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Sample records for triazole conazole fungicide

  1. Effects of Conazole Fungicides on Spontaneous Activity in Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexaconazole (HEX), Tetraconazole (TET), Fluconazole (FLU), and Triadimefon (TRI) are conazole fungicides, used to control powdery mildews on crops, and as veterinary and clinical treatments. TRI, a demethylation inhibitor, is neurotoxic in vivo, and previous in vitro experiments...

  2. Discrimination of tumorigenic triazole conazoles from phenobarbital by transcriptional analyses of mouse liver gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conazoles are fungicides used to control fungal growth in environmental settings and to treat humans with fungal infections. Mouse hepatotumorigenic conazoles display many of the same hepatic toxicologic responses as the mouse liver carcinogen phenobarbital (PB): constitutive and...

  3. Conazole fungicides inhibit Leydig cell testosterone secretion and androgen receptor activation in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarke J.E. Roelofs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Conazole fungicides are widely used in agriculture despite their suspected endocrine disrupting properties. In this study, the potential (anti-androgenic effects of ten conazoles were assessed and mutually compared with existing data. Effects of cyproconazole (CYPRO, fluconazole (FLUC, flusilazole (FLUS, hexaconazole (HEXA, myconazole (MYC, penconazole (PEN, prochloraz (PRO, tebuconazole (TEBU, triadimefon (TRIA, and triticonazole (TRIT were examined using murine Leydig (MA-10 cells and human T47D-ARE cells stably transfected with an androgen responsive element and a firefly luciferase reporter gene. Six conazoles caused a decrease in basal testosterone (T secretion by MA-10 cells varying from 61% up to 12% compared to vehicle-treated control. T secretion was concentration-dependently inhibited after exposure of MA-10 cells to several concentrations of FLUS (IC50 = 12.4 μM or TEBU (IC50 = 2.4 μM in combination with LH. The expression of steroidogenic and cholesterol biosynthesis genes was not changed by conazole exposure. Also, there were no changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS formation that could explain the altered T secretion after exposure to conazoles. Nine conazoles decreased T-induced AR activation (IC50s ranging from 10.7 to 71.5 μM and effect potencies (REPs were calculated relative to the known AR antagonist flutamide (FLUT. FLUC had no effect on AR activation by T. FLUS was the most potent (REP = 3.61 and MYC the least potent (REP = 0.03 AR antagonist. All other conazoles had a comparable REP from 0.12 to 0.38. Our results show distinct in vitro anti-androgenic effects of several conazole fungicides arising from two mechanisms: inhibition of T secretion and AR antagonism, suggesting potential testicular toxic effects. These effects warrant further mechanistic investigation and clearly show the need for accurate exposure data in order to perform proper (human risk assessment of this class of compounds.

  4. Predictive value of cell assays for developmental toxicity and embryotoxicity of conazole fungicides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karin Dreisig; Taxvig, Camilla; Kjærstad, Mia Birkhøj

    2013-01-01

    in reasonably good agreement with available in vivo effects. Ketoconazole and epoxiconazole are the most potent embryotoxic compounds, whereas prochloraz belongs to the most potent developmental toxicants. In conclusion, a rough prediction of the ranking of these conazole fungicides for in vivo toxicity data...

  5. RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY-BASED METABOLOMICS FOR DIFFERENTIATING TOXICITIES OF CONAZOLE FUNGICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conazole fungicides are widely used both agriculturally for the protection of crops, and pharmaceutically in the treatment of topical and systemic infections. Heavy usage has created concern over the impact these compounds may have through environmental exposure to humans and ot...

  6. DIFFERENTIATING TOXICITIES OF CONAZOLE FUNGICIDES THROUGH METABONOMIC ANALYSES OF MULTIPLE TISSUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The conazole fungicides represent a large group of compounds widely used agriculturally for the protection of crop plants (Hutson 1998) and pharmaceutically in the treatment of topical and systemic infections(Sheehan 1999). In 1999, the latest period for which agricultural usage...

  7. Conazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Heeres

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This review provides a historical overview of the analog based drug discovery of miconazole and its congeners, and is focused on marketed azole antifungals bearing the generic suffix “conazole”. The antifungal activity of miconazole, one of the first broad-spectrum antimycotic agents has been mainly restricted to topical applications. The attractive in vitro antifungal spectrum was a starting point to design more potent and especially orally active antifungal agents such as ketoconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, fluconazole and voriconazole. The chemistry, in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity, pharmacology, and clinical applications of these marketed conazoles has been described.

  8. Factors influencing activity of triazole fungicides towards Botrytis cinerea.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stehmann, C.; Waard, de M.A.

    1996-01-01

    The activity of triazole fungicides towards Botrytis cinerea was investigated in vitro (radial growth on fungicide-amended agar) and in vivo (foliar-sprayed tomato plants and dip-treated grapes). In both tests the benzimidazoles, benomyl and thiabendazole, and the dicarboximides, iprodione and

  9. Triazole Fungicides Sensitivity of Sclerotinia homoeocarpa in Korean Golf Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Won Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical management of dollar spot in turf may lead to the development of Sclerotinia homoeocarpa populations with reduced fungicide sensitivity. The objective of this study was to investigate resistance of S. homoeocarpa isolates to triazole fungicides and to test cross-resistance among three triazole fungicides. A total of 66 isolates of S. homoeocarpa were collected from 15 golf courses across Korea, and tested via in vitro sensitivity assay against hexaconazole, propiconazole and tebuconazole. EC₅₀ values of the isolates to these fungicides were distributed in the range of 0.001–1.1 a. i. μg ml−1. Based on the EC₅₀ values, twelve representative strains were selected as sensitive isolates including control and insensitive isolates with respect to each fungicide. At a concentration of 0.1 a. i. μg ml−1 for all fungicides, the selected strains were distinguished as sensitive or resistant isolates with the mycelial growth inhibition rate of 50% as the criterion. The EC₅₀ values of resistant strains exposed to hexaconazole, propiconazole and tebuconazole were 20–50 times, 50–70 times, and 77 times greater, respectively, than that of the control strains. Two isolates of S. homoeocarpa S0–41 and Sh14-2-1 showed sensitivity toward all the fungicides used, while two other isolates Sh7-5-1 and Sh2-1-1 showed resistance to all fungicides. Each isolate showed similar resistance to the three types of triazole fungicides, whereby cross-resistance of isolates was confirmed in the present study; all three triazole fungicide combinations displayed significant correlation coefficients equivalent to or greater than 0.8.

  10. SYNTHESIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF NEW 1,2,4- TRIAZOLES, MANNICH BASES, CONAZOLES, AND FLUOROQUINOLONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şule CEYLAN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Triazoles are heterocyclic compounds which have been of interest in the development of novel compounds with antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antibacterial, antimycobacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anticancer, and other activities. In this article, a series of fluorine- and piperazine-containing some novel biologically active 1,2,4-triazole-3-one derivatives were synthesized by the Mannich reaction of triazole intermediates. The structures for novel synthesized compounds were elucidated using elemental analysis and FT IR, 13C NMR, 1H NMR, EI MS techniques. These compounds were investigated in vitro for their antimicrobial properties and several compounds have fungicidal activity against Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. And also some of the compounds exhibited excellent activity on Mycobacterium smegmatis, a nonpigmented fast-rising mycobacterium, at the concentration of <1 μg/mL is better than standard drug streptomycin.

  11. Triazole fungicide tebuconazole disrupts human placental trophoblast cell functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jinghua; Zhang, Jianyun; Li, Feixue; Liu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Tebuconazole (TEB) inhibited the proliferation of human placental trophoblasts. • TEB changed cell cycle distribution of G1 and G2 phases of trophoblasts. • TEB induced apoptosis of trophoblasts via mitochondrial pathway. • TEB decreased the invasive and migratory capacities of trophoblasts. • TEB altered the mRNA levels of key regulatory genes in trophoblasts - Abstract: Triazole fungicides are one of the top ten classes of current-use pesticides. Although exposure to triazole fungicides is associated with reproductive toxicity in mammals, limited information is available regarding the effects of triazole fungicides on human placental trophoblast function. Tebuconazole (TEB) is a common triazole fungicide that has been extensively used for fungi control. In this work, we showed that TEB could reduce cell viability, disturb normal cell cycle distribution and induce apoptosis of human placental trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo (HTR-8). Bcl-2 protein expression decreased and the level of Bax protein increased after TEB treatment in HTR-8 cells. The results demonstrated that this fungicide induced apoptosis of trophoblast cells via mitochondrial pathway. Importantly, we found that the invasive and migratory capacities of HTR-8 cells decreased significantly after TEB administration. TEB altered the expression of key regulatory genes involved in the modulation of trophoblast functions. Taken together, TEB suppressed human trophoblast invasion and migration through affecting the expression of protease, hormones, angiogenic factors, growth factors and cytokines. As the invasive and migratory abilities of trophoblast are essential for successful placentation and fetus development, our findings suggest a potential risk of triazole fungicides to human pregnancy.

  12. Triazole fungicide tebuconazole disrupts human placental trophoblast cell functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jinghua [Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, Ministry of Education, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhang, Jianyun [Research Center for Air Pollution and Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Li, Feixue [Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Organ Development and Regeneration, Institute of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Liu, Jing, E-mail: jliue@zju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, Ministry of Education, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Research Center for Air Pollution and Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Tebuconazole (TEB) inhibited the proliferation of human placental trophoblasts. • TEB changed cell cycle distribution of G1 and G2 phases of trophoblasts. • TEB induced apoptosis of trophoblasts via mitochondrial pathway. • TEB decreased the invasive and migratory capacities of trophoblasts. • TEB altered the mRNA levels of key regulatory genes in trophoblasts - Abstract: Triazole fungicides are one of the top ten classes of current-use pesticides. Although exposure to triazole fungicides is associated with reproductive toxicity in mammals, limited information is available regarding the effects of triazole fungicides on human placental trophoblast function. Tebuconazole (TEB) is a common triazole fungicide that has been extensively used for fungi control. In this work, we showed that TEB could reduce cell viability, disturb normal cell cycle distribution and induce apoptosis of human placental trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo (HTR-8). Bcl-2 protein expression decreased and the level of Bax protein increased after TEB treatment in HTR-8 cells. The results demonstrated that this fungicide induced apoptosis of trophoblast cells via mitochondrial pathway. Importantly, we found that the invasive and migratory capacities of HTR-8 cells decreased significantly after TEB administration. TEB altered the expression of key regulatory genes involved in the modulation of trophoblast functions. Taken together, TEB suppressed human trophoblast invasion and migration through affecting the expression of protease, hormones, angiogenic factors, growth factors and cytokines. As the invasive and migratory abilities of trophoblast are essential for successful placentation and fetus development, our findings suggest a potential risk of triazole fungicides to human pregnancy.

  13. RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY-BASED METABOLOMICS FOR DIFFERENTIATING TOXICITIES OF TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conazole fungicides are widely used both agriculturally for the protection of crops, and pharmaceutically in the treatment of topical and systemic infections. Heavy usage has created concern over the impact these compounds may have through environmental exposure to humans and ot...

  14. RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY-BASED METABOLOMICS FOR DIFFERENTIATING EXPOSURES TO TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES USING RAT URINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normal Raman spectroscopy was evaluated as a metabolomic tool for assessing the impacts of exposure to environmental contaminants, using rat urine collected during the course of a toxicological study. Specifically, one of three triazole fungicides, myclobutanil, propiconazole or ...

  15. Effects of triazole fungicides on androgenic disruption and CYP3A4 enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xuan; Pan, Liumeng; Wang, Jiaying; Lu, Liping; Yan, Weilin; Zhu, Yanye; Xu, Yiwen; Guo, Ming; Zhuang, Shulin

    2017-03-01

    Triazole fungicides are widely used as broad-spectrum fungicides, non-steroidal antiestrogens and for various industrial applications. Their residues have been frequently detected in multiple environmental and human matrices. The increasingly reported toxicity incidents have led triazole fungicides as emerging contaminants of environmental and public health concern. However, whether triazole fungicides behave as endocrine disruptors by directly mimicking environmental androgens/antiandrogens or exerting potential androgenic disruption indirectly through the inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzyme activity is yet an unresolved question. We herein evaluated five commonly used triazole fungicides including bitertanol, hexaconazole, penconazole, tebuconazole and uniconazole for the androgenic and anti-androgenic activity using two-hybrid recombinant human androgen receptor (AR) yeast bioassay and comparatively evaluated their effects on enzymatic activity of CYP3A4 by P450-Glo™ CYP3A4 bioassay. All five fungicides showed moderate anti-androgenic activity toward human AR with the IC 50 ranging from 9.34 μM to 79.85 μM. The anti-androgenic activity remained no significant change after the metabolism mediated by human liver microsomes. These fungicides significantly inhibited the activity of CYP3A4 at the environmental relevant concentrations and the potency ranks as tebuconazole > uniconazole > hexaconazole > penconazole > bitertanol with the corresponding IC 50 of 0.81 μM, 0.93 μM, 1.27 μM, 2.22 μM, and 2.74 μM, respectively. We found that their anti-androgenic activity and the inhibition potency toward CYP3A4 inhibition was significantly correlated (R 2 between 0.83 and 0.97, p pesticides and structurally similar chemicals should fully consider potential androgenic disrupting effects and the influences on the activity of CYP450s. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Stereoselective Metabolism of the 1,2,4-Triazole Fungicide, Triadimefon, in Vertebrate Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Questions Agricultural and pharmaceutical 1,2,4-triazole fungicides are potent cytochrome P450 modulators that can disrupt mammalian steroid biosynthesis. Triadimefon [(RS)-1-(4-chlorophenoxy)-3,3-dimethyl-1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)butan-2-one] is unique with respect to tumorige...

  17. Biological activity of triazole fungicides towards Botrytis cinerea

    OpenAIRE

    Stehmann, C.

    1995-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr., the causal agent of grey mould, is one of the most ubiquitous plant pathogens. The fungus is of high economic importance in various major crops and during transport and storage of agricultural products. Protectant fungicides such as chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, folpet or thiram are widely used for disease control. Since their introduction in the 1960S/1970s, systemic fungicides such as the benzimidazoles or dicarboximides have bee...

  18. Determination of acid dissociation constants of triazole fungicides by pressure assisted capillary electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konášová, Renáta; Jaklová Dytrtová, Jana; Kašička, Václav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 1408, Aug 21 (2015), s. 243-249 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-17224S; GA ČR GP13-21409P Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : triazole fungicides * acid dissociation constant * pK(a) * capillary electrophoresis * ionic mobility Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation Impact factor: 3.926, year: 2015

  19. Biological activity of triazole fungicides towards Botrytis cinerea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stehmann, C.

    1995-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr., the causal agent of grey mould, is one of the most ubiquitous plant pathogens. The fungus is of high economic importance in various major crops and during transport and storage of agricultural products. Protectant fungicides such as

  20. Two azole fungicides (carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil) exhibit different hepatic cytochrome P450 activities in medaka fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chun-Hung [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chou, Pei-Hsin [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, Pei-Jen, E-mail: chenpj@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-30

    Highlights: • We assess ecotoxicological impact of azole fungicides in the aquatic environment. • Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic azoles show different CYP activities in medaka. • We compare azole-induced CYP expression and carcinogenesis between fish and rodents. • Liver CYP-enzyme induction is a key event in conazole-induced tumorigenesis. • We suggest toxicity evaluation methods for azole fungicides using medaka fish. - Abstract: Conazoles are a class of imidazole- or triazole-containing drugs commonly used as fungicides in agriculture and medicine. The broad application of azole drugs has led to the contamination of surface aquifers receiving the effluent of municipal or hospital wastewater or agricultural runoff. Several triazoles are rodent carcinogens; azole pollution is a concern to environmental safety and human health. However, the carcinogenic mechanisms associated with cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) of conazoles remain unclear. We exposed adult medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) to continuous aqueous solutions of carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil for 7 to 20 days at sub-lethal or environmentally relevant concentrations and assessed hepatic CYP activity and gene expression associated with CYP-mediated toxicity. Both triadimefon and myclobutanil induced hepatic CYP3A activity, but only triadimefon enhanced CYP1A activity. The gene expression of cyp3a38, cyp3a40, pregnane x receptor (pxr), cyp26b, retinoid acid receptor γ1 (rarγ1) and p53 was higher with triadimefon than myclobutanil. As well, yeast-based reporter gene assay revealed that 4 tested conazoles were weak agonists of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We reveal differential CYP gene expression with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic conazoles in a lower vertebrate, medaka fish. Liver CYP-enzyme induction may be a key event in conazole-induced tumorigenesis. This information is essential to evaluate the potential threat of conazoles to human health and fish

  1. Two azole fungicides (carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil) exhibit different hepatic cytochrome P450 activities in medaka fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chun-Hung; Chou, Pei-Hsin; Chen, Pei-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We assess ecotoxicological impact of azole fungicides in the aquatic environment. • Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic azoles show different CYP activities in medaka. • We compare azole-induced CYP expression and carcinogenesis between fish and rodents. • Liver CYP-enzyme induction is a key event in conazole-induced tumorigenesis. • We suggest toxicity evaluation methods for azole fungicides using medaka fish. - Abstract: Conazoles are a class of imidazole- or triazole-containing drugs commonly used as fungicides in agriculture and medicine. The broad application of azole drugs has led to the contamination of surface aquifers receiving the effluent of municipal or hospital wastewater or agricultural runoff. Several triazoles are rodent carcinogens; azole pollution is a concern to environmental safety and human health. However, the carcinogenic mechanisms associated with cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) of conazoles remain unclear. We exposed adult medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) to continuous aqueous solutions of carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil for 7 to 20 days at sub-lethal or environmentally relevant concentrations and assessed hepatic CYP activity and gene expression associated with CYP-mediated toxicity. Both triadimefon and myclobutanil induced hepatic CYP3A activity, but only triadimefon enhanced CYP1A activity. The gene expression of cyp3a38, cyp3a40, pregnane x receptor (pxr), cyp26b, retinoid acid receptor γ1 (rarγ1) and p53 was higher with triadimefon than myclobutanil. As well, yeast-based reporter gene assay revealed that 4 tested conazoles were weak agonists of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We reveal differential CYP gene expression with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic conazoles in a lower vertebrate, medaka fish. Liver CYP-enzyme induction may be a key event in conazole-induced tumorigenesis. This information is essential to evaluate the potential threat of conazoles to human health and fish

  2. CYP1A1 induction and CYP3A4 inhibition by the fungicide imazalil in the human intestinal Caco-2 cells-comparison with other conazole pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergent, Thérèse; Dupont, Isabelle; Jassogne, Coralie; Ribonnet, Laurence; van der Heiden, Edwige; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Muller, Marc; McAlister, Dan; Pussemier, Luc; Larondelle, Yvan; Schneider, Yves-Jacques

    2009-02-10

    Imazalil (IMA) is a widely used imidazole-antifungal pesticide and, therefore, a food contaminant. This compound is also used as a drug (enilconazole). As intestine is the first site of exposure to ingested drugs and pollutants, we have investigated the effects of IMA, at realistic intestinal concentrations, on xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and efflux pumps by using Caco-2 cells, as a validated in vitro model of the human intestinal absorptive epithelium. For comparison, other conazole fungicides, i.e. ketoconazole, propiconazole and tebuconazole, were also studied. IMA induced cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 activity to the same extent as benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cell-free aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) binding assay and reporter gene assay suggested that IMA is not an AhR-ligand, implying that IMA-mediated induction should involve an AhR-independent pathway. Moreover, IMA strongly inhibited the CYP3A4 activity in 1,25-vitamin D(3)-induced Caco-2 cells. The other fungicides had weak or nil effects on CYP activities. Study of the apical efflux pump activities revealed that ketoconazole inhibited both P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP-2) or breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), whereas IMA and other fungicides did not. Our results imply that coingestion of IMA-contaminated food and CYP3A4- or CYP1A1-metabolizable drugs or chemicals could lead to drug bioavailability modulation or toxicological interactions, with possible adverse effects for human health.

  3. A predictive data-driven framework for endocrine prioritization: a triazole fungicide case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Friedman, Katie; Papineni, Sabitha; Marty, M. Sue; Yi, Kun Don; Goetz, Amber K.; Rasoulpour, Reza J.; Kwiatkowski, Pat; Wolf, Douglas C.; Blacker, Ann M.; Peffer, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The US Environmental Protection Agency Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) is a tiered screening approach to determine the potential for a chemical to interact with estrogen, androgen, or thyroid hormone systems and/or perturb steroidogenesis. Use of high-throughput screening (HTS) to predict hazard and exposure is shifting the EDSP approach to (1) prioritization of chemicals for further screening; and (2) targeted use of EDSP Tier 1 assays to inform specific data needs. In this work, toxicology data for three triazole fungicides (triadimefon, propiconazole, and myclobutanil) were evaluated, including HTS results, EDSP Tier 1 screening (and other scientifically relevant information), and EPA guideline mammalian toxicology study data. The endocrine-related bioactivity predictions from HTS and information that satisfied the EDSP Tier 1 requirements were qualitatively concordant. Current limitations in the available HTS battery for thyroid and steroidogenesis pathways were mitigated by inclusion of guideline toxicology studies in this analysis. Similar margins (3–5 orders of magnitude) were observed between HTS-predicted human bioactivity and exposure values and between in vivo mammalian bioactivity and EPA chronic human exposure estimates for these products’ registered uses. Combined HTS hazard and human exposure predictions suggest low priority for higher-tiered endocrine testing of these triazoles. Comparison with the mammalian toxicology database indicated that this HTS-based prioritization would have been protective for any potential in vivo effects that form the basis of current risk assessment for these chemicals. This example demonstrates an effective, human health protective roadmap for EDSP evaluation of pesticide active ingredients via prioritization using HTS and guideline toxicology information. PMID:27347635

  4. Gene expression profiling in the liver of CD-1 mice to characterize the hepatotoxicity of triazole fungicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, Amber K.; Bao, Wenjun; Ren, Hongzu; Schmid, Judith E.; Tully, Douglas B.; Wood, Carmen; Rockett, John C.; Narotsky, Michael G.; Sun, Guobin; Lambert, Guy R.; Thai, S.-F.; Wolf, Douglas C.; Nesnow, Stephen; Dix, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Four triazole fungicides used in agricultural or pharmaceutical applications were examined for hepatotoxic effects in mouse liver. Besides organ weight, histopathology, and cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme induction, DNA microarrays were used to generate gene expression profiles and hypotheses on potential mechanisms of action for this class of chemicals. Adult male CD-1 mice were exposed daily for 14 days to fluconazole, myclobutanil, propiconazole, or triadimefon at three dose levels by oral gavage. Doses were based on previous studies that resulted in liver hypertrophy or hepatotoxicity. All four triazoles caused hepatocyte hypertrophy, and all except triadimefon increased relative liver/body weight ratios at the middle and high dose levels. CYP enzyme activities were also induced by all four triazoles at the middle and high doses as measured by the dealkylations of four alkoxyresorufins, although some differences in substrate specificity were observed. Consistent with this common histopathology and biochemistry, several CYP and xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme (XME) genes were differentially expressed in response to all four (Cyp2d26 and Cyp3a11), or three of the four (Cyp2c40, Cyp2c55, Ces2, Slco1a4) triazoles. Differential expression of numerous other CYP and XME genes discriminated between the various triazoles, consistent with differences in CYP enzyme activities, and indicative of possible differences in mechanisms of hepatotoxicity or dose response. Multiple isoforms of Cyp1a, 2b, 2c, 3a, and other CYP and XME genes regulated by the nuclear receptors constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) were differentially expressed following triazole exposure. Based on these results, we expanded on our original hypothesis that triazole hepatotoxicity was mediated by CYP induction, to include additional XME genes, many of which are modulated by CAR and PXR

  5. Combination Effects of (TriAzole Fungicides on Hormone Production and Xenobiotic Metabolism in a Human Placental Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenja Rieke

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Consumers are exposed to multiple residues of different pesticides via the diet. Therefore, EU legislation for pesticides requires the evaluation of single active substances as well as the consideration of combination effects. Hence the analysis of combined effects of substances in a broad dose range represents a key challenge to current experimental and regulatory toxicology. Here we report evidence for additive effects for (triazole fungicides, a widely used group of antifungal agents, in the human placental cell line Jeg-3. In addition to the triazoles cyproconazole, epoxiconazole, flusilazole and tebuconazole and the azole fungicide prochloraz also pesticides from other chemical classes assumed to act via different modes of action (i.e., the organophosphate chlorpyrifos and the triazinylsulfonylurea herbicide triflusulfuron-methyl were investigated. Endpoints analysed include synthesis of steroid hormone production (progesterone and estradiol and gene expression of steroidogenic and non-steroidogenic cytochrome-P-450 (CYP enzymes. For the triazoles and prochloraz, a dose dependent inhibition of progesterone production was observed and additive effects could be confirmed for several combinations of these substances in vitro. The non-triazoles chlorpyrifos and triflusulfuron-methyl did not affect this endpoint and, in line with this finding, no additivity was observed when these substances were applied in mixtures with prochloraz. While prochloraz slightly increased aromatase expression and estradiol production and triflusulfuron-methyl decreased estradiol production, none of the other substances had effects on the expression levels of steroidogenic CYP-enzymes in Jeg-3 cells. For some triazoles, prochloraz and chlorpyrifos a significant induction of CYP1A1 mRNA expression and potential combination effects for this endpoint were observed. Inhibition of CYP1A1 mRNA induction by the AhR inhibitor CH223191 indicated AhR receptor dependence this

  6. Extraction of triazole fungicides in environmental waters utilizing poly (ionic liquid)-functionalized magnetic adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Liao, Yingmin; Huang, Xiaojia

    2017-11-17

    This work prepared a new poly (ionic liquid)-functionalized magnetic adsorbent (PFMA) for the extraction of triazole fungicides (TFs) in environmental waters prior to determination by high performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). A polymerizable ionic liquid, 1-methyl-3-allylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide was employed to copolymerize with divinylbenzene on the surface of modified magnetite to fabricate the PFMA. The morphology, spectroscopic and magnetic properties of the new adsorbent were investigated by different techniques. A series of key parameters that influence the extraction performance including the amount of PFMA, desorption solvent, adsorption and desorption time, sample pH value and ionic strength were optimized in detail. Under the optimum conditions, the prepared PFMA could extract targeted TFs effectively and quickly under the format of magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE). Satisfactory linearities were achieved in the range of 0.1-200.0μg/L for triadimenol and 0.05-200.0μg/L for other TFs with good coefficients of determination above 0.99 for all analytes. The limits of detection (S/N=3) and limits of quantification (S/N=10) for TFs were in the range of 0.0050-0.0078μg/L and 0.017-0.026μg/L, respectively. Environmental waters including lake, river and well waters were used to demonstrate the applicability of developed MSPE-HPLC-DAD method, and satisfactory recoveries and repeatability were obtained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigations on the effects of triazole group fungicides on some important antagonistic fungi and non-pathogen Fusarium oxysporum (Schlecht) in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Demirci, A.; Katırcıoğlu, Z.; Demirci, F.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of eight triazole fungicides (cyproconazole, diniconazole, flusilazole hexaconazole, myclobutanil, penconazole, tebuconazole and triticinazole) on some important antagonistic fungi [Trichoderma harzianum (Rifai), T. viride (Pers. ex Gray), T. pseudokoningii (Rifai), T. hamatum (Bonard), Gliociadium viride (Matrouchot), Aspergillus niger (Tieghem), Penicillium verrııcosum (Dierckx)] and non-pathogen Fusarium oxysporum (Schlecht) were investigated on PDA in vitro. EC5 0 values ...

  8. Investigations on the effects of triazole group fungicides on some important antagonistic fungi and non-pathogen Fusarium oxysporum (Schlecht) in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Demirci, A.; Katırcıoğlu, Z.; Demirci, F.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of eight triazole fungicides (cyproconazole, diniconazole, flusilazole hexaconazole, myclobutanil, penconazole, tebuconazole and triticinazole) on some important antagonistic fungi [Trichoderma harzianum (Rifai), T. viride (Pers. ex Gray), T. pseudokoningii (Rifai), T. hamatum (Bonard), Gliociadium viride (Matrouchot), Aspergillus niger (Tieghem), Penicillium verrııcosum (Dierckx)] and non-pathogen Fusarium oxysporum (Schlecht) were investigated on PDA in vitro. EC5 0 values ...

  9. Three conazoles increase hepatic microsomal retinoic acid metabolism and decrease mouse hepatic retinoic acid levels in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P.-J.; Padgett, William T.; Moore, Tanya; Winnik, Witold; Lambert, Guy R.; Thai, Sheau-Fung; Hester, Susan D.; Nesnow, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Conazoles are fungicides used in agriculture and as pharmaceuticals. In a previous toxicogenomic study of triazole-containing conazoles we found gene expression changes consistent with the alteration of the metabolism of all trans-retinoic acid (atRA), a vitamin A metabolite with cancer-preventative properties (Ward et al., Toxicol. Pathol. 2006; 34:863-78). The goals of this study were to examine effects of propiconazole, triadimefon, and myclobutanil, three triazole-containing conazoles, on the microsomal metabolism of atRA, the associated hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme(s) involved in atRA metabolism, and their effects on hepatic atRA levels in vivo. The in vitro metabolism of atRA was quantitatively measured in liver microsomes from male CD-1 mice following four daily intraperitoneal injections of propiconazole (210 mg/kg/d), triadimefon (257 mg/kg/d) or myclobutanil (270 mg/kg/d). The formation of both 4-hydroxy-atRA and 4-oxo-atRA were significantly increased by all three conazoles. Propiconazole-induced microsomes possessed slightly greater metabolizing activities compared to myclobutanil-induced microsomes. Both propiconazole and triadimefon treatment induced greater formation of 4-hydroxy-atRA compared to myclobutanil treatment. Chemical and immuno-inhibition metabolism studies suggested that Cyp26a1, Cyp2b, and Cyp3a, but not Cyp1a1 proteins were involved in atRA metabolism. Cyp2b10/20 and Cyp3a11 genes were significantly over-expressed in the livers of both triadimefon- and propiconazole-treated mice while Cyp26a1, Cyp2c65 and Cyp1a2 genes were over-expressed in the livers of either triadimefon- or propiconazole-treated mice, and Cyp2b10/20 and Cyp3a13 genes were over-expressed in the livers of myclobutanil-treated mice. Western blot analyses indicated conazole induced-increases in Cyp2b and Cyp3a proteins. All three conazoles decreased hepatic atRA tissue levels ranging from 45-67%. The possible implications of these changes in hepatic atRA levels

  10. Quantitative changes in endogenous DNA adducts correlate with conazole mutagenicity and tumorigenicity in mouse liver.**

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have previously shown that the conazole fungicides triadimefon and propiconazole, which are tumorigenic in mouse liver, are in vivo mouse liver mutagens in the Big Blue" transgenic mutation assay when administered in feed at tumorigenic doses. The nontumorigenic conazole myclo...

  11. Quantitative changes in endogenous DNA adducts correlate with conazole mutagenicity and tumorigenicity in mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have previously shown that the conazole fungicides triadimefon and propiconazole, which are tumorigenic in mouse liver, are in vivo mouse liver mutagens in the Big Blue" transgenic mutation assay when administered in feed at tumorigenic doses. The nontumorigenic conazole myclo...

  12. Carbon-Based Fe3O4 Nanocomposites Derived from Waste Pomelo Peels for Magnetic Solid-Phase Extraction of 11 Triazole Fungicides in Fruit Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Keyu; Zhang, Wenlin; Cao, Shurui; Wang, Guomin; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2018-01-01

    Carbon-based Fe3O4 nanocomposites (C/Fe3O4 NCs) were synthesized by a simple one-step hydrothermal method using waste pomelo peels as the carbon precursors. The characterization results showed that they had good structures and physicochemical properties. The prepared C/Fe3O4 NCs could be applied as excellent and recyclable adsorbents for magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of 11 triazole fungicides in fruit samples. In the MSPE procedure, several parameters including the amount of adsorbents, extraction time, the type and volume of desorption solvent, and desorption time were optimized in detail. Under the optimized conditions, the good linearity (R2 > 0.9916), the limits of detection (LOD), and quantification (LOQ) were obtained in the range of 1–100, 0.12–0.55, and 0.39–1.85 μg/kg for 11 pesticides, respectively. Lastly, the proposed MSPE method was successfully applied to analyze triazole fungicides in real apple, pear, orange, peach, and banana samples with recoveries in the range of 82.1% to 109.9% and relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 8.4%. Therefore, the C/Fe3O4 NCs based MSPE method has a great potential for isolating and pre-concentrating trace levels of triazole fungicides in fruits. PMID:29734765

  13. Electrochemical degradation of triazole fungicides in aqueous solution using TiO2-NTs/SnO2-Sb/PbO2 anode: Experimental and DFT studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Weiqing; Zhong, Congqiang; Liang, Linyue; Sun, Yunlong; Guan, Ying; Wang, Lianjun; Sun, Xiuyun; Li, Jiansheng

    2014-01-01

    Triazole fungicides (TFs) are toxic and bio-refractory contaminants widely spread in environment. This study investigated electrochemical degradation of TFs in aqueous solution at TiO 2 -NTs/SnO 2 -Sb/PbO 2 anode with particular attention to the effect of molecular structure. Three TFs with triazole ring in one biologically treated water including tricyclazole (TC), 1H-1,2,4-triazole (Tz) and propiconazole (PPC) were selected as the target compounds. Results of bulk electrolysis showed that degradation of all TFs was fit to a pseudo first-order equation. The three compounds were degraded with the following sequence: PPC > TC> Tz in terms of their rates of oxidation. Quantum chemical calculation using the density function theory (DFT) method was combined with experimental results to describe the degradation sequence of TFs. Atom charge was calculated by DFT method and active sites of TFs were identified respectively. Analysis of intermediates by GC-MS and LC-(ESI)-MS/MS showed agreement with calculation results. In addition, the acute toxicity of TC and PPC treated solution significantly decreased after treatment by electrochemical oxidation

  14. Estimation of modern range of fungicides and scope of their application in agriculture of Ukraine as component of state social and hygienic monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vavrinevych O.P.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the range of pesticides, including fungicides, authorized for use in Ukraine and the scope of their application during 1999 - 2012 years was carried out. Statistical research methods were used in the analysis, evaluation of the results was car¬ried out in terms of the rate of growth and increase. It was determined that in the range structure of pesticides, authorized for use in Ukraine the largest share accounted for herbicides. Part of the herbicides was 43,8±0,95% on average over the period from 1999 to 2012. The share of fungicides was 28,6±1,1%, insecticides - 20,3±0,78%, plant growth regulators - 7,4±0,59%. Mixed fungicides are the largest part of fungicides in the structure of the range (26,3-39,3%, the number of its had increased by 542% over 13-year period. Prior to 2003 there was a slight increase in the number of mixed fungicides, growth rate was 0-8,3% since 2006, its rate of increase has averaged 53% every 2 years. Triazoles and conazoles (14,9-31,4%, benzimidazoles, imidazoles (9,8-14,7%, carbamates, dithiocarbamates (3,1-13,8%, inorganic compounds (6,1-11,1% containing one active ingredient in formulation were the most common among the fungicides. The growth rate of strobilurin fungicides was 900%, triazoles – 550%, benzimidazoles, imidazoles – 400%, inorganic compounds – 243%, aniline-pyrimidines – 200%, pyrimidines, pyridines, pyrroles – 67%, dithiocarbamic and carbamic acid derivatives – 50%, phthalimides, phenylsulfamides, amides – 43%.

  15. A new chiral residue analysis method for triazole fungicides in water using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Mai; Liu, Donghui; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Wang, Peng

    2013-09-01

    A rapid, simple, reliable, and environment-friendly method for the residue analysis of the enantiomers of four chiral fungicides including hexaconazole, triadimefon, tebuconazole, and penconazole in water samples was developed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) pretreatment followed by chiral high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-DAD detection. The enantiomers were separated on a Chiralpak IC column by HPLC applying n-hexane or petroleum ether as mobile phase and ethanol or isopropanol as modifier. The influences of mobile phase composition and temperature on the resolution were investigated and most of the enantiomers could be completely separated in 20 min under optimized conditions. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that the separation was enthalpy-driven. The elution orders were detected by both circular dichroism detector (CD) and optical rotatory dispersion detector (ORD). Parameters affecting the DLLME performance for pretreatment of the chiral fungicides residue in water samples, such as the extraction and dispersive solvents and their volume, were studied and optimized. Under the optimum microextraction condition the enrichment factors were over 121 and the linearities were 30-1500 µg L(-1) with the correlation coefficients (R(2)) over 0.9988 and the recoveries were between 88.7% and 103.7% at the spiking levels of 0.5, 0.25, and 0.05 mg L(-1) (for each enantiomer) with relative standard deviations varying from 1.38% to 6.70% (n = 6) The limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 8.5 to 29.0 µg L(-1) (S/N = 3). © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Trace determination of five triazole fungicide residues in traditional Chinese medicine samples by dispersive solid-phase extraction combined with ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuping; Yuan, Xucan; Zhao, Pengfei; Sun, Hong; Ye, Xiu; Liang, Ning; Zhao, Longshan

    2017-08-01

    A novel and reliable method for determination of five triazole fungicide residues (triadimenol, tebuconazole, diniconazole, flutriafol, and hexaconazol) in traditional Chinese medicine samples was developed using dispersive solid-phase extraction combined with ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction before ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The clean up of the extract was conducted using dispersive solid-phase extraction by directly adding sorbents into the extraction solution, followed by shaking and centrifugation. After that, a mixture of 400 μL trichloromethane (extraction solvent) and 0.5 mL of the above supernatant was injected rapidly into water for the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure. The factors affecting the extraction efficiency were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration curves showed good linearity in the range of 2.0-400 (tebuconazole, diniconazole, and hexaconazole) and 4.0-800 ng/g (triadimenol and flutriafol) with the regression coefficients higher than 0.9958. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for the present method were 0.5-1.1 and 1.8-4.0 ng/g, respectively. The recoveries of the target analytes ranged from 80.2 to 103.2%. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the analysis of five triazole fungicides in traditional Chinese medicine samples, and satisfactory results were obtained. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Fast and robust direct immersion solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry method employing a matrix compatible fiber for determination of triazole fungicides in fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Érica A Souza; Lopez-Avila, Viorica; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2013-10-25

    A fast and robust method was developed for the determination of ten triazole fungicides in fruit samples using direct immersion solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection (DI-SPME-GC-ToFMS). In this work, a newly developed concept of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sorbent, which allows for direct immersion extraction in complex food matrices, has been applied in the analysis of 10 triazole fungicides in grapes and strawberries pulps. Potential factors affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized, including extraction temperature, sample pH, and ionic strength, agitation speed, extraction and desorption times. Under optimized conditions, the method was linear for over 4 orders of magnitude in concentration, with linear regression coefficients (R(2)) greater than 0.99 for all test compounds in both matrices. Method reproducibility, as determined by analysis of spiked grapes and strawberries, was better than ±20%. The limits of quantitation objective (LOQs) ranged from 0.25 to 5 ng g(-1) for both matrices, well below the maximum residues levels allowed for those compounds in both matrices. The method was successfully applied in the analysis of commercial samples of grapes and strawberries. Finally, the new SPME method was compared to a modified version of t QuEChERS AOAC method: the limits of quantitation reached by SPME were at least one order of magnitude lower than those achieved by the QuEChERS method, whereas precision and accuracy were comparable for both methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Endocrine disruptive effects in vitro of conazole antifungals used as pesticides and pharmaceutical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærstad, Mia Birkhøj; Taxvig, Camilla; Nellemann, Christine Lydia

    2010-01-01

    Widely used conazole antifungals were tested for endocrine disruptive effects using a panel of in vitro assays. They all showed endocrine disrupting potential and ability to act via several different mechanisms. Overall the imidazoles (econazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, prochloraz) were more...... inhibition of enzymes involved in the conversion of progesterone to testosterone. Prochloraz was most potent followed by econazole~miconazole>ketoconazole>tebuconazole>epoxiconazole>propiconazole. In the MCF-7 cell proliferation assay, the conazoles showed anti-estrogenic effect, including aromatase...... inhibition, since they inhibited the response induced by both 17β-estradiol (miconazole>econazole~ketoconazole>prochloraz>tebuconazole>epoxiconazole>propiconazole) and testosterone (econazole>miconazole>prochloraz>ketoconazole>tebuconazole>epoxiconazole>propiconazole). The triazoles were anti...

  19. Identification of isolates of the plant pathogen Leptosphaeria maculans with resistance to the triazole fungicide fluquinconazole using a novel In Planta assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela P Van de Wouw

    Full Text Available Leptosphaeria maculans is the major pathogen of canola (oilseed rape, Brassica napus worldwide. In Australia, the use of azole fungicides has contributed to the 50-fold increase in canola production in the last 25 years. However, extensive application of fungicides sets the stage for the selection of fungal populations with resistance. A high-throughput in planta assay was developed to allow screening of thousands of isolates from multiple populations. Using this screen, isolates were identified with decreased sensitivity to the fungicide fluquinconazole when applied at field rates as a protective seed dressing: these isolates cause significantly larger lesions on cotyledons and true leaves and increased disease severity at plant maturity. This increased in planta resistance was specific to fluquinconazole, with no cross resistance to flutriafol or tebuconazole/prothioconazole. In a limited set of 22 progeny from a cross between resistant and susceptible parents, resistance segregated in a 1:1 ratio, suggesting a single gene is responsible. A survey of 200 populations from across canola growing regions of Australia revealed fungicide resistance was present in 15% of the populations. Although in vitro analysis of the fungicide resistant isolates showed a significant shift in the average EC50 compared to the sensitive isolates, this was not as evident as the in planta assays. The development of this novel, high-throughput in planta assay has led to the identification of the first fungicide resistant L. maculans isolates, which may pose a threat to the productivity of the Australian canola industry.

  20. Is the emergence of fungal resistance to medical triazoles related to their use in the agroecosystems? A mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aícha Daniela Ribas e Ribas

    Full Text Available Abstract Triazole fungicides are used broadly for the control of infectious diseases of both humans and plants. The surge in resistance to triazoles among pathogenic populations is an emergent issue both in agriculture and medicine. The non-rational use of fungicides with site-specific modes of action, such as the triazoles, may increase the risk of antifungal resistance development. In the medical field, the surge of resistant fungal isolates has been related to the intensive and recurrent therapeutic use of a limited number of triazoles for the treatment and prophylaxis of many mycoses. Similarities in the mode of action of triazole fungicides used in these two fields may lead to cross-resistance, thus expanding the spectrum of resistance to multiple fungicides and contributing to the perpetuation of resistant strains in the environment. The emergence of fungicide-resistant isolates of human pathogens has been related to the exposure to fungicides used in agroecosystems. Examples include species of cosmopolitan occurrence, such as Fusarium and Aspergillus, which cause diseases in both plants and humans. This review summarizes the information about the most important triazole fungicides that are largely used in human clinical therapy and agriculture. We aim to discuss the issues related to fungicide resistance and the recommended strategies for preventing the emergence of triazole-resistant fungal populations capable of spreading across environments.

  1. Synthesis of [triazole-3(5)-14C]-propiconazole stereoisomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjidemetriou, D.; Loeffler, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    A preparation of all four stereoisomers of the fungicide and sterol biosynthesis inhibitor propiconazole (1-[2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-propyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-ylmethyl]-1H-1,2,4-triazole), labelled with [ 14 C] in the triazole ring, is described. (author)

  2. Efficient Synthesis and Bioactivity of Novel Triazole Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Boyang; Zhao, Hanqing; Chen, Zili; Xu, Chen; Zhao, Jianzhuang; Zhao, Wenting

    2018-03-21

    Triazole pesticides are organic nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds, which contain 1,2,3-triazole ring. In order to develop potential glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase (GlmS) inhibitor fungicides, forty compounds of triazole derivatives were synthesized in an efficient way, thirty nine of them were new compounds. The structures of all the compounds were confirmed by high resolution mass spectrometer (HRMS), ¹H-NMR and 13 C-NMR. The fungicidal activities results based on means of mycelium growth rate method indicated that some of the compounds exhibited good fungicidal activities against P. CapasiciLeonian , Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, Pyricularia oryzae Cav. and Fusarium oxysporum Schl. F.sp. vasinfectum (Atk.) Snyd. & Hans. at the concentration of 50 µg/mL, especially the inhibitory rates of compounds 1-d and 1-f were over 80%. At the same time, the preliminary studies based on the Elson-Morgan method indicated that the compounds exhibited some inhibitory activity toward glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase (GlmS). These compounds will be further studied as potential antifungal lead compounds. The structure-activity relationships (SAR) were discussed in terms of the effects of the substituents on both the benzene and the sugar ring.

  3. Efficient Synthesis and Bioactivity of Novel Triazole Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyang Hu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Triazole pesticides are organic nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds, which contain 1,2,3-triazole ring. In order to develop potential glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase (GlmS inhibitor fungicides, forty compounds of triazole derivatives were synthesized in an efficient way, thirty nine of them were new compounds. The structures of all the compounds were confirmed by high resolution mass spectrometer (HRMS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. The fungicidal activities results based on means of mycelium growth rate method indicated that some of the compounds exhibited good fungicidal activities against P. CapasiciLeonian, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary, Pyricularia oryzae Cav. and Fusarium oxysporum Schl. F.sp. vasinfectum (Atk. Snyd. & Hans. at the concentration of 50 µg/mL, especially the inhibitory rates of compounds 1-d and 1-f were over 80%. At the same time, the preliminary studies based on the Elson-Morgan method indicated that the compounds exhibited some inhibitory activity toward glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase (GlmS. These compounds will be further studied as potential antifungal lead compounds. The structure-activity relationships (SAR were discussed in terms of the effects of the substituents on both the benzene and the sugar ring.

  4. INVESTIGATING THE ENANTIOSELECTIVE TOXICITY OF CONAZOLE FUNGICIDES IN RAINBOW TROUT THROUGH NMR BASED METABOLOMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, metabolomics, or the quantitative measurement of a broad spectrum of metabolic responses of living systems in response to disease onset or genetic modification, has been employed to enable rapid identification of the mechanisms of toxicity for compounds of environmental...

  5. Quantitative changes in endogenous DNA damage correlate with conazole mutagenicity and tumorigenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mouse liver tumorigenic conazolefungicides triadimefon and propiconazole have previously been shown to be in vivo mouse liver mutagens in the Big Blue" transgenic mutation assay when administered in feed at tumorigenic doses, whereas the nontumorigenic conazole myclobutanil w...

  6. Fate of triazoles in softwood upon environmental exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukowski, Klara; Martinská, Veronika; Sedgeman, Carl A; Kuplic, Paige; Kozliak, Evguenii I; Fisher, Stephen; Kubátová, Alena

    2017-10-01

    Determining the fate of preservatives in commercial wood products is essential to minimize their losses and improve protective impregnation techniques. The fate of triazole fungicides in ponderosa pine wood was investigated in both outdoor and controlled-environment experiments using a representative triazole, tebuconazole (TAZ), which was accompanied by propiconazole (PAZ) in selected experiments. The study was designed to mimic industrial settings used in window frame manufacturing. To investigate the TAZ fate in detail, loosely and strongly bound fractions were differentiated using a multi-step extraction. The loosely bound TAZ fraction extracted through two sonications accounted for 85± 5% of the total TAZ, while the strongly bound TAZ was extracted only with an exhaustive Soxhlet extraction and corresponded to the remaining 15± 5%. A significant fraction (∼80%) of the original TAZ remained in the wood despite a six-month exposure to harsh environmental conditions, maintaining wood preservation and assuring minimal environmental impact. Depletion of loosely bound TAZ was observed from cross-sectional surfaces when exposed to rain, high humidity and sunlight. Water leaching was deemed to be the major route leading to triazole losses from wood. Leaching rate was found to be slightly higher for TAZ than for PAZ. The contribution of bio-, photo- and thermal degradation of triazoles was negligible as both PAZ and TAZ sorbed in wood remained intact. Triazole evaporation was also found to be minor at the moderate temperature (20-25 °C) recorded throughout the outdoor study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Control of Vascular Streak Dieback Disease of Cocoa with Flutriafol Fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febrilia Nur'aini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vascular streak dieback caused by the fungus Oncobasidium theobromae is one of the important diseases in cocoa crop in Indonesia. One approach to control the disease is by using fungicides. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of class triazole fungicides to the intensity of the vascular streak dieback disease on cocoa seedling phase, immature and mature cocoa. Experiments were conducted in Kotta Blater, PTPN XII and Kaliwining, Indonesian  Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute. Flutriafol 250 g/l with a concentration 0,05%, 0,1% and 0,15% foliar sprayed on cocoa seedlings, immature and mature cocoa. Active compound combination of Azoxystrobin and Difenoconazole with 0,1% concentration used as a comparation fungicides. The result showed that Flutriafol with 0,05%, 0,1% and 0,15% concentration and Azoxystrobin & Difenoconazol with 0,1% concentration could suppress the vascular streak dieback disease on seedlings. On immature plants, the application of Flutriafol was not effectively suppress the vascular streak dieback disease whereas the fungicide comparison could suppress with the efficacy level of 46.22%. On mature plants,both of fungicides could not suppress the vascular streak dieback disease. Key words: Fungicide, cocoa, vascular streak dieback, triazole, flutriafol, azoxystrobin+difenoconazol

  8. Strong lethality and teratogenicity of strobilurins on Xenopus tropicalis embryos: Basing on ten agricultural fungicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dan; Liu, Mengyun; Yang, Yongsheng; Shi, Huahong; Zhou, Junliang; He, Defu

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural chemical inputs have been considered as a risk factor for the global declines in amphibian populations, yet the application of agricultural fungicides has increased dramatically in recent years. Currently little is known about the potential toxicity of fungicides on the embryos of amphibians. We studied the effects of ten commonly used fungicides (four strobilurins, two SDHIs, two triazoles, fludioxonil and folpet) on Xenopus tropicalis embryos. Lethal and teratogenic effects were respectively examined after 48 h exposure. The median lethal concentrations (LC50s) and the median teratogenic concentrations (TC50s) were determined in line with actual exposure concentrations. These fungicides except two triazoles showed obvious lethal effects on embryos; however LC50s of four strobilurins were the lowest and in the range of 6.81–196.59 μg/L. Strobilurins, SDHIs and fludioxonil induced severe malformations in embryos. Among the ten fungicides, the lowest TC50s were observed for four strobilurins in the range of 0.61–84.13 μg/L. The teratogenicity shared similar dose–effect relationship and consistent phenotypes mainly including microcephaly, hypopigmentation, somite segmentation and narrow fins. The findings indicate that the developmental toxicity of currently-used fungicides involved with ecologic risks on amphibians. Especially strobilurins are highly toxic to amphibian embryos at μg/L level, which is close to environmentally relevant concentrations. - Highlights: • Effects of ten agricultural fungicides were tested on Xenopus tropicalis embryos. • Strobilurin fungicides showed strong lethal and teratogenic effects on embryos. • Lowest LC50 and TC50 were observed for strobilurins in ten fungicides. • μg/L level of toxic concentrations for strobilurins was environmentally relevant. • Teratogenicity shared similar dose–effect relationship and main phenotypes. - Strobilurins induced strong lethality and teratogenicity on Xenopus

  9. Interactive Role of Fungicides and Plant Growth Regulator (Trinexapac on Seed Yield and Oil Quality of Winter Rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ijaz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the role of growth regulator trinexapac and fungicides on growth, yield, and quality of winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L.. The experiment was conducted simultaneously at different locations in Germany using two cultivars of rapeseed. Five different fungicides belonging to the triazole and strobilurin groups, as well as a growth regulator trinexapac, were tested in this study. A total of seven combinations of these fungicides and growth regulator trinexapac were applied at two growth stages of rapeseed. These two stages include green floral bud stage (BBCH 53 and the course of pod development stage (BBCH 65. The results showed that plant height and leaf area index were affected significantly by the application of fungicides. Treatments exhibited induced photosynthetic ability and delayed senescence, which improved the morphological characters and yield components of rape plants at both locations. Triazole, in combination with strobilurin, led to the highest seed yield over other treatments at both experimental locations. Significant effects of fungicides on unsaturated fatty acids of rapeseed oil were observed. Fungicides did not cause any apparent variation in the values of free fatty acids and peroxide of rapeseed oil. Results of our study demonstrate that judicious use of fungicides in rapeseed may help to achieve sustainable farming to obtain higher yield and better quality of rapeseed.

  10. Peptides of the Constant Region of Antibodies Display Fungicidal Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonelli, Luciano; Ciociola, Tecla; Magliani, Walter; Zanello, Pier Paolo; D'Adda, Tiziana; Galati, Serena; De Bernardis, Flavia; Arancia, Silvia; Gabrielli, Elena; Pericolini, Eva; Vecchiarelli, Anna; Arruda, Denise C.; Pinto, Marcia R.; Travassos, Luiz R.; Pertinhez, Thelma A.; Spisni, Alberto; Conti, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic peptides with sequences identical to fragments of the constant region of different classes (IgG, IgM, IgA) of antibodies (Fc-peptides) exerted a fungicidal activity in vitro against pathogenic yeasts, such as Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Malassezia furfur, including caspofungin and triazole resistant strains. Alanine-substituted derivatives of fungicidal Fc-peptides, tested to evaluate the critical role of each residue, displayed unaltered, increased or decreased candidacidal activity in vitro. An Fc-peptide, included in all human IgGs, displayed a therapeutic effect against experimental mucosal and systemic candidiasis in mouse models. It is intriguing to hypothesize that some Fc-peptides may influence the antifungal immune response and constitute the basis for devising new antifungal agents. PMID:22470523

  11. Peptides of the constant region of antibodies display fungicidal activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Polonelli

    Full Text Available Synthetic peptides with sequences identical to fragments of the constant region of different classes (IgG, IgM, IgA of antibodies (Fc-peptides exerted a fungicidal activity in vitro against pathogenic yeasts, such as Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Malassezia furfur, including caspofungin and triazole resistant strains. Alanine-substituted derivatives of fungicidal Fc-peptides, tested to evaluate the critical role of each residue, displayed unaltered, increased or decreased candidacidal activity in vitro. An Fc-peptide, included in all human IgGs, displayed a therapeutic effect against experimental mucosal and systemic candidiasis in mouse models. It is intriguing to hypothesize that some Fc-peptides may influence the antifungal immune response and constitute the basis for devising new antifungal agents.

  12. The toxicity of the fungicide Propiconazole to soil flagellates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Flemming; Westergaard, Kamma; Søe, Dorthe

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the effects of the ergosterol-inhibiting fungicide, propiconazole {1-[[2-(2,4-dichlorphenyl) - 4 - propyl - 1,3 - dioxolan - 2 - yl]methyl] - 1H - 1,2,4 triazole; Tilt}, on mixed natural populations of bacterivorous and fungivorous flagellates in soil and on single species...... of bacterivorous flagellates in liquid culture. The fungicide affected a mixed natural population of fungivorous flagellates less than the population of bacterivorous flagellates. Our results indicated that the effects of propiconazole on flagellates are direct toxic effects and not effects mediated via their food....... All tested types of flagellates were significantly harmed when exposed to the concentration of propiconazole normally applied to agricultural fields (625¿mg l-1). However, when exposed to the concentration of propiconazole which we expect in the soil water phase after application (ca. 0.6¿mg l-1...

  13. Spatial and temporal distribution of fungicides applied to creeping bentgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockemeyer, Kurt R; Latin, Richard

    2015-05-01

    Turf managers often rely on fungicides to limit damage caused by root diseases. Because fungicides are applied to aboveground surfaces and do not move basipetally, they are effective against root pathogens only when fungitoxic concentrations migrate to the rhizosphere. This research focused on the distribution of modern fungicides in verdure, thatch, sand, and roots of creeping bentgrass [ L. var. (Huds.) Farw.] maintained as a putting green. The fungicides azoxystrobin (methyl (E)-2-[2-[6-(2-cyanophenoxy)pyrimidin-4-yloxy]phenyl]-3-methoxyacrylate), propiconazole (1,2,4-triazole, 1-((2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-propyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl)methyl), pyraclostrobin (carbamic acid, [2-[[[1-(4-chlorophenyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]oxy]methyl]phenyl]methoxy-,methyl ester), and thiophanate-methyl (dimethyl 4,'4-o-phenylenebis[3-thioallophanate]) were applied to replicate field plots in a water volume of 815 L ha. Plots were sampled at 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, and 21 d after application by extracting cores measuring 1.9 cm in diameter by 3.8 cm deep. Cores were separated into verdure/thatch, sand, and roots before quantitative determination (liquid chromatography, triple quadrupole mass spectrometry) of fungicide residues. Fungicide residues in verdure/thatch declined steadily with time and support previously reported results describing fungicide depletion. Fungicides were detected in roots and sand within 5 h of application at very low (1-15 mg kg) concentrations and remained at low levels throughout the sampling period. Fungicides differed with respect to amounts recovered per turfgrass component. Azoxystrobin and propiconazole were associated with roots for the duration of the experiment, but pyraclostrobin was nearly undetectable. Near-zero levels of all fungicides were detected in the sand component. Half-life values in the verdure/thatch component ranged from 2.3 to 18.9 d. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of

  14. Annual Fungicide Loadings

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Pesticides, Herbicides, Fungicides...etc, are used for a variety of purposes, including control of household, lawn, and garden pests; for control of mosquitoes and...

  15. Association between virulence and triazole tolerance in the phytopathogenic fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Yang

    Full Text Available Host resistance and synthetic antimicrobials such as fungicides are two of the main approaches used to control plant diseases in conventional agriculture. Although pathogens often evolve to overcome host resistance and antimicrobials, the majority of reports have involved qualitative host - pathogen interactions or antimicrobials targeting a single pathogen protein or metabolic pathway. Studies that consider jointly the evolution of virulence, defined as the degree of damage caused to a host by parasite infection, and antimicrobial resistance are rare. Here we compared virulence and fungicide tolerance in the fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola sampled from wheat fields across three continents and found a positive correlation between virulence and tolerance to a triazole fungicide. We also found that quantitative host resistance selected for higher pathogen virulence. The possible mechanisms responsible for these observations and their consequences for sustainable disease management are discussed.

  16. Synthesis of Novel (E) -α-(methoxyimino) Benzeneacetate Derivatives and their Fungicidal Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Chen, P.; Pang, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Wu, G.; Wang, H.

    2015-01-01

    In order to find novel strobilurin derivatives with good fungicidal activities, a series of (E)-α-(methoxyimino)benzeneacetate analogues containing 1,2,4-triazole Schiff base moiety were designed and synthesized. Their structures were confirmed by IR,1H-NMR, HRMS or elemental analyses. The antifungal activities indicated that compounds 6 showed moderate to good fungicidal activities against Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinereapers, Fusarium graminearum and Blumeria graminis at the concentration 50 μ g/mL. For example, compounds 6e and 6h exhibited promising antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinereapers and Fusarium graminearum. Compounds 6g and 6j had higher fungicidal activities against Blumeria graminis at the concentration of 50 μ g/ml, inhibitory rate is 95.32 percentage and 89.67 percentage, respectively. (author)

  17. Estimation of sorption coefficients for fungicides in soil and turfgrass thatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dell, C.J.; Throssell, C.S.; Bischoff, M. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)] [and others

    1994-01-01

    Environmental fates of turf-applied fungicides are not well understood. The role of thatch as a sorptive surface for fungicides has not been evaluated. Thatch may decrease mobility of fungi and decrease their potential to be transported off-site. Batch type sorption studies were conducted to determine sorption coefficients (K{sub f}) for the fungicides triadimefon, [1-(4-chlorophenoxy)-3,3-dimethyl 1-1(1H-1,2,4- triazol-l-g-l) butanone], vinclozolin [3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-5-methyl- 5-vinyl-1,3-oxazolidine-2,4-dione], and chloroneb (1,4-dichloro-2,5-dimethoxybenzone) in thatch and in the underlying soil.

  18. INVESTIGATING THE ENANTIOSELECTIVE TOXICITY OF CONAZOLE FUNGICIDES IN RAINBOW TROUT THROUGH THE USE OF NMR BASED METABONOMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In support of the Environmental Protection Agency's Computational Toxicology Program, metabonomics, the quantitative measurement of a broad spectrum of metabolic responses of living systems in response to disease onset or genetic modification, is being employed to enable rapid id...

