytoplasmic membranes in poliovirus biosynthesis. Virology 42,100. Cleaves, G. R. and D. T. Dubin. (1979) Methylation status of

  17. Proceedings of the International Wire and Cable Symposium (IWCS 37th) Held in Reno, Nevada on 15-17 November 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-17

    to any environmental condition. International Wire & Cable Symposium Proceedings 1988 115 Hiroshi Ishii Tosh iyu ki llayakaia Fujiura td.Fujikura Ltd...samples of water, rocks were collected from the deep seabed. The benefits of an unmanned deep submergence vehicle are that images and living creatures on...However, optic cable. If thL contractor encounters rock Siecor fiber optic cable construction is designed along the right of way, he is often forbidden

  18. RELAP5/MOD2 benchmarking study: Critical heat flux under low-flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggles, E.; Williams, P.T.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental studies by Mishima and Ishii performed at Argonne National Laboratory and subsequent experimental studies performed by Mishima and Nishihara have investigated the critical heat flux (CHF) for low-pressure low-mass flux situations where low-quality burnout may occur. These flow situations are relevant to long-term decay heat removal after a loss of forced flow. The transition from burnout at high quality to burnout at low quality causes very low burnout heat flux values. Mishima and Ishii postulated a model for the low-quality burnout based on flow regime transition from churn turbulent to annular flow. This model was validated by both flow visualization and burnout measurements. Griffith et al. also studied CHF in low mass flux, low-pressure situations and correlated data for upflows, counter-current flows, and downflows with the local fluid conditions. A RELAP5/MOD2 CHF benchmarking study was carried out investigating the performance of the code for low-flow conditions. Data from the experimental study by Mishima and Ishii were the basis for the benchmark comparisons

  19. État et perspectives de lutte contre Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier, 1789 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plusieurs chercheurs se sont intéressés, dans le cadre des luttes physiques, aux irradiations ionisantes provenant de source de rayons gamma du cobalt 60 et des variétés de céréales résistantes dans le cas du riz, du blé ou de maïs. Aussi, des parasites, pathogènes ou prédateurs (Trichogramma spp, Blattisocius tarsalis, ...

  20. Keanekaragaman spesies parasitoid telur Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner pada sistem tanam monokultur dan polikultur kapas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nurindah nurindah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyculture system is one of techniques in pest management. In Indonesia, cotton is always intercropped with second food crops such as maize, soybean, mungbean or peanut. This research was aimed to evaluate the effect of culture system, i.e. cotton monoculture vs. cotton intercropped with soybean on the increase of species diversity of H. armigera egg parasitoids and the parasitoid contribution to mortality of H. armigera. The research was arranged in a split plot design with two main factors: three cotton varieties with three levels of trichome density (Tamcot SP 37, Kanesia 8 and LRA 5166 and the subplots were two cultivation systems (cotton monoculture and polyculture, with three replicates. Observations were made by collecting H. armigera eggs on population of first generation (45 days after planting and second generation (75 DAP. The results showed that on cotton polyculture the egg parasitoid complex which consisted of Trichogramma spp. and Trichogrammatoidea spp. was higher than that in cotton monoculture and so was the egg parasitism level. The increase of egg parasitism was 24% in the first generation and 15% in the second generation. Parasitoid species found belonged to the genera Trichogramma and Trichogrammatoidea. In the parasitoid complex, Trichogrammatoidea armigera was dominant on the first generation and Trichogramma chilotraeae on the second. The domination succession could be as a result of the higher host-searching capacity of T. chilotraeae than that of T. armigera.

  1. Flight dynamics of some Lepidoptera species of sugar beet and possibilities their control (Transylvania-Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muresanu Felicia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present the obtained results regarding the flight dynamics of some Lepidoptera species in sugar beet crops in Transylvania (the central part of Romania. In order to limit the appearance of mentioned pests to the economic threshold, Trichogramma spp. were obtained in laboratory conditions at ARDS Turda and SBRDS Brasov. The experiments were conducted in production areas on 0,5 ha minimum for each variant. The variants included four Trichogramma species: T. dendrolimi, T. evanescens, T. maidis, T. buesi that were manually released three times: the first release, 10.000 individuals/ha, the second, 120.000 individuals/ha and the third, 150.000 individuals/ha. The first release was performed at the beginning of the Lepidoptera flight, the second at the maximum flight and the third 5 days after the second. The efficiency of T. maidis was between 75-90%, of T. evanescens, it was between 73-88%, of T. dendrolimi, it was between 85-92% and of T. buesi 79-82%. Among the Trichogramma species utilized, T. dendrolimi and T. evanescens were very efficient in the reduction of mentioned pests. Root production was significantly higher compared to the untreated variant, 4,0-4,7 t/ha more were recorded after the application of biological treatments with T. evanescens and T. dendrolimi.

  2. Interferometric method to determine the Kerr constant of perspex and ZnSe

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, P

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available , (1999). [2] T. K. Ishii and A. Griffis, “Measurement of electro-optic effects in acrylic plastic”, Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 4, 387-389(1991). [3] W. Kucharczyk, M. J. Gunning, R. E. Raab and C. Graham, “Interferometric investigation... to Determine the Kerr Constant of Perspex Patricia Govender1, 2, Dr. V.W. Couling1 1 UKZN Pietermaritzburg, King Edward Avenue, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg 2 CSIR, DPSS, 3Meiring Naude Avenue Patricia Govender e-mail address: pgovender...

  3. "Material interactions": from atoms & bits to entangled practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna

    This panel addresses some of the core aspects of the theme "It's the experience", for the CHI2012 conference by focusing on the materials that constitute the foundation for interaction with computers. We take a series of questions as a joint point of departure to consider the nature and character...... and intellectually stimulating panel moderated by Prof. Mikael Wiberg consisting of a number of scholars with a well-developed view on digital materialities to fuel a discussion on material interactions - from atoms & bits to entangled practices. These scholars include: Prof. Hiroshi Ishii, Prof. Paul Dourish...

  4. Japanese-South African collaboration to mitigate seismic risks in deep gold mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ogasawara, H

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available in horizontal positions measured at the reef level. The tabular reef dips 26.5 deg toward SSE. Solid square: AE sensor, white square and circle: 25kHz accelerometer and hydrophone, respectively, thick lines: boreholes with Ishii borehole strainmeter near... in southern Africa. Figure 10 illustrates the layout of the network. The SANSN is equipped with low-frequency instrumentation appropriate for the recording of large events. Stations of the SANSN were upgraded during 2006 to meet international standards...

  5. Detection of Serum Lysophosphatidic Acids Using Affinity Binding and Surface Enhanced Laser Deorption/Ionization (SELDI) Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    structurally distant from the Edg family. J. Biol. Chem. 30 Apr 2003 [epub ahead of print]. Identification of the fourth LPA receptor, LPA4. 65. Contos, J. J...Ishii S, Shimizu T. 2003. Identification of p2y9/ GPR23 as a novel G protein-coupled receptor for lysopho- sphatidic acid, structurally distant from...coupled receptors requires metallopro- teinase cleavage of proHB-EGF. Nature 402:884–888. Pustilnik TB, Estrella V, Wiener JR, Mao M, Eder A, Watt MA

  6. Estilos y paradigmas de interacción persona-ordenador y sus posibilidades para el escenario educativo

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz, Cecilia Verónica; Gorga, Gladys; Artola, Verónica; Moralejo, Lucrecia; Salazar Mesía, Natalí; Archuby, Federico Héctor; Baldassarri Santalucía, Sandra; Manresa Yee, Cristina; Pesado, Patricia Mabel

    2017-01-01

    Las interfaces han ido evolucionando a lo largo de la historia de las Ciencias de la Computación. El diseño centrado en el usuario y el aprovechamiento del entorno físico, en el que las personas desarrollan sus actividades, se han vuelto eje de variedad de investigaciones (Weiser, 1991) (Ishii & Ullmer, 1993) (Milgram, Takemura, Utsumi & Kishino, 1994). Los paradigmas de interacción actuales proponen generar escenarios naturales de interacción, y tender puentes entre los objetos del entorno f...

  7. Parasitoid inventarisation of European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner, 1796 and options for its biological control in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka RAZINGER

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis (ECB is an important maize pest in central and northern Europe. Presently it is controlled by insecticides or biological agents such as Trichogramma brassicae in several European countries, excluding Slovenia, where the pest’s pressure is highly variable and no appropriate mechanization is available. Lessening the dependence on chemical pesticides is an integral part of the European Union’s agenda for agriculture. Mass release of Trichogramma spp. could be seen as a promising alternative for ECB control in countries with a highly fluctuating ECB pressure and no mechanization for insecticide applications. However, no records of naturally occurring hymenopteran parasitoids of ECB exist in Slovenia. To address this important under-researched topic and provide the expert basis for potential introduction of ECB egg parasitoids in Slovene maize production, a systematic inventarisation programme of ECB parasitoids was launched in 2010. Additionally, ECB flight was monitored in 2011 and 2012 at two locations in Slovenia: Jablje and Rakičan. In both locations two ECB generations  were observed. ECB was fist observed at the end of May in Rakičan. During the five years of the systematic survey we discovered two ECB parasitoid species. ECB egg masses were parasitized by Trichogramma brassicae, whereas ECB pupae were parasitized by Tycherus nigridens, with 6 or 7 % parasitation rate, respectively. T. nigridens represents a new taxon report for Slovenia. We conclude that there is a strong need for undertaking systematic surveys of natural enemies of agricultural pests.

  8. Effects of Interplanting Flowering Plants on the Biological Control of Corn Earworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Sweet Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manandhar, Roshan; Wright, Mark G

    2016-02-01

    Natural enemy exploitation of food resources and alternative hosts in noncrop vegetation has been shown to be an effective means of enhancing natural enemy populations in diversified agro-ecosystem. Field trials were conducted in Hawaii to examine effects of interplanting flowering plants on 1) parasitism of corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) eggs by Trichogramma spp., and 2) abundance of Orius spp. in relation to prey (H. zea eggs and thrips [primarily, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Frankliniella williamsi Hood]). Sweet corn (maize), Zea mays L., was interplanted with three flowering plants, buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.), and sunn hemp, Crotolaria juncea L., at 2:1 and 4:1 (corn: flowering plant) ratios in 2009 and 2010, respectively. In 2009, the abundance of Orius spp. was significantly greater in the buckwheat-interplanted treatment compared to the monocrop control at similar levels of prey availability, indicating buckwheat flowers might have provided both prey and nectar resources. In 2010, cowpea and sunn hemp flowering plants provided a source of an alternate host insect's eggs for Trichogramma spp. oviposition, resulting in significantly higher parasitism of H. zea eggs in the cowpea- and sunn hemp-interplanted treatments compared to the monocrop control. Despite of differences in pest and natural enemy interactions in two field trials, our findings suggested that provisioning of an alternate host insect's eggs through flowering plants is an effective means for enhancing Trichogramma spp. and provisioning of both nectar and prey resources through flowering plants is important for enhancing predation by Orius spp. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Impulsive Biological Pest Control Strategies of the Sugarcane Borer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marat Rafikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an impulsive biological pest control of the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis by its egg parasitoid Trichogramma galloi based on a mathematical model in which the sugarcane borer is represented by the egg and larval stages, and the parasitoid is considered in terms of the parasitized eggs. By using the Floquet theory and the small amplitude perturbation method, we show that there exists a globally asymptotically stable pest-eradication periodic solution when some conditions hold. The numerical simulations show that the impulsive release of parasitoids provides reliable strategies of the biological pest control of the sugarcane borer.

  10. Tabela de vida de fertilidade de três espécies neotropicais de Trichogrammatidae em ovos de hospedeiros alternativos como critério de seleção hospedeira Fertility life table of three neotropical species of Trichogrammatidae on factitious hosts as a criterion for selection of hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivia da Silva Dias

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Tabela de vida de fertilidade de três espécies neotropicais de Trichogrammatidae em ovos de hospedeiros alternativos como critério de seleção hospedeira. O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar o hospedeiro alternativo que permita o melhor desenvolvimento das três espécies neotropicais de tricogramatídeos, Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983; Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja, 1983 e Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis, 1972, utilizando-se como parâmetro comparativo as tabelas de vida de fertilidade nos respectivos hospedeiros. Foram estimados a duração média de uma geração (T, taxa líquida de reprodução (Ro, razão infinitesimal (r m e a razão finita de aumento (λ. A tabela de vida de fertilidade pode ser utilizada para selecionar o hospedeiro alternativo mais adequado para as espécies de tricogramatídeos. Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton, 1865 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae foi o hospedeiro alternativo mais adequado para criação de T. annulata e de T. bruni, enquanto que para T. atopovirilia, Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae e/ou C. cephalonica foram os hospedeiros mais adequados. Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier, 1819 (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae apresentou baixa capacidade de aumento populacional para as três espécies de parasitóides, sendo, portanto, uma espécie inadequada como hospedeiro alternativo para as mesmas.The objective of this work was to select the factitious host that permit the best development of three neotropical Trichogrammatidae species, Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983; Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja, 1983, and Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis, 1972, using the fertility life table on their respective hosts as a comparative parameter. Mean generation time (T, net reproductive rate (Ro, intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m and the finite rate of increase (λ were estimated. A fertility life table is useful to select the most adequate factitious hosts for the

  11. Chemical communication: butterfly anti-aphrodisiac lures parasitic wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatouros, Nina E; Huigens, Martinus E; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel; Hilker, Monika

    2005-02-17

    To locate their hosts, parasitic wasps can 'eavesdrop' on the intraspecific chemical communications of their insect hosts. Here we describe an example in which the information exploited by the parasitic wasp Trichogramma brassicae is a butterfly anti-aphrodisiac that is passed from male to female Pieris brassicae butterflies during mating, to render them less attractive to conspecific males. When the tiny wasp detects the odour of a mated female butterfly, it rides on her (Fig. 1) to her egg-laying sites and then parasitizes the freshly laid eggs. If this fascinating strategy is widespread in nature, it could severely constrain the evolution of sexual communication between hosts.

  12. Mortality of the defoliator Euselasia eucerus (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) by biotic factors in an Eucalyptus urophylla plantation in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanuncio, José C; Torres, Jorge B; Sediyama, Camilla A Z; Pereira, Fabricio F; Pastori, Patrik L; Wermelinger, Eduardo D; Ramalho, Francisco S

    2009-03-01

    Euselasia eucerus (Hewitson, 1872) (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) is a Brazilian native species commonly found in Eucalyptus plantations. Biotic mortality factors of this defoliator were studied in a Eucalyptus urophylla plantation in Minas Gerais State, Brazil aiming to identify natural enemies and their impact on this insect. Euselasia eucerus had biotic mortality factors during all development stages. The most important were Trichogramma maxacalii Voegelé and Pointel, 1980 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) during egg stage (48.9%), a tachinid fly (Diptera: Tachinidae) during larval stages (10%) and Itoplectis sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) during pupal stage (52.2%). The parasitism rate was higher in the basal part of the plant canopy (37.8%).

  13. SELECTIVIDAD DEL INSECTICIDA CARTAP EMPLEANDO BIOENSAYOS CON ORGANISMOS NO DESTINATARIOS

    OpenAIRE

    Iannacone, José; Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal (Perú).; Alvariño, Lorena; Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal (Perú).

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de la presente investigación fue evaluar la ecotoxicidad del cartap (Bala® 50 PS) sobre ocho organismos animales no destinatarios: 1) Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774) (Mollusca), 2) Emerita analoga (Stimpson, 1857) (Crustácea), 3) Chironomus calligraphus Goeldi, 1805 (Diptera), 4) Cyprinus carpio (Linné, 1758) (Osteichyties), 5) Eisenia foetida (Savigny, 1826) (Annelida), 6) Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas, 1851) (Hemiptera), 7) Trichogramma fuentesi Torre, 1980 (Hymenoptera) y 8...

  14. Void fraction for gas bubbling in shallow viscous pools-application to molten core concrete interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Journeau, C.; Haquet, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    During Molten Core-Concrete Interaction, the concrete will release gases (mainly steam and carbon oxides) that will flow through the corium pool. To obtain reliable heat transfer prediction, it is necessary to model the void fraction in the pool as a function of the gas mass flow (or superficial velocity at the interface). A series of simulant-materials have been performed with water-air and sugar syrup-air in order to study how the drift model could be applied to a shallow pool (where the bubbly flow is not fully developed) and to liquids which are more viscous (with higher Morton numbers) than water. The bubble average diameter was estimated around 3 mm with spherical to ellipsoidal shapes. For all the configurations, even with the shallowest pools (6 cm height for 38 cm diameter) the experimental void fractions follow the drift-model relationship. In water, the distribution coefficient C 0 tends to the classical value of 1.2 while the drift velocity V jg tends to the 23 cm/s predicted by Ishii (1975) model for churn flows. For the more viscous syrup, the drift velocity tends to 13 cm/s which is significantly lower than the value obtained from the Ishii correlation for bubbly or churn flows (established for water). These results are then applied to MCCI experimental configurations. (authors)

  15. Comparative Genomics of a Parthenogenesis-Inducing Wolbachia Symbiont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Amelia R. I.; Werren, John H.; Richards, Stephen; Stouthamer, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Wolbachia is an intracellular symbiont of invertebrates responsible for inducing a wide variety of phenotypes in its host. These host-Wolbachia relationships span the continuum from reproductive parasitism to obligate mutualism, and provide a unique system to study genomic changes associated with the evolution of symbiosis. We present the genome sequence from a parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia strain (wTpre) infecting the minute parasitoid wasp Trichogramma pretiosum. The wTpre genome is the most complete parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia genome available to date. We used comparative genomics across 16 Wolbachia strains, representing five supergroups, to identify a core Wolbachia genome of 496 sets of orthologous genes. Only 14 of these sets are unique to Wolbachia when compared to other bacteria from the Rickettsiales. We show that the B supergroup of Wolbachia, of which wTpre is a member, contains a significantly higher number of ankyrin repeat-containing genes than other supergroups. In the wTpre genome, there is evidence for truncation of the protein coding sequences in 20% of ORFs, mostly as a result of frameshift mutations. The wTpre strain represents a conversion from cytoplasmic incompatibility to a parthenogenesis-inducing lifestyle, and is required for reproduction in the Trichogramma host it infects. We hypothesize that the large number of coding frame truncations has accompanied the change in reproductive mode of the wTpre strain. PMID:27194801

  16. Comparative Genomics of a Parthenogenesis-Inducing Wolbachia Symbiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Amelia R I; Werren, John H; Richards, Stephen; Stouthamer, Richard

    2016-07-07

    Wolbachia is an intracellular symbiont of invertebrates responsible for inducing a wide variety of phenotypes in its host. These host-Wolbachia relationships span the continuum from reproductive parasitism to obligate mutualism, and provide a unique system to study genomic changes associated with the evolution of symbiosis. We present the genome sequence from a parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia strain (wTpre) infecting the minute parasitoid wasp Trichogramma pretiosum The wTpre genome is the most complete parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia genome available to date. We used comparative genomics across 16 Wolbachia strains, representing five supergroups, to identify a core Wolbachia genome of 496 sets of orthologous genes. Only 14 of these sets are unique to Wolbachia when compared to other bacteria from the Rickettsiales. We show that the B supergroup of Wolbachia, of which wTpre is a member, contains a significantly higher number of ankyrin repeat-containing genes than other supergroups. In the wTpre genome, there is evidence for truncation of the protein coding sequences in 20% of ORFs, mostly as a result of frameshift mutations. The wTpre strain represents a conversion from cytoplasmic incompatibility to a parthenogenesis-inducing lifestyle, and is required for reproduction in the Trichogramma host it infects. We hypothesize that the large number of coding frame truncations has accompanied the change in reproductive mode of the wTpre strain. Copyright © 2016 Lindsey et al.

  17. Comparative Genomics of a Parthenogenesis-Inducing Wolbachia Symbiont

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia R. I. Lindsey

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Wolbachia is an intracellular symbiont of invertebrates responsible for inducing a wide variety of phenotypes in its host. These host-Wolbachia relationships span the continuum from reproductive parasitism to obligate mutualism, and provide a unique system to study genomic changes associated with the evolution of symbiosis. We present the genome sequence from a parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia strain (wTpre infecting the minute parasitoid wasp Trichogramma pretiosum. The wTpre genome is the most complete parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia genome available to date. We used comparative genomics across 16 Wolbachia strains, representing five supergroups, to identify a core Wolbachia genome of 496 sets of orthologous genes. Only 14 of these sets are unique to Wolbachia when compared to other bacteria from the Rickettsiales. We show that the B supergroup of Wolbachia, of which wTpre is a member, contains a significantly higher number of ankyrin repeat-containing genes than other supergroups. In the wTpre genome, there is evidence for truncation of the protein coding sequences in 20% of ORFs, mostly as a result of frameshift mutations. The wTpre strain represents a conversion from cytoplasmic incompatibility to a parthenogenesis-inducing lifestyle, and is required for reproduction in the Trichogramma host it infects. We hypothesize that the large number of coding frame truncations has accompanied the change in reproductive mode of the wTpre strain.

  18. Risk of egg parasitoid attraction depends on anti-aphrodisiac titre in the large cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huigens, Martinus E; de Swart, Erik; Mumm, Roland

    2011-04-01

    Males of a variety of insects transfer an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone to females during mating that renders them less attractive to conspecific males. In cabbage white butterflies, the transfer of an anti-aphrodisiac can result in the unwanted attraction of tiny egg parasitoid wasps of the genus Trichogramma that hitch-hike with mated female butterflies to a host plant where they parasitize the freshly laid butterfly eggs. Here, we show that the anti-aphrodisiac benzyl cyanide (BC) of the large cabbage white Pieris brassicae is depleted by frequent display of the mate-refusal posture that signals a female's unreceptivity to mating. This depletion of BC is ecologically important because it results in a reduced risk of attracting the hitch-hiking egg parasitoid Trichogramma brassicae to mated female butterflies over time since mating. Our results indicate for the first time that a reduction in anti-aphrodisiac titre in mated females due to frequent adoption of the mate-refusal posture is beneficial to both mated females and males particularly when parasitoid pressure is high.

  19. Anti-aphrodisiac compounds of male butterflies increase the risk of egg parasitoid attack by inducing plant synomone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatouros, Nina E; Pashalidou, Foteini G; Aponte Cordero, Wilma V; van Loon, Joop J A; Mumm, Roland; Dicke, Marcel; Hilker, Monika; Huigens, Martinus E

    2009-11-01

    During mating in many butterfly species, males transfer spermatophores that contain anti-aphrodisiacs to females that repel conspecific males. For example, males of the large cabbage white, Pieris brassicae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), transfer the anti-aphrodisiac, benzyl cyanide (BC) to females. Accessory reproductive gland (ARG) secretion of a mated female P. brassicae that is deposited with an egg clutch contains traces of BC, inducing Brussels sprouts plants (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera) to arrest certain Trichogramma egg parasitoids. Here, we assessed whether deposition of one egg at a time by the closely related small cabbage white, Pieris rapae, induced B. oleracea var. gemmifera to arrest Trichogramma wasps, and whether this plant synomone is triggered by substances originating from male P. rapae seminal fluid. We showed that plants induced by singly laid eggs of P. rapae arrest T. brassicae wasps three days after butterfly egg deposition. Elicitor activity was present in ARG secretion of mated female butterflies, whereas the secretion of virgin females was inactive. Pieris rapae used a mixture of methyl salicylate (MeSA) and indole as an anti-aphrodisiac. We detected traces of both anti-aphrodisiacal compounds in the ARG secretion of mated female P. rapae, whereas indole was lacking in the secretion of virgin female P. rapae. When applied onto the leaf, indole induced changes in the foliar chemistry that arrested T. brassicae wasps. This study shows that compounds of male seminal fluid incur possible fitness costs for Pieris butterflies by indirectly promoting egg parasitoid attack.

  20. Mortality of the defoliator Euselasia eucerus (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae by biotic factors in an Eucalyptus urophylla plantation in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Zanuncio

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Euselasia eucerus (Hewitson, 1872 (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae is a Brazilian native species commonly found in Eucalyptus plantations. Biotic mortality factors of this defoliator were studied in a Eucalyptus urophylla plantation in Minas Gerais State, Brazil aiming to identify natural enemies and their impact on this insect. Euselasia eucerus had biotic mortality factors during all development stages. The most important were Trichogramma maxacalii Voegelé and Pointel, 1980 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae during egg stage (48.9%, a tachinid fly (Diptera: Tachinidae during larval stages (10% and Itoplectis sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae during pupal stage (52.2%. The parasitism rate was higher in the basal part of the plant canopy (37.8%.Euselasia eucerus (Hewitson, 1872 (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae é uma espécie brasileira nativa, comumente encontrada em plantios de Eucalyptus. Um estudo da mortalidade por fatores bióticos desse desfolhador foi feito em um plantio de Eucalyptus urophylla no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, com o objetivo de identificar os inimigos naturais e seu impacto sobre esse lepidóptero. Euselasia eucerus possui fatores bióticos de mortalidade durante todas as suas fases de desenvolvimento. Os mais importantes foram Trichogramma maxacalii Voegelé e Pointel, 1980 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae durante a fase de ovo (48,9%, um Diptera: Tachinidae durante a fase de larva (10% e Itoplectis sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae durante a fase pupal (52,2%. A taxa de parasitismo foi mais elevada na parte basal de plantas de eucalipto (37,8%.

  1. Assessment of a general methodology for the analysis of natural circulation stability with water at supercritical pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debrah, K. S.

    2014-07-01

    To advance nuclear energy to meet future energy needs, the concept of Super Critical Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR) as part or Generation IV (Gen IV) reactors was introduced with plans to deploy by 2030. Supercritical water-cooled reactors pose new challenges in stability and natural circulation phenomena at supercritical pressures because of the strong variability of thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties. ln this research, included in the frame work of the International Atomic Energy Agency (lAEA) fellowship and Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on H eat transfer Behavior and Thermo hydraulics Codes Testing for SCWRs , the natural circulation H 2 O experimental data at supercritical pressures of 25 MPa obtained at the China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) of China, was used to evaluate the predictions of different system codes: RELAP5/MOD3.3, STAR-CCM+ as well as three (3) different and independent developed in-house codes (Ishii-sup loop, NCLoop T ran and NCLoop L ine). Stability analyses of an idealized loop (loop equivalent to CIAE natural circulation loop) of uniform diameter equivalent to the CIAE natural circulation loop at 25 MPa was performed using RELAP5 and an in-house code (Ishii-sup Loop). It was found for both RELAP and Ishii-sup Loop that, when heat structures are accounted for in models equipped with heat transfer and friction correlations for 'normal' fluids, the comparison with experimental data is not completely satisfactory because the observed experimental oscillations were delayed in simulation. It has also been found that the stability margin was slightly earlier than the peak of the flow rate-power curve at a given inlet enthalpy. Results from STAR-CCM+ was also compared with results obtained with RELAP5 and the in-house code of NCLoop. Even though STAR-CCM+ predicted a lower flow rate than the in-house codes, all codes exhibited the ability to predict the instability and results from all codes compared favorably. Stability

  2. Which Types of Firms React More to a Tax Cut?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Tat-kei; Ng, Travis

    tax cut following the Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2003 and the pre-tax cut variations in the firms’ governance indexes (the Corporate Governance Index constructed by Gompers, Ishii, and Metrick, 2003, and the Entrenchment Index constructed by Bebchuk, Cohen, and Ferrel, 2009). We......The agency model of Chetty and Saez (2010) predicts that firms with stronger shareholder rights and a better market for corporate control are more responsive to a dividend tax cut in their dividend and investment policies. We test these predictions by exploiting the sudden and significant dividend...... find that firms with lower governance indexes raise dividends and reduce investment in response to the tax cut significantly more than firms with higher governance indexes. These differential reactions come from differences in corporate governance standards but not differences in ownership...

  3. Sensitivity enhancement using paramagnetic relaxation in MAS solid-state NMR of perdeuterated proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linser, Rasmus; Chevelkov, Veniamin; Diehl, Anne; Reif, Bernd

    2007-12-01

    Previously, Ishii et al., could show that chelated paramagnetic ions can be employed to significantly decrease the recycle delay of a MAS solid-state NMR experiment [N.P. Wickramasinghe, M. Kotecha, A. Samoson, J. Past, Y. Ishii, Sensitivity enhancement in C-13 solid-state NMR of protein microcrystals by use of paramagnetic metal ions for optimizing H-1 T-1 relaxation, J. Magn. Reson. 184 (2007) 350-356]. Application of the method is limited to very robust samples, for which sample stability is not compromised by RF induced heating. In addition, probe integrity might be perturbed in standard MAS PRE experiments due to the use of very short duty cycles. We show that these deleterious effects can be avoided if perdeuterated proteins are employed that have been re-crystallized from D 2O:H 2O = 9:1 containing buffer solutions. The experiments are demonstrated using the SH3 domain of chicken α-spectrin as a model system. The labeling scheme allows to record proton detected 1H, 15N correlation spectra with very high resolution in the absence of heteronuclear dipolar decoupling. Cu-edta as a doping reagent yields a reduction of the recycle delay by up to a factor of 15. In particular, we find that the 1H T1 for the bulk H N magnetization is reduced from 4.4 s to 0.3 s if the Cu-edta concentration is increased from 0 mM to 250 mM. Possible perturbations like chemical shift changes or line broadening due to the paramagnetic chelate complex are minimal. No degradation of our samples was observed in the course of the experiments.

  4. Consensuses and discrepancies of basin-scale ocean heat content changes in different ocean analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gongjie; Cheng, Lijing; Abraham, John; Li, Chongyin

    2018-04-01

    Inconsistent global/basin ocean heat content (OHC) changes were found in different ocean subsurface temperature analyses, especially in recent studies related to the slowdown in global surface temperature rise. This finding challenges the reliability of the ocean subsurface temperature analyses and motivates a more comprehensive inter-comparison between the analyses. Here we compare the OHC changes in three ocean analyses (Ishii, EN4 and IAP) to investigate the uncertainty in OHC in four major ocean basins from decadal to multi-decadal scales. First, all products show an increase of OHC since 1970 in each ocean basin revealing a robust warming, although the warming rates are not identical. The geographical patterns, the key modes and the vertical structure of OHC changes are consistent among the three datasets, implying that the main OHC variabilities can be robustly represented. However, large discrepancies are found in the percentage of basinal ocean heating related to the global ocean, with the largest differences in the Pacific and Southern Ocean. Meanwhile, we find a large discrepancy of ocean heat storage in different layers, especially within 300-700 m in the Pacific and Southern Oceans. Furthermore, the near surface analysis of Ishii and IAP are consistent with sea surface temperature (SST) products, but EN4 is found to underestimate the long-term trend. Compared with ocean heat storage derived from the atmospheric budget equation, all products show consistent seasonal cycles of OHC in the upper 1500 m especially during 2008 to 2012. Overall, our analyses further the understanding of the observed OHC variations, and we recommend a careful quantification of errors in the ocean analyses.

  5. Two-group interfacial area concentration correlations of two-phase flows in large diameter pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Xiuzhong; Hibiki, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The reliable empirical correlations and models are one of the important ways to predict the interfacial area concentration (IAC) in two-phase flows. However, up to now, no correlation or model is available for the prediction of the IAC in the two-phase flows in large diameter pipes. This study collected an IAC experimental database of two-phase flows taken under various flow conditions in large diameter pipes and presented a systematic way to predict the IAC for two-phase flows from bubbly, cap-bubbly to churn flow in large diameter pipes by categorizing bubbles into two groups (group-1: spherical and distorted bubble, group-2: cap bubble). Correlations were developed to predict the group-1 void fraction from the void fraction of all bubble. The IAC contribution from group-1 bubbles was modeled by using the dominant parameters of group-1 bubble void fraction and Reynolds number based on the parameter-dependent analysis of Hibiki and Ishii (2001, 2002) using one-dimensional bubble number density and interfacial area transport equations. A new drift velocity correlation for two-phase flow with large cap bubbles in large diameter pipes was derived in this study. By comparing the newly-derived drift velocity correlation with the existing drift velocity correlation of Kataoka and Ishii (1987) for large diameter pipes and using the characteristics of the representative bubbles among the group 2 bubbles, we developed the model of IAC and bubble size for group 2 cap bubbles. The developed models for estimating the IAC are compared with the entire collected database. A reasonable agreement was obtained with average relative errors of ±28.1%, ±54.4% and ±29.6% for group 1, group 2 and all bubbles respectively. (author)

  6. A phenomenological model of the thermal hydraulics of convective boiling during the quenching of hot rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.A.; Unal, C.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, a phenomenological model of the thermal hydraulics of convective boiling in the post-critical-heat-flux (post-CHF) regime is developed and discussed. The model was implemented in the TRAC-PF1/MOD2 computer code (an advanced best-estimate computer program written for the analysis of pressurized water reactor systems). The model was built around the determination of flow regimes downstream of the quench front. The regimes were determined from the flow-regime map suggested by Ishii and his coworkers. Heat transfer in the transition boiling region was formulated as a position-dependent model. The propagation of the CHF point was strongly dependent on the length of the transition boiling region. Wall-to-fluid film boiling heat transfer was considered to consist of two components: first, a wall-to-vapor convective heat-transfer portion and, second, a wall-to-liquid heat transfer representing near-wall effects. Each contribution was considered separately in each of the inverted annular flow (IAF) regimes. The interfacial heat transfer was also formulated as flow-regime dependent. The interfacial drag coefficient model upstream of the CHF point was considered to be similar to flow through a roughened pipe. A free-stream contribution was calculated using Ishii's bubbly flow model for either fully developed subcooled or saturated nucleate boiling. For the drag in the smooth IAF region, a simple smooth-tube correlation for the interfacial friction factor was used. The drag coefficient for the rough-wavy IAF was formulated in the same way as for the smooth IAF model except that the roughness parameter was assumed to be proportional to liquid droplet diameter entrained from the wavy interface. The drag coefficient in the highly dispersed flow regime considered the combined effects of the liquid droplets within the channel and a liquid film on wet unheated walls. 431 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Characterization of [3H]mazindol binding sites in cultured monkey amniotic epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwan, M A; Sakuragawa, N

    2000-01-21

    Our previous studies showed that monkey amniotic epithelial cells (MAEC) synthesize and release catecholamines and possess D1 and D2 dopamine (DA) receptors (Elwan, M.A., Ishii, T., Ono, F. and Sakuragawa, N., Evidence for the presence of dopamine D1 receptor mRNA and binding sites in monkey amniotic epithelial cells. Neurosci. Lett., 262 (1999) 9-12; Elwan, M.A., Ishii, T. and Sakuragawa, N., Detection of dopamine D2 receptor mRNA and binding sites in monkey amniotic epithelial cells. J. Neurosci. Res., 56 (1999) 316-322; Elwan, M.A., Thangavel, R., Ono, F. and Sakuragawa, N., Synthesis and release of catecholamines by cultured monkey amniotic epithelial cells. J. Neurosci. Res., 53 (1998) 107-113). In the present study we tested the presence of DA transporter (DAT) in MAEC using radioligand binding experiments. Saturation studies showed that [3H]mazindol binds to a high affinity site with K(D) and Bmax values of 7.85 +/- 1.25 nM and 123.22 +/- 18.34 fmol/mg protein, respectively. Competition studies indicated that selective DAT inhibitors are potent displacers of [3H]mazindol binding, compared to inhibitors of other types of transporters. The rank order of potency of the competing drugs is consistent with the pharmacology of DAT. These results provide, for the first time, clear evidence that MAEC natively possess DAT binding sites and suggest that MAEC may provide a potential primate cell model to study DA release and uptake processes and to explore new drugs active at this site.

  8. Relevamiento y evaluación de parasitoides de huevo para el control de Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae y Grapholita molesta (Lepidotera: Tortricideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar E. TORTOSA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el mes de octubre hasta el mes de abril de los años 2005-2006 y 2006-2007 realizamos la búsqueda e identificación de parasitoides de huevo de Cydia pomonella (L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae y Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepi - doptera: Tortricidae en tres sitios de Mendoza, Argentina. Trichogramma cacoe - ciae Marchal (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae fue colectado en huevos de las dos especies plagas, en todos los sitios del relevamiento, durante los dos ciclos de colecta. Se encontró Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogram - matidae solo en un sitio en el mes de diciembre de 2005. En los años 2008 y 2009 T. cacoeciae fue criado, liberado y evaluada su eficiencia en el control de C. pomonella y G. molesta a través del daño en los frutos. Realizamos dos ensayos de evaluación a campo en dos cultivos de peral orgánicos, en uno de ellos el daño promedio en frutos por C. pomonella y G. molesta fue de 5,07% ± 0,82 (testigo sin liberación 15,60% ± 4,73 y en el otro ensayo el daño promedio de ambas plagas fue de 1,92% ± 0,50 (testigo sin liberación 11,34 % ± 1,13. En ambos casos existi - eron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre tratamiento y testigo.

  9. Role of Large Cabbage White butterfly male-derived compounds in elicitation of direct and indirect egg-killing defenses in the black mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina E. Fatouros

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To successfully exert defenses against herbivores and pathogens plants need to recognize reliable cues produced by their attackers. Up to now, few elicitors associated with herbivorous insects have been identified. We have previously shown that accessory reproductive gland secretions associated with eggs of Cabbage White butterflies (Pieris spp. induce chemical changes in Brussels sprouts plants recruiting egg-killing parasitoids. Only secretions of mated female butterflies contain minute amounts of male-derived anti-aphrodisiac compounds that elicit this indirect plant defense. Here, we used the black mustard (Brassica nigra to investigate how eggs of the Large Cabbage White butterfly (P. brassicae induce, either an egg-killing direct (i.e. hypersensitive response (HR-like necrosis or indirect defense (i.e. oviposition-induced plant volatiles attracting Trichogramma egg parasitoids. Plants induced by P. brassicae egg-associated secretions expressed both traits and previous mating enhanced elicitation. Treatment with the anti-aphrodisiac compound of P. brassicae, benzyl cyanide, induced stronger HR when compared to controls. Expression of the salicylic (SA pathway- and HR-marker PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENE1 (PR1 was induced only in plants showing an HR-like necrosis. Trichogramma wasps were attracted to volatiles induced by secretion of mated P. brassicae females but application of benzyl cyanide did not elicit the parasitoid-attracting volatiles. We conclude that egg-associated secretions of Pieris butterflies contain specific elicitors of the different plant defense traits against eggs in Brassica plants. While in Brussels sprouts plants anti-aphrodisiac compounds in Pieris egg-associated secretions were clearly shown to elicit indirect defense, the wild relative B. nigra, recognizes different herbivore cues that mediate the defensive responses. These results add another level of specificity to the mechanisms by which plants recognize their

  10. As origens do judô brasileiro: a árvore genealógica dos medalhistas olímpicos Las orígenes del judo brasileño: el árbol genealogica de los ganadores de medallas olímpicas The roots of Brazilian judo, the genealogic tree from olympic medalists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Velly Nunes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil participou de todas as edições dos Jogos Olímpicos (JO no judô, nos quais 12 atletas brasileiros conquistaram medalhas. O objetivo deste estudo foi elaborar uma "árvore genealógica judoística" do judô brasileiro a partir destes medalhistas. A metodologia utilizada foi História Oral de Vida Híbrida. Foram entrevistados os 12 medalhistas brasileiros em JO e seus professores. Identificamos todos os formadores dos professores destes medalhistas, até encontrar os "genearcas", aqueles que chegaram ao Brasil com condições de transmitir estes conhecimentos. As informações obtidas com os entrevistados foram analisadas juntamente com outros documentos. Maeda e Satake foram os primeiros japoneses a chegar e fazer demonstrações de judô no Brasil, a partir de 1914. Ryuzo Ogawa, que fundou a Budokan em 1936, foi o genearca que influenciou o maior número destes atletas. O primeiro medalhista brasileiro, Chiaki Ishii, foi também um genearca, pois influenciou outros atletas e professores.Brasil ha participado en todas las ediciones de los Juegos Olímpicos (JO en judo, aunque 12 atletas brasileños ganaron medallas. El objetivo de este estudio fue preparar un árbol genealogica judoística de estos mismos medallistas olimpicos de judo. La historia oral de vida híbrida es la metodología utilizada. Entrevistamos a los 12 medallistas brasileños y sus entrenadores. Se identificaron todos los entrenadores formadores de estos medallistas también, hasta que encuentre los genearcas, que llegaran a Brasil y lograron hacer la transmisión de este conocimiento. La información obtenida de los encuestados fueron analizadas junto con otros documentos. Maeda y Satake fueron los primeros a llegar y dar demostraciones de judo en Brasil, desde 1914. Ryuzo Ogawa, quien fundó Budokan en 1936, fue el genearca que influyó el mayor número de estos atletas. El primer medallista brasileño, Chiaki Ishii, fue también un genearca al influir otros

  11. Huge deep-sea landslide in the Southern Mariana Trench landward slope: a preliminary report of the R/V Yokosuka & Shinkai 6500 YK15-11 Cruise -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, T.; Martinez, F.; Ohara, Y.; Oya, S.

    2016-12-01

    The R/V Yokosuka YK15-11 Cruise was done in 2015 for biological and geological survey using the Shinkai 6500 (=6K) along the southern Mariana Trench landward slope including the Shinkai Seep Field (Ohara et al, 2012, Proc. Nat. Aca. Sci. USA). We report here 6K1429 dive (observer; Ishii) on a huge submarine landslide terrain found in YK14-13 Cruise by mapping of a multi-beam sounder EM122. A small trench-parallel ridge with summit of 2300 m deep and 100 km long exists next to land side of the southwestern most Mariana Trench in collision zone of the Caroline Ridge against the Philippine Sea plate. The landslide terrain exists in the northern slope of the edifice, which is dipping toward a small basin with bottom of 5750 m deep and 70 km long. The terrain consists of two area. One is the shallow concave depression terrain of oval shape with 5 km wide, 6 km long and 600 m deep, ranging from 2700 m to 4500 m deep. The other is convex deposit terrain of fan shape with 5 7 km wide, 7 km long and 300 m high, ranging from 4500 m to 5650 m deep.The former may be induced by the deep landslide of bed rocks, while the latter may be deep sea fan or depositional mound of debris derived from the former. On the bases of EM122 data, the amount of the landslide debris was estimated as about 5 10 km3. A small tsunami might be induced by the landslide.6K1429 dive: 6K landed on the seafloor at 5645 m in the lowermost end of the mound, where she recovered serpentinized mantle peridotite and island arc type volcanic rock (hornblende andesite). Additional 4 serpentinites were collected from shallower 3 stops including final stop at 4108 m in the lower end of concave terrain. The edifice is composed of fore-arc peridotite, like serpentine seamount (Ishii, 1985, Terra Pub.) in Ogasawara forearc. The edifice was made by uplifting of forearc mantle with collision of the Caroline Ridge. During uplifting, a huge landslide occurred.

  12. An interfacial shear term evaluation study for adiabatic dispersed air–water two-phase flow with the two-fluid model using CFD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S.L., E-mail: sharma55@purdue.edu [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Hibiki, T.; Ishii, M. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Schlegel, J.P. [Department of Mining and Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States); Buchanan, J.R.; Hogan, K.J. [Bettis Laboratory, Naval Nuclear Laboratory, West Mifflin, PA (United States); Guilbert, P.W. [ANSYS UK Ltd, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Closure form of the interfacial shear term in three-dimensional form is investigated. • Assessment against adiabatic upward bubbly air–water flow data using CFD. • Effect of addition of the interfacial shear term on the phase distribution. - Abstract: In commercially available Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes such as ANSYS CFX and Fluent, the interfacial shear term is missing in the field momentum equations. The derivation of the two-fluid model (Ishii and Hibiki, 2011) indicates the presence of this term as a momentum source in the right hand side of the field momentum equation. The inclusion of this term is considered important for proper modeling of the interfacial momentum coupling between phases. For separated flows, such as annular flow, the importance of the shear term is understood in the one-dimensional (1-D) form as the major mechanism by which the wall shear is transferred to the gas phase (Ishii and Mishima, 1984). For gas dispersed two-phase flow CFD simulations, it is important to assess the significance of this term in the prediction of phase distributions. In the first part of this work, the closure of this term in three-dimensional (3-D) form in a CFD code is investigated. For dispersed gas–liquid flow, such as bubbly or churn-turbulent flow, bubbles are dispersed in the shear layer of the continuous phase. The continuous phase shear stress is mainly due to the presence of the wall and the modeling of turbulence through the Boussinesq hypothesis. In a 3-D simulation, the continuous phase shear stress can be calculated from the continuous fluid velocity gradient, so that the interfacial shear term can be closed using the local values of the volume fraction and the total stress of liquid phase. This form also assures that the term acts as an action-reaction force for multiple phases. In the second part of this work, the effect of this term on the volume fraction distribution is investigated. For testing the model two

  13. Multiple Geophysical Observations by a newly developed multi-component borehole instrument at the Continental Deep Drilling Site of the CCSD, Donghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J.; Zhao, Z.; Ishii, H.; Yamauchi, T.

    2004-12-01

    Multiple Geophysical Observations by a newly developed multi-component borehole instrument at the Continental Deep Drilling Site of the CCSD, Donghai, China Jiren Xu1 (+86-10-68992879; xujiren@ccsd.org.cn) Zhixin Zhao1 (+86-10-68999734; zhaozhixin@ccsd.org.cn) Hiroshi Ishii2 (+81-0572-67-3105; ishii@tries.gr.jp Tsuneo Yamauchi3 (+81-052-789-3045; yamauchi@seis.nagoya-u.ac.jp) 1 Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, China 2 Tono Research Institute of Earthquake Science (TRIES), Japan 3 Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Japan The Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) site is located in the Donghai area of the Dabie-Sulu belt, which is the largest UHPM belt in the world. The drilling of the main borehole with 5000m will finish in next year. Three satellite boreholes, PP1, PP2 and PP3 were drilled and various surveys have been performed in the Donghai area about 6 years ago. We are going to install a newly developed Multi-component Instrument for borehole observations in main hole near the large Tanlu fault, and establish a long-term underground observation laboratory, which is the first noiseless one in China. The seismic activity and various geophysical fields, viz. strain, geomagnetism, geothermy, tilt, pore pressure etc. will be investigated. Data from the underground laboratory will be open to scientific, engineering and public services. We will measure the initial stress in various depths of the borehole by overcoring method using a new developed wireless intelligent type strainmeter of in-situ stress. Establishing a long-term noiseless underground observation laboratory at deep borehole and investigating crustal movement in East China are important for observing the physical conditions of the earth¡_s interior and solving many social problems, such as resources, disasters and environment. Multiple geophysical observations and the study in deep borehole will speed up and develop the study on tectonics

  14. Phylogenetics and genetic diversity of the Cotesia flavipes complex of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), biological control agents of lepidopteran stemborers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Kate A; Murphy, Nicholas P; Sallam, Nader; Donnellan, Stephen C; Austin, Andrew D

    2012-06-01

    The Cotesia flavipes complex of parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are economically important for the biological control of lepidopteran stemboring pests associated with gramineous crops. Some members of the complex successfully parasitize numerous stemborer pest species, however certain geographic populations have demonstrated variation in the range of hosts that they parasitize. In addition, the morphology of the complex is highly conserved and considerable confusion surrounds the identity of species and host-associated biotypes. We generated nucleotide sequence data for two mtDNA genes (COI, 16S) and three anonymous nuclear loci (CfBN, CfCN, CfEN) for the C. flavipes complex. To analyze genetic variation and relationships among populations we used (1) concatenated mtDNA and nDNA data, (2) a nDNA multilocus network approach, and (3) two species tree inference methods, i.e. Bayesian estimation of species trees (BEST) and Bayesian inference of species trees from multilocus data with (*)BEAST. All phylogenetic analyses provide strong support for monophyly of the complex and the presence of at least four species, C. chilonis (from China and Japan), C. sesamiae (from Africa), C. flavipes (originating from the Indo-Asia region but introduced into Africa and the New World), and C. nonagriae (from Australia and Papua New Guinea). Haplotype diversity of geographic populations relates to historical biogeographic barriers and biological control introductions, and reflects previous reports of ecological variation in these species. Strong discordance was found between the mitochondrial and nuclear markers in the Papua New Guinea haplotypes, which may be an outcome of hybridization and introgression of C. flavipes and C. nonagriae. The position of Cotesia flavipes from Japan was not well supported in any analysis and was the sister taxon to C. nonagriae (mtDNA, (*)BEAST), C. flavipes (nDNA) or C. flavipes+C. nonagriae (BEST) and, may represent a cryptic species. The

  15. Short-term assessment of bt maize on non-target arthropods in Brazil Avaliação do efeito de milho bt sobre artrópodos não alvo no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odair Aparecido Fernandes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Although not yet available for cultivation in Brazil, the effect of Bt maize hybrids on natural enemies and soil dwelling arthropods should be assessed prior to its release to growers. Trials were carried out during one growing season in two different locations with the genetically modified maize hybrids 7590-Bt11 and Avant-ICP4, comparing with their respective non-Bt isogenic hybrids. Arthropods were evaluated through direct observation on plants and pitfall traps. In general, no differences were observed between populations of earwig (Dermaptera: Forficulidae, lady beetles (Coleptera: Coccinellidae, minute pirate bug (Coleoptera: Anthocoridae, ground beetles (Carabidae, tiger beetles (Cicindelidae, and spiders (Araneae. There was no difference in egg parasitism of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie by Trichogramma sp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae. Thus, Bt maize hybrids expressing insecticide proteins Cry1A(b and VIP 3A do not cause reduction of the main maize dweeling predators and parasitoids.Embora não haja cultivos comerciais de milho geneticamente modificado no Brasil, o efeito de híbridos de milho Bt sobre inimigos naturais e artrópodos de solo deve ser avaliado antes da liberação aos produtores. Assim, ensaios foram conduzidos durante uma safra em duas localidades. Os híbridos de milho modificado geneticamente 7590-Bt11 e Avant-ICP4 foram comparados com seus respectivos isogênicos não transgênicos. Os artrópodes foram avaliados através de observação direta nas plantas e armadilhas de alçapão. De modo geral, não se observaram diferenças entre as populações de tesourinha (Dermaptera: Forficulidae, joaninhas (Coleptera: Coccinellidae, percevejo-pirata (Coleoptera: Anthocoridae, carabídeos (Carabidae, cicindelídeos (Cicindelidae e aranhas (Araneae. Também não houve diferença no parasitismo de ovos de Helicoverpa zea (Boddie por Trichogramma sp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae. Assim, milho geneticamente modificado

  16. Parasitismo natural em ovos crisopídeos Natural egg parasitism of chrysopids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice de Medeiros

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Os predadores, em geral, apresentam hábitos generalistas e por isso podem ser usados em programas de controle biológico, em diferentes agroecossistemas. A sobrevivência dos predadores é afetada por diversos fatores, como, por exemplo, a presença de parasitóides. Este trabalho foi conduzido com os objetivos de identificar os parasitóides de crisopídeos, especialmente os parasitóides de ovos, e determinar o nível de parasitismo natural. As amostragens foram feitas na Embrapa Hortaliças, em campos de milho-doce, de setembro/1997 a fevereiro/1998. Os ovos de crisopídeos foram coletados semanalmente, sendo individualizados em cápsulas de gelatina até a emergência da larva e/ou do parasitóide. Foram coletados 800 ovos de crisopídeos, sendo que em 71% dos ovos, as larvas sobreviveram; 9% dos ovos foram considerados inviáveis e 20% foram parasitados por seis espécies de microhimenópteros. Destes, 57% foram parasitados por Telenomus sp. (Scelionidae, 32% por Trichogramma pretiosum (Trichogrammatidae, 6% por Oencyrtus chrysopae Crawford (Encyrtidae e 5% por Aprostocetus sp. (Eulophidae.Most predators, in general, have generalist habits and can be used as biological control agents in several crops. Predator survival is affected by several factors, such as occurrence of parasitoids. The main purpose of this research was to identify the parasitoids of chrysopids, especially egg parasitoids and their level of parasitism. The samples were taken in a sweet-corn field at Embrapa Hortaliças from September/1997 to February/1998. The chrysopids eggs were collected weekly and then individualized in gelatine capsules until larval or parasitoid emergency. A total of 800 eggs were collected. The predator emerged from 71% of the eggs, 9% were inviable eggs and the other 20% were parasitized by six species of microhymenopterans. Among these, 57% were parasitized by Telenomus sp. (Scelionidae, 32% were parasitized by Trichogramma pretiosum

  17. Insecticide effects of Ruta graveolens, Copaifera langsdorffii and Chenopodium ambrosioides against pests and natural enemies in commercial tomato plantation = Ação inseticida de Ruta graveolens, Copaifera langsdorffii e Chenopodium ambrosioides sobre pragas de tomate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Silva Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the insecticide effect of watery leaf extracts of Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae, alcoholic leaf extracts of Copaifera langsdorffii (Caesalpinaceae and Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae in the concentration of 5% under field conditions. The experiment design was randomized blocks with six replications. The parcels treated with plant extracts showed reduction in the population of pests when compared with the controlparcels. The extract elaborated with C. langsdorffii presented greater insecticidal effect under Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae and sum of pests. It was verified that after 24 hours ofspraying, the parcels treated with the extract of C. ambrosioides presented minor numbers of adults of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, followed by the parcels treated with extract of R.graveolens. There were smaller numbers of parasitoid eggs of epidopterans Trichogramma sp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae and sum of natural enemies (predators + parasitoids in the parcels that had received spraying with extracts from the plants of C. langsdorffii and C. ambrosioides, followed by R. graveolens, compared to the control. There were a smaller number of parasitoids from the family Eulophidae (Hymenoptera attacking caterpillars of T. absoluta in plants treated with R. graveolens, followed by C. langsdorffii and C. ambrosioides than in the control.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito inseticida dos extratos aquosos de folhas de Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae e alcoólicos de folhas de Copaifera langsdorffii (Caesalpinaceae e de folhas de Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae a 5%. O experimento foi em blocos casualizados com seis repetições. As parcelas tratadas tiveram redução na população de pragas, quando comparadas às parcelas sem nenhum tratamento. O extrato elaborado com C. langsdorffii apresentou maior efeito inseticida em Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae e soma das pragas

  18. Thermal Hydraulic Integral Effect Tests for Pressurized Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, W. P.; Song, C. H.; Kim, Y. S. and others

    2005-02-01

    The objectives of the project are to construct a thermal-hydraulic integral effect test facility and to perform various integral effect tests for design, operation, and safety regulation of pressurized water reactors. During the first phase of this project (1997.8∼2002.3), the basic technology for thermal-hydraulic integral effect tests was established and the basic design of the test facility was accomplished: a full-height, 1/300-volume-scaled full pressure facility for APR1400, an evolutionary pressurized water reactor that was developed by Korean industry. Main objectives of the present phase (2002.4∼2005.2), was to optimize the facility design and to construct the experimental facility. We have performed following researches: 1) Optimization of the basic design of the thermal-hydraulic integral effect test facility for PWRs - ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation) - Reduced height design for APR1400 (+ specific design features of KSNP safety injection systems) - Thermal-hydraulic scaling based on three-level scaling methodology by Ishii et al. 2) Construction of the ATLAS facility - Detailed design of the test facility - Manufacturing and procurement of components - Installation of the facility 3) Development of supporting technology for integral effect tests - Development and application of advanced instrumentation technology - Preliminary analysis of test scenarios - Development of experimental procedures - Establishment and implementation of QA system/procedure

  19. New possibility of traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine as treatment for behavioral and psychiatric symptoms in dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung FC

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fan-Chin Kung,1 Ryouhei Ishii,2 Hsing-Cheng Liu,3 Masatoshi Takeda21Yuli Hospital, DOH, Hualien, Taiwan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan; 3Department of General Psychiatry, Taipei City Psychiatric Center, Taipei, TaiwanAbstract: Yokukansan, one of the Kampo prescriptions, is composed of seven herbaceous plants and was developed in China in the 16th century as a cure for restlessness and agitation in children. Yokukansan has also become a popular drug combination in Japan, especially for the behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD. Recent studies have shown that yokukansan might also be quite effective against BPSD occurring in association with other types of dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body disease, Parkinson's disease with dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and vascular dementia. Researchers have intensively investigated yokukansan, focusing on the pharmacological mechanisms against glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity. This traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine holds potential promise for improving BPSD in elderly patients suffering from dementia.Keywords: yokukansan, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, Kampo, glutamate

  20. Basic Study for Active Nucleation Site Density Evaluation in Subcooled Flow Boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, In Cheol; Song, Chul Hwa

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have been performed on a active nucleation site density (ANSD) due to its governing influence on a heat transfer. However, most of the studies were focused on pool boiling conditions. Kocamustafaogullari and Ishii developed an ANSD correlation from a parametric study of the existing pool boiling data. Also, they extended the correlation to a convective flow boiling condition by adopting the nucleation suppression factor of Chen's heat transfer correlation. However, the appropriateness of applying the Chen's suppression factor to an ANSD correlation was not fully validated because there was not enough experimental data on ANSD in the forced convective flow boiling. Basu et al. performed forced convective boiling experiments and proposed a correlation of ANSD which is the only correlation based on experimental data for a forced convective boiling. They concluded that the ANSD is only dependent on the static contact angle and the wall superheat, and is independent of the flow rate and the subcooling, which contradict the general acceptance of the nucleation suppression in the forced convective boiling. It seems that no reliable ANSD correlation or model is available for a forced convective boiling. In the present study, the effect of the flow velocity on the suppression of the nucleation site was examined, and the effectiveness of a Brewster reflection technique for the identification of the nucleation site was also examined

  1. Analysis of two-phase flow instability in vertical boiling channels I: development of a linear model for the inlet velocity perturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D.H.; Yoo, Y.J.; Kim, K.K.

    1998-08-01

    A linear model, named ALFS, is developed for the analysis of two-phase flow instabilities caused by density wave oscillation and flow excursion in a vertical boiling channel with constant pressure drop conditions. The ALFS code can take into account the effect of the phase velocity difference and the thermally non-equilibrium phenomena, and the neutral boundary of the two-phase flow instability was analyzed by D-partition method. Three representative two-phase flow models ( i.e. HEM, DEM, and DNEM) were examined to investigate the effects on the stability analysis. As the results, it reveals that HEM shows the most conservative prediction of heat flux at the onset of flow instability. three linear models, Ishiis DEM, Sahas DNEM, and ALFS model, were applied to Sahas experimental data of density wave oscillation, and as the result, the mean and standard deviation of the predicted-to-measured heat flux at the onset of instability were calculated as 0.93/0.162, 0.79/0.112, and 0.95/0.143, respectively. For the long test section, however, ALFS model tends to predict the heat fluxes about 30 % lower than the measured values. (author). 14 refs

  2. Thermal Hydraulic Integral Effect Tests for Pressurized Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, W. P.; Song, C. H.; Kim, Y. S. and others

    2005-02-15

    The objectives of the project are to construct a thermal-hydraulic integral effect test facility and to perform various integral effect tests for design, operation, and safety regulation of pressurized water reactors. During the first phase of this project (1997.8{approx}2002.3), the basic technology for thermal-hydraulic integral effect tests was established and the basic design of the test facility was accomplished: a full-height, 1/300-volume-scaled full pressure facility for APR1400, an evolutionary pressurized water reactor that was developed by Korean industry. Main objectives of the present phase (2002.4{approx}2005.2), was to optimize the facility design and to construct the experimental facility. We have performed following researches: 1) Optimization of the basic design of the thermal-hydraulic integral effect test facility for PWRs - ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation) - Reduced height design for APR1400 (+ specific design features of KSNP safety injection systems) - Thermal-hydraulic scaling based on three-level scaling methodology by Ishii et al. 2) Construction of the ATLAS facility - Detailed design of the test facility - Manufacturing and procurement of components - Installation of the facility 3) Development of supporting technology for integral effect tests - Development and application of advanced instrumentation technology - Preliminary analysis of test scenarios - Development of experimental procedures - Establishment and implementation of QA system/procedure.

  3. ATLAS Facility Description Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kyoung Ho; Moon, Sang Ki; Park, Hyun Sik; Cho, Seok; Choi, Ki Yong

    2009-04-01

    A thermal-hydraulic integral effect test facility, ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation), has been constructed at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). The ATLAS has the same two-loop features as the APR1400 and is designed according to the well-known scaling method suggested by Ishii and Kataoka to simulate the various test scenarios as realistically as possible. It is a half-height and 1/288-volume scaled test facility with respect to the APR1400. The fluid system of the ATLAS consists of a primary system, a secondary system, a safety injection system, a break simulating system, a containment simulating system, and auxiliary systems. The primary system includes a reactor vessel, two hot legs, four cold legs, a pressurizer, four reactor coolant pumps, and two steam generators. The secondary system of the ATLAS is simplified to be of a circulating loop-type. Most of the safety injection features of the APR1400 and the OPR1000 are incorporated into the safety injection system of the ATLAS. In the ATLAS test facility, about 1300 instrumentations are installed to precisely investigate the thermal-hydraulic behavior in simulation of the various test scenarios. This report describes the scaling methodology, the geometric data of the individual component, and the specification and the location of the instrumentations in detail

  4. Nuclear magnetic resonance: A new tool for the validation of multiphase multidimensional CFD codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemonnier, H., E-mail: herve.lemonnier@cea.f [DTN/SE2T, CEA/Grenoble, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2010-09-15

    Turbulent transport models and data in bubbly flows are briefly reviewed since they play an important role in the modeling of boiling flows in forced convection. Shortcomings of earlier measurements of the eddy diffusivity by NMR (Lemonnier and Leblond, 2007b) are analyzed and a new procedure is presented which is now consistent with the procedure of Gatenby and Gore (1994) developed for single-phase turbulent flow characterization. The newly estimated eddy diffusivity agrees now with that previously obtained by Serizawa et al. (1975b) with a thermal method and that of the model of Sato and Sadatomi (1981). This procedure also provides the liquid velocity fluctuation RMS and the Lagrangian correlation time of velocity fluctuations. In addition, the same NMR technique provides also the area-averaged liquid velocity and void fraction. Bubbly flow data up to transition to slug flow are provided which also agree with existing drift-flux models (Ishii and Hibiki, 2006). It is finally discussed how the NMR method can be extended to local measurements and may provide a fully non-intrusive diagnostic in two-phase flows and which is not limited to bubbly flow.

  5. Design of Test Facility to Evaluate Boric Acid Precipitation Following a LOCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Jeong-Kwan; Song, Yong-Jae [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The U.S.NRC has identified a concern that debris associated with generic safety issue (GSI) - 191 may affect the potential precipitation of boric acid due to one or more of the following phenomena: - Reducing mass transport (i.e. mixing) between the core and the lower plenum (should debris accumulate at the core inlet) - Reduced lower plenum volume (should debris settle in the lower plenum), and, - Increased potential for boric acid precipitation (BAP) in the core (should debris accumulate in suspension in the core) To address these BAP issues, KHNP is planning to conduct validation tests by constructing a BAP test facility. This paper describes the design of test facility to evaluate BAP following a LOCA. The design of BAP test facility has been developed by KHNP. To design the test facility, test requirements and success criteria were established, and scaling analysis of power-to-volume method, Ishii-Kataoka method, and hierarchical two-tiered method were investigated. The test section is composed of two fuel assemblies with half of full of prototypic FA height. All the fuel rods are heated by the electric power supplier. The BAP tests in the presence of debris, buffering agents, and boron will be performed following the test matrix.

  6. An experimental study of two-phase natural circulation in an adiabatic flow loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, M.J.; Lambert, G.A.; Ishii, Mamoru.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the two-phase flow aspect of the phenomena of interruption and resumption of natural circulation, two-phase flow patterns and pattern transitions in the hot legs of B and W light water reactor systems. The test facility was a scaled adiabatic loop designed in accordance with the scaling criteria developed by Kocamustafaogullari and Ishii. The diameter and the height of the hot leg were 10 cm and 5.5 m, respectively; the working fluid pair was nitrogen-water. The effects of the thermal center in the steam generators, friction loss in the cold leg, and configuration of the inlet to the hot leg on the flow conditions in the hot leg were investigated by varying the water level in a gas separator, controlling the size of opening of a friction loss control valve, and using two inlet geometries. Methods for estimating the distribution parameter and the average drift velocity are proposed so that they may be used in the application of one-dimensional drift-flux model to the analysis of the interruption and resumption of natural circulation in a similar geometry. 7 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Beam size reduction of a several hundred-keV compact ion microbeam system by improving the extraction condition in an ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Yasuyuki; Ohkubo, Takeru; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Saitoh, Yuichi

    2015-04-01

    A several hundred-keV compact ion microbeam system with a three-stage acceleration lens has been developed to form an ion beam of several micrometers in diameter. In a previous study of the Ohkubo et al. (2013) and Ishii et al. (2014), a hydrogen beam of 143 keV having 17 μm diameter was experimentally formed using such a microbeam system. It was demonstrated that a three-stage acceleration lens functioned as a focusing lens and indicated that the beam diameter (hereinafter referred to as the “beam size”) depended on the extraction voltage to generate the ion beam and the vacuum pressure in the extraction space in a plasma-type ion source. In this study, the hydrogen beam sizes were experimentally measured at 130 keV as functions of the extraction voltage and vacuum pressure to form the beam size with several micrometers in diameter. These two relationships showed that beam sizes were reduced in the extraction voltage range of 400–500 V and when the vacuum pressure was lowered to a minimum value of 5.33 × 10{sup −5} Pa. In addition, the result showed that the beam size was dominantly influenced by the vacuum pressure. Consequently, a hydrogen beam 5.8 μm in diameter was formed experimentally—the smallest beam yet obtained.

  8. Experimental study on breakup and fragmentation behavior of molten material jet in complicated structure of BWR lower plenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Ryusuke; Abe, Yutaka; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the state of reactor pressure vessel of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, it is important to clarify the breakup and fragmentation of molten material jet in the lower plenum of boiling water reactor (BWR) by a numerical simulation. To clarify the effects of complicated structures on the jet behavior experimentally and validate the simulation code, we conduct the visualized experiments simulating the severe accident in the BWR lower plenum. In this study, jet breakup, fragmentation and surrounding velocity profiles of the jet were observed by the backlight method and the particle image velocimetry (PIV) method. From experimental results using the backlight method, it was clarified that jet tip velocity depends on the conditions whether complicated structures exist or not and also clarified that the structures prevent the core of the jet from expanding. From measurements by the PIV method, the surrounding velocity profiles of the jet in the complicated structures were relatively larger than the condition without structure. Finally, fragment diameters measured in the present study well agree with the theory suggested by Kataoka and Ishii by changing the coefficient term. Thus, it was suggested that the fragmentation mechanism was mainly controlled by shearing stress. (author)

  9. Impact of integrated pest management on the population of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Moacyr Mascarenhas Motta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of integrated pest management (IPM in the productivity of the tomato and in the populations of leafminers, fruit borers, and natural enemies in tomato crops. The treatments were calendar (spraying twice weekly with insecticides and fungicides, IPM (spraying when action thresholds were achieved, and control (no pesticide was applied. IPM was the most efficient system of pest control due to presenting similar productivity and 65.6% less pesticide applications than in the calendar. The attack of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae to the leaves only achieved the action threshold in the final phase of the cultivation. The main fruit borer was Neoleucinoides elegantalis (Guen. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, followed by T. absoluta and Spodoptera eridania (Cr. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. The natural enemy populations were severely reduced by excessive pesticide applications. Predators were more abundant than parasitoids. The most abundant predators were Araneidae, Anthicus sp. (Coleoptera: Anthicidae, Cycloneda sanguinea larva (L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, Staphylinidae adults (Coleoptera, Orius sp. and Xylocoris sp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae, Formicidae (Hymenoptera, and Phlaeothripidae (Thysanoptera. The most abundant parasitoids were Hymenoptera of the families Eulophidae, Braconidae (Bracon sp. and Chelonus sp., Trichogrammatidae [Trichogramma pretiosum (Riley] and Bethylidae (Goniozus nigrifemur Ashmead, besides Tachinidae (Diptera.

  10. Using parasitoid wasps in Integrated Pest Management in museums against biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum and webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Querner

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum and webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella cause much damage to museum objects. Some objects and materials are very attractive to these two pest species and objects are often re-infested after treatment. For some years parasitoid wasps have been used in biological pest control to treat and reduce infestations of stored product pests in food processing facilities. Their application in museums is still new and in a research stage. Results from five different museums in Germany and Austria and their application are presented. Lariophagus distinguendus wasps were released against Stegobium paniceum in the municipal library Augsburger Stadtarchiv (Germany, the Ethnological Museum in Berlin (Germany and the Picture Gallery in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna (Austria. Trichogramma evanescens were released against Tineola bisselliella in the Technisches Museum in Vienna (Austria and in the Deutsches Museum Verkehrszentrum in Munich (Germany. Results show that for active biscuit beetle infestations good results can be expected using the Lariophagus distinguendus in museums. Active clothes moth infestations are harder to treat but with a very regular and long-term exposure to the wasps, the clothes moth population can be reduced over the years. We see the application of parasitoid wasps as part of an Integrated Pest Management concept that should be used besides regular insect monitoring and other preventive measures. Difficulties, limitations and research needs in the application of parasitoid wasps in museums are discussed.

  11. Breaking Haller's rule: brain-body size isometry in a minute parasitic wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Woude, Emma; Smid, Hans M; Chittka, Lars; Huigens, Martinus E

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the animal kingdom, Haller's rule holds that smaller individuals have larger brains relative to their body than larger-bodied individuals. Such brain-body size allometry is documented for all animals studied to date, ranging from small ants to the largest mammals. However, through experimental induction of natural variation in body size, and 3-D reconstruction of brain and body volume, we here show an isometric brain-body size relationship in adults of one of the smallest insect species on Earth, the parasitic wasp Trichogramma evanescens. The relative brain volume constitutes on average 8.2% of the total body volume. Brain-body size isometry may be typical for the smallest species with a rich behavioural and cognitive repertoire: a further increase in expensive brain tissue relative to body size would be too costly in terms of energy expenditure. This novel brain scaling strategy suggests a hitherto unknown flexibility in neuronal architecture and brain modularity. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. POTENSI PARASITOID TELUR PENGGEREK BATANG PADI KUNING Scirpophaga incertulas Walker PADA BEBERAPA TIPOLOGI LAHAN DI PROVINSI JAMBI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Wilyus

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to analyze the diversity, dispersal and domination of the egg parasitoid species of the yellow rice stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas Walker on several land typologies in Jambi Province.  The study was conducted by survey method, from December 2010 until June 2011.  Samples of egg parasitoids of S. incertulas were collected by baiting parasitoids with eggs of S. incertulas.  The results of the research showed that there were three spesies of the egg parasitoids of S. incertulas found in Jambi Province, the most dominant was Telenomus rowani Gahan, followed by Trichogramma japonicum Ashmead and Tetrastichus schoenobii Ferriere. T. rowani and T. japonicum were found in all wetland ecosystems in Jambi Province (tidal swamp, swampy area, rainfed lowland, lowland technical irrigation, and upland technical irrigation, while T. schoenobii was found only in tidal swamp, swampy area, and lowland technical irrigation.  The highest species diversity of egg parasitoid of S. incertulas was found on tidal swamp (Shannon index 1.047, followed by swampy area, lowland technical irrigation, rainfed and upland technical irrigation area.  The average of proportion of egg masses parasitized by T. rowani, T. japonicum and T. Schoenobii were 22.58, 6.18 and 2.68% respectively. The average of individual eggs parasitized by T. rowani, T. schoenobii, and T. japnicum were 8.41, 1.67 and 1.47%   respectively.

  13. Reward value determines memory consolidation in parasitic wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruidhof, H Marjolein; Pashalidou, Foteini G; Fatouros, Nina E; Figueroa, Ilich A; Vet, Louise E M; Smid, Hans M; Huigens, Martinus E

    2012-01-01

    Animals can store learned information in their brains through a series of distinct memory forms. Short-lasting memory forms can be followed by longer-lasting, consolidated memory forms. However, the factors determining variation in memory consolidation encountered in nature have thus far not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that two parasitic wasp species belonging to different families, Cotesia glomerata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Trichogramma evanescens (Hymenoptera; Trichogrammatidae), similarly adjust the memory form they consolidate to a fitness-determining reward: egg-laying into a host-insect that serves as food for their offspring. Protein synthesis-dependent long-term memory (LTM) was consolidated after single-trial conditioning with a high-value host. However, single-trial conditioning with a low-value host induced consolidation of a shorter-lasting memory form. For Cotesia glomerata, we subsequently identified this shorter-lasting memory form as anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM) because it was not sensitive to protein synthesis inhibitors or anesthesia. Associative conditioning using a single reward of different value thus induced a physiologically different mechanism of memory formation in this species. We conclude that the memory form that is consolidated does not only change in response to relatively large differences in conditioning, such as the number and type of conditioning trials, but is also sensitive to more subtle differences, such as reward value. Reward-dependent consolidation of exclusive ARM or LTM provides excellent opportunities for within-species comparison of mechanisms underlying memory consolidation.

  14. Effects of pest control on aphids and theirs natural enemies in maize stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Psota

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the period of July to September 2005 effects of insecticide Integro with the effective substance methoxifenozide and biological preparation Trichoplus using parasitoid wasps Trichogramma evanescens and T. pintoi were evaluated in maize stands. These natural enemies of aphids were recorded in monitored fields (located in South Moravia, Czech Republic: parasitoids of genera Aphidius and Praon (Hymenopetra, Aphidiidae, predatory syrphid flies (Diptera, Syrphidae, ladybirds (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Orius bugs (Heteroptera, Anthocoridae, Green Lacewing – Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae and spiders (Araneida. No significant difference (T = 0.003; F = 4.894; P = 0.004 in popu­lations of aphids and their antagonists was found in the studied variants (Integro, Trichoplus. More remarkable differences were found only soon after spraying with Integro. Syrphid flies pupae decreased by 41% in the Integro variant, and by 13% in the Trichoplus variant. Ladybird larvae did not occur in the Integro variant after spraying, there where 0.12 ladybird larvae on plant in the Trichoplus variant. Number of ladybird adults increased from 0.01 to 0.53 individuals per plant in the Trichoplus variant, but from 0.03 to 0.1 individuals in the Integro variant. Number of ladybird pupae decreased from 0.32 to 0.02 pupae per plant in the Integro variant, but it has increased from 0.04 to 0.54 in the Trichoplus variant. Correlative relationship between ladybird adult growing coefficient and aphid populations in the Trichoplus variant was found.

  15. CONSERVANDO LA MARIPOSA MONARCA (Danaus plexippus L., CONSERVANDO ENEMIGOS NATURALES DE PLAGAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipólito Cortez-Madrigal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El potencial de la mariposa monarca ( Danaus plexippus L. como hospedera alterna de enemi - gos naturales de plagas, se investigó (marzo de 2012 a marzo de 2013 en una plantación de As - clepias curassavica L. en la Ciénega de Chapala, Villamar, Michoacán. Para ello, se colectaron muestras de huevos del fitófago y se incubaron en cajas Petri para el registro de parasitismo . Los resultados indican que D. plexippus estuvo presente durante todo el año en la región de estudio, con los niveles máximos de oviposturas durante agosto-diciembre. Trichogramma pretiosum Riley fue el pa - rasitoide predominante, con niveles de parasitismo hasta de 100 %; su mayor actividad coincidió con los niveles máximos de oviposturas del fitófago . La emergencia múltiple de parasitoides en cada huevo de la mariposa contribuye al incremento de las poblaciones de T. pretiosum en campo . Basados en ello, D. plexippus puede considerarse un excelente hospedero alterno de T. pretiosum, enemigo natural de lepidópteros plaga. Adicionalmente, la estrategia propuesta busca contribuir con la conservación e in - cremento de las poblaciones de la monarca, tanto mediante la conservación de su hospedera A. curassavica como por la eventual reducción en el uso de insecticidas para eliminar plagas.

  16. Interactions between extrafloral nectaries, ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and other natural enemies affect biological control of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on peach (Rosales: Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Clarissa R; Bottrell, Dale G; Brown, Mark W

    2011-02-01

    Extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) are reported to benefit some plants when ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) use their secretions and fend off herbivores, but in some cases resulting competitive interactions may reduce biological control of specific herbivores. This research examined the interactions between ants and other natural enemies associated with the EFNs of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batcsh] and the implications for biological control of a key pest, the oriental fruit moth [Grapholita molesta (Busck)]. Studies using sentinel G. molesta placed on peach trees ('Lovell' cultivar) with EFNs present and absent revealed that several natural enemy groups associated with the EFNs contribute to reductions in G. molesta eggs, larvae, and pupae in peach orchards. Ants on trees with EFNs antagonized the G. molesta egg parasitoid Trichogramma minutum (Riley), but the ants were crucial in reducing G. molesta in both the larval and pupal stages. Overall, individual trees with EFNs experienced higher ant and other (nonant) natural enemy densities and subsequent pest reductions, as compared with trees without EFNs. However, the implications of EFN-natural enemy-pest interactions to orchard-level biological control will likely depend on local G. molesta population dynamics. © 2011 Entomological Society of America

  17. Male-derived butterfly anti-aphrodisiac mediates induced indirect plant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatouros, Nina E; Broekgaarden, Colette; Bukovinszkine'Kiss, Gabriella; van Loon, Joop J A; Mumm, Roland; Huigens, Martinus E; Dicke, Marcel; Hilker, Monika

    2008-07-22

    Plants can recruit parasitic wasps in response to egg deposition by herbivorous insects-a sophisticated indirect plant defense mechanism. Oviposition by the Large Cabbage White butterfly Pieris brassicae on Brussels sprout plants induces phytochemical changes that arrest the egg parasitoid Trichogramma brassicae. Here, we report the identification of an elicitor of such an oviposition-induced plant response. Eliciting activity was present in accessory gland secretions released by mated female butterflies during egg deposition. In contrast, gland secretions from virgin female butterflies were inactive. In the male ejaculate, P. brassicae females receive the anti-aphrodisiac benzyl cyanide (BC) that reduces the females' attractiveness for subsequent mating. We detected this pheromone in the accessory gland secretion released by mated female butterflies. When applied onto leaves, BC alone induced phytochemical changes that arrested females of the egg parasitoid. Microarray analyses revealed a similarity in induced plant responses that may explain the arrest of T. brassicae to egg-laden and BC-treated plants. Thus, a male-derived compound endangers the offspring of the butterfly by inducing plant defense. Recently, BC was shown to play a role in foraging behavior of T. brassicae, by acting as a cue to facilitate phoretic transport by mated female butterflies to oviposition sites. Our results suggest that the anti-aphrodisiac pheromone incurs fitness costs for the butterfly by both mediating phoretic behavior and inducing plant defense.

  18. Influence of oviposition preference in reduced susceptibility of Ottawa Valley white spruce (picea glauce) to spruce budmoth (zeiraphera canadensis) in New Brunswick: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiring, D.T.; Butterworth, E.W.

    1995-12-31

    In New Brunswick, efforts to control populations of spruce budmoth by spraying adults with insecticides or pheromones have produced encouraging results. An alternative technique, the selection of less-susceptible spruce, would aid in the development of an integrated management program for this insect pest. Differences in spruce damage as revealed in previous studies could be due to oviposition choice and/or to host suitability. However, researchers must determine the distribution of eggs laid by the spruce budmoth before they can determine whether some families of spruce have low levels of damage because they are avoided by ovipositing females and/or because they are less suitable for egg and larval development. This report presents results from studies carried out to quantify the number of eggs laid on trees from different families. Investigators collected tree branch samples from plantations and a seed orchard in May, before bud burst or egg hatching commenced. They analysed variations in oviposition parameters (such as number of eggs and egg masses, number of eggs parasitized by Trichogramma minutum, and number of viable eggs) using analysis of variance. To determine whether differences in egg density were related to plant morphology, they also measured such parameters as shoot length and diameter, needle length, shot type, and needle density.

  19. A new Sigelgaita Heinrich (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae, Phycitinae feeding on cacti in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo F. Monteiro

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Description and biological aspects of a new species of Sigelgaita Heinrich, 1939, the first known to occur east of the Andes, S. cerei Becker, are presented. S. cerei larvae were collected on "restinga" ecosystems feeding on Pilosocereus arrabidae (Lem. Byles & Rowl. (Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba-Macaé and Área de Proteção Ambiental de Barra de Marica, Rio de Janeiro and rarely on Cereus obtusus Haw. (PNRJ. Life cycle and behavior of larvae are presented. Larvae are found singly on flower buds, on fruit or more frequently on stem of the plants. They build chambers in the cladodium where they complete their larval development, then droping to the ground in order to pupate. Trichogramma sp. was parasitizing 72% of eggs and a species of braconid was parasitizing half out of ten larvae collected from fruits of Cereus obtusus. S. cerei larvae develop a special role in the colonization and establishment of a diverse fauna associates with the hosts such as insects, spiders and yeasts. Ants, such as Camponotus crassus Mayr, 1862 and C. cingulatus Mayr, 1862 are among the insects which most frequently nest in the chambers abandoned by the larvae of this moth species.

  20. Numerical modelling of isothermal gas-liquid two-phase bubbly flow in vertical pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamoah, S.

    2014-07-01

    lubrication and turbulent dispersion force models. Overall, the comparison has shown that the MUSIG model yielded satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. The transition from wall peak to core peak gas volume fraction profiles has been successfully captured and encouraging results clearly exemplified the capability of the model in capturing the dynamical changes of bubble size due to coalescence and breakup processes. The observed agreement with the gas volume fraction profiles indicates a level of confidence in the interfacial force models (especially the lift coefficient model) used, while on the other hand, the agreement seen on the interfacial area concentration indicates that the birth and death processes modelled are reasonably adequate to describe the bubble dynamics. Nevertheless, noticeable discrepancies in simulating bimodal bubble size distributions were found revealing the plausible imperfection of existing coalescence and breakup kernels. Thirdly, the performance of the interfacial area transport equation has been assessed by implementing some typical constitutive models for bubble coalescence and breakup taken from literature. The interfacial area transport equation has been successfully implemented into the CFD code and the constitutive model formulations from Hibiki and Ishii (2000a), Wu et al. (1998) with coefficients from Ishii and Kim (2001) and Wang (2010) have been implemented and validated. The combined effects of lift and wall lubrication force have been investigated. Both models of the lATE source and sink terms were able to reasonably capture the experimental data especially the gas volume fraction profiles. More experimental and theoretical work needs to be done in this field to increase the prediction capability of the simulation tools regarding the distribution of the phases along the pipe radius. (au)

  1. Magnetic property based characterization of rust on weathering steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizoguchi, T.; Ishii, Y.; Okada, T.; Kimura, M.; Kihira, H.

    2005-01-01

    The characterization of rusts on weathering steels is important in understanding the origin of their corrosion resistance. Rust consists of several phases, e.g. α-, β- and γ-FeOOH, which are anti-ferromagnetic with different Neel temperatures. Rust on so-called advanced weathering steel containing 3 wt.% Ni [H. Kihira, A. Usami, K. Tanabe, M. Ito, G. Shigesato, Y. Tomita, T. Kusunoki, T. Tsuzuki, S. Ito, T. Murata, in: Proc. Symp. on Corrosion and Corrosion Control in Saltwater Environments, Honolulu, 1999, The Electrochemical Soc., pp. 127-136] contains in addition a ferrimagnetic spinel phase [M. Kimura, H. Kihira, Y. Ishii, T. Mizoguchi, in: Proc. 13th Asian-Pacific Corrosion Control Conference, Osaka, 2003; M. Kimura, H. Kihira, N. Ohta, M. Hashimoto, T. Senuma, Corros. Sci., this volume; M. Kimura, N. Ohta, H. Kihira, Mater. Trans. JIM, in press]. The nanostructure of real rust cannot be elucidated satisfactorily only with conventional analytical methods such as X-ray diffraction, because of the complex mixture of phases with fine and imperfect crystallites. Because of the short range of the super-exchange coupling between Fe ions in a solid, the magnetic properties can give information on local configurations even in the absence of perfect crystalline coherence. Therefore, the magnetic properties of rust samples were investigated in detail using a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometer and Moessbauer spectroscopy. SQUID magnetometry is effective to determine the quantity of the ferrimagnetic phase. The temperature dependence of the Moessbauer spectrum gives information about not only the fractions of the phases but also the distribution of grain volume, V, in each phase according to the super-paramagnetic relaxation effect. This approach has been applied to rust of conventional [T. Okada, Y. Ishii, T. Mizoguchi, I. Tamura, Y. Kobayashi, Y. Takagi, S. Suzuki, H. Kihira, M. Ito, A. Usami, K. Tanabe, K. Masuda, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39

  2. Development of objective flow regime identification method using self-organizing neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Nam Seok; Kwak, Nam Yee

    2004-01-01

    Two-phase flow shows various flow patterns according to the amount of the void and its relative velocity to the liquid flow. This variation directly affect the interfacial transfer which is the key factor for the design or analysis of the phase change systems. Especially the safety analysis of the nuclear power plant has been performed based on the numerical code furnished with the proper constitutive relations depending highly upon the flow regimes. Heavy efforts have been focused to identify the flow regime and at this moment we stand on relative very stable engineering background compare to the other research field. However, the issues related to objectiveness and transient flow regime are still open to study. Lee et al. and Ishii developed the method for the objective and instantaneous flow regime identification based on the neural network and new index of probability distribution of the flow regime which allows just one second observation for the flow regime identification. In the present paper, we developed the self-organized neural network for more objective approach to this problem. Kohonen's Self-Organizing Map (SOM) has been used for clustering, visualization, and abstraction. The SOM is trained through unsupervised competitive learning using a 'winner takes it all' policy. Therefore, its unsupervised training character delete the possible interference of the regime developer to the neural network training. After developing the computer code, we evaluate the performance of the code with the vertically upward two-phase flow in the pipes of 25.4 and 50.4 cmm I.D. Also, the sensitivity of the number of the clusters to the flow regime identification was made

  3. Simultaneous Inversion of Mantle Mode Splitting Coefficients for Vs, Vp and ρ Using the Neighbourhood Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousset, S. C.; Romanowicz, B.

    2003-12-01

    Unlike travel times or waveform data, normal mode data are directly sensitive to the density of the Earth. However, the sensitivity kernels for density are much smaller than those for velocities, so the controversy about the possibility of resolution of the mantle's density is vivid, especially since the publication of model SPRD6 (Ishii and Tromp, 1999) whose high density structures corresponding with the "plumes" under Pacific and Africa would have important consequences on deep mantle dynamics. Using least squares inversion, several authors (e.g. Resovsky and Ritzwoller, 1999, Kuo and Romanowicz, 2002) pointed out significant trade-offs between velocity and density structure. Using a stochastic method may end the controversy about the resolution of density by estimating the posterior probability density of the parameter space. Such an approach was used by Resovsky and Ritzwoller (2002) who concluded in the non resolution of the density but did not investigate further. Here we investigate the effect of other parameterizations and of an extended dataset (Widmer, 2002). In particular, we look at the possibility of resolving a spline-based shear velocity model and the scaling relations d(ln Vp)/d(ln Vs) and d(ln ρ )/d(ln Vs). We search for 3 scaling parameters (lowermost, middle and upper mantle) and allow spatial variations of these parameters as each degree 2 spherical harmonic coefficient is considered separately. We present the results of the sampling of the parameter space and of the appraising of the ensemble generated in the form of marginal probabilities for the different parameters.

  4. Simultaneous Inversion of Normal Mode Splitting Coefficients for Vs, Vp and ρ Using the Neighbourhood Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousset, S. C.; Romanowicz, B.

    2002-12-01

    Unlike travel times or waveform data, normal mode data are directly sensitive to the density of the Earth. However, the sensitivity kernels for density are much smaller than those for velocities, so the controversy about the possibility of resolution of the mantle's density is still vivid, especially since the publication of model SPRD6 (Ishii and Tromp, 1999) whose high density structures corresponding with the "plumes" under Pacific and Africa would have important consequences on deep mantle dynamics. Several authors ( Resovsky and Ritzwoller, 1999, 2002, Romanowicz, 2001, Kuo and Romanowicz, 2002) pointed out significant trade-offs between velocity and density structure and the controversy is still going. However the inversion procedures used in previous studies, with the exception of Resovsky and Ritzwoller (2002), all rely on least-squares inversions and require the use of a starting model, the choice of which is critical for the reliability of the results. Unlike such a simple inversion scheme the result of which is one "best" model, stochastic methods sample the parameter space, and their result is a set of models whose statistical properties reflect the likehood function. Here, in order to investigate the resolution of density in the lower mantle, we apply the Neighbourhood Algorithm (Sambridge, 1999a) which uses forward modeling to sample the parameter space preferentially where the fit is better. Our dataset consists of the ensemble of mantle-sensitive normal mode splitting coefficients currently available. We parametrize the models in depth using cubic spline functions and limit our study to lateral variations of degree 2. We present the results of the first stage, which samples the parameter space and gives qualitative results on the domain of best-fitting models. We also present preliminary results of the second (the appraising) stage of the algorithm (Sambridge, 1999b) which uses bayesian integrals to retrieve quantitative information (resolution

  5. Gene expression-based biological test for major depressive disorder: an advanced study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe S

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Shin-ya Watanabe,1 Shusuke Numata,1 Jun-ichi Iga,2 Makoto Kinoshita,1 Hidehiro Umehara,1 Kazuo Ishii,3 Tetsuro Ohmori1 1Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University Graduate School, Tokushima, 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Molecules and Function, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime, 3Department of Applied Biological Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: Recently, we could distinguished patients with major depressive disorder (MDD from nonpsychiatric controls with high accuracy using a panel of five gene expression markers (ARHGAP24, HDAC5, PDGFC, PRNP, and SLC6A4 in leukocyte. In the present study, we examined whether this biological test is able to discriminate patients with MDD from those without MDD, including those with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.Patients and methods: We measured messenger ribonucleic acid expression levels of the aforementioned five genes in peripheral leukocytes in 17 patients with schizophrenia and 36 patients with bipolar disorder using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and we combined these expression data with our previous expression data of 25 patients with MDD and 25 controls. Subsequently, a linear discriminant function was developed for use in discriminating between patients with MDD and without MDD.Results: This expression panel was able to segregate patients with MDD from those without MDD with a sensitivity and specificity of 64% and 67.9%, respectively.Conclusion: Further research to identify MDD-specific markers is needed to improve the performance of this biological test. Keywords: depressive disorder, biomarker, gene expression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder

  6. Experimental studies of flooding in nearly horizontal pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ki Yong

    1993-02-01

    To investigate the flooding phenomenon in nearly horizontal pipes the experimental studies are performed in the facility with the length of 2160mm, with three different inner diameters of 40mm, 60mm, and 70mm, and with the various inclination angles. Air and water approximately at room temperature and at atmospheric pressure are used as test fluids. The local void factions are measured by the three conductance probes located at the inlet, middle, and exit of water flow, respectively. Two mechanisms governing the transition to flooding are proposed. The effects of pipe end geometry, pipe diameter, and inclination angle are investigated and the comparisons with the slug formation models are conducted. It is found in this study that the transition to flooding is originated from two mechanisms i.e. 'wave instability' and 'high head flooding', and two regions (sub-critical and super-critical) coexist if the air flow increases up to a criticalvalue. It is observed that large roll waves are grown to the critical amplitude in the sub-critical region, does not show any dustive growth phenomenon. When the void fraction in the sub-critical region is used as the parameter for the flooding criterion, Ishii's slug formation model predicts the data without systematid errors. On the other hand, when the voide fraction in the super-critical region is selected as the parameter, Taitel's slug formation model best fitsthe data. Data obtained in the condition of high head flooding are not in good agreement with the results predicted by the slug formation models. Also, the transition criterion to the onset of flooding is very sensitive to the inclination angle, and the effect of pipe end geometry on the onset of flooding is negligible

  7. Metazoan gill parasites of the Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus) (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) from the Mediterranean and their possible use as biological tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culurgioni, Jacopo; Mele, Salvatore; Merella, Paolo; Addis, Piero; Figus, Vincenza; Cau, Angelo; Karakulak, Firdes Saadet; Garippa, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    The gills of 63 specimens of the Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus) (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) from three localities of the Mediterranean (Sardinian, Tyrrhenian and Levantine Seas) were examined for metazoan parasites. The parasite fauna of T. thynnus from the Sea of Sardinia included 11 species: five didymozoid trematodes, three capsalid and one hexostomid monogeneans, and one caligid and one pseudocycnid copepods. Four didymozoids were found in fish from the Levantine Sea and only one didymozoid was recorded in fish from the Tyrrhenian Sea. Dividing the hosts into four size-groups (small, medium-sized, large and extra large), the pairwise comparison of prevalence and mean abundance of the new and literary data) showed differences according to host size. The differences in the composition of the parasitic faunas and in the prevalence of parasites, observed between the small tunas from the Tyrrhenian Sea and the medium-sized tunas from the Adriatic Sea, Levantine Sea and the North-East (NE) Atlantic Ocean, indicated that these groups form discrete units. The parasite fauna of the large tunas from the Sea of Sardinia is the richest among the bluefin tuna populations of the Mediterranean and the NE Atlantic, due to the presence of species not found elsewhere in bluefin tunas, such as Caligus coryphaenae Steenstrup et Lütken, 1861, Capsala magronum (Ishii, 1936) and C. paucispinosa (Mamaev, 1968). This fact and the prevalence of some parasites of this group (lower than those of medium-sized fish from the NE Atlantic and higher than the small and medium-sized tunas from the Mediterranean) suggest that the large-sized tuna group in the western Mediterranean is formed by Mediterranean resident tunas (poorly infected), and by tunas migrating from the Atlantic Ocean (heavily infected).

  8. Evaluation of a biosimilar granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (filgrastim XM02 for peripheral blood stem cell mobilization and transplantation: a single center experience in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimura H

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hideaki Yoshimura, Masaaki Hotta, Takahisa Nakanishi, Shinya Fujita, Aya Nakaya, Atsushi Satake, Tomoki Ito, Kazuyoshi Ishii, Shosaku Nomura First Department of Internal Medicine, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata, Osaka, Japan Background: Biosimilar granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF has recently been introduced into clinical practice. G-CSFs are used to mobilize CD34+ cells and accelerate engraftment after transplantation. However, in Asia, particularly in Japan, data for peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC mobilization by this biosimilar G-CSF are currently lacking. Therefore, the clinical efficacy and safety of biosimilar G-CSF for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation needs to be evaluated in a Japanese context.Materials and methods: The subjects included two groups of patients with malignant lymphoma and multiple myeloma. All patients received chemotherapy priming for the mobilization of PBSCs. All patients were treated with chemotherapy followed by the administration of either the biosimilar G-CSF, filgrastim XM02 (FBNK, or the originators, filgrastim, or lenograstim.Results: There were no significant differences among FBNK, filgrastim, and lenograstim treatments in the numbers of CD34+ cells in harvested PBSCs, the scores for granulocyte/macrophage colony forming units, or for malignant lymphoma and multiple myeloma patients evaluated as separate or combined cohorts. In addition, there were no significant differences in safety, side effects, complications, or the time to engraftment after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.Conclusion: Biosimilar FBNK shows the same efficacy and safety as originator G-CSFs for facilitating bone marrow recovery in Japanese malignant lymphoma and multiple myeloma patients undergoing stem cell transplantation. In addition, it is less expensive than the originators, reducing hospitalization costs. Keywords: G-CSF, biosimilar, peripheral blood stem cell, hematological

  9. Excessive visceral fat accumulation in advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furutate R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ryuko Furutate1, Takeo Ishii1,2, Ritsuko Wakabayashi1, Takashi Motegi1,2, Kouichi Yamada1,2, Akihiko Gemma2, Kozui Kida1,21Respiratory Care Clinic, Nippon Medical School, Kudan-Minami, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Infectious Diseases and Oncology, Nippon Medical School, Sendagi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Previous studies have suggested links between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, cardiovascular disease, and abdominal obesity. Although abdominal visceral fat is thought to be associated with cardiovascular risk factors, the degree of visceral fat accumulation in patients with COPD has not been directly studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the abdominal visceral fat accumulation and the association between visceral fat and the severity and changes in emphysema in COPD patients.Methods: We performed clinical and laboratory tests, including pulmonary function, dyspnea score, and the six-minute walking test in COPD patients (n = 101 and control, which included subjects with a smoking history but without airflow obstruction (n = 62. We used computed tomography to evaluate the abdominal visceral fat area (VFA, subcutaneous fat area (SFA, and the extent of emphysema.Results: The COPD group had a larger VFA than the control group. The prevalence of non-obese subjects with an increased VFA was greater in the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease Stages III and IV than in the other stages of COPD. The extent of emphysema was inversely correlated with waist circumference and SFA. However, VFA did not decrease with the severity of emphysema. VFA was positively correlated with the degree of dyspnea.Conclusion: COPD patients have excessive visceral fat, which is retained in patients with more advanced stages of COPD or severe emphysema despite the absence of obesity.Keywords: abdominal obesity, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphysema

  10. Study of the mass of the electron neutrino in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumi, Shinjiro; Maezawa, Hideki

    1996-02-01

    This report describes a study of the mass of the electron neutrino using electron capture in 163 Ho in Japan for the period from 1981 to 1994. This monograph has two purposes, one is to supplement the papers on the mass of the electron neutrino already published by us and another is to make a record on some details of our experiments for future. Electron capture in a nucleus takes place in a rather small space inside an atom, where atomic physics, nuclear physics and particle physics work closely together. Therefore, this study needed an intimate collaboration of atomic physicists, nuclear physicists and particle physicists. In addition, it was necessary for this study to use various fine techniques, including metallurgy, production of 163 Ho activity, micro-analysis by wet chemistry, isotope-dilution mass spectrometry, undulator radiation source technology, the soft X-ray monochromator technology, a counting technique for very intense soft X-rays and so on. As a result, our collaboration consisted of many researchers from various fields as follows; M. Ando, H. Arai, M. Fujioka, N. Hashimoto, H. Ikeda, Y. Inagaki, K. Ishii, K. Itoh, G. Izawa, O. Kawakami, S. Kishimoto, H. Kitamura, H. Maezawa, M. Maruyama, A. Masuda, K. Masumoto, A. Mikuni, T. Mizogawa, T. Mukoyama, F. Ochiai, T. Ohta, T. Omori, G. Rajasekaran, K. Sera, K. Shima, T. Shinozuka, P.M. Stefan, I. Sugai, H. Taketani, M. Yagi, and S. Yasumi. Without such an excellent collaboration, this study would not have been completed. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to Professor T. Sasaki for supporting this study and recommending the undulator beam line of 2.5 GeV Photon Factory Storage Ring as a light source to be used in the experiment. We also would like to thank Dr. A. Yagishita and Dr. Y. Kitajima who are responsible for the BL-2 beamline. Finally we are grateful to Ms. M. Noji for her patient typewriting of manuscripts written by hand. (author)

  11. Experimental study of aerosol reentrainment from flashing pool in ALPHA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, T.; Yamano, N.; Moriyama, K.; Maruyama, Y.; Sugimoto, J.

    1994-01-01

    Aerosol reentrainment experiments are being performed as a part of the ALPHA (Assessment of Loads and Performance of Containment in a Hypothetical Accident) program at JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute). The major objective of the experiments is to quantify and characterize the reentrainment of the dissolved material from a flashing pool during the rapid depressurization of a reactor containment vessel. Two experiments were performed. In the experiments a water pool dissolving sodium sulfate as FP simulant was located in the model containment vessel and the containment breach area was simulated with an orifice with 24 mm diameter. This orifice was estimated to give the same order of depressurization rate as the case of BWR Mark 1 containment failure with most likely breach size. In the first experiment ARE001, a pool water of 800 kg dissolving 50 kg of sodium sulfate was employed. The model containment was depressurized from 1.5 MPa to 0.1 MPa in approximately 45 minutes. In the second experiment ARE002, the mass of the pool water was reduced to 400 kg dissolving 25 kg of sodium sulfate. The internal pressure of the containment was decreased from 1.3 MPa to 0.1 MPa in approximately 40 minutes. At the beginning of the depressurization the pool water was heated to the saturation temperature at the internal pressure of the containment. The entrained droplets were sampled during depressurization period. Sodium sulfate deposited in all parts of the test facility was collected and weighed after the experiments. Results of the experiments showed that very small fraction of the dissolved material (less than 0.03%) was reentrained although approximately, 20% of water was evaporated from the pool water. The reentrained mass predicted with the Kataoka-Ishii model was approximately 1/110 of the mass evaluated in the experiments. This may be due to multi-dimensional features of the pool geometry. (author)

  12. Survey on lower urinary tract symptoms and sleep disorders in patients treated at urology departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nobutaka Shimizu,1 Yasuharu Nagai,1 Yutaka Yamamoto,1 Takafumi Minami,1 Taiji Hayashi,1 Hidenori Tsuji,1 Masahiro Nozawa,1 Kazuhiro Yoshimura,1 Tokumi Ishii,1 Hirotsugu Uemura,1 Takashi Oki,2 Koichi Sugimoto,2 Kazuhiro Nose,2 Tsukasa Nishioka21Department of Urology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka, Japan; 2Department of Urology, Sakai Hospital, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka, JapanObjectives: This study examined the association between sleep disorders and lower urinary tract symptoms in patients who had visited urology departments.Methods: This was an independent cross-sectional, observational study. Outpatients who had visited the urology departments at the Kinki University School of Medicine or the Sakai Hospital, Kinki University School of Medicine, between August 2011 and January 2012 were assessed using the Athens Insomnia Scale and the International Prostate Symptom Score.Results: In total, 1174 patients (mean age, 65.7 ± 13.7 years, with 895 men (67.1 ± 13.2 years old and 279 women (61.4 ± 14.6 years old, were included in the study. Approximately half of these patients were suspected of having a sleep disorder. With regard to the International Prostate Symptom Score subscores, a significant increase in the risk for suspected sleep disorders was observed among patients with a post-micturition symptom (the feeling of incomplete emptying subscore of ≥1 (a 2.3-fold increase, a storage symptom (daytime frequency + urgency + nocturia subscore of ≥5 (a 2.7-fold increase, a voiding symptom (intermittency + slow stream + hesitancy subscore of ≥2 (a 2.6-fold increase, and a nocturia subscore of ≥2 (a 1.9-fold increase.Conclusion: The results demonstrated that the risk factors for sleep disorders could also include voiding, post-micturition, and storage symptoms, in addition to nocturia.Keywords: lower urinary tract symptoms, sleep disturbance, urological disease

  13. Effects of insecticides used in Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B control and their selectivity to natural enemies in soybean cropEfeitos dos inseticidas utilizados no controle de Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B e sua seletividade aos inimigos naturais na cultura da soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Silva Vieira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent crop seasons, the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B has become a serious pest in soybean crops due to high infestations and its control difficulties. Therefore, it is important to search control alternatives in the integrated pest management approach. Thus, it was evaluated in this study the efficacy of the whitefly control using different insecticides in greenhouse conditions and their selectivity to the parasitoids Encarsia formosa, Trichogramma pretiosum and Telenomus remus. Buprofezin 150 g. a.i.ha-1 + mineral oil 0.2% v/v and pyriproxyfen 100 g. a.i.ha-1 were considered the best options for the whitefly management due to combine good pest control efficacy with higher selectivity to the parasitoids except Encarsia formosa for which no treatment was classified as harmless. Betacyflutrin 9.375 + imidacloprid 75 g. i.a. ha-1 was efficient on controlling whiteflies nymphs but was not harmless to the studied natural enemies. In general, the treatments including pyretroids compounds (betacyflutrin 9.375 + imidacloprid 75 + spiromesifen 60, betacyflutrin 9.375 + imidacloprid 75 and lambda-cyhalothrin 26.5 + thiametoxan 35.25 g. a.i. ha-1 were the most harmful to the evaluated parasitoids and therefore it use should be avoid whenever possible. Nas últimas safras a mosca-branca, Bemisia tabaci biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae tornou-se praga de importância econômica para a cultura da soja devido à ocorrência de altas infestações e à dificuldade de controle desta praga. Sendo assim, é importante buscar alternativas de manejo com base em um programa de manejo integrado de pragas. Assim, avaliaram-se neste trabalho a eficiência de diferentes inseticidas no controle da mosca-branca em casa-de-vegetação e a seletividade destes aos parasitoides Encarsia formosa, Trichogramma pretiosum e Telenomus remus. Buprofezina 150 g i.a. ha-1 + óleo mineral 0,2% v/v e piriproxifem 100 g. i.a. ha-1 foram consideradas as melhores opções para

  14. Decrease of memory retention in a parasitic wasp: an effect of host manipulation by Wolbachia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishani Farahani, Hossein; Ashouri, Ahmad; Goldansaz, Seyed Hossein; Shapiro, Martin S; Pierre, Jean-Sebastien; van Baaren, Joan

    2017-08-01

    Several factors, such as cold exposure, aging, the number of experiences and viral infection, have been shown to affect learning ability in different organisms. Wolbachia has been found worldwide as an arthropod parasite/mutualist symbiont in a wide range of species, including insects. Differing effects have been identified on physiology and behavior by Wolbachia. However, the effect of Wolbachia infection on the learning ability of their host had never previously been studied. The current study carried out to compare learning ability and memory duration in 2 strains of the parasitoid Trichogramma brassicae: 1 uninfected and 1 infected by Wolbachia. Both strains were able to associate the novel odors with the reward of an oviposition into a host egg. However, the percentage of females that responded to the experimental design and displayed an ability to learn in these conditions was higher in the uninfected strain. Memory duration was longer in uninfected wasps (23.8 and 21.4 h after conditioning with peppermint and lemon, respectively) than in infected wasps (18.9 and 16.2 h after conditioning with peppermint and lemon, respectively). Memory retention increased in response to the number of conditioning sessions in both strains, but memory retention was always shorter in the infected wasps than in the uninfected ones. Wolbachia infection may select for reduced memory retention because shorter memory induces infected wasps to disperse in new environments and avoid competition with uninfected wasps by forgetting cues related to previously visited environments, thus increasing transmission of Wolbachia in new environments. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. NEW INSIGHTS OF SIDE-EFFECTS OF TAU-FLUVALINATE ON BIOLOGICAL AGENTS AND POLLINATORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterk, G M K M; Kolokytha, P D

    2015-01-01

    A high number of side-effects trials were developed and carried out on beneficial insects and mites by the 'Side-effects on beneficial organisms' IOBC working group and subsequently published in the IOBC bulletins over a number of years. In general, these tests were mainly carried out under laboratory and/or semi-field conditions following the very worst case scenario applications, leading to an IOBC classification of 3 (moderately toxic) and 4 (harmful) for many of the tested compounds However, feedback from applications under practical conditions, often indicated that the published results were far from realism for a number of compounds. Due to the fact that some of these active ingredients are still regularly used, or even growing in importance, a number of them were tested on many beneficial arthropods and pollinators and the upcoming results were compared with the registered IOBC data. Among these compounds, Tau-fluvalinate (Mavrik), a widely used synthetic pyrethroid against aphids, caterpillars and beetles in a large number of crops, was tested in the facilities of IPM Impact. While this compound was often considered as being very toxic for all beneficial organisms, slightly toxicity was shown on adults of Aphidius colemani (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae), and larvae of Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Anthocoris nemoralis (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae). However, the moderately toxicity or toxicity appeared on adults of Trichogramma brassicae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) as well as larvae of Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Episyrphus balteatus (Diptera: Syrphidae), was moderated by short persistence of less than 3 days. Concerning large earth bumblebee, Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae), the compound was characterized as completely safe, even when being sprayed in the full flight phase of the bumblebees. This indicates that for a high number of pollinator species and some of the most important beneficial insects, tau

  16. Evaluación de tres clases de trigo para la cría de Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae como hospedante utilizado en la cría de enemigos naturales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía M. MÉNDEZ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La estandarización de protocolos para la cría artificial es esencial para lograr una producción de insectos adecuada en calidad y cantidad. Los huevos de Sitotroga cerealella Olivier se utilizan para la cría de parasitoides del género Tricho- gramma. En el presente trabajo se evaluó el efecto de tres tipos de trigo (pan, can- deal, Klein Tauro sobre parámetros biológicos de la polilla y del parasitoide oófago Trichogramma nerudai (Pintureau & Gerding. La cría de la polilla se realizó sobre cada tipo de trigo y sobre los huevos obtenidos se evaluaron aspectos biológicos del parasitoide. Las clases de trigo se diferenciaron en la calidad de sus proteínas, lípidos y contenido de humedad. Para los distintas tipos de trigo se encontraron diferencias significativas en el porcentaje de emergencia, la fecundidad, el tiem- po de desarrollo y la proporción sexual de las polillas. No existieron diferencias significativas en el porcentaje de emergencia, fecundidad y proporción sexual de parasitoides criados sobre huevos de polillas procedentes de diferentes clases de trigo. El análisis de aminoácidos y lípidos, los resultados sobre la biología de la polilla y cierta tendencia observada en la fecundidad del parasitoide, sugieren que los trigos más adecuados para la cría son pan y candeal.

  17. INIMIGOS NATURAIS DE Alabama argillacea (HUEBB., EM REGIÕES COTONICULTORAS DO ESTADO DE GOIÁS AN EVALUATION OF SOME NATURAL ENEMIES Alabama argillacea (HUEBNER. 1818 IN THE GOIÁS STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislene A. Ferreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foram realizados, nos municípios de Goiânia e Itumbiara (GO, levantamentos e avaliações de parasitismo e predatismo de Alabama argillacea (Huebb. (Lep.; Noctuidae, em duas safras agrícolas. Os principais inimigos naturais desta praga foram: Trichogramma spp. e Pantelloa similis, parasitóides de ovos e de crisálidas, respectivamente, e Rhinacloa spp., Orius spp., Geocoris spp., Nabis spp., Podisus spp., Zellus sp., Crysoperla externa e Doru lineare, predadores de ovos e de crisálidas. Os resultados mostraram que a maior porcentagem de parasitismo de ovos ocorreu em abril (88%, e a predação de ovos (59% durante o mês de fevereiro, em Goiânia. Com relação às crisálidas, os maiores índices de parasitismo ocorreram no final do ciclo da cultura durante o mês de maio, com 63% em Goiânia e 68% em Itumbiara. Com referência à predação, constatou-se que as maiores percentagens ocorreram em fevereiro (38% e março (24% em Goiânia e Itumbiara, respectivamente. Os taquinídeos e trichogramatídeos podem controlar biologicamente o curuquerê do algodoeiro e auxiliar na manutenção de um nível populacional tolerável da praga.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Parasitóide;

  18. Uncertainty analysis of an interfacial area reconstruction algorithm and its application to two group interfacial area transport equation validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dave, A.J., E-mail: akshayjd@umich.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Rad. Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); Manera, A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Rad. Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); Beyer, M.; Lucas, D. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Fluid Dynamics, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Prasser, H.-M. [Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-12-15

    Wire mesh sensors (WMS) are state of the art devices that allow high resolution (in space and time) measurement of 2D void fraction distribution over a wide range of two-phase flow regimes, from bubbly to annular. Data using WMS have been recorded at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) (Lucas et al., 2010; Beyer et al., 2008; Prasser et al., 2003) for a wide combination of superficial gas and liquid velocities, providing an excellent database for advances in two-phase flow modeling. In two-phase flow, the interfacial area plays an integral role in coupling the mass, momentum and energy transport equations of the liquid and gas phase. While current models used in best-estimate thermal-hydraulic codes (e.g. RELAP5, TRACE, TRACG, etc.) are still based on algebraic correlations for the estimation of the interfacial area in different flow regimes, interfacial area transport equations (IATE) have been proposed to predict the dynamic propagation in space and time of interfacial area (Ishii and Hibiki, 2010). IATE models are still under development and the HZDR WMS experimental data provide an excellent basis for the validation and further advance of these models. The current paper is focused on the uncertainty analysis of algorithms used to reconstruct interfacial area densities from the void-fraction voxel data measured using WMS and their application towards validation efforts of two-group IATE models. In previous research efforts, a surface triangularization algorithm has been developed in order to estimate the surface area of individual bubbles recorded with the WMS, and estimate the interfacial area in the given flow condition. In the present paper, synthetically generated bubbles are used to assess the algorithm’s accuracy. As the interfacial area of the synthetic bubbles are defined by user inputs, the error introduced by the algorithm can be quantitatively obtained. The accuracy of interfacial area measurements is characterized for different bubbles

  19. Morphological and molecular characterization of Paragonimus caliensis Little, 1968 (Trematoda: Paragonimidae) from Medellin and Pichinde, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenis, Carolina; Galiano, Alicia; Vélez, Imelda; Vélez, Iván Darío; Muskus, Carlos; Marcilla, Antonio

    2018-03-26

    Paragonimiasis is a subacute to chronic inflammatory granulomatous lung disease caused by the genus Paragonimus. In Latin America Paragonimus mexicanus Miyazaki & Ishii, 1968 is the only confirmed species to cause human infections. Paragonimus caliensis Little, 1968 is an uncommon species often regarded as a synonym of P. mexicanus. Recently, the study of two types of Paragonimus metacercariae from Costa Rica has provided new molecular and morphological evidence that P. caliensis is a separate species from P. mexicanus. In the present study, molecular, morphological and phylogenetic tools have been used to characterize two populations of Paragonimus located at west of Medellin, Antioquia and at Pichinde, Valle del Cauca (type locality of P. caliensis), Colombia. Adults and metacercariae obtained from Medellin, and metacercariae from Pichinde were analyzed. For morphological observations we used light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Morphology of metacercariae and adults matched with the holotype of P. caliensis. The number and arrangement of sensory papillae in the acetabulum region differs from the morphotypes reported for P. caliensis in Costa Rica. Two morphotypes in branching patterns of ovary and two morphotypes in branching patterns of testes were identified. The main morphological differences between P. caliensis and P. mexicanus corresponded to the size of gonads and their relative positions in the body, and the occasional presence of a cyst wall in P. caliensis metacercariae. The molecular and phylogenetic analyses (using nuclear ribosomal ITS2 and partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 CO1 sequences) confirmed that P. caliensis from the type locality is the same species from Medellin and Costa Rica. Furthermore, these analyses also suggest genetic as well as geographical separation of P. caliensis populations between Colombia and Costa Rica. Currently, P. mexicanus and P. caliensis are sympatric in the Colombian Pacific bioregion, and

  20. Cardiac Sirt1 mediates the cardioprotective effect of caloric restriction by suppressing local complement system activation after ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tsunehisa; Tamaki, Kayoko; Shirakawa, Kohsuke; Ito, Kentaro; Yan, Xiaoxiang; Katsumata, Yoshinori; Anzai, Atsushi; Matsuhashi, Tomohiro; Endo, Jin; Inaba, Takaaki; Tsubota, Kazuo; Sano, Motoaki; Fukuda, Keiichi; Shinmura, Ken

    2016-04-15

    Caloric restriction (CR) confers cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. We previously found the essential roles of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the development of CR-induced cardioprotection and Sirt1 activation during CR (Shinmura K, Tamaki K, Ito K, Yan X, Yamamoto T, Katsumata Y, Matsuhashi T, Sano M, Fukuda K, Suematsu M, Ishii I. Indispensable role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in caloric restriction-induced cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury.Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 308: H894-H903, 2015). However, the exact mechanism by which Sirt1 in cardiomyocytes mediates the cardioprotective effect of CR remains undetermined. We subjected cardiomyocyte-specific Sirt1 knockout (CM-Sirt1(-/-)) mice and the corresponding control mice to either 3-mo ad libitum feeding or CR (-40%). Isolated perfused hearts were subjected to 25-min global ischemia, followed by 60-min reperfusion. The recovery of left ventricle function after I/R was improved, and total lactate dehydrogenase release into the perfusate during reperfusion was attenuated in the control mice treated with CR, but a similar cardioprotective effect of CR was not observed in the CM-Sirt1(-/-)mice. The expression levels of cardiac complement component 3 (C3) at baseline and the accumulation of C3 and its fragments in the ischemia-reperfused myocardium were attenuated by CR in the control mice, but not in the CM-Sirt1(-/-)mice. Resveratrol treatment also attenuated the expression levels of C3 protein in cultured neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. Moreover, the degree of myocardial I/R injury in conventional C3 knockout (C3(-/-)) mice treated with CR was similar to that in the ad libitum-fed C3(-/-)mice, although the expression levels of Sirt1 were enhanced by CR. These results demonstrate that cardiac Sirt1 plays an essential role in CR-induced cardioprotection against I/R injury by suppressing cardiac C3 expression. This is the first report suggesting

  1. Relationship between symmetry of porphyrinic pi-conjugated systems and singlet oxygen (1Delta g) yields: low-symmetry tetraazaporphyrin derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kazuyuki; Itoya, Hatsumi; Miwa, Hideya; Fujitsuka, Mamoru; Ito, Osamu; Kobayashi, Nagao

    2005-07-07

    We have investigated the excited-state properties and singlet oxygen ((1)Delta(g)) generation mechanism in phthalocyanines (4M; M = H(2), Mg, or Zn) and in low-symmetry metal-free, magnesium, and zinc tetraazaporphyrins (TAPs), that is, monobenzo-substituted (1M), adjacently dibenzo-substituted (2AdM), oppositely dibenzo-substituted (2OpM), and tribenzo-substituted (3M) TAP derivatives, whose pi conjugated systems were altered by fusing benzo rings. The S(1)(x) and S(1)(y) states (these lowest excited singlet states are degenerate in D(4)(h) symmetry) split in the low-symmetry TAP derivatives. The excited-state energies were quantitatively determined from the electronic absorption spectra. The lowest excited triplet (T(1)(x)) energies were also determined from phosphorescence spectra, while the second lowest excited triplet (T(1)(y)) states were evaluated by using the energy splitting between the T(1)(x) and T(1)(y) states previously reported (Miwa, H.; Ishii, K.; Kobayashi, N. Chem. Eur. J. 2004, 10, 4422-4435). The singlet oxygen quantum yields (Phi(Delta)) are strongly dependent on the pi conjugated system. In particular, while the Phi(Delta) value of 2AdH(2) is smallest in our system, that of 2OpH(2), an isomer of 2AdH(2), is larger than that of 4Zn, in contrast to the heavy atom effect. The relationship between the molecular structure and Phi(Delta) values can be transformed into a relationship between the S(1)(x) --> T(1)(y) intersystem crossing rate constant (k(ISC)) and the energy difference between the S(1)(x) and T(1)(y) states (DeltaE(S)(x)(T)(y)). In each of the Zn, Mg, and metal-free compounds, the Phi(Delta)/tau(F) values (tau(F): fluorescence lifetime), which are related to the k(ISC) values, are proportional to exp(-DeltaE(S)(x)(T)(y)), indicating that singlet oxygen ((1)Delta(g)) is produced via the T(1)(y) state and that the S(1)(x) --> T(1)(y) ISC process follows the energy-gap law. From the viewpoint of photodynamic therapy, our methodology

  2. Higher susceptibility of NOD/LtSz-scid Il2rg-/- NSG mice to xenotransplanted lung cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanaji N

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nobuhiro Kanaji,1 Akira Tadokoro,1 Kentaro Susaki,1 Saki Yokokura,1 Kiyomi Ohmichi,2 Reiji Haba,2 Naoki Watanabe,1 Shuji Bandoh,1 Tomoya Ishii,1 Hiroaki Dobashi,1 Takuya Matsunaga11Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology, Rheumatology and Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa, Japan; 2Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa, JapanPurpose: No lung cancer xenograft model using non-obese diabetic (NOD-scid Il2rg-/- mice has been reported. The purpose of this study is to select a suitable mouse strain as a xenogenic host for testing tumorigenicity of lung cancer.Materials and methods: We directly compared the susceptibility of four immunodeficient mouse strains, c-nu, C.B-17 scid, NOD-scid, and NOD/LtSz-scid Il2rg-/- (NSG mice, for tumor formation from xenotransplanted lung cancer cell lines. Various numbers (101–105 cells/head of two lung cancer cell lines, A549 and EBC1, were subcutaneously inoculated and tumor sizes were measured every week up to 12 weeks.Results: When 104 EBC1 cells were inoculated, no tumor formation was observed in BALB/c-nu or C.B-17 scid mice. Tumors developed in two of the five NOD-scid mice (40% and in all the five NSG mice (100%. When 103 EBC1 cells were injected, no tumors developed in any strain other than NSG mice, while tumorigenesis was achieved in all the five NSG mice (100%, P=0.0079 within 9 weeks. NSG mice similarly showed higher susceptibility to xenotransplantation of A549 cells. Tumor formation was observed only in NSG mice after inoculation of 103 or fewer A549 cells (40% vs 0% in 15 NSG mice compared with others, respectively, P=0.0169. We confirmed that the engrafted tumors originated from inoculated human lung cancer cells by immunohistochemical staining with human cytokeratin and vimentin.Conclusion: NSG mice may be the most suitable strain for testing tumorigenicity of lung cancer, especially if only a few cells

  3. Direct valorisation of waste cocoa butter triglycerides via catalytic epoxidation, ring-opening and polymerisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Dorota D; Strobel, Vinzent; Heer, Parminder Kaur Ks; Sellars, Andrew B; Hoong, Seng-Soi; Clark, Andrew J; Lapkin, Alexei A

    2017-09-01

    Development of circular economy requires significant advances in the technologies for valorisation of waste, as waste becomes new feedstock. Food waste is a particularly important feedstock, containing large variation of complex chemical functionality. Although most food waste sources are complex mixtures, waste from food processing, no longer suitable for the human food chain, may also represent relatively clean materials. One such material requiring valorisation is cocoa butter. Epoxidation of a triglyceride from a food waste source, processing waste cocoa butter, into the corresponding triglyceride epoxide was carried out using a modified Ishii-Venturello catalyst in batch and continuous flow reactors. The batch reactor achieved higher yields due to the significant decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in the laminar flow tubular reactor. Integral and differential models describing the reaction and the phase transfer kinetics were developed for the epoxidation of cocoa butter and the model parameters were estimated. Ring-opening of the epoxidised cocoa butter was undertaken to provide polyols of varying molecular weight (M w = 2000-84 000 Da), hydroxyl value (27-60 mg KOH g -1 ) and acid value (1-173 mg KOH g -1 ), using either aqueous ortho-phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ) or boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF 3 · OEt 2 )-mediated oligomerisation in bulk, using hexane or tetrahydrofuran (THF) as solvents. The thermal and tensile properties of the polyurethanes obtained from the reaction of these polyols with 4,4'-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) are described. The paper presents a complete valorisation scheme for a food manufacturing industry waste stream, starting from the initial chemical transformation, developing a process model for the design of a scaled-up process, and leading to synthesis of the final product, in this case a polymer. This work describes aspects of optimisation of the conversion route, focusing on clean synthesis and also demonstrates

  4. PREFACE: International Workshop on Statistical-Mechanical Informatics 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Jun-ichi; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Toshiyuki

    2010-04-01

    statistical mechanics and information science. Editors Jun-ichi Inoue Yoshiyuki Kabashima Kazuyuki Tanaka Toshiyuki Tanaka The IW-SMI 2010 Organizing Committee: Masato Okada (University of Tokyo) Yoshiyuki Kabashima, General Chair (Tokyo Institute of Technology) Shin Ishii (Kyoto University) Jun-ichi Inoue, Publications Chair (Hokkaido University) Kazuyuki Tanaka (Tohoku University) Toshiyuki Tanaka, Vice-General Chair (Kyoto University)

  5. Uncertainty analysis of an interfacial area reconstruction algorithm and its application to two group interfacial area transport equation validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, A.J.; Manera, A.; Beyer, M.; Lucas, D.; Prasser, H.-M.

    2016-01-01

    Wire mesh sensors (WMS) are state of the art devices that allow high resolution (in space and time) measurement of 2D void fraction distribution over a wide range of two-phase flow regimes, from bubbly to annular. Data using WMS have been recorded at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) (Lucas et al., 2010; Beyer et al., 2008; Prasser et al., 2003) for a wide combination of superficial gas and liquid velocities, providing an excellent database for advances in two-phase flow modeling. In two-phase flow, the interfacial area plays an integral role in coupling the mass, momentum and energy transport equations of the liquid and gas phase. While current models used in best-estimate thermal-hydraulic codes (e.g. RELAP5, TRACE, TRACG, etc.) are still based on algebraic correlations for the estimation of the interfacial area in different flow regimes, interfacial area transport equations (IATE) have been proposed to predict the dynamic propagation in space and time of interfacial area (Ishii and Hibiki, 2010). IATE models are still under development and the HZDR WMS experimental data provide an excellent basis for the validation and further advance of these models. The current paper is focused on the uncertainty analysis of algorithms used to reconstruct interfacial area densities from the void-fraction voxel data measured using WMS and their application towards validation efforts of two-group IATE models. In previous research efforts, a surface triangularization algorithm has been developed in order to estimate the surface area of individual bubbles recorded with the WMS, and estimate the interfacial area in the given flow condition. In the present paper, synthetically generated bubbles are used to assess the algorithm’s accuracy. As the interfacial area of the synthetic bubbles are defined by user inputs, the error introduced by the algorithm can be quantitatively obtained. The accuracy of interfacial area measurements is characterized for different bubbles

  6. [The experiments conducted by Japanese on human guinea pigs, and the use of biological weapons during the Sino-Japanese war (1937-1945)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatani, Sergio

    2014-09-01

    Starting from the end of the nineteenth century, and during the first four decades of the past century, Japan showed considerable military expansion, on the back of a pan-Asiatic and imperialistic ideology, comparable only to those expressed by Wilhelmian and Nazi Germany. This growth led to Japan playing an extremely important role in the Asia-Pacific continent, which unavoidably brought the country onto a collision course with the British Empire and the United States of America. The Japanese general Shiro Ishii, who had undoubted organisational abilities but also a propensity for crimes against mankind, starting from the end of the 1920s and during the subsequent decade, under the suggestion of a military physician, developed a research programme to obtain biological weapons, since he was aware of the lack of raw materials, technology and scientific background in nuclear weapons. This project was taken forward despite Japan's ratification of the Geneva protocol, undersigned by 70 nations, which posed strict limits to the use of both biological and chemical weapons. In actual fact, the protocol allowed these weapons for defensive purposes, and permitted their experimental development. The research programme, developed with the support of the high command of the Japanese army and certainly known by the Emperor (Tenno) Hirohito, had its operative basis from the year 1932 in the satellite state of Manchukuo, but later and paralleling the increased, aggressive behaviour towards China and the English and American colonies during World War II, spread towards other Asian provinces occupied by the Japanese armies, with other operative units. In these dedicated bases, which were true concentration camps, numerous experiments were carried out on human guinea pigs, frequently concluding with vivisection. Among others, experiments of freezing, thirst, hunger, loss of blood, wounding with firearms, and bone fractures, were performed, as well as the inoculation of

  7. Impact of the North Atlantic dipole on climate changes over Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serykh, Ilya

    2017-04-01

    Hydrophysical and meteorological characteristics of negative (1948-1976, 1999-2015) and positive (1977-1998) phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) / Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) in the North Atlantic and Eurasia are constructed and investigated. Specifically, the near-surface temperature, sea-level atmospheric pressure, wind speed, heat content of the upper 700 m ocean layer, water temperature and salinity at various depths, the latent and sensible heat fluxes from the ocean to the atmosphere are analyzed. The fields obtained from different sources (20thC_ReanV2c, ERA-20C, JRA-55, NCEP/NCAR, HadCRUT4, HadSLP2, NODC, Ishii, SODA, OAFlux, HadSST3, COBE2, ERSSTv4) are in good agreement and complement each other. This gives important information about the hydrometeorological conditions in the region under study. Analysis of these data has shown that in the upper 1000 m North Atlantic layer there is a thermal dipole which can be interpreted as an oceanic analog of the atmospheric North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). An index of the North Atlantic Dipole (NAD) as the difference between the mean heat contents in the upper 700 m oceanic layer between the regions (50°-70° N; 60°-10° W) and (20°-40° N; 80°-30° W) is proposed. A possible physical mechanism of the internal oscillations with a quasi-60-year period in the North Atlantics-Eurasia system of ocean-atmosphere interactions is discussed. Dipole spatial structure from observations datasets and re-analyses were compared with the results of the Historical Experiment from the climate models of the CMIP5 project. It is found that several climate models reproduce dipole spatial structure of the near-surface temperature and sea level pressure anomalies similarly to these fields in the re-analyses considered. However, the phase diagrams of the gradient of near-surface temperature and sea level pressure between the Azores High and Island Low from climate models do not separate on subsets as the

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of a human beta-Gal-3'-sulfotransferase that acts on both type 1 and type 2 (Gal beta 1-3/1-4GlcNAc-R) oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honke, K; Tsuda, M; Koyota, S; Wada, Y; Iida-Tanaka, N; Ishizuka, I; Nakayama, J; Taniguchi, N

    2001-01-05

    A novel sulfotransferase gene (designated GP3ST) was identified on human chromosome 2q37.3 based on its similarity to the cerebroside 3'-sulfotransferase (CST) cDNA (Honke, K., Tsuda, M., Hirahara, Y., Ishii, A., Makita, A., and Wada, Y. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 4864-4868). A full-length cDNA was obtained by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and 5'- and 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends analyses of human colon mRNA. The isolated cDNA clone predicts that the protein is a type II transmembrane protein composed of 398 amino acid residues. The amino acid sequence indicates 33% identity to the human CST sequence. A recombinant protein that is expressed in COS-1 cells showed no CST activity, but did show sulfotransferase activities toward oligosaccharides containing nonreducing beta-galactosides such as N-acetyllactosamine, lactose, lacto-N-tetraose (Lc4), lacto-N-neotetraose (nLc4), and Gal beta 1-3GalNAc alpha-benzyl (O-glycan core 1 oligosaccharide). To characterize the cloned sulfotransferase, a sulfotransferase assay method was developed that uses pyridylaminated (PA) Lc4 and nLc4 as enzyme substrates. The enzyme product using PA-Lc4 as an acceptor was identified as HSO(3)-3Gal beta 1-3GlcNAc beta 1-3Gal beta 1- 4Glc-PA by two-dimensional (1)H NMR. Kinetics studies suggested that GP3ST is able to act on both type 1 (Gal beta 1-3GlcNAc-R) and type 2 (Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc-R) chains with a similar efficiency. In situ hybridization demonstrated that the GP3ST gene is expressed in epithelial cells lining the lower to middle layer of the crypts in colonic mucosa, hepatocytes surrounding the central vein of the liver, extravillous cytotrophoblasts in the basal plate and septum of the placenta, renal tubules of the kidney, and neuronal cells of the cerebral cortex. The results of this study indicate the existence of a novel beta-Gal-3'-sulfotransferase gene family.

  9. Study of the mass of the electron neutrino in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumi, Shinjiro; Maezawa, Hideki [eds.

    1996-02-01

    This report describes a study of the mass of the electron neutrino using electron capture in {sup 163}Ho in Japan for the period from 1981 to 1994. This monograph has two purposes, one is to supplement the papers on the mass of the electron neutrino already published by us and another is to make a record on some details of our experiments for future. Electron capture in a nucleus takes place in a rather small space inside an atom, where atomic physics, nuclear physics and particle physics work closely together. Therefore, this study needed an intimate collaboration of atomic physicists, nuclear physicists and particle physicists. In addition, it was necessary for this study to use various fine techniques, including metallurgy, production of {sup 163}Ho activity, micro-analysis by wet chemistry, isotope-dilution mass spectrometry, undulator radiation source technology, the soft X-ray monochromator technology, a counting technique for very intense soft X-rays and so on. As a result, our collaboration consisted of many researchers from various fields as follows; M. Ando, H. Arai, M. Fujioka, N. Hashimoto, H. Ikeda, Y. Inagaki, K. Ishii, K. Itoh, G. Izawa, O. Kawakami, S. Kishimoto, H. Kitamura, H. Maezawa, M. Maruyama, A. Masuda, K. Masumoto, A. Mikuni, T. Mizogawa, T. Mukoyama, F. Ochiai, T. Ohta, T. Omori, G. Rajasekaran, K. Sera, K. Shima, T. Shinozuka, P.M. Stefan, I. Sugai, H. Taketani, M. Yagi, and S. Yasumi. Without such an excellent collaboration, this study would not have been completed. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to Professor T. Sasaki for supporting this study and recommending the undulator beam line of 2.5 GeV Photon Factory Storage Ring as a light source to be used in the experiment. We also would like to thank Dr. A. Yagishita and Dr. Y. Kitajima who are responsible for the BL-2 beamline. Finally we are grateful to Ms. M. Noji for her patient typewriting of manuscripts written by hand. (author).

  10. Anaerobic fungal populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookman, J.L.; Nicholson, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The development of molecular techniques has greatly broadened our view of microbial diversity and enabled a more complete detection and description of microbial communities. The application of these techniques provides a simple means of following community changes, for example, Ishii et al. described transient and more stable inhabitants in another dynamic microbial system, compost. Our present knowledge of anaerobic gut fungal population diversity within the gastrointestinal tract is based upon isolation, cultivation and observations in vivo. It is likely that there are many species yet to be described, some of which may be non-culturable. We have observed a distinct difference in the ease of cultivation between the different genera, for example, Caecomyes isolates are especially difficult to isolate and maintain in vitro, a feature that is likely to result in the under representation of this genera in culture-based enumerations. The anaerobic gut fungi are the only known obligately anaerobic fungi. For the majority of their life cycles, they are found tightly associated with solid digesta in the rumen and/or hindgut. They produce potent fibrolytic enzymes and grow invasively on and into the plant material they are digesting making them important contributors to fibre digestion. This close association with intestinal digesta has made it difficult to accurately determine the amount of fungal biomass present in the rumen, with Orpin suggesting 8% contribution to the total microbial biomass, whereas Rezaeian et al. more recently gave a value of approximately 20%. It is clear that the rumen microbial complement is affected by dietary changes, and that the fungi are more important in digestion in the rumens of animals fed with high-fibre diets. It seems likely that the gut fungi play an important role within the rumen as primary colonizers of plant fibre, and so we are particularly interested in being able to measure the appearance and diversity of fungi on the plant

  11. The effectiveness of habitat modification schemes for enhancing beneficial insects: Assessing the importance of trap cropping management approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisnawati, Indah; Azis, Abdul

    2017-06-01

    . Three specific predator species were found on habitat modification field, i.e.: Crocothemis servilia, Orthetrum sabina and Paratrechina sp., as well as specific parasitoid species, i.e.: Polistes sp. (vegetative stage), Chloromyia sp., Theronia sp., Sarcophaga sp. and Cletus sp (generative stage), Condylodtylus sp., Trichogramma sp. (reproductive stage). Trends in predator abundance toward parasitoid insects were indicated a positive linear trend, with the abundance of predator on habitat modification field has an influence on the level of 67.1% parasitoid.

  12. An Indirect Defence Trait Mediated through Egg-Induced Maize Volatiles from Neighbouring Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M Mutyambai

    Full Text Available Attack of plants by herbivorous arthropods may result in considerable changes to the plant's chemical phenotype with respect to emission of herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs. These HIPVs have been shown to act as repellents to the attacking insects as well as attractants for the insects antagonistic to these herbivores. Plants can also respond to HIPV signals from other plants that warn them of impending attack. Recent investigations have shown that certain maize varieties are able to emit volatiles following stemborer egg deposition. These volatiles attract the herbivore's parasitoids and directly deter further oviposition. However, it was not known whether these oviposition-induced maize (Zea mays, L. volatiles can mediate chemical phenotypic changes in neighbouring unattacked maize plants. Therefore, this study sought to investigate the effect of oviposition-induced maize volatiles on intact neighbouring maize plants in 'Nyamula', a landrace known to respond to oviposition, and a standard commercial hybrid, HB515, that did not. Headspace volatile samples were collected from maize plants exposed to Chilo partellus (Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Crambidae egg deposition and unoviposited neighbouring plants as well as from control plants kept away from the volatile emitting ones. Behavioural bioassays were carried out in a four-arm olfactometer using egg (Trichogramma bournieri Pintureau & Babault (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae and larval (Cotesia sesamiae Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae parasitoids. Coupled Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS was used for volatile analysis. For the 'Nyamula' landrace, GC-MS analysis revealed HIPV production not only in the oviposited plants but also in neighbouring plants not exposed to insect eggs. Higher amounts of EAG-active biogenic volatiles such as (E-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene were emitted from these plants compared to control plants. Subsequent behavioural assays with female T. bournieri and

  13. KAPASITAS REPRODUKSI PARASITOID TELUR Trichogrammatoidea nana Zehntner (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Sujak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Trichogramma nana is one species of egg parasitoids that are polifag. insect pests that attack crops such as soybean pod borer and rice. Research conducted at the Laboratory of Entomology Research Institute for Tobacco and Fiber Crops Malang in March until June 2009 that aims to determine the reproductive capacity of T. nana on eggs  C. cephalonica. Reproductive capacity of T. nana allegedly using the net reproductive rate (Ro, estimatedtime of one generation (T, the capacity of population growth (r, and the rate of parasitoids per day (λ. T. nana were tested  came from the rice stem borer  eggs collected from the land in the district of East Java Beji Pasuruan. Eggs C.cephalonica which is used as the host is the result of breeding in the laboratory of Entomology Research Institute for Tobacco and Fiber Crops. The results showed that T. nana has greatpotential  as  biological agents.  Most  female  progeny  produced by adult females aged 1-2 days . On the first day produced 12 and 8 tails on the second day or 40% and 27% of the total of 30 females produced by a female during life.  Reproductive capacity of  T. nana on eggs C. cephalonica the net reproductive rate  Ro = 44.7, Capacity of population growth (r = 1.78,  parasitoid growth rate per day (λ=5.9, and mean - mean length of generation (T = 10, 9 days.

  14. Two-phase mixture level swell and liquid entrainment/off-take in a vessel during rapid depressurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Hyun

    2004-02-01

    swelled two-phase mixture level. The ultrasonic sensor measured the two-phase mixture level with a maximum error of 1.77% and has been adopted for the measurement of two-phase mixture level in the entrainment and off-take experiment. The capacitance probe highly under-predicted the level data in the high void fraction region. The cause of the error is identified as the change of the dielectric constant when the probe is applied to the measurement of the two-phase mixture levels. A correction method for the capacitance probe is proposed by correcting the change of the dielectric constant of the two-phase mixture. The correction method for the capacitance probe produces an r.m.s. error of 5.4%. The RELAP5/MOD3 code has been assessed with the present experimental data and the existing pool void correlations based on the drift flux model. The Kataoka-Ishii correlation shows the best agreement with the present experimental data with an r.m.s. error of 2.5%. The RELAP5/MOD3 results are very similar to the present experimental data when j g + is higher than 1.768. However, RELAP5/MOD3 code over-predicts the present void fraction data when j g + is lower than 1.768 since linear interpolation is used between Zuber-Findlay and Kataoka-Ishii correlations with the coefficients proposed by Rouhani. In the third experiment, an experimental study has been performed in order to investigate the effects of the superficial air velocity in the vessel and the distance between the surface and the break on the liquid entrainment and off-take through the break at the top of a vessel. A correlation for the droplet entrainment, E fg , through the break at the top of a vessel has been developed in terms of j g * /h * . The present experimental data are proportional to the 7 th power of j g * /h * and have higher values of E fg than those of the existing pool entrainment data due to (a) the pulling toward the break of the liquid deen trained on the top wall of the vessel and (b) the existence of a

  15. Eficiência técnica e econômica do controle biológico da traça-do-tomateiro em ambiente protegido Technical and economic efficiency of biological control of the South American tomato pinworm in protected environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice de Medeiros

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A eficiência técnica e econômica do controle da traça-do-tomateiro (Tuta absoluta pelo parasitóide Trichogramma pretiosum foi avaliada em ambiente protegido na área de um produtor do município de Luziânia-GO, durante o verão de 1999-2000. O trabalho foi conduzido em duas casas de vegetação, sendo cada uma delas submetida aos seguintes regimes de controle de pragas: (1 prática do produtor: consistiu em pulverizações de inseticidas de acordo com a necessidade, em rotação com os produtos deltametrina, abamectin, Bacillus thuringiensis (nas doses recomendadas e detergente 0,5%; (2 liberações inundativas de T. pretiosum associada com pulverizações semanais de B. thuringiensis em formulação concentrada emulsionável (na dose recomendada. As medidas de controle foram iniciadas logo após a constatação dos primeiros adultos da traça-do-tomateiro. A liberação massal consistiu na colocação de duas cartelas por semana (20x30 cm de ovos parasitados por T. pretiosum que foram gradualmente aumentadas até que atingisse seis cartelas por semana por ocasião da colheita do tomate. Semanalmente, foram coletados 50 folíolos de tomateiro ao acaso em cada casa de vegetação. O número de ovos foi determinado, em laboratório e mantidos em câmaras climatizadas para a constatação das lagartas ou parasitismo. A produtividade e o dano nos frutos foram determinados semanalmente em 50 tomateiros escolhidos ao acaso em cada tratamento. A produtividade com controle biológico foi de 6.160 bandejas/600g e com controle químico foi de 6.833 bandejas/600g. Os custos variáveis da produção foram de R$ 3,9 mil e R$ 4,7 mil para o sistema com controle biológico e químico, respectivamente. O limite de quebra de safra permitido para ambos sistemas de produção, indicado pela margem de segurança econômica, foi maior para o controle biológico (61,7%. O coeficiente de eficiência econômica do controle biológico foi significativo (2,62 e a

  16. Precursory slow crustal deformation before short-term slow slip event in January 2006, recorded at Shingu borehole station southern Kii Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, M.; Sagiya, T.

    2007-12-01

    In January 2006, a deep low frequency tremor activity and an associated short-term slow slip event occurred in the eastern Kii Peninsula and this coupled activity migrated to the northeast at a rate of 10km/day. We are monitoring crustal deformation at Shingu borehole station in the southeastern Kii peninsula. The Shingu borehole site is located about 100km landward from the Nankai Trough axis, and close to the epicenter of the 1944 Tonankai Earthquake. The borehole is 500 m deep and is equipped with an integrated multi-component borehole monitoring system developed by Ishii et al. (2002), consisting of 6 strain sensors (4 in horizontal, 2 in vertical), 2 pendulum tilt sensors, a magnetic direction finder, and a quartz thermometer. Each signal is originally recorded with a sampling frequency of 50 Hz. We decimated the original data into hourly data, which we decomposed into tidal response, barometric response, smoothed trend and random noise component by applying BAYTAP-G software [Tamura et al., 1991]. In the trend component from November 2005 to March 2006, we did not found deformation signal at the time of the Jan. 2006 tremor event. However, we found three significant slow strain changes from the processed records. Two of them coincide with the occurrence of the tremor activities in the southern Kii Peninsula, and are characterized by N-S contraction (0.019-0.031 ppm) and E-W extension (0.025-0.038 ppm). These are the first evidence of the short-term slow slip event in this area. The third change is characterized by NW-SE extension (0.026 ppm), N-S contraction (0.012 ppm), E-W extension (0.022 ppm), and southwestward tilting (0.23 micro rad). It occurred from December 29, 2005 to January 2, 2006, just before the tremor and slip event in January 2006, but was not accompanied by any tremor activity. We conducted a series of inversion analysis to infer the source of this possible slow slip event. We assumed that the slow slip event was caused by a reverse fault

  17. Enhancing the health of women living with HIV: the SMART/EST Women's Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Weiss

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Stephen M Weiss1, Jonathan N Tobin2, Michael Antoni1, Gail Ironson1, Mary Ishii1, Anita Vaughn2, Andrea Cassells2, Deborah Jones1, Neil Schneiderman1, Elizabeth Brondolo3, Arthur LaPerriere1, Maria Lopez1, Olga Villar-Loubet1, Joanne Camille2, Mahendra Kumar1, J Bryan Page1, SMART/EST Women's Project Team*1University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA; 2Clinical Directors Network, New York, NY, USA; 3St Johns University, Queens, NY, USA; *The SMART/EST Womens' Project Team: DeVieux J, Jean-Gilles M, Gousse Y, Alexander K, Bustamonte V, Lopez E, Casani J, Stanley H, Asthana D, Van Splunteren F, Goldstein A, Nasajon R, Wiesner Y, Zukerman M, Segal-Isaacson CJ, Romanowsky A, Masheb R, Coma C, Ubiera M, D'Andrea SM, Ittai N.Abstract: The principal objective of these multisite studies (Florida, New York, New Jersey: epicenters for human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] among women was to develop and implement effective combinations of behavioral interventions to optimize the health status of the most neglected and understudied population affected by the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS epidemic in the United States: poor women of color living with HIV. The two studies enrolled nearly 900 women randomly assigned to “high intensity” (cognitive–behavioral stress management training combined with expressive–supportive therapy [CBSM]+ group or “low intensity” (individual psychoeducational program treatment conditions over a period of 9 years. The initial study of the stress management and relaxation training/expressive–supportive therapy (SMART/EST Women's Project (SWP I focused on reducing depression and anxiety, as well as improving self-efficacy and overall quality of life for women with case-defined AIDS. Findings from this study demonstrated the utility of CBSM+ in reducing distress (depression, anxiety and denial, while improving social support, self-efficacy, coping skills, and quality of life. The second study (SWP II, which included all

  18. Azelnidipine plus olmesartan versus amlodipine plus olmesartan on arterial stiffness and cardiac function in hypertensive patients: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takami T

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available CorrigendumTakami T, Saito Y. Drug Design, Development and Therapy. 2013;7:175–183. On page 177, line 26, heading "Measurement of LVMI and LF diastolic function" should have been "Measurement of LVMI and LV diastolic function". Line 32, "Devereux et al18" should read "Devereux et al19". Line 40, "(E/e’ ratio were measured as previously described.19" should read "(E/e’ ratio were measured as previously described.20". On page 181, line 15, "baPWV with LVMI.20" should read "baPWV with LVMI.21". Line 23, "baPWV and LVMI, E/A ratio.20" should read "baPWV and LVMI, E/A ratio.21,22". Line 28 "diastolic dysfunction.21" should read "diastolic dysfunction.23". Line 38 "is high.22" should read "is high.24". Line 39, "in clinical treatment.23" should read "in clinical treatment.25". Line 57, "A recent cohort study24" should read "A recent cohort study21".On page 182, line 1, "diastolic heart failure.25" should read "diastolic heart failure.26". Line 3, "untreated hypertensive patients.26" should read "untreated hypertensive patients.27". Line 6, "linear regression analysis.27" should read "linear regression analysis.21".On page 183, the references 18 to 27 should be updated as shown below:18. Takami T. Evaluation of arterial stiffness in morning hypertension under high-dose valsartan compared to valsartan plus low-dose diuretic. Hypertens Res. 2009;32:1086–1090.19. Devereux RB, Palmieri V, Sharpe N, et al. Effects of once-daily angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and calcium channel blockade-based antihypertensive treatment regimens on left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic filling in hypertension: the prospective randomized enalapril study evaluating regression of ventricular enlargement (PRESERVE trial. Circulation. 2001;104:1248–1254.20. Ito H, Ishii K, Kihara H, et al. Adding thiazide to a renin-angiotensin blocker improves left ventricular relaxation and improves heart failure in patients with hypertension. Hypertens Res. 2012;35:93

  19. Vorticity models of ocean surface diffusion in coastal jets and eddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, D.; Matulka, A.; Sekula, E.

    2010-05-01

    coastal diffusion using image analysis'. Applied Scientific Research, 59,127-142. Carrillo, A.; Sanchez, M.A.; Platonov, A.; Redondo, J.M., (2001). Coastal and Interfacial Mixing. Laboratory Experiments and Satellite Observations. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, v. B, 26/4. pp. 305-311. Gade, M. and W. Alpers. (1999). Using ERS-2 SAR images for routine observation of marine pollution in European margins. Mediterranean Target Project (MPT)-EUROMARGE-NB Project. Luxemburg, 38, 57. Gade, M., and J. M. Redondo (1999) 'Marine pollution in European coastal waters monitored by the ERS-2 SAR: a comprehensive statistical analysis". IGARSS 99. Hamburg. v. III, 1637-1639., pp. 308-312. Jolly G. W., A. Mangin, F. Cauneau, M. Calatuyud, V. Barale, H. M. Snaith, O.Rud, M. Ishii, M. Gade, J. M. Redondo, A. Platonov (2000). The Clean Seas Project Final Report (ENV4-CT96-0334). Ed. DG XII/D, Brusselas. Martinez Benjamin J.J., L.M. Redondo, J.Jorge & A.Platonov.(1999). Aplication of SAR images in the western Mediterranean Sea. Remote Sensing in 21st Century: Economic and Environmental Applications. Proceedings of the 19th EARSel Symposium on Remote Sensing in the 21st Century. Eds. A.A. Balkema ,Ed. J.L. Casanova. Rotterdam / Brookfiel. pp. 461-465.

  20. I. T. - R. O. C. K. S. Comet Nuclei Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalcher, N.

    2009-04-01

    samples will be performed by touch and go manoeuvres and a penetrator device [10]. Solar arrays are used as energy source and additional cooling is required to keep the samples at low temperatures (Lisse C., Schultz P., Meech K. J., Delamere W. A. Icarus 187,4-15 (2007). [4] Simon S.B., Joswiak D.J., Ishii H.A., Bradley J.P., Chi M., Grossman L., Aléon J., Brownlee D.E., Fallon S., Hutcheon I.D., Matrajt G., Mckeegan K.D.: Refractory Inclusion Returned by Stardust from Comet P81/Wild 2. Meteoritics and Planetary Science (2007). [5] George D. Cody, Harald Ade, Conel M. O'D. Alexander, Tohru Araki, Anna Butterworth, Holger Fleckenstein, George Flynn, Mary K. Gilles, Chris Jacobsen, A.L. D. Kilcoyne, Keiko Messenger, Scott A. Sandford, Tolek Tyliszczak, Andrew J.Westphal4, Susan Wirick, and Hikaru Yabuta. Quantitative Organic and Light Element analysis of Comet 81P/Wild 2 particles using C-, N-, and O- µ-XANES, Meteoretics and Planetary Science: In Press. [6] Stern, S. et al. Alice: The Rosetta Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph. Space Science Reviews 128, 507-527 (2007). [7] Balsiger, H. et al. Rosina-Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis. Space Science Reviews 128, 745-801 (2007). [8] Colangeli, L. et al. The Grain Impact Analyser and Dust Accumulator (GIADA) Experiment for the Rosetta Mission: Design, Performances and First Results. Space Science Reviews 128, 803-821 (2007). [9] Yoshimitsu, T., Kubota, T., Nakatani, I., Adachi, T. & Saito, H. Micro-hopping robot for asteroid exploration. Acta Astronautica 52, 441-446 (2003). [10] Lorenz, R. et al. Demonstration of comet sample collection by penetrator. ESA SP-542, 387-393 (2003). [11] Küppers et al. Triple F—a comet nucleus sample return mission. Experimental Astronomy, Online First (2008).

  1. Numerical analysis of interfacial growth and deformation in horizontal stratified two-phase flow by lattice Boltzmann method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebihara, Ken-ichi

    2005-03-01

    paper, first, the validity and the usefulness of the lattice-gas model and the lattice Boltzmann method for the numerical analysis of two-phase flow are examined by applying the two-phase fluid model of these methods to the phenomena of the falling droplet and the rising bubble. Next, on the basis of the examination of its numerical results, the horizontal stratified two-phase flow, which is the fundamental and important flow and often observed in a practical situation, is simulated by use of the HCZ model that is the two-phase fluid model of the lattice Boltzmann method proposed by He, Chen, and Zhang. The HCZ model can simulate Rayleigh-Taylor instability which shows complex interfacial phenomena. It is verified that the simulated interfacial growth is subject to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability theory and can reproduce the curve concerning the interfacial growth of the theoretical flow regime map proposed by Taitel and Dukler (T-D map). Furthermore, it is found that the interfacial growth in the channel with the narrow width needs more superficial flow velocity than that given by the T-D map. In the simulation of the droplet generation in the horizontal stratified two-phase flow, it is verified that the HCZ model can also reproduce the experimental correlation proposed by Ishii and Grolmes within the range of the distribution of experimental data. According to the results of this report, it is found that the HCZ model of the lattice Boltzmann method can simulate complex interfacial phenomena in the horizontal stratified two-phase flow and reproduce the theoretical flow regime map and the experimental correlation. Considering the application of this model to more practical two-phase flow, it is also seen that this model has some problems which have to be solved, such as practical density difference, thermal influence and so on. (author)

  2. Use of CD40L immunoconjugates to overcome the defective immune response to vaccines for infections and cancer in the aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yu Cheng; Thoman, Marilyn; Linton, Phyllis-Jean; Deisseroth, Albert

    2009-12-01

    Multiple investigators have reported the presence of defects in the immune response of the elderly [Castle In: Clin Infect Dis 31:578, 2000; Ortqvist et al. In: Eur Respir J 30:414-422, 2007; Saurwein-Teissl et al. In: J Immunol 168:5893, 2002; Haynes et al. In: Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:15053-15058, 2003]. These defects reduce the magnitude of the immune response to infection and to vaccination. In individuals greater than 55 years of age, the probability of developing a fully protective neutralizing antibody response to the yearly multivalent particle inactivated influenza vaccine is less than 20% [Jefferson et al. In: Lancet 264:1165-1174, 2005; Goodwin et al. In: Vaccine 24:1159-1169, 2006; Jackson et al. In: Lancet 372:398-405, 2008; Simonsen and Taylor In: Lancet 7:658-666, 2007]. The defects in the aged immune system that are responsible for this limited response to vaccination in the older age groups include functional defects of the antigen presenting cells, functional defects in CD4 helper CD4 T cells and monocytes, and an altered microenvironment [Eaton et al. In: J Exp Med 200:1613-1622, 2004; Dong et al. In: J Gen Virol 84:1623-1628, 2003; Deng et al. In: Immunology 172:3437-3446, 2004; Cella et al. In: J Exp Med 184:747-752, 1996]. Starting at puberty, the involution of the thymus and the consequent reduction of the export of naïve T cells specific to neo-antigens leads to the reduction of the ratio of antigen naïve to memory cells as chronological age advances [Prelog In: Autoimmun Rev 5:136-139, 2006; McElhaney et al. In: J Immunology 176:6333-6339, 2006]. Changes in glycosylation of T cells and target antigens acquired during the aging process and the antibodies to these new glycopeptides and glycoproteins may also contribute to a reduction in the functioning of the adaptive immune response [Ishii et al. In: J Clin Neurosci 14:110-115, 2007; Shirai et al. In: Clin Exp Immunol 12:455-464, 1972; Adkins and Riley In: Mech Ageing Dev 103

  3. Ultrasonic lateral modulation imaging, speckle reduction, and displacement vector measurements using simple single-beam scanning or plural crossed-beam scanning with new spectra frequency division processing methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumi C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Chikayoshi Sumi, Yousuke IshiiDepartment of Information and Communication Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sophia University, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: The development of effective ultrasonic tissue displacement measurement methods increases the number of possible applications for various tissue displacement and strain measurements. These applications include measurements of spontaneous motions/deformations generated by heart motion; pulsations from phenomena such as blood flow (intracardiac, intravascular, and carotid; heart, blood vessel, and liver motion; and motion from artificial sources such as motions/deformations generated by applying static compression/stretching forces, vibration or acoustic radiation forces (breast and liver. For arbitrary orthogonal coordinate systems obtained using arbitrary transducer types (eg, linear, convex, sector, arc, or radial array types, or single aperture types with a mechanical scan, several lateral modulation (LM methods (eg, scanning with plural crossed or steered beams over a region of interest have been developed that can be used with new echo imaging methods for tissue displacement/deformation measurements. Specifically, by using such beamforming methods, in addition to highly accurate displacement vector and lateral displacement measurements, LM echo imaging with a high lateral carrier frequency and a high lateral resolution has been developed. Another new beamforming method, referred to as “a steering angle (ASTA method,” ie, scanning with a defined steering angle, is also described. In addition to conventional non-steered-beam scanning (ie, a version of ASTA and conventional steered-beam scanning with a variable steering angle (eg, sector, arc, radial scan, a simple, single-beam scanning method also permits the use of LM, which yields an accurate displacement vector measurement with fewer calculations than the original LM methods. This is accomplished by using a previously developed

  4. Sr/Ca ratios in cold-water corals - a 'low-resolution' temperature archive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüggeberg, Andres; Riethdorf, Jan-Rainer; Raddatz, Jacek; López Correa, Matthias; Montagna, Paolo; Dullo, Wolf-Christian; Freiwald, André

    2010-05-01

    , Fietzke J, Liebetrau V, Eisenhauer A, Dullo W-C, Freiwald A (2008) Stable strontium isotopes (delta88/86Sr) in cold-water corals — A new proxy for reconstruction of intermediate ocean water temperatures. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 269:569-574 Shirai K, Kusakabe M, Nakai S, Ishii T, Watanabe T, Hiyagon H, Sano Y (2005) Deep-sea coral geochemistry: Implication for the vital effect. Chemical Geology 224:212-222 Smith JE, Schwarcz HP, Risk MJ (2002) Patterns of isotopic disequilibria in azooxanhtellate coral skeletons. Hydrobiologia 471:111-115 Smith JE, Schwarcz HP, Risk MJ, McConnaughey TA, Keller N (2000) Paleotemperatures from deep-sea corals: Overcoming 'vital effects'. Palaios 15:25-32

  5. Thermal-hydraulic experiment and analysis for interim dry storage of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Seung Hun

    2011-02-01

    The experimental and numerical studies of interim storages for nuclear spent fuels have been performed to investigate thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the dry storage systems and to propose new methodologies for the analysis and the design. Three separate researches have been performed in the present study: (a) Development of a scaling methodology and thermal-hydraulic experiment of a single spent fuel assembly simulating a dry storage cask: (b) Full-scope simulation of a dry storage cask by the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code: (c) Thermal-hydraulic design of a tunnel-type interim storage facility. In the first study, a scaling methodology has been developed to design a scaled-down canister. The scaling was performed in two steps. For the first step, the height of a spent fuel assembly was reduced from full height to half height. In order to consider the effect of height reduction on the natural convection, the scaling law of Ishii and Kataoka (1984) was employed. For the second step, the quantity of spent fuel assemblies was reduced from multiple assemblies to a single assembly. The scaling methodology was validated through the comparison with the experiment of the TN24P cask. The Peak Cladding Temperature (PCT), temperature gradients, and the axial and radial temperature distribution in the nondimensional forms were in good agreement with the experimental data. Based on the developed methodology, we have performed a single assembly experiment which was designed to simulate the full scale of the TN24P cask. The experimental data was compared with the CFD calculations. It turns out that their PCTs were less than the maximum allowable temperature for the fuel cladding and that the differences of their PCTs were agreed within 3 .deg. C, which was less than measurement uncertainty. In the second study, the full-scope simulations of the TN24P cask were performed by FLUENT. In order to investigate the sensitivity of the numerical and physical

  6. Resúmenes de las tesis de grado en floricultura realizadas en la Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Bogotá D.C., entre 1981 y 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casas Eduardo

    1992-12-01

    para el control integrado de la mosca blanca de los invernaderos (Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood, bajo condiciones de la sabana de Bogotá. / Asociación de Onychiurus armatus Tullberg y Fusarium oxysporum Schl. f. sp. dianthi, con relación a los daños causados en el cultivo del clavel (Dianthus caryophyllus L. /  Cría y comportamiento en campo de Trichogramma cerca pretiosum Riley para el control de Copitarsia consueta Walker. / Curvas poblacionales y calibración de trampas para Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard, plaga en Gypsophila paniculata bajo invernadero en la sabana de Bogotá. / Determinación del numero optimo de trampas para la evaluación del minador del crisantemo Liriomyza trifolii Burgess bajo invernadero. / Dispersión de la población de Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval y respuesta a la aplicación de tres acaricidas en una plantación comercial de clavel miniatura, durante épocas seca y lluviosa. / ...

  7. INTEGRATED GENOME-BASED STUDIES OF SHEWANELLA ECOPHYSIOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NEALSON, KENNETH H.

    2013-10-15

    products of dissimilatory iron reduction. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 74:574-583. 10. Karpinets, T.V., A.Y Obraztsova, Y. Wang, D.D. Schmoyer, G.H. Kora, B.H. Park, M.H. Serres, M.F. Ropmine, M.L. Land, T.B. Kothe, J.K. Fredrickson, K.H. Nealson, and E.C. Uberbacher 2010. Conserved synteny at the protein family level reveals genes underlying Shewanella species? cold tolerance and predicts their novel phenotypes. Funct. Integr. Genomics 10: 97 ? 110. (DOI 10.1007/s10143-009-0142-y) 11. Bretschger, O., A.C.M. Cheung, F. Mansfeld, and K.H. Nealson. 2010. Comparative microbial fuel cell evaluations of Shewanella spp. Electroanalysis 22: 883-894. 12. McLean, J.S., G. Wanger, Y.A. Gorby, M. Wainstein, J. McQuaid, Shun?ichi Ishii, O. Bretschger, H. Beyanal, K.H. Nealson. 2010. Quantification of electron transfer rates to a solid phase electron acceptor through the stages of biofilm formation from single cells to multicellular communities. Env. Sci. Technol. 44:2721-2717. 13. El-Naggar, M., G. Wanger, K.M. Leung, T.D. Yuzvinsky, G. Southam, J. Yang, W.M. Lau, K.H. Nealson, and Y.A. Gorby. 2010. Electrical Transport Along Bacterial Nanowires from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 107:18127-18131. 14. Biffinger, J.C., L.A. Fitzgerald, R. Ray, B.J. Little, S.E. Lizewski, E.R. Petersen, B.R. Ringeisen, W.C. Sanders, P.E. Sheehan, J.J. Pietron, J.W. Baldwin, L.J. Nadeau, G.R. Johnson, M. Ribbens, S.E. Finkel, K.H. Nealson. 2010. The utility of Shewanella japonica for microbial fuel cells. Bioresource Technol. 102:290-297. 15. Rodionov, D. , C. Yang, X. Li, I. Rodionova, Y. Wang, A.Y. Obraztsova, O. P. Zagnitko, R. Overbeek, M. F. Romine, S. Reed, J.K. Fredrickson, K.H. Nealson, A.L. Osterman. 2010. Genomic encyclopedia of sugar utilization pathways in the Shewanella genus. BMC Genomics 2010, 11:494 16. Kan, J., L. Hsu, A.C.M. Cheung, M. Pirbazari, and K.H. Nealson. 2011. Current production by bacterial communities in microbial fuel cells enriched from wastewater sludge

  8. FOREWORD: Some thoughts about Jürgen Hafner's work in computational materials science Some thoughts about Jürgen Hafner's work in computational materials science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Volker

    2011-10-01

    and Kresse G 1994 Structral and electronic properties of clean and hydrogenated diamond (100) surfaces Europhys. Lett. 28 659-64 [10] Krajčí and Hafner J 2008 Ab-initio studies of quasicrystalline surfaces Quasicrystals (Handbook of Metal Physics vol 2) ed T Fujiwara and Y Ishii (Amsterdam: Elsevier) chapter 9, pp 313-55 [11] Raybaud P, Hafner J, Kresse G, Kasztelan S and Toulhoat H 2000 Structure, energetics and electronic properties of the surface of a promoted MoS2 catalyst: an ab-initio local-density-functional study J. Catalysis 190 128-43 [12] Hafner J, Benco L and Bucko T 2006 Acid-based catalysis in zeolites investigated by density-functional methods Top. Catalysis 37 41-54 [13] Hafner J 1989 Formation of polyanionic clusters in liquid potassium-lead alloys: a molecular-dynamics study J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 1 1133-40 [14] Meeks P E 1976 Vibrational spectra and topological structure of tetrahedrally bonded amorphous semiconductors Phil. Mag. 33 897-908 [15] See articles by Heine V, Bullet D, Haydock R and Kelly M J 1980 Solid State Physics—Advances in Research and Applications vol 35, ed H Ehrenreich, D Turnbull and F Seitz (New York: Academic) [16] Hafner J 1980 The dynamical properties of metallic glasses Liquids and Amorphous Metals (NATO-ASI Ser. E vol 36) ed E Lüscher and H Coufal (Sijthoff and Nordhoff: Alpen van Rijn) pp 199-209 [17] Hafner J 1987 From Hamiltonians to Phase Diagrams—The Electronic and Statistical-Mechanical Theory of sp-Bonded Metals and Alloys (Solid State Sciences Series vol 70) (Berlin: Springer) p 415 [18] Hafner J and Heine V 1983 The crystal structure of the elements: pseudopotential theory revisited J. Phys. F: Met. Phys. 13 2479-501 [19] Hafner J and Kahl G 1984 The structure of the elements in the liquid state J. Phys. F: Met. Phys. 14 2259-78 [20] Denton A R and Hafner J 1997 Thermodynamically stable one-component quasicrystals: a density-functional survey of relative stabilities Phys. Rev. B 56 2469-82 [21] Hafner J