Patricia Alano Perez
Full Text Available The Lumbrera Formation is the uppermost unit of the Salta Group, which crops out in northwestern Argentina. The paleoenvironment of the Lumbrera Formation is interpreted as a perennial lake deposited under temperate climatic conditions during the early to middle Eocene. Its fossil content is made up of palynomorphs, insects, crocodiles, turtles, lizards, and mammals, besides an ichthyofauna formed by cichlids, poeciliids and dipnoans. †Plesioheros chauliodus is described based on a single individual from this formation, which was fossilized as a lateral view impression (missing anal and caudal fins. It can be distinguished from other cichlids by a moderately deep body, enlarged anterior dentary teeth bearing subapical cusp, a low abdominal vertebral count (10, five canal openings in the dentary, and XI + 12 dorsal-fin rays. A phylogenetic analysis, using the matrix by Kullander (1998, recovered †Plesioheros within Heroini. This species was recovered most closely related to Australoheros and to the deep-bodied South American heroins. The occurrence of an Eocene Heroini, as well as of other cichlid lineages in the same stratigraphical level, is evidence of an ancient diversification in this family. This ancient age supports the hypothesis that the Cichlidae originated on Gondwana.
Rícan, Oldrich; Zardoya, Rafael; Doadrio, Ignacio
Heroine cichlids are the second largest and very diverse tribe of Neotropical cichlids, and the only cichlid group that inhabits Mesoamerica. The taxonomy of heroines is complex because monophyly of most genera has never been demonstrated, and many species groups are without applicable generic names after their removal from the catch-all genus Cichlasoma (sensu Regan, 1905). Hence, a robust phylogeny for the group is largely wanting. A rather complete heroine phylogeny based on cytb sequence data is available [Concheiro Pérez, G.A., Rícan O., Ortí G., Bermingham, E., Doadrio, I., Zardoya, R. 2007. Phylogeny and biogeography of 91 species of heroine cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae) based on sequences of the cytochrome b gene. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 43, 91-110], and in the present study, we have added and analyzed independent data sets (nuclear and morphological) to further confirm and strengthen the cytb-phylogenetic hypothesis. We have analyzed a combined cytb-nuclear (RAG1 and two S7 introns) data set of 48 species representing main heroine lineages to achieve further resolution of heroine higher taxonomic levels and a combined cytb-morphological data set of 92 species to stabilize generic taxonomy. The recovered phylogenies supported the circumamazonian--CAM--Heroini (sensu Concheiro Peréz et al., 2007) as a monophyletic group, that could be divided into six main clades: (1) australoheroines (the southernmost heroine genus Australoheros), (2) nandopsines (the Antillean genus Nandopsis), (3) caquetaines (including the north western Amazonian genera Caquetaia and Heroina), (4) astatheroines (including Astatheros, Herotilapia and Rocio), (5) amphilophines (including Amphilophus and related genera), and (6) herichthyines (including Herichthyis and related genera). Nuclear and mitochondrial data partitions arrived at highly congruent topologies. Suprageneric relationships were influenced mainly by the nuclear signal, as well as the most basal phylogenetic position
Mar 27, 2012 ... schlegelii (Perciformes: Sparidae) inferred from mitochondrial genes. WU Renxie1, LIU Jing 2*, FAN Jirong3 and ZHAO Yuanjun3. 1College of Fisheries, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524025, P. R. China. 2Laboratory of Marine Organism Taxonomy and Phylogeny, Institute of Oceanology, ...
Alejandro García Malpica
Full Text Available The upgrade of the topic of the death slips from its romantic tradition to be inserted in the heart of the postmodernity, through the Gothic tribes, juvenile groupings linked by a «elective affiliation» where a macabre, somber revival is shared, amid an economic context of unemployment, raised by the neo-liberalism and the setting in practice of a hiperindividualism that tries to compensate the fateful future of the youths by means of the boredom.
Lika, Konstadia; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.; Papandroulakis, Nikos
Larval stages are considered the most critical of fish development. During a very short period of time (2 to 3 months), larvae undergo major morphoanatomical and functional changes in order to transform into juveniles while remaining functioning (developing, eating, surviving). Depending on species and environmental conditions, patterns in larval development may vary. We study the patterns of larval development for nine fish species of Perciformes reared under aquaculture conditions and compare them in terms of species-specific parameters derived from DEB theory. We extended the standard DEB model to include metabolic acceleration during the larval period, where maximum specific assimilation and energy conductance increase with length between birth and metabolic metamorphosis. Metabolic acceleration has as a consequence that larvae initially grow slower than juveniles and adults. Our results indicate that the species with higher acceleration have lower growth rates at birth and they also suggest that metabolic acceleration is related to spawning season. High metabolic acceleration of demersal species is associated with summer-autumn spawning in the Mediterranean, where temperature is high and food availability is low.
Oklahoma is a microcosm of American Indian country. Water rights, tribal government impotence, jurisdiction, tribal membership, treaty rights, taxation, sovereignty, racism, and poor housing, education, and health are all vital issues facing the Indian tribes of Oklahoma. In order to understand the complexity of these issues, a review of the…
Olson, Ray [Energy Controls Manager; Schubert, Eugene [Policy Analyst
Project funding energy audits of 44 Tribally owned buildings operated by the Oneida Tribe of Indians of WI. Buildings were selected for their size, age, or known energy concerns and total over 1 million square feet. Audits include feasibility studies, lists of energy improvement opportunities, and a strategic energy plan to address cost effective ways to save energy via energy efficiency upgrades over the short and long term.
The feeding ecology of Ambassidae (Osteichthyes: Perciformes) in Natal estuaries. T.J. Martin and S.J.M. Blaber. Department of Zoology, University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg. The diets of three species of Ambassis in six estuaries of southern Africa were investigated using four methods of stomach content analysis.
The reproductive biology of intertidal klipfish (Perciformes: Clinidae) in South Africa. K. Prochazka. Zoology Deparlmenl and Marine Biology Research Institute, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch,. 7700 Republic of South Africa. Received 16 Mav 1994; accepted 30 August /994. The reproductive biology of six species of ...
Al Lily, Abdulrahman Essa
This article looks into the claim that the international academic community of educational technologies seems to have functioned in a "tribal" way, having formed themselves around tribe-like patterns. It therefore addresses the research question: What are these claimed tribe-like practices that such a community exhibits? This question is…
Wei, Tao; Sun, Yuena; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Rixin; Xu, Tianjun
The Hapalogenys genus was the most controversial and problematic in phylogenetic position of Percoidei. In this study, we rechecked the taxonomic status of Hapalogenys in Percoidei using complete mitochondrial genome data. We purposefully added a new complete mitochondrial sequence from chosen species of Hapalogenys and conducted phylogenetic analyses using a large complete mitochondrial data set. The resultant tree topologies were congruent from partitioned Bayesian and Maximum-likelihood methods. The results indicated that Hapalogenys was distantly related to Haemulidae and could be removed from Haemulidae. The results supported the Hapalogeny was upgraded to a family rank titled Hapalogenyidae, and it should be recognized in a separate family of Hapalogenyidae. A relaxed molecular-clock Bayesian analysis indicated that the divergence times of Perciformes groups had a much older than the available old fossil records. The origin of the common ancestral lineage of Perciformes fish was estimated in the late Jurassic about 149 Myr ago.
Belvin Pete; Kent Good; Krista Gordon; Ed McCarthy,
The Three Affliated Tribes on the Fort Berthold Reservation studied the feasibility of a commercial wind facility on land selected and owned by the Tribes and examined the potential for the development of renewable energy resources on Tribal Lands.
Chukwu: Tribe, Tongue, Enculturation Threatened. 234 language. Alluding to sign language, Basden (60) describes medical cult recruitment of baby male boys via supposedly supernatural engraven signs on the baby's body. During the dedication, the dibia (medicine man) detects some sign which convinces him that this ...
Galvão, Tatiana Barbosa; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Molina, Wagner Franco
Abstract A remarkable degree of chromosomal conservatism (2n=48, FN=48) has been identified in several families of Perciformes. However, some families exhibit greater karyotypic diversity, although there is still scant information on the Atlantic species. In addition to a review of karyotypic data available for representatives of the suborders Blennioidei and Gobioidei, we have performed chromosomal analyses on Atlantic species of the families Blenniidae, Ophioblennius trinitatis Miranda-Ribeiro, 1919 (2n=46; FN=64) and Scartella cristata (Linnaeus, 1758)(2n=48; FN=50), Labrisomidae, Labrisomus nuchipinnis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824)(2n=48; FN=50) and Gobiidae, Bathygobius soporator (Valenciennes, 1837)(2n=48; FN=56). Besides variations in chromosome number and karyotype formulas, Ag-NOR sites, albeit unique, were located in different positions and/or chromosome pairs for the species analyzed. On the other hand, the heterochromatic pattern was more conservative, distributed predominantly in the centromeric/pericentromeric regions of the four species. Data already available for Gobiidae, Blenniidae and Labrisomidae show greater intra- and interspecific karyotypic diversification when compared to other groups of Perciformes, where higher uniformity is found for various chromosome characteristics. Evolutionary dynamism displayed by these two families is likely associated with population fractionation resulting from unique biological characteristics, such as lower mobility and/or specific environmental requirements. PMID:24260634
Eastman, Joseph T; Lannoo, Michael J
-living members of the Bathydraconini. Eye diameter is generally larger in Antarctic species but there is a phylogenetic loss of cellularity in the retina, including cone photoreceptors. Some deep-living Antarctic species have lost most of their cones. Mechanosensation is expanded in some species, most notably the nototheniid Pleuragramma antarcticum, the artedidraconid genera Dolloidraco and Pogonophryne, and the deep living members of the bathydraconid tribe Bathydraconini. Reduction in retinal cellularity, expansion of mechanoreception, and stalking are the most noteworthy departures from the morphology seen in Eleginops. These features reflect a modest depth or deep-sea effect, and they are not uniquely "Antarctic" attributes. Thus, at the level of organ system morphology, perciform brain and sensory systems are suitable for conditions on the Antarctic shelf, with only minor alterations in structure in directions exhibited by other fish groups inhabiting deep water. Notothenioids retain a relative balance among their array of senses that reflects their heritage as inshore perciforms. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Flerova, E A; Balabanova, L V
Analysis of data on utrastructure of granulocytes of freshwater and marine bony fish of orders Salmoniformes, Cypriniformes, and Perciformes showed that in all studied species there were revealed two types of granulocytes - neutrophils and eosinophils. The exception was the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix L. whose pronephros hemopoietic tissue was found to contain one type of the granulocytic line - neutrophils. The identification parameters of granular leukocytes are specific granules filling the cytoplasm. The main form of specific granules in neutrophils of bony fish of various phylogenetic groups is an elongated granule with different distribution of fibrils or a granule that has crystalloid formed from fibrils. The main form of eosinophil granules - large, electron-dense, homogenous.
Holzweber, Markus; Mattsson, Jan; Standing, Craig
loudspeaker concept) that is able to generate strong customer response, and shape the brand or e-brand, which in turn can create a market and a sustainable business. We suggest entrepreneurial success is highly dependent on how the inner-tribe can create an ‘icon’ to shape an outer-tribe by means...
Bieńkowska-Wasiluk, Małgorzata; Bonde, Niels Christensøn; Møller, Peter Rask
to the perciform suborder Notothenioidei. This group is almost unknown as fossils. Similarities to the living, ‘primitive’ nototheniid Dissostichus eleginoides are indicated in the dentition. Gadiform evolution in the Paleocene-Eocene, and the possibility of a correlation between the origin and evolution...
Přikryl, Tomáš; Bannikov, A. F.
Roč. 272, č. 3 (2014), s. 325-330 ISSN 0077-7749 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-19250P Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Bramidae * Iran * Oligocene * Paucaichthys elamensis sp. nov. * Perciformes * Teleostei Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.519, year: 2014
Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe Planning Department; Smiley, Steve; Bennett, Keith, DOE Project Officer
The Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe has a vision to become self-sufficient in its energy needs and to maintain its culture and protect Mother Earth with respect and honor for the next seven generations. To achieve this vision, green energy sources such as solar, wind and biomass energy are the best energy paths to travel. In this feasibility study the Tribe has analyzed and provided data on the nature of the renewable resources available to the Tribe and the costs of implementing these technologies.
Aquino-Silva Maria Regina de
Full Text Available A recent locus duplication hypothesis for sMDH-B* was proposed to explain the complex electrophoretic pattern of six bands detected for the soluble form of malate dehydrogenase (MDH, EC 188.8.131.52 in 84% of the Geophagus brasiliensis (Cichlidae, Perciformes analyzed (AB1B2 individuals. Klebe's serial dilutions were carried out in skeletal muscle extracts. B1 and B2 subunits had the same visual end-points, reflecting a nondivergent pattern for these B-duplicated genes. Since there is no evidence of polyploidy in the Cichlidae family, MDH-B* loci must have evolved from regional gene duplication. Tissue specificities, thermostability and kinetic tests resulted in similar responses from both B-isoforms, in both sMDH phenotypes, suggesting that these more recently duplicated loci underwent the same regulatory gene action. Similar results obtained with the two sMDH phenotypes did not show any indication of a six-banded specimen adaptive advantage in subtropical regions.
Full Text Available Effective communication is essential for information systems development crossing functional, organisational and national boundaries. As organisations attempt to overcome cultural barriers to communication across the world, communication with colleagues across the corridor remains problematic; cultural barriers between departments remain unchallenged. This paper introduces the concepts of 'culture' and 'tribe' into the discussion of the relationship between business users and information systems developers. Previous research has focused on identifying specific barriers to user-systems developer communication and on ways of eliminating these barriers. In contrast, this paper suggests that much can be learnt through the recognition of cultural differences inherent to the differing roles of user and systems developer. Maintenance of cultural identity is essential to the individual if he/she is to function effectively as a member of his/her tribe, whether it is the 'tribe' of developers or the 'tribe' of users. Communication problems within the systems development process may be addressed by a mutual understanding of cultural differences between the 'tribes' of users and systems developers. This degree of understanding cannot be achieved by attempting to change, persuade or convert the other tribe. The problems of user-systems developer communication need to be addressed through effective communication which acknowledges the differing cultures.
Full Text Available The Collection of Teleostei Fish Otoliths of the Southeastern-Southern of Brazil (COSS-Brasil headquartered at the Oceanographic Institute, (IOUSP contains 65 species of Perciformes included in 30 families. In order to spread the modus operandi of the adopted analysis for the main characteristics of the sagittae we presented the results obtained for the families Centropomidae, Acropomatidae and Gerreidae. The classification of the otoliths morphological features followed Assis (2004 and Tuset et al. (2008. Fifteen features were analyzed and after, the frequency of the different types was calculated within and among each length classes of 20 mm. Statistical differences were analyzed by multiple χ2 tests (p>.0.05. The morphometric analysis included circularity and rectangularity. The main characteristics of the Centropomidae sagittae were: Shape: elliptic to trapezoidal; Posterior region: oblique or round; Sulcus acusticus: position median; orientation horizontal; morphology heterosulcoid; colliculum heteromorphic; ostium elliptic or rectangular; cauda tubular strongly curved; Circularity: 15.41 - 27.78; Rectangularity: 0.70 - 0.76. For the Acropomatidae we found: Anterior region: peaked; Dorsal edge: lobed to sinuate or sinuate to entire; Ventral edge: sinuate to entire; Sulcus acusticus: position median; orientation ascending or horizontal; opening ostial; morphology heterosulcoid; colliculum heteromorphic; ostium funnel-like or elliptic; Circularity: 15.75 - 19.77; Rectangularity: 0.60 - 0.74. The main characteristics of the Gerreidae were: Shape: elliptic; Anterior region: angled-round or peaked-round; Sulcus acusticus: position median or supramedian; orientation descending or horizontal; opening ostial; morphology heterosulcoid; colliculum heteromorphic; ostium funnel-like; Circularity: 14.11 - 22.86; Rectangularity: 0.53 - 0.74. We are preparing a practical guide of all the species of the collection including morphological, morphometric
Moravec, Frantisek; Justine, Jean-Lou; Rigby, Mark C
Two new, one known and three unidentified species of the nematode family Camallanidae are reported and described from the intestines of marine perciform fishes off the southwestern coast of New Caledonia, South Pacific: Camallanus carangis Olsen, 1952 from the forked-tailed threadfin bream Nemipterus furcosus (Nemipteridae), the yellowstriped goatfish Upeneus vittatus and the whitesaddle goatfish Parupeneus ciliatus (both Mullidae) (new host records); Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) variolae sp. n. from the white-edged lyretail Variola albimarginata (type host) and the blacktip grouper Epinephelus fasciatus (both Serranidae); Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) longus sp. n. from the twotone tang Zebrasoma scopas (Acanthuridae); Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp. 1 (female tail with 2 terminal spikes on a digit-like projection) from the speckled sand-perch Parapercis hexophtalma (Pinguipedidae); Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp. 2 (female tail with 1 spike on a digit-like projection) from the drab emperor Lethrinus ravus (Lethrinidae) and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp. 3 (female tail with a smooth digit-like protrusion) from the two-lined monocle bream Scolopsis bilineata (Nemipteridae). Camallanus paracarangis Velasquez, 1980 is synonymized with C. carangis. Several additional species of Camallanus from marine fish of the Indo-Pacific region may be synonymous with C. carangis as it has a poorly sclerotized left spicule and 3 small caudal projections on the tail of young (i.e., non-gravid) females. The fourth-stage larva of C. carangis is described for the first time. P. (S.) variolae differs from most similar species of this region mainly in the position (i.e., at level or posterior to the nerve ring) and shape of deirids. P. (S.) longus differs from the similar P. (S.) chaimha mainly in a different arrangement of postanal papillae, shape of the female tail, much longer right spicule (429 microm) and longer body of gravid females (38-55 mm). All Camallanus and
Ma, Chunyan; Ma, Hongyu; Zhang, Heng; Feng, Chunlei; Wei, Hongqing; Wang, Wei; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Fengying; Ma, Lingbo
The complete mitochondrial genome information can play an important role in species identification, phylogeny, evolution research, genetic differentiation, and diversity. Here we determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Elagatis bipinnulata (Perciformes: Carangidae). This circular genome was 16 542 bp in length, and included all 37 typical mitochondrial genes, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a putative control region. The gene order of E. bipinnulata was identical to that observed in most other vertebrates. Of 37 genes, 28 were encoded by heavy strand, while the other ones were encoded by light strand. According to the phylogenetic analysis based on 13 concatenated protein-coding genes, E. bipinnulata was genetically closer to the species of genus Seriola compared with any other species within Perciformes. This work can provide helpful data for further studies on population genetic diversity and molecular evolution.
Cui, Zhaoxia; Liu, Yuan; Chu, Ka Hou
Perciformes, the largest order of vertebrates with 20 suborders, is the most diverse fish order that dominates vertebrate ocean life. The complete mitochondrial control region (CR) of Trichiurus japonicus (Trichiuridae, Scombroidei) and Pampus sp. (Stromateidae, Stromateoidei) were amplified and sequenced. Together with data from GenBank, the tandem repeats in the mitochondrial CR from 48 species, which covered nine suborders of Perciformes, are reported in this study. The tandem repeats tend to be long in the suborder Percoidei and Stromateoidei. The identical repeats in 21 species of Cichlidae suggest a common origin and have existed before species divergence. Larimichthys crocea shows tandem repeats instead of the typical structure of the central conserved sequence blocks, which was first reported in Perciformes and vertebrates. This might have resulted from interruption of the polymerase activity during the H-strand synthesis. The four broader patterns presented here for the tandem repeats, including those in both the 5' and 3' ends, only in the either 5' or 3' end, and in the central conserved domain of the control region, will be useful for understanding the evolution of species.
Indian tribes retain their sovereign rights of self-government and self-determination unless it is specifically waived by the tribe or abrogated by the US Congress, through treaty or statute. The Clean Water Act does not specifically abrogate tribal sovereignty. This raises the issue of what would occur if an on-scene coordinator decides that cleanup of tribal lands is necessary to protect the public health and welfare, but the tribe does not want the cleanup activities to proceed? May a tribe impede cleanup efforts? During the cleanup of the barge Nestucca oil spill, this occurred when the Quinault Tribe did not allow the OSC to clean lands that the tribe holds sacred. This issue with the Clean Water Act has not been decided by Congress, nor by the courts. Recently, courts have applied at least three different approaches to determine if a statute of general application, such as the Clean Water Act, applies to Indian tribes. The different tests do not always yield the same result. An on-scene coordinator, when confronted with this scenario, might handle the situation in several different ways, or perhaps move to prevent such an occurrence. The different approaches used by the courts can be taken together to gain a sense of whether the Clean Water Act may preempt tribal sovereignty
The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, authorizes the siting, construction and operation of a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. The MRS is intended to be used for the temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel from the nation's nuclear power plants beginning as early as 1998. Pursuant to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator was created. On October 7, 1991, the Nuclear Waste Negotiator invited the governors of states and the Presidents of Indian tribes to apply for government grants in order to conduct a study to assess under what conditions, if any, they might consider hosting an MRS facility. Pursuant to this invitation, on October 11, 1991 the Mescalero Apache Indian Tribe of Mescalero, NM applied for a grant to conduct a phased, preliminary study of the safety, technical, political, environmental, social and economic feasibility of hosting an MRS. The preliminary study included: (1) An investigative education process to facilitate the Tribe's comprehensive understanding of the safety, environmental, technical, social, political, and economic aspects of hosting an MRS, and; (2) The development of an extensive program that is enabling the Tribe, in collaboration with the Negotiator, to reach an informed and carefully researched decision regarding the conditions, (if any), under which further pursuit of the MRS would be considered. The Phase 1 grant application enabled the Tribe to begin the initial activities necessary to determine whether further consideration is warranted for hosting the MRS facility. The Tribe intends to pursue continued study of the MRS in order to meet the following objectives: (1) Continuing the education process towards a comprehensive understanding of the safety, environmental, technical, social and economic aspects of the MRS; (2) Conducting an effective public participation and information program; (3) Participating in MRS meetings
United States. Bonneville Power Administration
This is an omnibus publication about the federally-recognized Indian tribes of the Columbia-Snake river basin, as presented by themselves. It showcases several figurative and literal snapshots of each tribe, bits and pieces of each tribe`s story. Each individual tribe or tribal confederation either submitted its own section to this publication, or developed its own section with the assistance of the writer-editor. A federally-recognized tribe is an individual Indian group, or confederation of Indian groups, officially acknowledged by the US government for purposes of legislation, consultation and benefits. This publication is designed to be used both as a resource and as an introduction to the tribes. Taken together, the sections present a rich picture of regional indian culture and history, as told by the tribes.
Welle, ter B.J.H.; Loureiro, A.A.; Lisboa, P.L.B.; Koek-Noorman, J.
Systematic wood anatomy of the tribe Guettardeae (Rubiaceae). The wood anatomy of nearly all genera of the Guettardeae (Rubiaceae, Guettardoideae) has been examined, and in this respect the tribe is heterogeneous. Suggestions are made for a delimitation of the tribe. Guettarda, Bobea, Antirhea,
Khadse, Vivek P.; Akhil, P.; Anto, Christopher; Gnanasigamani, Lydia J.
One of the curses to the society is a crime which has a deep impact on the society. Victims of crimes are the one who is impacted the most. All communities in the world are affected by crime and the criminal justice system, but largely impacted communities are the backward classes. There are many cases reported of crime committed against scheduled tribes from the year 2005 till date. This paper states the analysis of Crimes Committed against Scheduled Tribes in the year 2015 in various states and union territories in India. In this study, Multiple Linear regression techniques have been used to analyze the crimes committed against scheduled tribes’ community in India. This study compares the number of cases reported to the police station and rate of crime committed in different states in India. It also states the future prediction of the crime that would happen. It will also predict the number of cases of crime committed against the scheduled tribe that can be reported in future. The dataset which has been used in this study is taken from official Indian government repository for crimes which include different information of crimes committed against scheduled tribes in different states and union territories measured under the population census of the year 2011. This study will help different Indian states and union territory government to analyze and predict the future crimes that may occur and take appropriate measures against it before the actual crime would occur.
Holt, Jeffrey W.
The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians is working to reduce energy consumption and expense in Tribally-owned governmental buildings. The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians will conduct energy audits of nine Tribally-owned governmental buildings in three counties in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to provide a basis for evaluating and selecting the technical and economic viability of energy efficiency improvement options. The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians will follow established Tribal procurement policies and procedures to secure the services of a qualified provider to conduct energy audits of nine designated buildings. The contracted provider will be required to provide a progress schedule to the Tribe prior to commencing the project and submit an updated schedule with their monthly billings. Findings and analysis reports will be required for buildings as completed, and a complete Energy Audit Summary Report will be required to be submitted with the provider?s final billing. Conducting energy audits of the nine governmental buildings will disclose building inefficiencies to prioritize and address, resulting in reduced energy consumption and expense. These savings will allow Tribal resources to be reallocated to direct services, which will benefit Tribal members and families.
Toni Osterhout; Global Energy Concepts
The Sault Tribe conducted a feasibility study on tribal lands in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to determine the technical and economic feasibility of both small and large-scale wind power development on tribal lands. The study included a wind resource assessment, transmission system analysis, engineering and regulatory analyzes and assessments.
Six new and one previously described species of pseudorhabdosynochus (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) infecting the gills of groupers (Perciformes, Serranidae) from the Pacific Coasts of Mexico and Panama
Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F.; Violante-González, J.; Rojas Herrera, A.A.
Roč. 97, č. 1 (2011), 20-35 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : N. SP MONOGENEA * SOUTH CHINA SEA * EPINEPHELUS-MACULATUS PERCIFORMES * E-MERRA PERCIFORMES * SP-NOV MONOGENEA * NEW-CALEDONIA * CYCLOPLECTANUM OLIVER * DAPENG BAY * YUCATAN PENINSULA * YAMAGUTI Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.405, year: 2011
Přikryl, Tomáš; Bannikov, A. F.; Grădianu, I.; Kania, I.; Krzemiński, W.
Roč. 13, č. 8 (2014), s. 691-700 ISSN 1631-0683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-19250P Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Perciformes * Stromateoidei * Propercarinidae * Bony fish * Oligocene Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.192, year: 2014
Tyler, James C.
Marosichthys huismani (de Beaufort, 1926), a fish from the Miocene of the Celebes, was described in the tripod fish family Triacanthidae, Tetraodontiformes. It is shown here to be a valid genus of the surgeon fish family Acanthuridae, Perciformes, and closely related to the Recent genus Naso.
Singer, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
A strategic plan is needed to catalyze clean energy in the more than 100 California Indian tribal communities with varying needs and energy resources. We propose to conduct a scoping study to identify tribal lands with clean energy potential, as well as communities with lack of grid-tied energy and communications access. The research focus would evaluate the energy mixture and alternatives available to these tribal communities, and evaluate greenhouse gas emissions associated with accessing fossil fuel used for heat and power. Understanding the baseline of energy consumption and emissions of communities is needed to evaluate improvements and advances from technology. Based on this study, we will develop a strategic plan that assesses solutions to address high energy fuel costs due to lack of electricity access and inform actions to improve economic opportunities for tribes. This could include technical support for tribes to access clean energy technologies and supporting collaboration for on-site demonstrations.
Walker, Andrea C; Balk, David E
A qualitative, collective case study explores bereavement rituals in the Muscogee Creek tribe. Data from interviews with 27 participants, all adult members of the tribe, revealed consensus on participation in certain bereavement rituals. Common rituals included: (a) conducting a wake service the night before burial; (b) never leaving the body alone before burial; (c) enclosing personal items and food in the casket; (d) digging graves by hand; (e) each individual throwing a handful of dirt into the grave before covering, called giving a "farewell handshake"; (f) covering the grave completely by hand; (g) building a house over the grave; (h) waiting 4 days before burial; (i) using medicine/purification; and (j) adhering to socialized mourning period. Cultural values of family, community, religion, importance of the number 4, Indian medicine, and the meaning of death contributed to the development of these rituals.
Consulting, BB9 [BB9 Consulting; Director, Environmental
The Yerington Paiute Tribe has made energy management and planning a priority. The Tribal Council has recognized that energy is an important component of their goal of self-sufficiency. Recognizing energy development as a component of the Tribe’s natural resources provides for needed economic development.A number of priorities have been identified for energy development. These range from immediate housing needs such as weatherization and solar to interest in energy as economic development.
Sturtevant, William C.
Tribal distributions depicted on these maps (and on all other tribal maps covering a comparable area) are arbitrary at many points. Detailed knowledge of tribal areas was acquired at different times in different regions. For example, by the time knowledge was gained of the areas occupied by Plains tribes, many groups in the East had become extinct or had moved from their aboriginal locations. Some of these movements ultimately affected distributions on the Plains prior to reasonably detailed knowledge of Plains occupancy. Hence, it is not possible to approximate aboriginal areas of occupancy on a single map of continental scope. Furthermore, most groups did not occupy sharply defined areas, so that the delineation of territories is misleading.Distributions were derived, with slight modifications, from Indian tribes of North America (Driver and others, 1953), and boundaries within California were simplified after Languages, territories, and names of California Indian tribes (Heizer, 1966). According to the authors of these publications, the boundaries shown are those of the mid-17th century in the Southeast and the eastern part of the Northeast, the late 17th and early 18th centuries farther west in the Northeast, the late 18th and early 19th centuries in the Plains, the late 18th century in California, and the middle-to-late 19th century elsewhere. Even so, many compromises had to be made.
The CERT Tribal Internship Program is part of the education and training opportunities provided by CERT to accelerate the development of American Indian technical professionals available to serve Tribes and expand the pool of these professionals. Tribes are severely impacted by the inadequate number of Indian professionals available to serve and facilitate Tribal participation and support of the energy future of Tribes,and subsequently the energy future of the nation. By providing interns with hands-on work experience in their field of study two goals are accomplished: (1) the intern is provided opportunities for professional enhancement; and (2) The pool of Indian professionals available to meet the needs of Tribal government and Tribal communities in general is increased. As of January 17, 2003, Lance M Wyatt successfully completed his internship with the Interagency Working Group on Environmental Justice on the Task Force that specifically focuses their work on Tribal nations. While working as an intern with the National Transportation Program, Albuquerque operations, Jacqueline Agnew received an offer to work for the Alaska Native Health Board in Anchorage, Alaska. This was an opportunity that Ms. Agnew did not feel she could afford to forego and she left her internship position in February 2003. At present, CERT is in the process of finding another qualified individual to replace the internship position vacated by Ms. Agnew. Mr. Wyatt's and Ms. Agnew's final comments are given.
Knoff, Marcelo; Cohen, Simone Chinicz; Cárdenas, Melissa Querido; Cárdenas-Callirgos, Jorge M.; Gomes, Delir Corrêa
Pseudorhabdosynochus jeanloui n. sp. (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) is described from specimens collected from the gills of the Pacific creolefish, Paranthias colonus (Perciformes, Serranidae) from a fish market in Chorrillos, Lima, Peru. The new species is differentiated from other members of the genus by the structure of its sclerotized vagina, which has two spherical chambers of similar diameter. This is the first Pseudorhabdosynochus species described from the Pacific coast of America, the third species of the genus reported from South America and the first described from a member of Paranthias. PMID:25754099
Full Text Available Pseudorhabdosynochus jeanloui n. sp. (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae is described from specimens collected from the gills of the Pacific creolefish, Paranthias colonus (Perciformes, Serranidae from a fish market in Chorrillos, Lima, Peru. The new species is differentiated from other members of the genus by the structure of its sclerotized vagina, which has two spherical chambers of similar diameter. This is the first Pseudorhabdosynochus species described from the Pacific coast of America, the third species of the genus reported from South America and the first described from a member of Paranthias.
Shen, Kang-Ning; Chang, Chih-Wei; Chen, Ching-Hung; Hsiao, Chung-Der
In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of the Regal angelfish, Pygoplites diacanthus (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae) has been sequenced by the next-generation sequencing method. The assembled mitogenome consisting of 16,784 bp includes 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and two ribosomal RNAs genes. The overall base composition of Regal angelfish is 28.5% for A, 28.9% for C, 16.3% for G, 26.4% for T and show 85% identities to flame angelfish Centropyge loricula. The complete mitogenome of the Regal angelfish provides essential and important DNA molecular data for further phylogeography and evolutionary analysis for marine angelfish phylogeny.
Ye, Jeng-Jia; Shen, Kang-Ning; Chen, Ching-Hung; Hsiao, Chung-Der; Chang, Chih-Wei
In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of the Emperor angelfish, Pomacanthus imperator (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae) has been sequenced by the next-generation sequencing method. The assembled mitogenome consisting of 16,538 bp, including 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and two ribosomal RNAs genes. The overall base composition of Emperor angelfish is 28.4% for A, 28.2% for C, 16.2% for G, 27.2% for T and show 82% identities to Bluestripe angelfish Chaetodontoplus septentrionalis. The complete mitogenome of the Emperor angelfish provides essential and important DNA molecular data for further phylogeography and evolutionary analysis for marine angelfish phylogeny.
Shen, Kang-Ning; Chang, Chih-Wei; Chen, Ching-Hung; Chassaing, Alexandre; Hsiao, Chung-Der
In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of the Japanese angelfish, Centropyge interrupta (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae), has been sequenced by the next-generation sequencing method. The assembled mitogenome consisting of 16,595 bp includes 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and two ribosomal RNAs genes. The overall base composition of Japanese angelfish is 27.5% for A, 29.3% for C, 17.3% for G, 25.9% for T, and shows 85% identities to flame angelfish Centropyge loriculus. The complete mitogenome of the Japanese angelfish provides essential and important DNA molecular data for further phylogeography and evolutionary analysis for marine angelfish phylogeny.
Shen, Kang-Ning; Chang, Chih-Wei; Chen, Ching-Hung; Hsiao, Chung-Der
In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of the Spectacled angelfish, Chaetodontoplus conspicillatus (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae) has been sequenced by next-generation sequencing method. The assembled mitogenome consisting of 16,988 bp, includes 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs and 2 ribosomal RNAs genes. The overall base composition of C. conspicillatus is 27.8% for A, 29.9% for C, 16.3% for G and 26.0% for T and show 92% identities to Bluestripe angelfish C. septentrionalis. The complete mitogenome of the C. conspicillatus, provides essential and important DNA molecular data for further phylogeography and evolutionary analysis for marine angelfish phylogeny.
Xia, Rong; Fu, Cuizhang
The first complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Plesiopidae (Teleostei: Perciformes) was determined using the Eastern hulafish Trachinops taeniatus as a representative species of the family. The mitogenome was 16,821 bp in length, including 13 typical vertebrate protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 control region. The gene arrangement was similar to other fishes except for the reversal position of tRNA(Ala) and tRNA(Asn). The overall base composition was 27.4% for A, 27.5% for C, 27.4% for T and 17.7% for G. This mitogenome should contribute to resolving phylogenetic position of Plesiopidae.
Shen, Kang-Ning; Chang, Chih-Wei; Loh, Kar-Hoe; Chen, Ching-Hung; Hsiao, Chung-Der
In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of the Clarion angelfish, Holacanthus clarionensis (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae) has been sequenced by next-generation sequencing method. The length of the assembled mitogenome is 16,615 bp, including 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and two ribosomal RNAs genes. The overall base composition of Clarion angelfish is 28.3% for A, 29.3% for C, 16.5% for G, 25.9% for T and show 85% identities to flame angelfish Centropyge loriculus. The complete mitogenome of the Clarion angelfish provides essential and important DNA molecular data for further phylogeography and evolutionary analysis for marine angelfish phylogeny.
Jun, Jumin; Choi, Seong-Ho; Kum, Ji-Don
The complete mitochondrial genome of Odontobutis interrupta (Perciformes, Odontobutidae), a species endemic to South Korea, is reported here for the first time. The O. interrupta mitogenome is 16 802 base pairs in total length and includes 13 PCGs, small and large rRNAs, a control region and 22 tRNAs. Nine genes are encoded on the light strand and 29 on the heavy strand. The O. interrupta mitochondrial genome has a conserved gene order compared to four other Odontobutis species and Micropercops swinhonis, a closely related species. The data will provide useful molecular information for phylogenetic studies concerning Odontobutidae and its related species.
Liu, Zhi Zhi; Zhang, Tian Rui; Su, Li Wei; Zhang, Jun Bin; Yang, Jin Quan
The spotted scat, Scatophagus argus (Perciformes, Scatophagidae), is a recreational and commercial fish in China. In this paper, the complete mitochondrial genome of S. argus was firstly determined. It is 16,783 bp in length and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 1 control region. Except for the eight tRNA and ND6 genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. The mitochondrial DNA information would be useful in species identification and natural resources conservation.
Shen, Kang-Ning; Chang, Chih-Wei; Chen, Ching-Hung; Hsiao, Chung-Der
In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of the Tiger angelfish, Apolemichthys kingi (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae), has been sequenced by the next-generation sequencing method. The assembled mitogenome consisting of 16,816 bp includes 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and two ribosomal RNAs genes. The overall base composition of Tiger angelfish is 28.1% for A, 29.4% for C, 16.7% for G, 25.7% for T and show 86% identities to flame angelfish Centropyge loriculus. The complete mitogenome of the Tiger angelfish provides essential and important DNA molecular data for further phylogeography and evolutionary analysis for marine angelfish phylogeny.
This paper is designed to be a working part of a larger project which would deal with the topic of Tribal interests affected by the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management program and the approaches by which those Tribal interests can be advanced. Topics discussed in this paper include: background history of the Nez Perce Tribe`s relations with the US government; a Nez Perce view of tribal interests affected by DOE activities at Hanford; and a Nez Perce framework for private/governmental/tribal interest.
Januar, Hedi Indra; Fajarningsih, Nurrahmi Dewi; Zilda, Dewi Seswita; Bramandito, Aditya; Wright, Anthony D
Fish serum albumin (FSA) is an aquatic resource that has potential to be developed as nutraceutical. Therefore, research was undertaken to assess albumin levels in the aqueous extract of muscle tissue of several Perciformes commonly available at a local fish market in Indonesia. Three random replicates for each of 17 Perciformes species were collected and assessed for their FSA content by application of a reversed-phase (C4) HPLC analytical method. Results of these analyses showed that the albumin concentration of the extracts was in the range 3.49-12.61 g/L, and that they varied significantly (P < 0.05) between species and families. This finding may mean that FSA levels are species and family dependent, something that could be investigated in future studies. As fishes from the family Scrombidae showed the highest concentration (12.61 g/L) of FSA, they would likely have the most value as a source for production of albumin-based nutritional and/or clinical products.
Molina, Wagner Franco; da Costa, Gideão Wagner Werneck Felix; de Bello Cioffi, Marcelo; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos
In the tropical Atlantic, the ichthyofauna between the coast of Brazil and the Caribbean regions, divided by the Amazon barrier, is very similar presenting several geminate species, including Gramma brasiliensis, endemic in Brazil, and its Caribbean counterpart Gramma loreto. Morphological and molecular studies have helped establish evolutionary patterns that sister-species of these two marine habitats are subjected to. However, their chromosomal characteristics are only beginning to be better characterized. Accordingly, a comparative cytogenetic analysis was carried out in G. brasiliensis and G. loreto, seeking evidence of cytotaxonomic markers implicated in the karyotypic diversification of these species and likely associated with speciation events. Heterochromatic regions and their affinity to fluorochromes GC- or AT-specific were identified, as well as the distribution of ribosomal DNA sites in chromosomes, either by silver nitrate impregnation (Ag-NORs) or dual-color FISH mapping with 18S and 5S rDNA probes. While displaying the same diploid number, 2 n = 48 chromosomes, considered basal for Perciformes, the two species differed in karyotype structure, showing karyotypic formulas and species-specific heterochromatin pattern. The cytological characters found support the differentiating status of these species, possibly achieved under the conditions of allopatry due to the Amazon/Orinoco barrier, showing chromosomal peculiarities in Grammatidae species when compared to other groups of Perciformes.
Wang, Guang-Peng; Liu, Wen-Jie; Si, Gui-Cai; Hu, Guo-Wen
Trichopodus leerii has been given many popular names in the ornament market, such as pearl gourami, lace gourami and mosaic gourami, which causes confusion in species identification. This species belongs in the family Osphronemidae of Perciformes. This species and its congeners are characterized by a brownish-silver body, covered in a pearl-like pattern. In this study, we first determined and described the complete mitogenome sequence of T. leerii, which is 16,472 bp in length. The overall base composition is 29.2%, 27.3%, 28.0% and 15.5% for A, C, T and G, respectively, with a slight bias in the AT content (57.2%). All protein-coding genes share the start codon ATG and most of them have TAA or TAG as the stop codon, except ND4 and ND6 use an incomplete stop codon T. Maximum likelihood tree and Bayesian analyses based on partitioned nucleotide sequences of 12 mitochondrial protein-coding genes were constructed, and both yielded identical topologies. These results are expected to provide useful molecular data for species identification and further phylogenetic studies of Osphronemidae and Perciformes.
Bustamam, A.; Siswantining, T.; Febriyani, N. L.; Novitasari, I. D.; Cahyaningrum, R. D.
The herpes virus can be found anywhere and one of the important characteristics is its ability to cause acute and chronic infection at certain times so as a result of the infection allows severe complications occurred. The herpes virus is composed of DNA containing protein and wrapped by glycoproteins. In this work, the Herpes viruses family is classified and analyzed by clustering their protein-sequence using Tribe Markov Clustering (Tribe-MCL) algorithm. Tribe-MCL is an efficient clustering method based on the theory of Markov chains, to classify protein families from protein sequences using pre-computed sequence similarity information. We implement the Tribe-MCL algorithm using an open source program of R. We select 24 protein sequences of Herpes virus obtained from NCBI database. The dataset consists of three types of glycoprotein B, F, and H. Each type has eight herpes virus that infected humans. Based on our simulation using different inflation factor r=1.5, 2, 3 we find a various number of the clusters results. The greater the inflation factor the greater the number of their clusters. Each protein will grouped together in the same type of protein.
Political Role of Tribes : Analysis of Tribalism, Islamism and Gender in Iraq, Jordan and Yemen. The institution of the tribe continues to represent a major component of social structure throughout the Middle East, particularly in Iraq, Jordan and Yemen. Tribal relations are deeply intertwined with political relations. In a country ...
Ravazi, A; Oliveira, J; Rosa, J A; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V; Alevi, K C C
The tribe Rhodniini is a monophyletic group composed of 22 species, with 19 in the Rhodnius genus and three in the Psammolestes genus. These insects are morphologically very similar (cryptic species), and new tools are important for investigating the taxonomy of these vectors. Spermiotaxonomy is an important tool in differentiating between related species, and this study analyzed the spermatids of Rhodniini species to elucidate their spermiotaxonomy. All of the Rhodniini species contained two heteropyknotic filaments in the extremities of their cells. Although spermiotaxonomy has been an important tool in differentiating between species of the Triatoma genus, all of the species in the Rhodnius genus exhibited the same characteristics in their male gametes. However, spermatid analysis made it possible to confirm the monophyly of the Rhodniini tribe, because Psammolestes tertius had the same pattern as that described for Rhodnius. The results of this study demonstrate that spermiotaxonomy, in addition to being an important tool for differentiating between related species of Triatoma, can be used as an optimization tool in phylogenetic analyses.
Zhu, Zhihuang; Sun, Yuena; Wang, Rixin; Xu, Tianjun
The innate immune system can recognize non-self through pattern recognition receptors. Toll-like receptors were the best-known members of these receptors, and they could sense, recognize, and bind pathogen-associated molecular patterns. TLRs played an important role in innate immune system and were conserved in both invertebrate and vertebrate lineages. Thereinto, TLR9 could detect unmethylated CpG motifs in dsDNA and was expected to undergo coevolution with its microbial ligands. It was known that aquatic and terrestrial organisms dwelled in different environments which contained different pathogens, and they had to adapt to their local environmental conditions. Therefore, we collected TLR9 genes from invertebrate to vertebrate to further explore whether the huge differences between aquatic and terrestrial environments affected the TLR9s evolution between aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Molecular evolution analysis detected positively selected sites in the ancestral lineages of vertebrates, teleosts, and Perciformes but not in the ancestral lineage of mammals. In PAML, site model revealed that extant mammalian TLR9 genes underwent positive selection. However, the positive selection of extant teleosts appeared primarily in Perciformes in which there were 14 positively selected sites. Among these sites, two of them were located on the amino acid insertions of the leucine-rich repeats which could create DNA binding sites, three were found on the convex surface which might possibly affect the ﬂexibility of the TLR solenoids, and six were located on the β-face of concave surface which contained the ligand-binding sites of the TLR solenoids. In other ML methods, we also found three sites under selection that coincided with the codons identiﬁed by M8 and these sites were all located in LRRs. The diverse aquatic and terrestrial environments might possess different pathogens to make the living organisms adapt to their local environmental conditions. The positive
Most papers on the status of indigenous health focus on health problems from the individual perspective in the hope that this will spread from the individual to tribal/ethnic perspectives. For most indigenous people, the 'tribe' is their home and this home has been affected by colonial society, which has changed tribal ethics and influenced the status of indigenous health. Similarly, there are fissures in the links between indigenous people and their tribes, their ancestry, and their land because of the loss of their land, traditional culture, and racial discrimination and prejudice. These result in an imbalance between indigenous people and their environment and have a deeply felt influence on indigenous health. Transitional justice is an approach to coping with these issues that include colonization, capitalism, relationships with production, and promoting indigenous health.
Jacobina, Uedson Pereira; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Souza, Luiz Gustavo Rodrigues; Calado, Leonardo Luiz; Tavares, Manoel; Manzella, João; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Molina, Wagner Franco
The cobia, Rachycentron canadum, a species of marine fish, has been increasingly used in aquaculture worldwide. It is the only member of the family Rachycentridae (Perciformes) showing wide geographic distribution and phylogenetic patterns still not fully understood. In this study, the species was cytogenetically analyzed by different methodologies, including Ag-NOR and chromomycin A3 (CMA3)/DAPI staining, C-banding, early replication banding (RGB), and in situ fluorescent hybridization with probes for 18S and 5S ribosomal genes and for telomeric sequences (TTAGGG)n. The results obtained allow a detailed chromosomal characterization of the Atlantic population. The chromosome diversification found in the karyotype of the cobia is apparently related to pericentric inversions, the main mechanism associated to the karyotypic evolution of Perciformes. The differential heterochromatin replication patterns found were in part associated to functional genes. Despite maintaining conservative chromosomal characteristics in relation to the basal pattern established for Perciformes, some chromosome pairs in the analyzed population exhibit markers that may be important for cytotaxonomic, population, and biodiversity studies as well as for monitoring the species in question. PMID:21541243
Uedson Pereira Jacobina
Full Text Available The cobia, Rachycentron canadum, a species of marine fish, has been increasingly used in aquaculture worldwide. It is the only member of the family Rachycentridae (Perciformes showing wide geographic distribution and phylogenetic patterns still not fully understood. In this study, the species was cytogenetically analyzed by different methodologies, including Ag-NOR and chromomycin A3 (CMA3/DAPI staining, C-banding, early replication banding (RGB, and in situ fluorescent hybridization with probes for 18S and 5S ribosomal genes and for telomeric sequences (TTAGGGn. The results obtained allow a detailed chromosomal characterization of the Atlantic population. The chromosome diversification found in the karyotype of the cobia is apparently related to pericentric inversions, the main mechanism associated to the karyotypic evolution of Perciformes. The differential heterochromatin replication patterns found were in part associated to functional genes. Despite maintaining conservative chromosomal characteristics in relation to the basal pattern established for Perciformes, some chromosome pairs in the analyzed population exhibit markers that may be important for cytotaxonomic, population, and biodiversity studies as well as for monitoring the species in question.
Rapp, James; Albert, Steve
The San Carlos Apache Tribe (SCAT) was awarded $164,000 in late-2011 by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Tribal Energy Program's "First Steps Toward Developing Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency on Tribal Lands" Grant Program. This grant funded: The analysis and selection of preferred form(s) of tribal energy organization (this Energy Organization Analysis, hereinafter referred to as "EOA"). Start-up staffing and other costs associated with the Phase 1 SCAT energy organization. An intern program. Staff training. Tribal outreach and workshops regarding the new organization and SCAT energy programs and projects, including two annual tribal energy summits (2011 and 2012). This report documents the analysis and selection of preferred form(s) of a tribal energy organization.
Melandri, José Luis; de Pernía, Narcisana Espinoza
We studied the wood anatomy of 29 species belonging to 10 genera of the tribe Detarieae, subfamily Caesalpinioideae and compare them with tribe Caesalpinieae. Detarieae is the largest of four tribes of Caesalpinioideae, with 84 genera, only eleven occur in Venezuela with species of timber importance. The specimens were collected in Venezuela and include wood samples from the collection of the Laboratorio de Anatomía de Maderas de la Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Ambientales de la Universidad de Los Andes, Venezuela, and of the Forest Products Laboratory of the USDA Forest Service in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. The terminology and methodology used followed the IAWA List of Microscopic Features for Hardwood Identification of the IAWA Committee, 1989. Measurements from each specimen were averaged (vessel diameters, vessel element lengths, intervessels pit size, fibre lengths and ray height). The species of Detarieae can be separated using a combination of diagnostic features. Wood characters that provide the most important diagnosis and may be used in systematics of Detarieae include: intercellular axial canals, rays heterocellular, rays exclusively or predominantly uniseriate, prismatic crystals common in ray cells, irregular storied structure and fibre wall thickness. For comparative anatomy between Detarieae and Caesalpinieae: intercellular axial canals, heterocellular rays, rays exclusively or predominantly uniseriate, prismatic crystals common in ray cells (in Detarieae) and regular storied structure, fibres septate, fibre wall thick or very thick, rays homocellular, multiseriate rays and silica bodies (in Caesalpinieae). Axial parenchyma is typically a good diagnostic feature for Leguminosae, but not for Detarieae and Caesalpinieae comparisons.
Hsiao, Chung-Der; Shen, Kang-Ning; Chen, Ching-Hung; Chang, Chih-Wei
In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of the Vermiculated angelfish (Chaetodontoplus mesoleucus) (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae) has been sequenced by the next-generation sequencing method. The assembled mitogenome consisting of 16,998 bp, including 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and two ribosomal RNAs genes. The overall base composition of vermiculated angelfish is 27.6% for A, 30.7% for C, 16.1% for G, and 25.6% for T and show 85% identities to Bluestripe angelfish C. septentrionalis in the same genus. The complete mitogenome of the Vermiculated angelfish provides essential and important DNA molecular data for further phylogeography and evolutionary analysis for marine angelfishes.
Shen, Kang-Ning; Loh, Kar-Hoe; Chen, Ching-Hung; Hsiao, Chung-Der
In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of the Blue-face angelfish, Pomacanthus xanthometapon (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae) has been sequenced by the next-generation sequencing method. The assembled mitogenome consisting of 16,533 bp includes 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and two ribosomal RNAs genes. The overall base composition of Blue-face angelfish is 28.7% for A, 28.9% for C, 15.9% for G, 26.6% for T and show 84% identities to flame angelfish Centropyge loriculus. The complete mitogenome of the Blue-face angelfish provides essential and important DNA molecular data for further phylogeography and evolutionary analysis for marine angelfish phylogeny.
Yan, Shuai; Wang, Ming; Yang, Tingbao
In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the foxface rabbitfish Siganus vulpinus (Perciformes, Siganidae) is determined. The entire sequence is 16,505 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 1 control region. The genome organization is similar to those found in other rabbitfishes. Apart from ND6 and 8 tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. Overall base compositions of mitogenome are 29.3% of A, 29.3% of C, 25.7% of T, and 15.7% of G, showing an obvious anti-G bias which is commonly found in fishes. The high similarity of mitochondrial genome between S. vulpinus and S. unimaculatus indicate that natural interbreeding might exist in breeding season.
Li, Yufang; Chen, Zuozhi; Zhang, Peng; Liang, Peiwen; Chen, Sen; Guo, Yihui; Li, Min
The African pompano Alectis ciliaris (Perciformes: Carangidae) is an economic fish species distributed throughout the tropical oceans and seas of the world. In this study, we assembled the complete mitochondrial genome of A. ciliaris from contiguous, overlapping segments amplified by polymerase chain reactions. The complete mitogenome sequence was 16,570 bp in length, consisting of 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and 1 control region, same with the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement. There were 10 regions of gene overlaps totaling 30 bp and 12 intergenic spacer regions totaling 67 bp. The overall base composition of the heavy strand was 28.32% for A, 26.77% for T, 16.16% for G, 28.75% for C with a slight AT bias of 55.09%.