  19. Glycotriazole-peptides derived from the peptide HSP1: synergistic effect of triazole and saccharide rings on the antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junior, Eduardo F C; Guimarães, Carlos F R C; Franco, Lucas L; Alves, Ricardo J; Kato, Kelly C; Martins, Helen R; de Souza Filho, José D; Bemquerer, Marcelo P; Munhoz, Victor H O; Resende, Jarbas M; Verly, Rodrigo M

    2017-08-01

    This work proposes a strategy that uses solid-phase peptide synthesis associated with copper(I)-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition reaction to promote the glycosylation of an antimicrobial peptide (HSP1) containing a carboxyamidated C-terminus (HSP1-NH 2 ). Two glycotriazole-peptides, namely [p-Glc-trz-G 1 ]HSP1-NH 2 and [p-GlcNAc-trz-G 1 ]HSP1-NH 2 , were prepared using per-O-acetylated azide derivatives of glucose and N-acetylglucosamine in the presence of copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO 4 ·5H 2 O) and sodium ascorbate as a reducing agent. In order to investigate the synergistic action of the carbohydrate motif linked to the triazole-peptide structure, a triazole derivative [trz-G 1 ]HSP1-NH 2 was also prepared. A set of biophysical approaches such as DLS, Zeta Potential, SPR and carboxyfluorescein leakage from phospholipid vesicles confirmed higher membrane disruption and lytic activities as well as stronger peptide-LUVs interactions for the glycotriazole-peptides when compared to HSP1-NH 2 and to its triazole derivative, which is in accordance with the performed biological assays: whereas HSP1-NH 2 presents relatively low and [trz-G 1 ]HSP1-NH 2 just moderate fungicidal activity, the glycotriazole-peptides are significantly more effective antifungal agents. In addition, the glycotriazole-peptides and the triazole derivative present strong inhibition effects on ergosterol biosynthesis in Candida albicans, when compared to HSP1-NH 2 alone. In conclusion, the increased fungicidal activity of the glycotriazole-peptides seems to be the result of (A) more pronounced membrane-disruptive properties, which is related to the presence of a saccharide ring, together with (B) the inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis, which seems to be related to the presence of both the monosaccharide and the triazole rings.

  20. Disruption of quercetin metabolism by fungicide affects energy production in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wenfu; Schuler, Mary A; Berenbaum, May R

    2017-03-07

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450) in the honey bee, Apis mellifera , detoxify phytochemicals in honey and pollen. The flavonol quercetin is found ubiquitously and abundantly in pollen and frequently at lower concentrations in honey. Worker jelly consumed during the first 3 d of larval development typically contains flavonols at very low levels, however. RNA-Seq analysis of gene expression in neonates reared for three days on diets with and without quercetin revealed that, in addition to up-regulating multiple detoxifying P450 genes, quercetin is a negative transcriptional regulator of mitochondrion-related nuclear genes and genes encoding subunits of complexes I, III, IV, and V in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway. Thus, a consequence of inefficient metabolism of this phytochemical may be compromised energy production. Several P450s metabolize quercetin in adult workers. Docking in silico of 121 pesticide contaminants of American hives into the active pocket of CYP9Q1, a broadly substrate-specific P450 with high quercetin-metabolizing activity, identified six triazole fungicides, all fungal P450 inhibitors, that dock in the catalytic site. In adults fed combinations of quercetin and the triazole myclobutanil, the expression of five of six mitochondrion-related nuclear genes was down-regulated. Midgut metabolism assays verified that adult bees consuming quercetin with myclobutanil metabolized less quercetin and produced less thoracic ATP, the energy source for flight muscles. Although fungicides lack acute toxicity, they may influence bee health by interfering with quercetin detoxification, thereby compromising mitochondrial regeneration and ATP production. Thus, agricultural use of triazole fungicides may put bees at risk of being unable to extract sufficient energy from their natural food.

  1. Strobilurin fungicides induce changes in photosynthetic gas exchange that do not improve water use efficiency of plants grown under conditions of water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nason, Mark A; Farrar, John; Bartlett, David

    2007-12-01

    The effects of five strobilurin (beta-methoxyacrylate) fungicides and one triazole fungicide on the physiological parameters of well-watered or water-stressed wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and soya (Glycine max Merr.) plants were compared. Water use efficiency (WUE) (the ratio of rate of transpiration, E, to net rate of photosynthesis, A(n)) of well-watered wheat plants was improved slightly by strobilurin fungicides, but was reduced in water-stressed plants, so there is limited scope for using strobilurins to improve the water status of crops grown under conditions of drought. The different strobilurin fungicides had similar effects on plant physiology but differed in persistence and potency. When applied to whole plants using a spray gun, they reduced the conductance of water through the epidermis (stomatal and cuticular transpiration), g(sw), of leaves. Concomitantly, leaves of treated plants had a lower rate of transpiration, E, a lower intercellular carbon dioxide concentration, c(i), and a lower net rate of photosynthesis, A(n), compared with leaves of control plants or plants treated with the triazole. The mechanism for the photosynthetic effects is not known, but it is hypothesised that they are caused either by strobilurin fungicides acting directly on ATP production in guard cell mitochondria or by stomata responding to strobilurin-induced changes in mesophyll photosynthesis. The latter may be important since, for leaves of soya plants, the chlorophyll fluorescence parameter F(v)/F(m) (an indication of the potential quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry) was reduced by strobilurin fungicides. It is likely that the response of stomata to strobilurin fungicides is complex, and further research is required to elucidate the different biochemical pathways involved. Copyright (c) 2007 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Elimination of fungicides in biopurification systems: Effect of fungal bioaugmentation on removal performance and microbial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Zamora, Sergio; Castro-Gutiérrez, Víctor; Masís-Mora, Mario; Lizano-Fallas, Verónica; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E

    2017-11-01

    Bioaugmentation with ligninolytic fungi represents a potential way to improve the performance of biomixtures used in biopurification systems for the treatment of pesticide-containing agricultural wastewater. The fungus Trametes versicolor was employed in the bioaugmentation of a biomixture to be used in the simultaneous removal of seven fungicides. Liquid cultures of the fungus were able to remove tebuconazole, while no evidence of carbendazim, metalaxyl and triadimenol depletion was found. When applied in the biomixture, the bioaugmented matrix failed to remove all the triazole fungicides (including tebuconazole) under the assayed conditions, but was efficient to eliminate carbendazim, edifenphos and metalaxyl (the latter only after a second pesticide application). The re-addition of pesticides markedly increased the elimination of carbendazim and metalaxyl; nonetheless, no clear enhancement of the biomixture performance could be ascribed to fungal bioaugmentation, not even after the re-inoculation of fungal biomass. Detoxification efficiently took place in the biomixture (9 d after pesticide applications) according to acute tests on Daphnia magna. DGGE-analysis revealed only moderate time-divergence in bacterial and fungal communities, and a weak establishment of T. versicolor in the matrix. Data suggest that the non-bioaugmented biomixture is useful for the treatment of fungicides other than triazoles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Non-target impact of fungicide tetraconazole on microbial communities in soils with different agricultural management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sułowicz, Sławomir; Cycoń, Mariusz; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2016-08-01

    Effect of the fungicide tetraconazole on microbial community in silt loam soils from orchard with long history of triazole application and from grassland with no known history of fungicide usage was investigated. Triazole tetraconazole that had never been used on these soils before was applied at the field rate and at tenfold the FR. Response of microbial communities to tetraconazole was investigated during 28-day laboratory experiment by determination of changes in their biomass and structure (phospholipid fatty acids method-PLFA), activity (fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis-FDA) as well as changes in genetic (DGGE) and functional (Biolog) diversity. Obtained results indicated that the response of soil microorganisms to tetraconazole depended on the management of the soils. DGGE patterns revealed that both dosages of fungicide affected the structure of bacterial community and the impact on genetic diversity and richness was more prominent in orchard soil. Values of stress indices-the saturated/monounsaturated PLFAs ratio and the cyclo/monounsaturated precursors ratio, were almost twice as high and the Gram-negative/Gram-positive ratio was significantly lower in the orchard soil compared with the grassland soil. Results of principal component analysis of PLFA and Biolog profiles revealed significant impact of tetraconazole in orchard soil on day 28, whereas changes in these profiles obtained for grassland soil were insignificant or transient. Obtained results indicated that orchards soil seems to be more vulnerable to tetraconazole application compared to grassland soil. History of pesticide application and agricultural management should be taken into account in assessing of environmental impact of studied pesticides.

  4. Signum, a new fungicide for control of leaf diseases in outdoor vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, D; Sarrazyn, R; Evens, W

    2005-01-01

    During three years, the new fungicide Signum, containing 6.7% pyraclostrobine + 26.7 % boscalid and developed by BASF. has been evaluated in leek, carrots and cabbages in several outdoor field experiments under practical conditions and during one year in outdoor lettuce. In leek, Phytophthora porri is one of the major leaf diseases causing lesions on differ ent places on the leaves, resulting in at least extra labour costs for trimming or even worse sometimes resulting in complete crop loss. So far, crop protection consists of repeated applications of fungicides especially during autumn and winter. Pyraclostrobin + boscalid has been evaluated in comparison with the fungicides mancozeb, mancozeb + metalaxyl-M and azoxystrobin. The progress of the disease during the growth season is discussed. For all parameters evaluated, pyraclostrobin + boscalid gave comparable or even better results than reference products. Especially during 2003, a small drop of the activity of benalaxyl against P. porri has been observed after repeated applications. In carrots, Erisiphe heraclei and Alternaria dauci are both the most common leaf diseases causing yield and quality loss. During periods of very high pressure of A. dauci, pyraclostrobin + boscalid, applied in a three weeks interval, revealed a superior activity compared with triazole references or compared with azoxystrobin. Against E. heraclei, a good control but also a clear dose response activity have been observed with pyraclostrobin + boscalid. Yield gain was approximately 30 ton /ha compared wih untreated. In Brussels sprouts, good efficacy was obtained against Mycosphaerella spp., Albugo candida and Alternaria spp. In outdoor lettuce Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum are the most important diseases causing crop damage and reducing the quality of the heads. Pyraclostrobin + boscalid was evaluated in comparison with the standard fungicide iprodione. The plant protection was better with the new fungicide

  5. FUNGICIDES IN SECOND HARVEST CORN: CERCOSPORIOSE CONTROL AND BLOTCH, PRODUCTIVITY, ECONOMIC RETURN AND GRAIN QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rezende

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos desse trabalho foram avaliar a eficiência de The aim of this study was evaluate efficacy fungicides to control cercospora leaf spot (Cercospora zeae-maydis and helminthosporium leaf blight (Exserohilumturcicum, productivity, economic returns and quality of grain of corn culture of second crop in Farm Bandeirantes at Feliz Natal/MT. The treatments evaluated were: pyraclostrobina+epoxiconazol (0,7 L ha-1, trifloxistrobina+protioconazol (0,3L ha-1, azoxistrobina+cyproconazol(0,3 L ha-1, azoxystrobina (0,25 L ha-1, trifloxistrobina+ciproconazol (0,2 L ha-1 and control. Theapplicationof products occurred when corn was with 55 days, with a high propelled sprayer. The experimental design was a randomized block, with 6 treatments and 3 replications. The severity of each disease was visually determined through periodic analyses and ten plants were marked in each repetition, which were evaluated during the entire crop cycle. The data of severity obtained were used to calculate the area under disease progress curve (AUDPC. It was also obtained the production per ha, the economic return (R$ ha-1 and physiological quality of grain was evaluated by germination tests and accelerated aging of the grains. All treatments had significant difference compared to the control sample in controlling cercospora leaf spot about the control of helminthosporiumleat blight, the fungicides trifloxystrobin+prothioconazol and trifloxystrobin+cyproconazol were not efficient, and the fungicides pyraclostrobina+epoxiconazol, azoxystrobina, azoxistrobina+cyproconazol were efficient. The treatments that had major production are from the group of triazoles+strobilurine and the fungicide pyraclostrobin+epoxyconazol showed greater economic viability. Not were differences among fungicides, and neither of the treatments compared to control, in germination and accelerated aging tests, showing that the grains have good quality characteristics

  6. Triazole resistance surveillance in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resendiz Sharpe, Agustin; Lagrou, Katrien; Meis, Jacques F; Chowdhary, Anuradha; Lockhart, Shawn R; Verweij, Paul E

    2018-04-01

    Triazole resistance is an increasing concern in the opportunistic mold Aspergillus fumigatus. Resistance can develop through exposure to azole compounds during azole therapy or in the environment. Resistance mutations are commonly found in the Cyp51A-gene, although other known and unknown resistance mechanisms may be present. Surveillance studies show triazole resistance in six continents, although the presence of resistance remains unknown in many countries. In most countries, resistance mutations associated with the environment dominate, but it remains unclear if these resistance traits predominately migrate or arise locally. Patients with triazole-resistant aspergillus disease may fail to antifungal therapy, but only a limited number of cohort studies have been performed that show conflicting results. Treatment failure might be due to diagnostic delay or due to the limited number of alternative treatment options. The ISHAM/ECMM Aspergillus Resistance Surveillance working group was set up to facilitate surveillance studies and stimulate international collaborations. Important aims are to determine the resistance epidemiology in countries where this information is currently lacking, to gain more insight in the clinical implications of triazole resistance through a registry and to unify nomenclature through consensus definitions.

  7. Theoretical insight into the stabilization of triazole fungicides via their interactions with dications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jaklová Dytrtová, Jana; Fanfrlík, Jindřich; Norková, Renáta; Jakl, M.; Hobza, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 359, Feb 1 (2014), s. 38-43 ISSN 1387-3806 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-21409P; GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : ESI-MS * DFT * tebuconazole * zinc * cadmium * complex Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.972, year: 2014

  8. BIOACCUMULATION AND BIOTRANSFORMATION OF CHIRAL TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES IN RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are very little data on the bioaccumulation and biotransformation of current-use pesticides (CUPs) despite the fact that such data are critical in assessing their fate and potential toxic effects in aquatic organisms. To help address this issue, juvenile rainbow trout (Onco...

  9. Fenarimol, a Pyrimidine-Type Fungicide, Inhibits Brassinosteroid Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keimei Oh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The plant steroid hormone brassinosteroids (BRs are important signal mediators that regulate broad aspects of plant growth and development. With the discovery of brassinoazole (Brz, the first specific inhibitor of BR biosynthesis, several triazole-type BR biosynthesis inhibitors have been developed. In this article, we report that fenarimol (FM, a pyrimidine-type fungicide, exhibits potent inhibitory activity against BR biosynthesis. FM induces dwarfism and the open cotyledon phenotype of Arabidopsis seedlings in the dark. The IC50 value for FM to inhibit stem elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings grown in the dark was approximately 1.8 ± 0.2 μM. FM-induced dwarfism of Arabidopsis seedlings could be restored by brassinolide (BL but not by gibberellin (GA. Assessment of the target site of FM in BR biosynthesis by feeding BR biosynthesis intermediates indicated that FM interferes with the side chain hydroxylation of BR biosynthesis from campestanol to teasterone. Determination of the binding affinity of FM to purified recombinant CYP90D1 indicated that FM induced a typical type II binding spectrum with a Kd value of approximately 0.79 μM. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of the expression level of the BR responsive gene in Arabidopsis seedlings indicated that FM induces the BR deficiency in Arabidopsis.

  10. Endocrine-disrupting activities in vivo of the fungicides tebuconazole and epoxiconazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Hass, Ulla; Petersen, Marta Axelstad

    2007-01-01

    13 or PND 16, and semen quality was assessed in adults. Both tebuconazole and epoxiconazole affected reproductive development in the offspring after exposure in utero. Both compounds virilized the female offspring as shown by an increased AGD PND 0. Furthermore, tebuconazole had a feminizing effect......The triazole fungicides tebuconazole and epoxiconazole were investigated for reproductive toxic effects after exposure during gestation and lactation. Rats were dosed with epoxiconazole (15 or 50 mg/kg bw/day) or tebuconazole (50 or 100 mg/kg bw/day) during pregnancy from gestational day (GD) 7...... and continued during lactation until postnatal day (PND) 16. Some dams were randomly chosen for cesarean section at GD 21 to evaluate effects on sexual differentiation in the fetuses. Other dams delivered normally, and the pups were examined (e.g., anogenital distance [AGD] and hormone levels) at birth, at PND...

  11. Evaluations of Insecticides and Fungicides for Reducing Attack Rates of a new invasive ambrosia beetle (Euwallacea Sp., Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in Infested Landscape Trees in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eatough Jones, Michele; Kabashima, John; Eskalen, Akif; Dimson, Monica; Mayorquin, Joey S; Carrillo, Joseph D; Hanlon, Christopher C; Paine, Timothy D

    2017-08-01

    A recently discovered ambrosia beetle with the proposed common name of polyphagous shot hole borer (Euwallacea sp., Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is reported to attack >200 host tree species in southern California, including many important native and urban landscape trees. This invasive beetle, along with its associated fungi, causes branch dieback and tree mortality in a large variety of tree species including sycamore (Platanus racemosa Nutt.). Due to the severity of the impact of this Euwallacea sp., short-term management tools must include chemical control options for the arboriculture industry and private landowners to protect trees. We examined the effectiveness of insecticides, fungicides, and insecticide-fungicide combinations for controlling continued Euwallacea sp. attacks on previously infested sycamore trees which were monitored for 6 mo after treatment. Pesticide combinations were generally more effective than single pesticide treatments. The combination of a systemic insecticide (emamectin benzoate), a contact insecticide (bifenthrin), and a fungicide (metconazole) provided some level of control when applied on moderate and heavily infested trees. The biological fungicide Bacillus subtilis provided short-term control. There was no difference in the performance of the three triazole fungicides (propiconazole, tebuconazole, and metconazole) included in this study. Although no pesticide combination provided substantial control over time, pesticide treatments may be more effective when trees are treated during early stages of attack by this ambrosia beetle. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Stereo- and regio-selective one-pot synthesis of triazole-based unnatural amino acids and β- amino triazoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synthesis of triazole based unnatural amino acids and β-amino triazole has been described via stereo and regioselective one-pot multi-component reaction of sulfamidates, sodium azide, and alkynes under MW conditions. The developed method is applicable to a broad substrate scope a...

  13. Early life exposure to a rodent carcinogen propiconazole fungicide induces oxidative stress and hepatocarcinogenesis in medaka fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Tzu-Yi; Hong, Chwan-Yang [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, College of Bio-Resources and Agriculture, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Sasado, Takao [Laboratory of Bioresources, National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki (Japan); Kashiwada, Shosaku [Research Center for Life and Environmental Sciences, Department of Life Sciences, the Toyo University, Gunma (Japan); Chen, Pei-Jen, E-mail: chenpj@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, College of Bio-Resources and Agriculture, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Propiconazole initiates ROS-induced oxidative stress and damage in medaka fish. • Early life exposure to propiconazole increases incidence of hepatocarcionogensis in p53{sup −/−} medaka. • Oxidative stress and CYP induction involved in p53 regulation are key events in propiconazole-induced hepatotumorigenesis. • Propiconazole-induced toxic response in medaka is compatible with that in rodents. - Abstract: Conazole pollution is an emerging concern to human health and environmental safety because of the broad use of conazole fungicides in agriculture and medicine and their frequent occurrence in aquifers. The agricultural pesticide propiconazole has received much regulatory interest because it is a known rodent carcinogen with evidence of multiple adverse effects in mammals and non-targeted organisms. However, the carcinogenic effect and associated mechanism of propiconazole in fish under microgram-per-liter levels of environmental-relevant exposure remains unclear. To explore whether early life of propiconzaole exposure would induce oxidative stress and latent carcinogenic effects in fish, we continuously exposed larvae of wild type or p53{sup −/−} mutant of medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) to propiconazole (2.5–250 μg/L) for 3, 7, 14 or 28 days and assessed liver histopathology and/or the oxidative stress response and gene expression during exposure and throughout adulthood. Propiconazole dose-dependently induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, altered homeostasis of antioxidant superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase and caused lipid and protein peroxidation during early life exposure in wild type medaka. Such exposure also significantly upregulated gene expression of the cytochrome P450 CYP1A, but marginally suppressed that of tumor suppressor p53 in adults. Furthermore, histopathology revealed that p53{sup −/−} mutant medaka with early life exposure to propiconazole showed increased incidence of

  14. Early life exposure to a rodent carcinogen propiconazole fungicide induces oxidative stress and hepatocarcinogenesis in medaka fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Tzu-Yi; Hong, Chwan-Yang; Sasado, Takao; Kashiwada, Shosaku; Chen, Pei-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Propiconazole initiates ROS-induced oxidative stress and damage in medaka fish. • Early life exposure to propiconazole increases incidence of hepatocarcionogensis in p53"−"/"− medaka. • Oxidative stress and CYP induction involved in p53 regulation are key events in propiconazole-induced hepatotumorigenesis. • Propiconazole-induced toxic response in medaka is compatible with that in rodents. - Abstract: Conazole pollution is an emerging concern to human health and environmental safety because of the broad use of conazole fungicides in agriculture and medicine and their frequent occurrence in aquifers. The agricultural pesticide propiconazole has received much regulatory interest because it is a known rodent carcinogen with evidence of multiple adverse effects in mammals and non-targeted organisms. However, the carcinogenic effect and associated mechanism of propiconazole in fish under microgram-per-liter levels of environmental-relevant exposure remains unclear. To explore whether early life of propiconzaole exposure would induce oxidative stress and latent carcinogenic effects in fish, we continuously exposed larvae of wild type or p53"−"/"− mutant of medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) to propiconazole (2.5–250 μg/L) for 3, 7, 14 or 28 days and assessed liver histopathology and/or the oxidative stress response and gene expression during exposure and throughout adulthood. Propiconazole dose-dependently induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, altered homeostasis of antioxidant superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase and caused lipid and protein peroxidation during early life exposure in wild type medaka. Such exposure also significantly upregulated gene expression of the cytochrome P450 CYP1A, but marginally suppressed that of tumor suppressor p53 in adults. Furthermore, histopathology revealed that p53"−"/"− mutant medaka with early life exposure to propiconazole showed increased incidence of

  15. Impact of fungicides on weed growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordmeyer, Henning

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study has shown that fungicides influence the growth of weeds. The competition against crops will be substantially reduced. Bioassays in a climate chamber variation in temperature as well as different lightning phases and microplot trials under semi field levels were carried out to investigate the influence of fungicides on weed growth. Selected weed species (Alopecurus myosuroides, Viola arvensis, Galium aparine, Stellaria media, Lamium purpureum have been examined with different dose rates of fungicides (Adexar, Bravo 500, Diamant, Crupozin flüssig. Weed species showed a different sensitivity. There were leaf discoloration, contractions and growth inhibition. In some cases using common practise dose rates of fungicides more than 70% growth inhibition could be estimated 14 days after application in comparison to the untreated control. Effects were much stronger in bioassays than in semi field trials.

  16. Triazole biotin: a tight-binding biotinidase-resistant conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germeroth, Anne I; Hanna, Jill R; Karim, Rehana; Kundel, Franziska; Lowther, Jonathan; Neate, Peter G N; Blackburn, Elizabeth A; Wear, Martin A; Campopiano, Dominic J; Hulme, Alison N

    2013-11-28

    The natural amide bond found in all biotinylated proteins has been replaced with a triazole through CuAAC reaction of an alkynyl biotin derivative. The resultant triazole-linked adducts are shown to be highly resistant to the ubiquitous hydrolytic enzyme biotinidase and to bind avidin with dissociation constants in the low pM range. Application of this strategy to the production of a series of biotinidase-resistant biotin-Gd-DOTA contrast agents is demonstrated.

  17. Synthesis and antifungal evaluation of (1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methyl nicotinate chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yukun; Liu, Song; Xing, Ronge; Li, Kecheng; Yu, Huahua; Li, Pengcheng

    2013-10-01

    With an aim to discover novel chitosan derivatives with significant activities against crop-threatening fungi, (1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methyl nicotinate chitosan (TAMNCS) was prepared via azide-alkyne click reaction. Its structure was characterized by FT-IR, (1)H NMR, elemental analysis, DSC, and SEM. In vitro antifungal properties of TAMNCS against Rhizoctonia solani Kühn (R. solani), Stemphylium solani weber (S. solani), and Alternaria porri (A. porri) were studied at the concentrations ranged from 0.25 mg/mL to 1.0 mg/mL. Experiments conducted displayed the derivative had obviously enhanced antifungal activity after chemical modification compared with original chitosan. Moreover, it was shown that TAMNCS can 94.2% inhibit growth of A. porri at 1.0 mg/mL, while dose at which the fungicide triadimefon had lower inhibitory index (62.2%). The primary antifungal results described here indicate this derivative may be a promising candidate as an antifungal agent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ion chemistry of 1H-1,2,3-triazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichino, Takatoshi; Andrews, Django H; Rathbone, G Jeffery; Misaizu, Fuminori; Calvi, Ryan M D; Wren, Scott W; Kato, Shuji; Bierbaum, Veronica M; Lineberger, W Carl

    2008-01-17

    A combination of experimental methods, photoelectron-imaging spectroscopy, flowing afterglow-photoelectron spectroscopy and the flowing afterglow-selected ion flow tube technique, and electronic structure calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of density functional theory (DFT) have been employed to study the mechanism of the reaction of the hydroxide ion (HO-) with 1H-1,2,3-triazole. Four different product ion species have been identified experimentally, and the DFT calculations suggest that deprotonation by HO- at all sites of the triazole takes place to yield these products. Deprotonation of 1H-1,2,3-triazole at the N1-H site gives the major product ion, the 1,2,3-triazolide ion. The 335 nm photoelectron-imaging spectrum of the ion has been measured. The electron affinity (EA) of the 1,2,3-triazolyl radical has been determined to be 3.447 +/- 0.004 eV. This EA and the gas-phase acidity of 2H-1,2,3-triazole are combined in a negative ion thermochemical cycle to determine the N-H bond dissociation energy of 2H-1,2,3-triazole to be 112.2 +/- 0.6 kcal mol-1. The 363.8 nm photoelectron spectroscopic measurements have identified the other three product ions. Deprotonation of 1H-1,2,3-triazole at the C5 position initiates fragmentation of the ring structure to yield a minor product, the ketenimine anion. Another minor product, the iminodiazomethyl anion, is generated by deprotonation of 1H-1,2,3-triazole at the C4 position, followed by N1-N2 bond fission. Formation of the other minor product, the 2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-ide ion, can be rationalized by initial deprotonation of 1H-1,2,3-triazole at the N1-H site and subsequent proton exchanges within the ion-molecule complex. The EA of the 2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl radical is 1.865 +/- 0.004 eV.

  19. Mycotoxin and fungicide residues in wheat grains from fungicide-treated plants measured by a validated LC-MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, Suzane Rickes; Pazdiora, Paulo Cesar; Dallagnol, Leandro José; Dors, Giniani Carla; Chaves, Fábio Clasen

    2017-04-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is an annual crop, cultivated in the winter and spring and susceptible to several pathogens, especially fungi, which are managed with fungicides. It is also one of the most consumed cereals, and can be contaminated by mycotoxins and fungicides. The objective of this study was to validate an analytical method by LC-MS for simultaneous determination of mycotoxins and fungicide residues in wheat grains susceptible to fusarium head blight treated with fungicides, and to evaluate the relationship between fungicide application and mycotoxin production. All parameters of the validated analytical method were within AOAC and ANVISA limits. Deoxynivalenol was the prevalent mycotoxin in wheat grain and epoxiconazole was the fungicide residue found in the highest concentration. All fungicidal treatments induced an increase in AFB2 production when compared to the control (without application). AFB1 and deoxynivalenol, on the contrary, were reduced in all fungicide treatments compared to the control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of fungicides on Wyoming big sagebrush seed germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert D. Cox; Lance H. Kosberg; Nancy L. Shaw; Stuart P. Hardegree

    2011-01-01

    Germination tests of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis Beetle & Young [Asteraceae]) seeds often exhibit fungal contamination, but the use of fungicides should be avoided because fungicides may artificially inhibit germination. We tested the effect of seed-applied fungicides on germination of Wyoming big sagebrush at 2 different...

  1. Antimicrobial and antifungal activity of some (5-(adamantane-1-yl-4R-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthiols substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Odyntsova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lately adamantine containing substances have found wide use among the skeleton derivatives. The combination of adamantane and 1,2,4-triazole in one molecule creates significant preconditions to design new potential drugs with low toxicity and pronounced pharmacological activity. The aim of the research is the study of antimicrobial and antifungal activity of (5-(adamantane-1-yl-4-R-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthiols substitutes. Materials and methods. Determination of antimicrobial and antifungal activity has been carried out by 2-fold serial dilutions method in liquid nutrient media. The substance of the antibacterial drug Trimethoprim has been applied as a control in determining antimicrobial activity of the compounds against the investigated strains of microorganisms. Results. According to the data of experiments the 5-(((5-(adamantane-1-yl-4-ethyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthiomethyl-4-ethyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol shows the same activity as Trimethoprim against P. aeruginosa (MIC is 62.5 µg/ml, MBC – 125 μg/ml, marked activity towards S. aureus (MIC is 15.6 μg/ml, MBC – 31.25 μg/ml while trimethoprim – 31.25 μg/ml, MBC – 62.5 µg/ml, greater fungistatic and fungicidal activity towards C. albicans, which amounted to 31.25 µg/ml, MFC – 62.5 µg/ml (while trimethoprim 62.5 µg/ml, MFC – 125 µg/ml. Reconstration of benzyldenhydrazide group to hydrazide one leads to the slight increase of bacteriostatic activity. Replacing the radical R from -Н to -C2H5 does not influence on the change of fungistatic activity. However, this resulted to the decrease in bacteriostatic activity against E. coli. The same is observed in relation to P. aeruginosa: from 62.5 μg/ml, MFC – 125 mcg/ml to 125 μg/ml, MFC – 125 µg/m respectively. Conclusion. The conducted study has showed that among the synthesized compounds there are some substances which strength of the antimicrobial and antifungal action in some cases exceeds the standard of comparison

  2. Is Low Efficacy of Fungicides always a Consequence of Fungicide Resistance Development in Pathogen Populations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brankica Tanović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of four fungicides with different modes of action (vinclozolin, pyrimethanil, benomyland fenhexamid in control of B. cinerea in raspberry, was investigated in the paper.The trials were conducted at two localities in commercial raspberry plantations. In the caseof unsatisfactory fungicide efficacy, qualitative and/or quantitative test of the susceptibilityof the isolates to particular fungicide was performed, to determine whether the low efficacyis a consequence of resistance development in the pathogen population. At both localities,pyrimethanil and fenhexamid demonstrated the highest efficacy (73.2-89.6%, whilethe efficacy of vinclozolin was statistically significantly lower (48.7-63.4% at both localities.However, qualitative and quantitative test of susceptibility to vinclozolin showed that all theisolates were susceptible to vinclozolin and that the reason for unsatisfactory efficacy shouldbe primarily sought in inadequate fungicide application

  3. Screening Phytophthora rubi for fungicide resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preliminary results from the survey for fungicide resistance in Phytophthora were reported at the 2016 Washington Small Fruit Conference. Phytophthora was isolated from diseased plants in 28 red raspberry fields and tested against mefenoxam, the active ingredient of Ridomil. Most isolates were ident...

  4. Insecticidal and fungicidal compounds from Isatis tinctoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, K; Unger, W

    1994-01-01

    Tryptanthrin (1), indole-3-acetonitrile (2) and p-coumaric acid methylester (3) were isolated from the aerial parts of Isatis tinctoria L. The compounds show insecticidal and anti-feedant activity against termites (Reticulitermis santonensis), insect preventive and control activity against larvae of the house longhorn beetle (Hylotrupes bajulus) and fungicidal activity against the brown-rot fungus (Coniophora puteana).

  5. SYNTHESIS AND FUNGICIDAL ACTIVITY OF ACETYL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    large varieties of new sulfur based crop protection chemicals in development around the world. [14, 15]. Methods ... sulfur fission viz, the resonance – stabilized benzyl (or isomeric tropylium) cation [19]. The elimination of ... two well – established fungicides so as to compare their activities with those of compounds 1(a. – d).

  6. Synthesis of alpha-tetrasubstituted triazoles by copper-catalyzed silyl deprotection/azide cycloaddition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary L. Palchak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Propargylamines are popular substrates for triazole formation, but tetrasubstituted variants have required multistep syntheses involving stoichiometric amounts of metal. A recent cyclohexanone–amine–silylacetylene coupling forms silyl-protected tetrasubstituted propargylamines in a single copper-catalyzed step. The development of the tandem silyl deprotection–triazole formation reported herein offers rapid access to alpha-tetrasubstituted triazoles. A streamlined two-step approach to this uncommon class of hindered triazoles will accelerate exploration of their therapeutic potential. The superior activity of copper(II triflate in the formation of triazoles from sensitive alkyne substrates extends to simple terminal alkynes.

  7. Regioselectivity in the Thermal Rearrangement of Unsymmetrical 4-Methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazoles to 1-Methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per H.J. Carlsen

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The rearrangement of 4-methyl-3,5-diaryl-4H-1,2,4-triazoles to the corresponding 1-methyl-3,5-diaryl-1H-1,2,4-triazoles showed regioselectivity comparable to that observed for the alkylation of 3,5-diaryl-1H-1,2,4-triazoles. This lends support to a proposed mechanism for the rearrangement that involves consecutive nucleophilic displacements steps.

  8. Synthesis and Antitumor Activity of Triazole-Containing Sorafenib Analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Ye

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Using a highly effective binuclear Cu complex as the catalyst, the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions between 16 alkynes and two azides were successfully performed and resulted in the production of 25 new triazole-containing sorafenib analogs. Several compounds were evaluated as potent antitumor agents. Among them, 4-(4-(4-(3-fluorophenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-ylphenoxy-N-methylpicolinamide (8f potently suppressed the proliferation of HT-29 cancer cells by inducing apoptosis and almost completely inhibited colony formation at a low micromolar concentration.

  9. Selective solid-phase extraction based on molecularly imprinted technology for the simultaneous determination of 20 triazole pesticides in cucumber samples using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fengnian; She, Yongxin; Zhang, Chao; Cao, Xiaolin; Wang, Shanshan; Zheng, Lufei; Jin, Maojun; Shao, Hua; Jin, Fen; Wang, Jing

    2017-10-01

    A selective analytical method for the simultaneous determination of 20 triazole fungicides and plant growth regulators in cucumber samples was developed using solid-phase extraction with specific molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as adsorbents. The MIPs were successfully prepared by precipitation polymerization using triadimefon as the template molecule, methacrylic acid as the functional monomer, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate as the crosslinker, and acetonitrile as the porogen. The performance and recognition mechanism for both the MIPs and non-molecularly imprinted polymers were evaluated using adsorption isotherms and adsorption kinetics. Liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry was used to identify and quantify the target analytes. The solid-phase extraction using the MIPs was rapid, convenient, and efficient for extraction and enrichment of the 20 triazole pesticides from cucumber samples. The recoveries obtained at three concentration levels (1, 2, and 10μgL -1 ) ranged from 82.3% to 117.6% with relative standard deviations of less than 11.8% (n=5) for all analytes. The limits of detection for the 20 triazole pesticides were all less than 0.4μgL -1 , and were sufficient to meet international standards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Rust Inhibitor And Fungicide For Cooling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, James F.; Greer, D. Clay

    1988-01-01

    Mixture of benzotriazole, benzoic acid, and fungicide prevents growth of rust and fungus. Water-based cooling mixture made from readily available materials prevents formation of metallic oxides and growth of fungi in metallic pipes. Coolant remains clear and does not develop thick sludge tending to collect in low points in cooling systems with many commercial rust inhibitors. Coolant compatible with iron, copper, aluminum, and stainless steel. Cannot be used with cadmium or cadmium-plated pipes.

  11. Management of Anthracnose in Soybean using Fungicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subash Subedi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiments on soybean (Glycine max L. Meril were carried out aiming to control anthracnose (pod blight caused by fungus, Colletotrichum truncatum with five treatments represented by different fungicidal sprays against control receiving no spray with three replicates of each under field conditions during two consecutive years from 2012 to 2013. In 2012, the higher Percent Disease Control (PDC and Percent Yield Increase (PYI were estimated in plot treated with SAAF (Carbendazim 12% + Mancozeb 63% followed by Mancozeb fungicides. The mean Pod Infection (PI was low in plots treated with SAAF followed by Mancozeb. Almost similar trends of disease control were observed in 2013. The lower Percent Disease Index (PDI was 46.25% and mean PI was 29.67% with higher yield value of 2431.25 kg/ha obtained from the plots sprayed with SAAF then by Mancozeb. The results showed that, the combined treatment with fungicides, SAAF followed by Mancozeb were effective to control anthracnose or pod blight disease of soybean to increase the yield.

  12. Efficient Synthesis of 1-Sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raushel, Jessica; Fokin, Valery V.

    2010-01-01

    An efficient room temperature method for the synthesis of 1-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles from in situ generated copper(I) acetylides and sulfonyl azides is described. Copper(I) thiophene-2-carboxylate (CuTC) catalyst produces the title compounds under both non-basic anhydrous and aqueous conditions in good yields. PMID:20931987

  13. Coumarin incorporated triazoles: a new class of anticonvulsants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Mashooq A; Al-Omar, Mohammed A

    2011-01-01

    A series of coumarin incorporated 1,2,4- triazole compounds (1-14) were evaluated for their possible anticonvulsant and neurotoxic properties, log P values, pharmacophoric mapping and three dimensional structure analysis. Compound (6) with para-fluoro substitution showed significant anticonvulsant activity.

  14. Detection of Polish clinical Aspergillus fumigatus isolates resistant to triazoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawrot, Urszula; Kurzyk, Ewelina; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2018-01-01

    We studied the presence of triazole resistance of 121 Aspergillus fumigatus clinical isolates collected in two Polish cities, Warsaw and Wrocław, to determine if resistance is emerging in our country. We identified five itraconazole resistant isolates (4.13%) carrying the TR34/L98H alteration...

  15. Substituted 4-hydroxy-1,2,3-triazoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pippione, Agnese C.; Dosio, Franco; Ducime, Alex

    2015-01-01

    the distal (S)-glutamic acid carboxyl group using the 4-hydroxy-1,2,3-triazole moiety is applied, to obtain two promising glutamate analogs. In the second example, a scaffold hopping approach is applied, replacing the phenolic moiety present in MDG-1-33A, a potent inhibitor of Onchocerca volvulus chitinase...

  16. Recent Trends in Studies on Botanical Fungicides in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Young Yoon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants are attacked by various phytopathogenic fungi. For many years, synthetic fungicides have been used to control plant diseases. Although synthetic fungicides are highly effective, their repeated use has led to problems such as environmental pollution, development of resistance, and residual toxicity. This has prompted intensive research on the development of biopesticides, including botanical fungicides. To date, relatively few botanical fungicides have been registered and commercialized. However, many scientists have reported isolation and characterization of a variety of antifungal plant derivatives. Here, we present a survey of a wide range of reported plant-derived antifungal metabolites.

  17. Risk assessment on the impact of environmental usage of triazoles on the development and spread of resistance to medical triazoles in Aspergillus species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinkauf, N.; Verweij, P.E.; Arendrup, M.C.; Donnelly, P.J.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.; Fraaije, B.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Adriaenssens, N.; Kema, G.H.J.; Ullmann, A.; Bowyer, P.; Denning, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, triazole resistance in human Aspergillus diseases appears to have been increasing in several European countries. However, current data on the prevalence of resistance are based on a small number of studies which are only available from a few European countries. If present, triazole

  18. Development of biodegradable fungicide by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Dong Sub [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    To develop the fungicide which is biodegradable and alternative to chemical pesticide that has an side effect of environmental pollution, Mutant induction of the enhanced antifungal activity was studied by using radiation. Characteristics and structure of antifungal biomaterials derived from these mutants were analysed. Two biomaterials related to the antifungal activity from the above mutant were isolated and purified. Microbial pesticide were manufactured in combination of various additives. Antiphytopathogenic effects were proven by pot experiment and It was promising to prevent pepper, Chinese cabbage and radish from anthrax, phytophthora and root rot

  19. Development of biodegradable fungicide by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youngkeun; Kim, Dongsub

    2012-03-15

    To develop the fungicide which is biodegradable and alternative to chemical pesticide that has an side effect of environmental pollution, Mutant induction of the enhanced antifungal activity was studied by using radiation. Characteristics and structure of antifungal biomaterials derived from these mutants were analysed. Two biomaterials related to the antifungal activity from the above mutant were isolated and purified. Microbial pesticide were manufactured in combination of various additives. Antiphytopathogenic effects were proven by field test and it was promising to prevent Chinese cabbage and radish from phytophthora and root rot.

  20. Development of biodegradable fungicide by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Dong Sub

    2011-01-01

    To develop the fungicide which is biodegradable and alternative to chemical pesticide that has an side effect of environmental pollution, Mutant induction of the enhanced antifungal activity was studied by using radiation. Characteristics and structure of antifungal biomaterials derived from these mutants were analysed. Two biomaterials related to the antifungal activity from the above mutant were isolated and purified. Microbial pesticide were manufactured in combination of various additives. Antiphytopathogenic effects were proven by pot experiment and It was promising to prevent pepper, Chinese cabbage and radish from anthrax, phytophthora and root rot

  1. Development of biodegradable fungicide by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Jeun; Kim, Dong Sub

    2010-01-01

    To develop the fungicide which is biodegradable and alternative to chemical pesticide that has an side effect of environmental pollution, Mutant induction of the enhanced antifungal activity was studied by using radiation. Characteristics and structure of antifungal biomaterials derived from these mutants were analysed. Sixteen antifungal microbes were isolated and 4 antifungal activity enhanced mutants were induced by using radiation. P. lentimorbus WJ5a17 had 41% higher antifungal activity than the wild type. Two biomaterials related to the antifungal activity from the above mutant were isolated and purified

  2. Development of biodegradable fungicide by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youngkeun; Kim, Dongsub

    2012-03-01

    To develop the fungicide which is biodegradable and alternative to chemical pesticide that has an side effect of environmental pollution, Mutant induction of the enhanced antifungal activity was studied by using radiation. Characteristics and structure of antifungal biomaterials derived from these mutants were analysed. Two biomaterials related to the antifungal activity from the above mutant were isolated and purified. Microbial pesticide were manufactured in combination of various additives. Antiphytopathogenic effects were proven by field test and it was promising to prevent Chinese cabbage and radish from phytophthora and root rot

  3. (1-Phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-ylmethyl pyridine-3-carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakirjon Karimov

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C15H12N4O2, the dihedral angle between the planes of the nicotinoyloxy fragment and triazole ring is 88.61 (5°. The dihedral angle between the planes of triazole and benzene rings is 16.54 (11°. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular C—H...N, C—H...O and C—H...π(triazole hydrogen bonds and aromatic π–π stacking interactions between the benzene and triazole rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.895 (1 Å

  4. In vitro screening of fungicides and antagonists against Sclerotium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in the microbiology laboratory of Plant Pathology Department, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, during 2010 to 2011 to control Sclerotium rolfsii with fungicides and Trichoderma harzianum. Six fungicides namely Provax-200, Bavistin, Ridomil, Dithane M-45, ...

  5. Coating with fungicide and different doses of fertilizer in vinhatico ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate and identify the physical and physiological quality of mahogany seeds that are coated with fertilizer and fungicide. The treatments were: seed coating with sand + lime + fungicide with different doses of fertilizers. The seeds were evaluated in the laboratory and in a greenhouse.

  6. Pathogenicity and fungicide sensitivity of the causal agent of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pathogenicity of the fungus and its cross-infection potential were determined on mango, avocado, papaya and banana fruits. The sensitivity of the pathogen to fungicides was determined by assessing radial mycelial growth on potato dextrose agar (PDA) amended with nine different fungicides (Bendazim, Funguran, ...

  7. Interactions between yeasts, fungicides and apple fruit russeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gildemacher, P.R.; Heijne, B.; Silvestri, M.; Houbraken, J.; Hoekstra, E.; Theelen, B.; Boekhout, T.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of inoculations with yeasts occurring on apple surfaces and fungicide treatments on the russeting of Elstar apples was studied. Captan, dithianon and a water treatment were implemented to study the interaction between the fungicides, the inoculated yeast species and Aureobasidium

  8. Effect of gamma radiation on ''in vitro''' efficiency of fungicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menten, J.O.M.; Oliveira, G.C.X.

    1984-01-01

    The activity of 60 Co gamma radiation on eight fungicides used in post-harvesting treatment of agricultural products, was studied. Rhizoctonia solani was used in biological test as indicator-fungus. The fungicides were submitted to gamma radiation doses of O (control), 1, 10, 100, 1000 and 10.000 kR, samples of the fungicides were added to the PSA culture media to obtain 0, 1, 10 and 100 ppm concentrations of the active component of each product and of each radiation dose. The ED 50 (concentration of fungicide necessary to cause 50% radial reduction of the fungic mycelium) of each fungicide in the different gamma radiation doses was determined. (M.A.C.) [pt

  9. Protective, curative and eradicative activities of fungicides against grapevine rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francislene Angelotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective, eradicative and curative activities of the fungicides azoxystrobin, tebuconazole, pyraclostrobin+metiram, and ciproconazole against grapevine rust, were determined in greenhouse. To evaluate the protective activity, leaves of potted ´Niagara´ (Vitis labrusca vines were artificially inoculated with an urediniospore suspension of Phakopsora euvitis four, eight or forteen days after fungicidal spray; and to evaluate the curative and eradicative activities, leaves were sprayed with fungicides two, four or eight days after inoculation. Disease severity was assessed 14 days after each inoculation. All tested fungicides present excellent preventive activity against grapevine rust; however, tebuconazole and ciproconazole provide better curative activity than azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin+metiram. It was observed also that all tested fungicides significantly reduced the germination of urediniospore produced on sprayed leaves.

  10. Imidazole and Triazole Coordination Chemistry for Antifouling Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Andersson Trojer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fouling of marine organisms on the hulls of ships is a severe problem for the shipping industry. Many antifouling agents are based on five-membered nitrogen heterocyclic compounds, in particular imidazoles and triazoles. Moreover, imidazole and triazoles are strong ligands for Cu2+ and Cu+, which are both potent antifouling agents. In this review, we summarize a decade of work within our groups concerning imidazole and triazole coordination chemistry for antifouling applications with a particular focus on the very potent antifouling agent medetomidine. The entry starts by providing a detailed theoretical description of the azole-metal coordination chemistry. Some attention will be given to ways to functionalize polymers with azole ligands. Then, the effect of metal coordination in azole-containing polymers with respect to material properties will be discussed. Our work concerning the controlled release of antifouling agents, in particular medetomidine, using azole coordination chemistry will be reviewed. Finally, an outlook will be given describing the potential for tailoring the azole ligand chemistry in polymers with respect to Cu2+ adsorption and Cu2+→Cu+ reduction for antifouling coatings without added biocides.

  11. Synthesis of carbon-14 analogue of 1,5 diaryl-5-[14C]-1,2,3-triazoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matloubi, Hojatollah; Shafiee, Abbas; Saemian, Nader; Shirvani, Gholamhossein; Daha, Fariba Johari

    2004-01-01

    Two 1,2,3-triazole anticonvulsants, 1-(4-methylsulfone-phenyl)-5-(4-methyl-phenyl)-1,2,3-triazole and 1-(4-methylsulfone-phenyl)-5-phenyl-1,2,3-triazole, both labeled with carbon-14 in the 5-position were prepared from para-tolunitrile-[cyano- 14 C] and benzonitrile-[cyano- 14 C], respectively

  12. Design, synthesis, and fungicidal activities of imino diacid analogs of valine amide fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Man; Yang, Hui-Hui; Tian, Lei; Li, Jian-Qiang; Zhao, Wei-Guang

    2015-12-15

    The novel imino diacid analogs of valine amides were synthesized via several steps, including the protection, amidation, deprotection, and amino alkylation of valine, with the resulting structures confirmed by (1)H and (13)C NMR and HRMS. Bioassays showed that some of these compounds exhibited good fungicidal activity. Notably, isopropyl 2-((1-((1-(3-fluorophenyl)ethyl)amino)-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)amino)propanoate 5i displayed significant levels of control, at 50%, against Erysiphe graminis at 3.9μM as well as a level of potency very similar to the reference azoxystrobin, which gave 60% activity at this concentration. The present work demonstrates that imino diacid analogs of valine amides could be potentially useful key compounds for the development of novel fungicides against wheat powdery mildew. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 2-[1-(1-Naphthyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]pyridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich S. Schubert

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, C17H12N4, the angle between the naphthalene and 1H-1,2,3-triazole ring systems is 71.02 (4° and that between the pyridine and triazole rings is 8.30 (9°.

  14. Triazole-pyridine ligands: a novel approach to chromophoric iridium arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juríček, M.; Felici, M.; Contreras-Carballada, P.; Lauko, J.; Bou, S.R.; Kouwer, P.H.J.; Brouwer, A.M.; Rowan, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a novel modular approach to a series of luminescent iridium complexes bearing triazole-pyridine-derived ligands that were conveniently prepared by using "click" chemistry. One, two or three triazole-pyridine units were effectively built into the heteroaromatic macromolecule using

  15. Combination of solvent extractants for dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of fungicides from water and fruit samples by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Belda, Marta; Garrido, Isabel; Campillo, Natalia; Viñas, Pilar; Hellín, Pilar; Flores, Pilar; Fenoll, José

    2017-10-15

    A multiresidue method was developed to determine twenty-five fungicides belonging to three different chemical families, oxazoles, strobilurins and triazoles, in water and fruit samples, using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS 2 ). Solid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile was used for the analysis in fruits, the extract being used as dispersant solvent in DLLME. Since some of the analytes showed high affinity for chloroform and the others were more efficiently extracted with undecanol, a mixture of both solvents was used as extractant in DLLME. After evaporation of CHCl 3 , the enriched phase was analyzed. Enrichment factors in the 23-119 and 12-60 ranges were obtained for waters and fruits, respectively. The approach was most sensitive for metominostrobin with limits of quantification of 1ngL -1 and 5ngkg -1 in waters and fruits, respectively, while a similar sensitivity was attained for tebuconazole in fruits. Recoveries of the fungicides varied between 86 and 116%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Action of mercury as a soil fungicide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booer, J R

    1951-01-01

    Metallic mercury and mercury compounds in the soil retard the growth of plants. The development of mosses and lichens is inhibited, and experimental evidence shows that the growth of toadstools on turf and the activity of ascomycetes is retarded by mercury. In vitro, mercury has no fungicidal action but the rate of growth of hyphae is reduced by mercury vapour. The lack of fungicial properties of mercury and its good performance in controlling certain soil-borne diseases are reconciled by assuming that a differential retardation disturbs the relationships necessary for infection. This assumption is supported by diagrams which treat the rates of growth of the parasite and the host as population characteristics normally distributed. 21 references, 10 figures, 5 tables.

  17. The effect of developmental exposure to the fungicide triadimefon on behavioral sensitization to triadimefon during adulthood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, Ruth; Thiruchelvam, Mona; Richfield, Eric K.; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    Triadimefon (TDF) is a triazole fungicide that acts as an indirect dopamine (DA) agonist by binding to the dopamine transporter (DAT) and increasing levels of synaptic DA. Studies in this laboratory have found that repeated dosing with TDF in adult mice leads to the development and robust expression of behavioral sensitization, a response mediated by dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems, and causing long-term changes in dopaminergic function. Few studies have focused on the potential for TDF to be a developmental neurotoxicant. As such, the objective of the present study was to determine whether postnatal exposure to TDF would permanently alter DA systems and thereby influence TDF-induced expression of behavioral sensitization during adulthood. Male C57BL/6 mice were dosed intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 25 mg/kg TDF (TDF25), or oil (veh) from postnatal day (PND) 8 to 21. At 8-9 weeks of age, mice were split into four groups and treated with 75 mg/kg TDF (TDF75) or vehicle twice a week for a total of seven injections, with locomotor activity measured immediately after each injection. After a 2-week withdrawal period, mice were further split into eight groups, and challenged with TDF75 or vehicle to test for the expression of behavioral sensitization. Postnatal TDF exposure attenuated both the induction and expression of TDF-induced vertical but not horizontal sensitization in adults. Postnatal TDF exposure also produced long-term decreases in basal striatal dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) levels and nucleus accumbens shell DAT binding. These results indicate for the first time that TDF may be considered an environmental risk factor for developmental dopaminergic neurotoxicity

  18. Comparative assessment of herbicide and fungicide runoff risk: a case study for peanut production in the Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Thomas L; Bosch, David D; Strickland, Timothy C

    2014-08-15

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is produced intensively in the southern Atlantic Coastal Plain of the eastern USA. To effectively protect the region's water quality data are needed which quantify runoff of pesticides used to protect these crops. Fungicides are used intensively yet there is little published data which describe their potential for loss in surface runoff. This study compared runoff of a fungicide, tebuconazole (α-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-α-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol), and an herbicide, metolachlor (2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide) from 0.2 ha fields in strip (ST), a commonly used conservation-tillage practice, and conventional tillage (CT) near Tifton, GA (USA). Following their first application, metolachlor and tebuconazole were detected at high frequency in runoff. Concentrations and their annual losses increased with application frequency and runoff event timing and frequency with respect to applications, and when fields were positioned at the top of the slope and CT was practiced. Runoff one day after treatment (DAT) contributed to high tebuconazole runoff loss, up to 9.8% of the amount applied on an annual basis. In all cases, metolachlor loss was more than 10 times less even though total application was 45% higher. This was linked to the fact that the one metolachlor application to each crop was in May, one of the region's driest months. In sum, studies showed that fungicide runoff rates may be relatively high and emphasize the need to focus on these products in future studies on peanut and other crops. The study also showed that peanut farmers should be encouraged to use conservation tillage practices like ST which can substantially reduce pesticide runoff. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Coating with fungicide and different doses of fertilizer in vinhatico ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucas

    2016-09-21

    Sep 21, 2016 ... The treatments were: seed coating with sand + lime + fungicide with different doses of .... The index was calculated based on the formula of Maguire (1962). ..... Ludwig EJ, Nunes UR, Mertz LM, Silva JR, Nunes SCP (2014).

  20. Biochemical changes induced by fungicides in nitrogen fixing Nostoc sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deviram, G V N S; Pant, Gaurav; Prasuna, R Gyana

    2013-01-01

    The present study indicates the effect of fungicides (approved by WHO) and their behavior on nitrogen fixer of rice eco system Nostoc sp. Application of plant protecting chemicals at recommended levels braced up the growth of blue green algae thereby enhancing heterocyst formation and nitrogenase activity. Nostoc sp demoed varying degrees of sensitivity to fungicides. Biomass yield, protein, carbohydrate content reduced after 3pg/mL concentration. Heterocyst damage was observed from 4μg/mL, Proline content increased with increase in fungicide concentration, utmost yellowing of the culture started from 4μg/mL. The decreasing order of the toxicity to Nostoc sp with fungicides was Mancozeb> Ediphenphos> Carbendazim> Hexaconazole.

  1. Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Section 18 Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Section 18 of Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) authorizes EPA to allow an unregistered use of a pesticide for a limited time if EPA...

  2. Synthesis of new 1,2,3-triazol-carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna M. Guimarães

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of a mixture of 1-azide-glycopyranoside (1 and appropriate alkynes (2a-e, in the presence of CuI/Et3N as catalyst system, and acetonitrile as solvent, provided the glycoside triazoles (3a-e in moderate-to-excellent yields (60-93%. We observed that the reactivity of the alcohols decreased due to steric hindrance (prim>sec>terc. Furthermore, the use of ultrasound irradiation was favorable to furnish the desired products with excellent yields and a shorter reaction time, except for the compound (3e.      

  3. Post-influenzal triazole-resistant aspergillosis following allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talento, Alida Fe; Dunne, Katie; Murphy, Niamh; O'Connell, Brian; Chan, Grace; Joyce, Eimear Ann; Hagen, Ferry; Meis, Jacques F; Fahy, Ruauri; Bacon, Larry; Vandenberge, Elisabeth; Rogers, Thomas R

    2018-03-23

    Influenza virus infection is now recognised as a risk factor for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). Delays in diagnosis contribute to delayed commencement of antifungal therapy. Additionally, the emergence of resistance to first-line triazole antifungal agents puts emphasis on early detection to prevent adverse outcomes. We present 2 allogeneic stem cell transplant patients who developed IPA due to triazole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus following influenza infection. We underline the challenges faced in the management of these cases, the importance of early diagnosis and need for surveillance given the emergence of triazole-resistance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Flash Vacuum Pyrolysis of Azides, Triazoles, and Tetrazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentrup, Curt

    2017-03-08

    Flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) of azides is an extremely valuable method of generating nitrenes and studying their thermal rearrangements. The nitrenes can in many cases be isolated in low-temperature matrices and observed spectroscopically. NH and methyl, alkyl, aralkyl, vinyl, cyano, aryl and N-heteroaryl, acyl, carbamoyl, alkoxycarbonyl, imidoyl, boryl, silyl, phosphonyl, and sulfonyl nitrenes are included. FVP of triazoloazines generates diazomethylazines and azinylcarbenes, which often rearrange to the energetically more stable arylnitrenes. N 2 elimination from monocyclic 1,2,3-triazoles can generate iminocarbenes, 1H-azirines, ketenimines, and cyclization products, and 1,2,4-triazoles are precursors of nitrile ylides. Benzotriazoles are preparatively useful precursors of cyanocyclopentadienes, carbazoles, and aza-analogues. FVP of 5-aryltetrazoles can result in double N 2 elimination with formation of arylcarbenes or of heteroarylcarbenes, which again rearrange to arylnitrenes. Many 5-substituted and 2,5-disubstituted tetrazoles are excellent precursors of nitrile imines (propargylic, allenic, or carbenic), which are isolable at low temperatures in some cases (e.g., aryl- and silylnitrile imines) or rearrange to carbodiimides. 1,5-Disubstituted tetrazoles are precursors of imidoylnitrenes, which also rearrange to carbodiimides or add intramolecularly to aryl substituents to yield indazoles and related compounds. Where relevant for the mechanistic understanding, pyrolysis under flow conditions or in solution or the solid state will be mentioned. Results of photolysis reactions and computational chemistry complementing the FVP results will also be mentioned in several places.

  5. A triazole derivative as a new acid-base indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Numan Bulut

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study a new pH indicator, 3-benzyl-4-p-nitrobenzylidenamino-4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-triazole-5-on (BPNBAT, soluble in acetonitrile:water (1:4, was developed. The estimation of pH is possible either from the position of the absorption maxima or from the absorbance intensity at a constant wavelength. This feature allowed us to determine the basic transition range of the medium because BPNBAT is colorless at pH lower than 8.5 and showed strong yellow-green color with high extinction coefficient in the pH range of 8.5–10.1. pKa, pH at equivalent point and the molar absorptivity (in the aqueous medium at 380 nm of BPNBAT are determined as 9.3, 8.3 and 8.8 x 103 L.mol-1.cm-1, respectively. The color change at the transition range can be attributed to the resonance structures of BPNBAT. The triazole compound was compared with thymolphthalein for accuracy test.

  6. In vitro sensitivity of Fusarium graminearum isolates to fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aveline Avozani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Head blight of wheat is a disease of global importance. In Brazil, it can cause damage of up to 27%. As resistant cultivars are not available yet, short-term disease control relies on the use of fungicides. The first step to reach effective management is to identify potent fungicides. In vitro experiments were conducted to determine the inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50 for mycelial growth or conidial germination, according to the chemical group of fungicides, of five Fusarium graminearum isolates of different origins. The following demethylation inhibitor (DMI fungicides were tested: epoxiconazole, cyproconazole, metconazole, prochloraz, protioconazole and tebuconazole. In addition, azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl, pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin were included in the study, representing Quinone outside inhibitor fungicides (QoI, as well as a tubulin synthesis inhibitor, carbendazim and two ready mixtures, trifloxystrobin + tebuconazole or trifloxistrobin + prothioconazole. DMI's showed lower IC50 values compared to the QoI's. For the five tested isolates, in the overall mean, IC50 considering mycelial growth ranged for DMI's from 0.01 mg/L (metconazole, prochloraz and prothioconazole to 0.12 mg/L (cyproconazole and considering conidial germination for QoI's from 0.21 mg/L (azoxystrobin to 1.33 mg/L (trifloxystrobin. The IC50 for carbendazim was 0.07 mg/L. All tested isolates can be considered sensitive to the studied DMI's, although certain differences in sensitivity could be detected between the isolates originating from one same state.

  7. Rhodium-Catalyzed Enantioselective Cyclopropanation of Olefins with N-Sulfonyl 1,2,3-Triazoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuprakov, Stepan; Kwok, Sen Wai; Zhang, Li; Lercher, Lukas; Fokin, Valery V.

    2009-01-01

    N-Sulfonyl 1,2,3-triazoles readily form rhodium(II) azavinyl carbenes, which react with olefins to produce cyclopropanes with excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivity and in high yield. PMID:19928917

  8. Hydrogen-Bonding Interactions in Luminescent Quinoline-Triazoles with Dominant 1D Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Qiang Bai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Quinoline-triazoles 2-((4-(diethoxymethyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-ylmethylquinoline (1, 2-((4-(m-tolyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-ylmethylquinoline (2 and 2-((4-(p-tolyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-ylmethylquinoline (3 have been prepared with CuAAC click reactions and used as a model series to probe the relationship between lattice H-bonding interaction and crystal direction of growth. Crystals of 1–3 are 1D tape and prism shapes that correlate with their intermolecular and solvent 1D lattice H-bonding interactions. All compounds were thermally stable up to about 200 C and blue-green emissive in solution.

  9. Nanosulfur: A Potent Fungicide Against Food Pathogen, Aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, Samrat Roy; Goswami, Arunava; Nair, Kishore K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Gopal, Madhuban; Devakumar, C.; Gogoi, Robin; Srivastava, Chitra; Subhramanyam, B. S.

    2010-01-01

    Elemental sulfur (S 0 ), man's oldest eco-friendly fungicide for curing fungal infections in plants and animals, is registered in India as a non-systemic and contact fungicide. However due to its high volume requirement, Indian agrochemical industry and farmers could not effectively use this product till date. We hypothesize that intelligent nanoscience applications might increase the visibility of nanosulfur in Indian agriculture as a potent and eco-safe fungicide. Sulfur nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized bottom-up via a liquid synthesis method with average particle size in the range of 50-80 nm and the shapes of the NPs were spherical. A comparative study of elemental and nano-sulfur produced has been tested against facultative fungal food pathogen, Aspergillus niger. Results showed that nanosulfur is more efficacious than its elemental form.

  10. Reduced fungicide doses in cereals: Which parameters to consider?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup

    2015-01-01

    dose. In spring barley the economically optimum input can vary from 0-2 treatments with a total fungicide use equivalent to 0.25 to 0.5 times the recommended dose. Applying reducing rates should never result in significant inferior control and economical yield losses. A recent review concluded......, the pathogen, disease pressure and timing of treatments. Certain diseases are known to require higher input (40- 75% rates) for achieving satisfactory control – this is the case for Septoria leaf blight, Rhynchosporium net blotch and Fusarium head blight, whereas most rust diseases generally have been found...... on well-established disease attack. Rates also have to be adjusted according to canopy structures. Early timing on a small canopy requires less fungicide than a full canopy around heading. The knowledge gathered concerning fungicide rates has led to great focus on the importance of optimizing timing...

  11. Nanosulfur: A Potent Fungicide Against Food Pathogen, Aspergillus niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Samrat Roy; Nair, Kishore K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Gogoi, Robin; Srivastava, Chitra; Gopal, Madhuban; Subhramanyam, B. S.; devakumar, C.; Goswami, Arunava

    2010-10-01

    Elemental sulfur (S0), man's oldest eco-friendly fungicide for curing fungal infections in plants and animals, is registered in India as a non-systemic and contact fungicide. However due to its high volume requirement, Indian agrochemical industry and farmers could not effectively use this product till date. We hypothesize that intelligent nanoscience applications might increase the visibility of nanosulfur in Indian agriculture as a potent and eco-safe fungicide. Sulfur nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized bottom-up via a liquid synthesis method with average particle size in the range of 50-80 nm and the shapes of the NPs were spherical. A comparative study of elemental and nano-sulfur produced has been tested against facultative fungal food pathogen, Aspergillus niger. Results showed that nanosulfur is more efficacious than its elemental form.

  12. ZINClick: a database of 16 million novel, patentable, and readily synthesizable 1,4-disubstituted triazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarotti, Alberto; Brunco, Angelo; Sorba, Giovanni; Tron, Gian Cesare

    2014-02-24

    Since Professors Sharpless, Finn, and Kolb first introduced the concept of "click reactions" in 2001 as powerful tools in drug discovery, 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazoles have become important in medicinal chemistry due to the simultaneous discovery by Sharpless, Fokin, and Meldal of a perfect click 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between azides and alkynes catalyzed by copper salts. Because of their chemical features, these triazoles are proposed to be aggressive pharmacophores that participate in drug-receptor interactions while maintaining an excellent chemical and metabolic profile. Surprisingly, no virtual libraries of 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazoles have been generated for the systematic investigation of the click-chemical space. In this manuscript, a database of triazoles called ZINClick is generated from literature-reported alkynes and azides that can be synthesized within three steps from commercially available products. This combinatorial database contains over 16 million 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazoles that are easily synthesizable, new, and patentable! The structural diversity of ZINClick ( http://www.symech.it/ZINClick ) will be explored. ZINClick will also be compared to other available databases, and its application during the design of novel bioactive molecules containing triazole nuclei will be discussed.

  13. Synthesis of carbon-14 analogue of 1,5 diaryl-5-[{sup 14}C]-1,2,3-triazoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matloubi, Hojatollah E-mail: hmatloubi@aeoi.org.ir; Shafiee, Abbas; Saemian, Nader; Shirvani, Gholamhossein; Daha, Fariba Johari

    2004-05-01

    Two 1,2,3-triazole anticonvulsants, 1-(4-methylsulfone-phenyl)-5-(4-methyl-phenyl)-1,2,3-triazole and 1-(4-methylsulfone-phenyl)-5-phenyl-1,2,3-triazole, both labeled with carbon-14 in the 5-position were prepared from para-tolunitrile-[cyano-{sup 14}C] and benzonitrile-[cyano-{sup 14}C], respectively.

  14. The influence of fungicides on the growth of Trichoderma asperellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schutter, B; Aerts, R; Rombouts, L

    2002-01-01

    Numbers of strains of Trichoderma asperellum are known as biological control agents of certain root pathogens of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). The restricted use of fungicides is sometimes useful in combination with these biological control agents. Therefore some experiments were conducted to evaluate the growth of T. asperellum in the presence of fungicides as Previcur (active substance propamocarb) and Sumico (with the active substance carbendazim and diethofencarb). The influence of these fungicides was first examined in laboratory conditions. The fungus was brought on a potato dextrose agar where the fungicides Previcur, Sumico and carbendazim were added in a concentration of 0.1x, 1x and 10x the recommended dose. The growth of T. asperellum was totally inhibited by the three Sumico and carbendazim concentrations. T. asperellum knew a small but significant decrease of growth when the 10x dose of Previcur was added. Afterwards the influence of these fungicides on the fungus was tested in field conditions in the greenhouse. The fungus was applied to the roots of the tomato plant, which was grown on a rockwool medium. Previcur and Sumico were submitted to the plants using the normal procedure. The results of the tests showed that in field conditions there was no effect of the fungicide treatment on the presence of the fungus, although the laboratory tests showed the opposite for Sumico. To explain this contradiction two other experiments were conducted to follow the migration of the Sumico after treatment. A residue analysis showed that the highest concentration of Sumico was detected in the rockwool medium, and some residues were found in the drain water and the stems. Even with a 100x recommended dose of Sumico the fungus was still present the day after the treatment.

  15. Control of sugar beet powdery mildew with strobilurin fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaoglanidis George S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe betae is a major foliar disease of sugar beet in areas with dry and relatively warm weather conditions throughout the world. In the present study, four fungicides belonging to the relatively new class of strobilurin fungicides, azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin were evaluated in three different application doses (100, 150 and 200 mg a.i. ha–1 during 2003-2004 for the control of the disease. Among the four strobilurin fungicides tested trifloxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl were the most effective with control efficiency values higher than 94% compared to the control treatment even when applied at lower application dose of 100 mg a.i. ha–1. Azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin showed a poor to modest activity against the disease even when applied at the highest application dose of 200 μg a.i. ha–1. Disease severity, in terms of AUDPC values was significantly correlated to decreased root yield, while no significant correlation existed among disease severity and sugar content of the roots or sucrose yield. In addition, the efficiency of tank mixtures of four strobilurin fungicides applied at 100 μg a.i. ha–1 with two sterol demethylation - inhibiting fungicides (DMIs, difenoconazole and cyproconazole applied at 62.5 and 25 mg a.i. ha–1, respectively, was evaluated. The mixtures of azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin with either difenoconazole or cyproconazole provided a better control efficiency compared to the single application of each mixture partner, while the tank mixtures of trifloxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl with either difenoconazole or cyproconazole provided a better control efficiency compared to single application of difenoconazole or cyproconazole and similar control efficiency compared to the efficiency obtained by single application of the strobilurin fungicides.

  16. Method validation for strobilurin fungicides in cereals and fruit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Bjerre; Granby, Kit

    2001-01-01

    Strobilurins are a new class of fungicides that are active against a broad spectrum of fungi. In the present work a GC method for analysis of strobilurin fungicides was validated. The method was based on extraction with ethyl acetate/cyclohexane, clean-up by gel permeation chromatography (GPC......) and determination of the content by gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture (EC-), nitrogen/phosphorous (NP-), and mass spectrometric (MS-) detection. Three strobilurins, azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin were validated on three matrices, wheat, apple and grapes. The validation was based...

  17. Mode of action of the phenylpyrrole fungicide fenpiclonil in Fusarium sulphureum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jespers, A.B.K.

    1994-01-01

    In the last few decades, plant disease control has become heavily dependent on fungicides. Most modem fungicides were discovered by random synthesis and empirical optimization of lead structures. In general, these fungicides have specific modes of action and meet modem enviromnental

  18. Pharmacological aspects of application of 1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol furan derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Bihdan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays 1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol furan derivatives have established themselves as a separate class of promising bioactive compounds. Presented substance is practically non-toxic and exhibits various kinds of pharmacological activity. New original drug «Tryfuzol» in two dosage forms (1% injectable solution and 1% solution for oral administration triumphantly entered the practice of the national veterinary. The most attractive in pharmacological aspects are water-soluble compounds 5-(furan-2-yl-4R-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiols. Other classes of 1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol furan derivatives are also in considerable scientific interest. However, despite the presence of a sufficiently large number of publications, the issue of pharmacological tests systematization of the 1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol furan derivatives is still open. In this way the aim of our work was the systematization of the available sources of domestic authors. Materials and methods. Our work presents the results of systematic analysis of the available domestic literature related to the study of pharmacological properties of 1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol furan derivatives. Research results. It is known that 1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol furan derivatives have wide range of properties and biological activities. Thioacetate salts of corresponding acids show the highest results. The authors investigated the properties of water-soluble compounds of 1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol furan derivatives. Another group of compounds was investigated on hypoglycemic activity. It was established that the most active were piperidine 2-(5-(furan-2-yl-4-(3-methylphenyl-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio acetate and piperidine 2-(5-(furan-2-yl-4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio acetate. Conclusion. The scientific potential of the domestic pharmaceutical industry has no doubts for today. The literature analysis of Russian authors proves the obvious prospect of further research of biologically active compounds among 1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol

  19. Occurrence of azoxystrobin, propiconazole, and selected other fungicides in US streams, 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, William A.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Kolpin, Dana W.; Meyer, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Fungicides are used to prevent foliar diseases on a wide range of vegetable, field, fruit, and ornamental crops. They are generally more effective as protective rather than curative treatments, and hence tend to be applied before infections take place. Less than 1% of US soybeans were treated with a fungicide in 2002 but by 2006, 4% were treated. Like other pesticides, fungicides can move-off of fields after application and subsequently contaminate surface water, groundwater, and associated sediments. Due to the constant pressure from fungal diseases such as the recent Asian soybean rust outbreak, and the always-present desire to increase crop yields, there is the potential for a significant increase in the amount of fungicides used on US farms. Increased fungicide use could lead to increased environmental concentrations of these compounds. This study documents the occurrence of fungicides in select US streams soon after the first documentation of soybean rust in the US and prior to the corresponding increase in fungicide use to treat this problem. Water samples were collected from 29 streams in 13 states in 2005 and/or 2006, and analyzed for 12 target fungicides. Nine of the 12 fungicides were detected in at least one stream sample and at least one fungicide was detected in 20 of 29 streams. At least one fungicide was detected in 56% of the 103 samples, as many as five fungicides were detected in an individual sample, and mixtures of fungicides were common. Azoxystrobin was detected most frequently (45% of 103 samples) followed by metalaxyl (27%), propiconazole (17%), myclobutanil (9%), and tebuconazole (6%). Fungicide detections ranged from 0.002 to 1.15 μ/L. There was indication of a seasonal pattern to fungicide occurrence, with detections more common and concentrations higher in late summer and early fall than in spring. At a few sites, fungicides were detected in all samples collected suggesting the potential for season-long occurrence in some streams

  20. Profitability of fungicide use decisions among cocoa farmers in south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A decision theoretic approach and regression method were used to analyze the data collected. The results indicated that (i) expected crop loss should be taken into account when deciding on the amount of fungicides to apply in the study area and (ii) the use rate recommended by CRIN could not be used in all situations – it ...

  1. Fungicide sensitivity in the wild rice pathogen Bipolaris oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years the occurrence of fungal brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae has increased in cultivated wild rice (Zizania palustris) paddies in spite of the use of fungicides. To implement an efficient integrated disease management system, we are exploring whether field isolates have developed ...

  2. Oral Toxicity of Agro-Fungicides: Tilt (Propiconazole), Bayleton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Twelve Nubian goats were used in these experiments; they were grouped into three groups (and one control group) and dosed orally with two fungicides [Propiconazole (100mg/kg/day), Triadimefon (100mg/kg/day)] and their mixture (50:50 mg/kg/day). Animals were closely observed for clinical signs and behavior ...

  3. Influence of fungicides on gas exchange of pecan foliage

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are several fungicide chemistries used for disease control on pecan (Carya illinoinensis), but there is little or no knowledge of subtle short- or long-term side-effects of these chemistries on host physiological processes, including photosynthesis (Pn). This study quantifies the impact of se...

  4. Systemic fungicidal activity of 1,4-oxathiin derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeling, B V; Kulka, M

    1966-04-29

    Treatment of pinto bean and barley seed with 1,4-oxathiin derivatives gave disease control by systemic fungicidal action of such pathogenic fungi as Uromyces phaseoli and Ustilago nuda. The two chemicals, D735 and F461, were highly specific and selective against the pathogens without injury of the hosts.

  5. field tolerance of selected varieties to and fungicide efficacy against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    and median temperatures of 28°C (Osiru et al.,. 2007), it has the potential ... this study was to evaluate a wide range of sweet ... following each fungicide application to reduce wash-off. ..... specific mode of action (Avenot and Michailides,. 2007 ...

  6. Effect of benzimidazole fungicides and calcium chloride on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-04

    Jun 4, 2007 ... Botrytis cinerea (Besri and Diatta, 1985; Hmouni et al.,. 1996). It is very likely that the repetitive uses of these systemic fungicides and their persistence during long periods of conservation (Ben Arie, 1975; Prusky, 1985) have led to considerable selective pressure on both species. Moreover, the single site ...

  7. Chronic aquatic effect assessment for the fungicide azoxystrobin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, van R.P.A.; Belgers, J.D.M.; Zafar, M.I.; Matser, A.M.; Boerwinkel, M.C.; Arts, G.H.P.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined ecological effects of a range of chronic exposure concentrations of the fungicide azoxystrobin in freshwater experimental systems (1270 L outdoor microcosms). Intended and environmentally relevant test concentrations of azoxystrobin were 0, 0.33, 1, 3.3, 10, 33 µg ai/L, kept at

  8. Suppression of hop looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by the fungicide pyraclostrobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, J L; Gent, D H

    2014-04-01

    The hop looper, Hypena humuli Harris, is a reemergent pest of hop that often requires treatment to mitigate crop damage. In 4 yr of field trials, plots treated with fungicides were observed to sustain less hop looper defoliation compared with nontreated plots. Further investigation revealed that abundance of hop looper and associated defoliation were reduced when the fungicide pyraclostrobin was applied in late July to early August. Two other fungicides possessing active ingredients in the same chemical family (quinone outside inhibitor) did not reduce abundance of hop looper or its defoliation. Pyraclostrobin is efficacious against powdery mildew diseases, and the application timing evaluated in these studies corresponds with a period of juvenile susceptibility of hop cones to the disease. Use of fungicides containing pyraclostrobin at this time may have the ancillary benefit of reducing hop looper damage, potentially obviating the need for broad-spectrum insecticides later in the season. Follow-up studies are warranted to determine whether pyraclostrobin may inhibit other lepidopteran species.

  9. In-Vitro Evaluation of Fungicides and Fungicide Combinations Against Fusarium Root-Rot Fungal Pathogens of French Beans(Phaseolus Vulgaris L. c v. Monel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagichunge, A.G.R; Owino, P.O; Waudo, S.W; Seif, A.A

    1999-01-01

    Laboratories studies were undertaken to evaluate In-vitro efficacy of captan, thiram, pyrazophos, triforine and metalaxyl + mancozeb fungicides against Fusarium solani (Mart.) Appel and Wollenw fsp. phaseoli (Burk) Synder and Hansen Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht fsp. phaseoli kend and Synder root-rot fungal pathogens of French beans. Five fungicides and four combinations were tested for their antifungal activity. Fungicides treatments significantly (P=0.05) inhibited mycelial growth and spore germination. Fungicides suppressed the growth of F. oxysporum fsp. Phaseoli more than that of F. solani fsp. phaseoli. All fungicides except metalaxyl + mancozeb failed to suppress sporulation of the two fungi In-vitro. In the case of thiram the sporulation capacity of F. oxysporum fsp. phaseoli 3.43 times higher than in the control. Although, no fungicides treatment was seen to inhibitor of all the three measures of fungitoxicity, the ranking of the best three fungicide treatments would be, thiram 50 + captan so > triforine > metalaxyl + mancozeb. The relatively higher inhibitory effect of fungicides on the growth of F. oxysporum Ssp. Phaseoli than that of F. solani fsp. Phaseoli suggested that F. oxysporum Esp. Phaseoli was more sensible to fungicide treatments. Such differences may reflect inherent variations in accessibility of the active toxicants within the fungal systems. The ability attributed to the low growth rate, N depletion temperature and oxygen

  10. Synthesis and Fungicidal Activity of β-Carboline Alkaloids and Their Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of β-Carboline derivatives were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their fungicidal activities in this study. Several derivatives electively exhibited fungicidal activities against some fungi. Especially, compound F5 exhibited higher fungicidal activity against Rhizoctonia solani (53.35% than commercial antiviral agent validamycin (36.4%; compound F16 exhibited high fungicidal activity against Oospora citriaurantii ex Persoon (43.28%. Some of the alkaloids and their derivatives (compounds F4 and F25 exhibited broad-spectrum fungicidal activity. Specifically, compound F4 exhibited excellent high broad-spectrum fungicidal activity in vitro, and the curative and protection activities against P. litchi in vivo reached 92.59% and 59.26%, respectively. The new derivative, F4, with optimized physicochemical properties, obviously exhibited higher activities both in vitro and in vivo; therefore, F4 may be used as a new lead structure for the development of fungicidal drugs.

  11. Synthesis and biological evaluation of triazole-containing N-acyl homoserine lactones as quorum sensing modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacy, Danielle M.; Le Quement, Sebastian T.; Hansen, Casper L.

    2013-01-01

    triazole-containing analogs of natural N-acyl l-homoserine lactone (AHL) signals as non-native QS agonists and antagonists in Gram-negative bacteria. We synthesized 72 triazole derivatives of five broad structure types in high yields and purities using efficient Cu(i)-catalyzed azide–alkyne couplings...

  12. Solid-phase synthesis of NH-1,2,3-triazoles using 4,4′- bismethoxybenzhydryl azide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohrt, Anders Emil O'Hanlon; Le Quement, Sebastian Thordal; Nielsen, Thomas Eiland

    2014-01-01

    Readily available 4,4′-bismethoxybenzhydryl azide was found to be a useful building block for the synthesis of NH-1,2,3-triazoles through copper(I)-catalyzed cycloaddition reactions with solid-supported terminal alkynes, followed by acid-mediated deprotection. Peptide-containing NH-1,2,3-triazole...

  13. Triazole nucleoside derivatives bearing aryl functionalities on the nucleobases show antiviral and anticancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yi; Qu, Fanqi; Peng, Ling

    2010-08-01

    Synthetic nucleoside mimics are important candidates in the searing for antiviral and anticancer drugs. Ribavirin, the first antiviral nucleoside drug, is unique in its antiviral activity with mutilple modes of action, which are mainly due to its special triazole heterocycle as nucleobase. Additionally, introducing aromatic functionalities to the nucleobase is able to confer novel mechanisms of action for nucleoside mimics. With the aim to combine the special characteristics of unnatural triazole heterocycles with those of the appended aromatic groups on the nucleobases, novel 1,2,4-triazole nucleoside analogs bearing aromatic moieties were designed and developed. The present short review summarizes the molecular design, chemical synthesis and biological activity of these triazole nucleoside analogs. Indeed, the discovery of antiviral and anticancer activities shown by these triazole nucleosides as well as the new mechanism underlying the biological activity by one of the anticancer leads has validated the rationale for molecular design and impacted us to further explore the concept with the aim of developing structurally novel nucleoside drug candidates with new modes of action.

  14. Leaching of two fungicides in spent mushroom substrate amended soil: Influence of amendment rate, fungicide ageing and flow condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Martín, Alba; Sánchez-Martín, María J; Ordax, José M; Marín-Benito, Jesús M; Sonia Rodríguez-Cruz, M

    2017-04-15

    A study has been conducted on the leaching of two fungicides, tebuconazole and cymoxanil, in a soil amended with spent mushroom substrate (SMS), with an evaluation of how different factors influence this process. The objective was based on the potential use of SMS as a biosorbent for immobilizing pesticides in vulnerable soils, and the need to know how it could affect the subsequent transport of these retained compounds. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) for 14 C-fungicides, non-incubated and incubated over 30days, were obtained in columns packed with an unamended soil (S), and this soil amended with SMS at rates of 5% (S+SMS5) and 50% (S+SMS50) under saturated and saturated-unsaturated flows. The highest leaching of tebuconazole (>50% of the total 14 C added) was found in S when a saturated water flow was applied to the column, but the percentage of leached fungicide decreased when a saturated-unsaturated flow was applied in both SMS-amended soils. Also a significant decrease in leaching was observed for tebuconazole after incubation in the column, especially in S+SMS50 when both flows were applied. Furthermore, cymoxanil leaching was complete in S and S+SMS when a saturated flow was applied, and maximum peak concentrations were reached at 1pore volume (PV), although BTCs showed peaks with lower concentrations in S+SMS. The amounts of cymoxanil retained only increased in S+SMS when a saturated-unsaturated flow was applied. A more relevant effect of SMS for reducing the leaching of fungicide was observed when cymoxanil was previously incubated in the column, although mineralization was enhanced in this case. These results are of interest for extending SMS application on the control of the leaching of fungicides with different physicochemical characteristics after different ageing times in the soil and water flow conditions applied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Nucleic adaptability of heterokaryons to fungicides in a multinucleate fungus, Sclerotinia homoeocarpa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Dylan; Sang, Hyunkyu; Bousquet, Amanda; Hulvey, Jonathan P; Garcia, Dawlyn; Rhee, Siyeon; Hoshino, Yoichiro; Yamada, Toshihiko; Jung, Geunhwa

    2018-06-01

    Sclerotinia homoeocarpa is the causal organism of dollar spot in turfgrasses and is a multinucleate fungus with a history of resistance to multiple fungicide classes. Heterokaryosis gives rise to the coexistence of genetically distinct nuclei within a cell, which contributes to genotypic and phenotypic plasticity in multinucleate fungi. We demonstrate that field isolates, resistant to either a demethylation inhibitor or methyl benzimidazole carbamate fungicide, can form heterokaryons with resistance to each fungicide and adaptability to serial combinations of different fungicide concentrations. Field isolates and putative heterokaryons were assayed on fungicide-amended media for in vitro sensitivity. Shifts in fungicide sensitivity and microsatellite genotypes indicated that heterokaryons could adapt to changes in fungicide pressure. Presence of both nuclei in heterokaryons was confirmed by detection of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the β-tubulin gene, the presence of microsatellite alleles of both field isolates, and the live-cell imaging of two different fluorescently tagged nuclei using laser scanning confocal microscopy. Nucleic adaptability of heterokaryons to fungicides was strongly supported by the visualization of changes in fluorescently labeled nuclei to fungicide pressure. Results from this study suggest that heterokaryosis is a mechanism by which the pathogen adapts to multiple fungicide pressures in the field. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sensitivity of Phakopsora pachyrhizi (soybean rust) isolates to fungicides and the reduction of fungal sporulation based on fungicide and timing of application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean rust is a damaging foliar fungal disease of soybean in many soybean-growing areas throughout the world. Strategies to manage soybean rust include the use of foliar fungicides. Fungicides types, the rate of product application, and the number and timing of applications are critical components...

  17. CONTROL OF BAGRAS (Eucalyptus deglupta DAMPING-OFF BY FUNGICIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMILIO O. ANINO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Selected fungicides were tested to control damp ing-off affecting bagras seedlings in the Central Nursery of the Paper Industries Corporation of the Philippines (PICOP, Surigao del Sur, Philippines. The fungicides, at three concentrations each, were applie d once before seed sowing to control pre-emergence damping-off and applied again after germination to cont rol post-emergence damping-off. Ajax detergent (2g/l H2O, Benlate (0.5 g/1 H2O, Brassicol (1.5 gv'l H 2O, and Fungitox (1.0 g/1 H2O provided the best level of control against the disease. Ajax detergent is the most practical among the best chemicals because it is cheap, locally available, not a heal th hazard, and less polluting.

  18. Isolation of a Moderately Stable but Sensitive Zwitterionic Diazonium Tetrazolyl-1,2,3-triazolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapötke, Thomas M; Krumm, Burkhard; Pflüger, Carolin

    2016-07-15

    An unexpected formation of a diazonium compound was observed by nitration of an amino substituted triazolyl tetrazole with mixed acid. The crystal structure determination revealed a zwitterionic diazonium tetrazolyl-1,2,3-triazolate, whose constitution was supported by NMR and vibrational spectroscopic analysis. The thermal stability and sensitivity toward impact and friction were determined. In contrast, diazotriazoles are rather unstable and are mainly handled in solution and/or low temperatures, which is not the case for this diazonium tetrazolyl-1,2,3-triazolate, being stable at ambient temperature.

  19. Exploring proton transfer in 1,2,3-triazole-triazolium dimer with ab initio method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ailin; Yan, Tianying; Shen, Panwen

    Ab initio calculations are utilized to search for transition state structures for proton transfer in the 1,2,3-triazole-triazolium complexes on the basis of optimized dimers. The result suggests six transition state structures for single proton transfer in the complexes, most of which are coplanar. The energy barriers, between different stable and transition states structures with zero point energy (ZPE) corrections, show that proton transfer occurs at room temperature with coplanar configuration that has the lowest energy. The results clearly support that reorientation gives triazole flexibility for proton transfer.

  20. Exploring proton transfer in 1,2,3-triazole-triazolium dimer with ab initio method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ailin; Yan, Tianying; Shen, Panwen [Department of Material Chemistry, Institute of New Energy Material Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071 (China)

    2011-02-01

    Ab initio calculations are utilized to search for transition state structures for proton transfer in the 1,2,3-triazole-triazolium complexes on the basis of optimized dimers. The result suggests six transition state structures for single proton transfer in the complexes, most of which are coplanar. The energy barriers, between different stable and transition states structures with zero point energy (ZPE) corrections, show that proton transfer occurs at room temperature with coplanar configuration that has the lowest energy. The results clearly support that reorientation gives triazole flexibility for proton transfer. (author)

  1. Triazol-substituted titanocenes by strain-driven 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Gansäuer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An operationally simple, convenient, and mild strategy for the synthesis of triazole-substituted titanocenes via strain-driven 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions between azide-functionalized titanocenes and cyclooctyne has been developed. It features the first synthesis of titanocenes containing azide groups. These compounds constitute ‘second-generation’ functionalized titanocene building blocks for further synthetic elaboration. Our synthesis is modular and large numbers of the complexes can in principle be prepared in short periods of time. Some of the triazole-substituted titanocenes display high cyctotoxic activity against BJAB cells. Comparison of the most active complexes allows the identification of structural features essential for biological activity.

  2. Fungicide Efficacy in Peach Rusty Spot Control in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Dolovac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rusty Spot has long been known as a harmful peach disease in many parts of the world. During the past several years, rusty spot infection of the late-maturing peach cultivars (Summerset, Suncrest, Fayette and O’Henry caused significant yield losses in Serbia.Although the etiology of the disease is still unknown, there are numerous studies attempting to set a strategy for its control and recommend appropriate chemical and other peach protection methods. However, because of specific environmental conditions in Serbia, recommended protection method using repeated fungicide treatments, starting from petal fall, did not prove to be efficient and the rate of infection in some susceptible peach cultivars reached 100%. In 2003 and 2004 a field trial was conducted in order to test the efficacy of fungicides (a.i. kresoxim-methyl, flusilazole and sulfur for the efficient control of Rusty Spot epidemics. The trial was carried out under conditions of natural infection on the peach cv. Summerset at the locality of Bela Crkva, Serbia. In the ntreated control plots,high disease incidence was recorded with the percentage of affected fruit surface ranging from 33.5% in the first, up to the 35.4% in the second year of the trail. Among fungicides included in the trial, kresoxim-methyl proved to be the most efficient (90.25% in the first and 91.12% in the second year of the trial, flusilazole exhibited lower efficacy (87.28% and 80.61%, respectively while sulfur was the least efficient 82.33% and 80.30%, respectively. Determination of the most efficient fungicide for the peach rusty spot control in Serbia provides basic nformation for further investigations which will include optimization of treatment terms, as well as additional agro-technical control measures.

  3. Radioisotopes and fungicide research- present status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatrath, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The developments in pesticides and radioisotopes fields were so near to each other that at a very early stage in this history, both became linked together and their usefulness was recognised for faster development. The purpose of this communication is to illustrate the present status these techniques in fungicide research by drawing suitable examples and also to bring out the directions in which future research will be going with the aid of these tools. 72 refs

  4. EFFICACY OF FUNGICIDES AGAINST CALONECTRIA PAUCIRAMOSA IN POT AZALEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heungens, K; Pauwels, E

    2015-01-01

    Calonectria (formerly Cylindrocladium) infection of pot azalea (Rhododendron simsii Planch) is an important disease problem in which usually one or two of the four plants per pot show progressing leaf and especially stem lesions, leading to mortality of the respective plant and rendering the pot unmarketable. This may occur in a later stage of the growing season, leading to significant commercial losses. The main objective of this study was to test a range of fungicides for their efficacy against this pathogen. To test the fungicides, a bioassay was first developed in which mycelium and conidiospores of the pathogen were produced on Potato Dextrose Agar, blended in water, and dilutions of the resulting suspension inoculated at the base of 11-week-old cuttings three weeks after they had been trimmed. Disease progression was monitored up to 7 weeks post inoculation and a disease index on a scale of 0 to 3 was established. In the actual efficacy trial, the following fungicides (with corresponding active ingredient(s)) were tested as preventive treatments: Topsin M 70 WG (thiophanate-methyl), Sporgon (prochloraz), Signum (boscalid+pyraclostrobin), Switch (cyprodinyl+fludioxonil), Flint 50WG (trifloxystrobin), Ortiva Top (azoxystrobin+difenoconazole) and Fungaflor (imazalil). Disease expression started after about 2 weeks, increased approximately 1 index level, and leveled off 5 weeks after inoculation. The best control was observed with Sporgon, Ortiva Top and Signum. Switch produced intermediate effects and insufficient control was observed with Topsin, Flint and Fungaflor. These results explain why specific standard fungicide treatments, such as those with Topsin, fail to control the disease, while they can be effective against a different Calonectria species such as C. pseudonaviculata, the cause of boxwood blight.

  5. Method for in vitro screening of aquatic fungicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    Methods were developed for in vitro screening of candidate aquatic fungicides for efficacy against Achlya fiagellata, A. racemosa, Saprolegnia hypogyna and S. megasperma. Agar plugs containing fungal hyphae, removed from the edge of actively growing colonies, were placed in the depressions of spot plates containing 1a??0, 10a??0 and 100 mg/I of the candidate compounds for 15 or 60 min. After exposure, the plugs were transferred on to filter papers (0a??45-A?m pore) in a holder, rinsed, and then placed on cornmeal agar medium in tri-petri dishes. The plates were checked for mycelial growth after 48, 96 and 168 h of incubation in a lighted (400-800 A?m) environmental control chamber at 20A?2A?C. Criteria for the acceptance or rejection of candidate aquatic fungicides for further study were based on the antifungal spectrum index (ASI) comparisons between respective compounds and malachite green after 48 h and the concentration level producing complete growth inhibition. Candidate compounds whose ASI was less than 50% that of malachite green after 48 h or did not inhibit growth at levels less than 100 mg/l were rejected. This method provides a base from which in vivo and definitive test regimens can be developed. Preliminary in vitro screening of candidate fungicides reduces the need for costly in vivo tests on compounds that have low antifungal activity.

  6. Radiotracer studies of fungicide residues in food plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    Agricultural fungicides are chemicals used on seeds, crops and in soils throughout the growing season. Fungicide treatments may lead to various levels of chemical residues in food commodities. Primary emphasis has been placed on ethylenebisdithiocarbamates (EBDCs), an important group of agrofungicides used in preparations for spraying or dusting major crops such as apples, pears, broccoli, cabbages, egg plants, cauliflower, grapes, lettuce, peppers, celery, cucumbers and tomatoes. Treatments with EBDCs result in terminal residues containing ethylenthiourea (ETU). This is a toxicologically significant decomposition product which has attracted considerable attention in recent years due to indications of its potential goitrogenic and carcinogenic properties. In recognition of the need for a coordinated examination of ETU levels in food, particularly under tropical conditions, the program of radiotracer techniques as a tool for studying fungicide residue problems on food was initiated in 1984. In current studies, three EBDCs, maneb, zineb and mancozeb from different manufacturers in different countries were analysed. This report describes the model protocols (Annexes I, II and III) as they were set up for determination of residues in commodities and soil, using radiotracer and conventional chromatographic techniques . In the 16 papers presented in this report C 14 -labelled EBDCs are determined in plants, vegetables, and soils, before and after cooking, as a function of time and of other agricultural parameters. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. Effect of fungicides on epiphytic yeasts associated with strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debode, Jane; Van Hemelrijck, Wendy; Creemers, Piet; Maes, Martine

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effect of two commonly used fungicides on the epiphytic yeast community of strawberry. Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted applying Switch (cyprodinil plus fludioxonil) or Signum (boscalid plus pyraclostrobin) to strawberry plants. Yeasts on leaves and fruits were assessed on treated and untreated plants at several time points via plating and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The yeast counts on plates of the treated plants were similar to the control plants. Unripe fruits had 10 times larger yeast concentrations than ripe fruits or leaves. Some dominant yeast types were isolated and in vitro tests showed that they were at least 10 times less sensitive to Switch and Signum as compared with two important fungal strawberry pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum acutatum, which are the targets for the fungicide control. DGGE analysis showed that the applied fungicides had no effect on the composition of the yeast communities, while the growing system, strawberry tissue, and sampling time did affect the yeast communities. The yeast species most commonly identified were Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula, and Sporobolomyces. These results point toward the potential applicability of natural occurring yeast antagonists into an integrated disease control strategy for strawberry diseases.

  8. Curative and eradicant action of fungicides to control Phakopsora pachyrhizi in soybean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlei Melo Reis

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Experiments were carried out in a growth chamber and laboratory to quantify the curative and eradicant actions of fungicides in Asian soybean rust control. The experiments were conducted with the CD 214 RR cultivar, assessing the following fungicides, separately or in association, chlorothalonil, flutriafol, cyproconazole + trifloxystrobin, epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin, cyproconazole + azoxystrobin, and cyproconazole + picoxystrobin. The fungicides were applied at four (curative and nine days after inoculation (eradicant treatment. Treatments were evaluated according to the density of lesions and uredia/cm2, and the eradicant treatment was assessed based on the necrosis of lesions/uredia and on uredospore viability. Except for the fungicide chlorothalonil, there was curative action of latent/virtual infections by the fungicides. Penetrant fungicides that are absorbed have curative and eradicant action to soybean rust.

  9. Mutants of Venturia ineaqualis (Cook) Wint. apple scar resistant to fungicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedianashvili, Ts.V.; D'yakov, Yu.T.

    1987-01-01

    Mutants of apple scab resistant to zineb and bayleton fungicides have been obtained upon action of UV irradiation and nitrosome-thylurea. Using tetrade analysis, two zineb resistence genes have been found. The mutations are pleiotropic and lead to increase in resistance to other fungicides, decrease in growth rate on artificial media, increase in spore size, sporulation, and aggressiveness, decrease in competitiveness at in vitro growth. The resistance is supposed to be determined by decrease in membrane permeability for fungicides

  10. In vivo sensitivity of Phakopsora pachyrhizi to DMI and QoI fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlei Melo Reis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In in vivo experiments the sensitivity of 18 isolates of Phakopsora pachyrhizi from several regions of Brazil to IDM fungicides (cyproconazole, epoxiconazole and tebuconazole and an IQE (pyraclostrobin were evaluated. The assessments were based on leaflet uredia density. Inhibitory concentration (IC50 and sensitivity reduction factor were determined for all fungicide x strain interactions. Tebuconazole sensitivity reduction was detected for most fungus isolates. In contrast, there was no fungicide shift in sensitivity of the fungus to pyraclostrobin. We conclude that the control failure of soybean rust found in some farms is due to the reduced sensitivity of the fungus to the IDM fungicide and that it remains sensitive to pyraclostrobin.

  11. Phytotoxicity: An Overview of the Physiological Responses of Plants Exposed to Fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Celeste Dias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, the use of fungicides in agriculture for fungi diseases control has become crucial. Fungicide research has produced a diverse range of products with novel modes of action. However, the extensive use of these compounds in the agriculture system raises public concern because of the harmful potential of such substances in the environment and human health. Moreover, the phytotoxic effects of some fungicides are already recognized but little is known about the impact of these compounds on the photosynthetic apparatus. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the literature considering different classes of fungicides and their effects on plant physiology, with particular emphasis on photosynthesis.

  12. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Some 1H-1,2,4-Triazol-3-one ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    ester, hydrazide, oxadiazole and acetic acid derivatives of. 1,2,4-triazol-3-one by using microwave irradiation and conven- tional heating. Our research group has ..... 1 equiv. of. NaOH in absolute ethanol for 4 h. Then, the mixture was cooled at room temperature , poured into cold water and acidified to. pH 5 with conc. HCl.

  13. Thermodynamic properties of 1-ethyl-4-nitro-1,2,3-triazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhin, Andrey V.; Kohut, Sviataslau V.; Kabo, Gennady J.; Stepurko, Elena N.; Paulechka, Yauheni U.; Voitkevich, Olga V.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Heat capacities and phase transition enthalpies for 1-ethyl-4-nitro-1,2,3-triazole were measured. • Enthalpy of formation for 1-ethyl-4-nitro-1,2,3-triazole was determined. • Vapor pressure and enthalpy of sublimation of 1-ethyl-4-nitro-1,2,3-triazole were found from Knudsen measurements. - Abstract: Temperature dependence of the heat capacity and the parameters of phase transitions of 1-ethyl-4-nitro-1,2,3-triazole (1ET) were studied between 5 and 370 K in a vacuum adiabatic calorimeter. Thermodynamic properties of the 1ET in the condensed state were obtained over the range of 0–370 K. Saturated vapor pressure for crystalline 1ET in the temperature ranges from 313 to 344 K and its enthalpy of sublimation were measured by the Knudsen effusion method. The standard enthalpy of formation for crystalline 1ET at 298.15 K was determined in a static bomb combustion calorimeter. From these data, the standard enthalpy of formation for gaseous 1ET was evaluated. The enthalpy of formation calculated using quantum chemical methods is in excellent agreement with the experimental value

  14. Thermodynamic properties of 1-ethyl-4-nitro-1,2,3-triazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blokhin, Andrey V., E-mail: blokhin@bsu.by; Kohut, Sviataslau V.; Kabo, Gennady J.; Stepurko, Elena N.; Paulechka, Yauheni U.; Voitkevich, Olga V.

    2013-08-10

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Heat capacities and phase transition enthalpies for 1-ethyl-4-nitro-1,2,3-triazole were measured. • Enthalpy of formation for 1-ethyl-4-nitro-1,2,3-triazole was determined. • Vapor pressure and enthalpy of sublimation of 1-ethyl-4-nitro-1,2,3-triazole were found from Knudsen measurements. - Abstract: Temperature dependence of the heat capacity and the parameters of phase transitions of 1-ethyl-4-nitro-1,2,3-triazole (1ET) were studied between 5 and 370 K in a vacuum adiabatic calorimeter. Thermodynamic properties of the 1ET in the condensed state were obtained over the range of 0–370 K. Saturated vapor pressure for crystalline 1ET in the temperature ranges from 313 to 344 K and its enthalpy of sublimation were measured by the Knudsen effusion method. The standard enthalpy of formation for crystalline 1ET at 298.15 K was determined in a static bomb combustion calorimeter. From these data, the standard enthalpy of formation for gaseous 1ET was evaluated. The enthalpy of formation calculated using quantum chemical methods is in excellent agreement with the experimental value.

  15. Combinatorial Synthesis of Structurally Diverse Triazole-Bridged Flavonoid Dimers and Trimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tze Han Sum

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are a large family of compounds associated with a broad range of biologically useful properties. In recent years, synthetic compounds that contain two flavonoid units linked together have attracted attention in drug discovery and development projects. Numerous flavonoid dimer systems, incorporating a range of monomers attached via different linkers, have been reported to exhibit interesting bioactivities. From a medicinal chemistry perspective, the 1,2,3-triazole ring system has been identified as a particularly attractive linker moiety in dimeric derivatives (owing to several favourable attributes including proven biological relevance and metabolic stability and triazole-bridged flavonoid dimers possessing anticancer and antimalarial activities have recently been reported. However, there are relatively few examples of libraries of triazole-bridged flavonoid dimers and the diversity of flavonoid subunits present within these is typically limited. Thus, this compound type arguably remains underexplored within drug discovery. Herein, we report a modular strategy for the synthesis of novel and biologically interesting triazole-bridged flavonoid heterodimers and also very rare heterotrimers from readily available starting materials. Application of this strategy has enabled step-efficient and systematic access to a library of structurally diverse compounds of this sort, with a variety of monomer units belonging to six different structural subclasses of flavonoid successfully incorporated.

  16. δ-Peptides from RuAAC-Derived 1,5-Disubstituted Triazole Units

    KAUST Repository

    Johansson, Johan R.; Hermansson, Elin; Nordé n, Bengt; Kann, Nina; Beke-Somfai, Tamá s

    2014-01-01

    of non-natural peptides composed of 1,5-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazole amino acids is presented. These peptides benefit from: a) modular synthesis of the monomers, allowing variation of the side chains; b) increased solubility of the oligomers in water

  17. Investigation on silver complexes of novel 1,2,3-triazole linked ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The novel derivatives of 1,2,3-triazole linked crown ethers were investigated towards silver(I) ion coordination. The NMR measurements in deuterated methanol in different ratios of ligand and silver cation were studied. The experiments were performed in order to examine the way of binding Ag(I) ion by the ...

  18. A triazole derivative as a new acid-base indicator | Numan Bulut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1,2,4-triazole-5-on (BPNBAT), soluble in acetonitrile:water (1:4), was developed. The estimation of pH is possible either from the position of the absorption maxima or from the absorbance intensity at a constant wavelength. This feature allowed ...

  19. Rh-catalyzed Transannulation of N-Tosyl-1,2,3-Triazoles with Terminal Alkynes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Buddhadeb; Gevorgyan, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    The first transannulation of 1,2,3-triazoles with terminal alkynes into pyrroles is reported. The reaction proceeds in the presence of Rh2(oct)4/AgOCOCF3 binary catalyst system providing a straightforward approach to 1,2,4-trisubstituted pyrroles in good to excellent yields. PMID:21692488

  20. Screening the efficient biological prospects of triazole allied mixed ligand metal complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utthra, Ponnukalai Ponya; Kumaravel, Ganesan; Raman, Natarajan

    2017-12-01

    Triazole appended mixed ligand complexes (1-8) of the general formula [ML (bpy/phen)2]Cl2, where M = Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II), L = triazole appended Schiff base (E)sbnd N-(4-nitrobenzylidene)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-amine and bpy/phen = 2,2‧-bipyridine/1,10-phenanthroline, have been synthesized. The design and synthesis of this elaborate ligand has been performed with the aim of increasing stability and conjugation of 1,2,4 triazole, whose Schiff base derivatives are known as biologically active compounds thereby exploring their DNA binding affinity and other biological applications. The compounds have been comprehensively characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopic methods (IR, UV-Vis, EPR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy), ESI mass spectrometry and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The complexes were found to exhibit octahedral geometry. The complexes 1-8 were subjected to DNA binding techniques evaluated using UV-Vis absorption, CV, CD, Fluorescence spectroscopy and hydrodynamic measurements. Complex 5 showed a Kb value of 3.9 × 105 M-1. The DNA damaging efficacy for the complexes was observed to be high compared to the ligand. The antimicrobial screening of the compounds against bacterial and fungal strains indicates that the complexes possess excellent antimicrobial activity than the ligand. The overall biological activity of the complexes with phen as a co-ligand possessed superior potential than the ligand.

  1. Synthesis and reactivity ratios of regioisomeric vinyl-1,2,3-triazoles with styrene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lartey, M; Gillissen, M.A.J.; Adzima, B.J.; Takizawa, K.; Luebke, D.R.; Nulwala, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    The free radical reactivity ratios between styrene and different vinyl-1,2,3-triazole regioisomeric monomers in 1,4-dioxane at 65 degrees C have been established using nonlinear least square method. The results obtained for the reactivity ratio between regioisomers show exceptionally different

  2. Synthesis of N-(5-(Substitutedphenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-yl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-amine from 4-Amino-4H-1,2,4-triazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvin D. Panchal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available N-(4H-1,2,4-Triazol-4-ylacetamide (2 were prepared by reaction of 4-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazole (1 with acetyl chloride in dry benzene. It has been reacted with various aromatic aldehyde to afford 3-(substitutedphenyl-N-(4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-ylacrylamide (3a-e. The synthesis of N-(5-substitutedphenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-yl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-amine (4a-e is achieved by the cyclisation of 3a-e with hydrazine hydrate in ethanol. The structures of synthesized compounds were characterized by 1H NMR and IR spectroscopic studies. The purity of the compounds was checked by thin layer chromatography.

  3. Low-airflow drying of fungicide-treated shelled corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, W.H.; Benson, P.W.

    1993-02-01

    Approved fungicides inhibit mold growth in shelled corn and allow for longer, natural-air drying. The longer drying periods permit lower than-normal airflows and smaller power units, thus reducing electrical demands on utilities in corn-producing states. Researchers placed approximately 67 m 3 (1900 bu) of one variety of shelled corn at approximately 24% moisture in each of five equally sized storage bins. They partitioned each bin vertically and filled one half of each bin with fungicide-treated corn and one half with untreated corn. Each of four bins used a different airflow. A fifth bin used the lowest of the four airflows but was equipped to capture and use solar energy. All corn dried rapidly with resulting good quality. The percentage of damaged kernels was significantly higher for untreated than for treated corn. The energy required for the lowest airflow system was approximately one half of that required for the higher, more traditional airflows. Because of lower-than-normal airflows, the electrical demand on the utility is approximately one fourth as great as that imposed when the higher, more traditional natural-air systems are used. The 1991 corn growing and drying seasons were unusual in central Illinois, the site of the study. Both harvest and drying occurred several weeks ahead of schedule. Additional work is needed to verify that findings hold true during more-normal Midwest corn growing and drying seasons; the investigators predict that they will. It should be noted that the fungicide used in this study has not yet been approved for widespread use in drying corn

  4. Conversion of the fungicide, ziram in rice plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumarasamy, R.; Raghu, K.

    1976-01-01

    Zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate (ziram) is a toliar fungicide used for the control of the blast disease of rice caused by Pyricularia oryzae, and is also used for the control of the plant diseases in crops like groundnut, cotton, etc. Since there is lack of data on the conversion products of this fungicide. This investigation was carried out. The results of the author's recent studies with 35 S-labelled ziram in rice seedlings were reported. The 35 S-Labelled ziram (specific activity 1.5 m Ci/m mole) was sprayed on the rice seedlings of 25 days old. At different intervals of time, the seedlings were removed, washed thoroughly, cut into pieces, and extracted with 80% ethanol. By the method described in ''K. Raghu et al., Origin and fate of chemical residents in food, agriculture and fisheries, I.A.E.A., Vienna, 1975, pp. 137-148,'' the segments corresponding to the standards of dimethyl dithio carbamate-alanine (DDCA), DDC-glucoside (DDCG), thiazolidine-2-thione-4-carbamic acid (TTCA), unidentified divolent fungicide (X), and ziram were cut out and the radioactivity was counted in cocktail D scintillation fluid using an LS-100 Beckmann liquid scintillation counter. It is indeed interesting to note that ziram is converted in plant tissues into dimethyldithiocarbamate derivatives like DDCG, DDCA, TTCA and X within 24 hr after spraying. The amounts of these derivatives varied in the course of sampling up to 8 days after spraying. Further studies are needed as to the quantitative nature of these products, but the present report clearly demonstrates the formation of these conversion products in the rice leaves treated with ziram. (Kobatake, H.)

  5. Simple and Efficient Synthesis of Racemic 2-(tert-Butoxycarbon-ylamino-2-methyl-3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylpropanoic Acid, a New Derivative of β-(1,2,4-Triazol-1-ylalanine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelali Kerbal

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple synthetic approach to racemic N-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-2-methyl-3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylalanine (5 in four steps and 68% overall yield starting from oxazoline derivative 1 is reported. This synthesis involves the alkylation of 1H-1,2,4-triazole with an O-tosyloxazoline derivative, followed by an oxazoline ring-opening reaction and oxidation of the N-protected β‑aminoalcohol by potassium permanganate.

  6. FUNGICIDAL PROPERTIES OF ARTEMISIA AROMATIC PLANTS TOWARDS FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivashchenko Iryna Vіctorovna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article establishes the fungicidal activity of water extracts of Artemisia maritimа L., Artemisia austriaca Jacq., under the concentration of 100, 50 and 25 mg/ml on dry matter with regard to the phytopathogenic mushroom Fusarium oxysporum. It also shows the fungistatic influence of extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. under concentration 25 and 50 mg/ml, fungicidal – under 100 mg/ml. Concerning Artemisia abrotanum L., the slow growth of mushroom is observed under the concentration 25 mg/ml, fungicidal effect – under 50 and 100 mg/ml. The paper provides the information on the component composition of ethereal oil and phenolic compounds of Artemisia maritimа, Artemisia austriaca, Artemisia abrotanum, Artemisia dracunculus, cultivated in Zhytomyr Polissya. The chief ingredients of ethereal oil which is synthesized by the plant of Artemisia abrotanum are 1,8-cineole (30.44% and camphor (31.92%. A high 1,8-cineole and camphor content determines antimicrobial properties of the plants. Amount of phenolic compounds in the air-dry raw Artemisia abrotanum is 2.98 percent. By the method of highly efficient solution chromatography (HESChr in the grass of Artemisia abrotanum we have detected 23 phenolic compounds, of which we identified such flavonoids as rutin, luteolin-7-glycoside as well as caffeic, chlorogenic and isochlorogenic acids. The main compounds of ethereal oil of Artemisia austriaca are trans-verbenole (30.77 %, pinocarvone (10.77 % and sabinilacetate (18.16 %. In the grass of Artemisia austriaca we have detected 31 phenolic compounds, of which we identified such flavonoids as rutin, apigenin, quercetin-bioside and the following acids: caffeic, chlorogenic, and isochlorogenic. Amount of phenolic compounds in the air-dry raw Austrian wormwood is 27.25 mg / g (2.73 %. The main component of ethereal oil of Artemisia dracunculus is methyleugenol (94.65 %. We have discovered 31 phenolic compounds in the grass of linear-leaved wormwood

  7. Synthesis of Some New 1,3,4-Thiadiazole, Thiazole and Pyridine Derivatives Containing 1,2,3-Triazole Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia A. Abdelriheem

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 1-(5-Methyl-1-(p-tolyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-ylethan-1-one, was reacted with Thiosemicarbazide, alkyl carbodithioate and benzaldehyde to give thiosemicarbazone, alkylidenehydrazinecarbodithioate and 3-phenylprop-2-en-1-one-1,2,3-triazole derivatives. The 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives containing the 1,2,3-triazole moiety were obtained via reaction of alkylidenecarbodithioate with hydrazonoyl halides. Also, hydrazonoyl halides were reacted with thiosemicarbazone and pyrazolylthioamide to give 1,3-thiazoles derivatives. Subsequently, 3-phenyl2-en-1-one was used to synthesize substituted pyridines and substituted nicotinic acid ester. The latter was converted to its azide compound which was reacted with aromatic amines and phenol to give substituted urea and phenylcarbamate containing 1,2,3-triazole moiety. The newly synthesized compounds were established by elemental analysis, spectral data and alternative synthesis whenever possible.

  8. Crystal structure of 1-methoxy-5-methyl-N-phenyl-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna S. Khazhieva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C11H12N4O2,was prepared via the transformation of sodium 4-acetyl-1-phenyl-1H-[1.2.3]triazolate under the action of methoxyamine hydrochloride. The dihedral angle between the triazole and phenyl rings is 25.12 (16° and the C atom of the methoxy group deviates from the triazole plane by 0.894 (4Å. The conformation of the CONHR-group is consolodated by an intramolecular N—H...N hydrogen bond to an N-atom of the triazole ring, which closes an S(5 ring. In the crystal, weak N—H...N hydrogen bonds link the molecules into C(6 [010] chains.

  9. An evaluation of some fungicides in the management of fruit and leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four fungicide treatments viz Ben late (Benomyl), Cupravit (Copper oxychloride), Dithane M45 (Mancozeb), and. Ben late alternated with Dithane M45 were applied to control P!laeoramularia angolensi~ In a block of the variety. "Valencia" in the citrus orchard at Kiige, Uganda. No fungicide was applied to the control.

  10. Effectiveness of Fungicide on Soybean Rust in the Southeastern United States: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Delaney

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Soybean rust (SBR, caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow, has been of concern to soybean (Glycine max Merrill growers in the southern United States since its introduction in 2004. As this fungus develops, pustules become numerous on the underside of leaves, which then turn yellow and drop prematurely, resulting in fewer pods, and poorly developed seeds. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of fungicide use in controlling SBR by conducting a meta-analysis of 61 published and unpublished trials across the southern United States from 2004 to 2014. We analyzed fungicide efficacy based on factors such as specific classes of fungicide, active ingredients, number of fungicide applications, target growth stage upon initial application, level of disease pressure, and year of the study. Fungicides significantly increased yield and 100-seed weight and decreased the severity of SBR. The means of SBR severity, yield, and 100-seed weight in fungicide-treated plants were 9% (95% confidence interval: 2%, 21%, 128% (121%, 135%, and 121% (116%, 128%, respectively, of those calculated in the control plants. By using meta-analysis to analyze fungicide efficacy across multiple field trials, we were able to determine that one application of a strobilurin fungicide when plants were either beginning pod development (R3 or developing seeds (R5 was the most cost-effective approach to controlling SBR and increasing 100-seed weight.

  11. Activity of two strobilurin fungicides against three species of decay fungi in agar plate tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliet D. Tang; Tina Ciaramitaro; Maria Tomaso-Peterson; Susan V. Diehl

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the toxicity of strobilurin fungicides against wood decay fungi in order to assess their potential to act as a co-biocide for copper-based wood protection. Two strobilurin fungicides, Heritage (50% azoxystrobin active ingredient) and Insignia (20% pyraclostrobin active ingredients), and copper sulfate pentahydrate were tested...

  12. Effectiveness of fungicides in protecting Douglas-fir shoots from infection by Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.A. Chastagner; E.M. Hansen; K.L. Riley; W. Sutton

    2006-01-01

    The effectiveness of 20 systemic and contact fungicides in protecting Douglas-fir seedlings from infection by Phytophthora ramorum was determined. Some systemic products were applied about a week prior to bud break, while most treatments were applied just after bud break. In addition to the fungicides, two surfactants were included in the post-bud...

  13. The effect of using a fungicide along with bactericide in the main ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    quarternized compounds), and a fungicide (2-thiocyanomethylthio benzothiazole based) commonly used in Turkish leather industry were chosen. The bactericides were added into the main soaking float with and without different concentrations of fungicide. In each trial, liquor samples were taken at the end of the main ...

  14. Effects of azole fungicides on the function of sex and thyroid hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærstad, Mia Birkhøj; Andersen, Helle Raun; Taxvig, Camilla

    Azole-fungicides are frequently used in Denmark. Epoxiconazole, propiconazole, and tebuconazole had endocrine disrupting properties in cell based assays. In rats, epoxiconazole and tebuconazole increased gestational length, maternal progesterone level, and masculinized female-offspring. Besides, ......, tebuconazole caused feminization of male-offspring. Similar effects were previously demonstrated for prochloraz. The results indicate that azole-fungicides in general have endocrine disrupting properties....

  15. Effects of Oral Exposure to Fungicides on Honey Bee Nutrition and Virus Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Chen, Yanping; Watkins Dejong, Emily; Chambers, Mona L; Hidalgo, Geoffrey

    2015-12-01

    Sublethal exposure to fungicides can affect honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in ways that resemble malnutrition. These include reduced brood rearing, queen loss, and increased pathogen levels. We examined the effects of oral exposure to the fungicides boscalid and pyraclostrobin on factors affecting colony nutrition and immune function including pollen consumption, protein digestion, hemolymph protein titers, and changes in virus levels. Because the fungicides are respiratory inhibitors, we also measured ATP concentrations in flight muscle. The effects were evaluated in 3- and 7-d-old worker bees at high fungicide concentrations in cage studies, and at field-relevant concentrations in colony studies. Though fungicide levels differed greatly between the cage and colony studies, similar effects were observed. Hemolymph protein concentrations were comparable between bees feeding on pollen with and without added fungicides. However, in both cage and colony studies, bees consumed less pollen containing fungicides and digested less of the protein. Bees fed fungicide-treated pollen also had lower ATP concentrations and higher virus titers. The combination of effects we detected could produce symptoms that are similar to those from poor nutrition and weaken colonies making them more vulnerable to loss from additional stressors such as parasites and pathogens. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Acute toxicity of Headline® fungicide to Blanchard's cricket frogs (Acris blanchardi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusaac, J Patrick W; Morrison, Shane A; Belden, Jason B; Smith, Loren M; McMurry, Scott T

    2016-04-01

    Previous laboratory studies have suggested that pyraclostrobin-containing fungicide formulations are toxic to amphibians at environmentally relevant concentrations. However, it is unknown if all pyraclostrobin formulations have similar toxicity and if toxicity occurs in different amphibian species. We investigated the acute toxicity of two formulations, Headline(®) fungicide and Headline AMP(®) fungicide, to Blanchard's cricket frogs (Acris blanchardi) based on a direct overspray scenario. In addition, we examined body residues of fungicide active ingredients in A. blanchardi following direct exposure to Headline AMP fungicide. Headline fungicide and Headline AMP fungicide had similar toxicity to A. blanchardi with calculated median lethal doses of 2.1 and 1.7 µg pyraclostrobin/cm(2), respectively, which are similar to the suggested maximum label rate in North American corn (2.2 and 1.52 µg pyraclostrobin/cm(2), respectively). Tissue concentrations of pyraclostrobin were lower than predicted based on full uptake of a direct dose, and did not drop during the first 24 h after exposure. Headline fungicides at corn application rates are acutely toxic to cricket frogs, but acute toxicity in the field will depend on worst-case exposure.

