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Sample records for tribu ingeae mimosoideae

  1. SERIANTHES Benth. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae-Ingeae

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    F. R. FOSBERG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The genus Serianthes was erected by Bentham to accomodate plants which Wallich had called Inga grandiflora, from Singapore, and those which Bertero had called Acacia myriadenia, from Tahiti. It has been accepted from the first, as it is amply distinct from Acacia and reasonably so from Inga. though it is usually placed in the tribe Ingeae. Serianthes is widespread in the southwest Pacific, usually, though not always, occurring on islands, frequently on calcareous or serpentine rocks or their derived soils. It is seldom abundant, though in places common. In habit it varies from a dwarf tree or large shrub to a forest giant. It is reported to be an excellent timber tree, but seems nowhere to be abundant enough to be important commercially. Since Bentham's original description in 1844, eleven additional species and one variety have been ascribed to it in addition to the original S. grandiflora. Three of these do not belong in Serianthes. Most of the specimens in herbaria, excepting those called S. grandiflora, have been misidentified, usually being placed in S. myriadenia. Although I first saw this genus growing and collected it in Raivavae and Rurutu in 1934, my interest in it was aroused by failure, in 1950, to find a satisfactory disposition for specimens collected in Palau, similar to those that Kanehira had referred to S. grandiflora, which they clearly were not. The more I tried to make sense of the herbarium material available in a number of herbaria the more frustrating the problem became. Notes were accumulated in a most haphazard and unsystematic manner, as I had no intention of doing more than identifying my Micronesian material. Finallyit became evident that over half of the entities discernible in the material examined were undescribed, and I felt a certain obligation to work up at least a synopsis of the genus.

  2. Aniversario: La Tribu, a los 20

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    Colectivo La Tribu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Graffitis, periódicos, fanzines, televisoras, radio, páginas, blogs, son a veces medios, a veces espacios que andan esos caminos ya sea para hacer contra información, periodismo ciudadano activismo mediático, comunicación contra-hegemónica, popular, comunitaria, alternativa, libre. La TRIBU es una radio alternativa creada en Buenos Aires (1989,en ese momento era un refugio, un espacio donde afirmar una identidad (la de la resistencia al sistema triunfante, la de la heterogeneidad frente a la uniformización que genera el mercado. Remarca que lo comunitario es una organización distinta a la existente, pues tiene como centro a la gente, a la realidad, a su contexto social, así como geográfico. Lo comunitario es lo ciudadano, porque les interesa a todos. En América Latina la comunicación alternativa alimenta su utopía, de territorios múltiples liberándose de las leyes del beneficio y la acumulación de un mundo sin espectáculos.

  3. Mimosoideae (Leguminosae do litoral paraense Mimosoideae (Leguminose on the coast of Pará

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    Julio dos Santos de Sousa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consiste no tratamento taxonômico de Mimosoideae nas restingas do litoral paraense, uma vez que estas são pouco conhecidas sob esse aspecto. Esse estudo abrangeu a análise do material proveniente de coletas e exsicatas dos herbários MG e IAN, além de literatura especializada. São apresentadas chave de identificação, descrições e ilustrações dos táxons, bem como dados adicionais sobre distribuição geográfica, comentários, período de floração e frutificação e hábitat das mesmas. O fruto foi o caráter de maior destaque na separação dos táxons. Os resultados evidenciaram a presença de sete espécies, três variedades e uma subespécie, distribuídas em seis gêneros. Inga thibaudiana subsp. thibaudiana e Mimosa candollei, são novos registros para o litoral do Pará. O gênero Inga Mill. foi o mais representativo com cinco espécies. Entada polystachya var. polystachya e principalmente Chloroleucon acacioides apresentaram distribuição mais ampla e a formação floresta de restinga foi o ecossistema que apresentou o maior número de espécie.This study deals with the taxonomic treatment of Mimosoideae on the coastal sandbanks of Pará, since they are poorly known under this aspect. That study includes the analysis of botanical material from new collections and specimens of the MG and IAN herbariums, besides that found in specialized literature. Are given identification key, descriptions, and illustrations of the taxa, as well as data concerning geographical distribution, additional comments, flowering and fructification period, and habitat of the species. The fruit has the quality of great prominence in the separation of taxa. The results pointed out the presence of seven species, three varieties and one subspecies, distributed in six genera. Inga thibaudiana subsp. thibaudiana e Mimosa candollei are new records for the sand coast of Pará. The genus Inga Mill. was the most representative with five species

  4. Novedades nomenclaturales en la tribu Stipeae (Poaceae, Pooideae) para la Flora Argentina

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    Ana María Cialdella

    2010-01-01

    Durante la revisión de los géneros de Stipeae (Poaceae) para la flora argentina y de acuerdo a los últimos estudios filogenéticos en la tribu, se confirmó la necesidad de transferir algunos taxones recientemente descriptos de Stipa a Nassella, Jarava o Pappostipa. En este trabajo se presentan 12 nuevas combinaciones: Jarava ichu var. pungens, Nassella brachyglumis, N. macrotricha, Pappostipa arenicola, P. choconensis, P. colloncurensis, P. frigida var. longifolia, P. jucunda, P. kieslingii, P...

  5. Novedades nomenclaturales en la tribu Stipeae (Poaceae, Pooideae para la Flora Argentina

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    Ana María Cialdella

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante la revisión de los géneros de Stipeae (Poaceae para la flora argentina y de acuerdo a los últimos estudios filogenéticos en la tribu, se confirmó la necesidad de transferir algunos taxones recientemente descriptos de Stipa a Nassella, Jarava o Pappostipa. En este trabajo se presentan 12 nuevas combinaciones: Jarava ichu var. pungens, Nassella brachyglumis, N. macrotricha, Pappostipa arenicola, P. choconensis, P. colloncurensis, P. frigida var. longifolia, P. jucunda, P. kieslingii, P. mapuche, P. marqueziana y P. zulmae. Se incluye también una clave para identificar los géneros de Stipeae en la Argentina.

  6. Anatomy of 31 species from Mimosoideae (Leguminosae) subfamily on Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, H; Williams, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is about the wood anatomy of 31 species, belonging to 17 genera, of the Mimosoideae subfamily (Leguminosae), proceeding from different geographical regions of Venezuela. For each species, one to five individuals were studied. The descriptions were realized according to the IAWA Committee(1989). The studied species may be divided in two groups according to the presence or absence of septate fibers. All species of Inga showed septate fibers, whereas Albizia and Enterolobium included species with septate fibers and also species with non-septate fibers. The quantitative characteristics of the vessels and the width of rays showed sufficient variation as to be considered important characteristics from ataxonomic point of view. The most common parenchyma type was vasicetric, aliform and confluent. In Calliandra laxa, Prosopis juliflora and Zygia longifolia the main parenchyma type was in wide bands; whereas in Cedrelinga cateniformis, the main parenchyma type was thin vasicentric. All species studied, with the exception of Cedrelinga cateniformis, presented prismatic crystals in the parenchymatous axials cells. In spite of finding certain anatomical uniformity, it was possible to elaborate a key for the identification of the studied species.

  7. Primeros registros de la tribu kingsleyini (Crustácea: decápoda: pseudothlphusidae para Colombia

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    Rocha de Campos Martha Helena

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available This is to report the first record for Colombia of two species of fresh-water crabs of the Kingsleyini Bolt, 1970 tribe. The species Prionothelphusa eliasi Rodríguez, 1980 and Orthothelphusa holthuisi (Rodríguez, 1967 had previously been recorded only for Venezuela.Se establece el primer registro para Colombia de la tribu Kingsleyini Bott, 1970, representado por las especies Prionothelphusa eliasi Rodríguez, 1980 y Orlhothelphusa holthuisi (Rodríguez, 1967. Estas especies solo habían sido registradas para Venezuela.

  8. La Asociación Cultural “La Tribu Educa” en la recuperación del patrimonio histórico educativo. // The Cultural Association "La Tribu Educa" in the recovery of historical educational heritage

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    Ana Capilla Serrano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available (ES Este trabajo quiere dar a conocer las acciones desarrolladas por la Asociación Cultural “La Tribu Educa” en pro de la recopilación, análisis y divulgación del patrimonio educativo de la provincia de Córdoba. Se inició en 2012 y hasta la fecha hemos recorrido un camino no exento de dificultades y esfuerzo, pero que comienza a dar sus frutos, de tal modo que parece cobrar vida propia y toma una inercia que deseamos no se detenga. Está dirigido hacia tres campos de la educación: los materiales educativos, los métodos y actividades y los propios docentes. Lo hemos denominado EDIPEC (Espacio Didáctico Interactivo del Patrimonio Educativo de Córdoba. Con sede propia, ya ha dado sus primeros pasos con el Proyecto “Maestros y Maestras de nuestras vidas” y camina hacia la obtención de la consideración de Museo con el compromiso de otros colectivos que reforzarían nuestra colección. // (EN Here we present the work by the Cultural Association “La Tribu Educa” to collect, analyse and disseminate the educational heritage in the province of Cordoba. Since its start in 2012 to date we have travelled a long way not without difficulties. It is directed towards three main areas in education: educational materials, - methods and activities- and teachers. The project is called EDIPEC (Interactive Pedagogical Space the Educational Heritage in Cordoba. With its own location, it has already taken its first steps with the project “Teachers in our lives”, and it is moving towards obtaining the qualification of Museum with the commitment of additional groups who will strengthen our collection.

  9. Ethnopharmacologie du désert de Sonoran : des aliments médicaments dans une tribu O’odham

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    Cudel, Evelyne; Ruchter, M

    2014-01-01

    Note portant sur l’auteur Note portant sur l’auteur Cette communication a pour objectifs : D’examiner la relation plante-nutrition chez l’être humain dans le contexte d’une étude sur l’historique du diabète de type II dans une tribu du sud-ouest des Etats-Unis ; De présenter l’étiologie du diabète de type II dans le groupe O’odham du sud-ouest des Etats-Unis dans son contexte historique et la multiplicité des facteurs impliqués ; D’examiner l’importance de l’alimentation O’odham traditionnel...

  10. Preliminary Screening a Potential AChE Inhibitor in Thai Golden Shower (Leguminosae mimosoideae Extracts

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    Jakkaphun Nanuam

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are used to control pests of agriculture products in many countries including Thailand. Since they can exert harmful effects not only on target pests but also on other useful organisms, alternative agents are investigated. We studied the capacity of the Thai golden shower (Leguminosae mimosoideae extracts (root and pod to inhibit acetyl cholinestarese (AChE in the golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata as a pest representative. The results showed that the percentage of AChE inhibition increased with increasing in exposure times. The inhibition expressed the same trend in both male and female apple snails. AChE inhibition was higher in extracts from root than from pod. Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS chromatograms demonstrated anthraquinone, an AChE inhibitor, in extracts of golden shower. Our data indicate that a potential AChE inhibitor tends to accumulate more in the root part than in the pod.

  11. Multiculturalismo y derechos fundamentales en el noroeste de México: El caso de la tribu yaqui

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    Enrique F. Pasillas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente artículo es proponer una discusión sobre el papel de la multiculturalidad y sus implicaciones dentro del Estado nación mexicano desde la metodología del Derecho, dada la carencia de las herramientas jurídicas e institucionales para encausar el creciente reto de una sociedad multiétnica que aspira a una convivencia pacífica; donde los pueblos indígenas de México sostienen viejas demandas sobre el cumplimiento y respeto de sus derechos fundamentales, sustentadas ahora en el derecho y en la jurisprudencia internacionales. El análisis propuesto arroja que a pesar de las reformas constitucionales de 2001 y de 2011, es necesario ajustar el marco jurídico interno, introducir el pluralismo jurídico y la interculturalidad en la agenda pública y el espacio institucional. El caso de la tribu yaqui es paradigmático porque enarbola una lucha legal y pacífica por sus derechos fundamentales contra el despojo de sus territorios ancestrales y sus recursos naturales.

  12. ¿A qué grupo étnico perteneció la misteriosa tribu enoo (Estrecho de Magallanes, 1599?

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    David Williams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En 1599, el marino holandés Oliver van Noort halló en el Estrecho de Magallanes a un grupo de nativos de talla semejante a la de los europeos de la época, con cuerpos y tórax amplios. Los mismos cazaban pingüinos para alimentarse y vestirse, usaban arcos y flechas, vivían en cuevas naturales, y eran presuntamente canoeros. En un confuso episodio, la mayoría de ellos fueron muertos mediante armas de fuego, cautivándose varios niños. Uno de ellos enseñó a sus captores algunas palabras de su propio idioma, de las que destacamos el autónimo de la tribu: 1. Se han realizado varios intentos de identificar la etnia a la cual pertenecían los infortunados nativos, concluyéndose en general que se trataba de alacalufes. Sobre la base de las palabras rescatadas por Van Noort, y con ayuda de otro documento poco conocido, el autor concluye que los enoo pertenecían a la etnia yamana –también conocida como yaganes– o que eran una tribu mixta yámana-chon. Además, desde que la zona en que fueron hallados los enoo en el siglo XVI es cercana a aquella ocupada por la tribu huemul, mixta fueguino-chon, hallada en el siglo XIX, se plantea la hipótesis de que los segundos pudieran ser descendientes de los primeros.

  13. Autobiografía, identidad y memoria familiar. Apuntes sobre Conjeturas sobre la memoria de mi tribu de José Donoso

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    Martín Lombardo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de los desarrollos propuestos por Philippe Lejeune sobre el pacto y el espacio autobiográfico así como la reflexión de Agamben en torno a la creación y a la figura de la excepción, el presente artículo se propone analizar el libro Conjeturas sobre la memoria de mi tribu de José Donoso. En particular, el artículo centra su análisis en la manera en que se concibe el surgimiento de la figura del escritor, en la configuración de la identidad a través de la historia familiar y en la importancia del espacio familiar y del tiempo en la obra de Donoso.

  14. Lesões de pele causadas pelos espinhos de Mimosa pudica (Leg. Mimosoideae nos membros de bovinos e ovinos no estado do Pará Cutaneous lesions of the legs caused by the thorns of Mimosa pudica (Leg. Mimosoideae in cattle and sheep in the State of Pará

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    José Diomedes Barbosa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada uma doença em bovinos e ovinos caracterizada por lesões ulcerativas e granulomatosas da pele dos membros. Os estudos epidemiológicos e patológicos permitiram concluir que essas lesões são causadas pelos espinhos de Mimosa pudica (Leg. Mimosoideae. A doença foi observada somente em pastagens acentuadamente infestadas e os animais se recuperaram rapidamente após retirados destes pastos. Nos ovinos as lesões atingiam partes mais altas dos membros do que nos bovinos, devido ao seu menor porte.A condition of cattle and sheep characterized by ulcerous and granulomatous skin lesions of the legs was studied. Epidemiological data and the nature of the lesions indicate that they are caused by the thorns of Mimosa pudica (Leg. Mimosoideae. The disease was observed only in pastures largely infested by the plant, and animals recover quickly when moved from them.

  15. Aspectos clínicos da intoxicação experimental pelas favas de Stryphnodendron fissuratum (Leg. Mimosoideae em caprinos Clinical aspects of the experimental poisoning by the pods of Stryphnodendron fissuratum (Leg. Mimosoideae in goats

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    Fábio S. Mendonça

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de caracterizar o quadro clínico da intoxicação por Stryphnodendron fissuratum Mart. (Leg. Mimosoideae em caprinos, administraram-se as favas dessa planta a oito caprinos, por via oral forçada em doses únicas e a outros dois caprinos, em doses fracionadas. A menor dose que causou sinais clínicos e morte foi a de 10g/kg. Doses de 20g/kg e 40g/kg causaram sinais acentuados e doses únicas de 5g/kg não provocaram sinais. Doses fracionadas de 5g/kg durante quatro dias, totalizando 20g/kg provocaram sinais acentuados e morte. Em ambos os grupos, os primeiros sinais de intoxicação foram observados a partir do primeiro dia de experimento e a evolução variou de 4-25 dias. A doença caracterizou-se principalmente por alterações digestórias e nervosas que consistiram em anorexia, desidratação, hipomotilidade e atonia ruminal, timpanismo, gemidos constantes, dor à percussão abdominal, fezes com muco, ranger de dentes, apatia, ataxia, dismetria, tremores de cabeça, tremores musculares, fraqueza com o andar cambaleante e trôpego, acentuada depressão e decúbito esternal ou lateral prolongado e morte. Alguns animais apresentaram acentuada queda de pêlos na região dorsal; apenas um caprino apresentou fezes líquidas, marrom-escuras e fétidas. Outros sinais incluíram perda de fluido ruminal durante a ruminação, sialorréia, exsudato nasal seroso e lacrimejamento. As provas de função hepática e renal revelaram alterações discretas. As concentrações séricas de aspartato aminotransferase encontraram-se levemente aumentadas e as de creatinofosfocinase muito aumentadas.In order to confirm the susceptibility of goats to the poisoning by Stryphnodendron fissuratum Mart. (Leg. Mimosoideae and to characterize the clinical disease, the pods of the plant were given orally to each of eight young goats and in fractioned doses to other two. The lowest lethal dose was 10g/kg. The same dose was the lowest that induced disease

  16. Secretory structures on the leaf rachis of Caesalpinieae and Mimosoideae (Leguminosae): implications for the evolution of nectary glands.

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    Pascal, L M; Motte-Florac, E F; McKey, D B

    2000-03-01

    Cup- or sometimes slit-shaped nectary glands on the rachis are a widespread trait in the legume subfamily Mimosoideae, especially in derived tribes. Their spotty occurrence in genera that appear to be basal has led to uncertainty about when in the mimosoid radiation this character evolved. Until now, specialized rachis glands were unknown in caesalpinioids thought to be related to ancestral mimosoids. We report here the occurrence of rachis glands in seven of the ten species of the Paleotropical genus Erythrophleum, a member of the Dimorphandra group of caesalpinioids thought to include the sister group(s) of mimosoids. The histological structure and location of Erythrophleum glands suggest homology with those of mimosoids; these glands are simpler structurally than rachis glands of any known mimosoid. The Erythrophleum glands differ from those of most mimosoids in the following respects: (1) they are smaller than glands of mimosoids; (2) the secretory surface is sunken in a pit capped by a small round pore rather than exposed on a broad concave or flat surface; (3) a smaller number of cells are involved in production and secretion of nectar; (4) vascular supply to the nectary is less extensive; and (5) mechanical support tissue (sclerenchyma) is less extensive and less organized. Rachis glands appear to be absent in the nine other genera included in the Dimorphandra group. We also report the occurrence of other secretory structures (patches of glandular trichomes) on the rachis of some Caesalpinieae and Mimoseae that lack specialized nectary glands and suggest that these patches of trichomes are primitive homologues of more organized glands. We discuss the significance of these glands and of the patches of trichomes for understanding relationships among primitive mimosoids and related caesalpinioids, and for understanding the origin of ant-guard defenses typical of many mimosoids.

  17. A new species of Bruchidius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) from Albizia in Northern Thailand and a review of Bruchidius group 5.

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    Tuda, Midori

    2008-04-01

    A new species, Bruchidius paicus (Insecta, Coleoptera) reared from the seeds of a leguminous tree, Albizia lebbeck (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae: Ingeae), is described from Northern Thailand. Inspection of genital and external morphological traits of B. paicus revealed that the new species belongs to Bruchidius Group 5 (sensu ). The definition of Group 5 is reviewed based on both external and genital morphology. Further comparison of the group to molecular Clade I of Bruchidius (sensu ) indicates the two groups correspond to each other.

  18. Morfología de la semilla y anatomía de la cubierta seminal de cinco especies de Calliandra (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae de Venezuela

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    Sirli Leython

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la morfología de las semillas y la anatomía de la cubierta seminal en cinco especies venezolanas del género Calliandra, con la finalidad de establecer similitudes y diferencias entre estos taxa, para su utilización como criterio taxonómico. Se analizaron caracteres morfológicos de valor taxonómico; entre ellos la forma y el tamaño de la semilla, así como anatómicos tales como espesor de las diferentes regiones, la ubicación de la línea lúcida y el tamaño relativo de los espacios intercelulares en la hipodermis. Con los resultados se realizaron análisis de agrupamiento por medio de la función de análisis discriminante. Diez caracteres cuantitativos, y tres caracteres cualitativos, resultaron informativos para la separación de especies.Seed morphology and anatomy of the seed coat in five species of Calliandra (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae from Venezuela. Calliandra is an exclusively Neotropoical genus with 135 described species. There are 30 species in Venezuela. We studied seed morphology and the seed coat anatomy of five species: Calliandra riparia Pittier, Calliandra glomerulata Karsten var. glomerulata, Calliandra magdalenae (DC. Benth. var. magdalenae, Calliandra surinamensis Benth. and Calliandra falcata Benth., to establish simililarities and differences amongst taxa for taxonomic characterization. Of the evaluated characters, 10 quantitative characters and 3 qualitative characters were selected as the most informative for the separation of species. Seed morphological characters of taxonomic value are form and size. Thickness of the light line, number of layers and space between the osteosclereids constitute distinctive characters. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3: 1075-1086. Epub 2008 September 30.

  19. Intoxicação experimental pelas favas de Stryphnodendron obovatum (Leg. Mimosoideae em bovinos. 1. Caracterização do quadro clínico Experimental poisoning by the burs of Stryphnodendron obovatum (Leg. Mimosoideae in cattle. 1. Clinical aspects

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    Marilene F. Brito

    2001-03-01

    cida, de cor âmbar-escura, com odor adocicado e com a densidade elevada; os níveis de bilirrubina na urina foram normais.In order to contribute to the characterization of the clinical-pathological picture of poisoning by Stryphnodendron obovatum Benth. (Leg. Mimosoideae, the pods of the tree were given orally to 17 young bovines. Six animals received the pods only once: Those which received doses of 10 and 20 g/kg, did not show any symptoms of poisoning. Those which received 30, 40 and 40 g/kg of pods, showed respectively moderate, severe and slight symptoms of poisoning, but all recovered. The animal that was fed 60 g/kg, died. Eleven bovines received repeated doses of the pods: Two of them, which received 2,5 g/kg during 30 days, showed discrete to slight symptoms. Two animals received 5 g/kg during 13 and 14 days and showed moderate to severe poisoning. Three animals received 10 g/kg during 20, 8 and 6 days; the first of them showed slight symptoms, the second died and the third showed moderate to severe symptoms. Two animals received 20 g/kg during 2 and 3 days; the first showed slight symptoms, the second died. The two bovines which were fed 30 and 40 g/kg during 2 days, died. First symptoms of poisoning were observed from the first day of the experiments on, and the clinical course varied from 3 to 63 days. Digestive disorders predominated in the clinical-pathological picture. Symptoms were mainly loss of appetite up to anorexia, faeces slightly dry to liquid, distention of the abdomen without tympanism, loss of ruminal fluid during rumination, decrease in ruminal activity up to atonia, ruminal acidosis, gastro-intestinal colics, sialorrhoea, apathy, loss of weight, debility, erosions and ulcers of the oral mucosa. There was congestion of the visible mucous membranes (without icterus and of the interdigital parts of the hoofs, areas of focal alopecia and/or hypotrichia in the axillary regions, the lateral parts of the tighs and members, loss of hair on the tip of

  20. Descripción, distribución, anatomía, composición química y usos de Mimosa tenuiflora (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae en México

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    Sara Lucía Camargo-Ricalde

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de una serie de catástrofes ocurridas en México durante la década de 1980, se popularizó el uso de la corteza del "tepescohuite" contra heridas y quemaduras de la piel. Los medios de comunicación masiva manejaron la escasa información hasta entonces conocida y desinformaron a la sociedad, propagando una serie de mitos alrededor de esta planta. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la identidad taxonómica e investigar la distribución y anatomía de la corteza y de la madera de esta especie. También se investigaron sus usos actuales e históricos y se recopiló información sobre la farmacología y toxicidad de la corteza. Su identidad taxonómica se determina como Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae. Florece y fructifica de noviembre a junio y se localiza en México (estados de Oaxaca y Chiapas, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Panamá, Colombia, Venezuela y Brasil, en altitudes de 0-1110 (-1520 msnm. En México se establece en selvas bajas, matorrales espinosos, en bosques de Pinus y de Pinus-Quercus, pudiendo formar matorrales casi puros de esta especie, así como a la orilla de caminos y en terrenos de cultivo en descanso o abandonados. Su distribución es agregada en los bosques y en las selvas y uniforme en los matorrales. Presenta una densidad promedio de 9 individuos por m², con 0.45 individuos de frecuencia por cuadrante y una cobertura promedio de 1.69 m²; además, tiene una gran amplitud de tolerancia a factores climáticos y edáficos, ratificando que es una especie de carácter oportunista y típicamente secundaria. Regionalmente, se utiliza como fuente de madera para combustible y postes para cercas, en medicina popular se usa contra heridas y quemaduras de la piel (infusión, polvo y/o pomada a partir de la corteza; además, se comercializan diversos productos como champúes, cremas, cápsulas, jabones, etc. La corteza es rugosa, de color café rojizo a grisácea, de textura

  1. Patrones de distribución geográfica de la riqueza de especies de roedores de la tribu Oryzomyini (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae en Sudamérica: Evaluando la importancia de los procesos de colonización y extinción Geographic patterns of richness distribution of rodents species from the Oryzomyini tribe (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae in South America: Evaluating the importance of colonization and extinction processes

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    EVELYN VALENCIA-PACHECO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La tribu de roedores Oryzomyini es la más diversa dentro de la subfamilia Sigmodontinae. Está constituida por 120 especies y 31 géneros, de las cuales 83 son endémicas del continente sudamericano. Este grupo exhibe una extensa distribución que abarca toda la región Neotropical, caracterizada por la presencia de una mayor riqueza en la Amazonia con una disminución monotónica hacia el sur y norte de Sudamérica. Este es un patrón bastante conocido en la mayoría de los taxones, por lo que se han propuesto varios mecanismos causales. Sin embargo, se desconocen los mecanismos que dan cuenta de este gradiente latitudinal en la riqueza de especies de Oryzomyini. Debido a que estas especies son originarias de la Amazonia, y que a través de su historia colonizaron ambientes nuevos y más variables (sur y norte, se evaluó la hipótesis fuente-sumidero, mediada por procesos de colonización y extinción, como potencial explicación al patrón de riqueza observado. Para evaluar esta hipótesis se reunió una base de datos de distribución y riqueza de especies por grado de latitud para todo el continente sudamericano. Posteriormente se evaluó el grado de anidamiento mediante los índices de T (temperatura, BR (discrepancia y NODF. Nuestros resultados evidenciaron un grado de anidamiento significativo en la distribución de Oryzomyini, y un anidamiento significativo separadamente en filas y columnas de la matriz. Por lo tanto, se concluye que la dinámica fuente-sumidero afecta el patrón de distribución de la riqueza de roedores Oryzominos, a través de un proceso de colonización durante su expansión en Sudamérica que fue mediado por los rangos de tolerancia de las especies. Finalmente, las especies menos tolerantes se habrían extinguido, lo que determinaría un menor número de especies hacia el sur y norte de la Amazonia.The Oryzomyini rodent tribe is the most diverse taxon within the Sigmodontinae subfamily. This tribe includes 120

  2. Anatomia da madeira de Acacia nitidifolia Spreg. (Leguminosae Mimosoideae.

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    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visa o estudo anatômico da madeira de Acacia mitidifolia Spreg. A estrutura anatômica apresenta porosidade difusa, elementos vasculares curtos, placas de perfuração simples, pontuações intervasculares ornamentadas e em arranjo alterno, parênquima axial paratraqueal vasicêntrico e marginal cristalífero, raios homogêneos comumente 2-3-seriados e fibras libriformes separadas. A preseça de canais intercelulares axiais e de canais celulares na estrutura radial, tem grande importância taxonômica. Este último caráter era desconhecido para o gênero Acacia. A estrutura anatômica da madeira indica que a espécie em estudo pode ser classificada na séire Vulgares Benth.,  que corresponde, em linhas gerais, ao sub-gênero Aculeiferum Vassal.

  3. Intoxicação por Stryphnodendron fissuratum (Mimosoideae em bovinos Poisoning by Stryphnodendron fissuratum (Mimosoideae in cattle

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    Eduardo V. Ferreira

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e patológicos da intoxicação natural por Stryphnodendron fissuratum em bovinos na região Centro-Oeste do Brasil. Esta planta possui favas retorcidas, conhecidas popularmente por "rosquinha", que amadurecem entre julho e setembro, caem ao solo e são consumidas por bovinos, sendo relacionadas com mortalidades. Foram investigados surtos de intoxicação espontânea que ocorreram nos municípios de Aruanã, GO, Guiratinga e Rondonópolis, MT e Rio Verde de Mato Grosso, MS. Em geral, a intoxicação ocorreu em propriedades de pecuária extensiva, com rebanhos da raça Nelore e em pastagens de Brachiaria spp. Nos casos naturais, a evolução clínica variou em média de 24 horas até 10 dias e a morbidade e a letalidade variaram de 0,9 a 25% e de 15 a 100%, respectivamente. Os principais sinais clínicos na intoxicação natural foram depressão, anorexia, agressividade, icterícia, sialorréia, incoordenação motora, dismetria, retração abdominal, inquietação, fezes pastosas enegrecidas ou ressequidas com muco e estrias de sangue, diarréia, edema de barbela e fotossensibilização. À necropsia havia icterícia, edema do tecido subcutâneo, principalmente na região cervical, petéquias e equimoses de serosas abdominais e torácicas, ascite e hidrotórax leves, edema do mesentério, edema perirrenal, aumento do volume de fígado e rim, avermelhamento ruminal e úlceras multifocais no abomaso. O exame histológico revelou lesões degenerativas e necrose no fígado e rim e no abomaso áreas de necrose na mucosa. O diagnóstico de intoxicação por S. fissuratum foi estabelecido com base nos achados epidemiológicos, clínicos, patológicos e, em parte, na reprodução experimental pela administração das favas desta planta para bovinos. Em dois bovinos que receberam, respectivamente, duas doses diárias de 4 e 20 g de favas por kg de peso vivo foram observados sinais digestivos e morte dos animais, mas não ocorreu fotossensibilização.Epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of natural and experimental Stryphnodendron fissuratum poisoning in cattle in Central-Western Brazil were evaluated. The coiled pods of this tree are popularly known as "rosquinha" (small coil; they mature during July-September, when they fall to the ground, and are consumed by cattle causing mortalities. Spontaneous outbreaks of poisoning were investigated in the municipalities of Aruanã, State of Goias, Guiratinga and Rondonópolis State of Mato Grosso, and Rio Verde de Mato Grosso, State of Mato Grosso do Sul. Commonly the poisoning occurred in properties with Nelore cattle herds, which were raised extensively on Brachiaria spp. pastures. The clinical course in natural cases ranged from 24 hours to 10 days, and the morbidity and case fatality rates were 0.9-25% and 15-100%, respectively. The main clinical signs in the spontaneous poisoning were apathy, anorexia, agressiveness, jaundice, sialorrhoea, incoordination, dysmetria, retraction of the abdomen, uneasiness and pasty black feces with stings of mucus or blood, diarrhea, edema of the dewlap and photosensitization. At necropsy, jaundice, edema of the subcutaneous tissue, mainly of the cervical region, hemorrhages of serous membranes, ascitis and hidrotorax, edema of the mesentery, perirenal edema, increased size of liver and kidney, reddening of the ruminal mucosa, and abomasum ulcers were observed. The diagnosis of S. fissuratum poisoning was based on epidemiological, clinical and pathological findings, and in the experimental reproduction by the administration of the pods of this plant to cattle. Experimentally, daily doses of 4 and 20g of pods by kg body weight, respectively, were administered to two bovines. Both animals had digestive signs and died, but photosensitization was not observed.

  4. ANATOMIA DA MADEIRA DE Acacia nitidifolia Speg. (Leguminosae Mimosoideae. Wood anatomy of Acacia mitidifolia Spreg. (Leguminosae Mimosoideae.

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    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visa o estudo anatômico da madeira de Acacia nitidifolia Speg. A estrutura anatômica apresenta porosidade difusa, elementos vasculares curtos, placas de perfurações simples, pontuações intervasculares ornamentadas e em arranjo alterno, parênquima axial paratraqueal vasicêntrico e marginal cristalífero, raios homogêneos comumente 2-3 seriados e fibras libriformes septadas. A presença de canais intercelulares axiais e de canais celulares na estrutura radial, tem grande importância taxonômica. Este último caráter era desconhecido para o gênero Acacia. A estrutura anatômica da madeira indica que a espécie em estudo pode ser classificada na série Vulgares Benth., que corresponde, em linhas gerais, ao sub-gênero Aculeiferum Vassal.

  5. Flower and fruit development of Parkia pendula (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae Desenvolvimento de flores e frutos de Parkia pendula (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae

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    Daniel Piechowski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Parkia pendula occurs in Brazil in Amazonia and in the northeastern Atlantic Forest. In the latter, its buds, nectar, and seedpod gum are discussed to be keystone resources for the mammalian fauna. To enhance the knowledge about these important nourishment sources, the aim of this study was to detect and describe distinct phases in the flower and pod development. The study was conducted in a 306 ha forest fragment in Igarassu, Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil. Six morphometrical variables were measured weekly at five inflorescences of two individuals from September 2003 to January 2004. Eleven distinct developmental phases were identified in the 21 weeks lasting development from the very first inflorescences to mature pods and are described in detail. These phases are good predictors for the flowering and fruiting phenology of P. pendula, since they are easily distinguishable from the forest floor. Furthermore, highly synchronized abortions of inflorescences, buds, and pods were observed which support the previously assumed predator satiation defense strategy in Parkia.Parkia pendula ocorre no Brasil, tanto na Amazônia como na Mata Atlântica nordestina. Seus botões, néctar e goma da vagem são recursos chave para a mastofauna da Mata Atlântica nordestina. Para aumentar o conhecimento sobre estes importantes recursos alimentares, este estudo teve como objetivo detectar e descrever as diferentes fases de desenvolvimento de flores e frutos. Este trabalho foi realizado em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica de 306 ha em Igarassu, Pernambuco, Nordeste do Brasil. Entre setembro de 2003 e janeiro de 2004, seis variáveis morfométricas foram medidas semanalmente em cinco inflorescências de dois indivíduos. Onze fases distintas de desenvolvimento puderam ser identificadas e descritas em detalhe nas 21 semanas desde o desenvolvimento das primeiras inflorescências até as vagens maduras. Essas fases são boas preditoras da fenologia de floração e frutificação de P. pendula porque são distinguíveis facilmente do solo da floresta. Além disto, a observação de abortos sincronizados de inflorescências, botões e vagens corrobora a estratégia de defesa previamente sugerida para Parkia, de saciedade de predadores.

  6. Ricardo Piglia: el lector de la tribu / Ricardo Piglia: reader tribe

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    Raquel Fernández Cobo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the writer and Argentine Ricardo Piglia profesor stands at the center of the academic debate on literary education based on the idea that his poetic reading hypothesis provides a framework capable to build viable research on the formation of the reading and literary competence. His ideas about circuits of knowledge production about reading, types of readers, the debate on the canon narrative and intertextuality, are considered fundamental to the discussion and to contribute to the discussion on how we should teach literature in a context governed by new technologies and the new reading.

  7. Effect of clonal reproduction on genetic structure in Pentaclethra macroloba (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddis, Keith D; Zukin, Helen L; Dieterich, Inca A; Braker, Elizabeth; Sork, Victoria L

    2014-06-01

    The existence of monodominant forests on well-drained soils in tropical regions has been widely reported. Such forests most likely result from a combination of both ecological and evolutionary factors. Under conditions of high seed and seedling mortality, vegetative reproduction could create a reproductive advantage leading to forest dominance, and profoundly affect the distribution of genetic variation in a clonal species. We investigated these effects in a low diversity forest site in Northeastern Costa Rica dominated by the species Pentaclethra macroloba, which sprouts from the root mass of fallen trees and from snapped trunks. We examined the population structure of juvenile P. macroloba growing in different soil types and across an elevational gradient. Using seven molecular markers, we genotyped 173 juvenile P. macroloba from 18 plots (six plots in seasonally inundated swamps, and 12 plots in upland non-swamp) spanning 50-300m in elevation at La Selva Biological Station and the adjacent Reserva Ecológica Bijagual in Northeastern Costa Rica. We answered two specific questions: (1) How extensive is clonal reproduction? and (2) what is the distribution of genetic diversity and structure? We found that clonal reproduction occurred exclusively within inundated swamp areas. However, there was no significant difference between genetic diversity measures in swamp and non-swamp plots, which were both generally low when compared with other tropical forest species. Genetic structure was significant across all plots (F(ST) = -0.109). However, genetic structure among swamp plots (F(ST) = 0.128) was higher than among non-swamp upland plots (F(ST) = 0.093). Additionally, spatial autocorrelation among individuals within non-swamp upland plots was significant from the 25 to 100m spatial scale, but not within swamp plots. The degree of overall genetic structure we found in P. macroloba is high for a tropical forest tree. The incidence of clonal reproduction is a contributing factor in genetic differentiation, but the high structure among plots without clonal reproduction indicates that other factors contribute as well.

  8. Congenital malformations caused by Stryphnodendron fissuratum (Leg. Mimosoideae) in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Josenaldo S; Rocha, Brena P; Colodel, Edson M; Freitas, Sílvio H; Dória, Renata G S; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Evêncio-Neto, Joaquim; Mendonça, Fábio S

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of Stryphnodendron fissuratum pods in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and test the hypothesis that this plant has teratogenic effects. Thus, sixteen guinea pigs were randomly divided into four groups of four animals each. Groups 10, 20 and 40 consisted of guinea pigs that received commercial food that contained crushed pods of S. fissuratum at concentrations of 10, 20 and 40 g/kg, respectively, during the period of organogenesis. Control group consisted of guinea pigs under the same management conditions that did not receive crushed pods of S. fissuratum in their food. In all experimental groups, the main clinical signs of poisoning consisted of anorexia, prostration, absence of vocalizations, alopecia, diarrhea, and abortions within the adult guinea pigs. Those that did not abort gave birth to weak, malnourished pups, some of which had fetal malformations. The main teratogenic changes consisted of eventration, arthrogryposis, amelia of the forelimbs, anophthalmia, microphthalmia, anotia and agnathia. The reductions in the number of offspring and the malformations observed in the experimental groups suggest that S. fissuratum affects fetal development and is teratogenic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of clonal reproduction on genetic structure in Pentaclethra macroloba (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae

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    Keith D. Gaddis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The existence of monodominant forests on well-drained soils in tropical regions has been widely reported. Such forests most likely result from a combination of both ecological and evolutionary factors. Under conditions of high seed and seedling mortality, vegetative reproduction could create a reproductive advantage leading to forest dominance, and profoundly affect the distribution of genetic variation in a clonal species. We investigated these effects in a low diversity forest site in Northeastern Costa Rica dominated by the species Pentaclethra macroloba, which sprouts from the root mass of fallen trees and from snapped trunks. We examined the population structure of juvenile P. macroloba growing in different soil types and across an elevational gradient. Using seven molecular markers, we genotyped 173 juvenile P. macroloba from 18 plots (six plots in seasonally inundated swamps, and 12 plots in upland non-swamp spanning 50-300m in elevation at La Selva Biological Station and the adjacent Reserva Ecológica Bijagual in Northeastern Costa Rica. We answered two specific questions: (1 How extensive is clonal reproduction? and (2 what is the distribution of genetic diversity and structure?. We found that clonal reproduction occurred exclusively within inundated swamp areas. However, there was no significant difference between genetic diversity measures in swamp and non-swamp plots, which were both generally low when compared with other tropical forest species. Genetic structure was significant across all plots (F ST=0.109. However, genetic structure among swamp plots (F ST=0.128 was higher than among non-swamp upland plots (F ST=0.093. Additionally, spatial autocorrelation among individuals within non-swamp upland plots was significant from the 25 to 100m spatial scale, but not within swamp plots. The degree of overall genetic structure we found in P. macroloba is high for a tropical forest tree. The incidence of clonal reproduction is a contributing factor in genetic differentiation, but the high structure among plots without clonal reproduction indicates that other factors contribute as well.

  10. Cytogenetics of Mimosa bimucronata (DC.) O. Kuntze (Mimosoideae, Leguminosae): chromosome number, polysomaty and meiosis

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    Olkoski, Denise; Wittmann, Maria Teresa Schifino

    2011-01-01

    Chromosome numbers (somatic and/or gametic) were determined in 50 populations of M. bimucronata (DC.) O. Kuntze collected in the species area of distribution in Rio Grande do Sul, south Brazil. All populations were diploid (2n = 2x = 26, n = 13). Polysomatic (mostly tetraploid) cells were detected in the seedlings root-tip cells in 39 out of the 41 populations examined, ranging from 3.0 to 28.2 % among populations, but were absent in the root-tips of grown plants. Polysomaty was as well absen...

  11. Cytogenetics of Mimosa bimucronata (DC. O. Kuntze (Mimosoideae, Leguminosae: chromosome number, polysomaty and meiosis.

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    Denise Olkoski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome numbers (somatic and/or gametic were determined in 50 populations of M. bimucronata (DC. O.Kuntze collected in the species area of distribution in Rio Grande do Sul, south Brazil. All populations were diploid (2n = 2x = 26,n = 13. Polysomatic (mostly tetraploid cells were detected in the seedlings root-tip cells in 39 out of the 41 populations examined,ranging from 3.0 to 28.2 % among populations, but were absent in the root-tips of grown plants. Polysomaty was as well absent inpollen-mother cells. In M. bimucronata pollen-mother cells are joined two-by-two before the onset of meiosis, remaining attachedduring all the meiotic division until the formation of pollen grain polyads, composed of two sets of four pollen grains each, that aredispersed in this way, which, according to previous suggestions would be an adaptation to ensure high seed set after a singlepollination event.

  12. Effect of clonal reproduction on genetic structure in Pentaclethra macroloba (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gaddis, Keith D.; Zukin, Helen L.; Dieterich, Inca A.; Braker, Elizabeth; Sork, Victoria L.

    2014-01-01

    The existence of monodominant forests on well-drained soils in tropical regions has been widely reported. Such forests most likely result from a combination of both ecological and evolutionary factors. Under conditions of high seed and seedling mortality, vegetative reproduction could create a reproductive advantage leading to forest dominance, and profoundly affect the distribution of genetic variation in a clonal species. We investigated these effects in a low diversity forest site in North...

  13. Two new acylated flavonol glycosides from Mimosa pigra L. leaves sub-family Mimosoideae

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    Chinedu J. Okonkwo

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Myricetin, quercetin and their glycoside derivatives are strong antioxidants; and elicit cytotoxic effect on human cancer cell lines among other pharmacological activities. The isolation of acylated flavonoids in M. pigra provided an important insight on the evolutionary trend of the medicinal plant. While the dominance of flavonols, may account for the various ethnomedicinal uses of the herb and the mechanism and mode of its confirmed pharmacological actions.

  14. MORFOBIOMETRIA E GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE Parkia multijuga Benth. (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae

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    Cartiane Rubishirley Macêdo Rocha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Apesar dos métodos para a análise de sementes de muitas espécies estarem descritos nas Regras para Análises de Sementes, para a maioria das sementes das espécies brasileiras não há, ainda, métodos para o teste de germinação. Assim, os objetivos dessa pesquisa foram determinar as dimensões das sementes e as características das plântulas de Parkia multijuga e estabelecer o substrato e a temperatura para a germinação. As dimensões das sementes avaliadas foram: comprimento, largura e espessura. Para avaliação da germinação, em diferentes temperaturas e substratos, foi utilizado o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado em fatorial duplo (dois substratos, entre areia e entre papel, e quatro temperaturas, 20, 25 e 30ºC com luz contínua e 25-30°C com alternância de luz. As sementes de Parkia multijuga são elipsoidais, com tamanho médio de 46,4 × 11,8 × 8,8 mm. A germinação das sementes é do tipo hipógea e criptocotiledonar. As temperaturas adequadas para o teste de germinação são 25 ou 30ºC, em substrato areia, em luz contínua. Palavras-chave: Faveira-benguê, plântula normal; temperatura, substrato. MORPHOBIOMETRY AND GERMINATION OF Parkia multijuga Benth. SEEDS ABSTRACT Many species have the seed analysis method described in rules for seed testing, however some Brazilian native species do not have studies related about germination methods. The aims of this study were characterize the size of Parkia multijuga Benth. seeds and determine the substrate and temperature for the germination test. The sizes assessed were the length, the width and the thickness. To indicate the best temperature and substrate for the germination test the completely randomized design was used in factorial (two substrate, between sand and between paper, and four temperatures, 20, 25 and 30ºC with light and 25-30°C, with alternated light. Parkia multijuga seeds are ellipsoids shape and its mean size is 46.4 × 11.8 × 8.8 mm. The germination is hypogeal and cryptocotylar. The germination test should be made either 25ºC or 30ºC using sand as substrate, in continuous light condition. Keywords: Faveira-benguê; normal seedling; temperature, substrate. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14583/2318-7670.v02n01a08

  15. Climate trends in the wood anatomy of Acacia sensu stricto (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Nigel W M; Hailey, Luke; Clarke, Kerri L; Gasson, Peter E

    2017-06-01

    This study investigates the structural diversity of the secondary xylem of 54 species of Acacia from four taxonomic sections collected across five climate regions along a 1200 km E-W transect from sub-tropical [approx. 1400 mm mean annual precipitation (MAP)] to arid (approx. 240 mm MAP) in New South Wales, Australia. Acacia sensu stricto ( s.s. ) is a critical group for understanding the effect of climate and phylogeny on the functional anatomy of wood. Wood samples were sectioned in transverse, tangential and radial planes for light microscopy and analysis. The wood usually has thick-walled vessels and fibres, paratracheal parenchyma and uniseriate and biseriate rays, occasionally up to four cells wide. The greater abundance of gelatinous fibres in arid and semi-arid species may have ecological significance. Prismatic crystals in chambered fibres and axial parenchyma increased in abundance in semi-arid and arid species. Whereas vessel diameter showed only a small decrease from the sub-tropical to the arid region, there was a significant 2-fold increase in vessel frequency and a consequent 3-fold decrease in the vulnerability index. Although the underlying phylogeny determines the qualitative wood structure, climate has a significant influence on the functional wood anatomy of Acacia s.s. , which is an ideal genus to study the effect of these factors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. Precipitation of calcium, magnesium, strontium and barium in tissues of four Acacia species (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Honghua; Bleby, Timothy M; Veneklaas, Erik J; Lambers, Hans; Kuo, John

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation of calcium in plants is common. There are abundant studies on the uptake and content of magnesium, strontium and barium, which have similar chemical properties to calcium, in comparison with those of calcium in plants, but studies on co-precipitation of these elements with calcium in plants are rare. In this study, we compared morphologies, distributional patterns, and elemental compositions of crystals in tissues of four Acacia species grown in the field as well as in the glasshouse. A comparison was also made of field-grown plants and glasshouse-grown plants, and of phyllodes of different ages for each species. Crystals of various morphologies and distributional patterns were observed in the four Acacia species studied. Magnesium, strontium and barium were precipitated together with calcium, mainly in phyllodes of the four Acacia species, and sometimes in branchlets and primary roots. These elements were most likely precipitated in forms of oxalate and sulfate in various tissues, including epidermis, mesophyll, parenchyma, sclerenchyma (fibre cells), pith, pith ray and cortex. In most cases, precipitation of calcium, magnesium, strontium and barium was biologically induced, and elements precipitated differed between soil types, plant species, and tissues within an individual plant; the precipitation was also related to tissue age. Formation of crystals containing these elements might play a role in regulating and detoxifying these elements in plants, and protecting the plants against herbivory.

  17. Isozyme and RAPD studies in Prosopis glandulosa and P. Velutina (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae

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    Bessega Cecilia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Allozyme and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD techniques have been compared for their usefulness for genetic and taxonomic studies in Prosopis glandulosa and P. velutina populations. Isozymes and RAPDs yielded similarly high estimates of genetic variability. Genetic structure and differentiation were analyzed through non-hierarchical Wright's F DT. For all populations considered, both markers produced low gene flow (Nm 1, in agreement with that expected for conspecific populations. However, in RAPD data the expected reduction in F DT and the increase in Nm were not observed. Correlation between F DT and geographical distance matrices (Mantel test for all populations was significant (P = 0.02 when based on isozymes, but not so (P = 0.33 when based on RAPDs. No significant associations among genetic and geographical or climatic variables were observed. Two isoenzyme systems (GOT and PRX enabled us to distinguish between P. glandulosa and P. velutina, but no diagnostic band for recognition of populations or species studied here were detected by RAPD. However, RAPD markers showed higher values for genetic differentiation among conspecific populations of P. glandulosa and a lower coefficient of variation than those obtained from isozymes.

  18. Pollination ecology of Acacia gerrardii Benth. (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae under extremely hot-dry conditions

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    Abdulaziz Saad Alqarni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Talh trees (Acacia gerrardii Benth. are acacias that are native to the arid and semiarid Africa and west Asia. We investigated the flowering biology, pod set and flower visitors of Talh and discussed the role of these visitors in pollen transfer. The Talh trees blossomed laterally on the nodes of one-year-old twigs. Each node produced 21 flower buds seasonally. Each flower bud opened to a flower head (FH of 60 florets. The bagged FHs podded significantly (p ⩽ 0.05 less than did the unbagged FHs. The FHs were visited by 31 insect species (25 genera, 16 families and 5 orders. The major taxa were honeybees, megachilids, butterflies, ants, beetles and thrips. Each of honeybees, megachilids and beetles showed a significant (p ⩽ 0.05 hourly pattern, while each of butterflies, ants and thrips had no hourly pattern (p > 0.05. Furthermore, some birds and mammals touched the Talh FHs. Talh trees evolved a mass flowering behavior to face pre- and post-flowering obstacles. Megachilids seemed to play the major effort of zoophily because of their relatively high numbers of individuals and species and their effective movement behavior on the FH surface. Nevertheless, honeybees and other insects and vertebrate taxa also contributed to the pollen transfer. These results greatly contribute to our understanding of the pollination ecology of acacias, especially Arabian acacias.

  19. La tribu Insarini (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae, Phaneropteridae: tercera contribución a la organización supragenérica de los faneropterinos neotropicales

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    Cadena–Castañeda, O. J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The tribe Insarini (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae, Phaneropteridae: third contribution to the supra–generic organization of neotropical Phaneropterinae The tribe Insarini is delimited in this contribution to four genera: Arethaea, Brachyinsara, Insara and Psilinsara. A table to separate these genera is provided. The generic boundaries are not well delimited in this tribe. The genus Callinsara n. syn. is synonymized under Sictuna, which in in turn is moved to the group Plagiopleurae. The tribal boundaries of Insarini and Pycnopalpini are discussed.

  20. La tribu Pycnopalpini n. trib. (Orthoptera, Tettigonioidea, Phaneropteridae: segunda contribución a la organización supragenérica de los faneropterinos neotropicales

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    Cadena–Castañeda, O. J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The tribe Pycnopalpini n. trib. (Orthoptera, Tettigonioidea, Phaneropteridae: second contribution to neotropical Phaneropterinae The new tribe Pycnopalpini is proposed, based on morphological similarity among the genera Hetaira, Pycnopalpa, Topana (Pycnopalpina n. subtr., Dolichocercus, Oxyprorella, Theia, and TheiellaTheia unicolor, Theia bifurcata n. sp., Theiella amazonica n. sp., Theiella andina n. sp., and D. santanderensis n. sp. from Colombia, and D. costaricensis n. sp. from Costa Rica. Hetaira (Atopana morona and Hetaira (Atopana varia are recorded from the Colombian Amazon, where both species seem to occur sympatrically. Theia peruviana n. comb. is also recorded from the Colombian Amazon, where it seems to occur sympatrically with T. bifurcata. The paper contains additional new combinations, and Oxyprorella gregoirea syn. n. is a new synonym for Insara bolivari. This contribution reconsiders the neotropical subfamily Phaneropterinae, aiming to establish the limits of the tribes and genera of this subfamily.

  1. La tribu Pycnopalpini n. trib. (Orthoptera, Tettigonioidea, Phaneropteridae): segunda contribución a la organización supragenérica de los faneropterinos neotropicales

    OpenAIRE

    Cadena–Castañeda, O. J.

    2014-01-01

    The tribe Pycnopalpini n. trib. (Orthoptera, Tettigonioidea, Phaneropteridae): second contribution to neotropical Phaneropterinae The new tribe Pycnopalpini is proposed, based on morphological similarity among the genera Hetaira, Pycnopalpa, Topana (Pycnopalpina n. subtr.), Dolichocercus, Oxyprorella, Theia, and TheiellaTheia unicolor, Theia bifurcata n. sp., Theiella amazonica n. sp., Theiella andina n. sp., and D. santanderensis n. sp. from Colombia, and D. costaricensis n. sp. from Cost...

  2. Potencialidad de Prosopis ferox Griseb (Leguminosae, subfamilia: Mimosoideae para estudios dendrocronológicos en desiertos subtropicales de alta montaña Potential of Prosopis ferox Griseb (Leguminosae, subfamily: Mimosoideae for dendrochronological studies in high-montane subtropical deserts

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    MARIANO S. MORALES

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la escasez de especies con anillos anuales de crecimiento, la dendrocronología de regiones áridas de montañas tropicales y subtropicales está muy poco desarrollada. En este trabajo evaluamos el potencial de la especie arbórea Prosopis ferox,"churqui", para estudios dendrocronológicos analizando las características anatómicas del leño y las relaciones entre registros climáticos y cronologías de ancho de anillos de una colección realizada a 3.500 m, en la quebrada de Humahuaca (23°13' S, 65°20' O, Provincia de Jujuy, Argentina. Las observaciones microscópicas de cortes histológicos muestran que los anillos están claramente demarcados por una banda parenquimática terminal clara. Comparando la cronología estandarizada de ancho de anillos con los registros instrumentales de La Quiaca (22º06'S, 65º36'O, se observan correlaciones significativas con precipitaciones por encima de la media y temperaturas por debajo de la media durante los meses de verano (diciembre_marzo. Esto se interpreta como una relación positiva con la disponibilidad de agua en el suelo durante el período de crecimiento. Esta cronología representa no solamente el primer registro dendrocronológico desarrollado a partir de P. ferox, sino también la primera cronología de anillos de árboles en la provincia biogeográfica Prepuneña. La buena discriminación de los anillos anuales de crecimiento, la fuerte relación con variables climáticas, el amplio rango de distribución de la especie en el noroeste de Argentina y sur de Bolivia (20° a 25° S y la longevidad observada en individuos aislados (c. 500 años, hacen de P. ferox una especie muy promisoria para estudios dendroclimatológicos y dendroecológicos en desiertos subtropicales de alta montañaDue to the scarcity of species with annual tree rings, the use of dendrochronological techniques has received little attention in tropical and subtropical montane dry areas. In this study, we assess the dendrochronological potential of Prosopis ferox, "churqui", through the analysis of its wood anatomy and the relationships between climate and tree growth variations from trees collected at 3,500 m, in the Humahuaca valley (23°13' S, 62°20' W, Jujuy province, Argentina. Microscopic observations show that annual rings are clearly defined by a relatively lighter parenchyma belt formed at the end of the annual band. Comparisons between the standardized ring-width chronology and the instrumental records from La Quiaca (22º 06'S, 65º36'W indicated that above-average rainfall and below-average temperature during summer (i.e., December to March favor tree growth. This can be interpreted as a positive relationship between radial growth and abundant soil water content during the growing season. The chronology shown here represents not only the first dendrocronological record from P. ferox, but also the first tree-ring chronology for the Prepuna biogeographic province. The well-defined annual rings, the strong relationship between growth and climatic variables, the large range of distribution across northwestern Argentina and southern Bolivia (20° to 25° S, and the longevity observed in some individuals (c. 500 years, indicate that P. ferox is a very promising species for dendroclimatological and dendroecological studies in subtropical montane ecosystems

  3. Caracterização citogenética em Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell. Brenan (Mimosoideae e Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae Cytogenetic characterization in Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell. Brenan (Mimosoideae and Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae

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    Flavia Aparecida Ortolani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Análises cariotípicas são importantes ferramentas de auxílio aos estudos de relações taxonômicas dentro dos grupos vegetais. Espécies arbóreas nativas encontradas no cerrado brasileiro têm sido pouco analisadas do ponto de vista citogenético e citotaxonômico. Com o objetivo de determinar o número cromossômico diplóide, a biometria e a morfologia cromossômica de Anadenanthera colubrina (angico-branco e Guazuma ulmifolia (mutambo, sementes dessas espécies foram coletadas no município de Três Lagoas, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. A utilização de 8-hidroxiquinoleína 0,003M a 36ºC, durante três horas possibilitou a separação cromossômica. Coloração Giemsa 2% por três minutos permitiu o estudo cariológico. A classificação cromossômica foi baseada no índice centromérico. Anadenanthera colubrina possui 2n = 26 cromossomos com comprimento cromossômico médio de 1,349 µm ± 0,017 e formulação cariotípica 8SM + 14M + 2T + 2AC. Guazuma ulmifolia apresenta 2n = 16 cromossomos com comprimento médio de 1,225 µm ± 0,023 e formulação cariotípica 4SM + 10M + 2T. Esses resultados podem subsidiar estudos de taxonomia, de manipulação cromossômica, bem como auxiliar na produção de progênies híbridas em programas de melhoramento.Karyotype analyses are important aid tools for taxonomic relationship studies. Native arboreal species found in the Brazilian "cerrado" have been poorly analyzed cytogenetically and cytotaxonomically. To determine diploid chromosome number, biometry and chromosome morphology of Anadenanthera colubrina ("angico-branco" and Guazuma ulmifolia ("mutambo", seeds of these species were collected in Três Lagoas municipality, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The use of 8-hydroxiquinoleine 0.003M at 36ºC, for three hours caused chromosome separation. Giemsa coloration 2% for three minutes allowed the karyological study. Chromosome classification was based on the centromeric index. Anadenanthera colubrina has 2n = 26 chromosomes with chromosome medium length of 1.349 µm ± 0.017 and karyotype formulation 8SM + 14M + 2T + 2AC. Guazuma ulmifolia has 2n = 16 chromosomes with medium length of 1.225 µm ± 0.023 and karyotype formulation 4SM + 10M + 2T. These results can subsidize taxonomic and chromosomic manipulation studies, as well as the production of hybrid progenies in improvement programs.

  4. Padronização do teste de tetrazólio em sementes de Parkia velutina Benoist (Leguminosae - Mimosoideae Tetrazolium test in Parkia velutina Benoist seeds (Leguminosae - Mimosoideae

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    Angela Maria da Silva Mendes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo determinar métodos de pré-condicionamento e concentrações da solução de tetrazólio na avaliação da qualidade de sementes de Parkia velutina Benoist. Os tratamentos pré-condicionantes das sementes foram avaliados com três métodos de escarificação: desponte na região oposta ao hilo, punção na região mediana e lixa nos dois lados da semente com posterior embebição em 200 ml de água para cada 25 sementes e permanência em câmara a 30 ºC por 16 horas. As concentrações da solução de tetrazólio testadas foram: 1,0%, 0,5% e 0,1% por duas horas na temperatura de 40 ºC. O tratamento de pré-condicionamento mais eficiente foi a combinação do desponte e lixamento nos dois lados da semente. A concentração de tetrazólio a 0,5% pode ser utilizada para avaliar a viabilidade das sementes de P. velutina como complemento ao teste de germinação. O teste de tetrazólio se mostrou eficiente na caracterização de lesões ocasionadas por insetos e danos mecânicos em sementes de P. velutina.This manuscript aimed to determine methods of daily pre-conditioning and concentrations of the tetrazolium solution for evaluating the quality of Parkia velutina Benoist seeds. The daily pre-condicionanting seed treatments were evaluated using three scarification methods: coating cutting on the opposite side of the hilum region, puncture in the medium region and scarification with sandpaper on both sides of the seed, followed by soaking each of the 25 seeds in 200 ml of wate and permanence in chamber 30 ºC for 16 hours. The concentrations of the tetrazolium solution tested were 1.0%, 0.5% and 0.1% for two hours at 40 ºC. The more efficient daily pre-conditioning treatlment was a combination of the coating cutting and the scarification n both sides of the seed. The 0.5% tetrazolium concentration can be used to evaluate the viability of P. velutina seeds as complement to the germination test. The tetrazolium test showed its efficiency in the characterization of injuries caused by insects and mechanical damages in P. velutina seeds.

  5. Intoxicação espontânea por vagens de Prosopis juliflora (Leg. Mimosoideae em bovinos no Estado de Pernambuco Spontaneous poisoning in cattle by mesquite beans, Prosopis juliflora (Leg. Mimosoideae in Pernambuco

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    Antônio Carlos L. Câmara

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se três surtos de intoxicação por vagens de Prosopis juliflora no Sertão e Agreste de Pernambuco, na região semi-árida, em animais pastejando áreas invadidas pela planta ou que ingeriram as vagens como alimento concentrado. Em duas fazendas nas que a doença ocorria esporadicamente foram observados casos individuais. Em outra, o surto afetou um rebanho de 1206 bovinos, dos quais adoeceram 112 (9,28% e morreram 84 (6,96%, enquanto os demais 28 (2,32% recuperaram-se e ganharam peso após a retirada das vagens da alimentação. Clinicamente observou-se, principalmente, perda de peso progressiva, atrofia da musculatura da face e masseter, mandíbula pendulosa, protrusão de língua, dificuldade de apreensão e mastigação dos alimentos, torção da cabeça para mastigar ou ruminar, salivação excessiva, disfagia e hipotonia lingual. Nos exames laboratoriais constatou-se anemia e hipoproteinemia. Na necropsia havia caquexia e diminuição de volume e coloração acinzentada dos músculos masseteres. Na histologia observou-se degeneração de neurônios do núcleo motor do trigêmeo, degeneração Walleriana do nervo trigêmeo e atrofia muscular por denervação do músculo masseter com substituição por tecido fibroso. Recomendam-se medidas para a profilaxia da intoxicação e discute-se a necessidade de desenvolver pesquisas para determinar a viabilidade econômica e sustentabilidade da utilização da algaroba como alimento animal ou humano e para produção de carvão, lenha ou madeira.Three outbreaks of poisoning by Prosopis juliflora pods are reported in the semiarid region of the state of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil, in cattle grazing in fields invaded by the plant or ingesting mesquite beans as a concentrate food. In two farms the disease occurred sporadically. In another, 112 (9.28% cattle out of 1206 were affected, 84 (6.96% died due to emaciation, and 28 (2.32% gained weight after the pods had been withdrawn from the feed. Main clinical signs were progressive weight loss, atrophy of the masseter muscles, dropped jaw, tongue protrusion, difficulties in prehending food, tilting the head during mastigation or rumination, salivation, impaired swallowing, and decreased tone of the tongue. The hematology reveals hypoproteinemia and anemia. Gross lesions were emaciation and reduction in size of the masseter muscles, which appear thinner than normal and grayish due muscular atrophy. Degeneration of neurons of the trigeminal motor nuclei, Wallerian degeneration of the trigeminal nerve roots, and muscular atrophy of the masseter muscles with substitution by fibrous tissue were observed on histologic examination. For the prevention of the poisoning is necessary to limit the amount of mesquite beans in animal nutrition. It is also necessary to develop research to determine the economic and sustainability of the use of Prosopis juliflora for animal food, human food or other uses such as charcoal, wood and fuel wood.

  6. A new genus and species of gall midge (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Parkia pendula (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae Um novo gênero e espécie de mosquito galhador (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae associado com Parkia pendula (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae

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    Valéria Cid Maia

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Parkiamyia paraensis, a new genus and species of Cecidomyiidae that induces galls on Parkia pendula is described (larva, pupa, male,female and gall based on material from Pará (Brazil.Parkiamyia paraensis, um novo gênero e espécie de Cecidomyiidae é descrita (larva, pupa, macho e fêmea com base em material do Pará (Brasil.

  7. Microsatellite Primers for Parkia biglobosa (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) Reveal that a Single Plant Sires All Seeds Per Pod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristin Marie; Kjær, Erik Dahl; Ouédraogo, Moussa

    2014-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for an indigenous fruit tree, Parkia biglobosa, as a tool to study reproductive biology and population structure. Here we use the primers to determine the number of fathers per pod.  Methods and Results: Microsatellite loci were enriched...

  8. Developmental and morphological studies of the suspensor and coleorhizae in some taxa of the subfamily mimosoideae (fabaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, C.Q.; Liu, M.; Zhang, X.X.; Cheng, X.Y.; Wang, C.

    2015-01-01

    The embryo development of Mimosa pudica and the seedling development of Acacia farnesiana, Albizzia julibrissin, Leucaena glauca and Mimosa pudica were studied by wax method in this paper. The results showed that M. pudica has a suspensor composed of about ten cells which degenerate and integrate into the embryo proper during the cotyledons development. The coleorhiza in M. pudica is from the residual suspensor cells and the cells produced by periclinal and anticlinal divisions of the meristematic cells in the embryo development. The coleorhiza in the four studied taxa is broken by the elongation of the primary root, withdraws and finally falls off during the seedling development. (author)

  9. DELIMITACIÓN DE LAS ESPECIES ARGENTINAS DEL GENERO INGA (MIMOSOIDEAE MEDIANTE TÉCNICAS NUMÉRICAS

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    Maria A. Zapater

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ingais represented in Argentina by six species and one variety. However doubts emerge about thevalidity of these taxa. Phenetic relationships were studied among 75 specimens belonging to the sevenrecognized taxa, in order to evaluate their validity. A morphological matrix of 46 characters was ana-lyzed by clustering and conglomerate methods. The dendrogram and the principal components analyses(PCA show six groups, consequently six species can be clearly recognized:I. saltensis, I. marginata,I. laurina, I. virescens, I. affinis, andI. uraguensis. A key for the identification of species is presentedtogether with distribution maps in Argentina.

  10. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethyl acetate extract, fractions and compounds from stem bark of Albizia adianthifolia (Mimosoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamokou, Jean de Dieu; Simo Mpetga, Deke James; Keilah Lunga, Paul; Tene, Mathieu; Tane, Pierre; Kuiate, Jules Roger

    2012-07-18

    Albizia adianthifolia is used traditionally in Cameroon to treat several ailments, including infectious and associated diseases. This work was therefore designed to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethyl acetate extract, fractions and compounds isolated from the stem bark of this plant. The plant extract was prepared by maceration in ethyl acetate. Its fractionation was done by column chromatography and the structures of isolated compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic data in conjunction with literature data. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays were used to detect the antioxidant activity. Broth micro-dilution method was used for antimicrobial test. Total phenol content was determined spectrophotometrically in the extracts by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The fractionation of the extract afforded two known compounds: lupeol (1) and aurantiamide acetate (2) together with two mixtures of fatty acids: oleic acid and n-hexadecanoic acid (B₁); n-hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid and docosanoic acid (B₂). Aurantiamide acetate was the most active compound. The total phenol concentration expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE) was found to vary from 1.50 to 13.49 μg/ml in the extracts. The antioxidant activities were well correlated with the total phenol content (R² = 0.946 for the TEAC method and R² = 0.980 for the DPPH free-radical scavenging assay). Our results clearly reveal that the ethyl acetate extract from the stem bark of A. adianthifolia possesses antioxidant and antimicrobial principles. The antioxidant activity of this extract as well as that of compound 2 are being reported herein for the first time. These results provide promising baseline information for the potential use of this plant as well as compound 2 in the treatment of oxidative damage and infections associated with the studied microorganisms.

  11. Abortos de semillas de Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Mimosoideae: efecto de la posición relativa dentro del fruto

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    Federico Villalobos

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined if seed abortion in Guanacaste tree fruits (Enterolobium cyclocarpum is related to position within fruits by establishing the abortion ratio in 150 fruits from 10 trees, collected in Santa Rosa National Park (Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Fruits were divided in basal, central and distal sections. We found marginal differences in abortion ratio between these sections (ANDEVA, p= 0.058, and also among trees (p= 0.01. In general, the distal section had the greatest abortion ratio in relation to other sections. This abortion pattern could be caused by resource competition within siblings and not by genetic differences among them.

  12. Natural and Experimental Poisoning of Cattle by Enterolobium contortisiliquum Pods (Fabaceae Mimosoideae in Central-Western Brazil

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    Fábio de Souza Mendonça

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterolobium contortisiliquum pods are commonly identified as being the cause of abortions and photosensitivity in cattle. This paper describes the clinical and pathological aspects of a natural outbreak of hepatogenous photosensitization by the pods of E. contortisiliquum in Brazil and the results of experimental poisoning in three bovines. The history of natural poisoning was obtained at the site of the outbreak. Clinical examinations were carried out and hepatic enzymes were analyzed. A post-mortem examination was carried out at the outbreak location on a cow that had died. Several samples were collected from the animal's internal organs to carry out histopathological examinations. E. contortisiliquum pods were given to cows in order to reproduce the disease. The natural poisonings were characterized by photosensitization and aborted young. Enterolobium photosensitization was not experimentally reproduced, but the animals fell sick and recovered after 52 days.

  13. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of diploid Leucaena (Leguminosae; Mimosoideae) reveal cryptic species diversity and patterns of divergent allopatric speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Hughes, Colin E; Bailey, C Donovan

    2011-12-01

    Leucaena comprises 17 diploid species, five tetraploid species, and a complex series of hybrids whose evolutionary histories have been influenced by human seed translocation, cultivation, and subsequent spontaneous hybridization. Here we investigated patterns of evolutionary divergence among diploid Leucaena through comprehensively sampled multilocus phylogenetic and population genetic approaches to address species delimitation, interspecific relationships, hybridization, and the predominant mode of speciation among diploids. Parsimony- and maximum-likelihood-based phylogenetic approaches were applied to 59 accessions sequenced for six SCAR-based nuclear loci, nrDNA ITS, and four cpDNA regions. Population genetic comparisons included 1215 AFLP loci representing 42 populations and 424 individuals. Phylogenetic results provided a well-resolved hypothesis of divergent species relationships, recovering previously recognized clades of diploids as well as newly resolved relationships. Phylogenetic and population genetic assessments identified two cryptic species that are consistent with geography and morphology. Findings from this study highlight the importance and utility of multilocus data in the recovery of complex evolutionary histories. The results are consistent with allopatric divergence representing the predominant mode of speciation among diploid Leucaena. These findings contrast with the potential hybrid origin of several tetraploid species and highlight the importance of human translocation of seed to the origin of these tetraploids. The recognition of one previously unrecognized species (L. cruziana) and the elevation of another taxon (L. collinsii subsp. zacapana) to specific status (L. zacapana) is consistent with a growing number of newly diagnosed species from neotropical seasonally dry forests, suggesting these communities harbor greater species diversity than previously recognized.

  14. Using targeted enrichment of nuclear genes to increase phylogenetic resolution in the neotropical rain forest genus Inga (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae

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    James A Nicholls

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary radiations are prominent and pervasive across many plant lineages in diverse geographical and ecological settings; in neotropical rainforests there is growing evidence suggesting that a significant fraction of species richness is the result of recent radiations. Understanding the evolutionary trajectories and mechanisms underlying these radiations demands much greater phylogenetic resolution than is currently available for these groups. The neotropical tree genus Inga (Leguminosae is a good example, with ~300 extant species and a crown age of 2-10 MY, yet over 6kb of plastid and nuclear DNA sequence data gives only poor phylogenetic resolution among species. Here we explore the use of larger-scale nuclear gene data obtained though targeted enrichment to increase phylogenetic resolution within Inga. Transcriptome data from three Inga species were used to select 264 nuclear loci for targeted enrichment and sequencing. Following quality control to remove probable paralogs from these sequence data, the final dataset comprised 259,313 bases from 194 loci for 24 accessions representing 22 Inga species and an outgroup (Zygia. Bayesian phylogenies reconstructed using either all loci concatenated or a subset of 60 loci in a gene-tree/species-tree approach yielded highly resolved phylogenies. We used coalescent approaches to show that the same targeted enrichment data also have significant power to discriminate among alternative within-species population histories in the widespread species I. umbellifera. In either application, targeted enrichment simplifies the informatics challenge of identifying orthologous loci associated with de novo genome sequencing. We conclude that targeted enrichment provides the large volumes of phylogenetically-informative sequence data required to resolve relationships within recent plant species radiations, both at the species level and for within-species phylogeographic studies.

  15. Mycotrophy in Gilliesieae, a threatened and poorly known tribe of Alliaceae from central Chile Micotrofía en Gilliesieae, una tribu amenazada y poco conocida de Alliaceae de Chile central

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    GUSTAVO A TORRES-MELLADO

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The five known genera of Gilliesieae have their diversity center in the Mediterranean zone of central Chile, where many of their habitats are threatened by urban expansion, industrial and agroforestry activities, as well as other anthropogenic impacts. Very little is known about the biology of these particular geophytes, the majority of which currently have either vulnerable or endangered status, mainly due to their dispersed and small populations generally associated to remnants of native vegetation. As mycorrhizal associations are essential for soil resource acquisition and stress mitigation in most plants, our objective was to assess the hitherto unknown mycotrophic status of ten species of Gilliesieae from central Chile by qualitative and quantitative assessment of intraradical fungal structures. All sampled genera (Gethyum, Gilliesia, Miersia, Solaria, Speea showed regular presence of arbuscular mycorrhiza, while other mycorrhizal or putatively mutualistic associations, like dark septate endophytes, were practically absent. Mycorrhizal colonization of fine roots reached a mean of ca. 45 % across all examined taxa, with highly variable values ranging from 9 % to 82 % in Miersia tenuiseta and Gilliesia curicana, respectively. The high level of mycorrhization indicates that arbuscular mycorrhiza should be considered for conservation strategies of threatened species or biotechnological use in plant propagation. The main future task is the identification of the associated fungal taxa.Los cinco géneros conocidos de Gilliesieae tienen su centro de diversidad en la zona mediterránea de Chile central, donde muchos de sus hábitats están amenazados por la expansión urbana, actividades industriales y agroforestales, así como otros impactos antropogénicos. Se sabe muy poco sobre la biología de estas particulares geófitas, que en la actualidad tienen en su mayoría estatus de vulnerable o en peligro de extinción, debido a sus poblaciones dispersas y pequenas, generalmente asociadas a remanentes de vegetación nativa. Dado que las asociaciones micorrícicas son esenciales para la adquisición de recursos del suelo y para la mitigación de estrés en la mayoría de las plantas, nuestro objetivo fue determinar el estatus micotrófico aún desconocido de diez especies de Gilliesieae de Chile central, mediante análisis cualitativos y cuantitativos de las estructuras fúngicas intrarradicales. Todos los géneros evaluados (Gethyum, Gilliesia, Miersia, Solaria, Speea mostraron la presencia regular de micorrizas arbusculares, mientras que otras asociaciones micorrícicas o asociaciones putativamente mutualistas, como los endófitos de septos oscuros, estuvieron prácticamente ausentes. La colonización micorrícica de raíces finas alcanzó un promedio de ca. 45 % en todos los taxones examinados, con valores muy variables entre 9 % a 82 % en Miersia tenuiseta y Gilliesia curicana, respectivamente. El alto nivel micorrícico encontrado indica un rol importante de la micorriza arbuscular en futuras estrategias de conservación de especies amenazadas y en su aplicación biotecnológica en la propagación de plantas. La principal tarea futura es la identificación de los taxones fúngicos asociados.

  16. De la tribu à la ville : un essai d’approche “régressive” de l’histoire du peuplement de la région de Tébessa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Guichard

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude propose une lecture à rebours de l’histoire de la région de Tébessa, dans l’actuelle Algérie. Marquée à l’époque précoloniale par un peuplement rural principalement semi-nomade, la région a connu le renforcement de structures tribales encadrées par un réseau confrérique important. L’impression d’une société fortement désurbanisée tranche avec la situation que connaît la région durant l’antiquité et le Haut Moyen âge. Une intense mise en valeur de l’espace agraire à l’époque antique a permis l’installation de grands domaines et de plusieurs centres urbains ou militaires, dont certains se maintiennent après la conquête arabe. Le cas de la ville de Majjâna, accueillant une population hétérogène, témoigne des évolutions économiques et sociales de la région. Des changements majeurs interviennent à la suite des migrations arabes du XIe siècle : déclin du réseau urbain et émergence de nouvelles forces tribales restées longtemps en dehors de l’emprise du pouvoir central. Un long processus d’arabisation et de tribalisation aboutit à la situation observée à l’époque moderne.

  17. Avaliação da atividade antibacteriana e triagem fitoquímica das flores de Acacia podalyriifolia A. Cunn. ex G. Don Leguminosae-Mimosoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Andrade

    Full Text Available A atividade antibacteriana das flores da Acacia podalyriifolia A. Cunn. (Leguminosae foi avaliada pelo método de difusão em disco. As bactérias testadas foram: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538, Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 1228, Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853. O meio de cultura utilizado foi ágar Müeller-Hinton. Foram utilizados discos de papel (6 mm de diâmetro impregnados com 1000, 500, 250 e 125 mg dos extratos: Etanol Bruto, fração Acetato de Etila e fração Diclorometano obtidas a partir do extrato etanólico bruto. Os resultados indicam que as amostras avaliadas exercem ação contra as cepas gram positivo testadas, em graus variáveis sendo que a fração Acetato de Etila apresentou maior atividade. A triagem fitoquímica indicou a presença de fenóis e flavonoides nas flores de A. podalyriifolia.

  18. A tight relationship between the solitary bee Calliopsis (Ceroliopoeum laeta (Andrenidae, Panurginae and Prosopis pollen hosts (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae in xeric South American woodlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favio Gerardo Vossler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The large genus Calliopsis (Andrenidae, Panurginae is composed of ten subgenera with polylectic and presumably oligolectic species. These categories have been mainly developed from floral visits of female bees collecting pollen. In the present study, pollen analyses of nest provisions and scopal loads from museum specimens of the monotypic subgenus Ceroliopoeum were carried out to assess its degree of specialization to pollen host-plants. Despite the great variety of floral resources close to two active nest aggregations in the Chaco sites (83 and 44 melittophilous taxa from 36 and 17 families, respectively, the only host-plant recorded in all nest pollen samples was Prosopis. This genus was represented by six species and their hybrids, all having similar pollen morphology. The nesting sites in Monte scrub also contained several Prosopis species, some of which had different pollen morphology from those of the Chaco forest. Two different Prosopis pollen types were identified in all samples. Since the whole geographic distribution of C. laeta matches with the range of Prosopis, its strong association with this pollen host seems to be well supported. However, the low number of study populations (four could erroneously indicate oligolectism. A broader sampling is necessary to ensure the character of specialization. Most Calliopsis species have been identified as oligolectic. Yet, this categorization has mainly been based on floral visits and a large diversity of floral hosts has been recorded for each bee species. Further analyses are necessary to confirm the relationship of this genus with its pollen hosts. Moreover, as most of them have short to medium phenologies (up to 4 months their presumably oligolecty can be due to a local specialization (i.e. variable according to location typical of polylecty.

  19. AFLP marker analysis revealing genetic structure of the tree Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth. Brenan (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae in the southern Brazilian Tropical Rainforest

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    Laís Bérgamo de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parapiptadenia rigida is a tropical early secondary succession tree characteristic of the Tropical Atlantic Rainforest. This species is of great ecological importance in the recovery of degraded areas. In this study we investigated the variability and population genetic structure of eight populations of P. rigida. Five AFLP primer combinations were used in a sample of 159 individuals representing these eight populations, rendering a total of 126 polymorphic fragments. The averages of percentage of polymorphic loci, gene diversity, and Shannon index were 60.45%, 0.217, and 0.322, respectively. A significant correlation between the population genetic variability and the population sizes was observed. The genetic variability within populations (72.20% was higher than between these (22.80%. No perfect correlation was observed between geographic and genetic distances, which might be explained by differences in deforestation intensities that occurred in these areas. A dendrogram constructed by the UPGMA method revealed the formation of two clusters, these also confirmed by Bayesian analysis for the number of K cluster. These results show that it is necessary to develop urgent management strategies for the conservation of certain populations of P. rigida, while other populations still preserve reasonably high levels of genetic variability.

  20. Estudo comparativo da madeira de Mimosa ophthalmocentra Mart. ex Benth e Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae na caatinga nordestina Comparative study of Mimosa ophthalmocentra Mart. ex Benth and Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae wood in the caatinga of Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazaro Benedito da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pela importância econômica da madeira de algumas espécies do gênero Mimosa L. ocorrentes na caatinga nordestina e pelo fato de Mimosa ophthalmocentra Mart. ex Benth. (jurema-de-imbira, às vezes, ser confundida com Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. (jurema-preta ou vice-versa, este trabalho objetivou apresentar novos dados referentes à anatomia e densidade básica da madeira das duas espécies, visando oferecer subsídio para identificação das duas espécies, identificar caracteres anatômicos da madeira relacionando-os com o ambiente caatinga e apresentar o potencial energético que sua madeira possui. O estudo anatômico e a determinação da densidade da madeira foram realizados com amostras ao nível do peito (1,30 m acima do solo e em dois galhos com diferentes diâmetros, de espécimes ocorrentes nos municípios de Serra Talhada e Sertânia, Pernambuco, Brasil. As espécies apresentam distinção expressa através do tipo de casca, coloração do cerne e do alburno, além das características peculiares da madeira. Mimosa ophthalmocentra apresenta camadas de crescimento distintas, constituídas por linhas de parênquima axial contendo cristais, parênquima axial escasso e menor quantidade de raios por mm². Já Mimosa tenuiflora apresenta camadas de crescimento distintas, porém sem cristais, parênquima axial vasicêntrico, em faixas ou aliforme confluente, e maior percentagem de raios. Ambas apresentam algumas estruturas da madeira com as características anatômicas comuns às diversas espécies do gênero Mimosa, contribuindo assim para uma melhor caracterização do gênero. Pelos parâmetros anatômicos da madeira e pela elevada densidade básica (>0,84 g/cm³, concluiu-se que as duas espécies apresentam perspectivas seguras para a produção de álcool combustível e carvão vegetal desde a fase de lenho juvenil. Mimosa ophthalmocentra apresenta maior potencial energético, pela maior percentagem de fibras e por possuir parênquima escasso e menor percentagem de raios.Due to the economic importance of the wood of Mimosa L. species in Northeastern Brazil's caatinga and to the fact that Mimosa ophtalmocentra Mart. ex Benth. ("jurema-de-imbira" is confused with Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. ("jurema-preta" and vice versa, this research aimed to present new data related to the anatomy and basic density of the wood of both species; to contribute to the taxonomic study for differentiating them; to identify anatomical characters of the wood relating them to the caatinga environment; and to present the energetic potential that they possess. The anatomical study and wood density determination were carried out with samples at dbh level and with two branches of individuals within the municipalities of Serra Talhada and Sertânia (Pernambuco. The species both differed in bark type, color of heartwood and sapwood, besides the different anatomical characteristics found in the wood. Mimosa ophtalmocentra has distinct growth layers consisting of parenchyma lines containing crystals, scarce parenchyma and smaller quantity of rays. Mimosa tenuiflora, on the other hand, also has growth layers, but without crystals, axial parenchyma vasicentric, confluent and in bands, and greater percentage of rays. Both species have some wood elements with anatomical characteristics typical of representatives of Mimosa, contributing therefore to a better taxonomic understanding of the genus. Based on wood anatomical parameters and elevated basic density (> 0.84 g/cm³, the conclusion was reached that both species have great perspectives for the production of fuel alcohol and charcoal since juvenile wood age. Because Mimosa ophthalmocentra has scarce parenchyma and fewer rays, it shows greater energetic potential than Mimosa tenuiflora.

  1. Estructura y estado de conservación de los bosques de Prosopis flexuosa D.C. (Fabaceae, subfamilia: Mimosoideae en el noreste de Mendoza (Argentina Structure and conservative condition of the Prosopis flexuosa D.C. (Fabaceae, subfamily: Mimosoideae woodlands in northeast Mendoza (Argentina

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    JUAN AGUSTÍN ALVAREZ

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available La recomendación de normas de manejo que regulen el uso de los recursos forestales debe estar basada en el conocimiento de la estructura y dinámica de los mismos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer la estructura poblacional de las principales unidades boscosas del bosque de Prosopis flexuosa del noreste de Mendoza, sus condiciones sanitarias y su potencial productivo. Se muestrearon un total de 1.471 algarrobos en las cuatro unidades boscosas más representativas. La densidad total de algarrobos fue la siguiente: bosque semicerrado de P. flexuosa con Atriplex lampa y Lycium tenuispinosum en valles intermédanos (Bosque 1: 181 árboles ha-1, bosque abierto de P. flexuosa con Trichomaria usillo y Suaeda divaricata en ondulaciones (Bosque 2: 155 árboles ha-1, bosque abierto de P. flexuosa con T. usillo (Bosque 3: 233 árboles ha-1 y bosque abierto de P. flexuosa con A. lampa en ondulaciones suaves (Bosque 4: 215 árboles ha-1. El análisis de componentes principales de la estructura diamétrica agrupó los sitios relevados en las distintas unidades boscosas según la proporción de árboles de diámetro basal mayor a 25 cm. Los sitios del Bosque 1 (mayor proporción de árboles grandes, se separaron de los sitios con mayor proporción árboles pequeños (bosques 2 y 4. Debido al hábito de crecimiento de los algarrobos, la cantidad de productos maderables de estos bosques es baja. Además, P. flexuosa presenta en el área un porcentaje alto de individuos con más de dos fustes, la forma en muchos casos es decumbente y la altura de los fustes es menor a un metro. Por lo tanto, el potencial forestal del bosque es bajo y el posible aprovechamiento debería realizarse a escala local, considerando la inclusión de otras actividades complementarias en zonas establecidas para tal finThe recommendation of management rules that regulate the use of forest resources must be based on the knowledge of the structure and dynamics of forests. This work allowed to find out about the population structure of the Prosopis flexuosa woodlands of the northeast of Mendoza, as well as their sanitary conditions and the management potential. A total of 1,471 Prosopis individuals were sampled in the four most representative woodlands units. The total Prosopis density was as follows: P. flexuosa semi-closed woodland with Atriplex lampa and Lycium tenuispinosum in valleys in-between dunes (Woodland 1: 181 trees ha-1; P. flexuosa open woodland with Trichomaria usillo and Suaeda divaricata in the undulations (Woodland 2: 155 trees ha-1; P. flexuosa open woodland with T. usillo (Woodland 3: 233 trees ha-1, and P. flexuosa open woodland with A. lampa in soft undulations (Woodland 4: 215 trees ha-1. The principal components analysis on the diametric structure grouped the sites surveyed in the different woodland units as per the proportion of individuals with larger basal diameter. The sites from Woodland 1 (larger proportion of big trees, were separated from the sites with a higher proportion of small trees (Woodland 2 and 4. Due to the Prosopis growth habit, the quantity of wood products from these forests is low. Besides P. flexuosa presents in the area a high percentage of individuals with more than two stems, the tree shape is generally decumbent and the bole height is less than a meter. Therefore, the possible use should be done at local scale, taking into account the inclusion of other complementary activities

  2. Rôle politique des tribus : une analyse du tribalisme, de l'islamisme ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Encore aujourd'hui, la tribu continue de jouer un rôle de premier plan dans les structures sociales au Moyen-Orient, en particulier au Yémen, en Iraq et en Jordanie. Il existe en effet un lien étroit entre le politique et l'organisation tribale. Au Yémen, par exemple, la tribu pose tout un défi à l'État, et il semble même parfois lui ...

  3. Nuevas citas de Asteraceae para la provincia de Catamarca (Argentina New records of Asteraceae for the province of Catamarca (Argentina

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    Susana E. Freire

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se mencionan los siguientes nuevos registros de Asteráceas para la provincia de Catamarca, Argentina: Baccharis acaulis, B. boliviensis var. latifolia, B. flexuosa, B. glutinosa var. angustissima, B. stenophylla (Tribu Astereae, Eupatorium patens var. tomentosum (Tribu Eupatorieae, Cosmos bipinnatus, C. peucedanifolius var. peucedanifolius, Helianthus annuus (Tribu Heliantheae, Gamochaeta erythractis, G. longipedicellata, Gnaphalium lacteum, Tessaria integrifolia var. integrifolia (Tribu Inuleae, Chuquiraga ruscifolia (Tribu Mutisieae, Senecio crepidifolius, S. subulatus var. subulatus, Xenophyllum incisum var. incisum (Tribu Senecioneae. Se citan además el hábitat de los taxones y las provincias fitogeográficas que integran. Se propone una nueva combinación, Baccharis glutinosa Pers. var. angustissima (DC. Giuliano.The following Asteraceae are mentioned for the province of Catamarca: Baccharis acaulis, B. boliviensis var. latifolia, B. flexuosa, B. glutinosa var. angustissima, B. stenophylla (Tribe Astereae, Eupatorium patens var. tomentosum (Tribe Eupatorieae, Cosmos bipinnatus, C. peucedanifolius var. peucedanifolius, Helianthus annuus (Tribe Heliantheae, Gamochaeta erythractis, G. longipedicellata, Gnaphalium lacteum, Tessaria integrifolia var. integrifolia (Tribe Inuleae, Chuquiraga ruscifolia (Tribe Mutisieae, Senecio crepidifolius, S. subulatus var. subulatus, Xenophyllum incisum var. incisum (Tribe Senecioneae. The habitat and phytogeographic provinces of the taxa are mentioned. The following new combination is proposed: Baccharis glutinosa Pers. var. angustissima (DC. Giuliano.

  4. Biological activity and LC-MS/MS profiling of extracts from the Australian medicinal plant Acacia ligulata (Fabaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Diana Jæger; Simpson, Bradley S.; Ndi, Chi P.

    2018-01-01

    Acacia ligulata A.Cunn. ex Benth. (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) is a native Australian plant used traditionally by Australian Aboriginal groups. This study was undertaken to investigate the bioactivity of A. ligulata extracts and to evaluate their chemical composition. Potential antibacterial, cytotoxic...

  5. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Baldock, K C. Vol 96 (2007) - Articles Two new species of Muscidae (diptera) from Kenya, associated with flowers of Acacia species (Fabacae Mimosoideae) and Balanites species (Balanitaceae) Abstract. ISSN: 1026-1613. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  6. Caractéristiques végétales, typologie et fonctions des bois sacrés au ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017 International Formulae Group. All rights reserved. 2966- ..... dont aucun clan, aucune tribu n'a le droit d'y interférer. C'est cette ... électifs ou nominatifs, la fonction public, etc. A travers des ..... Terminologie et définition. Troisième session ...

  7. Taxonomic Study of Species Formerly Identified as Anopheles mediopunctatus and Resurrection of An. costai (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Diptera: Culicidae). Rev. Bras. Entomol. 10: 169-187. 1962. Entomologia medica, vol. I. Parte Geral, Diptera, Anophelini. Faculdade de Higiene e...Ronderos. 1962. Mosquitos de la Re- Ortiz, I. 1968. Apuentes de entomologia medica: 10s mos- publica Argentina. I. Tribu Anophelini (Diptera - Culic

  8. Variação intraspecífica do lenho de Pseudopiptadenia contorta (DC. G.P. Lewis & M.P. Lima (Leguminosae - Mimosoideae de populações ocorrentes em dois remanescentes de Floresta Atlântica Intraspecific variation in wood anatomy of Pseudopiptadenia contorta (DC G.P. Lewis & M.P. Lima (Leguminosae -Mimosoidae in two Atlantic rain forest remnants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza R. da Costa Ribeiro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho compara populações distintas de Pseudopiptadenia contorta (DC. G.P. Lewis & M.P. Lima ocorrentes em dois remanescentes de Floresta Atlântica no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Foram amostradas árvores de diâmetro semelhante retas e sem defeitos aparentes. Os resultados obtidos comprovam estatisticamente a ocorrência de variação intraspecífica na estrutura anatômica da madeira. Os caracteres qualitativos mantiveram-se constantes, enquanto os quantitativos variaram, sendo os significativos, de acordo com o teste t de Student, a freqüencia, comprimento e diâmetro dos elementos vasos, o comprimento e espessura da parede das fibras, a freqüência e largura dos raios. A análise dos componentes principais, utilizando características anatômicas quantitativas ordenou as duas populações separadamente. O eixo I responde por 33% da variância total principalmente pela relação positiva do diâmetro do elemento de vaso, enquanto o eixo II responde por 20% da variância total, principalmente pelo comprimento das fibras.This study compares distinct populations of Pseudopiptadenia contorta (DC G.P. Lewis & M.P. Lima occurring in two remnants of Atlantic rain forest in Rio de Janeiro state. Trees with similar diameters and with no apparent defects were selected. The results confirm intraspecific variation in wood anatomy. Qualitative features do not change, while according to the Student t test quantitative features showed significant differences in vessel-element frequency, width, and length, fiber length and wall thickness, and ray frequency and width. Principal component analysis showed two separate populations. Factor 1 explains 33% of the total variance, mainly due to the positive relationship of vessel-element tangential diameter; factor 2 explains 20% of the total variance, mainly due to fiber length.

  9. Les Tinamous. Tinami

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlegel, H.

    1880-01-01

    Les Tinamous forment une tribu d’oiseaux parfaitement isolée et circonscrite, et bornée à la partie de l’Amérique comprise entre le Mexico méridional et la Patagonie. Ils se rattachent, toutefois, naturellement à l’ordre des Gallinae, tout en offrant certaines affinités avec l’ordre des Autruches.

  10. Résultats de recherche | Page 164 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Encore aujourd'hui, la tribu continue de jouer un rôle de premier plan dans les structures sociales au Moyen-Orient, en particulier au Yémen, en Iraq et en Jordanie. Il existe en effet un lien étroit entre le politique et l'organisation tribale. Projet. Cybergouvernement à Fès, au Maroc. Dans la phase pilote du projet (no ...

  11. Sublethal Growth Effects and Mortality to Marine Bivalves and Fish from Long-Term Exposure to Tributyltin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    sublethal toxicity of tributyltin oxide (TBTO) and its putative environmental product, tribu- tyltin sulfide ( TBTS ) to zoeal mud crabs, RIthropanopeus...Organotin .,’vwfuf coatingsu~~ study better defines the longterm toxicity and bloaccumnulation potential of tributyltin released from antifouting...larval fish survival at low tributyltin concentrations were also tested. Acute toxicity tests (96 hours) were con- ducted with mysid shrmp (Aawhomyot

  12. Розгляд відповідaльності з позицій "морaлі справедливості"

    OpenAIRE

    Zaporozhets, Tetiana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify the nature and specificity of the one of moral responsibility angles namely responsibility as equity. Moral responsibility defined as intense contradiction between the tendency that is focused on the individual isolation feom integrity, and centripetal tendency which aims at unity with others. In the phenomena of fairness, duty, personal dignity the tendency of the responsibility exclusively for myself, and the responsibility for the other is a tribu...

  13. Breve Reseña Histórica de la Evolución de la Cirugía.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Rueda Pérez

    2007-06-01

    Ante el sufrimiento del compañero de tribu, nace en el hombre el instinto de solidaridad que hace que tienda a acompañarlo, a consolarlo y a tratar de curarlo, surge así el médico empírico que cada vez alcanza mayor práctica hasta convertirse en la persona llamada siempre a atender a sus compañeros heridos...

  14. Notas sobre Matisia longiflora Gleas. (Bombacaceae Notas sobre Matisia longiflora Gleas. (Bombacaceae

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    Fernández Alonso José Luis

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Dentro del grupo de géneros de bombacáceas de hojas simples que componen la tribu Quararibeae (= Matisieae Hutchinson, es Matisia Humb. & Bonpl. el que cuenta con mayor número de especies en Colombia. Al respecto se presentaron recientemente algunas consideraciones preliminares sobre la diversidad de especies en este grupo en Colombia (Fernández Alonso, 1991.

  15. Listado de las especies de Psychodidae (Diptera, Psychodomorpha, Psychodoidea no Phlebotominae de Venezuela, con seis nuevos registros en el estado Falcón | Checklist of the non Phlebotominae Psychodidae (Diptera, Psychodomorpha, Psychodoidea of Venezuela, with six new records in Falcon state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalmiro Cazorla-Perfetti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Los psicódidos son insectos pequeños de distribución cosmopolita que incluyen taxa de importancia sanitaria. En el presente trabajo, se muestra un catálogo revisado y actualizado de las especies de la familia Psychodidae (Diptera, Nematocera, Psychodomorpha no Phlebotominae registradas para Venezuela. Hasta el presente se han reportado 31 especies, agrupadas en tres subfamilias, tres tribus y 12 géneros, incluyendo la subfamilia Bruchomyiinae, géneros Notofairchildia spp. (1 especie y Boreofairchildia spp. (1 especie; subfamilia Trichomyiinae, género Trichomyia spp. (2 especies; y la subfamilia Psychodinae, Tribu Setomimini, géneros Alepia spp. (5 especies, Arisemus spp. (5 especies, Australopericoma spp. (3 especies, Balbagathis spp. (3 especies, Didimioza spp. (1 especie, Micrommatos spp. (1 especie, Tonnoira spp. (1 especie, Tribu Psychodini, género Psychoda spp. (6 especies. Se describe por vez primera la presencia de P. alternata, P. alternicula, P. cinerea, P. savaiiensis y P. matogrossensis para el estado Falcón, región nor-occidental, así como también de Clogmia albipunctata de la Tribu Paramormiini. Se comenta sobre la importancia bio-ecológica, sanitaria y forense de los psicódidos no Phlebotominae, y las necesidades de investigación en el país.

  16. Experimentos em bovinos com as favas de Enterolobium contortisiliquum e E. timbouva para verificar propriedades fotossensibilizantes e/ou abortivas Experiments in cattle with the pods of Enterolobium contortisiliquum e E. timbouva to determine photosensitive and abortive properties

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Hubinger Tokarnia; Jürgen Döbereiner; Iveraldo S. Dutra; Ilson S. Brito; Bionô R. Chagas; Ticiana N. França; Luis A.G. Brust

    1999-01-01

    Em função de históricos obtidos, no presente estudo tentou-se reproduzir, em bovinos, fotossensibilização e/ou aborto com as favas de Enterolobium spp (Leg. Mimosoi-deae). As favas de E. contortisiliquum e E. timbouva ("tamboril" ou "timbaúba"), de diversas procedências, inclusive as colhidas durante dois surtos de intoxicação caracterizados por fotossensiblilização e aborto, foram administradas em doses únicas e repetidas, a bovinos jovens e a vacas em gestação. Em todos os experimentos real...

  17. Anatomia do xilema secundário de Mimosa pilulifera Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 O presente trabalho trata da primeira descrição detalhada do xilema secundário de Mimosa pilulifera Benth. São fornecidas medições de 30 características anatômicas e fotomicrografias da estrutura lenhosa. A anatomia da madeira indica um alto grau de especialização filogenética e reúne diversos caracteres indicativos da família Leguminosae, sub-família Mimosoideae, série Lepidotae Benth. e gênero Mimosa L.

  18. ANATOMIA DO XILEMA SECUNDÁRIO DE Mimosa incana (Spreng. Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available São descritos os caracteres anatômicos do xilema secundário de Mimosa incana (Spreng. Benth. e fornecidas 29 medições de sua estrutura. A descrição é ilustrada com fotomicrografias. A estrutura anatômica indica um alto grau de especialização filogenética e reúne diversos caracteres indicativos da família Leguminosae, sub-família Mimosoideae e série Lepidotae Benth

  19. Nitrogen cycling in the soil-plant system along a precipitation gradient in the Kalahari sands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Aranibar, JN

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available ). This and the fact that the driest savannas of the Kalahari sands are dominated by Mimosoideae species lead us to hypothe- size that symbiotic N2 fixation is more prevalent in drier sites of the Kalahari transect. Cyanobacteria are also capable of fixing atmospheric... enrichment for soils and plants; lower soil organic C and N; increased symbiotic and non-symbiotic N2 fixation; and de- creased NO losses from the system. The processes and pools analyzed are compared with the isotopic signatures along the precipitation...

  20. EN BUSCA DE LA AUTONOMÍA ENTRE LOS YAQUIS. MÚLTIPLES PROYECTOS DE DESARROLLO Y UNA SOLA «GRAN VERDAD»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enriqueta Lerma Rodríguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Se aborda la difícil tarea que ha significado para la tribu yaqui promover su desarrollo econó- mico. El proyecto más importante es construir la autonomía y regularizar legalmente la propiedad comunal del territorio con el fin de consolidar su forma de vida como lo marca la lu’uturia yo’owe «gran verdad». Sin embargo, los yaquis se ha visto atrapados por problemas derivados de los dos únicos proyectos que han contado con recursos por parte del Estado: el desarrollo promovido por la Comisión Intersectorial (1940-1990 y el Plan Integral de Desarrollo de la Tribu Yaqui (1982-1997. Se aborda aquí el impacto de estos proyectos en la organización tradicional de la tribu. IN SEARCH OF AUTONOMY AMONG THE YAQUIS: A MULTIPLICITY OF DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS AND ONE «GREAT TRUTH» This article addresses the difficult task that promoting economic development has meant for the Yaqui tribe. The most important project is to construct autonomy and legally regularize the territory’s communal property in order to consolidate their way of life as established by lu’uturia yo’owe, «the great truth». The Yaquis, however, have found themselves ensnared by issues derived from the only two projects that have received State support: development promoted by the Intersectoral Commission (1940-1990 and the Yaqui Tribe’s Integral Development Plan (1982-1997. This article addresses the impact of these projects on the tribe’s traditional organization.

  1. Estos son los sueños de Gorgona

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    Victoria Puerta C.

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available Gorgona, con su espeso follaje y los secretos de sus aguas , sirvió de hogar al cacique Yudigua, de la tribu sidagua, cuando huía de los españoles en los convulsionados años de la conquista. Desde allí Francisco Pizarro, en 1527, pensaba en la forma como iba a conquistar el Perú. Y fue Pizarro, quien, en su afiebrada lucha por sobrevivir, encontró un enemigo mortal: las serpientes.

  2. Host species of bees from the tribe Meliponini Nest in semi - arid Chaco forest near Las Lomitas, Formosa (Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Spagarino, Carlos; Chianetta, Pablo; Basilio, Alicia Mabel

    2014-01-01

    p.85-91 El norte de la Argentina es distribución más austral de las abejas de la tribu Meliponini. Los principales problemas de sus poblaciones son la sobreexplotación del ambiente y la tala los árboles donde nidifican, generando riesgos en la sustentabilidad de las interacciones tróficas en estos bosques. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar y caracterizar las especies de árboles hospedadores de nidos para las especies de melipónidos más abundantes en la vecindad de la localidad de...

  3. Joseocoris, new genus and two new species of Ceratocapsini (Heteroptera: Miridae: Orthotylinae from Argentina and Brazil

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    Thomas J. HENRY

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un nuevo género de Ceratocapsini (Miridae, Orthotylinae, Joseocoris para ubicar a dos especies nuevas: J. carpinteroi de Corrientes, Argenti - na, y J. costai de Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Se presentan diagnosis, ilustraciones de las estructuras genitales masculinas, fotografías del macho y de la hembra de ambas especies y fotografías de microscopio electrónico, que ayudan a distinguir al nuevo género y a las dos nuevas especies de otros miembros de la tribu Ceratocapsini.

  4. Contribuciones al conocimiento del género Phragmotheca cuatr. 1 (Bombacaceae-Quararibeae).

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Alonso, José Luis

    1996-01-01

    Se comenta la posicidn sistemática de Phragmotheca en relacidn con la tribu Quararibeae y se incluye una clave para la separación de los géneros de bombacáceas de hoja entera o unifoliolada del norte de Suramdrica. Se revisa la utilidad'de algunos caracteres en la separación de las especies y se presenta una clave diagnbstica. Se describen e ilustran 4 nuevas especies y dos taxones infraespeclficos P. rubriflora, P. lemniscata, P. hydra, P. siderosa subsp. megacarpa, F! amazonl...

  5. Primer registro del género Mellinus (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae en Colombia

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    Fernández C. Fernando

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los taxones menos conocidos de Sphecidae (Hymenoptera: Apoidea es Mellinus Fabricius, género que en el pasado llegó a tener categoría de subfamilia (Bohart & Menke 1976, pero que ahora comprende una tribu, Mellinini, dentro de la subfamilia Nyssoninae (Menke & Fernández 1996. Al parecer,  las hembras de este género capturan moscas del estiércol cerca a excrementos de mamíferos en el campo, y hacen sus nidos en el suelo (Evans 1989.

  6. Antropología del parentesco en Babilonia. Estudio de los grupos consanguíneos y residenciales en el periodo paleobabilónico.

    OpenAIRE

    González Moratinos, Sara

    2017-01-01

    [spa] El objeto de este trabajo es la familia. Dado que la palabra “familia” abarca una gran cantidad de tipologías, hemos de decir que la familia que estudiaremos es la que compone el primer nivel de la tipología familiar, es decir, la consanguínea y corresidente. El resto de niveles familiares (grupos consanguíneos, grupo de parentesco de compromiso o clan, y tribu o comunidad) no serán tratados en este trabajo, a pesar de presentar un amplio e interesante campo de estudio. En el parent...

  7. Pollen analysis of the post-emergence residue of Melipona (Melikerria interrupta Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae bred in the central Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gonçalves Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We applied an "adapted" protocol for collecting and processing pollen grains in the pollen analysis of the post-emergence residue of Melipona (Melikerria interrupta Latreille. The study was conducted at the Sant'Ana honey farm, located on the banks of the Solimões River, in the municipality of Manacapuru, in the state of Amazonas, Brazil, where a colony was monitored in October and November 2010. From that colony, 10 samples of post-emergence residue were collected. Unlike in the acetolysis method, there was no need to expose pollen grains to an acidic medium, because pollen loses its content during the larval digestive process. We identified 32 pollen types, from 19 botanical families, plus three undetermined pollen types. The most representative family was Fabaceae (Mimosoideae, with eight pollen types, Mimosa guilandinae being the most common species. Only the pollen of Miconia (Melastomataceae, with 74.10%, was classified as a common pollen. We also found that the pollen of Mimosa pudica (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae retained its content, indicating that not all resources furnished by workers are utilized by the larvae. The protocol applied here, despite omitting the acetolysis process, was efficient, providing full details of pollen contained in post-emergence residue.

  8. Review of the Eriococcidae (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) infesting Fabaceae in Argentina, with descriptions of three new species of Acanthococcus Signoret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Patricia; Claps, Lucía E; Juárez, Andrea; Moreno, Diego

    2017-02-15

    Three new species of Eriococcidae from Argentina, namely Acanthococcus haywardi Juárez & González sp. nov., A. punctatae Juárez & González sp. nov. and A. riojensis Juárez & González sp. nov., are described and illustrated, bringing the total number of eriococcid species now known from Argentina to 12, of which six belong to Acanthococcus Signoret and six to Hempelicoccus Kozár. They are found on 11 species of Fabaceae (subfamilies Mimosoideae and Caesalpinioidae), are widely distributed and are all restricted to the Neotropical region and the South American Transitional Zone. A key to the 12 Eriococcidae species now known on Fabaceae in Argentina is included.

  9. Pollen spectrum of propolis samples from São Paulo State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i3.18389

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    Ricardo Oliveira Orsi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The pollen spectrum of propolis is a good indicative of the phytogeographical origin of the bee product and the local flora available for bee visiting. The present study aimed to perform pollen analysis of propolis produced by Apis mellifera L., in the São Paulo State, Brazil. Propolis samples were directly obtained from beekeepers and slides were prepared for qualitative and quantitative analysis of pollen after propolis extraction. According to the results twenty-eight types of pollen were found and distributed in fifteen botanical families. Pollens from Mimosoideae and Myrtaceae types were found in all samples. In São Paulo State, there is a wide variety of vegetal sources which are components of the final propolis composition.   

  10. Flavonolignoids and other compounds isolated from Mimosa artemisiana Heringer and Paula; Flavonoides e outros compostos isolados de Mimosa artemisiana Heringer e Paula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Ildomar Alves do [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Mathias, Leda [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas. Lab. de Ciencias Quimicas; Carvalho, Mario Geraldo de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (NPPN/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Nucleo de Pesquisa em Produtos Naturais; Fonseca, Fabio de Alcantara [Instituto Estadual de Florestas (IEF), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This the first phytochemical investigation of Mimosa artemisiana (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae) describing the isolation and identification of quercitrin, myricitrin, 3,5,4'-trihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxyflavone (6,7-dimethylkaempferol), flavolignans, 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl sitosterol, lupeol, sitostenone, stigmastenone, campestenone, sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, methyl indole-3-carboxylate and indole-3-carboxaldehyde in the extracts from the leaves and wood of this plant. This is the first registry of 6,7-dimethoxy,4'-hydroxy-flavone and the flavonolignans in this genera. The isolation of all metabolites was made by chromatographic methods and the structures were established on the basis of IR, MS, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectra analysis, comparison with literature data and GC-MS of mixtures analysis. (author)

  11. Flavonolignoids and other compounds isolated from Mimosa artemisiana Heringer and Paula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Ildomar Alves do

    2012-01-01

    This the first phytochemical investigation of Mimosa artemisiana (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae) describing the isolation and identification of quercitrin, myricitrin, 3,5,4'-trihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxyflavone (6,7-dimethylkaempferol), flavolignans, 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl sitosterol, lupeol, sitostenone, stigmastenone, campestenone, sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, methyl indole-3-carboxylate and indole-3-carboxaldehyde in the extracts from the leaves and wood of this plant. This is the first registry of 6,7-dimethoxy,4'-hydroxy-flavone and the flavonolignans in this genera. The isolation of all metabolites was made by chromatographic methods and the structures were established on the basis of IR, MS, 1 H and 13 C NMR spectra analysis, comparison with literature data and GC-MS of mixtures analysis. (author)

  12. Estudo fitossociológico em dois ambientes da caatinga localizada no assentamento Moacir Lucena, Apodi-RN – BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Mirian Nogueira de Moura Guerra

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivamos comparar a área antropizada e a reserva legal de um Assentamento de Reforma Agrária na Caatinga do Rio Grande do Norte quanto à estrutura fitossociológica. Foram demarcadas 24 parcelas permanentes, sendo 12 parcelas de 10x20m distribuídas aleatoriamente em cada ambiente, sendo caracterizado como: Ambiente I – área antropizada, e Ambiente II – reserva legal do Assentamento. Em cada parcela, foram amostrados todos os indivíduos com CAB ≥ 10 cm. No ambiente antropizado foram amostrados 157 indivíduos distribuídos entre nove famílias e sete espécies, enquanto que na reserva legal, foram 244 indivíduos entre cinco famílias e sete espécies.  Destacaram-se as famílias Mimosoideae e Caesalpinioideae, para o ambiente antropizado, e, Mimosoideae, na reserva legal. O ambiente antropizado apresentou maiores índices de diversidade de Shannom e equabilidade (H’ = 1,90 nats.indivíduo-1 e 0,38, do que a reserva legal (0,86 nats.indivíduo-1 e 0,16. A. glazioviana e C. sonderianus foram às espécies que apresentaram os maiores densidades, freqüências, dominânicas relativas, valor de cobertura e valor de importância no ambiente antropizado, enquanto que A. glazioviana e C. bracteosa destacaram-se na reserva legal. No ambiente antropizado predominou a classe diamétrica de 11 a 21 cm, enquanto que na reserva legal foi a <11 cm.

  13. Experimentos em bovinos com as favas de Enterolobium contortisiliquum e E. timbouva para verificar propriedades fotossensibilizantes e/ou abortivas Experiments in cattle with the pods of Enterolobium contortisiliquum e E. timbouva to determine photosensitive and abortive properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hubinger Tokarnia

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Em função de históricos obtidos, no presente estudo tentou-se reproduzir, em bovinos, fotossensibilização e/ou aborto com as favas de Enterolobium spp (Leg. Mimosoi-deae. As favas de E. contortisiliquum e E. timbouva ("tamboril" ou "timbaúba", de diversas procedências, inclusive as colhidas durante dois surtos de intoxicação caracterizados por fotossensiblilização e aborto, foram administradas em doses únicas e repetidas, a bovinos jovens e a vacas em gestação. Em todos os experimentos realizados, a resposta à ingestão das favas independentemente da procedência, sempre foi caracterizada por diarréia e diminuição do apetite, passageiras. Também ficou evidente que os animais mostram menor sensibilidade, à medida que ingerem as favas seguidamente. Os experimentos não revelaram possíveis fatores envolvidos ou eventuais condições necessárias para que as favas de Enterolobium contortisiliquum e E. timbouva causem fotossen-siblização e/ou aborto.The pods of Enterolobium spp (Leg.Mimosoideae are said to cause photsensitivity and abortion in cattle. The pods of E. contortisiliquum and E. timbouva ("tamboril" or "timbaúba", collected at various localities, in two occasions during outbreaks of photosensitization and abortions, were fed in single and repeated doses to young bovines and to cows in calf. In all experiments the animals showed only diarrhoea and loss of apetite, as it had been already seen in previous experiments with E. contortisiliquum performed in Fortaleza, northeastern Brazil. Also it was seen again that the animals become tolerant to the toxicity of the pods if they get successive doses. The experiments did not reveal possible conditions necessary for the pods of Enterolobium contortisiliquum and E. timbouva to cause photosensitization and/or abortion.

  14. Baja Andesia: sed y poéticas tramontinas. Un desvío etnográfico a mano alzada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Araya

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Si yo fuese dromedario no tendría sed. ¿Qué hora es ?Vicente Huidobro1.El antropólogo-poeta-ponencista despierta luego de un sueño intranquilo. Tiene sed. Algo recuerda. Un escozor, dice, un poco antes, en la misma, como de ron, como de vino y el fumadero de las caras ; como si, apenas, algo de lo exagerado de una opinión, entre una cosa y la otra, hubiera olvidado. Sabe que debe hablar aquella misma mañana. Sabe. La pata de los caballos, piensa. La tribu estará reunida. No la suya. No se sus...

  15. SINOPSIS DEL GÉNERO JUNELLIA (VERBENACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly O'Leary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una sinopsis del género Junellia, fundamentada en la reciente recircunscripción del género sobre la base de estudios de filogenia molecular y análisis de caracteres morfológicos. Se aporta una clave que incluye las 37 especies de Junellia según la más actual definición del género, se presenta una descripción actualizada del género y se establecen las diferencias con los demás géneros de la tribu Verbeneae. Se describen y/o ilustran nueve especies y una variedad de Junellia no tratadas previamente o cuyas descripciones son aquí enmendadas. Se proponen también dos nuevas combinaciones: Junellia hookeriana var. catamarcensis y Junellia trifida, y ocho nuevos sinónimos.

  16. Tribus de consumo. Hacia la autosegmentación del consumidor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Martín Ortiz Esaine

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente artículo busca comprender el consumo desde una mirada de las tribus de consumo. A su vez, busca posicionarse como una nueva alternativa metodológica para las empresas de estudios de mercados, como un criterio innovador de segmentación. Se exponen las exploraciones de visitas de campo a diversas tribus de consumo de Lima Metropolitana. En total nos sumergimos en nueve comunidades culturales: skaters, gamers, surfers, k-popers, atléticos, hipsters, otakus, melómanos y graffiteros. Nos enfocamos primero, en la relación sociedad y tribu; segundo, sus características y aplicaciones de marketing. El artículo concluye con una reflexión acerca de elementos claves del criterio de segmentación por tribus de consumo.

  17. UN HELICTERES NUEVO DE MEXICO, NEXO ENTRE LAS ESPECIES ASIATICAS y AMERICANAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L. Cristóbal

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Una nueva especie, Helicteres vegae (Sterculiaceae, de Sinaloa, México es descripta e ilustrada. Se encontró el número de cromosomas 2n = 18. H. vegae se compara con el resto de las especies mexicanas y se proporciona una clave. Su afinidad con la de Asia y las especies americanas es discutida. H. vegae junto con H. Rekoí y H.carthagenensis se consideran las más diferenciadas de las especies americanas. Se propone una posible área de origen de América para Helicteres , incluido en esta área se encuentran los otros dos nuevos géneros mundiales de la tribu Helictereae.

  18. Los estados inmaduros de Coelosis biloba (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Dynastinae y notas sobre su biología Immature stages of Coelosis biloba (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Dynastinae with notes on their biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Pardo-Locarno

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen la larva de tercer estadio y las pupas de macho y hembra de Coelosis biloba (Linné 1767 con ejemplares recolectados en Colombia (Cauca y Valle y en México (Veracruz asociados con los hormigueros de Atta cephalotes (Linné 1750. Se incluyen ilustraciones de las estructuras diagnósticas, una clave para separar las larvas de tercer estadio hasta ahora conocidas de la tribu Oryctini en América, y observaciones sobre la biología de C. biloba como inquilino de los nidos de hormigas.The larva of third instar, male and female pupae of Coelosis biloba obtained inside ant nests of Atta cephalotes in Colombia (Cauca, Valle and Mexico (Veracruz are described. Drawings of diagnostic structures, a key to the known third instar larvae of American Oryctini, and observations on the biology of C. biloba as inquiline of ant nests, are included.

  19. Le don en retour. Quelques contes espagnols médiévaux autour du thème de l’échange

    OpenAIRE

    Darbord, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Les collections de contes exemplaires ont souvent adopté un ordre alphabétique, facilitant ainsi l’élaboration des sermons et homélies. Parmi les motifs les plus familiers, celui du don mal payé en retour apparaît dans les rubriques traitant de l’ingratitude, mais aussi dans les textes consacrés à l’usure et à l’aumône. L’homme qui donne généreusement au pauvre, sans être rétribué par celui-ci, prête à Dieu qui remboursera au centuple. Les relations d’argent, les notions de prêt, d’intérêt, d...

  20. La circunstancia social en el arte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Vidales

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available I. Pimienta social en el arte de la prehistoria Desde el punto de vista social, se ha convenido en señalar la existencia de tres etapas diferentes en la prehistoria del hombre. Primero, la horda y la tribu, generalmente nómades, dedicadas a la pesca y la caza, y que suelen desplazarse dentro de un determinado cerco geográfico, movidas por la necesidad de recolectar los frutos naturales para la subsistencia. Segunda, la radicación en una determinada comarca, impulsada por la siembra de los frutos por la mano del hombre, etapa en torno a la cual, por lo mismo, nace el concepto de agricultura.

  1. Revisión del género Covasacris (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Acridinae: Hyalopterygini Revision of genus Covasacris (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Acridinae: Hyalopterygini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Donato

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Se llevó a cabo la revisión del género monotípico Covasacris Liebermann. A partir del estudio detallado de la morfología externa e interna en ambos sexos y de la comparación con los restantes integrantes de la tribu, se propone que las especies Covasacris albitarsis Liebermann, Parorphula pallidinota Bruner y Parorphula strigata Bruner son la misma entidad, por ello se establece aquí la nueva combinación Covasacris pallidinota (Bruner.The revision of the monotypic genus Covasacris Liebermann was carried out. Based on the detailed study of the external and internal morphology in both sexes and the comparison with the remaining members of the tribe, the synonymy of the species Covasacris albitarsis Liebermann, Parorphula pallidinota Bruner and Parorphula strigata Bruner is proposed. Therefore, the new combination Covasacris pallidinota (Bruner is established.

  2. Musculoskeletal Risk Factors in the Young Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskwa, C A; Nicholas, J A; Goldberg, B

    1989-11-01

    In brief: Many children and adolescents participate in sports that put them at risk for musculoskeletal injuries. Underlying physical conditions, or risk factors, may predispose them to particular types of sports injuries. Research shows that these risk factors fall into five categories: body type, flexibility, muscle strength, inadequate rehabilitation of a previous injury, and skeletal malalignment and anomalies. Some findings show, for example, that youthful football players who are also heavy have an increased rate of injury, sprains and strains are less common in flexible athletes, and patellar pain or subluxation may be related to a variety of malalignment factors. The authors recommend using a systematic, integrated approach to risk assessment of the athlete, both for detecting risk factors and determining their potential for con tribu ting to a sports injury.

  3. OTRA CIVILIZACIÓN DE LA MIEL: UTILIZACIÓN DE MIEL EN GRUPOS INDÍGENAS GUAYCURÚES A PARTIR DE LA EVIDENCIA DE FUENTES JESUITAS (Siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Celeste Medrano

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los grupos guaycurúes que habitaban la región del Gran Chaco durante el siglo XVIII realizaban un extenso aprovechamiento de mieles procedentes de abejas nativas sin aguijón (Tribu Meliponini. Estas prácticas fueron extensamente documentadas por los jesuitas que misionaron en el área. El presente trabajo se basa en el análisis de las evidencias obtenidas en estas fuentes y datos etnográficos actuales relacionados al aprovechamiento de miel. El objetivo es examinar los usos y saberes tradicionales e identificar las especies de meliponas mencionadas en dichas fuentes a partir de la colecta de ejemplares y los discursos de indígenas y criollos elaborados sobre las mismas aportando a un corpus que incluya la diversidad de conocimientos existentes en la zona sobre estas prácticas.

  4. Sobre la primitiva organización gentilicia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available L'A. établit la relation entre l'organisation gentilice grecque et romaine et le calendrier de ces peuples. Il montre également la relation entre l'organisation gentilice des indiens nord-américains et un modèle prédéterminé de huit 'gens' pour chaque tribu. Il démontre finalement le caractère décimal de l'organisation gentilice inca qui s'oppose a l'organisation aztèque de type vicésimal liée a son calendrier. En raison de tout ceci, l'A. conclut que le modèle général gentilice de ces peuples est de caractère mythique, rejetant ainsi le concept qui veut que l'organisation gentilice typique se forme a partir de l'évolution naturelle des organisations familiales primitives. Se establece la relación existente entre la organización gentilicia griega y romana con el calendario usado por estos pueblos. Asimismo la relación existente entre la organización gentilicia de los indios norteamericanos y un patrón predeterminado de ocho gens para cada tribu. Finalmente se establece el carácter decimal de la organización gentilicia incaica, en contraposición a la vigesimal azteca que se relaciona con el calendario usado en esta cultura. Con esta evidencia se concluye en que el patrón general gentilicio de estos pueblos es de carácter mítico, rechazándose así el concepto de que la organización gentilicia típica se forma por la evolución natural de las organizaciones familiares primarias.

  5. Parâmetros fitossociológicos de um cerrado no Parque Nacional Da Serra Do Cipó, MG Phytosociological parameters of a cerrado in "Serra Do Cipó" national park, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    João Augusto Alves Meira Neto

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available A riqueza de espécies e os fatores determinantes da ocorrência da vegetação de cerrado há muito têm despertado o interesse de pesquisadores. Muitos cerrados protegidos em unidades de conservação ainda não foram investigados florística e estruturalmente. Neste trabalho foi realizado um levantamento florístico e fitossociológico no Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó (19º22'01''S e 43º37'10''W. Foram instaladas 12 parcelas de 150 m² e foram amostrados todos os indíviduos lenhosos com circunferência do caule à altura do solo maior ou igual a 10 cm. Foram relacionadas 44 espécies de 37 gêneros e 30 famílias. Entre estas, Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae Mimosoideae e Guttiferae, com três espécies cada, foram as mais ricas. As espécies mais importantes (VI foram Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Allagoptera campestris, Diospyros hispida, Rapanea guianensis e Piptocarpha rotundifolia.The diversity of species and the factors determining the occurrence of cerrado vegetation have long called the attention of researchers. Many protected cerrados in Conservation Units have not been floristically and structurally studied. This work conducted a floristic and phytosociological survey of the Parque Nacional da "Serra do Cipó" ("Serra do Cipó" National Park (19º22'01''S and 43º37'10''W. Twelve quadrats of 150 m² were established and all individuals with a stem circumference at ground level larger than or equal to 10 cm were sampled. A total of 44 species of 37 genera and 30 families were found. The richest families were Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae Mimosoideae and Guttiferae, with three species each. The most important species (VI were Hymenaea stigonocarpa, Allagoptera campestris, Diospyros hispida, Rapanea guianensis and Piptocarpha rotundifolia.

  6. Chemical constituents of Piptadenia gonoacantha (Mart. J.F. Macbr (pau jacaré

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    Mário G. de Carvalho

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of Piptadenia gonoacantha (Mart. J.F. Macbr. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae, commonly known as "pau jacaré" (alligator stick, afforded sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, the N-benzoylphenylalanine-2-benzoylamide-3-phenylpropyl ester, known as asperphenamate, sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, besides three flavonoids, apigenin, 5-O-methylapigenin and 7,4'-dihydroxy-3',5-dimethoxyflavone from its branches. From its leaves, the methyl gallate and two flavonoids, vitexin and isovitexin, were isolated. From its bark, a mixture of sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol, besides a mixture of cycloartenone, cycloartan-25-en-3-one, and 24-methylene-cycloartenone, and the pure triterpenes 24-methylenecycloartanol, friedelin, lupeol and lupenone, were isolated. Their structures were established on the basis of spectral analysis, comparison with literature data and GC-MS analysis of the mixtures. The ester, flavonoids and the cycloartanes are been identified for first time in the genus Piptadenia.O estudo fitoquímico de galhos de Piptadenia gonoacantha (Mart. J.F. Macbr. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae, comumente conhecida como "pau jacaré", forneceu sitosterol, estigmasterol, o éster N-benzoilfenilalaninato de 2-N-benzoil-3-fenilpropila, conhecido como asperfenamato, 3-O-β-D-glicopiranosil-sitosterol, além de três flavonóides, apigenina (5,7,4'-triidroxiflavona, apigenina-5-O-metil éter e 7,4'-dihidroxi-3' , 5-dimetoxiflavona. Das folhas isolaram-se galato de metila e dois flavonóides, 8-C-glicopiranosil-5,7,4' -trihidroxiflavona e 6-C-glicopiranosil-5,7,4'-trihidroxiflavona, conhecidas como vitexina e isovitexina. Das cascas desta planta isolaram-se uma mistura de sitosterol, campesterol e estigmasterol; mistura de cicloartenona, cicloartan-25,26-en-3-ona e 24-metileno-cicloartanona, além dos triterpenos, 24-metilenocicloartenol, fridelina, lupeol e lupenona. As estruturas foram estabelecidas através de análise de

  7. Composição, diversidade e similaridade florística de uma floresta tropical semidecídua submontana em Marcelândia - MT Floristic composition, diversity and similarity of a submontane semideciduous tropical forest in Marcelândia - MT

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    Elbert Viana Ferreira Júnior

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a composição, diversidade e similaridade florística de uma área de floresta estacional semidecidual localizada no município de Marcelândia-MT, em área de tensão ecológica, na região de contato floresta ombrófila/floresta estacional. Foram amostrados 4008 indivíduos, pertencentes a 33 famílias e 92 espécies, em 74 parcelas de 10 m x 250 m. As famílias que apresentaram maior valor percentual de árvores foram: Lauraceae (15,99%, Melastomataceae (12,97%, Sapotaceae (12,50%, Fabaceae - Mimosoideae (9,91%, Burseraceae (9,13% e Moraceae (7,29%. Os valores obtidos para os índices de diversidade Shannon-Weaver, de concentração de Simpson e de equitabilidade de Pielou indicaram que a área apresenta diversidade relativamente alta e baixa concentração de espécies com alta uniformidade nas proporções indivíduos/espécies dentro da comunidade vegetal. Os padrões de similaridade florística evidenciaram baixa similaridade entre as áreas avaliadas evidenciando existência de padrões fitogeográficos baseados na distribuição das espécies.The objective of this study was to analyze the floristic composition, diversity and similarity of a submontane, semideciduous tropical forest in Marcelândia-MT, in an ecological tension area in the forest contact region. The 33 families and 92 species specimens were found in 4008 individuals, in 74 plots of 10m x 250 m. The families that contributed most frequently to the floristic composition were Lauraceae (15.99%, Melastomataceae (12.97%, Sapotaceae (12.50%, Fabaceae - Mimosoideae (9.91%, Burseraceae (9.13% and Moraceae (7.29%. The Shannon-Weaver diversity, Simpson concentration and Pielou evenness indexes indicated that the area presents relatively high diversity and low concentration of species with high uniformity in the ratios of individuals per species. The floristic similarity standards had low similarity among the evaluated areas evidencing the

  8. Tipos polínicos encontrados em colônias de abelhas africanizadas sujeitas à doença cria ensacada brasileira Pollen types found in africanized honeybees colonies submitted to brazilian sac brood disease

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    Marta Rodrigues Pacheco

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O pólen de algumas espécies de Stryphnodendron (Mimosoidea, conhecidas popularmente por barbatimão, tem sido apontado como agente causador da mortandade de larvas pré-pupas observada na cria ensacada brasileira (CEB. Neste estudo, objetivou-se identificar os tipos polínicos encontrados em amostras de pólen coletadas em colméias de Apis mellifera L., no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, a fim de elucidar as fontes florais utilizadas por essa espécie de abelhas em períodos sujeitos a CEB, com especial atenção para a presença do pólen de Stryphnodendron spp. Foram coletadas amostras de pólen apícola e pão de abelhas em sete apiários, em três municípios do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. A amostragem foi tomada um mês antes e durante a ocorrência da CEB. As famílias botânicas mais representativas foram: Leguminosae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, Poaceae e Myrtaceae. O pólen de Stryphnodendron não esteve presente nas amostras analisadas. A ausência de Stryphnodendron no menu floral das colônias africanizadas acometidas pela CEB em condições naturais sugere outro fator causal para a CEB no Estado do Rio de Janeiro.The pollen of some Stryphnodendron species (Mimosoidea, commonly known as barbatimão, has been identified as a causative agent of pre-pulps larvae mortality, observed in Brazilian sac brood disease (BSB. The goal of this study is to identify the pollen types found in samples of pollen collected by Apis mellifera L. to elucidate the floral diet used by this honeybee specie in Rio de Janeiro state during the periods where BSB usually occurs. Particular attention was given to the pollen of Stryphnodendron spp presence. Samples of pollen and bee bread were collected from seven apiaries located in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. Sampling procedures were done a month before BSB usual occurrence and also during its occurrence. Leguminosae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, Poaceae and Myrtaceae were most representative botanical families on

  9. SUKU FABACEAE DI KAMPUS UNIVERSITAS ISLAM NEGERI SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH, JAKARTA, BAGIAN 2: TUMBUHAN POLONG BERPERAWAKAN TERNA

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    Priyanti Priyanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Suku Fabaceae adalah tetumbuhan yang memiliki buah bertipe polong. Suku tersebut selain berperawakan pohon juga berupa terna. Anggota suku Fabaceae (polong banyak ditemukan di sekitar lingkungan manusia termasuk di Kampus Universitas Islam Negeri (UIN Syarif Hidayatullah, Jakarta. Informasi mengenai keanekaragaman tumbuhan polong yang berupa terna di Kampus UIN Syarif Hidayatullah belum tersedia. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan metode jelajah di kampus I dan II serta studi pustaka. Sebanyak 3 jenis tumbuhan polong berperawakan terna telah didapatkan di lingkungan kampus, yaitu Arachis pintoi Krapov. & W. C. Greg., Mimosa diplotricha C. Wright ex Sauvalle, dan M. pudica L. Jenis-jenis tersebut termasuk ke dalam 2 anak suku (Faboideae, Mimosoideae dan 2 puak (Aeschynomeneae, Mimoseae. Jenis-jenis tersebut tumbuh di lokasi yang berbeda-beda. Tumbuhan polong yang hanya ditemukan di Fakultas Kedokteran dan Ilmu Keshatan (FKIK adalah A. pintoi. Mimosa diplotricha ditemukan tumbuh di Pusat Laboratorium Terpadu Fakultas Sains dan Teknologi, Perpustakaan Utama, FKIK, Fakultas Sosial dan Ilmu Politik (FISIP, Wisma Syahida, Pusat Bahasa, dan Sekolah Pascasarjana, sedangkan M. pudica ditemukan Perpustakaan Utama, FISIP, dan Wisma Syahida. Kelengkapan data tentang tumbuhan polong di Kampus UIN Syarif Hidayatullah ini dapat digunakan oleh para mahasiswa untuk mempelajari keanekaragamnnya. Abstract Fabaceae is a plant with a pod-type fruit. A Habit of this family is not only trees but also herb. Fabaceae (legumes is often found on the human environment around campus included in the State Islamic University (UIN Syarif Hidayatullah, Jakarta. The Information about the legume herbs diversity on the UIN Syarif Hidayatullah yet available. The study was conducted using survey and literature methods. There were 3 species legume herbs in the campus, viz. Arachis pintoi Krapov. & W. C. Greg., Mimosa diplotricha C. Wright ex Sauvalle, and M. pudica L. All

  10. Mapeamento da flora apícola arbórea das regiões pólos do estado do Piauí

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    Divane de Lima Aleixo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da flora apícola de uma determinada região constitui uma ferramenta essencial para que o apicultor otimize a sua produção. O presente estudo desenvolvido no Estado do Piauí teve como objetivo identificar e catalogar as espécies apícolas arbóreas existentes nas regiões consideradas polo do Estado (Regiões Norte, Serra da Capivara, Picos e Simplício Mendes, bem como observar o período de florescimento e sua aptidão a néctar e/ou pólen pelas abelhas.  O levantamento apibotânico foi realizado entre os meses de agosto de 2009 a dezembro de 2010. Foram feita coleta do material vegetal mensalmente, de acordo com o período de floração, e para verificar a presença de abelhas. O material vegetal foi herborizado conforme as técnicas usuais em botânica, e encaminhado para o Laboratório de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande – Campus de Pombal para serem identificadas. Foram catalogadas 38 espécies de plantas arbóreas, sendo que destas, 11 espécies apresentaram floração na estação da seca, sete plantas com floração na estação da chuva e 18 plantas apresentaram floração passando de uma estação para outra, e 16 espécies que apresentam aptidão a pólen e a néctar pelas abelhas. Entre as 17 famílias das espécies identificadas e catalogadas nas microrregiões do semi-árido temos: Anacardiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Burseraceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Fabaceae-Faboideae, Fabaceae-Mimosoideae, Lecythydaceae, Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae, Leguminosae- Mimosoideae, Leguminosae, Mimosaceae, Moringaceae, Myrtaceae, Rhamnaceae, e Sapindaceae.

  11. Estudio filogenético de los géneros de Lithinini de Sudamérica Austral (Lepidoptera, Geometridae: una nueva clasificación Phylogenetic study of the genera of Lithinini (Lepidoptera, Geometridae from southern South America: a new classification

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    Luis E. Parra

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudio filogenético de los géneros de Lithinini de Sudamérica Austral (Lepidoptera, Geometridae: una nueva clasificación. Se evalúa la taxonomía de la tribu Lithinini de Sudamérica Austral sobre la base de un análisis filogenético. Para el análisis se utilizó a Catophoenissa como grupo externo. Se usaron dos aproximaciones filogenéticas para evaluar las relaciones de parentesco: 1 criterio de parsimonia; e 2 inferencia bayesiana. El análisis de parsimonia se realizó a través del programa PAUP y el análisis bayesiano con cadenas de Markov y Monte Carlo a través del programa BayesPhylogenies. Los resultados generados a partir de la hipótesis filogenética permiten proponer una nueva taxonomía para los Lithinini de Sudamérica Austral. Los géneros validos son: Asestra Warren, Acauro Rindge, Calta Rindge, Euclidiodes Warren, Franciscoia Orfila y Schajovskoy, Incalvertia Bartlett-Calvert, Lacaria Orfila y Schajovskoy, Laneco Rindge, Maeandrogonaria Butler, Martindoelloia Orfila y Schajovskoy, Nucara Rindge, Odontothera Butler, Proteopharmacis Warren, Psilaspilates Butler, Rhinoligia Warren, Tanagridia Butler. Los principales cambios respecto de ordenamientos taxonómicos previos son: 1 Yalpa Rindge, es tratado como sinónimo junior de Odontothera. 2 El género Rhinoligia Warren es incorporado a los Lithinini; 3 Se reafirma que Siopla Rindge es sinónimo junior de Asestra, Yapoma Rindge y Duraglia Rindge son sinónimos de Euclidiodes Warren, mientras que Callemo Rindge y Guara Rindge son sinónimos de Tanagridia; 4 Los géneros Calta Rindge, Incalvertia Rindge, Odontothera Butler y Proteopharmacis Warren, sinonimizados por Pitkin, son redefinidos, revalidados e incorporados a la tribu Lithinini. Se describe una nueva especie para el género Franciscoia, F. ediliae Parra. Se incluye un catálogo con los géneros y especies de la tribu de la región, más las figuras de los adultos y genitalias de las principales especies.In this

  12. Revisión del grupo Iberobathynella (Iberobathynella Camacho & Serban, 1998 (Crustacea, Syncarida, Parabathynellidae endémico de la Península Ibérica

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    Serban, E.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present additional information on the subgenus Iberobathynella (Iberobathynella Camacho & Serban, 1998, made up of five species endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and belonging to the Tribe Iberobathynellini Camacho & Serban, 1998. We give a complete description of the Iberobathynella (Iberobathynella paragracilipes Camacho & Serban, 1998 which, previously preliminary described. We also carry out an analysis of the population variability of the species. We show that the phylogenetic position of this subgenus is the most primitive in thistribe made up of four genera and five subgenera and we conclude that the species Iberobathynella (Iberobathynella paragracilipes and Iberobathynella (Iberobathynella gracilipes ((Braga, 1960 seem to be more plesiomorphic than the group comprising the other three species of the subgenus, I. (I. lusitanica (Braga, 1949, I. (I. valbonensis (Galhano, 1970 e I. (I. barcelensis (Noodt & Galhano, 1969. The paleodistribution derivated from the current known distribution of the genus in the Iberian Peninsula and its phylogenetic relationships lead us to conclude that speciation of the group could have occurred at the end of the Cretaceous (65 Myrs.En este trabajo abordamos la revisión del subgénero Iberobathynella (Iberobathynella Camacho & Serban, 1998, compuesto por cinco especies endémicas de la Península Ibérica y que pertenecen a la tribu Iberobathynellini Camacho & Serban, 1998. Se presenta una descripción completa de la especie Iberobathynella (Iberobathynella paragracilipes Camacho & Serban, 1998 de la cual sólo se dispone hasta la fecha de una diagnosis preliminar. Se realiza un análisis de la variación poblacional de la misma. Se muestra la posición filogenética de este subgénero, el más primitivo, dentro de la tribu que consta de 4 géneros y 5 subgéneros, y se concluye que las especies I. gracilipes (Braga, 1960 e I. paragracilipes parecen ser más plesiomorfas que el grupo formado

  13. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanol stem bark extract of Prosopis africana.

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    Ayanwuyi, Lydia O; Yaro, Abdullahi H; Abodunde, Olajumoke M

    2010-03-01

    Prosopis africana (Guill. & Perr.) Taub. (Mimosoideae) is a shrub used for menstrual and general body pain in Nupe land in north central Nigeria. In this study, the methanol extract of the stem bark of Prosopis africana (at doses of 62.5, 125, and 250 mg/kg) was evaluated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities using acetic acid-induced writhing assay and carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats. The extract significantly (P acetic acid-induced writhing with the highest activity observed at the highest dose, 250 mg/kg (76.89%) comparable to that of piroxicam (83.16%) the standard agent used. In the carrageenan-induced inflammation assay, the extract showed significant anti-inflammatory activity (P screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, tannins, and alkaloids. The oral median lethal dose was found to be 3807.9 mg/kg in mice and > 5000 mg/kg in rats. This study supports the folkloric claim of the use of Prosopis africana in the management of pain.

  14. Molecular systematics of selected genera of subfamily mimosoidae-fabaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinwari, Z.K.; Jamil, K.; Zahra, N.B.

    2014-01-01

    Family Mimosoidae-Fabaceae is of economic importance to local communities for its medicinal usage. It has commercial value, but the parts sold in the market are difficult to identify on the basis of morphological characters and therefore needs molecular systematics approaches. Hence, the utility of potential DNA barcodes for selected Acacia and Albizia species by using three cpDNA regions rbcL, matK and trnH-psbA was tested in this study. Our study suggests that the rbcL region can be used to identify these species and discriminate among them more effectively than matK and trnH-psbA. The latter regions proved to be less successful in sequencing particularly trnH-psbA. Therefore, rbcL is an improved and efficient tool for species identification of these medicinal plants and may be recommended for a broad series of subfamily Mimosoideae (Family: Fabaceae) plants, making it a potential DNA barcode for these taxa. Sequence data obtained from rbcL and matK also indicated that Acacia and Albizia are polyphyletic. The phylogenetic analysis on the basis of rbcL proved that Acacia nilotica and Acacia nilotica ssp. hemispherica are closely related as they form the sister groups. (author)

  15. Nitrogen fixation in four dryland tree species in central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovalle, C.; Arredondo, S.; Aronson, J.; Longeri, L.; Avendano, J.

    1998-01-01

    Results are presented from a 5-year experiment using 15 N-enriched fertilizer to determine N 2 fixation in four tree species on degraded soils in a Mediterranean-climate region of central Chile in which there are 5 months of drought. Species tested included three slow-growing but long-lived savannah trees native to southers South America, (acacia caven, Prosopic alba and P. chilensis; Mimosoideae), and Tagasaste (Chamaecytisus proliferus ssp. palmensis; Papilonoideae), a fast-growing but medium-lived tree from the Canary Islands. Tagasaste produced four- to twenty-fold more biomass than the other species, but showed declining N 2 fixation and biomass accumulation during the 5th year, corresponding to the juvenile-to-adult developmental transition. Nitrogen content was significantly higher in Tagasaste and Acacia caven than in the other species. The data revealed inter-specific differences in resource allocation and phenology of N 2 fixation rarely detailed for woody plants in dryland regions. (author)

  16. Gastroprotective effect of the ethanolic extract of Parkia platycephala Benth. leaves against acute gastric lesion models in rodents

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    Hélio B Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkia platycephala Benth. (Leguminosae - Mimosoideae, popularly known as "visgueira", fava bean tree or "fava-de-bolota", is widely found in the Northern and Northeastern regions of Brazil. Its pods are used as cattle food supplement in the drought period. Compounds with a gastroprotective activity were obtained from the genus Parkia. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the gastroprotective effect of the ethanolic extract of Parkia platycephala Benth. leaves (Pp-EtOH, as well as evaluating its possible mechanisms of action in experimental ulcer induction models. Lesions were induced by absolute ethanol, ethanol-HCl, ischemia-reperfusion and indomethacin in rodents. Pp-EtOH showed a protective effect in the lesion models (66, 48 and 52 %, respectively, but it was not able to protect gastric mucosa against indomethacin-induced lesions. Results show a possible participation of the NO-synthase pathway in the gastroprotection and an antioxidant activity, by the increase of the catalase activity. The participation of prostaglandins and potassium channels sensitive to ATP in the gastroprotective effect of Pp-EtOH seems less likely to occur. More comprehensive studies, therefore, should be carried out to elucidate the antiulcerative effects of this promising natural product against this gastrointestinal disorder.

  17. ESTUDO DA COBERTURA VEGETAL EM AMBIENTES DA CAATINGA COM DIFERENTES FORMAS DE MANEJO NO ASSENTAMENTO MOACIR LUCENA, APODI - RN

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    Marcos de Freitas Pessoa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The work was conducted in two environments of caatinga, occurring in the Moacir Lucena accomplished, Apodi - RN. 12 plots have been demarcated 10 x 20 m, randomly distributed in each environment, characterized as follows: Area I - managed area and Area II - area of legal reserve of Accomplished. In each plot were sampled all individuals with CAB ¿ 10 cm. In Area I were sampled 130 individuals, five families and eight species, while in Area II, 244 individuals, four families and seven species. The Mimosoideae and Boraginaceae families are highlighted by number of individuals. Caesalpinea bracteosa presented greater number of individuals in the environment I and Auxemma glazioviana the environment II. The environment I made highest diversity of the Shannon- Weaver (H', 1,10. In the environment I Caesalpinea bracteosa and Auxemma glazioviana were the species that showed higher frequencies, densities and dominances relatives, index of importance and value of coverage. Auxemma glazioviana presented highest density, dominance, frequency, IVC and IVI in the environment II. In the environment I most individuals presented stem diameter of between 11 and 21 cm, while the environment II, less than 11 cm.

  18. Plastome-Wide Nucleotide Substitution Rates Reveal Accelerated Rates in Papilionoideae and Correlations with Genome Features Across Legume Subfamilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Erika N; Ruhlman, Tracey A; Weng, Mao-Lun; Khiyami, Mohammad A; Sabir, Jamal S M; Hajarah, Nahid H; Alharbi, Njud S; Rabah, Samar O; Jansen, Robert K

    2017-04-01

    This study represents the most comprehensive plastome-wide comparison of nucleotide substitution rates across the three subfamilies of Fabaceae: Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae, and Papilionoideae. Caesalpinioid and mimosoid legumes have large, unrearranged plastomes compared with papilionoids, which exhibit varying levels of rearrangement including the loss of the inverted repeat (IR) in the IR-lacking clade (IRLC). Using 71 genes common to 39 legume taxa representing all the three subfamilies, we show that papilionoids consistently have higher nucleotide substitution rates than caesalpinioids and mimosoids, and rates in the IRLC papilionoids are generally higher than those in the IR-containing papilionoids. Unsurprisingly, this pattern was significantly correlated with growth habit as most papilionoids are herbaceous, whereas caesalpinioids and mimosoids are largely woody. Both nonsynonymous (dN) and synonymous (dS) substitution rates were also correlated with several biological features including plastome size and plastomic rearrangements such as the number of inversions and indels. In agreement with previous reports, we found that genes in the IR exhibit between three and fourfold reductions in the substitution rates relative to genes within the large single-copy or small single-copy regions. Furthermore, former IR genes in IR-lacking taxa exhibit accelerated rates compared with genes contained in the IR.

  19. A study of the morphoanatomical characters of the leaves of Chamaecrista (L. Moench sect. Apoucouita (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae

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    Ítalo Antônio Cotta Coutinho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Little attention has been paid to species of Chamaecrista sect. Apoucouita (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae, especially regarding anatomical studies. When only vegetative material is available, the identification of such species may be difficult. Additionally, vegetative material of some species of C. sect. Apoucouita may be even harder to identify because they can resemble species of Inga Mill. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae. The present study focused on recognizing morphoanatomical characters of leaves that are taxonomically useful for the species of C. sect. Apoucouita by employing standard anatomical techniques. The arrangement of the vascular system in the petiole/rachis, dorsiventral mesophyll, mucilage idioblasts in the epidermis of leaflets and hypostomatic leaves were some of the characters shared by all species studied. Length of the petiole, position and type of extrafloral nectaries, leaflet venation, presence and type of papillae on the epidermis of the leaflet blades and sclereids in the mesophyll were some of the characters useful in the distinction of taxa. The vascular arrangement of the petiole/rachis is a promising character in the distinction of species of C. sect. Apoucouita and Inga. Based on morphoanatomical data, the taxonomic revision of some species and varieties ascribed to C. sect. Apoucouita is suggested.

  20. Trigona corvina: An Ecological Study Based on Unusual Nest Structure and Pollen Analysis

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    David W. Roubik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We found that the nest of Trigona corvina (Apidae; Meliponini consists mainly of pollen exines from bee excrement, forming a scutellum shield encasing the colony. A 20-year-old nest (1980–2000 from a lowland Panama forested habitat was sawed in half longitudinally, and a 95 cm transect was systematically sampled each 5 cm. Samples subjected to detailed pollen analysis held 72 botanical species belonging to 65 genera in 41 families. Over 90% of scutellum pollen volume was Cecropiaceae and Arecaceae, among >1013 grains. Potentially the oldest samples, in the middle of the nest, indicate that Mimosoideae, Euphorbiaceae, and Bombacaceae (now Malvaceae were lost when Africanized honey bee competitors colonized Panama in 1984. Cecropia deposited in the nest increased markedly after landscape-level vegetation disturbance. Pollen from Cavanillesia demonstrated that the foraging range encompassed 3 km2 and perhaps 500 plant species. Trigona corvina primarily foraged on plants with large inflorescences, consistent with foraging theory considering their aggressive behavior.

  1. Effects of fluoride on germination, early growth and antioxidant enzyme activities of legume plant species Prosopis juliflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Poonam; Khan, Suphiya; Baunthiyal, Mamta; Sharma, Vinay

    2013-03-01

    Prosopis juliflora (Mimosoideae) is a fast growing and drought resistant tree of semi-arid region of India where fluoride (F) toxicity is a common problem. In the present investigations this species was fluoride tested to check their capacity as bioindicator plant and its efficiency to accumulate. To achieve this aim, P. juliflora seedlings grown in hydroponic culture containing different concentrations of F were analyzed for germination percentage together with some biochemical parameters viz, antioxidant enzyme activities, total chlorophyll and accumulation of F in different plant parts. After 15 days of treatment, root growth (r = -0.928, p juliflora did not show any morphological changes (marginal and tip chlorosis of leaf portions, necrosis and together these features are referred to as leaf "tip-burn") therefore, this species may be used as suitable bioindicator species for potentially F affected areas. Further, higher accumulation of F in roots indicates that P. juliflora is a suitable species for the removal of F in phytoremediation purposes.

  2. RAPD and microsatellite transferability studies in selected species of Prosopis (section Algarobia) with emphasis on Prosopis juliflora and P. pallida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Minu; Smith, Steve; Patel, Ashok; Harris, Phil; Hand, Paul; Trenchard, Liz; Henderson, Janey

    2011-08-01

    The genus Prosopis (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae), comprises 44 species widely distributed in arid and semi-arid zones. Prosopis pallida (Humb. and Bonpl. ex Willd.) Kunth and P. juliflora (Sw.) DC. are the two species that are truly tropical apart from P. africana, which is native to tropical Africa (Pasiecznik et al. 2004), and they have been introduced widely beyond their native ranges. However, taxonomic confusion within the genus has hampered exploitation and better management of the species. The present study focusses primarily on evaluating the genetic relationship between Prosopis species from the section Algarobia, containing most species of economic importance, though P. tamarugo from section Strombocarpa is also included for comparison. In total, 12 Prosopis species and a putative P. pallida x P. chilensis hybrid were assessed for their genetic relationships based on RAPD markers and microsatellite transferability. The results show that P. pallida and P. juliflora are not closely related despite some morphological similarity. Evidence also agrees with previous studies which suggest that the grouping of series in section Algarobia is artificial.

  3. El género Bauhinia (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae, Cercideae en la península de Yucatán (México, Belice y Guatemala The genus Bauhinia (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae, Cercideae in Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico, Belice and Guatemala

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    Rafael Torres-Colín

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta información del género Bauhinia, tribu Cercideae en la provincia biótica de la península de Yucatán. Se reconocen 5 especies nativas: Bauhinia divaricata L., B. erythrocalyx Wunderlin, B. jenningsii P. Wilson, B. herrerae (Britton et Rose Standl. et Steyerm. y B. ungulata L., así como 2 introducidas: B. monandra Kurz y B. variegata L. Se presenta una clave para identificación, descripciones morfológicas, mapas de distribución, fotografías de las especies e información de los nombres comunes y uso en la región.General information about the genus Bauhinia in the Yucatán Peninsula Biotic Province is presented. Five native species, B. divaricata L, B. erythrocalyx Wunderlin, B. jenningsii P. Wilson, B. herrerae (Britton et Rose Standl. et Steyerm., B. ungulata L. and 2 exotic species, B. monandra Kurz and B. variegata L., are recognized. Species identification key, morphological descriptions, distribution maps, and photographs are presented. Additional information of common names and uses in the region is included.

  4. La práctica pedagógica en la formación inicial de profesores del primer ciclo de Enseñanza Básica

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    Hugo Alexandre LOPES MENINO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En el contexto de la formación inicial de profesores, el presente estudio pretende describir y analizar el discurso en relación al papel de la práctica pedagógica desde el punto de vista de los diferentes protagonistas que en ella intervienen. La investigación fue diseñada en un paradigma mixto, cuantitativo y cualitativo, implicando a futuros profesores, a profesores cooperantes de los centros escolares (tutores y a profesores supervisores de los centros de formación, habiéndose desarrollado un análisis de carácter descriptivo e interpretativo esencialmente. Dicho análisis permitió obtener un cuadro conceptual orientado por diversas categorías que muestran las concepciones acerca de las expectativas, miedos y recelos en relación a la profesión, a la organización y funcionamiento de la práctica pedagógica y a los papeles de los profesores cooperantes y supervisores. Los principales resultados evidencian de forma clara la importancia a tribuída por los diversos intervinientes al componente práctico en la formación de los futuros profesionales.

  5. Tabla de vida y parámetros poblacionales de Lacertinella australis (Insecta-Hemiptera-Fulgoromorpha

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    Maria F. ROSSI BATIZ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lacertinella australis ha sido capturada en 11 provincias de la Argentina y fue mencionada como una especie de interés fitosanitario por su potencial para vehiculizar fitopatógenos. Atendiendo al amplio rango de distribución, su potencial importancia fitosanitaria y el carácter invasivo de su principal planta hospedera, Cor - taderia spp., se evaluaron aspectos del ciclo de vida a través de una tabla de vida vertical bajo condiciones controladas en el laboratorio y se confeccionó una segunda tabla de vida sobre la base de un muestreo de una población natural. Se estimaron los atributos poblacionales: tasa reproductiva básica o tasa de reemplazo ( R 0 , tasa finita de crecimiento poblacional ( λ , capacidad de incremento poblacional ( r c , valor reproductivo ( V x , tiempo generacional de la cohorte ( T c y el promedio del tiempo de desarrollo por estadios. Se mencionan y comparan aspectos comportamentales y de la bionomía de L. australis compartidos con las dos especies de la tribu cuya biología se conoce: Saccharosydne procerus y Saccharosydne saccharivora.

  6. Una ciudad de los vascones en el yacimiento de Campo Real/Fillera (Sos del Rey Católico-Sangüesa

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    Andreu Pintado, Javier

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The following paper deals with the detailed and preliminary study of the archaeological site of Campo Real/Fillera (Sos del Rey Católico/Sangüesa, between today Zaragoza and Navarra provinces specially focusing in its Roman period. The paper exposes a review of the archeological and epigraphical material from the site, proposes an urban condition for it and raises some hypothesis on its identification with one of the cities that ancient sources tribued to Vascones.El presente trabajo aborda el estudio detallado y preliminar del yacimiento arqueológico de Campo Real/Fillera (Sos del Rey Católico/Sangüesa, en el límite entre las actuales provincias de Zaragoza y Navarra con especial atención a su etapa romana. Se procede a la revisión del material arqueológico y epigráfico procedente del lugar, se defiende la condición de enclave urbano del yacimiento y se plantea una hipótesis respecto de su identificación con las ciudades que las fuentes antiguas atribuyen a los Vascones.

  7. Contes et histoires du Yémen

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    Muhammad 'Alî Abduh

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Deux contes de la région de Taez, traduits en français, illustrent plusieurs aspects de la vie sociale traditionnelle des villages yéménites. " La brebis devenue hyène " conte les mésaventures d'un groupe d'hommes partis pour une lointaine visite, chargés de qat et accompagnés d'une brebis. " La divination par les os " met en scène le face-à-face entre l'honneur perdu d'un cheikh et celui du hérault de sa tribu.Traditional Tales of YemenThe two tales from the Taez area, translated into French, express different aspects of the traditional social life in Yemeni villages. "The sheep that became a hyena" is about the misfortunes of a group of men that left for a journey transporting qat and a sheep. The other, "Divination by bones", consists in a direct exchange between the lost  honour of a sheikh and the one of the tribe’s herald.

  8. Biogeografía de las abejas de las orquídeas (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini en Colombia

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    Alejandro Parra-H.

    2007-08-01

    del país. Con base en el material de euglosinos depositados en la colección del LABUN, referencias bibliográficas, características morfológicas y comporamentales de la tribu, así como la localización geográfica y altitudinal de las especies, se desarrolló un análisis de correspondencia para determinar cómo las diferentes variables podrían estar implicadas en la distribución de los euglosinos en Colombia. Los resultados del análisis multivariado muestran que no hay una estrecha relación de las especies de euglosinos a las regiones naturales que ocupan, sino que dentro de las variables consideradas, el tamaño corporal (implicado en capacidad de vuelo y la termorregulación, la estructura social (asociada a aprovechamiento y optimización de recursos en el hábitat y la longitud de la lengua (relacionada con la preferencia y toma de néctares, generan la mayor variabilidad de la muestra. De acuerdo a las características morfológicas y comportamentales analizadas se propone un patrón biogeográfico para la distribución de las abejas euglosinas en Colombia.

  9. Primer registro de Naupactus ruizi (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea asociado con Pinus ponderosa (Gymnospermae: Pinaceae en Patagonia

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    Cecilia A. GOMEZ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Naupactus ruizi (Brèthes es un gorgojo de rostro corto, distribuido en la Argentina y Chile, que habita en ambientes áridos asociado con vegetación xerofítica y alcanza el rango más austral entre los miembros de la tribu Naupactini. Un relevamiento de insectos y de patógenos como plagas potenciales, realizado durante el 2005 en plantaciones de Pinus spp. en la Patagonia andina argentina, resultó en el hallazgo de adultos de N. ruizi que se alimentaban de acículas de Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. Este hallazgo es sorprendente dado que las especies de Naupactini, consumen casi exclusivamente angiospermas. Interpretamos que el cambio de huésped, habría ocurrido como consecuencia de una colonización reciente favorecida por la amplia distribución geográfica del gorgojo y su capacidad para sobrevivir en hábitats marginales, donde probablemente las plantas nativas son escasas y el nuevo huésped presenta una gran abundancia local.

  10. La maison des mathématiques

    CERN Document Server

    Villani, Cédric; Moncorgé, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Comment travaillent les mathématiciens ? C'est peut-être en se promenant dans les couloirs de la première des " maisons des mathématiques " de France, l'institut Henri Poincaré, que l'on trouvera quelques réponses. Le mathématicien Cédric Villani et le physicien Jean-Philippe Uzan nous invitent à découvrir cette discipline et ses acteurs. Au fil des pages on suit, à travers de superbes images signées du photographe Vincent Moncorgé, la façon dont se fabrique cette science qui reste souvent mystérieuse. Toutes les dimensions, scientifique, esthétique et poétique, des mathématiques sont convoquées grâce à des regards croisés : la diversité des inspirations des chercheurs, la source de leur créativité, l'imaginaire littéraire et artistique des mathématiques, la drôle de tribu des mathématiciens. Un voyage au cœur de cette " auberge espagnole " des mathématiques, campus " à la française " accueillant des centaines de chercheurs du monde entier, devenu un lieu d'émulation et d'éc...

  11. Contribuciones al conocimiento del género Phragmotheca Cuatr. (Bombacaceae-Quararibeae

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    Fernández Alonso José Luis

    1996-11-01

    Full Text Available The systematic position of Phragmotheca in the tribe quararibeae is discussed and a key for the Bombacaceae with simple or unifoliolate leaves occurring in northern South America is included. The diagnostic utility of some characters in the segregation of species in Phragmotheca, is reviewed and a diagnostic key is presented. Four new species and two new infraspecific taxa are described and illustrated: P.rubriflora, P.lemniscata, P.hydra, P.siderosa subsp. megacarpa and P. amazonica varo leticiana from Colombia and P.sidereotricha from Perú.Se comenta la posición sistemática de Phragmotheca en relación con la tribu Quararibeae y se incluye una clave para la separación de los géneros de bombacáceas de hoja entera o unifoliolada del norte de Suramérica. Se revisa la utilidad de algunos caracteres en la separación de las especies y se presenta una clave diagnóstica. Se describen e ilustran 4 nuevas especies y dos taxones infraespecíficos P. rubriflora, P. lemniscata, P. hydra, P. siderosa subsp. megacarpa, P. amazonica varo leticiana de Colombia y P. sidereotricha de Perú.

  12. Bombacaceae Neotropicae Novae vel Minus Cognitae II. Novedades taxonómicas y corológicas en Matisia y Quararibea del Norte de Sudamérica

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    Fernández Alonso José Luis

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Como parte de los trabajos que actualmente se adelantan en la tribu Quararibeae (Bombacaceae en el norte de Sudamérica, se describen 5 especies nuevas y una subespecie del género Matisia Humb. & Bonpl. (Malata Little subsp. corrugata, M carderi, M hirsutissima, M lozanoi, M serpicostata y M spathacea y dos especies de Quararibea Aubl. (Q. cogolloi y Q. tulekunae. Asimismo, se aclaran aspectos taxonómicos o se registran novedades corológicas para Colombia, Ecuador o Perú, referentes a las especies Malata Little, M cornucopiae Triana & Planch., M jloccosa Fern.-Alonso, M giacomettoi Romero, M hirta Cuatrec., M leptandra Cuatrec., M soegengii Cuatrec., Quararibea ciroana Cuatrec. y Q. wittii Ulbr.As part ofthe work in progress in the tribe Quararibeae (Bombacaceae from northern South America, five new species and one subspecies of Matisia Humb. & Bonpl and two species of Quararibea Aubl. are described (M alata Little subsp. corrugata, M carderi, M hirsutissima, M lozanoi, M. serpicostata, M. spathacea, Quararibea cogol!oi and Q. tulekunae. Also, some taxonomic aspects are discussed and sorne chorologic novelties from Colombia, Ecuador and Perú are registered, in the following species: Malata Little subsp. alata, M cornucopiae Triana & Planch., Mjloccosa Fern.Alonso, M giacomettoi Romero, M hirta Cuatrec., M leptandra Cuatrec., M soegengii Cuatrec., Quararibea ciroana Cuatrec., and Q. wittii Ulbr.

  13. La construcción de nuevas identidades femeninas a través de la historieta: la aportación del manga sh?jo Gals!

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    Bárbara FERNÁNDEZ GARCÍA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available En 2002 se edita en España el manga sh?jo (orientado a un público femenino joven Gals!, obra de la autora Mihona Fujii, considerado como uno de los mejores documentos para conocer y entender el fenómeno de la tribu urbana de las gals japonesas. Este trabajo pretende mostrar el realismo con el que es abordada la ficción que presenta, combinado con los mecanismos propios del manga que es preciso desentrañar, así como, tras el profundo análisis de los personajes principales (todos femeninos, constatar sus valores artísticos, y cómo a través de su protagonista principal se propone un nuevo modelo de personaje femenino reforzado por una peculiar posición protagónica liberada de la carga de las funciones convencionales del protagonista. Se pretende contribuir así a los todavía escasos estudios españoles en esta materia.

  14. Flora e estrutura da vegetação arbustivo-arbórea de uma área de caatinga do Seridó, RN, Brasil Flora and structure of the tree and shrub vegetation of the caatinga at Seridó, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil

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    Isaac Lucena de Amorim

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Para testar a hipótese de que a vegetação do Seridó é aberta e de baixo porte, mesmo em local preservado, foi feito o levantamento fitossociológico de uma área na Estação Ecológica do Seridó, Serra Negra do Norte, RN, Brasil. Todas as plantas lenhosas com perímetro do caule a 1,30 m de altura do solo > 3 cm, em 100 parcelas de 10×10 m, foram contadas e tiveram alturas, perímetros do caule e diâmetros das copas medidos e biomassas aéreas estimadas. Foram encontradas 15 espécies, pertencendo a 15 gêneros e 10 famílias, com índice de diversidade de Shannon de 1,94. São números mais baixos que os da maioria de outras áreas de caatinga. Mimosoideae teve o maior número de espécies (três. Todas as variáveis da estrutura da comunidade, exceto densidade (3.250 planta ha-1 também tiveram valores menores (área basal 6,1 m² ha-1, altura máxima 9,5 m, diâmetro máximo 37 cm, área de copas 8.723 m² ha-1 e biomassa 25 mg ha-1 que os de outras áreas de caatinga. O pereiro, Aspidosperma pyrifolium Mart., foi a espécie dominante, com cerca de metade dos totais de densidade, áreas basais e de copas e biomassa. Confirma-se que a vegetação lenhosa do Seridó é aberta e de baixo porte, constituindo um tipo de fisionomia de caatinga distinto dos demais.A phytosociological survey was conducted at one area belonging to the Seridó Ecological Station to test the hypothesis that the vegetation at the Seridó region is open and low. All woody plants with stem perimeter at breast height > 3 cm were counted, within 100 plots, 10×10 m, and each one had its height, stem perimeter, and crown projection diameters measured, and its aboveground biomass estimated. Fifteen species were found, belonging to 15 genera and 10 families, with a Shannon diversity index of 1,94 . These values are below those of most of caatinga places elsewhere. Mimosoideae was the family with most species (three. All structural variables, except density, (3

  15. Diversidade genética de Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong. no Baixo Rio São Francisco, por meio de marcadores RAPD Genetic diversity of Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong. in the low San Francisco river by RAPD markers

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    Georgea da Cruz Santana

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Enterolobium contortisiliquum Vell. Morong (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae é uma espécie muito utilizada em programas de recuperação de matas ciliares no Baixo Rio São Francisco, devido ao seu rápido crescimento inicial. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, por meio de marcadores moleculares RAPD, a diversidade genética de oito indivíduos de uma população remanescente dessa espécie, visando contribuir para a definição de estratégias de coleta de sementes. Os indivíduos estão situados em uma área de 100 ha de mata ciliar do Baixo Rio São Francisco. Para a extração do DNA, pelo método CTAB 2%, foram utilizadas folhas tenras dos indivíduos. Testaram-se 20 oligonucleotídios de 10 bases de seqüência arbitrária, cujos produtos foram separados em gel de agarose 0,8%, submetidos à eletroforese horizontal, corados com brometo-de-etídio e visualizados em luz ultravioleta. A similaridade genética entre os indivíduos foi calculada pelo Coeficiente de Similaridade de Jaccard e a construção do dendrograma, realizada utilizando-se o método UPGMA. O valor médio de diversidade genética entre as matrizes foi de 49%, variando de 33 a 85%. Os indivíduos 6 e 7 apresentaram relativa proximidade genética (67%, não sendo indicado o plantio de suas mudas ou semeadura direta para recuperação de área ciliar em locais muito próximos. A partir dos resultados observados, podem-se desenvolver estratégias para a coleta de sementes e produção de mudas, auxiliando, assim, programas de restauração ambiental.Enterolobium contortisiliquum Vell. Morong (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae is very much used in riparian forest restoration programs in the Low San Francisco River because of its fast initial growth. The objective of this work was to evaluate by RAPD molecular markers the genetic diversity of eight individuals of a remaining population of this species, in order to contribute for the definition of strategies for seed production. The

  16. Tolerância de rizóbios de diferentes procedências ao zinco, cobre e cádmio Tolerance of rhizobia genera from different origins to zinc, copper and cadmium

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    Alexandre Matsuda

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Sessenta estirpes/isolados dos gêneros Bradyrhizobium, Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Mesorhizobium e Azorhizobium, procedentes de diferentes locais (Mata Atlântica, Amazônia, culturas agrícolas e experimentos com metais pesados e de espécies hospedeiras pertencentes às subfamílias Papilionoideae, Mimosoideae e Caesalpinoideae, foram avaliadas quanto à tolerância a Zn, Cu e Cd em meio YMA modificado pela adição de tampões biológicos (HEPES e MES e suplementados com Cu (0 a 60 mg L-1, Cd (0 a 60 mg L-1 e Zn (0 a 1.000 mg L-1. Mediante padrões de crescimento atribuídos às culturas nas diferentes concentrações dos metais, avaliaram-se as concentrações máximas toleradas e as doses tóxicas destes metais para redução de crescimento em 25% (DT25 e 50% (DT50. Não houve influência da procedência na concentração máxima de metal tolerada. A ordem de sensibilidade aos metais, considerando-se as concentrações máximas toleradas, foi Azorhizobium > Rhizobium = Mesorhizobium = Sinorhizobium > Bradyrhizobium. A DT25 e a DT50 foram úteis para diferenciarem estirpes/isolados de um mesmo gênero, que atingiram a mesma concentração máxima tolerada a Zn, Cu e Cd. A ordem de toxicidade dos metais estudados foi Cu > Cd > Zn.Sixty strains/isolates of the genera Bradyrhizobium, Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Mesorhizobium and Azorhizobium, isolated from different hosts (legume subfamilies: Papilionoideae, Mimosoideae and Caesalpinoideae and location (Atlantic Forest, Amazon region, crop plantings and heavy metal experiments, were evaluated for Zn, Cu and Cd tolerance in YMA medium modified by the addition of biological buffers (HEPES and MES and supplemented with Cu (0 to 60 mg L-1, Cd (0 to 60 mg L-1, and Zn (0 to 1,000 mg L-1sulphates. Growth standards were applied to evaluate rhizobia cultures growth at different metal concentrations, allowing evaluation of highest tolerated concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Cd and the toxic doses

  17. Estrutura do componente arbóreo de um trecho de Floresta Atlântica na Área de Proteção Ambiental da Serra da Capoeira Grande, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil Phytossociological survey of the tree layer in an area of Atlantic Forest, in Área de Proteção Ambiental Serra da Capoeira Grande, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

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    Gustavo Luna Peixoto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A Área de Proteção Ambiental (APA da Serra da Capoeira Grande (22º54'10"S e 43º12'27"W tem área total de 80 ha e é um dos últimos remanescentes florestais com ocorrência natural de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (pau-brasil no município do Rio de Janeiro. A estrutura deste importante fragmento florestal foi estudada utilizando-se o método dos quadrantes. Foram alocados 200 pontos amostrais e o critério de inclusão foi de 15 cm de circunferência do tronco a 1,30 m acima do solo. Nos 200 pontos amostrados foram encontradas 44 espécies distribuídas em 36 gêneros e 22 famílias. As famílias que apresentaram maiores valores de importância (VI foram Solanaceae (com 34,1% do VI, Leguminosae (Mimosoideae com 16,4%, Papilionoideae com 7,9% e Caesalpinioideae com 2,1%, Nyctaginaceae (13%, Anacardiaceae (6,5% e Flacourtiaceae (6,1%. As espécies com maior número de indivíduos na área apresentaram também maior VI: Metternichia princeps Mik. (com 40,4% dos indivíduos e 33,7% do VI, Pseudopiptadenia contorta (DC. G.P. Lewis & M.P. Lima (9,3 e 12,6%, Guapira hirsuta (Choisy Lundell (7,5 e 7,8%, Astronium fraxinifolium Schott ex Spreng. (5,6 e 5,7%. Caesalpinia echinata Lam. apresentou 2,4% dos indivíduos amostrados e 2,1% do VI. A distribuição diamétrica da comunidade, assim como da maioria das principais populações, apresentou grande número de indivíduos nas menores classes, decrescendo gradualmente. Este fato reflete uma abundante regeneração da maioria das espécies amostradas.The Área de Proteção Ambiental Serra da Capoeira Grande is a 80 ha site and one of the last forest remnants in Rio de Janeiro municipality where Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (brazilwood occurs naturally. Trees were sampled according to the point-centered-quarter method. The inclusion criteria was PBH ³ 15 cm and a total of 200 points were surveyed. 44 species were identified, belonging to 36 genera and 22 botanical families The families with the higher

  18. Levantamento da flora apícola em Santa Luzia do Paruá, Sudoeste da Amazônia, Maranhão Survey of bee flora in Santa Luzia do Paruá, Southwest Amazonia, Maranhão

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    Luiz Junior Pereira Marques

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o levantamento das plantas visitadas por Apis mellifera L. através de análise polínica no município de Santa Luzia do Paruá, Maranhão, localizado a noroeste do Estado, em região amazônica. A temperatura média anual varia entre 26 °C e 27 °C, com umidade relativa do ar anual entre 79 a 82% e precipitação pluviométrica entre 2000 a 2400 mm anuais. O estudo foi conduzido entre agosto de 2005 e julho de 2006 em três apiários da região, com coletas mensais de mel, pólen e plantas, que foram submetidas ao método de acetólise. Os tipos polínicos das amostras de mel foram identificados e contados para a determinação da freqüência relativa média. Nas amostras de pólen foi realizada apenas a identificação dos tipos polínicos por meio da comparação com os polens das plantas (botões florais depositados em coleção de referência. As principais famílias utilizadas por A. mellifera foram Amaranthaceae, Arecaceae, Asteraceae, Urticaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, Fabaceae-Mimosoideae, Flacourtiaceae, Myrtaceae, Poaceae e Rubiaceae. Em amostras de mel, no período chuvoso destacaram-se os tipos polínicos de Mimosa pudica, Borreria e um tipo indeterminado da família Arecaceae. No período de safra foram representativos Hyptis e um tipo indeterminado de Asteraceae. Os tipos polínicos mais constantes nas amostras de pólen foram Euterpe oleracea, Asteraceae tipo 1, Mimosa pudica e Borreria.The plant species visited by Apis mellifera L. were surveyed by pollen analysis in Santa Luzia do Paruá municipality, located in northwestern Maranhão state. Natural vegetation is Amazon rainforest, mean annual temperature varies between 26°C and 27°C, relative air humidity between 79 and 82%, and total rainfall between 2000 and 2400 mm. This study was conducted from August 2005 to July 2006 in three apiaries of the region, with monthly sampling of honey, pollen and plants. The samples were analyzed by the acetolysis method

  19. Role of the lens in controlling physical dormancy break and germination of Delonix regia (Fabaceae: Caesalpinioideae).

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    Jaganathan, G K; Wu, G-R; Han, Y-Y; Liu, B L

    2017-01-01

    Physical dormancy occurs in all three subfamilies of Fabaceae, namely Mimosoideae, Papilionoideae and Caesalpinioideae, making it one of the largest plant families in terms of number of species with physical dormancy. However, little is known about the water gap structure and germination ecology of species in Caesalpinioideae. Freshly collected seeds of Delonix regia (Caesalpinioideae) did not imbibe water, thus they had physical dormancy. Both dry heat and wet heat were effective in breaking dormancy, however, longer duration was required at 80 °C and shorter duration at 90 °C. Seeds buried in the field for 2 years germinated to 21% and 42% after the first and second summer, respectively, compared with 3% germination in seeds at the time of maturity. Seeds incubated at 15/60 °C in the laboratory (mimicking summer conditions) for 3 months supported this conclusion, as dormancy was relieved in 18% and 24% of seeds stored dry and watered intermediately, respectively. All the dormancy breaking treatments resulted in lifting of palisade layers in the lens region to form a circular lid-like opening, i.e. water gap (Type II simple). Blocking experiments confirmed that water entered only through the lens and no secondary water entry point was observed. No apparent changes in morphology/anatomy of the hilum region were noted in dormant and non-dormant (water permeable) seeds. These results suggest that summer temperatures could open the lens in a proportion of seeds every year and that germination occurs during the subsequent wet season in the tropics. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  20. Seed oil composition of Acacia nilotica (L. Delile from Iran / Skład oleju z nasion Acacia nilotica (L. Delile rosnącej w Iranie

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    Abbasian Karim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wstęp: Acacia nilotica (L. Delile należy do rodziny Fabaceae, podrodziny Mimosoideae; otrzymuje się z niej gumę arabską. W południowym Iranie są spożywane pieczone młode strąki i nasiona tej rośliny Cel: Badano skład oleju z dojrzałych nasion A. nilotica zebranych z naturalnych stanowisk na południu Iranu w celu określenia jego przydatności do spożycia przez ludzi i zwierzęta. Metody: Wyekstrahowany olej analizowano metodą chromatografii gazowej sprzężonej ze spektrometrią mas (GC/MS. Wyniki: Zawartość oleju w jadalnych nasionach wynosiła 3.4% (v/w świeżej masy. Olej zawierał rzadko spotykany fitosterol, sześć kwasów tłuszczowych, dziewięć węgolwodorów i jeden diterpenoid; związki te stanowiły łącznie około 83.5% oleju. Głównymi składnikami oleju były: fitosterol, 26-ethylcholesta-5,25(Z-dien-3.β-ol (20.8% oraz nasycone i nienasycone kwasy tłuszczowe. Zawartość pozostałych składników nie przekroczyła 5%. Wniosek: Olej z nasion omawianego gatunku może być nowym naturalnym środkiem odżywczym dla ludzi.

  1. Tree Species Diversity, Richness, and Similarity in Intact and Degraded Forest in the Tropical Rainforest of the Congo Basin: Case of the Forest of Likouala in the Republic of Congo

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    Suspense Averti Ifo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trees species diversity, richness, and similarity were studied in fifteen plots of the tropical rainforests in the northeast of the Republic of Congo, based on trees inventories conducted on fifteen 0.25 ha plots installed along different types of forests developed on terra firma, seasonally flooded, and on flooded terra. In all of the plots installed, all trees with diameter at breast height, DBH ≥ 5 cm, were measured. The Shannon diversity index, species richness, equitability, and species dominance were computed to see the variation in tree community among plots but also between primary forest and secondary forest. A total of 1611 trees representing 114 species and 35 families were recorded from a total area of 3.75 ha. Euphorbiaceae was the dominant family in the forest with 12 species, followed by Fabaceae-Mimosoideae (10 species and Phyllanthaceae (6 species and Guttiferae (6 species. The biodiversity did not vary greatly from plot to plot on the whole of the study area (3.75 ha. The low value of Shannon index was obtained in plot 11 (H′=0.75 whereas the highest value was obtained in plot 12 (H′=4.46. The values of this index vary from 0.23 to 0.95 in plots P11 and P15, respectively. Results obtained revealed high biodiversity of trees of the forest of Impfondo-Dongou. The information on tree species structure and function can provide baseline information for conservation of the biodiversity of the tropical forest in this area.

  2. GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE ALBÍZIA (ALBIZIA LEBBECK (L. BENTH EM FUNÇÃO DA LUZ E DO REGIME DE TEMPERATURA

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    Alek Sandro Dutra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The albizia is a species arbores of the Leguminosae - Mimosoideae family (Momosaceas, native of Tropical Asia and characterized for presenting a speed growth, ability to fix nitrogen and to improve the structure of earth, especially in areas degraded, having uses multiples and facility to co associate with cultures agricultural. The research was lead in two experiments with the objective of to identify methods to superation of dormancy in seeds of albizia and to verify the effect of light and temperatures in germination of this species. In first the seeds were submitted the twelve methods to superation of dormancy: humid heat, immersion in hot water, immersion in sulfuric acid, and escarification mechanic, beyond of the witness, being determined the percentage of germination of seeds seard and deceased. In second experiment, after treatment with sulfuric acid for 10 minutes, the seeds were sowed in tabledoch paper type Germitest and put to germinate under nine combinations: continue light and constant temperature of 25oC; continue light and constant temperature of 35oC; continue light and alternated temperature (35oC/8h and 25oC/16h; dark continue and constant temperature of 25oC; dark continue and constant temperature of 35oC; dark continue and alternated temperature (35oC/8h and 25oC/16h; alternance of light (light/8h and dark/16h, 25oC; alternance of light (light/8h and dark/16h, 35oC and alternance of light and temperature (light/35oC/8h and dark/20oC/16h. Conclusion the specie Albizia lebbeck presents seeds dormancy, detach-itself the escarification mechanic and the sulfuric acid as efficient methods to the superation of dormancy; the seeds of albizia are insensitive to the light and your germination was not influenced by the temperatures useds.

  3. Potent anti-proliferative effects against oral and cervical cancers of Thai medicinal plants selected from the Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipe database "MANOSROI III".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosroi, Aranya; Akazawa, Hiroyuki; Pattamapun, Kassara; Kitdamrongtham, Worapong; Akihisa, Toshihiro; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2015-07-01

    Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipes have been used for the treatment of several diseases including oral and cervical cancers. To investigate anti-proliferative activity on human cervical (HeLa) and oral (KB) cancer cell lines of medicinal plants selected from Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipe database "MANOSROI III". Twenty-three methanolic plant crude extracts were tested for phytochemicals and anti-proliferative activity on HeLa and KB cell lines for 24 h by the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay at the doses of 1 × 10(1)-1 × 10(-6 )mg/ml. The nine extracts with the concentrations giving 50% growth inhibition (GI50) lower than 100 µg/ml were further semi-purified by liquid/liquid partition in order to evaluate and enhance the anti-proliferative potency. All extracts contained steroids/triterpenoids, but not xanthones. The methanolic extracts of Gloriosa superba L. (Colchinaceae) root and Albizia chinensis (Osbeck) Merr. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae) wood gave the highest anti-proliferative activity on HeLa and KB cell lines with the GI50 values of 0.91 (6.0- and 0.31-fold of cisplatin and doxorubicin) and 0.16 µg/ml (28.78- and 82.29-fold of cisplatin and doxorubicin), respectively. Hexane and methanol-water fractions of G. superba exhibited the highest anti-proliferative activity on HeLa and KB cell lines with the GI50 values of 0.15 (37- and 1.9-fold of cisplatin and doxorubicin) and 0.058 µg/ml (77.45- and 221.46-fold of cisplatin and doxorubicin), respectively. This study has demonstrated the potential of plants selected from MANOSROI III database especially G. superba and A. chinensis for further development as anti-oral and cervical cancer agents.

  4. Tipos do Herbário Prisco Bezerra - EAC

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    Maria Stela Bezerra da Silva

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o presente trabalho pretende-se contribuir para a divulgação dos tipos do Herbário Prisco Bezerra - EAC. Um levantamento realizado no acervo do Herbário revelou o registro de dez tipos. Sete deles pertencentes à família Leguminosae distribuídas entre as subfamilias Caesalpinioideae: Peltogyne crenulata, Sentia dardanoi, Moldenhawera acuminata, Chamaecrista duckeana, Papilionoideae: Aeschynomene monteiroi, Cranocarpus gracilis e Mimosoideae: Mimosa niomarlei; dois, pertencentes à família Erythroxylaceae. As espécies Erythroxylum tianguanum e Erythroxylum bezerrae e um à família Euphorbiaceae: Dalechampia fernandesii recentemente descrita por G. Webster. Os tipos são apresentados na seqüência das indicações: nome das famílias, seguido do epíteto específico, habitat, com a transferência de todas as informações mencionadas na ficha de exsicata do material, bem como, a fotografia correspondente. Citam-se também alguns aspectos característicos das espécies, para melhor visualização dos detalhes fotográficos.The present paper repasts the type specimens in the Herbário Prisco Bezerra (University of Ceará. The Herbário has ten type, of which seven are Leguminosae: Peltoqyne crenulata, Senna dardanoi, Moldenhawera acuminata Chamaecrista duckeana, Aeschynomene monteiroi, Cranocarpus gracilis, Mimosa niomarlei, two the Erythroxylaceae: Erythroxylum tianquanum and Erythroxylum bezerrae and one Euphorbiaceae: Dalechampia fernandesii. Additional informations for these exsicata is presented.

  5. Lesões traumáticas de pele causadas pelos espinhos de Mimosa pudica e Mimosa debilis em equídeos

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    Alessandra S. Belo Reis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizadas pesquisas sobre a natureza e causa de lesões de pele em equídeos em uma propriedade no município de Castanhal, região Nordeste do Estado do Pará. Foram realizadas visitas técnicas, estudos epidemiológicos, coletas de sangue, biópsias de pele afetada e a inspeção da pastagem. O estudo incluiu 25 equídeos, dos quais 14 machos e 11 fêmeas, de seis meses e oito anos de idade. Os animais apresentaram lesões ulcerativas, de bordos irregulares, na cabeça (narinas, focinho, lábios superiores e inferiores e chanfro, na cavidade oral (vestíbulo bucal e gengiva e nos membros (boletos, metacarpos e metatarsos e articulação escápulo-umeral. No exame histopatológico foram observados focos de erosões cutâneas, caracterizados por perda e necrose da epiderme, com espongiose, degeneração vesicular da epiderme remanescente e leve infiltrado inflamatório na derme subjacente, constituído predominantemente por macrófagos e, em menor grau, eosinófilos. Na inspeção da pastagem, constituída de Brachiaria humidicola, foi constatada grande invasão de duas plantas providas de espinhos, Mimosa pudica e Mimosa debilis, ambas da família Leg. Mimosoideae. Concluiu-se, que as lesões de pele foram causadas pela ação traumática dos espinhos de Mimosa pudica e Mimosa debilis.

  6. «Wa-waṣalnā ‘alā barakat Allāh ilā Īgīlīz»: à propos de la localisation d’Īgīlīz-Des-Harġa, le Ḥiṣn du Mahdī Ibn Tūmart

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    Van Staëvel, Jean-Pierre

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available L’article se propose d’infirmer la proposition émise par Allen Fromherz dans l’une des dernières livraisons d’Al-Qanṭara d’identifier Īgīlīz-Des-Harġa, lieu de naissance d’Ibn Tūmart et premier foyer de la révolution almohade, avec la localité d’Īglī dans la vallée du Sous. Conjuguant étude de la documentation écrite, rappel historiographique des rares études savantes à avoir été consacrées à ce site méconnu, et premiers éléments d’une enquête de géographie historique et d’archéologie en cours, la présente contribution voudrait montrer : 1.º que la théorie de Fromherz est sous-tendue par des erreurs d’appréciation des matériaux historiques utilisés ; 2.º que le village natal d’Ibn Tūmart se situe non dans la vallée du Sous, mais dans l’Anti-Atlas central, comme l’avaient déjà bien montré en leur temps Huici Miranda et D. Jacques-Meunié ; 3.º que le site d’Īgīlīz-Des-Harġa, dont on avance ici une localisation précise, comprend notamment un lieu fortifié de hauteur qui a servi, lors des premiers affrontements contre les Almoravides, de refuge à Ibn Tūmart et aux membres de sa tribu. Une brève description archéologique des vestiges est enfin donnée de ce site jusqu’à ce jour inédit.

    El artículo se propone rebatir la propuesta que planteó Allen Fromherz en uno de los últimos números de Al-Qanṭara, al identificar Īgīlīz-Des-Harġa, lugar de nacimiento de Ibn Tūmart y primer foco de la revolución almohade, con la localidad de Īglī, ubicada en el valle del Sous. Al juntar el estudio de la documentación escrita, la evocación historiográfica de los pocos estudios eruditos dedicados a este yacimiento desconocido, con los primeros elementos de una encuesta de geografía histórica y arqueológica en curso, la presente contribución pretende demostrar : 1.º que la teoría de Fromherz adolece de errores de apreciación de los materiales

  7. Variación de la comunidad de abejas de las orquídeas (Hymenoptera: Apidae en tres ambientes perturbados del piedemonte llanero colombiano

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    Alejandro Parra-H

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Las abejas de las orquídeas subsisten en vastas áreas de bosque tropicales gracias a que mantienen estrechas relaciones con tipos de vegetación particular en diversos micro-hábitats. Con base en este tipo de relaciones con el medio y características biológicas como preferencia por ciertos tipos de néctares y de polen, y diversidad morfológica y etológica de la tribu, es posible evaluar la calidad de un hábitat según la distribución de euglosinos. Este trabajo propone el uso de esta información, además de índices de diversidad para la evaluación de la calidad del medio. Entre marzo y diciembre de 2003 muestreamos tres tipos de paisaje (Urbano, Rural y Conservado en el piedemonte llanero colombiano, usando redes entomológicas y sustancias aromáticas (Cineol y Metil Salicilato. Para las 15 localidades muestreadas se registraron 17 de las 26 especies conocidas para el área. Eulaema nigrita fue la más frecuente mientras que Euglossa magnipes, E. cybelia, E. heterosticta, E. singularis, Eulaema bombiformis, E. speciosa y Exaerete frontalis correspondieron a ambientes considerados de aceptable a buena calidad. La composición y cercanía de fragmentos de bosque son factores favorables. La diversidad relativa (máxima variación de formas y tamaños dentro de la tribu, sería proporcional a la calidad del medio.Variation of the orchid bees community (Hymenoptera: Apidae in three altered habitats of the Colombian "llano" piedmont. Orchid bees subsist in vast tropical forest areas because they maintain close relationships with particular plant species in diverse micro-habitats. Based on the relationships among the environment and biological features (food preference, morphologic and ethologic diversity, it is possible to determine habitat quality using the euglossine array. This work proposes the use of this ecological information, in addition to diversity indices, for the evaluation of environmental quality. Fifteen localities in

  8. Histoire, mémoire et tribus ou les aarch de 2001 en Kabylie

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    Nassim Amrouche

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Les émeutes qui ont ensanglanté la Kabylie au cours du printemps 2001 ont soulevé différentes problématiques. Au-delà du drame humain qui a fait plus d’une centaine de morts et plus d’un millier de blessés, cette contestation s’est formulée autour d’une organisation anachronique : les aarch. Système sociopolitique ancien dont les dernières traces d’existence remontent à la fin du XIXe siècle, il a mobilisé dans et par la tribu reconfigurée selon les besoins contemporains. Cette utilisation d’une organisation sociale maghrébine a permis de une inscription dans le temps par la mémoire mobilisée par la tribu.En effet, dans une perspective politique, les aarch, pour contester le présent, ont mis en exergue des patrimoines historiques et mémoriels effacés par l’État nation algérien. Mobilisant ainsi l’histoire de la guerre de décolonisation, fondatrice de l’État indépendant, les aarch se sont directement attaqués au vouloir vivre ensemble, redéfinissant les bases constitutives de la nation. Cette dynamique mémorielle et historique a aussi permis aux militants et partisans de revisiter un passé plus lointain : crises au sein du mouvement nationaliste, mouvements sociaux post Indépendance, etc. Ce remaniement des mémoires, dont la culture et la langue restent les socles, a permis d’envisager des territoires culturels, identitaires dépassant les frontières stato-nationales.Si ces données sont celles du politique, des militants, les bases sociales du mouvement, qui a mobilisé jusqu’à 1,5 million de personnes, ont réutilisé ces outils de la contestation pour les transformer en sources du malaise socioéconomique contemporain.The riots that have bloodstained Kabylie in the spring of 2001 have raised different problematics. Beyond the human drama which has resulted in more than a hundred deaths and a thousand wounded, this contestation formulated itself around an anachronic organization: the

  9. Femeniasia, novus genus Carduearum

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    Susanna de la Serna, Alfonso

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The systematic position of Centaurea balearica Rodríguez Femenias (Asteraceae-Cardueae is studied. A detailed analysis or its anatomy, with special reference to the carpology, forces the author lo reject its inclusion in the genus Centaurea or in any other genus or the tribe. A new genus, Femeniasia Susanna. is hence described, and the new nomenclatural combinari en Femeniasia balearica (Rodríguez Femenías Susanna is proposed. The relationship or Femeniasia and the other genera of the tribe is discussed; the author concludes that Femeniasia is a quite isolated genus in the Cardueae-Carduinae .

    [ca] Estudi de la posició sistemàtica de Centaurea balearica Rodríguez Femenías (Asteraceae-Cardueae . De l'anàlisi minuciosa de la seva anatomia, especialment de les seves cípseles, resulta que l'esmentada espècie no és cap Centaurea; tampoc pot ésser inclosa en cap del altres gèneres de la tribu. En conseqüència, hom descriu un nou gènere, Femeniasia Susanna, i proposa la combinació Femeniasia balearica (Rodríguez Femenías Susanna. Son analitzades les possibles relacions de parentiu amb d'altres gèneres del grup i l'autor arriba a la conclusió que Femeniasia és un gènere clarament isolat entre les Cardueae-Carduinae.

  10. OTRA CIVILIZACIÓN DE LA MIEL: UTILIZACIÓN DE MIEL EN GRUPOS INDÍGENAS GUAYCURÚES A PARTIR DE LA EVIDENCIA DE FUENTES JESUITAS (Siglo XVIII

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    María Celeste Medrano

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Guaycurus groups inhabiting the Gran Chaco region in the 18th century made extensive use of honey produced by native stingless bees (Tribe Meliponini. These practices were extensively registered by the Jesuits who tried to evangelize in the area. This paper is based on the analysis of the evidences obtained from these sources and current ethnographic data related to the use of honey. The aim is to discuss the uses and traditional knowledge andidentify meliponas species mentioned in these sources from the collection of individuals and reports of Indian and creole people about them, contributing to a corpus that includes the diversity of expertise in the area regarding these practices.RESUMEN: Los grupos guaycurúes que habitaban la región del Gran Chaco durante el siglo XVIII realizaban un extenso aprovechamiento de mieles procedentes de abejas nativas sin aguijón (Tribu Meliponini. Estas prácticas fueron extensamente documentadas por los jesuitas que misionaron en el área. El presente trabajo se basa en el análisis de las evidencias obtenidas en estas fuentes y datos etnográficos actuales relacionados al aprovechamiento de miel. El objetivo es examinar los usos y saberes tradicionales e identificar las especies de meliponas mencionadas en dichas fuentes a partir de la colecta de ejemplares y los discursos de indígenas y criollos elaborados sobre las mismas aportando a un corpus que incluya ladiversidad de conocimientos existentes en la zona sobre estas prácticas.

  11. “Juventud, música y política” (Circo Volador: reconstruyendo el tejido social urbano mediante la música en la Ciudad de México

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    Castillo Berthier, Héctor

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Music tells us through lifetime how societies are in a specific times and spaces. It is shout, denounce, identity, culture, union; it is youth and revolt. Each generation has its own music, which expresses the vision of its city, its country, and the world. Also, each urban tribe or young musical group has their own music, which gives them identity markers and cohesion. This article will undertake a case study where applied social research through music has been proven useful to break social borders and to empower the youngest people with limited resources in the Metropolitan Zone of Mexico City. Being offered a learning space, and opportunities of professionalization and self-expression young displaced may coexist with young people with better opportunities, thus affecting the reconstruction of the social network.

    La música a través del tiempo nos cuenta cómo es una sociedad en una época y espacio determinado. Es grito, denuncia, identidad, cultura, unión; es juventud y rebeldía. Cada generación tiene su propia música con la que expresa la visión de su ciudad, de su país, del mundo. Igualmente, cada grupo juvenil o tribu urbana tiene su propia música, que los identifica y cohesiona. Este artículo abordará un estudio de caso donde la investigación social aplicada ha logrado, por medio de la música, romper las fronteras sociales y potencializar las habilidades de los jóvenes de escasos recursos en la zona metropolitana de la Ciudad de México, brindándoles un espacio de aprendizaje, profesionalización y expresión donde coinciden y conviven con jóvenes con mayores oportunidades, incidiendo así en la reconstrucción del tejido social.

  12. Proyecto Vidas Paralelas Indígena: revelando el pueblo Fulni-ô de Pernambuco, Brasil

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    Eva Aurélia Melo SANTOS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este relato de experiencia se refiere al grupo étnico Fulni-ô, que habita la comunidad de Xixia-clá en el municipio de Águas Belas, a 300 km de Recife, Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. Con respecto a su historia, se relata la unión con la tribu Carijós, y el declinio en el uso de la lengua ancestral, el Yaathê, del Saúde Indígena Tempus - Actas de Saúde Coletiva Revista Tempus Actas de Saúde Coletiva 58 tronco linguístico Macro-Jê. Se hace hincapié en el conflito de tierras, pues fue realizada una división en lotes que dejó a los indígenas un espacio muy limitado, siendo la ciudad fundada en territorio indígena. Se describe el liderazgo del Cacique y del Pajé, y la discusión en comunidad de los asuntos que interesan a los indígenas. A pesar de que todos ellos declaran profesar la religión católica, conocimientos ancestrales son trasmitidos y la ceremonia del Ouricury es muy concurrida. Se describe la atención a la salud, que cuenta con un puesto de salud, en donde trabajan indígenas en cargos compatibles con la educación en los niveles fundamental y medio. Los cargos de nivel superior son ocupados por no indígenas. El saneamiento básico aún está en proceso de implantación. La atención básica depende del Programa de Salud de la Familia Indígena (PSFI.

  13. Orchid bees as bio-indicators for organic coffee farms in Costa Rica: Does farm size affect their abundance?

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    Ingemar Hedström

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential of Euglossini bees, especially Euglossa, as biological indicators of organic vs non-organic coffee farms was studied in Atenas and San Isidro, Alajuela, Costa Rica using 1.8-cineole as lure. Observations were made for three days at each of four farms and complemented with data from a year of observations. Orchid bees were in greater abundance in the organic farms (t-Student test. However, lower abundances suggest that an organic farm may be negatively affected by the proximity of non-organic farms, depending on its size and distance. Orchid bees may be indicators of organic coffee farms. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (3: 965-969. Epub 2006 Sept. 29.Por un año estudiamos las abejas de la tribu Euglossini (abejas de las orquídeas, especialmente el género Euglossa en Atenas y San Isidro, Alajuela, Costa Rica, para identificar su potencial como bioindicadoras de fincas orgánicas y fincas "convencionales" de café. Usamos como atrayente aceite de eucalipto (1.8-cineole. Las abejas son más abundantes en las fincas de café orgánico (t-Student. Sin embargo, el relativamente bajo número de abejas en la menor de las dos fincas orgánicas sugiere que el tamaño de una finca orgánica y la proximidad a las fincas convencionales, podrían tener efectos negativos en la orgánica. Estas abejas podrían servir como bioindicadores de fincas orgánicas.

  14. Primer registro de Naupactus ruizi (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea asociado con Pinus ponderosa (Gymnospermae: Pinaceae en Patagonia First record of Naupactus ruizi (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea associated to Pinus ponderosa (Gymnospermae: Pinaceae in Patagonia

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    Cecilia A. Gómez

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Naupactus ruizi (Brèthes es un gorgojo de rostro corto, distribuido en la Argentina y Chile, que habita en ambientes áridos asociado con vegetación xerofítica y alcanza el rango más austral entre los miembros de la tribu Naupactini. Un relevamiento de insectos y de patógenos como plagas potenciales, realizado durante el 2005 en plantaciones de Pinus spp. en la Patagonia andina argentina, resultó en el hallazgo de adultos de N. ruizi que se alimentaban de acículas de Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. Este hallazgo es sorprendente dado que las especies de Naupactini, consumen casi exclusivamente angiospermas. Interpretamos que el cambio de huésped, habría ocurrido como consecuencia de una colonización reciente favorecida por la amplia distribución geográfica del gorgojo y su capacidad para sobrevivir en hábitats marginales, donde probablemente las plantas nativas son escasas y el nuevo huésped presenta una gran abundancia local.Naupactus ruizi (Brèthes is a broad-nosed weevil recorded from Argentina and Chile , that inhabits arid environments with xerophitic vegetation and reaches the southern most distribution of the tribe Naupactini. A survey of potential insect pests and pathogens of plantations of Pinus spp. and other forest species, conducted during 2005 in Argentinean Patagonian Andean forestations, allowed to find N. ruizi feeding on pine needles of Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. This finding was unexpected, since species of Naupactini consume almost exclusively angiosperms. We interpret that the new host association may represent a recent host shift, probably facilitated by the broad range of the weevil, its capacity to survive in marginal habitats where natural hosts are scarce, and the local abundance of the new host.

  15. Arquitectura foliar de las especies de Myrtaceae nativas de la Argentina I: Grupos "Myrcia", "Myrceugenia" y "Plinia" Foliar architecture of native species of Myrtaceae from Argentina I: Groups "Myrcia","Myrceugenia" and "Plinia"

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    Cynthia C. González

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 19 especies nativas de la flora Argentina con el fin de encontrar patrones en la arquitectura foliar que permitan diferenciar las especies de los grupos (subtribus informales "Plinia", "Myrcia" y "Myrceugenia" (sensu Lucas et al. 2007, (Tribu Myrteae, Myrtaceae. Las hojas de los grupos estudiados en este trabajo se caracterizan por ser simples, de ápice y base variables, de textura membranácea a coriácea y de margen entero. Su arquitectura foliar está caracterizada por presentar una venación de primera categoría pinnada, simple y recta, carecen de venas agróficas, la venación de segunda categoría es camptódroma-broquidódroma con una vena paramarginal, y dos, una o ninguna vena intramarginal. Las venas de tercera y cuarta categoría son reticuladas al azar o ramificadas; las aréolas varían entre no desarrolladas a desarrolladas completamente y, con vénulas ramificadas una, dos o más veces.Nineteen species of native flora were studied to find patterns of leaf architecture to differentiate the Argentinean species of the groups (informal subtribal "Plinia", "Myrcia" and "Myrceugenia" (sensu Lucas et al. 2007, (Tribe Myrteae, Family Myrtaceae. The leaves studied in this work are characterized by being simple, with apex and base variable, membranaceous to coriaceous in texture, and with entire margin. Its venation pattern is characterized by having the first vein category pinnate, simple, and straight, without agrophic veins; venation of secondary category with always brochidodromous-camptodromous veins, with one paramarginal vein, and may have two, one, or none intramarginal vein; the third and fourth vein category are random reticulate or branched, the areolae vary from undeveloped to fully developed and venules branching one, two, or more times.

  16. Prácticas docentes y educación multigrado en escuelas indígenas del Estado de Sonora, México

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    José Ángel Vera Noriega

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Se plantea como objetivo de investigación generar conocimientos que permitan comprender las relaciones existentes entre el perfil docente y el rezago/deserción educativa, a fin de proponer ideas que permitan mejorar las condiciones de trabajo de los maestros que laboran en contextos sociales de marginación social dentro de las zonas rurales indígenas. Para llevarlo a cabo y hacer la observación de las distintas prácticas docentes y el contexto educativo en que estos profesores laboran, se seleccionaron tres escuelas que obtuvieron los puntajes más bajos en español y matemáticas en la prueba Enlace si se comparan con las demás escuelas de la zona. Se identificó que los docentes de estas tres escuelas multigrado intentan tanto mantener en sus enseñanzas la tradición cultural de la tribu como responder a las exigencias curriculares para cada grado, además de cumplir con una doble labor: docente y directivo dentro de la misma institución.   Abstract This research aims to generate knowledge to understand the relationships between teacher profile and educational backwardness/abandonment, and propose ideas to improve the working conditions of teachers who work in social contexts of social marginalization within indigenous rural areas. It was conducted the observation of the different teaching practices and the educational context in which these teachers are working was made, 3 schools that had the lowest scores in Spanish and Math in ENLACE compared to other area schools were selected. Was identified that teachers in these three schools multigrade try to keep in their academic knowledge the traditions of their own culture and at the same time meet the curricular requirements for each grade, besides fulfilling a dual role as teachers and directors within the same school.

  17. Nuptial nectary structure of Bignoniaceae from Argentina

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    Guillermo L. Rivera

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Rivera, G. L. 2000. Estructura de nectarios nupciales en Bignoniaceae de Argentina.Darwiniana 38(3-4: 227-239.Se investigaron las características de los nectarios florales en 37 especies de Bignoniaceae. Se encontróun nectario nupcial asociado al eje floral en todas las especies, pudiéndose distinguir dos tipos principalesde acuerdo a su grado de desarrollo y funcionalidad: 1 vestigial y no secretor y 2 bien desarrollado ysecretor. El primero es característico de las especies de Clytostoma mientras que el segundo está presenteen el resto de las especies estudiadas. Dos variedades del tipo secretor pueden discernirse de acuerdo a suposición y forma: 1 anular, encontrado en Adenocalymma, Amphilophium, Anemopaegma, Arrabidaea,Dolichandra, Eccremocarpus, Macfadyena, Melloa, Pithecoctenium, Tabebuia, y Tecoma y 2 cilíndrico,presente en Argylia, Cuspidaria, Jacaranda, Mansoa, Parabignonia, Pyrostegia, y Tynnanthus.Anatómicamente se distinguen dos tejidos: 1 una epidermis monoestratificada, cubierta por una cutículay con un número variable de estomas y 2 un tejido secretor compuesto por células parenquimáticasdispuestas en forma compacta. Tanto el tamaño del nectario como la relación nectario/ovario fueusualmente más grande en lianas (Bignoniaceae que en árboles (Tecomeae. El tipo de nectario fueinvariable entre las especies de un mismo género, pero no así entre los géneros de una misma tribu. Lascaracterísticas de los nectarios analizados en este estudio como la vascularización, la presencia detricomas y el tipo de nectario fueron constantes en las especies analizadas, adquiriendo por lo tanto unimportante valor taxonómico

  18. Fósseis e idade de um setor da barreira pleistocênica paranaense - FOSSILS AND AGE OF A PARANÁ PLEISTOCENIC BARRIER SECTOR

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    José Carlos Branco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é caracterizar o conteúdo fossilífero dos depósitos que constituem a planície com cordões litorâneos pleistocênica para auxiliar na interpretação dos ambientes de deposicionais, na determinação de paleoníveis marinhos. Foram identificadas as seguintes fácies: areia com estratificação cruzada swaley (Ssw, planar (Sp, acanalada (St, sigmóide (Ssg, de baixo ângulo (Sli; areia com ondulações e laminação cruzada (Sr, maciça (Sm, com acamamento flaser (Sf; lama maciça (Fm e lama com linsen (Fl. Associados a esta fácies foram observados tubos, moldes de conchas e fragmentos e detritos vegetais. As associações de fácies correspondem a um sistema clástico dominado por ondas com influência de maré num contexto de delta de enchente. Foram identificados dois ichnofósseis: Ophiomorpha atribuída a Callichirus sp e moldes de bivalves. Nos areais ocorrem troncos, raízes e outros fragmentos de madeira associados a lama (fácies Fm e Fl, que foram identificadas como Ilex sp (Aquifoliaceae, Inga sp (Leguminosae Mimosoideae, Calyptranthes sp (Myrtaceae e Laguncularia racemosa (Combretaceae. Nos testemunhos de sondagens o foraminífero Blysmasphaera brasiliensis, espécies características de mangue e estuários. A amostra de madeira proveniente da fácies de lama maciça (Fm, forneceu idade > 40.000 anos A.P. Tubos de Ophiomorpha atribuídos a Callichirus sp, permitem estimar que o paleonível marinho à época de formação da barreira era de oito 8 m superior ao atual. A espécie Blysmasphaera brasiliensis indica fácies depositadas em ambiente estuarino ou marinho raso.

  19. Guía ilustrada de la flora del “Desierto de la Tatacoa ”, Huila, Colombia

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    Yisela Figueroa Cardozo

    2004-07-01

    promedio de 28º C y una precipitación promedio anual cercana a 1.000 mm. Históricamente,la región ha sufrido un fuerte proceso de sabanización y desertificación, por lo cual la cobertura vegetal actual se encuentra representada principalmente por matorrales bajos, rastrojos y pastizales. En este estudio se presenta el inventario florístico preliminar de la región del “desierto” de la Tatacoa; además, se caracteriza la vegetación de la región de una forma general y se presenta una guía ilustrada con descripciones botánicas para 100 de las especies más representativas de la región. Se encontraron 227 especies, distribuidas en cerca de 170 géneros y 60 familias. La gran mayoría de las especies son dicotiledóneas (85%, mientras que las monocotiledóneas se encuentran representadas solo por el 14% de las especies, y un mínimo porcentaje (menos del 1% por helechos y afines. A nivel florístico, la familia Fabaceae (s.l. es la más destacada con 35 especies y 27 géneros, representando el 15,5% del total de las especies, discriminada en las subfamilias Faboideae con 18/16, Mimosoideae con 9/7 y Caesalpinioideae con 8/4. Otras de las familias que sobresalen por su riqueza son Poaceae con 20 especies y 15 géneros, Euphorbiaceae (13/7, Asteraceae (10/10, Malvaceae (9/4, Cactaceae (8/7, Asclepiadaceae (8/7 y Convolvulaceae (8/3. Como hallazgos importantes se presenta el primer registro para el país de Senna uniflora (Caesalpiniodeae y el reencuentro de Amoreuxia palmatifida (Cochlospermaceae, especie que era conocida para Colombia por un solo espécimen coleccionado antes de 1858 en cercanías al municipio del Espinal (Tolima. La guía ilustrada incluye para cada especie una descripción corta e información sobre su distribución, usos y nombres comunes (cuando los hay. Además, la mayoría de las especies están ilustradas con fotografías de su hábito y detalles de flores y/o frutos.

  20. Panorama de la familia Asteraceae (= Compositae en la Republica Argentina An overview of the plant family Asteraceae ( = Compositae in Argentina

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    Liliana Katinas

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un panorama de la familia Asteraceae en la República Argentina , que incluye una breve historia taxonómica, datos numéricos de tribus, géneros y especies, ejemplos de endemismos y daptaciones ecológicas y una reseña sobre la hipótesis del origen de la familia en Patagonia. En la Argentina, las asteráceas representan la familia más numerosa con 227 géneros (cinco son endémicos y ca. 1400 especies (92 son adventicias y 382 son endémicas. En términos de taxones nativos, se hallan representadas en nuestro país todas las tribus de Asteraceae excepto Inuleae (sensu Bremer. Las tribus Arctoteae y Calenduleae están representadas por taxones adventicios exclusivamente y Cardueae posee sólo una especie nativa. Barnadesieae y Mutisieae son las únicas tribus con géneros endémicos de Argentina y también presentan el porcentaje más alto de géneros y especies en el país en comparación con el resto de las tribus. El mayor número de especies nativas, endémicas y no endémicas, se da en las provincias fitogeográficas Altoandina y Patagónica. La tribu más representada en número de géneros es Heliantheae, y en número de especies nativas es Senecioneae.An overview of the family Asteraceae in Argentina that includes a brief taxonomic history, numerical data of tribes, genera and species, examples of endemisms and ecological adaptations, and a discussion on the hypothesis on the origin of the family in Patagonia is given. Asteraceae is the most numerous family in Argentina , with 227 genera (five are endemic and ca. 1400 species (92 are adventitious and 382 are endemic. In relation to the native taxa, all tribes of Asteraceae occur in Argentina excepting Inuleae (sensu Bremer. Tribes Arctoteae and Calenduleae are represented exclusively by adventitious taxa, and Cardueae has only one native species. Barnadesieae and Mutisieae are the only tribes with endemic genera in Argentina and they also present the highest percentage of

  1. Comentarios sobre Cnemeplatiini Jacquelin du Val, 1861 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae de la península Ibérica e islas Canarias

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    Ferrer, J.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy and geographic distribution of the Iberian and Canary Islands representatives of the tribe Cnemeplatiini, is established, after study of available types. Several errors in recent papers are corrected. Cnemeplatia laticeps (Wollaston, 1857 described from Madeira, is cited as new record for the isla of La Palma, Canary Islands. Cnemeplatia atropos Costa 1847 is a valid species. Cnemeplatia rufa Tournier, 1874 stat. rest. and C. mouchampsi Español 1948 stat. nov. are considered as valid species and not geographical subspecies of Cnemeplatia atropos Costa, 1847, based on morphology. The name Cnemeplatia rufa Tournier, 1874 has priority over C. atropos africana Kaszab, 1938 syn. nov. Figures of discriminatory characters to identify all European and Northwestern African described species are given.

    La composición taxonómica y distribución geográfica de los representantes de la tribu Cnemeplatiini en la Península Ibérica y Canarias, se establece tras el estudio de los tipos disponibles. Se corrigen varios errores de trabajos recientes. Cnemeplatia laticeps (Wollaston, 1857 descrita de Madeira, se cita como nuevo para la isla de La Palma, Islas Canarias. Cnemeplatia atropos Costa, 1847 es tratado como una especie válida. Cnemeplatia rufa Tournier, 1874 stat. rest. y C. mouchampsi Español 1948 stat. nov. son consideradas como especies válidas, no como subespecies geográficas de Cnemeplatia atropos Costa, 1847, en base a su morfología. El nombre Cnemeplatia rufa Tournier, 1874 tiene prioridad sobre C. atropos africana Kaszab, 1938 syn. nov. Se presentan figuras de los caracteres morfológicos discriminatorios para identificar las diferentes especies descritas de Europa y NO de África.

  2. L’ethnologue et l’assignation, sur le terrain de la parenté

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    Frédérique Fogel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available L’ethnologue et l’assignation, sur le terrain de la parenté. Sur mon terrain en Nubie égyptienne, j’ai occupé plusieurs positions cohérentes et contradictoires en rapport direct avec les objets principaux de ma recherche, parenté et migration. J’étais la « sœur du couple » qui m’hébergeait, la tante bilatérale des enfants. J’étais aussi cousine, fille, nièce…, en fonction de mes interlocuteurs/trices, de nos âges relatifs, de nos appartenances générationnelles, de notre genre identique ou opposé. J’appartenais à une fratrie, à un lignage, à une tribu, tout en étant étrangère et chercheur. Je reconstitue, dans cet article, mon parcours dans la parenté nubienne pour montrer de quelles manières les rôles successivement ou parallèlement endossés m’ont permis d’aborder les questions qui m’intéressaient. Ce qui revient, en regard, à rendre compte du jeu d’assignations adroitement mis en place par mes hôtes pour me guider sur le terrain de la parenté.The ethnologist and the assignment, in the field of kinship. In my fieldwork in Egyptian Nubia, I have occupied several consistent and contradictory positions in direct relation with the main subjects of my research: kinship and migration. I was the “sister of the couple” who put me up, the children’s bilateral aunt. I was also cousin, daughter, niece, depending on the person with whom I was speaking, our relative ages, our generations, and whether we were of the same or opposite sexes. I belonged to a group of siblings, a lineage and a tribe while at the same time being a foreigner and a researcher. In this article, I trace my journey through Nubian kinship, to show how the roles I assumed, successively or in parallel, enabled me to approach the questions that interested me. From another perspective, this means giving an account of the series of assignments skilfully introduced by my hosts to guide me through the field of kinship.

  3. CONTRIBUIÇÕES DO PENSAMENTO DE MICHEL MAFFESOLI PARA PESQUISA EM ENFERMAGEM E SAÚDE

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    Rosane Gonçalves Nistchke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: realizar un análisis de la producción científica en el área de la Enfermería y de la Salud que adoptó el referencial teórico y metodológico de Michel Maffesoli, así como reflexionar sobre sus contribuciones a la enfermería y salud. Método: revisión integrativa de literatura, a partir de publicaciones científicas del área de la Salud, indexadas en las bases de datos SciELO ® , BVS, Scopus ® , CINAHL ® , PubMed ® , Web of Science ® . En el presente trabajo se analizaron los resultados obtenidos en el análisis de los resultados obtenidos en el estudio. Se empleó la palabra “Maffesoli”, teniendo como criterios de inclusión ser artículos completos, originales o de reflexión, que aplicaron el referencial teórico de Michel Maffesoli en el análisis o discusión de los datos, disponibles en los idiomas portugués, inglés, español y francés. Resultados : se seleccionaron 30 artículos, siendo gran parte de ellos con abordaje cualitativo y oriundos de la enfermería. Las nociones más presentes en los estudios fueron cotidianos, ética de la estética, tribu, potencia, juego doble, posmodernidad, los cuales abordaron lo cotidiano en sus diferentes escenarios de cuidado. Se expresa la importancia de estar atento a los aspectos subjetivos de lo cotidiano, considerando su complejidad, posibilitando nuevos y otros modos de estar-juntos. Conclusión : el pensamiento de Michel Maffesoli contribuye a la construcción del conocimiento en enfermería y salud, indicando caminos en las dimensiones del cuidado, en el campo académico y profesional, a partir del cotidiano de las personas, resignificando el cuidado que va más allá de la técnica, nos cambia la mirada y la dirección, para que podamos estar en sintonía con las diferentes situaciones del vivir y del convivir, abandonando el des-envolvimiento, para involucrarnos con un cuidado afectivo, el que toca, siendo, por lo tanto, efectivo.

  4. [Flavonoids of Artemisia campestris, ssp. glutinosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurabielle, M; Eberle, J; Paris, M

    1982-10-01

    Four flavanones (pinostrobin, pinocembrin, sakuranetin and naringenin), one dihydroflavonol (7-methyl aromadendrin) and one flavone (hispidulin) have been isolated from Artemisia campestris L. ssp. glutinosa Gay and identified by spectroscopic methods. Artemisia campestris L. sous-espèce glutinosa Gay est une Composée Anthémidée largement répandue sur les sables du littoral méditerranéean et abondante dans certaines régions d'Espagne et d'Italie. Dans le cadre d'une étude chimiotaxonomique du genre Artemisia Tourn., nous nous sommes intéressés à l'analyse des flavonoïdes, composés jamais décrits, à notre connaissance, dans cette espèce d' Artemisia. Les sommités fleuries d' Artemisia campestris sous-espèce glutinosa, séchées et pulvérisées, sont dégraissées à l'ether de pétrole et épuisées par le chloroforme. Le fractionnement de l'extrait chloroformique, par chromatographie sur colonne de silice, et la purification de certaines fractions conduisent à l'isolement de six génines flavoniques, à l'etat pur. L' étude des spectres UV, des spectres de masse et des spectres de RMN [1,2] et la comparaison avec des échantillons authentiques permettent de proposer, pour ces flavonoïdes, les structures de la pinostrobine [3], de la pinocembrine [4], de la sakuranétine, de la naringénine [5] (flavanones), de la méthyl-7-aromadendrine, [6, 7] (dihydroflavonol) et de l'hispiduline [8, 9] (flavone); quatre de ces génines sont méthylées. Parmi ces flavonoïdes, la pinostrobine n'a jamais été décrite, à notre connaissance, dans la famille des Composées; la pinocembrine, la sakuranétine et la naringénine ont déjà été signalées chez quelques Astéracées et Eupatoriées [10], et l'hispiduline dans la tribu des Anthémidées ( Santolina chamaecyparissus L.) [8]. Seule, la méthyl-7-aromadendrine semble décrite, à ce jour, dans le genre Artemisia Tourn. [7].

  5. Karyotype and male pre-reductional meiosis of the sharpshooter Tapajosa rubromarginata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae

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    Graciela R de Bigliardo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cicadellidae in one of the best represented families in the Neotropical Region, and the tribe Proconiini comprises most of the xylem-feeding insects, including the majority of the known vectors of xylem-born phytopathogenic organisms. The cytogenetics of the Proconiini remains largely unexplored. We studied males of Tapajosa rubromarginata (Signoret collected at El Manantial (Tucumán, Argentina on native spontaneous vegetation where Sorghum halepense predominates. Conventional cytogenetic techniques were used in order to describe the karyotype and male meiosis of this sharpshooter. T. rubromarginata has a male karyological formula of 2n=21 and a sex chromosome system XO:XX (♂:♀. The chromosomes do not have a primary constriction, being holokinetic and the meiosis is pre-reductional, showing similar behavior both for autosomes and sex chromosomes during anaphase I. For this stage, chromosomes are parallel to the acromatic spindle with kinetic activities in the telomeres. They segregate reductionally in the anaphase I, and towards the equator during the second division of the meiosis. This is the first contribution to cytogenetic aspects on proconines sharpshooters, particularly on this economic relevant Auchenorrhyncha species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1: 309-314. Epub 2011 March 01.Los Cicadellidae son una de las familias mejor representadas en la región neotropical. La tribu Proconiini incluye a muchos de los insectos que se alimentan de xilema y la mayoría de los vectores de organismos fitopatógenos asociados con dicho tejido de conducción. La citogenética de los Proconiini es prácticamente inexplorada. Por lo tanto, se utilizaron técnicas citogenéticas convencionales para describir el cariotipo y la meiosis en los machos de Tapajosa rubromarginata Signoret. Este cicadélido presenta el complemento cromosómico diploide de 2n=20A+X0 en los machos. Los cromosomas no presentan constricción primaria, son holocinéticos, y la meiosis es

  6. Revisión sistemática del género Halictillus (Hymenoptera: Halictidae: Augochlorini en la Argentina Systematic revision of the genus Halictillus (Hymenoptera: Halictidae: Augochlorini in Argentina

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    Rocío A. González-Vaquero

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre los grupos basales de la tribu Augochlorini, se encuentra el género de abejas Halictillus Moure, con sólo dos especies descriptas y ninguna revisión sistemática hasta el momento. En este trabajo, se describen cuatro especies nuevas de Halictillus de la Argentina y Chile. Las especies nuevas son: H. amplilobus sp. nov. (de Buenos Aires, Córdoba y Río Negro, H. peninsularis sp. nov. (de la Península de Valdés, Chubut, H. badiclypeus sp. nov. (de Mendoza, La Rioja y Catamarca y H. reticulatus sp. nov. (de las zonas occidentales de Chubut, Neuquén y Río Negro en la Argentina, y las regiones de La Araucanía y Los Lagos en Chile. Se presenta una clave para la determinación de las seis especies que componen el género, así como descripciones detalladas, imágenes de microscopio electrónico de barrido y un mapa de distribución geográfica de las especies nuevas.Among the basal genera of the tribe Augochlorini is the bee genus Halictillus Moure, which comprises only two described species and has no systematic revision at the moment. Four new species of Halictillus from Argentina and Chile are described in this contribution: H. amplilobus sp. nov. (from Buenos Aires, Córdoba and Río Negro Provinces, H. peninsularis sp. nov. (from Península Valdés, Chubut Province, H. badiclypeus sp. nov. (from Mendoza, La Rioja and Catamarca Provinces and H. reticulatus sp. nov. (from western Chubut, Neuquén and Río Negro Provinces in Argentina, and the regions of La Araucanía and Los Lagos in Chile. A key to the six species of the genus, as well as detailed descriptions, scanning electron microscope images and a map with distributional data of the new species are provided.

  7. Revisión del género PerezIa (compositae

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    Liliana Katinas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El género Perezia Lag. (Compositae se compone de 30 especies de hierbas perennes distribuidas principalmente en la región andino-patagónica, desde Colombia hasta el sur de Argentina y Chile, con algunas especies en el este de Brasil y de la Argentina, Paraguay y Uruguay. Sus corolas bilabiadas, anteras sagitadas, estilos truncados con una coronita apical de pelos colectores y su estructura polínica ubican al género en la tribu Nassauvieae, subfamilia Mutisioideae. Se propone en este trabajo: a la rehabilitación de Perezia atacamensis, P. burkartii y P. capito; b la transferencia de P. ciliosa var. dentata a la categoría de especie [P. dentata (Cabrera comb. nov.]; c la inclusión de Perezia catharinensis Cabrera, P. eryngioides (Cabrera Crisci y P. volcanensis Cabrera, descritas o transferidas posteriormente a la primer revisión del género en 1969; d la eliminación de subespecies en P. lactucoides; e el establecimiento de la sinonimia entre P. pinnatifida, P. pygmaea y P. coerulescens; f el establecimiento de la sinonimia entre P. pungens, P. ciliaris, P. mandonii, P. purpurata, P. carduncelloides y P. sublyrata; g la rehabilitación de Perezia recurvata subsp. recurvata, subsp. beckii y subsp. triceps. Se designaron dos lectotipos y cinco neotipos, y se excluyeron 86 nombres del género.Revision of the genus Perezia (Compositae. The genus Perezia Lag. (Compositae, with 30 species, is distributed in the Andean-Patagonian region from Colombia to southern Argentina and Chile, and in eastern Brasil and Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. It belongs to the tribe Nassauvieae, subfamily Mutisioideae by its bilabiate corollas, caudate anthers, truncate style branches with a crown of collector hairs, and a particular pollen structure. It is proposed in this paper: a the rehabilitation of Perezia atacamensis, P. burkartii, and P. capito; b the change of P. ciliosa var. dentata to the species category [P. dentata (Cabrera comb. nov.]; c the

  8. Florística e estrutura da comunidade arbórea de um fragmento florestal em Luminárias, MG Floristic composition and structure of the tree layer of a forest fragment in Luminárias Municipality, Minas Gerais State

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    Luciene Alves Rodrigues

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a composição florística e estrutural da comunidade arbórea de uma floresta em Luminárias, MG. O local de estudo é conhecido como Mata do Galego, possui cerca de 77 ha e está localizado a 21°29'S e 44°55'W, às margens do rio Ingaí. A amostragem florística foi realizada em parcelas e também em caminhadas pela floresta. Todo o material coletado foi identificado e incorporado ao Herbário ESAL, da Universidade Federal de Lavras. O levantamento estrutural foi realizado por meio de amostragem sistemática, em 32 parcelas de 20 × 20m, distribuídas em três transeções, da margem do rio até a borda da mata. Nas parcelas, foram amostrados todos os indivíduos arbóreos, vivos, com circunferência à altura do peito (CAP ≥ 15,5 cm. As variáveis químicas e físicas do solo foram obtidas das análises de amostras superficiais de solo (0-20 cm de cada parcela. No levantamento florístico foram amostradas 201 espécies, 129 gêneros e 57 famílias. As famílias com maior riqueza foram Myrtaceae, Lauraceae, Fabaceae Faboideae, Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae e Fabaceae Mimosoideae. No levantamento estrutural foram amostrados 2343 indivíduos de 159 espécies, 104 gêneros e 50 famílias. As espécies mais abundantes foram Casearia sylvestris, Lithraea molleoides, Machaerium stipitatum, Faramea cyanea, Diospyros inconstans e Copaifera langsdorffii. A Mata do Galego apresentou alta diversidade de espécies (H' = 4,23 nat/indivíduo e alta equabilidade (J' = 0,83. A alta diversidade de espécies pode estar relacionada à influência de formações vegetais próximas e aos diferentes microhabitats proporcionados pela topografia, variações na fertilidade e umidade do solo.The aim of this study was to analyze the floristic composition and structure of the tree layer of a forest fragment in the municipality of Luminárias, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. The forest fragment is locally known as Mata do

  9. Papagaio-de-peito-roxo Amazona vinacea (Kuhl (Aves: Psittacidae no norte do Espírito Santo: redescoberta e conservação Vinaceous Amazon Amazona vinacea (Kuhl (Aves: Psittacidae in the northern region of Espirito Santo state, southeastern Brazil: rediscovery and conservation

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    Lucas A. Carrara

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Amazona vinacea (Kuhl, 1820 é uma espécie endêmica da Mata Atlântica e ameaçada de extinção no Brasil e no mundo. Não existem relatos recentes de sua presença na porção setentrional de sua distribuição ao norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro. O último é datado provavelmente de 1991, tendo sido considerado extinto ao norte do Espírito Santo. O presente trabalho noticia a redescoberta da espécie em Alto Rio Novo, noroeste do Espírito Santo, divisa com Minas Gerais. Foram registrados bandos em duas localidades em dezembro de 2005, sendo o maior deles composto por 28 indivíduos. Durante os registros foi observado A. vinacea se alimentando de Anadenanthera sp. (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae, uma nova fonte alimentar para a espécie. Os registros históricos mais recentes para a região citam localidades com distância inferior a 35 km dos atuais registros, reforçando a importância local. No entanto, a degradação ambiental e a captura ilegal representam obstáculos à conservação da espécie nesta região. Em dezembro de 2002 foi criado o Parque Nacional dos Pontões Capixabas, primeira Unidade de Conservação na porção serrana do norte do Espírito Santo. Uma das áreas históricas da espécie está incluída em seus limites e um dos locais onde foi agora redescoberto fica a cerca de 10 km de distância da borda do parque. Essa Unidade de Conservação é essencial à proteção de trechos nativos da Mata Atlântica e conseqüentemente do papagaio-de-peito-roxo. Além de medidas conservacionistas, a aquisição de informações sobre as populações de A. vinacea no noroeste do Espírito Santo e leste de Minas Gerais torna-se indispensável para a proposição de medidas de manejo capazes de reverter o grave quadro atual, objetivando viabilizar a permanência de populações na região mais setentrional da distribuição conhecida atualmente para a espécie.Endemic of the Atlantic Forest, Amazona vinacea (Kuhl, 1820 is listed as

  10. Estudos experimentais em coelhos com plantas cianogênicas Experiments in rabbits with cyanogenic plants

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    Marilene F. Brito

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A administração por via oral das folhas dessecadas de Piptadenia macrocarpa (Benth. [=Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan], Piptadenia viridiflora (Kunth. Benth. e Holocalyx glaziovii Taub. [=Holocalyx balansae Micheli], plantas cianogênicas da família Leguminosae Mimosoideae, revelou a sensibilidade do coelho à elas, caracterizando-se a intoxicação por sintomatologia de natureza neuromuscular. A dose letal de P. macrocarpa foi de 6 g/kg para a brotação dessecada, até 5 meses após sua coleta; 6 meses depois da coleta a planta havia perdido a toxidez. A dose letal de P. viridiflora foi também de 6 g/kg para a brotação dessecada, coletada dois meses antes dos experimentos; 10 meses após a coleta a planta havia perdido metade da toxidez. Com H. glaziovii foram realizadas duas séries experimentais; estabeleceu-se a dose letal entre 0,75 e 1,5 g/kg com a planta coletada 2 meses antes, também com perda aproximada de metade da toxidez no período de 12 meses. O experimentos indicam, que H. glaziovii, moída logo após a coleta e armazenada em vidros fechados com tampa plástica, conserva melhor a toxidez nos primeiros meses do que a planta guardada em sacos de algodão, porém, ao final de um ano, essa diferença deixa de existir. A toxidez das folhas dessecadas foi proporcional à intensidade das reações das mesmas ao teste do papel picro-sódico, com raras exceçõesThe dried leaves of Piptadenia macrocarpa Benth. [=Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan], Piptadenia viridiflora (Kunth. Benth. and Holocalyx glaziovii Taub.[=Holocalyx balansae Micheli], all trees of the Leguminosae Mimosoideae family, were given orally to rabbits in single doses. In the case of H. glaziovii, leaves were fed after being stored in two different ways. In the first series of experiments, Piptadenia macrocarpa failed to poison rabbits although the leaves were collected when sprouting, the most toxic stage for cattle. The experiments were performed 4

  11. Floristic composition and similarity of 15 hectares in Central Amazon, Brazil

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    Kátia Emidio da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La región amazónica es una de las más diversas áreas del mundo. Los estudios sobre la gran diversidad de bosques tropicales generan contribuciones relevantes en la comprensión de los mecanismos que originan y apoyan tal diversidad. En el presente estudio se describe la composición de las especies y la diversidad de 15 parcelas de una hectárea en el bosque denso amazónico terra firme en Brasil, y compara la similitud florística de estas parcelas con otras nueve parcelas de una hectárea. Las 15 parcelas estudiadas fueron seleccionadas al azar, en el 2005, de parcelas permanentes en el sitio experimental de Embrapa, Estado de Amazonas. La diversidad fue analizada utilizando la riqueza de especies y el índice de Shannon, así como el índice de Similitud de Sorensen; y como método de agrupación se utilizó el promedio no ponderado por grupo (UPGMA. La prueba de Mantel se llevó a cabo para estudiar si las diferencias en la composición de especies entre los sitios podrían ser explicadas por la distancia geográfica entre ellos. En general, se identificaron 8 771 individuos, 264 especies y 51 familias de plantas. La mayoría de las especies se concentraron en pocas familias y pocas tenían un gran número de individuos. Las familias que presentaron la mayor riqueza de especies fueron: Fabaceae (Faboideae: 22spp, Mimosoideae: 22spp, Sapotaceae: 22spp, Lecythidaceae: 15 y Lauraceae: 13. Burseraceae tuvo el mayor número de individuos con un 11.8% del total. Las diez especies más abundantes fueron: Protium hebetatum (1 037 individuos, Eschweilera coriacea (471, Licania oblongifolia (310, Pouteria minima (293, Ocotea cernua (258, Scleronema micranthum (197, Eschweilera collina (176, Licania apelata (172, Naucleopsis caloneura (170 y Psidium araca (152, que representó un 36.5% de todos los individuos. Aproximadamente en el 49% de las especies se encontraron hasta diez individuos, mientras que el 13% de las especies apareció sólo una vez

  12. Pollen calendar of the city of Salamanca (Spain). Aeropalynological analysis for 1981-1982 and 1991-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Prieto, M; Lorente Toledano, F; Romo Cortina, A; Dávila González, I; Laffond Yges, E; Calvo Bullón, A

    1998-01-01

    We report a study on the contents of airborne pollen in the city of Salamanca (Spain) aimed at establishing a pollen calendar for the city for the yearly periods of maximum concentrations, relating these with quantifiable atmospheric variables over two two-year periods with an interval of 10 years between them: 1981-82 and 1991-92. The pollen was captured with Burkard spore-traps, based on Hirst's volumetric method. Determinations were made daily and were used to make preparations, previously stained with basic fuscin, for study under light microscopy at x 1,000 magnification. 946 preparations were analyzed, corresponding to the same number of days distributed over 150 weeks of the periods studied. The results afforded the identification of 48 different types of pollen grain: Grasses (Poaceae), Olea europea (olive), Quercus rotundifolia (Holm-oak), other Quercus spp. (Q. pyrenaica, Q. suber, Q. faginea, etc.), Cupressaceae (Cupressus sempervivens, C. arizonica, Juniperus communis etc.), Plantago (Plantago lanceolata, Plantago media, etc.), Pinaceae (Pinus communis, Abies alba, etc.), Rumex sp. (osier), Urtica dioica (nettle), Parietaria (Parietaria officinalis, P. judaica), Chenopodio-Amaranthaceae (Chenopodium sp., Amaranthus sp., Salsola kali, etc.), Artemisia vulgaris (Artemisia), other Compositae (Taraxacum officinalis, Hellianthus sp. etc.), Castanea sativa (Chestnut), Ligustrum sp. (privet), Betula sp. (birch), Alnus sp. (common alder), Fraxinus sp (ash), Populus sp. (poplar), Salix sp. (willow), Ulmus sp. (elm), Platanus sp. (plantain, plane), Carex sp. (sweet flag), Erica sp. (common heather), Leguminosae or Fabaceae:--Papillionaceae (Medicago sp.; Cercis sp., Robina sp.)--Cesalpinoideae Acacia sp. (Acacia),--Mimosoideae: Sophora japonica, Umbelliferae (Foeniculum sp., Cirsium sp., etc.), Centaurea sp., Cistus sp. (rock rose), Typha sp (bulrush), Mirtaceae (Myrtus communis), Juglans regia (Walnut), Galium verum, Filipendula sp. (spirea/drop wort), Rosaceae

  13. Duas décadas da Norma Brasileira de Comercialização de Alimentos para Lactentes: há motivos para comemorar? Two decades of the Brazilian Standard for Marketing of Baby Food: are there reasons to celebrate?

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    Denise Cavallini Cyrillo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto da Norma Brasileira de Comercialização de Alimentos para Lac tentes no cenário do aleitamento materno e na regulação da comercialização de fórmulas infantis. MÉTODO: O artigo analisou dados de uma pesquisa de âmbito nacional realizada em 2000, na qual foram aplicados questionários estruturados em nove tipos de público-alvo. Foram rea lizadas 2 848 entrevistas em uma amostra selecionada aleatoriamente em 159 municípios, dis tribuídos nos 26 estados brasileiros e Distrito Federal, escolhidos por análise de conglomerado. RESULTADOS: A pesquisa mostrou uma percepção adequada dos agentes quanto à importân cia e duração ideal da amamentação. A duração mediana da amamentação no Brasil aumentou nas 2 últimas décadas, porém ainda se mostrou aquém do desejável. Os fatores responsáveis pelo desmame precoce incluíram trabalho e saúde precária da mãe, crenças sobre insuficiência do leite materno e orientações de profissionais de saúde. O conhecimento sobre a norma brasileira foi bastante restrito, mesmo entre profissionais de saúde. CONCLUSÕES: A promoção do aleitamento materno no país deveria enfatizar a transcendên cia das barreiras culturais, educacionais e econômicas identificadas nos agentes envolvidos. A ação coordenada entre agentes públicos, agentes privados e terceiro setor para a disseminação da informação e do desejo de amamentar é desejável. A resistência à consolidação de parcerias deveria ser suprimida na busca de uma convergência institucional em prol do interesse maior expresso no contexto da norma brasileira: a proteção da saúde do lactente.OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact that the Brazilian Standard for Marketing of Baby Food (Norma Brasileira de Comercialização de Alimentos para Lactentes have had on breastfeeding rates and regulating the marketing of breast-milk substitutes. METHOD: Data were retrieved from a national survey conducted in 2000

  14. NOTE TASSONOMICHE E NOMENCLATORIALI SU ALCUNE SPECIE PALEARTICHE DI SIBINIA E TYCHIUS (COLEOPTERA, CURCULIONIDAE

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    Roberto Caldara

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In accordo con le disposizioni del codice internazionale di Nomenclatura Zoologica, vengono proposte otto azioni allo scopo di salvaguardare la stabilità della nomenclatura attuale di alcune specie della tribù Tychiini. seguendo le indicazioni dell’Articolo 23.9.1, Sibinia subelliptica Desbrochers, 1873 è considerato nomen protectum e Gymnetron schaumi Becker, 1864 è considerato nomen oblitum; Sibinia phalerata Gyllenhal, 1836 è considerato nomen protectum e Sibinia centromaculata Villa & Villa, 1835 è considerato nomen oblitum. Essendo presenti le condizioni richieste dall’articolo 75.3, vengono designati i neotipi dei seguenti taxa: Sibinia centromaculata Villa & Villa, 1835; Sybines pulchellus Desbrochers, 1875. Sono inoltre stabiliti i lectotypi di: Gymne­ tron schaumi Becker, 1864; Sibinia attalica Gyllenhal var. lateralis Desbrochers, 1895; Sibinia cinctella Desbrochers, 1898; Sibinia pozuelica Fuente, 1910; Tychius barceloni­cus Desbrochers, 1908; Tychius edentatus Desbrochers, 1895; Tychius pallidicornis Desbrochers, 1875; Tychius parvulus Stephens, 1831; Tychius seductor Desbrochers, 1908. Vengono proposte le seguenti nuove sinonimie: Sibinia bipunctata Kirsch, 1870 = Sibi­nia postsignata Voss, 1971 n. syn.; Sibinia exigua Faust = Sibinia cinctella Desbrochers, 1898 n. syn.; Sibinia femoralis Germar, 1824 = Sibinia attalica var. lateralis Desbrochers, 1895 n. syn. = Sibinia consanguinea Desbrochers, 1895 n. syn. = Sibinia attalica var. curtula Desbrochers, 1907 n. syn. = Sibinia dilataticollis Desbrochers, 1907 n. syn.= Sibinia seducta Desbrochers, 1907 n. syn. = Sibinia pozuelica Fuente, 1910 n. syn.; Si­binia pici Desbrochers = Sibinia otiosa Hustache, 1944 n. syn. = Sibinia praeventa Hustache, 1944 n. syn.; Sibinia subelliptica Desbrochers, 1873 = Sibinia schaumei Desbrochers, 1895 n. syn.; Sibinia unicolor Fåhraeus, 1843 = Sybines pulchellus Desbrochers, 1875 n. syn. = Sibinia ochreata Schilsky, 1912 n. syn

  15. Relaciones filogenéticas del género Anomala (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Rutelinae Phylogenetic relationships of the genus Anomala (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae: Rutelinae

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    Andrés Ramírez-Ponce

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un análisis filogenético basado en caracteres morfológicos de adultos de varios géneros de la tribu Anomalini para redefinir al género Anomala Samouelle, 1819 y evaluar su situación filogenética. El análisis de parsimonia, que incluyó 46 especies de 18 géneros procedentes de varias partes del mundo, permitió poner a prueba la monofilia de algunos géneros y evaluar su posición taxonómica, además de revelar que los límites de algunos géneros no son claros. Con base en el cladograma de consenso estricto existen evidencias suficientes para considerar las especies americanas hasta ahora incluidas en Anomala como un género diferente, al que corresponde nombrar Paranomala Casey, 1915, stat. rev. También se comprobó que algunas especies americanas incluidas en el género Callistethus Blanchard, 1851 deben incorporarse al género Paranomala, con excepción de C. viduus (Newman, la cual fundamenta la revalidación del género Pachystethus Blanchard, 1851, stat. rev. También se sinonimiza el género Anomalacra Casey, 1915 con Paranomala, y se transfiere Anomala carlsoni Hardy, 1976 a Leptohoplia Saylor, 1935. Se actualizan las descripciones y diagnosis de los géneros Anomala, Paranomala, Callistethus y Pachystethus y se incluye una clave de los géneros americanos de Anomalini que incorpora las definiciones y cambios nomenclaturales propuestos.A phylogenetic analysis based on adult morphology that includes some genera included in the tribe Anomalini is presented, to redefine the genus Anomala Samouelle, 1819, and evaluate its phylogenetic situation. The parsimony analysis, based on 46 species of 18 genera from several areas of the world, allowed us to test the monophyly of some genera and evaluate their taxonomic position, and to reveal that the generic limits are not clear. On the basis of the strict consensus cladogram there is reason to consider the American species heretofore included in Anomala as members of a

  16. Posición taxonómica de Acrotomopus atropunctellus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae y descripción del daño producido en el cultivo de caña de azúcar en la Argentina Taxonomic position of Acrotomopus atropunctellus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and description of damages to sugar cane crops in Argentina

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    M. L. Pilar Pérez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Acrotomopus atropunctellus (Boheman (Curculionidae: Molytinae: Cholini es una especie de picudo, endémica de la Argentina, que habita principalmente en la provincia biogeográfica de las Yungas; citada como perjudicial para la caña de azúcar en 1929. Hasta hace una década, no se habían producido nuevos reportes de daños, sin embargo, el aumento de la superficie cultivada con caña ha provocado el resurgimiento de la plaga. Morfológicamente, esta especie se asemeja a Acrotomopus wagneri Hustache, distribuida en la provincia biogeográfica del Chaco. Su biología es similar a la de otras especies de la tribu Cholini con larvas minadoras de cañas. Las hembras oviponen en las porciones basal y media de los plantines. Las larvas cavan galerías descendentes hasta alcanzar la cepa para pasar allí el invierno y reducen paulatinamente el rebrote de la caña en las siguientes temporadas. Los adultos producen perforaciones de pequeño diámetro y bordes ásperos en los brotes, macollos, tallos y nervadura central de las hojas. Se brinda una clave dicotómica para separar A. atropunctellus de las otras tres especies del género, todas presentes en la Argentina (A. wagneri, A. microspilotus (Pascoe y A. obtusus (Hustache y se describen los rasgos principales de su ciclo biológico y de los daños ocasionados en cultivos de caña de la provincia de Tucumán. El trabajo incluye fotografías de hábito de las cuatro especies de Acrotomopus, y de la larva y los daños ocasionados por A. atropunctellus.Acrotomopus atropunctellus (Boheman (Curculionidae: Molytinae: Cholini is a weevil species endemic to Argentina, mainly inhabiting the biogeographic province of the Yungas. It was first reported as harmful to sugar cane in 1929. Damages were not cited again until a decade ago, when the species became a serious pest due to the increased sugar cane production. This species is morphologically similar to A. wagneri Hustache that occurs in the Chacoan

  17. Mass loading of selected major and trace elements in Lake Fork Creek near Leadville, Colorado, September-October 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton-Day, Katherine; Flynn, Jennifer L.; Kimball, Briant A.; Runkel, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    load to the stream were the parts of the study reach containing inflow from the tribu-taries Halfmoon Creek (calcium) and Willow Creek (sulfate). The Arkansas River and its tributaries upstream from Lake Fork Creek were the source of most of the calcium (70 percent), sulfate (82 percent), manganese (77 percent), lead (78 percent), and zinc (95 percent) loads in the Arkansas River downstream from the Lake Fork confluence. In contrast, Lake Fork Creek was the major source of aluminum (68 percent), copper (65 percent), and iron (87 percent) loads to the Arkansas River downstream from the confluence. Attenuation was not important for calcium, sulfate, or iron. However, other metals loads were reduced up to 81 percent over the study reach (aluminum, 25 percent; copper, 20 percent; manganese, 81 percent; lead, 30 percent; zinc, 72 percent). Metal attenuation in the stream occurred primarily in three locations (1) the irrigation diversion ditch; (2) the beaver pond complex extending from upstream from the Colorado Gulch inflow to just downstream from that inflow; and (3) the stream reach that included the inflow from Willow Creek. The most likely attenuation mechanism is precipitation of metal oxides and hydroxides (primarily manganese), and sorption or coprecipitation of trace elements with the precipitating phase. A mass-balance calculation indicated that the wetland between the Dinero Tunnel and Lake Fork Creek removed iron, had little effect on zinc mass load, and was a source for, or was releasing, aluminum and manganese. In contrast, the wetland that occurred between the Siwatch Tunnel and Lake Fork Creek removed aluminum, iron, manganese, and zinc from the tunnel drainage before it entered the creek. Inflow from the National Fish Hatchery increased dissolved organic carbon concentrations in Lake Fork Creek and slightly changed the composition of the dissolved organic carbon. However, dissolved organic carbon loads increased in the stream reach downs

  18. Taxonomic revision of the tropical African group of Carex subsect. Elatae (sect. Spirostachyae, Cyperaceae

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    Escudero, Marcial

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The tropical African monophyletic group of Carex subsect. Elatae (sect. Spirostachyae is distributed in continental tropical Africa, Madagascar, the Mascarene archipelago, and Bioko Island (32 km off the coast of West Africa, in the Gulf of Guinea. The first monographic treatment of this Carex group, as well as of the tribe Cariceae, was published by Kükenthal (as sect. Elatae Kük.. Recently, the first molecular (nrDNA, cpDNA phylogeny of Carex sect. Elatae has been published, which also included the species of sect. Spirostachyae. In the resulting consensus trees, most species of sect. Elatae were embedded within core Spirostachyae and so this section was joined with sect. Spirostachyae as subsect. Elatae. Within subsect. Elatae, several groups were described, one of which was termed the “tropical African group”. Here we present a taxonomic revision of this group, based on more than 280 vouchers from 29 herbaria as well as in field trips in Tropical Africa. In the revision, we recognise 12 species (16 taxa within the tropical African group, and so have somewhat modified our previous view, in which 10 species, 12 taxa were listed. One new species from Tanzania is included in this treatment, C. uluguruensis Luceño & M. Escudero. Several combinations are made, C. cyrtosaccus is treated as a synonym of C. vallis-rosetto and, finally, the binomial C. greenwayi has been recognised.Las especies de la subsección Elatae (sección Spirostachyae del género Carex que se distribuyen por África tropical continental, Madagascar, el archipiélago de las Mascareñas y la isla de Bioko (a 32 km del litoral de África occidental, en el golfo de Guinea forman un grupo monofilético. El primer tratamiento taxonómico de este grupo de cárices, así como de la tribu Cariceae en su conjunto, fue elaborado por Kükenthal (sección Elatae Kük.; recientemente, se ha publicado el primer estudio de filogenia molecular (nrDNA, cpDNA de los táxones de este grupo

  19. Un género nuevo de Platynini (Coleoptera: Carabidae de la Argentina A new genus of Platynini (Coleoptera: Carabidae from Argentina

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    Sergio ROIG-JUÑENT

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Los Platynini constituyen un grupo de carábidos distribuidos ampliamente en América del Sur, existiendo la mayor diversidad de especies en las regiones tropicales de altura de Los Andes. En la Argentina y Chile, la mayoría de las especies de Platynini se hallan distribuidas en áreas extracordilleranas, conociéndose pocos datos para la región Andina. A partir de recolecciones realizadas en la Precordillera y Cordillera de los Andes en Mendoza (Argentina, se hallaron ejemplares pertenecientes a dos especies de dicha tribu de carábidos. El estudio de este material ha permitido establecer dos nuevas especies cuyos caracteres justifican su agrupación en un nuevo género, Austroglyptolenus nov. gen. La presencia de una carena dorsal en la protibia y el poseer la base del lóbulo medio esclerotizado agruparían a Austroglyptolenus nov. gen. con los géneros Glyptolenus Bates y Glyptolenoides Perrault. De ellos se diferencia por la forma de los metatarsitos, ausencia de diente en el saco interno y la presencia de un anillo de espículas en la bursa copulatriz. Por ello las especies de Austroglyptolenus nov. gen., A. mendozensis sp. nov. y A. precordillerae sp. nov. están más relacionadas con las especies de América del Sur tropical que con los Platynini australes extramontanos de la Argentina y Chile. En este aporte se proveen las descripciones e ilustraciones del género y de las nuevas especies, así como también claves para identificar los nuevos taxones.Platynini is a widespread tribe of carabids in South America, having the largest diversity of species in the tropical highlands of Andes. In Argentina and Chile, most of the platinine species are distributed in extra-Andean regions. Several specimens of platynine have been found in samples from the Precordillera and the Andes in Mendoza (Argentina. The study of these materials revealed two new species, whose characters justify the creation of a new genus, Austroglyptolenus gen. nov. The

  20. Ayer, Hoy y Mañana, La Teoría del Prión.

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    Gabriel Toro González

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    (Reproducido con autorización de Acta Neurológica Colombiana Vol. 18 No. 4, 2002.

    Introducción

    La creencia mejor respaldada actualmente nos indica que existe un grupo de enfermedades causadas por anormalidades en el procesamiento de las proteínas. En la década 1950-1960 D. Carleton Gajdusek y Vincent Zigas comenzaron a estudiar en Nueva Guinea una enfermedad fatal del sistema nervioso que se conoce con el nombre de Kuru que estaba diezmando a la tribu Fore, comunidad de unos 12.000 nativos (Figura 1. Gajdusek y Zigas observaron que el Kuru no correspondía a ningún modelo genético conocido y con la colaboración del antropólogo R. Glasse pensaron que el canibalismo ritual practicado por los Fore podría ser la causa de la transmisión de esta enfermedad, lo cual resultó cierto porque el Kuru prácticamente desapareció tras tres décadas de abolidos estos hábitos.

    Desde el primer momento se notó que el Kuru tenía características comunes con el Scrapie y que había semejanza entre estas dos entidades y la enfermedad de Creutzfeldt-Jakob (ECJ, una demencia de progresión rápida, no limitada geográficamente, descrita a principios del siglo XX, las tres aparentemente causadas por infecciones virales lentas con largos períodos de incubación medibles en años y un avance irreversible de los síntomas.

    Este pensamiento, por supuesto, se apoyaba en la afirmación formulada en 1939 por Mc Farlane Burnet de un posible mecanismo de acción lenta o temperada, inicialmente ejemplificada en los virus Herpes y en la propuesta que unos 15 años más tarde hiciera el veterinario islandés B. Sigurdsson de llamar Enfermedades Virales Lentas a las entidades que exhibieran tal comportamiento. Philip Duffy y colaboradores en la Universidad de Columbia, en 1974 comunican la primera observación de transmisión de la demencia de Creutzfeldt –Jakob de humano a humano a través de un injerto de c

  1. Los Cynipidae (Hymenoptera de la Comunidad de Madrid: lista anotada, mapas de distribución, riqueza y estatus de conservación

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    Nieves-Aldrey, J. L.

    2006-05-01

    ha sido encontrada, junto a su área de distribución potencial en este territorio. Se comentan distintos aspectos sobre la riqueza y distribución de los cinípidos de Madrid: especies de la fauna ibérica ausentes y otras que han de buscarse, especies raras y singulares junto a aquellas áreas de mayor riqueza de especies. El área de mayor riqueza del grupo se sitúa en una franja siguiendo el eje Guadalix-Venturada-Torrelaguna, de terrenos del Cretácico y del Terciario, que presenta también altas cifras de diversidad botánica de los géneros de plantas hospedantes del grupo, especialmente de fagáceas del género Quercus. Algunos enclaves del sureste de Madrid, ricos en especies singulares y raras de cinípidos de la tribu Aylacini, las áreas relictas de Q. petraea del nordeste de Madrid con especies exclusivas asociadas, así como los escasos enclaves remanentes de Quercus suber en la región, también con especies exclusivas de cinípidos asociadas, merecen la máxima protección por lo que respecta a la conservación de los cinípidos.

  2. Jóvenes de otros mundos: ¿Tribus urbanas? ¿Culturas juveniles? Aportaciones desde contextos no occidentales Jovens de outros mundos: Tribos urbanas? Culturas jovens? Contribuições dos contextos no occidentais Young people of other worlds: Urban tribes? Youth cultures? Contributions from nonwestern contexts

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    José Sánchez García

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A partir de una experiencia de campo en cuatro barrios de la ciudad de El Cairo, el autor traza una reflexión y hace un replanteamiento de las metodologías tradicionales instituidas para la investigación entre grupos generacionales en contextos occidentales. Aunque se defiende el carácter básicamente urbano de estas asociaciones, se discute la pertinencia de la aplicación de los conceptos de "tribu urbana" y "cultura juvenil" en escenarios culturales como los representados en sociedades que han sufrido una transición rápida a una modernidad impuesta por las redes transnacionales. En este sentido, el objetivo es la afinación de esas herramientas conceptuales ofreciendo una nueva perspectiva de las mismas que tenga en cuenta las peculiaridades históricas y sociales de la construcción de la categoría social "joven" en otros lugares. Por último, el texto intenta reivindicar a la antropología como una disciplina empírica y no apriorística.De uma experiência de campo em quatro distritos da cidade do Cairo, o autor levanta uma reflexão e um repensar das metodologias tradicionais instituídas para a investigação entre grupos geracionais em contextos ocidentais. Embora o caráter basicamente urbano destas associações seja defendido, discute à relevância da aplicação dos conceitos "da tribo urbana" e "de cultura jovem" em cenas culturais como representadas nas sociedades que se submeteram, em uma transição rápida, a uma modernidade imposta pelas redes transnacionais. Neste sentido, o objetivo é a afinação daquelas ferramentas conceptuais oferecendo uma perspectiva nova que considera as peculiaridades históricas e sociais da construção de "jovens" como categoria social em outros lugares. Finalmente, o texto tenta reivindicar a antropologia como uma disciplina empírica e não apriorística.From an experience of field in four districts of the city of Cairo, the author raises a reflection and a reframing of the instituted

  3. Poisonous Properties of Larkspur (Delphinium spp.

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    Olsen, John D.

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Some members of the tribe DelphineaeWarming are useful as forage for grazing cattle or as a source of medicaments for man. However, under certain circumstances their consumption results in poisoning, apparently because of norditerpenoid alkaloids. At least 150 diterpenoid alkaloids have been identified in Delphinium. In this report, factors influencing the alkaloid content and the toxicity of the plant are discussed. Relative change in content of eight alkaloids at four stages of growth of Delphinium occidentale (Watson Watson is reported . The most dominant alkaloids in nine species of Delphinium are listed. Toxicity of eight species was compared al the flower stage of growth using a mouse assay with D. barbeyi; (Huth Huth being about four times more toxic than D. glaucescens Rydb. or D. geyeri Greene and about ten times more toxic than Consolida CV., D. accidentale, or Aconitum columbianum var. columbianum Nutt. (vegetative stage. Stress by aphid infestation or relatively low water availability had little if any effect on toxicity of D. barbeyi and D. occidentale, respectively. From chemical analysis of D. barbeyi tested previously in cattle. the LD50 for a s ingle intraruminal dose of methyllycaconitine was estimated to be less than 6.3 mg/kg body wt.

    [ca] Alguns membres de la tribu Delphineae Warming són emprats com a farratge per a bestiar de pastura o com a font de medicaments per a l'home. Tanmateix, sota determinades circumstàncies, el seu consum esdevé intoxicació. aparentment per causa d'alcaloides norditerpènics. Al menys 150 alcaloides diterpènics han estat identificats en Delphinium. En aquest treball es discuteixen els factors que influeixen en el contingut alcalòidic, i, per tant, en la toxicitat de la planla. Es reporten els canvis relatius en el contingut de vuit alcaloides en Quatre estadis de

  4. Morfología del polen de especies de Gongylolepis (Mutisieae: Asteraceae de la Guayana venezolana

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    Torrecilla, Pedro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Gongylolepis is composed for 15 species, endemic to the Guyana region. This is the largest genus of tribe Mutiseae in the area. Palynological features have been studied for some members of the Mutiseae, but not for Gongylolepis. We studied the pollen morphology of nine species of the genus, using samples from herbarium material. The observations were made in 10 to 15 pollen grains for species and features of the spines, colpus, polar axis, equatorial diameter, exine structure, pollen type, apertures, perforations and P/E ratio to determinate pollen shape, were analyzed. Observations and pictures were made with light microscope and scanning electron microscope. With this information, a matrix and conglomerate analysis was made. Gongylolepis pollen is tricolporate, spheroidal and mainly of great size. Differences in exine ornamentation were enough to discriminate the studied species. Spines are conical, with perforations near of the base, but with differences in the apex shape. The dendogram showed four groups, where the size, shape, exine ornamentation, spines, colpus and perforations were of importance to the classification of the species considered.Gongylolepis está constituido por 15 especies, circunscritas a la región de Guayana, al norte de Suramérica. Es el género más numeroso de la tribu Mutisieae en dicha región, representado en su flora por especies endémicas. Aunque algunas especies de Mutisieae han sido estudiadas palinológicamente por varios investigadores, no hay estudios de las especies de Gongylolepis. En este trabajo se analizan los caracteres morfológicos del polen de nueve especies de Gongylolepis, de la Guayana venezolana. Las muestras de polen provienen de material de distintas colecciones de herbario. Para la observación de los caracteres de polen se usaron de 10 a 15 granos por especie, se analizaron caracteres de las espinas, colpos, eje polar, diámetro ecuatorial, ornamentación y grosor de la exina, tipo de

  5. ONGs, indios y petroléo: El caso U'wa a través de los mapas del territorio en disputa

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    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available ONGS, INDIENS ET PÉTROLE : LE DOSSIER U'WA À TRAVERS LES CARTES DE LA QUERELLE TERRITORIALE. Cet article explore les cartes du dossier U’wa. Cette confrontation est devenue célèbre suite à la menace de suicide d’un peuple indigène face à un projet pétrolier mené par deux grandes entreprises multinationales, OXY et SHELL, associées à l’État colombien. Le récit d’une “ tribu ” décidée à se suicider au nom de ce qu’elle considère sacré a attiré l’attention des médias du monde entier mais aussi de nombreuses organisations non gouvernementales (ONGs écologiques et des droits de l’homme. Ces dernières ont une participation active dans cette dispute qui se déroule dans le cadre du conflit armé colombien. L’objet de cet article est de mener une réflexion à propos des récits, des images et des représentations avec lesquelles les différents acteurs agissent dans la confrontation. À un certain moment de la controverse, toutes les parties ont préparé et même publié des cartes pour soutenir, souligner et illustrer leur argumentation. Elles montrent toutes le même ensemble de zones : celle de l’aire d’exploitation pétrolière et celles de la réserve indigène légalement reconnue et de l’aire réclamée comme territoire ancestral par les U’wa. Cependant chacun a choisi de montrer la relation entre ces surfaces de façon particulière et met en relief certains éléments. Ces cartes peuvent donc être considérées comme des textes culturels et conforment ainsi un corpus à explorer pour comprendre le conflit. Étant donné que la cartographie prétend être objective, les cartes sont apparemment éloignées des positions qui sont prises dans la discussion. Elles nous offrent, en conséquence, un point de vue privilégié pour entrevoir les hypothèses et les présuppositions de chacun des acteurs. Cet article nous permet une meilleure approcheà travers les cartes, du “ sous-texte ” des antagonistes, des

  6. The characteristics and diversity of indigenous rhizobia that nodulate selected indigenous multipurpose leguminous trees and shrubs in three soils of Ghana

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    Boakye, Emmanuel Yaw

    2013-03-01

    Trees in general and leguminous trees in particular form an integral part of the traditional farming systems in Ghana. Compared to other plants, leguminous trees have the advantage that, they are generally capable of growing better on N-deficient soils due to their ability to convert unavailable atmospheric N_2 into plant utilizable N. However, several factors including the abundance and effectiveness of the specific rhizobial partner, the available N and P in soil, are among the important factors that severely affect how much N_2 can be fixed in these trees. This study was thus conducted to assess the abundance and characteristics of the rhizobia that nodulate 18 selected indigenous tree legumes grown in three representative soils of Ghana and to ascertain important soil nutrient constraints that affect their nodulation, nitrogen fixation and growth. The three soils belonged to the Hatso, Toje and Alajo local series (equivalent to Haplic lixisol, Rhodic lixisol and Calcic vertisol, respectively). The 200 Rhizobium isolates obtained from nodules of these tree legumes were found to be highly diverse and varied in their abilities to nodulate legumes other than the host plants from which they were isolated. The isolates were further characterized culturally, metabolically, phenotypically and for their effectiveness in fixing atmospheric nitrogen. Of the 10 multi-purpose shrubs and tree species belonging to the subfamily Mimosoideae examined as much as 70% of them formed nodules in the three soils, whiles only 20% and 10% of the tree legumes that formed nodules belong to Papilionoideae and Caesalpinoideae sub-families respectively. As to the Rhizobium isolates from these shrubs and tree species, those obtained from Pithecelobium spp and Melletia thonningi appeared to be highly specific, nodulating only their respective homologous hosts, while those from Acacia mangium, Albizia lebbek and Acacia auricloformis appeared to be slightly promiscuous, and moderately

  7. Evolución de la sociabilidad en Hymenoptera: Rasgos conductuales vinculados a niveles sociales y precursores de sociabilidad en especies solitarias Evolution of sociality in Hymenoptera: Behavioural traits linked to social levels and precursors of sociality in solitary species

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    LUIS FLORES-PRADO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available En Hymenoptera, los niveles de sociabilidad han sido asociados a rasgos conductuales, tales como los comportamientos de nidificación y agonísticos, y la capacidad de reconocimiento entre conespecíficos. El reconocimiento de compañeros de nido es un fenómeno de amplia difusión entre especies eusociales, y puede ser inferido por el resultado de las interacciones agonísticas entre hembras; estas son más tolerantes hacia compañeras de nido que hacia no compañeras de nido. Contrariamente, en la mayor parte de las especies solitarias las hembras son agresivas hacia otras hembras conespecíficas. En especies eusociales, la descendencia inmadura es alimentada directamente por la madre, o por obreras; así, el contacto frecuente entre progenie y hembras adultas puede contribuir a entender el reconocimiento social. En el extremo opuesto, las especies solitarias construyen nidos que no permiten interacciones entre adultos e inmaduros. A pesar de esto, estudios recientes sugieren que el aprendizaje del fenotipo propio podría explicar la capacidad de reconocimiento y, tal vez, corresponde al punto de partida en el desarrollo y evolución de la sociabilidad. La subfamilia Xylocopinae (Apidae ha emergido como un valioso modelo para estudiar la evolución de la sociabilidad pues contiene especies que presentan un amplio rango de sociabilidad. En particular, la tribu Manueliini representa un taxón interesante desde el punto de vista de la evolución de la sociabilidad en Xylocopinae pues ha sido propuesto como el grupo hermano de todos los demás Xylocopinae, es un taxón relicto que retiene rasgos morfológicos ancestrales, contiene solo especies fundamentalmente solitarias (aunque en una de estas se ha demostrado recientemente reconocimiento de compañeras de nido y de parientes y algunas especies exhiben rasgos conductuales precursores de vida social. En este trabajo se revisa en Hymenoptera los grados de sociabilidad asociados con rasgos

  8. Do tribalismo disciplinar ao novo paradigma do trabalho docente - From the disciplinary tribalism to the new paradigm of teaching work

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    José Gregório Viegas Brás, Maria Neves Gonçalves, Portugal

    2011-07-01

    work regimes and what are the implications on how to be a teacher? What place (role does the teacher play in the production chain? What skills (competencies are required in the work place?Key-words: teaching work, reform, discipline, group-class. DE LA TRIBU DE DISCIPLINA EL NUEVO PARADIGMA DE TRABAJO DOCENTEResumenCon este artículo se pretende llenar un gran vacío que existe en el campo de la investigación educativa - examinar la historia de la enseñanza. Para ello se eligió el momento crítico histórico que provocó la gran transformación en el curso de la profesión de empleo. En este sentido, se investigaron los efectos en la enseñanza por parte del régimen de disciplina que existe en Portugal y lo que se entiende por la reforma que introdujo el régimen de la clase promulgadas en el siglo 19. Este cambio de régimen es un hito en la historia de la enseñanza. Hemos tratado de equiparar las variables de la tarea de realizar la división de la enseñanza. El cambio de régimen que se promulgó en el siglo 19, creó una nueva división del trabajo que requiere una mano de obra dinámica diametralmente opuesta a la práctica tradicional que estaba en vigor. Esta revolución plan de estudios, ha generado nuevas exigencias de trabajo de los profesores, pero también tuvo consecuencias en términos de identidad profesional.Palabras-clave: enseñanza, reforma, disciplina, grupo-clase. DU TRIBALISME DISCIPLINAIRE AU NOUVEAU PARADIGME DU TRAVAIL DES ENSEIGNANTSResuméAvec cet article nous nous proposons de combler une grande lacune qui existe dans le domaine de la recherche en éducation : analyser l'histoire du travail des enseignants. Pour aborder cette thématique nous avons choisi le moment historique critique qui a déclenché la grande transformation dans le cadre du métier des enseignants. En ce sens, nous avons étudié soit les effets produits dans le travail des enseignants par le régime de discipline qui existait au Portugal soit ce qu'on  pr

  9. Phylogenetic relationships of Chilean leptodactylids: a molecular approach based on mitochondrial genes 12S and 16S Relaciones filogenéticas de los leptodactílidos chilenos: una aproximación molecular basada en los genes mitocondriales 12S y 16S

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    CLAUDIO CORREA

    2006-12-01

    relationships recovered in this study suggest a multiple origin for Chilean temperate forest frogs and reveal an unexpected level of taxonomic diversity and evolutionary divergence among Chilean leptodactylidsLa mayoría de los anfibios chilenos pertenece a la subfamilia Telmatobiinae (Anura, Leptodactylidae. Varios estudios filogenéticos de Leptodactylidae y Telmatobiinae, basados principalmente en caracteres morfológicos, han sugerido implícitamente relaciones más estrechas de algunas especies de Telmatobiinae con miembros de otras subfamilias de leptodactílidos, incluyendo el género leptodactilino Pleurodema presente en Chile. Además, un número creciente de estudios moleculares sugieren un estatus no monofilético para Telmatobiinae, aunque ninguno de estos estudios ha investigado las relaciones filogenéticas de esta subfamilia. Secuencias parciales de los genes ribosomales mitocondriales 12S y 16S fueron comparadas para determinar las relaciones filogenéticas de los leptodactílidos chilenos y su posición dentro de los anuros modernos (Neobatrachia. Se incluyeron 22 especies de nueve de los diez géneros de telmatobinos presentes en Chile (Alsodes, Atelognathus, Batrachyla, Caudiverbera, Eupsophus, Hylorina, Insuetophrynus, Telmatobufo y Telmatobius, dos especies del género Pleurodema y una especie de Rhinodermatidae la cual es considerada una familia derivada de los leptodactílidos por algunos autores. Se incluyeron además 51 especies que representan la mayoría de las familias que componen Neobatrachia. Las reconstrucciones filogenéticas se realizaron utilizando los métodos de máxima parsimonia, máxima verosimilitud e inferencia bayesiana. Las topologías obtenidas en todos los análisis indican que Telmatobiinae es un ensamblaje polifilético, compuesto por especies que pertenecen a Hyloidea (la mayoría de los géneros y especies más relacionadas con taxa de Australasia (el clado Caudiverbera + Telmatobufo, definido como la tribu Calyptocephalellini

  10. Los estadios larvarios de los Crisópidos ibéricos (Insecta, Neuroptera, Chrysopidae, nuevos elementos sobre la morfología larvaria aplicables a la sistemática de la familia

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    Monserrat, V. J.

    2012-06-01

    number of anomalies that question the validity or the taxonomic identity of what, until now, we understood about some Iberian species (Pseudomallada prasinus, Chrysopa nigricostata, Chrysopa phyllochroma, and Chrysopa viridana. Globally, general ignorance of the larval morphology of many genera in this family limits, for now, the used of larval morphological characters in general taxonomic and systematic studies. Thus we recommend more detailed and complete larval descriptions of a larger number of species in a greater number and broader range of genera, tribes, and subfamilies worldwide. In addition to the morphological information, this study provides more than thirty years of new biological data on the Iberian green-lacewings. In presenting these data, it compiles the existing and new information on the biology, plant substrate preference,and geographic, altitudinal and phenological distributions of Iberian species.

    Tras una breve introducción sobre la evolución en el conocimiento de las fases juveniles de la familia Chrysopidae, sobre su biología, comportamiento y características morfológicas más interesantes, se realiza una revisión de los estadios preimaginales de las especies ibéricas (38 de las 49 especies, pertenecientes a los 13 géneros ibéricos, tanto en base a la información existente en la bibliografía, como en las descripciones realizadas por los autores tras la recolección de hembras grávidas, obtención de las puestas y cultivo de sus larvas. Se ofrece nueva información sobre la biología, comportamiento, aspecto, pigmentación y quetotaxia detallada de la larva neonata y de la larva madura de estas 38 especies, y se describen por primera vez los estadios preimaginales de Chrysopa dorsalis, Nineta guadarramensis, Suarius iberiensis e Italochrysa stigmatica. Se proponen una serie de caracteres morfológicos especialmente válidos para la diferenciación de las larvas ibéricas a nivel de subfamilia, tribu

  11. Notas sobre la flora de Colombia y países vecinos, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1968-09-01

                       Lonchocarpus dipteroneurus Pittier.                                                ∆Pterocarpus acapulcensis Rose. Rhamnaceae.                     Colubrina heteroneura (Griseb. StandI.                                                Ziziphus cyclocardia Blake.                                                ∆Ziziphus saeri Pittier. Simaroubaceae.                 Simaba ferruginea St. Hil. B. - Especies que ya habían sido anotadas anteriormente en la flora Colombiana:Boraginaceae.                     Tournefortia maculata Jacq.                                                Tournefortia volubilis L. Cactaceae.                           Acanthocereus sicariguensis Croiz. & Tamayo.                                                Pilosocereus lanuginosus (L. Byl. & Rowl. Celastraceae.                      Schaefferia frutescens Jacq. Convolvulaceae.                 Ipomoea incarnata (Vahl Choisy. Euphorbiaceae.                   *Chamaesyce sanmartensis (Rushy Dugand. Leguminosae- Faboideae.                           Flemingia strobilifera (L. R. Br.                                                Machaerium bondaense Pittier.                                                Pterocarpus floribundus Pittier. Leguminosae- Mimosoideae.                      Senegalia guacamayo Britt. & Killip. Loranthaceae.                     Phthirusa adunca (Mey. Maguire.                                

  12. Status Sistematico del Género Geobatrachus Ruthven 1915 (amphibia: Anura Status Sistematico del Género Geobatrachus Ruthven 1915 (amphibia: Anura

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    Ardila Robayo María Cristina

    1979-06-01

    la asignación de Geobatrachus a los Bufonoidea. Ninguna característica en particular permite referir el genero a los Myobatrachidae ni a los Heleophrynidae, la ausencia de órgano de Bidder (única característica diagnóstica entre Leptodactylidae y Bufonidae elimina, aparte de la afinidad mostrada por cladogramas experimentales, la familia Bufonidae de toda su consideración adicional. En cuanto a los Brachycephalidae (sensu McDIARMID 1969, si bien aparentemente derivados de los Leptodactylidae, diferencias tales como la estructura de la cintura escapular  y el desarrollo de osteodermos dorsales los excluyen de consideración.  El análisis combinatorial realizado mediante cladogramas confirma que los Phyllobatinae (= Dendrobatidae son derivados de los Elosiini, y que los acreditan mejor en el rango de subfamilia dentro de los Leptodactylidae que como familia separada. Aun cuando la firmisternia en particular puede sugerir afinidades con Geobatrachus, ciertamente este género al igual que Rhinoderma no pueden ser asignados a los Phyllobatinae. El análisis de los caracteres de Rhinoderma indica que este género se derivó del antecesor inmediato de los Leptodactylinae o de elementos antiguos de este grupo y que, al igual que en el caso de los Phyllobatinae, bien pueden involucrarse dentro de los Leptodactylidae como una sub familia, a menos que se recurra a dividir dicha familia en varios grupos de jerarquía familiar. No obstante Geobatrachus difiere ampliamente de los Rhinodermatinae y, como lo indican los cladogramas elaborados, muestra su máxima afinidad con los Eleutherodactylini, si bien representa un género bien diferenciado dentro de la tribu quizás como resultado de la evolución in situ de un "stock" antiguo de aislamiento desde el Terciario, que ha sobrevivido en condiciones favorecidas por la ecuabilidad climática, Hipótesis basadas en las evidencias paleogeográficas y paleoclimáticas  disponibles, así como con forme a la posible dicotom