Chen, Zuozhi; Li, Yufang; Liang, Peiwen; Li, Min
The complete mitochondrial genome of the longfin yellowtail Seriola rivoliana (Perciformes: Carangidae) was obtained in this study. The entire genome was sequenced via primer walking after long PCRs. The size of the genome was 16,530 bp in length, containing the usual 2 rRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, and one non-coding control region. The genome composition and gene order were similar to most vertebrates. Most mitochondrial genes (excepted for ND6 and eight tRNA genes) were encoded on the heavy strand. The complete mitogenome of S. rivoliana could provide a basic data for studies on species identification, molecular systematics and conservation genetics.
Wagner Franco Molina
Full Text Available Damselfishes (Pomacentridae, Perciformes occur in all major oceans of the world and, with approximately 320 species, represent one of the most diverse families of marine Teleostei. The taxonomy of these reef fishes is problematic because of the large number of complex species and the range of color patterns they display, which vary among individuals and populations of the same species. In this study, we examined the cytogenetic composition of four species of Stegastes (S. pictus, S. fuscus, S. variabilis and S. leucostictus found along the coast of Brazil. Stegastes pictus had a chromosomal number of 2n = 48 (14m+28sm+2st+4a, fundamental number (FN = 92, S. fuscus had 2n = 48 (20m+22sm+6a, FN = 90, S. variabilis had 2n = 48 (18m+22sm+8a, FN = 88, and S. leucostictus had 2n = 48, (18m+22sm+8a, FN = 88. The nucleolar organizing regions were single and homologous in all of the species, and were located in the interstitial region on the short arm of the first submetacentric pair. The heterochromatin segments were reduced in size and were distributed conservatively over the centromeric and pericentromeric regions of most of the chromosomes. The marked divergence in the number of chromosomal arms, compared to other perciformes (2n = 48, FN = 48, indicated that varying degrees of multiple pericentric inversions had occurred during the karyotypic evolution of the Pomacentridae. Subtle karyotypic differences between S. variabilis and S. leucostictus suggested a recent divergence or that their karyotypes were less susceptible to changes. These results indicate that cytogenetic analyses could provide important complementary data for the characterization of populations and species of Stegastes and damselfishes in general.
... Transportation § 170.905 How can tribes obtain training in handling hazardous material? (a) Tribes cannot use IRR Program funds to train personnel to handle radioactive and hazardous material. (b) Tribes can seek... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How can tribes obtain training in handling hazardous...
... employees. VI. Innovative and Effective Consultation Practices The Department's leadership will strive to... or facilitating an effective consultation process, negotiated rulemaking or other collaborative... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Policy on Consultation With Indian Tribes...
Full Text Available Nicobarese are one of the six aboriginal tribes inhabiting Andaman and Nicobar Islands. They account for over 95% of the total tribal population in the islands and majority of them inhabit at Car Nicobar, which is the capital of Nicobar district and popularly called as Coconut Island. The Nicobari tribes are hunters and gatherers who use their indigenous knowledge for exploitation of marine fishery resources using locally available materials. The common fishing methods in vogue are tamatu (trap, thanam kak (spear with rope chok/linreny kak (spear with rubber, kinyav (icthyotoxic seed, thakua kak (line, kel thakua kak (hand line, tamarotha thakua kak (long line, Hanak Inhal Kak (shore seine, Inruon thakua kak (troll line and Inhal (gill net. The Nicobari tribes have inherited the skill for designing and operating these gears from their forefathers. This paper summarises the traditional knowledge existing and commonly practiced among the Nicobari tribes for exploitation of marine fish at Car Nicobar.
... judicial review of final administrative decisions to take land in trust for Indian tribes and individual... Manual 8.1. Dated: November 12, 2010. Larry Echo Hawk, Assistant Secretary--Indian Affairs. BILLING CODE...
Johnson, Jennifer [Washoe Tribe of NV and CA
The Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California was awarded funding to complete the Washoe Tribe Alternative Energy Feasibility Study project. The main goal of the project was to complete an alternative energy feasibility study. This study was completed to evaluate “the potential for development of a variety of renewable energy projects and to conduct an alternative energy feasibility study that determines which alternative energy resources have the greatest economic opportunity for the Tribe, while respecting cultural and environmental values” (Baker-Tilly, 2014). The study concluded that distributed generation solar projects are the best option for renewable energy development and asset ownership for the Washoe Tribe. Concentrating solar projects, utility scale wind projects, geothermal, and biomass resource projects were also evaluated during the study and it was determined that these alternatives would not be feasible at this time.
Howarth, D. [Morse, Richard, and Weisenmiller, and Associates Inc., Oakland, CA (United States); Busch, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Starrs, T. [Kelso, Starrs, and Associates LLC, Vashon, WA (United States)
The US electric utility industry is undergoing a period of fundamental change that has significant implications for Native American tribes. Although many details remain to be determined, the future electric power industry will be very different from that of the present. It is anticipated that the new competitive electric industry will be more efficient, which some believe will benefit all participants by lowering electricity costs. Recent developments in the industry, however, indicate that the restructuring process will likely benefit some parties at the expense of others. Given the historical experience and current situation of Native American tribes in the US, there is good reason to pay attention to electric industry changes to ensure that the situation of tribes is improved and not worsened as a result of electric restructuring. This paper provides a review of electricity restructuring in the US and identifies ways in which tribes may be affected and how tribes may seek to protect and serve their interests. Chapter 2 describes the current status of energy production and service on reservations. Chapter 3 provides an overview of the evolution of the electric industry to its present form and introduces the regulatory and structural changes presently taking place. Chapter 4 provides a more detailed discussion of changes in the US electric industry with a specific focus on the implications of these changes for tribes. Chapter 5 presents a summary of the conclusions reached in this paper.
... applicant pool become self-governance Tribes? 1000.27 Section 1000.27 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... for Participation in Tribal Self-Governance Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.27 How does the Director select which Tribes in the applicant pool become self-governance Tribes? The Director selects up...
Gregorová, R.; Micklich, N.; Přikryl, Tomáš
Roč. 280, č. 1 (2016), s. 79-86 ISSN 0077-7749 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Perciformes * Moronidae * scales * Lower Oligocene * Litenčice Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.777, year: 2016
This project includes a consortium of tribes. The tribes include Hughes (representing the consortium) Birch Creek, Huslia, and Allakaket. The project proposed by Interior Regional Housing Authority (IRHA) on behalf of the villages of Hughes, Birch Creek, Huslia and Allakaket is to develop an energy conservation program relevant to each specific community, educate tribe members and provide the tools to implement the conservation plan. The program seeks to achieve both energy savings and provide optimum energy requirements to support each tribe's mission. The energy management program will be a comprehensive program that considers all avenues for achieving energy savings, from replacing obsolete equipment, to the design and construction of energy conservation measures, the implementation of energy saving operation and maintenance procedures, the utilization of a community-wide building energy management system, and a commitment to educating the tribes on how to decrease energy consumption. With the implementation of this program and the development of an Energy Management Plan, these communities can then work to reduce the high cost of living in rural Alaska.
Braicovich, Paola E; Timi, Juan T
A comparison of the composition and structure of parasite communities of the Brazilian flathead, Percophis brasiliensis Quoy et Gaimard (Perciformes: Percophidae) among seasons during one year was carried out in the Argentine Sea. A total of 195 fish specimens were examined and 25 parasite species were found. Parasite communities in seasonal samples showed a high degree of homogeneity in taxonomic composition and infection levels. Similarity analysis showed that the seasonal stability within and between samples was constant in both the composition and community structure throughout the year. Parasites can, therefore, be considered predictable markers for fish stock identification, independently of the season of capture, at least on an annual scale.
Sabina Llamazares Vegh
Full Text Available Se analizó la dieta de ejemplares de Pachyurus bonariensis capturados en el río Mocoretá, del río Uruguay en marzo de 2012. El régimen alimentario de este perciforme correspondió al tipo carnívoro bentófago y las presas dominantes, tanto en juveniles como en adultos, fueron larvas de chironómidos y ninfas de Ephemeroptera. Los ejemplares adultos presentaron mayor diversidad en la dieta que los juveniles.
Sabina Llamazares Vegh; Ismael Esteban Lozano; Alejandro Arturo Dománico
Se analizó la dieta de ejemplares de Pachyurus bonariensis capturados en el río Mocoretá, del río Uruguay en marzo de 2012. El régimen alimentario de este perciforme correspondió al tipo carnívoro bentófago y las presas dominantes, tanto en juveniles como en adultos, fueron larvas de chironómidos y ninfas de Ephemeroptera. Los ejemplares adultos presentaron mayor diversidad en la dieta que los juveniles.
Criscuolo, P. J.
One type of attack on computer systems is know as a Denial of Service (DoS) attack. A DoS attack is designed to prevent legitimate users from using a system. Traditional Denial of Service attacks are done by exploiting a buffer overflow, exhausting system resources, or exploiting a system bug that results in a system that is no longer functional. In the summer of 1999, a new breed of attack has been developed called Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack. Several educational and high capacity commercial sites have been affected by these DDoS attacks. A DDoS attack uses multiple machines operating in concert to attack a network or site. There is very little that can be done if you are the target of a DDoS. The nature of these attacks cause so much extra network traffic that it is difficult for legitimate traffic to reach your site while blocking the forged attacking packets. The intent of this paper is to help sites not be involved in a DDoS attack. The first tools developed to perpetrate the DDoS attack were Trin00 and Tribe Flood Network (TFN). They spawned the next generation of tools called Tribe Flood Network 2000 (TFN2K) and Stacheldraht (German for Barb Wire). These DDoS attack tools are designed to bring one or more sites down by flooding the victim with large amounts of network traffic originating at multiple locations and remotely controlled by a single client. This paper discusses how these DDoS tools work, how to detect them, and specific technical information on each individual tool. It is written with the system administrator in mind. It assumes that the reader has basic knowledge of the TCP/IP Protocol.
Wang, Yanjin; Bi, Xueyi; Chu, Qing; Xu, Tianjun
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an indispensable role in the immune response for pathogen recognition and triggering not only innate immunity but also adaptive immunity. Here we report the TLR13 homologue, one member of TLRs, in Perciformes (especially Sciaenidae). And we used the miiuy croaker as represented species for further functional experiments. Former study reported the TLR13 only expressed in murine, and we are the first to report the teleost TLR13 (mmiTLR13). MmiTLR13 expressed highly in immune defense related tissues, such as the liver, spleen, and kidney, and Vibrio anguillarum or poly(I:C) infection showed the immune response of mmiTLR13. Further luciferase reporter assays showed the ability for activation of ISRE luciferase reporter, but it failed to active NF-κB. And further gene silence by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) confirmed the results. Immunofluorescence of mmiTLR13 presents the cytoplasmic distribution in Hela cell. In addition, the Toll/interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domain of mammal TLR5 exhibits high identity with TLR13, which indicated the high homology between TLR5 and TLR13. These findings will lay the fundamental cornerstone for further research of teleost TLR13 and expand the horizon for better understand the teleost TLRs system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Guo, Minglan; Wang, Shifeng; Su, Yongquan; Zhou, Yongcan; Liu, Min
Genus Epinephelus (Perciformes, Epinephelidae), commonly known as groupers, are usually difficult in species identification for the lack and/or change of morphological specialization. In this study, molecular cytogenetic analyses were firstly performed to identify the closely related species Epinephelus bruneus and E. moara in this genus. The species-specific differences of both fish species showed in karyotype, chromosomal distribution of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) and localization of 18S rDNA. The heterochromatin (interstitial C-bands) and distribution pattern of telomere (TTAGGG)n in E. bruneus revealed the chromosomal rearrangements and different karyotypic evolutionary characteristics compared to those in E. moara. The cytogenetic data suggested that the lineages of E. bruneus and E. moara were recently derived within the genus Epinephelus, and E. moara exhibited more plesiomorphic features than E. bruneus. All results confirmed that E. moara, which has long been considered a synonym of E. bruneus, is a distinct species in the family Epinephelidae. In addition, molecular cytogenetic analyses are useful in species differentiation and phylogenetic reconstruction in groupers. PMID:24949234
Yan, Shuai; Wang, Ming; Yang, Chaopin; Yang, Tingbao
The complete mitochondrial genome of the orange-spotted spinefoot Siganus guttatus (Perciformes, Siganidae) is presented in this paper. The entire sequence, 16,505 bp in length, is comprised of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 1 control region. Structurally, the composition and order of genes are same as those found in other rabbitfishes. Except ND6 and 8 tRNA, all other mitochondrial genes were encoded on the heavy strand. Overall base compositions of mitogenome are 29.3% of A, 29.3% of C, 25.7% of T, and 15.7% of G, showing an obvious anti-G bias which was commonly found in fishes. Three conserved sequence blocks (CSB-1, CSB-2 and CSB-3) and long series of di- and mono-nucleotide microsatellite repeats in 3' end are observed in the putative control region. The complete mitogenome sequence of S. guttatus could provide useful information for further phylogenetic and population genetic studies.
Mireya Ávila Botello
Full Text Available Debido a la poca información sobre el desarrollo de sistemas orgánicos en el pez Pterophylum scalare (Liechtenstein 1823 estudiamos yiempo neto de desarrollo de cada estadio de la organogénesis, tiempo acumulado y diferenciación de estructuras características de cada estadio. Se obtuvo un total de 8 estadios en la organogénesis del sistema digestivo, comprendidos entre la gástrula y la reabsorción total del saco vitelino. La duración de la organogénesis del sistema digestivo fue de 119 horas 44 minutos.Organogenesis of the digestive system of the fish Pterophylum scalare (Perciformes: Cichlidae. There is little knowledge on the development of the angelfish Pterophyllum scalare (Liechtenstein 1823, a species of economical and biological value for inland water ecosystems. We recorded net development time of each organogenetic stage, cumulative time and characteristic structure differentiation for each stage. We found eight organogenetic stages for the digestive system, between the gastrula and the total re-adsorption of the vitelin sack. The total time for the organogenetic development of the digestive system was 119 hours and 44 minutes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4: 1857-1870. Epub 2008 December 12.
Full Text Available Genus Epinephelus (Perciformes, Epinephelidae, commonly known as groupers, are usually difficult in species identification for the lack and/or change of morphological specialization. In this study, molecular cytogenetic analyses were firstly performed to identify the closely related species Epinephelus bruneus and E. moara in this genus. The species-specific differences of both fish species showed in karyotype, chromosomal distribution of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs and localization of 18S rDNA. The heterochromatin (interstitial C-bands and distribution pattern of telomere (TTAGGGn in E. bruneus revealed the chromosomal rearrangements and different karyotypic evolutionary characteristics compared to those in E. moara. The cytogenetic data suggested that the lineages of E. bruneus and E. moara were recently derived within the genus Epinephelus, and E. moara exhibited more plesiomorphic features than E. bruneus. All results confirmed that E. moara, which has long been considered a synonym of E. bruneus, is a distinct species in the family Epinephelidae. In addition, molecular cytogenetic analyses are useful in species differentiation and phylogenetic reconstruction in groupers.
Full Text Available Se presenta una clave para reconocer especies de la familia Serranidae de Chile, que se agrupan en las subfamilias Epinephelinae, Serraninae y Anthiinae. Se proporcionan antecedentes básicos referidos a la taxonomía del grupo, para mayor facilidad del reconocimiento. En cada caso específico, se indica la distribución geográfica e ilustraciones reducidas de las 13 especies de la familia Serranidae que en la actualidad son consideradas en la ictiofauna de Chile.Illustrated key for the Chilean fishes of the family Serranidae (Teleostei: Perciformes. A taxonomic key for identification of fish species of the family Serranidae of Chile, grouped in the subfamilies Epinephelinae, Serraninae and Anthiinae is presented. Basic data about the taxonomic of the group to facilitate the identification is given. In each specific case, the geographical distribution is showed. Reduced illustrations for the currently 13 serranid species considered in the Chilean ichthyofauna are included. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1: 247-253. Epub 2011 March 01.
Biranvand, Amir; Tomaszewska, Wioletta; Nedvěd, Oldřich; Khormizi, Mehdi Zare; Nicolas, Vincent; Canepari, Claudio; Shakarami, Jahanshir; Fekrat, Lida; Fürsch, Helmut
The Iranian species of the tribe Hyperaspidini Mulsant, 1846 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are reviewed. The current list includes 12 species, all placed in a single genus Hyperaspis Chevrolat, 1836. Hyperapsis asiatica Lewis, 1896 and H. pumila Mulsant, 1850 are excluded from the Iranian list of Coccinellidae. Diagnoses of the tribe Hyperaspidini and the genus Hyperaspis are given. Images of adult beetles and diagnostic characters of the male genitalia of all species distributed in Iran are shown. A key to identification of the species is presented. Distribution records are provided for each species along with information on host plants and prey species when available.
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a tribe challenge the data BIA uses in the RNDF? 170... challenge the data BIA uses in the RNDF? (a) A tribe may submit a request to the BIA Regional Director to revise the data for the tribe that BIA uses in the RNDF. The request must include the tribe's data and...
...-governance tribe and needs advance funding in order to complete the planning phase requirement may apply... seeking a planning grant submit in order to meet the planning phase requirements? A tribe/consortium must... the tribe meets the requirement of being free from any material audit exception; (3) A proposal that...
... ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Disaster Assistance § 20.328 How can a tribe apply for Disaster Assistance? (a) The tribe affected by the disaster is considered the applicant and must... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How can a tribe apply for Disaster Assistance? 20.328...
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do tribes identify transit needs? 170.149 Section 170... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Transit Facilities § 170.149 How do tribes identify transit needs? Tribes identify transit needs during the tribal transportation...
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What information must the Tribe's/Consortium's response... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Reassumption § 1000.310 What information must the Tribe's/Consortium's response contain? (a) The Tribe's/Consortium's response must indicate the specific measures that...
... Operational Provisions Audits and Cost Principles § 137.165 Are Self-Governance Tribes required to undertake...-Governance Tribes must undertake annual audits pursuant to the Single Audit Act, 31 U.S.C. 7501 et seq. ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Self-Governance Tribes required to undertake...
Embalming is the art and science of temporary preserving human remains to forestall decomposition. It was first practiced by the ancient Egyptians dating back to 4000BC. This research was carried out to study the traditional method of embalmment by the Ogonis, a tribe in the Southern part of Nigeria. A total of 140 elders ...
Biranvand, Amir; Tomaszewska, Wioletta; Li, Wenjing; Nicolas, Vincent; Shakarami, Jahanshir; Fekrat, Lida; Hesami, Shahram
The Iranian checklist of the tribe Chilocorini Mulsant, 1846 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is updated. In total, 13 species belonging to four genera ( Brumoides Chapin, 1965, Chilocorus Leach, 1815, Exochomus Redtenbacher, 1843, and Parexochomus Barovsky, 1922) are listed from Iran. An identification key to all genera and species currently known from Iran is presented along with illustrations of adult specimens and male genitalia.
Attili-Angelis, D.; Duarte, A.P.M.; Pagnocca, F.C.; Nagamoto, N.S.; de Vries, M.; Stielow, J.B.; de Hoog, G.S.
Ants in the tribe Attini (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) maintain a 50 million-year-old lifestyle of co-evolution with symbiotic basidiomycetous fungi which they cultivate as essential source of nutrition. However, other microorganisms have been reported from ant habitats indicating a higher diversity of
The phylogenetic relationships among members of long tongue bee tribe Anthidiini (Megachilidae: Megachilinae) were investigated at the Department of Entomology and Wildlife, University of Cape Coast (Ghana) and the Agricultural Research Council, Pretoria (South Af-rica) from July, 2006 to May, 2007. Ten museums ...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Land Acquisitions; Cowlitz Indian Tribe AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Final Agency Determination. SUMMARY: The Assistant Secretary--Indian Affairs...
The article namely: "Socio-cultural attitudes of Igbomina tribe toward marriage and abortion in Osun and Kwara states of Nigeria" by Adeleke Gbadebo Fatai has been updated with a new version bearing the author's current affiliation with significant editorial intervention. Abortion has been a social menace and its ...
Moderate activity was recorded for the leaves of Clerodendrum colebrookianum, Lasia spinosa and Centella asiatica, while Curcuma longa, Cinnamomum cassia, Gynura angulosa, Lasia spinosa (stem) and Aloe vera revealed a negligible degree of anticestodal activity. Key Words: Anticestodal Efficacy, Naga Tribes, India, ...
The institution of the tribe continues to represent a major component of social structure throughout the Middle East, particularly in Iraq, Jordan and Yemen. ... groups (Shi'a, Sunni and Kurdish) unleashed by the ousting of Saddam Hussein's regime aggravated contests for control of the country and its political organization.
Cantalice, Kleyton M.; Alvarado-Ortega, Jesús; Alaniz-Galvan, Abril
Paleoserranus lakamhae gen. et sp. nov. is here described based on well-preserved fossils from the Paleocene marine sediments of the Tenejapa-Lacandón geological unit, belonging to both Division del Norte and Belisario Domínguez quarries, near Palenque, Chiapas, southeastern Mexico. This species exhibits distinctive characters of the order Perciformes, such as the presence of spines in the dorsal, pelvic, and anal fins, as well as the pelvic and pectoral girdles in contact between them. This fish also has neither procurrent spur nor posterior uroneural, characters that support its place within the family Serranidae. It also has a distinctive combination of characters, including a serrated lacrimal and a toothed ectopterygoid, never recorded before among serranids. Additionally, this fossil fish shares some characters with different species nested within the subfamilies Serraninae, Anthiinae, and Ephinephelinae; these include a predorsal formula of 0/0/0 + 2/1 + 1/1; a preopercle with its ventral edge sinuous and showing a strong antrorse spine; its dorsal fin consists of nine spines and eight to ten soft rays; 13 rays in its pectoral fin; and its rounded caudal fin structured with formula I+8-7+I. Paleoserranus lakamhae gen. et sp. nov. is a Serranidae incertae sedis because it does not fit into any subgroup; however, this Paleocene fish is the earliest fossil record of the family Serranidae. The place of occurrence of this new fossil record suggests that the origin and of the seabasses took place in the Caribbean region of North America.
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false If a tribe has enacted tribal laws, regulations, or... § 224.106 If a tribe has enacted tribal laws, regulations, or procedures for challenging tribal action, how must the tribe respond to a petition? If a tribe has enacted tribal laws, regulations, or...
Coscarón, María Del Carmen; Pall, José Luis
Eight genera and 21 species of the tribe Anisoscelini (Coreidae, Coreinae) are recorded in Argentina: Anisoscelis foliaceus (Fabricius); Coribergia declivicollis (Berg); Dalmatomammurius vandoesburgi (Brailovsky); Holymenia hystrio (Fabricius); Leptoglossus chilensis (Spinola); L. cinctus (Herrich-Schaeffer); L. concolor Walker; L. crassicornis (Dallas); L. dentatus Berg; L. fasciatus (Westwood); L. gonagra (Fabricius); L. impictus (Stål); L. ingens (Mayr); L. neovexillatus Allen; L. quadricollis (Westwood); L. stigma (Herbst); L. vexillatus (Stål); L. zonatus (Dallas); Phthia lunata (Fabricius); Phthiacnemia picta (Drury) and Ugnius kermesinus (Linnaeus). A key to genera belonging to the tribe is provided. L. stigma is recorded for the first time in Argentina with new locality records for La Rioja, Salta and San Juan.
Although Idaho's electrical rates are among the lowest in the country, the Nez Perce Tribe's electrical bills take a large bite out of the operating budget every year. Tribal programs are located in forty some buildings, in six counties, in two states. Ninety-five percent, or more, are heated electrically. The age of the Tribal office buildings located in Lapwai, Idaho vary from forty to over a hundred years old. Only sporadic updates, in the buildings themselves, have been made over the years. Working with the Tribe's electrical provider (Avista Corporation), it was determine that a minimum financial commitment could reap large rewards in the form of lower operating costs.
members and loose affiliates prohibited the celebration of Christmas, attacked Catholic churches and destroyed Aden’s Sira brewery. Sufi shrines were...fundamentalists’ reportedly attack Aden Catholic church,” Agence France-Presse, 23 July 1994; “Moslems Topple Marxist Statue in Aden,” Agence France...chews and weddings , representatives from the council discuss the merits of each course of action with those of the broader micro-tribe. The process
Allgood, Tiffany L. [Coeur d' Alene Tribe, Plummer, ID (United States); Sorter, Andy [Coeur d' Alene Tribe, Plummer, ID (United States)
The Coeur d'Alene Tribe's Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study (EEFS) is the culminating document that compiles the energy efficiency and building performance assessment and project prioritization process completed on 36 Tribally owned and operated facilities within Tribal lands. The EEFS contains sections on initial findings, utility billing analyses, energy conservation measures and prioritization and funding sources and strategies for energy project implementation.
Bkra shis dpal 'bar བཀྲ་ཤིས་དཔལ་འབར།
Full Text Available The Yul shul (Yushu ngas bzang Tribe historically possessed a rich hunting tradition. Wildlife was hunted for food and other animal products. By 2007, hunting culture had diminished due to improvements in living conditions, wildlife protection laws, greater state control of wildlife product skin market and gun ownership, animal diseases, and the absence of such wildlife as wild yaks in local areas.
Rapp, Jim [Parametrix; Knight, Tawnie [Ute Mountain Ute Tribe
Parametrix Inc. conducted a feasibility study for the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe to determine whether or not a community-scale solar farm would be feasible for the community. The important part of the study was to find where the best fit for the solar farm could be. In the end, a 3MW community-scale solar farm was found best fit with the location of two hayfield sites.
Mukherjee, Malay B.; Tripathy, V.; Colah, R. B.; Solanki, P. K.; Ghosh, K.; Reddy, B. M.; Mohanty, D.
The present study was undertaken to determine the extent of diversity at 12 microsatellite short tandem repeat (STR) loci in seven primitive tribal populations of India with diverse linguistic and geographic backgrounds. DNA samples of 160 unrelated individuals were analyzed for 12 STR loci by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Gene diversity analysis suggested that the average heterozygosity was uniformly high ( >0.7) in these groups and varied from 0.705 to 0.794. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium analysis revealed that these populations were in genetic equilibrium at almost all the loci. The overall GST value was high (GST = 0.051; range between 0.026 and 0.098 among the loci), reflecting the degree of differentiation/heterogeneity of seven populations studied for these loci. The cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling of genetic distances reveal two broad clusters of populations, besides Moolu Kurumba maintaining their distinct genetic identity vis-à-vis other populations. The genetic affinity for the three tribes of the Indo-European family could be explained based on geography and Language but not for the four Dravidian tribes as reflected by the NJT and MDS plots. For the overall data, the insignificant MANTEL correlations between genetic, linguistic and geographic distances suggest that the genetic variation among these tribes is not patterned along geographic and/or linguistic lines. PMID:21088716
Full Text Available Batang Gadis National Park (BGNP located in Bukit Barisan Mountains, Sumatera Utara. A Mandailing tribe who lives around the BGNP, has the unique local knowledge, such as processing young stem of rattan (Calamus manan into pakkat (traditional food and use rimbang (Solanum torvum to neutralize toxins. These local knowledge could be lost because it only inherited orally from generation to generation. This study was aimed to reveal ethnobotany knowledge of Mandailing Tribe. The study was conducted in November 2015 in four villages around the BGNP, Sibanggor Jae, Hutabaringin Julu, Pastap Jae, and Botung Villages. Data were collected by interviewing informants in each village as well as the field survey through two approaches, emic and etic. A total of 262 plant species is used by Mandailing Tribe for subsistence and commercial needs. The highest utilization is for food (106 species, followed by traditional medicines (81 species, firewood (29 species, building materials (35 species, and animal feed (25 species. People also used plant for household appliances, agricultural equipment, art materials, ropes and wrap, and pest control materials. Eme/rice (Oryza sativa have the highest Index of Cultural Significance (ICS values. The existence of this species is maintained for its local wisdom. Thus, involvement of local community will give great contribution to manage and conserve the BGNP area.
The tribe Ambelanieae consists of seventeen species of latex-bearing shrubs and trees in six genera found in the tropical lowlands of norther South America. The center of distribution as well as diversification for the Ambelanieae is the Rio Negro basin of Brazilian Amazonia. This study is based on field observations of representative species from five of the genera, supplemented by the examination of exsiccatae from the major herbaria of the world. The analysis includes a review of the taxonomic history, a presentation of a systematic treatment for the genera and species, and detailed discussions of morphology, anatomy, ecology, pollination, fruit dispersal, phenology, palynology, cytology, and biogeography. The first chromosome numbers for the tribe are reported, indicating that polyploidy occurs within the group. Pollen variability is demonstrated, not only among species of different genera but also within individual pollen samples. In reference to economic uses, some members of the tribe are suggested to hold promise for exploitation of usable latex, lightweight wood, and edible fruits. The presence of potentially important toxic and medicinal principles from several species is indicated by ethnopharmacological observations made in the northwest Amazon basin.
Moravec, František; Beveridge, Ian
Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, a new nematode parasite, Lobocapillaria austropacifica n. sp. (Capillariidae), is described from the gall-bladder of the marine fish (obtuse barracuda) Sphyraena obtusata Cuvier (Perciformes: Sphyraenidae) from off the eastern Pacific coast of Australia, for which a new genus Lobocapillaria n. g. is established. This new genus is mainly characterised by a single row of stichocytes, the presence of two large, conspicuously elongated lateral caudal lobes and a pair of subventral papillae at their base in males, a flat spicule distended laterally towards its proximal end and provided with superficial rough transverse grooves, a spicular canal and a very long, aspinose spicular sheath with a conspicuous expansion near its proximal end when evaginated. Capillaria sphyraeni Parukhin, 1971 is transferred to Lobocapillaria as L. sphyreni (Parukhin, 1971) n. comb. A key to capillariid genera containing species parasitic in fishes is provided.
Corrêa, B; Vianna, M
This study determined the spatial and temporal distributions of the silver mojarra Eucinostomus argenteus (Perciformes: Gerreidae), one of the most abundant teleost species in bays and estuaries. Sampling was conducted from July 2005 to June 2007. The species was captured on all sampling dates and at six of the seven sampling stations. Approximately 80% of the individuals were below the size of first sexual maturity (12·0 cm total length, LT ). Although the spatial distribution of juveniles and adults differed throughout the study period, the environmental variables measured explained only a small part of their distribution. The recruitment period occurred during the first part of each year. Despite the high pollution levels in Guanabara Bay, this coastal system plays an important role as a nursery ground and for the growth of E. argenteus. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Moravec, František; Shamsi, Shokoofeh
Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, a new nematode parasite, Barracudia australiensis n. sp. (Philometridae), is described from the gall-bladder of the marine fish (obtuse barracuda) Sphyraena obtusata Cuvier (Sphyraenidae, Perciformes) from off the eastern Pacific coast of Australia, for which a new genus Barracudia n. g. is established. This new genus is mainly characterised by features found in the male: sickle-shaped, ventrally curved spicules, a gubernacum with a broad, dorsally bent distal portion and a markedly dorsoventrally elongated cloacal aperture. Based on these features, Barracudia spp. conspicuously differ from representatives of all other philometrid genera with known males. Philometra philippinensis Quiazon & Yoshinaga, 2013 is transferred to Barracudia as B. philippinensis (Quiazon & Yoshinaga, 2013) n. comb. Barracudia australiensis is the third nominal species of philometrids described from the Sphyraenidae and the 19th species of the Philometridae recorded from fishes in Australian waters.
Full Text Available Indigenous peoples in North America have a long history of understanding their societies as having an intimate relationship with their physical environments. Their cultures, traditions, and identities are based on the ecosystems and sacred places that shape their world. Their respect for their ancestors and ‘Mother Earth’ speaks of unique value and knowledge systems different than the value and knowledge systems of the dominant United States settler society. The value and knowledge systems of each indigenous and non-indigenous community are different but collide when water resources are endangered. One of the challenges that face indigenous people regarding the management of water relates to their opposition to the commodification of water for availability to select individuals. External researchers seeking to work with indigenous peoples on water research or management must learn how to design research or water management projects that respect indigenous cultural contexts, histories of interactions with settler governments and researchers, and the current socio-economic and political situations in which indigenous peoples are embedded. They should pay particular attention to the process of collaborating on water resource topics and management with and among indigenous communities while integrating Western and indigenous sciences in ways that are beneficial to both knowledge systems. The objectives of this paper are to (1 to provide an overview of the context of current indigenous water management issues, especially for the U.S. federally recognized tribes in the Southwestern United States; (2 to synthesize approaches to engage indigenous persons, communities, and governments on water resources topics and management; and (3 to compare the successes of engaging Southwestern tribes in five examples to highlight some significant activities for collaborating with tribes on water resources research and management. In discussing the engagement
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to depict the pig farming performances of three different nativePapuan tribes, i.e. Byak, Onate and Arfak. Sites in Biak were taken from Samofa District. Sites in Yapenwere taken from South Yapen District comprised of Famboaman, Anotaurei, Mariadei and Mantembuvillages. Site in Manokwari was chosen at Sub-district of Wosi. Participatory research using interviewand observation was done towards 105 pig farmers. One-way analysis of variance and Pearson Chisquare(χ2 were used to analyse data. Several indicators tested were age, education, objectives ofrearing pigs, and species of pigs. The characteristics of pig farmers were similar. The variations of pigfarmers’ characteristics ware found in pigs’ rearing experience, animal number and litter size. Offeredfeeding on each physiological period was different. Similar finding were feeding sources and feedingprocess. Reproduction knowledge and their experience in farrowing management are similar amongstthe tribes. In general experiences and knowledge to prevent infectious diseases in general were similar.The three tribes have relatively similar in managing their pig farming systems.
Full Text Available Some isolated acanthomorph remains and a new taxon of perciform fishes, Saldenioichthys remotus gen. et sp. nov., from the Maastrichtian Saldeño Formation of Mendoza province, Argentina, are described and their systematic affinities are discussed. The new taxon is represented by a single incomplete, but well preserved postcranial skeleton. With the exception of a fully developed neural spine on the second preural centrum, it agrees with the generalized skeletal features of basal percoids, in particular the generalized perciform caudal skeleton. The only other Mesozoic perciform skeletal remains known so far are Nardoichthys, from the upper Campanian-lower Maastrichtian of Nardo (Italy and Eoserranus from the Upper Cretaceous Lameta Formation (India. Therefore, the new perciform taxon from the Saldeño Formation represents one of the oldest members of this group, and due to its peculiar combination of primitive and derived characters, it raises several questions regarding character evolution on this lineage. Es werden einige isolierte Reste acanthomorpher Fische sowie ein neues Taxon der Perciformes, Saldenioichthys remotus gen. et sp. nov., aus dem Maastricht der Saldeño Formation in der Provinz Mendoza, Argentinien, werden beschrieben und ihre systematische Stellung wird diskutiert. Das neue Taxon ist durch ein einziges, unvollständiges, aber gut erhaltenes postkraniales Skelett repräsentiert. Mit Ausnahme eines vollstandig ausgebildeten Dornfortsatzes auf dem ersten präuralen Zentrum stimmt es mit der generalisierten Skelettmorphologie basaler Percoiden überein, insbesondere mit dem generalisierten perciformen Caudal-Skelett. Die einzigen anderen Skelettreste von Perciformen aus dem Mesozoikum sind Nardoichthys aus dem Ober-Campan/Unter-Maastricht von Nardo, Italien, und Eoserranus aus der Oberkreide der Lameta Formation, Indien, und die Gruppe ist ansonsten praktisch nur aus känozoischen Sedimenten bekannt. Somit stellt das neue Taxon
Full Text Available Genera within the South American cichlid tribe Geophagini display specialized feeding and reproductive strategies, with some taxa specialized for both substrate-sifting and mouth brooding. Several lineages within the clade also possess an epibranchial lobe (EBL, a unique pharyngeal structure that has been proposed to have a function in feeding and/or mouth brooding. A recently published genus-level phylogeny of Neotropical cichlids was used as the evolutionary framework for investigating the evolution of morphological features presumably correlated with diet and mouth brooding in the tribe Geophagini. We tested for possible associations between the geophagine epibranchial lobe and benthic feeding and mouth brooding. We also addressed whether the EBL may be associated with unique patterns of diversification in certain geophagine clades. Tests of binary character correlations revealed the EBL was significantly associated with mouth brooding. We also tested for a relationship between diet and morphology. We analyzed stomach contents and morphometric variation among 21 species, with data for two additional species obtained from the literature. Principal Components Analysis revealed axes of morphological variation significantly correlated with piscivory and benthivory, and both morphology and diet were significantly associated with phylogeny. These results suggest that the EBL could be an adaptation for either feeding or mouth brooding. The EBL, however, was not associated with species richness or accelerated rates of phyletic diversification.
López-Fernández, Hernán; Winemiller, Kirk O.; Montaña, Carmen; Honeycutt, Rodney L.
Genera within the South American cichlid tribe Geophagini display specialized feeding and reproductive strategies, with some taxa specialized for both substrate-sifting and mouth brooding. Several lineages within the clade also possess an epibranchial lobe (EBL), a unique pharyngeal structure that has been proposed to have a function in feeding and/or mouth brooding. A recently published genus-level phylogeny of Neotropical cichlids was used as the evolutionary framework for investigating the evolution of morphological features presumably correlated with diet and mouth brooding in the tribe Geophagini. We tested for possible associations between the geophagine epibranchial lobe and benthic feeding and mouth brooding. We also addressed whether the EBL may be associated with unique patterns of diversification in certain geophagine clades. Tests of binary character correlations revealed the EBL was significantly associated with mouth brooding. We also tested for a relationship between diet and morphology. We analyzed stomach contents and morphometric variation among 21 species, with data for two additional species obtained from the literature. Principal Components Analysis revealed axes of morphological variation significantly correlated with piscivory and benthivory, and both morphology and diet were significantly associated with phylogeny. These results suggest that the EBL could be an adaptation for either feeding or mouth brooding. The EBL, however, was not associated with species richness or accelerated rates of phyletic diversification. PMID:22485154
Paulo Henrique Franco Lucinda
Full Text Available Osteological and soft anatomical features of representatives of poeciliine genera were studied to test the monophyly of the poeciliine tribes and to advance a hypothesis of relationships within the subfamily. The resultant hypothesis supports the proposal of a new classification for the subfamily Poeciliinae. Diagnoses are provided for suprageneric clades. The tribe Tomeurini is resurrected and the new tribes Brachyrhaphini and Priapichthyini as well as the supertribe Poeciliini are described. New usages of old tribe names are proposed based on the phylogenetic framework.
Khai C Ang
Full Text Available Pigmentation is a readily scorable and quantitative human phenotype, making it an excellent model for studying multifactorial traits and diseases. Convergent human evolution from the ancestral state, darker skin, towards lighter skin colors involved divergent genetic mechanisms in people of European vs. East Asian ancestry. It is striking that the European mechanisms result in a 10-20-fold increase in skin cancer susceptibility while the East Asian mechanisms do not. Towards the mapping of genes that contribute to East Asian pigmentation there is need for one or more populations that are admixed for ancestral and East Asian ancestry, but with minimal European contribution. This requirement is fulfilled by the Senoi, one of three indigenous tribes of Peninsular Malaysia collectively known as the Orang Asli. The Senoi are thought to be an admixture of the Negrito, an ancestral dark-skinned population representing the second of three Orang Asli tribes, and regional Mongoloid populations of Indo-China such as the Proto-Malay, the third Orang Asli tribe. We have calculated skin reflectance-based melanin indices in 492 Orang Asli, which ranged from 28 (lightest to 75 (darkest; both extremes were represented in the Senoi. Population averages were 56 for Negrito, 42 for Proto-Malay, and 46 for Senoi. The derived allele frequencies for SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 in the Senoi were 0.04 and 0.02, respectively, consistent with greater South Asian than European admixture. Females and individuals with the A111T mutation had significantly lighter skin (p = 0.001 and 0.0039, respectively. Individuals with these derived alleles were found across the spectrum of skin color, indicating an overriding effect of strong skin lightening alleles of East Asian origin. These results suggest that the Senoi are suitable for mapping East Asian skin color genes.
Ang, Khai C; Ngu, Mee S; Reid, Katherine P; Teh, Mei S; Aida, Zamzuraida S; Koh, Danny Xr; Berg, Arthur; Oppenheimer, Stephen; Salleh, Hood; Clyde, Mahani M; Md-Zain, Badrul M; Canfield, Victor A; Cheng, Keith C
Pigmentation is a readily scorable and quantitative human phenotype, making it an excellent model for studying multifactorial traits and diseases. Convergent human evolution from the ancestral state, darker skin, towards lighter skin colors involved divergent genetic mechanisms in people of European vs. East Asian ancestry. It is striking that the European mechanisms result in a 10-20-fold increase in skin cancer susceptibility while the East Asian mechanisms do not. Towards the mapping of genes that contribute to East Asian pigmentation there is need for one or more populations that are admixed for ancestral and East Asian ancestry, but with minimal European contribution. This requirement is fulfilled by the Senoi, one of three indigenous tribes of Peninsular Malaysia collectively known as the Orang Asli. The Senoi are thought to be an admixture of the Negrito, an ancestral dark-skinned population representing the second of three Orang Asli tribes, and regional Mongoloid populations of Indo-China such as the Proto-Malay, the third Orang Asli tribe. We have calculated skin reflectance-based melanin indices in 492 Orang Asli, which ranged from 28 (lightest) to 75 (darkest); both extremes were represented in the Senoi. Population averages were 56 for Negrito, 42 for Proto-Malay, and 46 for Senoi. The derived allele frequencies for SLC24A5 and SLC45A2 in the Senoi were 0.04 and 0.02, respectively, consistent with greater South Asian than European admixture. Females and individuals with the A111T mutation had significantly lighter skin (p = 0.001 and 0.0039, respectively). Individuals with these derived alleles were found across the spectrum of skin color, indicating an overriding effect of strong skin lightening alleles of East Asian origin. These results suggest that the Senoi are suitable for mapping East Asian skin color genes.
Troge, Michael [Little Bear Development Center, Oneida, WI (United States)
Oneida Nation is located in Northeast Wisconsin. The reservation is approximately 96 square miles (8 miles x 12 miles), or 65,000 acres. The greater Green Bay area is east and adjacent to the reservation. A county line roughly splits the reservation in half; the west half is in Outagamie County and the east half is in Brown County. Land use is predominantly agriculture on the west 2/3 and suburban on the east 1/3 of the reservation. Nearly 5,000 tribally enrolled members live in the reservation with a total population of about 21,000. Tribal ownership is scattered across the reservation and is about 23,000 acres. Currently, the Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin (OTIW) community members and facilities receive the vast majority of electrical and natural gas services from two of the largest investor-owned utilities in the state, WE Energies and Wisconsin Public Service. All urban and suburban buildings have access to natural gas. About 15% of the population and five Tribal facilities are in rural locations and therefore use propane as a primary heating fuel. Wood and oil are also used as primary or supplemental heat sources for a small percent of the population. Very few renewable energy systems, used to generate electricity and heat, have been installed on the Oneida Reservation. This project was an effort to develop a reasonable renewable energy portfolio that will help Oneida to provide a leadership role in developing a clean energy economy. The Energy Optimization Model (EOM) is an exploration of energy opportunities available to the Tribe and it is intended to provide a decision framework to allow the Tribe to make the wisest choices in energy investment with an organizational desire to establish a renewable portfolio standard (RPS).
Ali, Muhammad; Perveen, Rukhsana; Naqvi, Arif-Un-Nisa; Ahmed, Khalil; Raza, Ghulam; Hussain, Ishtiaq
Coccinellids are important natural enemies of aphids, scale insects, mealybugs, whiteflies, jassids and mites. They are being augmented or conserved for population reduction of different agricultural crop pests in the concept of Integrated Pest Management throughout the world. The genera and species in the tribe Scymnini known from Pakistan are revised and redescribed. Two genera including two subgenera and six species among which three species are newly reported, is therefore, a new addition to Coccinellid fauna of Pakistan. Keys to all taxa, descriptions of the higher taxa, species diagnoses, synonymies, and distribution records are included. PMID:26454480
Full Text Available We examine the occurrence of the tribe Phanaeini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae in Peru based on the collection at Museo de Historia Natural of the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos and on data provided in literature. Each species is presented with citations of its diagnosis, distribution and related comments. Peruvian Phanaeini includes 30 species in nine genera: Coprophanaeus, Dendropaemon, Gromphas, Oruscatus, Oxysternon, Phanaeus, Sulcophanaeus, Tetramereia and Megatharsis. Oruscatus davus is the only species distributed in the high Andes; Phanaeus lunaris and P. achilles occur in the northern arid zone shared by Peru and Ecuador; the remaining species are Amazonian.
Cardicola beveridgei n. sp. (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from the mangrove jack, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae), and C. bullardi n. sp. from the Australian spotted mackerel, Scomberomorus munroi (Perciformes: Scombridae), from the northern Great Barrier Reef.
Nolan, Matthew J; Miller, Terrence L; Cutmore, Scott C; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Cribb, Thomas H
Cardicola Short, 1953 is a genus of the Aporocotylidae Odhner, 1912 (Digenea), with 25 currently recognised species described from 32 species of Perciformes and Mugiliformes fishes around the world, including eight species from the Great Barrier Reef. Here, we describe two new species from this region, namely Cardicola beveridgei n. sp. from the ventricle and atrium of the mangrove jack, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskål) (Perciformes: Lutjanidae), and Cardicola bullardi n. sp. from the ventricle of the Australian spotted mackerel, Scomberomorus munroi Collette & Russo (Perciformes: Scombridae), from off Lizard Island, Queensland, Australia. These two new species are most easily distinguished from the 25 current members of Cardicola in having the combination of i) a spinous oral sucker, ii) an anteriorly intercaecal ovary, iii) a uterus that extends anteriorly from the oötype, iv) the number of spines per ventrolateral transverse row, and in v) body size and the length/width ratio, vi) the oesophagus and caecal length(s) relative to body total length, vii) the length of the posterior caeca relative to the anterior pair, viii) the testis length/width ratio and its total size relative to that of the body, ix) the postovarian field as a percentage of body length, and x) egg size. In addition, C. beveridgei n. sp. is further differentiated by possessing a female genital pore that opens anterodextral to the male pore while C. bullardi n. sp. differs further in possessing a testis that is almost entirely intercaecal and does not extend anteriorly to the level of the intestinal bifurcation. Employing genetic analysis of ITS2 rDNA sequence data, representing these species and a further 13 recognised and three putative species of Cardicola, we were able to unequivocally confirm these specimens as distinct (9-22% different over 420 nucleotide positions). Distance analysis of ITS2 showed that i) species of Cardicola from the Siganidae formed a monophyletic clade, to the
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interaction with American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives. 219.15 Section 219.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... Collaborative Planning for Sustainability § 219.15 Interaction with American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives...
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does OTFM disburse money to a tribe? 115.817 Section 115.817 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS... OTFM disburse money to a tribe? Upon receipt of all necessary documentation, OTFM will process the...
... conflict with the Agreement, the terms of the Agreement control. Taxation 3.06.620 Tribal Liquor Tax The... exercise the Tribe's jurisdiction to regulate the sale, distribution and taxation of liquor within the... over liquor distribution, sales and taxation within the Tribe's Indian Country. Therefore, in the...
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Selection criteria for tribes/consortia to receive a negotiation grant. 1001.8 Section 1001.8 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SELF-GOVERNANCE PROGRAM § 1001.8 Selection criteria for tribes/consortia to receive a...
.... FEMA-4123-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2013-0001] Standing Rock Sioux Tribe; Major Disaster and Related... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe (FEMA-4123-DR), dated June 25...''), as follows: I have determined that the damage to the lands associated with the Standing Rock Sioux...
Ekaphan Kraichak; Sittiporn Parnmen; Robert Lücking; Eimy Rivas Plata; Andre Aptroot; Marcela E.S. Caceres; Damien Ertz; Armin Mangold; Joel A. Mercado-Diaz; Khwanruan Papong; Dries Van der Broeck; Gothamie Weerakoon; H. Thorsten. Lumbsch; NO-VALUE
We present an updated 3-locus molecular phylogeny of tribe Ocellularieae, the second largest tribe within subfamily Graphidoideae in the Graphidaceae. Adding 165 newly generated sequences from the mitochondrial small subunit rDNA (mtSSU), the nuclear large subunit rDNA (nuLSU), and the second largest subunit of the DNA-directed RNA polymerase II (RPB2), we currently...
... determination of eligibility. 145.56 Section 145.56 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... which the Indian Tribe asserts jurisdiction; a statement by the Tribal Attorney General (or equivalent... Indian Tribe to administer an effective Underground Injection Control program which should include: (1) A...
... contain the items listed below. (a) Proof that the tribe has notified its members of its intent to remove... proof that the tribe has notified its members of intent to transfer the funds. The resolution must... governing body has the legal authority to withdraw funds from trust status and that the withdrawal does not...
... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish (Gun Lake) Tribe... publishes the Secretary's certification of the Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish Band of Pottawatomi Indians (Gun.... The Tribal Council of the Gun Lake Tribe Liquor Control Ordinance adopted this Liquor Ordinance on...
... OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Remedial Response Cooperative Agreements § 35.6110 Indian Tribe-lead... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indian Tribe-lead remedial Cooperative...
Fifty-one Brazilian species and varieties of Swartzia Schreber and eight other genera from the tribe Swartzieae were examined. Features with the greatest diagnostic value for the tribe are intervascular pit size, ray width and frequency, storied structure, axial parenchyma strand length, parenchyma band width, and vessel diameter. We analyzed the wood anatomical data...
Koek-Noorman, J.; Topper, S.M.C.; Welle, ter B.J.H.
The wood anatomy of the tribe Castilleae sensu Berg is described. Similarities and differences are discussed in relation to his concepts of the taxonomy of the tribe. The wood anatomical variation does not enable to distinguish between Maquira, Perebea and Pseudolmedia. Antiaris, Castilla,
Feb 2, 2017 ... tribe in Nigeria. The paper examines the socio-cultural attitudes of Мgbуmмnа tribe toward marriage and abortion in Osun and Kwara states, Nigeria. Questionnaires were administered to 1036 (Osun: ..... Uniqueness of cultural and religious attitudes of Мgbуmмnа. In 1985, United Nations estimates showed ...
..., with the Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin (Tribe), the National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC), the... III gaming would be conducted inside the existing clubhouse until the new casino is built. The FEIS..., environmental justice, cumulative effects, indirect effects and mitigation. The BIA has afforded other...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Epidemiology Program for American Indian/Alaska Native Tribes and Urban Indian Communities Division of Epidemiology and Disease Prevention; Epidemiology Program for American Indian/Alaska Native Tribes and Urban Indian Communities Announcement Type...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Epidemiology Program for American Indian/Alaska Native Tribes and Urban Indian Communities; Correction AGENCY: Indian Health Service, HHS... Epidemiology Centers serving American Indian/Alaska Native Tribes and urban Indian communities. The document...
Vorontsova, Maria S; Hoffmann, Petra; Maurin, Olivier; Chase, Mark W
Novel insights into the evolutionary history of a taxonomically complex tropical plant group were gained in this study using DNA sequence data. A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the newly circumscribed and expanded tribe Poranthereae (Phyllanthaceae) is presented. Sampling included 97 accessions for 63 of c. 120 species. Largely congruent results have been obtained from nuclear ribosomal ITS and plastid matK sequences. These analyses support the recognition of Andrachne and Leptopus as distinct genera. The deceptively similar Andrachne section Phyllanthopsis, Andrachne ovalis, and Leptopus decaisnei are separate lineages to be segregated. Zimmermannia and Zimmermanniopsis are embedded in Meineckia; Oreoporanthera is embedded in Poranthera; and Archileptopus is embedded in Leptopus. Andrachne section Pseudophyllanthus is polyphyletic, the two Madagascan endemics emerging as a sister clade to Meineckia. The noncontiguous distributions of Andrachne sensu lato and Leptopus sensu lato were found to be the result of separate evolutionary histories of morphologically similar clades, whereas Andrachne sensu stricto and Meineckia remain geographically disjunct. Actephila and Leptopus are sisters with a sympatric distribution in humid Asia. Presence of petals appears to be plesiomorphic for the tribe. Petals are reduced in Actephila and Oreoporanthera and lost in the Meineckia clade.
Rapp, Jim [Parametrix; Duncan, Ken [San Carlos Apache Tribe; Albert, Steve [Parametrix
The San Carlos Apache Tribe (Tribe) in the interests of strengthening tribal sovereignty, becoming more energy self-sufficient, and providing improved services and economic opportunities to tribal members and San Carlos Apache Reservation (Reservation) residents and businesses, has explored a variety of options for renewable energy development. The development of renewable energy technologies and generation is consistent with the Tribe’s 2011 Strategic Plan. This Study assessed the possibilities for both commercial-scale and community-scale solar development within the southwestern portions of the Reservation around the communities of San Carlos, Peridot, and Cutter, and in the southeastern Reservation around the community of Bylas. Based on the lack of any commercial-scale electric power transmission between the Reservation and the regional transmission grid, Phase 2 of this Study greatly expanded consideration of community-scale options. Three smaller sites (Point of Pines, Dudleyville/Winkleman, and Seneca Lake) were also evaluated for community-scale solar potential. Three building complexes were identified within the Reservation where the development of site-specific facility-scale solar power would be the most beneficial and cost-effective: Apache Gold Casino/Resort, Tribal College/Skill Center, and the Dudleyville (Winkleman) Casino.
Liebler, Carolyn; Zacher, Meghan
Among American Indians and Alaska Natives, most aspects of ethnicity are tightly associated with the person's tribal origins. Language, history, foods, land, and traditions differ among the hundreds of tribes indigenous to the United States. With this in mind, we ask why almost one million American Indians failed to respond to the tribal affiliation part of the Census 2000 race question. We investigate four hypotheses about why one-third of multiracial American Indians and one-sixth of single-race American Indians did not write any response to the tribal affiliation question: (1) survey item non-response which undermines all fill-in-the-blank questions, (2) a non-salient tribal identity, (3) a genealogy-based affiliation, and (4) a mestizo identity which does not require a tribe. We use multivariate logistic regression models and high-density restricted-use Census 2000 data. We find support for the first two hypotheses and note that predictors differ substantially for single-race versus multiple-race American Indians.
This newsletter describes key activities of the DOE Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs for Summer 2012. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE-IE) has selected 11 Tribes - five in Alaska and six in the contiguous United States - to receive on-the-ground technical support for community-based energy efficiency and renewable energy projects as part of DOE-IE's Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program. START finalists were selected based on the clarity of their requests for technical assistance and the ability of START to successfully work with their projects or community. Technical experts from DOE and its National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will work directly with community-based project teams to analyze local energy issues and assist the Tribes in moving their projects forward. In Alaska, the effort will be bolstered by DOE-IE's partnership with the Denali Commission, which will provide additional assistance and expertise, as well as funding to fuel the Alaska START initiative.
... consortia. Each Tribe's annual FMAP shall be based on the per capita income of the service population of the... consistent national data regarding per capita income for each Indian Tribe. However, the source of these data... only complete source of per capita income data for Indian Tribes and tribal communities is that of the...
... participate in self-governance? 137.16 Section 137.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...-GOVERNANCE Selection of Indian Tribes for Participation in Self-Governance § 137.16 What if more than 50 Indian Tribes apply to participate in self-governance? The first Indian Tribes who apply and are...
... INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Welfare Reform § 20.203 Can a tribe incorporate assistance from other sources into a tribal redesign plan? Yes, when a tribe redesigns... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe incorporate assistance from other sources...
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When are Indian tribe or tribal organization management... Organization Management Systems General § 900.40 When are Indian tribe or tribal organization management... Indian tribe or tribal organization submits an initial contract proposal. (b) Management systems are...
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What audit requirements must a self-governance Tribe... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Miscellaneous Provisions § 1000.394 What audit requirements must a self-governance Tribe/Consortium follow? The Tribe/Consortium must provide to the designated...
... SELF-GOVERNANCE Selection of Indian Tribes for Participation in Self-Governance Planning Phase § 137.21... Tribe provides evidence that, for the three years prior to participation in self-governance, the Indian Tribe has had no uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions in the required annual audit of...
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.13 When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective? Upon approval of Class III gaming procedures for the Indian tribe under either...
Ding, Yang; Ao, Jingqun; Huang, Xiaohong; Chen, Xinhua
Like mammals, fish possess an interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3/IRF7-dependent type I IFN responses, but the exact mechanism by which IRF3/IRF7 regulate the type I IFNs remains largely unknown. In this study, we identified two type I IFNs in the Perciforme fish large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea, one of which belongs to the fish IFNd subgroup and the other is assigned to a novel subgroup of group I IFNs in fish, tentatively termed IFNh. The two IFN genes are constitutively expressed ...
Barreiro, Alessandra Soledade
Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar os padrões espaciais e temporais das larvas de Scaridae (Pisces: Perciforme) e analisar a influência dos fatores hidrológicas (temperatura e salinidade) e biológicos (biomassa primária e biomassa secundária) sobre as densidades de larvas. O ictioplâncton foi coletado durante as expedições oceanográficas: Período 1 (agosto – outubro de 1995), Período 2 (janeiro - abril de 1997), Período 3 (abril – julho de 1998) e Período 4 (setembro – dezembro de 20...
Full Text Available During the preparation of the Vascular Flora of the Marquesas Islands three new species of Coprosma (Rubiaceae, tribe Anthospermeae have come to light and are described herein: C. fatuhivaensis W. L. Wagner & Lorence, C. meyeri W. L. Wagner & Lorence, and C. temetiuensis W. L. Wagner & Lorence. Descriptions, illustrations, conservation status, and specimen citations are provided. Amended descriptions of three previously described Marquesan Coprosma species are also provided as well as a key to the species, four of which fall into the Critically Endangered (CR and two into the Endangered (EN category. With the description of these the new species, Coprosma becomes the sixth largest lineage in the Marquesas Islands with six species after Psychotria (one lineage which has 9 spp., Cyrtandra (8 spp., Bidens (8 spp., and Melicope (7 spp., and Ixora (7 spp..
Cláudia da Silva Pereira
Full Text Available Orkut is a virtual relationship network through which it is possible to identify a system of classification determined by the way users interact inside of the communities. The wannabee is one of the types that are part of this universe. The main goals of this article are to analyze how adolescence constructs its identity from distinction and social control processes in the Internet, taking the aspects related to gender and body as central issues for discussion, and to reflect on the meanings attributed, in this phase of life, to concepts as “life style” and “mood”, inside two types of virtual communities: the “gothics”, urban tribe representative of one given femininity, and the “pro-anas”, strictly virtual, that defends anorexic practices as a life style.
This article integrates (1) research in the historical dynamics of state societies relating group solidarity and group expansion to cultural frontiers, (2) comparative research in anthropology relating matrilocality to a particular variety of internal politics and a particular form of warfare, and (3) interdisciplinary reconstructions of large-scale "demic expansions" and associated kinship systems in prehistory. The argument is that "metaethnic frontiers," where very different cultures clash, are centers for the formation of larger, more enduring, and more militarily effective groups. In small-scale non-state societies, the major path toward the formation of such groups is the establishment of cross-cutting ties among men. This often involves the adoption of matrilocal norms. The current distribution of matrilocality and matrilineality around the world may be partly a residue of major demic expansions in prehistory involving matrilocal tribes. This hypothesis is evaluated with a range of evidence, including information regarding the spread of two language families, Bantu and Austronesian.
Carroll, Herbert B.; Chen, K.C.; Guo, Genliang; Johnson, W.I.; Reeves,T.K.; Sharma,Bijon
To determine current acquisition procedures and costs and to further the goals of the President's Initiative for Native Tribes, a seismic-survey project is to be conducted on Osage tribal lands. The goals of the program are to demonstrate the capabilities, costs, and effectiveness of 3-D seismic work in a small-operator setting and to determine the economics of such a survey. For these purposes, typical small-scale independent-operator practices are being followed and a shallow target chose in an area with a high concentration of independent operators. The results will be analyzed in detail to determine if there are improvements and/or innovations which can be easily introduced in field-acquisition procedures, in processing, or in data manipulation and interpretation to further reduce operating costs and to make the system still more active to the small-scale operator.
Hu, Zehui; Chai, Xuejun; Wang, Yuebin; Zhu, Yunhai; Zhu, Dongfa
The giant croaker Nibea japonica (Perciformes, Sciaenidae) is an important economic fish distributing in the East China Sea, South China Sea, and Japan southern coast. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of N. japonica was firstly determined. It is 16 496 bp-length and consists of 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, and a control region. Except for eight tRNA and ND6 genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that N. japonica, A. amoyensis, and other seven fish first clustered into the Argyrosominae clade. It is consistent with the taxonomic status. Then, the Argyrosominae, Pseudosciaeninae, and Sciaeniae formed the sister group, while the Johniinae became a separate clade, which is inconsistent with the previous phenotypic report. It is suggested that the researches of single gene and taxionomic might lose some significant evolutionary characters. This study will contribute to phyogenetic analysis of the Sciaenidae and the natural resources conservation.
Jacobina, Uedson Pereira; Martinez, Pablo Ariel; Torres, Rodrigo Augusto; Souza, Gustavo
Carangidae is a morphologically diverse family of marine fish, characterized by stable karyotypes, predominantly with 2n = 48, composed of acrocentric chromosomes (A). This stability is shared with other families of the order Perciformes, which resulted in the hypothesis that 48A is a plesiomorphic karyotype of the group. We tested this hypothesis in the Carangidae family using comparative phylogenetic methods, investigating the evolution of karyotype characters (including chromosome number, morphology, and number of chromosome arms per karyotype [fundamental number, FN]). Our analyses revealed that 2n = 48 is most likely the ancestral chromosome number for the family. However, an extremely variable number of FNs, always above 48, was observed in basal clades within the family and sister groups. On the other hand, the reduced FN = 48 was consistently observed only in the most derived clades, indicating a tendency for acrocentrization. The number of acrocentric chromosomes apparently was accompanied by a trend of reduction in the genome size (1C-value), suggesting that these changes might be correlated. Our data contradict the marine fish hypothesis that the 2n = 48 acrocentric karyotype is plesiomorphic, at least for Carangidae, and reveal the importance for the correct interpretation of karyotype in a temporal and phylogenetic context.
Kovačić, M; Šanda, R
A new species of the gobiid genus Gobius (Gobiidae, Perciformes), Gobius incognitus sp. nov. is described from the Mediterranean Sea, and its most morphologically similar species Gobius bucchichi is redescribed. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by: scales in lateral series 51-59; predorsal scales 25-35; opercle scaled in adults with 10-16 scales present; pectoral fin with ray count 18-20 and free tips on upper rays well developed and on the first ray longer than two thirds of the entire ray length; pelvic disc complete and with well-developed anterior membrane without lateral lobes; anterior oculoscapular canal with pore α at rear of orbit; oculoscapular row x(1) not extending forwards to pore β; suborbital row d discontinuous with large gap below suborbital rows 3 and 4; eye diameter 1·08-1·32 in snout length; by pigment rows on cheek and pigmentation on pectoral-fin base. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Barman, Anindya Sundar; Singh, Mamta; Singh, Rajeev Kumar; Lal, Kuldeep Kumar
In higher eukaryotes, minor rDNA family codes for 5S rRNA that is arranged in tandem arrays and comprises of a highly conserved 120 bp long coding sequence with a variable non-transcribed spacer (NTS). Initially the 5S rDNA repeats are considered to be evolved by the process of concerted evolution. But some recent reports, including teleost fishes suggested that evolution of 5S rDNA repeat does not fit into the concerted evolution model and evolution of 5S rDNA family may be explained by a birth-and-death evolution model. In order to study the mode of evolution of 5S rDNA repeats in Perciformes fish species, nucleotide sequence and molecular organization of five species of genus Channa were analyzed in the present study. Molecular analyses revealed several variants of 5S rDNA repeats (four types of NTS) and networks created by a neighbor net algorithm for each type of sequences (I, II, III and IV) did not show a clear clustering in species specific manner. The stable secondary structure is predicted and upstream and downstream conserved regulatory elements were characterized. Sequence analyses also shown the presence of two putative pseudogenes in Channa marulius. Present study supported that 5S rDNA repeats in genus Channa were evolved under the process of birth-and-death.
Santoro, Mario; Cipriani, Paolo; Pankov, Plamen; Lawton, Scott P
Aporocotyle michaudi n. sp. is described from the gill blood vessels of the emerald rock cod Trematomus bernacchii in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. It is distinguished from all other species of Aporocotyle by its body tegument showing single conical spines, spinous buccal capsule, and genital atrium positioned medially; all congeners described to date are characterized by clusters of tegumental spines, unspined buccal capsule and genital atrium located in the lateral part of the body. Aporocotyle michaudi n. sp. clearly differs from A. notothenia (the only other species of Aporocotyle found in a perciform fish) in its shape and arrangement of tegumental spines, buccal capsule features, location of genital atrium, body size, ratio of esophagus/body length, anterior caeca/posterior caeca ratio, number of testes, cirrus sac and ovary size and shape, and host. The new species is easily distinguished from A. argentinensis (the species that most closely resembles A. michaudi) by the shape and arrangement of tegumental spines, buccal capsule features, genital atrium location, left anterior caecum longer than right, esophagus/body length ratio, number of testes, cirrus sac size and shape, host and molecular analyses. Phylogenetic analyses of partial 28S rDNA genetic data showed that sequences representing the new species form a distinct clade with all other sequences for species of Aporocotyle and appear basal within the genus. Aporocotyle michaudi n. sp. represents the only species of genus described in Antarctica. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine the frequency and clinical features of bleeding disorders in the tribe as a result of consanguineous marriages. Design Cross Sectional Study Introduction Countries in which consanguinity is a normal practice, these rare autosomal recessive disorders run in close families and tribes. Here we describe a family, living in village Ali Murad Chandio, District Badin, labeled as haemophilia. Patients & Methods Our team visited the village & developed the pedigree of the whole extended family, up to seven generations. Performa was filled by incorporating patients, family history of bleeding, signs & symptoms, and bleeding from any site. From them 144 individuals were screened with CBC, bleeding time, platelet aggregation studies & RiCoF. While for PT, APTT, VWF assay and Factor VIII assay, samples were kept frozen at -70 degrees C until tested. Results The family tree of the seven generations comprises of 533 individuals, 63 subjects died over a period of 20 years and 470 were alive. Out of all those 144 subjects were selected on the basis of the bleeding history. Among them 98(68.1% were diagnosed to have a bleeding disorder; 44.9% patients were male and 55.1% patients were female. Median age of all the patients was 20.81, range (4 months- 80 yrs. The results of bleeding have shown that majority had gum bleeding, epistaxis and menorrhagia. Most common bleeding disorder was Von Willebrand disease and Platelet functional disorders. Conclusion Consanguineous marriages keep all the beneficial and adversely affecting recessive genes within the family; in homozygous states. These genes express themselves and result in life threatening diseases. Awareness, education & genetic counseling will be needed to prevent the spread of such common occurrence of these bleeding disorders in the community.
Full Text Available Background Epidendreae is one of the most diverse tribes among the orchids with remarkable variation in life form, floral morphology and pollination syndromes. Its circumscription was recently revised and subtribes Agrostophyllinae and Calypsoinae were transferred into this tribe. One of the principal floral characters utilized in classification of orchids is the incumbency or bending of the column. This study records and compares late stages of anther, column and lip development, and discusses anther characters in fifteen representative taxa of five of the six subtribes in Epidendreae with respect to classification and pollination biology. Methods A series of late floral stages were sampled and fixed for examination under scanning electron microscope. Results Anther incumbency or bending in this group varies from 90° to almost 180°. Incumbency in the late stages of development is reached in Bletiinae, Ponerinae, Pleurothallidinae and Laeliinae whereas incumbency is reached early in its development in Corallorhiza and Govenia of Calypsoinae. Discussion Our observations indicate that the position of Chysis in subtribe Bletiinae needs revision based on differences in a number floral, and in particular of anther characters; and that Coelia only shares the early anther incumbency with Calypsoinae members, but not the rest of floral and anther characters. Anatomical characters such as crystals around the actinocytic stomata on the anther cap and sugar crystals in Laeliinae; lack of rostellum in Bletiinae; coalescent anther with the column, lack of trichomes and papillae on lip keels, and underdeveloped rostellum in Chysis; a mechanism by which the anther cap comes off (it is joined with the grooved lip by a claw in Isochilus are all related to pollination syndromes and reproductive biology.
Briceno, I; Gomez, A; Bernal, J E; Papiha, S S
HLA-DPB1 allele frequencies were investigated in seven geographically and linguistically distinct Amerindian tribes of Colombia. Allele *1301 was found only in the Embera tribe living along the Pacific coast, while allele *0101 was found only in two individuals of the Wayuu tribe inhabiting the Guajira desert. Significant geographical variation was observed in the other two alleles (*1401 and *0402), which were found in all seven tribal groups. The possible reasons for this restricted polymorphism and the genetic diversity found in the investigation are discussed.
... agency are adopted by a Self-Governance Tribe, is the Self-Governance Tribe responsible for ensuring the... INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa...-Governance Tribe, is the Self-Governance Tribe responsible for ensuring the agency's policies and procedures...
Silvia da Silva Santos Passos
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Understand the quotidian relationships of accompanying family members in an environment of care, which are close to the metaphor of a tribe in hospital environment. METHODQualitative study with data gathered from semi-structured interviews and observations with 16 family members accompanying hospitalized individuals with dependence on self-care. Data were submitted to thematic analysis, and analyzed through the metaphor of "tribe" proposed by comprehensive sociology. RESULTS Family members build up social clusters around caring, where we find traits typical of tribes: emotional ambience; solidarity based on links of sympathy and mutual assistance; an affectual nebula in the process of interaction; a logic of fusion in tactile relations; and communion/religiosity in the process of connecting in a collective identity. CONCLUSION In the presence of tragedy, families build social clusters similar to tribes having care as a totem.
... annual report must contain the following information: (a) An accounting of the expenditures of funds... Council and the Secretary; and (c) Sufficient documentation for us to determine that the Tribe has...
Marsh, Paul; Wild, Alexander; Whitfield, James
Abstract A comprehensive taxonomic study is presented for the four genera and 286 species of the doryctine tribe Heterospilini occurring in Costa Rica. The tribe is represented almost entirely by the 280 species of the genus Heterospilus Haliday. Keys for identification of the genera and species are provided and the genera and species are described and illustrated. An interactive key to the species of Heterospilus also was prepared using Lucid Builder. The following new genus and species are ...
We describe σ-additive states on effect-tribes by integrals. Effect-tribes are monotone σ-complete effect algebras of functions where operations are defined pointwise. Then we show that every state on an effect algebra is an integral through a Borel regular probability measure. Finally, we show that every σ-convex combination of extremal states on a monotone σ-complete effect algebra is a Jauch-Piron state.
Conclusion: Although the Taiwanese Austronesian Aboriginal tribes are considered to share a common origin, different gene preferences of MSUD were noted. The novel DBT mutation c.650-651insT was more prevalent than the deleted 4.7-kb heterozygote in the Amis population. The reported 4.7-kb deletion indicating a possible founder mutation may be preserved in the southern and eastern, but not in northern Aboriginal tribes of Taiwan.
Johnson, Jennifer [Washoe Tribe of NV and Ca
The Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California was awarded funding from the Department of Energy to complete the Nevada Inter-Tribal Energy Consortium Energy Organization Enhancement Project. The main goal of the project was to enhance the capacity of the Nevada Inter-Tribal Energy Consortium (NITEC) to effectively assist tribes within Nevada to technically manage tribal energy resources and implement tribal energy projects.
Wall, P. Kerr; Leebens-Mack, Jim; Müller, Kai F.; Field, Dawn; Altman, Naomi S.; dePamphilis, Claude W.
The PlantTribes database (http://fgp.huck.psu.edu/tribe.html) is a plant gene family database based on the inferred proteomes of five sequenced plant species: Arabidopsis thaliana, Carica papaya, Medicago truncatula, Oryza sativa and Populus trichocarpa. We used the graph-based clustering algorithm MCL [Van Dongen (Technical Report INS-R0010 2000) and Enright et al. (Nucleic Acids Res. 2002; 30: 1575–1584)] to classify all of these species’ protein-coding genes into putative gene families, called tribes, using three clustering stringencies (low, medium and high). For all tribes, we have generated protein and DNA alignments and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees. A parallel database of microarray experimental results is linked to the genes, which lets researchers identify groups of related genes and their expression patterns. Unified nomenclatures were developed, and tribes can be related to traditional gene families and conserved domain identifiers. SuperTribes, constructed through a second iteration of MCL clustering, connect distant, but potentially related gene clusters. The global classification of nearly 200 000 plant proteins was used as a scaffold for sorting ∼4 million additional cDNA sequences from over 200 plant species. All data and analyses are accessible through a flexible interface allowing users to explore the classification, to place query sequences within the classification, and to download results for further study. PMID:18073194
Full Text Available Tripura is inhabited by many indigenous communities having unique ethno-socio-cultural lifestyle with age-old rice beer brewing techniques using wild herbs and local rice varieties popularly known as chuwak or zu. The present study is focused on comparative evaluation of brewing methods and nutritional aspects of rice beer among Debbarma, Jamatia, Koloi, and Molsom tribes of Tripura. Sample ingredients and plant species are properly identified before reporting. Rice beer is also prepared in laboratory conditions for comparative studies of qualitative and quantitative aspects. Thirteen different plant species are used by these four tribes for preparation of starter cultures using soaked rice flour. Markhamia stipulate (Wall. Seem. is common to all communities for starter cake preparation. Litsea monopetala (Roxb. Pers. is used by all three communities except Jamatia. The use of Ananus comosus Mill. is common among Debbarma and Jamatia tribes, whereas that of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. is common among Molsom and Koloi tribes. However, Aporusa diocia (Roxb. Muell., Combretum indicum (L. DeFilipps., and Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck. are used only by Debbarma tribe for unique tangy flavor. The physicochemical properties of rice beer varied within tribes for its moisture content, carbohydrate content, reducing sugar, and alcohol percentage. The concentration of alcohol increases with aging and prolonged fermentation. The plants reported here are also reported for having nutritional and medicinal benefits for the metabolic stability in humans, which make the process more prospective for commercialization if a standard for maintaining a quality and associated risk can be determined.
Sanchez-Puerta, M. Virginia; Abbona, Cinthia Carolina
The tribe Hyoscyameae (Solanaceae) is restricted to Eurasia and includes the genera Archihyoscyamus, Anisodus, Atropa, Atropanthe, Hyoscyamus, Physochlaina, Przewalskia and Scopolia. Even though the monophyly of Hyoscyameae is strongly supported, the relationships of the taxa within the tribe remain unclear. Chloroplast markers have been widely used to elucidate plant relationships at low taxonomic levels. Identification of variable chloroplast intergenic regions has been developed based on comparative genomics of chloroplast genomes, but these regions have a narrow phylogenetic utility. In this study, we present the chloroplast genome sequence of Hyoscyamus niger and make comparisons to other solanaceous plastid genomes in terms of gene order, gene and intron content, editing sites, origins of replication, repeats, and hypothetical open reading frames. We developed and sequenced three variable plastid markers from eight species to elucidate relationships within the tribe Hyoscyameae. The presence of a horizontally transferred intron in the mitochondrial cox1 gene of some species of the tribe is considered here a likely synapomorphy uniting five genera of the Hyoscyameae. Alternatively, the cox1 intron could be a homoplasious character acquired twice within the tribe. A homoplasious inversion in the intergenic plastid spacer trnC-psbM was recognized as a source of bias and removed from the data set used in the phylogenetic analyses. Almost 12 kb of plastid sequence data were not sufficient to completely resolve relationships among genera of Hyoscyameae but some clades were identified. Two alternative hypotheses of the evolution of the genera within the tribe are proposed. PMID:24851862
The distribution of grain legume species is not random in Leguminosae. There are two major concentrations in the Phaseoleae and the Vicieae, with the majority in the Phaseoleae. Within the tribe further concentration is apparent in the subtribe Phaseolinae and at the generic level in Phaseolus and Vigna. Since several members of both genera have been domesticated over a large portion of their respective geographic ranges, it is suggested that these taxa and their close relatives are particularly responsive to the particular selection pressures imposed under domestication. As domestication itself is opportunistic, it is possible that considerable potential for domestication remains unexploited in species with distributions remote from ancient agricultural hearths. Some of these species may occur in difficult and marginal environments for agriculture where adaptation of present crop species is poor. They could be the starting point for the domestication and evolution of new crops for problem environments. The major obstacle to such a development is the lack of sufficient genetic variability of the right kind. This deficiency might well be made good by applying techniques of artificial mutagenesis prior to selection. By applying Vavilov's law of homologous series it should be possible to set realistic objectives and monitor progress towards the goals of selection which have been defined. (author). 6 refs, 5 tabs
Tavares, Mara Garcia; Lopes, Denilce Meneses; Campos, L A O
The present study provides a comprehensive review of cytogenetic data on Meliponini and their chromosomal evolution. The compiled data show that only 104 species of stingless bees, representing 32 of the 54 living genera have been studied cytogenetically and that among these species, it is possible to recognize three main groups with n = 9, 15 and 17, respectively. The first group comprises the species of the genus Melipona, whereas karyotypes with n = 15 and n = 17 have been detected in species from different genera. Karyotypes with n = 17 are the most common among the Meliponini studied to date. Cytogenetic information on Meliponini also shows that although chromosome number, in general, is conserved among species of a certain genus, other aspects, such as chromosome morphology, quantity, distribution and composition of heterochromatin, may vary between them. This reinforces the fact that the variations observed in the karyotypes of different Meliponini groups cannot be explained by a single theory or a single type of structural change. In addition, we present a discussion about how these karyotype variations are related to the phylogenetic relationships among the different genera of this tribe.
MacCourt, D. C.
This handbook is designed to be an accessible reference for those who are new to tribal energy project development or seek a refresher on key development issues as they navigate the project development process. It builds upon the wealth of feedback and experiences shared by tribal and other participants in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's tribal energy training sessions to provide tribal leaders, tribal economic and energy enterprises, and those supporting them with a general overview of the renewable energy project development process as well as detailed guidance on the following: how to structure a renewable energy project transaction to protect tribal interests, with an emphasis on joint project development efforts undertaken with nontribal parties; key energy development agreements, including power sale agreements, transmission and interconnection agreements, and land leases; and ways tribes can finance renewable energy projects, including the sources of funding or financing that may be available, the types of investors that may be available, and federal tax incentives for renewable energy projects.
Buske, Alexander; Schmidt, Jürgen; Hoffmann, Petra
Selected species of the tribe Antidesmeae (Euphorbiaceae, subfamily Phyllanthoideae) have been screened for antidesmone occurrence and its content by quantitative HPLC (UV) and qualitative LC-MS/MS analysis. The LC-MS analysis allowing the additional detection of 17,18-bis-nor-antidesmone, 18-nor-antidesmone, 8-dihydroantidesmone and 8-deoxoantidesmone was carried out in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Leaf material from herbarium specimens of 13 Antidesma spp., Hyeronima alchorneoides and Thecacoris stenopetala (all subtribe Antidesminae), as well as Maesobotrya barteri, Aporosa octandra (both Scepinae) and Uapaca robynsii (Uapacinae) were analysed. Additionally, freshly collected samples of different plant parts of two Antidesma spp. were investigated to ensure the significance of the results on herbarium specimens and to compare the antidesmone content in bark, root and leaves. Antidesmone could be unambiguously identified in 12 of 13 Antidesma spp., as well as in the two other investigated genera of subtribe Antidesminae, in levels of up to 65 mg/kg plant dry weight. Antidesmone was not found in specimens from other subtribes. Antidesmone-derived compounds occur in much lower concentrations than antidesmone.
Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F.; Osorio, Marina Tapia; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel
Aristocleidus mexicanus n. sp. and Aristocleidus lacantuni n. sp. are described from the gills of the Mexican mojarra Eugerres mexicanus (Gerreidae, Perciformes) from the Rio Lacantún basin, Chiapas State, Mexico. These new species differ from previously described congeneric species in the characteristics of several structures, including: (a) ventral anchors, with differences in length (i.e. 46–50 µm in A. mexicanus vs. 38–43 µm, 34–37 µm, and 26–33 µm in Aristocleidus hastatus Mueller, 1936, Aristocleidus sp. of Mendoza-Franco, Violante-González & Roche 2009, and Aristocleidus lamothei Kritsky & Mendoza-Franco, 2008, respectively) and shape (i.e. slightly angular union of elongate arcing shaft and point in A. mexicanus vs. point and shaft united at a conspicuous angular bend in A. hastatus and Aristocleidus sp., and evenly curved shaft and point in A. lamothei); (b) male copulatory organ, i.e. a coiled tube with less than one ring in A. mexicanus and A. lacantuni (vs. a coiled tube of about 1½ in Aristocleidus sp.); (c) distal end of the accessory piece (ornate in A. mexicanus vs. distally flattened and trifid in A. hastatus and A. lamothei, respectively); (d) vaginal tube (moderately long in A. mexicanus vs. short in A. lamothei and looping in Aristocleidus sp.); and (e) ventral bar (anteromedial process with terminal horn-like ornamentation in A. lacantuni vs. ornamentation absent in the other species). This study reports for the first time species of Aristocleidus from freshwater environments in Mexico. PMID:26605987
Mast, Austin R; Willis, Crystal L; Jones, Eric H; Downs, Katherine M; Weston, Peter H
Tribe Macadamieae (91 spp., 16 genera; Proteaceae) is widespread across the southern hemisphere on all major fragments of Gondwana except New Zealand and India. Macadamia is cultivated outside its natural range as a "nut" crop (notably in Hawaii, where it is the principal orchard crop). We sampled seven DNA regions and 53 morphological characters from the tribe to infer its phylogeny and address the common assumption that the distribution of the extant diversity of the tribe arose by the rafting of ancestors on Gondwanan fragments. Macadamia proves to be paraphyletic with respect to the African genus Brabejum, the South American genus Panopsis, and the Australian species Orites megacarpus. We erect two new generic names, Nothorites and Lasjia, to produce monophyly at that rank. The earliest disjunctions in the tribe are inferred to be the result of long-distance dispersal out of Australia (with one possible exception), rather than vicariance. Evolution of tardy fruit dehiscence is correlated with these dispersals, and the onset of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) precedes them. We suggest that the ancestors of extant diversity arrived on their respective continents via the ACC, and we recognize that this is a mechanism precluded, rather than facilitated, by Gondwana's terrestrial continuity.
...-Governance Eligibility § 1000.21 When does a Tribe/Consortium have a “material audit exception”? A Tribe/Consortium has a material audit exception if any of the audits that it submitted under § 1000.17(c... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When does a Tribe/Consortium have a âmaterial audit...
T. Z. Moskalets
Full Text Available The cultural species in the process ontogenesis and phylogenesis to favorable and unfavorable environmental conditions produce a number of biological mechanisms (molecular genetic, physiological, biochemical, morphological, biocenotic, plants identification behind them reflects the degree of their ecological of adaptability, plasticity and stability. Studying the and comparison of morphological parameters and relations with consort-species and representatives of tribe Triticeae allowed to find out what plants differently realize their life potential. Which are based on structural and functional features biocenotic mechanisms that manifested in adaptive properties. On example cultural cereal species shows that the basic mechanisms of adaptability are: mechanisms of functional sustainability, morphological tolerance and ontogenetic avoidance. The first group is associated with functional parameters forming and manifestation life potential of plants (accumulation protein, accumulation gluten, duration assimilatory ability flag leaf; erection leaves the upper tier; depth of node tillering; strength of the stem, ie the, low penchant to lodging; total tillering plants; synchronicity growth of main stem; the intensity fading ear after full ripeness. The second group includes mechanisms of morphological tolerance (hairiness of leaves, stems; wax-colored bloom; plaza of leaf; type of bush; density head; beardedness; glossy coating of leaf, culm; glaucous color of leaf, culm; placing spicate of scales near granule; plant height. To mechanisms of ontogenetic avoidance relating such as mismatch of pathogen, phytophage and plant; photoperiodic sensitivity; duration interphase periods in particular florification, ripening; duration of vegetation period; duration of primary dormancy (latent period; multivariation of synontоgenesis; photoperiodic sensitivity. Knowing the biocenotic mechanisms formation of adaptability cultural species discloses up new
Nelson, L. K.; Chang, M.; Howk, F.
The Makah Tribe views climate change as one of the biggest challenges to their natural resource management, threatening their livelihoods, economy, and culture. As part of their work towards climate adaptation planning, the Makah Tribal Council and tribal natural resource managers prioritized early community outreach and engagement efforts in order to accomplish three goals: continually update and inform the tribal community about the Tribe's climate adaptation efforts; gather community input and priorities for the Makah Climate Adaptation Plan; and provide a series of targeted educational events to inform the tribal community about projected climate change impacts to our resources. Our first community climate event, the Makah Climate Change Awareness Dinner, was held on February 8, 2017. At this event, we provided an overview of the Makah Tribe's Climate Vulnerability Assessment and administered an initial climate survey that gathered information regarding community members' observed environmental changes, knowledge about climate change and impacts, and any concerns and priorities to include in the Tribe's adaptation plan. We developed a framework for incorporating community engagement into climate adaptation planning and used results of our community survey to ensure community concerns were being addressed in the plan in addition to risks identified in western science. We also used survey results to inform a series of educational events to address knowledge gaps in the community and requested topics. These are two of next steps that the Makah Tribe is pursuing towards climate adaptation planning.
Mervin W Nielson
Full Text Available Leafhoppers are well known biological indicators of zoogeographical regions owing, in part, to their phytodependency, high host plant specificity and relatively low vagility. In this connection, we discuss distributional patterns and possible zoogeographical origins of nine constituent tribes and their genera of the pantropical subfamily Coelidiinae. Among 118 known genera, only eight currently occupy more than one zoogeographical region, indicating an extremely high endemic profile which supports the proposed centers of origin and relatively low rate of intercontinental dispersal. The pantropical tribe Coelidiini is suggested as the basal group of the subfamily which is believed to have arisen prior to continental drift (late Jurassic-early Cretaceous because there appears to be no other evidence at the present time to explain its near cosmopolitan distribution. Possible origins of three Old World tribes, Hikangiini (Ethiopian, Thagriini (Oriental and Thanini (Australian and four New World -(Neotropical tribes, Teruliini, Tinobregmini, Gabritini and Sandersellini are elucidated. The tribe Youngolidiini occupies the Neotropical and Ethiopian realms but its origin is problematical. There appears to be ample evidence that origin/dispersal patterns are related to the geological history of the areas occupied by its faunal members.
Full Text Available The mixed research design is a progressive methodological discourse that combines the advantages of quantitative and qualitative methods. Its possibilities of application are, however, dependent on the efficiency with which the particular research techniques are used and combined. The aim of the paper is to introduce the possible combination of Hypothesis with EyeTribe tracker. The Hypothesis is intended for quantitative data acquisition and the EyeTribe is intended for qualitative (eye-tracking data recording. In the first part of the paper, Hypothesis software is described. The Hypothesis platform provides an environment for web-based computerized experiment design and mass data collection. Then, evaluation of the accuracy of data recorded by EyeTribe tracker was performed with the use of concurrent recording together with the SMI RED 250 eye-tracker. Both qualitative and quantitative results showed that data accuracy is sufficient for cartographic research. In the third part of the paper, a system for connecting EyeTribe tracker and Hypothesis software is presented. The interconnection was performed with the help of developed web application HypOgama. The created system uses open-source software OGAMA for recording the eye-movements of participants together with quantitative data from Hypothesis. The final part of the paper describes the integrated research system combining Hypothesis and EyeTribe.
Janssens, Steven B; Groeninckx, Inge; De Block, Petra J; Verstraete, Brecht; Smets, Erik F; Dessein, Steven
Despite the close proximity of the African mainland, dispersal of plant lineages towards Madagascar remains intriguing. The composition of the Madagascan flora is rather mixed and shows besides African representatives, also floral elements of India, Southeast Asia, Australia, and the Neotropics. Due to its proportionally large number of Madagascan endemics, the taxonomically troublesome Spermacoceae tribe is an interesting group to investigate the origin and evolution of the herbaceous Rubiaceae endemic to Madagascar. The phylogenetic position of these endemics were inferred using four plastid gene markers. Age estimates were obtained by expanding the Spermacoceae dataset with representatives of all Rubiaceae tribes. This allowed incorporation of multiple fossil-based calibration points from the Rubiaceae fossil record. Despite the high morphological diversity of the endemic herbaceous Spermacoceae on Madagascar, only two colonization events gave rise to their current diversity. The first clade contains Lathraeocarpa, Phylohydrax and Gomphocalyx, whereas the second Madagascan clade includes the endemic genera Astiella, Phialiphora, Thamnoldenlandia and Amphistemon. The tribe Spermacoceae is estimated to have a Late Eocene origin, and diversified during Oligocene and Miocene. The two Madagascan clades of the tribe originated in the Oligocene and radiated in the Miocene. The origin of the Madagascan Spermacoceae cannot be explained by Gondwanan vicariance but only by means of Cenozoic long distance dispersal events. Interestingly, not only colonization from Africa occurred but also long distance dispersal from the Neotropics shaped the current diversity of the Spermacoceae tribe on Madagascar. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Movsesian, Alla A
The population history of the East Slavs is complicated. There are still many unanswered questions relating to the origins and formation of the East Slavic gene pool. The aims of the current study were as follows: (1) to assess the degree of biological affinity in medieval East Slavic tribes and to test the hypothesis that East Slavic peoples have a common origin; (2) to show their genetic connections to the autochthonous populations of the northern part of Eastern Europe (Baltic and Finno-Ugric tribes); and (3) to identify a genetic continuity between the bearers of Chernyakhov culture and medieval Eastern Slavs. In this study, nonmetric cranial trait data for medieval East Slavic tribes and comparative samples from unrelated groups were examined. Analyzes of phenotypic differentiation were based on Nei's standard genetic distance and hierarchical GST statistics. The results obtained suggest that the genetic affinity of the East Slavic tribes is due not only to inter-tribal gene flow, but is, more importantly, a result of their common population history. Evidence of gene flow from the Baltic and Finno-Ugric groups was showed in the gene pool of Eastern Slavs, as was genetic continuity between medieval East Slavic tribes and the populations of the preceding Chernyakhov culture. These findings support a "generalizing" hypothesis of East Slavic origin, in which a Slavic community was formed in some particular ancestral area, and subsequently spread throughout Eastern Europe. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Morphological and molecular characterization of Cucullanus bourdini Petter et Le Bel, 1992 (Ascaridida: Cucullanidae) from the yellowback fusilier Caesio xanthonota Bleeker (Perciformes: Caesionidae).
Xu, Zhen; Chen, Hui-Xia; Ju, Hui-Dong; Li, Liang
The detailed morphology of Cucullanus bourdini Petter et Le Bel, 1992 was further studied using both light and scanning electron microscopy, based on specimens collected from the yellowback fusilier Caesio xanthonota Bleeker (Perciformes: Caesionidae) from off the Taiwan Strait. In addition, C. bourdini was characterized genetically for the first time using molecular approaches by sequencing and analysing ribosomal [small ribosomal subunit (18S rDNA) and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2)] and mitochondrial [cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1)] target regions. The molecular analysis of C. bourdini displayed no nucleotide differences in the 18S sequences, but detected 0.20-2.82% and 0.52-1.04% nucleotide divergence in the ITS-2 and cox1 regions, respectively. The new morphological and genetic data obtained herein would enable us to identify this hitherto little known species more rapidly and accurately.
Morphological and molecular study of Longicollum pagrosomi Yamaguti, 1935 (Acanthocephala: Pomphorhynchidae) from the barred knifejaw Oplegnathus fasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel) (Perciformes: Oplegnathidae) in the East China Sea.
Li, Liang; Yang, Yue; Zhang, Lu-Ping
Longicollum pagrosomi Yamaguti, 1935 (Acanthocephala: Pomphorhynchidae) collected from the barred knifejaw Oplegnathus fasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel) (Perciformes: Oplegnathidae) in the East China Sea (off Zhoushan Islands) was studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. The SEM observations revealed for the first time the presence of about 28 well-developed sensory papillae arranged in a circle on the copulatory bursa. In addition, L. pagrosomi was characterised using molecular methods by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA based on the newly collected material. Longicollum pagrosomi is the first species of the genus with the ITS region sequenced for the purpose of species identification. These new morphological and molecular data contributed to a reliable and accurate specific identification and differentiation of species.
Won, Eugene T; Baltzegar, David A; Picha, Matthew E; Borski, Russell J
In mammals, leptin is an anorexigenic peptide hormone that regulates energy homeostasis. It is produced predominantly by white adipose tissue and circulates as an endocrine indicator of energy reserves. Teleost leptin has been characterized in a few fish species, but its regulation is not well understood, particularly in response to nutritional status. In this study, we cloned a putative leptin in striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and report the first characterization of leptin in a Perciforme, the largest and most diverse order of fish. The striped bass leptin coding sequence was 65% homologous with pufferfish, 52% with Atlantic salmon, and 46% with human. PCR showed that leptin mRNA was exclusively expressed in the liver, and not adipose or other tissues. The leptin coding sequence of striped bass and the more widely cultured hybrid striped bass variety (HSB; Morone chrysops, white bass×M. saxatilis) were identical. We then evaluated whether the metabolic status of HSB might alter leptin gene expression. Juvenile HSB were subjected to 3weeks feed deprivation followed by 3weeks of refeeding. Quantitative PCR showed that fasting for 3weeks reduced hepatic leptin mRNA levels relative to fed controls. Leptin mRNA levels then increased upon refeeding, albeit levels were not completely restored to those seen in control fish fed throughout the experiment. Intraperitoneal injection of human leptin suppressed appetite in HSB. In as much as hepatic HSB leptin mRNA is regulated by nutritional state and has a corresponding anorexigenic effect, our results suggest that leptin may play a role in energy homeostasis in these advanced Perciformes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Allner, Bernhard; Hennies, Mark; Lerche, Cristiano F; Schmidt, Thomas; Schneider, Klaus; Willner, Marco; Stahlschmidt-Allner, Petra
Induction of vitellogenin (VTG) in male and immature fish is a standardized endpoint in endocrine-disruption testing. To establish a nondestructive swab sampling method, VTG induction in the epidermis of Cypriniformes and Perciformes species was investigated. Both VTG and estrogen receptor genes are expressed in epidermal cells. Immunoaffinity and mass fingerprint analyses show induction of identical VTG peptides in liver and epidermis. Induction of VTG by estradiol (E2) and bisphenol A (BPA) in the epidermis was quantified with homolog enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Initial values in juveniles and males were below 1 ng VTG/mL extraction buffer. Exposure to E2 led to values between 200 ng/mL and 4600 ng/mL in cyprinids and between 10 ng/mL and 81 ng/mL in perciforms. Exposure to BPA increased VTG amounts to 250 ng/mL in fathead minnows, 1360 ng/mL in goldfish, 100 ng/mL in zebrafish, and 12 ng/mL in bluegills. Serum VTG contents demonstrated a similar dose-response pattern in the epidermis and the blood. These results show that VTG induction may be reliably assessed in the skin mucus of fishes, demonstrating the suitability of this biological sample for investigating estrogenic activity in compliance with Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development standard protocols. This broadens the perspectives in toxicological screening and environmental monitoring, reducing the number of tested animals and minimizing harmful effects for animals, allowing for follow-up of individual induction profiles. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2916-2930. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.
Pete, Belvin; Perry, Jeremy W.; Stump, Raphaella Q.
The Tribes, through its consultant and advisor, Distributed Generation Systems (Disgen) -Native American Program and Resources Division, of Lakewood CO, assessed and qualified, from a resource and economic perspective, a wind energy generation facility on tribal lands. The goal of this feasibility project is to provide wind monitoring and to engage in preproject planning activities designed to provide a preliminary evaluation of the technical, economic, social and environmental feasibility of developing a sustainable, integrated wind energy plan for the Eastern Shoshone and the Northern Arapahoe Tribes, who resides on the Wind River Indian Reservation. The specific deliverables of the feasibility study are: 1) Assessments of the wind resources on the Wind River Indian Reservation 2) Assessments of the potential environmental impacts of renewable development 3) Assessments of the transmission capacity and capability of a renewable energy project 4) Established an economic models for tribal considerations 5) Define economic, cultural and societal impacts on the Tribe
Full Text Available Objective: To explore and enumerate the medicinal plants used by the Chorei tribe residing in Sourthern Assam part of North Eastern India in the treatment of various ailments. Methods: Systematic and intensive field surveys were conducted in Chorei inhabited parts of Southern Assam part of North East India to collect information on medicinal plants used by them in treatment of various ailments. Data was collected through structured questionnaires and personal observations made during the field visit. Results: A total of 53 different medicinal plants were recorded along with their vernacular names, parts used and mode of utilization by the Chorei tribes. Each of the plants was categorized according to their use in treatment of particular disease. Conclusions: The present study revealed that the Chorei tribe is primarily dependent of medicinal plant for treatment of various ailments.
Liu, M.; Lowry, P. P.; Magee, A. R.
Fruit structure of Apiaceae was studied in 19 species representing the 10 genera of the tribe Heteromorpheae. Our results indicate this group has a woody habit, simple leaves, heteromorphic mericarps with lateral wings. fruits with bottle-shaped or bulging epidermal cells which have thickened and cutinized outer wall, regular vittae (one in furrow and two in commissure) and irregular vittae (short, dwarf, or branching and anatosmosing), and dispersed druse crystals. However, lateral winged mericarps, bottle-shaped epidermal cells, and branching and anatosmosing vittae are peculiar in the tribe Heteromorpheae of Apioideae sub family. Although many features share with other early-diverging groups of Apiaceae, including Annesorhiza clade, Saniculoideae sensu lato, Azorelloideae, Mackinlayoideae, as well as with Araliaceae. Our study shows that fruit anatomy can be used to define the tribe by molecular phylogenetic studies and support that Heteromorpheae are close to Annesorhiza clade and both are placed in the basal position of Apioideae. (author)
Santos Coelho, Leandro dos [Industrial and Systems Engineering Graduate Program, LAS/PPGEPS, Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUCPR, Imaculada Conceicao, 1155, 80215-901 Curitiba, Parana (Brazil)], E-mail: email@example.com; Andrade Bernert, Diego Luis de [Industrial and Systems Engineering Graduate Program, LAS/PPGEPS, Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUCPR, Imaculada Conceicao, 1155, 80215-901 Curitiba, Parana (Brazil)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Recently, the investigation of synchronization and control problems for discrete chaotic systems has stimulated a wide range of research activity including both theoretical studies and practical applications. This paper deals with the tuning of a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller using a modified Tribes optimization algorithm based on truncated chaotic Zaslavskii map (MTribes) for synchronization of two identical discrete chaotic systems subject the different initial conditions. The Tribes algorithm is inspired by the social behavior of bird flocking and is also an optimization adaptive procedure that does not require sociometric or swarm size parameter tuning. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization method. In addition, some comparisons of the MTribes optimization algorithm with other continuous optimization methods, including classical Tribes algorithm and particle swarm optimization approaches, are presented.
Santos Coelho, Leandro dos; Andrade Bernert, Diego Luis de
Recently, the investigation of synchronization and control problems for discrete chaotic systems has stimulated a wide range of research activity including both theoretical studies and practical applications. This paper deals with the tuning of a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller using a modified Tribes optimization algorithm based on truncated chaotic Zaslavskii map (MTribes) for synchronization of two identical discrete chaotic systems subject the different initial conditions. The Tribes algorithm is inspired by the social behavior of bird flocking and is also an optimization adaptive procedure that does not require sociometric or swarm size parameter tuning. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization method. In addition, some comparisons of the MTribes optimization algorithm with other continuous optimization methods, including classical Tribes algorithm and particle swarm optimization approaches, are presented.
Full Text Available The Bocconieae tribe, consisting of only the genera Macleaya and Bocconia, possesses significant economic and medicinal value and plays an important role in health management for people in developing countries. During the past decades, research on metabolites and relative pharmacology, including the isolation and identification of a variety of molecules, has shed light on the tribe. Among those molecules, isoquinoline alkaloids, and their antimicrobial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory activities are especially noteworthy. This paper presents a comprehensive compilation of current research progress, with emphasis on the alkaloids and their distribution, phytochemical and pharmacological investigation, toxicity and side effects, related chemotaxonomy and future use prospects, and hopefully provides a valuable reference as an effort to promote further exploration and application of this tribe.
Albino M. Sakakibara
Full Text Available The tribe Micrutalini and its two genera, Trachytalis Fowler and Micrutalis Fowler, are redescribed. The following species are treated and, in some cases, nomenclatura! changes introduced: Trachytalis isabellina Fowler, 1895; T. distinguenda Fowler, 1895; T. retrofasciata (Lethierry, 1890, comb.n.; Micrutalis alrovena Goding, 1930; M. balteata (Fairmaire, 1846 = Aculalis lucidus Buckton, 1902, syn.n.; M. bella Goding, 1929; M. biguttula (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n.; M. binaria (Fairmaire, 1846 = Acutalis flavivenlris Lethierry, 1890, syn.n.; M. callan-gensis Goding, 1930; M. calva (Say, 1830; M. discalis (Walker, 1858; M. dorsalis (Fitch, 1851; M. dubia Fowler, 1895 = M. zeteki Goding, 1928, syn.n.; M. flava Goding, 1929; M. flavozonala (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n. = Acutalis geniculata Stál, 1862, syn.n. = Acutalis modesta Stál, 1862, syn.n.; M. godfreyi Sakakibara, 1976; M. incerla Sakakibara, 1976; M. lata Goding, 1930; M. litlerala (Fairmaire, 1846, comb.n.;M lugubrina(Stál, 1862;M malleiferaFovj]er, 1895 = M binariamutabilis Fowler, 1895, syn.n.; M. minutus Buckton, 1902; M. nigrolineata (Stál, 1864; M. nigromarginata Funkhouser, 1940; M. notalipennis Fowler, 1895; M. occidentalis (Goding, 1893; M. pollens Fowler, 1895; M. parva (Goding, 1893; M. plagíala (Stál, l&62 = AcutalisvariabiIisBerg, 1879,syn.n. =M. chapadensisGoding, 1930,syn.n.; M. punctifera (Walker, 1858; M. semialba (Stál, 1862; M. stipulipennis Buckton, 1902; M. tau Goding, 1930; M. trifurcala Goding, 1893; M. tripunctata (Fairmaire, 1846 = Acutalis moesta Stál, 1859, syn.n. = M. tartaredoides Goding, 1930, syn.n.. New species: Micrutalis diminuta sp.n. (Ecuador, Pichincha; Micrutalis divisa sp.n. (Brazil, Mato Grosso; Micrutalis henki sp.n. (Panama, Canal Zone; Micrutalis infúscala sp.n. (Venezuela, Portuguesa; Micrutalis margínala sp.n. (Brazil, Mato Grosso; Micrutalis meridana sp.n. (Venezuela, Mérida; Micrutalis mucuya sp.n. (Venezuela, Mérida; Micrutalis robustula
Bray, Rodney A; Palm, Harry W; Cutmore, Scott C; Cribb, Thomas H
Three species of Opisthomonorcheides Parukhin, 1966 are reported for the first time from Indonesian waters: O. pampi (Wang, 1982) Liu, Peng, Gao, Fu, Wu, Lu, Gao & Xiao, 2010 and O. ovacutus (Mamaev, 1970) Machida, 2011 from Parastromateus niger (Bloch), and O. decapteri Parukhin, 1966 from Atule mate (Cuvier). Both O. pampi and O. ovacutus can now be considered widespread in the Indo-Pacific region, with earlier records of these species being from Fujian Province, China and Penang, Malaysia, respectively. We redescribe O. decapteri from one of its original hosts, Atule mate, off New Caledonia, and report this species from Jakarta Bay, Indonesia, extending its range throughout the Indian Ocean into the south-western Pacific. All three species possess a genital atrium that is long, sometimes very long, and a genital pore that is located in the forebody. This validates the interpretation that the original description was erroneous in reporting the genital pore in the hindbody, well posterior to the ventral sucker. These observations verify the synonymy of Retractomonorchis Madhavi, 1977 with Opisthomonorcheides. A major discrepancy between the species of Opisthomonorcheides is that some are described with the uterus entering the terminal organ laterally and some with it entering terminally; this feature needs further analysis. Based on the length of the genital atrium and the posterior extent of the vitellarium, the 27 species of Opisthomonorcheides considered valid can be divided into four groups. Among the 53 host records analysed, the families Carangidae (53% of records), Stromateidae (17%) and Serranidae (5.7%) are the most common; the reports are overwhelmingly from members of the Perciformes (91%), with further records in the Clupeiformes (5.7%), Gadiformes (1.9%) and Pleuronectiformes (1.9%). Two fish genera (Parastromateus Bleeker and Pampus Bonaparte) dominate the recorded hosts, with the black pomfret Parastromateus niger harbouring six species, the silver
Full Text Available Satyrinae is one of twelve subfamilies of the butterfly family Nymphalidae, which currently includes nine tribes. However, phylogenetic relationships among them remain largely unresolved, though different researches have been conducted based on both morphological and molecular data. However, ribosomal genes have never been used in tribe level phylogenetic analyses of Satyrinae. In this study we investigate for the first time the phylogenetic relationships among the tribes Elymniini, Amathusiini, Zetherini and Melanitini which are indicated to be a monophyletic group, and the Satyrini, using two ribosomal genes (28s rDNA and 16s rDNA and four protein-coding genes (EF-1α, COI, COII and Cytb. We mainly aim to assess the phylogenetic informativeness of the ribosomal genes as well as clarify the relationships among different tribes. Our results show the two ribosomal genes generally have the same high phylogenetic informativeness compared with EF-1α; and we infer the 28s rDNA would show better informativeness if the 28s rDNA sequence data for each sampling taxon are obtained in this study. The placement of the monotypic genus Callarge Leech in Zetherini is confirmed for the first time based on molecular evidence. In addition, our maximum likelihood (ML and Bayesian inference (BI trees consistently show that the involved Satyrinae including the Amathusiini is monophyletic with high support values. Although the relationships among the five tribes are identical among ML and BI analyses and are mostly strongly-supported in BI analysis, those in ML analysis are lowly- or moderately- supported. Therefore, the relationships among the related five tribes recovered herein need further verification based on more sampling taxa.
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe use Federal funds for its recreation, tourism... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.135 Can a tribe use Federal funds for its recreation, tourism... funds for recreation, tourism, and trails programs if the programs are included in the IRRTIP...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May Self-Governance Tribes act as lead, cooperating... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.305 May Self-Governance...-Governance Tribes assuming Federal environmental responsibilities for construction projects under section 509...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Is a Self-Governance Tribe responsible for... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Roles of Self-Governance Tribe in Establishing and Implementing Construction Project Agreements § 137.350 Is a Self...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Do Self-Governance Tribes become Federal agencies... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.286 Do Self-Governance... Self-Governance Tribes are required to assume Federal environmental responsibilities for projects in...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May Self-Governance Tribes include IHS construction... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Purpose and Scope § 137.275 May Self-Governance Tribes include IHS construction programs in a construction project agreement or in a funding...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May Self-Governance Tribes carry out construction... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.291 May Self-Governance Tribes carry out construction projects without assuming these Federal environmental...
...-governance address? 1000.382 Section 1000.382 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... report on self-governance address? (a) The Tribe's/Consortium's annual self-governance report may address... the programs and services funded under self-governance, summarized and annotated as the Tribe may deem...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Self-Governance Tribes required to accept..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.285 Are Self-Governance Tribes required to accept Federal environmental responsibilities to enter into a construction...
... reports semiannually or, at the option of the Self-Governance Tribe, on a more frequent basis. Self... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Is a Self-Governance Tribe required to submit construction project progress and financial reports for construction project agreements? 137.351 Section 137...
Wilde, de W.J.J.O.
The members of tribe Passifloreae of the Passifloraceae are assumed to be originally all tendril-climbers. They have essentially axillary cymose inflorescences, and the vegetative ramification occurs always through the accessory bud. In tribe Paropsieae and Flacourtiaceae (mostly shrubs or trees, no
... SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Property Management System Standards § 900.51 What is an Indian tribe or tribal organization's property management system expected to do? An Indian tribe or tribal organization's property management...
...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems General § 900.41 How long must an Indian tribe or tribal organization keep management system records? The... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long must an Indian tribe or tribal organization keep...
... administration of self-governance PSFAs. Audits and Cost Principles ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Self-Governance Tribes required to address...-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Conflicts of Interest § 137.160 Are Self-Governance Tribes required to...
... state, tribe, and local programs' reporting systems must meet? 3.2000 Section 3.2000 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CROSS-MEDIA ELECTRONIC REPORTING Electronic Reporting... state, tribe, and local programs' reporting systems must meet? (a) Authorized programs that receive...
... III gaming procedures? 291.3 Section 291.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.3 When may an Indian tribe ask the Secretary to issue Class III gaming procedures? An Indian tribe may ask the Secretary to issue Class III...
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice to Indian tribes of possible harm to cultural or religious sites. 262.7 Section 262.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HERITAGE PRESERVATION PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 262.7 Notice to Indian tribes of possible harm to...
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Must a tribe enact tribal laws, regulations, or... Petitions § 224.104 Must a tribe enact tribal laws, regulations, or procedures permitting a person or entity... enact tribal laws, regulations, or procedures permitting a person or entity that may be an interested...
... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTS UNDER THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT... standards that apply to an Indian tribe carrying out a self-determination contract? 900.42 Section 900.42... carrying out a self-determination contract? An Indian tribe shall expend and account for contract funds in...
... a tribe that has contracted or compacted law enforcement under self-determination? 12.34 Section 12.34 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY LAW... apply to a tribe that has contracted or compacted law enforcement under self-determination? Any contract...
... funds available to cover the cost of Self-Governance Tribes carrying out environmental responsibilities... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Federal funds available to cover the cost of Self-Governance Tribes carrying out environmental responsibilities? 137.299 Section 137.299 Public...
Fahrenwald, Nancy L; Belitz, Christine; Keckler, Arliss
"Tribes Sharing Life" is an educational intervention about deceased organ donation for American Indian Tribal College and University (TCU) students. The classroom and web-based program was derived from cultural values and beliefs, and the Transtheoretical Model. The aim of this study was to develop and formatively evaluate the intervention for acceptability and satisfaction among advisory council members (n = 10) and TCU students (n = 22). Council evaluation results were strong. All items met the TCU student evaluation of the revised intervention resulted in overall mean scores that met criterion for acceptability and satisfaction. Tribes Sharing Life is a formatively evaluated intervention that should undergo efficacy testing.
Arvind B Chavhan
Results: The genotyping for the CCR2-64I mutation among the selected tribe and a caste reveal that all of the tribes and a caste was found to be heterozygous for the CCR2-64I mutation. Among the tribes Gonds showed highest genotype frequency (29.28% and (11.76% for heterozygous (CCR2/64I and Homozygous (64I/64I respectively, having an allelic frequency (0.233. A pooled allelic frequencies of the wild-type allele CCR2 and CCR2 64I the variant were found to be 0.854 and 0.146, respectively. No significant deviations from the HWE were observed for tribes and a caste population for the CCR2- 64I mutant χ2=2.76. The study reports the presence of mutant CCR2- 64I gene in tribes and caste population from Vidarbha region.
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a tribe integrate Job Placement and Training funds... THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM General Applicability § 26.22 May a tribe integrate Job Placement and Training funds into its Public Law 102-477 Plan? Yes, Indian tribes...
Fay, George E., Comp.
Part IIa of a series of publications consisting of American Indian tribal governmental documents, this volume contains charters, constitutions, and by-laws of Indian tribes in the Northern Plains (Montana and North Dakota). Documents are presented relative to the Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes of the Fort Peck Reservation, the Blackfeet Tribe of the…
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does a state, tribe, or local... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CROSS-MEDIA ELECTRONIC REPORTING Electronic Reporting Under EPA-Authorized State, Tribe, and Local Programs § 3.1000 How does a state, tribe, or local...
... population, and the tribe must demonstrate one or more of the following modern connections to the land: (1... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a tribe establish connections to newly acquired... How does a tribe establish connections to newly acquired lands for the purposes of the “restored lands...
Benedict, John C.; Smith, Selena Y.; Collinson, Margaret E.; Leong-Skornickova, Jana; Specht, Chelsea D.; Marone, Federica; Xiao, Xianghui; Parkinson, Dilworth Y.
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Recent phylogenetic analyses based on molecular data suggested that the monocot family Zingiberaceae be separated into four subfamilies and four tribes. Robust morphological characters to support these clades are lacking. Seeds were analyzed in a phylogenetic context to test independently the circumscription of clades and to better understand evolution of seed characters within Zingiberaceae. METHODS: Seventy-five species from three of the four subfamilies were analyzed using synchrotron based x-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) and scored for 39 morphoanatomical characters. KEY RESULTS: Zingiberaceae seeds are some of the most structurally complex seeds in angiosperms. No single seed character was found to distinguish each subfamily, but combinations of characters were found to differentiate between the subfamilies. Recognition of the tribes based on seeds was possible for Globbeae, but not for Alpinieae, Riedelieae, or Zingibereae, due to considerable variation. CONCLUSIONS: SRXTM is an excellent, nondestructive tool to capture morphoanatomical variation of seeds and allows for the study of taxa with limited material available. Alpinioideae, Siphonochiloideae, Tamijioideae, and Zingiberoideae are well supported based on both molecular and morphological data, including multiple seed characters. Globbeae are well supported as a distinctive tribe within the Zingiberoideae, but no other tribe could be differentiated using seeds due to considerable homoplasy when compared with currently accepted relationships based on molecular data. Novel seed characters suggest tribal affinities for two currently unplaced Zingiberaceae taxa: Siliquamomum may be related to Riedelieae and Monolophus to Zingibereae, but further work is needed before formal revision of the family.
... Transportation Planning § 170.406 How must tribes use planning funds? (a) IRR Program funds as defined in 23 U.S... Office. These funds support development and implementation of tribal transportation planning and associated strategies for identifying transportation needs, including: (1) Attending transportation planning...
Lynn A. Jones; Michael Montgomery; Guoyue Yu; Wenhau. Lu
Adults of lady beetles in the tribe Scymnini imported for biological control of hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand, in eastern North America can be readily distinguished from native lady beetles (Coccinellidae). The imported lady beetles are in the genera Pseudoscymnus and Scymnus (Neopullus...
Using ethnographic and statistical data, this paper presents a descriptive profile of scheduled caste and tribe women's status in Indian society. Findings indicate that relative to men, women in these groups have far more limited access to both educational and employment resources. (Contains 73 references.) (MDH)
... planned 60 days. WNS is a fungal disease responsible for unprecedented mortality in hibernating bats in... for public review of a draft national plan to assist States, Federal agencies, and Tribes in managing... identifying information from public review, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to do so. [[Page 70947...
Wilde, de W.J.J.O.
A comparison of the structure of the flowers of various genera of the tribe Passifloraceae-Passifloreae supported the view of staminodial origin of the disk. The East African genus Schlechterina is kept separate from the West African genus Crossostemma. The genus Efulensia from Equatorial Africa is
... Affordable Care Act implementation health care issues to be reported at the Quarterly Direct Service Tribes...) Tribal Leadership and Membership; (3) Tribal Employers; (4) Indian Health Facility Administrators; and (5... implementation. 3. Involvement of community based partners and local leadership from all I/T/U levels is an...
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can tribes regulate oversize or overweight vehicles? 170... regulate oversize or overweight vehicles? Yes. Tribal governments can regulate travel on roads under their jurisdiction and establish a permitting process to regulate the travel of oversize or overweight vehicles, in...
... Louisiana. (h) ``Tribal Council'' shall mean the duly elected governing body of the Coushatta Tribe of... showing of the following: (a) Satisfactory proof that the applicant is or will be duly licensed by the State of Louisiana; (b) Satisfactory proof that the applicant is of good character and reputation and...
Yuan, Nicole P.; Koss, Mary P.; Polacca, Mona; Goldman, David
Prevalence and correlates of adult physical assault and rape in six Native American tribes are presented (N = 1,368). Among women, 45% reported being physically assaulted and 14% were raped since age 18 years. For men, figures were 36% and 2%, respectively. Demographic characteristics, adverse childhood experiences, adulthood alcohol dependence,…
This is a outreach brochure (booklet) for the DOE Office of Indian Energy summarizing the renewable energy technology potential on tribal lands. The booklet features tech potential maps for various technologies, information about the activities of DOE-IE, and resources for Tribes.
Leivas, M.; Chairman, Sr.
Many American Indian Tribes were historically amenable to being involved with the nuclear industry because it seemed likely that it would boost ailing Tribal economies. Today that dream has soured and most of the uranium mining operations on Indian reservations have ceased, but Tribes are left having to deal with abandoned mines and mill tailings, sick Indian mine workers, and polluted reservation environments. The proximity of radioactive wastes facilities with Tribes lands poses in itself a risk which is aggravated by the fact that hazardous materials usually have to be transported through reservation communities to get to or from the site. The California state government is also planning to construct a low level radioactive waste management facility in Ward Valley, which is adjacent to the Chemehuehi Indian reservation, about 20 miles away. There is here a risk that contaminated surface water from Ward Valley could seep into the underground aquifer from which the Indian Tribe draw their water. Radioactive waste is as can be seen a real problem in India that will not go away. Indeed, even if the producing of nuclear wastes are stopped by the end of the decade, humanity would still have to deal with the wastes that currently are stored in interim and long term storage sites. (O.M.)
Full Text Available The present paper deals with the existence and continuation of living megalith tradition among the Gond tribe in Nuaparha district of Odisha. The mortuary practice of different tribal community have given many ethnographical data, which is used as a primary source to reconstructing the past social and cultural history of megalithic people.
Benedict, John C; Smith, Selena Y; Collinson, Margaret E; Leong-Škorničková, Jana; Specht, Chelsea D; Marone, Federica; Xiao, Xianghui; Parkinson, Dilworth Y
Recent phylogenetic analyses based on molecular data suggested that the monocot family Zingiberaceae be separated into four subfamilies and four tribes. Robust morphological characters to support these clades are lacking. Seeds were analyzed in a phylogenetic context to test independently the circumscription of clades and to better understand evolution of seed characters within Zingiberaceae. Seventy-five species from three of the four subfamilies were analyzed using synchrotron based x-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) and scored for 39 morphoanatomical characters. Zingiberaceae seeds are some of the most structurally complex seeds in angiosperms. No single seed character was found to distinguish each subfamily, but combinations of characters were found to differentiate between the subfamilies. Recognition of the tribes based on seeds was possible for Globbeae, but not for Alpinieae, Riedelieae, or Zingibereae, due to considerable variation. SRXTM is an excellent, nondestructive tool to capture morphoanatomical variation of seeds and allows for the study of taxa with limited material available. Alpinioideae, Siphonochiloideae, Tamijioideae, and Zingiberoideae are well supported based on both molecular and morphological data, including multiple seed characters. Globbeae are well supported as a distinctive tribe within the Zingiberoideae, but no other tribe could be differentiated using seeds due to considerable homoplasy when compared with currently accepted relationships based on molecular data. Novel seed characters suggest tribal affinities for two currently unplaced Zingiberaceae taxa: Siliquamomum may be related to Riedelieae and Monolophus to Zingibereae, but further work is needed before formal revision of the family. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.
Bose, P.; Arts, B.J.M.; Dijk, van H.
This paper analyses the historical trajectories of both British colonial rule and independent India to categorise scheduled tribes and to appropriate and legalise forests in tribal areas. It builds upon Foucault's notion of governmentality to argue that the history of the scheduled tribes’
... Cooperative Agreements. 35.6070 Section 35.6070 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Pre-Remedial Response Cooperative Agreements § 35.6070 Indian Tribe...
... Tribe-lead enforcement Cooperative Agreements. 35.6155 Section 35.6155 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Enforcement Cooperative Agreements...
...) For fiscal years ending on or before June 30, 1996, the audit report must be sent to: National External Audit Review Center, Lucas Place Room 514, 323 W. 8th St., Kansas City, MO 64105. (b) For fiscal... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Where do Self-Governance Tribes send their audit...
Koek-Noorman, J.; Topper, S.M.C.; Welle, ter B.J.H.
The wood anatomy of the tribe Ficeae, comprising one genus, Ficus, is described. Considering the large number of species, the genus is remarkably homogeneous. It is characterised by abundant axial parenchyma in regular apotracheal concentric bands and narrow vasicentric rings, and by relatively wide
... land reclamation plan amendments. 756.17 Section 756.17 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... of the health, safety, and general welfare of members of the Hopi Tribe; Section I, A(2)—Restoration... Title IV from the draft Hopi Code Mining Ordinance; Hopi Tribal Council Resolution H-134-89, adopted...
This paper is based on the anthropological investigation into ethno-healing practices among two tribes, namely Gond and Halba, in six forest villages of the Kanker district, Chhattisgarh, India. A team of two social anthropologists and one ethnobotanist camped in these villages for three months and conducted the ...
Roč. 41, č. 4 (2005), s. 451-468 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/02/1540 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : state * observable * tribe * conditional independence Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.343, year: 2005
Lopes, J C; Chatrou, L W; Mello-Silva, R; Rudall, P J; Sajo, M G
Androdioecy is the rarest sexual system among plants. The majority of androdioecious species are herbaceous plants that have evolved from dioecious ancestors. Nevertheless, some woody and androdioecious plants have hermaphrodite ancestors, as in the Annonaceae, where androdioecious genera have arisen several times in different lineages. The majority of androdioecious species of Annonaceae belong to the Neotropical tribe Malmeeae. In addition to these species, Pseudoxandra spiritus-sancti was recently confirmed to be androdioecious. Here, we describe the morphology of male and bisexual flowers of Pseudoxandra spiritus-sancti, and investigate the evolution of androdioecy in Malmeeae. The phylogeny of tribe Malmeeae was reconstructed using Bayesian inference, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood of 32 taxa, using DNA sequences of 66 molecular markers of the chloroplast genome, sequenced by next generation sequencing. The reconstruction of ancestral states was performed for characters associated with sexual systems and floral morphology. The phylogenetic analyses reconstructed three main groups in Malmeeae, (Malmea (Cremastosperma, Pseudoxandra)) sister to the rest of the tribe, and (Unonopsis (Bocageopsis, Onychopetalum)) sister to (Mosannona, Ephedranthus, Klarobelia, Oxandra, Pseudephedranthus fragrans, Pseudomalmea, Ruizodendron ovale). Hermaphroditism is plesiomorphic in the tribe, with four independent evolutions of androdieocy, which represents a synapomorphy of two groups, one that includes three genera and 14 species, the other with a single genus of seven species. Male flowers are unisexual from inception and bisexual flowers possess staminodes and functional stamens. Pseudoxandra spiritus-sancti is structurally androdioecious. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Apr 23, 2014 ... To date, the only effective treatment avail- able for CD patients is a strict exclusion of gluten ... this tribe with less immunogenicity to CD patients would help breeders to generate wheat cultivars with ... jgenet/) were extracted from fresh leaves with a CTAB pro- tocol (Doyle and Doyle 1987). Classification of ...
.... Potter, SD, Stanley, SD, Sully, SD Walworth, SD, Ziebach, SD. Chippewa-Cree Indians of the Rocky Chouteau.... Northwestern Band of Shoshoni Nation Box Elder, UT.\\36\\ of Utah (Washakie). Oglala Sioux Tribe of the Pine...\\ Historically part of the Northern Cheyenne Service Unit population since 1979. \\36\\ Land of Box Elder County...
... ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Waiver of Regulations § 1000.222 How does a Tribe/Consortium obtain a waiver? To...; (b) Identify the regulation to be waived and the reasons for the request; (c) Identify the programs...
... INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Waiver of Regulations § 1000.220 What regulations apply to self-governance... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What regulations apply to self-governance Tribes? 1000...
Wells, A.; Huisman, J.
Thirty-eight new species of micro-caddisflies (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae) are described from Malaysia and Brunei in the tribes Stactobiini and Orthotrichiini. Thirteen species are referred to the genus Chrysotrichia Schmid, two to Plethus Hagen, 13 to Scelotrichia Ulmer, five to Stactobia McLachlan
... food, except in those areas classified by the California Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control as... service of liquor/ alcoholic beverage in a tribally licensed liquor/alcohol establishment if such person... beverages within the jurisdiction of the Bishop Paiute Tribe. This Ordinance will increase the ability of...
... areas: lounge(s), restaurant(s), bingo/ multipurpose hall when used for entertainment, food service, or... alcoholic beverages within the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla's Reservation. This Code will increase... government and the delivery of tribal services. DATES: Effective Date: This Amendment is effective 30 days...
... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Chapter I [EPA-HQ-OA-2010-0992 FRL-9239-4] Proposed Final Policy on Consultation and Coordination With Indian Tribes AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of document for public comment. SUMMARY: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is...
Biología reproductiva de Anisotremus interruptus (Perciformes: Haemulidae en el Pacífico central mexicano Reproductive biology of Anisotremus interruptus (Perciformes: Haemulidae in the Mexican Central Pacific
Full Text Available Anisotremus interruptus es una especie de importancia económica que se distribuye ampliamente en el Pacífico oriental. Para investigar las características de la reproducción de esta especie, se realizó un estudio a lo largo de varios años en la costa de Jalisco, México. Para este fin, se tomaron muestras entre 1998 y 2008 con redes de enmalle de diferente luz de malla. Asimismo, se recolectaron en total 1 090 organismos que presentaron un intervalo de longitud total de 15.6-61.0cm. Además, se observó una diferencia significativa con respecto al valor esperado de 1:1 en la proporción de hembras y machos para todos los organismos recolectados y por clase de talla, pero no se encontró diferencia en dicha proporción en los análisis entre meses y entre años. La distribución temporal del índice gonadosomático y de la proporción de estadios de maduración gonadal sugieren que el periodo de reproducción en A. interruptus se concentra principalmente entre febrero-mayo, aunque se registraron desoves de menor intensidad en otros meses. También, se identificaron siete fases de desarrollo de los ovocitos. En ovarios de estadio maduro, se observaron ovocitos en diferente fase de desarrollo, lo cual sugiere que el desarrollo ovárico es de tipo asincrónico. La organización interna del testículo es del tipo lobular. La longitud de maduración sexual (L50 para las hembras fue de 31.0cm y para los machos de 29.7cm.Reproductive biology of Anisotremus interruptus (Perciformes: Haemulidae in the Mexican Central Pacific. Anisotremus interruptus is a widely distributed and commercially important species in the Eastern Pacific. A multi-year research on the reproduction of this species was carried out in coastal waters of Jalisco, Mexico. For this purpose, monthly samples were gathered with gillnets of different mesh sizes from 1998-2008. A total of 1 090 individuals were collected with a total length range between 15.6-61.0cm. Significant
Biología reproductiva del pargo Lutjanus inermis (Perciformes: Lutjanidae, en el Pacífico central mexicano Reproductive biology of the Golden snapper Lutjanus inermis (Perciformes: Lutjanidae in the central Mexican Pacific
Full Text Available Debido a los escasos antecedentes del efecto de las pesquerías y manejo del pargo Lutjanus inermis, es importante conocer la época reproductiva para el establecimiento de temporadas de veda, ya que la biomasa de los peces en fase de reproducción, es usada como punto de referencia para evaluar la condición del stock explotado y para establecer futuros niveles de captura. Por ello, el objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar algunos aspectos reproductivos como proporción sexual, época reproductiva, talla de madurez de L. inermis en las costas de Jalisco, México. Durante 1999-2008, se llevaron a cabo muestreos mensuales de los ejemplares capturados por la pesca artesanal en las bahías de Navidad, Tenacatita y Chamela (Jalisco, México. Se recolectaron 311 (53.1% hembras y 275 (46.9% machos y, la proporción de sexos (1:0.88 no presentó diferencia significativa. El intervalo de longitud total fue 14.4 a 37.0cm y el peso total de 48 a 575g. L. inermis presentó los máximos valores del IGS en dos periodos, febrero-abril y septiembre-noviembre, también en estos periodos se presentaron los mayores porcentajes de organismos en estadio de maduración. El ovario presentó el tipo de desarrollo asincrónico y se reconocieron siete fases del desarrollo de los ovocitos. En los testículos se observó el tipo de desarrollo lobular, se observaron espermatozoides en el centro de los cistos y en el conducto recolector. La talla de madurez (L50 fue de 23.9cm LT para hembras y 23.6cm LT para machos. Considerando el periodo de muestreo de este estudio, los antecedentes descritos podrían ser de utilidad en la formulación de planes o estrategias de manejo de esta especie.Reproductive biology of the Golden snapper Lutjanus inermis (Perciformes: Lutjanidae in the central Mexican Pacific. Reproductive aspects and information on the effect of fishery activities over this species stock are scarce, despite the imperative need of effective protection and resource
Agung Dwi Laksono
Full Text Available Background: Muyu Tribes have an open mind toward modernization, while still holding fast to some beliefs that often collide with each other, not to mentional so the case in the original Muyu health workers. For health workers who came from the tribe Muyu, in daily life, it seems as if stuck on the pull two poles of different beliefs, and even sometimes the opposite.Medical concepts are studied and are believed to be a health worker was overlap and collide with the belief in the concept as part of the cultural tradition of his tribe. This study was conducted to explore in depth the pull of tradition surrounding the Muyu health workers. Methods: This research is a case study carried out in depth on indigenous health workers Muyutribe. This ethnography research was conducted in Mindiptana, District Digoel. Data collection was performed by means of participant observation, in-depth interviews and document searches. Result: The research results showed the infl uence of western and migrants in some ways helped change the mindset or perspective of health workers to be able to receivethe pattern rationalistic offered. But within certain limits if health workers are stuck in the old tradition of Muyu who tend to be irrational and mystical. Conclusion: Empirical fact that their tradition Muyu Tribe (indigenous health workers Tribe Muyu believe, they often receive repetitive, making them not to circumvent these beliefs. Although, rationalistic culture completely different they have learned indifferent practice. Recommendation: Appropriate supervision can be a task thatshould be done by health personnel.
Eastman, Joseph T; Lannoo, Michael J
The predominantly non-Antarctic family Bovichtidae is phyletically basal within the perciform suborder Notothenioidei, the dominant component of the Antarctic fish fauna. In this article we focus on the South Atlantic bovichtids Bovichtus diacanthus, the klipfish from tide pools at Tristan da Cunha, and Cottoperca gobio, the frogmouth from the Patagonian shelf and Falkland Islands. We document the anatomy and histology of the brains, olfactory apparatus, retina, and cephalic lateral line system. We also use the microvascular casting agent Microfil to examine ocular vascular structures. We provide detailed drawings of the brains and cranial nerves of both species. Typical of perciforms, the brains of both species have a well-developed tectum and telencephalon and robust thalamic nuclei. The telencephalon of C. gobio is prominently lobed, with the dorsomedial nucleus more conspicuous than in any other notothenioid. The corpus cerebelli is relatively small and upright and, unlike other notothenioids, has prominent transverse sulci on the dorsal and caudal surfaces. Areas for lateral line mechanoreception (eminentia granularis and crista cerebellaris) are also conspicuous but olfactory, gustatory, and somatosensory areas are less prominent. The anterior lateral line nerve complex is larger than the posterior lateral line nerve in B. diacanthus, and in their cephalic lateral line systems both species possess branched membranous tubules (which do not contain neuromasts) with small pores. These are especially complex in B. diacanthus where they become increasingly branched and more highly pored in progressively larger specimens. Superficial neuromasts are sparse. Both species have duplex (cone and rod) retinae that are 1.25-fold thicker and have nearly 5-fold more photoreceptors and than those of most Antarctic notothenioids. Convergence ratios are also high for bovichtids. Bovichtus diacanthus has a yellow intraocular filter in the dorsal aspect of the cornea. Both
Myxobolus lepomis n. sp. (Cnidaria: Myxobolidae), a gill myxozoan infecting Lepomis marginatus Holbrook and Lepomis miniatus Jordan (Perciformes: Centrarchidae), in the Big Thicket National Preserve, Texas, USA.
Rosser, Thomas G; Baumgartner, Wes A; Barger, Michael A; Griffin, Matt J
A parasitological survey of freshwater fishes in the Big Thicket National Preserve in southeast Texas revealed myxozoan infections in two species of sunfish, Lepomis marginatus Holbrook and Lepomis miniatus Jordan (Perciformes: Centrarchidae). Pseudocysts were elongate-oval, 988 × 485 µm (ex L. marginatus) and 800 × 606 µm (ex L. miniatus) and demonstrated a predilection to the edge of the primary gill lamellae. Myxospores consistent with the genus Myxobolus were oblong, 16.8-21.3 (19.0 ± 0.9) µm long, 7.0-8.8 (7.9 ± 0.5) µm wide and 5.3-6.1 (5.8 ± 0.3) µm thick (ex L. marginatus) and 17.2-20.3 (18.8 ± 0.7) µm long, 7.5-9.9 (8.7 ± 0.6) µm wide, and 6.8-7.2 (7.0 ± 0.2) µm thick (ex L. miniatus); with 2 pyriform polar capsules 8.3-9.8 (9.0 ± 0.5) µm long, 2.2-2.7 (2.5 ± 0.2) µm wide (ex L. marginatus) and 9.2-10.5 (10.0 ± 0.4) µm long, 2.2-3.0 (2.8 ± 0.2) µm wide (ex L. miniatus). Statistically, the measurements of spore body width, polar capsule length, and polar capsule width were significantly different between myxospores from L. marginatus and L. miniatus. However, intraspecific genetic variability between isolates at the 18S rRNA gene was negligible, with 2,000 bp of sequence. The isolates shared no significant sequence similarity with any myxozoan deposited in the GenBank nucleotide database. Phylogenetic analysis inferred from the 18S rRNA gene from both L. marginatus and L. miniatus placed the isolates within a clade of myxozoan parasites of perciform fishes. Based on shared tissue and host family tropism, overlapping morphological characters and high degrees of sequence conservation at the 18S rRNA gene, we propose these isolates as morphologically distinct, genetically conspecific representatives of M. lepomis n. sp. from the gills of L. marginatus and L. miniatus in the Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, USA.
Peters, Ronald L.; Woodward-Lilengreen, Kelly L.; Vitale, Angelo J.
The Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) receives and reviews proposals to mitigate for fish and wildlife losses and refers approved measures to Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for funding. The Northwest Power Act (Act) calls on the Council to include measures in its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) to address system-wide fish and wildlife losses. The Act further states that the Council may include in its Program measures that provide off-site mitigation--mitigation physically removed from the hydro project(s) that caused the need to mitigate. The Program includes a goal ''to recover and preserve the health of native resident fish injured by the hydropower system, where feasible, and, where appropriate, to use resident fish to mitigate for anadromous fish losses in the system.'' Among those recommended measures are off-site mitigation for losses of anadromous fisheries including the measure under analysis in this Coeur d'Alene Tribe Trout Production Facility Master Plan, proposed by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe. To meet the need for off-site mitigation for anadromous fish losses in the Columbia River Basin in a manner consistent with the objectives of the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program, the Coeur d'Alene Tribe is proposing that the BPA fund the design, construction, operations and maintenance of a trout production facility on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation. Measures for establishing a Coeur d'Alene fish production facility have been a part of the Council's Program since 1987. The Coeur d'Alene Tribe Trout Production Facility is intended to rear and release westslope cutthroat trout into rivers and streams with the express purpose of increasing the numbers of fish spawning, incubating and rearing in the natural environment. It will use the modern technology that hatcheries offer to overcome the mortality resulting from habitat degradation in lakes, rivers, and
Petersen, A.; Nasser, E.; Stone, D.; Krosby, M.; Whitley-Binder, L.; Morgan, H.; Rupp, D. E.; Dello, K.; Dalton, M. M.; Fox, M.; Rodgers, K.
The Shoshone-Bannock Tribes reside in the Upper Snake River Watershed in southeast Idaho. Their lives and culture are intertwined with the lands where they live; lands which continue to sustain the Tribes cultural, spiritual, dietary and economic needs. Climate change presents a new threat to the region requiring innovative approaches to prepare for changes as well as to protect the natural resources within the region. As a critical first step in building climate resilience, the Tribes worked with Adaptation International, the University of Washington's Climate Impacts Group (CIG) and the Oregon Climate Change Research Institute (OCCRI) to complete a collaborative climate change vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning process. This presentation provides an overview of collaborative process, shares the results of the project, and includes a 3-minute video presentation. The project started with the identification of 34 plant and animal species to focus the vulnerability assessment. OCCRI analyzed detailed downscaled climate projections for two key climate scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) and timescales (2050s and 2080s). CIG then used NatureServe's Climate Change Vulnerability Index (CCVI) to develop initial relative vulnerability results for these species. A core team of Tribal staff members from various departments refined these results, drawing upon and integrating rich local and traditional knowledges of the natural environmental and cultural resources. The adaptation planning phase of the project continued in a similar collaborative manner with the project team identifying promising adaptation actions and working directly with Tribal staff to refine and customize these strategies. Tailoring the actions to the local context provides a framework for action that the Tribes can continue to build on in the future. By engaging in these efforts to identify vulnerable species and adaptation strategies and actions to minimize the negative effects of climate
Atlas of marine bony fish otoliths (sagittae of Southeastern-Southern Brazil Part V: Perciformes (Sparidae, Sciaenidae, Polynemidae, Mullidae, Kyphosidae, Chaetodontidae, Mugilidae, Scaridae, Percophidae, Pinguipedidae, Blenniidae, Gobiidae, Ephippidae, Sphyraenidae, Gempylidae, Trichiuridae, Scombridae, Ariommatidae, Stromateidae and Caproidae
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This publication is part of a series prepared with the purpose to constitute an Atlas of Teleostei Otoliths for the Southeastern-Southern Brazilian area. Here we present the results of 15 morphological features and six shape indices for 33 Perciformes species of 20 families. Whenever available in out collection, three otoliths of each species were illustrated and photographed. The frequency of occurrence of each feature was calculated inside and among total length classes being the differences analyzed through multiple χ2 tests (significance level 0.05. Based on otoliths measurements, six shape indices values were obtained being the minimum, maximum, mean and standard deviations values presented.
The Spokane Tribe initiated a long-term planning process for a water and wastewater infrastructure system that can support the tribe’s goals to add compact, mixed-use development in the town of Wellpinit.
Welle, ter B.J.H.; Koek-Noorman, J.; Topper, S.M.C.
The wood anatomy of the genera of the tribe Moreae with urticaceous stamens, viz. Broussonetia, Madura s.l. (including Cardiogyne, Chlorophora, and Cudrania), Malaisia, Milicia, Morus, Olmedia, Pachytrophe, Plecospermum, Sloetiopsis, Streblus s.l. (including Paratrophis, Phyllochlamys,
I Gusti Ngurah Parikesit Widiatedja
From the perspective of international law, indigenous peoples have the rights to own, use, and control their natural resources within their territories. In the United States, the Navajo Tribe has enjoyed those rights. In terms of law making process, this tribe can enact some acts to preserve a control over their natural resources. Specifically, the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Solid Waste Act. Concerning law implementation and enforcement, Navajo Trib...
Full Text Available Various types of anatomical landmarks of the face should match its proportions with the size of the teeth which is the interalar width, intercomissural width, interpupillary width, Intercanthal width, and byzigomatic width. Some of face landmarks can be used as a guide in the selection of anterior teeth in complete denture, especially if the pre extraction record such as radiography image, extracted teeth, model study, the remaining teeth, face shape, and the shape of the curved jaw have been lost. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between interalar width and intercommisural width against mesiodistal incisivus centralis width in a group of Buginese tribe. Ninety nine Buginese tribe subjects aged 17-25 were selected. The interalar width, intercommisural width, and mesiodistal incisor centralis teeth were measured using caliper about three times for accuracy and precision. Mean of interalar width and mesiodistal incisor centralis maxilla width in males more width than females (p0.05. The degree of correlation between interalar width against mesiodistal incisor centralis maxilla width was 0.030, -0.246, 0,225 in Buginese tribe, males, and females (p>0.05. : The degree of correlation between intercommisural width against mesiodistal incisor centralis maxilla width in Buginese tribe was 0,054, 0,013, 0,153 in Buginese tribe, males, and females (p>0.05. The degree of correlation between interalar width and intercommisural width was 0.301 and 0.356 in Buginese tribe and males (p0.05. In conclusion, there is no significant correlation between interalar width and intercommisural width against mesiodistal incisor centralis maxilla width in a group of Buginese tribe. Interalar width and intercommisural width directly proportional to mesiodistal incisor centralis maxilla in a group of Buginese tribe. Interalar width and intercommisural width inversely proportional to mesiodistal incisor centralis maxilla in males and directly
Storozhenko, Sergey Yu; Benediktov, Alexander A; Huang, Jianhua
Anagaracris is considered as a monotypic genus in the tribe Bryodemini (Acrididae: Oedipodinae). New synonymy is proposed: Angaracris barabensis (Pallas, 1773) = Angaracris morulimarginis Huang, 1981, syn. nov.; = Angaracris ulashanicus Li, 1981, syn. nov.; Angaracris acrohylina Bi, 1986, syn. nov.; = Angaracris nigrimarginis Zheng et Ren, 1993, syn. nov.; = Angaracris morulipennis Zheng et Ren, 1994, syn. nov.; = Angaracris neimongolensis Zeng et Han, 1998, syn. nov. The diagnosis of the tribe Bryodemini is clarified and a key to the genera and subgenera is provided.
Holt, Jeffrey W. [Sault Sainte Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians, Marie, MI (United States)
The Tribe is working to reduce energy consumption and expense in Tribally-owned governmental buildings and low income housing sites. In 2009, the Tribe applied to the U. S. Department of Energy for funding to conduct energy audits of Tribally-owned governmental buildings. Findings from the energy audits would define the extent and types of energy efficiency improvements needed, establish a basis for energy priorities, strategies and action plans, and provide a benchmark for measuring improvements from energy efficiency implementations. In 2010, the DOE awarded a grant in the amount of $95,238 to the Tribe to fund the energy audits of nine governmental buildings and to pay for travel expenses associated with attendance and participation at the DOE annual program reviews. In 2011, the Tribe applied for and was awarded a DOE grant in the amount of $75,509 to conduct energy audits of the remaining 30 Tribally-owned governmental buildings. Repeating mobilization steps performed during the first DOE energy audits grant, the Tribe initiated the second round of governmental building energy audits by completing energy auditor procurement. The selected energy auditor successfully passed DOE debarment and Sault Tribe background clearances. The energy audits contract was awarded to U. P. Engineers and Architects, Inc. of Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. The Tribe continued mobilizing for the energy audits by providing the energy auditor with one year of electric, gas and water utility invoice copies per building, as well as supplemental building information, such as operating hours. The Tribe also contacted building occupants to coordinate scheduling for the on-site energy audit inspections and arranged for facilities management personnel to guide the energy auditor through the buildings and answer questions regarding building systems.
Dehingia, Madhusmita; Thangjam devi, Kanchal; Talukdar, Narayan C.; Talukdar, Rupjyoti; Reddy, Nageshwar; Mande, Sharmila S.; Deka, Manab; Khan, Mojibur R.
The gut bacteria exert phenotypic traits to the host but the factors which determine the gut bacterial profile (GBP) is poorly understood. This study aimed to understand the effect of ethnicity and geography on GBP of Mongoloid and Proto-Australoid tribes of India. Fecal bacterial diversity was studied in fifteen tribal populations representing four geographic regions (Assam, Telangana, Manipur and Sikkim) by DGGE followed by NGS analysis on Illumina MiSeq platform. Geography and diet had significant effect on GBP of the Indian tribes which was dominated by Prevotella. The effects were more prominent with lower taxonomic levels, indicating probable functional redundancy of the core GBP. A comparison with the worldwide data revealed that GBP of the Indian population was similar to the Mongolian population (Mongolia). The bacterial genera Faecalibacterium, Eubacterium, Clostridium, Blautia, Ruminococcus and Roseburia were found to be core genera in the representative populations of the world. PMID:26689136
Anggerainy, Shinta Widiastuty; Wanda, Dessie; Hayati, Happy
Instead of seeking conventional health care, the Dayak tribe in Borneo, Indonesia, treats sick children at home with traditional medicine. The objective of this descriptive, qualitative study was to explore the Dayak tribe's use of traditional medicine to care for sick children. Comprehensive interviews were conducted with 10 caregivers, with collected data analyzed using content analysis. Key recurring themes identified were: 1) traditional medicine as first aid; 2) ease of access and cost-effectiveness; 3) traditional medicine was not always effective; 4) a combination of natural ingredients and beliefs; 5) the importance of "communicating" with plants; and 6) engagement with metaphysical forces. Health professionals should respect familial cultures' beliefs regarding the provision of health care at home. Furthermore, they need to develop competency in performing cultural assessments and providing information to these parents on the risks of not seeking professional emergency care for children with conditions that can't be handled at home with traditional medicine.
Full Text Available Global Tribe si inserisce in un filone di ricerca, quello che indaga la musica dance nelle sue numerose manifestazioni, che negli ultimi anni sta acquisendo una prominenza sempre maggiore in seno agli studi musicologici. A ciò ha contribuito negli ultimi anni Graham St John, caporedattore della rivista accademica Dancecult e autore o curatore di numerose pubblicazioni sul tema, tra cui The Local Scenes and Global Culture of Psytrance, che anticipa alcuni dei temi di questo volume. L’autore spiega di essere stato direttamente coinvolto nella scena di Melbourne fin dalla metà degli anni Novanta, estendendo successivamente la sua partecipazione alle comunità psytrance a livello globale; in questo contesto ha sviluppato in parallelo un interesse accademico, che costituisce la base delle idee e delle esperienze confluite in Global Tribe.
Saxena, Vibhor; Bhattacharya, P.C.
Using the National Sample Survey Organisation data from the 68th round (2011–12) of 88,939 households, this paper investigates the inequalities in access to Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) and electricity usage by the households belonging to the three major disadvantaged groups in India, viz., the scheduled castes, the scheduled tribes, and the Muslims. The results of our analysis suggest that, after controlling for the other socio-economic factors which impinge on the households’ demand and suppl...
Passos, Silvia da Silva Santos; Pereira, Álvaro; Nitschke, Rosane Gonçalves
Compreender o relacionamento no quotidiano dos familiares acompanhantes nos cenários de cuidado que se aproximam da metáfora da tribo no ambiente hospitalar. Estudo qualitativo com dados coletados a partir de entrevistas semiestruturadas e observação com 16 familiares acompanhantes de pessoas hospitalizadas com dependência para o autocuidado. Os dados foram submetidos à análise temática e analisados através da metáfora da tribo proposta pela sociologia compreensiva. Os familiares formam um agrupamento social em torno do cuidado onde encontramos as características das tribos: a ambiência emocional; a solidariedade baseada nos vínculos de simpatia e ajuda mútua; a nebulosa afetual no processo interacional; a lógica da fusão nas relações tácteis e a comunhão/religiosidade no processo de ligação numa identidade coletiva. Os familiares na presença do trágico criam agrupamentos sociais que se assemelham a tribos cujo totem é o cuidado. Understand the quotidian relationships of accompanying family members in an environment of care, which are close to the metaphor of a tribe in hospital environment. METHODQualitative study with data gathered from semi-structured interviews and observations with 16 family members accompanying hospitalized individuals with dependence on self-care. Data were submitted to thematic analysis, and analyzed through the metaphor of "tribe" proposed by comprehensive sociology. Family members build up social clusters around caring, where we find traits typical of tribes: emotional ambience; solidarity based on links of sympathy and mutual assistance; an affectual nebula in the process of interaction; a logic of fusion in tactile relations; and communion/religiosity in the process of connecting in a collective identity. In the presence of tragedy, families build social clusters similar to tribes having care as a totem.
Ghosh, Sushanta; Rahaman, Lovely; Kaipeng, David Lalvohbika; Deb, Dipankar; Nath, Nandita; Tribedi, Prosun; Sharma, Bipin Kumar
Tripura is inhabited by many indigenous communities having unique ethno-socio-cultural lifestyle with age-old rice beer brewing techniques using wild herbs and local rice varieties popularly known as chuwak or zu. The present study is focused on comparative evaluation of brewing methods and nutritional aspects of rice beer among Debbarma, Jamatia, Koloi, and Molsom tribes of Tripura. Sample ingredients and plant species are properly identified before reporting. Rice beer is also prepared in l...
Supplementary data: The γ-gliadin-like γ-prolamin genes in the tribe Triticeae. Peng-Fei Qi, Cheng-Xing Le, Zhao Wang, Yu-Bin Liu, Qing Chen, Zhen-Zhen Wei, Bin-Jie Xu, Zheng-Yuan Wei,. Shou-Fen Dai, Yu-Ming Wei and You-Liang Zheng. J. Genet. 93, 35–41. Table 1. The γ-prolamin genes of diploid Triticeae species.
non- state cyber actors. The Air Force values a professional workplace that strictly prohibits racism , sexism, lewd material, and most forms of...AU/ACSC/LIDOWSKI, R/AY15 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY ANONYMOUS AS A CYBER TRIBE: A NEW MODEL FOR COMPLEX, NON- STATE ...government or the Department of Defense. In accordance with Air Force Instruction 51-303, it is not copyrighted, but is the property of the United
Jaroli DP; Mahawar Madan
Abstract The present zootherapeutic study describes the traditional knowledge related to the use of different animals and animal-derived products as medicines by the Saharia tribe reside in the Shahabad and Kishanganj Panchayat Samiti's of Baran district of Rajasthan, India. A field survey was conducted from April to June 2006 by performing interview through structured questionnaire with 21 selected respondents, who provided information regarding use of animals and their products in folk medi...
Full Text Available Nabidae, a family of predatory heteropterans, includes two subfamilies and five tribes. We previously reported the complete mitogenome of Alloeorhynchus bakeri, a representative of the tribe Prostemmatini in the subfamily Prostemmatinae. To gain a better understanding of architecture and evolution of mitogenome in Nabidae, mitogenomes of five species representing two tribes (Gorpini and Nabini in the subfamily Nabinae were sequenced, and a comparative mitogenomic analysis of three nabid tribes in two subfamilies was carried out.Nabid mitogenomes share a similar nucleotide composition and base bias, except for the control region, where differences are observed at the subfamily level. In addition, the pattern of codon usage is influenced by the GC content and consistent with the standard invertebrate mitochondrial genetic code and the preference for A+T-rich codons. The comparison among orthologous protein-coding genes shows that different genes have been subject to different rates of molecular evolution correlated with the GC content. The stems and anticodon loops of tRNAs are extremely conserved, and the nucleotide substitutions are largely restricted to TψC and DHU loops and extra arms, with insertion-deletion polymorphisms. Comparative analysis shows similar rates of substitution between the two rRNAs. Long non-coding regions are observed in most Gorpini and Nabini mtDNAs in-between trnI-trnQ and/or trnS2-nad1. The lone exception, Nabis apicalis, however, has lost three tRNAs. Overall, phylogenetic analysis using mitogenomic data is consistent with phylogenies constructed mainly form morphological traits.This comparative mitogenomic analysis sheds light on the architecture and evolution of mitogenomes in the family Nabidae. Nucleotide diversity and mitogenomic traits are phylogenetically informative at subfamily level. Furthermore, inclusion of a broader range of samples representing various taxonomic levels is critical for the understanding
Li, Hu; Liu, Haiyu; Song, Fan; Shi, Aimin; Zhou, Xuguo; Cai, Wanzhi
Nabidae, a family of predatory heteropterans, includes two subfamilies and five tribes. We previously reported the complete mitogenome of Alloeorhynchus bakeri, a representative of the tribe Prostemmatini in the subfamily Prostemmatinae. To gain a better understanding of architecture and evolution of mitogenome in Nabidae, mitogenomes of five species representing two tribes (Gorpini and Nabini) in the subfamily Nabinae were sequenced, and a comparative mitogenomic analysis of three nabid tribes in two subfamilies was carried out. Nabid mitogenomes share a similar nucleotide composition and base bias, except for the control region, where differences are observed at the subfamily level. In addition, the pattern of codon usage is influenced by the GC content and consistent with the standard invertebrate mitochondrial genetic code and the preference for A+T-rich codons. The comparison among orthologous protein-coding genes shows that different genes have been subject to different rates of molecular evolution correlated with the GC content. The stems and anticodon loops of tRNAs are extremely conserved, and the nucleotide substitutions are largely restricted to TψC and DHU loops and extra arms, with insertion-deletion polymorphisms. Comparative analysis shows similar rates of substitution between the two rRNAs. Long non-coding regions are observed in most Gorpini and Nabini mtDNAs in-between trnI-trnQ and/or trnS2-nad1. The lone exception, Nabis apicalis, however, has lost three tRNAs. Overall, phylogenetic analysis using mitogenomic data is consistent with phylogenies constructed mainly form morphological traits. This comparative mitogenomic analysis sheds light on the architecture and evolution of mitogenomes in the family Nabidae. Nucleotide diversity and mitogenomic traits are phylogenetically informative at subfamily level. Furthermore, inclusion of a broader range of samples representing various taxonomic levels is critical for the understanding of mitogenomic
Simmons, Mark P; McKenna, Miles J; Bacon, Christine D; Yakobson, Kendra; Cappa, Jennifer J; Archer, Robert H; Ford, Andrew J
The phylogeny of Celastraceae tribe Euonymeae (≈ 230 species in eight genera in both the Old and New Worlds) was inferred using morphological characters together with plastid (matK, trnL-F) and nuclear (ITS and 26S rDNA) genes. Tribe Euonymeae has been defined as those genera of Celastraceae with generally opposite leaves, isomerous carpels, loculicidally dehiscent capsules, and arillate seeds (except Microtropis). Euonymus is the most diverse (129 species) and widely cultivated genus in the tribe. We infer that tribe Euonymeae consists of at least six separate lineages within Celastraceae and that a revised natural classification of the family is needed. Microtropis and Quetzalia are inferred to be distinct sister groups that together are sister to Zinowiewia. The endangered Monimopetalum chinense is an isolated and early derived lineage of Celastraceae that represents an important component of phylogenetic diversity within the family. Hedraianthera is sister to Brassiantha, and we describe a second species (Brassiantha hedraiantheroides A.J. Ford) that represents the first reported occurrence of this genus in Australia. Euonymus globularis, from eastern Australia, is sister to Menepetalum, which is endemic to New Caledonia, and we erect a new genus (Dinghoua R.H. Archer) for it. The Madagascan species of Euonymus are sister to Pleurostylia and recognized as a distinct genus (Astrocassine ined.). Glyptopetalum, Torralbasia, and Xylonymus are all closely related to Euonymus sensu stricto and are questionably distinct from it. Current intrageneric classifications of Euonymus are not completely natural and require revision. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zou, Keshu; Li, Min
The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Carangoides equula (Perciformes: Carangidae) was determined. The size of the genome was 16,588 bp and overall base compositions of the sequence were 26.3% of A, 30.3% of C, 25.3% of T and 18.1% of G, showing an obvious anti G bias commonly observed in teleosts. The genome contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 2 non-coding regions (the control region and the light strand replication origin). Gene organization and gene order was similar to that observed in most other vertebrates. The initiation codon GTG was detected in the open reading frames of ATPase subunit 6, which was novel for ATP6 gene in Carangidae species. The mitogenome of C. equula shared 84.1% and 84.0% sequence similarity with two other Carangoides species Carangoides malabaricus and Carangoides armatus, respectively. The complete mitogenome sequence data of C. equula could provide useful information for taxonomic and phylogenetics studies.
Jin, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Rixin; Wei, Tao; Tang, Da; Xu, Tianjun
The fishes of suborder Gobioidei is the largest group of those in present living Perciformes, which contains about 2,200 species belonging to 270 genera of 9 families in the world. The monophyly and phylogenetic relationships of gobies have been controversial and disputable for a long time. In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the shimofuri goby Tridentiger bifasciatus (T. bifasciatus) and shokihaze goby Tridentiger barbatus (T. barbatus) were firstly determined. The two mitochondrial genomes were both consisted of 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and one major control region (CR). They shared similar features with those of other gobies in terms of gene arrangement, base composition, and tRNA structures. The CR was absence of typical conserved blocks (CSB-E, and CSB-F) respectively for the T. bifasciatus and T. barbatus. Phylogenomic analyses, which based on 12 concatenated protein-coding genes and complete mitochondrial genome sequences, revealed that there were two groups within the Gobiidae. A large group consisted of the Amblyopinae, Gobionellinae, Oxudercinae and Sicydiinae, and Amblyopinae was nested in Oxudercinae and they were both paraphyletic to Sicydiinae. The other group was the Gobiinae. As a whole, our phylogenetic data was different from the traditionally classification of Gobiidae, but supported the new phylogenetic taxonomy view of Thacker (Copeia 2009:93-104, 2009).
Chaudhary, Anshu; Molnár, Kálmán; Gupta, Abhishek; Cech, Gábor; Singh, Hridaya S; Székely, Csaba
During a survey of myxosporean parasites of freshwater fishes in Meerut, Uttar Pradesh (UP), India, spores of Henneguya chaudhuryi (Bajpai & Haldar, 1982) were found in the gill lamellae of the spotted snakehead fish Channa punctata (Bloch) (Perciformes: Channidae). This species was described lacking several characteristics in the original description, which makes challenging the accurate diagnosis. Here, we supplemented its description based on morphological, histological and molecular data. Plasmodia of H. chaudhuryi are oval, measuring 60-100 × 40-68 µm, located intralamellarly. Mature spores are elongate, measuring 10.5-13.2 × 3.6-4.2 µm, with two slightly unequal polar capsules with 6-7 filamental turns and two straight, equal caudal appendages, 10-17 µm long. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a flat surface. The 18S rDNA sequence for H. chaudhuryi did not show a close relationship with those of any other Henneguya spp., represented in the GenBank.
Pombo, Maíra; Denadai, Márcia Regina; Bessa, Eduardo; Santos, Flávia Borges; de Faria, Vanessa Hermann; Turra, Alexander
This study aimed to comprehensively investigate the population biology of Conodon nobilis (Perciformes, Haemulidae) in Caraguatatuba Bight, southeastern Brazil. Monthly trawls were performed from October 2003 through October 2004 in two areas of the bight that are similar to but distant from each other, South and North. For all specimens, the size was measured and the sex and reproductive stage identified. Abundance and size were compared over areas and months. Body growth parameters were parameterized according to the Von Bertalanffy growth function. The stomach contents were identified and quantified. C. nobilis occurred mainly in the North area and showed an erratic pattern of abundance over time. Several cohorts entered in different periods, but very few large and mature individuals were observed. The results indicate a preference for shallow, ocean-influenced habitats and some degree of segregation between young and older individuals. The species showed a distribution consistent with an r-strategist species, with high abundance and a high growth constant ( K = 0.68 year-1 and L max = 34.2 cm). Both the relative length of the digestive tube and the prey items indicated a carnivorous feeding habit; mysids were the main item of the diet throughout the study period, indicating that this grunt is a specialist feeder. Other frequently observed items were amphipods and fish fragments. Ingestion of scales is possibly intentional.
Jacobina, Uedson Pereira; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Molina, Wagner Franco
Abstract Chromosomal traits have provided valuable information for phylogeny and taxonomy of several fish groups. Three Atlantic Carangidae species of the genus Trachinotus Lacépède, 1801 (Trachinotus goodei Jordan et Evermann, 1896, Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus, 1766)and Trachinotus falcatus (Linnaeus, 1758)) were investigated, having 2n=48 chromosomes but different chromosomal arms (FN number), i.e., 52, 56 and 58, respectively, in view of the different number of two-armed chromosomes found in their karyotypes. Thus, Trachinotus goodei, Trachinotus carolinus and Trachinotus falcatus present a progressive distancefrom the probable basal karyotype proposed for Perciformes (2n=48 acrocentrics, FN=48). At first sight, these findings do not agree with the phylogenetic hypothesis based on mitochondrial sequences, where Trachinotus goodei appear as the most derived species, followed by Trachinotus falcatus and Trachinotus carolinus, respectively. However, the chromosomal mapping of ribosomal DNAs was informative for clarifying this apparent conflict. Indeed, the multiple 5S and 18S rDNA sites found in Trachinotus goodei corroborate the most derived condition for this species. In this sense, the occurrence of the unexpected number of two-armed chromosomes and FN value for this species, as well as for Trachinotus carolinus, must be due to additional rounds of acrocentric formation in these species, modifying the macrostructure of their karyotypes. PMID:24260676
Atlas of marine bony fish otoliths (Sagittae of Southeastern - Southern Brazil Part I: Gadiformes (Macrouridae, Moridae, Bregmacerotidae, Phycidae and Merlucciidae; Part II: Perciformes (Carangidae, Sciaenidae, Scombridae and Serranidae
Carmen Lucia Del Bianco Rossi-Wongtschowski
Full Text Available The drawings, detailed pictures, precise descriptions and measurements that characterize otoliths must be made available for studies in various areas, including taxonomy, phylogeny, ecology, fisheries, paleontology, diversity, predator-prey relationships and modeling. The Collection of Teleostei Fish Otoliths of Southeastern-Southern Brazil (COSS-Brasil of IOUSP contains 45,000 pairs of otoliths from 210 species. This publication is the first in a series that will constitute an atlas of Teleostei otoliths for southeastern-southern Brazil and presents the results of the morphologic and morphometric analyses of 11 Gadiformes and 36 Perciformes species by means of the most commonly used features, measurements and indices. Three otoliths of each species were illustrated and photographed whenever possible. The frequency of occurrence was calculated for each characteristic by total length classes (TL, and the ontogenetic differences were analyzed (multiple χ2 test; significance 0.05. Morphometric analyses were conducted for each characteristic per total length (TL class and for the whole sample, and the ontogenetic differences were analyzed.
Ding, Yang; Ao, Jingqun; Huang, Xiaohong; Chen, Xinhua
Like mammals, fish possess an interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3/IRF7-dependent type I IFN responses, but the exact mechanism by which IRF3/IRF7 regulate the type I IFNs remains largely unknown. In this study, we identified two type I IFNs in the Perciforme fish large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea, one of which belongs to the fish IFNd subgroup and the other is assigned to a novel subgroup of group I IFNs in fish, tentatively termed IFNh. The two IFN genes are constitutively expressed in all examined tissues, but with varied expression levels. Both IFN genes can be rapidly induced in head kidney and spleen tissues by polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid. The recombinant IFNh was shown to be more potent to trigger a rapid induction of the antiviral genes MxA and protein kinase R than the IFNd, suggesting that they may play distinct roles in regulating early antiviral immunity. Strikingly, IFNd, but not IFNh, could induce the gene expression of itself and IFNh through a positive feedback loop mediated by the IFNd-dependent activation of IRF3 and IRF7. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that the induction of IFNd can be enhanced by the dimeric formation of IRF3 and IRF7, while the IFNh expression mainly involves IRF3. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the IFN responses are diverse in fish and are likely to be regulated by distinct mechanisms.
Full Text Available Like mammals, fish possess an interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3/IRF7-dependent type I IFN responses, but the exact mechanism by which IRF3/IRF7 regulate the type I IFNs remains largely unknown. In this study, we identified two type I IFNs in the Perciforme fish large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea, one of which belongs to the fish IFNd subgroup, and the other is assigned to a novel subgroup of group I IFNs in fish, tentatively termed IFNh. The two IFN genes are constitutively expressed in all examined tissues, but with varied expression levels. Both IFN genes can be rapidly induced in head kidney and spleen tissues by polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid. The recombinant IFNh was shown to be more potent to trigger a rapid induction of the antiviral genes MxA and PKR than the IFNd, suggesting that they may play distinct roles in regulating early antiviral immunity. Strikingly, IFNd, but not IFNh, could induce the gene expression of itself and IFNh through a positive feedback loop mediated by the IFNd-dependent activation of IRF3 and IRF7. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that the induction of IFNd can be enhanced by the dimeric formation of IRF3 and IRF7, while the IFNh expression mainly involves IRF3. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the IFN responses are diverse in fish and are likely to be regulated by distinct mechanisms.
New and previously described dactylogyrid species (Monogenoidea: Polyonchoinea) and a gastrocotylinean pre-adult (Heteronchoinea) from pomacentrid and caesionid (Perciformes) fishes from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.
Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Binning, Sandra A; Roche, Dominique G
During a parasitological survey of perciform fishes from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia, we found the following gill monogenoidean species (Platyhelminthes): Euryhaliotrema lizardi n. sp. on Caesio caerulaurea Lacepède, 1801 (Caesionidae) (type host) and Haliotrema weberii n. sp. on Chromis weberi Fowler and Bean, 1928 (Pomacentridae) (type host), Chromis amboinensis (Bleeker, 1871), Chromis atripectoralis Welander and Schultz, 1951 and Caesio teres Seale, 1906. Euryhaliotrema lizardi n. sp. is characterized by having anchors with an elongated straight shaft and point as well as a vaginal canal with two loops before connecting to the seminal receptacle. Ha. weberii n. sp. is distinguished from other congeners by possessing a tubular male copulatory organ (MCO), partially straight. Two previously described dactylogyrids were also found: Haliotrematoides caesionis (Yamaguti, 1953) Kritsky, Yang and Sun 2009) on Caesio cuning (Bloch, 1791) and Ca. teres (new host record) and Haliotrematoides patellacirrus (Bychowsky and Nagibina, 1971) Kritsky, Yang and Sun 2009, on Ca. cuning (new host record). Finally, we provide the first report of a gastrocotylinean pre-adult on Ca. teres. We provide descriptions and illustrations of the new species and the gastrocotylinean pre-adult and include supplemental observations of Ht. caesionis and Ht. patellacirrus. The present findings expand the known spectrum of host species of Euryhaliotrema, Haliotrema and Haliotrematoides to include new caesionid and pomacentrid fishes.
Gouvêa, Cantídio Fernando; Dornelas, Marcelo Carnier; Rodriguez, Adriana Pinheiro Martinelli
Floral development of Cedrela and Toona, the genera comprising the basal tribe Cedreleae of the sub-family Swietenioideae of Meliaceae, is described. The focus was on three endangered, ecologically and economically important species: Cedrela fissilis, Cedrela odorata and Toona ciliata. The aims of the study were to characterize the patterns of floral development in the tribe and to establish apomorphic and plesiomorphic floral characters in relation to other taxa within the family based on the current molecular phylogeny of Meliaceae. A detailed floral structural and developmental study was completed using both scanning electron microscopy and visualization of microtome sections with a light microscope. Twelve floral developmental stages were identified. The initial development of the pentamerous flowers of both Toona and Cedrela is strikingly similar. The morphological differences observed between them are due to differential patterns of organ elongation and adnation/connation occurring late in development. Additionally, the formation of functionally male and female flowers was found to occur at specific positions within the inflorescence. Due to the basal position of the tribe Cedreleae in the phylogeny of Meliaceae, functionally either male or female pentamerous flowers and the presence of (at least partially) free stamens may be considered plesiomorphic traits within the family. In contrast, sympetaly and the absence of nectaries in Cedrela species are synapomorphies.
Shawn A. LaRoche; Tracey LeBeau; Innovation Investments, LLC
The Lower Brule Sioux Tribe is a federally recognized Indian tribe organized pursuant to the 1934 Wheeler-Howard Act (“Indian Reorganization Act”). The Lower Brule Sioux Indian Reservation lies along the west bank of Lake Francis Case and Lake Sharpe, which were created by the Fort Randall and Big Bend dams of the Missouri River pursuant to the Pick Sloan Act. The grid accessible at the Big Bend Dam facility operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is less than one mile of the wind farm contemplated by the Tribe in this response. The low-head hydroelectric turbines further being studied would be placed below the dam and would be turned by the water released from the dam itself. The riverbed at this place is within the exterior boundaries of the reservation. The low-head turbines in the tailrace would be evaluated to determine if enough renewable energy could be developed to pump water to a reservoir 500 feet above the river.
Gouvêa, Cantídio Fernando; Dornelas, Marcelo Carnier; Rodriguez, Adriana Pinheiro Martinelli
Background and Aims Floral development of Cedrela and Toona, the genera comprising the basal tribe Cedreleae of the sub-family Swietenioideae of Meliaceae, is described. The focus was on three endangered, ecologically and economically important species: Cedrela fissilis, Cedrela odorata and Toona ciliata. The aims of the study were to characterize the patterns of floral development in the tribe and to establish apomorphic and plesiomorphic floral characters in relation to other taxa within the family based on the current molecular phylogeny of Meliaceae. Methods A detailed floral structural and developmental study was completed using both scanning electron microscopy and visualization of microtome sections with a light microscope. Key Results Twelve floral developmental stages were identified. The initial development of the pentamerous flowers of both Toona and Cedrela is strikingly similar. The morphological differences observed between them are due to differential patterns of organ elongation and adnation/connation occurring late in development. Additionally, the formation of functionally male and female flowers was found to occur at specific positions within the inflorescence. Conclusions Due to the basal position of the tribe Cedreleae in the phylogeny of Meliaceae, functionally either male or female pentamerous flowers and the presence of (at least partially) free stamens may be considered plesiomorphic traits within the family. In contrast, sympetaly and the absence of nectaries in Cedrela species are synapomorphies. PMID:17981877
Full Text Available Tribe Theeae, which includes some economically important and widely grown plants, such as beverage tea and a number of woody ornamentals, is the largest member of the Theaceae family. Using five genomic regions (chloroplast: atpI-H, matK, psbA5'R-ALS-11F, rbcL; nuclear: LEAFY and 30 species representing four of the five genera in this tribe (Apterosperma, Camellia, Polyspora, and Pyrenaria s.l., we investigated the phylogeny of Theeae and assessed the delimitation of genera in the tribe. Our results showed that Polyspora was monophyletic and the sister of the three other genera of Theeae investigated, Camellia was paraphyletic and Pyrenaria was polyphyletic. The inconsistent phylogenetic placement of some species of Theeae between the nuclear and chloroplast trees suggested widespread hybridization between Camellia and Pyrenaria, Polyspora and Parapyrenaria. These results indicate that hybridization, rather than morphological homoplasy, has confused the current classification of Theeae. In addition, the phylogenetic placement and possible allies of Laplacea are also discussed.
Hall, Jocelyn C; Tisdale, Tracy E; Donohue, Kathleen; Wheeler, Andrew; Al-Yahya, Mohammed A; Kramer, Elena M
Many angiosperms have fruit morphologies that result in seeds from the same plant having different dispersal capabilities. A prime example is found in the Brassiceae (Brassicaceae), which has many members with segmented or heteroarthrocarpic fruits. Since only 40% of the genera are heteroarthrocarpic, this tribe provides an opportunity to study the evolution of an ecologically significant novelty and its variants. We analyzed nuclear (PHYA) and plastid (matK) sequences from 66 accessions using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference approaches. The evolution of heteroarthrocarpy and its variants was evaluated using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood ancestral state reconstructions. Although nuclear and plastid phylogenies are incongruent with each other, the following findings are consistent: (1) Cakile, Crambe, Vella, and Zilla lineages are monophyletic; (2) the Nigra lineage is not monophyletic; and (3) within the Cakile clade, Cakile, Didesmus, and Erucaria are paraphyletic. Despite differences in the matK and PHYA topologies at both deep and shallow nodes, similar patterns of morphological evolution emerge. Heteroarthrocarpy, a complex morphological trait, has evolved multiple times across the tribe. Moreover, there are convergent transitions in dehiscence capabilities and fruit disarticulation across the tribe. We present the first explicit analysis of fruit evolution within the Brassiceae, which exemplifies evolutionary lability. The repeated loss and gain of segment dehiscence and disarticulation suggests conservation in the genetic pathway controlling abscission with differential expression across taxa. This study provides a strong foundation for future studies of mechanisms underlying variation in dispersal capabilities of Brassiceae.
Full Text Available Feeding Diets of Ctenopoma petherici (Perciformes, Anabantidae from the Agneby River and from the Hydroelectric Lake Dam of Ayame 2 (Côte d'Ivoire. The present study describes the feeding habits of Ctenopoma petherici (Perciformes, Anabantidae in the Agneby River and in the hydroelectric Lake dam of Ayame 2. Fishes were caught monthly using gill-nets from September 2015 to August 2016. Stomach contents of 425 specimens were analysed under a magnifying glass and a microscope. The Relative Importance of Food Index has been calculated to assess the relative abundance of the preys. The general profile of the diet indicated that C. petherici feeds on insects, arachnids, molluscs, batrachians, macrophytes and algae. The insects provide the main part of the feeding and they constitute the principal prey category. Macrophytes were the secondary item while arachnids, molluscs, batrachians and algae were accessory preys. These results indicate that this species is omnivorous with an insectivorous tendency. This feeding pattern is seasonally affected, particularly in the Agneby River. However, there is no variation in the diet according to the size of the individuals.
May 28, 1985 ... Munro 1967; Allen 1982). During the course of a study of the biology of the .... predorsal scales 13-16; preorbital bone with exposed, posteriorly directed ... Figure 1 Head of Ambassidae showing ridges and edges of bones where spines of taxonomic importance occur (after Fraser-. Brunner, 1956). Table 2 ...
Abdulkarim G. Mairiga
Full Text Available Background: The Kanuri tribe is found in the Lake Chad basin. However, the majority of the tribe lives in Borno State, Nigeria. Before this study was undertaken, factors related to fertility decisions among the tribe were not known. Objectives: This study is aimed at describing and documenting the sociocultural factors affecting decisions related to fertility among the Kanuri tribe. Method: The study applied the qualitative research method. In-depth interviews and focus-group discussions were used as data collection methods. Analysis was done manually. Results: Children among the Kanuri were highly valued and desired irrespective of their gender. The ideal family size, according to most of the respondents, was 16 children. Kanuri men are polygamous and can marry up to four wives in order to form large families. However, it is an abomination among Kanuri women to fall pregnant in quick succession; a phenomenon they termed konkomi. Other reasons for child-spacing were related to child welfare and maternal well-being. Methods for child-spacing included prolonged breastfeeding (Nganji yaye, ornaments in various forms and shapes, spiritual invocations and dried herbs (Nganji Yandeye. Few Kanuri women practiced modern methods of family planning. Conclusion: Trends in fertility among the Kanuri tribe need to be monitored regularly and appropriate measures be taken to introduce and promote modern family planning and child health services to ensure a healthier family life.
Abdulkarim G. Mairiga
Full Text Available Background: The Kanuri tribe is found in the Lake Chad basin. However, the majority of the tribe lives in Borno State, Nigeria. Before this study was undertaken, factors related to fertility decisions among the tribe were not known. Objectives: This study is aimed at describing and documenting the sociocultural factors affecting decisions related to fertility among the Kanuri tribe. Method: The study applied the qualitative research method. In-depth interviews and focus-group discussions were used as data collection methods. Analysis was done manually.Results: Children among the Kanuri were highly valued and desired irrespective of their gender. The ideal family size, according to most of the respondents, was 16 children. Kanuri men are polygamous and can marry up to four wives in order to form large families. However, it is an abomination among Kanuri women to fall pregnant in quick succession; a phenomenon they termed konkomi. Other reasons for child-spacing were related to child welfare and maternal well-being. Methods for child-spacing included prolonged breastfeeding (Nganji yaye, ornaments in various forms and shapes, spiritual invocations and dried herbs (Nganji Yandeye. Few Kanuri women practiced modern methods of family planning. Conclusion: Trends in fertility among the Kanuri tribe need to be monitored regularly and appropriate measures be taken to introduce and promote modern family planning and child health services to ensure a healthier family life.
Debbarma, Maria; Pala, Nazir A; Kumar, Munesh; Bussmann, Rainer W
The present study was carried out in Mandwi area and its outskirts of Tripura district of tribal areas Autonomous district council to document the available ethno-medicinal plants and their traditional application among Mandwi tribes. Field explorations were carried out during the months of March-June 2013. The ethno-medicinal survey was conducted particularly with Tripuri tribe in Mandai area, with the help of local medicine men, locally known as bhoidho (Tripuri). Data were collected through structure questionnaires and observations during the field visits. In the present study the local population used a total of 51 plant species belonging to 32 families to cure a variety of diseases. Of the 51 plants, 21 were herbs, followed by trees (17) and shrubs (8). Climbers and ferns had reported 2 species for each one grass species was found. Fabaceae was the dominant family with the highest number of species (6) followed by Asteracae (4 species) and Lamiaceae (5 species). Seven other families had 2 species each and 22 families were represented by a single species. In case single diseases, the highest number of plants (7 species) was used for dysentery, followed by body pain (6 species), cough (6 species) and toothache (6 species). The present study concluded that, the Tripuri tribes of the study area possess rich knowledge on the medicinal plants and their utilization. Thus the present study focuses on the documentation of the traditional knowledge of these valuable plants, which could enhance the potential of these medicinal plants to other communities as well and by understanding the importance, other communities can also be helpful for conservation of these resources for further use.
Magalhães, Wagner; Alves, Márcia Angelina; Costa, Manuel F.
Optical non-invasive inspection tools and methods had expensively proven, for several decades now, their invaluable importance in the preservation of cultural heritage and artwork. In this paper we will report on an optical non-invasive microtopographic characterization work on pre-historical and pre-colonial ceramics and pottery of tribes in the Paranaiba valley in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The samples object of this work were collected at the Inhazinha archeological site (19º 10'00" S / 47° 11'00" W) in the vicinity of Perdizes municipality in transition between the West mining area and the "triangle" area in the center of Brazil. It is a hilly region (850m high) traversed by a number of rivers and streams tributary of Araguari river like Quebra Anzol river and Macaúba and Olegário streams. The Inhazinha site' excavations are part of the Project Jigsaw Hook which since 1980 aimed the establishment of a chrono-cultural framework associated with the study of the socio-cultural dynamics corresponding to successive occupations of hunter-recollector-farmer' tribes in prehistoric and pre-colonial times in the Paranaíba valley in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Two groups of indigenous Indian occupations were found. Both of the pre-colonial period dated at 1,095 ± 186 years ago (TL-FATEC/SP for Zone 1) and of the early nineteenth century dated at 212 ± 19 years ago (EMS-CENA-USP/SP) and 190 ± 30 years ago (C14- BETA/USA) in Zone 2 seemingly occupied by southern Kayapós tribes. The pottery found is decorated with incisions with different geometric distributions and levels of complexity.
Full Text Available It has been estimated that 300–500 million malaria infections occur on an annual basis and causes fatality to millions of human beings. Most of the drugs used for treatment of malaria have developed drug-resistant parasites or have serious side effects. Plant kingdom has throughout the centuries proved to be efficient source of efficacious malarial drugs like quinine and artemisinin. Since these drugs have already developed or in the process of developing drug resistance, it is important to continuously search the plant kingdom for more effective antimalarial drugs. In this aspect, the medicinal practices of indigenous communities can play a major role in identification of antimalarial plants. Bangladesh has a number of indigenous communities or tribes, who because of their living within or in close proximity to mosquito-infested forest regions, have high incidences of malaria. Over the centuries, the tribal medicinal practitioners have treated malaria with various plant-based formulations. The objective of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among various tribes of Bangladesh to identify the plants that they use for treatment of the disease. Surveys were conducted among seven tribes, namely, Bawm, Chak, Chakma, Garo, Marma, Murong, and Tripura, who inhabit the southeastern or northcentral forested regions of Bangladesh. Interviews conducted with the various tribal medicinal practitioners indicated that a total of eleven plants distributed into 10 families were used for treatment of malaria and accompanying symptoms like fever, anemia, ache, vomiting, and chills. Leaves constituted 35.7% of total uses followed by roots at 21.4%. Other plant parts used for treatment included barks, seeds, fruits, and flowers. A review of the published scientific literature showed that a number of plants used by the tribal medicinal practitioners have been scientifically validated in their uses. Taken together, the plants merit further
A diagrammatic key to the genera of the Nemoriini tribe (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) is presented and illustrated. The genera studied exhibit two main character sets, corresponding to the Nemoria lineage and the Phrudocentra lineage. The spatulate type of uncus is associated with multicolor wing markings on both hemispheres. A rod-shaped uncus, often slightly bulbed at its tip, is common in the Neotropics, the genera involved having their wing markings reduced to white lines or brown-grey vein marks on a plain green ground color.
Founder of Practical Strategy Consulting, Christopher Duncan is the bestselling author of Unite the Tribes and The Career Programmer. He's been a frequent guest on radio shows across the country, his monthly columns have been read by hundreds of thousands worldwide, and he is widely acclaimed for his immensely practical approach to success in the real world where self interest and office politics are often more prevalent than common sense. This keen insight does not come by accident. Christopher has an unusually diverse background which includes a career in sales consulting, life as a professi
Zoya M. Tsymbalyuk
Full Text Available Pollen grains of 22 species from 6 genera of the tribe Antirrhineae (Veronicaceae were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. Pollen grains of the studied species are 3-colporate, prolate, spheroidal and oblate-spheroidal, small and middle-sized. It is established that pollen grains are characterized by the common sculpture type, which is reticulate. Diagnostic features at the genus level are the structure of apertures and sculpture, shape and size of pollen grains. Pollen morphology supports the suggestion of a close relationship between Linaria, Antirrhinum, Misopates andCymbalaria. The genera Chaenorhinumand Kickxiahave the distinctive palynomorphological characters.
... submit in order to meet the planning phase requirements? 1000.50 Section 1000.50 Indians OFFICE OF THE... seeking a planning grant submit in order to meet the planning phase requirements? A Tribe/Consortium must... the Tribe/Consortium is free from material audit exceptions. In order to meet this requirement, a...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false If a Self-Governance Tribe objects to the... SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Appeals Appeals of An Immediate Reassumption of A Self-Governance Program § 137.444 If a Self-Governance Tribe objects to the recommended decision, what action will the Secretary...
... eligible to participate in self-governance? 137.18 Section 137.18 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... SELF-GOVERNANCE Selection of Indian Tribes for Participation in Self-Governance § 137.18 What criteria must an Indian Tribe satisfy to be eligible to participate in self-governance? To be eligible to...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe negotiate a funding agreement for a term longer or shorter than one year? 137.78 Section 137.78 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH... SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Funding General § 137.78 May a Self-Governance Tribe negotiate a funding...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe retain and spend... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Funding Interest Or Other Income on Transfers § 137.100 May a Self-Governance Tribe retain and spend interest earned on any funds paid under a compact...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe receive statutorily mandated grant funding in an annual lump sum advance payment? 137.65 Section 137.65 Public Health PUBLIC... HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Statutorily Mandated Grants § 137.65 May a Self-Governance Tribe...
Sedwal, Mona; Kamat, Sangeeta
The Scheduled Castes (SCs, also known as Dalits) and Scheduled Tribes (STs, also known as Adivasis) are among the most socially and educationally disadvantaged groups in India. This paper examines issues concerning school access and equity for Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe communities and also highlights their unique problems, which may…
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Do the wage and labor standards in the Davis-Bacon Act....407 Do the wage and labor standards in the Davis-Bacon Act apply to Tribes and Tribal Consortia? No, wage and labor standards of the Davis-Bacon Act do not apply to employees of Tribes and Tribal...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe retain and expend any... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Funding Program Income § 137.110 May a Self-Governance... Medicare, Medicaid, or other program income earned by a Self-Governance Tribe shall be treated as...
...? A Self-Governance Tribe is under a duty to invest and manage the funds as a prudent investor would... overall investment strategy, which should incorporate risk and return objectives reasonably suitable to... to the investment responsibilities of the Self-Governance Tribe. Carryover of Funds ...
... make a claim against a Self-Governance Tribe relating to any disallowance of costs, based on an audit...-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Audits and Cost Principles § 137.169 How much time does the Federal Government have to make a claim against a Self-Governance Tribe relating to any disallowance of costs, based...
..., has expired, and the Tribes offer is deemed accepted by operation of law, are there any exceptions to... SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Final Offer § 137.137 If the 45 day review period or extension thereto, has expired, and the Tribes offer is deemed...
... Tribe, under the authority of the Constitution and By-Laws of the Tribe (hereinafter referred to as the... commence and must remain in effect as provided by Federal law or agreement of the parties. Section 2... due process right under the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968, 25 U.S.C. 1301, et seq., to protect all...
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does a tribe that holds a certificate of self-regulation... NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS SELF REGULATION OF CLASS II GAMING § 518.8 Does a tribe that holds a certificate of self-regulation have a continuing duty to...
... provisions on conflict of interest to take the place of this regulation? 900.236 Section 900.236 Indians... Interest § 900.236 May an Indian tribe elect to negotiate contract provisions on conflict of interest to... Indian tribe's own written code of ethics satisfies the objectives of the personal conflicts provisions...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does a Self-Governance Tribe learn whether self... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Savings § 137.211 How does a Self-Governance Tribe learn whether self-governance activities have resulted in savings as...
Full Text Available Abstract Background A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of tobacco related practices on oral health of tribes in Central India. The use of smokeless tobacco, gutkha & associated products is on the rise amongst the younger generation making oral precancer & cancer a public health concern. Methodology A pioneering study was conducted to evaluate the tobacco related practices amongst tribes and its impact on oral health. The study included 411 tribals of the Baiga group. Guided dialogue techniques and proforma based evaluation formed a part of the study. Result 53.04% of individuals between 21 to 40yrs are addicted to deleterious habits. There is a marked consumption (72% of tobacco & associated products among the geriatric population (60 yrs & above.Insecure livelihoods, malnutrition & increased stress levels contribute to the stark increase of addiction of tobacco related practices. Conclusion The healthcare infrastructure needs to be upgraded to meet the demands of changing disease profile amongst the vulnerable population. Assessment of impact of disease on existing public health would enable formulation of adaptive measures and suggestions for amelioration.
Chakravorty, Jharna; Ghosh, Sampat; Meyer-Rochow, V Benno
A consolidated list of edible insects used in the eastern part of Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India) by Wangcho (Wancho) and Nocte tribes of the Tirap District and the Shingpo, Tangsa, Deori and Chakma of the Changlang District has been prepared. The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 51 insect species, belonging to 9 orders were considered edible. The largest number of the edible species belonged to the Coleoptera (14), followed by 10 each of the Orthoptera and Hymenoptera, 9 of the Hemiptera, 3 Lepidoptera, 2 Isoptera and one each of Ephemeroptera, Odonata and Mantodea. As far as therapeutic uses of insects are concerned, 4 species (Hemiptera) were mentioned by the Wangcho (Wancho). Food insects are chosen by members of the various tribes according to traditional beliefs, taste, regional and seasonal availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only certain, but sometimes all, developmental stages are consumed. Preparation of the food insects for consumption involves mainly roasting or boiling. With the degradation of natural resources, habitat loss, rapid population growth, and increasing 'westernization' , the traditional wisdom of North-East Indian tribals related to insect uses is at risk of being lost.
Bahri, S.; Abbas, A.; Bakar, N. N.
In this paper, some mathematical models that state the tribe of the family members in Nagari Luhak Limopuluh Koto West Sumatera, Indonesia were built. The models were constructed by using the marriage rule and the ethnic data of Minangkabau community which embrace the matrilineal system. The marriage rule prohibits the same inter-tribal marriage while the matrilineal system causes the mother, child, and sibling tribes to be equal. Therefore, the matrices formed by marriage rule, mother-son tribal relation, someone-his/her sibling tribal relation, and the transpose of the matrices, are used in matrix multiplication to obtain the tribal models. The models are consecutively A, AC’, (AC’)B, ((AC’)B)W’, ((AC’)B)C, ((AC’)B)W, ((AC’)W’ for Denai, Denai’s mother, the sister of Denai’s mother, the brother of Denai’s mother, the husband of Denai’s mother’s sister, the son of Denai’s mother’s sister, the wife of Denai’s mother’s brother, and the Denai’s father models.
Lasley, Larry C. [Sac & Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa
1.2 Overview The Meskwaki Nation will obtain an anemometer tower. Install the tower at the site that has been pre-qualified as the site most likely to produce maximum electric power from the wind. It will collect meteorological data from the tower's sensors for a one year period, as required for due diligence to identify the site as appropriate for the installation of a wind turbine to provide electric power for the community. Have the collected data analyzed by a meteorologist and a professionally certified wind engineer to produce the reports of expected power generation at the site, for the specific wind turbine(s) under consideration for installation. 1.2.1 Goals of the Tribe The feasibility study reports, including technical and business analyses will be used to obtain contracts and financing required to develop and implement a wind turbine project on the Meskwaki Settlement. Our goal is to produce two (2) mega watts of power and to reduce the cost for electricity currently being paid by the Meskwaki Casino. 1.2.2 Project Objectives Meet the energy needs of the community with clean energy. Bring renewable energy to the settlement in a responsible, affordable manner. Maximize both the economic and the spiritual benefits to the tribe from energy independence. Integrate the Tribe's energy policies with its economic development goals. Contribute to achieving the Tribe's long-term goals of self-determination and sovereignty. 1.2.3 Project Location The precise location proposed for the tower is at the following coordinates: 92 Degrees, 38 Minutes, 46.008 Seconds West Longitude 41 Degrees, 59 Minutes, 45.311 Seconds North Latitude. A circle of radius 50.64 meters, enclosing and area of 1.98 acres in PLSS Township T83N, Range R15W, in Iowa. In relative directions, the site is 1,650 feet due west of the intersection of Highway 30 and 305th Street in Tama, Iowa, as approached from the direction of Toledo, Iowa. It is bounded on the north by Highway 30 and
Allgood, Tiffany [Coeur d' Alene Tribe, Plummer, ID (United States). Environmental Programs Office, Natural Resources Dept.; Alexie, James [Coeur d' Alene Tribe, Plummer, ID (United States); Nomee, Alfred [Coeur d' Alene Tribe, Plummer, ID (United States)
The Coeur d’Alene Reservation has been the home of the Coeur d’Alene Tribe since time immemorial and it is fitting that the Tribe’s name in the Coeur d’Alene language is schitsu’umsh, “the ones who were found here.” The Reservation is located in northern Idaho, is approximately 345,000 acres and is comprised of forest land, agricultural land, several streams, Coeur d’Alene Lake and the St. Joe River and a small amount of developed land. The project area was conducted within the boundaries of the Coeur d’Alene Reservation. The population of the Reservation is 6,760 (2010 Census). Currently, there are approximately 2,463 enrolled Coeur d’Alene Tribal members (Coeur d’Alene Tribe Enrollment 2016). The Benewah Market is a Tribally-owned and operated facility located at 1111 B St. Plummer, ID 83851. The Benewah Market is an approximately 23,500 square foot single-story structure. The majority of the building is occupied by a grocery store with a full meat department, deli, and bakery. Approximately 20% of the floor area at the northeast corner is occupied by an Ace Hardware retailer. The largest part of the building is approximately 17,000 square feet, is separately metered and houses the grocery store which was constructed in 1984. The market is the largest full service market serving the Coeur d’Alene Reservation and is the only full service market in a 35-mile radius. The Tribe has benefited greatly from the Benewah Market Energy Efficiency Project and will continue to do so for many years: The health and safety of the food has been improved greatly now that the refrigeration and freezer cases are at a constant and safe temperature on a monitoring and alarm system. There is no longer a thaw and freeze cycle that allows fluctuations in temperature. If the power goes out, there is an immediate alarm and contact so that time may be tracked and food kept safe during an outage. The overall annual energy use in the Benewah Market has dropped by 22
Moreira, Renan A; Gomes, Ulisses L; de Carvalho, Marcelo R
Claspers of adult specimens of the skate tribe Riorajini, family Arhynchobatidae, comprising Atlantoraja and Rioraja, are described, compared, and systematically reinterpreted based on material collected off southeastern and southern Brazil. For the first time the external components and musculature of the clasper of members of this tribe are described and related to internal (skeletal) structures. The component pecten is present in all species of Atlantoraja but absent in Rioraja. The new external component grip, an autapomorphy of A. cyclophora fully developed in adults, is described. Rioraja presents dorsal terminals 1 and 2, ventral marginal distally extended and ventral terminal cartilages. Dorsal terminals 1 and 2, ventral marginal distally extended, accessory terminals 2 and 3, and ventral terminal cartilages occur in Atlantoraja. A new interpretation of the ventral marginal distally extended is discussed. The dorsal terminal 1 of Atlantoraja has an inverted U shape but is triangular in Rioraja. The accessory terminal 2 cartilage is reported for the first time in Atlantoraja cyclophora. The accessory terminal 3 is present only in A. platana and A. cyclophora, and absent in Rioraja and A. castelnaui. Many of our findings concerning the clasper skeleton do not agree with previous interpretations. The arrangement, distribution and systematic significance of many of the terminal clasper components are discussed among rajoids. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available The Barringtonia asiatica is a medium size tree commonly found in Car Nicobar Island known for its ichthyotoxic property. It grows on sandy and rocky shore areas and has lantern shaped seeds, locally called Kinyav used during the calm season in shallow and low tide waters for killing fishes, octopus, etc. At every successful operation they harvest about 1–3 kg and on the whole about 10–20 kg of fishes per trip. This method of fish catching was popular among the Car Nicobari tribes until massive tsunami of 26th December, 2004, which caused dislocation of tribes from their erstwhile coastal inhabitations to interior areas, damage of coral reefs, permanent water intrusion in the intertidal area and destruction of Kinyav trees. Hence, now-a-days the popularity of this fishing method among them has diminished. The study not only reveals the usefulness of seeds in harvesting of fishes but also the utilization of other parts of tree such as leaves for therapeutic purpose in fracture, wound, de-worming, pain relieving of human beings; log for construction of canoe, wooden houses, sitting stage, handicraft items, fire wood and whole tree for preventing the coastal erosion.
Full Text Available The present study focused on the evolution of the karyotype in four genera of the tribe Pholidopterini: Eupholidoptera Mařan, 1953, Parapholidoptera Mařan, 1953, Pholidoptera Wesmaël, 1838, Uvarovistia Mařan, 1953. Chromosomes were analyzed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with 18S rDNA and (TTAGGn telomeric probes, and classical techniques, such as C-banding, silver impregnation and fluorochrome DAPI/CMA3 staining. Most species retained the ancestral diploid chromosome number 2n = 31 (male or 32 (female, while some of the taxa, especially a group of species within genus Pholidoptera, evolved a reduced chromosome number 2n = 29. All species show the same sex determination system X0/XX. In some taxa, a pericentric inversion has changed the morphology of the ancestral acrocentric X chromosome to the biarmed X. The rDNA loci coincided with active NORs and C-band/CG-rich segments. A comparison of the location of the single rDNA/NOR in the genus Pholidoptera suggests that reduced chromosome number results from Robertsonian translocation between two pairs of autosomes, one carrying the rDNA/NOR. The results constitute a step towards better understanding of the chromosomal reorganization and evolution within the tribe Phaneropterini and the whole subfamily Tettigoniinae.
coined by Durkheim , a contemporary of Weber. It is a social disorder within which society does not propose reliable values to individuals helping them to...societies, as Durkheim argued, are vulnerable to secessions. A band of young men unified by brotherhood of arms can split from the clan and... Durkheim , De la division du travail social, Presses Universitaires de France, Paris p. 123-124. Kilcullen underscores the tendency of the pasthun
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bovinae subfamily incorporates an array of antelope, buffalo and cattle species. All of the members of this subfamily have diverged recently. Not surprisingly, a number of phylogenetic studies from molecular and morphological data have resulted in ambiguous trees and relationships amongst species, especially for Yak and Bison species. A partial phylogenetic reconstruction of 13 extant members of the Bovini tribe (Bovidae, Bovinae from 15 complete or partially sequenced autosomal genes is presented. Results We identified 3 distinct lineages after the Bovini split from the Boselaphini and Tragelaphini tribes, which has lead to the (1 Buffalo clade (Bubalus and Syncerus species and a more recent divergence leading to the (2 Banteng, Gaur and Mithan and (3 Domestic cattle clades. A fourth lineage may also exist that leads to Bison and Yak. However, there was some ambiguity as to whether this was a divergence from the Banteng/Gaur/Mithan or the Domestic cattle clade. From an analysis of approximately 30,000 sites that were amplified in all species 133 sites were identified with ambiguous inheritance, in that all trees implied more than one mutation at the same site. Closer examination of these sites has identified that they are the result of ancient polymorphisms that have subsequently undergone lineage sorting in the Bovini tribe, of which 53 have remained polymorphic since Bos and Bison species last shared a common ancestor with Bubalus between 5–8 million years ago (MYA. Conclusion Uncertainty arises in our phylogenetic reconstructions because many species in the Bovini diverged over a short period of time. It appears that a number of sites with ambiguous inheritance have been maintained in subsequent populations by chance (lineage sorting and that they have contributed to an association between Yak and Domestic cattle and an unreliable phylogenetic reconstruction for the Bison/Yak clade. Interestingly, a number of these
MacEachern, Sean; McEwan, John; Goddard, Mike
The Bovinae subfamily incorporates an array of antelope, buffalo and cattle species. All of the members of this subfamily have diverged recently. Not surprisingly, a number of phylogenetic studies from molecular and morphological data have resulted in ambiguous trees and relationships amongst species, especially for Yak and Bison species. A partial phylogenetic reconstruction of 13 extant members of the Bovini tribe (Bovidae, Bovinae) from 15 complete or partially sequenced autosomal genes is presented. We identified 3 distinct lineages after the Bovini split from the Boselaphini and Tragelaphini tribes, which has lead to the (1) Buffalo clade (Bubalus and Syncerus species) and a more recent divergence leading to the (2) Banteng, Gaur and Mithan and (3) Domestic cattle clades. A fourth lineage may also exist that leads to Bison and Yak. However, there was some ambiguity as to whether this was a divergence from the Banteng/Gaur/Mithan or the Domestic cattle clade. From an analysis of approximately 30,000 sites that were amplified in all species 133 sites were identified with ambiguous inheritance, in that all trees implied more than one mutation at the same site. Closer examination of these sites has identified that they are the result of ancient polymorphisms that have subsequently undergone lineage sorting in the Bovini tribe, of which 53 have remained polymorphic since Bos and Bison species last shared a common ancestor with Bubalus between 5-8 million years ago (MYA). Uncertainty arises in our phylogenetic reconstructions because many species in the Bovini diverged over a short period of time. It appears that a number of sites with ambiguous inheritance have been maintained in subsequent populations by chance (lineage sorting) and that they have contributed to an association between Yak and Domestic cattle and an unreliable phylogenetic reconstruction for the Bison/Yak clade. Interestingly, a number of these aberrant sites are in coding sections of the genome
Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of schizophrenia is thought to be higher in population isolates that have recently been exposed to major and accelerated cultural change, accompanied by ensuing socio-environmental stressors/triggers, than in dominant, mainstream societies. We investigated the prevalence and phenomenology of schizophrenia in 329 females and 253 males of a Southwestern American Indian tribe, and in 194 females and 137 males of a Plains American Indian tribe. These tribal groups were evaluated as part of a broader program of gene-environment investigations of alcoholism and other psychiatric disorders. Methods Semi-structured psychiatric interviews were conducted to allow diagnoses utilizing standardized psychiatric diagnostic criteria, and to limit cultural biases. Study participants were recruited from the community on the basis of membership in pedigrees, and not by convenience. After independent raters evaluated the interviews blindly, DSM-III-R diagnoses were assigned by a consensus of experts well-versed in the local cultures. Results Five of the 582 Southwestern American Indian respondents (prevalence = 8.6 per 1000, and one of the 331 interviewed Plains American Indians (prevalence = 3.02 per 1000 had a lifetime diagnosis of schizophrenia. The lifetime prevalence rates of schizophrenia within these two distinct American Indian tribal groups is consistent with lifetime expectancy rates reported for the general United States population and most isolate and homogeneous populations for which prevalence rates of schizophrenia are available. While we were unable to factor in the potential modifying effect that mortality rates of schizophrenia-suffering tribal members may have had on the overall tribal rates, the incidence of schizophrenia among the living was well within the normative range. Conclusion The occurrence of schizophrenia among members of these two tribal population groups is consistent with prevalence rates reported for
... be based on the per capita income of the service population of the Indian tribe, tribal organization... income includes tribal payments to members (it does) and whether the data source makes any adjustments to..., noting that it was the only data source we identified that included per capita income data for all the...
... self-governance per year? 1000.15 Section 1000.15 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN... Participation in Tribal Self-Governance Eligibility § 1000.15 How many additional Tribes/Consortia may participate in self-governance per year? (a) Sections 402(b) and (c) of the Act authorize the Director to...
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium invest funds received under a self-governance agreement? 1000.398 Section 1000.398 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... invest funds received under a self-governance agreement? Yes, self-governance funds may be invested if...
... disapproval of pre-existing energy-related leases, business agreements, and rights-of-way; (e) The... final proposed TERA or the tribe's plans for establishing that expertise; (f) The financial capacity of... past performance monitoring activities undertaken by third parties under approved leases, business...
... payments for General Assistance? 20.205 Section 20.205 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Welfare Reform § 20.205 Can tribes change eligibility criteria or levels of payments for General Assistance? Yes, if you have a...
... Notification to Native American Tribes of Transportation of Certain Types of Nuclear Waste AGENCY: Nuclear... fuel and certain nuclear wastes for any shipment that passes within or across their reservations. The... irradiated reactor fuel and certain nuclear waste passing through or across the boundary of their States...
... planning organizations, and local and municipal governments, on transportation matters of common concern. ...' planning organizations and local governments in the development of their IRRTIP? 170.108 Section 170.108... § 170.108 Should Indian tribes and BIA consult with States' planning organizations and local governments...
... different types of energy resources? 224.64 Section 224.64 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 224.64 How may a tribe assume management of development of different types of energy resources... develop that type of energy resource and will trigger the public notice and opportunity for comment...
We present phylogenetic analyses of 37 taxa of Amaryllidaceae, tribe Haemantheae and Amaryllis belladonna L. as an outgroup, in order to provide a phylogenetic framework for the selection of candidate plants for lead discoveries in relation to Alzheimer´s disease and depression. DNA sequences from t...
Traditionally an urban problem, gang involvement is growing on Native American reservations. This digest examines common factors in gang development and one tribe's response through a Native-centric education and juvenile justice system. The sum of handicaps associated with gang involvement has been termed "multiple marginality," and…
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a site be used for commercial enterprises other than fishing enterprises by the tribes? 247.19 Section 247.19 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE USE OF COLUMBIA RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.19 Can a site...
... Centers regarding disclosure and release of the patient records stored pursuant to § 137.178? Yes, a Self... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe make agreements with the Federal Records Centers regarding disclosure and release of the patient records stored pursuant to...
... Reservation, South SD, Meade, SD, Perkins, SD, Dakota. Potter, SD, Stanley, SD, Sully, SD, Walworth, SD...\\ Cheyenne Indian Reservation, Montana. Rosebud, MT. Northwestern Band of Shoshoni Nation of Box Elder, UT... Service Unit population since 1979. \\35\\ Land of Box Elder County, Utah, taken into trust for the Tribe in...
..., Meade, SD, Perkins, SD, Dakota. Potter, SD, Stanley, SD, Sully, SD, Walworth, SD, Ziebach, SD. Chippewa...\\ Cheyenne Indian Reservation, Montana. Rosebud, MT. Northwestern Band of Shoshoni Nation of Box Elder, UT... Service Unit population since 1979. \\35\\ Land of Box Elder County, Utah, taken into trust for the Tribe in...
... of self-regulation? 518.4 Section 518.4 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS SELF REGULATION OF CLASS II GAMING § 518.4 What criteria must a tribe meet to receive a certificate of self-regulation? (a) The Commission shall issue a certificate of self-regulation...
... regulation? 1000.223 Section 1000.223 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Waiver of Regulations § 1000.223 When can a Tribe/Consortium...
... entered into under the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. § 450f et seq.). ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can these regulations be administered by tribes, on the... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS General Provisions § 162.110 Can these regulations be...
... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What information on minimum work participation requirements must a Tribe include in its Tribal Family Assistance Plan? 286.80 Section 286.80 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT...
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What if a tribe fails to substantially perform work under a contract or agreement? 170.621 Section 170.621 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Service Delivery for Indian Reservation Roads Contracts and Agreements Under Isdeaa §...
Walter Gabriel Canto-Maza
Full Text Available Se analizó el contenido estomacal de Lagodon rhomboides (Sparidae, la especie más abundante de pez en la zona de pastos marinos en la laguna de Chelem, Yucatán, México. Los especímenes se recolectaron utilizando un chinchorro playero en ocho estaciones distribuidas aleatoriamente durante julio, septiembre y noviembre del 2002. Los componentes tróficos fueron analizados por medio del porcentaje de la abundancia relativa (%A y la frecuencia de presencia (FO. La similitud trófica entre las diferentes etapas ontogénicas fue determinada usando el índice de Bray-Curtis. Se analizaron un total de 90 contenidos estomacales. Esta especie es omnívora e incluye en su alimentación componentes tanto de origen vegetal como animal; muestra una amplia generalización trófica con 58 componentes alimenticios. La variación trófica ontogénica fue significativa con una progresión alimenticia de una etapa alimenticia a la siguiente. Los individuos de menos talla, consumen preferentemente presas planctónicas y microcrustáceos s (4.0 - 8.0 cm de LE, mientras que en los de mayor talla, los macrocrustáceos (carideos, poliquetos y macrófitas constituyen el alimento principal.Feeding habits of the fish Lagodon rhomboides (Perciformes: Sparidae at the coastal lagoon of Chelem, Yucatán, México. Stomach contents of Lagodon rhomboides, the most abundant fish species from seagrass beds in Chelem Lagoon, Yucatan, Mexico, were analyzed. The specimens were collected using a beach seine at eight stations distributed randomly in the lagoon during July, September and November 2002. The trophic components were analyzed by means of the relative abundance (%A and frequency of occurrence (FO indices. The trophic similarity between different ontogenetic stages was determined using the Bray-Curtis Index. A total of 90 stomach contents were analyzed. This species is omnivorous, including vegetal and animal material and has a wide trophic spectrum with 58 alimentary
Liu, Tzu-Ming; Lu, Dau-Jye
We show that tourism activities severely impact the ecology of Orchid Island, its natural resources, and the culture of the Tao tribe. For example, highway widening, in response to the increased traffic volumes caused by tourism, required many Pandanus trees to be cut and removed, which has placed the coconut crabs in danger of extinction. To promote eco-tourism, observation trips to observe Elegant Scops owls and Birdwing butterflies have taken place, which has affected the breeding of these two protected species. The Elegant Scops owls- and Birdwing butterflies-related tourism activities also break the "evil spirits" taboo of the Tao people and have caused the disappearance of the specifications for using traditional natural resources, causing natural ecosystems to face the threat of excessive use. In addition to promoting and advocating aboriginal tourism of the Tao people on Orchid Island, the Taiwanese government should help the Tao people to develop a management model that combines traditional regulations and tourism activities.
"Traditional" wetland physical assessment modules do not adequately identify Tribal cultural values of wetlands and thus wetlands may not be adequately protected for cultural uses. This Swinomish Wetlands Cultural Assessment Project has developed a cultural resource scoring module that can be incorporated into wetland assessments to better inform wetland protections. Local native knowledge was gathered about the traditional uses of 99 native wetland plant species. A cultural scoring matrix was developed based on the presence of traditionally used plants in several use categories including: construction, ceremonial, subsistence, medicinal, common use, plant rarity, and place of value for each wetland. The combined score of the cultural and physcial modules provides an overall wetland score that relates to proscribed buffer protection widths. With this local native knowledge incorporated into wetland assessments, we are protecting and preserving Swinomish Reservation wetlands for both cultural uses and ecological functionality through the Tribe's wetland protection law.
Brockie, Teresa N; Dana-Sacco, Gail; López, Miriam Maga; Wetsit, Lawrence
A community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, particularly relevant when collecting data on sensitive topics, was employed to partner with reservation tribes to assess suicide risk among Native American (NA) youth. To share relationship-building strategies used by an NA research team to build a partnership for collecting data. Our collective knowledge was used to cultivate a deeper understanding of the community, build trust, and partner to engage in a respectful tribally appropriate research process. This approach provided a solid foundation for our inquiry on risk and protective factors for youth suicide. A culturally grounded approach recognizes the importance of (1) ethnic concordance, (2) cultural acceptance, (3) taking time to build trust, and (4) using CBPR principles. Significant participation of Native researchers in sensitive topics research with tribal communities is a promising strategy for trust building and partnership development. Understanding tribal context is imperative.
Full Text Available The legume tribe Genisteae comprises 618, predominantly temperate species, showing an amphi-Atlantic distribution that was caused by several long-distance dispersal events. Seven out of the 16 authenticated rhizobial genera can nodulate particular Genisteae species. Bradyrhizobium predominates among rhizobia nodulating Genisteae legumes. Bradyrhizobium strains that infect Genisteae species belong to both the Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii superclades. In symbiotic gene phylogenies, Genisteae bradyrhizobia are scattered among several distinct clades, comprising strains that originate from phylogenetically distant legumes. This indicates that the capacity for nodulation of Genisteae spp. has evolved independently in various symbiotic gene clades, and that it has not been a long-multi-step process. The exception is Bradyrhizobium Clade II, which unlike other clades comprises strains that are specialized in nodulation of Genisteae, but also Loteae spp. Presumably, Clade II represents an example of long-lasting co-evolution of bradyrhizobial symbionts with their legume hosts.
Grulich, I.; Nosek, J.; Szabó, L.
Small rodents and insectivores have become the main reservoirs of tick-borne encephalitis virus. In order, therefore, to demonstrate the dynamic and structural changes occurring in a natural focus of tick-borne encephalitis, information has been collected on the distribution, habitat, life-cycle, population density and extent of tick infestation of the rodents and insectivores that inhabit the Tribeč region and adjacent parts of the Hronský Inovec Mountains. The following mammals are discussed: Sciurus vulgaris, Citellus citellus, Glis glis, Muscardinus avellanarius, Mus musculus, Micromys minutus, Apodemus flavicollis, A. sylvaticus, Microtus arvalis, Pitymys subterraneus, Clethrionomys glareolus, Arvicola terrestris, Sorex araneus, S. minutus, Neomys fodiens, N. anomalus, Crocidura suaveolens, C. leucodon, Erinaceus roumanicus and Talpa europaea. Many of these are important reservoirs of virus. PMID:5298539
Engel, R. A.' Zoellick, J J.
From July 2005 to July 2007, the Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in the implementation of a program designed to build the Tribe’s own capacity to improve energy efficiency and maintain and repair renewable energy systems in Tribal homes on the Yurok Reservation. Funding for this effort was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Tribal Program under First Steps grant award #DE-FG36-05GO15166. The program’s centerpiece was a house-by-house needs assessment, in which Tribal staff visited and conducted energy audits at over fifty homes. The visits included assessment of household energy efficiency and condition of existing renewable energy systems. Staff also provided energy education to residents, evaluated potential sites for new household renewable energy systems, and performed minor repairs as needed on renewable energy systems.
Moreno-Salazar, S F; Robles-Zepeda, R E; Johnson, D E
This paper describes the herbal remedies used by ethnic groups from Sonora, Mexico, for treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. Twelve types of these illnesses are cured using 85 different species which belong to 38 families. Thirty nine spp. are used to treat diarrhea, 28 for stomach-ache, 12 for constipation, 9 for intestinal parasites, 6 for indigestion, 3 for stomach or intestinal cancer, 3 for stomach inflammation and only 1 to treat gastrointestinal sicknesses, ulcers, gastritis, colitis and colic. Regarding the use of species of plant per ethnic group the following was observed: Mayo 47; Seri, 27; Yaqui, 13; Guarijio, 12, Pima, 5 and Papago, 3. The plants are used by two or more tribes, for the same or different illness but always related to the gastrointestinal system.
LeCaire, Richard (Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, Nespelem, WA)
In the early 1980's the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, the Spokane Tribe of Indians and the Washington Dept. of Fish and Wildlife developed a management plan for Lake Roosevelt on the restoration and enhancement of kokanee salmon populations using hatchery out plants and the restoration of natural spawning runs. The plan was incorporated into the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) in their 1987 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife program as partial mitigation for hydropower caused fish losses resulting from the construction of Grand Coulee Dam. The Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project, as part of a basin wide effort, is evaluating the status of the natural production kokanee in streams tributary to Lakes Roosevelt and Rufus Woods and is examining entrainment through Grand Coulee Dam. The goal of this project is the protection and enhancement of the natural production kokanee in these two lakes. The project is currently collecting data under four phases or parts. Since 1991, Lake Whatcom Washington origin kokanee have been planted in considerable numbers into the waters of Lake Roosevelt. A natural production kokanee fishery has persisted in the lake since the early 1970's(Cash, 1995), (Scholz, 1991). Historical information alludes to wild Kokanee production in the San Poil River, Nespelem River, Big Sheep Creek, Ora-Pa-Ken Creek, Deep Creek and Onion Creeks. The genetic makeup of the fish within the fishery is unknown, as is their contribution to the fishery. The level of influence by the hatchery out planted stock on wild fish stocks is unknown as well. Project outcomes will indicate the genetic fitness for inclusion of natural production kokanee stocks into current Bonneville Power Administration funded hatchery programs. Other findings may determine contribution/interaction of/between wild/hatchery kokanee stocks found in the waters of Lake Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Che, Jing; Hu, Jian-sheng; Zhou, Wei-wei; Murphy, Robert W; Papenfuss, Theodore J; Chen, Ming-yong; Rao, Ding-qi; Li, Pi-peng; Zhang, Ya-ping
The anuran tribe Paini, family Dicroglossidae, is known in this group only from Asia. The phylogenetic relationships and often the taxonomic recognition of species are controversial. In order to stabilize the classification, we used approximately 2100 bp of nuclear (rhodopsin, tyrosinase) and mitochondrial (12S, 16S rRNA) DNA sequence data to infer the phylogenetic relationships of these frogs. Phylogenetic trees reconstructed using Bayesian inference and maximum parsimony methods supported a monophyletic tribe Paini. Two distinct groups (I,II) were recovered with the mtDNA alone and the total concatenated data (mtDNA+nuDNA). The recognition of two genera, Quasipaa and Nanorana, was supported. Group I, Quasipaa, is widespread east of the Hengduan Mountain Ranges and consists of taxa from relatively low elevations in southern China, Vietnam and Laos. Group II, Nanorana, contains a mix of species occurring from high to low elevation predominantly in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and Hengduan Mountain Ranges. The occurrence of frogs at high elevations appears to be a derived ecological condition. The composition of some major species groups based on morphological characteristics strongly conflicts with the molecular analysis. Some possible cryptic species are indicated by the molecular analyses. The incorporation of genetic data from type localities helped to resolve some of the taxonomic problems, although further combined analyses of morphological data from type specimens are required. The two nuDNA gene segments proved to be very informative for resolving higher phylogenetic relationships and more nuclear data should be explored to be more confident in the relationships.
M G Deo
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Urban and rural India are both going through health epidemiological transition and will soon face huge burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs. Information on the status of NCDs in tribals is limited. Although the prevalence of hypertension in scheduled tribes (STs has been studied in several states by the National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau, tribe-specific data are very scanty. The objective of this study was to generate data on the status of hypertension and diabetes, the two objectively measurable NCDs in Katkaris, the dominant ST in the Raigad district of coastal Maharashtra. Methods: The study was conducted in 410 adult Katkaris (women 219 of both sexes of ≥18 years of age in three adjoining tehsils of the district. Using the Institution Review Board approved protocol; information was obtained on sociodemographic parameters, educational level, dietary pattern, and substance abuse. Prevalence of overweight, hypertension, and diabetes was measured using standard field-based procedures and techniques. Results: Katkaris, who are mostly landless manual laborers, subsist on a protein-poor, imbalanced diet. About half of women and one-third of men have body mass index (BMI <18.5 kg/m2, an indication of undernutrition. On the other hand, about 2% of participants were obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2. The overall prevalence of hypertension and diabetes was 16.8% and 7.3%, respectively. Hypercholesterolemia was recorded in about 3% of the participants. Interpretation and Conclusions: Prevalence of diabetes and hypertension in Katkaris is still lower than that of urban and rural populations, closer to the latter. This may be due to the absence of known risk factors such as obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and hyperlipidemia in this community. Fast acculturation of the STs suggests that NCDs will soon become a major health issue in them too. It is time to launch a multicentric national study to gather baseline information on the
Smith, Marvin; Bose, James; Beier, Richard; Chang, Young Bae
The assets that Citizen Potawatomi Nation holds were evaluated to help define the strengths and weaknesses to be used in pursuing economic prosperity. With this baseline assessment, a Planning Team will create a vision for the tribe to integrate into long-term energy and business strategies. Identification of energy efficiency devices, systems and technologies was made, and an estimation of cost benefits of the more promising ideas is submitted for possible inclusion into the final energy plan. Multiple energy resources and sources were identified and their attributes were assessed to determine the appropriateness of each. Methods of saving energy were evaluated and reported on and potential revenue-generating sources that specifically fit the tribe were identified and reported. A primary goal is to create long-term energy strategies to explore development of tribal utility options and analyze renewable energy and energy efficiency options. Associated goals are to consider exploring energy efficiency and renewable economic development projects involving the following topics: (1) Home-scale projects may include construction of a home with energy efficiency or renewable energy features and retrofitting an existing home to add energy efficiency or renewable energy features. (2) Community-scale projects may include medium to large scale energy efficiency building construction, retrofit project, or installation of community renewable energy systems. (3) Small business development may include the creation of a tribal enterprise that would manufacture and distribute solar and wind powered equipment for ranches and farms or create a contracting business to include energy efficiency and renewable retrofits such as geothermal heat pumps. (4) Commercial-scale energy projects may include at a larger scale, the formation of a tribal utility formed to sell power to the commercial grid, or to transmit and distribute power throughout the tribal community, or hydrogen production
Stephanostomum spp. (Digenea: Acanthocolpidae from scombrids and carangids (Perciformes from the Great Barrier Reef, with the description of two new species Stephanostomum spp. (Digenea: Acanthocolpidae de escómbridos y carángidos (Perciformes del arrecife de la Gran Barrera, con descripción de dos especies nuevas
Rodney A. Bray
Full Text Available Two new species and 4 Stephanostomum spp. as new host and/or locality records from Percifomes from the Great Barrier Reef are described: Stephanostomum lamothei n. sp. from Grammatorcynus bilineatus (type-host and G. bicarinatus, Lizard Island and Swain Reefs, is characterised by its 50-55 circum-oral spines and >than 20% of the hindbody length lacking vitelline follicles; Stephanostomum Tupatupa n. sp. from Caranx papuensis, Lizard Island, is characterised by its 34-36 circum-oral spines and Se describen 2 especies nuevas del género Stephanostomum y se redescriben 4 más parásitas de perciformes del arrecife de la Gran Barrera australiana. Stephanostomum lamothei n. sp., parásito de Grammatorcynus bilineatus (hospedero-tipo y de G. bicarinatus, de la isla Lizard y de los arrecifes Swain, se caracteriza por sus 50-55 espinas circumorales y por carecer de folículos vitelinos en más del 20% de la longitud del cuerpo; Stephanostomum Tupatupa n. sp. de Caranx papuensis de la isla Lizard, exhibe como rasgos diagnósticos 34-36 espinas circumorales y folículos vitelinos en menos del 8% de la longitud del cuerpo; Stephanostomum ditrematis (Yamaguti, 1939 se registra en Gnathanodon speciosus de las islas Heron y Lizard; Stephanostomum hawaiiense Yamaguti, 1970 y Stephanostomum carangi Liu, 1998 se recolectaron en Carangoides fulvoguttatus y finalmente, Stephanostomum nyoomwa Bray and Cribb, 2003 se encontró parasitando a Caranx sexfasciatus, ambos peces de la isla Lizard.
Indopamphantus makutaensis, a new genus and species, and Indopamphantini, a new tribe of Pamphantinae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Geocoridae), as the first representative of the subfamily from the Oriental Region.
Malipatil, M B
Indopamphantini trib. nov., a new tribe of subfamily Pamphantinae of family Geocoridae, is erected for Indopamphantus gen. nov., containing one species, I. makutaensis sp. nov., as the first member of this subfamily from the Oriental Region. The strikingly myrmecomorphic I. makutaensis, collected only from Makuta range area within Coorg [Kodagu] district at altitudes of up to 909 metres in the canopy of Vateria indica L. (Dipterocarpaceae), a tree indigenous to the Western Ghats in south India, is described and illustrated. The affinities of the new tribe with other tribes within the Pamphantinae as well with other related subfamilies of Geocoridae and families of Lygaeoidea are discussed. The Geocoridae and Pamphantinae are redefined to accommodate this new tribe.
Rolf L. Aalbu
Full Text Available The tribe Eschatoporini Blaisdell, 1906 is reinstated, based on molecular and morphological data, and the spelling corrected as Eschatoporiini. The tribe currently includes only the cave-dwelling genus Eschatoporis Blaisdell, 1906 from California, which is associated with underground aquifers. A second species of Eschatoporis is described from a cave in Napa County, California. The phylogenetic placement of Eschatoporiini within the Lagriinae is examined, and notes on the biology of Eschatoporis are provided.
Luis Anderson Ribeiro Leite
Full Text Available External morphology of the adult of Dynamine postverta (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Biblidinae and patterns of morphological similarity among species from eight tribes of Nymphalidae. The external structure of the integument of Dynamine postverta postverta (Cramer, 1779 is based on detailed morphological drawings and scanning electron microscopy. The data are compared with other species belonging to eight tribes of Nymphalidae, to assist future studies on the taxonomy and systematics of Neotropical Biblidinae.
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false If a tribe holds a certificate of self-regulation, is it... REGULATION OF CLASS II GAMING § 518.7 If a tribe holds a certificate of self-regulation, is it required to... certificate of self-regulation shall be required to submit a self-regulation report annually to the Commission...
Bradbury, J.A.; Jones, M.L.
This report identifies and summarizes existing sources of financial assistance to States and Indian tribes in preparing and responding to transportation emergencies and ensuring the safe transportation of hazardous shipments through their jurisdictions. The report has been prepared as an information resource for the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Office of Transportation, Emergency Management and Analytical Services. The report discusses funding programs administered by the following Federal agencies: Federal Emergency Management Agency; Department of Transportation; the Environmental Protection Agency; and the Department of Energy. Also included is a summary of fees assessed by some States on carriers of hazardous materials and hazardous waste. The discussion of programs is supplemented by an Appendix that provides a series of tables summarizing funding sources and amounts. The report includes several conclusions concerning the level of funding provided to Indian tribes, the relative ranking of funding sources and the variation among States in overall revenues for emergency response and safe transportation
T. Z. Moskalets
Full Text Available We studied the influence of varieties of tribe Triticeae (Soft Wheat, Winter Rye and Winter Triticale on the structure and competitiveness of segetal vegetation. It is shown that in the conditions of Polissya, Forest-Steppe Polissya, and Forest-Steppe ecotopes the coenotic composition of plant communities was represented mostly by annual plants and at some extent by hemycryptophytes, cryptophytes, and geophytes. The dominant weed associations of Polissya are: Erodium-Neslia; Chenopodiu-Sonchus; Galium-Setaria; Elytrigia-Convolvulus; Apera-Polygonum and Apera-Convolvulus; Polissia-steppe: Viola-Capsella; Matricaria-Galium; Elytrigia-Galeopsis; Chenopodiu-Sonchus; Thlaspi-Euphorbia; Forest-Steppe: Elytrigia-Viola; Matricaria-Taraxacum; Consolida-Convolvulus; Cirsium-Taraxacum; Galium-Stellaria; Thlaspi-Plantago, Linaria-Conyza. In terms of the Central Forest-Steppe and Eastern Polisya the medium-grown and medium ripe Wheat (Yuvivata 60 and Poliska 90, Rye (Borotba, Triticale (Slavetne, Slavetne Polipshene. and AD 256 is the most competitive towards segetal vegetation than other medium-grown and semi-dwarf varieties of such cultures. The introduction of Triticale and Rye in the structure of sown areas are an effective biological control towards segetal vegetation, particularly perennial weeds. We revealed that increasing doses of fertilizers on crops of the tribe Triticeae stimulates the growth of weeds, but the specific weight per unit area does not always correlate with density concerning cultural species. We registered the dominant competitive weeds associations in winter crops, regardless of grade, but their differentiation by population strategy and specific weight per unit area depends on the type and conditions of the specific ecotypes. We selected some six associations for the Polissya: Erodium-Neslia; Chenopodiu-Sonchus; Galium-Setaria; Elytrigia-Convolvulus; Apera-Polygonum and Apera-Convolvulus; five for Polissya Steppe
Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections among hill tribe schoolchildren who attended 10 border patrol police schools in 2012, Chiang Rai, Thailand. Methods: A total of 339 subjects were recruited into the study from 2 194 children. Questionnaire was tested for validity and reliability before use. About 5 g stool specimens were collected and investigated for intestinal parasite infections by using cellophane-covered thick smear technique. Logistic regression at α = 0.05 was used to test the associations between variables to find risk factors. Results: There were 339 subjects of whom 51.9% were males and 66.1% were Buddhist; racially 31.2% were Akha and 30.4% were Kmong; mean age was 10.3 years old (minimum = 6, maximum = 16. The prevalence of parasitic infection was 9.7%. After controlling for age, sex, religion, parents’ education levels and parents’ occupations, the only factor that showed a statistically significant association with intestinal parasitic infection was the source of drinking water. The group of drinking mountain piped water had a greater risk of 8.22 times (adjusted odds ratio = 8.22, 95%; confidence interval: 1.07–63.18 compared to the drinking commercially bottled water group, while the group of drinking underground water had a greater risk of 9.83 times (adjusted odds ratio = 9.83, 95%; confidence interval: 0.93–104.12 compared to the drinking commercially bottled water group. Conclusions: Drinking water contaminated by soil was shown to be an important risk factor for intestinal parasitic infection in hill tribe schoolchildren living in mountainous border areas in the northern part of Thailand. Safer alternative drinking water source should be provided along with health education for schools and villagers to be aware of the risk of intestinal parasites from drinking water sources such as mountain piped or underground wells. Such sources are likely to contain higher soil
Ramil E. Agaev
Full Text Available Studying the problems related to the process of the Azerbaijanian people formation requires a comprehensive analysis of mutual relations of the Turkic tribes – the Huns, the Sabirs and the Khazars – with the local population of Azerbaijan in the early Middle Ages. The article is devoted to the process of penetration of the Huns, the Sabirs and the Khazars to Azerbaijan, their role in the formation of the Azerbaijanian people and the reflection of this process in the country’s toponymy. In the early Middle Ages the process of penetration of Turkic tribes in Azerbaijan from the north, through the Derbent passage, intensified. Primary sources indicate that over the centuries the Huns (3rd – 4th centuries, the Sabirs (5th – 6th centuries and the Khazars (7th – 8th centuries made continuous attacks on Azerbaijan and neighboring countries from the north. Upon the arrival of the Turkic tribes in Azerbaijan from the north in the 3rd – 4th centuries, the Turkic language in the country was extensively spread. Just since then the ethnotoponyms “Hun”, “Suvar” and “Khazar” became consolidated in the toponymy of Azerbaijan. Revealing the meaning of toponyms, ethnonyms, town names, hydronyms, introduced in language use in the 3rd – 8th centuries and associated with the aforementioned tribes, has exceptional value for recreating the ethnic view of Azerbaijan of the studied epoch. They let us come to the conclusion that the Huns, the Sabirs and the Khazars were important ethnic elements in the process of ethnogenesis of the Azerbaijanian people.
Full Text Available The genus Antimerus Fauvel, 1878, endemic to eastern Australia and Tasmania and a phylogenetically enigmatic member of the large rove beetle tribe Staphylinini, is revised. The genus and each of its four previously known species are redescribed, and a lectotype is designated for Antimerus punctipennis Lea, 1906. Five species are described as new: Antimerus metallicus sp. n., A. jamesrodmani sp. n., A. gracilis sp. n., A. bellus sp. n. and A. monteithi sp. n., so that the number of known species in this genus now totals nine. For the first time Antimerus larvae are described, tentatively identified as A. smaragdinus Fauvel, 1878, A. punctipennis and A. metallicus. Available distributional and bionomic data are provided for each species and summarized in the discussion. Adult and larval morphology of Antimerus and its distribution patterns are discussed in the broader context of new data on the evolution of the entire tribe Staphylinini, and with respect to the formation of the Australian fauna of this tribe. The phylogenetic position of Antimerus within Staphylinini remains unresolved pending a targeted formal study. However, a majority of currently available data suggests that it could be a basal member of the recently recovered monophyletic clade of Staphylinini tentatively called “Staphylinini propria”.
Full Text Available Abstract The study of ethnobotany relating to any tribe is in itself a very intricate or convoluted process. This paper documents the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants that are in use by the indigenous Jaintia tribes residing in few isolated pockets of northeast India. The present study was done through structured questionnaires in consultations with the tribal practitioners and has resulted in the documentation of 39 medicinal plant species belonging to 27 families and 35 genera. For curing diverse form of ailments, the use of aboveground plant parts was higher (76.59% than the underground plant parts (23.41%. Of the aboveground plant parts, leaf was used in the majority of cases (23 species, followed by fruit (4. Different underground plant forms such as root, tuber, rhizome, bulb and pseudo-bulb were also found to be in use by the Jaintia tribe as a medicine. Altogether, 30 types of ailments have been reported to be cured by using these 39 medicinal plant species. The study thus underlines the potentials of the ethnobotanical research and the need for the documentation of traditional ecological knowledge pertaining to the medicinal plant utilization for the greater benefit of mankind.
Bernabé Aguilar Palomino
Full Text Available Para comprender las interacciones tróficas en un ecosistema, es imprescindible conocer bien la composición y superposición de las dietas de las especies que coexisten en un mismo hábitat y presentan una morfología general muy similar. Se analizaron los contenidos estomacales de 397 ejemplares de cuatro especies de Diplectrum, capturados con redes camaroneras frente a las costas de Jalisco y Colima, México. D. eumelum consumió principalmente peces del orden Pleuronectiformes, seguido por camarones del género Metapenaeopsis y estomatópodos. D. euryplectrum registró en su contenido estomacal, estomatópodos (Squilla mantoidea, seguido por camarones y braquiuros. D. labarum consumió crustáceos, moluscos y peces. El estomatópodo Eurysquilla veleronis registró un alto porcentaje, seguido por camarones (principalmente Solenocera florea y braquiuros, así como el calamar dardo Lolliguncula diomedae. Los peces (género Ophidion principalmente constituyeron un componente importante de la dieta de esta especie. En la dieta de D. rostrum se identificaron crustáceos, moluscos, poliquetos y peces. El calamar dardo Lolliguncula diomedae y los peces del género Ophidion tuvieron una alta representación. Se observaron diferencias significativas entre los índices de amplitud de dietas de las especies analizadas. El número de entidades consumidas disminuyó desde 16 en D. euryplectrum hasta seis en D. eumelum. El valor medio de superposición (0.247 no resultó significativamente diferente (p=0.118 del esperado para un modelo nulo (0.174. La varianza observada de los índices de superposición (0.071 fue significativamente mayor (V=0.025, p=0.0004 que el valor medio obtenido en la simulación basada en un modelo nulo.Analysis of diet composition and overlap in four species of the genus Diplectrum (Perciformes: Serranidae in the Mexican Central Pacific. The information of trophic interactions among species is essential to understand ecosystem
Full Text Available Como resultado de sus estrategias biológicas y ecológicas, el pez Pseudupeneus grandisquamis es una especie dominante en la comunidad demersal del Golfo de Tehuantepec. Nuestro principal objetivo fue conocer estas estrategias con base en su distribución, abundancia y reproducción. Se analizaron un total de 5 175 individuos que forman parte de las recolectas de peces obtenidas en cinco cruceros oceanográficos realizados en el Golfo de Tehuantepec, México, entre 1989-1990. Es una especie demersal típicamente marina, con amplia distribución en la plataforma continental. La mayor abundancia de P. grandisquamis se presenta en marzo y noviembre, alrededor de la isobata de los 40 m y frente a los sistemas lagunares Superior-Inferior y Laguna del Mar Muerto. La reproducción de la especie se presenta durante todos los meses analizados, principalmente durante los meses de agosto a octubre, correspondiente a la época de lluvias. La presencia de jóvenes, principalmente en noviembre y marzo, sugiere un amplio periodo de reclutamiento durante estos meses cuya distribución se refleja principalmente en el área influenciada por las lagunas Superior-Inferior, que representa un área de crianza. La proporción sexual total hembras:machos fue prácticamente 1:1. La talla máxima en la región es de 213 mm y la talla de primera madurez es de 138 mm LT. La alta abundancia y reproducción se presentan cuando el golfo tiene alta producción, acorde con la dinámica del sistema, donde tiene gran relevancia la influencia de las lagunas costeras. Se sugiere aplicar estrategias de protección a las zonas sobre la plataforma continental del Golfo de Tehuantepec influenciadas por procesos estuarinos y que representan áreas de reproducción y crianza para un gran número de especies, entre las que se encuentra P. grandisquamis.Reproduction, distribution and abundance of the fish Pseudupeneus grandisquamis (Perciformes: Mullidae, in the Gulf of Tehuantepec
Ma. de Lourdes Guevara-Rascado
Full Text Available El barrilete Katsuwonus pelamis, considerado en el grupo de los atunes menores, es una especie epipelágica, distribuida en aguas tropicales y subtropicales del mundo, que ha llegado a convertirse en uno de los atunes más capturados. Sin embargo, en México se han realizado pocos estudios a pesar de su importancia en esta región. Analicé la información recolectada en 18 cruceros oceanográficos en la zona económica exclusiva mexicana del Golfo de México y Mar Caribe (1982 a 1992. Las muestras se obtuvieron mediante arrastres oblicuos de redes tipo bongo de 60 cm de boca y malla de 0.333 mm. Las máximas abundancias de larvas se presentaron en primavera y verano, y 1986 se caracterizó por tener una mayor población, un total de 4 881.8544 x 10(9 larvas, 1983 tuvo la más baja densidad con 566.3748 x 10(9. El barrilete se encontraba entonces en las condiciones adecuadas para su reproducción en esta área, siendo la región sudoccidental la más productiva; el desove fue mayor en verano. Las biomasas calculadas por temporada fueron de 2 513 a 21 659 toneladas, correspondiendo a 1986 el valor más alto, con un rendimiento potencial entre 7 472 y 10 071 t. Es factible explotarlo en el Golfo de México si otra información corrobora estos resultados.Distribution and abundance of Katsuwonus pelamis larvae (Perciformes: Scombridae in the Gulf of Mexico, 1982-1992. The epipelagic fish known as skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis is considered inside the "little tuna" group. The species is distributed in tropical and subtropical waters worldwide. Despite its fisheries importance in Mexico, there is little knowledge about the species in the region. The information from 18 oceanographic cruises inside the Mexican exclusive economic zone in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, was analyzed for the period 1982 to 1992. Plankton was collected in a paired 60 cm mouth bongo net sampler with 0.333 mm mesh nets in oblique tows. The maximum abundance was in
Donald Arguedas Cortés
Full Text Available Centrocestus formosanus es un parásito trematodo zoonótico originario de Asia asociado con muertes de peces principalmente de cultivo. 907 moluscos provenientes de estanques sembrados con tilapias, seleccionados uno por provincia fueron identificados al nivel taxonómico especifico. Se identificaron cuatro gastrópodos y un bivalvo: M. tuberculata, M. turricula, P. flagellata, H. cubensis y A. luteola. Se reporta, por primera vez, la presencia de dos especies de moluscos en Costa Rica. Se identificaron siete morfotipos de cercarias parasitando las cinco especies de moluscos encontradas. En la segunda exposición experimental se demostró que el morfotipo parapleurolofocercus encontrado en M. tuberculata concuerda con el hallazgo de C. formosanus en alevines de tilapia, después del examen clínico, anatomopatológico y parasitológico realizado a los alevines expuestos. Las metacercarias fueron extraídas del quiste utilizando microagujas y micropinzas lavadas en solución salina fisiológica (0.65%, fijadas en formol caliente al 4% y después esquematizadas con una cámara clara adaptada a un microscopio fotónico, estimándose una abundancia e intensidad media de 1018-1027 digeneos por branquia en cada pez parasitado, determinándose así el hospedador intermediario primario y secundario del parásito. En el presente trabajo se reporta por primera vez Centrocestus formosanus en Costa Rica.Centrocestus formosanus (Opisthorchiida: Heterophyidae as a cause of death in gray tilapia fry Oreochromis niloticus (Perciforme: Cichlidae in the dry Pacific of Costa Rica. Centrocestus formosanus is a zoonotic trematode from Asia and has been mainly associated as cause of death of cultured fish. To identify pathogen trematode species in tilapia fry (Oreochromis niloticus and to determine mollusks hosting these parasites, freshwater mollusks were collected from tilapia cultured ponds and experimental infections were carried out with tilapia fries and
Fatai Oladunni Balogun
Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM belongs to the group of five leading important diseases causing death globally and remains a major health problem in Africa. A number of factors such as poverty, poor eating habit, and hormonal imbalance are responsible for the occurrence of the disease. It poses a major health challenge in Africa continent today and the prevalence continues to increase at an alarming rate. Various treatment options particularly the usage of herbs have been effective against diabetes because they have no adverse effects. Interestingly, South Africa, especially the Basotho tribe, is blessed with numerous medicinal plants whose usage in the treatment of DM has been effective since the conventional drugs are expensive and often unaffordable. The present study attempted to update the various scientific evidence on the twenty-three (23 plants originating from different parts of the world but widely used by the Sotho people in the management of DM. Asteraceae topped the list of sixteen (16 plant families and remained the most investigated according to this review. Although limited information was obtained on the antidiabetic activities of these plants, it is however anticipated that government parastatals and scientific communities will pay more attention to these plants in future research.
Panda, Sujogya Kumar; Luyten, Walter
The purpose of this review is to survey the antiparasitic plants of the Asteraceae family and their applicability in the treatment of parasites. This review is divided into three major parts: (a) literature on traditional uses of Asteraceae plants for the treatment of parasites; (b) description of the major classes of chemical compounds from Asteraceae and their antiparasitic effects; and (c) antiparasitic activity with special reference to flavonoids and terpenoids. This review provides detailed information on the reported Asteraceae plant extracts found throughout the world and on isolated secondary metabolites that can inhibit protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, and intestinal worms. Additionally, special attention is given to the Asteraceae plants of Odisha, used by the tribes of the area as antiparasitics. These plants are compared to the same plants used traditionally in other regions. Finally, we provide information on which plants identified in Odisha, India and related compounds show promise for the development of new drugs against parasitic diseases. For most of the plants discussed in this review, the active compounds still need to be isolated and tested further. PMID:29528842
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite India's recent economic growth, health and human development indicators of Scheduled Tribes (ST or Adivasi (India's indigenous populations lag behind national averages. The aim of this review was to identify the public health interventions or components of these interventions that are effective in reducing morbidity or mortality rates and reducing risks of ill health among ST populations in India, in order to inform policy and to identify important research gaps. Methods We systematically searched and assessed peer-reviewed literature on evaluations or intervention studies of a population health intervention undertaken with an ST population or in a tribal area, with a population health outcome(s, and involving primary data collection. Results The evidence compiled in this review revealed three issues that promote effective public health interventions with STs: (1 to develop and implement interventions that are low-cost, give rapid results and can be easily administered, (2: a multi-pronged approach, and (3: involve ST populations in the intervention. Conclusion While there is a growing body of knowledge on the health needs of STs, there is a paucity of data on how we can address these needs. We provide suggestions on how to undertake future population health intervention research with ST populations and offer priority research avenues that will help to address our knowledge gap in this area.
Gradellini, Martina; Fiaccadori, Cianzia
A collaboration experience with the Fondation Médical d'Ampasimanjeva nurses, in an international cooperation project,permits to analyse the basic nursing concepts, starting from the local cultural approach. Research main outcome is to describe health, death, illness, and nursing care concepts in the Malgasi Antemoro tribe. Closing to the ethnographic research, work has been developed in three different moments: a first job organization starting from a spread literature analysis, the follow work on field about collecting data, and the last data elaboration and discussion Collecting data tool was the focus group which has done with the complete hospital nursing staff, divided by ward places. A fourth one was addressed to a twenty medical patients group. Focus group questions came from the Rising Sun Model guide, by Madeleine Leininger, adapted to the research own needs. Outcomes show an important traditional medicine influence, explained by the way people conceive health, illness, and even life, all elements directly affected the nursing care. It stands out a strong belief that health depends by the ability of person to work. The death concept is saw as a passage's phase to the Razana's spiritual condition. This is the reason supporting fatalism as approach to the death, that appear as an inevitable event managed by God. Disease's concept is related to traditional healers; as a matter of facts, it exists a strong belief that diseases find origin from magician.
Kanekar, Shalini; Wen, Yang; Buchwald, Dedra; Goldberg, Jack; Choi, Won; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit; Henderson, Jeffrey A.
Objectives. To better understand patterns of initiation among American Indians we examined age-related patterns of smoking initiation during adolescence and young adulthood in 2 American Indian tribes. Methods. We used log-rank comparison and a Cox proportional hazard regression model to analyze data from a population-based study of Southwest and Northern Plains American Indians aged 18 to 95 years who initiated smoking by age 18 years or younger. Results. The cumulative incidence of smoking initiation was much higher among the Northern Plains Indians (47%) than among the Southwest Indians (28%; P < .01). In the Southwest, men were more likely than women to initiate smoking at a younger age (P < .01); there was no such difference in the Northern Plains sample. Northern Plains men and women in more recent birth cohorts initiated smoking at an earlier age than did those born in older birth cohorts. Southwest men and women differed in the pattern of smoking initiation across birth cohorts as evidenced by the significant test for interaction (P = .01). Conclusion. Our findings underscore the need to implement tobacco prevention and control measures within American Indian communities. PMID:19820215
Aubert, J; Legal, L; Descimon, H; Michel, F
Swallowtail butterflies of the tribe Papilionini number about 225 species and are currently used as model organisms in several research areas, including genetics, chemical ecology and phylogenetics of host plant utilization and mimicry, mechanisms of speciation, and conservation. We have inferred phylogenetic relationships for a sample of 18 species of the genus Papilio (sensu lato) and five outgroup taxa by sequencing two stretches of mitochondrial DNA that correspond to segments 12886-13370 and 12083-12545 of Drosophila melanogaster mitochondrial DNA and consist of sections of the genes for the large ribosomal RNA and subunit 1 of NADH-dehydrogenase. Our data support the monophyly of Papilio and, within it, of several traditionally recognized subgroups. Species belonging to groups that utilize primarily Rutaceae as larval foodplants form two clusters, corresponding to Old World and American taxa, respectively, while two previously recognized clades-of American and South Asian-Austronesian origin-whose members were known to feed mostly on Lauraceae and Magnoliaceae, are observed to form a clade. The sister group of Papilio is found to be the South Asian genus Meandrusa, which also happens to feed on Lauraceae. The latter plant family is therefore the probable larval host of the ancestor Papilio and the shift to Rutaceae (which four-fifths of extant Papilio species use as foodplants) is more likely to have occurred only after the initial diversification of the genus. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
Albino M Sakakibara
Full Text Available The tribe Acutalini Fowler is redescribed as well as the genera Acutalis Fairmaire, Euritea Stål, and Thrasymedes Kirkaldy. The following new taxa and nomenclatural changes are presented: Thrasymedes mexicana sp.n. (from Mexico, Oaxaca; Bordonia gen.n., with B. venezuelana sp.n. (type-species (from Venezuela, Portachuelo, B. clypeata sp.n. (from Colombia, Cuesta Boba, B. majuscula sp.n. (from Venezuela, Portachuelo, and Cornutalis gen.n., with C. cauca sp.n. (type-species (from Colombia, Cauca, and C. validu sp.n. (from Ecuador, Sto. Domingo. Acutalis fusconervosa Fairmaire, 1846 = Horiola venosa Walker, 1858, syn.n.; Euritea munda (Walker, 1858 = Stictolobus nitidus Funkhouser, 1940, syn.n.; Bordonia nigricosta (Goding, 1926, comb.n.; Bordonia virescens (Funkhouser, 1940, comb.n.. One species is transferred to Smiliinae-Ceresini: Tapinolobus curvispina (Walker, 1858, comb.n. (formerly in Thrasymedes = Tapinolobus fasciatus Sakakibara, 1969, syn.n.; another one is transferred to Darninae-Cymbomorphini: Eumela darnioides (Walker, 1858, comb.n. (formerly in Euritea.
Kumar, Surendra; Muniyandi, Malaisamy
Leukoplakia is an asymptomatic and potentially malignant change in the oral mucosa and high frequencies have been reported among smokers. The present study concerned the prevalence of tobacco use and leukoplakia and also associations between the two. This cross sectional survey was conducted amongst the Gond tribal population of Kundam Block, Jabalpur district, Madhya Pradesh state, Central India during 2007 to 2009. Screening for leukoplakia was conducted by a medical officer with two mouth mirrors. It is only based on visual inspection and oral pathology was not performed. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic and smoking habits. Prevalence of leukoplakia among users and non-users of tobacco was calculated in terms of percentages. Of 1,552 individuals aged more than 12 years of age who were screened, 144 (9.3%) were found to have oral leukoplakia. The prevalence of leukoplakia was significantly elevated among tobacco users as compared to non-users (11% vs 2.5%; pleukoplakia was almost similar in both tobacco smokers and chewers (9% vs 11%; p=0.304). However, the percentage of leukoplakia was especially high among those chewers who also smoked tobacco (21.9%). The findings of the present study showed a positive effect of tobacco use and prevalence of leukoplakia. Also the prevalence was very high among Gond tribe, a marginalized population living in central India. There is a need for effective screening and treatment of leukoplakia in this area.
Huidrom Suraj Singh
Full Text Available Problem of malnutrition increases, being one of the significant national issues in a developing country like India. In the present study, an attempt was made to understand the sociodemographic profile and nutritional status among the Bhaina tribes of Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh. A total of 161 females (2–75 years were screened for anthropometric measurements. Nutritional status was evaluated in four groups of female categories: preschool: 2–5 years (n=11, children: 6#x2013;12 years (n=28, adolescent: 13–18 years (n=22, and adults >18 years (n=100 using the age specific cutoff points of body mass index (BMI. Statistical analysis was performed using MS EXCEL and SPSS software. More than 30% of the studied population is observed to be illiterate and unemployed. Significant age group difference is observed for anthropometric variables considered in the present study. Overall prevalence of thinness among the studied population was 32.3% (critical. Occurrence of thinness was found to be highest among children (57.1%. Occupation with wage labourer is significantly higher among parents of normal children (26.6% than parents of undernourished children (19.6%. Findings of the present study suggest significance of anthropological approach in understanding nutritional status among different ethnic groups, specifically tribal community.
Marília de França Rocha
Full Text Available The grasshopper species Orthoscapheus rufipes and Eujivarus fusiformis were analyzed using several cytogenetic techniques. The karyotype of O. rufipes, described here for the first time, had a diploid number of 2n = 23, whereas E. fusiformis had a karyotype with 2n = 21. The two species showed the same mechanism of sex determination (XO type but differed in chromosome morphology. Pericentromeric blocks of constitutive heterochromatin (CH were detected in the chromosome complement of both species. CMA3/DA/DAPI staining revealed CMA3-positive blocks in CH regions in four autosomal bivalents of O. rufipes and in two of E. fusiformis. The location of active NORs differed between the two species, occurring in bivalents M6 and S9 of O. rufipes and M6 and M7 of E. fusiformsi. The rDNA sites revealed by FISH coincided with the number and position of the active NORs detected by AgNO3 staining. The variability in chromosomal markers accounted for the karyotype differentiation observed in the tribe Abracrini.
Haemamalar, K; Zalilah, M S; Neng Azhanie, A
This is a descriptive study on nutritional status of Orang Asli (Che Wong tribe) adults in Krau Wildlife Reserve. Twenty-six households, comprising 29 men and 28 women,participated in the study. Dietary diversity was assessed using food frequency questionnaire with 37 food groups. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured using standard instruments. The mean age for men and women was 39.9 ± 17.1 years and 33.7 ± 16.1 years, respectively. Most (89.5%) of the adults had no formal education and about 89.5% of households were categorised as poor. There were 13.8% underweight, 72.4% normal, 10.3% overweight and 3.3% obese men. For women, 25.0%, 46.4%, and 28.6% were underweight, normal and overweight, respectively. While none of the men had at-risk waist circumference (men >90 cm), about 21.4% of women had waist circumference of >80 cm. The mean dietary diversity score was 9.47 ± 4.15 with men (9.48 ± 3.70) and women (9.46 ± 4.63) having similar scores. There was a significant correlation between waist circumference and household income (r=0.36, pOrang Asli community undergoing nutrition transition especially among the females.
Jones, John D.
A feasibility study for a proposed petroleum refinery for the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation was performed. The available crude oil production was identified and characterized. There is 6,000 barrels per day of crude oil production available for processing in the proposed refinery. The proposed refinery will utilize a lower temperature, smaller crude fractionation unit. It will have a Naphtha Hydrodesulfurizer and Reformer to produce high octane gasoline. The surplus hydrogen from the reformer will be used in a specialized hydrocracker to convert the heavier crude oil fractions to ultra low sulfur gasoline and diesel fuel products. The proposed refinery will produce gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, and a minimal amount of lube oil. The refinery will require about $86,700,000 to construct. It will have net annual pre-tax profit of about $17,000,000. The estimated return on investment is 20%. The feasibility is positive subject to confirmation of long term crude supply. The study also identified procedures for evaluating processing options as a means for American Indian Tribes and Native American Corporations to maximize the value of their crude oil production
Petzl-Erler, M L; Luz, R; Sotomaior, V S
The HLA-A, B, C, DR and DQ antigens of 240 Kaingang and 98 Guarani individuals have been characterized. The most frequent antigens found among the Kaingang are A31, 2, 24; B35, 51, 39, 48; Cw4, 7, 3, 1; DR8, 4, 2; DQ blank, 3. In the Guarani, they are A2, 28, 31; B40, 62, "53G"; Cw3, 4; DR2, 4, 8, 6; DQ3, blank. B " 53G" is an unusual antigen of the B5 cross-reactive group. DQ blank possibly corresponds to DQ4, not tested in this study. The reaction patterns of B35, B40 and DR4 indicate intra-tribal (of B35 and B40), and inter-tribal (DR4, B40 and B35) heterogeneity of these antigens. 408 Kaingang and 141 Guarani haplotypes were defined by segregation analysis. Of the commonest 10 Guarani and 9 Kaingang haplotypes, only one is shared by both tribes. Significant, positive linkage disequilibrium values for HLA-A,B; HLA-A,C; HLA-B,DR and most HLA-B,C antigen pairs were also different for the two populations. Genetic distance estimates between these two and another seven South-American Indian populations, and relative to the major human races (negroids, caucasoids, and mongoloids) reveal a comparatively high degree of divergence between the Kaingang and the Guarani, which is uncommon for Amerindian populations living close one to another.
Mahawar, Madan Mohan; Jaroli, D P
The present zootherapeutic study describes the traditional knowledge related to the use of different animals and animal-derived products as medicines by the Saharia tribe reside in the Shahabad and Kishanganj Panchayat Samiti's of Baran district of Rajasthan, India. A field survey was conducted from April to June 2006 by performing interview through structured questionnaire with 21 selected respondents, who provided information regarding use of animals and their products in folk medicine. A total of 15 animal species were recorded and they are used for different ethnomedical purposes, including cough, asthma, tuberculosis, paralysis, earache, herpes, weakness, muscular pain etc. The zootherapeutic knowledge was mostly based on domestic animals, but some protected species like the peacock (Pavo cristatus,), hard shelled turtle (Kachuga tentoria), sambhar (Cervus unicolor) were also mentioned as medicinal resources. We would suggest that this kind of neglected traditional knowledge should be included into the strategies of conservation and management of faunistic resources. Further studies are required for experimental validation to confirm the presence of bioactive compounds in these traditional remedies and also to emphasize more sustainable use of these resources.
Full Text Available Abstract The present zootherapeutic study describes the traditional knowledge related to the use of different animals and animal-derived products as medicines by the Saharia tribe reside in the Shahabad and Kishanganj Panchayat Samiti's of Baran district of Rajasthan, India. A field survey was conducted from April to June 2006 by performing interview through structured questionnaire with 21 selected respondents, who provided information regarding use of animals and their products in folk medicine. A total of 15 animal species were recorded and they are used for different ethnomedical purposes, including cough, asthma, tuberculosis, paralysis, earache, herpes, weakness, muscular pain etc. The zootherapeutic knowledge was mostly based on domestic animals, but some protected species like the peacock (Pavo cristatus,, hard shelled turtle (Kachuga tentoria, sambhar (Cervus unicolor were also mentioned as medicinal resources. We would suggest that this kind of neglected traditional knowledge should be included into the strategies of conservation and management of faunistic resources. Further studies are required for experimental validation to confirm the presence of bioactive compounds in these traditional remedies and also to emphasize more sustainable use of these resources.
Panda Sujogya Kumar
Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to survey the antiparasitic plants of the Asteraceae family and their applicability in the treatment of parasites. This review is divided into three major parts: (a literature on traditional uses of Asteraceae plants for the treatment of parasites; (b description of the major classes of chemical compounds from Asteraceae and their antiparasitic effects; and (c antiparasitic activity with special reference to flavonoids and terpenoids. This review provides detailed information on the reported Asteraceae plant extracts found throughout the world and on isolated secondary metabolites that can inhibit protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, and intestinal worms. Additionally, special attention is given to the Asteraceae plants of Odisha, used by the tribes of the area as antiparasitics. These plants are compared to the same plants used traditionally in other regions. Finally, we provide information on which plants identified in Odisha, India and related compounds show promise for the development of new drugs against parasitic diseases. For most of the plants discussed in this review, the active compounds still need to be isolated and tested further.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent phylogenetic studies have revealed that the mitochondrial genome of the angiosperm Silene noctiflora (Caryophyllaceae has experienced a massive mutation-driven acceleration in substitution rate, placing it among the fastest evolving eukaryotic genomes ever identified. To date, it appears that other species within Silene have maintained more typical substitution rates, suggesting that the acceleration in S. noctiflora is a recent and isolated evolutionary event. This assessment, however, is based on a very limited sampling of taxa within this diverse genus. Results We analyzed the substitution rates in 4 mitochondrial genes (atp1, atp9, cox3 and nad9 across a broad sample of 74 species within Silene and related genera in the tribe Sileneae. We found that S. noctiflora shares its history of elevated mitochondrial substitution rate with the closely related species S. turkestanica. Another section of the genus (Conoimorpha has experienced an acceleration of comparable magnitude. The phylogenetic data remain ambiguous as to whether the accelerations in these two clades represent independent evolutionary events or a single ancestral change. Rate variation among genes was equally dramatic. Most of the genus exhibited elevated rates for atp9 such that the average tree-wide substitution rate for this gene approached the values for the fastest evolving branches in the other three genes. In addition, some species exhibited major accelerations in atp1 and/or cox3 with no correlated change in other genes. Rates of non-synonymous substitution did not increase proportionally with synonymous rates but instead remained low and relatively invariant. Conclusion The patterns of phylogenetic divergence within Sileneae suggest enormous variability in plant mitochondrial mutation rates and reveal a complex interaction of gene and species effects. The variation in rates across genomic and phylogenetic scales raises questions about the
Rehman, Khalid; Mashwani, Zia-ur-Rehman; Khan, Mubark Ali; Ullah, Zahid; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed
The present study was carried out with an aim to gather, evaluate and analyze the ethno botanical information of medicinal uses of the plant species possessed by the native Khattak tribe of the Chonthra, district Karak Pakistan. The region with poor documentation of traditional knowledge, preserving the local traditional knowledge, reporting new as well as rarely reported medicinal properties of medicinal plants, to be tested experimentally for validation. The medicinal uses of existing plant species were documented by oral communication with 103 people, all over above 60 years of age, born and residing in Chonthra. Information was gathered by semi-structured interviews with further analysis by indices like Relative frequency citation RFC and Medicinal use value MUV. The study resulted with medicinal information on 66 plants species belonging to 34 families (using against 58 health related problems with 83 different preparations mainly administered orally and topical). The dominant families include Brasicaceae and Limiaceae. Withania coagulans and Pegnum harmala were the plant species quoted 100% by the informants with RFC values 1 each. The MUV were scattered between 1.24 and 0.03. The highest MUV were W. coagulans 1.24, Pegnum harmala 1.18, Fagonia cretica 1.14. This study for the first time include Nepeta lagopsis to the ethnobotanical wealth. This study was an extension to the ethnobotanical research conducted in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Pakistan. The target area being small and less number of plants with limited traditional knowledge can serve basis for further work focusing on rarely or non- reported plant species of pharmacological and phytochemical importance with active metabolite capable of broadening the sources of new drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Doorenweerd, Camiel; Leblanc, Luc; Norrbom, Allen L; Jose, Michael San; Rubinoff, Daniel
The correct application of the scientific names of species is neither easy nor trivial. Mistakes can lead to the wrong interpretation of research results or, when pest species are involved, inappropriate regulations and limits on trade, and possibly quarantine failures that permit the invasion of new pest species. Names are particularly challenging to manage when groups of organisms encompass a large number of species, when different workers employ different philosophical views, or when species are in a state of taxonomic flux. The fruit fly tribe Dacini is a species-rich taxon within Tephritidae and contains around a fifth of all known species in the family. About 10% of the 932 currently recognized species are pests of commercial fruits and vegetables, precipitating quarantines and trade embargos. Authoritative species lists consist largely of scattered regional treatments and outdated online resources. The checklist presented here is the first global overview of valid species names for the Dacini in almost two decades, and includes new lure records. By publishing this list both in paper and digitally, we aim to provide a resource for those studying fruit flies as well as researchers studying components of their impact on agriculture. The list is largely a consolidation of previous works, but following the results from recent phylogenetic work, we transfer one subgenus and eight species to different genera: members of the Bactrocera subgenus Javadacus Hardy, considered to belong to the Zeugodacus group of subgenera, are transferred to genus Zeugodacus ; Bactrocera pseudocucurbitae White, 1999, stat. rev. , is transferred back to Bactrocera from Zeugodacus ; Zeugodacus arisanicus Shiraki, 1933, stat. rev. , is transferred back to Zeugodacus from Bactrocera ; and Z. brevipunctatus (David & Hancock, 2017), comb. n. ; Z. javanensis (Perkins, 1938), comb. n. ; Z. montanus (Hardy, 1983), comb. n. ; Z. papuaensis (Malloch, 1939), comb. n. ; Z. scutellarius (Bezzi, 1916
Full Text Available The correct application of the scientific names of species is neither easy nor trivial. Mistakes can lead to the wrong interpretation of research results or, when pest species are involved, inappropriate regulations and limits on trade, and possibly quarantine failures that permit the invasion of new pest species. Names are particularly challenging to manage when groups of organisms encompass a large number of species, when different workers employ different philosophical views, or when species are in a state of taxonomic flux. The fruit fly tribe Dacini is a species-rich taxon within Tephritidae and contains around a fifth of all known species in the family. About 10% of the 932 currently recognized species are pests of commercial fruits and vegetables, precipitating quarantines and trade embargos. Authoritative species lists consist largely of scattered regional treatments and outdated online resources. The checklist presented here is the first global overview of valid species names for the Dacini in almost two decades, and includes new lure records. By publishing this list both in paper and digitally, we aim to provide a resource for those studying fruit flies as well as researchers studying components of their impact on agriculture. The list is largely a consolidation of previous works, but following the results from recent phylogenetic work, we transfer one subgenus and eight species to different genera: members of the Bactrocera subgenus Javadacus Hardy, considered to belong to the Zeugodacus group of subgenera, are transferred to genus Zeugodacus; Bactrocera pseudocucurbitae White, 1999, stat. rev., is transferred back to Bactrocera from Zeugodacus; Zeugodacus arisanicus Shiraki, 1933, stat. rev., is transferred back to Zeugodacus from Bactrocera; and Z. brevipunctatus (David & Hancock, 2017, comb. n.; Z. javanensis (Perkins, 1938, comb. n.; Z. montanus (Hardy, 1983, comb. n.; Z. papuaensis (Malloch, 1939, comb. n.; Z. scutellarius (Bezzi
Morales, Chelsea T; Muzquiz, LeeAnna I; Howlett, Kevin; Azure, Bernie; Bodnar, Brenda; Finley, Vernon; Incashola, Tony; Mathias, Cheryl; Laukes, Cindi; Beatty, Patrick; Burke, Wylie; Pershouse, Mark A; Putnam, Elizabeth A; Trinidad, Susan Brown; James, Rosalina; Woodahl, Erica L
Inclusion of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations in pharmacogenetic research is key if the benefits of pharmacogenetic testing are to reach these communities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) offers a model to engage these communities in pharmacogenetics. An academic-community partnership between the University of Montana (UM) and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) was established to engage the community as partners and advisors in pharmacogenetic research. A community advisory committee, the Community Pharmacogenetics Advisory Council (CPAC), was established to ensure community involvement in the research process. To promote bidirectional learning, researchers gave workshops and presentations about pharmacogenetic research to increase research capacity and CPAC members trained researchers in cultural competencies. As part of our commitment to a sustainable relationship, we conducted a self-assessment of the partnership, which included surveys and interviews with CPAC members and researchers. Academic and community participants agree that the partnership has promoted a bidirectional exchange of knowledge. Interviews showed positive feedback from the perspectives of both the CPAC and researchers. CPAC members discussed their trust in and support of the partnership, as well as having learned more about research processes and pharmacogenetics. Researchers discussed their appreciation of CPAC involvement in the project and guidance the group provided in understanding the CSKT community and culture. We have created an academic-community partnership to ensure CSKT community input and to share decision making about pharmacogenetic research. Our CBPR approach may be a model for engaging AI/AN people, and other underserved populations, in genetic research.
Willis, C G; Hall, J C; Rubio de Casas, R; Wang, T Y; Donohue, K
Dispersal and establishment ability can influence evolutionary processes such as geographic isolation, adaptive divergence and extinction probability. Through these population-level dynamics, dispersal ability may also influence macro-evolutionary processes such as species distributions and diversification. This study examined patterns of evolution of dispersal-related fruit traits, and how the evolution of these traits is correlated with shifts in geographic range size, habitat and diversification rates in the tribe Brassiceae (Brassicaceae). The phylogenetic analysis included 72 taxa sampled from across the Brassiceae and included both nuclear and chloroplast markers. Dispersal-related fruit characters were scored and climate information for each taxon was retrieved from a database. Correlations between fruit traits, seed characters, habitat, range and climate were determined, together with trait-dependent diversification rates. It was found that the evolution of traits associated with limited dispersal evolved only in association with compensatory traits that increase dispersal ability. The evolution of increased dispersal ability occurred in multiple ways through the correlated evolution of different combinations of fruit traits. The evolution of traits that increase dispersal ability was in turn associated with larger seed size, increased geographic range size and higher diversification rates. This study provides evidence that the evolution of increased dispersal ability and larger seed size, which may increase establishment ability, can also influence macro-evolutionary processes, possibly by increasing the propensity for long-distance dispersal. In particular, it may increase speciation and consequent diversification rates by increasing the likelihood of geographic and thereby reproductive isolation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Khaund, Polashree; Joshi, S R
Wild edible mushrooms are consumed by the tribes of Meghalaya in the North-Eastern region of India, as part of their ethnic cuisine because of their favored organoleptic characteristics and traditionally known health benefits. Majority of these mushrooms have not yet been characterized in detail and are slowly shrinking in their natural habitats owing to anthropogenic factors and climate change. In the present study, representative specimens of ten morphologically distinct groups of wild edible mushrooms available in the traditional markets and their respective forest habitats, were subjected to multi-loci molecular characterization using SSU, ITS, RPB1 and RPB2 markers. The species identities inferred for the ten mushroom types using the SSU marker matched their morphological description in the case of four morphological groups only whereas the ITS marker successfully resolved the species identity for nine out of the ten mushroom groups under study. Both the protein coding gene markers RPB1 and RPB2 successfully resolved the species identity for three out of the ten morphologically distinct groups. Finally the most likely identity of the wild edible mushrooms under study has been suggested by matching their unique morphological characteristics with the generated DNA barcoding data. The present molecular characterization reveals the ten widely consumed wild mushroom types of Meghalaya, India to be Gomphus floccosus, Lactarius deliciosus, Lactarius volemus, Cantharellus cibarius, Tricholoma viridiolivaceum, Inocybe aff. sphaerospora, Laccaria vinaceoavellanea, Albatrellus ellisii, Ramaria maculatipes and Clavulina cristata. The final species identity generated by the ITS marker matched more accurately with the morphological characteristics/appearance of the specimens indicating the ITS region as a reliable barcode for identifying wild edible mushrooms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yahaya Fatan Hamamah
Full Text Available In Malaysia, the Orang Asli communities are natives that comprise the Negrito, Senoi and Proto-Malay peoples. Traditionally, the Orang Asli live in isolated forests or in forest peripheries. Although Globalisation occurs in Malaysia, its occurrence does not affect the traditional values of the said Orang Asli, who still depend on the natural environment to live. Nature provides the Orang Asli with a community resource for acquiring animals that are not just consumed as food, but also used in medicine, hunting and myth creation. This study intends to identify the animal species and the methods the Senoi and Negrito use these animals, within the aspects of their diet, medicine, hunting methods and their myth creation. Empirical data collection is focused only on the Lanoh and Temiar tribes who live in Lenggong. The method of data collection involves in-depth interviews with key informants that comprise Tok Batins (tribal chiefs and focus groups from the chosen Orang Asli village communities in Kampung Air Bah and Kampung Lubuk Chupak, Lenggong. The findings of this study reveal a wide variety of animals are still being hunted by the Orang Asli community for food and medicine. Apart from that, there are specific beliefs regarding the animals hunted narrated through myths and legends. Therefore, this study is significant in order to determine that the animal usage in the lives of the Orang Asli community continue for the sake of the demands of their heritage and families in order to preserve its pristine continuity. This is because while findings show that wildlife is still used by the Orang Asli, their usage among the younger generation is increasingly eroded due to such factors as wildlife extinction, dwindling availability, new religious taboos and modern progress which continues to find its place within the Orang Asli community.
Doorenweerd, Camiel; Leblanc, Luc; Norrbom, Allen L.; Jose, Michael San; Rubinoff, Daniel
Abstract The correct application of the scientific names of species is neither easy nor trivial. Mistakes can lead to the wrong interpretation of research results or, when pest species are involved, inappropriate regulations and limits on trade, and possibly quarantine failures that permit the invasion of new pest species. Names are particularly challenging to manage when groups of organisms encompass a large number of species, when different workers employ different philosophical views, or when species are in a state of taxonomic flux. The fruit fly tribe Dacini is a species-rich taxon within Tephritidae and contains around a fifth of all known species in the family. About 10% of the 932 currently recognized species are pests of commercial fruits and vegetables, precipitating quarantines and trade embargos. Authoritative species lists consist largely of scattered regional treatments and outdated online resources. The checklist presented here is the first global overview of valid species names for the Dacini in almost two decades, and includes new lure records. By publishing this list both in paper and digitally, we aim to provide a resource for those studying fruit flies as well as researchers studying components of their impact on agriculture. The list is largely a consolidation of previous works, but following the results from recent phylogenetic work, we transfer one subgenus and eight species to different genera: members of the Bactrocera subgenus Javadacus Hardy, considered to belong to the Zeugodacus group of subgenera, are transferred to genus Zeugodacus; Bactrocera pseudocucurbitae White, 1999, stat. rev., is transferred back to Bactrocera from Zeugodacus; Zeugodacus arisanicus Shiraki, 1933, stat. rev., is transferred back to Zeugodacus from Bactrocera; and Z. brevipunctatus (David & Hancock, 2017), comb. n.; Z. javanensis (Perkins, 1938), comb. n.; Z. montanus (Hardy, 1983), comb. n.; Z. papuaensis (Malloch, 1939), comb. n.; Z. scutellarius (Bezzi, 1916
Fishelson, Lev; Baldwin, Carole C; Hastings, Philip A
A comparative study of the reproductive organs in 17 of the 30 species of the tribe Starksiini (Labrisomidae, Blenniiformes) and related labrisomids reveals the major traits of gamete form and production and likely reproductive modes. The testes are of the lobular type and have a testicular gland and sperm ducts. Isodiametric sperm (aquasperm) with a globular head or anisodiametric sperm (introsperm) with an elongate head, or both, were observed in the studied species. Both types have either one or two flagella in the sperm tail. Ovaries of the Starksiini are bilobed and exhibit synchronous or asynchronous egg production. Although viviparity or "ovoviviparity" reportedly characterizes the group, our study revealed evidence of both internal and external fertilization and three modes of reproduction. External fertilization or ovuliparity is suggested for the Starksia atlantica and S. lepicoelia species complexes by the presence in males of a short genital papilla that is not reinforced through adhesion with the first anal-fin spine and by the absence of sperm within the ovaries. Internal fertilization and zygoparity is indicated for most species by the presence of an intromittent papilla in males that is adhered to the first anal-fin spine, "nests" of sperm within the ovaries, absence of embryos within the ovarian lamellae and usually thick egg envelopes bearing dense covers of adhesive filaments. Internal fertilization and embryoparity is indicated for starksia fulva and Xenomedea rhodopyga by an intromittent papilla that is adhered to the first anal-fin spine of males, anisodiametric sperm in males, delicate egg envelopes without adhesive filaments and developing embryos within follicular envelopes or within the follicle in females. Although many of these features are seen in the internally fertilizing clinid blennies, starksiins differ in retaining the testicular gland typical of labrisomids and in lacking sperm packaging typical of other internally fertilizing
Gene flow, population growth and a novel substitution rate estimate in a subtidal rock specialist, the black-faced blennyTripterygion delaisi(Perciformes, Blennioidei, Tripterygiidae) from the Adriatic Sea.
Koblmüller, Stephan; Steinwender, Bernd; Weiß, Sara; Sefc, Kristina M
Population histories depend on the interplay between exogeneous and endogeneous factors. In marine species, phylogeographic and demographic patterns are often shaped by sea level fluctuations, water currents and dispersal ability. Using mitochondrial control region sequences ( n = 120), we infer phylogeographic structure and historic population size changes of a common littoral fish species, the black-faced blenny Tripterygion delaisi (Perciformes, Blennioidei, Tripterygiidae) from the north-eastern Adriatic Sea. We find that Adriatic T. delaisi are differentiated from conspecific populations in the remaining Mediterranean, but display little phylogeographic structure within the Adriatic basin. The pattern is consistent with passive dispersal of planktonic larvae along cyclonic currents within the Adriatic Sea, but limited active dispersal of adults. Demographic reconstructions are consistent with recent population expansion, probably triggered by rising sea levels after the last glacial maximum (LGM). Placing the onset of population growth between the LGM and the warming of surface waters (18 000-13 000 years BP) and employing a novel expansion dating approach, we inferred a substitution rate of 2.61-3.61% per site per MY. Our study is one of only few existing investigations of the genetic structure of animals within the Adriatic basin and is the first to provide an estimate for mitochondrial control region substitution rates in blennioid fishes.
First report on nematode parasite infection in the yellowbar angelfish Pomacanthus maculosus (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae) from the Iraqi coral reef, with description of a new species of Cucullanus (Nematoda: Ascaridida) using the integrated approaches.
Li, Liang; Ali, Atheer H; Zhao, Wen-Ting; Lü, Liang; Xu, Zhen
The yellowbar angelfish Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål) (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae) is a beautiful, marine ornamental fish with very important commercial value. However, to date, no information is available on nematode parasite infection in P. maculosus. In the present study, the integrated approaches including light and scanning electron microscopy, and sequencing and analysing ribosomal [small ribosomal DNA (18S) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS)] and mitochondrial [cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1)] target regions, respectively, were employed for the systematic evaluation of the nematode parasites firstly isolated from P. maculosus in the Iraqi coral reef. The results revealed that these nematodes represent a new species of Cucullanus (Ascaridida: Cucullanidae). The phylogenetic analyses based on 18S, ITS and cox1 sequences were constructed, respectively, to assess the phylogenetic relationships between the new species and the other cucullanids, and the monophyly of Cucullanus, as well as some its related genus-level taxa. The results supported C. extraneus n. sp. appear to be sister to C. hainanensis, and the genera Cucullanus, Dichelyne and Truttaedacnitis may be not monophyletic assemblages. This is the first report of the occurrence of nematode parasites in P. maculosus. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Pseudopecoelus mccauleyi n. sp. and Podocotyle sp. (Digenea: Opecoelidae) from the deep waters off Oregon and British Columbia with an updated key to the species of Pseudopecoelus von Wicklen, 1946 and checklist of parasites from Lycodes cortezianus (Perciformes: Zoarcidae).
Blend, Charles K; Dronen, Norman O; Racz, Gabor R; Gardner, Scott L
Pseudopecoelus mccauleyi n. sp. (Opecoelidae: Opecoelinae) is described from the intestine of the bigfin eelpout, Lycodes cortezianus (Gilbert, 1890) (Perciformes: Zoarcidae), collected at 200-800 m depths in the Northeastern Pacific Ocean off Oregon and Vancouver Island, British Columbia. The new species is distinguished by possessing a unique combination of the following diagnostic characters: vitelline fields that extend to the posterior margin of the ventral sucker; a slender, tubular and sinuous seminal vesicle that extends some distance into the hindbody; an unspecialized, protuberant ventral sucker; a genital pore at pharynx level; lobed to deeply multilobed testes; a lobed ovary; and an egg size of 68-80 μm × 30-46 μm. A single specimen of Podocotyle Dujardin, 1845 (Digenea: Plagioporinae) is also described from the intestine of an individual Coryphaenoides sp. (Gadiformes: Macrouridae) collected at 2,800 m depth off Oregon. A listing of parasites from the bigfin eelpout as well as observations of parasite diversity within relevant hosts are offered, new host and locality records are noted, and a brief discussion of Pseudopecoelus von Wicklen, 1946 in the deep sea is presented taking note of the low level of host specificity recorded (i.e. spp. of Pseudopecoelus are now known to parasitize deep-water fish from at least 20 piscine families). A new dichotomous key to the 39 recognized species of Pseudopecoelus is introduced.
Morphological and genetic analyses of the first record of the Niger Hind, Cephalopholis nigri (Perciformes: Serranidae, in the Mediterranean Sea and of the African Hind, Cephalopholis taeniops, in Malta
Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-native marine species, including tropical eastern Atlantic fish species are on the increase in Malta, with shipping activities being the main vector for the movement of these alien species from the Atlantic into the Mediterranean Sea. This calls for cooperation and collaboration between various sea-users and researchers to ensure continuous monitoring of coastal biodiversity. Methods Research methods involving local fishermen cooperation in monitoring efforts to identify and track populations of alien species in the Central Mediterranean has led to new records for the genus Cephalopholis (Perciformes: Serranidae in Malta. Morphological characteristics, meristic counts and mitochondrial DNA sequences from specimens of both species sampled from Maltese waters were analysed to confirm their species identify accurately, essential for tracking their respective population expansions in the Mediterranean. Results and conclusion Results from this study have led to confirmation of the first record of the Niger Hind, Cephalopholis nigri (Günther, 1859, in the Mediterranean Sea and of the establishment of the African Hind, Cephalopholis taeniops (Valenciennes, 1828 in Maltese waters.
Morphological and molecular analyses of a new species of Saccocoelioides Szidat, 1954 (Haploporidae Nicoll, 1914) in the fat sleeper Dormitator maculatus (Bloch) (Perciformes: Eleotridae) from the Gulf of Mexico.
Andrade-Gómez, L; Pinacho-Pinacho, C D; Hernández-Orts, J S; Sereno-Uribe, A L; García-Varela, M
Saccocoelioides olmecae n. sp. is described from specimens recovered from the intestine of the fat sleeper Dormitator maculatus (Bloch) (Perciformes: Eleotridae) collected in six localities along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. The new species is mainly distinguished from the other three described species of Saccocoelioides Szidat, 1954 from North and Middle America (i.e. S. sogandaresi Lumsden, 1963, S. chauhani Lamothe-Argumedo, 1974 and S. lamothei Aguirre-Macedo & Violante-González, 2008) by having an elongated body, a sac-like caecum, a uterus that extends to the first third of body and by having vitelline follicles longitudinally elongated reaching the posterior end of the body. Sequences of the large subunit (LSU) of the ribosomal DNA, including the domain D1-D3, and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) were used independently and concatenated to corroborate the morphological distinction among S. olmecae n. sp., S. chauhani and S. lamothei from freshwater and brackish-water fish from Middle America. The genetic divergence estimated among the three species of Saccocoelioides was very low: 1% for LSU and from 1 to 4% for ITS2. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses for each dataset and both datasets combined revealed that S. olmecae n. sp. represents an independent clade with moderate bootstrap support and posterior probabilities. This is the third species of Saccocoelioides described in Mexico, and the 17th species from the Americas.
Thevakumar, Kavitha; Chandren, Josephine Rebecca; Perez-Perez, Guillermo Ignacio; Chua, Eng Guan; Teh, Lay Kek; Salleh, Mohd Zaki; Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne; Leow, Alex Hwong Ruey; Goh, Khean Lee; Tay, Alfred Chin Yen; Marshall, Barry J; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Loke, Mun Fai; Wong, Li Ping
The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is related to human poverty with marked differences between developing and developed countries. Socioeconomic factors and living standards are the main determinants of the age-dependent acquisition rate of H. pylori, and consequently its prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the risk and sero-prevalence of H. pylori colonization among Orang Asli in Peninsula Malaysia. This cross-sectional study was conducted on Orang Asli subjects in seven isolated settlements spanning across all three major tribes (Negrito, Proto Malay and Senoi) in Malaysia. Socio-demographic characteristics of the subjects were obtained through interview. Subjects were tested for H. pylori colonization based on CagA and whole cell (WC) antigen serological assays. A total of 275 subjects participated in this study. Among these subjects, 115 (44.7%) were H. pylori sero-positive with highest sero-prevalence among Negrito (65.7%). Among subjects who were H. pylori sero-positive, CagA sero positivity was also significantly higher among Negrito. The highest proportion of respondents reported to be H. pylori sero-positive was from age group 30 years old and below (57.9%), males (56.2%), Negrito (48.6%) and live in bamboo house (92.3%). The highest proportion of respondents reported to be CagA sero-positive was from age group 30 years old and below (41.4%), males (35.6%) and Negrito (48.6%). The results of this study demonstrate that H. pylori colonization can be related to age, gender, tribes and house materials and CagA sero-positive stain closely associated with age, gender and tribes.
Full Text Available The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection is related to human poverty with marked differences between developing and developed countries. Socioeconomic factors and living standards are the main determinants of the age-dependent acquisition rate of H. pylori, and consequently its prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the risk and sero-prevalence of H. pylori colonization among Orang Asli in Peninsula Malaysia. This cross-sectional study was conducted on Orang Asli subjects in seven isolated settlements spanning across all three major tribes (Negrito, Proto Malay and Senoi in Malaysia. Socio-demographic characteristics of the subjects were obtained through interview. Subjects were tested for H. pylori colonization based on CagA and whole cell (WC antigen serological assays. A total of 275 subjects participated in this study. Among these subjects, 115 (44.7% were H. pylori sero-positive with highest sero-prevalence among Negrito (65.7%. Among subjects who were H. pylori sero-positive, CagA sero positivity was also significantly higher among Negrito. The highest proportion of respondents reported to be H. pylori sero-positive was from age group 30 years old and below (57.9%, males (56.2%, Negrito (48.6% and live in bamboo house (92.3%. The highest proportion of respondents reported to be CagA sero-positive was from age group 30 years old and below (41.4%, males (35.6% and Negrito (48.6%. The results of this study demonstrate that H. pylori colonization can be related to age, gender, tribes and house materials and CagA sero-positive stain closely associated with age, gender and tribes.
Background The number of tribes present within Bangladesh has been estimated to approximate one hundred and fifty. Information on traditional medicinal practices, particularly of the smaller tribes and their clans is lacking. It was the objective of the study to document the tribal medicinal practices of the Deb barma clan of the Tripura tribe, which clan can be found residing in Dolusora Tripura Palli of Moulvibazar district of Bangladesh. A further objective was to determine the extent of the community households who still prefer traditional treatment to other forms of treatment, particularly allopathic treatment. Methods Interviews of the tribal healer and the tribal community regarding their ethnomedicinal practices were carried out with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. All together 67 clan members were interviewed including the Headman, tribal healer, 19 Heads of households and 46 other adult members of the clan. Information on number of members of household, their age, gender, educational status, occupation of working household members and preferred mode of treatment was obtained through the semi-structured questionnaire. In the guided field-walk method, the healer took the interviewers on field-walks through areas from where he collected his medicinal plants, pointed out the plants, and described their uses. Results The clan had a total of 135 people distributed into 20 households and had only one traditional healer. Use of medicinal plants, wearing of amulets, and worship of the evil god ‘Bura debta’ constituted the traditional medicinal practices of the clan for treatment of diseases. The healer used a total of 44 medicinal plants distributed into 34 families for treatment of various ailments like pain, coughs, cold, gastrointestinal disorders, cuts and wounds, diabetes, malaria, heart disorders, and paralysis. Conclusions Available scientific reports validate the use of a number of plants by the traditional
Cuenca-Navarro, Argelia; Lange, Conny Bruun Asmussen; Borchsenius, Finn
a result of Gondwana vicariance and extinction from Africa and/or Madagascar. However, latitudinal migrations and their role in shaping the distribution of this tribe in the Americas have been largely overlooked. In this study we used seven plastid and two nuclear DNA regions to investigate......, followed by long distance dispersion to the Mascarene Islands in the late Miocene. The radiation of Hyophorbe could have taking place on islands in the Indian Ocean now submerged, but its former presence in Africa or Madagascar cannot be ruled out. At least two independent migrations between North...
Chubukova, O V; Baĭmiev, An Kh; Mudarisova, A F; Baĭmiev, Al Kh; Muldashev, A A
The carbohydrate-binding sequences (CBS) of the lectin genes from legume plants of the genera Astragalus Lam., Oxytropis DC., and Hedysarum L. were determined. Computer-assisted analysis of nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences of the lectin gene fragments examined revealed a high homology level between their CBS. At the same time, the CBS of Astragalus and Oxytropis were considerably different from the lectin gene CBS in the earlier examined representatives of the tribe Galegeae, Caragana frutex and C. arborescens. This fact probably points to the differences in the carbohydrate-binding specificity of the proteins examined, which can eventually affect their functional activity.
Vasconcelos, Thais N C; Proença, Carol E B; Ahmad, Berhaman; Aguilar, Daniel S; Aguilar, Reinaldo; Amorim, Bruno S; Campbell, Keron; Costa, Itayguara R; De-Carvalho, Plauto S; Faria, Jair E Q; Giaretta, Augusto; Kooij, Pepijn W; Lima, Duane F; Mazine, Fiorella F; Peguero, Brigido; Prenner, Gerhard; Santos, Matheus F; Soewarto, Julia; Wingler, Astrid; Lucas, Eve J
Myrteae (c. 2500 species; 51 genera) is the largest tribe of Myrtaceae and an ecologically important groups of angiosperms in the Neotropics. Systematic relationships in Myrteae are complex, hindering conservation initiatives and jeopardizing evolutionary modelling. A well-supported and robust phylogenetic hypothesis was here targeted towards a comprehensive understanding of the relationships within the tribe. The resultant topology was used as a base for key evolutionary analyses such as age estimation, historical biogeography and diversification rate patterns. One nuclear (ITS) and seven chloroplast (psbA-trnH, matK, ndhF, trnl-trnF, trnQ-rps16, rpl16 and rpl32-trnL) DNA regions for 115 taxa representing 46 out of the 51 genera in the tribe were accessed and analysed using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference tools for phylogenetic reconstruction. Dates of diversification events were estimated and contrasted using two distinct fossil sets (macro and pollen) in BEAST. The subsequent dated phylogenies were compared and analysed for biogeographical patterns using BioGeoBEARS and diversification rates using BAMM. Myrteae phylogeny presents strong statistical support for three major clades within the tribe: Australasian group, Myrtus group and Main Neotropical Lineage. Dating results from calibration using macrofossil are an average of 20 million years older and show an early Paleocene origin of Myrteae, against a mid-Eocene one from the pollen fossil calibration. Biogeographic analysis shows the origin of Myrteae in Zealandia in both calibration approaches, followed by a widespread distribution throughout the still-linked Gondwana continents and diversification of Neotropical endemic lineages by later vicariance. Best configuration shift indicates three points of acceleration in diversification rates, all of them occurring in the Main Neotropical Lineage. Based on the reconstructed topology, several new taxonomic placements were recovered, including: the
Ramil E. Agaev
Studying the problems related to the process of the Azerbaijanian people formation requires a comprehensive analysis of mutual relations of the Turkic tribes – the Huns, the Sabirs and the Khazars – with the local population of Azerbaijan in the early Middle Ages. The article is devoted to the process of penetration of the Huns, the Sabirs and the Khazars to Azerbaijan, their role in the formation of the Azerbaijanian people and the reflection of this process in the country’s toponymy. In...
Full Text Available El Lago Petén Itzá se ubica en la zona de usos múltiples de la Reserva de la Biosfera Maya, entre sus especies ícticas encontramos al pez blanco (Petenia splendida de alto valor comercial. El propósito del presente trabajo es aclarar la posición taxonómica de las dos formas de pez blanco de Petén y compararlas con la forma del Usumacinta. Entre 2008 y 2009 se recolectaron 25 ejemplares de la forma amarilla y 25 de la plateada en 10 localidades del lago Petén Itzá y 21 en la cuenca del Usumacinta durante 1978 y 2006; se revisaron 36 características morfométricas y 16 merísticas, así como coloración, hábitat y forma de pesca. La P. splendida del Lago presenta las siguientes características: la forma amarilla se encuentra a una profundidad entre 0.5 y 1.5m, tiene aleta dorsal XIV-(XV-XVI/11-(12-13; la plateada esta a profundidades entre 2-3m, presenta aleta dorsal XIV-(XV-XVI/10-(12-13, mientras que la forma del Usumacinta posee aleta dorsal XIV-(XV-XV/12-(13-13. El análisis discriminante muestra una diferenciación entre las tres poblaciones analizadas aunque no es determinante. La fauna de peces de la cuenca del área de estudio presenta alta diversidad, se observa daño antropogénico producto de la sobreexplotación, por la falta de aplicación de la reglamentación existente y la urbanización.Systematic of the fish Petenia splendida (Perciformes: Cichlidae of Lake Petén Itzá, Guatemala. The Lake Petén Itzá is located in the multiple use zone of the Maya Biosphere Reserve. It belongs to the subtropical moist forest (warm life zone, and has very important flora and fauna diversities. Among the fish species, the white fish (Petenia splendida is of high commercial value. The main goal of the present work was to clarify the taxonomic position of the two forms of the white fish in Petén (Guatemala, and to compare it with the Usumacinta (Mexico form, based on the collected material from 1978 and 2006 (Usumacinta, and
Cacciali, Pier; Martínez, Nicolás; Köhler, Gunther
The family Gymnophthalmidae contains nearly 235 species with a distribution range from southern Mexico to central Argentina as well as in the Antilles. Among gymnophthalmids, the genus Colobosaura is a member of the tribe Iphisini, and currently is considered monotypic ( C. modesta ). The diversity of the tribe was studied recently, with the erection of several new genera. In this work genetic and morphological data of specimens of Colobosaura recently collected in Paraguay were analyzed. Genetic (16S barcode) data indicate that these samples are not conspecific with C. modesta and they are allocated to the nominal species C. kraepelini . Because the original primary type of the latter taxon is considered to be lost, a neotype (SMF 101370) is designated for this species and a redescription provided based on our material. Colobosaura kraepelini is distributed in the Humid Chaco, being the only member of the whole tribe in this ecoregion.
Ma, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Yu-Xiao; Zeng, Chun-Xia; Guo, Zhen-Hua; Li, De-Zhu
The temperate woody bamboos constitute a distinct tribe Arundinarieae (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) with high species diversity. Estimating phylogenetic relationships among the 11 major lineages of Arundinarieae has been particularly difficult, owing to a possible rapid radiation and the extremely low rate of sequence divergence. Here, we explore the use of chloroplast genome sequencing for phylogenetic inference. We sampled 25 species (22 temperate bamboos and 3 outgroups) for the complete genome representing eight major lineages of Arundinarieae in an attempt to resolve backbone relationships. Phylogenetic analyses of coding versus noncoding sequences, and of different regions of the genome (large single copy and small single copy, and inverted repeat regions) yielded no well-supported contradicting topologies but potential incongruence was found between the coding and noncoding sequences. The use of various data partitioning schemes in analysis of the complete sequences resulted in nearly identical topologies and node support values, although the partitioning schemes were decisively different from each other as to the fit to the data. Our full genomic data set substantially increased resolution along the backbone and provided strong support for most relationships despite the very short internodes and long branches in the tree. The inferred relationships were also robust to potential confounding factors (e.g., long-branch attraction) and received support from independent indels in the genome. We then added taxa from the three Arundinarieae lineages that were not included in the full-genome data set; each of these were sampled for more than 50% genome sequences. The resulting trees not only corroborated the reconstructed deep-level relationships but also largely resolved the phylogenetic placements of these three additional lineages. Furthermore, adding 129 additional taxa sampled for only eight chloroplast loci to the combined data set yielded almost identical
Full Text Available Aim: The present study aimed to document the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants and antimicrobial validation of Thespesia populnea used by Yanadi tribe of Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: The study was mainly focused on documentation of medicinal plants used by Yanadi tribe to treat different diseases with a standard questionnaire. These plants were cross checked in Dr. Dukes database and available literature to know the significance of this tribe on medicinal knowledge. Among the documented plants T. populnea was selected for antimicrobial activity with disc diffusion assay. Results: Among the documented medicinal plants, herbs were the most utilized plants, followed by leaf part of the plants; paste form of medicinal preparation was the dominant one among the mode of preparations and oral administration was generally followed by this tribe. When checked these plants in Dr. Dukes phytochemical and ethnobotanical database most of the medicinal plants were matched at least one medicinal use and most of them were correlated with existing literature. In antimicrobial activity, the microbial pathogens K. pneumonia among bacteria and R. arrhizus among fungi were most susceptible to methanol extract of T. populnea. Conclusion: From this study, we conclude that the preparation and dosage of the medicines by Yanadi tribe of this area is unique and the correlation of medicinal data with Dukes database and existing literature reveals high medicinal significance of claimed data of this tribe and potential inhibitory activity of T. populnea could be studied further to isolate effective antimicrobial agents. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(2.000: 158-169
Stanski, Carin; Luz, Cynthia Fernandes Pinto; Nogueira, Alessandro; Nogueira, Melissa Koch Fernandes de Souza
We analyzed the pollen morphology of twelve species belonging to fi ve genera of the Asteraceae family; four species belonging to the Astereae tribe [Aster haplopappus (Remy) Kuntze, Baccharis axillaris DC, Baccharis semiserrata DC and Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC.], and eight to the Heliantheae tribe [Aspilia montevidensis (Spreng) Kuntze, Aspilia refl exa Baker, Bidens alba (L) DC, Bidens pilosa L, Calea cymosa Less, Calea hispida (DC) Baker, Calea parvifolia (DC) Baker and Calea pinnatifi ...
Kritpetcharat, Onanong; Wutichouy, Wiwat; Sirijaichingkul, Suchat; Kritpetcharat, Panutas
Cervical cancer is an important woman's health problems worldwide, especially in low socio-economic countries. The aim of this study was to compare the Pap smear screening results between Akha hill tribe and urban women who live in Chiang Rai province, Thailand. Screening was conducted for 1,100 Akha women and 1,100 urban women who came to have the Pap smear at Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital and 1 private cytology laboratory from January to June 2008. The demographic characteristics and factors related to abnormal Pap smears of these women were gathered using closed model questionnaires. Abnormal Rap smears were defined according to the Bethesda 2001 system. The results showed that the prevalence of abnormal Pap smears was 12.2% in Akha women and 4.5% in urban women. The highest prevalence of Pap abnormalities was found in the 41-50 years age group in both populations (4.5% in Akha and 1.7% in urban women). In both populations, abnormal Pap smears were found in education level. In conclusion, cervical cancer control by education and early detection by Pap smear screening is necessary for hill tribe women. More Pap smear screening service units should be set to improve the coverage for the risk group women who got married in young age, especial in ethnic groups.
Full Text Available Adiwibowo A, Sulasmi IS. 2012. Relationships of forest biodiversity and rattan jernang (Deamonorops draco sustainable harvesting by Anak Dalam tribe in Jambi, Sumatra. Biodiversitas 13: 00-00. Conservation of tropical trees can be achieved if supported by the sustainable use of forest by community live nearby through harvesting of non timber woods, for instance rattan. Furthermore, rattan jernang individuals and trees have significant associations. Therefore, objective of this paper is to investigate the utilization of rattan jernang (Deamonorops draco Wild related to the forest tree biodiversity by Anak Dalam tribe in several villages in Jambi, Sumatra. The study has identified that populations of Deamonorops draco were varied among villages, ranged from 40 to 71 clumps in the forests and up to 500 clumps in plantations. Moreover, 73 individual trees consisted of 32 species were identified as rattan host and conserved by the community. Dialium platyespalyum. Quercus elmeri, and Adinandra dumosa were rattan host trees with the highest populations. Meanwhile, a biodiversity of non-host trees consisted of 30 individual trees from 16 species. Interviews revealed that traditional harvesters have acknowledged that trees have significant important ecological roles for the rattan livelihood and therefore it is very important to conserve the forests for the sustainability of harvest in the future. Furthermore, to secure the availability of rattan, the traditional harvesters had started rattan plantation.
Doadrio, Ignacio; Perea, Silvia; Alcaraz, Lourdes; Hernandez, Natividad
Phylogenetic relationships among members of the freshwater fish tribe Girardinini were inferred to test existing colonization and diversification hypotheses for this group in the Caribbean. The genetic material examined was mitochondrial (cytochrome b, 1140 bp) and nuclear (RAG-1 and beta-actin, 2450 bp) DNA from 161 specimens representing 44 ingroup and three outgroup taxa. Our mtDNA and combined data matrix (mtDNA+nuclear DNA) results rendered a well-supported phylogeny for the tribe Girardinini and suggest the need to review the group's current taxonomy. From the data presented here, it may be inferred that the Girardinini diverged from other poeciliid fishes approximately 62 Mya ago in the Palaeocene period. This estimate, however, conflicts with the hypothesis that today's vertebrate fauna is the result of the more recent colonization of the Antillean islands during the Early Oligocene (35-33 Mya ago). The isolation of western, central and eastern Cuba during the Miocene and that of the Juventud Island and Guanahacabibes Peninsula during the Pliocene, are the main geologic events that could have promoted speciation in this group.
Prakash, N; Ansari, M A; Punitha, P; Sharma, P K
Rongmei tribe (Kooki), are inhabitant of the Charoi Chagotlong village, Tupul, Tamenglong district of Manipur have the traditional knowledge of folk bio-medicine based on diverse plant species for the prevention and cure of certain chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to document and preserve the indigenous knowledge of the Rongmei tribe on folk medicines. The present work was based on methodical field survey conducted between 2010, to 2013. Local people of within 30-70 age groups of both sexes were interviewed and a group discussion (using a structured interview schedule), was held to know about the type of plant parts used in folk bio-medicines, and their mode of use. The interviewers were drawn from a wide array of disciplines (Vendors, Farmers club, NGO's, scientific societies, etc.), to obtain maximum information in relation to folk bio-medicine. A total of 60 species belonging to 36 different families (ranging from gymnosperm to angiosperm with medicinal benefits), were discussed briefly with significant emphasis on their local name, scientific name, family, parts used; they claimed to cure various ailments from these plants in this mode of folk bio-medicine. The different plant parts used were leaves, fruits, bulbs, bark, roots, seeds, tuber, trunk, flower, shoot, whole plant, rhizome, stem, wood and berries. Based on a life form of the reported plants comprise herbs, shrubs, trees, grasses, bulb, vine, climber, tuber and succulent. Efforts should be made to promote the use of traditional biomedicines within rural communities to preserve the traditional knowledge.
Pyron, R Alexander; Arteaga, Alejandro; Echevarría, Lourdes Y; Torres-Carvajal, Omar
The genus Synophis contains a number of enigmatic species, distributed primarily in the Andean highlands of northern South America. Their extreme crypsis and rarity has precluded detailed study of most species. A recent flurry of collection activity resulted in the accession of many new specimens, and the description of 4 new species in 2015, doubling the number of described taxa. However, lingering questions remain regarding the assignment of many new and historical specimens, the morphological limits and geographical ranges of the species, and their phylogenetic relationships. We analyze new and existing morphological and molecular data to produce a new molecular phylogeny and revised morphological descriptions. We validate the previously unavailable tribe name Diaphorolepidini Jenner, Pyron, Arteaga, Echevarría, & Torres-Carvajal tribe nov., describe a 9th species Synophis niceforomariae Pyron, Arteaga, Echevarría, & Torres-Carvajal sp. nov., and offer new Standard Names in English and Spanish for the group: Andean Shadow Snakes and Culebras Andinas de la Sombra, respectively. A variety of features such as vertebrae and hemipenes show an interesting range of variation in the group, which should be evaluated in future studies, to refine species limits and diagnoses further. Cryptic and undiscovered diversity undoubtedly remains, and we hope this summary provides a robust basis for future work.
Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Salleh, Fatmah Md; Moktar, Norhayati
Currently, information on prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections among different tribes of Orang Asli (aboriginal) is scarce in Malaysia. The present study is a cross-sectional study aimed at determining the factors associated with the prevalence of STH infections among the Proto-Malay, Negrito and Senoi tribes. Faecal samples were collected from 500 participants and socioeconomic data was collected via pre-tested questionnaire. All samples were processed using formalin-ether sedimentation and Wheatley's trichrome staining. Trichuris trichiura (57%) was the most common STH seen among the participants, followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (23.8%) and hookworm (7.4%). Trichuriasis and ascariasis showed an age-dependency relationship; significantly higher rates were observed among Senois who aged <15 years. Likewise, Negritos also showed an age-dependency association with ascariasis affecting mainly the under 15 years old individuals. Multivariate logistic regression model indicated the following predictors of trichuriasis among these communities; being aged <15 years, consuming raw vegetables, belonging to a large household members (≥8) and earning low household income (
Full Text Available The Rukai tribe is concentrated in the Wutai Township of Pingtung County, southern Taiwan. From 2000 to 2003 people of the Rukai in Wutai were interviewed on the traditional uses of plants and samples of such plant species were collected in an effort to remedy the situation of insufficient quantitative data on Taiwan’s ethnobotany. The number of citations per species and total number of citations were recorded in order to calculate diversity indices such as Shannon-Wiener index, evenness index, and rarefaction curves. Thirty-seven interviewed informants cited 245 plant species, which were then classified into thirteen types of usages, such as food, medicine, tools, and decoration. Among the 245 plant species, 93 species are used as food, 73 as tools, 52 for decoration and 45 for medicinal purposes. Informants described six types of usages for Hibiscus taiwanensis Hu and Vitex negundo L. Sambucus chinensis Nakai and Chamaesyce hirta (L. Millsp. had the highest number of citations for medicinal usages. The Shannon-Wiener index was 2.27. The evenness values was 0.95, showing that the Wutai Rukai people had a low dominance concerning the uses of a few species and an equitability of plant uses. The diversity indices and the Coleman rarefaction curves of the Taiwan Rukai tribe could be available to compare ethnobotanical data with different areas.
Full Text Available Previous works resolved diverse phylogenetic positions for genera of the Fabaceae tribe Thermopsideae, without a thoroughly biogeography study. Based on sequence data from nuclear ITS and four cpDNA regions (matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA, trnL-trnF mainly sourced from GenBank, the phylogeny of tribe Thermopsideae was inferred. Our analyses support the genera of Thermopsideae, with the exclusion of Pickeringia, being merged into a monophyletic Sophoreae. Genera of Sophoreae were assigned into the Thermopsoid clade and Sophoroid clade. Monophyly of Anagyris, Baptisia and Piptanthus were supported in the Thermopsoid clade. However, the genera Thermopsis and Sophora were resolved to be polyphyly, which require comprehensive taxonomic revisions. Interestingly, Ammopiptanthus, consisting of A. mongolicus and A. nanus, nested within the Sophoroid clade, with Salweenia as its sister. Ammopiptanthus and Salweenia have a disjunct distribution in the deserts of northwestern China and the Hengduan Mountains, respectively. Divergence age was estimated based on the ITS phylogenetic analysis. Emergence of the common ancestor of Ammopiptanthus and Salweenia, divergence between these two genera and the split of Ammopiptanthus species occurred at approximately 26.96 Ma, 4.74 Ma and 2.04 Ma, respectively, which may be in response to the second, third and fourth main uplifts of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, respectively.
Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Chan, Kok-Gan; Chow, Wan-Loo; Eamsobhana, Praphathip
The whole mitochondrial genome of the pest fruit fly Bactrocera arecae was obtained from next-generation sequencing of genomic DNA. It had a total length of 15,900 bp, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a non-coding region (A + T-rich control region). The control region (952 bp) was flanked by rrnS and trnI genes. The start codons included 6 ATG, 3 ATT and 1 each of ATA, ATC, GTG and TCG. Eight TAA, two TAG, one incomplete TA and two incomplete T stop codons were represented in the protein-coding genes. The cloverleaf structure for trnS1 lacked the D-loop, and that of trnN and trnF lacked the TΨC-loop. Molecular phylogeny based on 13 protein-coding genes was concordant with 37 mitochondrial genes, with B. arecae having closest genetic affinity to B. tryoni. The subgenus Bactrocera of Dacini tribe and the Dacinae subfamily (Dacini and Ceratitidini tribes) were monophyletic. The whole mitogenome of B. arecae will serve as a useful dataset for studying the genetics, systematics and phylogenetic relationships of the many species of Bactrocera genus in particular, and tephritid fruit flies in general.
Mungreiphy, N K; Kapoor, Satwanti
To evaluate the association between blood sugar level and obesity, and the interplay of socioeconomic change, and to investigate the efficacy of different obesity indices and age in predicting diabetes. Cross-sectional study was carried out among 603 adult Tangkhul Nagas of NE India. Anthropometric measurements, random blood sugar level, general and regional obesity indices were evaluated along with their information on socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. Socioeconomic change observed among the Tangkhuls influence the rise of overweight/obesity and blood sugar level. Obesity and elevated blood sugar level were highly prevalent and interrelated. Diabetes and obesity were also found to be associated with age. Central obesity indices were highly associated with blood sugar level. Odds ratio showed the likelihood of developing prediabetes/diabetes among centrally obese participants. Correlation between blood sugar level, age and obesity indices showed that waist hip ratio had the highest correlation with blood sugar. It implies the higher reliability of central obesity than general obesity or age in determining blood sugar level. The transition of the Tangkhul Naga tribe in terms of socioeconomic and lifestyle factors contributes to the escalating prevalence of overweight/obesity and diabetes. The rising epidemic is not restricted to highly urbanized societies but now has penetrated even to traditional and transitional tribes owing to their changing lifestyle. Different facets of the complex associations between obesity, age, diabetes and socioeconomic change were observed. Central obesity indicator, waist hip ratio emerge as the paramount predictors of prediabetes/diabetes.
Lika, K.; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.; Papandroulakis, N.
Larval stages are considered the most critical of fish development. During a very short period of time (2 to 3. months), larvae undergo major morphoanatomical and functional changes in order to transform into juveniles while remaining functioning (developing, eating, surviving). Depending on species
Mittal, Poonam C; Srivastava, Sapna
According to the 2001 census conducted by the Government of India, India has more than 84 million tribals who constitute 8.2% of India's population. The Oraons are an agricultural tribe found mainly in Orissa, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal. The present study was undertaken on a group of Oraon tribals working in a tea gardens of New Mal in Jalpaiguri district of West Bengal. The children attended the local primary school. The Oraons are covered by the Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) of the Government of India, which is concerned with the health, nutrition and development of children and their mothers. To evaluate the effect of ICDS, the practices of adults towards hygiene, medication, addictive substances and diet were also recorded. 500 Oraon tribals, including 200 men and 150 women aged 20-45 years, and 150 children aged 6-12 years, were surveyed for their dietary intake by 24-hour recall and semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire methodology and anthropometry, and a description of food-related traditions. The diet of all Oraon groups was deficient in all food groups. Cereal intake was least deficient, while the intake of milk and fruit was almost negligible. Their diet was supplemented by a locally grown green leafy vegetable dheki saag, and fermented leftover rice. The energy available from the diet for all age groups was only 52-53% of the recommended dietary allowances of the Indian Council of Medical Research. Children were enrolled in a midday meal program at the local primary school; however, their energy intake was severely deficient, and of the same order as their parents. The mean basal mass index (BMI) of adult Oraons was not low, but children were severely undernourished. Men were less undernourished than were women. Some potentially useful traditions practiced included wiping washed utensils with leaves of a local plant mirchaiya, preparing herbal tablets called ranoodava to make an alcoholic and a medicinal drink called hadiya
Marsh, Paul M.; Wild, Alexander L.; Whitfield, James B.
Abstract A comprehensive taxonomic study is presented for the four genera and 286 species of the doryctine tribe Heterospilini occurring in Costa Rica. The tribe is represented almost entirely by the 280 species of the genus Heterospilus Haliday. Keys for identification of the genera and species are provided and the genera and species are described and illustrated. An interactive key to the species of Heterospilus also was prepared using Lucid Builder. The following new genus and species are described from Costa Rica: Paraheterospilus gen. n., P. ceciliaensis sp. n., P. eumekus sp. n., P. wilbotgardus sp. n., Heterospilus achi sp. n., H. achterbergi sp. n., H. aesculapius sp. n., H. agujas sp. n., H. agujasensis sp. n., H. alajuelus sp. n., H. albocoxalis sp. n., H. alejandroi sp. n., H. amuzgo sp. n., H. angelicae sp. n., H. angustus sp. n., H. aphrodite sp. n., H. apollo sp. n., H. arawak sp. n., H. areolatus sp. n., H. artemis sp. n., H. athena sp. n., H. attraholucus sp. n., H. aubreyae sp. n., H. austini sp. n., H. azofeifai sp. n., H. bacchus sp. n., H. barbalhoae sp. n., H. bennetti sp. n., H. bicolor sp. n., H. boharti sp. n., H. borucas sp. n., H. braeti sp. n., H. brethesi sp. n., H. breviarius sp. n., H. brevicornus sp. n., H. bribri sp. n., H. brullei sp. n., H. bruesi sp. n., H. cabecares sp. n., H. cacaoensis sp. n., H. cachiensis sp. n., H. cameroni sp. n., H. cangrejaensis sp. n., H. careonotaulus sp. n., H. caritus sp. n., H. carolinae sp. n., H. cartagoensis sp. n., H. catiensis sp. n., H. catorce sp. n., H. cero sp. n., H. chaoi sp. n., H. chilamatensis sp. n., H. chocho sp. n., H. chorotegus sp. n., H. chorti sp. n., H. cinco sp. n., H. cocopa sp. n., H. colliletus sp. n., H. colonensis sp. n., H. complanatus sp. n., H. conservatus sp. n., H. cora sp. n., H. corcovado sp. n., H. corrugatus sp. n., H. costaricensis sp. n., H. cressoni sp. n., H. cuatro sp. n., H. curtisi sp. n., H. cushmani sp. n., H. dani sp. n., H. demeter sp. n., H. dianae sp
Full Text Available A comprehensive taxonomic study is presented for the four genera and 286 species of the doryctine tribe Heterospilini occurring in Costa Rica. The tribe is represented almost entirely by the 280 species of the genus Heterospilus Haliday. Keys for identification of the genera and species are provided and the genera and species are described and illustrated. An interactive key to the species of Heterospilus also was prepared using Lucid Builder. The following new genus and species are described from Costa Rica: Paraheterospilus gen. n., P. ceciliaensis sp. n., P. eumekus sp. n., P. wilbotgardus sp. n., Heterospilus achi sp. n., H. achterbergi sp. n., H. aesculapius sp. n., H. agujas sp. n., H. agujasensis sp. n., H. alajuelus sp. n., H. albocoxalis sp. n., H. alejandroi sp. n., H. amuzgo sp. n., H. angelicae sp. n., H. angustus sp. n., H. aphrodite sp. n., H. apollo sp. n., H. arawak sp. n., H. areolatus sp. n., H. artemis sp. n., H. athena sp. n., H. attraholucus sp. n., H. aubreyae sp. n., H. austini sp. n., H. azofeifai sp. n., H. bacchus sp. n., H. barbalhoae sp. n., H. bennetti sp. n., H. bicolor sp. n., H. boharti sp. n., H. borucas sp. n., H. braeti sp. n., H. brethesi sp. n., H. breviarius sp. n., H. brevicornus sp. n., H. bribri sp. n., H. brullei sp. n., H. bruesi sp. n., H. cabecares sp. n., H. cacaoensis sp. n., H. cachiensis sp. n., H. cameroni sp. n., H. cangrejaensis sp. n., H. careonotaulus sp. n., H. caritus sp. n., H. carolinae sp. n., H. cartagoensis sp. n., H. catiensis sp. n., H. catorce sp. n., H. cero sp. n., H. chaoi sp. n., H. chilamatensis sp. n., H. chocho sp. n., H. chorotegus sp. n., H. chorti sp. n., H. cinco sp. n., H. cocopa sp. n., H. colliletus sp. n., H. colonensis sp. n., H. complanatus sp. n., H. conservatus sp. n., H. cora sp. n., H. corcovado sp. n., H. corrugatus sp. n., H. costaricensis sp. n., H. cressoni sp. n., H. cuatro sp. n., H. curtisi sp. n., H. cushmani sp. n., H. dani sp. n., H. demeter sp. n., H
Francis Xavier, Thangaraj; Kannan, Moorthy; Auxilia, Anthonysamy
Traditional medicine remained as the most affordable and easily accessible source of treatment for many ailments. The Malayali tribes living in the Kolli hills region of Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu has long history of ethnomedicinal knowledge has been remained unexplored hither to. Hence, this study was initiated with an aim to record the ethnomedicinal plants of Malayali tribes and to document and analyse the local knowledge on phytotherapy before environmental and cultural changes deplete the resources. In order to document the phytotherapical knowledge, a field study was carried out between August 2012 and February 2014. The ethnomedicinal knowledge was recorded through interviews among the Malayali tribes, and traditional healers. In addition a semi structure questionnaire was used to collect information on the local name of the plant, plant part used for curing, method of preparation in phytoremedies and any other plants/agents used as ingredients. Factor of informant consensus (Fic), use value (UV), fidelity level (FL), relative importance (RI) and novelty index were employed in data analysis. Current research work reports total of 86 medicinal plant species belonging to 76 genera of 46 different families. Herbs constituted the largest growth habit (48 species, 56%) followed by trees (13 species, 15%) and shrubs (9 species, 11%) etc. Leaf 43 (46%) is the plant part widely used followed by whole plant 9 (10%), seeds and fruits 9 (10%) and root 7 (8%). Paste was the most common preparation method use in herbal recipes. These plants were used to treat various human diseases and ailments grouped under 19 disease categories with the highest number of species (31) being used for dermatological infections/diseases followed by gastro-intestinal ailments (28) and general health (15). Asystasia chelonoides (UV of 2.76) and Piper nigrum (UV of 2.12) are the most frequently and popularly used medicinal plant species in the study area. The result of the study revealed
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What cost principles must a Self-Governance Tribe follow when participating in self-governance under Title V? 137.167 Section 137.167 Public Health PUBLIC... HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Audits and Cost Principles § 137.167 What...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Do Davis-Bacon wage rates apply to construction... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Other § 137.379 Do Davis-Bacon wage rates apply to construction projects performed by Self-Governance Tribes using Federal funds? Davis-Bacon Act...
... appropriate to the nature and phase of the work and sufficient to allow comparisons to the Indian tribe or...) Prior costs to the government for similar projects adjusted for comparison to the target location...) Changes in inflation rates and market conditions, including local market conditions; (3) Cost and price...
... CONTRACTS UNDER THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Property Donation Procedures... or tribal organization upon acceptance by the Indian tribe or tribal organization of a proper deed of... Secretary shall take the necessary action under Federal law and regulations to transfer fee title to the...
... Selection of Additional Tribes for Participation in Tribal Self-Governance Admission into the Applicant Pool... no longer wishes to be eligible to participate in the Tribal Self-Governance Program; (2) Fails to satisfy the audit requirements of § 1000.17(c); or (3) Submits documentation evidencing a Tribal...
... for Participation in Tribal Self-Governance Eligibility § 1000.17 What documents must a Tribe... request for participation in self-governance by a Tribal resolution and/or a final official action by the... by providing, as part of the application, an audit report prepared in accordance with procedures...
... receiving a notice of imminent jeopardy to a physical trust asset? (a) Upon receipt of a notice of imminent jeopardy to a physical trust asset, the tribe must cease specific conduct outlined in the notice or take... jeopardy to a physical trust asset? 224.139 Section 224.139 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF...
Chaowasku, Tanawat; Thomas, Daniel C; van der Ham, Raymond W J M; Smets, Erik F; Mols, Johan B; Chatrou, Lars W
Tribe Miliuseae (∼25 genera and ∼510 species) includes a substantial part of the species and generic diversity in the pantropical flowering-plant family Annonaceae (∼108 genera and ∼2400 species). Previous molecular phylogenetic analyses have failed to resolve the backbone phylogeny of the tribe, impeding biogeographical and evolutionary studies. We use a dense generic taxon sample (∼89% of generic diversity in Miliuseae) and plastid DNA sequence data (∼7 kb) to clarify the phylogenetic relationships of and within the tribe. Parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic reconstructions and ancestral character-state reconstructions of several reproductive characters were performed. Dendrokingstoniae, Monocarpieae, and Miliuseae are recovered in a strongly supported clade, and each tribe is strongly supported as monophyletic. Miliuseae are characterized by a synapomorphic cryptoaperturate/disulculate pollen apertural system. Stenanona is shown to be nested within the paraphyletic genus Desmopsis. The only Neotropical clade (Sapranthus, Tridimeris, Desmopsis, and Stenanona) in the predominantly Asian Miliuseae is shown to be closely related to an undescribed genus from continental Southeast Asia and the Indo-Malayan and Austral-Pacific genus Meiogyne. Ancestral character-state reconstructions of several reproductive characters that are diagnostically important at the generic level indicate a considerable degree of homoplasy. The results improve our understanding of the relationships of and within Miliuseae, but parts of the backbone of the phylogeny remain poorly supported. Additional data from variable nuclear markers or reduced-genome-representation approaches seem to be required to further resolve relationships within this recalcitrant clade.
... unfair competitive advantage within an industry category. (3) Ownership. (i) For corporate entities, a... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Do Indian tribes and Alaska Native Corporations have any special rules for applying to the 8(a) BD program? 124.109 Section 124.109 Business...
... to its provisions with regard to domestic violence as follows: (i) To demonstrate reasonable cause, a...), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL TANF PROVISIONS... removed from the calculation in § 286.85); and (ii) A Tribe must grant good cause waivers in domestic...
... regulation it wishes to be waived? 1000.229 Section 1000.229 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Waiver of Regulations § 1000.229 May a Tribe...
... determination that a law or regulation has been superseded by the Indian Self-Determination Act, as specified in... SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Waiver Procedures § 900.148 How can an Indian tribe or tribal organization secure a determination that a law or regulation has been superseded by the Indian...
Guerra, M.F., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [ArchAm UMR8096 CNRS, MAE, 21 allée de l’Université, 92023 Nanterre (France); Abollivier, Ph., E-mail: email@example.com [Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Institut Universitaire de Technologie, rue de Kergoat, CS 93837, 29238 Brest Cedex 3 (France)
Highlights: • No tri-metallic system. • Debasement of gold alloys. • Chronological chemical pattern. • Presence of Sn and Sb. • Attribution of unknown coins. - Abstract: The analysis by PIXE and PAA of 64 coins struck in Iron Age Armorica by the Osismi tribe revealed the use of a different system from the usual Celtic Gaul tri-metallic system. The gold-based alloy (Au–Ag–Cu) firstly issued is debased over time to become a silver-based alloy (Ag–Cu–Sn). Based on the analytical data, two chronological phases were defined and dates of issuing could be ascribed to the coin-types. The presence of Sn and Sb in the alloys and the low contents of Pb were used in the attribution of 9 specimens of unknown origin to the Osismi monetary system. Considerations on the mints supplies could also be provided.
Shrivastav, Arpan; Maurya, Rajkumar; Shukla, Chandresh; Sahu, Trilok; Chauhan, Neeraj; Azad, Antriksh; Dubey, Ashutosh
Very little is known about the hard to reach tribal communities in India and one such community is a primitive hidden and isolated tribe group of Bharia people in Patalkot. Their health problems need special attention as they have very limited access to health care. The aim of this study is to assess the oral hygiene and periodontal status in the primitive tribe group of Bharias in Patalkot, Madhya Pradesh, India. A descriptive cross-sectional study was undertaken with sample size of 462 patients. The sample was selected using simple random technique. A predefined pro forma was used to record information about oral hygiene practices and tobacco-related habits. Oral Hygiene Index-simplified (OHI-S), Community Periodontal Index (CPI), and loss of attachment (LOA) were used to assess oral hygiene and periodontal status, respectively. The prevalence of periodontal disease based on CPI scores showed that 35.4 % had periodontal pocket > 6mm. It was also found that 27.9% people had attachment loss of 6-8mm. Mean Debris Index-simplified, Calculus Index-simplified, and OHI-S for the participants were 1.59 ± 0.73, 0.99 ± 0.70, and 2.56 ± 1.36, respectively. Poor oral hygiene status was found in 36.3% of Bharias. Higher prevalence of periodontal diseases and poor oral hygiene status in Bharia people can be attributed mainly to their difficult terrain, isolation, very low literacy level, socioeconomic status, and cultural practices.
Background Yami and Ivatan islanders are Austronesian speakers from Orchid Island and the Batanes archipelago that are located between Taiwan and the Philippines. The paternal genealogies of the Yami tribe from 1962 monograph of Wei and Liu were compared with our dataset of non-recombining Y (NRY) chromosomes from the corresponding families. Then mitochondrial DNA polymorphism was also analyzed to determine the matrilineal relationships between Yami, Ivatan, and other East Asian populations. Results The family relationships inferred from the NRY Phylogeny suggested a low number of paternal founders and agreed with the genealogy of Wei and Liu (P Philippine people was closer than that between Yami and Ivatan, suggesting that the Orchid islanders were colonized separately by their nearest neighbors and bred in isolation. However a northward gene flow to Orchid Island from the Philippines was suspected as Yami and Ivatan peoples both speak Western Malayo-Polynesian languages which are not spoken in Taiwan. Actually, only very little gene flow was observed between Yami and Ivatan or between Yami and the Philippines as indicated by the sharing of mtDNA haplogroup B4a1a4 and one O1a1* Y-STR lineage. Conclusions The NRY and mtDNA genetic information among Yami tribe peoples fitted well the patrilocal society model proposed by Wei and Liu. In this proposal, there were likely few genetic exchanges among Yami and the Philippine people. Trading activities may have contributed to the diffusion of Malayo-Polynesian languages among them. Finally, artifacts dating 4,000 YBP, found on Orchid Island and indicating association with the Out of Taiwan hypothesis might be related to a pioneering stage of settlement, as most dating estimates inferred from DNA variation in our data set ranged between 100-3,000 YBP. PMID:21281460
Nelin Timur Vladimirovich-
Full Text Available This article studies the policy of the first presidential administrations of the USA in relation to the Native Americans. The policy was established during the period of George Washington’s presidency. The key factor of this policy was the education of aboriginals, the inurement of skills necessary for the integration with white people. The development of trade relations between nations became the beginning of this process. Trade relations required competent management and special laws regulating the process of trade and intercourse with the Native Americans. Government trading houses (factories had to urge the process of civilization. The author shows the influence of the Enlightenment philosophy of Thomas Jefferson on his idea to educate the aboriginals. The close attention is paid not only to the political views of the third president of the USA, but also to his activity in the process of realizing the educational policy towards the Natives. Educational programs had a purpose to integrate aboriginal tribes into the US society. It was uneasy task and the government tried to find more constructive forms of working instead of common trade and intercourse acts with the Indians. The Louisiana Purchase gave new opportunities for developing the federal policy. Lewis and Clark explored the West and collected comprehensive information about its tribes, their habits and way of life. It was very useful for the government in its idea to civilize the indigenous peoples. The author studies the letters of Thomas Jefferson to some American politics and to the Natives, that the president wrote about his plans about the future of the American Indians. Revival movement of the Second Great Awaking found good allies for the US government. The author shows the role of protestant missionaries in the educational policy of the USA towards the Natives.
Full Text Available Introduction: Very little is known about the hard to reach tribal communities in India and one such community is a primitive hidden and isolated tribe group of Bharia people in Patalkot. Their health problems need special attention as they have very limited access to health care. The aim of this study is to assess the oral hygiene and periodontal status in the primitive tribe group of Bharias in Patalkot, Madhya Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was undertaken with sample size of 462 patients. The sample was selected using simple random technique. A predefined pro forma was used to record information about oral hygiene practices and tobacco-related habits. Oral Hygiene Index-simplified (OHI-S, Community Periodontal Index (CPI, and loss of attachment (LOA were used to assess oral hygiene and periodontal status, respectively. Results: The prevalence of periodontal disease based on CPI scores showed that 35.4 % had periodontal pocket > 6mm. It was also found that 27.9% people had attachment loss of 6-8mm. Mean Debris Index-simplified, Calculus Index-simplified, and OHI-S for the participants were 1.59 ± 0.73, 0.99 ± 0.70, and 2.56 ± 1.36, respectively. Poor oral hygiene status was found in 36.3% of Bharias. Conclusion: Higher prevalence of periodontal diseases and poor oral hygiene status in Bharia people can be attributed mainly to their difficult terrain, isolation, very low literacy level, socioeconomic status, and cultural practices.
By effectively engaging in government-to-government consultation the Tonto National Forest is able to consider oral histories and tribal cultural knowledge in decision making. These conversations often have the potential to lead to the protection and preservation of public lands. Discussed here is one example of successful tribal consultation and how it let to the protection of Traditional Cultural Properties (TCPs). One hour east of Phoenix, Arizona on the Tonto National Forest, Resolution Copper Mine, is working to access a rich copper vein more than 7,000 feet deep. As part of the mining plan of operation they are investigating viable locations to store the earth removed from the mine site. One proposed storage location required hydrologic and geotechnical studies to determine viability. This constituted a significant amount of ground disturbance in an area that is of known importance to local Indian tribes. To ensure proper consideration of tribal concerns, the Forest engaged nine local tribes in government-government consultation. Consultation resulted in the identification of five springs in the project area considered (TCPs) by the Western Apache tribes. Due to the presence of identified TCPs, the Forest asked tribes to assist in the development of mitigation measures to minimize effects of this project on the TCPs identified. The goal of this partnership was to find a way for the Mine to still be able to gather data, while protecting TCPs. During field visits and consultations, a wide range of concerns were shared which were recorded and considered by Tonto National Forest. The Forest developed a proposed mitigation approach to protect springs, which would prevent (not permit) the installation of water monitoring wells, geotechnical borings or trench excavations within 1,200 feet of perennial springs in the project area. As an added mitigation measure, a cultural resources specialist would be on-site during all ground-disturbing activities. Diligent work on
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the history of the Dōnghú, Wūhuán and Xiānbēi Proto-Mongolian tribes in the period from the 4th century B.C. to the end of the 3rd century A.D. The history of the ancient nomadic peoples who lived north of China is written in Chinese dynasty chronicles. Proto-Mongolian tribes from the 1st century B.C. are called Dōnghú in Chinese sources. The earliest news on them originates from the Warring States Period (4th – 3rd century B.C., and tells of a conflict with the northern Chinese states. Other types of sources on the history of the Proto-Mongolian tribes are archaeological findings, which associate Mongolian ethnogenesis with slab grave cultures and the Lower Xiàjiādiàn. Linguists find the materials for the research on Mongolian ethnogenesis in the Altaic linguistic family, which the Mongolian language belongs to as well. Based on the mentioned sources, the change in the political situation in the steppes at the end of the 3rd century B.C., when the people of Xiōngnú created a powerful state and conquered the Dōnghúes, is described in the paper. The remains of the shattered Dōnghúes, who had mostly migrated to the north, have been recorded in Chinese chronicles under new topoethnonyms: Xiānbēi and Wūhuán. The weakening and fall of the Xiōngnúes’ state enabled the Proto-Mongolian tribes to re-enter the historical scene. At the end of the 1st century B.C. the Chinese Hàn Empire firstly established relations with the Wūhuán tribes and in the middle of the 1st century A.D. with the Xiānbēi tribes, too. In the beginning both tribal alliances acknowledged the supreme authority of China and carried out frontier service. Under the guidance of tribal chiefs the tribes started to run an independent policy and attack China’s border areas during the 2nd century A.D. In the conclusion, the author describes the period when the Wūhuán and Xiānbēi tribes were at the peak of their power
Truuverk, Andro; Õunap, Erki; Tammaru, Toomas
The Nearctic Epirrita pulchraria (Taylor, 1907) was revealed as a sister taxon of the Palaearctic Malacodea regelaria Tengström,1869 in a molecular phylogenetic analysis of the tribe Operophterini. DNA sequence variation in one mitochondrial (COI) and eight nuclear (28S, EF-1α, WGL, GAPDH, RPS5, IDH, MDH, CAD) gene fragments was used in the analysis. Bayesian inference resulted in a well-resolved phylogenetic hypothesis. According to the recovered phylogeny a new combination is proposed: Rachela pulchraria Taylor, 1907 is transferred from Epirrita Hübner, 1808 to Malacodea Tengström, 1869 as Malacodea pulchraria (Taylor, 1907) comb. nov. Larvae of both M. pulchraria and M. regelaria feed on coniferous trees, which distinguishes them from other members of the tribe. Close relatedness of M. pulchraria and M. regelaria is also supported by our study of male genital morphology. Ambiguous phylogenetic affinities of Epirrita viridipurpurescens (Prout, 1937) are discussed.
Harbach, Ralph E; Kitching, Ian J; Culverwell, C Lorna; Howard, Theresa M; Linton, Yvonne-Marie
Nyx Harbach & Linton, gen. nov., is introduced as a new mosquito genus of tribe Aedini for a previously unknown cave-dwelling species, Nyx pholeocola Linton & Harbach, sp. nov., from southern Thailand. A diagnosis of the genus is provided that features unique anatomical characters of the adult, pupal and larval stages of the type species. The affinities of Nyx are discussed in terms of its position in the phylogeny of Aedini. Nyx is more closely related to Borichinda and Isoaedes than to other genera of tribe Aedini. Salient differences that distinguish these three genera are contrasted. The male and female genitalia, pupa and fourth-instar larva of the new species are illustrated. DNA sequence for the second nuclear internal spacer region (ITS2) and the 658-bp barcode fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene reveal very low similarity with published sequences, supporting the unique status of the new species.
Bradbury, J.A.; Leyson, J.; Lester, M.K.
This report revises and updates the 1995 report Financial Assistance to States and Tribes to Support Emergency Preparedness and Response and the Safe Transportation of Hazardous Shipments, PNL-10260 (UC-620). The presentation of data and some of the data reported have been changed; these data supersede those presented in the earlier publication. All data have been updated to fiscal year 1995, with the exception of FEMA data that are updated to fiscal year 1994 only. The report identifies and summarizes existing sources of financial assistance to States and Tribes in preparing and responding to transportation emergencies and ensuring the safe transportation of hazardous shipments through their jurisdictions. It is intended for use as an information resource for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Transportation, Emergency Management, and Analytical Services (EM-76)
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mehmet TEZCAN
Full Text Available The nomadic tribes in Eurasian steppes, adopted a manner oflife in nomadism, were scarcely abandoning their own residences, towhich caused some factors like generally epidemics, famines, locustattacks, or dangerous foreign threats just as oppressions by theXiongnu (to the Yuezhi or the Chinese (to the Xiongnu etc. Beingone of the reasons which led the nomadic tribes as far as to theWestern Asia and the Middle Europe, the epidemics appeared also inEurasia from the very beginnings of the history and during the MiddleAges, and spread out in the Central Asia that was on the greatcommercial routes, through the great Silk Roads in general.The epidemic named as “Black Death” appeared north of theBlack Sea in Caffa in 1346 and very influenced Medieval Europenegatively, which, there existed the period of the “Hundred Years’War”. However, there is not any exact information about its origin.According to the available information and the report by Gabriele de’Mussi, it occurred first in China in 1320s, and expanded into the NearEast rapidly through the invasion routes of the Mongol armies andcommercial ones. When Janibek Khan, the khan of the Golden Hordebegan again to besiege Caffa in 1345, the Black Death occurredamong the Mongol army. And the two Genoese ships, departed fromCaffa and came in the Mediterranean Sea in 1347, caused itsexpansion to the whole European countries, except for only Polandand Czechoslovakia, in 1348-49, and then, to Russia in 1351-53.Consequently, thirty per cent of the European population perished.As to how the epidemic influenced the nomadic world inEurasia, there is not enough information about it. However, thanks toit, we can reach to some interesting valuable data about Mongolstrategies of warfare: upon that many Mongolian soldiers of theMongolian army died due to this epidemic, the Mongol khan heldresponsible the Genoese in Caffa for the death. He made their corpses thrown into the citadel by catapults, and then
Yanola, Jintana; Nachaiwieng, Woottichai; Duangmano, Suwit; Prasannarong, Mujalin; Somboon, Pradya; Pornprasert, Sakorn
Intestinal parasitic infection represents a substantial problem for children living in rural or limited resources areas and significantly relates to anemia and nutritional status. This study aimed to determine the current prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among school-age children of Karen hill tribe population in Omkoi District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand and assess the impact of intestinal parasitic infection on hematological and nutritional status in those children. A total of 375 Karen hill tribe children, 6-14 years of age, in Omkoi District were randomly selected to participate in this study. Stool samples were collected and examined for intestinal parasitic infection through formalin-ether concentration method. Blood samples were collected for hematological and iron analysis. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was 47.7% (179/375), with single infections (29.3%) and polyparatism (18.4%). The most common pathogenic parasite was Trichuris trichiura (16.0%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (13%) and Giardia lamblia (3.5%). In addition, non-pathogenic amoeba, Entamoeba coli was observed with a high prevalence rate (31.2%). Anemia and eosinophilia prevalence were 6.40% (24/375) and 74.7% (280/375), respectively. Eosinophilia was significantly more prevalent in children with intestinal parasitic infection compared to uninfected children. Among 249 children, 13.7% were iron deficiency, 9.6% were thalassemia and hemoglobinophathy and 8% were G-6-PD deficiency. A high prevalence infection rate was significantly associated with eosinophilia, but independently related to anemia and iron deficiency. Intestinal parasitic infections are endemic in school-age children of Karen hill tribe population in Omkoi District. These data highlight the need for an integrated approach to control transmission of intestinal parasites and improve the health and sanitation status of Karen hill tribe children in Thailand. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B
Kojima, Hiroaki; Morimoto, Katsura
This is the first part of our systematic study on the tribe Ochyromerini (=Endaeini) from East Asia with descriptions of 28 new species of the weevils in the genera Endaeus Schoenherr and Endaenidius Morimoto as follows: Endaeus albolineatus sp. nov. (E. Malaysia), Endaeus niger sp. nov. (E. Malaysia), Endaeus zonatus sp. nov. (E. Malaysia), Endaeus robustus sp. nov. (Thailand), Endaeus longipes sp. nov. (E. Malaysia), Endaeus formosanus sp. nov. (Taiwan), Endaeus elongatus sp. nov. (Taiwan),...
Callmander, Martin W; Phillipson, Peter B; Plunkett, Gregory M; Edwards, Molly B; Buerki, Sven
This study presents the most complete generic phylogenetic framework to date for the tribe Coleeae (Bignoniaceae), which is endemic to Madagascar and the other smaller islands in the western part of the Indian Ocean. The study is based on plastid and nuclear DNA regions and includes 47 species representing the five currently recognized genera (including all the species occurring in the western Indian Ocean region). Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses supported (i) the monophyly of the tribe, (ii) the monophyly of Phylloctenium, Phyllarthron and Rhodocolea and (iii) the paraphyly of Colea due to the inclusion of species of Ophiocolea. The latter genus was also recovered paraphyletic due to the inclusion of two species of Colea (C. decora and C. labatii). The taxonomic implications of the mutual paraphyly of these two genera are discussed in light of morphological evidence, and it is concluded that the two genera should be merged, and the necessary new nomenclatural combinations are provided. The phylogenetic framework shows Phylloctenium, which is endemic to Madagascar and restricted to dry ecosystems, as basal and sister to the rest of the tribe, suggesting Madagascar to be the centre of origin of this clade. The remaining genera are diversified mostly in humid ecosystems, with evidence of multiple dispersals to the neighboring islands, including at least two to the Comoros, one to Mauritius and one to the Seychelles. Finally, we hypothesize that the ecological success of this tribe might have been triggered by a shift of fruit-dispersal mode from wind to lemur. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Cichlids of the tribe Heroini have long been a source of taxonomical conflict. In particular, the species included in the Herichthys bartoni group have failed to be recovered as monophyletic in different molecular studies. In this paper we use traditional and geometric morphometrics to evaluate morphological variation in the species included in the H. bartoni complex in order to evaluate the number of species it contains. An update of a previously published DNA barcoding study suggests the existence of three genetic clusters that included the six recognized species analyzed in this study, none of them recovered as monophyletic. On the other hand, geometric morphometrics arise as a useful tool to discriminate species due that traditional morphometrics showed a high overlap in the characters analyzed that prevents the proposal of diagnostic characters.
Haseyama, Kirstern L F; Wiegmann, Brian M; Almeida, Eduardo A B; de Carvalho, Claudio J B
House flies are one of the best known groups of flies and comprise about 5000 species worldwide. Despite over a century of intensive taxonomic research on these flies, classification of the Muscidae is still poorly resolved. Here we brought together the most diverse molecular dataset ever examined for the Muscidae, with 142 species in 67 genera representing all tribes and all biogeographic regions. Four protein coding genes were analyzed: mitochondrial CO1 and nuclear AATS, CAD (region 4) and EF1-α. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches were used to analyze five different partitioning schemes for the alignment. We also used Bayes factors to test monophyly of the traditionally accepted tribes and subfamilies. Most subfamilial taxa were not recovered in our analyses, and accordingly monophyly was rejected by Bayes factor tests. Our analysis consistently found three main clades of Muscidae and so we propose a new classification with only three subfamilies without tribes. Additionally, we provide the first timeframe for the diversification of all major lineages of house flies and examine contemporary biogeographic hypotheses in light of this timeframe. We conclude that the muscid radiation began in the Paleocene to Eocene and is congruent with the final stages of the breakup of Gondwana, which resulted in the complete separation of Antarctica, Australia, and South America. With this newly proposed classification and better understanding of the timing of evolutionary events, we provide new perspectives for integrating morphological and ecological evolutionary understanding of house flies, their taxonomy, phylogeny, and biogeography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dell'Aquila, E; Cremolini, C; Zeppola, T; Lonardi, S; Bergamo, F; Masi, G; Stellato, M; Marmorino, F; Schirripa, M; Urbano, F; Ronzoni, M; Tomasello, G; Zaniboni, A; Racca, P; Buonadonna, A; Allegrini, G; Fea, E; Di Donato, S; Chiara, S; Tonini, G; Tomcikova, D; Boni, L; Falcone, A; Santini, D
Neutrophil/Lymphocyte ratio (NLR), defined as absolute neutrophils count divided by absolute lymphocytes count, has been reported as poor prognostic factor in several neoplastic diseases but only a few data are available about unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients (pts). The aim of our study was to evaluate the prognostic and predictive role of NLR in the TRIBE trial. Pts enrolled in TRIBE trial were included. TRIBE is a multicentre phase III trial randomizing unresectable and previously untreated mCRC pts to receive FOLFOXIRI or FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab. A cut-off value of 3 was adopted to discriminate pts with low (NLR analysis. As secondary analysis, NLR was treated as an ordinal variable with three levels based on terciles distribution. NLR at baseline was available for 413 patients. After multiple imputation at univariate analysis, patients with high NLR had significantly shorter PFS (HR: 1.27 [95%CI:1.05-1.55], p=0.017) and OS (HR: 1.56 [95%CI: 1.25-1.95], padvantage of the triplet is independent of NLR at baseline.
Mohan, Amit; Jamil, Zeeshan; Bhatanagar, Vishal C; Gajraj, Manju
To determine the prevalence of spheroidal degeneration of cornea (SDC) and its association with other eye diseases in the tribes of South-West Rajasthan. A total of 5012 patients were examined on slit lamp for the diagnosis of SDC. Diagnosis of SDC was made based on presence of amber granules in the superficial stroma of peripheral interpalpebral cornea with increasing opacification, coalescence and central spread or nodular and hazy surrounding stroma and divided in three stages. The prevalence of SDC was 10.7%. Around 55% of the total of 535 cases examined were found to have Stage I followed by Stage II (32%) and Stage III (13%). The prevalence is greatest in both men and women over 70 years of age. The severity of SDC is greater in men. SDC was significantly associated with pterygium and pseudocapsular exfoliation. Extreme temperature, low humidity, dust, high wind, and microtrauma caused by sand particles are the probable etiologies for higher prevalence of this kind of degeneration in this region.
Full Text Available Research Question: What is the influence of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight? Objective: To assess the effect of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight of the baby among tea tribe women in Dibrugarh district. Study Design: Field-based cohort study. Setting: Five tea estates in Dibrugarh District, Assam. Period of Study: One year (April 1998 to April 1999. Participants: A cohort of non-pregnant currently married tea garden women of reproductive age group (15-44 years from similar socio-economic background. Materials and Methods: Oral questionnaire for age, family structure, obstetric history, annual income, and period of gestation. Anthropometric measurements of weight and height were recorded using bathroom scales and the anthropometric rod. Measurements of weight were repeated during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. Birth weight of the baby was recorded at delivery, irrespective of the period of gestation and mode of delivery. Statistical Analysis: Correlation co-efficient, standard deviation, and regression analysis. Results and Conclusions: Of all, 88% mothers had pre-pregnant weight of < 45 kg, and 61% babies had birth weight < 2500 gm. Subjects with better pre-pregnant weight had corresponding favorable total weight gain, resulting in better birth weight of the babies. Pre-pregnant weight had direct positive linear relationship with the birth weight. There is a need to improve the nutritional status of the adolescent girl in order to build up her pre-pregnant weight for a favorable birth weight.
M. P. Tsai
Full Text Available Typhoon Morakot struck Taiwan in August 2009 and induced considerable disasters, including large-scale landslides and debris flows. One of these debris flows was experienced by the Daniao tribe in Taitung, Eastern Taiwan. The volume was in excess of 500 000 m3, which was substantially larger than the original design mitigation capacity. This study considered large-scale debris flow simulations in various volumes at the same area by using the DEBRIS-2D numerical program. The program uses the generalized Julien and Lan (1991 rheological model to simulate debris flows. In this paper, the sensitivity factor considered on the debris flow spreading is the amount of the debris flow initial volume. These simulated results in various amounts of debris flow initial volume demonstrated that maximal depths of debris flows were almost deposited in the same area, and also revealed that a 20% variation in estimating the amount of total volume at this particular site results in a 2.75% variation on the final front position. Because of the limited watershed terrain, the hazard zones of debris flows were not expanded. Therefore, the amount of the debris flow initial volume was not sensitive.
Adkins, Brian [Bishop Paiute Tribe; Castilone, Lisa
The objective of the project was to provide affordable renewable energy to 22 low income reservation homeowners; provide job training to tribal members and reduce air pollution by equivalent carbon offsets. The project exceeded grant objectives installing 66kW of rooftop solar on 22 low income single family homes and providing hands-on PV rooftop solar installation training to 24 tribal individuals (four more than planned). The project was a phased installment of an on-going partnership between the Tribe and GRID that was initiated in 2013 whereby 62 rooftop solar units were installed prior to this funded effort. The reported work in this report describes the funded effort where US Department of Energy provided partial funding through grant award IE0006949 and marks the first phase of an effort matching California Solar SASH Initiative funding with DOE Office of Indian Energy Funding and brings the total for the program to 84 installed systems (running total of 271 Kw installed) and the end of the project. Tribal workforce development was a key aspect of the project and trained 24tribal members for a total 1168 cumulative on-job training hours. The solar installations and training efforts were fully completed by September of 2016 with 66.6 kW installed - 8 kW more than the original estimate stated in the grant application.
Ranganathan, Srinivasan; Swaminathan, Subramanian
Sandfly prevalence in the Kani tribe settlements of Western Ghats in India was investigated. A total of 1,279 sandflies comprising 17 species was obtained. Sandfly abundance showed a negative correlation (r = -0.97, p = 0.003) with increase in altitudinal ranges from 0-1,000 m. When sandfly samples were grouped according to landscape characteristics of the location, the estimated Shannon-Weiner index (H) and species richness index (S) were high and species evenness index (J) was low in settlements located at 0-300 m altitudinal range. On the contrary, the values of H and J were high, while S was low at 301-600 m altitudinal range. With further increase in altitude, species diversity, S and J were low. Though the relative abundance of sandflies decreased with increase in altitude, the influence of altitudinal variation could not be attributed to determine sandfly diversity, since the number of sampling units were not uniform at all the altitudinal gradients due to nonavailability of suitable resting shelters. Sandfly species showed great aggregation at 0-300 m altitude interval, where not only the number of settlements were maximum (n = 19), but also the environmental conditions favoured sandfly abundance due to the concentration of tribal settlements, human dwellings and his activities. PMID:25946240
Full Text Available Sandfly prevalence in the Kani tribe settlements of Western Ghats in India was investigated. A total of 1,279 sandflies comprising 17 species was obtained. Sandfly abundance showed a negative correlation (r = -0.97, p = 0.003 with increase in altitudinal ranges from 0-1,000 m. When sandfly samples were grouped according to landscape characteristics of the location, the estimated Shannon-Weiner index (H and species richness index (S were high and species evenness index (J was low in settlements located at 0-300 m altitudinal range. On the contrary, the values of H and J were high, while S was low at 301-600 m altitudinal range. With further increase in altitude, species diversity, S and J were low. Though the relative abundance of sandflies decreased with increase in altitude, the influence of altitudinal variation could not be attributed to determine sandfly diversity, since the number of sampling units were not uniform at all the altitudinal gradients due to nonavailability of suitable resting shelters. Sandfly species showed great aggregation at 0-300 m altitude interval, where not only the number of settlements were maximum (n = 19, but also the environmental conditions favoured sandfly abundance due to the concentration of tribal settlements, human dwellings and his activities.
The concepts of poverty and development have many meanings in contemporary globalized societies. Development by definition implies desired changes in terms of livelihood, improved quality of life and better access to assets and services, etc. However in reality development programmes sometimes have negative consequences, perhaps unintended, multiplying the acute scarcity of resources and opportunities, or reproducing poverty. Also, the consequences of developmental programmes often appear to be out of focus, and seen at the ground level, there seems to be a gap between what is intended and what is actualized. In this framework, this paper presents a case study of the social, cultural and economic correlates of the development processes in Adadakulapalle, a settlement of Sugali peoples, once a semi-nomadic tribe, in Anantapur District of Andhra Pradesh, South India. The paper shows how factionalism and faction politics affect the implementation of development interventions. It also looks at the poverty in the settlement and focuses on the types of change that people have experienced with the implementation of different schemes by both government and other agencies. The type of change is discussed in the present study through the macro and micro analysis of development programmes.
Ranganathan, Srinivasan; Swaminathan, Subramanian
Sandfly prevalence in the Kani tribe settlements of Western Ghats in India was investigated. A total of 1,279 sandflies comprising 17 species was obtained. Sandfly abundance showed a negative correlation (r = -0.97, p = 0.003) with increase in altitudinal ranges from 0-1,000 m. When sandfly samples were grouped according to landscape characteristics of the location, the estimated Shannon-Weiner index (H) and species richness index (S) were high and species evenness index (J) was low in settlements located at 0-300 m altitudinal range. On the contrary, the values of H and J were high, while S was low at 301-600 m altitudinal range. With further increase in altitude, species diversity, S and J were low. Though the relative abundance of sandflies decreased with increase in altitude, the influence of altitudinal variation could not be attributed to determine sandfly diversity, since the number of sampling units were not uniform at all the altitudinal gradients due to nonavailability of suitable resting shelters. Sandfly species showed great aggregation at 0-300 m altitude interval, where not only the number of settlements were maximum (n = 19), but also the environmental conditions favoured sandfly abundance due to the concentration of tribal settlements, human dwellings and his activities.
Guha, Pokhraj; Das, Avishek; Dutta, Somit; Bhattacharjee, Soumen; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar
The Rabha tribe is a little known small endogamous population belonging to Indo-mongoloid group of north-eastern India. We have analyzed 16 KIR and 5 TLR gene polymorphisms in the Rabha population of northern West Bengal, India for the first time. The observed frequencies of the KIR genes (except framework and pseudogene loci) ranged between 0.26 (KIR2DS3) and 0.96 (KIR2DL1). Comparisons based on KIR polymorphism have revealed that although the Rabhas are of Indian origin the presence of mongoloid component in their gene pool cannot be denied. The frequencies of the 5 TLR genes ranged between 0.90 (TLR4) and 0.46 (TLR5). TLR variations found in the Rabhas may play a synergistic role in fighting against the bacterial invasions. Our results may contribute to the understanding of (1) genetic background and extent of genetic admixture in the Rabhas, (2) population migration events and (3) KIR-disease-TLR interactions. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sharma, Uma Kanta; Pegu, Shyamanta
Assam is very rich in plant biodiversity as well as in ethnic diversity and has a great traditional knowledge base in plant resources. It is inhabited by the largest number of tribes and they lead an intricate life totally dependent on forest plants. The Mising is the major section and second largest tribal community of Assam and have a rich tradition of religion and culture. Their religious practices and beliefs are based on supernaturalism. A study of the plants related to magico religious beliefs in Dobur Uie of Mising is carried out. The results revealed the use of 30 plants belonging to 23 families. All plant species are used both in religious purpose as well as in the treatment of different ailments. Details of the uses of plants and conservational practices employed in Dobur Uie are provided. Our findings on the use of plants in Dobur Uie ritual reflect that some plants are facing problems for survival and they need urgent conservation before their elimination. Because this elimination may threat the rich tradition of Mising culture. Most of the plants that are domesticated for different rituals are almost same in all Mising populated areas.
Full Text Available Abstract Assam is very rich in plant biodiversity as well as in ethnic diversity and has a great traditional knowledge base in plant resources. It is inhabited by the largest number of tribes and they lead an intricate life totally dependent on forest plants. The Mising is the major section and second largest tribal community of Assam and have a rich tradition of religion and culture. Their religious practices and beliefs are based on supernaturalism. A study of the plants related to magico religious beliefs in Dobur Uie of Mising is carried out. The results revealed the use of 30 plants belonging to 23 families. All plant species are used both in religious purpose as well as in the treatment of different ailments. Details of the uses of plants and conservational practices employed in Dobur Uie are provided. Our findings on the use of plants in Dobur Uie ritual reflect that some plants are facing problems for survival and they need urgent conservation before their elimination. Because this elimination may threat the rich tradition of Mising culture. Most of the plants that are domesticated for different rituals are almost same in all Mising populated areas.
Thakur, Rajendra Singh; Singh; Alpana; Gautam, Satendra; Shukla, Shashita; Deshmukh, Reena
An extensive survey for collection and identification of wild edible fungi was undertaken in three districts namely Mandla, Dindori and Shahdol of Northern Hill Region of Chhattisgarh (An Agro-climatic Zone) belonging to Madhya Pradesh. A total of 9 species were documented as wild edible fungi used for food purpose by ethnic tribes of selected region. These wild edible fungi make a substantial contribution to the food security of tribal people of Madhya Pradesh. Identification was done on the basis of morphological characteristics. Termitomyces spp. recorded highest no. of spp. (7) followed by Scleroderma spp (1spp.) and Russula spp. (1spp). For shelf life enhancement, wild edible fungi were irradiated with 0,1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 kGy gamma radiation doses, packed in LDPE bags and stored at 50℃. T. heimii Natrajan showed 15 days, T. radicatus Natarajan 9 days, Scleroderma spp. Showed 24 days of shelf life treated with 1.5 kGy dose whereas Russula Spp., T. eurhizus (Berk) R.heim treated with 1.0 kGy radiation dose showed 9 days of shelf life in terms of all sensory attributes. All the irradiated mushrooms had lower PLW (Physiological Loss in Weight) and better microbial quality as compared to control. Nutritional quality of wild edible fungi was not affected adversely by gamma radiation. This type of study could contribute significantly to improve food security in tribal areas, whose potential as source of nutrition is currently undervalued. (author)
Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the prevalence of spheroidal degeneration of cornea (SDC and its association with other eye diseases in the tribes of South-West Rajasthan. Methods: A total of 5012 patients were examined on slit lamp for the diagnosis of SDC. Diagnosis of SDC was made based on presence of amber granules in the superficial stroma of peripheral interpalpebral cornea with increasing opacification, coalescence and central spread or nodular and hazy surrounding stroma and divided in three stages. Results: The prevalence of SDC was 10.7%. Around 55% of the total of 535 cases examined were found to have Stage I followed by Stage II (32% and Stage III (13%. The prevalence is greatest in both men and women over 70 years of age. The severity of SDC is greater in men. SDC was significantly associated with pterygium and pseudocapsular exfoliation. Conclusion: Extreme temperature, low humidity, dust, high wind, and microtrauma caused by sand particles are the probable etiologies for higher prevalence of this kind of degeneration in this region.
Relação peso-comprimento e fator de condição para Cichla cf. ocellaris e Cichla monoculus (Perciformes, Cichlidae no reservatório de Volta Grande, rio Grande - MG/SP - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2119 Length-weight relationship and condition factor for Cichla cf. ocellaris and Cichla monoculus (Perciformes, Cichlidae in Volta Grande Reservoir, Rio Grande -MG/SP- DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2119
Leandro Muller Gomiero
Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foram analisados a relação peso e comprimento e o fator de condição de duas espécies de tucunarés, Cichla (Perciformes, Cichlidae, introduzidas no reservatório da UHE de Volta Grande, rio Grande. Tanto para Cichla cf. ocellaris como para Cichla monoculus não houve diferença na relação peso e comprimento entre os sexos. O fator de condição alométrico mostrou uma queda na primavera e outra menor no inverno; isso ocorre quando esses peixes mudam sua atividade alimentar. Na primavera, desenvolvem-se todos os comportamentos reprodutivos e, no inverno, existe escassez de presas. A variação do fator de condição relativo acompanhou a do fator de condição alométrico devido à baixa representatividade do peso das gônadas e da pouca quantidade de gordura acumulada no peso total. A distribuição de comprimento, relação peso e comprimento e fator de condição desses peixes variam de acordo com o tempo de introdução no reservatório, com as características do ecossistema e as interações entre as espécies nesses locaisThe aim of this paper was to analyze the length-weight relationship and the condition factor of two species of cichlids (Cichla cf. ocellaris and Cichla monoculus (Perciformes, Cichlidae that were inducted in Volta Grande Reservoir, Rio Grande. There was no difference in the length-weight relationship between the sexes for Cichla cf. ocellaris and Cichla monoculus. The allometric condition factor showed a fall in the spring and another smaller one in the winter. It happens when these fishes change their feeding activity. In the spring all the reproductive behavior are developed and, in the winter, there is a shortage of prey. The variation of the relative condition factor followed the variation of the allometric condition factor due to the low contribution of the gonads weight and the small amount of accumulated fat in the total weight. The length distribution, length-weight relationship and
Zeng, Chun-Xia; Zhang, Yu-Xiao; Triplett, Jimmy K; Yang, Jun-Bo; Li, De-Zhu
The temperate bamboos (tribe Arundinarieae) are notorious for being taxonomically extremely difficult. China contains some of the world's greatest diversity of the tribe Arundinarieae, with most genera and species endemic. Previous investigation into phylogenetic relationships of the temperate bamboos revealed several major clades, but emphasis on the species-level relationships among taxa in North America and Japan. To further elucidate relationships among the temperate bamboos, a very broad sampling of Chinese representatives was examined. We produced 9463 bp of sequences from eight non-coding chloroplast regions for 146 species in 26 genera and 5 outgroups. The loci sequenced were atpI/H, psaA-ORF170, rpl32-trnL, rpoB-trnC, rps16-trnQ, trnD/T, trnS/G, and trnT/L. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference supported the monophyly of Arundinarieae. The two major subtribes, Arundinariinae and Shibataeinae, defined on the basis of different synflorescence types, were indicated to be polyphyletic. Most genera in this tribe were confirmed to be paraphyletic or polyphyletic. The cladograms suggest that Arundinarieae is divided into ten major lineages. In addition to six lineages suggested in a previous molecular study (Bergbamboes, the African alpine bamboos, Chimonocalamus, the Shibataea clade, the Phyllostachys clade, and the Arundinaria clade), four additional lineages were recovered in our results, each represented by a single species: Gaoligongshania megalothyrsa, Indocalamus sinicus, Indocalamus wilsonii, Thamnocalamus spathiflorus. Our analyses also indicate that (1) even more than 9000 bp of fast-evolving plastid sequence data cannot resolve the inter- and infra-relationships among and within the ten lineages of the tribe Arundinarieae; (2) an extensive sampling is indispensable for phylogeny reconstruction in this tribe, especially given that many genera appear to be paraphyletic or polyphyletic. Perhaps the ideal way to further
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents the Enawene-Nawe Society's traditional knowledge about stingless bees. The Enawene-Nawe are an Aruak speaking people, indigenous to the Meridian Amazon. Specifically, they live in the Jurema River hydrological basin, located in the northwestern region of the Mato Grosso state. Methods The stingless bees were sampled from two ecologically similar regions in the interior of Enawene-Nawe Land. The first sampling took place around the village, i.e., adjacent to houses, by the edge of the Iquê River, next to food leftovers, around human excrement, and simply when the insects were found flying or reposing on a human body. The second round of sampling happened from 29/10 to 02/11/94, during an expedition for honey collection that took place throughout the ciliar bushes of the Papagaio River, an important tributary of Juruena River. We sampled bees adjacent to their nests following the beehive inspection or during the honey extraction. In this work, the main bee species of the sub tribe Meliponina, which were handled by the Enawene-Nawe, was identified, and a brief ethnographic description of the honey collection expeditions and its social-cosmologic meaning for the group was done. Results and Discussion Similar to other indigenous people in Brazil, the Enawene-Nawe recognized 48 stingless bee species. They identified each bee species by name and specified each one's ecological niche. A brief ethnographic description of the honey collection expeditions and bees' social-cosmologic meaning for the group is included. Conclusion We concluded that, as an example of other indigenous people, the Enawene-Nawe classify and identify the bees based not only on their structure and morphological aspects but also on the ecological, etiological, and social characteristics of the species.
Full Text Available Abstract Arunachal Pradesh, the easternmost part of India, is endowed with diverse natural resources and inhabited by a variety of ethnic groups that have developed skills to exploit the biotic resources of the region for food and medicines. Information on animals and animal parts as components of folk remedies used by local healers and village headmen of the Nyishi and Galo tribes in their respective West Siang and Subansiri districts were obtained through interviews and structured questionnaires. Of a total of 36 vertebrate species used in treatments of ailments and diseases, mammals comprised 50%; they were followed by birds (22%, fishes (17%, reptiles (8% and amphibians (3%. Approximately 20 common complaints of humans as well as foot and mouth disease of cattle were targets of zootherapies. Most commonly treated were fevers, body aches and pains, tuberculosis, malaria, wounds and burns, typhoid, smallpox, dysentery and diarrhoea, jaundice, and early pregnancy pains. Very few domestic animal species (e.g., goat and cattle were used zootherapeutically. More frequently it was wild animals, including endangered or protective species like hornbill, pangolin, clouded leopard, tiger, bear, and wolf, whose various parts were either used in folk remedies or as food. Some of the animal-based traditional medicines or animal parts were sold at local markets, where they had to compete with modern, western pharmaceuticals. To record, document, analyze and test the animal-derived local medicines before they become replaced by western products is one challenge; to protect the already dwindling populations of certain wild animal species used as a resource for the traditional animal-derived remedies, is another.
Shrikhande, Anuradha V; Arjunan, Aishwarya; Agarwal, Amit; Dani, Aarti; Tijare, Jayashri; Gettig, Elizabeth; Krishnamurti, Lakshmanan
Sickle cell disease is an inherited disorder of the blood, and characterized by vasoocclusive crises (VOC), risks for pneumococcal infections and organ toxicities, is associated with morbidity and premature mortality. India, with a population of 1.2 billion individuals, is estimated to be home to over 50.0% of the world's patients with sickle cell disease. The β(S) gene [β6(A3)Glu→Val; HBB: c.20A>T] has the highest prevalence in three socio-economically disadvantaged ethnic categories: the Scheduled Castes (SC), the Scheduled Tribes (ST), and Other Backward Class (OBC) groups in India. The tradition of endogamy practiced by the ethnic groups in India provides the rationale for the screening of individual populations to better understand the distribution of the β(S) gene, guide counseling and awareness programs and aid development of public policy. We undertook a study to describe the prevalence of the β(S) gene in these ethnic groups in the district of Nagpur, Maharashtra in Central India. Through community screening and subsequent targeted screening of high risk individuals, 35,636 individuals were screened, of whom 5466 were found to have sickle cell trait and 1010 were identified with sickle cell disease. Community screening revealed a sickle cell trait prevalence of 13.0% in the SC, 12.0% in the ST and 3.4% in the OBC population. This study describes the prevalence of the β(S) gene within these groups in Central India determined by large scale community screening. This program has uncovered previously undiagnosed cases, provided detailed information to guide population-based disease counseling, prevention and comprehensive care programs.
Cueva-Dabkoski, M.; Kavanaugh, D.
Between 1998 and 2007, the California Academy of Sciences (CAS) was the lead institution in a multi-national, multi-disciplinary biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region (GLGS) in the Yunnan province of China. The project surveyed the species diversity of both higher plants and bryophytes, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals and selected groups of arachnids and insects. The GLGS of China is one of the most biodiverse areas in all of Asia, yet it is also very poorly sampled and in great threat from increasing human activities in the region. CAS's biodiversity inventory project there has increased the number of carabid species known from just 50 to more than 550 species, an eleven-fold increase. The task that remains is to identify all of those 500 additional species and describe any that are new to science. This project is part of that larger biodiversity survey. Our objective was to identify and/or describe carabid beetles of the tribe Cyclosomini represented by nearly a hundred specimens collected in the GLSG. Among those specimens, six morphospecies were identified - one belonging to the genus Cyclosomus Latreille 1829, and the other five belonging to the genus Tetragonoderus Dejean 1829. Following this initial identification process, a list of known distributions of taxa in both genera was assembled to determine which described species to consider for comparative work. Original descriptions were then located for candidate species with known distributions in or near the GLGS; and these are being used now in morphological comparison of specimens. Type specimens for each of the candidate species have been requested from various academic institutions, and morphological comparisons with these types are underway. Morphological characteristics being examined include body proportions and overall shape, color of appendages, color and shape of pronotum, elytral color patterns, and shape and internal structure of male genitalia.
dos Santos, Gilton Mendes; Antonini, Yasmine
This paper presents the Enawene-Nawe Society's traditional knowledge about stingless bees. The Enawene-Nawe are an Aruak speaking people, indigenous to the Meridian Amazon. Specifically, they live in the Jurema River hydrological basin, located in the northwestern region of the Mato Grosso state. The stingless bees were sampled from two ecologically similar regions in the interior of Enawene-Nawe Land. The first sampling took place around the village, i.e., adjacent to houses, by the edge of the Iquê River, next to food leftovers, around human excrement, and simply when the insects were found flying or reposing on a human body. The second round of sampling happened from 29/10 to 02/11/94, during an expedition for honey collection that took place throughout the ciliar bushes of the Papagaio River, an important tributary of Juruena River. We sampled bees adjacent to their nests following the beehive inspection or during the honey extraction. In this work, the main bee species of the sub tribe Meliponina, which were handled by the Enawene-Nawe, was identified, and a brief ethnographic description of the honey collection expeditions and its social-cosmologic meaning for the group was done. Similar to other indigenous people in Brazil, the Enawene-Nawe recognized 48 stingless bee species. They identified each bee species by name and specified each one's ecological niche. A brief ethnographic description of the honey collection expeditions and bees' social-cosmologic meaning for the group is included. We concluded that, as an example of other indigenous people, the Enawene-Nawe classify and identify the bees based not only on their structure and morphological aspects but also on the ecological, etiological, and social characteristics of the species.
Tulika Goswami Mahanta
Full Text Available Background: Nutritional anaemia, one of the major public health problems in India is associated with lower productivity, higher sickness rate and absenteeism having inter-generational effect. Morbidity during adolescent has implication on future safe motherhood, optimum growth and development of foetus and children. Aims and Objective: To assess, prevalence and determinants of anaemia and effect of different interventions amongst tea tribe adolescent girls. Materials & Methods: A community based intervention study was conducted covering 16 tea estates of Dibrugarh District, Assam. Variables includes socio-demographic, environmental, anthropometry, history of present and past illness, clinical examination and laboratory investigation including haemoglobin, serum ferritin, haemoglobin typing and routine stool examination. Interventions given were weekly IFA supplementation, dietary diversification, health promotion by monthly NHED, cooking demonstration, cooking competition and kitchen garden promotion and counselling to improve IFA compliance and remove barriers was done. SPSS and EpiInfo software, used to calculate of rates, ratios, chi-square test, Fisher Exact test and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: Enrolments were 802, with mean age, 14.8 years. Anaemia prevalence was 96.3% with median serum ferritin, 22.9 ng/ml. Prevalence of Sickle cell anaemia was,12% and helminthiasis 84.20%. History of passage of worms (9.1%, night blindness (5.6%, weakness (62.1%, loss of appetite (37.5%, gum bleeding (23.6%, loose motion (13%, loss of weight (9.9%, menstrual problem (19.3% was common. Following intervention mean haemoglobin difference was 1.48 gm/dl with 13.5% difference in prevalence. Associated morbidities showed significant reduction following active intervention. Conclusions: High anaemia prevalence requires urgent attention to avoid preventable morbidities. Implementation of different intervention in an integrated manner was
Inda, Luis A; Pimentel, Manuel; Chase, Mark W
Tribe Orchideae (Orchidaceae: Orchidoideae) comprises around 62 mostly terrestrial genera, which are well represented in the Northern Temperate Zone and less frequently in tropical areas of both the Old and New Worlds. Phylogenetic relationships within this tribe have been studied previously using only nuclear ribosomal DNA (nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer, nrITS). However, different parts of the phylogenetic tree in these analyses were weakly supported, and integrating information from different plant genomes is clearly necessary in orchids, where reticulate evolution events are putatively common. The aims of this study were to: (1) obtain a well-supported and dated phylogenetic hypothesis for tribe Orchideae, (ii) assess appropriateness of recent nomenclatural changes in this tribe in the last decade, (3) detect possible examples of reticulate evolution and (4) analyse in a temporal context evolutionary trends for subtribe Orchidinae with special emphasis on pollination systems. The analyses included 118 samples, belonging to 103 species and 25 genera, for three DNA regions (nrITS, mitochondrial cox1 intron and plastid rpl16 intron). Bayesian and maximum-parsimony methods were used to construct a well-supported and dated tree. Evolutionary trends in the subtribe were analysed using Bayesian and maximum-likelihood methods of character evolution. The dated phylogenetic tree strongly supported the recently recircumscribed generic concepts of Bateman and collaborators. Moreover, it was found that Orchidinae have diversified in the Mediterranean basin during the last 15 million years, and one potential example of reticulate evolution in the subtribe was identified. In Orchidinae, pollination systems have shifted on numerous occasions during the last 23 million years. The results indicate that ancestral Orchidinae were hymenopteran-pollinated, food-deceptive plants and that these traits have been dominant throughout the evolutionary history of the
Maimaitijiang Abudurexiti; Rezhiwanguli Wushiman
Objective: To compare the serum level of T 3 , T 4 and TSH in blood of mother and umbilical cord between the pregnant Uigur women and pregnant Han women. Methods: The serum levels of T 3 , T 4 and TSH in between the two tribes were analyzed by RIA method. Results: There was remarkable difference between the levels of mother blood and of umbilical cord blood (P 0.05). Conclusion: In certain similar habitation, the nationality and living habit have no distinct effect on the serum level of T 3 , T 4 and TSH
The John Day River is the second longest free-flowing river in the contiguous United States and one of the few major subbasins in the Columbia River basin containing entirely unsupplemented runs of anadromous fish. Located in eastern Oregon, the basin drains over 8,000 square miles, the fourth largest drainage area in Oregon. With its beginning in the Strawberry Mountains near the town of Prairie City, the John Day flows 284 miles in a northwesterly direction, entering the Columbia River approximately four miles upstream of the John Day dam. With wild runs of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead, red band, westslope cutthroat, and redband trout, the John Day system is truly one of national significance. The entire John Day basin was granted to the Federal government in 1855 by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribes). In 1997, the Tribes established an office in the basin to coordinate restoration projects, monitoring, planning and other watershed activities on private and public lands. Once established, the John Day Basin Office (JDBO) initiated contracting the majority of its construction implementation actions with the Grant Soil and Water Conservation District (GSWCD), also located in the town of John Day. The GSWCD completes the landowner contact, preliminary planning, engineering design, permitting, construction contracting, and construction implementation phases of the projects. The JDBO completes the planning, grant solicitation/defense, environmental compliance, administrative contracting, monitoring, and reporting portion of the program. Most phases of project planning, implementation, and monitoring are coordinated with the private landowners and basin agencies, such as the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and Oregon Water Resources Department. In 1999, the JDBO and GSWCD proposed continuation of a successful partnership between the two agencies and basin landowners to implement an additional eleven (11