  17. Evaluating Headline fungicide on alfalfa production and sensitivity of pathogens to pyraclostrobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headline fungicide was recently registered for management of foliar diseases on alfalfa. The effect of disease control on yield, forage quality, and potential return on investment for fungicide application was determined for field experiments conducted at five locations in 2012, three in Wisconsin a...

  18. [Effect of five fungicides on growth of Glycyrrhiza uralensis and efficiency of mycorrhizal symbiosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng-ying; Yang, Guang; Zhou, Xiu-teng; Zhou, Liane-yun; Shao, Ai-juan; Chen, Mei-lan

    2015-12-01

    In order to obtain the fungicides with minimal impact on efficiency of mycorrhizal symbiosis, the effect of five fungicides including polyoxins, jinggangmycins, thiophanate methylate, chlorothalonil and carbendazim on the growth of medicinal plant and efficiency of mycorrhizal symbiosis were studied. Pot cultured Glycyrrhiza uralensis was treated with different fungicides with the concentration that commonly used in the field. 60 d after treated with fungicides, infection rate, infection density, biomass indexes, photosyn- thetic index and the content of active component were measured. Experimental results showed that carbendazim had the strongest inhibition on mycorrhizal symbiosis effect. Carbendazim significantly inhibited the mycorrhizal infection rate, significantly suppressed the actual photosynthetic efficiency of G. uralensis and the most indicators of biomass. Polyoxins showed the lowest inhibiting affection. Polyoxins had no significant effect on mycorrhizal infection rate, the actual photosynthetic efficiency of G. uralensis and the most indicators of biomass. The other three fungicides also had an inhibitory effect on efficiency of mycorrhizal symbiosis, and the inhibition degrees were all between polyoxins's and carbendazim's. The author considered that fungicide's inhibition degree on mycorrhizal effect might be related with the species of fungicides, so the author suggested that the farmer should try to choose bio-fungicides like polyoxins.

  19. Analgesic Activity of Some 1,2,4-Triazole Heterocycles Clubbed with Pyrazole, Tetrazole, Isoxazole and Pyrimidine

    OpenAIRE

    Gajanan Khanage, Shantaram; Raju, Appala; Baban Mohite, Popat; Bhanudas Pandhare, Ramdas

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In the present study in vivo analgesic activity of some previously synthesized 1,2,4-triazole derivatives containing pyrazole, tetrazole, isoxazole and pyrimidine ring have been evaluated. Methods: Acetic acid induced writhing method and Hot plate method has been described to study analgesic activity of some 1,2,4-triazole derivatives containing pyrazole, tetrazole, isoxazole and pyrimidine as a pharmacological active lead. Results: Thirty six different derivatives con...

  20. Toxicity, sublethal effects, and potential modes of action of select fungicides on freshwater fish and invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elskus, Adria A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite decades of agricultural and urban use of fungicides and widespread detection of these pesticides in surface waters, relatively few data are available on the effects of fungicides on fish and invertebrates in the aquatic environment. Nine fungicides are reviewed in this report: azoxystrobin, boscalid, chlorothalonil, fludioxonil, myclobutanil, fenarimol, pyraclostrobin, pyrimethanil, and zoxamide. These fungicides were identified as emerging chemicals of concern because of their high or increasing global use rates, detection frequency in surface waters, or likely persistence in the environment. A review of the literature revealed significant sublethal effects of fungicides on fish, aquatic invertebrates, and ecosystems, including zooplankton and fish reproduction, fish immune function, zooplankton community composition, metabolic enzymes, and ecosystem processes, such as leaf decomposition in streams, among other biological effects. Some of these effects can occur at fungicide concentrations well below single-species acute lethality values (48- or 96-hour concentration that effects a response in 50 percent of the organisms, that is, effective concentration killing 50 percent of the organisms in 48 or 96 hours) and chronic sublethal values (for example, 21-day no observed adverse effects concentration), indicating that single-species toxicity values may dramatically underestimate the toxic potency of some fungicides. Fungicide modes of toxic action in fungi can sometimes reflect the biochemical and (or) physiological effects of fungicides observed in vertebrates and invertebrates; however, far more studies are needed to explore the potential to predict effects in nontarget organisms based on specific fungicide modes of toxic action. Fungicides can also have additive and (or) synergistic effects when used with other fungicides and insecticides, highlighting the need to study pesticide mixtures that occur in surface waters. For fungicides that partition to

  1. Emerging resistance against different fungicides in Lasiodiplodia theobromae, the cause of mango dieback in Pakistan

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    Rehman ur Ateeq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dieback of mango caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae is among several diseases responsible for low crop production in Pakistan. To further complicate the issue, resistance in L. theobromae is emerging against different fungicides. L. theobromae was isolated from diseased samples of mango plants collected from various orchards in the Multan District. The efficacy of different fungicides viz. copper oxychloride, diethofencarb, pyrachlostrobin, carbendazim, difenoconazole, mancozeb, and thiophanate-methyl was evaluated in vitro using a poison food technique. Thiophanate-methyl at all concentrations was found to be the most effective among five systemic fungicides against L. theobromae, followed by carbendazim, difenoconazole and diethofencarb. The fungicides, i.e., thiophanate-methyl, difenoconazole, carbendazim and diethofencarb showed maximum efficacy with increasing concentration. The isolates of L. theobromae showed some resistance development against the tested fungicides when compared with previous work. These investigations provide new information about chemical selection for the control of holistic disease in mango growing zones of Pakistan.

  2. Are 1,4- and 1,5-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles good pharmacophoric groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarotti, Alberto; Aprile, Silvio; Mercalli, Valentina; Del Grosso, Erika; Grosa, Giorgio; Sorba, Giovanni; Tron, Gian Cesare

    2014-11-01

    Over the last decade, 1,2,3-triazoles have received increasing attention in medicinal chemistry thanks to the discovery of the highly useful and widely applicable 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between azides and alkynes (click chemistry) catalyzed by copper salts and ruthenium complexes. After a decade of medicinal chemistry research on 1,2,3-triazoles, we feel that the time is ripe to demonstrate the real ability of this heterocycle to participate in important and pivotal binding interactions with biological targets while maintaining a good pharmacokinetic profile. In this study, we retrieved and analyzed X-ray crystal structures of complexes between 1,2,3-triazoles and either proteins or DNA to understand the pharmacophoric role of the triazole. Furthermore, the metabolic stability, the capacity to inhibit cytochromes, and the contribution of 1,2,3-triazoles to the overall aqueous solubility of compounds containing them have been analyzed. This information should furnish fresh insight for medicinal chemists in the design of novel bioactive molecules that contain the triazole nucleus. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Sustained release of fungicide metalaxyl by mesoporous silica nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanyika, Harrison, E-mail: hwanyika@gmail.com [Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Department of Chemistry (Kenya)

    2013-08-15

    The use of nanomaterials for the controlled delivery of pesticides is nascent technology that has the potential to increase the efficiency of food production and decrease pollution. In this work, the prospect of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) for storage and controlled release of metalaxyl fungicide has been investigated. Mesoporous silica nanospheres with average particle diameters of 162 nm and average pore sizes of 3.2 nm were prepared by a sol-gel process. Metalaxyl molecules were loaded into MSN pores from an aqueous solution by a rotary evaporation method. The loaded amount of metalaxyl as evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis was about 14 wt%. Release of the fungicide entrapped in the MSN matrix revealed sustained release behavior. About 76 % of the free metalaxyl was released in soil within a period of 30 days while only 11.5 and 47 % of the metalaxyl contained in the MSN carrier was released in soil and water, respectively, within the same period. The study showed that MSN can be used to successfully store metalaxyl molecules in its mesoporous framework and significantly delay their release in soil.

  4. Grape berry bacterial inhibition by different copper fungicides

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    Martins Guilherme

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper fungicides are widely used in viticulture. Due to its large spectrum of action, copper provides an efficient control over a great number of vine pathogens. Previous studies showed that, high levels of cupric residues can impact grape-berry microbiota, in terms of the size and population structure, reducing the diversity and the abundance. Due to the importance of grape-berry bacterial in crop health, and the potential impact of copper fungicides over the microbiota, we determined Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of different copper formulations for bacterial species isolated from grape berries. We study the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of different copper formulations (copper sulphate (CuSO4 pure, Bordeaux mixture (CuSO4 + Ca(OH2, copper oxide (Cu2O, copper hydroxide (Cu(OH2 over 92 bacterial strains isolated from grape berries in different stages of the ripening process. The results of MIC measurements revealed that the different copper formulations have a variable inhibitory effect and among the different isolates, some species are the most resistant to all copper formulations than others. This study confirm that usage of cupric phytosanitary products should be reasonable independently of the farming system; they also provide evidence of the importance of the choice of which copper formulations are to be used regarding their impact on the grape berry bacterial microbiota.

  5. Design, Synthesis and Fungicidal Activities of Some Novel Pyrazole Derivatives

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    Xue-Ru Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to discover new compounds with good fungicidal activities, 32 pyrazole derivatives were designed and synthesized. The structures of the target compounds were confirmed by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS, and their fungicidal activities against Botrytis cinerea, Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, Valsa mali Miyabe et Yamada, Thanatephorus cucumeris (Frank Donk, Fusarium oxysporum (S-chl f.sp. cucumerinum Owen, and Fusarium graminearum Schw were tested. The bioassay results indicated that most of the derivatives exhibited considerable antifungal activities, especially compound 26 containing a p-trifluoromethyl- phenyl moiety showed the highest activity, with EC50 values of 2.432, 2.182, 1.787, 1.638, 6.986, and 6.043 μg/mL against B. cinerea, R. solani, V. mali, T. cucumeris, F. oxysporum, and F. graminearum, respectively. Moreover, the activities of compounds such as compounds 27–32 were enhanced by introducing isothiocyanate and carboxamide moieties to the 5-position of the pyrazole ring.

  6. Botrytis cinerea Control and the Problem of Fungicide Resistance

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    Brankica Tanović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of grey mould, greatly affects fruit, grapevine, vegetable and ornamental crops production. It is a common causal agent of diseases in plants grown in protected areas, as well as fruit decay during storage and transport. The fungusinvades almost all parts of the plant in all developmental stages, and the symptoms are usually described as grey mould, grey mildew, brown rot and seedling blight. The paper reviews the current knowledge on control possibilities of this necrotrophic pathogen. Theattention is particularly paid to the mode of action of novel fungicides and to the problem of resistance. It is pointed out that by limiting the number of treatments in the growing season, avoiding the use of only one fungicide with a high risk for resistance development,appropriate application rate and timing, using mixtures of pesticides with different modes of action, as well as by alternative use of pesticides from different resistance groups, a longterm preservation of pesticide efficacy is provided.

  7. Selective effects of two systemic fungicides on soil fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, H M; Abdel-Kader, M I; Hamida, S

    1982-08-20

    BAS 317 00F was not toxic to the total count of fungi after 2 days but was regularly significantly toxic at the three doses after 5, 20 and 40 days and toxic at the low and the high doses after 80 days. In the agar medium, it was toxic to the counts of total fungi. Aspergillus, A. terreus, Rhizopus oryzae and Mucor racemosus at the high dose. Only the mycelial growth of Trichoderma viride which was significantly inhibited by the three doses when this fungicide was added to the liquid medium. Polyram-Combi induced two effects on the total population of soil fungi. One inhibitory and this was demonstrated almost regularly after 2, 10 and 40 days and the other stimulatory after 80 days of treatment with the low and the high doses. In the agar medium, this fungicide was very toxic to total fungi and to almost all fungal genera and species at the three doses. Several fungi could survive the high dose. In liquid medium, the test fungi showed variable degree of sensitivity and the most sensitive was Gliocladium roseum which was completely eradicated by the three doses.

  8. Sustained release of fungicide metalaxyl by mesoporous silica nanospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanyika, Harrison

    2013-01-01

    The use of nanomaterials for the controlled delivery of pesticides is nascent technology that has the potential to increase the efficiency of food production and decrease pollution. In this work, the prospect of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) for storage and controlled release of metalaxyl fungicide has been investigated. Mesoporous silica nanospheres with average particle diameters of 162 nm and average pore sizes of 3.2 nm were prepared by a sol–gel process. Metalaxyl molecules were loaded into MSN pores from an aqueous solution by a rotary evaporation method. The loaded amount of metalaxyl as evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis was about 14 wt%. Release of the fungicide entrapped in the MSN matrix revealed sustained release behavior. About 76 % of the free metalaxyl was released in soil within a period of 30 days while only 11.5 and 47 % of the metalaxyl contained in the MSN carrier was released in soil and water, respectively, within the same period. The study showed that MSN can be used to successfully store metalaxyl molecules in its mesoporous framework and significantly delay their release in soil

  9. Dipping Strawberry Plants in Fungicides before Planting to Control Anthracnose

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    Myeong Hyeon Nam

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose crown rot (ACR, caused by Colletotrichum fructicola, is a serious disease of strawberry in Korea. The primary inoculums of ACR were symptomless strawberry plants, plant debris, and other host plants. To effectively control anthracnose in symptomless transplanted strawberries, it is necessary to use diseasefree plants, detect the disease early, and apply a fungicide. Therefore, in 2010 and 2011, we evaluated the efficacy of pre-plant fungicide dips by using strawberry transplants infected by C. fructicola for the control of anthracnose. Dipping plants in prochloraz-Mn for 10 min before planting was most effective for controlling anthracnose in symptomless strawberry plants and resulted in more than 76% control efficacy. Azoxystrobin showed a control efficacy of over 40%, but plants treated with pyraclostrobin, mancozeb and iminoctadine tris showed high disease severity. The control efficacy of the dip treatment with prochloraz-Mn did not differ with temperature and time. Treatment with prochloraz-Mn for more than an hour caused growth suppression in strawberry plants. Therefore, the development of anthracnose can be effectively reduced by dipping strawberry plants for 10 min in prochloraz-Mn before planting.

  10. Assessment of spent mushroom substrate as sorbent of fungicides: influence of sorbent and sorbate properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Benito, Jesús M; Rodríguez-Cruz, M Sonia; Andrades, M Soledad; Sánchez-Martín, María J

    2012-01-01

    The capacity of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) as a sorbent of fungicides was evaluated for its possible use in regulating pesticide mobility in the environment. The sorption studies involved four different SMS types in terms of nature and treatment and eight fungicides selected as representative compounds from different chemical groups. Nonlinear sorption isotherms were observed for all SMS-fungicide combinations. The highest sorption was obtained by composted SMS from Agaricus bisporus cultivation. A significant negative and positive correlation was obtained between the K(OC) sorption constants and the polarity index values of sorbents and the K(OW) of fungicides, respectively. The statistic revealed that more than 77% of the variability in the K(OW) could be explained considering these properties jointly. The other properties of both the sorbent (total carbon, dissolved organic carbon, or pH) and the sorbate (water solubility) were nonsignificant. The hysteresis values for cyprodinil (log K(OW)= 4) were for all the sorbents much higher (>3) than for other fungicides. This was consistent with the remaining sorption after desorption considered as an indicator of the sorption efficiency of SMS for fungicides. Changes in the absorption bands of fungicides sorbed by SMS observed by FTIR permitted establishing the interaction mechanism of fungicides with SMS. The findings of this work provide evidence for the potential capacity of SMS as a sorbent of fungicides and the low desorption observed especially for some fungicides, although they suggest that more stabilized or humified organic substrates should be produced to enhance their efficiency in environmental applications. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  11. Colorimetric sensing of iodide based on triazole-acetamide functionalized gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, I-Lin; Sung, Yi-Ming; Wu, Shu-Pao; Wu, Chien-Hou

    2014-01-01

    We have modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with triazole acetamide to obtain a material for the sensitive and selective colorimetric determination of iodide. The functionalized AuNPs were prepared by a reductive single chemical step using a Cu(I)-catalyzed click reaction. The presence of iodide ions induces the aggregation of these AuNPs and results in a color change from wine-red to purple. The iodide-induced aggregation can be detected visually with bare eyes, but also by photometry. The detection limit is as low as 15 nM. The method displays excellent selectivity for iodide over other anions due to the selective interaction with the amido groups of the triazole. The method was applied to the determination of iodide in spiked lake waters. (author)

  12. Design, synthesis, and antifungal activities of novel triazole derivatives containing the benzyl group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu K

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Kehan Xu,1,* Lei Huang,1,* Zheng Xu,2 Yanwei Wang,1,3 Guojing Bai,1 Qiuye Wu,1 Xiaoyan Wang,1 Shichong Yu,1 Yuanying Jiang1 1School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 2Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 3Number 422 Hospital of PLA, Zhanjiang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: In previous studies undertaken by our group, a series of 1-(1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-yl-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl-3-substituted-2-propanols (1a–r, which were analogs of fluconazole, was designed and synthesized by click chemistry. In the study reported here, the in vitro antifungal activities of all the target compounds were evaluated against eight human pathogenic fungi. Compounds 1a, 1q, and 1r showed the more antifungal activity than the others. Keywords: triazole, synthesis, antifungal activity, CYP51

  13. Triazole: a unique building block for the construction of functional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juríček, Michal; Kouwer, Paul H J; Rowan, Alan E

    2011-08-21

    Over the past 50 years, numerous roads towards carbon-based materials have been explored, all of them being paved using mainly one functional group as the brick: acetylene. The acetylene group, or the carbon-carbon triple bond, is one of the oldest and simplest functional groups in chemistry, and although not present in any of the naturally occurring carbon allotropes, it is an essential tool to access their synthetic carbon-rich family. In general, two strategies towards the synthesis of π-conjugated carbon-rich structures can be employed: (a) either the acetylene group serves as a building block to access acetylene-derived structures or (b) it serves as a synthetic tool to provide other, usually benzenoid, structures. The recently discovered copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction, however, represents a new powerful alternative: it transforms the acetylene group into a five-membered heteroaromatic 1H-1,2,3-triazole (triazole) ring and this gives rise to new opportunities. Compared with all-carbon aromatic non-functional rings, the triazole ring possesses three nitrogen atoms and, thus, can serve as a ligand to coordinate metals, or as a hydrogen bond acceptor and donor. This Feature Article summarises examples of using the triazole ring to construct conjugation- and/or function-related heteroaromatic materials, such as tuneable multichromophoric covalent ensembles, macrocyclic receptors or responsive foldamers. These recent examples, which open a new sub-field within organic materials, started to appear only few years ago and represent "a few more bricks" on the road to carbon-rich functional materials. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  14. Spread of Botrytis cinerea Strains with Multiple Fungicide Resistance in German Horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Sabrina; Weber, Roland W S; Rieger, Daniel; Detzel, Peter; Hahn, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a major plant pathogen, causing gray mold rot in a variety of cultures. Repeated fungicide applications are common but have resulted in the development of fungal populations with resistance to one or more fungicides. In this study, we have monitored fungicide resistance frequencies and the occurrence of multiple resistance in Botrytis isolates from raspberries, strawberries, grapes, stone fruits and ornamental flowers in Germany in 2010 to 2015. High frequencies of resistance to all classes of botryticides was common in all cultures, and isolates with multiple fungicide resistance represented a major part of the populations. A monitoring in a raspberry field over six seasons revealed a continuous increase in resistance frequencies and the emergence of multiresistant Botrytis strains. In a cherry orchard and a vineyard, evidence of the immigration of multiresistant strains from the outside was obtained. Inoculation experiments with fungicide-treated leaves in the laboratory and with strawberry plants cultivated in the greenhouse or outdoors revealed a nearly complete loss of fungicide efficacy against multiresistant strains. B. cinerea field strains carrying multiple resistance mutations against all classes of site-specific fungicides were found to show similar fitness as sensitive field strains under laboratory conditions, based on their vegetative growth, reproduction, stress resistance, virulence and competitiveness in mixed infection experiments. Our data indicate an alarming increase in the occurrence of multiresistance in B. cinerea populations from different cultures, which presents a major threat to the chemical control of gray mold.

  15. Evaluation of fungicides and biopesticides for the control of fusarium wilt of tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, T.; Iftikhar, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium wilt is highly destructive soil borne pathogen in tomato. Current study was carried out to evaluate commercially available fungicides and bio-fungicides in-vitro and in-vivo, for their efficacy against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. Firstly four fungicides were evaluated under laboratory conditions. Three promising fungicides, two biopesticides and Trichoderma harzianum were further applied both in greenhouse and field experiments. During in-vitro studies PDA amended with fungicides with different treatments at the rate 1% almost completely inhibited the growth of Fol with varying degree of success whereas Nativo being the most effective treatment with 98% reduction in growth as compared to control. Nativo significantly reduced the disease incidence (32.75 %) at concentration of 1%. While Poly-beta-hydroxyl-butyric-acid effectively promoted the tomato growth. Maximum reduction in disease (30.14 %) was expressed by Nativo followed by Teagro (25.06 %) under field conditions. Nativo was found to be the most effective fungicide for management of Fol both In vitro and In vivo. Further field evaluations of the fungicides are required. (author)

  16. Consequences of co-applying insecticides and fungicides for managing Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nault, Brian A; Hsu, Cynthia L; Hoepting, Christine A

    2013-07-01

    Insecticides and fungicides are commonly co-applied in a tank mix to protect onions from onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, and foliar pathogens. Co-applications reduce production costs, but past research shows that an insecticide's performance can be reduced when co-applied with a fungicide. An evaluation was made of the effects of co-applying spinetoram, abamectin and spirotetramat with commonly used fungicides, with and without the addition of a penetrating surfactant, on onion thrips control in onion fields. Co-applications of insecticides with chlorothalonil fungicides reduced thrips control by 25-48% compared with control levels provided by the insecticides alone in three of five trials. Inclusion of a penetrating surfactant at recommended rates with the insecticide and chlorothalonil fungicide did not consistently overcome this problem. Co-applications of insecticides with other fungicides did not interfere with thrips control. Co-applications of pesticides targeting multiple organisms should be examined closely to ensure that control of each organism is not compromised. To manage onion thrips in onion most effectively, insecticides should be applied with a penetrating surfactant, and should be applied separately from chlorothalonil fungicides. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Effects of Fungicides, Time of Application, and Application Method on Control of Sclerotinia Blight in Peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E. Woodward

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted from 2007 to 2010 to evaluate the response of peanut cultivars to different fungicides, application timings, and methods. Overall, fungicides reduced Sclerotinia blight incidence and increased pod yields when applied to susceptible and partially resistant cultivars. Disease suppression was greater when full fungicide rates were applied preventatively; however, yields between fungicide treated plots were similar. Lower levels of disease and higher yields were achieved with the partially resistant cultivar Tamrun OL07 compared to the susceptible cultivars Flavor Runner 458 and Tamrun OL 02. Despite possessing improved resistance Tamrun OL07 responded to all fungicide applications. While similar levels of disease control were achieved with broadcast or banded applications made during the day or at night, the yield response for the different application methods was inconsistent among years. A negative relationship (slope = −73.8; R2=0.73; P<0.01 was observed between final disease incidence ratings and yield data from studies where a fungicide response was observed. These studies suggest that both boscalid and fluazinam are effective at controlling Sclerotinia blight in peanuts. Alternative management strategies such as nighttime and banded applications could allow for lower fungicide rates to be used; however, additional studies are warranted.

  18. Evaluating Susceptibility to Commercial Fungicide of Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Roses (Rosa hybrida

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    Ingrid Carolina Corredor Perilla

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal endophytes have shown their potential as biocontrol agents; however, their application in commercial fields remains limited. Continuously applying fungicides to crops (specifically to roses may have harmful effects on endophyte growth. Endophytic fungi were isolated from R. hybrida and their susceptibility to fungicides regularly used for controlling important pathogens was analysed. This was performed in vitro, mixing several fungicide concentrations with standard medium for fungal endophytes; growth inhibition was then measured. The susceptibility of Botrytis cinerea (3015 strain, one of the most important pathogens affecting roses in Colombia, was also assessed using the same protocols. Active ingredients, such as boscalid, captan, iprodione and pyrimethanyl, showed susceptibility ranging from not sensitive (³73.75% to regularly sensitive (³48.75% - <61.25% for 45.45% of the fungal endophytes assessed. Endophytic fungi were highly susceptible to fungicides such as pyrimethanyl, carboxin plus thiram, fludioxonyl plus ciprodinyl and prochloraz. B. cinerea (3015 strain presented high susceptibility (<23.75% to fungicides such as pyrimethanyl, carboxin and thiram, fludioxonil and ciprodinyl, prochloraz. Although B. cinerea showed the greatest growth in controls, the endophytic fungi being assessed grew better in different media with fungicides. The results revealed some of these fungal endophytes’ potential for integrated pest management (IPM in roses in Colombia (3002, 3003, 3004, 3005 and 3006 strains, taking into account correct application time, application frequency and both fungal endophyte and fungicide dosage which may greatly limit fungal endophyte growth.

  19. Population density of Beauveria bassiana in soil under the action of fungicides and native microbial populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Barbosa Soares

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether populations of naturally-occurring soil bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes influence the effect of fungicides on the survival and growth of Beauveria bassiana. The toxicity of methyl thiophanate, pyraclostrobin, mancozeb and copper oxychloride at the recommended doses was analyzed in culture medium and in soil inoculated with fungus at various time points after addition of fungicides. All fungicides completely inhibited the growth and sporulation of B. bassiana in the culture medium. The fungicides were less toxic in soil, emphasizing the action of the microbial populations, which interfered with the toxic effects of these products to the fungus. Actinomycetes had the greatest influence on the entomopathogen, inhibiting it or degrading the fungicides to contribute to the survival and growth of B. bassiana in soil. Native populations of fungi and bacteria had a smaller influence on the population density of B. bassiana and the action of fungicides towards entomopathogen. The toxic effect of the fungicides was greater when added to the soil one hour before or after inoculation than at 48h after inoculation.

  20. Chemical management in fungicide sensivity of Mycosphaerella fijiensis collected from banana fields in México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Aguilar-Barragan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical management of the black leaf streak disease in banana caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis (Morelet requires numerous applications of fungicides per year. However this has led to fungicide resistance in the field. The present study evaluated the activities of six fungicides against the mycelial growth by determination of EC50 values of strains collected from fields with different fungicide management programs: Rustic management (RM without applications and Intensive management (IM more than 25 fungicide application/year. Results showed a decreased sensitivity to all fungicides in isolates collected from IM. Means of EC50 values in mg L-1 for RM and IM were: 13.25 ± 18.24 and 51.58 ± 46.14 for azoxystrobin, 81.40 ± 56.50 and 1.8575 ± 2.11 for carbendazim, 1.225 ± 0.945 and 10.01 ± 8.55 for propiconazole, 220 ± 67.66 vs. 368 ± 62.76 for vinclozolin, 9.862 ± 3.24 and 54.5 ± 21.08 for fludioxonil, 49.2125 ± 34.11 and 112.25 ± 51.20 for mancozeb. A molecular analysis for β-tubulin revealed a mutation at codon 198 in these strains having an EC50 greater than 10 mg L-1 for carbendazim. Our data indicate a consistency between fungicide resistance and intensive chemical management in banana fields, however indicative values for resistance were also found in strains collected from rustic fields, suggesting that proximity among fields may be causing a fungus interchange, where rustic fields are breeding grounds for development of resistant strains. Urgent actions are required in order to avoid fungicide resistance in Mexican populations of M. fijiensis due to fungicide management practices.

  1. Chemical management in fungicide sensitivity of Mycosphaerella fijiensis collected from banana fields in México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Barragan, Alejandra; García-Torres, Ana Elisa; Odriozola-Casas, Olga; Macedo-Raygoza, Gloria; Ogura, Tetsuya; Manzo-Sánchez, Gilberto; James, Andrew C; Islas-Flores, Ignacio; Beltrán-García, Miguel J

    2014-01-01

    The chemical management of the black leaf streak disease in banana caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis (Morelet) requires numerous applications of fungicides per year. However this has led to fungicide resistance in the field. The present study evaluated the activities of six fungicides against the mycelial growth by determination of EC50 values of strains collected from fields with different fungicide management programs: Rustic management (RM) without applications and Intensive management (IM) more than 25 fungicide application/year. Results showed a decreased sensitivity to all fungicides in isolates collected from IM. Means of EC50 values in mg L(-1) for RM and IM were: 13.25 ± 18.24 and 51.58 ± 46.14 for azoxystrobin, 81.40 ± 56.50 and 1.8575 ± 2.11 for carbendazim, 1.225 ± 0.945 and 10.01 ± 8.55 for propiconazole, 220 ± 67.66 vs. 368 ± 62.76 for vinclozolin, 9.862 ± 3.24 and 54.5 ± 21.08 for fludioxonil, 49.2125 ± 34.11 and 112.25 ± 51.20 for mancozeb. A molecular analysis for β-tubulin revealed a mutation at codon 198 in these strains having an EC50 greater than 10 mg L(-1) for carbendazim. Our data indicate a consistency between fungicide resistance and intensive chemical management in banana fields, however indicative values for resistance were also found in strains collected from rustic fields, suggesting that proximity among fields may be causing a fungus interchange, where rustic fields are breeding grounds for development of resistant strains. Urgent actions are required in order to avoid fungicide resistance in Mexican populations of M. fijiensis due to fungicide management practices.

  2. Chemical management in fungicide sensivity of Mycosphaerella fijiensis collected from banana fields in México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Barragan, Alejandra; García-Torres, Ana Elisa; Odriozola-Casas, Olga; Macedo-Raygoza, Gloria; Ogura, Tetsuya; Manzo-Sánchez, Gilberto; James, Andrew C.; Islas-Flores, Ignacio; Beltrán-García, Miguel J.

    2014-01-01

    The chemical management of the black leaf streak disease in banana caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis (Morelet) requires numerous applications of fungicides per year. However this has led to fungicide resistance in the field. The present study evaluated the activities of six fungicides against the mycelial growth by determination of EC50 values of strains collected from fields with different fungicide management programs: Rustic management (RM) without applications and Intensive management (IM) more than 25 fungicide application/year. Results showed a decreased sensitivity to all fungicides in isolates collected from IM. Means of EC50 values in mg L−1 for RM and IM were: 13.25 ± 18.24 and 51.58 ± 46.14 for azoxystrobin, 81.40 ± 56.50 and 1.8575 ± 2.11 for carbendazim, 1.225 ± 0.945 and 10.01 ± 8.55 for propiconazole, 220 ± 67.66 vs. 368 ± 62.76 for vinclozolin, 9.862 ± 3.24 and 54.5 ± 21.08 for fludioxonil, 49.2125 ± 34.11 and 112.25 ± 51.20 for mancozeb. A molecular analysis for β-tubulin revealed a mutation at codon 198 in these strains having an EC50 greater than 10 mg L−1 for carbendazim. Our data indicate a consistency between fungicide resistance and intensive chemical management in banana fields, however indicative values for resistance were also found in strains collected from rustic fields, suggesting that proximity among fields may be causing a fungus interchange, where rustic fields are breeding grounds for development of resistant strains. Urgent actions are required in order to avoid fungicide resistance in Mexican populations of M. fijiensis due to fungicide management practices. PMID:24948956

  3. Additive and synergistic antiandrogenic activities of mixtures of azol fungicides and vinclozolin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christen, Verena [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Crettaz, Pierre [Federal Office of Public Health, Division Chemical Products, 3003 Bern (Switzerland); Fent, Karl, E-mail: karl.fent@fhnw.ch [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); ETH Zürich, Department of Environmental System Sciences, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollution Dynamics, Universitätsstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2014-09-15

    Objective: Many pesticides including pyrethroids and azole fungicides are suspected to have an endocrine disrupting property. At present, the joint activity of compound mixtures is only marginally known. Here we tested the hypothesis that the antiandrogenic activity of mixtures of azole fungicides can be predicted by the concentration addition (CA) model. Methods: The antiandrogenic activity was assessed in MDA-kb2 cells. Following assessing single compounds activities mixtures of azole fungicides and vinclozolin were investigated. Interactions were analyzed by direct comparison between experimental and estimated dose–response curves assuming CA, followed by an analysis by the isobole method and the toxic unit approach. Results: The antiandrogenic activity of pyrethroids deltamethrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and permethrin was weak, while the azole fungicides tebuconazole, propiconazole, epoxiconazole, econazole and vinclozolin exhibited strong antiandrogenic activity. Ten binary and one ternary mixture combinations of five antiandrogenic fungicides were assessed at equi-effective concentrations of EC{sub 25} and EC{sub 50}. Isoboles indicated that about 50% of the binary mixtures were additive and 50% synergistic. Synergism was even more frequently indicated by the toxic unit approach. Conclusion: Our data lead to the conclusion that interactions in mixtures follow the CA model. However, a surprisingly high percentage of synergistic interactions occurred. Therefore, the mixture activity of antiandrogenic azole fungicides is at least additive. Practice: Mixtures should also be considered for additive antiandrogenic activity in hazard and risk assessment. Implications: Our evaluation provides an appropriate “proof of concept”, but whether it equally translates to in vivo effects should further be investigated. - Highlights: • Humans are exposed to pesticide mixtures such as pyrethroids and azole fungicides. • We assessed the antiandrogenicity of

  4. Additive and synergistic antiandrogenic activities of mixtures of azol fungicides and vinclozolin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christen, Verena; Crettaz, Pierre; Fent, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Many pesticides including pyrethroids and azole fungicides are suspected to have an endocrine disrupting property. At present, the joint activity of compound mixtures is only marginally known. Here we tested the hypothesis that the antiandrogenic activity of mixtures of azole fungicides can be predicted by the concentration addition (CA) model. Methods: The antiandrogenic activity was assessed in MDA-kb2 cells. Following assessing single compounds activities mixtures of azole fungicides and vinclozolin were investigated. Interactions were analyzed by direct comparison between experimental and estimated dose–response curves assuming CA, followed by an analysis by the isobole method and the toxic unit approach. Results: The antiandrogenic activity of pyrethroids deltamethrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and permethrin was weak, while the azole fungicides tebuconazole, propiconazole, epoxiconazole, econazole and vinclozolin exhibited strong antiandrogenic activity. Ten binary and one ternary mixture combinations of five antiandrogenic fungicides were assessed at equi-effective concentrations of EC 25 and EC 50 . Isoboles indicated that about 50% of the binary mixtures were additive and 50% synergistic. Synergism was even more frequently indicated by the toxic unit approach. Conclusion: Our data lead to the conclusion that interactions in mixtures follow the CA model. However, a surprisingly high percentage of synergistic interactions occurred. Therefore, the mixture activity of antiandrogenic azole fungicides is at least additive. Practice: Mixtures should also be considered for additive antiandrogenic activity in hazard and risk assessment. Implications: Our evaluation provides an appropriate “proof of concept”, but whether it equally translates to in vivo effects should further be investigated. - Highlights: • Humans are exposed to pesticide mixtures such as pyrethroids and azole fungicides. • We assessed the antiandrogenicity of pyrethroids and

  5. Terrestrial exposure and effects of Headline AMP(®) Fungicide on amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusaac, J Patrick W; Mimbs, William H; Belden, Jason B; Smith, Loren M; McMurry, Scott T

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that a pyraclostrobin-containing fungicide (Headline(®) Fungicide--Headline(®) Fungicide and Headline AMP(®) Fungicide are registered trademarks of BASF) is toxic to amphibians at environmentally relevant concentrations. However, these studies were performed in a laboratory setting of a worst-case direct exposure in clean media. Interception of spray by the crop canopy and ground cover used by animals for security cover will influence exposure. Thus, risk to amphibians is unclear in an environmentally realistic field environment. We tested exposure and toxicity of Headline AMP(®) Fungicide to amphibians in multiple agricultural habitat scenarios (e.g., within treated crop vs. grassy areas adjacent to crop) and at two rates during routine aerial application. Specifically, we placed Woodhouse's toads (Bufo woodhousii) and Blanchard's cricket frogs (Acris blanchardi) in enclosures located within treated and untreated corn (VT stage, approximate height = 3 m), and in the potential drift area (adjacent to treated corn) during aerial application of Headline AMP Fungicide at either 731 or 1052 ml/ha (70 and 100 % the maximum application rate in corn, respectively). Mean concentrations of pyraclostrobin measured at ground level were ≤19 % of nominal application rate in all areas. Overall, mean mortality of recovered individuals of both species was ≤15 %, and mortality within Headline AMP Fungicide-treated corn (where risk was anticipated to be highest) was <10 %. It is important to understand that application timing, interception by the crop canopy (which varies both within and between crop systems), and timing of amphibian presence in the crop field influences risk of exposure and effects; however, our results demonstrate that amphibians inhabiting VT stage corn during routine aerial application of Headline AMP Fungicide are at low risk for acute mortality, matching existing laboratory results from acute toxicity studies of

  6. Identification of 1-Aryl-1H-1,2,3-triazoles as Potential New Antiretroviral Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga, Daniel T G; Souza, Thiago M L; Andrade, Viviane M M; Ferreira, Vitor F; de C da Silva, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    Low molecular weight 1-Aryl-1H-1,2,3-triazoles are endowed with various types of biological activities, such as against cancer, HIV and bacteria. Despite the existence of six different classes of antiretroviral drugs in clinical use, HIV/AIDS continue to be an on growing public health problem. In the present study, we synthesized and evaluated thirty 1-Aryl-1H-1,2,3-triazoles against HIV replication. The compounds were prepared by Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition protocol catalyzed by Cu(I) between aryl azides and propargylic alcohol followed by further esterification and etherification from a nucleophilic substitution with acid chlorides or alkyl bromides in good yields. The compounds were submitted to the inhibition of HIV replication and evaluation of their cytotoxicity. Initially, the compounds were screened at 10 µM and the most active were further evaluated in order to obtain some pharmacological parameters. Thirty molecules were evaluated, six were selected - because they inhibited more than 80% HIV replication. We further showed that two of these compounds are 8-times more potent, and less cytotoxic, than nevirapine, an antiretroviral drug in clinical use. We identified very simple triazoles with promissing antiretroviral activities that led to the development of new drugs against AIDS. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NOVEL BIPOLAR PPV-BASED COPOLYMER CONTAINING TRIAZOLE AND CARBAZOLE UNITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze Liu; Li-xiang Wang; Xia-bin Jing; Fo-song Wang

    2001-01-01

    Two new blue light-emitting PPV-based conjugated copolymers containing both an electron-withdrawing unit (triazole-TAZ) and electron-rich moieties (carbazole-CAR and bicarbazole-BCAR) were prepared by Wittig condensation polymerization between the triazole diphosphonium salt and the corresponding dialdehyde monomers. Their structures and properties were characterized by FT-IR, TGA, DSC, UV-Vis, PL spectroscopy and electrochemical measurements. The resulting copolymers are soluble in common organic solvents and thermally stable with a Ts of 147C for TAZ-CAR-PPV and of 157C for TAZ-BCAR-PPV. The maximum photoluminescence wavelengths of TAZ-CAR-PPV and TAZ-BCAR-PPV film appear at 460 nm and 480 nm, respectively. Cyclic voltammetry measurement demonstrates that TAZ-BCAR-PPV has good electrochemical reversibility, while TAZ-CAR-PPV exhibits the irreversible redox process. The triazole unit was found to be an effective π-conjugation interrupter and can play the rigid spacer role in determining the emission colour of the resulting copolymer.

  8. Equilibrium studies of ternary systems containing some selected transition metal ions, triazoles and aromatic carboxylic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Mohamed Magdy; Radalla, Abd-Elatty; Qasem, Fatma; Khaled, Rehab [Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef (Egypt)

    2014-01-15

    Solution equilibria of the binary and ternary complex systems of the divalent transition metal ions Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and Co{sup 2+} with 1,2,4-triazole (TRZ), 3-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (TRZSH), and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (TRZAM) and aromatic carboxylic acids (phthalic, anthranilic, salicylic, and 5-sulfosalicylic acid) have been studied pH-metrically at (25.0±0.1) .deg. C, and a constant ionic strength I=1x10{sup -1} mol L{sup -1} NaNO{sub 3} in an aqueous medium. The potentiometric titration curves show that binary and ternary complexes of these ligands are formed in solution. The stability constants of the different binary and ternary complexes formed were calculated on the basis of computer analysis of the titration data. The relative stability of the different ternary complex species is expressed in terms of Δ log K values, log X and R. S.% parameters. The effect of temperature of the medium on both the proton-ligand equilibria for TRZAM and phthalic acid and their metal-ligand equilibria with Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, and Co{sup 2+} has been studied along with the corresponding thermodynamic parameters. The complexation behavior of ternary complexes is ascertained using conductivity measurements. In addition, the formation of ternary complexes in solution has been confirmed by using UV-visible spectrophotometry.

  9. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activities of Some New 1,2,4-Triazole Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Bektaş

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Some novel 4,5-disubstituted-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazol-3-one (3, 6, 8, 9 derivatives and or 3-(4-methylphenyl[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3]benzoxazole (5 were synthesized from the reaction of various ester ethoxycarbonylhydrazones (1a-e with several primary amines. The synthesis of 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl-2-[(5-mercapto-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylmethyl]-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazol-3-one (13 was performed starting from 4-Amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazol-3-one (2 by four steps; then 13 was converted to the corresponding Schiff base (14 by using 4-methoxybenzaldehyde. Finally, two Mannich base derivatives of 14 were obtained by using morpholine or methyl piperazine as amine component. All newly synthesized compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activities and some of which were found to possess good or moderate activities against the test microorganisms.

  10. Triazole-curcuminoids: A new class of derivatives for 'tuning' curcumin bioactivities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioglio, Diego; Torretta, Simone; Ferrari, Maila; Travelli, Cristina; Grolla, Ambra A; Condorelli, Fabrizio; Genazzani, Armando A; Minassi, Alberto

    2016-01-15

    Curcumin is a unique blend of pharmacophores responsible for the pleiotropy of this natural pigment. In the present study we have replaced the 1,3-dicarbonyl moiety with a 1,2,3-triazole ring to furnish a new class of triazole-curcuminoids as a possible strategy to generate new compounds with different potency and selectivity compared to curcumin. We obtained a proof-of-principle library of 28 compounds tested for their cytotoxicity (SY-SY5Y and HeLa cells) and for their ability to inhibit NF-κB. Furthermore, we also generated 1,3-dicarbonyl curcuminoids of selected click compounds. Triazole-curcuminoids lost their ability to be Michael's acceptors, yet maintained some of the features of the parent compounds and disclosed new ones. In particular, we found that some compounds were able to inhibit NF-κB without showing cytotoxicity, while others, unlike curcumin, activated NF-κB signalling. This validates the hypothesis that click libraries can be used to investigate the biological activities of curcumin as well as generate analogs with selected features. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antivenom Effects of 1,2,3-Triazoles against Bothrops jararaca and Lachesis muta Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Thaisa F. S.; Moura, Laura de A.; Carvalho, Carla; Campos, Vinícius R.; Jordão, Alessandro K.; Cunha, Anna C.; Ferreira, Vitor F.; de Souza, Maria Cecília B. V.; Sanchez, Eladio F.; Fuly, André L.

    2013-01-01

    Snake venoms are complex mixtures of proteins of both enzymes and nonenzymes, which are responsible for producing several biological effects. Human envenomation by snake bites particularly those of the viperid family induces a complex pathophysiological picture characterized by spectacular changes in hemostasis and frequently hemorrhage is also seen. The present work reports the ability of six of a series of 1,2,3-triazole derivatives to inhibit some pharmacological effects caused by the venoms of Bothrops jararaca and Lachesis muta. In vitro assays showed that these compounds were impaired in a concentration-dependent manner, the fibrinogen or plasma clotting, hemolysis, and proteolysis produced by both venoms. Moreover, these compounds inhibited biological effects in vivo as well. Mice treated with these compounds were fully protected from hemorrhagic lesions caused by such venoms. But, only the B. jararaca edema-inducing activity was neutralized by the triazoles. So the inhibitory effect of triazoles derivatives against some in vitro and in vivo biological assays of snake venoms points to promising aspects that may indicate them as molecular models to improve the production of effective antivenom or to complement antivenom neutralization, especially the local pathological effects, which are partially neutralized by antivenoms. PMID:23710441

  12. Synthesis and characterisation of luminescent rhenium tricarbonyl complexes with axially coordinated 1,2,3-triazole ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Baljinder S; Booth, Rebecca K; Ali, Noreen; Lockwood, Cindy; Rice, Craig R; Elliott, Paul I P

    2011-08-07

    A series of 1-alkyl-4-aryl-1,2,3-triazoles (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3-triazole (1a); 1-propyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3-triazole (1b); 1-benzyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3-triazole (1c); 1-propyl-4-p-tolyl-1,2,3-triazole (1d)) have been prepared through a one-pot procedure involving in situ generation of the alkyl azide from a halide precursor followed by copper catalysed alkyne/azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) with the appropriate aryl alkyne. Cationic Re(I) complexes [Re(bpy)(CO)(3)(1a-d)]PF(6) (2a-d) were then prepared by stirring [Re(bpy)(CO)(3)Cl] with AgPF(6) in dichloromethane in the presence of ligands 1a-d. X-ray crystal structures were obtained for 2a and 2b. In the solid state, 2a adopts a highly distorted geometry, which is not seen for 2b, in which the plane of the triazole ligand tilts by 13° with respect to the Re-N bond as a result of a π-stacking interaction between the Ph substituent and one of the rings of the bpy ligand. This π-stacking interaction also results in severe twisting of the bpy ligand. Infrared spectra of 2a-d exhibit ν(CO) bands at ∼2035 and ∼1926 cm(-1) suggesting that these ligands are marginally better donors than pyridine (ν(CO) = 2037, 1932 cm(-1)). The complexes are luminescent in aerated dichloromethane at room temperature with emission maxima at 542 to 552 nm comparable to that of the pyridine analogue (549 nm) and blue shifted relative to the parent chloride complex. Long luminescent lifetimes are observed for the triazole complexes (475 to 513 ns) in aerated dichloromethane solutions at room temperature.

  13. Endocrine disrupting properties in vivo of widely used azole fungicides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Vinggaard, Anne; Hass, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    The endocrine-disrupting potential of four commonly used azole fungicides, propiconazole, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole and ketoconazole, were tested in two short-term in vivo studies. Initially, the antiandrogenic effects of propiconazole and tebuconazole (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight/day each......) were examined in the Hershberger assay. In the second study, pregnant Wistar rats were dosed with propiconazole, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole or ketoconazole (50 mg/kg/day each) from gestational day (GD) 7 to GD 21. Caesarian sections were performed on dams at GD 21. Tebuconazole and propiconazole...... demonstrated no antiandrogenic effects at doses between 50 and 150 mg/kg body weight/day in the Hershberger assay. In the in utero exposure toxicity study, ketoconazole, a pharmaceutical to treat human fungal infections, decreased anogenital distance and reduced testicular testosterone levels, demonstrating...

  14. Insecticidal, Repellent and Fungicidal Properties of Novel Trifluoromethylphenyl Amides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    inhibition even at the higher concentration of 30.0 lM. Captan is an excellent fungicide with a multisite mode of action that is ap- plied to crops such as...trifluoroacetamide (1c) was most active (24 h LD50 19.182 nM, 0.5 lL/insect). However, the 24 h LC50 and LD50 values of fipronil against Ae. aegypti...adults with 24 h LC50 values of 5.6 and 4.9 lg/cm2 for the Oregon- R and 1675 strains, respectively. Fipronil had LC50 values of 0.004 and 0.017 lg/cm2

  15. Sertraline demonstrates fungicidal activity in vitro for Coccidioides immitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Paul

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Coccidioidomycosis causes substantial morbidity in endemic areas. Disseminated coccidioidomycosis is an AIDS defining condition and treatment often requires lifelong antifungal therapy. Sertraline, a widely used serotonin-reuptake inhibitor anti-depressant, has demonstrated activity against Candida and Cryptococcus sp. both in vitro and in vivo. To evaluate if sertraline has activity against Coccidioides, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC of sertraline for four clinical isolates of C. immitis were determined. Sertraline was observed to have an MIC range of 4–8 µg/ml and MFC also of 4–8 µg/ml for Coccidioides. These MIC and MFC results for C. immitis are similar to those reported for Cryptococcus sp. suggesting sertraline may potentially have utility for the treatment of coccidioidomycosis.

  16. Fungicide application and phosphorus uptake by hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi into field-grown peas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiger, P.F.; Spliid, N.H.; Jakobsen, I.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of two commercial fungicide formulations on phosphorus (P) uptake into peas via hyphae of a native arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal community was examined in the field. The fungicides contained carbendazim or a mixture of propiconazole and fenpropimorph as their active ingredients...... from overall P uptake, Fungicides were added to the soil inside the HCs at concentrations assumed to reflect their concentration in the surrounding soil. At two harvests, plant growth, total P and P-32 uptake as well as root length density and AM root colonisation were measured. Length of hyphae inside...

  17. Field efficacy of different fungicide mixtures in control of net blotch on barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanović Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven fungicide mixtures (epoxiconazol + metconazole, boscalid + epoxiconazole, pyraclostrobin + epoxiconazole, prothioconazole + tebuconazole, picoxistrobin + cyproconazole, azoxystrobin + cyproconazole and spiroxamine + tebuconazole + triadimenol were evaluated for control of net blotch of barley caused by Drechslera teres, as well as yield losses, over the 2010 and 2011 growing seasons. Two applications of the fungicide combination pyraclostrobin + epoxiconazole at the rate of 1.0 l ha-1 were the most effective treatment in controlling the disease and improving yield in both experimental years. Treatments with the fungicide mixtures epoxiconazol + metconazole and spiroxamine + tebuconazole + triadimenol showed the least effectiveness in disease control, as well as yield increase.

  18. Aggregative stability of fungicidal nanomodifier based on zinc hydrosilicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishina, Anna; Korolev, Evgeniy

    2018-03-01

    Currently, there is a strong need of high performance multi functional materials in high-rise construction. Obviously, such materials should be characterized by high strength; but for interior rooms biosafety is important as well. The promising direction to obtain both high strength and maintain biosafety in buildings and structures is to manage the structure of mineral binders by means of fungicidal nanomodifier based on zinc hydrosilicates. In the present work the aggregative stability of colloidal solutions of zinc hydrosilicates after one year of storage was studied. It has been established that the concentration of iron (III) hydroxide used to prepare the precursor of zinc hydrosilicates has a significant effect on the long-term aggregative stability: as the concentration of iron (III) hydroxide increases, the resistance of the fungicidal nanomodifier increases. It was found that, despite the minimal concentration of nano-sized zinc hydrosilicates (0.028%), the colloidal solution possesses a low long-term aggregative stability; while in the initial period (not less than 14 days) the colloidal solution of the nanomodifier is aggregatively stable. It is shown that when the ratio in the colloidal solution of the amount of the substance CH3COOH / SiO2 = 0.43 is reached, an increase in the polymerization rate is observed, which is the main cause of low aggregative stability. Colloidal solutions containing zinc hydrosilicates synthesized at a concentration of iron (III) hydroxide used to produce a precursor equal to 0.7% have a long-term aggregative stability and do not significantly change the reduced particle. Such compositions are to be expediently used for the nanomodifying of building composites in order to control their structure formation and to create conditions that impede the development of various mycelial fungi.

  19. Efficiency of Elite Fungicide for Control of Pistachio Gummosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Moradi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Several species of Phytophthora cause crown and root rot diseases of herbaceous and woody plants. Crown and root rot of pistachio trees cause significant damages in infected orchards. The effect of foliar application with Elite (fosetyl-Al in 2 and 2.5 g/l was evaluated in greenhouse experiments. The frequency of mortality, fresh and dry weight of roots and shoots, height, intensity of crown root colonization using CAMA-PARP medium was determined. Under greenhouse experiments, foliar application with Elite increased height, fresh and dry weight of shoots and root either in inoculation with and without Phytophthora drechsleri. The effects of Elite were more pronounced in roots, which increased the fresh and dry weight of root 1.3 and 2.5 times compared to those not sprayed with Elite, respectively. On the other hand, the application of Elite before or on the day of inoculation significantly reduced the frequency of mortality, which ranged from 35 to 90% (P ≤ 0.01. Crown and root colonization of pistachio seedling was affected by both the concentration of Elite and reduced the frequency of crown and root colonization of seedling. When fungicide and pathogen were applied at the same time, the frequency of colonization reduced to 18% and 36% for 2 and 2.5 g/l, respectively, and 43% and 60% when seedlings were treated with fungicide before P. drechsleri inoculations. The highest effect was seen in foliar application of Elite seven days before inoculation in 2.5 g/l. Further investigations have been conducted to understand the effect of Elite in infected trees as well as modeling of Elite application via soil drench, foliar application or trunk injection.

  20. Enzymatic basis for fungicide removal by Elodea canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosnon-Olette, Rachel; Schröder, Peter; Bartha, Bernadett; Aziz, Aziz; Couderchet, Michel; Eullaffroy, Philippe

    2011-07-01

    Plants can absorb a diversity of natural and man-made toxic compounds for which they have developed diverse detoxification mechanisms. Plants are able to metabolize and detoxify a wide array of xenobiotics by oxidation, sugar conjugation, glutathione conjugation, and more complex reactions. In this study, detoxification mechanisms of dimethomorph, a fungicide currently found in aquatic media were investigated in Elodea canadensis. Cytochrome P450 (P450) activity was measured by an oxygen biosensor system, glucosyltransferases (GTs) by HPLC, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), and ascorbate peroxidase (APOX) were assayed spectrophotometrically. Incubation of Elodea with dimethomorph induced an increase of the P450 activity. GST activity was not stimulated by dimethomorph suggesting that GST does not participate in dimethomorph detoxification. In plants exposed to dimethomorph, comparable responses were observed for GST and APOX activities showing that the GST was more likely to play a role in response to oxidative stress. Preincubation with dimethomorph induced a high activity of O- and N-GT, it is therefore likely that both enzymes participate in the phase II (conjugation) of dimethomorph detoxification process. For the first time in aquatic plants, P450 activity was shown to be induced by a fungicide suggesting a role in the metabolization of dimethomorph. Moreover, our finding is the first evidence of dimethomorph and isoproturon activation of cytochrome P450 multienzyme family in an aquatic plant, i.e., Elodea (isoproturon was taken here as a reference molecule). The detoxification of dimetomorph seems to proceed via hydroxylation, and subsequent glucosylation, and might yield soluble as well as cell wall bound residues.

  1. Effects of Fungicides on Rat’s Neurosteroid Synthetic Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuwei Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors may interfere with nervous system’s activity. Fungicides such as tebuconazole, triadimefon, and vinclozolin have antifungal activities and are used to prevent fungal infections in agricultural plants. In the present study, we studied effects of tebuconazole, triadimefon, and vinclozolin on rat’s neurosteroidogenic 5α-reductase 1 (5α-Red1, 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD, and retinol dehydrogenase 2 (RDH2. Rat’s 5α-Red1, 3α-HSD, and RDH2 were cloned and expressed in COS-1 cells, and effects of these fungicides on them were measured. Tebuconazole and triadimefon competitively inhibited 5α-Red1, with IC50 values of 8.670 ± 0.771 × 10−6 M and 17.390 ± 0.079 × 10−6 M, respectively, while vinclozolin did not inhibit the enzyme at 100 × 10−6 M. Triadimefon competitively inhibited 3α-HSD, with IC50 value of 26.493 ± 0.076 × 10−6 M. Tebuconazole and vinclozolin weakly inhibited 3α-HSD, with IC50 values about 100 × 10−6 M, while vinclozolin did not inhibit the enzyme even at 100 × 10−6 M. Tebuconazole and triadimefon weakly inhibited RDH2 with IC50 values over 100 × 10−6 M and vinclozolin did not inhibit this enzyme at 100 × 10−6 M. Docking study showed that tebuconazole, triadimefon, and vinclozolin bound to the steroid-binding pocket of 3α-HSD. In conclusion, triadimefon potently inhibited rat’s neurosteroidogenic enzymes, 5α-Red1 and 3α-HSD.

  2. The fungicide mancozeb induces toxic effects on mammalian granulosa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paro, Rita; Tiboni, Gian Mario; Buccione, Roberto; Rossi, Gianna; Cellini, Valerio; Canipari, Rita; Cecconi, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate mancozeb is a widely used fungicide with low reported toxicity in mammals. In mice, mancozeb induces embryo apoptosis, affects oocyte meiotic spindle morphology and impairs fertilization rate even when used at very low concentrations. We evaluated the toxic effects of mancozeb on the mouse and human ovarian somatic granulosa cells. We examined parameters such as cell morphology, induction of apoptosis, and p53 expression levels. Mouse granulosa cells exposed to mancozeb underwent a time- and dose-dependent modification of their morphology, and acquired the ability to migrate but not to proliferate. The expression level of p53, in terms of mRNA and protein content, decreased significantly in comparison with unexposed cells, but no change in apoptosis was recorded. Toxic effects could be attributed, at least in part, to the presence of ethylenthiourea (ETU), the main mancozeb catabolite, which was found in culture medium. Human granulosa cells also showed dose-dependent morphological changes and reduced p53 expression levels after exposure to mancozeb. Altogether, these results indicate that mancozeb affects the somatic cells of the mammalian ovarian follicles by inducing a premalignant-like status, and that such damage occurs to the same extent in both mouse and human GC. These results further substantiate the concept that mancozeb should be regarded as a reproductive toxicant. Highlights: ► The fungicide mancozeb affects oocyte spindle morphology and fertilization rate. ► We investigated the toxic effects of mancozeb on mouse and human granulosa cells. ► Granulosa cells modify their morphology and expression level of p53. ► Mancozeb induces a premalignant-like status in exposed cells.

  3. The fungicide mancozeb induces toxic effects on mammalian granulosa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paro, Rita [Department of Health Sciences, University of L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, L' Aquila (Italy); Tiboni, Gian Mario [Department of Medicine and Aging, Section of Reproductive Sciences, University “G. D' Annunzio”, Chieti-Pescara (Italy); Buccione, Roberto [Tumor Cell Invasion Laboratory, Consorzio Mario Negri Sud, Santa Maria Imbaro, Chieti (Italy); Rossi, Gianna; Cellini, Valerio [Department of Health Sciences, University of L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, L' Aquila (Italy); Canipari, Rita [Department of Anatomy, Histology, Forensic Medicine and Orthopedics, Section of Histology and Embryology, School of Pharmacy and Medicine, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome (Italy); Cecconi, Sandra, E-mail: sandra.cecconi@cc.univaq.it [Department of Health Sciences, University of L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, L' Aquila (Italy)

    2012-04-15

    The ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate mancozeb is a widely used fungicide with low reported toxicity in mammals. In mice, mancozeb induces embryo apoptosis, affects oocyte meiotic spindle morphology and impairs fertilization rate even when used at very low concentrations. We evaluated the toxic effects of mancozeb on the mouse and human ovarian somatic granulosa cells. We examined parameters such as cell morphology, induction of apoptosis, and p53 expression levels. Mouse granulosa cells exposed to mancozeb underwent a time- and dose-dependent modification of their morphology, and acquired the ability to migrate but not to proliferate. The expression level of p53, in terms of mRNA and protein content, decreased significantly in comparison with unexposed cells, but no change in apoptosis was recorded. Toxic effects could be attributed, at least in part, to the presence of ethylenthiourea (ETU), the main mancozeb catabolite, which was found in culture medium. Human granulosa cells also showed dose-dependent morphological changes and reduced p53 expression levels after exposure to mancozeb. Altogether, these results indicate that mancozeb affects the somatic cells of the mammalian ovarian follicles by inducing a premalignant-like status, and that such damage occurs to the same extent in both mouse and human GC. These results further substantiate the concept that mancozeb should be regarded as a reproductive toxicant. Highlights: ► The fungicide mancozeb affects oocyte spindle morphology and fertilization rate. ► We investigated the toxic effects of mancozeb on mouse and human granulosa cells. ► Granulosa cells modify their morphology and expression level of p53. ► Mancozeb induces a premalignant-like status in exposed cells.

  4. [Hydrogen bis(1,2,4-triazole] 1,2,4-triazolium bis(3-carboxy-4-hydroxybenzenesulfonate 1,2,4-triazole disolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-qiang Qiu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C2H4N3+·[H(C2H3N32]+·2C7H5O6S−·2C2H3N3, consists of two types of 1,2,4-triazole monocation, one protonated at the 2-site lying across a twofold axis and the other protonated at the 4-site with the H atom disordered over a center of symmetry, a 5-sulfosalicylate anion and a neutral 1,2,4-triazole molecule. The component ions are linked into a three-dimensional network by a combination of N—H...O, N—H...N, O—H...O, O—H...N, C—H...O and C—H...N hydrogen bonds. In addition, benzene–benzene π–π interactions of 3.942 (2 Å [interplanar spacing = 3.390 (2 Å] and C—O...π (3.331 Å interactions are observed.

  5. Traceless Azido Linker for the Solid-Phase Synthesis of NH-1,2,3-Triazoles via Cu-Catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohrt, Anders Emil; Jensen, Jakob Feldthusen; Nielsen, Thomas Eiland

    2010-01-01

    A broadly useful acid-labile traceless azido linker for the solid-phase synthesis of NH-1,2,3-triazoles is presented. A variety of alkynes were efficiently immobilized on a range of polymeric supports by Cu(I)-mediated azide-alkyne cycloadditions. Supported triazoles showed excellent compatibility...

  6. Synthesis of 1-(4-methylsulfone-phenyl)-5-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-5-[14C]-1,2,3- triazole and 1-(4-sulfonamide-phenyl)-5-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-5-[14C]-1,2,3- triazole as novel carbon-14 anticonvulsant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saemian, N.; Shirvani, G.; Matloubi, H.

    2006-01-01

    Two 1,2,3-triazole anticonvulsants, 1-(4-methylsulfone-phenyl)-5-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-5-[ 14 C]-1,2,3-triazole and 1-(4-sulfonamide-phenyl)-5-(4- fluoro-phenyl)-5-[ 14 C]-1,2,3-triazole, both labeled with carbon-14 in the 5-position were prepared from para-fluoro-benzonitrile-[cyano- 14 C]. (author)

  7. Synthesis and Fungicidal activity of some sulphide derivatives of O-Ethyl-N-substituted phenylcarbamates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imeokparia, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    Monosulphides of O-ethyl-N-substituted phenylcarbamates were prepared by the reaction between O-ethyl-N-substituted phenylcarbamates and sulphur dichloride, while the corresponding disulphides were prepared by the reaction between O-ethyl-N-substituted phenylcarbamates and sulphur monochloride. The synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, thin layer chromatography (TLC), Fourier-transform infrared, and /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques. In vitro fungicidal assay of these sulphides against Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Rhizopus stolonifer showed that they had Greater fungicidal activity than their parent carbamates. The synthesized sulphides were more active towards A. Niger and A. flavus. Unlike the parent carbamates, the type of substituents attached to the aromatic nucleus of these sulphides had little or no effect on their fungicidal activity as there was insignificant variation in the fungicidal activity of the monosulphide and the disulphide derivatives of O-ethyl-N-substituted phenylcarbamates. (author)

  8. Yield of Potato as Influenced by Crop Sanitation and Reduced Fungicidal Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontem, DA.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of crop sanitation and reduced sprays of "Ridomil plus®" (12 % metalaxyl + 60 % cuprous oxide on the control of potato (Solanum tuberosum late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans were evaluated in two field experiments in 1993 in Dschang, Cameroon. In the first experiment, sanitation (five weekly removals of blighted leaves and two fungicidal treatments were initiated from first symptoms. In the second experiment, both fungicidal sprays were made at varying rates. Marketable yields increased by 50 % in sanitation-treated plots, by 94 % in plots sprayed with Ridomil plus (2.24 kg a. i./ha, or by 55 % in those exposed to both control methods. The fungicide equivalence of the sanitation treatment was two sprays of Ridomil plus at 0.76 kg a. i./ha. These results suggest that proper removal of diseased leaves or reduced fungicidal protection may be an effective late blight control method in potato farming.

  9. Effects of Artea, a systemic fungicide, on the antioxidant system and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Artea, a systemic fungicide, on the antioxidant system and the respiratory activity of durum wheat ( Triticum durum L .). ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Root respiratory activity was also determined using a polarographic method ...

  10. Modulators of membrane drug transporters potentiate the activity of the DMI fungicide oxpoconazole against Botrytis cinerea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayashi, K.; Schoonbeek, H.; Waard, de M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Modulators known to reduce multidrug resistance in tumour cells were tested for their potency to synergize the fungitoxic activity of the fungicide oxpoconazole, a sterol demethylation inhibitor (DMI), against Botrytis cinerea Pers. Chlorpromazine, a phenothiazine compound known as a calmodulin

  11. Efficacy of Strobilurin-related and Multi-site Fungicide Mixtures Against Apple Scab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Rekanović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of several fungicide mixtures in controlling Venturia inaequalis in apple was evaluated in field trials. The efficacies of Flint Plus (trifloxystrobin + captan and Tercel (pyraclostrobin+ dithianon in comparison with standard fungicides Zato 50-WG (trifloxystrobin and Stroby + Delan (kresoxim-methyl + dithianon were tested in the localities Mihajlovac, Radmilovac and Landol in 2004 and 2005. Both tested fungicides exhibited high efficacy in controlling apple scab. There were significant differencies in the efficacies of Flint Plus (91.3-98.5% and Zato 50-WG (68.2% and 78.4%; and Tercel (88.7-93.5% and Stroby + Delan (77.9% and 82.1%. Our experiments showed that the investigated fungicide mixtures arehighly effective against V. inaqeulais, even under high disease pressure.

  12. Effects of two commonly used fungicides on the amphipod Austrochiltonia subtenuis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Hung T; Keough, Michael J; Long, Sara M; Pettigrove, Vincent J

    2017-03-01

    Fungicides are used widely in agriculture and have been detected in adjacent rivers and wetlands. However, relatively little is known about the potential effects of fungicides on aquatic organisms. The present study investigated the effects of 2 commonly used fungicides, the boscalid fungicide Filan ® and the myclobutanil fungicide Systhane ™ 400 WP, on life history traits (survival, growth, and reproduction) and energy reserves (lipid, protein, and glycogen content) of the amphipod Austrochiltonia subtenuis under laboratory conditions, at concentrations detected in aquatic environments. Amphipods were exposed to 3 concentrations of Filan (1 μg active ingredient [a.i.]/L, 10 μg a.i./L, and 40 μg a.i./L) and Systhane (0.3 μg a.i./L, 3 μg a.i./L, and 30 μg a.i./L) over 56 d. Both fungicides had similar effects on the amphipod at the organism level. Reproduction was the most sensitive endpoint, with offspring produced in controls but none produced in any of the fungicide treatments, and total numbers of gravid females in all fungicide treatments were reduced by up to 95%. Female amphipods were more sensitive than males in terms of growth. Systhane had significant effects on survival at all concentrations, whereas significant effects of Filan on survival were observed only at 10 μg a.i./L and 40 μg a.i./L. The effects of fungicides on energy reserves of the female amphipod were different. Filan significantly reduced amphipod protein content, whereas Systhane significantly reduced the lipid content. The present study demonstrates wide-ranging effects of 2 common fungicides on an ecologically important species that has a key role in trophic transfer and nutrient recycling in aquatic environments. These results emphasize the importance of considering the long-term effects of fungicides in the risk assessment of aquatic ecosystems. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:720-726. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  13. Effects of Sublethal Fungicides on Mutation Rates and Genomic Variation in Fungal Plant Pathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaradasa, B Sajeewa; Everhart, Sydney E

    2016-01-01

    Pathogen exposure to sublethal doses of fungicides may result in mutations that may represent an important and largely overlooked mechanism of introducing new genetic variation into strictly clonal populations, including acquisition of fungicide resistance. We tested this hypothesis using the clonal plant pathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Nine susceptible isolates were exposed independently to five commercial fungicides with different modes of action: boscalid (respiration inhibitor), iprodione (unclear mode of action), thiophanate methyl (inhibition of microtubulin synthesis) and azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin (quinone outside inhibitors). Mycelium of each isolate was inoculated onto a fungicide gradient and sub-cultured from the 50-100% inhibition zone for 12 generations and experiment repeated. Mutational changes were assessed for all isolates at six neutral microsatellite (SSR) loci and for a subset of isolates using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). SSR analysis showed 12 of 85 fungicide-exposed isolates had a total of 127 stepwise mutations with 42 insertions and 85 deletions. Most stepwise deletions were in iprodione- and azoxystrobin-exposed isolates (n = 40/85 each). Estimated mutation rates were 1.7 to 60-fold higher for mutated loci compared to that expected under neutral conditions. AFLP genotyping of 33 isolates (16 non-exposed control and 17 fungicide exposed) generated 602 polymorphic alleles. Cluster analysis with principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) identified fungicide-exposed isolates as a distinct group from non-exposed control isolates (PhiPT = 0.15, P = 0.001). Dendrograms based on neighbor-joining also supported allelic variation associated with fungicide-exposure. Fungicide sensitivity of isolates measured throughout both experiments did not show consistent trends. For example, eight isolates exposed to boscalid had higher EC50 values at the end of the experiment, and

  14. Effects of Sublethal Fungicides on Mutation Rates and Genomic Variation in Fungal Plant Pathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sajeewa Amaradasa

    Full Text Available Pathogen exposure to sublethal doses of fungicides may result in mutations that may represent an important and largely overlooked mechanism of introducing new genetic variation into strictly clonal populations, including acquisition of fungicide resistance. We tested this hypothesis using the clonal plant pathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Nine susceptible isolates were exposed independently to five commercial fungicides with different modes of action: boscalid (respiration inhibitor, iprodione (unclear mode of action, thiophanate methyl (inhibition of microtubulin synthesis and azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin (quinone outside inhibitors. Mycelium of each isolate was inoculated onto a fungicide gradient and sub-cultured from the 50-100% inhibition zone for 12 generations and experiment repeated. Mutational changes were assessed for all isolates at six neutral microsatellite (SSR loci and for a subset of isolates using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs. SSR analysis showed 12 of 85 fungicide-exposed isolates had a total of 127 stepwise mutations with 42 insertions and 85 deletions. Most stepwise deletions were in iprodione- and azoxystrobin-exposed isolates (n = 40/85 each. Estimated mutation rates were 1.7 to 60-fold higher for mutated loci compared to that expected under neutral conditions. AFLP genotyping of 33 isolates (16 non-exposed control and 17 fungicide exposed generated 602 polymorphic alleles. Cluster analysis with principal coordinate analysis (PCoA and discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC identified fungicide-exposed isolates as a distinct group from non-exposed control isolates (PhiPT = 0.15, P = 0.001. Dendrograms based on neighbor-joining also supported allelic variation associated with fungicide-exposure. Fungicide sensitivity of isolates measured throughout both experiments did not show consistent trends. For example, eight isolates exposed to boscalid had higher EC50 values at the end of the

  15. Effects of Sublethal Fungicides on Mutation Rates and Genomic Variation in Fungal Plant Pathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaradasa, B. Sajeewa

    2016-01-01

    Pathogen exposure to sublethal doses of fungicides may result in mutations that may represent an important and largely overlooked mechanism of introducing new genetic variation into strictly clonal populations, including acquisition of fungicide resistance. We tested this hypothesis using the clonal plant pathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Nine susceptible isolates were exposed independently to five commercial fungicides with different modes of action: boscalid (respiration inhibitor), iprodione (unclear mode of action), thiophanate methyl (inhibition of microtubulin synthesis) and azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin (quinone outside inhibitors). Mycelium of each isolate was inoculated onto a fungicide gradient and sub-cultured from the 50–100% inhibition zone for 12 generations and experiment repeated. Mutational changes were assessed for all isolates at six neutral microsatellite (SSR) loci and for a subset of isolates using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). SSR analysis showed 12 of 85 fungicide-exposed isolates had a total of 127 stepwise mutations with 42 insertions and 85 deletions. Most stepwise deletions were in iprodione- and azoxystrobin-exposed isolates (n = 40/85 each). Estimated mutation rates were 1.7 to 60-fold higher for mutated loci compared to that expected under neutral conditions. AFLP genotyping of 33 isolates (16 non-exposed control and 17 fungicide exposed) generated 602 polymorphic alleles. Cluster analysis with principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) identified fungicide-exposed isolates as a distinct group from non-exposed control isolates (PhiPT = 0.15, P = 0.001). Dendrograms based on neighbor-joining also supported allelic variation associated with fungicide-exposure. Fungicide sensitivity of isolates measured throughout both experiments did not show consistent trends. For example, eight isolates exposed to boscalid had higher EC50 values at the end of the experiment

  16. Sensitivity of some nitrogen fixers and the target pest Fusarium oxysporum to fungicide thiram

    OpenAIRE

    Osman, Awad G.; Sherif, Ashraf M.; Elhussein, Adil A.; Mohamed, Afrah T.

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the toxic effects of the fungicide thiram (TMTD) against five nitrogen fixers and the thiram target pest Fusarium oxysporum under laboratory conditions. Nitrogen fixing bacteria Falvobacterium showed the highest values of LD50 and proved to be the most resistant to the fungicide followed by Fusarium oxysporum, while Pseudomonas aurentiaca was the most affected microorganism. LD50 values for these microorganisms were in 2–5 orders of magnitude lower in...

  17. Effects of azole fungicides on the function of sex and thyroid hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærstad, Mia Birkhøj; Andersen, Helle Raun; Taxvig, Camilla

    Resumé: Azole-fungicides are frequently used in Denmark. Epoxiconazole, propiconazole, and tebuconazole had endocrine disrupting properties in cell based assays. In rats, epoxiconazole and tebuconazole increased gestational length, maternal progesterone level, and masculinized female-offspring. B......-offspring. Besides, tebuconazole caused feminization of male-offspring. Similar effects were previously demonstrated for prochloraz. The results indicate that azole-fungicides in general have endocrine disrupting properties...

  18. Fungicide application practices and personal protective equipment use among orchard farmers in the agricultural health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, C J; Deddens, J A; Coble, J; Alavanja, M C R

    2007-04-01

    Fungicides are routinely applied to deciduous tree fruits for disease management. Seventy-four private orchard applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study participated in the Orchard Fungicide Exposure Study in 2002-2003. During 144 days of observation, information was obtained on chemicals applied and applicator mixing, application, personal protective, and hygiene practices. At least half of the applicators had orchards with orchard applicators.

  19. Assessing the impact of fungicide enostroburin application on bacterial community in wheat phyllosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Likun; Bai, Zhihui; Jin, Bo; Hu, Qing; Wang, Huili; Zhuang, Guoqiang; Zhang, Hongxun

    2010-01-01

    Fungicides have been used extensively for controlling fungal pathogens of plants. However, little is known regarding the effects that fungicides upon the indigenous bacterial communities within the plant phyllosphere. The aims of this study were to assess the impact of fungicide enostroburin upon bacterial communities in wheat phyllosphere. Culture-independent methodologies of 16S rDNA clone library and 16S rDNA directed polymerase chain reaction with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) were used for monitoring the change of bacterial community. The 16S rDNA clone library and PCR-DGGE analysis both confirmed the microbial community of wheat plant phyllosphere were predominantly of the gamma-Proteobacteria phyla. Results from PCR-DGGE analysis indicated a significant change in bacterial community structure within the phyllosphere following fungicide enostroburin application. Bands sequenced within control cultures were predominantly of Pseudomonas genus, but those bands sequenced in the treated samples were predominantly strains of Pantoea genus and Pseudomonas genus. Of interest was the appearance of two DGGE bands following fungicide treatment, one of which had sequence similarities (98%) to Pantoea sp. which might be a competitor of plant pathogens. This study revealed the wheat phyllosphere bacterial community composition and a shift in the bacterial community following fungicide enostroburin application.

  20. In vitro colonial inhibition of an isolate from Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds to fungicide treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagoberto Guillén Sánchez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to evaluate the in vitro sensitivity of Colletotrichum acutatum antracnosis to seven fungicides. It began with an isolate preserved in the ceparium of the Phytopathology Laboratory of the High School Studies of Xalostoc, Morelos. A completely randomized design was used to evaluate the fungicides benomyl, diphenoconazole, azoxystrobin, trifloxystrobin, copper oxychloride, fluoxastrobin and captan, at high, medium and low doses, for a total of 22 treatments with six repetitions. Sterile distilled water was applied to the control. The treatments were applied at a rate of 5 mL per plate, which contained PDA medium and a mycelial disc (Ø 5 mm. The inoculated plates were incubated at 24 °C, in 12 hour photoperiod. The colony diameter was measured every 24 hours and the percent inhibition was calculated. A bifactorial variance analysis was performed, according to Fungicide and Dose; and the differences between treatments were detected by the LSD test with 95 % confidence. The diameter of the colony and the percentage of inhibition did not show differences for dose levels, without significant effects for the interaction of both factors, fungicides, and dose. However, all doses of the different fungicides inhibited colony growth compared to the control. The benomyl, difenoconazol and captan fungicides were able to totally reduce the growth of the C. acutatum colony; followed by copper oxychloride, azoxystrobin, fluoxastrobin and trifloxystrobin in decreasing order. Only benomyl, difenoconazol, captan and copper oxychloride achieved more than 50 % inhibition.

  1. Esterase isozymes patterns of grape vine (Vitis vinifera L. are altered in response to fungicide exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleice Ribeiro Orasmo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Current analysis characterizes the effect of different fungicides often applied for pest control on a-and b-esterase patterns of four economically important table-wine grape cultivars (Italia, Rubi, Benitaka and Brasil of Vitis vinifera. The a- and b-esterase patterns in bud leaves of the cultivars were assessed by native PAGE analysis. Cabrio Top® compound inhibited Est-2, Est-5, Est-6, Est-7, Est-8, Est-9 and Est-10 carboxylesterases, whereas Est-4, Est-11, Est-12, Est-13, Est-14 acetylesterases and Est-16 carboxylesterase were detected as weakly stained bands. Carboxylesterases and acetylesterases were also detected as weakly stained bands when exposed to fungicides Orthocide 500®, Positron Duo® and Folicur PM®. No changes in a- and b-esterase patterns were reported when the vines were exposed to the fungicides Rovral SC®, Kumulus DF®, Curzate M®, Score® or Cuprogarb 500®. The evidence of functional changes in carboxylesterase and acetylesterase levels in current study is a warning to grape producers on the dangers inherent in the indiscriminate use of potent and modern fungicides extensively used in agriculture. The inhibition effect of fungicides on esterase isozyme molecules seems to be independent of the fungicide chemical.

  2. Comparative efficacy of different fungicides against fusarium wilt of chickpea (cicer arietinum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maitlo, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc) is the most serious and widespread disease of chickpea, causing a 100% loss under favorable conditions. Fourteen fungicides were evaluated against wilt pathogen In vitro with five different concentrations ranging from 1-10000 ppm. Among these only Carbendazim and Thiophanate-methyl was found as the most effective at all used concentrations. Other fungicides like Aliette, Nativo, Hombre-excel and Dividend star were found to be moderately effective. Whereas, remaining fungicides were ineffective against the targeted pathogen. Generally, a positive co-relation was observed between increasing concentrations of the tested fungicides and inhibition of Foc. Based on In vitro results Carbendazim, Thiophanate-methyl, Aliette, Dividend-star, Hombre-excel, Score and Nativo were selected for pot and field experiments. The higher concentrations of the few fungicides completely inhibited the pathogen as well as found to be phytotoxic and suppressed the plant growth while lower concentrations promoted the growth of chickpea plants. On over all bases, the Carbendazim and Thiophanate-methyl, followed by Aliette and Nativo were more effective in reducing the impact of pathogen as well as enhancing the plant growth in greenhouse experiment. Under field conditions, all fungicides except Score remarkably decreased the disease development and subsequently increased the plant growth as well as grain yield as compared to untreated plants. (author)

  3. Effects of Fungicide Treatment on Free Amino Acid Concentration and Acrylamide-Forming Potential in Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Tanya Y; Powers, Stephen J; Halford, Nigel G

    2016-12-28

    Acrylamide forms from free asparagine and reducing sugars during frying, baking, roasting, or high-temperature processing, and cereal products are major contributors to dietary acrylamide intake. Free asparagine concentration is the determining factor for acrylamide-forming potential in cereals, and this study investigated the effect of fungicide application on free asparagine accumulation in wheat grain. Free amino acid concentrations were measured in flour from 47 varieties of wheat grown in a field trial in 2011-2012. The wheat had been supplied with nitrogen and sulfur and treated with growth regulators and fungicides. Acrylamide formation was measured after the flour had been heated at 180 °C for 20 min. Flour was also analyzed from 24 (of the 47) varieties grown in adjacent plots that were treated in identical fashion except that no fungicide was applied, resulting in visible infection by Septoria tritici, yellow rust, and brown rust. Free asparagine concentration in the fungicide-treated wheat ranged from 1.596 to 3.987 mmol kg -1 , with a significant (p fungicide treatment, the increases in acrylamide ranging from 2.7 to 370%. Free aspartic acid concentration also increased, whereas free glutamic acid concentration increased in some varieties but decreased in others, and free proline concentration decreased. The study showed disease control by fungicide application to be an important crop management measure for mitigating the problem of acrylamide formation in wheat products.

  4. Additive and synergistic antiandrogenic activities of mixtures of azol fungicides and vinclozolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Verena; Crettaz, Pierre; Fent, Karl

    2014-09-15

    Many pesticides including pyrethroids and azole fungicides are suspected to have an endocrine disrupting property. At present, the joint activity of compound mixtures is only marginally known. Here we tested the hypothesis that the antiandrogenic activity of mixtures of azole fungicides can be predicted by the concentration addition (CA) model. The antiandrogenic activity was assessed in MDA-kb2 cells. Following assessing single compounds activities mixtures of azole fungicides and vinclozolin were investigated. Interactions were analyzed by direct comparison between experimental and estimated dose-response curves assuming CA, followed by an analysis by the isobole method and the toxic unit approach. The antiandrogenic activity of pyrethroids deltamethrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and permethrin was weak, while the azole fungicides tebuconazole, propiconazole, epoxiconazole, econazole and vinclozolin exhibited strong antiandrogenic activity. Ten binary and one ternary mixture combinations of five antiandrogenic fungicides were assessed at equi-effective concentrations of EC25 and EC50. Isoboles indicated that about 50% of the binary mixtures were additive and 50% synergistic. Synergism was even more frequently indicated by the toxic unit approach. Our data lead to the conclusion that interactions in mixtures follow the CA model. However, a surprisingly high percentage of synergistic interactions occurred. Therefore, the mixture activity of antiandrogenic azole fungicides is at least additive. Mixtures should also be considered for additive antiandrogenic activity in hazard and risk assessment. Our evaluation provides an appropriate "proof of concept", but whether it equally translates to in vivo effects should further be investigated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. In vitro response of phaeoramularia angolensis to commonly used fungicides in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juma, I.M.; Siboe, M.

    1996-01-01

    The leaf and fruit spot disease of citrus spp. caused by the fungus Phaeoramularia angolensis Kirk is new and epidemic in Kenya, with a 100% crop yield loss. Poor response to fungicide application led to the suspicion that the fungus was resistant to conventional fungicides, hence the difficulties experienced in its control. Therefore the study was carried out to establish wether P.angolensis isolates from Western Kenya were screened for resistance. The following fungicides were used: copper fungicides(Cupric hydroxide 50% WP or kocide 101 and copper oxychloride 50% WP), Mancozeb 70% WP (Dithane M45)and Propineb 80% WPC (Antracol). Mancozeb 70% WP and Propineb were the most effective with LD-5-0 at 0.03 ppm and 0.25 ppm respectively. Copper fungicide LD-5-0 was above 3000 ppm (current manufacturers' recommended dosage is 7,500 ppm and 6,900 ppm for kocide 101 and copper oxychloride respectively). There was no obvious evidence of resistance. The fungi- static characteristics of copper fungicides and the application of wrong dosage and timing could be the reason for the difficulties experienced in the control of the disease. (author) 14 refs., 2 tables, 1 graph

  6. Copper-catalyzed one-pot synthesis of 1,2,4-triazoles from nitriles and hydroxylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao; Ma, Shuang; Xu, Yuanqing; Bian, Longxiang; Ding, Tao; Fang, Xiaomin; Zhang, Wenkai; Ren, Yanrong

    2015-02-06

    A simple and efficient copper-catalyzed one-pot synthesis of substituted 1,2,4-triazoles through reactions of two nitriles with hydroxylamine has been developed. The protocol uses simple and readily available nitriles and hydroxylamine hydrochloride as the starting materials and inexpensive Cu(OAc)2 as the catalyst, and the corresponding 1,2,4-triazole derivatives are obtained in moderate to good yields. The reactions include sequential intermolecular addition of hydroxylamine to one nitrile to provide amidoxime, copper-catalyzed treatment of the amidoxime with another nitrile, and intramolecular dehydration/cyclization. This finding provides a new and useful strategy for synthesis of 1,2,4-triazole derivatives.

  7. 1,2,3-Triazole/MWCNT conjugates as filler for gelcoat nanocomposites: new active antibiofouling coatings for marine application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iannazzo, Daniela; Pistone, Alessandro; Visco, Annamaria; Galtieri, Giovanna; Galvagno, Signorino; Giofrè, Salvatore V; Romeo, Roberto; Romeo, Giovanni; Cappello, Simone; Bonsignore, Martina; Denaro, Renata

    2015-01-01

    A polyester-based gelcoat nanocomposite was synthesized by using as nanofiller multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) conjugated with a biocidal 1,2,3-triazole to be used as a new eco-friendly antibiofouling coating. 1,2,3-Triazole/MWCNT conjugates containing differently substituted 1,2,3-triazoles have been synthesized and characterized by physical, chemical, and morphological analyses. Ecotoxicological studies, performed on marine organisms belonging to different evolutive classes, provided information about the choice of the more interesting nanofiller. The synthesized gelcoat nanocomposite showed a significant improvement in the wet ability with respect to the Gelcoat alone. Preliminary biological tests performed on the nanocomposite revealed great biocidal properties, thus providing new opportunities to develop an effective antibiofouling coating. (paper)

  8. Insecticidal, repellent and fungicidal properties of novel trifluoromethylphenyl amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikolia, Maia; Bernier, Ulrich R; Coy, Monique R; Chalaire, Katelyn C; Becnel, James J; Agramonte, Natasha M; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Clark, Gary G; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Swale, Daniel R; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R

    2013-09-01

    Twenty trifluoromethylphenyl amides were synthesized and evaluated as fungicides and as mosquito toxicants and repellents. Against Aedes aegypti larvae, N-(2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-3,5-dinitrobenzamide (1e) was the most toxic compound (24 h LC50 1940 nM), while against adults N-(2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide (1c) was most active (24 h LD50 19.182 nM, 0.5 μL/insect). However, the 24 h LC50 and LD50 values of fipronil against Ae. aegypti larvae and adults were significantly lower: 13.55 nM and 0.787 × 10(-4) nM, respectively. Compound 1c was also active against Drosophila melanogaster adults with 24 h LC50 values of 5.6 and 4.9 μg/cm(2) for the Oregon-R and 1675 strains, respectively. Fipronil had LC50 values of 0.004 and 0.017 μg/cm(2) against the two strains of D. melanogaster, respectively. In repellency bioassays against female Ae. aegypti, 2,2,2-trifluoro-N-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)acetamide (4c) had the highest repellent potency with a minimum effective dosage (MED) of 0.039 μmol/cm(2) compared to DEET (MED of 0.091 μmol/cm(2)). Compound N-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)hexanamide (4a) had an MED of 0.091 μmol/cm(2) which was comparable to DEET. Compound 4c was the most potent fungicide against Phomopsis obscurans. Several trends were discerned between the structural configuration of these molecules and the effect of structural changes on toxicity and repellency. Para- or meta- trifluoromethylphenyl amides with an aromatic ring attached to the carbonyl carbon showed higher toxicity against Ae. aegypti larvae, than ortho- trifluoromethylphenyl amides. Ortho- trifluoromethylphenyl amides with trifluoromethyl or alkyl group attached to the carbonyl carbon produced higher repellent activity against female Ae. aegypti and Anopheles albimanus than meta- or para- trifluoromethylphenyl amides. The presence of 2,6-dichloro- substitution on the phenyl ring of the amide had an influence on larvicidal and repellent

  9. Features of the behavior of 4-amino-5-carboxamido-1,2,3-triazole in multicomponent heterocyclizations with carbonyl compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene S. Gladkov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Multicomponent reactions involving polyfunctional 4-amino-5-carboxamido-1,2,3-triazole and cyclic carbonyl-containing CH-acids were studied under conventional thermal heating, microwave and ultrasonic irradiation. The features of the reactions studied were discussed and the optimized procedures for the synthesis of final triazolopyrimidines were elaborated. In contrast to the similar MCRs of numerous other aminoazoles, a change of direction of the heterocyclizations in the case of 4-amino-5-carboxamido-1,2,3-triazole was not observed when microwave or thermal heating was substituted by ultrasonication at ambient temperature.

  10. Antibiofilm effect enhanced by modification of 1,2,3-triazole and palladium nanoparticles on polysulfone membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Biofouling impedes the performance of membrane bioreactors. In this study, we investigated the antifouling effects of polysulfone membranes that were modified by 1,2,3-triazole and palladium nanoparticles. The membranes to be tested were embedded within a drip flow biofilm reactor, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was inoculated and allowed to establish biofilm on the tested membranes. It was found that 1,2,3-triazole and palladium nanoparticles can inhibit the bacterial growth in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The decrease in bacterial growth was observed along with a decrease in the amount of total polysaccharide and Pel polysaccharide within the biofilm matrix but not the protein content.

  11. Antibiofilm effect enhanced by modification of 1,2,3-triazole and palladium nanoparticles on polysulfone membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Biofouling impedes the performance of membrane bioreactors. In this study, we investigated the antifouling effects of polysulfone membranes that were modified by 1,2,3-triazole and palladium nanoparticles. The membranes to be tested were embedded within a drip flow biofilm reactor, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was inoculated and allowed to establish biofilm on the tested membranes. It was found that 1,2,3-triazole and palladium nanoparticles can inhibit the bacterial growth in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The decrease in bacterial growth was observed along with a decrease in the amount of total polysaccharide and Pel polysaccharide within the biofilm matrix but not the protein content.

  12. Fate and activity of fungal BCAs delivered to strawberry flowers and their potential for integration with fungicides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birgit; Andersen, Birgitte; Thrane, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Grey mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is a serious strawberry disease. Yield loss is prevented by repeated fungicide treatments during flowering which increases the risk of pesticide residues in berries. Fruit lesions are typically initiated from B. cinerea infected stamens or from dead infected......) the interaction between BCAs and B. cinerea on strawberry flowers, 2) the sensitivity of BCAs to strawberry fungicides, and 3) the effect of combined BCA+fungicide treatment on BCAs and on the indigenous mycobiota....

  13. Fungicidal effect of bacteriocins harvested from Bacillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetunji, V. O.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study investigated the ability of bacteriocins isolated from Bacillus spp. (Bacillus species to inhibit fourdifferent yeast isolates obtained from common food products (nono, yoghurt, ogi and cheese commonly consumed byNigerians with minimal heat treatment.Methodology and results: Forty-five Bacillus spp. was isolated and identified from common food products usingcultural, morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. These isolates were tested for antimicrobialactivity against Salmonella enteritidis (3, Micrococcus luteus (1 and Staphylococcus aureus (2. Eight bacteriocinproducing strains were identified from an over- night broth culture centrifugated at 3500 revolutions for five minutes.Fungicidal effects of these bacteriocins were tested against four yeast strains using the Agar Well Diffusion method. Thebacteriocins produced wide zones of inhibition ranging from 5.9±0.000 to 24.00±0.000 mm against the 4 yeast strainstested. There was a significant difference (at p<0.05 between the yeast organisms and the bacteriocins from theBacillus spp.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The study reveals the antifungal property of bacteriocins from Bacillusspp. and serves therefore as a base for further studies in its use in the control of diseases and extension of shelf-life ofproducts prone to fungi contamination.

  14. Dissipation of the fungicide hexaconazole in oil palm plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maznah, Zainol; Halimah, Muhamad; Ismail, Sahid; Idris, Abu Seman

    2015-12-01

    Hexaconazole is a potential fungicide to be used in the oil palm plantation for controlling the basal stem root (BSR) disease caused by Ganoderma boninense. Therefore, the dissipation rate of hexaconazole in an oil palm agroecosystem under field conditions was studied. Two experimental plots were treated with hexaconazole at the recommended dosage of 4.5 g a.i. palm(-1) (active ingredient) and at double the recommended dosage (9.0 g a.i. palm(-1)), whilst one plot was untreated as control. The residue of hexaconazole was detected in soil samples in the range of 2.74 to 0.78 and 7.13 to 1.66 mg kg(-1) at the recommended and double recommended dosage plots, respectively. An initial relatively rapid dissipation rate of hexaconazole residues occurred but reduced with time. The dissipation of hexaconazole in soil was described using first-order kinetics with the value of coefficient regression (r (2) > 0.8). The results indicated that hexaconazole has moderate persistence in the soil and the half-life was found to be 69.3 and 86.6 days in the recommended and double recommended dosage plot, respectively. The results obtained highlight that downward movement of hexaconazole was led by preferential flow as shown in image analysis. It can be concluded that varying soil conditions, environmental factors, and pesticide chemical properties of hexaconazole has a significant impact on dissipation of hexaconazole in soil under humid conditions.

  15. Herbicidal and Fungicidal Activities of Lactones in Kava (Piper methysticum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, T D; Elzaawely, A A; Fukuta, M; Tawata, S

    2006-02-08

    This is the first report showing that kava lactones are plant and plant fungus growth inhibitors. Aqueous extract of kava roots showed high allelopathic potential and strongly suppressed germination and growth of lettuce, radish, barnyardgrass, and monochoria. Nine kava lactones were detected using GC-MS including desmethoxyyagonin, kavain, 7,8-dihydrokavain, hydroxykavain, yagonin, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroxyyagonin, methysticin, dihydromethysticin, and 11-hydroxy-12-methoxydihydrokavain. Quantities of desmethoxyyagonin, kavain, 7,8-dihydrokavain, yagonin, methysticin, and dihydromethysticin detected were 4.3, 6.9, 18.6, 5.7, 1.4, and 5.4 mg/g of dry weight, respectively. These six major lactones in kava roots showed great herbicidal and antifungal activities. Growth of lettuce and barnyardgrass were significantly inhibited at 1-10 ppm, and four plant fungi including Colletotrichum gloeosporides, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum, and Trichoderma viride were significantly inhibited at 10-50 ppm. The biological activities of kava lactones were characterized by different double-bond linkage patterns in positions 5,6 and 7,8. The findings of this study suggest that kava lactones may be useful for the development of bioactive herbicides and fungicides.

  16. Photoreduction of chlorothalonil fungicide on plant leaf models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monadjemi, S; El Roz, M; Richard, C; Ter Halle, A

    2011-11-15

    Photodegradation is seldom considered at the surface of vegetation after crop spraying. Chlorothalonil, a broad-spectrum foliar fungicide with a very widespread use worldwide, was considered. To represent the waxy upper layer of leaves, tests were performed within thin paraffin wax films or in n-heptane. Laser flash photolysis together with steady-state irradiation in n-heptane allowed the determination of the photodegradation mechanisms Chlorothalonil ability to produce singlet oxygen was measured; noteworthy its efficiency is close to 100%. Additionally, chlorothalonil photodegradation mainly proceeds through reductive dechlorination. In these hydrophobic media, a radical mechanism was evidenced. Photochemical tests on wax films under simulated solar light show that formulated chlorothalonil is more reactive than pure chlorothalonil. The field-extrapolated half-life of photolysis on vegetation was estimated to 5.3 days. This value was compared to the half-lives of penetration and volatilization available in the literature. It appears that chlorothalonil dissipation from crops is ruled by both photodegradation and penetration. The relative importance of the two paths probably depends on meteorological factors and on physicochemical characteristics of the crop leaf cuticle.

  17. Hydrogen peroxide as a fungicide for fish culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, V.K.; Rach, J.J.; Schreier, Theresa M.

    1994-01-01

    Antifungal agents are needed to maintain healthy stocks of fish in the intensive culture systems currently employed in fish hatcheries. Malachite green has been the most widely used antifungal agent; however, its potential for producing teratology in animals and fish precludes further use in fish culture. Preliminary studies at the National Fisheries Research Center, La Crosse, WI, USA (La Crosse Center) indicate that hydrogen peroxide is effective for control of Saprolegnia sp. fungus on incubating eggs of rainbow trout. It is also effective against a wide variety of other organisms such as bacteria, yeasts, viruses, and spores, and has been proposed as a treatment for sea lice on salmon. Hydrogen peroxide and its primary decomposition products, oxygen and water, are not systemic poisons and are considered environmentally compatible. In response to a petition from the La Crosse Center, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently classified hydrogen peroxide as a 'low regulatory priority' when used for control of fungus on fish and fish eggs. Preliminary tests conducted at the La Crosse Center suggest that prophylactic treatments of 250 to 500 ppm (based on 100% active ingredient) for 15 minutes every other day will inhibit fungal infections on healthy rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) eggs. This treatment regime also seems to inhibit fungal development and increase hatching success among infected eggs. Efficacy and safety of hydrogen peroxide as a fungicide for fish are currently being evaluated.

  18. Immunomodulatory effects of the fungicide Mancozeb in agricultural workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsini, Emanuela; Birindelli, Sarah; Fustinoni, Silvia; De Paschale, Gioia; Mammone, Teresa; Visentin, Sara; Galli, Corrado L.; Marinovich, Marina; Colosio, Claudio

    2005-01-01

    Available data suggest that ethylenebisdithiocarbamates (EBDCs) may have immunomodulatory effects. This study aimed to investigate the immunological profile of farmers exposed to Mancozeb, an EBDC fungicide, through the determination of several serum, cellular, and functional immune parameters. Twenty-six healthy subjects entered the study, 13 vineyards exposed to Mancozeb and 13 unexposed controls. Exposure was assessed through the determination of ethylentiourea (ETU) in urine. Complete and differential blood count, serum immunoglobulins, complement fractions, autoantibodies, lymphocyte subpopulations, proliferative response to mitogens, natural killer (NK) activity, and cytokine production were measured. Post-exposure samples showed ETU urine concentration significantly higher than pre-exposure and control groups. A significant increase in CD19+ cells, both percentage and absolute number, and a significant decrease in the percentage of CD25+ cells were found in post-exposure samples compared to controls. A statistically significant increase in the proliferative response to phorbol myristate acetate plus ionomycin (PMA + ionomycin) was observed in the post-exposure group compared to controls and baseline, while a significant reduction in LPS-induced TNF-α release in post-exposure samples was observed. Overall, our results suggest that low-level exposure to Mancozeb has slight immunomodulatory effects, and point out a method adequate to reveal immune-modifications in workers occupationally exposed to potential immunotoxic compounds, based on a whole blood assay

  19. Thermal decomposition of rhenium (5) complexes with 1,2,4-triazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amindzhanov, A.A.; Gagieva, S.Ch.; Kotegov, K.V.

    1991-01-01

    Processes of thermal decomposition of rhenium (5) complexes with 1,2,4-triazole were studied. Thermolysis products were identified on the basis of data of the element analysis, IR spectra, conductometry and other methods. It is ascertained that at the first stage of thermolysis of hydroxyl-containing monomer complexes removal of water molecules occurs, and at the second one - dimerization process with formation of Re-O-Re group. It is shown that the nature of halide ion practically does not affect the temperature of the start of intensive thermal decomposition of the complexes

  20. Replacement of the double bond of antitubulin chalcones with triazoles and tetrazoles: Synthesis and biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesenzani, Ornella; Massarotti, Alberto; Giustiniano, Mariateresa; Pirali, Tracey; Bevilacqua, Valentina; Caldarelli, Antonio; Canonico, Pierluigi; Sorba, Giovanni; Novellino, Ettore; Genazzani, Armando A; Tron, Gian Cesare

    2011-01-15

    In the chalcone scaffold, it is thought that the double bond is an important structural linker but it is likely not essential for the interaction with tubulin. Yet, it may be a potential site of metabolic degradation and interaction with biological nucleophiles. In this letter, we have replaced this olefinic portion of chalcones with two metabolically stable and chemically inert heterocyclic rings, namely triazole or tetrazole. Yet, our biologic data suggest that, unlike in other antitubulinic structures, the olephinic ring might not be merely a structural linker. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Triazole-containing N-acyl homoserine lactones targeting the quorum sensing system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Reimert; Jakobsen, Tim H.; Bang, Claus Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    the pathogenesis and antibiotic tolerance of a bacterial biofilm. To identify the structural elements important for antagonistic or agonistic activity against the Pseudomonas aeruginosa LasR protein, we report the synthesis and screening of new triazole-containing mimics of natural N-acyl homoserine lactones....... A series of azide- and alkyne-containing homoserine lactone building blocks was used to prepare an expanded set of 123 homoserine lactone analogues through a combination of solution- and solid-phase synthesis methods. The resulting compounds were subjected to cell-based quorum sensing screening assays...

  2. USING CHIRALITY TO INFORM THE METABOLISM OF TRIADIMEFON TO TRIADIMENOL: A CROSS-SPECIES EXAMINATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triadimefon is a systemic agricultural fungicide of the conazole class whose metabolite, triadimenol, provides the majority of the actual fungicidal activity; i.e. inhibition of steroid demethylation. Triadimenol is also registered and used as a fungicide. Both chemicals are ch...

  3. The electronic states of 1,2,4-triazoles: A study of 1H- and1-methyl-1,2,4-triazole by vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and a comparison with ab initio configuration interaction computations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Michael H.; Camp, Philip J.; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning

    2012-01-01

    The first vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectrum of a 1,2,4-triazole has been obtained and analyzed in detail, with assistance from both an enhanced UV photoelectron spectroscopic study and ab initio multi-reference multi-root configuration interaction procedures. For both 1H- and 1-methyl-1,2...

  4. Development of a novel multiplex DNA microarray for Fusarium graminearum and analysis of azole fungicide responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deising Holger B

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The toxigenic fungal plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum compromises wheat production worldwide. Azole fungicides play a prominent role in controlling this pathogen. Sequencing of its genome stimulated the development of high-throughput technologies to study mechanisms of coping with fungicide stress and adaptation to fungicides at a previously unprecedented precision. DNA-microarrays have been used to analyze genome-wide gene expression patterns and uncovered complex transcriptional responses. A recently developed one-color multiplex array format allowed flexible, effective, and parallel examinations of eight RNA samples. Results We took advantage of the 8 × 15 k Agilent format to design, evaluate, and apply a novel microarray covering the whole F. graminearum genome to analyze transcriptional responses to azole fungicide treatment. Comparative statistical analysis of expression profiles uncovered 1058 genes that were significantly differentially expressed after azole-treatment. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis for 31 selected genes indicated high conformity to results from the microarray hybridization. Among the 596 genes with significantly increased transcript levels, analyses using GeneOntology and FunCat annotations detected the ergosterol-biosynthesis pathway genes as the category most significantly responding, confirming the mode-of-action of azole fungicides. Cyp51A, which is one of the three F. graminearum paralogs of Cyp51 encoding the target of azoles, was the most consistently differentially expressed gene of the entire study. A molecular phylogeny analyzing the relationships of the three CYP51 proteins in the context of 38 fungal genomes belonging to the Pezizomycotina indicated that CYP51C (FGSG_11024 groups with a new clade of CYP51 proteins. The transcriptional profiles for genes encoding ABC transporters and transcription factors suggested several involved in mechanisms alleviating the impact of the fungicide

  5. Control Efficacy of Fungicides on Chinese Cabbage Clubroot under Several Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Yong Eom

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To develop the efficient screening methods for antifungal compound active to Chinese cabbage clubroot caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, the control efficacy of three fungicides fluazinam, ethaboxam, and cyazofamid on the disease was tested under several conditions such as soil types, cultivars of Chinese cabbage, growth stages of the host, and inoculum concentrations. The in vivo antifungal activities of the fungicides on clubroot of two Chinese cabbage cultivars were hardly different. At 7- and 14-day-old seedlings, the fungicides were more effective to control of clubroot than at 21-day-old seedlings. In a commercial horticulture media soil (CNS, disease severity of untreated controls was higher and control activity of the fungicides was less than in a mixture of CNS and upland soil (1:1, v/v. Disease development of the seedlings inoculated with P. brassicae at 1.8×10(7 spores/pot to 1.1×10(9 spores/pot was almost same, but control efficacy of the fungicides was negatively correlated with inoculum dosages. To effectively select in vivo antifungal compound on Chinese cabbage clubroot, 14-day-old seedlings need to be inoculated with P. brassicae by drenching the spore suspension to give 1×10(8 spores/pot 1 day after chemical treatment. To develop clubroot, the inoculated plants are incubated in a growth chamber at 20℃ for 2 days, and then cultivated in a greenhouse (20±5℃ for four weeks.

  6. Effectiveness of Different Classes of Fungicides on Botrytis cinerea Causing Gray Mold on Fruit and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon-Oh Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic pathogen causing a major problem in the export and post-harvest of strawberries. Inappropriate use of fungicides leads to resistance among fungal pathogens. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the sensitivity of B. cinerea to various classes of fungicide and to determine the effectiveness of different concentrations of commonly used fungicides. We thus evaluated the effectiveness of six classes of fungicide in inhibiting the growth and development of this pathogen, namely, fludioxonil, iprodione, pyrimethanil, tebuconazole, fenpyrazamine, and boscalid. Fludioxonil was the most effective (EC₅₀ < 0.1 μg/ml, and pyrimethanil was the least effective (EC₅₀ = 50 μg/ml, at inhibiting the mycelial growth of B. cinerea. Fenpyrazamine and pyrimethanil showed relatively low effectiveness in inhibiting the germination and conidial production of B. cinerea. Our results are useful for the management of B. cinerea and as a basis for monitoring the sensitivity of B. cinerea strains to fungicides.

  7. Resistance of Botrytis cinerea to fungicides controlling gray mold on strawberry in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueder Pedro Lopes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance of Botrytis cinerea to the fungicides currently used for its control in Brazil. Isolates of the fungus were collected from different strawberry-producing fields in the states of Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, and São Paulo, Brazil. First, a total of 183 isolates were identified at the species level using specific primers for the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH gene. The isolates were grown on potato dextrose agar (PDA containing the fungicides procymidone, iprodione, and thiophanate-methyl in different concentrations: 0.0 (control, 0.1; 1.0; 10.0; 100.0 and 1,000.0 μg∙mL−1. The percentage of mycelial growth inhibition was used to determine the effective concentration of the fungicide that was able to inhibit colony growth by 50% (EC50. Approximately 25.7% of the isolates were resistant to iprodione, 53.0% were resistant to procymidone, and 93.0% were resistant to thiophanate-methyl. Moreover, crossresistance and multiple resistance were verified, with 19.7% of the isolates showing resistance to 3 fungicides simultaneously. This finding explains the ineffectiveness of fungicides application to control gray mold in strawberry fields in Brazil and highlights the need for new strategies to manage this disease in the culture.

  8. Effect of fungicide on Fusarium verticillioidesmycelial morphology and fumonisin B1 production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana de Á. Miguel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M on the mycelial morphology, sporulation and fumonisin B1 production by Fusarium verticillioides 103 F was evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the fungicide caused inhibition of hyphal growth and defects on hyphae morphology such as cell wall disruption, withered hyphae, and excessive septation. In addition, extracellular material around the hyphae was rarely observed in the presence of fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M. While promoting the reduction of mycelial growth, the fungicide increased sporulation of F. verticillioides compared to the control, and the highest production occurred on the 14th day in the treatments and on the 10th day in the control cultures. Fumonisin B1production in the culture media containing the fungicide (treatment was detected from the 7th day incubation, whereas in cultures without fungicide (control it was detected on the 10th day. The highest fumonisin B1 production occurred on the 14th day, both for the control and for the treatment. Fludioxonil + metalaxyl - M can interfere in F. verticillioides mycelial morphology and sporulation and increase fumonisin B1 levels. These data indicate the importance of understanding the effects of fungicide to minimize the occurrence of toxigenic fungi and fumonisins.

  9. Effect of fungicide on Fusarium verticillioides mycelial morphology and fumonisin B₁ production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Tatiana de Á; Bordini, Jaqueline G; Saito, Gervásio H; Andrade, Célia G T de J; Ono, Mario A; Hirooka, Elisa Y; Vizoni, Édio; Ono, Elisabete Y S

    2015-03-01

    The effect of fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M on the mycelial morphology, sporulation and fumonisin B 1 production by Fusarium verticillioides 103 F was evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the fungicide caused inhibition of hyphal growth and defects on hyphae morphology such as cell wall disruption, withered hyphae, and excessive septation. In addition, extracellular material around the hyphae was rarely observed in the presence of fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M. While promoting the reduction of mycelial growth, the fungicide increased sporulation of F. verticillioides compared to the control, and the highest production occurred on the 14 (th) day in the treatments and on the 10 (th) day in the control cultures. Fumonisin B 1 production in the culture media containing the fungicide (treatment) was detected from the 7 (th) day incubation, whereas in cultures without fungicide (control) it was detected on the 10 (th) day. The highest fumonisin B 1 production occurred on the 14 (th) day, both for the control and for the treatment. Fludioxonil + metalaxyl - M can interfere in F. verticillioides mycelial morphology and sporulation and increase fumonisin B 1 levels. These data indicate the importance of understanding the effects of fungicide to minimize the occurrence of toxigenic fungi and fumonisins.

  10. Effect of fungicide on Fusarium verticillioides mycelial morphology and fumonisin B 1 production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Tatiana de Á.; Bordini, Jaqueline G.; Saito, Gervásio H.; Andrade, Célia G.T. de J.; Ono, Mario A.; Hirooka, Elisa Y.; Vizoni, Édio; Ono, Elisabete Y.S.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M on the mycelial morphology, sporulation and fumonisin B 1 production by Fusarium verticillioides 103 F was evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the fungicide caused inhibition of hyphal growth and defects on hyphae morphology such as cell wall disruption, withered hyphae, and excessive septation. In addition, extracellular material around the hyphae was rarely observed in the presence of fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M. While promoting the reduction of mycelial growth, the fungicide increased sporulation of F. verticillioides compared to the control, and the highest production occurred on the 14 th day in the treatments and on the 10 th day in the control cultures. Fumonisin B 1 production in the culture media containing the fungicide (treatment) was detected from the 7 th day incubation, whereas in cultures without fungicide (control) it was detected on the 10 th day. The highest fumonisin B 1 production occurred on the 14 th day, both for the control and for the treatment. Fludioxonil + metalaxyl - M can interfere in F. verticillioides mycelial morphology and sporulation and increase fumonisin B 1 levels. These data indicate the importance of understanding the effects of fungicide to minimize the occurrence of toxigenic fungi and fumonisins. PMID:26221120

  11. Sensitivity of some nitrogen fixers and the target pest Fusarium oxysporum to fungicide thiram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Awad G; Sherif, Ashraf M; Elhussein, Adil A; Mohamed, Afrah T

    2012-03-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the toxic effects of the fungicide thiram (TMTD) against five nitrogen fixers and the thiram target pest Fusarium oxysporum under laboratory conditions. Nitrogen fixing bacteria Falvobacterium showed the highest values of LD(50) and proved to be the most resistant to the fungicide followed by Fusarium oxysporum, while Pseudomonas aurentiaca was the most affected microorganism. LD(50) values for these microorganisms were in 2-5 orders of magnitude lower in comparison with LD(50) value for Fusarium oxysporum. Thiram was most toxic to Pseudomonas aurentiaca followed by Azospirillum. The lowest toxicity index was recorded for Fusarium oxysporum and Flavobacterium. The slope of the curve for Azomonas, Fusarium oxysporum and Flavobacterium is more steep than that of the other curves, suggesting that even a slight increase of the dose of the fungicide can cause a very strong negative effect. Thiram was more selective to Pseudomonas aurentiaca followed by Azospirillum, Rhizobium meliloti and Azomonas. The lowest selectivity index of the fungicide was recorded for Falvobacterium followed by Fusarium oxysporum. The highest safety coefficient of the fungicide was assigned for Flavobacterium, while Pseudomonas aurentiaca showed the lowest value.

  12. Effects of 2 fungicide formulations on microbial and macroinvertebrate leaf decomposition under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elskus, Adria; Smalling, Kelly L.; Hladik, Michelle; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic fungi contribute significantly to the decomposition of leaves in streams, a key ecosystem service. However, little is known about the effects of fungicides on aquatic fungi and macroinvertebrates involved with leaf decomposition. Red maple (Acer rubrum) leaves were conditioned in a stream to acquire microbes (bacteria and fungi), or leached in tap water (unconditioned) to simulate potential reduction of microbial biomass by fungicides. Conditioned leaves were exposed to fungicide formulations QUILT (azoxystrobin + propiconazole) or PRISTINE (boscalid + pyraclostrobin), in the presence and absence of the leaf shredder, Hyalella azteca (amphipods; 7-d old at start of exposures) for 14 d at 23 °C. QUILT formulation (~ 0.3 μg/L, 1.8 μg/L, 8 μg/L) tended to increase leaf decomposition by amphipods (not significant) without a concomitant increase in amphipod biomass, indicating potential increased consumption of leaves with reduced nutritional value. PRISTINE formulation (~ 33 μg/L) significantly reduced amphipod growth and biomass (p<0.05), effects similar to those observed with unconditioned controls. The significant suppressive effects of PRISTINE on amphipod growth, and the trend towards increased leaf decomposition with increasing QUILT concentration, indicate the potential for altered leaf decay in streams exposed to fungicides. Further work is needed to evaluate fungicide effects on leaf decomposition under conditions relevant to stream ecosystems, including temperature shifts and pulsed exposures to pesticide mixtures.

  13. Post-infection activities of fungicides against Cercospora arachidicola of peanut (Arachis hypogaea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert C; Cantonwine, Emily G

    2014-08-01

    Despite strong indirect evidence of post-infection activity by a selection of systemic fungicides against Cercospora arachidicola, the causal organism of early leaf spot of peanut, direct post-infection activities in this pathosystem have yet to be reported in detail. This study was conducted to describe the activities of pyraclostrobin, penthiopyrad and prothioconazole on early leaf spot when each fungicide was applied after pathogen penetration began and throughout the incubation period. Most C. arachidicola penetration events occurred between 3 and 5 days after inoculation (dai), and the mean incubation period was 11.8 dai. Post-infection activities of the systemic fungicides were similar for all dependent variables measured. Systemic fungicides reduced lesion density compared with the non-treated control when applied at 3, 5 and 7 dai, and disease severity was >60% less for leaves treated with a systemic fungicide at all application dates (3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13 dai). Pyraclostrobin, penthiopyrad and prothioconazole showed similar systemic mobility within peanut leaves and activities against C. arachidicola, and appear to completely arrest the development of the pathogen at least 2 days post penetration, and limit pathogen colonization even when applications occur after symptom onset. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Crystal engineering of novel cocrystals of a triazole drug with 1,4-dicarboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remenar, Julius F; Morissette, Sherry L; Peterson, Matthew L; Moulton, Brian; MacPhee, J Michael; Guzmán, Héctor R; Almarsson, Orn

    2003-07-16

    Cocrystals of the poorly soluble antifungal drug cis-itraconazole (1) with 1,4-dicarboxylic acids have been prepared. The crystal structure of the succinic acid cocrystal with 1 was determined to be a trimer by single-crystal X-ray. The trimer is comprised of two molecules of 1 oriented in antiparallel fashion to form a pocket with a triazole at either end. The extended succinic acid molecule fills the pocket, bridging the triazole groups through hydrogen-bonding interactions rather than interacting with the more basic piperazine nitrogens. The solubility and dissolution rate of some of the cocrystals are approximately the same as those of the amorphous drug in the commercial formulation and are much higher than those for the crystalline free base. The results suggest that cocrystals of drug molecules have the possibility of achieving the higher oral bioavailability common for amorphous forms of water-insoluble drugs while maintaining the long-term chemical and physical stability that crystal forms provide.

  15. A star-shaped polythiophene dendrimer coating for solid-phase microextraction of triazole agrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolghasemi, Mir Mahdi; Habibiyan, Rahim; Jaymand, Mehdi; Piryaei, Marzieh

    2018-02-14

    A nanostructured star-shaped polythiophene dendrimer was prepared and used as a fiber coating for headspace solid phase microextraction of selected triazolic pesticides (tebuconazole, hexaconazole, penconazole, diniconazole, difenoconazole, triticonazole) from water samples. The dendrimer with its large surface area was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, UV-Vis spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. It was placed on a stainless steel wire for use in SPME. The experimental conditions for fiber coating, extraction, stirring rate, ionic strength, pH value, desorption temperature and time were optimized. Following thermal desorption, the pesticides were quantified by GC-MS. Under optimum conditions, the repeatability (RSD) for one fiber (for n = 3) ranges from 4.3 to 5.6%. The detection limits are between 8 and 12 pg mL -1 . The method is fast, inexpensive (in terms of equipment), and the fiber has high thermal stability. Graphical abstract Schematic presentation of a nanostructured star-shaped polythiophene dendrimer for use in headspace solid phase microextraction of the triazolic pesticides (tebuconazole, hexaconazole, penconazole, diniconazole, difenoconazole, triticonazole). They were then quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  16. Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Substituted 1,2,4-Triazole Thiones Containing Pyrazole Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALURU GURU PRASAD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To synthesize a series of novel compounds namely, 4-(3-((substituted-1H-pyrazol-3-yl-methylsulphonyl-5-((3,5,6-trichloro-pyridin-2-yl-oxymethyl-[1,2,4]triazol%u20134%u2013yl-methyl-morpholine (8a-g and evaluate their antimicrobial activity. Material and Method: The chemical structures of newly synthesized compounds were elucidated by IR, 1H NMR, mass spectral and elemental analysis data. Their antimicrobial activities against Staphylococus aureus NCCS 2079, Bacillus Cereus, NCCS 2106, Escherichia coli NCCS 2065, Pseudomanas aeruginos NCCS 2200, Aspergillus niger NCCS 1196 and Candida albicans NCCS 2106 were investigated by employing disk diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration was found out by broth dilution method. Results: Elemental analysis of the compounds indicated that the values found by the experiments were very close to theoretically calculated values. IR and 1H NMR spectral assignments of critical functional groups were indicated in each case. Mass spectral fragmentation confirmed the formation of the final product to be screened for antimicrobial activity. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of each of the compounds were evaluated and presented. Each member of the series of compounds was found to be active against tested microbes in particular, the derivative %u20188C%u2019 was found exhibit better antimicrobial activity. Discussion: The compounds demonstrated significant antifungal activity once again evidencing the basic trait of 1,2,4-triazoles.

  17. Synthesis and Luminescence Properties of Iridium(III Azide- and Triazole-Bisterpyridine Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy W. Schmidt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe here the synthesis of azide-functionalised iridium(III bisterpyridines using the “chemistry on the complex” strategy. The resulting azide-complexes are then used in the copper(I-catalysed azide-alkyne Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition “click chemistry” reaction to from the corresponding triazole-functionalised iridium(III bisterpyridines. The photophysical characteristics, including lifetimes, of these compounds were also investigated. Interestingly, oxygen appears to have very little effect on the lifetime of these complexes in aqueous solutions. Unexpectedly, sodium ascorbate acid appears to quench the luminescence of triazole-functionalised iridium(III bisterpyridines, but this effect can be reversed by the addition of copper(II sulfate, which is known to oxidize ascorbate under aerobic conditions. The results demonstrate that iridium(III bisterpyridines can be functionalized for use in “click chemistry” facilitating the use of these photophysically interesting complexes in the modification of polymers or surfaces, to highlight just two possible applications.

  18. Theoretical studies of three triazole derivatives as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in acidic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Lei; Zhu, Shanhong; Zhang, Shengtao; He, Qiao; Li, Weihua

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Three triazole derivatives as corrosion inhibitors were theoretically investigated. • Quantum chemical calculations and Monte Carlo simulations were performed. • Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) approach has been used. • Theoretical conclusions are validated by the consistency with experimental findings. - Abstract: Corrosion inhibitive performance of 4-chloro-acetophenone-O-1′-(1′.3′.4′-triazolyl)-metheneoxime (CATM), 4-fluoro-acetophenone-O-1′-(1′.3′.4′-triazolyl)-metheneoxime (FATM), and 3,4-dichloro-acetophenone-O-1′-(1′.3′.4′-triazolyl)-metheneoxime (DATM) during the acidic corrosion of mild steel surface was investigated using density functional theory (DFT). Quantum chemical parameters such as the highest occupied molecular orbital energy (E HOMO ), the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy (E LUMO ), energy gap (ΔE), Mulliken charges, hardness (ξ), dipole moment (μ), and the fraction of electrons transferred (ΔN), were calculated. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) approach has been used, and a composite index of above-mentioned descriptors was performed to characterize the inhibition performance of the studied molecules. Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulation studies were applied to search for the best configurational space of iron/triazole derivative system

  19. Coordination Polymers and Metal Organic Frameworks Derived from 1,2,4-Triazole Amino Acid Linkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Garcia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The perceptible appearance of biomolecules as prospective building blocks in the architecture of coordination polymers (CPs and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs are redolent of their inclusion in the synthon/tecton library of reticular chemistry. In this frame, for the first time a synthetic strategy has been established for amine derivatization in amino acids into 1,2,4-triazoles. A set of novel 1,2,4-triazole derivatized amino acids were introduced as superlative precursors in the design of 1D coordination polymers, 2D chiral helicates and 3D metal-organic frameworks. Applications associated with these compounds are diverse and include gas adsorption-porosity partitioning, soft sacrificial matrix for morphology and phase selective cadmium oxide synthesis, FeII spin crossover materials, zinc-b-lactamases inhibitors, logistics for generation of chiral/non-centrosymmetric networks; and thus led to a foundation of a new family of functional CPs and MOFs that are reviewed in this invited contribution.

  20. Triazole incorporated thiazoles as a new class of anticonvulsants: design, synthesis and in vivo screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Nadeem; Ahsan, Waquar

    2010-04-01

    Various 3-[4-(substituted phenyl)-1,3-thiazol-2-ylamino]-4-(substituted phenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5-thiones (7a-t) were designed keeping in view the structural requirements suggested in the pharmacophore model for anticonvulsant activity. Thiazole and triazole moieties being anticonvulsants were clubbed together to get the titled compounds and their in vivo anticonvulsant screening were performed by two most adopted seizure models, maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ). Two compounds 7d and 7f showed significant anticonvulsant activity in both the screens with ED(50) values 23.9 mg/kg and 13.4 mg/kg respectively in MES screen and 178.6 mg/kg and 81.6 mg/kg respectively in scPTZ test. They displayed a wide margin of safety with Protective index (PI), median hypnotic dose (HD(50)) and median lethal dose (LD(50)) much higher than the standard drugs. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Analgesic Activity of Some 1,2,4-Triazole Heterocycles Clubbed with Pyrazole, Tetrazole, Isoxazole and Pyrimidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramdas Bhanudas Pandhare

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the present study in vivo analgesic activity of some previously synthesized 1,2,4-triazole derivatives containing pyrazole, tetrazole, isoxazole and pyrimidine ring have been evaluated. Methods: Acetic acid induced writhing method and Hot plate method has been described to study analgesic activity of some 1,2,4-triazole derivatives containing pyrazole, tetrazole, isoxazole and pyrimidine as a pharmacological active lead. Results: Thirty six different derivatives containing 1,2,4-triazole ring were subjected to study their in vivo analgesic activity. Chloro, nitro and methoxy, hydroxy and bromo substituted derivatives showed excellent analgesic activity and dimethylamino, furan and phenyl substituted derivatives showed moderate analgesic activity in both of the methods. Compounds IIIa, IIId, IIIf, IIIi, IIIj, IVa, IVb, IVd, IVf, IVh, IVj IV3a and IIj were found to be superior analgesic agents after screening by Acetic acid induced writhing method. Compounds IIIb, IIId, IIIf, IIIh, IIIj, IVa, IVb, IVd, IVf, IVh, IVi, IV3c, IV3e and IIj were showed analgesic potential after screening of Hot plate method. Conclusion: All tested compounds containing 1,2,4-triazole were found to be promising analgesic agents, for this activity pyrazole, tetrazole, isoxazole and pyrimidine leads might be supported.

  2. A novel chitosan 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole hybrid: Preparation and its effects on cotton fabric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa Aboelnaga

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid of chitosan and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole was prepared using the semi-wet method, which allows for the adsorption of the triazole molecules on the chitosan surface. Moreover, an easy method for applying this hybrid to cotton fabric was established. The tensional strength, uniformity and compatibility of the hybrid components in forming of a strong film were studied using different variables, including the chitosan 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole ratio, fixation temperature and time. The loading of the hybrid onto the fabric in the absence and presence of cross linker (butane tetra carboxylic acid was also studied. The best conditions for preparing the hybrid was a 1:4 molar ratio of chitosan to 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole at 60 °C for 240 min, and those for the application of the hybrid to cotton fabric were a 1:1 molar ratio at 150 °C with a 5 min curing time. Both hybrid and treated cotton fabrics were characterized using FTIR, SEM, TGA, and DSC as well as the nitrogen content and tensional strength of the treated cotton. Finally, the antibacterial activities of the treated cotton fabric display 100% activity and excellent effects against gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Escherichia coli.

  3. Prediction of electronically nonadiabatic decomposition mechanisms of isolated gas phase nitrogen-rich energetic salt: Guanidium-triazolate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Jayanta; Bhattacharya, Atanu, E-mail: atanub@ipc.iisc.ernet.in

    2016-01-13

    Highlights: • Decomposition mechanisms of model energetic salt, guanidium triazolate, are explored. • Decomposition pathways are electronically nonadiabatic. • CASPT2, CASMP2 and CASSCF methodologies are employed. • N{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} are predicted to be the most possible initial decomposition products. - Abstract: Electronically nonadiabatic decomposition pathways of guanidium triazolate are explored theoretically. Nonadiabatically coupled potential energy surfaces are explored at the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) level of theory. For better estimation of energies complete active space second order perturbation theories (CASPT2 and CASMP2) are also employed. Density functional theory (DFT) with B3LYP functional and MP2 level of theory are used to explore subsequent ground state decomposition pathways. In comparison with all possible stable decomposition products (such as, N{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, HNC, HCN, NH{sub 2}CN and CH{sub 3}NC), only NH{sub 3} (with NH{sub 2}CN) and N{sub 2} are predicted to be energetically most accessible initial decomposition products. Furthermore, different conical intersections between the S{sub 1} and S{sub 0} surfaces, which are computed at the CASSCF(14,10)/6-31G(d) level of theory, are found to play an essential role in the excited state deactivation process of guanidium triazolate. This is the first report on the electronically nonadiabatic decomposition mechanisms of isolated guanidium triazolate salt.

  4. A facile and regioselective synthesis of 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles using click chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reaction of α-tosyloxy ketones, sodium azide and terminal alkynes in presence of copper(I) in aqueous polyethylene glycol afforded regioselectively 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles in good yield at ambient temperature. The one-pot exclusive formation of 1,4-disubstituted 1,2...

  5. Reactions of 4-nitro-1,2,3-triazole with alkylating agents and compounds with activated multiple bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vereshchagin, L.I.; Kuznetsova, N.I.; Kirillova, L.P.; Shcherbakov, V.V.; Sukhanov, G.T.; Gareev, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    When 4-nitro-1,2,3-triazole is alkylated, a mixture of N1- and N2-isomers is formed, with the latter usually predominating. The same behavior is also observed in addition reactions of 4-nitrotriazole to activated multiple bonds.

  6. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Substituted Urea and Thiourea Derivatives Containing 1,2,4-Triazole Moieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    reader. Sp -1 was used as a control transcription factor to evaluate the toxicity of tested compounds in the same assay and parthenolide was used as a...enantiomers of chiral γ-Aryl-1H-1,2,4-triazole derivatives and Penicillium digitatum. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2009, 57, 6914–6919. 22. Crank, G.; Neville, M

  7. Click synthesis of 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazoles catalysed by CuO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Click synthesis of 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazoles catalysed by. CuO–CeO2 nanocomposite in the presence of amberlite-supported azide. JALAL ALBADIa,∗, JAFAR ABBASI SHIRANb and AZAM MANSOURNEZHADc. aBehbahan Khatam Alanbia University of Technology, Behbahan 6361647189, Iran. bFaculty of Science ...

  8. Synthesis of 3-O-propargylated betulinic acid and its 1,2,3-triazoles as potential apoptotic agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majeed, Rabiya; Sangwan, Payare L; Chinthakindi, Praveen K

    2013-01-01

    Cytotoxic agents from nature are presently the mainstay of anticancer chemotherapy, and the need to reinforce the arsenal of anticancer agents is highly desired. Chemical transformation studies carried out on betulinic acid, through concise 1,2,3-triazole synthesis via click chemistry approach at...

  9. Differences Among Commonly Sprayed Orchard Fungicides in Targeting the Beneficial Fungi Associated with Honey Bee Colony and Bee Bread Provisions (In Vitro)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our studies evaluated the effects of representative fungicides, boscalid and pyraclostrobin, propiconazole, and chlorothalonil, alone and in combination, on 12 fungi species isolated from bee bread. Chlorothalonil was fungicidal (slowed growth without killing) and was least effective on Aspergillus...

  10. Phytotoxicity of the combination of some insecticides and fungicides on the ornamental species Petunia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bažok

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the production of ornamental plants, it is often necessary to combine plant protection products (PPPs for simultaneous pest control. The use of a combination of PPPs often leads to phytotoxicity. The aim of this study was to determine the phytotoxicity of the combination of fungicides (azoxystrobin and cyprodinil + fludioxonil and insecticides based on abamectin and thiomethoxam on the ornamental plant Petunia sp. The PPPs are used at recommended and double doses. Based on the damage, phytotoxicity indices were calculated. Petunia plants are sensitive even when PPPs are used in recommended doses. Combinations of the both insecticides with the combined fungicide based on cyprodinil and fludioxinil can be advised to protect petunias only if one applies the recommended doses. All combinations of insecticides with a fungicide based on azoxystrobin should not be applied because there is a serious risk of phytotoxicity.

  11. Fungicidal effect of 15 disinfectants against 25 fungal contaminants commonly found in bread and cheese manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, K; Nielsen, P V

    1996-03-01

    Resistance of 19 mold and 6 yeast species to 15 commercial disinfectants was investigated by using a suspension method in which the fungicidal effect and germination time were determined at 20 degrees C. Disinfectants containing 0.5% dodecyldiethylentriaminacetic acid, 10 g of chloramine-T per 1, 2.0% formaldehyde, 0.1% potassium hydroxide, 3.0% hydrogen peroxide, or 0.3% peracetic acid were ineffective as fungicides. The fungicidal effect of quaternary ammonium compounds and chlorine compounds showed great variability between species and among the six isolates of Penicillium roqueforti var. roqueforti tested. The isolates of P roqueforti var. carneum, P. discolor, Aspergillus versicolor, and Eurotium repens examined were resistant to different quaternary ammonium compounds. Conidia and vegetative cells were killed by alcohols, whereas ascospores were resistant. Resistance of ascospores to 70% ethanol increased with age. Both P. roqueforti var. roqueforti and E. repens showed great variability of resistance within isolates of each species.

  12. In vitro Determination of Fungicide Inhibitory Concentration for Phakopsora pachyrhizi isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Moura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In vitro assays were preformed to obtain the IC50 of eight fungicides against Phakopsora pachyrhizi isolates from Passo Fundo, RS, Ponta Grossa, PR, and Primavera do Leste, MT. Different concentrations of the fungicides were added to Petri dishes containing soybean leaf extract agar medium. One milliliter of P. pachyrhizi uredospore suspension at the concentration of 3.0 x 104 uredospores/mL was added to each dish for subsequent viability quantification. Only pyraclostrobin and the mixture trifloxystrobin + prothioconazole showed IC50 values inferior to 1.0 mg/L for all tested isolates, demonstrating high fungitoxicity. There was not loss of sensitivity to any of the tested fungicides.

  13. Environmental fate of fungicides and other current-use pesticides in a central California estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Orlando, James L.; Phillips, Bryn M.; Anderson, Brian S.; Siegler, Katie; Hunt, John W.; Hamilton, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The current study documents the fate of current-use pesticides in an agriculturally-dominated central California coastal estuary by focusing on the occurrence in water, sediment and tissue of resident aquatic organisms. Three fungicides (azoxystrobin, boscalid, and pyraclostrobin), one herbicide (propyzamide) and two organophosphate insecticides (chlorpyrifos and diazinon) were detected frequently. Dissolved pesticide concentrations in the estuary corresponded to the timing of application while bed sediment pesticide concentrations correlated with the distance from potential sources. Fungicides and insecticides were detected frequently in fish and invertebrates collected near the mouth of the estuary and the contaminant profiles differed from the sediment and water collected. This is the first study to document the occurrence of many current-use pesticides, including fungicides, in tissue. Limited information is available on the uptake, accumulation and effects of current-use pesticides on non-target organisms. Additional data are needed to understand the impacts of pesticides, especially in small agriculturally-dominated estuaries.

  14. Combinations of fungicide and cultural practices influence the incidence and impact of fusiform rust in slash pine plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. Haywood; Allan E. Tiarks

    1994-01-01

    Slash pine was grown in central Louisiana under four levels of culture with or without repeated sprayings of the systematic fungicide triadimefon for protection against fusiform rust. The eight treatment combinations were: (1)no fungicide, weed control, or fertilizer; (2)weeded; (3)weeded, applied inorganic fertilizer, and bedded before planting; (4)weeded, bedded,...

  15. Phytopharmacology of the rice diseases. I. In vitro tests on application of the dust fungicides to the important pathogenic fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashioka, Y; Saito, T

    1953-01-01

    In this paper, the results of experiments on the repressing effect of selected fungicides on the growth of pathogenic fungi of rice are reported. Organic mercury compounds were tested and found to be more effective fungicides than copper. Their use in agriculture is recommended.

  16. Rainfall thresholds as support for timing fungicide applications in the control of potato late blight in Ecuador and Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Peter; Taipe, Arturo; Perez, Willmer G.

    2009-01-01

    Accumulated rainfall thresholds were studied in seven field experiments conducted in Ecuador and Peru for their value in timing applications of fungicide to control potato late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans. Fungicide regimes based on accumulated rainfall thresholds ranging from 10 to 70...

  17. 48 CFR 1552.235-73 - Access to Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Confidential Business Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Confidential Business Information (APR 1996). 1552.235-73 Section... Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Confidential Business Information (APR 1996). As prescribed in... Act Confidential Business Information (APR 1996) In order to perform duties under the contract, the...

  18. Potential of Cerbera odollam as a bio-fungicide for post-harvest pathogen Penicilium digitatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harbant; Yin-Chu, Sue; Al-Samarrai, Ghassan; Syarhabil, Muhammad

    2015-05-01

    Postharvest diseases due to fungal infection contribute to economic losses in agriculture industry during storage, transportation or in the market. Penicillium digitatum is one of the common pathogen responsible for the postharvest rot in fruits. This disease is currently being controlled by synthetic fungicides such as Guazatine and Imazalil. However, heavy use of fungicides has resulted in environmental pollution, such as residue in fruit that expose a significant risk to human health. Therefore, there is a strong need to develop alternatives to synthetic fungicide to raise customer confidence. In the current research, different concentrations (500 to 3000 ppm) of ethanol extract of Cerbera odollam or commonly known as Pong-pong were compared with Neem and the controls (Positive control/Guazatine; Negative control/DMSO) for the anti-fungicide activity in PDA media contained in 10 cm diameter Petri dishes, using a modification of Ruch and Worf's method. The toxicity (Lc50) of the C.odollam extract was determined by Brine-shrimp test (BST). The results of the research indicated that crude extraction from C.odollam showed the highest inhibition rate (93%) and smallest colony diameter (0.63 cm) at 3000 ppm in vitro compared with Neem (inhibition rate: 88%; colony diameter: 1.33 cm) and control (Positive control/Guazatine inhibition rate: 79%, colony diameter: 1.9 cm; Negative control/DMSO inhibition rate: 0%, colony diameter: 9.2 cm). C.odollam recorded Lc50 value of 5 µg/ml which is safe but to be used with caution (unsafe level: below 2 µg/ml). The above anti-microbial activity and toxicity value results indicate that C.odollam has a potential of being a future bio-fungicide that could be employed as an alternative to synthetic fungicide.

  19. The Synergistic Effects of Almond Protection Fungicides on Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Forager Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Adrian; Coleman, Chet; Hoffmann, Clint; Fritz, Brad; Rangel, Juliana

    2017-06-01

    The honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) contributes ∼$17 billion annually to the United States economy, primarily by pollinating major agricultural crops including almond, which is completely dependent on honey bee pollination for nut set. Almond growers face constant challenges to crop productivity owing to pests and pathogens, which are often controlled with a multitude of agrochemicals. For example, fungicides are often applied in combination with other products to control fungal pathogens during almond bloom. However, the effects of fungicides on honey bee health have been so far understudied. To assess the effects of some of the top fungicides used during the 2012 California almond bloom on honey bee forager mortality, we collected foragers from a local apiary and exposed them to fungicides (alone and in various combinations) at the label dose, or at doses ranging from 0.25 to 2 times the label dose rate. These fungicides were Iprodione 2SE Select, Pristine, and Quadris. We utilized a wind tunnel and atomizer set up with a wind speed of 2.9 m/s to simulate field-relevant exposure of honey bees to these agrochemicals during aerial application in almond fields. Groups of 40-50 foragers exposed to either untreated controls or fungicide-laden treatments were monitored daily over a 10-d period. Our results showed a significant decrease in forager survival resulting from exposure to simulated tank mixes of Iprodione 2SE Select, as well as synergistic detrimental effects of Iprodione 2SE Select in combination with Pristine and Quadris on forager survival. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Factors influencing the toxicity of Headline® fungicides to terrestrial stage toads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusaac, J Patrick W; Mimbs, William H; Belden, Jason B; Smith, Loren M; McMurry, Scott T

    2017-10-01

    Amphibians are susceptible to exposure from contaminants via multiple pathways. Pyraclostrobin fungicides have been shown to be toxic to terrestrial amphibians at environmentally relevant concentrations; however, these studies did not account for factors that may influence exposure and effects, such as fungicide formulation, age of the individual, exposure route, and physiological state of the individual. We examined Headline® and Headline AMP® fungicide toxicity to adult Anaxyrus cognatus and Anaxyrus woodhousii by direct overspray, as well as acute toxicity of Headline AMP to juvenile A. cognatus through direct overspray, previously exposed soils, and diet. We also assessed effects of hydration state on fungicide toxicity in juvenile A. cognatus and sublethal effects of fungicide exposure on prey-orientation ability of juvenile A. cognatus. Neither formulation of Headline caused mortality of adult A. cognatus and A. woodhousii at up to 5 times the maximum label rate in North American corn (1052 and 879 mL formulation/ha for Headline AMP and Headline fungicides, respectively, corresponding to 1.52 and 2.2 μg pyraclostrobin/cm 2 , respectively). Exposures of juvenile A. cognatus to Headline AMP via direct overspray and previously exposed soils (2 types) resulted in median lethal rate (LR50) values of 2.4, 3.34, and 3.61 μg pyraclostrobin/cm 2 , respectively. Dietary Headline AMP exposure was not toxic, prey-orientations were not influenced by exposure, and effects were similar between dehydrated and hydrated treatments (LR50 = 2.4 and 2.3 μg pyraclostrobin/cm 2 , respectively). These results, combined with exposure concentrations reported in previous studies, suggest that risk of acute mortality for amphibians in terrestrial environments is low and is dictated by body size and site-specific factors influencing exposure. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2679-2688. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  1. Effect of Maize Hybrid and Foliar Fungicides on Yield Under Low Foliar Disease Severity Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallowa, Sally O; Esker, Paul D; Paul, Pierce A; Bradley, Carl A; Chapara, Venkata R; Conley, Shawn P; Robertson, Alison E

    2015-08-01

    Foliar fungicide use in the U.S. Corn Belt increased in the last decade; however, questions persist pertaining to its value and sustainability. Multistate field trials were established from 2010 to 2012 in Illinois, Iowa, Ohio, and Wisconsin to examine how hybrid and foliar fungicide influenced disease intensity and yield. The experimental design was in a split-split plot with main plots consisting of hybrids varying in resistance to gray leaf spot (caused by Cercospora zeae-maydis) and northern corn leaf blight (caused by Setosphaera turcica), subplots corresponding to four application timings of the fungicide pyraclostrobin, and sub-subplots represented by inoculations with either C. zeae-maydis, S. turcica, or both at two vegetative growth stages. Fungicide application (VT/R1) significantly reduced total disease severity relative to the control in five of eight site-years (P<0.05). Disease was reduced by approximately 30% at Wisconsin in 2011, 20% at Illinois in 2010, 29% at Iowa in 2010, and 32 and 30% at Ohio in 2010 and 2012, respectively. These disease severities ranged from 0.2 to 0.3% in Wisconsin in 2011 to 16.7 to 22.1% in Illinois in 2010. The untreated control had significantly lower yield (P<0.05) than the fungicide-treated in three site-years. Fungicide application increased the yield by approximately 6% at Ohio in 2010, 5% at Wisconsin in 2010 and 6% in 2011. Yield differences ranged from 8,403 to 8,890 kg/ha in Wisconsin 2011 to 11,362 to 11,919 kg/ha in Wisconsin 2010. Results suggest susceptibility to disease and prevailing environment are important drivers of observed differences. Yield increases as a result of the physiological benefits of plant health benefits under low disease were not consistent.

  2. Synthesis and fungicidal activity of pyrazole derivatives containing 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Peng; Zhang, Xuebo; Xu, Yan; Xu, Gaofei; Liu, Xili; Yang, Xinling; Zhang, Xiaohe; Ling, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Take-all of wheat, caused by the soil-borne fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, is one of the most important and widespread root diseases. Given that take-all is still hard to control, it is necessary to develop new effective agrochemicals. Pyrazole derivatives have been often reported for their favorable bioactivities. In order to discover compounds with high fungicidal activity and simple structures, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline, a biologically active group of natural products, was introduced to pyrazole structure. A series of pyrazole derivatives containing 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline were synthesized, and their fungicidal activities were evaluated. The bioassay results demonstrated that the title compounds displayed obvious fungicidal activities at a concentration of 50 μg/mL, especially against V. mali, S. sclerotiorum and G. graminis var. tritici. The inhibition rates of compounds 10d, 10e, 10h, 10i and 10j against G. graminis var. tritici were all above 90 %. Even at a lower concentration of 16.7 μg/mL, compounds 10d and 10e exhibited satisfied activities of 100 % and 94.0 %, respectively. It is comparable to that of the positive control pyraclostrobin with 100 % inhibition rate. A series of pyrazole derivatives containing 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline were synthesized and their structures were confirmed by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, IR spectrum and HRMS or elemental analysis. The crystal structure of compound 10g was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Bioassay results indicated that all title compounds exhibited obvious fungicidal activities. In particular, compounds 10d and 10e showed comparable activities against G. graminis var. tritici with the commercial fungicide pyraclostrobin at the concentration of 16.7 μg/mL.Graphical abstractA series of pyrazole derivatives containing 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline were designed and synthesized. Bioassay results indicated that all these compounds exhibited obvious fungicidal activities.

  3. Using Epidemiological Principles to Explain Fungicide Resistance Management Tactics: Why do Mixtures Outperform Alternations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elderfield, James A D; Lopez-Ruiz, Francisco J; van den Bosch, Frank; Cunniffe, Nik J

    2018-07-01

    Whether fungicide resistance management is optimized by spraying chemicals with different modes of action as a mixture (i.e., simultaneously) or in alternation (i.e., sequentially) has been studied by experimenters and modelers for decades. However, results have been inconclusive. We use previously parameterized and validated mathematical models of wheat Septoria leaf blotch and grapevine powdery mildew to test which tactic provides better resistance management, using the total yield before resistance causes disease control to become economically ineffective ("lifetime yield") to measure effectiveness. We focus on tactics involving the combination of a low-risk and a high-risk fungicide, and the case in which resistance to the high-risk chemical is complete (i.e., in which there is no partial resistance). Lifetime yield is then optimized by spraying as much low-risk fungicide as is permitted, combined with slightly more high-risk fungicide than needed for acceptable initial disease control, applying these fungicides as a mixture. That mixture rather than alternation gives better performance is invariant to model parameterization and structure, as well as the pathosystem in question. However, if comparison focuses on other metrics, e.g., lifetime yield at full label dose, either mixture or alternation can be optimal. Our work shows how epidemiological principles can explain the evolution of fungicide resistance, and also highlights a theoretical framework to address the question of whether mixture or alternation provides better resistance management. It also demonstrates that precisely how spray tactics are compared must be given careful consideration. [Formula: see text] Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY 4.0 International license .

  4. Differences in sensitivity between earthworms and enchytraeids exposed to two commercial fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Sylvain; Laurent, Céline; Péry, Alexandre R R; Mougin, Christian; Pelosi, Céline

    2017-06-01

    The use of pesticides in crop fields may have negative effects on soil Oligochaeta Annelida, i.e., earthworms and enchytraeids, and thus affect soil quality. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of two commercial fungicide formulations on the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa and the enchytraeid Enchytraeus albidus in a natural soil. The fungicides were Cuprafor micro® (copper oxychloride), commonly used in organic farming, and Swing Gold® (epoxiconazole and dimoxystrobin), a synthetic fungicide widely used in conventional farming to protect cereal crops. Laboratory experiments were used to assess the survival, biomass loss and avoidance behaviour. No lethal effect was observed following exposure to the copper fungicide for 14 days, even at 5000mgkg -1 of copper, i.e. 650 times the recommended dose (RD). However, a significant decrease in biomass was observed from 50mgkg -1 of copper (6.5 times the RD) for A. caliginosa and at 5000mgkg -1 of copper (650 times the RD) for E. albidus. These sublethal effects suggest that a longer period of exposure would probably have led to lethal effects. The EC50 avoidance for the copper fungicide was estimated to be 51.2mgkg -1 of copper (6.7 times the RD) for A. caliginosa, and 393mgkg -1 of copper (51 times the RD) for E. albidus. For the Swing Gold® fungicide, the estimated LC50 was 7.0 10 -3 mLkg -1 (6.3 times the RD) for A. caliginosa and 12.7 10 -3 mLkg -1 (11.0 times the RD) for E. albidus. No effect on biomass or avoidance was observed at sublethal concentrations of this synthetic fungicide. It was concluded that enchytraeids were less sensitive than earthworms to the two commercial fungicides in terms of mortality, biomass loss and avoidance behaviour. Therefore we discuss the different strategies possibly used by the two Oligochaeta species to cope with the presence of the pesticides were discussed, along with the potential consequences on the soil functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  5. Supramolecular Properties of Triazole-containing Two Armed Peptidomimetics: From Organogelators to Nucleotide-binding Tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Tin Ki

    This thesis described the development of a new type of branched peptidomimetics using a class of previously reported triazole-containing peptidomimetics as the structural motif. The propensity of these new branched peptiomimetics in being an organogelator, forming supramolecular assemblies and recognizing anions and biomolecules was investigated. The quest began with the preparation of two different series of branched peptidomimetics, namely 69-K-aa3 (aa = V or L) and 70-B-aa3. The former series made use of the flexible L-lysine (K) as the branching unit while the latter series was composed of the relatively rigid 3,5-diminobenzoate (B). In each series, the peptidomimetic arms were composed of solely valine (V) or leucine (L). The effects of the identity of the amino acids and the branching units on the gelation and self-assembling properties of these branched bis(tripeptidomimetic)s were investigated. The 69-K-aa3 series was found to exhibit poor solubility in common organic solvents yet it was able to form strong and stable gels in aromatic solvents. The 70-B-aa3 series, on the other hand, was a poor organogelator despite its excellent solubility. Morphological studies using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the ability of the former to form a hyperbranched 3D network whereas the latter was only capable of forming isolated spherical lumps. Nevertheless, the latter displayed the ability in forming supramolecular polymers as shown from viscometric studies. Solution-to-gel transition temperature measurement of the gels formed by the 69-K-aa3 series and association constants determination by 1H NMR titration experiments for the supramolecular polymerization of the 70-B-aa3 series both suggested that peptidomimetic arms comprised of valine performed better than those made up of leucine in terms of association strength, and such a difference was attributed to the bulkier nature of the leucine side chain. In order to

  6. A non-symmetric pillar[5]arene based on triazole-linked 8-oxyquinolines as a sequential sensor for thorium(IV) followed by fluoride ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuyu; Li, Caixia; Wu, Lei; Bai, Bing; Li, Xing; Jia, Yiming; Feng, Wen; Yuan, Lihua

    2015-09-07

    A novel non-symmetric pillar[5]arene bearing triazole-linked 8-oxyquinolines at one rim was synthesized and demonstrated as a sequential fluorescence sensor for thorium(iv) followed by fluoride ions with high sensitivity and selectivity.

  7. The effect of the Falcon 460 EC fungicide on soil microbial communities, enzyme activities and plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baćmaga, Małgorzata; Wyszkowska, Jadwiga; Kucharski, Jan

    2016-10-01

    Fungicides are considered to be effective crop protection chemicals in modern agriculture. However, they can also exert toxic effects on non-target organisms, including soil-dwelling microbes. Therefore, the environmental fate of fungicides has to be closely monitored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the Falcon 460 EC fungicide on microbial diversity, enzyme activity and resistance, and plant growth. Samples of sandy loam with pH KCl 7.0 were collected for laboratory analyses on experimental days 30, 60 and 90. Falcon 460 EC was applied to soil in the following doses: control (soil without the fungicide), dose recommended by the manufacturer, 30-fold higher than the recommended dose, 150-fold higher than the recommended dose and 300-fold higher than the recommended dose. The observed differences in the values of the colony development index and the eco-physiological index indicate that the mixture of spiroxamine, tebuconazole and triadimenol modified the biological diversity of the analyzed groups of soil microorganisms. Bacteria of the genus Bacillus and fungi of the genera Penicillium and Rhizopus were isolated from fungicide-contaminated soil. The tested fungicide inhibited the activity of dehydrogenases, catalase, urease, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase. The greatest changes were induced by the highest fungicide dose 300-fold higher than the recommended dose. Dehydrogenases were most resistant to soil contamination. The Phytotoxkit test revealed that the analyzed fungicide inhibits seed germination capacity and root elongation. The results of this study indicate that excessive doses of the Falcon 460 EC fungicide 30-fold higher than the recommended dose to 300-fold higher than the recommended dose) can induce changes in the biological activity of soil. The analyzed microbiological and biochemical parameters are reliable indicators of the fungicide's toxic effects on soil quality.

  8. Occurrence and persistence of fungicides in bed sediments and suspended solids from three targeted use areas in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L; Reilly, Timothy J; Sandstrom, Mark W; Kuivila, Kathryn M

    2013-03-01

    To document the environmental occurrence and persistence of fungicides, a robust and sensitive analytical method was used to measure 34 fungicides and an additional 57 current-use pesticides in bed sediments and suspended solids collected from areas of intense fungicide use within three geographic areas across the United States. Sampling sites were selected near or within agricultural research farms using prophylactic fungicides at rates and types typical of their geographic location. At least two fungicides were detected in 55% of the bed and 83% of the suspended solid samples and were detected in conjunction with herbicides and insecticides. Six fungicides were detected in all samples including pyraclostrobin (75%), boscalid (53%), chlorothalonil (41%) and zoxamide (22%). Pyraclostrobin, a strobilurin fungicide, used frequently in the United States on a variety of crops, was detected more frequently than p,p'-DDE, the primary degradate of p,p'-DDT, which is typically one of the most frequently occurring pesticides in sediments collected within highly agricultural areas. Maximum fungicide concentrations in bed sediments and suspended solids were 198 and 56.7 μg/kg dry weight, respectively. There is limited information on the occurrence, fate, and persistence of many fungicides in sediment and the environmental impacts are largely unknown. The results of this study indicate the importance of documenting the persistence of fungicides in the environment and the need for a better understanding of off-site transport mechanisms, particularly in areas where crops are grown that require frequent treatments to prevent fungal diseases. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Synthesis of novel isatin-type 5'-(4-Alkyl/Aryl-1H-1,2,3-triazoles) via 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Bianca N. M.; Silva, Barbara V.; Pinto, Angelo C., E-mail: biancanascimento@iq.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Silva, Fernando C.; Gonzaga, Daniel T. G.; Ferreira, Vitor F. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2013-02-15

    Isatin and 1H-1,2,3-triazoles are two classes of compounds with great prominence in organic synthesis and medicinal chemistry as they are heterocycle nuclei with a high reactivity allowing to obtain several compounds with important biological properties. Herein, the synthesis of novel 5'-(4-alquil/aril-1H-1,2,3-triazole)-isatin via reaction of 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition catalyzed by acetic acid is reported. (author)

  10. Synthesis of N-substituted phthalimidoalkyl 1H-1,2,3-triazoles: a molecular diversity combining click chemistry and ultrasound irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Moara T. da; Oliveira, Ronaldo N. de; Valenca, Wagner O.; Barbosa, Fernanda C.G.; Silva, Mauro G. da; Camara, Celso A., E-mail: ronaldonoliveira@dcm.ufrpe.br [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Moleculares

    2012-10-15

    A series of 1,2,3-triazole derivatives was synthesized from N-phthalimidoalkyl-azides (A{sub 1}-A{sub 4}) and alkynes (a-e) under ultrasound irradiation in the presence of CuI, Et{sub 3}N and DMF as solvent. The present protocol afforded 18 new 1,2,3-triazoles (1-4) in good-to-excellent yields (67-98%). (author)

  11. Synthesis of 1,2,4-Triazoles via Oxidative Heterocyclization: Selective C-N Bond Over C-S Bond Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Anupal; Guin, Srimanta; Rajamanickam, Suresh; Rout, Saroj Kumar; Patel, Bhisma K

    2015-09-18

    The higher propensity of C-N over C-S bond forming ability was demonstrated, through formal C-H functionalization during the construction of 4,5-disubstituted 1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones from arylidenearylthiosemicarbazides catalyzed by Cu(II). However, steric factors imparted by the o-disubstituted substrates tend to change the reaction path giving thiodiazole as the major or an exclusive product. Upon prolonging the reaction time, the in situ generated thiones are transformed to 4,5-disubstituted 1,2,4-triazoles via a desulfurization process. Two classes of heterocycles viz. 4,5-disubstituted 1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones and 4,5-disubstituted 1,2,4-triazoles can be synthesized from arylidenearylthiosemicarbazides by simply adjusting the reaction time. Desulfurization of 1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones is assisted by thiophilic Cu to provide 1,2,4-triazoles with concomitant formation of CuS and polynuclear sulfur anions as confirmed from scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements. A one-pot synthesis of an antimicrobial compound has been successfully achieved following this strategy.

  12. Effects of current-use fungicides and their mixtures on the feeding and survival of the key shredder Gammarus fossarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrod, J P; Baudy, P; Schulz, R; Bundschuh, M

    2014-05-01

    Fungicides are frequently applied in agriculture and are subsequently detected in surface waters in total concentrations of up to several tens of micrograms per liter. These concentrations imply potential effects on aquatic communities and fundamental ecosystem functions such as leaf litter breakdown. In this context, the present study investigates sublethal and lethal effects of organic (azoxystrobin, carbendazim, cyprodinil, quinoxyfen, and tebuconazole) and inorganic (three copper (Cu)-based substances and sulfur) current-use fungicides and their mixtures on the key leaf-shredding invertebrate Gammarus fossarum. The feeding activity of fungicide-exposed gammarids was quantified as sublethal endpoint using a static (organic fungicides; 7 d test duration) or a semi-static (inorganic fungicides; 6 d test duration with a water exchange after 3 d) approach (n=30). EC50-values of organic fungicides were generally observed at concentrations resulting in less than 20% mortality, with the exception of carbendazim. With regard to feeding, quinoxyfen was the most toxic organic fungicide, followed by cyprodinil, carbendazim, azoxystrobin, and tebuconazole. Although all tested organic fungicides have dissimilar (intended) modes of action, a mixture experiment revealed a synergistic effect on gammarids' feeding at high concentrations when using "independent action" as the reference model (∼35% deviation between predicted and observed effect). This may be explained by the presence of a synergizing azole fungicide (i.e. tebuconazole) in this mixture. Furthermore, lethal concentrations of all Cu-based fungicides assessed in this study were comparable amongst one another. However, they differed markedly in their effective concentrations when using feeding activity as the endpoint, with Cu-sulfate being most toxic, followed by Cu-hydroxide and Cu-octanoate. In contrast, sulfur neither affected survival nor the feeding activity of gammarids (up to ∼5 mg/L) but reduced Cu

  13. 1-[2-(4-Bromobenzyloxy-2-phenylethyl]-1H-1,2,4-triazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncer Hökelek

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the molecule of the title compound, C17H16BrN3O, the triazole ring is oriented at dihedral angles of 6.14 (9° and 82.08 (9°, respectively, with respect to the phenyl and bromobenzene rings. The dihedral angle between the bromobenzene and phenyl rings is 87.28 (7°. The intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bond results in the formation of a planar five-membered ring, which is oriented at a dihedral angle of 0.13 (6° with respect to the bromobenzene ring. There is an intermolecular C—H...π contact between a methylene group and the bromobenzene ring.

  14. Synthesis and phytotoxic activity of 1,2,3-triazole derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgati, Thiago F.; Alves, Rosemeire B., E-mail: thfborgati@gmail.com, E-mail: rosebrondi@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Teixeira, Robson R.; Freitas, Rossimiriam P. de; Perdigao, Thays G.; Silva, Silma F. da; Santos, Aline Aparecida dos [Universidade Federal de Vicosa, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Bastidas, Alberto de Jesus O. [Laboratorio de Quimica Ecologica, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Los Andes, Nucleo Universitario Pedro Rincon Gutierrez, Merida (Viet Nam)

    2013-06-15

    Thirteen triazole derivatives bearing halogenated benzyl substituents were synthesized using the Cu-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC), a leading example of the click chemistry approach, as the key step. The biological activity of the compounds was evaluated, and it was found that these compounds interfere with the germination and radicle growth (shoots and roots) of two dicotyledonous species, Lactuca sativa and Cucumis sativus, and one monocotyledonous species, Allium cepa. The compounds showed predominantly inhibitory activity related to the evaluated species mainly at the concentration of 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1}. Some of them presented inhibitory activity comparable to 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), used as positive control. (author)

  15. Synthesis and phytotoxic activity of 1,2,3-triazole derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgati, Thiago F.; Alves, Rosemeire B.

    2013-01-01

    Thirteen triazole derivatives bearing halogenated benzyl substituents were synthesized using the Cu-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC), a leading example of the click chemistry approach, as the key step. The biological activity of the compounds was evaluated, and it was found that these compounds interfere with the germination and radicle growth (shoots and roots) of two dicotyledonous species, Lactuca sativa and Cucumis sativus, and one monocotyledonous species, Allium cepa. The compounds showed predominantly inhibitory activity related to the evaluated species mainly at the concentration of 10 -4 mol L -1 . Some of them presented inhibitory activity comparable to 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), used as positive control. (author)

  16. Study of a Triazole Derivative as Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel in Phosphoric Acid Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion inhibition by a triazole derivative (PAMT on mild steel in phosphoric acid (H3PO4 solution has been investigated by weight loss and polarization methods. The experimental results reveal that the compound has a significant inhibiting effect on the corrosion of steel in H3PO4 solution. It also shows good corrosion inhibition at higher concentration of H3PO4. Potentiodynamic polarization studies have shown that the compound acts as a mixed-type inhibitor retarding the anodic and cathodic corrosion reactions with predominant effect on the cathodic reaction. The values of inhibition efficiency obtained from weight loss and polarization measurements are in good agreement. The adsorption of this compound is found to obey the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Some kinetic and thermodynamic parameters such as apparent activation energy, frequency factor, and adsorption free energy have been calculated and discussed.

  17. Anhydrous proton conducting composite membranes containing Nafion and triazole modified POSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, M.; Wang, Y.G.; Zhang, F.F.; Huang, C.; Xu, X.; Zhang, R.; Fan, D.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Development of membrane electrolytes having reasonable proton conductivity and mechanical strength under anhydrous conditions is of great importance for proton exchange membrane fuel cells operated at elevated temperature. With the introduction of triazole modified polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (Tz-POSS) into Nafion membrane, the formed composite electrolytes exhibit improved mechanical properties compared to pristine Nafion membrane due to the well distribution of Tz-POSS inside the membrane. The anhydrous proton conductivity of the formed composite membranes increases initially with the increase in temperature, reaching about 0.02 Scm −1 at 140 °C. With further increase in temperature to about 150 °C, the composite membrane reaches its glass transition point above which the proton conductivity decreases dramatically. The performance of assembled single cell from composite membrane is slightly dependent on humidification conditions at 95 °C, reaching 0.45 V at 600 mAcm −2 using hydrogen and oxygen as reaction gases

  18. Synthesis of aryl-1H-1,2,3-triazoles via 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner O. Valença

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of Aryl-1H-1,2,3-triazoles were prepared from the reaction between aril-azide (1 with 1.5 equiv. of terminal alkynes (2a-o. The reactions carried out at room temperature and in the presence of CuI (10 mol% in acetonitrile. The compounds (3a-o were obtained in moderate-to-good yields (50-94%. In general, not was observed significant inductive effect on the reactivity of the alkynes (2a-f. The alcohol alkynes (2i-k showed moderate yields 50-72%. On the other hand, the reaction with alkyl alkynes (2m,n furnished the compounds (3m and (3n in excellent yields of 89% and 90%, respectively.

  19. Synthesis of new 1H-1,2,3-triazole-1,4-naphthoquinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner O. Valença

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, were synthesized new 1H-1,2,3-triazole-1,4-naphthoquinones via 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction using CuI/acetonitrile without addition of base or ligand. The compounds (3a-i were obtained in moderate-to-good yields 45-92%. To prepare (3d, we obtain a mixture of (3d and (4 in a ratio 3:1, that it was difficult to separate. The low yield for the compound (3f can be also justified based in the formation of aminonaphthoquinone (4. The acetylation of (3h and (3i afforded the compounds (5 and (6 in 77% and 35% of yields, respectively. The low yield of (6 was due to formation of 35 % of the elimination product (7.

  20. Effects of triazole derivatives on strigolactone levels and growth retardation in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsaku Ito

    Full Text Available We previously discovered a lead compound for strigolactone (SL biosynthesis inhibitors, TIS13 (2,2-dimethyl-7-phenoxy-4-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylheptan-3-ol. Here, we carried out a structure-activity relationship study of TIS13 to discover more potent and specific SL biosynthesis inhibitor because TIS13 has a severe side effect at high concentrations, including retardation of the growth of rice seedlings. TIS108, a new TIS13 derivative, was found to be a more specific SL biosynthesis inhibitor than TIS13. Treatment of rice seedlings with TIS108 reduced SL levels in both roots and root exudates in a concentration-dependent manner and did not reduce plant height. In addition, root exudates of TIS108-treated rice seedlings stimulated Striga germination less than those of control plants. These results suggest that TIS108 has a potential to be applied in the control of root parasitic weeds germination.

  1. δ-Peptides from RuAAC-Derived 1,5-Disubstituted Triazole Units

    KAUST Repository

    Johansson, Johan R.

    2014-02-14

    Non-natural peptides with structures and functions similar to natural peptides have emerged lately in biomedical as well as nanotechnological contexts. They are interesting for pharmaceutical applications since they can adopt structures with new targeting potentials and because they are generally not prone to degradation by proteases. We report here a new set of peptidomimetics derived from δ-peptides, consisting of n units of a 1,5-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazole amino acid (5Tzl). The monomer was prepared using ruthenium-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (RuAAC) chemistry using [RuCl2Cp]x as the catalyst, allowing for simpler purification and resulting in excellent yields. This achiral monomer was used to prepare peptide oligomers that are water soluble independent of peptide chain length. Conformational analysis and structural investigations of the oligomers were performed by 2D NOESY NMR experiments, and by quantum chemical calculations using the ωB97X-D functional. These data indicate that several conformations may co-exist with slight energetic differences. Together with their increased hydrophilicity, this feature of homo-5Tzl may prove essential for mimicking natural peptides composed of α-amino acids, where the various secondary structures are achieved by side chain effects and not by the rigidity of the peptide backbone. The improved synthetic method allows for facile variation of the 5Tzl amino acid side chains, further increasing the versatility of these compounds. A new set of non-natural peptides composed of 1,5-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazole amino acids is presented. These peptides benefit from: a) modular synthesis of the monomers, allowing variation of the side chains; b) increased solubility of the oligomers in water, irrespective of peptide length; c) flexibility of the backbone allowing these foldamers to adopt several conformations. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Triazoles inhibit cholesterol export from lysosomes by binding to NPC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Michael N; Lu, Feiran; Li, Xiaochun; Das, Akash; Liang, Qiren; De Brabander, Jef K; Brown, Michael S; Goldstein, Joseph L

    2017-01-03

    Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1), a membrane protein of lysosomes, is required for the export of cholesterol derived from receptor-mediated endocytosis of LDL. Lysosomal cholesterol export is reportedly inhibited by itraconazole, a triazole that is used as an antifungal drug [Xu et al. (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:4764-4769]. Here we show that posaconazole, another triazole, also blocks cholesterol export from lysosomes. We prepared P-X, a photoactivatable cross-linking derivative of posaconazole. P-X cross-linked to NPC1 when added to intact cells. Cross-linking was inhibited by itraconazole but not by ketoconazole, an imidazole that does not block cholesterol export. Cross-linking of P-X was also blocked by U18666A, a compound that has been shown to bind to NPC1 and inhibit cholesterol export. P-X also cross-linked to purified NPC1 that was incorporated into lipid bilayer nanodiscs. In this in vitro system, cross-linking of P-X was inhibited by itraconazole, but not by U18666A. P-X cross-linking was not prevented by deletion of the N-terminal domain of NPC1, which contains the initial binding site for cholesterol. In contrast, P-X cross-linking was reduced when NPC1 contained a point mutation (P691S) in its putative sterol-sensing domain. We hypothesize that the sterol-sensing domain has a binding site that can accommodate structurally different ligands.

  3. Triazole derivatives with improved in vitro antifungal activity over azole drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu S

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Shichong Yu,1,* Xiaoyun Chai,1,* Yanwei Wang,1 Yongbing Cao,2 Jun Zhang,3 Qiuye Wu,1 Dazhi Zhang,1 Yuanying Jiang,2 Tianhua Yan,4 Qingyan Sun11Department of Organic Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2Drug Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 3Overseas Education Faculty of the Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 4Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: A series of triazole antifungal agents with piperidine side chains was designed and synthesized. The results of antifungal tests against eight human pathogenic fungi in vitro showed that all the compounds exhibited moderate-to-excellent activities. Molecular docking between 8d and the active site of Candida albicans CYP51 was provided based on the computational docking results. The triazole interacts with the iron of the heme group. The difluorophenyl group is located in the S3 subsite and its fluorine atom (2-F can form H-bonds with Gly307. The side chain is oriented into the S4 subsite and formed hydrophobic and van der Waals interactions with the amino residues. Moreover, the phenyl group in the side chain interacts with the phenol group of Phe380 through the formation of π–π face-to-edge interactions.Keywords: synthesis, CYP51, molecular docking, azole agents

  4. Radioprotective effect of sulphydryl group containing triazole derivative to modulate the radiation-induced clastogenic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchetha Kumari, N.; Madhu, L.N.

    2012-01-01

    Protection of biological systems against radiation damage is of paramount importance during accidental and unavoidable exposure to radiation. Several physico-chemical and biological factors collectively contribute to the damage caused by radiation and are, therefore, targets for developing radioprotectors. Chemicals capable of scavenging free radicals, relieving oxidative stress, promoting antioxidant activity and modulating immune response have been some of the radioprotectors extensively investigated with limited success. It has long been known that some of the most effective radioprotective agents are those which contain sulphydryl groups. The present study reports an evaluation of radical scavenging property and radioprotective property of sulphydryl group containing triazole derivative. The lethal dose of Electron beam radiation (EBR) was studied by survival assay. The dose reduction factor (DRF) of 4-amino-5-mercapto-3-methyl-1,2,4-triazole (TR1) was calculated by taking the ratio between LD 50 of EBR with and without TR1 treatment. Radical scavenging property of TR1 was assessed by DPPH radical scavenging assay. The clastogenic effects of EBR were recorded by Micronucleus test in bone marrow cells and DNA fragmentation assay in hepatic cells of mice. The survival assay results showed that 10Gy was the LD 50 of EBR. The calculated DRF for TR1 was found to be 1.2. DPPH radical scavenging assay showed a positive result when it compared with the standard glutathione. Treatment of mice with 100 mg of TR1 for 15 days before irradiation significantly (P<0.05) reduced the frequency of micronucleus formation in bone marrow cells and also reduced the DNA fragmentation in hepatic cells. The result obtained in the present study concludes that TR1 has a protective effect against the EBR-induced mortality and clastogenicity. (author)

  5. Fungicidal effect of 15 disinfectants against 24 fungal contaminants commonly found in bread and cheese manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, Kirsten; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1996-01-01

    Resistance of 19 mold- and 6 yeast- species against 15 commercial disinfectants was investigated by a suspension-method in which the fungicidal effect and germination time were determined at 20 °C. Disinfectants containing 0.5 % dodecyldiethylentriaminacetic acid, 10 g/l chloramine-T, 2.0 % forma...

  6. Infectivity of the conidia of the rice blast fungus treated with the different fungicidal solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashioka, Y; Ikegami, H

    1959-01-01

    Infectivity of the conidia of Piricularia oryzae (rice blast fungus) which had been treated with different fungicides was examined. Germination of conidia treated with phenylmercuric acetate was severely repressed. Copper sulfate had a mild inhibitory effect. Organosulfur compounds also had a slight inhibitory effect.

  7. Tentative identification of 2-imidazoline as a transformation product of ethylenebisdithiocarbamate fungicides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, J.W.; Kaars Sijpesteijn, A.

    2-Imidazoline has been identified tentatively as a minor conversion product of ethylenethiourea in seedlings of cucumber and wheat. As ethylenethiourea is known to be present in plants after root treatment with ethylenebisdithiocarbamate fungicides, 2-imidazoline is assumed to be a terminal residue

  8. POMICS: A Simulation Disease Model for Timing Fungicide Applications in Management of Powdery Mildew of Cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapak, Z; Salam, M U; Minchinton, E J; MacManus, G P V; Joyce, D C; Galea, V J

    2017-09-01

    A weather-based simulation model, called Powdery Mildew of Cucurbits Simulation (POMICS), was constructed to predict fungicide application scheduling to manage powdery mildew of cucurbits. The model was developed on the principle that conditions favorable for Podosphaera xanthii, a causal pathogen of this crop disease, generate a number of infection cycles in a single growing season. The model consists of two components that (i) simulate the disease progression of P. xanthii in secondary infection cycles under natural conditions and (ii) predict the disease severity with application of fungicides at any recurrent disease cycles. The underlying environmental factors associated with P. xanthii infection were quantified from laboratory and field studies, and also gathered from literature. The performance of the POMICS model when validated with two datasets of uncontrolled natural infection was good (the mean difference between simulated and observed disease severity on a scale of 0 to 5 was 0.02 and 0.05). In simulations, POMICS was able to predict high- and low-risk disease alerts. Furthermore, the predicted disease severity was responsive to the number of fungicide applications. Such responsiveness indicates that the model has the potential to be used as a tool to guide the scheduling of judicious fungicide applications.

  9. Synthesis and fungicidal properties of 2,4-diaza-1,3,5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The preparation of 2,4-diaza-1,3,5-pentanetrione compounds were described. The fungicidal effects of these compounds on the mycelial growth of the isolate, Phoma eupyrena were carried out by in vitro experiment. The results show that the response to treatment depended not only on the concentration of the compounds ...

  10. Effects of four fungicides on nine non-target submersed macrophytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belgers, J.D.M.; Aalderink, G.H.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2009-01-01

    We tested the sensitivity of nine submersed macrophyte species to the fungicides chlorothalonil, pentachlorophenol, fluazinam, and carbendazim. Endpoints determined 3 weeks after the start of the treatment were based on shoot and root growth in water. Carbendazim proved not or only moderately toxic

  11. Effects of the fungicide metiram in outdoor freshwater microcosms: responses of invertebrates, primany producers and microbes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronghua, Lin; Buijse-Bogdan, L.L.; Rocha Dimitrov, M.; Dohmen, P.; Kosol, Sujitra; Maltby, L.; Roessink, I.; Sinkeldam, J.A.; Smidt, H.; Wijngaarden, van R.P.A.; Brock, T.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    The ecological impact of the dithiocarbamate fungicide metiram was studied in outdoor freshwater microcosms, consisting of 14 enclosures placed in an experimental ditch. The microcosms were treated three times (interval 7 days) with the formulated product BAS 222 28F (Polyram®). Intended metiram

  12. Interaction of basal foliage removal and late season fungicide applications in management of Hop powdery mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were conducted over three years to evaluate whether fungicide applications could be ceased after the most susceptible stages of cone development (late July) without unduly affecting crop yield and quality when disease pressure was moderated with varying levels of basal foliage removal. I...

  13. Comparing protection afforded by different organic alternatives to conventional fungicides for reducing scab on pecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecan scab (Venturia effusa) is the major yield-limiting disease in the southeastern USA. Although conventional fungicides are available to manage the disease, there is no comparison of organic methods (organically produced nuts attract a higher price). In 2011, 2012, 2014, 2015 and 2016 trees of cv...

  14. Analysis of Fungicide Sensitivity and Genetic Diversity among Colletotrichum Species in Sweet Persimmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Geun-Hye; Cho, Hyun Ji; Kim, Hye Sun; Kwack, Yong-Bum; Kwak, Youn-Sig

    2015-06-01

    Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (C. gloeosporioides; Teleomorph: Glomerella cingulata), is the most destructive disease that affects sweet persimmon production worldwide. However, the biology, ecology, and genetic variations of C. gloeosporioides remain largely unknown. Therefore, in this study, the development of fungicide resistance and genetic diversity among an anthracnose pathogen population with different geographical origins and the exposure of this population to different cultivation strategies were investigated. A total of 150 pathogen isolates were tested in fungicide sensitivity assays. Five of the tested fungicides suppressed mycelial pathogen growth effectively. However, there were significant differences in the sensitivities exhibited by the pathogen isolates examined. Interestingly, the isolates obtained from practical management orchards versus organic cultivation orchards showed no differences in sensitivity to the same fungicide. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses were performed to detect internal transcribed spacer regions and the β-tubulin and glutamine synthetase genes of the pathogens examined. Both the glutamine synthetase and β-tubulin genes contained a complex set of polymorphisms. Based on these results, the pathogens isolated from organic cultivation orchards were found to have more diversity than the isolates obtained from the practical management orchards.

  15. Analysis of Fungicide Sensitivity and Genetic Diversity among Colletotrichum Species in Sweet Persimmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geun-Hye Gang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (C. gloeosporioides; Teleomorph: Glomerella cingulata, is the most destructive disease that affects sweet persimmon production worldwide. However, the biology, ecology, and genetic variations of C. gloeosporioides remain largely unknown. Therefore, in this study, the development of fungicide resistance and genetic diversity among an anthracnose pathogen population with different geographical origins and the exposure of this population to different cultivation strategies were investigated. A total of 150 pathogen isolates were tested in fungicide sensitivity assays. Five of the tested fungicides suppressed mycelial pathogen growth effectively. However, there were significant differences in the sensitivities exhibited by the pathogen isolates examined. Interestingly, the isolates obtained from practical management orchards versus organic cultivation orchards showed no differences in sensitivity to the same fungicide. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analyses were performed to detect internal transcribed spacer regions and the β-tubulin and glutamine synthetase genes of the pathogens examined. Both the glutamine synthetase and β-tubulin genes contained a complex set of polymorphisms. Based on these results, the pathogens isolated from organic cultivation orchards were found to have more diversity than the isolates obtained from the practical management orchards.

  16. Management of resistance to the fungicide fenpropimorph in Erysiphe graminis f.sp tritici

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, A.J.G.

    1998-01-01

    In the last three decades, plant disease control has become heavily dependent on fungicides. This practice increased yield significantly but had also negative side-effects on the environment. In many countries, integrated control programs have been initiated in order to reduce pesticide use

  17. Reaction kinetics and mechanisms of organosilicon fungicide flusilazole with sulfate and hydroxyl radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, D Fabio; Bracco, Larisa L B; Arques, Antonio; Gonzalez, Mónica C; Caregnato, Paula

    2018-01-01

    Flusilazole is an organosilane fungicide used for treatments in agriculture and horticulture for control of diseases. The reaction kinetics and mechanism of flusilazole with sulfate and hydroxyl radicals were studied. The rate constant of the radicals with the fungicide were determined by laser flash photolysis of peroxodisulfate and hydrogen peroxide. The results were 2.0 × 10 9 s -1 M -1 for the reaction of the fungicide with HO and 4.6 × 10 8  s -1  M -1 for the same reaction with SO 4 - radicals. The absorption spectra of organic intermediates detected by laser flash photolysis of S 2 O 8 2- with flusilazole, were identified as α-aminoalkyl and siloxyl radicals and agree very well with those estimated employing the time-dependent density functional theory with explicit account for bulk solvent effects. In the continuous photolysis experiments, performed by photo-Fenton reaction of the fungicide, the main degradation products were: (bis(4-fluorophenyl)-hydroxy-methylsilane) and the non-toxic silicic acid, diethyl bis(trimethylsilyl) ester, in ten and twenty minutes of reaction, respectively. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Fungicidal seed coatings exert minor effects on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant nutrient content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: Determine if contemporary, seed-applied fungicidal formulations inhibit colonization of plant roots by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, plant development, or plant nutrient content during early vegetative stages of several commodity crops. Methods: We evaluated seed-applied commercial fungic...

  19. Effects of artea, a systemic fungicide, on the antioxidant system and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work aimed at the study of the effects of Artea, a systemic azole fungicide, on durum Wheat (Triticum durum L. cv. GTA dur). Seeds were grown in a medium containing respectively 25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm of Artea under controlled conditions. Roots of eight-day-old plants were used to determine catalase, ...

  20. Non-target effects of fungicides on nectar-inhabiting fungi of almond flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Robert N; Vannette, Rachel L; Brittain, Claire; Williams, Neal M; Fukami, Tadashi

    2017-04-01

    Nectar mediates interactions between plants and pollinators in natural and agricultural systems. Specialized microorganisms are common nectar inhabitants, and potentially important mediators of plant-pollinator interactions. However, their diversity and role in mediating pollination services in agricultural systems are poorly characterized. Moreover, agrochemicals are commonly applied to minimize crop damage, but may present ecological consequences for non-target organisms. Assessment of ecological risk has tended to focus on beneficial macroorganisms such as pollinators, with less attention paid to microorganisms. Here, using culture-independent methods, we assess the impact of two widely-used fungicides on nectar microbial community structure in the mass-flowering crop almond (Prunus dulcis). We predicted that fungicide application would reduce fungal richness and diversity, whereas competing bacterial richness would increase, benefitting from negative effects on fungi. We found that fungicides reduced fungal richness and diversity in exposed flowers, but did not significantly affect bacterial richness, diversity, or community composition. The relative abundance of Metschnikowia OTUs, nectar specialists that can impact pollination, was reduced by both fungicides. Given growing recognition of the importance of nectar microorganisms as mediators of plant-pollinator mutualisms, future research should consider the impact of management practices on plant-associated microorganisms and consequences for pollination services in agricultural landscapes. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effect of fungicide on the development of wheat stem rust and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f.sp tritici Erik. & E. Henn. is a highly destructive disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The effects of fungicide application on stem rust (Puccinia graminis tritici) epidemics and yield of three bread wheat varieties varying in reaction to the disease were studied in two major wheat ...

  2. Comparative assessment of the effect of synthetic and natural fungicides on soil respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, Angelo; Felício, Joanna D'Arc; de Andréa, Mara M

    2012-01-01

    As toxic pesticide residues may persist in agricultural soils and cause environmental pollution, research on natural fungicides to replace the synthetic compounds is currently increasing. The effect of the synthetic fungicide chlorothalonil and a natural potential fungicide on the soil microbial activity was evaluated here by the substrate-induced respiration by addition of glucose (SIR), as bioindicator in two soils (Eutrophic Humic Gley-GHE and Typic Eutroferric Chernosol-AVEC). The induced soil respiration parameter was followed during 28 days after soil treatment either with chlorathalonil (11 μg·g(-1)), or the methanolic fraction from Polymnia sonchifolia extraction (300 μg·g(-1)), and (14)C-glucose (4.0 mg and 5.18 Bq of (14)C-glucose g(-1)). The (14)C-CO(2) produced by the microbial respiration was trapped in NaOH (0.1 M) which was changed each two hours during the first 10 h, and 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28 days after the treatments. The methanolic fraction of the plant extract inhibited (2.2%) and stimulated (1.8%) the respiration of GHE and AVEC, respectively, but the synthetic chlorothalonil caused 16.4% and 2.6% inhibition of the respiration, respectively of the GHE and AVEC soils. As the effects of the natural product were statistically small, this bioindicator indicates that the methanolic fraction of the Polymnia sonchifolia extract, which has fungicide properties, has no environmental effects.

  3. Comparison of human health risks resulting from exposure to fungicides and mycotoxins via food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muri, S.D.; Voet, van der H.; Boon, P.E.; Klaveren, van J.D.; Bruschweiler, B.

    2009-01-01

    The interest in holistic considerations in the area of food safety is increasing. Risk managers may face the problem that reducing the risk of one compound may increase the risk of another compound. An example is the potential increase in mycotoxin levels due to a reduced use of fungicides in crop

  4. Application of Copper Solid Amalgam Electrode for Determination of Fungicide Tebuconazole

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Kateřina; Navrátil, Tomáš; Jaklová Dytrtová, Jana; Chýlková, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2013), s. 1-16 ISSN 1452-3981 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/11/1638; GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/1645 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : tebuconazole * fungicide * copper solid amalgam electrode Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.956, year: 2013

  5. In vitro metabolism of the anti-androgenic fungicide vinclozolin by rat liver microsomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinclozolin (V) is a fungicide used in agricultural settings. V administered to rats is hydrolyzed to 2-[[(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-carbamoyl]oxy]-2-methyl-3-butenoic acid (Ml) and 3',5'-dichloro-2-hydroxy-2-methylbut-3-enanilide (M2). V, Ml and M2 have antiandrogenic properties by in...

  6. Adsorption, transformation, and bioavailability of the fungicides carbendazim and iprodione in soil, alone and in combination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leistra, M.; Matser, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    When studying the effect of mixtures of toxic substances on soil organisms, attention must be paid to peculiarities in exposure to mixtures as opposed to that of single toxicants. The fungicides carbendazim and iprodione compete in the adsorption to soil. The presence of iprodione reduced the

  7. Using airborne imagery to monitor cotton root rot infection before and after fungicide treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton root rot is a severe soilborne disease that has affected cotton production for over a century. Recent research has shown that a commercial fungicide, flutriafol, has potential for the control of this disease. To effectively and economically control this disease, it is necessary to identify in...

  8. Evaluation of fungicides for the control of false smut of rice caused ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benomyl, Copper Oxychloride, Iprodione, Thiabendazole (TBZ) and Mancozeb were evaluated both in the laboratory and field study in 1994, for the control of false smut of rice caused by Ustilaginoidea virens (Cooke) Tak. in upland rice in Edo State, Nigeria. In the laboratory the fungicides were evaluated at three ...

  9. The fungicidal properties of the carbon materials obtained from chitin and chitosan promoted by copper salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilnicka, Anna, E-mail: annakucinska@o2.pl; Walczyk, Mariusz; Lukaszewicz, Jerzy P.

    2015-07-01

    Renewable raw materials chitin and chitosan (N-deacetylated derivative of chitin) were subjected to action of different copper modifiers that were carbonized in the atmosphere of the N{sub 2} inert gas. As a result of the novel manufacturing procedure, a series of carbon materials was obtained with developed surface area and containing copper derivatives of differentiated form, size, and dispersion. The copper modifier and manufacturing procedure (concentration, carbonization temperature) influence the physical–chemical and fungicide properties of the carbons. The received carbons were chemically characterized using several methods like low-temperature adsorption of nitrogen, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, elemental analysis, and bioassay. Besides chemical testing, some biological tests were performed and let to select carbons with the highest fungicidal activity. Such carbons were characteristic of the specific form of copper derivatives occurring in them, i.e., nanocrystallites of Cu{sup 0} and/or Cu{sub 2}O of high dispersion on the surface of carbon. The carbons may find an application as effective contact fungistatic agents in cosmetology, medicine, food industry, etc. - Highlights: • The novel manufacturing procedure yields new functional carbon materials. • Two biopolymers chitin and chitosan can undergo copper(II) ion modification. • The Cu-modified carbon materials exhibit high fungicidal activity. • The fungicidal activity results from the presence of Cu{sup 0} and Cu{sub 2}O nano-crystallites.

  10. Development and persistence of resistance to fungicides in Sphaerotheca fuliginea in cucumbers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H.T.A.M.

    1985-01-01

    Ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors (EBIs) have a remarkably broad spectrum of antifungal activity. They belong to the commercial fungicides which exhibit the highest activity known to date. Resistance to EBIs was found in vitro, but the level of resistance and the decreased fitness of resistant

  11. In vitro sensitivity reduction of Fusarium graminearum to DMI and QoI fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aveline Avozani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, Fusarium head blight (FHB affecting wheat can cause up to 39.8% damage. Resistant cultivars are not available yet; thus, short-term disease control relies on the use of fungicides. The first step to improve control is to monitor fungal populations that are sensitivity to chemicals in order to achieve efficient FHB management. In vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate the inhibitory concentration (IC50 of fungicides for both mycelial growth and conidial germination of ten Fusarium graminearum isolates. The following demethylation inhibitor (DMI fungicides were tested: metconazole, prothioconazole and tebuconazole. In addition, pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin were included, representing QoI fungicides, as well as three co-formulations containing metconazole + pyraclostrobin, prothioconazole + trifloxystrobin, and tebuconazole + trifloxystrobin. For mycelial growth, the overall mean IC50 of isolates was: metconazole 0.07, prothioconazole 0.1, and tebuconazole 0.19 mg/L. For the co-formulations, it was: prothioconazole + trifloxystrobin 0.08, tebuconazole + trifloxystrobin 0.12, and metconazole + pyraclostrobin 0.14 mg/L. Regarding spore germination inhibition, IC50 for prothioconazole + trifloxystrobin was 0.06, for tebuconazole + trifloxystrobin, 0.12 mg/L, for QoI alone pyraclostrobin, was 0.09, and for trifloxystrobin, 0.28 mg/L. There was a sensitivity shift among isolates and the highest fungitoxicity to F. graminearum was confirmed for prothioconazole, metconazole and tebuconazole .

  12. Phenotypical and Molecular Characterisation of Fusarium circinatum: Correlation with Virulence and Fungicide Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Mullett

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium circinatum, causing pine pitch canker, is one of the most damaging pathogens of Pinus species. This study investigated the use of phenotypical and molecular characteristics to delineate groups in a worldwide collection of isolates. The groups correlated with virulence and fungicide sensitivity, which were tested in a subset of isolates. Virulence tests of twenty isolates on P. radiata, P. sylvestris and P. pinaster demonstrated differences in host susceptibility, with P. radiata most susceptible and P. sylvestris least susceptible. Sensitivity to the fungicides fludioxonil and pyraclostrobin varied considerably between isolates from highly effective (half-maximal effective concentration (EC50 < 0.1 ppm to ineffective (EC50 > 100 ppm. This study demonstrates the potential use of simply acquired phenotypical (cultural, morphological and molecular metrics to gain a preliminary estimate of virulence and sensitivity to certain fungicides. It also highlights the necessity of including a range of isolates in fungicide tests and host susceptibility assays, particularly of relevance to tree breeding programmes.

  13. Evaluation of fungicides to protect pruning wounds from Botryosphaeriaceae species infections on almond trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego OLMO

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In vitro efficacy of ten fungicides was evaluated against four Botryosphaeriaceae spp. (Diplodia seriata, Neofusicoccum luteum, N. mediterraneum and N. parvum associated with branch cankers on almond trees. Cyproconazole, pyraclostrobin, tebuconazole, and thiophanate-methyl were effective for the inhibition of mycelial growth of most of these fungi. An experiment on 3-year-old almond trees evaluated boscalid, mancozeb, thiophanate-methyl, pyraclostrobin and tebuconazole for preventative ability against infections caused by the four pathogens. Five months after pruning and fungicide application, lesion length measurements and isolation percentages showed no significant differences among the four pathogens after they were inoculated onto the trees, and also between the two inoculation times tested (1 or 7 d after fungicide application. Thiophanate-methyl was the most effective fungicide, resulting in the shortest lesion lengths and the lowest isolation percentages from artificially inoculated pruning wounds. This chemical is therefore a candidate for inclusion in integrated disease management, to protect pruning wounds from infections caused by species of Botryosphaeriaceae. This study represents the first approach to development of chemical control strategies for the management of canker diseases caused by Botryosphaeriaceae fungi on almond trees. 

  14. Fungicides efficiency on wheat diseases control in response to the application with different spray nozzles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Rafael Garcés Fiallos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of fungicides to leaf control diseases of wheat, when applied to different models of spray nozzles. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with four replicates of factorial (4 x 3+1. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and means compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. The fungicides used were: Opera® (pyraclostrobin+epoxiconazole 0.75 L.ha-1 , Opera® 0.75 L.ha-1 +Folicur® (tebuconazole 0.3 L.ha-1 , Priori Xtra® (azoxystrobin+cyproconazole 0.3 L.ha-1 , Priori Xtra® 0.3 L.ha-1 +Tilt® (propiconazole 0.3 L.ha-1 . These fungicides were applied with three models of spray nozzles jet planes: XR 11 001 (fine drop, AIRMIX 11,001 (average drop and AVI 11,001 (coarse drop. We evaluated the incidence and severity (damage per plant leaf of yellow spot (Drechslera tritici-repentis, spot blotch (Bipolaris sorokiniana, leaf rust (Puccinia triticina and grain yield (kg.ha-1 culture. The results show that the application of fungicides for control of leaf diseases in wheat resulted in increases in grain yield, and yield higher values were observed with the application of Opera®, using the XR 11001.

  15. Effects of oral exposure to fungicides on honey bee nutrition and immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worker bees fed pollen containing fungicides (boscalid and pyraclostrobin) that are respiratory inhibitors had lower ATP concentrations in thoracic muscle tissue than those fed untreated pollen in both cage and colony studies. Midgut protease activity, used an indicator of consumption, was higher in...

  16. A reassessment of the risk of rust fungi developing resistance to fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Richard P

    2014-11-01

    Rust fungi are major pathogens of many annual and perennial crops. Crop protection is largely based on genetic and chemical control. Fungicide resistance is a significant issue that has affected many crop pathogens. Some pathogens have rapidly developed resistance and hence are regarded as high-risk species. Rust fungi have been classified as being low risk, in spite of sharing many relevant features with high-risk pathogens. An examination of the evidence suggests that rust fungi may be wrongly classified as low risk. Of the nine classes of fungicide to which resistance has developed, six are inactive against rusts. The three remaining classes are quinone outside inhibitors (QoIs), demethylation inhibitors (DMIs) and succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors (SDHIs). QoIs have been protected by a recently discovered intron that renders resistant mutants unviable. Low levels of resistance have developed to DMIs, but with limited field significance. Older SDHI fungicides were inactive against rusts. Some of the SDHIs introduced since 2003 are active against rusts, so it may be that insufficient time has elapsed for resistance to develop, especially as SDHIs are generally sold in mixtures with other actives. It would therefore seem prudent to increase the level of vigilance for possible cases of resistance to established and new fungicides in rusts. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Effects of artea, a systemic fungicide, on the antioxidant system and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... from oxygen metabolism in mitochondria (Alscher et al.,. 2002). Plants have well ... effects on plant in the sense they may induce a decrease in growth as well as modulating the metabolic balance. Morphological effects of ... with fungicide concentration (about 150% at 100 ppm). At. 25 ppm, the increase in ...

  18. Assessing effects of the fungicide tebuconazole to heterotrophic microbes in aquatic microcosms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrov, M.R.; Kosol, Sujitra; Smidt, H.; Brink, van den P.J.; Wijngaarden, van R.P.A.; Brock, T.C.M.; Maltby, L.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic ecological risk assessment of fungicides in Europe under Regulation 1107/2009/EC does not currently assess risk to non-target bacteria and fungi. Rather, regulatory acceptable concentrations based on ecotoxicological data obtained from studies with fish, invertebrates and primary producers

  19. Efficacy of Combined Formulations of Fungicides with Different Modes of Action in Controlling Botrytis Gray Mold Disease in Chickpea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, M. H.; Hossain, M. Ashraf; Kashem, M. A.; Kumar, Shiv; Rafii, M. Y.; Latif, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Botrytis gray mold (BGM) caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. Ex. Fr. is an extremely devastating disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and has a regional as well as an international perspective. Unfortunately, nonchemical methods for its control are weak and ineffective. In order to identify an effective control measure, six fungicides with different modes of action were evaluated on a BGM susceptible chickpea variety BARIchhola-1 at a high BGM incidence location (Madaripur) in Bangladesh for three years (2008, 2009, and 2010). Among the six fungicides tested, one was protectant [Vondozeb 42SC, a.i. mancozeb (0.2%)], two systemic [Bavistin 50 WP, a.i. carbendazim (0.2%), and Protaf 250EC, propiconazole (0.05%)], and three combination formulations [Acrobat MZ690, dimethomorph 9% + mancozeb 60%, (0.2%); Secure 600 WG, phenomadone + mancozeb (0.2%); and Companion, mancozeb 63% + carbendazim 12% (0.2%)]. The results showed superiority of combination formulations involving both protectant and systemic fungicides over the sole application of either fungicide separately. Among the combination fungicides, Companion was most effective, resulting in the lowest disease severity (3.33 score on 1–9 scale) and the highest increase (38%) of grain yield in chickpea. Therefore, this product could be preferred over the sole application of either solo protectant or systemic fungicides to reduce yield losses and avoid fungicide resistance. PMID:24723819

  20. Colonies of Bumble Bees (Bombus impatiens Produce Fewer Workers, Less Bee Biomass, and Have Smaller Mother Queens Following Fungicide Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia M. Bernauer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bees provide vital pollination services to the majority of flowering plants in both natural and agricultural systems. Unfortunately, both native and managed bee populations are experiencing declines, threatening the persistence of these plants and crops. Agricultural chemicals are one possible culprit contributing to bee declines. Even fungicides, generally considered safe for bees, have been shown to disrupt honey bee development and impair bumble bee behavior. Little is known, however, how fungicides may affect bumble bee colony growth. We conducted a controlled cage study to determine the effects of fungicide exposure on colonies of a native bumble bee species (Bombus impatiens. Colonies of B. impatiens were exposed to flowers treated with field-relevant levels of the fungicide chlorothalonil over the course of one month. Colony success was assessed by the number and biomass of larvae, pupae, and adult bumble bees. Bumble bee colonies exposed to fungicide produced fewer workers, lower total bee biomass, and had lighter mother queens than control colonies. Our results suggest that fungicides negatively affect the colony success of a native bumble bee species and that the use of fungicides during bloom has the potential to severely impact the success of native bumble bee populations foraging in agroecosystems.

  1. Multiple resistance of Botrytis cinerea from kiwifruit to SDHIs, QoIs and fungicides of other chemical groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardas, George A; Veloukas, Thomas; Koutita, Olga; Karaoglanidis, George S

    2010-09-01

    Botrytis cinerea Pers.: Fr. is a high-risk pathogen for fungicide resistance development that has caused resistance problems on many crops throughout the world. This study investigated the fungicide sensitivity profile of isolates from kiwifruits originating from three Greek locations with different fungicide use histories. Sensitivity was measured by in vitro fungitoxicity tests on artificial nutrient media. Seventy-six single-spore isolates were tested for sensitivity to the SDHI fungicide boscalid, the QoI pyraclostrobin, the anilinopyrimidine cyprodinil, the hydroxyanilide fenhexamid, the phenylpyrrole fludioxonil, the dicarboxamide iprodione and the benzimidazole carbendazim. All isolates from Thessaloniki showed resistance to both boscalid and pyraclostrobin, while in the other two locations the fungal population was sensitive to these two fungicides. Sensitive isolates showed EC(50) values to boscalid and pyraclostrobin ranging from 0.9 to 5.2 and from 0.04 to 0.14 mg L(-1) respectively, while the resistant isolates showed EC(50) values higher than 50 mg L(-1) for boscalid and from 16 to > 50 mg L(-1) for pyraclostrobin. All QoI-resistant isolates carried the G143A mutation in cytb. Sensitivity determinations to the remaining fungicides revealed in total eight resistance phenotypes. No isolates were resistant to the fungicides fenhexamid and fludioxonil. This is the first report of B. cinerea field isolates with resistance to both boscalid and pyraclostrobin, and it strongly suggests that there may be a major problem in controlling this important pathogen on kiwifruit. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Efficacy of Combined Formulations of Fungicides with Different Modes of Action in Controlling Botrytis Gray Mold Disease in Chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis gray mold (BGM caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. Ex. Fr. is an extremely devastating disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and has a regional as well as an international perspective. Unfortunately, nonchemical methods for its control are weak and ineffective. In order to identify an effective control measure, six fungicides with different modes of action were evaluated on a BGM susceptible chickpea variety BARIchhola-1 at a high BGM incidence location (Madaripur in Bangladesh for three years (2008, 2009, and 2010. Among the six fungicides tested, one was protectant [Vondozeb 42SC, a.i. mancozeb (0.2%], two systemic [Bavistin 50 WP, a.i. carbendazim (0.2%, and Protaf 250EC, propiconazole (0.05%], and three combination formulations [Acrobat MZ690, dimethomorph 9% + mancozeb 60%, (0.2%; Secure 600 WG, phenomadone + mancozeb (0.2%; and Companion, mancozeb 63% + carbendazim 12% (0.2%]. The results showed superiority of combination formulations involving both protectant and systemic fungicides over the sole application of either fungicide separately. Among the combination fungicides, Companion was most effective, resulting in the lowest disease severity (3.33 score on 1–9 scale and the highest increase (38% of grain yield in chickpea. Therefore, this product could be preferred over the sole application of either solo protectant or systemic fungicides to reduce yield losses and avoid fungicide resistance.

  3. Evaluation of some fungicides on mycorrhizal symbiosis between two Glomus species from commercial inocula and Allium porrum L. seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Dorrego, A.; Mestre Pares, J.

    2010-07-01

    This paper reports the effect of twenty-five commonly used fungicides in agriculture on two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) present in commercial products of ATENS, S.L.: Glomus intra radices (Schenck and Smith) and Glomus mosseae [(Nicol. and Gerd.) Gerdemann and Trappe], forming the symbiosis with leek plants. Systemic fungicides (Aliette, Beltanol, Caddy 10, Forum, Moncut, Ortiva, Previcur, Ridomil Gold MZ, Ridomil Gold SL, Rubigan, Sinthane, Stroby, Swich, Tachigarem, Teldor, Topas 10 EC, Frupica) and non systemic fungicides (Daconil 75%, Ditiver, Euparem, INACOP, Octagon, Parmex, Terrazole and Metaram), started to be applied to soil and leaves at recommended concentrations and frequencies 4 weeks after transplant and AMF inoculation. The effect of the fungicides was assessed by comparing treated and untreated plants that were inoculated with the AMF through quantification of root mycorrhizal colonization. Among the fungicides applied to the soil, Octagon, Ditiver, Parmex and Metaram virtually eliminated the mycorrhizal symbiosis in treated plants, while the mycorrhizal colonization was not affected by the soil treatment with Beltanol, INACOP and Previcur. Three fungicides of foliar recommended application: Rubigan, Frupica, and Sinthane, strongly inhibited mycorrhizal colonization, but Aliette, Forum, Teldor, Swich and Ortiva, did not seem to reduce it substantially. In addition, the work describes the individual effect of each fungicide applied on both, foliage and soil. (Author) 29 refs.

  4. Probabilities for profitable fungicide use against gray leaf spot in hybrid maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkvold, G P; Martinson, C A; Shriver, J M; Dixon, P M

    2001-05-01

    ABSTRACT Gray leaf spot, caused by the fungus Cercospora zeae-maydis, causes considerable yield losses in hybrid maize grown in the north-central United States and elsewhere. Nonchemical management tactics have not adequately prevented these losses. The probability of profitably using fungicide application as a management tool for gray leaf spot was evaluated in 10 field experiments under conditions of natural inoculum in Iowa. Gray leaf spot severity in untreated control plots ranged from 2.6 to 72.8% for the ear leaf and from 3.0 to 7.7 (1 to 9 scale) for whole-plot ratings. In each experiment, fungicide applications with propiconazole or mancozeb significantly reduced gray leaf spot severity. Fungicide treatment significantly (P fungicide applications. For one application, the probability ranged from approximately 0.06 to more than 0.99, and exceeded 0.50 in six of nine scenarios (specific experiment/hybrid). The highest probabilities occurred in the 1995 experiments with the most susceptible hybrid. Probabilities were almost always higher for a single application of propiconazole than for two applications. These results indicate that a single application of propiconazole frequently can be profitable for gray leaf spot management in Iowa, but the probability of a profitable application is strongly influenced by hybrid susceptibility. The calculation of probabilities for positive net returns was more informative than mean separation in terms of assessing the economic success of the fungicide applications.

  5. Bioremediation of fungicides by spent mushroom substrate and its associated microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlawat, O P; Gupta, Pardeep; Kumar, Satish; Sharma, D K; Ahlawat, K

    2010-10-01

    Experiments were conducted both under in vitro and in situ conditions to determine the biodegradation potential of button mushroom spent substrate (SMS) and its dominating microbes (fungi and bacteria) for carbendazim and mancozeb, the commonly used agricultural fungicides. During 6 days of incubation at 30 ± 2°C under broth culture conditions, highest degradation of carbendazim (17.45%) was recorded with B-1 bacterial isolate, while highest degradation of mancozeb (18.05%) was recorded with Trichoderma sp. In fungicide pre-mixed sterilized SMS, highest degradation of carbendazim (100.00-66.50 μg g(-1)) was recorded with mixed inoculum of Trichoderma sp. and Aspergillus sp., whereas highest degradation of mancozeb (100.00-50.50 μg g(-1)) was with mixed inoculum of Trichoderma sp., Aspergillus sp. and B-I bacterial isolate in 15 days of incubation at 30 ± 2°C. All these microbes both individually as well as in different combinations grew well and produced extracellular lignolytic enzymes on SMS, which helped in fungicides degradation. Under in situ conditions, among three different proportions of SMS (10, 20 and 30%, w/w) mixed with fungicide pre-mixed soil (100 μg g(-1) of soil), the degradation of carbendazim was highest in 30% SMS treatment, while for mancozeb it was in 20% SMS treatment. The residue levels of both fungicides decreased to half of their initial concentration after 1 month of SMS mixing.

  6. Thrombin-induced rabbit platelet microbicidal protein is fungicidal in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaman, M R; Ibrahim, A S; Edwards, J E; Bayer, A S; Ghannoum, M A

    1993-03-01

    Platelet microbicidal protein (PMP) is released from platelets in response to thrombin stimulation. PMP is known to possess in vitro bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus and viridans group streptococci. To determine whether PMP is active against other intravascular pathogens, we evaluated its potential fungicidal activity against strains of Candida species and Cryptococcus neoformans. Anionic resin adsorption and gel electrophoresis confirmed that the fungicidal activity of PMP resided in a small (approximately 8.5-kDa), cationic protein, identical to previous studies of PMP-induced bacterial killing (M.R. Yeaman, S.M. Puentes, D.C. Norman, and A.S. Bayer, Infect. Immun. 60:1202-1209, 1992). When assayed over a 180-min period in vitro, the susceptibilities of these fungi to PMP varied considerably. Generally, Candida albicans strains (mean survival, 33.5% +/- 6.9% [n = 6]) as well as isolates of Candida glabrata (mean survival, 50.8% +/- 2.9% [n = 2]) were the most susceptible to killing by PMP, while Candida guillermondii and Candida parapsilosis were relatively resistant to PMP-induced killing. Compared with C. albicans, C. neoformans was relatively resistant to the fungicidal activity of PMP, with a mean survival among the isolates studied of 77.4% +/- 12.4% (n = 6). Against C. albicans, PMP-induced fungicidal activity was time dependent (range, 0 to 180 min), PMP concentration dependent (range, 10 to 150 U/ml), and inversely related to the fungal inoculum (range, 5 x 10(3) to 1 x 10(5) CFU/ml). Scanning electron microscopy of PMP-exposed C. albicans and C. neoformans cells revealed extensive surface damage and collapse, suggesting that the site of PMP fungicidal action may directly or indirectly involve the fungal cell envelope.

  7. Disease control by chemical and biological fungicides in cultivated mushrooms: button mushroom, oyster mushroom and shiitake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Potočnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly cultivated basidiomycetes worldwide and in Serbia are button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus, oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp. and shiitake (Lentinus edodes. Production of their fruiting bodies is severely afflicted by fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens that are able to cause diseases which affect yield and quality. Major A. bisporus fungal pathogens include Mycogone perniciosa, Lecanicillium fungicola, and Cladobotryum spp., the causal agents of dry bubble, wet bubble, and cobweb disease, respectively. Various Trichoderma species, the causal agents of green mould, also affect all three kinds of edible mushrooms. Over the past two decades, green mould caused by T. aggressivum has been the most serious disease of button mushroom. Oyster mushroom is susceptible to T. pleurotum and shiitake to T. harzianum. The bacterial brawn blotch disease, caused by Pseudomonas tolaasii, is distributed globally. Disease control on mushroom farms worldwide is commonly based on the use of fungicides. However, evolution of pathogen resistance to fungicides after frequent application, and host sensitivity to fungicides are serious problems. Only a few fungicides are officially recommended in mushroom production: chlorothalonil and thiabendazol in North America and prochloraz in the EU and some other countries. Even though decreased sensitivity levels of L. fungicola and Cladobotryum mycophilum to prochloraz have been detected, disease control is still mainly provided by that chemical fungicide. Considering such resistance evolution, harmful impact to the environment and human health, special attention should be focused on biofungicides, both microbiological products based on Bacillus species and various natural substances of biological origin, together with good programs of hygiene. Introduction of biofungicides has created new possibilities for crop protection with reduced application of chemicals.

  8. Triazole-linked DNA as a primer surrogate in the synthesis of first-strand cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Tomoko; Yasumoto, Ken-ichi; Yamazaki, Naomi; Hasome, Ai; Sogawa, Kazuhiro; Isobe, Hiroyuki

    2011-11-04

    A phosphate-eliminated nonnatural oligonucleotide serves as a primer surrogate in reverse transcription reaction of mRNA. Despite of the nonnatural triazole linkages in the surrogate, the reverse transcriptase effectively elongated cDNA sequences on the 3'-downstream of the primer by transcription of the complementary sequence of mRNA. A structure-activity comparison with the reference natural oligonucleotides shows the superior priming activity of the surrogate containing triazole-linkages. The nonnatural linkages also protect the transcribed cDNA from digestion reactions with 5'-exonuclease and enable us to remove noise transcripts of unknown origins. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Ethyl 2-[1-(3-methylbutyl-4-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-yl]-2-oxoacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hafeez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C17H21N3O3, the non-planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.212 Å ethyl (oxoacetate group is oriented towards the phenyl substituent. The triazole and benzene rings are twisted with respect to each other, making a dihedral angle of 41.69 (6°. In the crystal, molecules are arranged into centrosymmetric R22(10 dimers via pairs of C—H...O interactions involving the ethyl (oxoacetate groups. In addition, the triazole rings show π–π stacking interactions, with their centroids at a distance of 3.745 (2 Å.

  10. Synthesis, Characterization and Antifungal Evaluation of 5-Substituted-4-Amino-1,2,4-Triazole-3-Thioesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurangzeb Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of 5-substituted-4-amino-1,2,4-triazole-3-thioesters was synthesized by converting variously substituted organic acids successively into the corresponding esters, hydrazides, 5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiols, 5-substituted-1,2,4-triazole-2-thiols and 5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thioesters. Finally the target compounds were obtained by refluxing 5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thioesters in the presence of hydrazine hydrate and absolute alcohol. The structures of the synthesized compounds were established by physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activity. Some of the evaluated compounds possessed significant antifungal activity as compared to a terbinafine standard.

  11. From BACE1 Inhibitor to Multifunctionality of Tryptoline and Tryptamine Triazole Derivatives for Alzheimer’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jiaranaikulwanitch, Jutamas; Govitrapong, Piyarat; Fokin, Valery V.; Vajragupta, Opa

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to discover new drugs for Alzheimer’s disease emphasizing multiple targets was conducted seeking to inhibit amyloid oligomer formation and to prevent radical formation. The tryptoline and tryptamine cores of BACE1 inhibitors previously identified by virtual screening were modified in silico for additional modes of action. These core structures were readily linked to different side chains using 1,2,3-triazole rings as bridges by copper catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloa...

  12. 3-Methyl-4-(3-methylphenyl-5-(2-pyridyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dun-Ru Zhu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the molecule of the title compound, C15H14N4, the triazole ring is oriented at dihedral angles of 30.8 (2 and 67.4 (2° with respect to the pyridine and benzene rings, respectively. The crystal structure is stabilized by C—H...N hydrogen-bonding interactions, forming chains of molecules along [overline{1}01].

  13. 3-Ethyl-4-[(E-(4-fluorobenzylideneamino]-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H-thione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphonsus D'souza

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C11H11FN4S, the dihedral angle between the 1,2,4-triazole ring and the benzene ring is 25.04 (12° and an intramoleuclar C—H...S interaction leads to an S(6 ring. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of N—H...S hydrogen bonds generate R22(8 loops.

  14. Occurrence and Environmental Effects of Boscalid and Other Fungicides in Three Targeted Use Areas in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, T. J.; Smalling, K. L.; Wilson, E. R.

    2011-12-01

    Fungicides are typically used to control the outbreak of persistent, historically significant plant diseases like late blight (caused by Phytophthora infestans and responsible for the Irish Potato famine of 1846) and newer plant diseases like Asian Soy Rust, both of which are potentially devastating if not controlled. Of the more than 67,000 pesticide products currently registered for use in the United States, over 3,600 are used to combat fungal diseases. Although they are widely used, relatively little is known about the fate and potential secondary effects of fungicides in the aquatic environment. Even less is known about the fate and environmental occurrence of recently registered fungicides including boscalid, which was first registered for use in the US in 2003. Unlike most other pesticides, multiple fungicides are typically applied as a prophylactic crop protectant upwards of ten times per season (depending upon conditions and crop type), but at lower application rates than herbicides or insecticides. This difference in usage increases the likelihood of chronic exposure of aquatic ecosystems to low concentrations of fungicides. Using a newly developed analytical method, the U.S. Geological Survey measured 33 fungicides in surface water and shallow groundwater in three geographic areas of intense fungicide use across the US. Sampling sites were selected near or within farms using prophylactic fungicides at rates and types typical of the crop type and their geographic location. At least one fungicide was detected in 75% of the surface waters (n=60) and 58% of the groundwater (n=12) samples. Twelve fungicides were detected in surface- and groundwater including boscalid (72%), azoxystrobin (51%), pyraclostrobin (40%), chlorothalonil (38%) and pyrimethanil (28%). Boscalid was the most frequently detected pesticide and has not been previously documented in the aquatic environment. In this study, an average of 44% of the pesticide concentration in a water sample

  15. The effect of triazole induced photosynthetic pigments and biochemical constituents of Zea mays L. (Maize) under drought stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekar, Mahalingam; Rabert, Gabriel Amalan; Manivannan, Paramasivam

    2016-06-01

    In this investigation, pot culture experiment was carried out to estimate the ameliorating effect of triazole compounds, namely Triadimefon (TDM), Tebuconazole (TBZ), and Propiconazole (PCZ) on drought stress, photosynthetic pigments, and biochemical constituents of Zea mays L. (Maize). From 30 days after sowing (DAS), the plants were subjected to 4 days interval drought (DID) stress and drought with TDM at 15 mg l-1, TBZ at 10 mg l-1, and PCZ at 15 mg l-1. Irrigation at 1-day interval was kept as control. Irrigation performed on alternative day. The plant samples were collected on 40, 50, and 60 DAS and separated into root, stem, and leaf for estimating the photosynthetic pigments and biochemical constituents. Drought and drought with triazole compounds treatment increased the biochemical glycine betaine content, whereas the protein and the pigments contents chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, and anthocyanin decreased when compared to control. The triazole treatment mitigated the adverse effects of drought stress by increasing the biochemical potentials and paved the way to overcome drought stress in corn plant.

  16. Synthesis, Antiproliferative and Antifungal Activities of 1,2,3-Triazole-Substituted Carnosic Acid and Carnosol Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Walter Pertino

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abietane diterpenes exhibit an array of interesting biological activities, which have generated significant interest among the pharmacological community. Starting from the abietane diterpenes carnosic acid and carnosol, twenty four new triazole derivatives were synthesized using click chemistry. The compounds differ in the length of the linker and the substituent on the triazole moiety. The compounds were assessed as antiproliferative and antifungal agents. The antiproliferative activity was determined on normal lung fibroblasts (MRC-5, gastric epithelial adenocarcinoma (AGS, lung cancer (SK-MES-1 and bladder carcinoma (J82 cells while the antifungal activity was assessed against Candida albicans ATCC 10231 and Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 32264. The carnosic acid γ-lactone derivatives 1–3 were the most active antiproliferative compounds of the series, with IC50 values in the range of 43.4–46.9 μM and 39.2–48.9 μM for MRC-5 and AGS cells, respectively. Regarding antifungal activity, C. neoformans was the most sensitive fungus, with nine compounds inhibiting more than 50% of its fungal growth at concentrations ≤250 µg∙mL−1. Compound 22, possessing a p-Br-benzyl substituent on the triazole ring, showed the best activity (91% growth inhibition at 250 µg∙mL−1 In turn, six compounds inhibited 50% C. albicans growth at concentrations lower than 250 µg∙mL−1.

  17. Experimental and quantum chemical studies on two triazole derivatives as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in acid media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, W.; Tian, H.; Hou, B. [Key Laboratory of Corrosion Science, Shandong, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao (China); Hu, L.; Tao, Z. [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China)

    2011-11-15

    Two triazole derivatives [1-phenyl-2-(5-(1,2,4) triazol-1-ylmethyl-(1,3,4) oxadizaol-2-ylsulphanyl)-ethanone (PTOE) and 2-(4-tert-butyl-benzylsulphanyl)-5-(1,2,4) triazol-1-ylmethyl-(1,3,4) oxadiazole (TBTO)] were synthesized as new corrosion inhibitors for the corrosion of mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid solutions. The inhibiting efficiency of the different inhibitors was evaluated by means of weight loss and electrochemical techniques such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization curves. The electrochemical investigation results indicate that these compounds act as mixed-type inhibitors retarding the anodic and cathodic corrosion reactions and do not change the mechanism of either hydrogen evolution reaction or mild steel dissolution. The studied compounds followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, and the thermodynamic parameters were determined and discussed. The effect of molecular structure on the inhibition efficiency has been investigated with ab initio calculations. The electronic properties such as highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy level, dipole moment ({mu}) and molecular orbital densities were calculated. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. 3-Benzyl-4-ethyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-thione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karczmarzyk, Zbigniew; Pitucha, Monika; Wysocki, Waldemar; Pachuta-Stec, Anna; Stańczuk, Andrzej

    2013-02-01

    The title compound, C(11)H(13)N(3)S, exists in the 5-thioxo tautomeric form. The benzene ring exhibits disorder with a refined ratio of 0.77 (2):0.23 (2) for components A and B with a common bridgehead C atom. The 1,2,4-triazole ring is essentially planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.002 (3) Å for the benzyl-substituted C atom, and forms dihedral angles of 88.94 (18) and 86.56 (49)° with the benzene rings of components A and B, respectively. The angle between the plane of the ethyl chain and the mean plane of 1,2,4-triazole ring is 88.55 (15)° and this conformation is stabilized by an intra-molecular C-H⋯S contact. In the crystal, pairs of N-H⋯S hydrogen bonds link mol-ecules into inversion dimers. π-π inter-actions are observed between the triazole and benzene rings, with centroid-centroid separations of 3.547 (4) and 3.544 (12) Å for components A and B, and slippages of 0.49 (6) and 0.58 (15) Å, respectively.

  19. 3-Benzyl-4-ethyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H-thione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Karczmarzyk

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C11H13N3S, exists in the 5-thioxo tautomeric form. The benzene ring exhibits disorder with a refined ratio of 0.77 (2:0.23 (2 for components A and B with a common bridgehead C atom. The 1,2,4-triazole ring is essentially planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.002 (3 Å for the benzyl-substituted C atom, and forms dihedral angles of 88.94 (18 and 86.56 (49° with the benzene rings of components A and B, respectively. The angle between the plane of the ethyl chain and the mean plane of 1,2,4-triazole ring is 88.55 (15° and this conformation is stabilized by an intramolecular C—H...S contact. In the crystal, pairs of N—H...S hydrogen bonds link molecules into inversion dimers. π–π interactions are observed between the triazole and benzene rings, with centroid–centroid separations of 3.547 (4 and 3.544 (12 Å for components A and B, and slippages of 0.49 (6 and 0.58 (15 Å, respectively.

  20. Three inorganic-organic hybrids of bismuth(III) iodide complexes containing substituted 1,2,4-triazole organic components with charaterizations of diffuse reflectance spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bing; Xu Ling; Guo Guocong; Huang Jinshun

    2006-01-01

    The reactions of two kinds of substituted 1,2,4-triazoles with BiI 3 yielded three inorganic-organic hybrids: [HL1] 4 [Bi 6 I 22 ].[L1] 4 .4H 2 O (1) (L1=3-(1,2,4-triazole-4-yl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole); [HL2] 4 [Bi 6 I 22 ].6H 2 O (2); [HL2] 2 [Bi 2 I 8 ].[L2] 2 (3) (L2=(m-phenol)-1,2,4-triazole). Both 1 and 2 have polynuclear anions of [Bi 6 I 22 ] 4- to build up the inorganic layers and substituted 1,2,4-triazoles as the organic layers. Hybrid 3 consists of two BiI 5 square pyramids as inorganic layers. There exist hydrogen bondings and I...;I interactions in the structures of 1, 2 and 3. Optical absorption spectra of 1, 2 and 3 reveal the presence of sharp optical gaps of 1.77, 1.77 and 2.07 eV, respectively, suggesting that these materials behave as semiconductors. - Graphical abstract: The reactions of two kinds of the substituted 1,2,4-triazoles with BiI 3 yielded three layered inorganic-organic hybrids [HL1] 4 [Bi 6 I 22 ].[L1] 4 .4H 2 O (1), [HL2] 4 [Bi 6 I 22 ].6H 2 O (2), [HL2] 2 [Bi 2 I 8 ].[L2] 2 (3) with optical gaps of 1.77, 1.77 and 2.07 eV, respectively. The structures of 1-3 are constructed from inorganic layers of polynuclear anions of bismuth iodine and organic layers of the substituted 1,2,4-triazoles

  1. A new mechanism for reduced sensitivity to demethylation-inhibitor fungicides in the fungal banana black Sigatoka pathogen Pseudocercospora fijiensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Díaz-Trujillo, C.; Chong, P.; Stergiopoulos, I.; Meijer, H.J.G.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2018-01-01

    The Dothideomycete Pseudocercospora fijiensis, previously Mycosphaerella fijiensis, is the causal agent of black Sigatoka, one of the most destructive diseases of bananas and plantains. Disease management depends on fungicide applications with a major share for sterol demethylation-inhibitors

  2. A new mechanism for reduced sensitivity to demethylation-inhibitor fungicides in the fungal banana black Sigatoka pathogen Pseudocercospora fijiensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Díaz-Trujillo, C.; Chong, P.; Stergiopoulos, I.; Meijer, H.J.G.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    The Dothideomycete Pseudocercospora fijiensis, previously Mycosphaerella fijiensis, is the causal agent of black Sigatoka, one of the most destructive diseases of bananas and plantains. Disease management depends on fungicide applications with a major share for sterol demethylation-inhibitors

  3. Determination of tetrahydrophtalimide and 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, urinary metabolites of the fungicide captan, in rats and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Welie, R.T.H.; van Duyn, P; Lamme, E K; Jäger, P; van Baar, B L; Vermeulen, N P

    1991-01-01

    Capillary gas chromatographic (GC) methods using sulphur and mass selective detection for the qualitative and quantitative determination of tetrahydrophtalimide (THPI) and 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA), urinary metabolites of the fungicide captan in rat and humans, were developed.

  4. Actoprotective properties of 7'-((3-thio-4-methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-5-ylmethyltheophylline derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Gotsulya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the study of actoprotective activity of compounds, which combine sintons of 1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol and theophylline. Materials and methods. The first time synthesized 7'-((3-thio-4-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-5-ylmethyltheophylline derivatives have been used for the research. The systemic toxicity and the acute toxicity of the studied compounds have been performed by the rapid method of Prozorovskiy to determine the optimal conditions for dispensing substances. Experiments have been conducted on a group of white nonlinear rats, 159–221 g weight. During the study of actoprotective activity the method of forced immersion in water with a load of 10% by weight of the rats has been used. The substances were administered at a dose 1/10 of LD50, and the reference drug «Riboxin» at a dose of 100 mg/kg. The swim time was recorded in seconds. The control group of animals was used for comparison; these animals received saline solution intraperitoneally 20 minutes before immersion. The obtained results were statistically processed using the standard software package of Microsoft Office 2007 and «STATISTICA@ for Windows 6.0». Results. According to the results of conducted researches it has been established that the most active compound among the studied was 7'-((5-(2-hydroxyethylthio-4-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylmethyltheophylline, which increased the duration of swimming by 14.31% comparing to control group, whereas the reference drug increased it by 20.57%. It has been established that 2-((5-((theophylline-7'-ylmethyl-4-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio-N'-(3,4-difluorobenzylideneacetohydrazide also increases the duration of swimming. Conclusion. The study of actoprotective activity of 13 first time synthesized compounds has been conducted. 7'-((5-(2-Hydroxyethylthio-4-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylmethyltheophylline has been detected as the most active compound among the studied ones.

  5. Antihypoxic activity of benzylidenhydrazides of 4-R-5- (thiophene-2-ylmethyl-1,2,4-triazol-3-ilthioacetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Suhak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years we see significant increase of natural and technogenic situations that lead to disorders of functional and metabolic processes of central nervous system and cardiovascular diseases, including acute cerebrovascular accident. The leading factor in vascular brain pathology is hypoxia. Currently all body states, in which we see any reason decrease of oxygen delivery to tissues is considered as hypoxia. Paying into account the fact that available pharmacotherapeutic agents for the oxygen deficiency treatment tend to have limited efficacy, narrow range of active doses and often cause undesirable side effects, the special attention is paid to drugs that have an antihypoxic action and exclude the above mentioned effects. Aim. To study antihypoxic actions for the first time synthesized derivatives of 1,2,4-triazoles and to find the "structure - action" dependence. Materials and methods. Antihypoxic activity of 1,2,4-triazoles derivatives was studied at modeling hypoxia with hypercapnia. Rats were placed in same volume (1330 ml sealed up jars, then overturned them down and put in a cell with water to prevent the flow of air. As a comparison drug in the study we used mexidol 100 mg / kg. Results. The study has identified three compounds that extend the comparison drug mexidol and prolong the life expectancy of 59.94 %, 47.79% and 53.31% (compounds 1, 2, 5, respectively. While mexidol was 42.54%. After analyzing the data and chemical structure of the synthesized compounds we have established some relative patterns between chemical structure and antihypoxic actions of 1,2,4-triazoles derivatives. Conclusions. As the result of the study, we have discovered the compound that exceeds the referent drug mexidol on 17.4%. In the study of the acute toxicity of 1,2,4-triazoles derivatives it was found that all compounds belong to IV Class of toxicity (LD50 = 331-770 mg / kg. The presence of two halogen atoms in the molecules of benzylidenhydrazides

  6. Effect of the vigour and of the fungicide treatment in the germination and sanity tests of soybean seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Delineide Pereira; Barrozo, Leandra Matos; Souza, Apolyana Lorraine; Sader, Rubens [UNESP; Silva, Gilvania Campos [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    Soybeans seeds with different levels of vigour, treated and or no with fungicide were submitted to the test of germination in the sand and roll substrates of paper and the test of sanity. In test of germination, there were only significant differences between treatments that used soybeans with high vigour and with low vigour, regardless of the presence or absence of fungicide treatment, in the two substrates. The soybeans with low vigour no treated provided the largest percentages of seed con...

  7. Influence of the fungicide Folcidin on the distribution and metabolism of /sup 32/P in gherkin plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanker, I; Kudelova, A; Taimr, L [Vyzkumne Ustavy Rostlinne Vyroby, Prague (Czechoslovakia). Ustav Ochrany Rostlin; Friedrich, A [Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Prague. Ustav Experimentalni Botaniky

    1976-01-01

    A high accumulation of /sup 32/P was observed in the leaves of intact gherkin plants 9 days after their roots had been treated with a 0.005% suspension of the systemic fungicide Folcidin 50WP (cypendazole), and 8 days after the roots had been exposed to labelled phosphate. Folcidin also affected phosphorus metabolism in the plants. A high biological cytokinin-like activity of the fungicide was established using a callus cytokinin bioassay.

  8. Antioxidant activity of salts of 2-(5-R-4-amino-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. S. Pruglo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are chemical structures that prevent the oxidation of other chemicals. They protect key cell components by neutralizing the harmful effect of free radicals which are natural products of cell metabolism. Oxidative stress leads to serious cell damage which results in various human diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, atherosclerosis, cancer, arthritis, neurodegenerative disorders etc. The deficiency of antioxidants in food also leads to oxidative stress, which indicates a lack of antioxidant substances consumed by humans. Therefore, the search of substances that could not only prevent but also increase the resistance of the human body to active forms of oxygen or nitrogen and interfere with the processes of oxidative stress is an important task of medicine and pharmacy. The purpose of this work was to study the antioxidant activity (AOA of salts of 2-(5-R-4-R-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acids with non-enzymatic initiation of free radical oxidation and to establish laws concerning chemical structure and biological effects of the studied substances. Materials and methods. Original derivatives of 1,2,4-triazole were used in the series of screening studies. The antioxidant activity of the compounds in vitro was determined according to the methodical recommendations of the State Pharmacological Center MoH Ukraine using the method of non-enzymatic initiation of lipid peroxide oxidation. Results. Dimethylammonium salt of 2-(4-amino-5-(2-bromophenyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acid (3c possessed with a high AOA which reduced the content of TBK-AP by 54,95% ( р˂0,001. Derivatives of 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole had the most distinct AOA containing С5 carbon atoms 2-bromophenyl substituent. Thus, methylammonium salt 3b reduced the TBK-AP content by 80,31 (p˂0,001 which exceeds the reference ascorbic acid by 45,05% and the prototype thiotriazoline by 36,64%. Considering the data of experimental studies it was found

  9. Inadequate-1D and dynamic NMR of mesoion 3-phenyl-1-thio-2,3,4-triazole-5-methylides; INADEQUATE-1D i dynamiczny NMR mezojonowych 3-fenylo-1-tio-2,3,4-triazolo-5-metylidow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocian, W.; Stefaniak, L. [Inst. Chemii Organicznej, Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    The chemical shifts and coupling constants have been measured in series of mesoionic triazoles by means of inadequate atoms and dynamic NMR techniques. The electronic structure and other parameters of C5-C6 chemical bond in different derivatives of mesoionic 3-phenyl-1-thio-2,3,4-triazole-5 methyls have been determined. 14 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs.

  10. Control of regioselectivity over gold nanocrystals of different surfaces for the synthesis of 1,4-disubstituted triazole through the click reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rej, Sourav; Chanda, Kaushik; Chiu, Chun-Ya; Huang, Michael H

    2014-11-24

    Gold nanocubes, octahedra, and rhombic dodecahedra were examined for facet-dependent catalytic activity in the formation of triazoles. Rhombic dodecahedra gave 100% regioselective 1,4-triazoles. The product yield was increased by decreasing the particle size. However, a mixture of 1,4- and 1,5-triazoles was obtained in lower yields when cubes and octahedra of similar sizes were used. The lowest Au-atom density on the {110} surface and largest unsaturated coordination number of surface Au atoms may explain their best catalytic efficiency and product regioselectivity. Various spectroscopic techniques were employed to verify the formation of the Au-acetylide intermediate and establish the reaction mechanism, in which phenylacetylene binds to the Au {110} surface through the terminal-binding mode to result in the exclusive formation of 1,4-triazoles. The smallest rhombic dodecahedra can give diverse 1,4-disubstituted triazoles in good yields by coupling a wide variety of alkynes and organic halides. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Synthesis and Cytotoxic Evaluation of 1H-1,2,3-Triazol-1-ylmethyl-2,3-dihydronaphtho[1,2-b]furan-4,5-diones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INGRID C. CHIPOLINE

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The 1,2-naphthoquinone compound was previously considered active against solid tumors. Moreover, glycosidase inhibitors such as 1,2,3-1H triazoles has been pointed out as efficient compounds in anticancer activity studies. Thus, a series of eleven 1,2-naphthoquinones tethered in C2 to 1,2,3-1H-triazoles 9a-k were designed, synthesized and their cytotoxic activity evaluated using HCT-116 (colon adenocarcinoma, MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma and RPE (human nontumor cell line from retinal epithelium. The chemical synthesis was performed from C-3 allylation of lawsone followed by iodocyclization with subsequent nucleophilic displacement with sodium azide and, finally, the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition catalyzed by Cu(I with terminal alkynes led to the formation of 1H-1,2,3-Triazol-1-ylmethyl-2,3-dihydronaphtho[1,2-b]furan-4,5-diones in good yields. Compounds containing aromatic group linked to 1,2,3-triazole ring (9c, 9d, 9e, 9i presented superior cytotoxic activity against cancer cell lines with IC50 in the range of 0.74 to 4.4 µM indicating that the presence of aromatic rings substituents in the 1,2,3-1H-triazole moiety is probably responsible for the improved cytotoxic activity.

  12. Apyrase inhibitors enhance the ability of diverse fungicides to inhibit the growth of different plant-pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Tripathy, Manas; Weeraratne, Gayani; Clark, Greg; Roux, Stanley J

    2017-09-01

    A previous study has demonstrated that the treatment of Arabidopsis plants with chemical inhibitors of apyrase enzymes increases their sensitivity to herbicides. In this study, we found that the addition of the same or related apyrase inhibitors could potentiate the ability of different fungicides to inhibit the growth of five different pathogenic fungi in plate growth assays. The growth of all five fungi was partially inhibited by three commonly used fungicides: copper octanoate, myclobutanil and propiconazole. However, when these fungicides were individually tested in combination with any one of four different apyrase inhibitors (AI.1, AI.10, AI.13 or AI.15), their potency to inhibit the growth of five fungal pathogens was increased significantly relative to their application alone. The apyrase inhibitors were most effective in potentiating the ability of copper octanoate to inhibit fungal growth, and least effective in combination with propiconazole. Among the five pathogens assayed, that most sensitive to the fungicide-potentiating effects of the inhibitors was Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Overall, among the 60 treatment combinations tested (five pathogens, four apyrase inhibitors, three fungicides), the addition of apyrase inhibitors increased significantly the sensitivity of fungi to the fungicide treatments in 53 of the combinations. Consistent with their predicted mode of action, inhibitors AI.1, AI.10 and AI.13 each increased the level of propiconazole retained in one of the fungi, suggesting that they could partially block the ability of efflux transporters to remove propiconazole from these fungi. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  13. Evaluating the combined efficacy of polymers with fungicides for protection of museum textiles against fungal deterioration in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Kareem, Omar

    2010-01-01

    Fungal deterioration is one of the highest risk factors for damage of historical textile objects in Egypt. This paper represents both a study case about the fungal microflora deteriorating historical textiles in the Egyptian Museum and the Coptic museum in Cairo, and evaluation of the efficacy of several combinations of polymers with fungicides for the reinforcement of textiles and their prevention against fungal deterioration. Both cotton swab technique and biodeteriorated textile part technique were used for isolation of fungi from historical textile objects. The plate method with the manual key was used for identification of fungi. The results show that the most dominant fungi isolated from the tested textile samples belong to Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chaetomium, Penicillium and Trichoderma species. Microbiological testing was used for evaluating the usefulness of the suggested conservation materials (polymers combined with fungicides) in prevention of the fungal deterioration of ancient Egyptian textiles. Textile samples were treated with 4 selected polymers combined with two selected fungicides. Untreated and treated textile samples were deteriorated by 3 selected active fungal strains isolated from ancient Egyptian textiles. This study reports that most of the tested polymers combined with the tested fungicides prevented the fungal deterioration of textiles. Treatment of ancient textiles by suggested polymers combined with the suggested fungicides not only reinforces these textiles, but also prevents fungal deterioration and increases the durability of these textiles. The tested polymers without fungicides reduce the fungal deterioration of textiles but do not prevent it completely.

  14. Changes in antioxidants potential, secondary metabolites and plant hormones induced by different fungicides treatment in cotton plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Heba Ibrahim; Akladious, Samia Ageeb

    2017-10-01

    The use of fungicides for an effective control of plant diseases has become crucial in the last decades in the agriculture system. Seeds of cotton plants were treated with systemic and contact fungicides to study the efficiency of seed dressing fungicides in controlling damping off caused by Rhizoctonia solani under greenhouse conditions and its effect on plant growth and metabolism. The results showed that Mon-cut showed the highest efficiency (67.99%) while each of Tondro and Hemixet showed the lowest efficiency (31.99%) in controlling damping off. Rhizolex T, Mon-cut and Tondro fungicides caused significant decrease in plant height, dry weight of plant, phytohormones, photosynthetic pigments, soluble sugars, soluble proteins, total free amino acids but caused significant increases in total phenols, flavonoids, antioxidant enzymes, ascorbic acid, reduced glutathione, MDA and hydrogen peroxide as compared with untreated plants. On the other hand, the other fungicides (Maxim, Hemixet and Flosan) increased all the above recorded parameters as compared with untreated plants. Our results indicated that the fungicides application could be a potential tool to increase plant growth, the antioxidative defense mechanisms and decreased infection with plant diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Degradation of three fungicides following application on strawberry and a risk assessment of their toxicity under greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Caixia; Cang, Tao; Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Xinquan; Yu, Ruixian; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Xueping

    2015-05-01

    The health risk to humans of pesticide application on minor crops, such as strawberry, requires quantification. Here, the dissipation and residual levels of three fungicides (pyraclostrobin, myclobutanil, and difenoconazole) were studied for strawberry under greenhouse conditions using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry after Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe extraction. This method was validated using blank samples, with all mean recoveries of these three fungicides exceeding 80%. The residues of all three fungicides dissipated following first-order kinetics. The half-lives of pyraclostrobin, myclobutanil, and difenoconazole were 1.69, 3.30, and 3.65 days following one time application and 1.73, 5.78, and 6.30 days following two times applications, respectively. Fungicide residue was determined by comparing the estimated daily intake of the three fungicides against the acceptable daily intake. The results indicate that the potential health risk of the three fungicides was not significant in strawberry when following good agricultural practices (GAP) under greenhouse conditions.

  16. Evaluation of fungicidal and fungistatic activity of plant essential oils towards plant pathogenic and saprophytic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia BANIHASHEMI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available   The contact and vapor effects of essential oils from different plants were studied in vitro for fungicidal and fungistatic activity towards different Basidiomycete, Ascomycete, Zygomycete and Oomycete taxa. Of nine essential oils tested, most were fungicidal at very low concentrations to most of the fungi. Hyphae were more sensitive than spores to the formulations. The essential oils citral, β-citronellol, geraniol and oil of lavender, at 1 μL mL-1 medium or 12 μL L-1 of air, inhibited growth and germination in the fungal species examined. Different species of fungal genera reacted differently to the formulations. Some of the formulations were fungistatic to spore germination.

  17. Ranking of fungicides according to risk assessments for health and environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Ørum, Jens Erik

    2014-01-01

    PL varies for fungicide standard rates by a factor of 10. Products including epoxiconazole generally have higher PL's due to the human health profile of this active. PL's per area, crop or product will supplement the previous pesticide statistics based on treatment frequency index (TFI). PL has also......Denmark has introduced a new indicator for ranking the potential impact of pesticides on health and environment. The new Pesticide Load (PL) makes it possible for farmers to choose the least harmful fungicides and substitute between products which have an equally good efficacy profile. In practice...... been introduced as the basis for a new tax system for pesticides from 1 July 2013, replacing the old value based tax. The Government has asked for a 40% reduction in the PL per ha by 2015, based on substitutions to less harmfull products. As certain pesticide groups will be favoured by the new tax...

  18. Amelioration of irradiation injury to Florida grapefruit by pretreatment with vapor heat or fungicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.R.; McDonald, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Grapefruit shipped to certain markets must be certified free of Caribbean fruit fly (Anastrepha suspensa Loew) (CFF) infestation. Low-dose irradiation is effective for the control of CFF by sterilization. This treatment is expected to be approved for industry usage in the near future. 'Marsh' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) was treated with vapor heat (2 hours at 38 degrees C), and fungicidal treatments of thiabendazole (TBZ) (4 gm.L-1) and TBZ (1 gm.L-1) plus imazalil (1 gm.L-1) prior to irradiation at 0.5 or 1.0 kGy. Vapor heat reduced the severity and incidence of peel injury by approximately 50% without adversely affecting other quality attributes. The fungicide did not reduce peel injury. The use of vapor heat before low-dose irradiation quarantine treatment of grapefruit may ameliorate or eliminate peel injury caused by irradiation

  19. Fungicidal control of Lophodermium seditiosum on Pinus sylvestris seedlings in Swedish forest nurseries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenstroem, Elna [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology; Arvidsson, Bernt [Svenska Skogsplantor AB, Joenkoeping (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    During the 1990s, there were serious outbreaks of the pathogen Lophodermium seditiosum on pine seedlings in Swedish forest nurseries, even though the seedlings had been treated with the fungicide propiconazole. The present experiment was carried out to evaluate two other fungicides, fluazinam and azoxystrobin, as possible alternatives to propiconazole. In the tests, which were all carried out in the same forest nursery, seedlings were treated with either propiconazole, fluazinam. or azoxystrobin, and the proportion of needles with ascocarps of L. seditiosum and the number of ascocarps per needle were recorded over the following 2 yrs. Seedlings treated with azoxystrobin already appeared healthier than control seedlings in September of the first year, and by November all azoxystrobin-treated seedlings had fewer ascocarps per needle compared with control seedlings. In autumn of the second year, there were no ascocarps on seedlings treated with fluazinam or azoxystrobin, whereas seedlings treated with propiconazole had similar numbers of ascocarps to non-treated control seedlings.

  20. Translocation and metabolism of the fungicide Metalaxyl in rangpur lime seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musumeci, M.R.; Ruegg, E.F. (Instituto Biologico, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Radioisotopos)

    1984-08-01

    The application of /sup 14/C-metalaxyl to leaves of two and six month-old Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osb.) seedlings is studied. In a basal foliar application, 85% of the fungicide remained in the applied leaves, though translocation was verified to upper leaves, stems and roots. When metalaxyl was applied in upper leaves only traces of radiocarbon were detected in roots and stems. After 30 days in the two-and six-month old plants, 70% of the radiocarbon corresponded to the applied fungicide Metalaxyl was degraded in leave tissues to N-(2-methoxyacetil)-N-(2,6-xylyl)-DL-alanine and two others unidentified metabolites. Polar compounds were also detected. Only 1.5% of the radiocarbon was detected as bound residue, not extracted by the acetone extraction.

  1. Translocation and metabolism of the fungicide Metalaxyl in rangpur lime seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musumeci, M.R.; Ruegg, E.F.

    1984-01-01

    The application of 14 C-metalaxyl to leaves of two and six month-old Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osb.) seedlings is studied. In a basal foliar application, 85% of the fungicide remained in the applied leaves, though translocation was verified to upper leaves, stems and roots. When metalaxyl was applied in upper leaves only traces of radiocarbon were detected in roots and stems. After 30 days in the two-and six-month old plants, 70% of the radiocarbon corresponded to the applied fungicide Metalaxyl was degraded in leave tissues to N-(2-methoxyacetil)-N-(2,6-xylyl)-DL-alanine and two others unidentified metabolites. Polar compounds were also detected. Only 1.5% of the radiocarbon was detected as bound residue, not extracted by the acetone extraction. (Author) [pt

  2. The effect of stereochemistry on the biological activity of natural phytotoxins, fungicides, insecticides and herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidente, Antonio; Cimmino, Alessio; Andolfi, Anna

    2013-02-01

    Phytotoxins are secondary microbial metabolites that play an essential role in the development of disease symptoms induced by fungi on host plants. Although phytotoxins can cause extensive-and in some cases devastating-damage to agricultural crops, they can also represent an important tool to develop natural herbicides when produced by fungi and plants to inhibit the growth and spread of weeds. An alternative strategy to biologically control parasitic plants is based on the use of plant and fungal metabolites, which stimulate seed germination in the absence of the host plant. Nontoxigenic fungi also produce bioactive metabolites with potential fungicide and insecticide activity, and could be applied for crop protection. All these metabolites represent important tools to develop eco-friendly pesticides. This review deals with the relationships between the biological activity of some phytotoxins, seed germination stimulants, fungicides and insecticides, and their stereochemistry. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Preliminary Trials on Treatment of Esca-Infected Grapevines with Trunk Injection of Fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dula

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available An increase in trunk diseases (due to esca, Agrobacterium, rugose wood virus, leaf roll viruses, phytoplasma etc. leading to young vines death is a very serious worry in vineyards in Hungary, as it is in other countries. In response to a demand expressed by grapevine growers, a method was tested for the direct treatment of pathogens in wood tissue. An experiment based on trunk injection was carried out in an esca infected vineyard. The various fungicides (propiconazole, difenoconazole, thiabendazole; propiconazole+ thiabendazole were injected into the trunk before the beginning of the xylem sap flow at high pressure. As a result the number of symptomatic plants was decreased, and the vigour of the plants was not impaired by the fungicide ingredients. The combination difenoconazole+ thiabendazole showed the best result.

  4. In vitro and in vivo screening of azole fungicides for antiandrogenic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Vinggaard, Anne; Hass, Ulla

    signs of feminization of the male offspring were investigated. Tebuconazole caused an increase in testicular 17alfa-hydroxyprogesterone and progesterone levels, and a decrease in testosterone levels in male fetuses. Epoxiconazole had no effect on any of the mesured hormonelevels. Furthermore...... and antiandrogenic effects both in vitro and in vivo. Two other azole fungicides, tebuconazole and epoxiconazole, have now been investigated for antiandrogenic effects in vitro and in vivo as well. The fungicides were screened in two well-established cell assays, including testing for agonistic and antagonistic...... effects on AR in transfected CHO cells, using an AR reporter gene assay. The compounds were also analyzed for effects on steroidogenesis in H295R cells, a human adrenocorticocarcinoma cell line, used to detect effects on steroid production. In vitro tebuconazole and epoxiconazole proved to be antagonists...

  5. Foliar Application of the Fungicide Pyraclostrobin Reduced Bacterial Spot Disease of Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beom Ryong Kang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pyraclostrobin is a broad-spectrum fungicide that inhibits mitochondrial respiration. However, it may also induce systemic resistance effective against bacterial and viral diseases. In this study, we evaluated whether pyraclostrobin enhanced resistance against the bacterial spot pathogen, Xanthomonas euvesicatora on pepper (Capsicum annuum. Although pyraclostrobin alone did not suppressed the in vitro growth of X. euvesicatoria, disease severity in pepper was significantly lower by 69% after treatments with pyraclostrobin alone. A combination of pyraclostrobin with streptomycin reduced disease by over 90% that of the control plants. The preventive control of the pyraclostrobin against bacterial spot was required application 1-3 days before pathogen inoculation. Our findings suggest that the fungicide pyraclostrobin can be used with a chemical pesticide to control bacterial leaf spot diseases in pepper.

  6. Corn silage from corn treated with foliar fungicide and performance of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerr, K J; Lopes, N M; Pereira, M N; Fellows, G M; Cardoso, F C

    2015-12-01

    Foliar fungicide application to corn plants is used in corn aimed for corn silage in the dairy industry, but questions regarding frequency of application and its effect on corn silage quality and feed conversion when fed to dairy cows remain prevalent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of various foliar fungicide applications to corn on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and milk composition when fed to dairy cows. Sixty-four Holstein cows with parity 2.5±1.5, 653±80kg of body weight, and 161±51d in milk were blocked and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 corn silage treatments (total mixed ration with 35% of the dry matter as corn silage). Treatments were as follows: control (CON), corn silage with no applications of foliar fungicide; treatment 1 (1X), corn silage from corn that received 1 application of pyraclostrobin (PYR) foliar fungicide (Headline; BASF Corp.) at corn vegetative stage 5; treatment 2 (2X), corn silage from corn that received the same application as 1X plus another application of a mixture of PYR and metconazole (Headline AMP; BASF Corp.) at corn reproductive stage 1 ("silking"); and treatment 3 (3X), corn silage from corn that received the same applications as 2X as well as a third application of PYR and metconazole at reproductive stage 3 ("milky kernel"). Corn was harvested at about 32% dry matter and 3/4 milk line stage of kernel development and ensiled for 200d. Treatments were fed to cows for 5wk, with the last week being used for statistical inferences. Week -1 was used as a covariate in the statistical analysis. Dry matter intake tended to be lower for cows fed corn silage treated with fungicide than CON (23.8, 23.0, 19.5, and 21.3kg for CON, 1X, 2X, and 3X, respectively). A linear treatment effect for DMI was observed, with DMI decreasing as foliar fungicide applications increased. Treatments CON, 1X, 2X, and 3X did not differ for milk yield (34.5, 34.5, 34.2, and 34.4kg/d, respectively); however, a trend for

  7. The presence of bromuconazole fungicide pollutant in organic waste anaerobic fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariyadi, H. R.

    2017-03-01

    The presence of bromuconazole fungicide pollutant in organic waste anaerobic fermentation was carried out as well as the influence phenol and benzoate, and biodegradation of bromuconazole. Bromuconazole is a fungicide effective against Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and fungi imperfecti in cereals, grapes, top fruits and vegetables. It is also effective against Alternaria and Fusarium sp. The remaining fungicide in leaves might contaminates landfill. One month of organic waste added with bromuconazole was anaerobically incubated in 500 mL bottles at 30°C without shaking in dark room. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with UV detector and a 100 RP 185μm Lichrosphere column was used to determine bromuconazole concentration. Methane content was determined by Gas Chromatography (GC) method equipped with a flame ionization detector and a metal column packed with 5% neopentyl glycol sebacate and 1% H3PO4 on Chromosorb W-AW (mesh 80-100). After incubation for 225 days, bromuconazole of 200 mg/L inhibited the production of methane (99.5 mM) significantly, but did not inhibit the production of volatile fatty acids. The addition of 100 mg/L phenol or 146 mg/L benzoate increased the production of methane, 143 mM and 135.2 mM, respectively compared with control (121.8 mM). In anaerobic conditions, the presence of toxic pollutants such as fungicide bromuconazole in landfills sites may cause further problems with the accumulation of volatile fatty acids in leachate. Further study to determine the threshold, the presence of bromconazole in low concentration (less than 200 mg/L) on the methane production is recommended.

  8. Comparison of dielectric barrier discharge modes fungicidal effect on candida albicans growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slama, J.; Kriha, V.; Fantova, V.; Julak, J.

    2013-01-01

    Filamentary and quasi-homogeneous mode of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) was investigated as a plasma source with fungicidal effect on Candida albicans yeast inoculated on Sabouraud agar wafers. As compared with the filamentary DBD mode, the quasi-homogeneous mode had significantly better results: shorter exposition time needed for inhibiting C. albicans yeast, moreover the quasi-homogeneous mode had gentle influence on the agar surface structure.

  9. Proteomic profile of the plant-pathogenic oomycete Phytophthora capsici in response to the fungicide pyrimorph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zhili; Chen, Lei; Miao, Jianqiang; Wang, Zhiwen; Bulone, Vincent; Liu, Xili

    2015-09-01

    Pyrimorph is a novel fungicide from the carboxylic acid amide (CAA) family used to control plant-pathogenic oomycetes such as Phytophthora capsici. The proteomic response of P. capsici to pyrimorph was investigated using the iTRAQ technology to determine the target site of the fungicide and potential biomarker candidates of drug efficacy. A total of 1336 unique proteins were identified from the mycelium of wild-type P. capsici isolate (Hd3) and two pyrimorph-resistant mutants (R3-1 and R3-2) grown in the presence or absence of pyrimorph. Comparative analysis revealed that the three P. capsici isolates Hd3, R3-1, and R3-2 produced 163, 77, and 13 unique proteins, respectively, which exhibited altered levels of abundance in response to the pyrimorph treatment. Further investigations, using Cluster of Orthologous Groups of Proteins (COG) analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis identified 35 proteins related to the mode of action of pyrimorph against P. capsici and 62 proteins involved in the stress response of P. capsici to pyrimorph. Many of the proteins with altered expression were associated with glucose and energy metabolism. Biochemical analysis using d-[U-(14) C]glucose verified the proteomics data, suggesting that the major mode of action of pyrimorph in P. capsici is the inhibition of cell wall biosynthesis. These results also illustrate that proteomics approaches are useful tools for determining the pathways targeted by novel fungicides as well as for evaluating the tolerance of plant pathogens to environmental challenges, such as the presence of fungicides. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Effects of the fungicide metiram in outdoor freshwater microcosms: responses of invertebrates, primany producers and microbes

    OpenAIRE

    Ronghua, Lin; Buijse-Bogdan, L.L.; Rocha Dimitrov, M.; Dohmen, P.; Kosol, Sujitra; Maltby, L.; Roessink, I.; Sinkeldam, J.A.; Smidt, H.; Wijngaarden, van, R.P.A.; Brock, T.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    The ecological impact of the dithiocarbamate fungicide metiram was studied in outdoor freshwater microcosms, consisting of 14 enclosures placed in an experimental ditch. The microcosms were treated three times (interval 7 days) with the formulated product BAS 222 28F (Polyram®). Intended metiram concentrations in the overlying water were 0, 4, 12, 36, 108 and 324 μg a.i./L. Responses of zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, phytoplankton, macrophytes, microbes and community metabolism endpoints we...

  11. Temporal analysis and fungicide management strategies to control mango anthracnose epidemics in Guerrero, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Monteon Ojeda, Abraham; Mora Aguilera, José Antonio; Villegas Monter, Ángel; Nava Diaz, Cristian; Hernández Castro, Elías; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Hernández Morales, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The temporal progress of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) epidemics was studied in mango (Mangifera indica) orchards treated with fungicides from different chemical groups, mode of action, and application sequences in two regions of contrasting climates (sub-humid and dry tropics) in Guerrero, Mexico. Full flowering, initial setting, and 8-15mm Ø fruits were identified as critical stages for infection. Epidemics started 20-26 days after swollen buds, and maximum severity was attai...

  12. Evaluation of grapefruit seed extract as natural fungicide to control apple scab in organic apple growing

    OpenAIRE

    Trapman, Marc

    2004-01-01

    C-pro, an experimental fungicide based on grapefruit seed extract was compared to copper oxychloride for the control of apple scab in a field trial. Efficacy and possible phytotoxic effects where accessed. The C-pro formulation was analysed for possible chemical additives by HPTLC. C-pro proved tot be more effective in controlling apple scab then the standard rate of 300 gram copper oxychloride per ha, and gave a better leaf quality and less fruit skin russeting then the sta...

  13. Signum, a new fungicide with interesting properties in resistance management of fungal diseases in strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauke, K; Creemers, P; Brugmans, W; Van Laer, S

    2004-01-01

    Signum, a new fungicide developed by BASF, was applied during 6 successive years against fungal diseases in strawberries. The product is formulated as a water dispersible granule, containing 6.7 % pyraclostrobin and 26.7 % boscalid. Pyraclostrobin is similar in chemistry to other strobilurin fungicides like kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin, registered for fruit disease control. Boscalid belongs to the class of carboxyanilides. Both components in the premix formulation combine two different biochemical modes of action in the fungal cell respiration. Therefore, this co-formulation gives a broad-spectrum activity and also a reduced resistance risk for different target pathogens. Botrytis cinerea is the most important disease on strawberry-fruits and thus the control of fruit rot is mainly focused on this fungus. In average over 6 years, Signum has not only given a very good control against Botrytis fruit rot, but it has also shown a high performance in the control of Colletotrichum. Besides, Signum provides good control of powdery mildew (Podosphaera aphanis) and limits the shift to other fruit rots like leather rot (Phytophthora cactorum and leak (Rhizopus, Mucor). The availability of several categories of fungicide families with a different mode of action gives opportunities in alternating different fungicides and is the best guarantee for a sustainable control of fruit rot in all kinds of strawberry production methods. Signum should be integrated in an overall disease management program. Trials, in which the applications of Signum were timed on disease forecasting, based on environmental factors favorable for Botrytis development, were very promising. This tool can also help in establishing the IPM-concept in the production of strawberries.

  14. Joint use of fungicides, insecticides and inoculants in the treatment of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Cristiane Buhl Gomes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The interference of the joint application of pesticides with seed inoculation on the survival of Bradyrhizobium has been reported in the last years. So, the objective of this study was to evaluate the joint use of fungicides, insecticides and inoculant in the treatment of soybean seeds on various parameters of Bradyrhizobium nodulation in soybean as well as on crop productivity parameters. The experiment was conducted during the 2013/2014 crop in the experimental field of the Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de Mato Grosso - Campo Novo do Parecis Campus. The seeds of TMG 133 RR variety were sown in pots. It was used a randomized block design in a 4 x 4 + 1 factorial, four fungicides (1: fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M, 2: carboxine + thiram, 3: difeconazole and 4: carbendazim + thiram, four insecticides (1: fipronil 250 SC, 2: thiamethoxam, 3: imidacloprid + thiodicarpe and 4: imodacloprid 600 FC and an inoculant (SEMIA 5079 and SEMIA 5080, common to all treatments, with three replications. The experiment was not repeated. The joint application of fungicide and insecticide with inoculant does not affect nodulation, foliar N content and vegetative growth of the plants as well as the masses of grains per plant and 100-grain mass. The use of the carbendazim + thiram mixed with fipronil and carbendazim + thiram mixed with imidacloprid provides less number of pods per plant and grains per plant, reflecting in reductions in the production of soybean grains. In this way, the fungicide carbendazim + thiram, regardless of the combined applied insecticide, is the most harmful to Bradyrhizobium spp.

  15. Foliar Application of the Fungicide Pyraclostrobin Reduced Bacterial Spot Disease of Pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Beom Ryong Kang; Jang Hoon Lee; Young Cheol Kim

    2018-01-01

    Pyraclostrobin is a broad-spectrum fungicide that inhibits mitochondrial respiration. However, it may also induce systemic resistance effective against bacterial and viral diseases. In this study, we evaluated whether pyraclostrobin enhanced resistance against the bacterial spot pathogen, Xanthomonas euvesicatora on pepper (Capsicum annuum). Although pyraclostrobin alone did not suppressed the in vitro growth of X. euvesicatoria, disease severity in pepper was significantly lower by 69% after...

  16. Toxicity evaluation of new agricultural fungicides in primary cultured cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regueiro, Jorge; Olguín, Nair; Simal-Gándara, Jesús; Suñol, Cristina

    2015-07-01

    Fungicides are crucial for food protection as well as for the production of crops of suitable quality and quantity to provide a viable economic return. Like other pesticides, fungicides are widely sprayed on agricultural land, especially in wine-growing areas, from where they can move-off after application. Furthermore, residues of these agrochemicals can remain on crops after harvest and even after some food processing operations, being a major exposure pathway. Although a relatively low toxicity has been claimed for this kind of compounds, information about their neurotoxicity is still scarce. In the present study, nine fungicides recently approved for agricultural uses in the EU - ametoctradin, boscalid, cyazofamid, dimethomorph, fenhexamid, kresoxim-methyl, mepanipyrim, metrafenone and pyraclostrobin - have been evaluated for their toxicity in primary cultured mouse cortical neurons. Exposure to 0.1-100µM for 7 days in vitro resulted in a dose-dependent toxicity in the MTT cell viability assay. Strobilurin fungicides kresoxim-methyl (KR) and pyraclostrobin (PY) were the most neurotoxic compounds (lethal concentration 50 were in the low micromolar and nanomolar levels, respectively) causing a rapid raise in intracellular calcium [Ca(2+)]i and strong depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential. KR- and PY-induced cell death was reversed by the calcium channels blockers MK-801 and verapamil, suggesting that calcium entry through NMDA receptors and voltage-operated calcium channels are involved in KR- and PY-induced neurotoxicity. These results highlight the need for further evaluation of their neurotoxic effects in vivo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Biological characterization of fenpicoxamid, a new fungicide with utility in cereals and other crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, W John; Yao, Chenglin; Myung, Kyung; Kemmitt, Greg; Leader, Andrew; Meyer, Kevin G; Bowling, Andrew J; Slanec, Thomas; Kramer, Vincent J

    2017-10-01

    The development of novel highly efficacious fungicides that lack cross-resistance is extremely desirable. Fenpicoxamid (Inatreq™ active) possesses these characteristics and is a member of a novel picolinamide class of fungicides derived from the antifungal natural product UK-2A. Fenpicoxamid strongly inhibited in vitro growth of several ascomycete fungi, including Zymoseptoria tritici (EC 50 , 0.051 mg L -1 ). Fenpicoxamid is converted by Z. tritici to UK-2A, a 15-fold stronger inhibitor of Z. tritici growth (EC 50 , 0.0033 mg L -1 ). Strong fungicidal activity of fenpicoxamid against driver cereal diseases was confirmed in greenhouse tests, where activity on Z. tritici and Puccinia triticina matched that of fluxapyroxad. Due to its novel target site (Q i site of the respiratory cyt bc1 complex) for the cereals market, fenpicoxamid is not cross-resistant to Z. tritici isolates resistant to strobilurin and/or azole fungicides. Across multiple European field trials Z. tritici was strongly controlled (mean, 82%) by 100 g as ha -1 applications of fenpicoxamid, which demonstrated excellent residual activity. The novel chemistry and biochemical target site of fenpicoxamid as well as its lack of cross-resistance and strong efficacy against Z. tritici and other pathogens highlight the importance of fenpicoxamid as a new tool for controlling plant pathogenic fungi. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Mechanisms of action underlying the antiandrogenic effects of the fungicide prochloraz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laier, Peter; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Boberg, Julie

    2006-01-01

    The fungicide prochloraz has got multiple mechanisms of action that may influence the demasculinizing and reproductive toxic effects of the compound. In the present study, Wistar rats were dosed perinatally with prochloraz (50 and 150 mg/kg/day) from gestational day (GD) 7 to postnatal day (PND) ...... acts directly on the fetal testis to inhibit steroidogenesis and that this effect is exhibited at protein, and not at genomic, level. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  19. Late Blight of Potato (Phytophthora infestans I: Fungicides Application and Associated Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Majeed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. has been remained an important agricultural crop in resolving global food issues through decades. The crop has experienced enormous growth in terms of production throughout the world in recent decades because of improvement in agricultural mechanization, fertilizers application and irrigation practices. Nevertheless, a significant proportion of this valuable crop is still vulnerable to losses due to prevalence of different viral, bacterial, fungal and nematodes infestations. Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary, is one of the most threatening pathogenic diseases which not only results in direct crop losses but also cause farmers to embrace huge monetary expenses for disease control and preventive measures. The disease is well known for notorious ‘Irish Famine’ which resulted in drop of Irish population by more than 20% as result of hunger and potato starvation. Globally, annual losses of crop and money spend on fungicides for late blight control exceeds one trillion US dollars. This paper reviews the significance of late blight of potato and controlling strategies adopted for minimizing yield losses incurred by this disease by the use of synthetic fungicides. Advantages and disadvantages of fungicides application are discussed.

  20. Retention of copper originating from different fungicides in contrasting soil types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komárek, Michael; Vanek, Ales; Chrastný, Vladislav; Száková, Jirina; Kubová, Karolina; Drahota, Petr; Balík, Jirí

    2009-07-30

    This work described the retention of Cu from two different commonly used pesticides, the Bordeaux mixture (CuSO(4)+Ca(OH)(2)) and Cu-oxychloride (3Cu(OH)(2).CuCl(2)), and from Cu(NO(3))(2) in contrasting soil types (Leptosol, Chernozem, Cambisol). Thermodynamic modeling showed that Cu speciation was similar in all fungicide solutions. However, the retention of Cu differed with the fungicide used (maximum retention from the Bordeaux mixture) which indicates that different retention processes occurred in the studied soils. The suggested mechanisms include: specific and non-specific adsorption (especially on soil organic matter), precipitation of newly formed phases, such as CuO, Cu(OH)(2), Cu(2)(OH)(3)NO(3), CuCO(3)/Cu(2)(OH)(2)CO(3) and in the case of the Bordeaux mixture, precipitation of various Cu-hydroxysulfates. These phases were identified by the speciation model. The retention of fungicide-derived Cu in the studied soil types followed well the Freundlich isotherm and was directly controlled by the chemical form of Cu. This fact should be taken into account for both environmental and practical applications.

  1. Retention of copper originating from different fungicides in contrasting soil types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komarek, Michael, E-mail: komarek@af.czu.cz [Department of Agro-Environmental Chemistry and Plant Nutrition, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, 165 21, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Vanek, Ales [Department of Soil Science and Soil Protection, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, 165 21, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Chrastny, Vladislav [Department of Applied Chemistry, University of South Bohemia, Studentska 13, 370 05, Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Szakova, Jirina; Kubova, Karolina [Department of Agro-Environmental Chemistry and Plant Nutrition, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, 165 21, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Drahota, Petr [Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Resources, Charles University Prague, Albertov 6, 128 43, Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Balik, Jiri [Department of Agro-Environmental Chemistry and Plant Nutrition, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, 165 21, Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2009-07-30

    This work described the retention of Cu from two different commonly used pesticides, the Bordeaux mixture (CuSO{sub 4} + Ca(OH){sub 2}) and Cu-oxychloride (3Cu(OH){sub 2}.CuCl{sub 2}), and from Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} in contrasting soil types (Leptosol, Chernozem, Cambisol). Thermodynamic modeling showed that Cu speciation was similar in all fungicide solutions. However, the retention of Cu differed with the fungicide used (maximum retention from the Bordeaux mixture) which indicates that different retention processes occurred in the studied soils. The suggested mechanisms include: specific and non-specific adsorption (especially on soil organic matter), precipitation of newly formed phases, such as CuO, Cu(OH){sub 2}, Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}NO{sub 3}, CuCO{sub 3}/Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3} and in the case of the Bordeaux mixture, precipitation of various Cu-hydroxysulfates. These phases were identified by the speciation model. The retention of fungicide-derived Cu in the studied soil types followed well the Freundlich isotherm and was directly controlled by the chemical form of Cu. This fact should be taken into account for both environmental and practical applications.

  2. The Effect of Fungicides for Seed Treatment on Germination of Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Stevanović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of chemicals, such as fungicides for seed treatment, is one of the most reliable and perhaps most efficient measures for integrated preservation of crops, and its practicing has become a legal obligation for all seed producers. This investigation was carried out in the laboratory for seed quality and phytopathology of the Small Grains Research Center in Kragujevac. The objective was to establish the effect of fungicides on germination energy and seed germinability (determined after treatments. Two varieties were tested due to a possibility of specific sensitivities of some varieties, so that the results acquired on one variety would not necessarily be valid for another one. Fungicides based on active ingredients from the triasol chemical group had different effects on the energy of germination of barley seeds. Applying Raxil S040-FS, the average germination of barley seeds was 79.3% for the variety Record, and 91.3% for the Grand variety. The variety Record achieved a lower value than the minimum for barley seed germination (88% stipulated by the Rules on Seed Quality of Agricultural Crops.Regardless of barley type, the product Raxil S040-FS showed a statistically significant effect on the number of atypical seedlings and increase in the number of non-germinated seeds, compared to the control.

  3. Contamination of apple orchard soils and fruit trees with copper-based fungicides: sampling aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanying; Liu, Jingshuang; Liu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Accumulations of copper in orchard soils and fruit trees due to the application of Cu-based fungicides have become research hotspots. However, information about the sampling strategies, which can affect the accuracy of the following research results, is lacking. This study aimed to determine some sampling considerations when Cu accumulations in the soils and fruit trees of apple orchards are studied. The study was conducted in three apple orchards from different sites. Each orchard included two different histories of Cu-based fungicides usage, varying from 3 to 28 years. Soil samples were collected from different locations varying with the distances from tree trunk to the canopy drip line. Fruits and leaves from the middle heights of tree canopy at two locations (outer canopy and inner canopy) were collected. The variation in total soil Cu concentrations between orchards was much greater than the variation within orchards. Total soil Cu concentrations had a tendency to increase with the increasing history of Cu-based fungicides usage. Moreover, total soil Cu concentrations had the lowest values at the canopy drip line, while the highest values were found at the half distances between the trunk and the canopy drip line. Additionally, Cu concentrations of leaves and fruits from the outer parts of the canopy were significantly higher than from the inner parts. Depending on the findings of this study, not only the between-orchard variation but also the within-orchard variation should be taken into consideration when conducting future soil and tree samplings in apple orchards.

  4. Fungicides transport in runoff from vineyard plot and catchment: contribution of non-target areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrancq, Marie; Payraudeau, Sylvain; García Verdú, Antonio Joaquín; Maillard, Elodie; Millet, Maurice; Imfeld, Gwenaël

    2014-04-01

    Surface runoff and erosion during the course of rainfall events are major processes of pesticides transport from agricultural land to aquatic ecosystem. These processes are generally evaluated either at the plot or the catchment scale. Here, we compared at both scales the transport and partitioning in runoff water of two widely used fungicides, i.e., kresoxim-methyl (KM) and cyazofamid (CY). The objective was to evaluate the relationship between fungicides runoff from the plot and from the vineyard catchment. The results show that seasonal exports for KM and CY at the catchment were larger than those obtained at the plot. This underlines that non-target areas within the catchment largely contribute to the overall load of runoff-associated fungicides. Estimations show that 85 and 62 % of the loads observed for KM and CY at the catchment outlet cannot be explained by the vineyard plots. However, the partitioning of KM and CY between three fractions, i.e., the suspended solids (>0.7 μm) and two dissolved fractions (i.e., between 0.22 and 0.7 µm and plot scales enable to evaluate the sources areas of pesticide off-site transport.

  5. Influence of fungicides on occurence of Fusarium spp. and other stem base diseases on winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Sklenář

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1999 to 2004 the occurence of fungi: Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides (Fron. and Fusarium spp. was evaluated in small plot field trials on seven varieties of winter wheat. The efficacy of fungicide protection against stem base diseases and influence on yields was monitored in field conditions in Velká Bystřice near Olomouc.For diagnostic of casual fungi two methods were used: 1. Method of coloring mycelium in stems, 2. Method of cultivation of mycelim on agar.Results from detection of casual fungi are following: Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides (Fron., Fusarium culmorum (W. G. Sm. Sacc. and Fusarium graminearum Schwabe.For high efficacy of protection against roots and stem base disease the following fungicide variants should be applied: Sportak Alpha 1.5 l . ha−1 (BBCH 30/Cerelux Plus 0.7 l . ha−1 (BBCH 51, Sportak HF 1 l . ha−1 (BBCH 30/Cerelux Plus 0.7 l . ha−1, Alert S 1.0 l . ha−1 (BBCH 30/Cerelux Plus 0.7 l . ha−1 (BBCH 51. The application of fungicides positively influenced yields. Yield increased at average by10–20 % after the aplication but the rise in yields was not in total correlation with the efficacy. These results can be possibly used in the system of integral control of winter wheat against stem base disease in wheat.

  6. Application of Fungicides and Microalgal Phenolic Extracts for the Direct Control of Fumonisin Contamination in Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglioni, Priscila Tessmer; Blandino, Massimo; Scarpino, Valentina; Giordano, Debora; Testa, Giulio; Badiale-Furlong, Eliana

    2018-05-16

    Fungicides and, for the first time, microalgal phenolic extracts (MPE) from Spirulina sp. and Nannochloropsis sp. were applied on maize culture media under field conditions to evaluate their ability to minimize Fusarium species development and fumonisin production. An in vitro assay against F. verticillioides was carried out using maize grains as the culture medium. An open-field experiment was carried out in Northwest Italy under natural infection conditions. The compared treatments were factorial combinations of two insecticide treatments (an untreated control and pyrethroid, used against European Corn Borer), four antifungal treatments (an untreated control, MPE from Spirulina sp., MPE from Nannochloropsis sp., and a synthetic fungicide), and two timings of the application of the antifungal compounds (at maize flowering and at the milk stage). The MPE compounds were capable of inhibiting fumonisin production in vitro more efficiently than tebuconazole. Insecticide application reduced the infection by Fusarium species and subsequent fumonisin contamination. However, fumonisins in maize fields were not significantly controlled by either fungicide or MPE application.

  7. Fungicide sensitivity of Trichoderma spp. from Agaricus bisporus farms in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosanović, Dejana; Potočnik, Ivana; Vukojević, Jelena; Stajić, Mirjana; Rekanović, Emil; Stepanović, Miloš; Todorović, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma species, the causal agents of green mould disease, induce great losses in Agaricus bisporus farms. Fungicides are widely used to control mushroom diseases although green mould control is encumbered with difficulties. The aims of this study were, therefore, to research in vitro toxicity of several commercial fungicides to Trichoderma isolates originating from Serbian and Bosnia-Herzegovina farms, and to evaluate the effects of pH and light on their growth. The majority of isolates demonstrated optimal growth at pH 5.0, and the rest at pH 6.0. A few isolates also grew well at pH 7. The weakest mycelial growth was noted at pH 8.0-9.0. Generally, light had an inhibitory effect on the growth of tested isolates. The isolates showed the highest susceptibility to chlorothalonil and carbendazim (ED50 less than 1 mg L(-1)), and were less sensitive to iprodione (ED50 ranged 0.84-6.72 mg L(-1)), weakly resistant to thiophanate-methyl (ED50 = 3.75-24.13 mg L(-1)), and resistant to trifloxystrobin (ED50 = 10.25-178.23 mg L(-1)). Considering the toxicity of fungicides to A. bisporus, carbendazim showed the best selective toxicity (0.02), iprodione and chlorothalonil moderate (0.16), and thiophanate-methyl the lowest (1.24), while trifloxystrobin toxicity to A. bisporus was not tested because of its inefficiency against Trichoderma isolates.

  8. Retention of copper originating from different fungicides in contrasting soil types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarek, Michael; Vanek, Ales; Chrastny, Vladislav; Szakova, Jirina; Kubova, Karolina; Drahota, Petr; Balik, Jiri

    2009-01-01

    This work described the retention of Cu from two different commonly used pesticides, the Bordeaux mixture (CuSO 4 + Ca(OH) 2 ) and Cu-oxychloride (3Cu(OH) 2 .CuCl 2 ), and from Cu(NO 3 ) 2 in contrasting soil types (Leptosol, Chernozem, Cambisol). Thermodynamic modeling showed that Cu speciation was similar in all fungicide solutions. However, the retention of Cu differed with the fungicide used (maximum retention from the Bordeaux mixture) which indicates that different retention processes occurred in the studied soils. The suggested mechanisms include: specific and non-specific adsorption (especially on soil organic matter), precipitation of newly formed phases, such as CuO, Cu(OH) 2 , Cu 2 (OH) 3 NO 3 , CuCO 3 /Cu 2 (OH) 2 CO 3 and in the case of the Bordeaux mixture, precipitation of various Cu-hydroxysulfates. These phases were identified by the speciation model. The retention of fungicide-derived Cu in the studied soil types followed well the Freundlich isotherm and was directly controlled by the chemical form of Cu. This fact should be taken into account for both environmental and practical applications.

  9. Effect of foliar fertilizer and fungicidal protection against leaf spot diseases on winter wheat

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    Agnieszka Mączyńska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were carried out in the seasons 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 in Plant Protection Institute, Sooenicowice Branch to assess the influence of foliar fertilizers such as Ekolist PK 1, Ekolist Mg, Mikrosol Z and Urea on healthiness of winter wheat. Foliar fertilizers were mixed with fungicides. The fungicides were applied at full or half recommended doses. The effect of the disease on wheat leaves was evaluated three times in each vegetation season. Remaining green leaf area (GLA of leaves was also determined. GLA of the leaves F-1 was not significantly different for each combination with different fertilization and different levels of chemical treatment. The application of foliar fertilizer only had no effect on green leaf area (GLA. The results indicate that foliar fertilization of all experimental plots improved leaf condition and therefore halted the development of wheat leaf diseases. The increases of 1000 grain mass and yield was high for each plot where a fertilizer and a full or half dose of a fungicide was applied. Foliar fertilizing with no chemical control had no proven effect on studied parameters.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF SOME COPPER BASED FUNGICIDES ACCORDING TO THE REQUIREMENTS OF GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE

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    Marga GRĂDILĂ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data demonstrating the functionality of biological systems reconstituted with aquatic organisms developed under Good Laboratory Practice testing facility within Research - Development Institute for Plant Protection Bucharest for environmental risk assessment of four fungicides based on copper, according to Good Laboratory Practice requirements. For risk assessment, according to GLP were made the following steps: Good Laboratory Practice test facility was established, we have ensured adequate space for growth, acclimatization and testing for each test species, it was installed a complex water production instalation needed to perform tests, it was achieved control system for checking environmental conditions and have developed specific operating procedures that have been accredited according to Good Laboratory Practice.The results showed that biological systems model of the Good Laboratory Practice test facility in Research - Development Institute for Plant Protection meet the requirements of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Guidelines regarding GLP, and after testing copper-based fungicides in terms of acute toxicity Cyprinus carpio and to Daphnia magna revealed that three of them (copper oxychloride, copper hydroxide and copper sulphate showed ecological efficiency, ie low toxicity. Metallic copper based fungicides showed a higher toxicity, resulting in fish toxicity symptoms: sleep, sudden immersion, faded, weakness, swimming in spiral, lack of balance, breathing slow and cumbersome, spasms and mortality.

  11. Detachment of sprayed colloidal copper oxychloride-metalaxyl fungicides by a shallow water flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pose-Juan, Eva; Paradelo-Pérez, Marcos; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Simal-Gándara, Jesus; López-Periago, José E

    2009-06-01

    Flow shear stress induced by rainfall promotes the loss of the pesticides sprayed on crops. Some of the factors influencing the losses of colloidal-size particulate fungicides are quantified by using a rotating shear system model. With this device it was possible to analyse the flow shear influencing washoff of a commercial fungicide formulation based on a copper oxychloride-metalaxyl mixture that was sprayed on a polypropylene surface. A factor plan with four variables, i.e. water speed and volume (both variables determining flow boundary stress in the shear device), formulation dosage and drying temperature, was set up to monitor colloid detachment. This experimental design, together with sorption experiments of metalaxyl on copper oxychloride, and the study of the dynamics of metalaxyl and copper oxychloride washoff, made it possible to prove that metalaxyl washoff from a polypropylene surface is controlled by transport in solution, whereas that of copper oxychloride occurs by particle detachment and transport of particles. Average losses for metalaxyl and copper oxychloride were, respectively, 29 and 50% of the quantity applied at the usual recommended dosage for crops. The key factors affecting losses were flow shear and the applied dosage. Empirical models using these factors provided good estimates of the percentage of fungicide loss. From the factor analysis, the main mechanism for metalaxyl loss induced by a shallow water flow is solubilisation, whereas copper loss is controlled by erosion of copper oxychloride particles.

  12. Fungicidal Drugs Induce a Common Oxidative-Damage Cellular Death Pathway

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    Peter Belenky

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Amphotericin, miconazole, and ciclopirox are antifungal agents from three different drug classes that can effectively kill planktonic yeast, yet their complete fungicidal mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we employ a systems biology approach to identify a common oxidative-damage cellular death pathway triggered by these representative fungicides in Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This mechanism utilizes a signaling cascade involving the GTPases Ras1 and Ras2 and protein kinase A, and it culminates in death through the production of toxic reactive oxygen species in a tricarboxylic-acid-cycle- and respiratory-chain-dependent manner. We also show that the metabolome of C. albicans is altered by antifungal drug treatment, exhibiting a shift from fermentation to respiration, a jump in the AMP/ATP ratio, and elevated production of sugars; this coincides with elevated mitochondrial activity. Lastly, we demonstrate that DNA damage plays a critical role in antifungal-induced cellular death and that blocking DNA-repair mechanisms potentiates fungicidal activity.

  13. Effect of Fungicide Applications on Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Growth and Yield

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    Dan D. Fromme

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted in the upper Texas Gulf Coast and in central Louisiana during the 2013 through 2015 growing seasons to evaluate the effects of fungicides on grain sorghum growth and development when disease pressure was low or nonexistent. Azoxystrobin and flutriafol at 1.0 L/ha and pyraclostrobin at 0.78 L/ha were applied to the plants of two grain sorghum hybrids (DKS 54-00, DKS 53-67 at 25% bloom and compared with the nontreated check for leaf chlorophyll content, leaf temperature, and plant lodging during the growing season as well as grain mold, test weight, yield, and nitrogen and protein content of the harvested grain. The application of a fungicide had no effect on any of the variables tested with grain sorghum hybrid responses noted. DKS 53-67 produced higher yield, greater test weight, higher percent protein, and N than DKS 54-00. Results of this study indicate that the application of a fungicide when little or no disease is present does not promote overall plant health or increase yield.

  14. Assessment of Total Risk on Non-Target Organisms in Fungicide Application for Agricultural Sustainability

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    Ali Musa Bozdogan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey, in 2010, the amount of pesticide (active ingredient; a.i. used in agriculture was about 23,000 metric tons, of which approximately 32% was fungicides. In 2012, 14 a.i. were used for fungus control in wheat cultivation areas in Adana province, Turkey. These a.i. were: azoxystrobin, carbendazim, difenoconazole, epoxiconazole, fluquinconazole, prochloraz, propiconazole, prothioconazole, pyraclostrobin, spiroxamine, tebuconazole, thiophanate-methyl, triadimenol, and trifloxystrobin. In this study, the potential risk of a.i. on non-target organisms in fungicide application of wheat cultivation was assessed by The Pesticide Occupational and Environmental Risk (POCER indicators. In this study, the highest human health risk was for fluquinconazole (Exceedence Factor (EF 1.798 for human health, whereas the fungicide with the highest environmental risk was propiconazole (EF 2.000 for the environment. For non-target organisms, the highest potential risk was determined for propiconazole when applied at 0.1250 kg a.i. ha-1 (EF 2.897. The lowest total risk was for azoxystrobin when applied at  0.0650 kg a.i. ha-1 (EF 0.625.

  15. Soybean (Glycine max L. Response to Fungicides in the Absence of Disease Pressure

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    W. James Grichar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted during the 2010 and 2011 growing seasons along the Texas Upper Gulf Coast region to study the effects of fungicides on soybean disease development and to evaluate the response of four soybean cultivars to prothioconazole plus trifloxystrobin and pyraclostrobin. In neither year did any soybean diseases develop enough to be an issue. Only NKS 51-T8 responded to a fungicide treatment in 2010 while HBK 5025 responded in 2011. Prothioconazole plus trifloxystrobin increased NKS 51-T8 yield by 23% in 2010 while in 2011 the yield of HBK 5025 was increased 14% over the unsprayed check. No yield response was noted with pyraclostrobin on any soybean cultivar. Only prothioconazole + trifloxystrobin applied to either NKS 51-T8 or DP5335 in 2010 resulted in a net increase in dollars per hectare over the unsprayed check of the respective cultivar. In 2011, under extremely dry conditions, all fungicides with the exception of prothioconazole + trifloxystrobin applied to HBK 5025 resulted in a net decrease in returns over the unsprayed check.

  16. Determination of antifungal susceptibility patterns among the environmental isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus in Iran

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    Faezeh Mohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated that there was not azole-resistant among environmental isolates of A. fumigatus. Medical triazoles compounds have structural similarity with triazole fungicide compounds in agriculture, therefore, resistance development through exposure to triazole fungicide compounds in the environment is important but it sounds there is not a serious health problem in drug resistance in environmental isolates in Iran.

  17. Synthesis and Antiproliferative Activity of Some Novel Triazole Derivatives from Dehydroabietic Acid

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    Mariano Walter Pertino

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Dehydroabietic acid (DHA is a naturally occurring diterpene with different and relevant biological activities. Previous studies have shown that some DHA derivatives display antiproliferative activity. However, the reported compounds did not include triazole derivatives. Starting from DHA (8,11,13-abietatrien-18-oic acid, and its alcohol dehydroabietinol (8,11,13-abietatrien-18-ol, four alkyl esters were prepared. The alkyl terpenes were treated with different aromatic azides to synthesize hybrid compounds using click chemistry. Some 16 new DHA hybrids were thus synthesized and their structures were confirmed by spectroscopic and spectrometric means. The antiproliferative activity of the new compounds was assessed towards human cell lines, namely normal lung fibroblasts (MRC-5, gastric epithelial adenocarcinoma (AGS, lung cancer (SK-MES-1 and bladder carcinoma (J82 cells. Better antiproliferative effect was found for compound 5, with an IC50 of 6.1 μM and selectivity on SK-MES-1 cells. Under the same experimental conditions, the IC50 of etoposide, was 1.83 µM.

  18. Triazole RGD antagonist reverts TGFβ1-induced endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition in endothelial precursor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Francesca; Peppicelli, Silvia; Fabbrizzi, Pierangelo; Biagioni, Alessio; Mazzanti, Benedetta; Menchi, Gloria; Calorini, Lido; Pupi, Alberto; Trabocchi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Fibrosis is the dramatic consequence of a dysregulated reparative process in which activated fibroblasts (myofibroblasts) and Transforming Growth Factor β1 (TGFβ1) play a central role. When exposed to TGFβ1, fibroblast and epithelial cells differentiate in myofibroblasts; in addition, endothelial cells may undergo endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) and actively participate to the progression of fibrosis. Recently, the role of αv integrins, which recognize the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) tripeptide, in the release and signal transduction activation of TGFβ1 became evident. In this study, we present a class of triazole-derived RGD antagonists that interact with αvβ3 integrin. Above different compounds, the RGD-2 specifically interferes with integrin-dependent TGFβ1 EndoMT in Endothelial Colony-Forming Cells (ECPCs) derived from circulating Endothelial Precursor Cells (ECPCs). The RGD-2 decreases the amount of membrane-associated TGFβ1, and reduces both ALK5/TGFβ1 type I receptor expression and Smad2 phosphorylation in ECPCs. We found that RGD-2 antagonist reverts EndoMT, reducing α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and vimentin expression in differentiated ECPCs. Our results outline the critical role of integrin in fibrosis progression and account for the opportunity of using integrins as target for anti-fibrotic therapeutic treatment.

  19. Synthesis of novel pyrazoline based bis (1,2,3-triazole scaffolds via click chemistry

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    Kiran Kothuri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel bis(1,2,3-triazoles derivatives 7a–m were synthesized by the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (click-reaction of 1-methyl-3,5-bis(2- -(prop-2-yn-1-yloxyphenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole (5 with various aralkyl azides 6a–m in the presence of sodium ascorbate and copper sulphate with good yields. The required precursor 5 was synthesized by reacting (E-1,3- -bis(2-hydroxyphenylprop-2-en-1-one (3 with methylhydrazine hydrate via 2,2′-(1-methyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-3,5-diyldiphenol 4, followed by reaction with propargyl bromide. The homogeneity of all the newly synthesized compounds was checked by TLC. The IR, NMR, mass spectral data and elemental analysis were in accord with the assigned structure. The title compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against various bacterial strains, i.e., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis; compounds 7f–7h and 7j were found to be moderately active against the bacteria, when compared with that of the standard drug. Furthermore, the same library of compounds was evaluated for their antioxidant activity using the nitric oxide radical scavenging activity. The results of the study showed that compounds 7e–7h and 7k–7m showed good radical scavenging activity.

  20. Charged Triazole Cross-Linkers for Hyaluronan-Based Hybrid Hydrogels

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    Maike Martini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyelectrolyte hydrogels play an important role in tissue engineering and can be produced from natural polymers, such as the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan. In order to control charge density and mechanical properties of hyaluronan-based hydrogels, we developed cross-linkers with a neutral or positively charged triazole core with different lengths of spacer arms and two terminal maleimide groups. These cross-linkers react with thiolated hyaluronan in a fast, stoichiometric thio-Michael addition. Introducing a positive charge on the core of the cross-linker enabled us to compare hydrogels with the same interconnectivity, but a different charge density. Positively charged cross-linkers form stiffer hydrogels relatively independent of the size of the cross-linker, whereas neutral cross-linkers only form stable hydrogels at small spacer lengths. These novel cross-linkers provide a platform to tune the hydrogel network charge and thus the mechanical properties of the network. In addition, they might offer a wide range of applications especially in bioprinting for precise design of hydrogels.

  1. Nanostructured Samarium Doped Fluorapatites and Their Catalytic Activity towards Synthesis of 1,2,4-Triazoles

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    Kranthi Kumar Gangu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was conducted into the influence of the amino acids as organic modifiers in the facile synthesis of metal incorporated fluorapatites (FAp and their properties. The nanostructured Sm doped fluorapatites (Sm-FAp were prepared by a co-precipitation method using four different amino acids, namely glutamic acid, aspartic acid, glycine and histidine. The materials were characterized by various techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM, N2-adsorption/desorption isotherm, temperature programmed desorption (TPD and fluorescence spectrophotometry. Under similar conditions, Sm-FAp prepared using different amino acids exhibited distinctly different morphological structures, surface area and pore properties. Their activity as catalysts was assessed and Sm-FAp/Glycine displayed excellent efficiency in the synthesis of 1,2,4-triazole catalyzing the reaction between 2-nitrobenzaldehyde and thiosemicarbazide with exceptional selectivity and 98% yield in a short time interval (10 min. The study provides an insight into the role of organic modifiers as controllers of nucleation, growth and aggregation which significantly influence the nature and activity of the catalytic sites on Sm-FAp. Sm-FAp could also have potential as photoactive material.

  2. Assembly of a biocompatible triazole-linked gene by one-pot click-DNA ligation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukwikila, Mikiembo; Gale, Nittaya; El-Sagheer, Afaf H.; Brown, Tom; Tavassoli, Ali

    2017-11-01

    The chemical synthesis of oligonucleotides and their enzyme-mediated assembly into genes and genomes has significantly advanced multiple scientific disciplines. However, these approaches are not without their shortcomings; enzymatic amplification and ligation of oligonucleotides into genes and genomes makes automation challenging, and site-specific incorporation of epigenetic information and/or modified bases into large constructs is not feasible. Here we present a fully chemical one-pot method for the assembly of oligonucleotides into a gene by click-DNA ligation. We synthesize the 335 base-pair gene that encodes the green fluorescent protein iLOV from ten functionalized oligonucleotides that contain 5ʹ-azide and 3ʹ-alkyne units. The resulting click-linked iLOV gene contains eight triazoles at the sites of chemical ligation, and yet is fully biocompatible; it is replicated by DNA polymerases in vitro and encodes a functional iLOV protein in Escherichia coli. We demonstrate the power and potential of our one-pot gene-assembly method by preparing an epigenetically modified variant of the iLOV gene.

  3. Electrochemical and spectroscopic evidences of corrosion inhibition of bronze by a triazole derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermaj, A.; Hajjaji, N.; Joiret, S.; Rahmouni, K.; Srhiri, A.; Takenouti, H.; Vivier, V.

    2007-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of the bronze (Cu-8Sn in wt%) was investigated in 3% NaCl aqueous solution, in presence and in absence of a corrosion inhibitor, the 3-phenyl-1,2,4-triazole-5-thione (PTS). The inhibiting effect of the PTS was evidenced for concentrations higher than 1 mM for the cathodic process whereas its effect was clearly seen with a concentration as low as 0.1 mM for the anodic process. A significant positive shift of the corrosion potential was also observed, and its inhibiting effect increased with both its concentration and the immersion time of the sample. From voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy experiments, the inhibiting efficiency of the PTS was found to be in the 94-99% range for 1 mM concentration. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray energy dispersion analysis of the specimen surface show the presence of sulphur on the surface. Raman micro-spectrometry study confirms the protective effect of the PTS in aqueous solution through three types of interactions with the electrode, namely the adsorption of the inhibitor in a flat configuration, the formation of copper-thiol molecules, and when copper is released, the formation of a polymeric complex

  4. Meta-analysis of yield response of hybrid field corn to foliar fungicides in the U.S. Corn Belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, P A; Madden, L V; Bradley, C A; Robertson, A E; Munkvold, G P; Shaner, G; Wise, K A; Malvick, D K; Allen, T W; Grybauskas, A; Vincelli, P; Esker, P

    2011-09-01

    The use of foliar fungicides on field corn has increased greatly over the past 5 years in the United States in an attempt to increase yields, despite limited evidence that use of the fungicides is consistently profitable. To assess the value of using fungicides in grain corn production, random-effects meta-analyses were performed on results from foliar fungicide experiments conducted during 2002 to 2009 in 14 states across the United States to determine the mean yield response to the fungicides azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, propiconazole + trifloxystrobin, and propiconazole + azoxystrobin. For all fungicides, the yield difference between treated and nontreated plots was highly variable among studies. All four fungicides resulted in a significant mean yield increase relative to the nontreated plots (P pyraclostrobin (256 kg/ha), and lowest for azoxystrobin (230 kg/ha). Baseline yield (mean yield in the nontreated plots) had a significant effect on yield for propiconazole + azoxystrobin (P pyraclostrobin, propiconazole + trifloxystrobin, and propiconazole + azoxystrobin but not to azoxystrobin. Mean yield difference was generally higher in the lowest yield and higher disease severity categories than in the highest yield and lower disease categories. The probability of failing to recover the fungicide application cost (p(loss)) also was estimated for a range of grain corn prices and application costs. At the 10-year average corn grain price of $0.12/kg ($2.97/bushel) and application costs of $40 to 95/ha, p(loss) for disease severity pyraclostrobin, 0.62 to 0.93 for propiconazole + trifloxystrobin, 0.58 to 0.89 for propiconazole + azoxystrobin, and 0.91 to 0.99 for azoxystrobin. When disease severity was >5%, the corresponding probabilities were 0.36 to 95, 0.25 to 0.69, 0.25 to 0.64, and 0.37 to 0.98 for the four fungicides. In conclusion, the high p(loss) values found in most scenarios suggest that the use of these foliar fungicides is unlikely to be profitable when

  5. Synthesis of some new 4-oxo-thiazolidines, tetrazole and triazole derived from 2-SH-benzothiazole and antimicrobial screening of some synthesized

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    Suaad M.H. Al-Majidi

    2014-12-01

    Triazole moieties reported condensation (MBT with ethylbromo acetate and potassium hydroxide by the fusion method and resulted in ester-2-mercaptobenzothiazole (7, which was treated with hydrazine hydrate to give a hydrazine derivative (8, then converting these compounds (8 to phenyl semicarbazide (9 and phenyl thiosemicarbazide (10 derivatives. Cyclization compounds (9,10 in alkaline media (4 N·NaOH gave triazoles compounds (11,12. Furthermore the compound (8 was converted to the dithiocarbazate salt (13 which was then cyclized with hydrazine hydrate to give substituted triazole (14. The prepared compounds were identified by spectral methods (FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and some of its physical properties were measured and furthermore the effects of the preparing compounds on some strains of bacteria were studied.

  6. Environment-dependent conformation investigation of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-AT): Raman Spectroscopy and density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Shuang; Zhao, Yanying; Xue, Jiadan; Zheng, Xuming

    2018-02-01

    In the paper, diverse tautomers of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3AT) in solid and polar solvent have been explored by FT-IR, FT-Raman and 488 nm Raman experiments combing with quantum chemical theoretical calculation using PCM solvent model and normal mode analysis. The vibrational spectra prefer the 3-amino-1,2,4-2H-triazole (2H-3AT) dimer in solid, while in a polar solvent 3AT is apt to the 3-amino-1,2,4-2H-triazole (2H-3AT) monomer. The significant wavenumber difference and Raman intensity patterns in solid and different solvents are induced by hydrogen bond perturbation along > NH ⋯ N ≤ hydrogen bonds on five-membered N-heterocyclic ring. The ground state proton transfer reaction mechanism along the five-membered N-heterocyclic ring is supported by intermolecular hydrogen bonding between 3AT and protonic solvent molecules.

  7. Poly[dibromidobis[μ-1-(pyridin-4-ylmethyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole-κ2N:N′]cadmium

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    Xiu-Zhi Xu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The title coordination polymer, [CdBr2(C8H8N42]n, arose from a layer-separated diffusion synthesis at room temperature. The title compound is isotypic with the I and Cl analogues. The Cd atom, located on an inversion center, is coordinated by two bromide ions and four N atoms (two from triazole rings and two from pyridyl rings in a distorted trans-CdBr2N4 octahedral arrangement. The bridging 1-(4-pyridylmethyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole ligands are twisted [dihedral angle between the triazole and pyridine rings = 72.56 (13°], affording a two-dimensional 44 sheet structure in the crystal.

  8. Occurrence of boscalid and other selected fungicides in surface water and groundwater in three targeted use areas in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Timothy J; Smalling, Kelly L; Orlando, James L; Kuivila, Kathryn M

    2012-09-01

    To provide an assessment of the occurrence of fungicides in water resources, the US Geological Survey used a newly developed analytical method to measure 33 fungicides and an additional 57 current-use pesticides in water samples from streams, ponds, and shallow groundwater in areas of intense fungicide use within three geographic areas across the United States. Sampling sites were selected near or within farms using prophylactic fungicides at rates and types typical of their geographic location. At least one fungicide was detected in 75% of the surface waters and 58% of the groundwater wells sampled. Twelve fungicides were detected including boscalid (72%), azoxystrobin (51%), pyraclostrobin (40%), chlorothalonil (38%) and pyrimethanil (28%). Boscalid, a carboxamide fungicide registered for use in the US in 2003, was detected more frequently than atrazine and metolachlor, two herbicides that are typically the most frequently occurring pesticides in many large-scale water quality studies. Fungicide concentrations ranged from less than the method detection limit to approximately 2000 ngL(-1). Currently, limited toxicological data for non-target species exists and the environmental impacts are largely unknown. The results of this study indicate the importance of including fungicides in pesticide monitoring programs, particularly in areas where crops are grown that require frequent treatments to prevent fungal diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Enantioselective determination of triazole fungicide simeconazole in vegetables, fruits, and cereals using modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) coupled to gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jing, E-mail: lijing2011@gmail.com [Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Pesticide Chemistry and Application, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, 100193 (China); Dong Fengshou; Xu Jun; Liu Xingang; Li Yuanbo [Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Pesticide Chemistry and Application, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, 100193 (China); Shan Weili [Institute for the Control of Agrochemicals, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100125 (China); Zheng Yongquan, E-mail: yongquan_zheng@yahoo.com.cn [Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Pesticide Chemistry and Application, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, 100193 (China)

    2011-09-19

    Highlights: {center_dot} Simeconazole enantiomers were baseline separated by gas chromatography. {center_dot} Optical pure enantiomer was prepared and their elution order was distinguished. {center_dot} Clean-up/enrichment procedure was based on the modification of QuEChERS method. {center_dot} Cleanup step was further improved by solid phase extraction (SPE) technology. {center_dot} Analysis of samples was accomplished by GC-MS/MS. - Abstract: A rapid and effective method for enantioselective determination of simeconazole enantiomers in food products (cucumber, tomato, apple, pear, wheat and rice) has been developed. The enantiomers were resolved by capillary gas chromatography (GC) using a commercial chiral column (BGB-172) and a temperature program from 150 deg. C (held for 1 min) and then raised at 10 deg. C min{sup -1} to 240 deg. C (held for 10 min). This enantioselective gas chromatographic separation was combined with a clean-up/enrichment procedure based on the modification of QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) method. Co-extractives were removed with graphitized carbon black/primary secondary amine (GCB/PSA) solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges using acetonitrile:toluene (3:1, v/v) as eluent. Gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-ITMS) with electron ionization (EI) was then used for qualitative and quantitative determination of the simeconazole enantiomers. Two precursor-to-product ion transitions (m/z 121-101 and 195-153) with the best signal intensity were chosen to build the multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) acquisition method. The limits of detection for each enantiomer of simeconazole in six food products ranged between 0.4 and 0.9 {mu}g kg{sup -1}, which were much lower than maximum residue levels (MRLs) established by Japan. The methodology was successfully applied for the enantioselective analysis of simeconazole enantiomers in real samples, indicating its efficacy in investigating the environmental stereochemistry of simeconazole in food matrix.

  10. Enantioselective determination of triazole fungicide simeconazole in vegetables, fruits, and cereals using modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) coupled to gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xingang; Li, Yuanbo; Shan, Weili; Zheng, Yongquan

    2011-09-19

    A rapid and effective method for enantioselective determination of simeconazole enantiomers in food products (cucumber, tomato, apple, pear, wheat and rice) has been developed. The enantiomers were resolved by capillary gas chromatography (GC) using a commercial chiral column (BGB-172) and a temperature program from 150°C (held for 1 min) and then raised at 10°C min(-1) to 240°C (held for 10 min). This enantioselective gas chromatographic separation was combined with a clean-up/enrichment procedure based on the modification of QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) method. Co-extractives were removed with graphitized carbon black/primary secondary amine (GCB/PSA) solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges using acetonitrile:toluene (3:1, v/v) as eluent. Gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-ITMS) with electron ionization (EI) was then used for qualitative and quantitative determination of the simeconazole enantiomers. Two precursor-to-product ion transitions (m/z 121-101 and 195-153) with the best signal intensity were chosen to build the multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) acquisition method. The limits of detection for each enantiomer of simeconazole in six food products ranged between 0.4 and 0.9 μg kg(-1), which were much lower than maximum residue levels (MRLs) established by Japan. The methodology was successfully applied for the enantioselective analysis of simeconazole enantiomers in real samples, indicating its efficacy in investigating the environmental stereochemistry of simeconazole in food matrix. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Enantioselective determination of triazole fungicide simeconazole in vegetables, fruits, and cereals using modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) coupled to gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jing; Dong Fengshou; Xu Jun; Liu Xingang; Li Yuanbo; Shan Weili; Zheng Yongquan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: · Simeconazole enantiomers were baseline separated by gas chromatography. · Optical pure enantiomer was prepared and their elution order was distinguished. · Clean-up/enrichment procedure was based on the modification of QuEChERS method. · Cleanup step was further improved by solid phase extraction (SPE) technology. · Analysis of samples was accomplished by GC-MS/MS. - Abstract: A rapid and effective method for enantioselective determination of simeconazole enantiomers in food products (cucumber, tomato, apple, pear, wheat and rice) has been developed. The enantiomers were resolved by capillary gas chromatography (GC) using a commercial chiral column (BGB-172) and a temperature program from 150 deg. C (held for 1 min) and then raised at 10 deg. C min -1 to 240 deg. C (held for 10 min). This enantioselective gas chromatographic separation was combined with a clean-up/enrichment procedure based on the modification of QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) method. Co-extractives were removed with graphitized carbon black/primary secondary amine (GCB/PSA) solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges using acetonitrile:toluene (3:1, v/v) as eluent. Gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-ITMS) with electron ionization (EI) was then used for qualitative and quantitative determination of the simeconazole enantiomers. Two precursor-to-product ion transitions (m/z 121-101 and 195-153) with the best signal intensity were chosen to build the multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) acquisition method. The limits of detection for each enantiomer of simeconazole in six food products ranged between 0.4 and 0.9 μg kg -1 , which were much lower than maximum residue levels (MRLs) established by Japan. The methodology was successfully applied for the enantioselective analysis of simeconazole enantiomers in real samples, indicating its efficacy in investigating the environmental stereochemistry of simeconazole in food matrix.

  12. Comparative hygienic assessment of active ingredients content in the air environment after treatment of cereal spiked crops by combined fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratiuk, Mykola; Blagaia, Anna; Pelo, Ihor

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The quality of the air environment significantly affects the health of the population. Chemical plant protection products in the spring and summer time may be the main pollutants of the air environment in rural areas. Chemical plant protection products are dangerous substances of anthropogenic origin. If applying pesticides in high concentrations, the risk of poisoning by active ingredients of pesticide preparations in workers directly contacting with it increases. The aim: Comparative hygienic assessment of active ingredients content in the air environment after treatment of cereal spiked crops by combined fungicides was the aim of the work. