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Sample records for trichechus manatus manatus

  1. Blood mineral concentrations in manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris and Trichechus manatus manatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal-Willott, J.; Harr, Kendal E.; Hall, Jeffery O.; Hayek, Lee-Ann C.; Auil-Gomez, Nicole; Powell, James A.; Bonde, Robert K.; Heard, Darryl

    2013-01-01

    Limited information is available regarding the role of minerals and heavy metals in the morbidity and mortality of manatees. Whole-blood and serum mineral concentrations were evaluated in apparently healthy, free-ranging Florida (Trichechus manatus latirostris, n = 31) and Belize (Trichechus manatus manatus, n = 14) manatees. Toxicologic statuses of the animals and of their environment had not been previously determined. Mean mineral whole-blood (WB) and serum values in Florida (FL) and Belize (BZ) manatees were determined, and evaluated for differences with respect to geographic location, relative age, and sex. Mean WB and serum silver, boron, cobalt, magnesium, molybdenum, and WB cadmium concentrations were significantly higher in BZ versus FL manatees (P ≤ 0.05). Mean WB aluminum, calcium, manganese, sodium, phosphorus, vanadium, and serum zinc concentrations were significantly lower in BZ versus FL manatees. Adult manatees had significant and higher mean WB aluminum, manganese, sodium, antimony, vanadium, and serum manganese and zinc concentrations compared to juvenile animals. Significant and lower mean WB and serum silver, boron, cobalt, and serum copper and strontium concentrations were present in adults compared to juveniles (P ≤ 0.05). Females had significant and higher mean WB nickel and serum barium compared to males (P ≤ 0.05). Mean WB arsenic and zinc, and mean serum iron, magnesium, and zinc concentrations fell within toxic ranges reported for domestic species. Results reveal manatee blood mineral concentrations differ with location, age, and sex. Influence from diet, sediment, water, and anthropogenic sources on manatee mineral concentration warrant further investigation.

  2. Electrocardiography in two subspecies of manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris and Trichechus manatus manatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal-Willott, J.; Estrada, A.; Bonde, R.K.; Wong, A.; Estrada, D.J.; Harr, K.

    2006-01-01

    Electrocardiographic (ECG) measurements were recorded in two subspecies of awake, apparently healthy, wild manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris and T. m. manatus) undergoing routine field examinations in Florida and Belize. Six unsedated juveniles (dependent and independent calves) and 6 adults were restrained in ventral recumbency for ECG measurements. Six lead ECGs were recorded for all manatees and the following parameters were determined: heart rate and rhythm; P, QRS, and T wave morphology, amplitude, and duration; and mean electrical axis (MEA). Statistical differences using a t-test for equality of means were determined. No statistical difference was seen based on sex or subspecies of manatees in the above measured criteria. Statistical differences existed in heart rate (P = 0.047), P wave duration (P = 0.019), PR interval (P = 0.025), and MEA (P = 0.021) between adult manatees and calves. Our findings revealed normal sinus rhythms, no detectable arrhythmias, prolonged PR and QT intervals, prolonged P wave duration, and small R wave amplitude as compared with cetacea and other marine mammals. This paper documents the techniques for and baseline recordings of ECGs in juvenile and adult free-living manatees. It also demonstrates that continual assessment of cardiac electrical activity in the awake manatee can be completed and can be used to aid veterinarians and biologists in routine health assessment, during procedures, and in detecting the presence of cardiac disease or dysfunction.

  3. Health Assessment and Seroepidemiologic Survey of Potential Pathogens in Wild Antillean Manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Sulzner (Kathryn); C. Kreuder Johnson (Christine); R.K. Bonde (Robert); N. Auil Gomez (Nicole); J. Powell (James); K. Nielsen (Klaus); M.P. Luttrell (Page); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A.A. Aguirre (Alonso)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus), a subspecies of the West Indian manatee, inhabits fresh, brackish, and warm coastal waters distributed along the eastern border of Central America, the northern coast of South America, and throughout the Wider Caribbean Region.

  4. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in captive antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) are aquatic mammals that inhabit marine waters from Central America to the northeastern region of Brazil and they are an endangered species. Infection with Toxoplasma gondii through intake of water or food contaminated with oocysts has been reported am...

  5. Occurrence of endoparasites in wild Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vélez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The recognized impact of parasites in wildlife populations demands surveillance of endangered species like the Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus in Colombia. We conducted a parasitological survey in four rescued sea cows in order to document the parasite diversity of this sirenian in the Caribbean wetland of Colombia and contribute to the molecular characterization of its trematodes. The flukes Chiorchis fabaceus, Nudacotyle undicola and the protozoans Eimeria manatus and E. nodulosa were identified in analysed faecal samples. For C. fabaceus and N. undicola, partial regions of ribosomal RNA genes were amplified and sequenced in order to infer their phylogenetic relations. The current study constitutes a new sirenian host (T. manatus manatus record for the genus Eimeria and the trematode N. undicola. Keywords: Antillean manatee, Trematodes, Eimeria, Coprological survey, Phylogeny

  6. Health Assessment and Seroepidemiologic Survey of Potential Pathogens in Wild Antillean Manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Sulzner, K; Kreuder Johnson, C; Bonde, RK; Auil Gomez, N; Powell, J; Nielsen, K; Luttrell, MP; Osterhaus, ADME; Aguirre, AA

    2012-01-01

    The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus), a subspecies of the West Indian manatee, inhabits fresh, brackish, and warm coastal waters distributed along the eastern border of Central America, the northern coast of South America, and throughout the Wider Caribbean Region. Threatened primarily by human encroachment, poaching, and habitat degradation, Antillean manatees are listed as endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. The impact of disease on population...

  7. Capture and utilization of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) on the northern Brazilian coast

    OpenAIRE

    Marisol Menezes Pessanha; Ricardo José Soavinski; Régis Pinto de Lima; Fábia de Oliveira Luna; Janaina Pauline de Araújo; José Zanon de Oliveira Passavante

    2008-01-01

    The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) is now considered to be the most endangered aquatic mammal of Brazil. During 1992 and 1993, we surveyed 3000km of the coastal area of the Maranhão (MA), Pará (PA) and Amapá (AP) states where we visited 145 localities and performed 262 interviews aiming to identify the hunting pressure on the species, and how the population actually uses the manatees hunted on the Brazilian north coast. The people interviewed were involved in fishing activitie...

  8. Malignant lymphoma in a west Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne Sofie; Klausen, Bjarne; Knold, Steffen

    2005-01-01

    We identified a malignant lymphoma infiltrating the lung, liver, kidney, mesenteric lymph nodes, and eye as the cause of death in a male West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus). Diagnosis was based on gross histopathologic, and immunohistochemical studies. Tissue samples from ten organs were...

  9. Hematology of healthy Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J.W.; Harr, K.E.; Murphy, D.; Walsh, M.T.; Nolan, E.C.; Bonde, R.K.; Pate, M.G.; Deutsch, C.J.; Edwards, H.H.; Clapp, W.L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hematologic analysis is an important tool in evaluating the general health status of free-ranging manatees and in the diagnosis and monitoring of rehabilitating animals. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate diagnostically important hematologic analytes in healthy manatees (Trichechus manatus) and to assess variations with respect to location (free ranging vs captive), age class (small calves, large calves, subadults, and adults), and gender. Methods: Blood was collected from 55 free-ranging and 63 captive healthy manatees. Most analytes were measured using a CELL-DYN 3500R; automated reticulocytes were measured with an ADVIA 120. Standard manual methods were used for differential leukocyte counts, reticulocyte and Heinz body counts, and plasma protein and fibrinogen concentrations. Results: Rouleaux, slight polychromasia, stomatocytosis, and low numbers of schistocytes and nucleated RBCs (NRBCs) were seen often in stained blood films. Manual reticulocyte counts were higher than automated reticulocyte counts. Heinz bodies were present in erythrocytes of most manatees. Compared with free-ranging manatees, captive animals had slightly lower MCV, MCH, and eosinophil counts and slightly higher heterophil and NRBC counts, and fibrinogen concentration. Total leukocyte, heterophil, and monocyte counts tended to be lower in adults than in younger animals. Small calves tended to have higher reticulocyte counts and NRBC counts than older animals. Conclusions: Hematologic findings were generally similar between captive and free-ranging manatees. Higher manual reticulocyte counts suggest the ADVIA detects only reticulocytes containing large amounts of RNA. Higher reticulocyte and NRBC counts in young calves probably reflect an increased rate of erythropoiesis compared with older animals. ?? 2009 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  10. Behavioral lateralization in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler-Julian, Kara; Chapman, Kate M; Frances, Candice; Bauer, Gordon B

    2016-01-01

    We examined side preferences in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) through observations of limb use (right and left flipper) in 123 wild and 16 captive individuals.  We also analyzed archival data on wild manatees to develop an index of boat-caused body scars to determine lateralization of evasive action.  Wild and captive manatees displayed flipper lateralization at the individual, but not the population level for several behaviors including substrate touches, sculling, and...

  11. El manatí (Trichechus manatus manatus Linnaeus,1758) (Sirenia) una especie sombrilla, para el Sistema Lagunar de Alvarado, Veracruz

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Rentería, Iliana del Carmen; Serrano Solís, Arturo; Sánchez Rojas, Gerardo

    2010-01-01

    The most emblematic mammal in the Alvarado Lagoon System (ALS) is the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus). In July 1975 was considered as endangered species by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora (CITES), since 1982 as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and is considered an endangered species under Mexican laws. The manatee is a poorly studied animal in the state of Veracruz because in natur...

  12. Capture and utilization of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus on the northern Brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Menezes Pessanha

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus is now considered to be the most endangered aquatic mammal of Brazil. During 1992 and 1993, we surveyed 3000km of the coastal area of the Maranhão (MA, Pará (PA and Amapá (AP states where we visited 145 localities and performed 262 interviews aiming to identify the hunting pressure on the species, and how the population actually uses the manatees hunted on the Brazilian north coast. The people interviewed were involved in fishing activities, preferably those who hunted manatees. Catches followed by intentional killing were responsible for 94.07% of the cases of mortality, while animals stranded on the beach represented 5.93% of the cases. Intentional capture was the strongest factor in the manatee mortality, and hunting with a harpoon occurred in 86.38% of catches. After capture, the animals were used for the hunter’s subsistence (63.83% and human consumption and trading (30.64%, and the animals’ parts were used for diverse purposes (medicine, fetish and santerias. It was considered that a proper understanding of the communities’ customs concerning the animals was important for any proposal of conservation strategies.

  13. Health assessment and seroepidemiologic survey of potential pathogens in wild Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Sulzner

    Full Text Available The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus, a subspecies of the West Indian manatee, inhabits fresh, brackish, and warm coastal waters distributed along the eastern border of Central America, the northern coast of South America, and throughout the Wider Caribbean Region. Threatened primarily by human encroachment, poaching, and habitat degradation, Antillean manatees are listed as endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. The impact of disease on population viability remains unknown in spite of concerns surrounding the species' ability to rebound from a population crash should an epizootic occur. To gain insight on the baseline health of this subspecies, a total of 191 blood samples were collected opportunistically from wild Antillean manatees in Belize between 1997 and 2009. Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals were established, and antibody prevalence to eight pathogens with zoonotic potential was determined. Age was found to be a significant factor of variation in mean blood values, whereas sex, capture site, and season contributed less to overall differences in parameter values. Negative antibody titers were reported for all pathogens surveyed except for Leptospira bratislava, L. canicola, and L. icterohemorrhagiae, Toxoplasma gondii, and morbillivirus. As part of comprehensive health assessment in manatees from Belize, this study will serve as a benchmark aiding in early disease detection and in the discernment of important epidemiologic patterns in the manatees of this region. Additionally, it will provide some of the initial tools to explore the broader application of manatees as sentinel species of nearshore ecosystem health.

  14. Diet of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) in Belize, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Aarin Conrad; Beck, Cathy A.; Bonde, Robert K.; Powell, James A.; Gomez, Nicole Auil

    2017-01-01

    Belize contains important habitat for Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) and provides refuge for the highest known population density of this subspecies. As these animals face impending threats, knowledge of their dietary habits can be used to interpret resource utilization. The contents of 13 mouth, 6 digestive tract (stomach, duodenum and colon), and 124 fecal samples were microscopically examined using a modified point technique detection protocol to identify key plant species consumed by manatees at two important aggregation sites in Belize: Southern Lagoon and the Drowned Cayes. Overall, 15 different items were identified in samples from manatees in Belize. Five species of seagrasses (Halodule wrightii, Thalassia testudinum, Ruppia maritima, Syringodium filiforme, and Halophila sp.) made up the highest percentage of items. The red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle), was also identified as an important food item. Algae (Ulva sp., Chara sp., Lyngbya sp.) and invertebrates (sponges and diatoms) were also consumed. Variation in the percentage of seagrasses, other vascular plants, and algae consumption was analyzed as a 4-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) with main effects and interactions for locality, sex, size classification, and season. While sex and season did not influence diet composition, differences for locality and size classification were observed. These results suggest that analysis of diet composition of Antillean manatees may help to determine critical habitat and use of associated food resources which, in turn can be used to aid conservation efforts in Belize.

  15. Health assessment and seroepidemiologic survey of potential pathogens in wild Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzner, Kathryn; Kreuder Johnson, Christine; Bonde, Robert K; Auil Gomez, Nicole; Powell, James; Nielsen, Klaus; Luttrell, M Page; Osterhaus, A D M E; Aguirre, A Alonso

    2012-01-01

    The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus), a subspecies of the West Indian manatee, inhabits fresh, brackish, and warm coastal waters distributed along the eastern border of Central America, the northern coast of South America, and throughout the Wider Caribbean Region. Threatened primarily by human encroachment, poaching, and habitat degradation, Antillean manatees are listed as endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. The impact of disease on population viability remains unknown in spite of concerns surrounding the species' ability to rebound from a population crash should an epizootic occur. To gain insight on the baseline health of this subspecies, a total of 191 blood samples were collected opportunistically from wild Antillean manatees in Belize between 1997 and 2009. Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals were established, and antibody prevalence to eight pathogens with zoonotic potential was determined. Age was found to be a significant factor of variation in mean blood values, whereas sex, capture site, and season contributed less to overall differences in parameter values. Negative antibody titers were reported for all pathogens surveyed except for Leptospira bratislava, L. canicola, and L. icterohemorrhagiae, Toxoplasma gondii, and morbillivirus. As part of comprehensive health assessment in manatees from Belize, this study will serve as a benchmark aiding in early disease detection and in the discernment of important epidemiologic patterns in the manatees of this region. Additionally, it will provide some of the initial tools to explore the broader application of manatees as sentinel species of nearshore ecosystem health.

  16. The presence of ovarian cysts in a captive Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus L. 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goździewska-Harłajczuk, Karolina; Klećkowska-Nawrot, Joanna; Dzimira, Stanisław

    2017-08-15

    Several pathological changes associated with reproductive systems of marine mammals have been reported in primary literature. However, no such records exist regarding ovarian cysts in the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus L. 1758). A nulliparous female Antillean manatee, held in captivity at the Wroclaw Zoological Garden, died in April 2015. The animal was 370 cm long from nose to tail and weighed 670 kg. The width of manatee's fluke was 80 cm. The post-mortem examination of the reproductive system showed the numerous pathological cysts on the external surface of the left and the right ovaries. Morphologically, the cysts had varying diameters and were attached to the ovaries by stalks. Some of the cysts were thin-walled and contained fluid, while several others were solid or contained a semi-solid mass. The structure of the ovaries displayed features of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The cysts also exhibited positivity with cytokeratin and vimentin. There were no pathological changes within the uterus, uterine tube and vagina. Although we were unable to definitively determine the exact source of the ovarian cysts in the studied manatee, we found that one of the causes may be age-related. Our study also revealed that ovarian cysts in the Antillean manatee form both types of corpora lutea (CL).

  17. Food habitats of the Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) in the Coswine Swamps (French Guiana, South America)

    OpenAIRE

    Spiegelberger, Thomas; Ganslosser, Udo

    2005-01-01

    A study was conducted to analyse the habitat of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus L. 1758) in the Coswine Swamps of northwest French Guiana, South America. Water parameters were similar to those described in other studies: water depth varied from 2.5 m to more than 20 m; water temperature was between 24.5 °C and 30.3 °C and pH varied between 5.5 and 6.9. Salinity was low (0.0‰ to 1.3‰) with 86.9% of all samples taken in fresh water. No submerged aquatic vegetation was found in...

  18. Genetic variability in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClenaghan, Leroy R.; O'Shea, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    Tissue was obtained from 59 manatee (Trichechus manatus) carcasses salvaged from 20 counties in Florida. Allozyme phenotypes at 24 structural loci were determined by gel electrophoresis. Averages for the proportion of polymorphic loci and mean heterozygosity were 0.300 (range, 0.167-0.417) and 0.050 (range, 0.028-0.063), respectively. These estimates are equivalent to or higher than those generally reported for other species of marine mammals and do not support the hypothesis that body size and heterozygosity in mammals are related inversely. Among-region gene diversity accounted for only 4% of the total diversity. High rates of gene flow probably account for genetic homogeneity across regions. An F-statistic analysis revealed a general tendency toward excess homozygosity within regions. Management efforts to prevent future reductions in population size that would erode existing genic diversity should continue.

  19. Disseminated toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus from Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossart, Gregory D.; Mignucci-Ginannoni, Antonio A.; Rivera-Guzman, Antonio L.; Jimenez-Marrero, Nilda M.; Camus, Alvin C.; Bonde, Robert K.; Dubey, Jitender P.; Reif, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Necropsies were conducted on 4 Antillean manatees Trichechus manatus manatus that were stranded in single events on the coastal beaches of Puerto Rico from August 2010 to August 2011. Three manatees were emaciated and the gastrointestinal tracts were devoid of digesta. Microscopically, all manatees had severe widespread inflammatory lesions of the gastrointestinal tract and heart with intralesional tachyzoites consistent with Toxoplasma gondii identified by histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical techniques. The gastrointestinal lesions included severe, multifocal to diffuse, chronic-active enteritis, colitis and/or gastritis often with associated ulceration, necrosis and hemorrhage. Enteric leiomyositis was severe and locally extensive in all cases and associated with the most frequently observed intralesional protozoans. Moderate to severe, multifocal, chronic to chronic-active, necrotizing myocarditis was also present in all cases. Additionally, less consistent inflammatory lesions occurred in the liver, lung and a mesenteric lymph node and were associated with fewer tachyzoites. Sera (n = 30) collected from free-ranging and captive Puerto Rican manatees and a rehabilitated/released Puerto Rican manatee from 2003 to 2012 were tested for antibodies for T. gondii. A positive T. gondii antibody titer was found in 2004 in 1 (3%) of the free-ranging cases tested. Disease caused by T. gondii is rare in manatees. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico. Additionally, these are the first reported cases of disseminated toxoplasmosis in any sirenian. The documentation of 4 cases of toxoplasmosis within one year and the extremely low seroprevalence to T. gondiisuggest that toxoplasmosis may be an emerging disease in Antillean manatees from Puerto Rico.

  20. Phylogeography and Sex-Biased Dispersal across Riverine Manatee Populations (Trichechus inunguis and Trichechus manatus) in South America

    OpenAIRE

    Satiz?bal, Paula; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Duch?ne, Sebasti?n; Caicedo-Herrera, Dalila; Perea-Sicchar, Carlos M.; Garc?a-D?vila, Carmen R.; Trujillo, Fernando; Caballero, Susana J.

    2012-01-01

    Phylogeographic patterns and sex-biased dispersal were studied in riverine populations of West Indian (Trichechus manatus) and Amazonian manatees (T. inunguis) in South America, using 410bp D-loop (Control Region, Mitochondrial DNA) sequences and 15 nuclear microsatellite loci. This multi-locus approach was key to disentangle complex patterns of gene flow among populations. D-loop analyses revealed population structuring among all Colombian rivers for T. manatus, while microsatellite data sug...

  1. IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA IN BLOOD CULTURES FROM CLINICALLY ILL CAPTIVE ANTILLEAN MANATEES (TRICHECHUS MANATUS MANATUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Mariana C O; Attademo, Fernanda F L; Freire, Augusto C B; Sousa, Glaucia P; Luna, Fábia O; Lima, Débora C V; Mota, Rinaldo A; Mendes, Emiko S; Silva, Jean C R

    2017-03-01

    Between September 2001 and March 2013, 62 bacterial cultures (37 aerobic and 25 anaerobic) were performed on 37 blood samples from 23 Antillean manatees ( Trichechus manatus manatus) that were kept in captivity at the Brazilian National Center for Research and Conservation of Aquatic Mammals (CMA) in Pernambuco (CMA-PE) and Alagoas (CMA-AL), Brazil. All of the animals sampled exhibited clinical signs at the time of sampling including abscesses (n = 8), debilitation and anorexia (n = 22), and profound lethargy-moribundity (n = 7). The 4 animals with profound lethargy-moribundity died shortly after sampling of unknown causes. Bacteria were isolated from 15/37 (40.5%) and aerobic blood cultures from 13/23 animals (56.5%). None of the anaerobic cultures were positive. Aeromonas caviae , Aeromonas hydrophila , Aeromonas sp., Escherichia coli , Leclercia adecarboxylata , Pantoea agglomerans , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Pseudomonas stutzeri , Pseudomonas sp., Sphingomonas paucimobilis , coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis were each found in only one animal; Staphylococcus spp. was found in two; and Vibrio fluvialis in four. Thirteen samples had only one bacteria isolated, one sample had two bacteria, and one sample had three bacteria isolated. Regarding sex, age group, and origin among the manatees examined, 54.5% (6/11) of the females, 58.3% (7/12) of the males, 40% (2/5) of the calves, 66.7% (8/12) of the juveniles, 50% (3/6) of the adults, 55.5% (10/18) at CMA-PE, and 60% (3/5) at CMA-AL were found to be positive for bacterial growth during at least one sampling time. All Antillean manatees were clinically ill. Regarding clinical signs, bacteria were found in 50% (11/22) of blood samples of the animals showing debilitation and anorexia, 1 of 8 (12.5%) of blood samples of the animals showing abscesses, and 3 of 7 (42.9%) of blood samples of the animals showing profound lethargy-moribundity.

  2. TREATMENT OF PULMONICOLA COCHLEOTREMA INFECTION WITH IVERMECTIN-PRAZIQUANTEL COMBINATION IN AN ANTILLEAN MANATEE (TRICHECHUS MANATUS MANATUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, João Carlos Gomes; Jung, Larissa Molinari; Santos, Sebastião Silva Dos; Carvalho, Vitor Luz; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Alves, Leucio Câmara

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to report the use of an oral combination of ivermectin plus praziquantel in the treatment of a Pulmonicola cochleotrema in an Antillean manatee ( Trichechus manatus manatus). A female manatee was found exhibiting respiratory changes and the presence of parasites in the nares. Based on clinical manifestations presented by the manatee, a symptomatic therapeutic protocol was employed, which included an anthelmintic treatment using a combination of ivermectin plus praziquantel. The parasites retrieved were identified as P. cochleotrema. The fourth day after the onset of the therapeutic protocol, the clinical signs declined and on the seventh day posttreatment no clinical signs were observed. This is the first time a therapeutic protocol of ivermectin plus praziquantel has been used in the treatment of P. cochleotrema in manatees.

  3. PARASITOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN URINE FROM MARINE MANATEES (TRICHECHUS MANATUS MANATUS MAINTAINED IN CAPTIVITY IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M.L. Pires

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The marine manatee (Trichechus manatus is one of the most endangered marine mammals in Brazil, and is currently classified as vulnerable to extinction. The main risks to the conservation of the species are from natural causes, such as the slow birth rate, human actions and infectious diseases. Among the main objectives of the National Centre for Research and Conservation of Aquatic Mammals, the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (CMA/ICMBio is to promote scientific research and management actions for the conservation and recovery of endangered species of marine mammals, and develop and promote rehabilitation in captivity and release natural environment of the marine manatee. The passage of these individuals for captive is of utmost importance for the conservation of the species. The rehabilitation of captive cubs marine manatees and allow recovery and can return the animal to the natural environment, enables a greater knowledge of the species, referring to biological, behavioral and clinical. Studies on the parasitism of manatee in Brazil are few elucidated, more research related to the topic, it is necessary to better understand the disease and health aspects of the species. This work aims to realize the isolation of the parasite in urine samples of marine manatee kept in the rehabilitation process. All animals included in the study are from the rehabilitation center for wild animals CRAS/CMA/ICMbio , located in Itamaracá, State of Pernambuco. This deal is the first description of parasites in urine manatee in Brazil and can support management actions to be taken to ensure the health of animals in rehabilitation.

  4. Genetic composition and connectivity of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) in Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Ferguson, Edgardo; Hunter, Margaret; Guzmán, Héctor M.

    2017-01-01

    Genetic diversity and haplotype composition of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) population from the San San Pond Sak wetland in Bocas del Toro, Panama was studied using a segment of mitochondrial DNA (D’loop). No genetic information has been published to date for Panamanian populations. Due to the secretive behavior and small population size of the species in the area, DNA extraction was conducted from opportunistically collected fecal (N=20), carcass tissue (N=4) and bone (N=4) samples. However, after DNA processing only 10 samples provided good quality DNA for sequencing (3 fecal, 4 tissue and 3 bone samples). We found three haplotypes in total; two of these haplotypes are reported for the first time, J02 (N=3) and J03 (N=4), and one J01 was previously published (N=3). Genetic diversity showed similar values to previous studies conducted in other Caribbean regions with moderate values of nucleotide diversity (π= 0.00152) and haplotipic diversity (Hd= 0.57). Connectivity assessment was based on sequence similarity, genetic distance and genetic differentiation between San San population and other manatee populations previously studied. The J01 haplotype found in the Panamanian population is shared with populations in the Caribbean mainland and the Gulf of Mexico showing a reduced differentiation corroborated with Fst value between HSSPS and this region of 0.0094. In contrast, comparisons between our sequences and populations in the Eastern Caribbean (South American populations) and North Western Caribbean showed fewer similarities (Fst =0.049 and 0.058, respectively). These results corroborate previous phylogeographic patterns already established for manatee populations and situate Panamanian populations into the Belize and Mexico cluster. In addition, these findings will be a baseline for future studies and comparisons with manatees in other areas of Panama and Central America. These results should be considered to inform management decisions

  5. Population genetics and conservation strategies for the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus Linnaeaus,1758) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Luna, Fábia de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) and the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis) belong to the mammalian Order Sirenia, classified respectively as critically endangered and as vulnerable in Brazil. Both species have been hunted commercially since the sixteenth century, resulting in a drastic reduction or elimination of manatees in some places. This hunting pressure may have caused isolation of the populations resulting in geographic genetic isolation, with a reduction of their gen...

  6. Clinical biochemistry in healthy manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J.W.; Harr, K.E.; Murphy, D.; Walsh, M.T.; Chittick, E.J.; Bonde, R.K.; Pate, M.G.; Deutsch, C.J.; Edwards, H.H.; Haubold, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are endangered aquatic mammals living in coastal and riverine waterways of Florida and adjacent states. Serum or plasma biochemical analyses are important tools in evaluating the health of free-ranging and captive manatees. The purpose of this study was to measure diagnostically important analytes in the plasma of healthy manatees and to determine whether there was significant variation with respect to location (free-ranging versus captive), age class (small calves, large calves, subadults, adults), and gender. No significant differences in plasma sodium, potassium, bilirubin, glucose, alanine aminotransferase, or creatine kinase were found among these classes of animals. Compared to free-ranging manatees, captive animals had significantly lower mean concentrations of plasma chloride, phosphate, magnesium, triglycerides, anion gap, and lactate. Captive manatees had significantly higher mean values of total CO2, calcium, urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, total protein, albumin, and albumin/globulin ratio than did free-ranging animals. Differences in the environments of these two groups, including diet, temperature, salinity, and stress, might account for some of these results. The higher plasma lactate and anion gap concentrations and lower total CO2 concentrations of free-ranging manatees were probably due to greater exertion during capture, but the lack of elevated plasma creatine kinase activity relative to captive animals indicates that there was no serious muscle injury associated with capture. Plasma phosphate decreased and total globulins increased with age. Plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were highest in small calves. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase was higher in large calves than in adults and subadults, and the albumin/ globulin ratio was higher in subadults than in adults. Plasma total CO2 was higher and chloride was slightly lower in females than in

  7. The relationship between acoustic habitat, hearing and tonal vocalizations in the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus, Linnaeus, 1758

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    Mario Rivera Chavarría

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus is an endangered marine mammal that inhabits the Caribbean Sea and riverine systems in Central America. Their acoustic behavior is relevant for individual identification, mating and parental care. Manatees produce tonal sounds with highest energy in the second harmonic (usually 5 kHz, and their audiogram indicates sensitivity from 0.3 kHz to 90 kHz with lowest thresholds in the 16 to 18 kHz range. We recorded manatees in the San San River, a highly polluted riverine system in Panama, using a stereo array. Frequency transmission experiments were conducted in four subhabitats, categorized using riverine vegetation. Incidental interactions of manatees and small motorboats were examined. Acoustic transmission was linearly related to tonal vocalization characters: correlations were stronger in freshwater than in transition and marine environments. Two bands, 0.6 to 2 kHz and 3 to 8 kHz, attenuate similarly in all subhabitats, and these bands encompass F0 (tone and peak frequency respectively of manatee tonal calls. Based on our data we conclude that frequency transmission depends mainly on river depth and bottom characteristics, also motorboat sounds mask signals from 3.5 kHz to 8 kHz, which overlaps the peak frequency of tonal calls. In spite of differences between acoustic transmission in subhabitats of the San San River, manatees utilize bands that transmit efficiently in all subhabitats.

  8. Investigating seagrass in Toxoplasma gondii transmission in Florida (Trichechus manatus latirostris) and Antillean (T. m. manatus) manatees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrosdick, Heidi M; Gerhold, Richard; Su, Chunlei; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Bonde, Robert K.; Chapman, Alycia; Riviera-Perez, Carla; Martinez, Jessica; Miller, Debra L.

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a feline protozoan reported to cause morbidity and mortality in manatees and other marine mammals. Given the herbivorous nature of manatees, ingestion of oocysts from contaminated water or seagrass is presumed to be their primary mode of infection. The objectives of this study were to investigate oocyst contamination of seagrass beds in Puerto Rico and determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii in Antillean (Trichechus manatus manatus) and Florida (T. m. latirostris) manatees. Sera or plasma from Antillean (n = 5) and Florida (n = 351) manatees were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test. No T. gondii DNA was detected via PCR in seagrass samples (n = 33) collected from Puerto Rico. Seroprevalence was 0%, suggesting a lower prevalence of T. gondii in these manatee populations than previously reported. This was the first study to investigate the potential oocyst contamination of the manatee diet, and similar studies are important for understanding the epidemiology of T. gondii in herbivorous marine mammals.

  9. Distribution and abundance of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) in the Panama Canal

    OpenAIRE

    Vianna, Juliana; Muschett, Giselle

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the distribution and current status of the West-Indian manatee Trichechus manatus, in Lake Gatun, the main body of water in the Panama Canal. We used four different methodologies: interviews, revision review of documents, aquatic and aerial surveys. Forty-four interviews carried out between March and July 2007 revealed 59 manatee sightings. Official documents revealed 19 manatee deaths between 1995 and 2008, while three aerial surveys yielded a tota...

  10. Phylogeography of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus): how many populations and how many taxa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Rodriguez, A I; Bowen, B W; Domning, D; Mignucci-Giannoni, A; Marmontel, M; Montoya-Ospina, A; Morales-Vela, B; Rudin, M; Bonde, R K; McGuire, P M

    1998-09-01

    To resolve the population genetic structure and phylogeography of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), mitochondrial (mt) DNA control region sequences were compared among eight locations across the western Atlantic region. Fifteen haplotypes were identified among 86 individuals from Florida, Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, Columbia, Venezuela, Guyana and Brazil. Despite the manatee's ability to move thousands of kilometers along continental margins, strong population separations between most locations were demonstrated with significant haplotype frequency shifts. These findings are consistent with tagging studies which indicate that stretches of open water and unsuitable coastal habitats constitute substantial barriers to gene flow and colonization. Low levels of genetic diversity within Florida and Brazilian samples might be explained by recent colonization into high latitudes or bottleneck effects. Three distinctive mtDNA lineages were observed in an intraspecific phylogeny of T. manatus, corresponding approximately to: (i) Florida and the West Indies; (ii) the Gulf of Mexico to the Caribbean rivers of South America; and (iii) the northeast Atlantic coast of South America. These lineages, which are not concordant with previous subspecies designations, are separated by sequence divergence estimates of d = 0.04-0.07, approximately the same level of divergence observed between T. manatus and the Amazonian manatee (T. inunguis, n = 16). Three individuals from Guyana, identified as T. manatus, had mtDNA haplotypes which are affiliated with the endemic Amazon form T. inunguis. The three primary T. manatus lineages and the T. inunguis lineage may represent relatively deep phylogeographic partitions which have been bridged recently due to changes in habitat availability (after the Wisconsin glacial period, 10 000 B P), natural colonization, and human-mediated transplantation.

  11. First report of a Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Aleman, Anmari; Beck, Cathy A.; Powell, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Florida utilize intake and effluent canals of power plants as resting and thermoregulatory habitat. We report the use of a power plant canal in Cuba by a known Florida manatee, the first documented case of movement by a manatee between Florida and Cuba. In January, February, and April 2007, two manatees (mother and calf) were reported entering a power plant canal in north Havana, Cuba. The larger manatee had several distinctive scars which were photographed. Digital images were matched to a previously known Florida manatee (CR131) with a sighting history dating from December 1979 to July 2006. Exchanges of individuals between Florida and Cuba may have important genetic implications, particularly since there appears to be little genetic exchange between the Florida manatee subspecies with populations of the Antillean manatee subspecies (T. m. manatus) in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic.

  12. Phylogeography and sex-biased dispersal across riverine manatee populations (Trichechus inunguis and Trichechus manatus) in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satizábal, Paula; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A; Duchêne, Sebastián; Caicedo-Herrera, Dalila; Perea-Sicchar, Carlos M; García-Dávila, Carmen R; Trujillo, Fernando; Caballero, Susana J

    2012-01-01

    Phylogeographic patterns and sex-biased dispersal were studied in riverine populations of West Indian (Trichechus manatus) and Amazonian manatees (T. inunguis) in South America, using 410bp D-loop (Control Region, Mitochondrial DNA) sequences and 15 nuclear microsatellite loci. This multi-locus approach was key to disentangle complex patterns of gene flow among populations. D-loop analyses revealed population structuring among all Colombian rivers for T. manatus, while microsatellite data suggested no structure. Two main populations of T. inunguis separating the Colombian and Peruvian Amazon were supported by analysis of the D-loop and microsatellite data. Overall, we provide molecular evidence for differences in dispersal patterns between sexes, demonstrating male-biased gene flow dispersal in riverine manatees. These results are in contrast with previously reported levels of population structure shown by microsatellite data in marine manatee populations, revealing low habitat restrictions to gene flow in riverine habitats, and more significant dispersal limitations for males in marine environments.

  13. Polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers for the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pause, K.C.; Nourisson, C.; Clark, A.; Kellogg, M.E.; Bonde, R.K.; McGuire, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are marine mammals that inhabit the coastal waters and rivers of the southeastern USA, primarily Florida. Previous studies have shown that Florida manatees have low mitochondrial DNA variability, suggesting that nuclear DNA loci are necessary for discriminatory analyses. Here we report 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci with an average of 4.2 alleles per locus, and average heterozygosity of 50.1%. These loci have been developed for use in population studies, parentage assignment, and individual identification. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Phylogeography and sex-biased dispersal across riverine manatee populations (Trichechus inunguis and Trichechus manatus in South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Satizábal

    Full Text Available Phylogeographic patterns and sex-biased dispersal were studied in riverine populations of West Indian (Trichechus manatus and Amazonian manatees (T. inunguis in South America, using 410bp D-loop (Control Region, Mitochondrial DNA sequences and 15 nuclear microsatellite loci. This multi-locus approach was key to disentangle complex patterns of gene flow among populations. D-loop analyses revealed population structuring among all Colombian rivers for T. manatus, while microsatellite data suggested no structure. Two main populations of T. inunguis separating the Colombian and Peruvian Amazon were supported by analysis of the D-loop and microsatellite data. Overall, we provide molecular evidence for differences in dispersal patterns between sexes, demonstrating male-biased gene flow dispersal in riverine manatees. These results are in contrast with previously reported levels of population structure shown by microsatellite data in marine manatee populations, revealing low habitat restrictions to gene flow in riverine habitats, and more significant dispersal limitations for males in marine environments.

  15. REPRODUCTIVE NEOPLASMS IN WILD AND LONG-TERM CAPTIVE FEMALE FLORIDA MANATEES (TRICHECHUS MANATUS LATIROSTRIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lauren N; Rotstein, David S; Ball, Ray L; Gerlach, Trevor J; Kinsel, Michael; Rodriguez, Maya; de Wit, Martine

    2015-12-01

    Few reports of neoplastic diseases in manatees exist in the veterinary literature. This case series presents reproductive neoplasia noted in eight wild and long-term captive female Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) obtained through carcass recovery and animal rehabilitation programs between April 2009 and May 2014. All cases were evaluated histologically, and diagnoses of uterine carcinoma (n = 1), granulosa cell tumor (n = 2), ovarian adnexal tumor (n = 1), and leiomyoma (n = 5) were made. The underlying cause of tumor development and effects on reproductive success is currently unknown, but possible asymmetric reproductive aging and/or a correlation between obesity and reproductive disorder in long-term nonreproductive female manatees are of interest and warrant further investigation.

  16. Use of space and temporal distribution of Trichechus manatus manatus Linnaeus in the region of Sagi, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil (Sirenia, Trichechidae

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    Danielle Paludo

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The marine manatee Trichechus manatus manatus Linnaeus, 1758 is endangered in the Brazilian Atlantic coast due to indiscriminate hunting practiced in the past, and to the low reproductive rate of the species. This work studies its use of space and temporal occurrence in the coastal area of Sagi, Northeastern Brazil. Daily observations from the beach of the animals in the sea were made during daytime from 1990 through 1993. The presence of reefs covered with marine algae is a determinant factor in the occurrence of the manatee. They were sighted feeding on algae that grow over the reefs close to beaches that were of high energy during high tide. The range used by manatees shifted according to tide. They occur in depths of 0.4 to 3.8 m; the distance from the beach varies according to the tide level. They show marked seasonality of occurrence, with higher frequencies in December - January and lowest in June - July. Two possible causes of the seasonal occurrence are discussed. Sagi is important for the conservation of the species in Northeastern Brazil as feeding and reproductive grounds.

  17. Population viability analysis of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), 1976-1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmontel, M.; Humphrey, S.R.; O'Shea, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Recent development of age-determination techniques for Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) has permitted derivation of age-specific data on reproduction and survival of a sample of 1212 carcasses obtained throughout Florida from 1976–1991. Population viability analysis using these data projects a slightly negative growth rate (−0.003) and an unacceptably low probability of persistence (0.44) over 1000 years. The main factors affecting population projections were adult survival and fecundity. A 10% increase in adult mortality would drive the population to extinction over a 1000-year time scale, whereas a 10% decrease in adult mortality would allow slow population growth. A 10% decrease in reproduction would also result in extinction. We conclude that management must focus on retaining and improving the conditions under which manatee demography operates. The major identified agent of mortality is boat-manatee collisions, and rapidly increasing numbers of humans and registered boats portend an increase in manatee mortality. Zoning of manatee-occupied waters for reductions in boating activity and speed is essential to safeguard the manatee population. If boating regulations being implemented by the state of Florida in each of 13 key coastal counties are completed, enforced, and effective, manatees and human recreation could coexist indefinitely. If regulation is unsuccessful, the Florida manatee population is likely to decline slowly toward extinction.

  18. Characterization of kidney epithelial cells from the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweat JMDunigan, D D; Wright, S D

    2001-06-01

    The West-Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris, is a herbivorous marine mammal found in the coastal waters of Florida. Because of their endangered status, animal experimentation is not allowed. Therefore, a cell line was developed and characterized from tissue collected during necropsies of the manatees. A primary cell culture was established by isolating single cells from kidney tissue using both enzymatic and mechanical techniques. Primary manatee kidney (MK) cells were subcultured for characterization. These cells were morphologically similar to the cell lines of epithelial origin. An immunocytochemistry assay was used to localize the cytokeratin filaments common to cells of epithelial origin. At second passage, epithelial-like cells had an average population-doubling time of 48 h, had an optimum seeding density of 5 x 10(3) cells/cm2, and readily attached to plastic culture plates with a high level of seeding efficiency. Although the epithelial-like cells had a rapid growth rate during the first three passages, the cloning potential was low. These cells did not form colonies in agar medium, were serum dependent, had a limited life span of approximately nine passages, and possessed cell-contact inhibition. These data suggest that the cells were finite (noncontinuous growth), did not possess transformed properties, and were of epithelial origin. These cells are now referred to as MK epithelial cells.

  19. Distribution, status, and traditional significance of the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Thomas J.; Correa-Viana, Martín; Ludlow, Mark E.; Robinson, John G.

    1988-01-01

    Aerial and interview surveys were conducted in 1986 to determine the current distribution, status, and traditional significance of the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus in Venezuela. Aerial surveys provided just eight tentative sightings in 73 hours of searching. These discouraging results may have been due to poor visibility, small populations, and perhaps reduced dry season manatee activity. Results of interview surveys, however, permitted a number of important generalizations. A remnant manatee population exists in Lake Maracaibo, but none occur along the more than 1500 km of Caribbean coastline. Abundance is greatest in eastern Venezuela bordering the Golfo de Paria, in the Orinoco Delta, and in the middle Orinoco and tributaries. Local market hunting in the middle of this century probably greatly reduced manatee populations in these areas. Recent protection laws, education efforts, and manatee scarcity have resulted in a declining interest in manatee hunting. Much excellent manatee habitat persists in these regions, and a continued decline in hunting could result in an optimistic outlook for future manatee populations if the incidental take in net fisheries is controlled. Traditional beliefs and legends concerning manatees in Venezuela, including hunting taboos, show that these animals remain a colorful part of the folk culture. However, manatee protection does not pose economic hardships or infringe upon traditional spiritual beliefs.

  20. Seroepidemiology of TmPV1 infection in captive and wild Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donà, Maria Gabriella; Rehtanz, Manuela; Adimey, Nicole M; Bossart, Gregory D; Jenson, Alfred B; Bonde, Robert K; Ghim, Shin-je

    2011-07-01

    In 1997, cutaneous papillomatosis caused by Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris [Tm]) papillomavirus 1 (TmPV1) was detected in seven captive manatees at the Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park, Florida, USA, and, subsequently, in two wild manatees from the adjacent Homosassa River. Since then, papillomatosis has been reported in captive manatees housed in other locations, but not in wild animals. To determine TmPV1 antibody prevalence in captive and wild manatees sampled at various locations throughout Florida coastal regions, virus-like particles, composed of the L1 capsid protein of TmPV1, were generated with a baculovirus expression system and used to measure anti-TmPV1 antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serologic analysis of 156 manatees revealed a TmPV1 antibody prevalence of 26.3%, with no significant difference between captive (n=39) and wild (n=117) manatees (28.2% and 25.6%, respectively). No antibody-positive wild animal showed PV-induced cutaneous lesions, whereas papillomatosis was observed in 72.7% of antibody-positive captive manatees. Our data indicate that Florida manatees living in the wild are naturally infected by TmPV1 but rarely show TmPV1-induced papillomatosis. Hence, it appears that the wild population would not be harmed in a case of contact with captive animals without visible lesions and productive infections, which could be thus released into the wild.

  1. Status and threats analysis for the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Michael C.; Langtimm, Catherine A.; Martin, Julien; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The endangered West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), especially the Florida subspecies (T. m. latirostris), has been the focus of conservation efforts and extensive research since its listing under the Endangered Species Act. On the basis of the best information available as of December 2012, the threats facing the Florida manatee were determined to be less severe than previously thought, either because the conservation efforts have been successful, or because our knowledge of the demographic effects of those threats is increased, or both. Using the manatee Core Biological Model, we estimated the probability of the Florida manatee population on either the Atlantic or Gulf coast falling below 500 adults in the next 150 years to be 0.92 percent. The primary threats remain watercraft-related mortality and long-term loss of warm-water habitat. Since 2009, however, there have been a number of unusual events that have not yet been incorporated into this analysis, including several severely cold winters, a severe red-tide die off, and substantial loss of seagrass habitat in Brevard County, Fla. Further, the version of the Core Biological Model used in 2012 makes a number of assumptions that are under investigation. A revision of the Core Biological Model and an update of this quantitative threats analysis are underway as of 2015.

  2. Variables asociadas con el uso de hábitat del manatí del Caribe (Trichechus manatus, en Quintana Roo, México (Mammalia

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    Javier Axis-Arroyo

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available La influencia de: temperatura atmosférica y del agua, vientos, nubosidad, profundidad, salinidad, abundancia de pastos y algas, y estructura de grupo; en la distribución espacial de Trichechus manatus manatus, fue estudiada en la Bahía de Chetumal, Quintana Roo, México; de noviembre de 1994 a junio de 1995. Las variables con menor asociación fueron: nubosidad y temperatura atmosférica y del agua (en contraste con lo reportado para la subespecie de Florida, Trichechus manatus latirostris; las variables con asociación moderada fueron: salinidad (como en Florida, profundidad (uso frecuente de profundidades entre 0.80 y 2 m y estructura de grupo (lo cual sugiere que la zona no es importante como área de apareamiento. La distribución espacial fue asociada principalmente con cambios drásticos en la intensidad del viento y con el alimento disponible (similar a trabajos previos realizados en México.Influence of atmospheric variables and water temperature, winds, cloudiness, depth, salinity, grass and algal abundance, and group structure on the spatial distribution of Trichechus manatus manatus was studied in Chetumal Bay, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Boat surveys were done from November 1994 trough June 1995. There was little association with cloudiness and atmospheric and water temperature (in contrast with reports for the Florida subspecies, Trichechus manatus latirostris; the variables with moderate association were salinity (as in Florida, depth (frequent use of depths between 0.80-2 m and group structure (which suggests that the zone is not an important mating area. Spatial distribution was more associated with drastic changes in wind intensity and the available food (similar to previous works in Mexico.

  3. Neuron Types in the Presumptive Primary Somatosensory Cortex of the Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Laura D; Stimpson, Cheryl D; Gupta, Kanika; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Hof, Patrick R; Reep, Roger L; Sherwood, Chet C

    2015-01-01

    Within afrotherians, sirenians are unusual due to their aquatic lifestyle, large body size and relatively large lissencephalic brain. However, little is known about the neuron type distributions of the cerebral cortex in sirenians within the context of other afrotherians and aquatic mammals. The present study investigated two cortical regions, dorsolateral cortex area 1 (DL1) and cluster cortex area 2 (CL2), in the presumptive primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) to characterize cyto- and chemoarchitecture. The mean neuron density for both cortical regions was 35,617 neurons/mm(3) and fell within the 95% prediction intervals relative to brain mass based on a reference group of afrotherians and xenarthrans. Densities of inhibitory interneuron subtypes labeled against calcium-binding proteins and neuropeptide Y were relatively low compared to afrotherians and xenarthrans and also formed a small percentage of the overall population of inhibitory interneurons as revealed by GAD67 immunoreactivity. Nonphosphorylated neurofilament protein-immunoreactive (NPNFP-ir) neurons comprised a mean of 60% of neurons in layer V across DL1 and CL2. DL1 contained a higher percentage of NPNFP-ir neurons than CL2, although CL2 had a higher variety of morphological types. The mean percentage of NPNFP-ir neurons in the two regions of the presumptive S1 were low compared to other afrotherians and xenarthrans but were within the 95% prediction intervals relative to brain mass, and their morphologies were comparable to those found in other afrotherians and xenarthrans. Although this specific pattern of neuron types and densities sets the manatee apart from other afrotherians and xenarthrans, the manatee isocortex does not appear to be explicitly adapted for an aquatic habitat. Many of the features that are shared between manatees and cetaceans are also shared with a diverse array of terrestrial mammals and likely represent highly conserved

  4. A core stochastic population projection model for Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Michael C.; Sanders-Reed, Carol A.; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    A stochastic, stage-based population model was developed to describe the life history and forecast the population dynamics of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in four separate regions of Florida. This population model includes annual variability in survival and reproductive rates, demographic stochasticity, effects of changes in warm-water capacity, and catastrophes. Further, the model explicitly accounts for uncertainty in parameter estimates. This model is meant to serve as a flexible tool for use in assessments relevant to management decision making, and was used in the State of Florida's recent biological status review. The parameter estimates and model structure described herein reflect our understanding of manatee demography at the time that this status review was completed. In the Northwest and Upper St. Johns regions, the model predicts that the populations will increase over time until warm-water capacity is reached, at which point growth will taper off. In the Atlantic region, the model predicts a stable or slightly increasing population over the next decade or so, and then a decrease as industrial warm-water capacity is lost. In the Southwest region, the model predicts a decline over time, driven by high annual mortality in the short-term and exacerbated by loss of industrial warm-water winter refuges over the next 40 years. Statewide, the likelihood of a 50% or greater decline in three manatee generations was 12%; the likelihood of a 20% or greater decline in two generations was 56%. These declines are largely driven by the anticipated loss of warm-water capacity, especially in the Atlantic and Southwest regions. The estimates of probability of extinction within 100 years were 11.9% for the Southwest region, 0.6% for the Northwest, 0.04% for the Atlantic, and population will fall below 1000 animals within 100 years was 2.3%. Thus, while the estimated probability of extinction is low, the model predicts that current and emerging

  5. Estimates of annual survival probabilities for adult Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langtimm, C.A.; O'Shea, T.J.; Pradel, R.; Beck, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    The population dynamics of large, long-lived mammals are particularly sensitive to changes in adult survival. Understanding factors affecting survival patterns is therefore critical for developing and testing theories of population dynamics and for developing management strategies aimed at preventing declines or extinction in such taxa. Few studies have used modern analytical approaches for analyzing variation and testing hypotheses about survival probabilities in large mammals. This paper reports a detailed analysis of annual adult survival in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), an endangered marine mammal, based on a mark-recapture approach. Natural and boat-inflicted scars distinctively 'marked' individual manatees that were cataloged in a computer-based photographic system. Photo-documented resightings provided 'recaptures.' Using open population models, annual adult-survival probabilities were estimated for manatees observed in winter in three areas of Florida: Blue Spring, Crystal River, and the Atlantic coast. After using goodness-of-fit tests in Program RELEASE to search for violations of the assumptions of mark-recapture analysis, survival and sighting probabilities were modeled under several different biological hypotheses with Program SURGE. Estimates of mean annual probability of sighting varied from 0.948 for Blue Spring to 0.737 for Crystal River and 0.507 for the Atlantic coast. At Crystal River and Blue Spring, annual survival probabilities were best estimated as constant over the study period at 0.96 (95% CI = 0.951-0.975 and 0.900-0.985, respectively). On the Atlantic coast, where manatees are impacted more by human activities, annual survival probabilities had a significantly lower mean estimate of 0.91 (95% CI = 0.887-0.926) and varied unpredictably over the study period. For each study area, survival did not differ between sexes and was independent of relative adult age. The high constant adult-survival probabilities estimated

  6. Development of a quantitative PCR assay for measurement of trichechid herpesvirus 1 load in the Florida manatee ( Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Jason A; Cortés-Hinojosa, Galaxia; Archer, Linda L; Wellehan, James F X

    2017-07-01

    Trichechid herpesvirus 1 (TrHV-1) is currently the only known herpesvirus in any sirenian. We hypothesized that stress may lead to recrudescence of TrHV-1 in manatees, thus making TrHV-1 a potential biomarker of stress. We optimized and validated a TrHV-1 real-time quantitative probe hybridization PCR (qPCR) assay that was used to quantify TrHV-1 in manatee peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Average baseline TrHV-1 loads in a clinically healthy wild Florida manatee ( Trichechus manatus latirostris) population ( n = 42) were 40.9 ± SD 21.2 copies/100 ng DNA; 19 of 42 manatees were positive. TrHV-1 loads were significantly different between the 2 field seasons ( p < 0.025). This optimized and validated qPCR assay may be used as a tool for further research into TrHV-1 in Florida manatees.

  7. Long-Term Trends in Abundance and Distribution of Manatees (Trichechus Manatus) in the Northern Banana River, Brevard County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provancha, J. A.; Provancha, M. J.

    1988-01-01

    Four aerial survey projects were conducted between 1977 and 1986 to determine the abundance, density and distribution of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus), in the northern Banana River, Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Manatee density and distribution within selected portions of the 78.5 sq km study area were determined. Peak numbers of manatees occurred in spring of each year. The maximum counts increased from 56 in 1978 to 297 in 1986. Manatee abundance was lowest in the winter of each year. Mean density per flight increased from 0.52 manatees/sq km in 1977-78 to 2.73/sq km in 1984-86. This increase may reflect increases in the east coast population or shifts in the population distribution. Distributional changes were observed in the study area through time, with a lower percentage of manatees occurring in industrial areas and a correspondingly higher percentage of manatees in nonindustrial areas by 1985.

  8. The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) T cell receptor loci exhibit V subgroup synteny and chain-specific evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaux, Breanna; Hunter, Margaret; Cruz-Schneider, Maria Paula; Sena, Leonardo; Bonde, Robert K.; Criscitiello, Michael F.

    2018-01-01

    The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) has limited diversity in the immunoglobulin heavy chain. We therefore investigated the antigen receptor loci of the other arm of the adaptive immune system: the T cell receptor. Manatees are the first species from Afrotheria, a basal eutherian superorder, to have an in-depth characterization of all T cell receptor loci. By annotating the genome and expressed transcripts, we found that each chain has distinct features that correlates to their individual functions. The genomic organization also plays a role in modulating sequence conservation between species. There were extensive V subgroup synteny blocks in the TRA and TRB loci between T. m. latirostrisand human. Increased genomic locus complexity correlated to increased locus synteny. We also identified evidence for a VHD pseudogene for the first time in a eutherian mammal. These findings emphasize the value of including species within this basal eutherian radiation in comparative studies.

  9. Diversidad haplotípica en el manatí Trichechus manatus en Cuba: resultados preliminares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Martinez, Damir; Alvarez-Aleman, Anmari; Bonde, Robert K.; Powell, James A.; Garcia-Machado, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this analysis was to obtain information regarding the mtDNA haplotype composition of the manatee (T. manatus) occupying the Cuban archipelago. A fragment of 410 bp of the non-coding region was analyzed for 12 individual manatees from Cuba and one from Florida, USA. Only two haplotypes were identified. Haplotype A1, found exclusively in Florida (including in the sample analyzed here) but also found in Mexico, the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, was the most frequent haplotype (11 of the 12 samples from Cuba) and widely distributed. The second haplotype A3, previously referred to as endemic from Belize, was identified from an individual stranded in Isabela de Sagua, north of Cuba. These preliminary results provide information about three major aspects of manatee biology: (1) the mtDNA genetic diversity of T. manatus in Cuba seems low as compared to other regions of the Caribbean; (2) the Cuban population likely belongs to the group comprising Florida and the portions of the Greater Antilles; and (3) the territories of Belize and Cuba have exchanged individuals at present or in a relatively recent past.

  10. A Quantitative Threats Analysis for the Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Michael C.; Sanders-Reed, Carol A.; Langtimm, Catherine A.; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is an endangered marine mammal endemic to the southeastern United States. The primary threats to manatee populations are collisions with watercraft and the potential loss of warm-water refuges. For the purposes of listing, recovery, and regulation under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), an understanding of the relative effects of the principal threats is needed. This work is a quantitative approach to threats analysis, grounded in the assumption that an appropriate measure of status under the ESA is based on the risk of extinction, as quantified by the probability of quasi-extinction. This is related to the qualitative threats analyses that are more common under the ESA, but provides an additional level of rigor, objectivity, and integration. In this approach, our philosophy is that analysis of the five threat factors described in Section 4(a)(1) of the ESA can be undertaken within an integrated quantitative framework. The basis of this threats analysis is a comparative population viability analysis. This involves forecasting the Florida manatee population under different scenarios regarding the presence of threats, while accounting for process variation (environmental, demographic, and catastrophic stochasticity) as well as parametric and structural uncertainty. We used the manatee core biological model (CBM) for this viability analysis, and considered the role of five threats: watercraft-related mortality, loss of warm-water habitat in winter, mortality in water-control structures, entanglement, and red tide. All scenarios were run with an underlying parallel structure that allowed a more powerful estimation of the effects of the various threats. The results reflect our understanding of manatee ecology (as captured in the structure of the CBM), our estimates of manatee demography (as described by the parameters in the model), and our characterization of the mechanisms by which the threats act on manatees. As an

  11. Status and threats analysis for the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Michael C.; Sanders-Reed, Carol A.; Langtimm, Catherine A.; Hostetler, Jeffrey A.; Martin, Julien; Deutsch, Charles J.; Ward-Geiger, Leslie I.; Mahon, Gary L.

    2017-04-11

    Trichechus manatus (West Indian manatee), especially T. m. latirostris, the Florida subspecies, has been the focus of conservation efforts and extensive research since its listing under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. To determine the status of, and severity of threats to, the Florida manatee, a comprehensive revision and update of the manatee Core Biological Model was completed and used to perform a population viability analysis for the Florida manatee. The probability of the Florida manatee population falling below 500 adults on either the Gulf or East coast within the next 100 years was estimated to be 0.42 percent. This risk of quasi-extinction is low because the estimated adult survival rates are high, the current population size is greater than 2,500 on each coast, and the estimated carrying capacity for manatees is much larger than the current abundance estimates in all four regions of Florida. Three threats contribute in roughly equal measures to the risk of quasi-extinction: watercraft-related mortality, red-tide mortality, and loss of warm-water habitat. Only an increase in watercraft-related mortality has the potential to substantially increase the risk of quasi-extinction at the statewide or coastal level. Expected losses of warm-water habitat are likely to cause a major change in the distribution of the population from the regions where manatees rely heavily on power plant effluents for warmth in winter (Southwest and Atlantic regions) to the regions where manatees primarily use natural springs in winter (Northwest and Upper St. Johns regions). The chances are nearly 50 percent that manatee populations in the Southwest and Atlantic regions will decrease from their 2011 levels by at least 30 percent over the next century.A large number of scenarios were examined to explore the possible effects of potential emerging threats, and in most of them, the risk of quasi-extinction at the coastal scale within 100 years did not rise above 1 percent. The four

  12. Nocturnal and diurnal activity of armored suckermouth catfish (Loricariidae: Pterygoplichthys associated with wintering Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo G. Nico

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Several Pterygoplichthys species, members of the Neotropical catfish family Loricariidae, have been widely introduced outside their native ranges. In this paper, I present observations on the diel activity pattern of non-native Pterygoplichthys, tentatively identified as P. disjunctivus, with respect to their attachment and grazing on endangered Florida manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris. The study was conducted in December 2009 at Volusia Blue Spring, an artesianal spring system in the St. Johns River basin, Florida (USA. Supplemented by information gathered during previous visits to the spring site, this study revealed that adult Pterygoplichthys are active throughout the diel period (day, twilight and night. However, juvenile Pterygoplichthys were largely nocturnal and only at night did they consistently join adults in attaching to manatees. The juveniles generally remain hidden during the day, probably responding to presence of diurnal predators, mainly birds. Differences in diel behaviors among different Pterygoplichthys size classes in Florida are consistent with published observations on loricariids inhabiting clearwater streams within their native ranges.Várias espécies de Pterygoplichthys, siluriformes Neotropicais da família Loricariidae, tem sido largamente introduzidos além de suas áreas naturais de ocorrência. Neste artigo, eu apresento observações dos padrões de atividade diária de uma população não nativa de Pterygoplichthys, identificada tentativamente como P. disjunctivus, associados com a espécie ameaçada de peixe-boi nativa da Flórida, Trichechus manatus latirostris. O estudo foi conduzido em dezembro de 2009 em Volusia Blue Spring um sistema artesiano na bacia do rio St. John, Flórida (USA. Suplementado por informações reunidas durante visitas prévias ao sítio em análise, este estudo revelou que Pterygoplichthys adultos estiveram ativos durante a maioria dos períodos (dia, crepúsculo e noite. No

  13. Development and validation of quantitative PCR assays to measure cytokine transcript levels in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Jason; Hunter, Margaret; Wellehan, James F.X.

    2018-01-01

    Cytokines have important roles in the mammalian response to viral and bacterial infections, trauma, and wound healing. Because of early cytokine production after physiologic stresses, the regulation of messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts can be used to assess immunologic responses before changes in protein production. To detect and assess early immune changes in endangered Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris), we developed and validated a panel of quantitative PCR assays to measure mRNA transcription levels for the cytokines interferon (IFN)-γ; interleukin (IL)-2, -6, and -10; tumor necrosis factor-α, and the housekeeping genes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and β-actin (reference genes). Assays were successfully validated using blood samples from free-ranging, apparently healthy manatees from the east and west coasts of central Florida. No cytokine or housekeeping gene transcription levels were significantly different among age classes or sexes. However, the transcription levels for GAPDH, IL-2, IL-6, and IFN-γ were significantly higher (Pin manatees from the east coast of Florida than they were from those from the west coast. We found IL-10 and β-actin to be consistent between sites and identified β-actin as a good candidate for use as a reference gene in future studies. Our assays can aid in the investigation of manatee immune response to physical trauma and novel or ongoing environmental stressors.

  14. The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) immunoglobulin heavy chain suggests the importance of clan III variable segments in repertoire diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaux, Breanna; Deiss, Thaddeus C.; Chen, Patricia L.; Cruz-Schneider, Maria Paula; Sena, Leonardo; Hunter, Margaret E.; Bonde, Robert K.; Criscitiello, Michael F.

    2017-01-01

    Manatees are a vulnerable, charismatic sentinel species from the evolutionarily divergent Afrotheria. Manatee health and resistance to infectious disease is of great concern to conservation groups, but little is known about their immune system. To develop manatee-specific tools for monitoring health, we first must have a general knowledge of how the immunoglobulin heavy (IgH) chain locus is organized and transcriptionally expressed. Using the genomic scaffolds of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), we characterized the potential IgH segmental diversity and constant region isotypic diversity and performed the first Afrotherian repertoire analysis. The Florida manatee has low V(D)J combinatorial diversity (3744 potential combinations) and few constant region isotypes. They also lack clan III V segments, which may have caused reduced VH segment numbers. However, we found productive somatic hypermutation concentrated in the complementarity determining regions. In conclusion, manatees have limited IGHV clan and combinatorial diversity. This suggests that clan III V segments are essential for maintaining IgH locus diversity.

  15. Development and validation of quantitative PCR assays to measure cytokine transcript levels in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Jason; Hunter, Margaret; Wellehan, James F.X.

    2018-01-01

    Cytokines have important roles in the mammalian response to viral and bacterial infections, trauma, and wound healing. Because of early cytokine production after physiologic stresses, the regulation of messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts can be used to assess immunologic responses before changes in protein production. To detect and assess early immune changes in endangered Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris), we developed and validated a panel of quantitative PCR assays to measure mRNA transcription levels for the cytokines interferon (IFN)-γ; interleukin (IL)-2, -6, and -10; tumor necrosis factor-α, and the housekeeping genes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and β-actin (reference genes). Assays were successfully validated using blood samples from free-ranging, apparently healthy manatees from the east and west coasts of central Florida. No cytokine or housekeeping gene transcription levels were significantly different among age classes or sexes. However, the transcription levels for GAPDH, IL-2, IL-6, and IFN-γ were significantly higher (P<0.05) in manatees from the east coast of Florida than they were from those from the west coast. We found IL-10 and β-actin to be consistent between sites and identified β-actin as a good candidate for use as a reference gene in future studies. Our assays can aid in the investigation of manatee immune response to physical trauma and novel or ongoing environmental stressors.

  16. Golgi Analysis of Neuron Morphology in the Presumptive Somatosensory Cortex and Visual Cortex of the Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Laura D; Harland, Tessa; Reep, Roger L; Sherwood, Chet C; Jacobs, Bob

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates neuron morphology in presumptive primary somatosensory (S1) and primary visual (V1) cortices of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) as revealed by Golgi impregnation. Sirenians, including manatees, have an aquatic lifestyle, a large body size, and a relatively large lissencephalic brain. The present study examines neuron morphology in 3 cortical areas: in S1, dorsolateral cortex area 1 (DL1) and cluster cortex area 2 (CL2) and in V1, dorsolateral cortex area 4 (DL4). Neurons exhibited a variety of morphological types, with pyramidal neurons being the most common. The large variety of neuron types present in the manatee cortex was comparable to that seen in other eutherian mammals, except for rodents and primates, where pyramid-shaped neurons predominate. A comparison between pyramidal neurons in S1 and V1 indicated relatively greater dendritic branching in S1. Across all 3 areas, the dendritic arborization pattern of pyramidal neurons was also similar to that observed previously in the afrotherian rock hyrax, cetartiodactyls, opossums, and echidnas but did not resemble the widely bifurcated dendrites seen in the large-brained African elephant. Despite adaptations for an aquatic environment, manatees did not share specific neuron types such as tritufted and star-like neurons that have been found in cetaceans. Manatees exhibit an evolutionarily primitive pattern of cortical neuron morphology shared with most other mammals and do not appear to have neuronal specializations for an aquatic niche. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Nocturnal and diurnal activity of armored suckermouth catfish (Loricariidae: Pterygoplichthys associated with wintering Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo G. Nico

    Full Text Available Several Pterygoplichthys species, members of the Neotropical catfish family Loricariidae, have been widely introduced outside their native ranges. In this paper, I present observations on the diel activity pattern of non-native Pterygoplichthys, tentatively identified as P. disjunctivus, with respect to their attachment and grazing on endangered Florida manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris. The study was conducted in December 2009 at Volusia Blue Spring, an artesianal spring system in the St. Johns River basin, Florida (USA. Supplemented by information gathered during previous visits to the spring site, this study revealed that adult Pterygoplichthys are active throughout the diel period (day, twilight and night. However, juvenile Pterygoplichthys were largely nocturnal and only at night did they consistently join adults in attaching to manatees. The juveniles generally remain hidden during the day, probably responding to presence of diurnal predators, mainly birds. Differences in diel behaviors among different Pterygoplichthys size classes in Florida are consistent with published observations on loricariids inhabiting clearwater streams within their native ranges.

  18. Secretion of anti-Müllerian hormone in the Florida manatee Trichechus manatus latirostris, with implications for assessing conservation status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rhian C.; Reynolds, John E.; Wetzel, Dana L.; Schwierzke-Wade, Leslie; Bonde, Robert K.; Breuel, Kevin F.; Roudebush, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental and anthropogenic stressors can affect wildlife populations in a number of ways. For marine mammals (e.g. the Florida manatee Trichechus manatus latirostris), certain stressors or conservation risk factors have been identified, but sublethal effects have been very difficult to assess using traditional methods. The development of 'biomarkers' allows us to correlate effects, such as impaired reproduction, with possible causes. A recently developed biomarker (anti-Müllerian hormone, AMH) provides an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of gonadal function. The study objective was to determine AMH levels in wild manatees. In total, 28 male and 17 female manatee serum samples were assayed. Animal demographics included collection date, body weight (kg) and total length (cm). In certain cases, age of individuals was also known. AMH levels ranged from 160 to 2451.85 ng ml-1 (mean = 844.65 ng ml-1) in males and 0.00 to 0.38 ng ml-1 (mean = 0.10 ng ml-1) in females. Linear regression analyses revealed a significant relationship between male AMH levels and body weight (R2 = 0.452; p 2 = 0.338; p < 0.001). Due to the small sample size, regression analyses for female AMH and body weight and length were not significant. This represents the first report of AMH detection in a marine mammal. AMH levels in male manatees are the highest of any species observed to date, whereas levels in females are within reported ranges. Further studies will promote improved conservation decision by assessing AMH levels in the manatee as a function of various stressors including, but not limited to, nutritional status, serious injuries (e.g. watercraft collisions), exposure to biotoxins or contaminants, or disease.

  19. Comparison of blood aminotransferase methods for assessment of myopathy and hepatopathy in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, Kendal E; Allison, Kathryn; Bonde, Robert K; Murphy, David; Harvey, John W

    2008-06-01

    Muscle injury is common in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is frequently used to assess muscular damage in capture myopathy and traumatic injury. Therefore, accurate measurement of AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is important in managed, free-ranging animals, as well as in those rehabilitating from injury. Activities of these enzymes, however, are usually not increased in manatees with either acute or chronic muscle damage, despite marked increases in plasma creatine kinase activity. It is hypothesized that this absence of response is due to apoenzymes in the blood not detected by commonly used veterinary assays. Addition of coenzyme pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P5P or vitamin B6) should, therefore, result in higher measured enzyme activities. The objective of this study was to determine the most accurate, precise, and diagnostically useful method for aminotransferase measurement in manatees that can be used in veterinary practices and diagnostic laboratories. Additionally, appropriate collection and storage techniques were assessed. The use of an optimized commercial wet chemical assay with 100 micromol P5P resulted in a positive bias of measured enzyme activities in a healthy population of animals. However, AST and ALT were still much lower than that typically observed in domestic animals and should not be used alone in the assessment of capture myopathy and muscular trauma. Additionally, the dry chemistry analyzer, typically used in clinics, reported significantly higher and less precise AST and ALT activities with poor correlation to those measured with wet chemical methods found in diagnostic laboratories. Therefore, these results cannot be clinically compared. Overall, the optimized wet chemical method was the most precise and diagnostically useful measurement of aminotransferase in samples. Additionally, there was a statistically significant difference between paired serum and plasma measurement

  20. Monitoring oral temperature, heart rate, and respiration rate of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) during capture and handling in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Arthur W.; Bonde, Robert K.; Siegal-Willott, Jessica; Stamper, M. Andrew; Colee, James; Powell, James A.; Reid, James P.; Deutsch, Charles J.; Harr, Kendal E.

    2012-01-01

    West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) are captured, handled, and transported to facilitate conservation, research, and rehabilitation efforts. Monitoring manatee oral temperature (OT), heart rate (HR), and respiration rate (RR) during out-of-water handling can assist efforts to maintain animal well-being and improve medical response to evidence of declining health. To determine effects of capture on manatee vital signs, we monitored OT, HR, and RR continuously for a 50-min period in 38 healthy, awake, juvenile and adult Florida manatees (T. m. latirostris) and 48 similar Antillean manatees (T. m. manatus). We examined creatine kinase (CK), potassium (K+), serum amyloid A (SAA), and lactate values for each animal to assess possible systemic inflammation and muscular trauma. OT range was 29.5 to 36.2° C, HR range was 32 to 88 beats/min, and RR range was 0 to 17 breaths/5 min. Antillean manatees had higher initial OT, HR, and RR than Florida manatees (p care setting.

  1. The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Florida: a summary and analysis of biological, ecological, and administrative problems affecting preservation and restoration of the population. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, P.

    1978-09-01

    The population of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), an endangered species, is estimated at 800-1,000 individuals in peninsular Florida. Observed annual mortality between 1974 and 1977 was 6-8% of the estimated population. Human activities are implicated in much of this mortality. Direct and indirect threats include boat collisions, diver harassment, creation of artificial warm water refuges, vandalism, entanglement in fishing gear, herbicides in food resources, and possible effects of offshore oil exploration. Lack of federal commitment to manatee protection is evidenced by an absence of implementing regulations under the Marine Mammal Protection Act and the Endangered Species Act, absence of a recovery plan for the species, faulty interagency communication, and a lack of law enforcement. Problems are discussed, with recommendations for conservation. (Color illustrations reproduced in black and white)

  2. Characterization of highly informative cross-species microsatellite panels for the Australian dugong (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) including five novel primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Margaret Kellogg; Broderick, Damien; Ovenden, Jennifer R; Tucker, Kimberly Pause; Bonde, Robert K; McGuire, Peter M; Lanyon, Janet M

    2010-03-01

    The Australian dugong (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are threatened species of aquatic mammals in the order Sirenia. Sirenian conservation and management actions would benefit from a more complete understanding of genetic diversity and population structure. Generally, species-specific microsatellite markers are employed in conservation genetic studies; however, robust markers can be difficult and costly to isolate. To increase the number of available markers, dugong and manatee microsatellite primers were evaluated for cross-species amplification. Furthermore, one manatee and four dugong novel primers are reported. After polymerase chain reaction optimization, 23 (92%) manatee primers successfully amplified dugong DNA, of which 11 (48%) were polymorphic. Of the 32 dugong primers tested, 27 (84%) yielded product in the manatee, of which 17 (63%) were polymorphic. Dugong and manatee primers were compared and the most informative markers were selected to create robust and informative marker-panels for each species. These cross-species microsatellite marker-panels can be employed to assess other sirenian populations and can provide beneficial information for the protection and management of these unique mammals. Published 2009. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Twenty-six years of post-release monitoring of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris): evaluation of a cooperative rehabilitation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adimey, Nicole M.; Ross, Monica; Hall, Madison; Reid, James P.; Barlas, Margie E.; Keith Diagne, Lucy W; Bonde, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    The rescue, rehabilitation, and release of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) into the wild has occurred since 1974; however, a comprehensive evaluation of the outcomes of the releases has never been conducted. Herein, we examined data for 136 Florida manatees that were rehabilitated and released with telemetry tags between 1988 and 2013 to determine release outcome of each individual as either success (acclimation) or failure after at least 1 y. Ten predictor variables were statistically evaluated for potential relationships to release outcome. To assess the contribution of each predictor variable to release outcome, each variable was tested for significance in univariate analyses. Manatees born in captivity experienced poor success after release (14%), whereas the overall success of wild-born individuals was higher (72%). When compared with other variables in our dataset, number of days in captivity was the strongest predictor for determining success. Manatees rescued as calves and held in captivity for more than 5 y had a high likelihood of failure, while subadults and adults had a high likelihood of success, regardless of the amount of time spent in captivity. Ensuring the success of individual manatees after release is critical for evaluating the contribution of the manatee rehabilitation program to the growth of the wild population.

  4. Model description and evaluation of the mark-recapture survival model used to parameterize the 2012 status and threats analysis for the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langtimm, Catherine A.; Kendall, William L.; Beck, Cathy A.; Kochman, Howard I.; Teague, Amy L.; Meigs-Friend, Gaia; Peñaloza, Claudia L.

    2016-11-30

    This report provides supporting details and evidence for the rationale, validity and efficacy of a new mark-recapture model, the Barker Robust Design, to estimate regional manatee survival rates used to parameterize several components of the 2012 version of the Manatee Core Biological Model (CBM) and Threats Analysis (TA).  The CBM and TA provide scientific analyses on population viability of the Florida manatee subspecies (Trichechus manatus latirostris) for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s 5-year reviews of the status of the species as listed under the Endangered Species Act.  The model evaluation is presented in a standardized reporting framework, modified from the TRACE (TRAnsparent and Comprehensive model Evaluation) protocol first introduced for environmental threat analyses.  We identify this new protocol as TRACE-MANATEE SURVIVAL and this model evaluation specifically as TRACE-MANATEE SURVIVAL, Barker RD version 1. The longer-term objectives of the manatee standard reporting format are to (1) communicate to resource managers consistent evaluation information over sequential modeling efforts; (2) build understanding and expertise on the structure and function of the models; (3) document changes in model structures and applications in response to evolving management objectives, new biological and ecological knowledge, and new statistical advances; and (4) provide greater transparency for management and research review.

  5. Hierarchical Bayesian analysis to incorporate age uncertainty in growth curve analysis and estimates of age from length: Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus) carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, L.K.; Runge, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    Age estimation of individuals is often an integral part of species management research, and a number of ageestimation techniques are commonly employed. Often, the error in these techniques is not quantified or accounted for in other analyses, particularly in growth curve models used to describe physiological responses to environment and human impacts. Also, noninvasive, quick, and inexpensive methods to estimate age are needed. This research aims to provide two Bayesian methods to (i) incorporate age uncertainty into an age-length Schnute growth model and (ii) produce a method from the growth model to estimate age from length. The methods are then employed for Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus) carcasses. After quantifying the uncertainty in the aging technique (counts of ear bone growth layers), we fit age-length data to the Schnute growth model separately by sex and season. Independent prior information about population age structure and the results of the Schnute model are then combined to estimate age from length. Results describing the age-length relationship agree with our understanding of manatee biology. The new methods allow us to estimate age, with quantified uncertainty, for 98% of collected carcasses: 36% from ear bones, 62% from length.

  6. Sexing sirenians: validation of visual and molecular sex determination in both wild dugongs (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Aquatic Mammals 35(2):187-192.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, Robert K.; Lanyon, J.; Sneath, H.; Ovenden, J.; Broderick, D.

    2009-01-01

    Sexing wild marine mammals that show little to no sexual dimorphism is challenging. For sirenians that are difficult to catch or approach closely, molecular sexing from tissue biopsies offers an alternative method to visual discrimination. This paper reports the results of a field study to validate the use of two sexing methods: (1) visual discrimination of sex vs (2) molecular sexing based on a multiplex PCR assay which amplifies the male-specific SRY gene and differentiates ZFX and ZFY gametologues. Skin samples from 628 dugongs (Dugong dugon) and 100 Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) were analysed and assigned as male or female based on molecular sex. These individuals were also assigned a sex based on either direct observation of the genitalia and/or the association of the individual with a calf. Individuals of both species showed 93 to 96% congruence between visual and molecular sexing. For the remaining 4 to 7%, the discrepancies could be explained by human error. To mitigate this error rate, we recommend using both of these robust techniques, with routine inclusion of sex primers into microsatellite panels employed for identity, along with trained field observers and stringent sample handling.

  7. Sexing sirenians: Validation of visual and molecular sex determination in both wild dugongs (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyon, J.M.; Sneath, H.L.; Ovenden, J.R.; Broderick, D.; Bonde, R.K.

    2009-01-01

    Sexing wild marine mammals that show little to no sexual dimorphism is challenging. For sirenians that are difficult to catch or approach closely, molecular sexing from tissue biopsies offers an alternative method to visual discrimination. This paper reports the results of a field study to validate the use of two sexing methods: (1) visual discrimination of sex vs (2) molecular sexing based on a multiplex PCR assay which amplifies the male-specific SRY gene and differentiates ZFX and ZFY gametologues. Skin samples from 628 dugongs (Dugong dugon) and 100 Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) were analysed and assigned as male or female based on molecular sex. These individuals were also assigned a sex based on either direct observation of the genitalia and/or the association of the individual with a calf. Individuals of both species showed 93 to 96% congruence between visual and molecular sexing. For the remaining 4 to 7%, the discrepancies could be explained by human error. To mitigate this error rate, we recommend using both of these robust techniques, with routine inclusion of sex primers into microsatellite panels employed for identity, along with trained field observers and stringent sample handling.

  8. Characterization of highly informative cross-species microsatellite panels for the Australian dugong (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) including five novel primers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Margaret Kellogg; Broderick, Damien; Ovenden, Jennifer R.; Tucker, Kimberly Pause; Bonde, Robert K.; McGuire, Peter M.; Lanyon, Janet M.

    2010-01-01

    The Australian dugong (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are threatened species of aquatic mammals in the order Sirenia. Sirenian conservation and management actions would benefit from a more complete understanding of genetic diversity and population structure. Generally, species-specific microsatellite markers are employed in conservation genetic studies; however, robust markers can be difficult and costly to isolate. To increase the number of available markers, dugong and manatee microsatellite primers were evaluated for cross-species amplification. Furthermore, one manatee and four dugong novel primers are reported. After polymerase chain reaction optimization, 23 (92%) manatee primers successfully amplified dugong DNA, of which 11 (48%) were polymorphic. Of the 32 dugong primers tested, 27 (84%) yielded product in the manatee, of which 17 (63%) were polymorphic. Dugong and manatee primers were compared and the most informative markers were selected to create robust and informative marker-panels for each species. These crossspecies microsatellite marker-panels can be employed to assess other sirenian populations and can provide beneficial information for the protection and management of these unique mammals.

  9. Sublethal red tide toxin exposure in free-ranging manatees (Trichechus manatus) affects the immune system through reduced lymphocyte proliferation responses, inflammation, and oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, Catherine J.; Butawan, Matthew; Yordy, Jennifer; Ball, Ray; Flewelling, Leanne; Wit, Martine de; Bonde, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Sublethal brevetoxin exposure affects manatee immune function. • Plasma brevetoxin levels correlate with oxidative stress in rescued manatees. • Brevetoxin exposure affects lymphocyte proliferation in rescued manatees. • Plasma brevetoxin concentrations ranged from 0 to 19 ng PbTx-3 eq/mL. - Abstract: The health of many Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is adversely affected by exposure to blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. K. brevis blooms are common in manatee habitats of Florida’s southwestern coast and produce a group of cyclic polyether toxins collectively referred to as red tide toxins, or brevetoxins. Although a large number of manatees exposed to significant levels of red tide toxins die, several manatees are rescued from sublethal exposure and are successfully treated and returned to the wild. Sublethal brevetoxin exposure may potentially impact the manatee immune system. Lymphocyte proliferative responses and a suite of immune function parameters in the plasma were used to evaluate effects of brevetoxin exposure on health of manatees rescued from natural exposure to red tide toxins in their habitat. Blood samples were collected from rescued manatees at Lowry Park Zoo in Tampa, FL and from healthy, unexposed manatees in Crystal River, FL. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) isolated from whole blood were stimulated with T-cell mitogens, ConA and PHA. A suite of plasma parameters, including plasma protein electrophoresis profiles, lysozyme activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen (ROS/RNS) species, was also used to assess manatee health. Significant decreases (p < 0.05) in lymphocyte proliferation were observed in ConA and PHA stimulated lymphocytes from rescued animals compared to non-exposed animals. Significant correlations were observed between oxidative stress markers (SOD, ROS/RNS) and plasma brevetoxin concentrations. Sublethal exposure to brevetoxins in the

  10. Sublethal red tide toxin exposure in free-ranging manatees (Trichechus manatus) affects the immune system through reduced lymphocyte proliferation responses, inflammation, and oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Catherine J., E-mail: cjwalsh@mote.org [Marine Immunology Program, Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, FL 34236 (United States); Butawan, Matthew, E-mail: mattbutawan@outlook.com [Marine Immunology Program, Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, FL 34236 (United States); Yordy, Jennifer, E-mail: jennifer.e.balmer@gmail.com [Marine Immunology Program, Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, FL 34236 (United States); Ball, Ray, E-mail: Ray.Ball@lowryparkzoo.com [Lowry Park Zoo, 1101 W Sligh Ave, Tampa, FL 33604 (United States); Flewelling, Leanne, E-mail: Leanne.Flewelling@MyFWC.com [Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 100 8th Ave SE, St. Petersburg, FL 33701 (United States); Wit, Martine de, E-mail: Martine.deWit@MyFWC.com [Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 100 8th Ave SE, St. Petersburg, FL 33701 (United States); Bonde, Robert K., E-mail: rbonde@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Sirenia Project, 7920 NE 71st Street, Gainesville, FL 32653 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Sublethal brevetoxin exposure affects manatee immune function. • Plasma brevetoxin levels correlate with oxidative stress in rescued manatees. • Brevetoxin exposure affects lymphocyte proliferation in rescued manatees. • Plasma brevetoxin concentrations ranged from 0 to 19 ng PbTx-3 eq/mL. - Abstract: The health of many Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is adversely affected by exposure to blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. K. brevis blooms are common in manatee habitats of Florida’s southwestern coast and produce a group of cyclic polyether toxins collectively referred to as red tide toxins, or brevetoxins. Although a large number of manatees exposed to significant levels of red tide toxins die, several manatees are rescued from sublethal exposure and are successfully treated and returned to the wild. Sublethal brevetoxin exposure may potentially impact the manatee immune system. Lymphocyte proliferative responses and a suite of immune function parameters in the plasma were used to evaluate effects of brevetoxin exposure on health of manatees rescued from natural exposure to red tide toxins in their habitat. Blood samples were collected from rescued manatees at Lowry Park Zoo in Tampa, FL and from healthy, unexposed manatees in Crystal River, FL. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) isolated from whole blood were stimulated with T-cell mitogens, ConA and PHA. A suite of plasma parameters, including plasma protein electrophoresis profiles, lysozyme activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen (ROS/RNS) species, was also used to assess manatee health. Significant decreases (p < 0.05) in lymphocyte proliferation were observed in ConA and PHA stimulated lymphocytes from rescued animals compared to non-exposed animals. Significant correlations were observed between oxidative stress markers (SOD, ROS/RNS) and plasma brevetoxin concentrations. Sublethal exposure to brevetoxins in the

  11. Baseline reference range for trace metal concentrations in whole blood of wild and managed West Indian Manatees (Trichechus manatus) in Florida and Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Noel Y.; Walsh, Michael T; Bonde, Robert K.; Powell, James A.; Bass, Dean A.; Gaspard, Joseph C.; Barber, David S.

    2016-01-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) is exposed to a number of anthropogenic influences, including metals, as they inhabit shallow waters with close proximity to shore. While maintaining homeostasis of many metals is crucial for health, there is currently no baseline reference range that can be used to make clinical and environmental decisions for this endangered species. In this study, whole blood samples from 151 manatees were collected during health assessments performed in Florida and Belize from 2008 through 2011. Whole blood samples (n = 37) from managed care facilities in Florida and Belize from 2009 through 2011 were also used in this study. The concentrations of 17 metals in whole blood were determined, and the data were used to derive a baseline reference range. Impacts of capture location, age, and sex on whole blood metal concentrations were examined. Location and age were related to copper concentrations as values were significantly higher in habitats near urban areas and in calves. Copper may also be a husbandry concern as concentrations were significantly higher in managed manatees (1.17 ± 0.04 ppm) than wild manatees (0.73 ± 0.02 ppm). Zinc (11.20 ± 0.30 ppm) was of special interest as normal concentrations were two to five times higher than other marine mammal species. Arsenic concentrations were higher in Belize (0.43 ± 0.07 ppm), with Placencia Lagoon having twice the concentration of Belize City and Southern Lagoon. Selenium concentrations were lower (0.18 ± 0.09 ppm) than in other marine mammal species. The lowest selenium concentrations were observed in rehabilitating and managed manatees which may warrant additional monitoring in managed care facilities. The established preliminary baseline reference range can be used by clinicians, biologists, and managers to monitor the health of West Indian manatees.

  12. Seasonal response of ghrelin, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor I in the free-ranging Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Rachel L; Bonde, Robert K.; Avery, Julie P.

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal changes in light, temperature, and food availability stimulate a physiological response in an animal. Seasonal adaptations are well studied in Arctic, Sub-Arctic, and hibernating mammals; however, limited studies have been conducted in sub-tropical species. The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), a sub-tropical marine mammal, forages less during colder temperatures and may rely on adipose stores for maintenance energy requirements. Metabolic hormones, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, and ghrelin influence growth rate, accretion of lean and adipose tissue. They have been shown to regulate seasonal changes in body composition. The objective of this research was to investigate manatee metabolic hormones in two seasons to determine if manatees exhibit seasonality and if these hormones are associated with seasonal changes in body composition. In addition, age related differences in these metabolic hormones were assessed in multiple age classes. Concentrations of GH, IGF-I, and ghrelin were quantified in adult manatee serum using heterologous radioimmunoassays. Samples were compared between short (winter) and long (summer) photoperiods (n = 22 male, 20 female) and by age class (adult, juvenile, and calf) in long photoperiods (n = 37). Short photoperiods tended to have reduced GH (p = 0.08), greater IGF-I (p = 0.01), and greater blubber depth (p = 0.03) compared with long photoperiods. No differences were observed in ghrelin (p = 0.66). Surprisingly, no age related differences were observed in IGF-I or ghrelin concentrations (p > 0.05). However, serum concentrations of GH tended (p = 0.07) to be greater in calves and juveniles compared with adults. Increased IGF-I, greater blubber thickness, and reduced GH during short photoperiod suggest a prioritization for adipose deposition. Whereas, increased GH, reduced blubber thickness, and decreased IGF-I in long photoperiod suggest prioritization of lean tissue

  13. Serum amyloid A (SAA) as a biomarker of chronic infection due to boat strike trauma in a free-ranging Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) with incidental polycystic kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, Kendal E.; Rember, Renee; Ginn, Pamela E.; Lightsey, Jessica; Keller, Martha; Reid, James; Bonde, Robert K.

    2011-01-01

    Watercraft-related trauma is the predominant cause of human-induced mortality in manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris), a federal- and state-listed endangered species. Pyothorax (documented in this case report) and other secondary infections are common sequelae of inhalation of water and the open wounds caused by boat propellers. These secondary infections can lead to the demise of the animal weeks to months after the traumatic incident when external wounds have healed. Diagnosis of underlying disease on physical examination during capture and restraint can be difficult. Acute phase proteins, including serum amyloid A, fibrinogen, and albumin can be used to diagnose inflammatory disease in manatees and improve quality of medical care and husbandry. We also provide the first report of polycystic kidneys in Sirenians.

  14. Phylogeography and population genetics of the endangered Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis Natterer, 1883 (Mammalia, Sirenia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantanhede, Andréa Martins; Da Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira; Farias, Izeni Pires; Hrbek, Tomas; Lazzarini, Stella Maris; Alves-Gomes, José

    2005-02-01

    We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequences to examine phylogeography and population differentiation of the endangered Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis. We observe lack of molecular differentiation among localities and we find weak association between geographical and genetic distances. However, nested clade analysis supports restricted gene flow and/or dispersal with some long-distance dispersal. Although this species has a history of extensive hunting, genetic diversity and effective population sizes are relatively high when compared to the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus. Patterns of mtDNA haplotype diversity in T. inunguis suggest a genetic disequilibrium most likely explained by demographic expansion resulting from secession of hunting and enforcement of conservation and protective measures. Phylogenetic analysis of T. manatus and T. inunguis haplotypes suggests that T. inunguis is nested within T. manatus, effectively making T. manatus a paraphyletic entity. Paraphyly of T. manatus and recent divergence times of T. inunguis and the three main T. manatus lineages suggest a possible need for a taxonomic re-evaluation of the western Atlantic Trichechus.

  15. Ocorrência de infecção Cryptosporidium spp. em peixe-boi marinho (Trichechus manatus Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. infection in antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Gomes Borges

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A criptosporidiose constitui-se como uma zoonose que pode afetar o homem e uma ampla variedade de animais domésticos e silvestres, principalmente indivíduos imunodeficientes. O objetivo desse trabalho foi registrar a ocorrência de infecção por Cryptosporidium em peixe-boi marinho. Após ser constatada a mudança de comportamento de um peixe-boi marinho mantido nos oceanários do Centro Mamíferos Aquáticos, ICMBio - FMA, animal foi submetido à exame clínico e, posteriormente, à coleta de amostra fecal. As amostras fecais foram analisadas pela técnica de Kinyoun, teste de imunofluorescência direta e pelo corante 4'.6'-Diamidino-2-Phenilindole (DAPI. No exame clínico, o animal apresentou sinais de desconforto abdominal. Os resultados obtidos nas análises de microscopia de luz e fluorescente revelaram a presença de oocistos de Cryptosporidium nas fezes desse peixe-boi.Cryptosporidiosis is a zoonosis which can affect man and a wide range of domestic and wild animals, mainly immunodeficient individuals. The objective of this paper was reported the occurrence of a Cryptosporidium infection in Antillean manatee. After an unusual behavior of an Antillean manatee kept in captivity at the Centro Mamíferos Aquáticos, ICMBio - FMA, clinical examination and posterior fecal sampling was performed. Fecal samples were examined by the Kinyoun technique, Direct Immunofluorescence Test and also examined by 4'.6'-Diamidino-2-Phenylindole (DAPI staining. At the clinical examination, the animal showed signs of abdominal pain. The results obtained by light and fluorescence microscopy analysis showed the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocyst in feces of this manatee.

  16. Ocurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis, Natterer, 1883

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida da Glória Faustino

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The apicomplexa protozoa Cryptosporidium infects several mammals, including terrestrial and aquatic species. In the epidemiology of this infection, the ingestion of water and/or food contamined with oocysts comprises the main mechanism of transmission to susceptible animals. Among the Sirenians, the occurrence of this coccidium has been reported in dugongs (Dugong dugon and Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus. The present study was conducted with the aim of verifying the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Amazonian manatee. For this purpose, fecal samples were collected from ten free-ranging Amazonian manatees, two specimens in captivity, and 103 supernatants fecal samples. The samples were processed by the sedimentation method in formol-ether and Kinyoun stain technique for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp.. The positive samples were then submitted to Direct Immunoflorescence Test. The results showed 4.34% (05/115 of positive samples. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium spp. in the Amazonian manatee.

  17. PLANTAS EMERGENTES Y FLOTANTES EN LA DIETA DEL MANATÍ (FAMILIA: TRICHECHIDAE: TRICHECHUS MANATUS EN EL CARIBE DE COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Gómez Lépiz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar la dieta del manatí y cuantificar el uso y la disponibilidad de las plantas contenidas en su dieta, se realizaron recorridos sobre diferentes sectores del Parque Nacional Tortuguero, en la búsqueda de rastros de alimentación dejados por los manatíes. En los sitios de ramoneo recientes, la proporción de plantas se cuantificó a través de un análisis con los porcentajes de las plantas encontradas en los sitios de alimentación (uso y sobre las áreas muestreadas alrededor de estos (disponibilidad. Se pudo determinar que dos especies de pastos: gamalote (Paspalum repens y pará (Urochloa mutica, son las plantas que principalmente selecciona el manatí para su consumo. La presente investigación ha permitido cuantificar la forma en que el manatí consume los recursos alimenticios en la zona, esto ha sido la base para otras investigaciones que requieren de información sobre los elementos de la dieta para el cebado como técnica de captura, también se están implementando propuestas de sitios sensibles para la conservación de manatíes con base en la distribución de las plantas que este animal consume en la zona. Trips were conducted on different sectors of the Tortuguero National Park in search of traces of food left by the manatees to determine their diet and quantify the use and availability of plants contained in their diet,. In recent browsing sites the proportion of plants was quantified by analyzing the percentages of the plants found in the feeding sites (use and sampled areas around them (availability. It was determined that two grass species: gamalote (Paspalum repens and (Urochloa mutica are plants that the manatees primarily selected for consumption. The present study permitted to determine how the manatee consumes food resources in the area.  This has been the basis for other research requiring information on dietary factors.  There are also other proposals being implemented for baiting and capture techniques in sensitive sites for the conservation of manatees, based on the distribution of the plants that the animals consume  in the area.

  18. Managing Endangered Species Within the Use-Preservation Paradox: The Florida Manatee ( Trichechus manatus latirostris) as a Tourism Attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorice, Michael G.; Shafer, C. Scott; Ditton, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    A significant challenge to wildlife managers in tourism settings is to provide visitors with opportunities to observe rare and endangered wildlife while simultaneously protecting the target species from deleterious impacts. Nearly 100,000 people annually visit Crystal River, Florida, USA to observe and swim with the Florida manatee, an endangered species. This research aimed to investigate and describe human-manatee interactions in a tourism context, to understand the salient issues related to such interactions as identified by stakeholders, and to recommend a course of action to address multiple interests in the planning and management of human-manatee interactions. Five issues were identified by all stakeholder groups: water quality, harassment, density and crowding, education, and enforcement. Currently, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, which is responsible for manatee management, does not have mechanisms in place to manage the tourism component of the manatee encounter. Although a regulatory approach can be taken, a better approach would be to create an organization of tour operators to establish “best practices” that reflect the goal of the managing agency to enhance manatee protection (and thus ensure their livelihood) and to enhance the visitor experience.

  19. Single nucleotide polymorphisms from cytochrome b gene as a useful protocol in forensic genetics against the illegal hunting of manatees: Trichechus manatus, Trichechus inunguis, Trichechus senegalensis, and Dugong dugon (Eutheria: Sirenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Braga Ferreira

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The identification of mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms is one of the most efficient methods for species differentiation. Genotyping of molecular markers using PCR/RFLP is a reliable, sensitive and inexpensive method for the detection of species specific mutations. The major causes of decline in Sirenia populations are accidental and intentional catches, collisions with boats and habitat loss. The goal of the present study was to identify, in silico, nucleotide mutations in the cytochrome b gene that can be used for the future development of forensic tools capable of using small tissue fragments to discriminate manatee meat from domesticated species meat commonly used as food sources (bovine, ovine, caprine and swine. DNA sequence alignments revealed two polymorphic sites distinguishing the manatee species from domestic species. The present study reinforced the power of cytochrome polymorphisms as powerful markers for species identification, which may be particularly useful for identifying vulnerable/endangered species. The data provided herein also suggest such mtDNA markers as important conservation tools for combating predatory manatee hunting for illegal meat trade in the Americas

  20. Improving Conservation of Florida Manatees ( Trichechus manatus latirostris): Conceptualization and Contributions Toward a Regional Warm-Water Network Management Strategy for Sustainable Winter Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, Richard Owen; Reynolds, John Elliot; Harmak, Craig

    2013-01-01

    We used southwestern Florida as a case study to lay the groundwork for an intended and organized decision-making process for managing warm-water habitat needed by endangered manatees to survive winters in Florida. Scientists and managers have prioritized (a) projecting how the network of warm-water sites will change over the next 50 years as warmed industrial discharges may expire and as flows of natural springs are reduced through redirection of water for human uses, and (b) mitigating such changes to prevent undue consequences to manatees. Given the complexities introduced by manatee ecology; agency organizational structure; shifting public demands; fluctuating resource availability; and managing within interacting cultural, social, political, and environmental contexts, it was clear that a structured decision process was needed. To help promote such a process, we collected information relevant to future decisions including maps of known and suspected warm-water sites and prototyped a characterization of sites and networks. We propose steps that would lead to models that might serve as core tools in manatee/warm-water decision-making, and we summarized topics relevant for informed decision-making (e.g., manatee spatial cognition, risk of cold-stress morbidity and mortality, and human dimensions). A major impetus behind this effort is to ensure proactively that robust modeling tools are available well in advance of the anticipated need for a critical management decision.

  1. Identificação de itens alimentares constituintes da dieta dos peixes-boi marinhos (Trichechus manatus na região Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Gomes Borges

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2008v21n2p77 Os peixes-boi marinhos são considerados herbívoros oportunistas, consumindo uma grande variedade de itens alimentares. Objetivou-se com este trabalho identificar os itens alimentares constituintes da dieta dos peixe-boi marinhos em vida livre, na região Nordeste do Brasil. Para tanto  foram coletadas amostras de conteúdo estomacal, provenientes de seis carcaças de peixes-boi marinhos, além de amostras fecais de 11 animais nativos e cinco espécimes reintroduzidos. O material foi identificado ao nível de gênero e/ou espécie, através de aspectos morfo-anatômicos, sendo identificadas 21 espécies entre macroalgas, fanerógamas e cnidários. Através destas análi ses, foi possível observar que os peixes-boi marinhos alimentaram-se de uma grande diversidade de plantas aquáticas, com predominância das algas vermelhas.

  2. Inter-lab comparison of precision and recommended methods for age estimation of Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris using growth layer groups in earbones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Brill

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Manatees are routinely aged by counting Growth Layer Groups (GLGs in periotic bones (earbones. Manatee carcasses recovered in Florida between 1974 and 2010 provided age-estimation material for three readers and formed the base for a retrospective analysis of aging precision (repeatability. All readers were in good agreement (high precision with the greatest apparent source of variation being the result of earbone remodelling with increasing manatee age. Over the same period, methods of sample preparation and of determining a final age estimate changed. We examined the effects of altering methods on ease of reading GLGs and found no statistical differences. Accurate age estimates are an important component for effective management of the species and for better models of population trends and we summarize the currently recommended methods for estimating manatee ages using earbones.

  3. Abundance, distribution and use of power plant effluents by manatees (Trichechus manatus) in Brevard county, Florida. Final report, Jan 1978-Feb 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shane, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    Brevard County, on Florida's east coast, contains one of the largest concentrations of manatees remaining in Florida. This population was studied from January 1978 through February 1980 using aerial surveys, and boat and land observations. As many as 250 manatees were counted in the county in the spring of 1979. During the warm months most manatees were observed in the Banana River, but during the winter most manatees (up to 100) were found in the warm effluent zones of two power plants on the Indian River. Declining air and water temperatures were significantly correlated with increases in the number of manatees in the power plant effluents. Manatees rely heavily upon these power plants as winter refuges, and plant shut-downs could prove disastrous for these animals.

  4. Inter-lab comparison of precision and recommended methods for age estimation of Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) using growth layer groups in earbones

    OpenAIRE

    Brill, Katherine; Marmontel, Miriam; Bolen-Richardson, Meghan; Stewart, Robert EA

    2016-01-01

    Manatees are routinely aged by counting Growth Layer Groups (GLGs) in periotic bones (earbones). Manatee carcasses recovered in Florida between 1974 and 2010 provided age-estimation material for three readers and formed the base for a retrospective analysis of aging precision (repeatability). All readers were in good agreement (high precision) with the greatest apparent source of variation being the result of earbone remodelling with increasing manatee age. Over the same period, methods of sa...

  5. Distribution and abundance of the west Indian manatee Trichechus manatus around selected Florida power plants following winter cold fronts: 1984-85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, J.E. III, Wilcox, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Ten one-day aerial surveys were conducted in winter, 1984-85, to assess manatee distribution and abundance around five Florida Power and Light Company (FPL) plants: Cape Canaveral (PCC), Riviera (PRV), Port Everglades (PPE), Lauderdale (PFL) and Fort Myers (PFM). A total of 3804 manatees was observed, with a maximum of 636 animals for a single survey. Individual surveys for 1984-84 produced higher combined counts for all plants than in previous years. Maximum counts for PRV, PPE and PFM were the highest recorded for those particular plants. The maximum count for PCC in 1984-85 was lower than counts from most previous years, and the maximum from PFL was intermediate, relative to maxima from previous years. The counts along the east coast of Florida probably reflected a southward redistribution of manatees as well as very cold January weather after warm December conditions. The high count at PFM probably resulted from cold January weather and surface resting behavior by the manatees which made them more visible than usual. Calves represented 10 x 3% of the animals observed near the FPL plants and in Hobe Sound. PFM had a higher percentage of calves than did other plants.

  6. 75 FR 62139 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... Comments Submitted by Others? Comments, including names and street addresses of respondents, will be... the permit to allow additional sampling and harassment of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus) for...

  7. 75 FR 57977 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ...? Comments, including names and street addresses of respondents, will be available for public review at the... photography Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus) underwater for commercial and educational purposes. This...

  8. CEBADO DE MANATÍES (TRICHECHUS MANATUS EN VIDA LIBRE SEGÚN EXPERIMENTOS DE PREFERENCIA COMO BASE PARA LA CAPTURA MEDIANTE LA TÉCNICA DE ENCIERRO-TRAMPA, PARQUE NACIONAL TORTUGUERO, LIMÓN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Gómez Lépiz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the preference of the manatees for some food resources, which constitute their diet in the region. The preference of the herbivore is typically shown through the "cafeteria feeding trials" technique: the animals are left to choose freely among the plants available for them. In order to evaluate the preference of the manatees through this technique, plants normally consumed by the manatee were offered (Paspalum repens, Urochloa mutica, Hydrocotyle ranunculoides y Eichhornia crassipes in the study area, next to other vegetables normally consumed by humans, which are usually offered at a Zoo as part of their diet. Of all the plants offered, the grass P. repens was the preferred plant, which was successfully used to evaluate the preliminary structure lock up-trap where the manatees entered. The preference for this plant could be attributed to characteristics that were not evaluated for this study, such as palatability, microelements, and/or texture.

  9. 78 FR 37563 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... on captive held Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus) for the purpose of scientific research. This... polar bear populations. This notification covers activities to be conducted by the applicant over a 5...

  10. 9 CFR 3.104 - Space requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... length In meters In feet Sirenia: Dugong dugong Dugong 3.35 11.0 Trichechus manatus West Indian Manatee 3... exit area. This size pool shall be adequate for two polar bears. For each additional bear, the surface...

  11. Phylogeography, phylogeny and hybridization in trichechid sirenians: implications for manatee conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Juliana A; Bonde, Robert K; Caballero, Susana; Giraldo, Juan Pablo; Lima, Régis P; Clark, Annmarie; Marmontel, Míriam; Morales-Vela, Benjamín; De Souza, Maria José; Parr, Leslee; Rodríguez-Lopez, Marta A; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A; Powell, James A; Santos, Fabrício R

    2006-02-01

    Abstract The three living species of manatees, West Indian (Trichechus manatus), Amazonian (Trichechus inunguis) and West African (Trichechus senegalensis), are distributed across the shallow tropical and subtropical waters of America and the western coast of Africa. We have sequenced the mitochondrial DNA control region in 330 Trichechus to compare their phylogeographic patterns. In T. manatus we observed a marked population structure with the identification of three haplotype clusters showing a distinct spatial distribution. A geographic barrier represented by the continuity of the Lesser Antilles to Trinidad Island, near the mouth of the Orinoco River in Venezuela, appears to have restricted the gene flow historically in T. manatus. However, for T. inunguis we observed a single expanding population cluster, with a high diversity of very closely related haplotypes. A marked geographic population structure is likely present in T. senegalensis with at least two distinct clusters. Phylogenetic analyses with the mtDNA cytochrome b gene suggest a clade of the marine Trichechus species, with T. inunguis as the most basal trichechid. This is in agreement with previous morphological analyses. Mitochondrial DNA, autosomal microsatellites and cytogenetic analyses revealed the presence of hybrids between the T. manatus and T. inunguis species at the mouth of the Amazon River in Brazil, extending to the Guyanas and probably as far as the mouth of the Orinoco River. Future conservation strategies should consider the distinct population structure of manatee species, as well as the historical barriers to gene flow and the likely occurrence of interspecific hybridization.

  12. 77 FR 87 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; U.S. Marine Corps Training Exercises...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... around the BTs. The endangered West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) has been sighted rarely (Lefebvre... result in increased knowledge of the species and of the level of taking or impacts on populations of... anticipated takes of individuals (in different ways and to varying degrees) may impact the population, species...

  13. 77 FR 40092 - License Amendment To Increase the Maximum Reactor Power Level, Florida Power & Light Company, St...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    .... Impacts on Critical Habitat The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) also has been documented at St..., nonessential. \\b\\ Experimental, nonessential populations of endangered species (e.g., red wolf) are treated as... habitat quality or cause significant changes in wildlife populations. Because the proposed EPU operations...

  14. 75 FR 5045 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ....noaa.gov/publications/tm/tm210/ . The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) is managed by the U.S... result in increased knowledge of the species and of the level of taking or impacts on populations of... mammal populations; (iii) results of the monitoring program, including numbers by species/stock of any...

  15. 76 FR 43267 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) is managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and is not... and among species populations based on geographic location, season, and other factors, submergence... mammal habitat or populations. Also, live fires are a continuous event with pauses during the firing...

  16. 75 FR 72807 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; U.S. Marine Corps Training Exercises...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... Pamlico Sound around the BTs. The endangered West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) has been sighted... result in increased knowledge of the species and of the level of taking or impacts on populations of... population, species, or stock (specifically through effects on annual rates of recruitment or survival); (d...

  17. 76 FR 62378 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ....noaa.gov/publications/tm/tm210/ . The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) is managed by the U.S... populations of marine mammals that are expected to be present in the action area. The Incidental Take... mammal populations; (iii) results of the monitoring program, including numbers by species/stock of any...

  18. 76 FR 9250 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ...-finned pilot whale. Order Sirenia Trichechus manatus West Indian Endangered. manatee. [[Page 9252... of the level of taking or impacts on populations of marine mammals that are expected to be present... and to varying degrees) may impact the population, species, or stock (specifically through effects on...

  19. 78 FR 26586 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Precision Strike Weapon and Air-to-Surface Gunnery Training...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... inhabits the GOM, the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), which is managed by the U.S. Fish and... populations based on geographic location, season, and other factors, submergence times suggested by Moore and... the behavior of individual animals, groups of animals, or entire populations. The extent of the...

  20. 78 FR 73726 - Endangered Fish and Wildlife; Final Rule To Remove the Sunset Provision of the Final Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... 2000s in inland waterways of Florida to reduce the threat of strikes of manatees (Trichechus manatus..., and the threats to, the western North Atlantic right whale population. Additional information on these population parameters can be found in NMFS's previous actions regarding vessel speed restrictions including...

  1. 76 FR 44352 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... biological samples from white sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi), collected in the wild in Madagascar, for the... enhancement of the survival of the species. Applicant: Ronald Hughes, Nunica, MI; PRT-37679A. Applicant... permit to import biological samples taken from West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) which are being...

  2. .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábia de Oliveira Luna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Capture and utilization of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus on the northern Brazilian coast. The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus is now considered to be the most endangered aquatic mammal of Brazil. During 1992 and 1993, we surveyed 3000km of the coastal area of the Maranhão (MA, Pará (PA and Amapá (AP states where we visited 145 localities and performed 262 interviews aiming to identify the hunting pressure on the species, and how the population actually uses the manatees hunted on the Brazilian north coast. The people interviewed were involved in fi shing activities, pre- ferably those who hunted manatees. Catches followed by intentional killing  were responsible for 94.07% of the cases of mortality, while ani- mals stranded on the beach represented 5.93% of the cases. Intentional capture was the strongest factor in the manatee mortality, and hunting with a harpoon occurred in 86.38% of catches. After capture, the animals were used for the hunter’s subsistence (63.83% and human consumption and trading (30.64%, and the animals’ parts were used for diverse pur- poses (medicine, fetish and santerias. It was considered that a proper understanding of the communities’ customs concerning the animals was important for any proposal of conservation strategies.

  3. Microhistological characteristics of selected aquatic plants of Florida, with techniques for the study of manatee food habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, L.A.; Beck, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study was initiated in 1978 to develop a technique of identifying and quantifying the digestive tract contents of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) and to serve as a manual for the identification and analysis of ingesta collected from manatee carcasses salvaged in Florida. This report includes key microhistological characters found useful in identifying fragments of 83 plant species and three invertebrate groups. Many species of aquatic and wetland plants and invertebrates are available to manatees in Florida as potential foods.

  4. Age determination in manatees using growth-layer-group counts in bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmontel, M.; O'Shea, T.J.; Kochman, H.I.; Humphrey, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    Growth layers were observed in histological preparations of bones of known-age, known minimum-age, and tetracycline-marked free-ranging and captive Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris), substantiating earlier preliminary findings of other studies. Detailed analysis of 17 new case histories showed that growth-layer group (GLG) counts in the periotic bone were consistent with known age, or time since tetracycline administration, but were less reliable in other bones. GLG counts were also made in periotic bones of 1,196 Florida manatees of unknown age found dead from 1974 through 1991. These counts were conducted in order to assess variability and to determine relationships among estimated age, size, sex, and degree of bone resorption. Resorption can interfere with accuracy of GLG counts. This effect does not occur until ages greater than about 15 yr and body lengths greater than 300 cm are attained. GLGs were also observed in periotic bones of Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) but were not validated against known-age specimens. Use of GLG counts in the periotic bone is suitable for application to studies of population dynamics and other age-related aspects of manatee biology.

  5. Metals in Bone Tissue of Antillean Manatees from the Gulf of Mexico and Chetumal Bay, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Calderón, Ana G; Morales-Vela, Benjamin; Rosíles-Martínez, René; Olivera-Gómez, León D; Delgado-Estrella, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of seven metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn) were analyzed in 33 bone tissue samples of Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) found dead in lagoons and rivers of Tabasco and Campeche in the Gulf of Mexico and Chetumal Bay in the Caribbean region. The concentrations of Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were significantly different between regions, with greater levels found in the Gulf of Mexico group than in the Mexican Caribbean group (p < 0.05). Pb concentrations differed significantly between adults and calves. No differences were observed between sexes. Metal concentrations detected in the manatee bones were higher than most of those reported for bones in other marine mammals around the world. Future studies are necessary to establish whether the metal concentrations represent a risk to the health of the species.

  6. Phylogeographic implications for release of critically endangered manatee calves rescued in Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Fábia O.; Bonde, Robert K.; Attademo, Fernanda L.N.; Saunders, Jonathan W.; Meigs-Friend, Gaia; Passavante, José Zanon O.; Hunter, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    1. The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus), a subspecies of the West Indian manatee, is a large-bodied marine mammal found in fresh, brackish, and marine habitats throughout the Caribbean Islands and Central and South America. Antillean manatees in Brazil are classified as critically endangered, with a census size of approximately 500 individuals. The population in the Northeast region of Brazil is suspected to have approximately 300 manatees and is threatened by habitat alteration and incidental entanglement in fishing gear. 2. A high incidence of dependent calf strandings have been identified near areas of altered critical manatee habitat. The majority of the calves are neonates, discovered alive, with no potential mothers nearby. These calves typically require human intervention to survive.

  7. .

    OpenAIRE

    Luna, Fábia de Oliveira; Araújo, Janaina Pauline de; Lima, Régis Pinto de; Pessanha, Marisol Menezes; Soavinski, Ricardo José; Passavante, José Zanon de Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2008v21n1p115O mamífero aquático mais ameaçado de extinção no Brasil é o peixe-boi marinho (Trichechus manatus manatus). Durante os anos de 1992 e 1993, foram percorridos 3000km do litoral dos Estados do MA, PA e AP, onde foram  visitadas 145 localidades e realizadas 262 entrevistas com o objetivo de identificar a pressão de caça do peixe-boi marinho e sua utilização pelas comunidades litorâneas do norte do Brasil. Os entrevistados foram pessoas envolvidas ...

  8. Analysis of aerial survey data on Florida manatee using Markov chain Monte Carlo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, B A; Newton, M A; Garrott, R A; Reynolds, J E; Wilcox, J R

    1997-06-01

    We assess population trends of the Atlantic coast population of Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris, by reanalyzing aerial survey data collected between 1982 and 1992. To do so, we develop an explicit biological model that accounts for the method by which the manatees are counted, the mammals' movement between surveys, and the behavior of the population total over time. Bayesian inference, enabled by Markov chain Monte Carlo, is used to combine the survey data with the biological model. We compute marginal posterior distributions for all model parameters and predictive distributions for future counts. Several conclusions, such as a decreasing population growth rate and low sighting probabilities, are consistent across different prior specifications.

  9. Population biology of the Florida manatee

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Thomas J.; Ackerman, Bruce B.; Percival, H. Franklin

    1995-01-01

    The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is a unique element of the U.S. fauna. It is a distinct subspecies of the West Indian manatee (Domning and Hayek 1986) and one of the largest inshore mammals of the continent, reaching weights to 1,650 kg (Rathbun et al. 1990). Annual migratory circuits of some individuals through the intracoastal waterways of the Atlantic Coast are 1,700 km round trips at seasonal travel rates as high as 50km/day (*3 Reid and O'Shea 1989; Reid et al. 1991), resulting in one of the longest remaining intact mammalian migrations in the eastern United States.

  10. Diet induced differences in carbon isotope fractionation between sirenians and terrestrial ungulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementz, M.T.; Koch, P.L.; Beck, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    Carbon isotope differences (??13C) between bioapatite and diet, collagen and diet, and bioapatite and collagen were calculated for four species of sirenians, Dugong dugon (Mu??ller), Trichechus manatus (Linnaeus), Trichechus inunguis (Natterer), and the extinct Hydrodamalis gigas (Zimmerman). Bone and tooth samples were taken from archived materials collected from populations during the mid eighteenth century (H. gigas), between 1978 and 1984 (T. manatus, T. inunguis), and between 1997 and 1999 (D. dugon). Mean ??13C values were compared with those for terrestrial ungulates, carnivores, and six species of carnivorous marine mammals (cetaceans = 1; pinnipeds = 4; mustelids = 1). Significant differences in mean ??13C values among species for all tissue types were detected that separated species or populations foraging on freshwater plants or attached marine macroalgae (??13C values -4???; ??13Cbioapatite-diet ???11???). Likewise, ??13Cbioapatite-collagen values for freshwater and algal-foraging species (???7???) were greater than those for seagrass-foraging species (???5???). Variation in ??13C values calculated between tissues and between tissues and diet among species may relate to the nutritional composition of a species' diet and the extent and type of microbial fermentation that occurs during digestion of different types of plants. These results highlight the complications that can arise when making dietary interpretations without having first determined species-specific ??13Ctissue-diet values. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  11. Food Plants Eaten by Amazonian Manatees (Trichechus inunguis, Mammalia : Sirenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioni G. Colares

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine the feeding habits of the Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis in some Central Amazonian rivers and lakes, we compared plant epidermis found in the stomach contents and/or faeces of animals with a reference collection of plants present in the studied areas. Twenty five samples from digestive tracts of animals found dead and 25 faeces samples found floating were analyzed. From these samples, 24 aquatic macrophytes were identified. The Gramineae family was identified in 96% of the samples, Paspalum repens and Echinochloa polystachya being the most abundant in the samples. The second most frequent family was the Pontederiaceae primarily Eichhornia crassipes. During the high water period, the animals showed a more selective diet (eight identified species. In the low water period, when food was more scarce, the animals showed a larger diversity of species in their diet (21 species of plants. Differences in the diet among the two studied areas reflected the physiographics characteristics of the region. Amazonian manatees fed mostly on emergent plants.Para determinar o hábito alimentar do peixe-boi da Amazonia em alguns rios e lagos da Amazonia Central, nós comparamos as epidermes de plantas encontradas nos conteúdos alimentares e/ou fezes de animais com uma coleção de referência de epidermes de plantas presentes nas áreas de estudo. Foram analisadas 25 amostras de trato digestivo de animais encontrados mortos e 25 amostras de fezes . A familia Gramineae foi encontrada em 96% das amostras, com maior ocorrência das espécies Paspalum repens e Echinochloa polystachya. A segunda familia mais freqüente foi Pontederiaceae sendo Eichhornia crassipes a espécie predominante. Durante o período de água cheia, os animais apresentaram uma dieta mais seletiva (oito espécies identificadas. Já na água baixa, com menor oferta de alimentos, os animais apresentam uma maior diversidade de espécies em sua dieta (21 espécies de plantas

  12. Evidence of two genetic clusters of manatees with low genetic diversity in Mexico and implications for their conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourisson, Coralie; Morales-Vela, Benjamín; Padilla-Saldívar, Janneth; Tucker, Kimberly Pause; Clark, Annmarie; Olivera-Gómez, Leon David; Bonde, Robert; McGuire, Peter

    2011-07-01

    The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) occupies the tropical coastal waters of the Greater Antilles and Caribbean, extending from Mexico along Central and South America to Brazil. Historically, manatees were abundant in Mexico, but hunting during the pre-Columbian period, the Spanish colonization and throughout the history of Mexico, has resulted in the significantly reduced population occupying Mexico today. The genetic structure, using microsatellites, shows the presence of two populations in Mexico: the Gulf of Mexico (GMx) and Chetumal Bay (ChB) on the Caribbean coast, with a zone of admixture in between. Both populations show low genetic diversity (GMx: N(A) = 2.69; H(E) = 0.41 and ChB: N(A) = 3.0; H(E) = 0.46). The lower genetic diversity found in the GMx, the largest manatee population in Mexico, is probably due to a combination of a founder effect, as this is the northern range of the sub-species of T. m. manatus, and a bottleneck event. The greater genetic diversity observed along the Caribbean coast, which also has the smallest estimated number of individuals, is possibly due to manatees that come from the GMx and Belize. There is evidence to support limited or unidirectional gene flow between these two important areas. The analyses presented here also suggest minimal evidence of a handful of individual migrants possibly between Florida and Mexico. To address management issues we suggest considering two distinct genetic populations in Mexico, one along the Caribbean coast and one in the riverine systems connected to the GMx.

  13. Evidence of two genetic clusters of manatees with low genetic diversity in Mexico and implications for their conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourisson, Coralie; Morales-Vela, Benjamin; Padilla-Saldivar, Janneth; Tucker, Kimberly Pause; Clark, Ann Marie; Olivera-Gomez, Leon David; Bonde, Robert; McGuire, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) occupies the tropical coastal waters of the Greater Antilles and Caribbean, extending from Mexico along Central and South America to Brazil. Historically, manatees were abundant in Mexico, but hunting during the pre-Columbian period, the Spanish colonization and throughout the history of Mexico, has resulted in the significantly reduced population occupying Mexico today. The genetic structure, using microsatellites, shows the presence of two populations in Mexico: the Gulf of Mexico (GMx) and Chetumal Bay (ChB) on the Caribbean coast, with a zone of admixture in between. Both populations show low genetic diversity (GMx: NA = 2.69; HE = 0.41 and ChB: NA = 3.0; HE = 0.46). The lower genetic diversity found in the GMx, the largest manatee population in Mexico, is probably due to a combination of a founder effect, as this is the northern range of the sub-species of T. m. manatus, and a bottleneck event. The greater genetic diversity observed along the Caribbean coast, which also has the smallest estimated number of individuals, is possibly due to manatees that come from the GMx and Belize. There is evidence to support limited or unidirectional gene flow between these two important areas. The analyses presented here also suggest minimal evidence of a handful of individual migrants possibly between Florida and Mexico. To address management issues we suggest considering two distinct genetic populations in Mexico, one along the Caribbean coast and one in the riverine systems connected to the GMx.

  14. Post-release monitoring of Antillean manatees: an assessment of the Brazilian rehabilitation and release programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normande, Iran C.; Malhado, Ana C. M.; Reid, James P.; Viana Junior, P.C.; Savaget, P. V. S.; Correia, R. A.; Luna, F. O.; R. J. Ladle,

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian reintroduction programmes frequently aim to reconnect isolated sub-populations and restore population viability. However, these long-term objectives are rarely evaluated due to the inadequacy of post-release monitoring. Here, we report the results of a unique long term telemetry-based monitoring programme for rehabilitated Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) reintroduced into selected sites in northeast Brazil with the aim of reconnecting isolated relict populations. Twenty-one satellite-tagged rehabilitated manatees, 13 males and 8 females, were released into the wild from two sites between November 2008 and June 2013. Individual accumulation curves were plotted and home ranges were calculated through the fixed kernel method using 95% of the utilization distribution. The number and size of the Centres of Activity (COAs) were calculated using 50% of the utilization distribution. Manatees displayed a dichotomous pattern of movement, with individuals either characterized by sedentary habits or by much more extensive movements. Moreover, home range size was not significantly influenced by gender, age at release or release site. COAs were strongly associated with sheltered conditions within reefs and estuaries, and also by the presence of freshwater and feeding sites. Our data confirm that manatee reintroductions in Brazil have the potential to reconnect distant sub-populations. However, pre-release identification of potential long-distance migrants is currently unfeasible, and further analysis would be required to confirm genetic mixing of distant sub-populations.

  15. Novel snake papillomavirus does not cluster with other non-mammalian papillomaviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gull Jessica

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Papillomaviruses (PVs are associated with the development of neoplasias and have been found in several different species, most of them in humans and other mammals. We identified, cloned and sequenced PV DNA from pigmented papilloma-like lesions of a diamond python (Morelia spilota spilota. This represents the first complete PV genome discovered in a Squamata host (MsPV1. It consists of 7048 nt and contains the characteristic open reading (ORF frames E6, E7, E1, E2, L1 and L2. The L1 ORF sequence showed the highest percentage of sequence identities to human PV5 (57.9% and Caribbean manatee (Trichechus manatus PV1 (55.4%, thus, establishing a new clade. According to phylogenetic analysis, the MsPV1 genome clusters with PVs of mammalian rather than sauropsid hosts.

  16. Procedures for the salvage and necropsy of the dugong (Dugong dugon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eros, Carole; Marsh, Helene; Bonde, Robert K.; O'Shea, Thomas A.; Beck, Cathy A.; Recchia, Cheri; Dobbs, Kirstin; Turner, Malcolm; Lemm, Stephanie; Pears, Rachel; Bowater, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    Data and specimens collected from dugong carcasses and live stranded individuals provide vital information for research and management agencies. The ability to assign a cause of death (natural and/or human induced) to a carcass assists managers to identify major threats to a population in certain areas and to evaluate and adapt management measures. Data collectedfrom dugong carcasses have contributed to research in areas such as life history, feeding biology, investigating the stock structure/genetics of dugongs, contaminants studies, heavy metal analyses, parasitology, and the effects of habitat change. Adapted from the 'Manual of Procedures for the Salvage and Necropsy of Carcasses of the West Indian Manatee (Trichechus manatus),' this manual provides a detailed guide for dugong (Dugong dugon) carcass handling and necropsy procedures. It is intended to be used as a resource and training guide for anyone involved in dugong incidents who may lack dugong expertise.

  17. Preliminary assessment of habitat protection needs for West Indian manatees on the east coast of Florida and Georgia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    The report assesses information on the status of endangered West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) on the east coast of Florida and Georgia in the southeastern United States and recommends actions to improve protection of the species and its habitat in that area. Manatees on the east coast of Florida and Georgia appear to constitute a discrete population numbering perhaps 700 to 900 animals. Based on carcass-salvage data, recent annual mortality rates of between 8% and 10% are indicated. Perhaps 3% to 4% of the population was killed as a result of collisions with boats during 1987, and this threat appears to be increasing. Collisions with boats and destruction of essential habitat are the principal threats to the population. Recommendations include: quadruple the size of the boat-speed regulatory system on the east coast of Florida; limit development in essential manatee habitats; acquire additional manatee habitat as additions to Federal and State refuges and preserves.

  18. From the Worm in a Bottle of Mezcal: iDNA Confirmation of a Leech Parasitizing the Antillean Manatee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Flores, J; Rueda-Calderon, H; Kvist, S; Siddall, M E; Oceguera-Figueroa, A

    2016-10-01

    Invertebrate-derived ingested DNA (iDNA) is quickly proving to be a valuable, non-invasive tool for monitoring vertebrate species of conservation concern. Using the DNA barcoding locus, we successfully identified both the blood-feeding leech Haementeria acuecueyetzin and its blood meal-the latter is shown to be derived from the Caribbean manatee, Trichechus manatus . DNA amplification was successful despite the fact that the specimen was fixed in Mezcal (a beverage distilled from agave). We report the first confirmed case of a leech feeding on a manatee, the first record of H. acuecueyetzin for the State of Chiapas and, to our knowledge, the first case of successful DNA amplification of a biological sample fixed in Mezcal other than the caterpillar "worms" more commonly found in that beverage.

  19. DETECTION OF INFECTION WITH Toxoplasma gondii IN MANATEES (Trichechus inunguis OF THE PERUVIAN AMAZON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Mathews Delgado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis is an aquatic mammal that inhabits freshwater environments and is endemic to the Amazon Basin. The presence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies was investigated in 19 manatees in one rescue unit in the northern region of Peru. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 12 (63.2 % of 19 animals by using the modified agglutination test (titer, 1:25, and no association between sex and age of the animals and the presence of T. gondii antibodies was observed (p < 0.05. The results suggest a contamination by T. gondii oocysts in the aquatic environment where these animals live.

  20. Urinary parameters of Trichechus inunguis (Mammalia, Sirenia: reference values for the Amazonian Manatee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TMA. Pantoja

    Full Text Available The Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis (Natterer 1883 is endemic to the Amazon Basin and is currently considered a vulnerable species. In order to establish normality ranges of urinary parameters to help monitor the health of this species in captivity, chemical urinalyses were performed on twelve males and nine females of various age groups. Urine was collected once a month for twelve months in the tanks just after being drained, by placing stainless steel containers under the genital slit of females and applying abdominal massages to males in order to stimulate urination. Quantitative data of glucose, urea, creatinine, uric acid and amylase levels were obtained using colorimetric spectrophotometry. Dip strips were also useful for routine analyses, despite only providing qualitative results. Normal range to glucose levels, regardless of sex or age class, was 3.0 to 3.6 mg.dL-1, coinciding with qualitative values of glucose measured by dip strips. Statistical differences observed in some parameter levels suggest that some urine parameters analysed must take into consideration the sex and the age class of the animal studied, being these differences less remarkable in creatinine and amylase levels. To this last one, statistical difference was detected only in the calve's urine (7.0 to 11.5 mg.dL-1 compared to other age classes samples (4.1 to 5.3 mg.dL-1. The results presented here may be used as comparative data in future research on urinalysis in related species.

  1. Seasonal variations in blood parameters of the Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton P. Colares

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variations in body weight, food consumption and blood glucose, total lipids, urea, total proteins, albumin and globulins of captive Amazonian manatees, Trichechus inunguis, were determined. Body weight changed significantly along the year, increasing from autumn to spring and decreasing in summer. The mean daily food intake of paragrass remained almost unchanged along the year. Paragrass administered to the manatees showed important variations in crude protein and lipid content along the year. No significant differences in blood parameters were registered between males and females in all seasons. Further, there were no significant differences in blood total proteins, albumin and globulins along the year. On the other hand, significant differences in the mean blood glucose, lipids and urea were registered. An increase in the blood glucose in the spring and summer was observed. Blood urea and lipids levels were positively related to paragrass protein and lipids content. These two correlations suggested that these blood parameters are good indicators of the animal nutritional status in the Amazonian manatee.Variações sasonais no peso do corpo, consumo de alimento e glicose, lípides totais, uréia, proteínas totais, albumina e globulinas do sangue de Peixes bois cativos, Trichechus inunguis, foram determinadas. Houve diferença significativa no peso dos animais ao longo do ano, sendo este aumento entre o outono e a primavera e decresce no verão. O consumo de capim colônia não variou ao longo do ano. A composição de proteína bruta e lipídeos totais de capim colônia dado aos animais mostrou importante variação ao longo do ano. Não foi verificado nenhuma variação nas concentrações dos parâmetros sagüíneos estudados entre os sexos em todas as estações. Também não foi verificado diferenças significativas nas concentrações sangüíneas de proteínas totais, albumina e globulinas ao longo do ano. Por outro lado

  2. Seasonal prevalence of antibodies to Leptospira interrogans in Antillean manatees from a landlocked lake in Tabasco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón-Martínez, Arianna; Olivera-Gómez, León D; Jiménez-Domínguez, Darwin

    2014-07-01

    Factors that alter the dynamics of ecologic systems can influence transmission of infectious diseases and may lead to decreases in natural populations. Leptospirosis is a cosmopolitan disease of zoonotic importance that affects most mammals. At the southern Gulf of Mexico, Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) inhabit highly variable environments, with extended floods during the rainy season and drought conditions during the dry season that affect food availability and the thermal environment for manatees. We tested for changes in prevalence and titers of antibodies to 12 serovars of Leptospira interrogans in manatees between dry and rainy seasons. We determined titers for L. interrogans through microscopic agglutination tests (MAT) from 10 manatees, six during the dry season (DS), and six during the rainy season (RS) in Laguna de las Ilusiones, a landlocked lake hosting a population of about 20 manatees. All individuals were antibody positive (titers ≥ 100) to at least one serovar. The serovars bataviae, bratislava, canicola, and icterohaemorrhagiae had overall prevalences ≥ 50%; bataviae, bratislava, and canicola had prevalences ≥ 50% during both seasons. Serovars icterohaemorrhagiae and pyrogenes had prevalences ≥ 50% during DS and pomona, tarassovi, wolfii, and autumnalis during RS. Significant differences in prevalence between seasons were found for pomona, tarassovi, and autumnalis. Titers of tarassovi, wolfii, autumnalis, and bataviae were significantly higher during RS. There was a high prevalence of L. interrogans during the RS independent of high availability of plant foods, coinciding with the epizootiology of the bacteria that are endemic to tropical regions. Another factor possibly influencing prevalence is high anthropogenic pressure at the lake, causing an increase in potential sources of infection. Because of possible cross-reaction in MAT, further research is needed on the molecular discrimination of serovars in animals in the

  3. Puerto Rico and Florida manatees represent genetically distinct groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Margaret E.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Tucker, Kimberly Pause; King, Timothy L.; Bonde, Robert K.; Gray, Brian A.; McGuire, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) populations in Florida (T. m. latirostris) and Puerto Rico (T. m. manatus) are considered distinct subspecies and are listed together as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act. Sustained management and conservation efforts for the Florida subspecies have led to the suggested reclassification of the species to a threatened or delisted status. However, the two populations are geographically distant, morphologically distinct, and habitat degradation and boat strikes continue to threaten the Puerto Rico population. Here, 15 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial control region sequences were used to determine the relatedness of the two populations and investigate the genetic diversity and phylogeographic organization of the Puerto Rico population. Highly divergent allele frequencies were identified between Florida and Puerto Rico using microsatellite (F ST = 0.16; R ST = 0.12 (P ST = 0.66; Φ ST = 0.50 (P E = 0.45; NA = 3.9), were similar, but lower than those previously identified in Florida (HE = 0.48, NA = 4.8). Within Puerto Rico, the mitochondrial genetic diversity values (π = 0.001; h = 0.49) were slightly lower than those previously reported (π = 0.002; h = 0.54) and strong phylogeographic structure was identified (F ST global = 0.82; Φ ST global = 0.78 (P population size (N = 250), and distinct threats and habitat emphasize the need for separate protections in Puerto Rico. Conservation efforts including threat mitigation, migration corridors, and protection of subpopulations could lead to improved genetic variation in the endangered Puerto Rico manatee population.

  4. Science summary in support of Manatee Protection Area (MPA) design in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, C. Ashton; Alexander-Vaughn, Louise B.; Collazo, Jaime A.

    2012-01-01

    The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus), a subspecies of the West Indian manatee, is listed as endangered by the US Department of Interior. In accordance with its listing, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Caribbean Field Office (USFWS) is mandated to create one or more Manatee Protection Areas (MPAs) for Puerto Rico. Designation of these areas must comply with the legal definition of an MPA’s purpose: to prevent or reduce take of manatees (CFR 50: 44 FR 60964, Oct. 22, 1979). To meet this goal, we pursued two objectives: 1) identify areas which include the specific ecological attributes necessary to support manatee populations, and 2) identify areas where take can be reduced through approved MPA regulatory frameworks. We achieved these objectives through literature review, expert elicitation, and geospatial modeling. This report delivers to USFWS a set of nine potential MPA regions. These regions represent the spatial realization of experts’ hypotheses regarding manatee requirements and threats, and the potential to implement MPA strategies (e.g. watercraft access, speed regulations, signage and boater education). The nine regions are compared based on a number of factors, including their potential to reduce take, quality of the habitat encompassed, and total area. These maps and statistics serve as suitable starting points to select one or more MPA sites, but we recommend that the mapped attributes and threats (i.e., boating activity) of MPAs be ground-truthed to visually confirm the local presence of resources, threats, and manatees before any area is selected. Once established, the effectiveness of MPAs can be monitored and updated through processes of adaptive monitoring and management. Aerial surveys, radio tracking studies, and public surveys are all valuable tools to assess the success of an MPA. Establishing MPAs is a management action that, integrated within the species Recovery Plan, should enhance the conservation of manatees.

  5. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia sp. in aquatic mammals in northern and northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, João Carlos; Lima, Danielle Dos; da Silva, Edson Moura; Moreira, André Lucas de Oliveira; Marmontel, Miriam; Carvalho, Vitor Luz; Amaral, Rodrigo de; Lazzarini, Stella Maris; Alves, Leucio Câmara

    2017-09-20

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are protozoans that can infect humans and wild and domestic animals. Due to the growing importance of diseases caused by protozoan parasites in aquatic species, we aimed to evaluate the frequency of infection by Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia sp. in aquatic and marine mammals in the northern and northeastern regions of Brazil. We collected 553 fecal samples from 15 species of wild-ranging and captive aquatic mammals in northern and northeastern Brazil. All samples were analyzed by the Kinyoun technique for identification of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. Giardia sp. cysts were identified by means of the centrifugal-flotation technique in zinc sulfate solution. Subsequently, all samples were submitted for direct immunofluorescence testing. The overall frequency of infection was 15.55% (86/553) for Cryptosporidium spp. and 9.04% (50/553) for Giardia sp. The presence of Cryptosporidium spp. was detected in samples from 5 species: neotropical river otter Lontra longicaudis (15.28%), giant otter Pteronura brasiliensis (41.66%), Guiana dolphin Sotalia guianensis (9.67%), Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis (16.03%), and Antillean manatee T. manatus (13.79%). Giardia sp. was identified in L. longicaudis (9.23%), P. brasiliensis (29.16%), pygmy sperm whale Kogia breviceps (100%), dwarf sperm whale K. sima (25%), S. guianensis (9.67%), T. inunguis (3.81%), and T. manatus (10.34%). This is the first report of Cryptosporidium spp. in L. longicaudis, P. brasiliensis, and S. guianensis, while the occurrence of Giardia sp., in addition to the 2 otter species, was also identified in manatees, thus extending the number of hosts susceptible to these parasitic agents.

  6. Study of the behavior of Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis in captivity (Puerto Nariño – Amazonas, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delma Nataly Castelblanco Martínez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of the amazon manatee, which is classified as “vulnerable”, has been poorlystudied. This research constitutes the first ethological study of one Trichechus inunguis. Theanimal concerned was a juvenile male held in captivity and bottle-fed with an artificial milkformula. The manatee was undergoing a long-term rehabilitation process for re-introducing itin to the wild. Ethological records during 149 hours in 2 different sized facilities were collected.Ad libitumobservations were used to describe behavior and events. The 30-minute recordingsessions were divided into 1-minute intervals. The first ethological catalog for this species wasdesigned, including 87 behavior patherns classified into 8 general categories. The studypresents an analysis of each type of activity for both facilities. Activity rhythm and the use ofspace by the manatee were also studied.

  7. Twelve years of “Astro” in Sergipe State: in search of harmony between the manatee and the local waterside communities =Doze anos de “Astro” no Estado de Sergipe: buscando harmonia entre o peixe-boi e as comunidades ribeirinhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Francis Ferrari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus is the most threatened aquatic mammal in Brazil. It was considered to be extinct in Sergipe until 1998, when a re-introduced animal (Astro arrived. Given plans for the re-introduction of more animals, a survey was conducted of the waterside communities of the animal’s home range, on the southern coast of Sergipe. Between March and November, 2009, 27 people were interviewed in 12 communities, using a 14-item questionnaire. All the interviewees knew Astro and were familiar with his behaviour. The primary source of tension between the animal and the community is its habit of approaching vessels and, in particular, fishing equipment. Some fishermen reported that he takes fish from their nets. While most local residents are tolerant of the animal’s presence, some interviewees reported aggression in the context of fishing. Most of the interviewees agreed with the idea of re-introducing more animals locally, but conflicts related to fishing were seen as the main potential problem. Given this, there is a clear need for a comprehensive environmental education programme, in order to guarantee the conservation of the species in the region.O peixe-boi marinho (Trichechus manatus é o mamífero aquático mais ameaçado no Brasil. Era considerado extinto em Sergipe até 1998, quando chegou um animal reintroduzido (Astro. Visando a eventual reintrodução de mais animais, foi realizado um levantamento de comunidades ribeirinhas de sua área de vida, no litoral Sul de Sergipe. Entre março e novembro de 2009, 27 pessoas foram entrevistadas em 12 comunidades, usando um questionário com 14 perguntas. Todos os entrevistados conheciam o Astro e tinham alguma noção de seu comportamento. A fonte principal de atrito entre o animal e a comunidade é seu hábito de se aproximar de embarcações e, principalmente, de equipamentos de pesca. Alguns pescadores relataram que o animal retira peixes de suas redes. Apesar da

  8. Varia??es morfol?gicas e geogr?ficas no sincr?nio do peixe-boi da Amaz?nia Trichechus inunguis (Natterer, 1883)

    OpenAIRE

    Valdevino, Gisele de Castro Maciel

    2016-01-01

    peixe-boi-da-Amaz?nia (Trichechus inunguis) ? end?mico da bacia Amaz?nica e exclusivo de ?gua doce. Apresenta apomorfias em rela??o aos outros triquequ?deos, derivadas de sua adapta??o ao ambiente dulc?cola e distribui-se desde as cabeceiras de rios no Equador, Peru e Col?mbia at? o estu?rio do Rio Amazonas, no Brasil. Apesar dos estudos sobre a morfologia desta esp?cie, nenhum estudo ontogen?tico sincraniano foi desenvolvido ao longo de sua distribui??o. Estudos morfol?gicos e...

  9. Movements and habitat use locations of manatees within Kings Bay Florida during the Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge winter season (November 15–March 31)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Daniel H.; Butler, Susan M.; Reid, James P.

    2018-04-06

    Kings Bay, Florida, is one of the most important natural winter habitat locations for the federally threatened Trichechus manatus latirostris (Florida manatee). Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1983 specifically to provide protection for manatees and their critical habitat. To aid managers at the refuge and other agencies with this task, spatial analyses of local habitat use locations and travel corridors of manatees in Kings Bay during manatee season (November 15–March 31) are presented based on Global Positioning System telemetry of 41 manatees over a 12-year timespan (2006−18). Local habitat use areas and travel corridors differed spatially when Gulf of Mexico water temperatures were cold (less than or equal to 17 degrees Celsius) versus when they were warm (greater than 17 degrees Celsius). During times of cold water, manatees were found in higher concentrations in the main springs and canals throughout the eastern side of the bay, whereas when waters were warm, they were found more generally throughout the bay and into Crystal River, except for the central open part of the bay and the southwest corner.

  10. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in the maintenance water of Antillean manatees (Trichechusmanatus in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane Kury Nobre Gomes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to verify the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in the water consumption and supply of pools used by Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus in captivity. Six samples were collected from the pool's supply system (at the beach, water used for manatee consumption, mineral water used in the preparation of artificial milk formulas offered to orphan manatee calves, also used in permanent maintenance pools in the visitation area, and water utilized in the rehabilitation area, where calves of all ages were kept. Before the water samples were processed, each sample was submitted to a filtration process. The diagnosis of the parasite was obtained by Kinyoun technique and the positive samples were submitted to the Direct Immunoflorescence Test. The results showed the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in 66.67% (4/6 of the samples from the water supply system and pool, with eight to 56 oocysts per liter. There was evidence that the water used in the maintenance of the Antillean manatees could be an important medium for hydric transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. and that it may be a predisposing factor to the occurrence of cryptosporidiosis in Antillean manatees in captivity.

  11. Adjusting multistate capture-recapture models for misclassification bias: manatee breeding proportions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, W.L.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    Matrix population models are important tools for research and management of populations. Estimating the parameters of these models is an important step in applying them to real populations. Multistate capture-recapture methods have provided a useful means for estimating survival and parameters of transition between locations or life history states but have mostly relied on the assumption that the state occupied by each detected animal is known with certainty. Nevertheless, in some cases animals can be misclassified. Using multiple capture sessions within each period of interest, we developed a method that adjusts estimates of transition probabilities for bias due to misclassification. We applied this method to 10 years of sighting data for a population of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in order to estimate the annual probability of transition from nonbreeding to breeding status. Some sighted females were unequivocally classified as breeders because they were clearly accompanied by a first-year calf. The remainder were classified, sometimes erroneously, as nonbreeders because an attendant first-year calf was not observed or was classified as more than one year old. We estimated a conditional breeding probability of 0.31 + 0.04 (estimate + 1 SE) when we ignored misclassification bias, and 0.61 + 0.09 when we accounted for misclassification.

  12. The past, present, and future of manatees in the southeastern United States: realities, misunderstandings and enigmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    A review of the historical and recent (1970s-1980s) literature on the distribution, abundance, and mortality of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) in the southern United States is presented. Recent unpublished data on mortality, Florida boat registrations, size of certain manatee wintering populations, and records outside of Florida are also given. Manatees never regularly occurred outside of Florida, except during the summer in Georgia. Current distribution is also limited largely to Florida and coastal Georgia in summer, with extralimital records in other southeastern states. In winter the range contracts and is centered around warm water sources in Florida. The historical record on past abundance is inconclusive, but does not provide any compelling evidence to claim that manatees ever nearly became extinct. There are no satisfactory means to estimate manatee population size. However, within Florida, manatees have become more widespread and possibly more abundant during the past 30 years due to protection, greater availability of warm water in winter, and in some areas, increased exotic vegetation. Deliberate killing for food was long a historical pressure on manatee populations in Florida, but is not almost non-existent. Nevertheless, recent increasing trends in accidental mortality caused by boats, coupled with an understanding of manatee population dynamics, suggests that the future for manatees is not secure. Ample justification exists for continued manatee conservation efforts.

  13. Behavioral response of manatees to variations in environmental sound levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L.; Wagner, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) inhabit coastal regions because they feed on the aquatic vegetation that grows in shallow waters, which are the same areas where human activities are greatest. Noise produced from anthropogenic and natural sources has the potential to affect these animals by eliciting responses ranging from mild behavioral changes to extreme aversion. Sound levels were calculated from recordings made throughout behavioral observation periods. An information theoretic approach was used to investigate the relationship between behavior patterns and sound level. Results indicated that elevated sound levels affect manatee activity and are a function of behavioral state. The proportion of time manatees spent feeding and milling changed in response to sound level. When ambient sound levels were highest, more time was spent in the directed, goal-oriented behavior of feeding, whereas less time was spent engaged in undirected behavior such as milling. This work illustrates how shifts in activity of individual manatees may be useful parameters for identifying impacts of noise on manatees and might inform population level effects.

  14. Survival estimates for Florida manatees from the photo-identification of individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langtimm, C.A.; Beck, C.A.; Edwards, H.H.; Fick-Child, K. J.; Ackerman, B.B.; Barton, S.L.; Hartley, W.C.

    2004-01-01

    We estimated adult survival probabilities for the endangered Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in four regional populations using photo-identification data and open-population capture-recapture statistical models. The mean annual adult survival probability over the most recent 10-yr period of available estimates was as follows: Northwest - 0.956 (SE 0.007), Upper St. Johns River - 0.960 (0.011), Atlantic Coast - 0.937 (0.008), and Southwest - 0.908 (0.019). Estimates of temporal variance independent of sampling error, calculated from the survival estimates, indicated constant survival in the Upper St. Johns River, true temporal variability in the Northwest and Atlantic Coast, and large sampling variability obscuring estimates for the Southwest. Calf and subadult survival probabilities were estimated for the Upper St. Johns River from the only available data for known-aged individuals: 0.810 (95% CI 0.727-0.873) for 1st year calves, 0.915 (0.827-0.960) for 2nd year calves, and 0.969 (0.946-0.982) for manatee 3 yr or older. These estimates of survival probabilities and temporal variance, in conjunction with estimates of reproduction probabilities from photoidentification data can be used to model manatee population dynamics, estimate population growth rates, and provide an integrated measure of regional status.

  15. Low genetic diversity and minimal population substructure in the endangered Florida manatee: implications for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Kimberly Pause; Hunter, Margaret E.; Bonde, Robert K.; Austin, James D.; Clark, Ann Marie; Beck, Cathy A.; McGuire, Peter M.; Oli, Madan K.

    2012-01-01

    Species of management concern that have been affected by human activities typically are characterized by low genetic diversity, which can adversely affect their ability to adapt to environmental changes. We used 18 microsatellite markers to genotype 362 Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris), and investigated genetic diversity, population structure, and estimated genetically effective population size (Ne). The observed and expected heterozygosity and average number of alleles were 0.455 ± 0.04, 0.479 ± 0.04, and 4.77 ± 0.51, respectively. All measures of Florida manatee genetic diversity were less than averages reported for placental mammals, including fragmented or nonideal populations. Overall estimates of differentiation were low, though significantly greater than zero, and analysis of molecular variance revealed that over 95% of the total variance was among individuals within predefined management units or among individuals along the coastal subpopulations, with only minor portions of variance explained by between group variance. Although genetic issues, as inferred by neutral genetic markers, appear not to be critical at present, the Florida manatee continues to face demographic challenges due to anthropogenic activities and stochastic factors such as red tides, oil spills, and disease outbreaks; these can further reduce genetic diversity of the manatee population.

  16. A stage-based model of manatee population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, M.C.; Langtimm, C.A.; Kendall, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    A stage-structured population model for the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) was developed that explicitly incorporates uncertainty in parameter estimates. The growth rates calculated with this model reflect the status of the regional populations over the most recent 10-yr period. The Northwest and Upper St. Johns River regions have growth rates (8) of 1.037 (95% interval, 1.016?1.056) and 1.062 (1.037?1.081), respectively. The Southwest region has a growth rate of 0.989 (0.946?1.024), suggesting this population has been declining at about 1.1% per year. The estimated growth rate in the Atlantic region is 1.010 (0.988?1.029), but there is some uncertainty about whether adult survival rates have been constant over the last 10 yr; using the mean survival rates from the most recent 5-yr period, the estimated growth rate in this region is 0.970 (0.938?0.998). Elasticity analysis indicates that the most effective management actions should seek to increase adult survival rates. Decomposition of the uncertainty in the growth rates indicates that uncertainty about population status can best be reduced through increased monitoring of adult survival rate.

  17. Manatees in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, Robert K.; Lefebvre, Lynn W.

    2001-01-01

    The endangered Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) inhabits rivers and estuaries along both coasts of Florida and, to a lesser extent, adjacent states (Figure 1). Since 1990, documented sightings of manatees outside of Florida have been increasing. This increase in sightings probably represents northward shifts in manatee distribution made possible by man-made sources of warm water (i.e., industrial effluents), as well as a decade of relatively warm winters. The most likely source of emigrants on the Gulf coast is the population of manatees that overwinter in the headwaters of the Crystal and Homosassa Rivers, Citrus County, FL. This group of manatees has undergone a steady increase in numbers, (approximately 7% per year from 1977-1991; Eberhardt and O’Shea 1995). Some emigrants may also come from the Tampa-Ft. Myers region, where human impacts on habitat are greater. Manatees are intelligent, long-lived mammals that appear to adapt readily to new environments and situations. However, manatees have relatively low metabolic rates, and cold winter temperatures restrict their northern distribution.

  18. Capture-recapture analysis for estimating manatee reproductive rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, W.L.; Langtimm, C.A.; Beck, C.A.; Runge, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Modeling the life history of the endangered Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is an important step toward understanding its population dynamics and predicting its response to management actions. We developed a multi-state mark-resighting model for data collected under Pollock's robust design. This model estimates breeding probability conditional on a female's breeding state in the previous year; assumes sighting probability depends on breeding state; and corrects for misclassification of a cow with first-year calf, by estimating conditional sighting probability for the calf. The model is also appropriate for estimating survival and unconditional breeding probabilities when the study area is closed to temporary emigration across years. We applied this model to photo-identification data for the Northwest and Atlantic Coast populations of manatees, for years 1982?2000. With rare exceptions, manatees do not reproduce in two consecutive years. For those without a first-year calf in the previous year, the best-fitting model included constant probabilities of producing a calf for the Northwest (0.43, SE = 0.057) and Atlantic (0.38, SE = 0.045) populations. The approach we present to adjust for misclassification of breeding state could be applicable to a large number of marine mammal populations.

  19. Biomedical health assessments of the Florida manatee in Crystal River - providing opportunities for training during the capture, handling, and processing of this endangered aquatic mammal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, Robert K.; Garrett, Andrew; Belanger, Michael; Askin, Nesime; Tan, Luke; Wittnich, Carin

    2012-01-01

    Federal and state researchers have been involved in manatee (Trichechus manatus) biomedical health assessment programs for a couple of decades. These benchmark studies have provided a foundation for the development of consistent capture, handling, and processing techniques and protocols. Biologists have implemented training and encouraged multi-agency participation whenever possible to ensure reliable data acquisition, recording, sample collection, publication integrity, and meeting rigorous archival standards. Under a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service wildlife research permit granted to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Sirenia Project, federal biologists and collaborators are allowed to conduct research studies on wild and captive manatees detailing various aspects of their biology. Therefore, researchers with the project have been collaborating on numerous studies over the last several years. One extensive study, initiated in 2006 has focused on health and fitness of the winter manatee population located in Crystal River, Florida. During those health assessments, capture, handling, and work-up training has been afforded to many of the participants. That study has successfully captured and handled 123 manatees. The data gathered have provided baseline information on manatee health, reproductive status, and nutritional condition. This research initiative addresses concerns and priorities outlined in the Florida Manatee Recovery Plan. The assessment teams strive to continue this collaborative effort to help advance our understanding of health-related issues confronting manatees throughout their range and interlacing these findings with surrogate species concepts.

  20. Measurement of the acoustic reflectivity of sirenia (Florida manatees) at 171 kHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Jules S; Simonet, Fernando; Roberts, Paul L D; Bowles, Ann E

    2007-01-01

    The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is an endangered sirenian. At present, its adult population (approximately 2200) seems stable, but tenuous. Manatee-boat collisions are a significant proportion (approximately 25%) of mortalities. Here, the potential use of active sonar for detecting manatees by quantifying sonic reflectivity is explored. In order to estimate reflectivity two methods were used. One method measured live reflections from captive animals using a carefully calibrated acoustic and co-registered optical system. The other method consisted of the analysis of animal tissue in order to obtain estimates of the sound speed and density and to predict reflectivity. The impedance measurement predicts that for a lateral view, the tissue reflectivity is close to 0.13, with a critical grazing angle of 28 degrees. Data measured from live animals indicate that substantial reflections can be recorded, however in many instances observed "empirical target strengths" were less than an experimentally dependent -48-dB threshold. Conclusions favor the hypothesis that the animals reflect substantial amounts of sound; however, the reflections can often be specular, and therefore impractical for observation by a manatee detection sonar operating at 171 kHz.

  1. Chromosome painting among Proboscidea, Hyracoidea and Sirenia: Support for Paenungulata (Afrotheria, Mammalia) but not Tethytheria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, A.T.; O'Brien, P. C. M.; Fu, B.; Bonde, R.K.; Elder, F.F.B.; Ferguson-Smith, M. A.; Yang, F.; Robinson, T.J.

    2007-01-01

    Despite marked improvements in the interpretation of systematic relationships within Eutheria, particular nodes, including Paenungulata (Hyracoidea, Sirenia and Proboscidea), remain ambiguous. The combination of a rapid radiation, a deep divergence and an extensive morphological diversification has resulted in a limited phylogenetic signal confounding resolution within this clade both at the morphological and nucleotide levels. Cross-species chromosome painting was used to delineate regions of homology between Loxodonta africana (2n = 56), Procavia capensis (2n=54), Trichechus manatus latirostris (2n = 48) and an outgroup taxon, the aardvark (Orycteropus afer, 2n = 20). Changes specific to each lineage were identified and although the presence of a minimum of 11 synapomorphies confirmed the monophyly of Paenungulata, no change characterizing intrapaenungulate relationships was evident. The reconstruction of an ancestral paenungulate karyotype and the estimation of rates of chromosomal evolution indicate a reduced rate of genomic repatterning following the paenungulate radiation. In comparison to data available for other mammalian taxa, the paenungulate rate of chromosomal evolution is slow to moderate. As a consequence, the absence of a chromosomal character uniting two paenungulates (at the level of resolution characterized in this study) may be due to a reduced rate of chromosomal change relative to the length of time separating successive divergence events. ?? 2007 The Royal Society.

  2. Fishery gear interactions from stranded bottlenose dolphins, Florida manatees and sea turtles in Florida, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adimey, Nicole M; Hudak, Christine A; Powell, Jessica R; Bassos-Hull, Kim; Foley, Allen; Farmer, Nicholas A; White, Linda; Minch, Karrie

    2014-04-15

    Documenting the extent of fishery gear interactions is critical to wildlife conservation efforts, especially for reducing entanglements and ingestion. This study summarizes fishery gear interactions involving common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus truncatus), Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) and sea turtles: loggerhead (Caretta caretta), green turtle (Chelonia mydas), leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea), hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii), and olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) stranding in Florida waters during 1997-2009. Fishery gear interactions for all species combined were 75.3% hook and line, 18.2% trap pot gear, 4.8% fishing nets, and 1.7% in multiple gears. Total reported fishery gear cases increased over time for dolphins (p<0.05), manatees (p<0.01), loggerheads (p<0.05) and green sea turtles (p<0.05). The proportion of net interaction strandings relative to total strandings for loggerhead sea turtles increased (p<0.05). Additionally, life stage and sex patterns were examined, fishery gear interaction hotspots were identified and generalized linear regression modeling was conducted. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and Sarcocystis canis-like infections in marine mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J.P.; Zarnke, R.; Thomas, N.J.; Wong, S.K.; Vanbonn, W.; Briggs, M.; Davis, J.W.; Ewing, R.; Mense, M.; Kwok, O.C.H.; Romand, S.; Thulliez, P.

    2003-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and S. canis are related protozoans that can cause mortality in many species of domestic and wild animals. Recently, T. gondii and S. neurona were recognized to cause encephalitis in marine mammals. As yet, there is no report of natural exposure of N. caninum in marine mammals. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum were assayed in sera of several species of marine mammals. For T. gondii, sera were diluted 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500 and assayed in the T. gondii modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT a?Y1:25) to T. gondii were found in 89 of 115 (77%) dead, and 18 of 30 (60%) apparently healthy sea otters (Enhydra lutris), 51 of 311 (16%) Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), 19 of 45 (42%) sea lions (Zalophus californianus), 5 of 32 (16%) ringed seals (Phoca hispida), 4 of 8 (50%) bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), 1 of 9 (11.1%) spotted seals (Phoca largha), 138 of 141 (98%) Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and 3 of 53 (6%) walruses (Odobenus rosmarus). For N. caninum, sera were diluted 1:40, 1:80, 1:160, and 1:320 and examined with the Neospora agglutination test (NAT) using mouse-derived tachyzoites. NAT antibodies were found in 3 of 53 (6%) walruses, 28 of 145 (19%) sea otters, 11 of 311 (3.5%) harbor seals, 1 of 27 (3.7%) sea lions, 4 of 32 (12.5%) ringed seals, 1 of 8 (12.5%) bearded seals, and 43 of 47 (91%) bottlenose dolphins. To our knowledge, this is the first report of N. caninum antibodies in any marine mammal, and the first report of T. gondii antibodies in walruses and in ringed, bearded, spotted, and ribbon seals. Current information on T. gondii-like and Sarcocystis-like infections in marine mammals is reviewed. New cases of clinical S. canis and T. gondii infections are also reported in sea lions, and T. gondii infection in an Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus).

  4. Conocimientos, conservación y avistamiento del manatí amazónico (Trichechus inunguis), según los pobladores de la cuenca del río Ucayali (Loreto, Perú)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Jaymee; Laboratorio de Vida Silvestre. Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia.; Montes, David; Laboratorio de Vida Silvestre. Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia.; Elías, Roberto; Laboratorio de Vida Silvestre. Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos: Identificar conocimientos que poseen los pobladores de la cuenca del río Ucayali sobre la biología, conservación y problemática, asi como avistamientos previos del manatí amazónico Trichechus inunguis. Materiales y métodos: Se encuestaron 421 personas de diferentes edades, sexos y ocupaciones, en diferentes localidades de la cuenca del río Ucayali. Resultados: El 88.8% reconoció a la especie, y el 80.1% conocen al manatí con el nombre de vaca marina. El 65.1% declaran haber consumi...

  5. Etnoconhecimento do peixe-boi amazônico (Trichechus inunguis): uso tradicional por ribeirinhos na Reserva Extrativista Tapajós Arapiuns e Floresta Nacional do Tapajós, Pará

    OpenAIRE

    AGUILAR, Carla Verônica Carrasco

    2007-01-01

    A atividade de caça é praticada por populações rurais da Amazônia, sendo utilizada tanto para fins de subsistência, como comercial. Esta prática faz com que o amazônida adquira conhecimento sobre o ambiente e as espécies autóctones, interagindo de forma direta com a natureza. O peixe-boi amazônico (Trichechus inunguis) é um animal tradicionalmente utilizado por ribeirinhos, mesmo estando protegido por Lei desde 1967. Diante do exposto, este trabalho teve dois objetivos principais: 1- anali...

  6. Low genetic variation and evidence of limited dispersal in the regionally important Belize manatee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, M.E.; Auil-Gomez, N. E.; Tucker, K.P.; Bonde, R.K.; Powell, J.; McGuire, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    The Antillean subspecies of the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus is found throughout Central and South America and the Caribbean. Because of severe hunting pressure during the 17th through 19th centuries, only small populations of the once widespread aquatic mammal remain. Fortunately, protections in Belize reduced hunting in the 1930s and allowed the country's manatee population to become the largest breeding population in the Wider Caribbean. However, increasing and emerging anthropogenic threats such as coastal development, pollution, watercraft collision and net entanglement represent challenges to this ecologically important population. To inform conservation and management decisions, a comprehensive molecular investigation of the genetic diversity, relatedness and population structure of the Belize manatee population was conducted using mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA. Compared with other mammal populations, a low degree of genetic diversity was detected (HE=0.455; NA=3.4), corresponding to the small population size and long-term exploitation. Manatees from the Belize City Cayes and Southern Lagoon system were genetically different, with microsatellite and mitochondrial FST values of 0.029 and 0.078, respectively (P≤0.05). This, along with the distinct habitats and threats, indicates that separate protection of these two groups would best preserve the region's diversity. The Belize population and Florida subspecies appear to be unrelated with microsatellite and mitochondrial FST values of 0.141 and 0.63, respectively (P≤0.001), supporting the subspecies designations and suggesting low vagility throughout the northern Caribbean habitat. Further monitoring and protection may allow an increase in the Belize manatee genetic diversity and population size. A large and expanding Belize population could potentially assist in the recovery of other threatened or functionally extinct Central American Antillean manatee populations.

  7. Influence of manatees' diving on their risk of collision with watercraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Holly H.; Martin, Julien; Deutsch, Charles J.; Muller, Robert G; Koslovsky, Stacie M.; Smith, Alexander J.; Barlas, Margie E.

    2016-01-01

    Watercraft pose a threat to endangered Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Mortality from watercraft collisions has adversely impacted the manatee population’s growth rate, therefore reducing this threat is an important management goal. To assess factors that contribute to the risk of watercraft strikes to manatees, we studied the diving behavior of nine manatees carrying GPS tags and time–depth recorders in Tampa Bay, Florida, during winters 2002–2006. We applied a Bayesian formulation of generalized linear mixed models to depth data to model the probability (Pt) that manatees would be no deeper than 1.25 m from the water’s surface as a function of behavioral and habitat covariates. Manatees above this threshold were considered to be within striking depth of a watercraft. Seventy-eight percent of depth records (individual range 62–86%) were within striking depth (mean = 1.09 m, max = 16.20 m), illustrating how vulnerable manatees are to strikes. In some circumstances manatees made consecutive dives to the bottom while traveling, even in areas >14 m, possibly to conserve energy. This is the first documentation of potential cost-efficient diving behavior in manatees. Manatees were at higher risk of being within striking depth in shallow water (<0.91 m), over seagrass, at night, and while stationary or moving slowly; they were less likely to be within striking depth when ≤50 m from a charted waterway. In shallow water the probability of a manatee being within striking depth was 0.96 (CI = 0.93–0.98) and decreased as water depth increased. The probability was greater over seagrass (Pt = 0.96, CI = 0.93–0.98) than over other substrates (Pt = 0.73, CI = 0.58–0.84). Quantitative approaches to assessing risk can improve the effectiveness of manatee conservation measures by helping identify areas for protection.

  8. Physiological response of wild dugongs (Dugong dugon) to out-of-water sampling for health assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyon, Janet M.; Sneath, Helen L.; Long, Trevor; Bonde, Robert K.

    2010-01-01

    The dugong (Dugong dugon) is a vulnerable marine mammal with large populations living in urban Queensland waters. A mark-recapture program for wild dugongs has been ongoing in southern Queensland since 2001. This program has involved capture and in-water sampling of more than 700 dugongs where animals have been held at the water surface for 5 min to be gene-tagged, measured, and biopsied. In 2008, this program expanded to examine more comprehensively body condition, reproductive status, and the health of wild dugongs in Moreton Bay. Using Sea World's research vessel, captured dugongs were lifted onto a boat and sampled out-of-water to obtain accurate body weights and morphometrics, collect blood and urine samples for baseline health parameters and hormone profiles, and ultrasound females for pregnancy status. In all, 30 dugongs, including two pregnant females, were sampled over 10 d and restrained on deck for up to 55 min each while biological data were collected. Each of the dugongs had their basic temperature-heart rate-respiration (THR) monitored throughout their period of handling, following protocols developed for the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus). This paper reports on the physiological response of captured dugongs during this out-of-water operation as indicated by their vital signs and the suitability of the manatee monitoring protocols to this related sirenian species. A recommendation is made that the range of vital signs of these wild dugongs be used as benchmark criteria of normal parameters for other studies that intend to sample dugongs out-of-water.

  9. Estimation of survival of adult Florida manatees in the Crystal River, at Blue Spring, and on the Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Thomas J.; Langtimm, Catherine A.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Ackerman, B.B.; Percival, H. Franklin

    1995-01-01

    We applied Cormack-Jolly-Seber open population models to manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) photo-identification databases to estimate adult survival probabilities. The computer programs JOLLY and RECAPCO were used to estimate survival of 677 individuals in three study areas: Crystal River (winters 1977-78 to 1990-91), Blue Spring (winters 1977-78 to 1990-91), and the Atlantic Coast (winters 1984-85 to 1990-91). We also estimated annual survival from observations of 111 manatees tagged for studies with radiotelemetry. Survival estimated from observations with telemetry had broader confidence intervals than survival estimated with the Cormack-Jolly-Seber models. Annual probabilities of capture based on photo-identification records were generally high. The mean annual adult survival estimated from sighting-resighting records was 0.959-0.962 in the Crystal River and 0.936-0.948 at Blue Spring and may be high enough to permit population growth, given the values of other life-history parameters. On the Atlantic Coast, the estimated annual adult survival (range of means = 0.877-0.885) may signify a declining population. However, for several reasons, interpretation of data from the latter study group should be tempered with caution. Adult survivorship seems to be constant with age in all three study groups. No strong differences were apparent between adult survival ofmales and females in the Crystal River or at Blue Spring; the basis of significant differences between sexes on the Atlantic Coast is unclear. Future research into estimating survival with photo-identification and the Cormack-Jolly-Seber models should be vigorously pursued. Estimates of annual survival can provide an additional indication of Florida manatee population status with a stronger statistical basis than aerial counts and carcass totals.

  10. Integration of manatee life-history data and population modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, L.L.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Ackerman, B.B.; Percival, H. Franklin

    1995-01-01

    Aerial counts and the number of deaths have been a major focus of attention in attempts to understand the population status of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Uncertainties associated with these data have made interpretation difficult. However, knowledge of manatee life-history attributes increased and now permits the development of a population model. We describe a provisional model based on the classical approach of Lotka. Parameters in the model are based on data from'other papers in this volume and draw primarily on observations from the Crystal River, Blue Spring, and Adantic Coast areas. The model estimates X (the finite rate ofincrease) at each study area, and application ofthe delta method provides estimates of variance components and partial derivatives ofX with respectto key input parameters (reproduction, adult survival, and early survival). In some study areas, only approximations of some parameters are available. Estimates of X and coefficients of variation (in parentheses) of manatees were 1.07 (0.009) in the Crystal River, 1.06 (0.012) at Blue Spring, and 1.01 (0.012) on the Atlantic Coast. Changing adult survival has a major effect on X. Early-age survival has the smallest effect. Bootstrap comparisons of population growth estimates from trend counts in the Crystal River and at Blue Spring and the reproduction and survival data suggest that the higher, observed rates from counts are probably not due to chance. Bootstrapping for variance estimates based on reproduction and survival data from manatees at Blue Spring and in the Crystal River provided estimates of X, adult survival, and rates of reproduction that were similar to those obtained by other methods. Our estimates are preliminary and suggestimprovements for future data collection and analysis. However, results support efforts to reduce mortality as the most effective means to promote the increased growth necessary for the eventual recovery of the Florida manatee

  11. Influence of Manatees' Diving on Their Risk of Collision with Watercraft.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly H Edwards

    Full Text Available Watercraft pose a threat to endangered Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris. Mortality from watercraft collisions has adversely impacted the manatee population's growth rate, therefore reducing this threat is an important management goal. To assess factors that contribute to the risk of watercraft strikes to manatees, we studied the diving behavior of nine manatees carrying GPS tags and time-depth recorders in Tampa Bay, Florida, during winters 2002-2006. We applied a Bayesian formulation of generalized linear mixed models to depth data to model the probability (Pt that manatees would be no deeper than 1.25 m from the water's surface as a function of behavioral and habitat covariates. Manatees above this threshold were considered to be within striking depth of a watercraft. Seventy-eight percent of depth records (individual range 62-86% were within striking depth (mean = 1.09 m, max = 16.20 m, illustrating how vulnerable manatees are to strikes. In some circumstances manatees made consecutive dives to the bottom while traveling, even in areas >14 m, possibly to conserve energy. This is the first documentation of potential cost-efficient diving behavior in manatees. Manatees were at higher risk of being within striking depth in shallow water (<0.91 m, over seagrass, at night, and while stationary or moving slowly; they were less likely to be within striking depth when ≤50 m from a charted waterway. In shallow water the probability of a manatee being within striking depth was 0.96 (CI = 0.93-0.98 and decreased as water depth increased. The probability was greater over seagrass (Pt = 0.96, CI = 0.93-0.98 than over other substrates (Pt = 0.73, CI = 0.58-0.84. Quantitative approaches to assessing risk can improve the effectiveness of manatee conservation measures by helping identify areas for protection.

  12. Timing of warm water refuge use in Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge by manatees—Results and insights from Global Positioning System telemetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Daniel H.; Butler, Susan M.; Reid, James P.; Haase, Catherine G.

    2017-11-21

    Managers at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge (CRNWR) desire to update their management plan regarding the operation of select springs including Three Sisters Springs. They wish to refine existing parameters used to predict the presence of federally threatened Trichechus manatus latirostris (Florida manatee) in the springs and thereby improve their manatee management options. The U.S. Geological Survey Sirenia Project has been tracking manatees in the CRNWR area since 2006 with floating Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite-monitored telemetry tags. Analyzing movements of these tagged manatees will provide valuable insight into their habitat use patterns.A total of 136 GPS telemetry bouts were available for this project, representing 730,009 locations generated from 40 manatees tagged in the Gulf of Mexico north of Tampa, Florida. Dates from October through March were included to correspond to the times that cold ambient temperatures were expected, thus requiring a need for manatee thermoregulation and a physiologic need for warm water. Water level (tide) and water temperatures were obtained for the study from Salt River, Crystal River mouth, Bagley Cove, Kings Bay mouth, and Magnolia Spring. Polygons were drawn to subdivide the manatee locations into areas around the most-used springs (Three Sisters/Idiots Delight, House/Hunter/Jurassic, Magnolia and King), Kings Bay, Crystal/Salt Rivers and the Gulf of Mexico.Manatees were found in the Crystal or Salt Rivers or in the Gulf of Mexico when ambient temperatures were warmer (>20 °C), while they were found in or near the springs (especially Three Sisters Springs) at colder ambient water temperatures. There was a trend of manatees entering springs early in the morning and leaving in the afternoon. There was a strong association of manatee movements in and out of the Three Sisters/Idiots Delight polygon with tide cycles: manatees were more likely to enter the Three Sisters

  13. Accounting for non-independent detection when estimating abundance of organisms with a Bayesian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Julien; Royle, J. Andrew; MacKenzie, Darryl I.; Edwards, Holly H.; Kery, Marc; Gardner, Beth

    2011-01-01

    Summary 1. Binomial mixture models use repeated count data to estimate abundance. They are becoming increasingly popular because they provide a simple and cost-effective way to account for imperfect detection. However, these models assume that individuals are detected independently of each other. This assumption may often be violated in the field. For instance, manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) may surface in turbid water (i.e. become available for detection during aerial surveys) in a correlated manner (i.e. in groups). However, correlated behaviour, affecting the non-independence of individual detections, may also be relevant in other systems (e.g. correlated patterns of singing in birds and amphibians). 2. We extend binomial mixture models to account for correlated behaviour and therefore to account for non-independent detection of individuals. We simulated correlated behaviour using beta-binomial random variables. Our approach can be used to simultaneously estimate abundance, detection probability and a correlation parameter. 3. Fitting binomial mixture models to data that followed a beta-binomial distribution resulted in an overestimation of abundance even for moderate levels of correlation. In contrast, the beta-binomial mixture model performed considerably better in our simulation scenarios. We also present a goodness-of-fit procedure to evaluate the fit of beta-binomial mixture models. 4. We illustrate our approach by fitting both binomial and beta-binomial mixture models to aerial survey data of manatees in Florida. We found that the binomial mixture model did not fit the data, whereas there was no evidence of lack of fit for the beta-binomial mixture model. This example helps illustrate the importance of using simulations and assessing goodness-of-fit when analysing ecological data with N-mixture models. Indeed, both the simulations and the goodness-of-fit procedure highlighted the limitations of the standard binomial mixture model for aerial

  14. Lower survival probabilities for adult Florida manatees in years with intense coastal storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langtimm, C.A.; Beck, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    The endangered Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) inhabits the subtropical waters of the southeastern United States, where hurricanes are a regular occurrence. Using mark-resighting statistical models, we analyzed 19 years of photo-identification data and detected significant annual variation in adult survival for a subpopulation in northwest Florida where human impact is low. That variation coincided with years when intense hurricanes (Category 3 or greater on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale) and a major winter storm occurred in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Mean survival probability during years with no or low intensity storms was 0.972 (approximate 95% confidence interval = 0.961-0.980) but dropped to 0.936 (0.864-0.971) in 1985 with Hurricanes Elena, Kate, and Juan; to 0.909 (0.837-0.951) in 1993 with the March "Storm of the Century"; and to 0.817 (0.735-0.878) in 1995 with Hurricanes Opal, Erin, and Allison. These drops in survival probability were not catastrophic in magnitude and were detected because of the use of state-of-the-art statistical techniques and the quality of the data. Because individuals of this small population range extensively along the north Gulf coast of Florida, it was possible to resolve storm effects on a regional scale rather than the site-specific local scale common to studies of more sedentary species. This is the first empirical evidence in support of storm effects on manatee survival and suggests a cause-effect relationship. The decreases in survival could be due to direct mortality, indirect mortality, and/or emigration from the region as a consequence of storms. Future impacts to the population by a single catastrophic hurricane, or series of smaller hurricanes, could increase the probability of extinction. With the advent in 1995 of a new 25- to 50-yr cycle of greater hurricane activity, and longer term change possible with global climate change, it becomes all the more important to reduce mortality and injury

  15. Reproduction and early-age survival of manatees at Blue Spring, Upper St. Johns River, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Thomas J.; Hartley, W.C.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Ackerman, B.B.; Percival, H. Franklin

    1995-01-01

    We summarize reproduction of adults and survival of calves and subadult Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) that were identified in winter at Blue Spring on the upper St. Johns River in Florida. Some records span more than 20 years, but most are from 15-year continuous annual observations during winter 1978-79 through winter 1992-93. Fifty-seven, first-year calves were identified; 55 litter sizes were one, and one consisted oftwins (1.79% of all births). Sex ratios of first-year calves did notsignificantly differfrom 1:1. Based on 21 of35 sighted females (15 individuals) that appeared pregnant and returned with calves during the subsequent winter, we estimated an early (neonatal to about 6 months) calf survival of 0.600. Based on estimations with a minimum-number-known-alive method, calf survival from the first to the second winter was at least 0.822, and subadult survival was 0.903 to the third, 0.958 to the fourth, 1.00 to the fifth, and 1.00 to the sixth winters. Seven females were observed from year of birth to their first winter with a nursing calf; the mean age at parturition to the first calf that survived to the next winter was 5.4 + 0.98 (SD) years. The estimated ages at first conception ranged from 3 to 6 years. The proportion of adult pregnant females was 0.410/year. Weaning was not observed in winter. Intervals between births averaged 2.60 + 0.81 years. The pooled proportion of adult females nursing first-winter calves was 0.303; the proportion of adult females nursing calves of any age was 0.407. These values do not significantly differ from those ofmanatees from the Crystal River or Atlantic Coast study areas. Anecdotal accounts are provided that suggested the existence of a pseudo estrus, an 11 to 13-month gestation, suppression of parturition in winter, and giving birth in quiet backwaters and canals. A female from Blue Spring produced at least seven calves during the 22 years since first observed and died giving birth at an estimated

  16. Placentation in the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M; Miglino, M A; Ambrosio, C E

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from several sources supports a close phylogenetic relationship between elephants and sirenians. To explore whether this was reflected in similar placentation, we examined eight delivered placentae from the Amazonian manatee using light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. In addition......, the fetal placental circulation was described by scanning electron microscopy of vessel casts. The manatee placenta was zonary and endotheliochorial, like that of the elephant. The interhaemal barrier comprised maternal endothelium, cytotrophoblasts and fetal endothelium. We found columnar trophoblast...... beneath the chorionic plate and lining lacunae in this region, but there was no trace in the term placenta of haemophagous activity. The gross anatomy of the cord and fetal membranes was consistent with previous descriptions and included a four-chambered allantoic sac, as also found in the elephant...

  17. New aerial survey and hierarchical model to estimate manatee abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langimm, Cahterine A.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Stith, Bradley M.; Doyle, Terry J.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring the response of endangered and protected species to hydrological restoration is a major component of the adaptive management framework of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. The endangered Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) lives at the marine-freshwater interface in southwest Florida and is likely to be affected by hydrologic restoration. To provide managers with prerestoration information on distribution and abundance for postrestoration comparison, we developed and implemented a new aerial survey design and hierarchical statistical model to estimate and map abundance of manatees as a function of patch-specific habitat characteristics, indicative of manatee requirements for offshore forage (seagrass), inland fresh drinking water, and warm-water winter refuge. We estimated the number of groups of manatees from dual-observer counts and estimated the number of individuals within groups by removal sampling. Our model is unique in that we jointly analyzed group and individual counts using assumptions that allow probabilities of group detection to depend on group size. Ours is the first analysis of manatee aerial surveys to model spatial and temporal abundance of manatees in association with habitat type while accounting for imperfect detection. We conducted the study in the Ten Thousand Islands area of southwestern Florida, USA, which was expected to be affected by the Picayune Strand Restoration Project to restore hydrology altered for a failed real-estate development. We conducted 11 surveys in 2006, spanning the cold, dry season and warm, wet season. To examine short-term and seasonal changes in distribution we flew paired surveys 1–2 days apart within a given month during the year. Manatees were sparsely distributed across the landscape in small groups. Probability of detection of a group increased with group size; the magnitude of the relationship between group size and detection probability varied among surveys. Probability

  18. An expert elicitation process to project the frequency and magnitude of Florida manatee mortality events caused by red tide (Karenia brevis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Julien; Runge, Michael C.; Flewelling, Leanne J.; Deutsch, Charles J.; Landsberg, Jan H.

    2017-11-20

    Red tides (blooms of the harmful alga Karenia brevis) are one of the major sources of mortality for the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), especially in southwest Florida. It has been hypothesized that the frequency and severity of red tides may increase in the future because of global climate change and other factors. To improve our ecological forecast for the effects of red tides on manatee population dynamics and long-term persistence, we conducted a formal expert judgment process to estimate probability distributions for the frequency and relative magnitude of red-tide-related manatee mortality (RTMM) events over a 100-year time horizon in three of the four regions recognized as manatee management units in Florida. This information was used to update a population viability analysis for the Florida manatee (the Core Biological Model). We convened a panel of 12 experts in manatee biology or red-tide ecology; the panel met to frame, conduct, and discuss the elicitation. Each expert provided a best estimate and plausible low and high values (bounding a confidence level of 80 percent) for each parameter in each of three regions (Northwest, Southwest, and Atlantic) of the subspecies’ range (excluding the Upper St. Johns River region) for two time periods (0−40 and 41−100 years from present). We fitted probability distributions for each parameter, time period, and expert by using these three elicited values. We aggregated the parameter estimates elicited from individual experts and fitted a parametric distribution to the aggregated results.Across regions, the experts expected the future frequency of RTMM events to be higher than historical levels, which is consistent with the hypothesis that global climate change (among other factors) may increase the frequency of red-tide blooms. The experts articulated considerable uncertainty, however, about the future frequency of RTMM events. The historical frequency of moderate and intense RTMM (combined) in

  19. Tidal salt marshes of the southeast Atlantic Coast: A community profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegert, R.G.; Freeman, B.J.

    1990-09-01

    This report is part of a series of community profiles on the ecology of wetland and marine communities. This particular profile considers tidal marshes of the southeastern Atlantic coast, from North Carolina south to northern Florida. Alone among the earth's ecosystems, coastal communities are subjected to a bidirectional flooding sometimes occurring twice each day; this flooding affects successional development, species composition, stability, and productivity. In the tidally influenced salt marsh, salinity ranges from less than 1 ppt to that of seawater. Dominant plant species include cordgrasses (Spartina alterniflora and S. cynosuroides), black needlerush (Juncus romerianus), and salt marsh bulrush (Scirpus robustus). Both terrestrail and aquatic animals occur in salt marshes and include herons, egrets ospreys (Pandion haliaetus), bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), alligators (Alligator Mississippiensis), manatees (Trichecus manatus), oysters, mussels, and fiddler crabs. Currently, the only significant direct commercial use of the tidal salt marshes is by crabbers seeking the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, but the marshes are quite important recreationally, aesthetically, and educationally. 151 refs., 45 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Using Pooled Local Expert Opinions (PLEO to Discern Patterns in Sightings of Live and Dead Manatees (Trichechus senegalensis, Link 1785 in Lower Sanaga Basin, Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore B Mayaka

    Full Text Available We aimed at unveiling patterns in live and dead manatee sightings in the Lower Sanaga Basin, Cameroon. For this purpose, the expert opinions of 133 local fishers were collected during in-person interviews, distilled using categorical data analysis, and checked against scientific literature. The five main results are as follows: manatees were sighted averagely once a week in lakes, rivers, and the coast & estuaries, mostly in group sizes of 2-3; the odds of sighting live manatees (respectively dead manatees decreased (respectively increased from inland lakes to estuaries and the coast, via rivers; manatee carcasses were reported in all habitats, albeit more frequently in rivers; a distribution map based on fishers' reports show two manatee concentration areas: Lake Ossa and the Malimba-Mbiako section of River Sanaga; the number of manatees was perceived as increasing despite incidental and directed catches. Thus, our findings corroborate earlier assessments of the Lower Sanaga Basin as being a major manatee conservation area. Additionally, from these results and the literature, we identified three hypotheses about local manatee persistence: deep pools such as lakes offer year round sanctuaries, not just dry-season refugia; seasonality of specific habitat variables determine manatee occurrence patterns; and local variability in habitat encroachment mediate the meta-population dynamics of manatee in the Lower Sanaga Basin. Finally, we examine the implications for data requirements in light of the small ecological scale at which the surveyed fishers ply their trade. Thus, consonant with the Malawi principles for the ecosystem approach to management (www.cbd.int/ecosystem, we recommend collecting data preferably at landscape scale, through a participatory monitoring program that fully integrates scientific and traditional knowledge systems. This program should include, amongst others, a standardised necropsy protocol for collecting mortality and biological data together with sonar and radio-telemetry technology to discern manatee use and movements between critical habitat components.

  1. Changes in the blood parameters of the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis after long-distance transportation - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i4.20081

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    Talita Laurie Lustosa do Carmo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we report the hematological, biochemical and hormonal parameters in a juvenile male Amazonian manatee measured before transport, immediately after transport, and during adaptation to a new facility. The animal was transported from Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, to São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil, (2,733 km within 6 hours. Among all blood parameters analyzed, we observed obvious neutrophilia, lymphopenia, and increases in the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and serum glucose and aspartate aminotransferase (AST levels, but these parameters subsequently returned to normal. These results suggest that transport and changes in the environment are temporary stressful events for Amazonian manatees. We, therefore, recommend monitoring the hematological and biochemical parameters before and after translocation to minimize the effects of handling stressors in this species

  2. Tempo de passagem de duas dietas no trato gastrointestinal do peixe-boi da Amazônia Trichechus inunguis (Natterer, 1883 em cativeiro Transit time of two diets in the gastrointestinal tract of the Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis (Natterer, 1883 in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula de Sousa Barbosa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de testar o tempo de passagem do alimento no trato digestório de peixes-bois da Amazônia em cativeiro, foram testadas separadamente duas dietas distintas. Uma composta exclusivamente de capim do gênero Brachiaria (dieta experimental - DE 1 e outra de capim do gênero Brachiaria acrescentado de pequenas porções de ração extrusada para eqüinos (dieta experimental - DE 2. Foram selecionados do plantel do INPA dois animais adultos machos sadios, os quais foram isolados dos demais e submetidos a um período de aclimatação às dietas experimentais por 15 dias. Após este período, as dietas foram marcadas com uma fita plástica de 10 cm e fornecidas aos animais que foram monitorados em intervalos de uma hora. Todo material fecal foi coletado até a recuperação dos marcadores plásticos. A média do tempo de passagem da DE 1 foi de 123h57min, cerca de 5,15 dias e da DE 2 foi de 125h04min ou 5,21 dias. Não houve diferença estatística (PThe objective of this study was to determine the transit time of two diets in the digestive tract of the Amazonian manatee in captivity. We tested separately two different diets: one composed exclusively of grass of the genus Brachiaria (experimental diet - ED- A 1 and the other composed of grass Brachiaria added with small portions of extruded pellets for horses (experimental diet ED- A 2. Two healthy adult manatees were selected and isolated from the rest and underwent a period of food acclimation with the experimental diets for 15 days. After this period, the experimental diet was marked with a plastic colored tape of 10-cm length and given to the animals. The manatees were monitored at intervals of 1 hour and all fecal material was collected until recovery of the markers. The mean transit time of ED - A1 was 123h57min , about 5.16 days and ED - A 2 was 125h04min or 5.21 days. There was no statistical difference (P <0.05 between the transit time of the two diets provided. The transit time observed (approximately 5 days has also been reported by other authors for this species and is considered a strategy to increase the absorption time of food nutrients. Despite the small sample size, the results suggest that the use of pellets in the diet of the Amazonian manatee did not affect the transit time of the grass. Therefore, it is reasonable to believe that the introduction of concentrated food (pellets does not affect the efficiency of the animal to digest and absorb food properly.

  3. Fisiologia reprodutiva do peixe-boi da Amazônia (Trichechus inunguis) em cativeiro: ciclicidade ovariana e padrões hormonais em machos e fêmeas em dois trimestres diferentes do ano

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo de Souza Amaral

    2012-01-01

    Os objetivos deste estudo foram determinar os níveis hormonais urinários e salivares durante o ciclo estral em peixes-bois da Amazônia, e verificar a existência de variação nos padrões dos hormônios reprodutivos presentes na saliva e na urina durante dois trimestres diferentes do ano. Foram utilizados 7 animais (4 machos e 3 fêmeas) adultos, alojados no LMA/INPA. As coletas ocorreram durante dois anos em dois trimestres diferentes do ano (Trimestre I e Trimestre II), onde, durante 12 semanas ...

  4. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Survey of the Wild Avi-Fauna within Makurdi Metropolis of Benue State, Nigeria Abstract PDF · Vol 1, No 1 (2009) - Articles The Impact of Human Encroachment and River Bank Agricultural Activities on the Habitat of the Manatee (Trichechus Senegalensis) Along the Lower Benue River, Benue State, Nigeria Abstract PDF.

  5. Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment - Vol 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Impact of Human Encroachment and River Bank Agricultural Activities on the Habitat of the Manatee (Trichechus Senegalensis) Along the Lower Benue River, Benue State, Nigeria · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. PO Egwumah, IM Iwar, OW ...

  6. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iwar, IM. Vol 1, No 1 (2009) - Articles A Survey of the Wild Avi-Fauna within Makurdi Metropolis of Benue State, Nigeria Abstract PDF · Vol 1, No 1 (2009) - Articles The Impact of Human Encroachment and River Bank Agricultural Activities on the Habitat of the Manatee (Trichechus Senegalensis) Along the Lower Benue ...

  7. The Impact of Human Encroachment and River Bank Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of human encroachment and river bank Agricultural activities on the habitat of the manatee (Trichechus Senegalensis) was investigated. The method of data collection involved the use of a structured questionnaire administered to farmers and fishermen. Vegetation survey in three selected sites along the river ...

  8. 75 FR 51284 - Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... quantitative information or studies; and (2) Those that include citations to, and analyses of, the applicable...-import of four captive-born tigers and one captive-born African leopard to worldwide locations for the... import of biological samples from West African manatees (Trichechus senegalensis) for the purpose of...

  9. Morphology, morphometry and ultrastructure of the Amazonian manatee (Sirenia: Trichechidae spermatozoa

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    Rodrigo S. Amaral

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the morphological, morphometric and ultrastructural characteristics of the Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis (Natterer, 1883 spermatozoon. The spermatozoa were obtained from a urine sample of an adult T. inunguis kept in captivity. The spermatozoa were analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy. The head of Amazonian manatee spermatozoa had a flat oval shape and a well distinguishable midpiece. The mean dimensions of the spermatozoa were: head length, 7.49 ± 0.24 µm; head width, 3.53 ± 0.19 µm; head thickness, 1.61 ± 0.13 µm; midpiece length, 11.36 ± 0.34 µm; flagellum length, 40.91 ± 1.94 µm; total tail length, 52.16 ± 1.06 µm; total spermatozoon length, 60.08 ± 1.40 µm. The Amazonian manatee spermatozoa were similar in shape to other sirenian spermatozoa; however, presenting a different size. This study describes, for the first time, the morphometric and ultrastructural characteristics of the Amazonian manatee spermatozoa, and also demonstrates the possible use of spermatozoa retrieved from urine samples for biological studies.

  10. Macro-habitat preferences by the African manatee and crocodiles – ecological and conservation implications

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    L. Luiselli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available African manatees (Trichechus senegalensis and crocodiles are threatened species in parts of their range. In West Africa, crocodiles may constitute the main predators for manatees apart from humans. Here, we explore the macro-habitat selection of manatees and two species of crocodiles (West African crocodiles Crocodylus suchus and dwarf crocodile Osteolaemus tetraspis in the Niger Delta (Nigeria, testing the hypotheses that (i manatees may avoid crocodiles in order to minimize risks of predation, and (ii the two crocodile species do compete. The study was carried out between 1994 and 2010 with a suite of different field techniques. We observed that the main macro-habitat types were freshwater rivers and coastal lagoons for manatees, mangroves for West African crocodiles, and rivers and creeks for dwarf crocodiles, with (i the three species differing significantly in terms of their macro-habitat type selection, and (ii significant seasonal influence on habitat selection of each species. Null models for niche overlap showed a significantly lower overlap in macro-habitat type use between manatee and crocodiles, whereas the two crocodiles were relatively similar. Null model analyses did not indicate any competitive interactions between crocodiles. On the other hand, manatees avoided macro-habitats where crocodiles, and especially West African crocodiles, are abundant.

  11. Primeiro registro da utilização medicinal de recursos pesqueiros na cidade de São Félix, Estado da Bahia, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1328 First account on the use of fishing resources as medicines in the city of São Félix, Bahia State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1328

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    Juliana Nascimento Andrade

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho discute a utilização medicinal de recursos pesqueiros pelos moradores da cidade de São Félix, Estado da Bahia. O trabalho de campo foi realizado entre maio de 2004 a março de 2005, entrevistando-se 29 indivíduos de ambos os sexos com idades que variaram de 11 a 79 anos. As informações foram obtidas junto a pescadores e a suas famílias por meio de entrevistas abertas e semi-estruturadas. A maior parte das entrevistas foi gravada, usando-se micro-gravador, sempre com o consentimento dos informantes. As transcrições feitas em caderno de campo encontram-se mantidas no Laboratório de Etnobiologia da Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Estado da Bahia. Espécimes de peixes foram coletados, identificados e depositados no Laboratório de Ictiologia da UEFS. Os resultados mostram que, no sistema de classificação etnoictiológico dos pescadores de São Félix, diferentes organismos não sistematicamente relacionados são incluídos no domínio etnozoológico “Peixe”. Por essa razão, sete etnoespécies de peixes foram citadas como recursos medicinais: bagre (Genidens genidens, camarão (Macrobrachium sp., cambotá (Callichthys sp., piau (Leporinus sp., piranha (Serrasalmus branditi, peixe-boi (Trichechus sp. e traíra (Hoplias malabaricus. Esses animais fornecem matérias-primas que são utilizadas na elaboração de medicamentos que visam tratar e/ou curar enfermidades diagnosticadas localmente. O registro escrito da medicina tradicional implica conservação da cultural local, além de permitir que os recursos zooterapêuticos possam ser avaliados quanto à provável existência de compostos biologicamente ativosThis article deals with the medicinal use of fishing resources by the inhabitants of São Félix, Bahia State. Fieldwork was carried out from May 2004 to March 2005 by interviewing 29 individuals of both sexes, whose ages ranged from 11 to 79 years old. Data were obtained by means of open-ended interviews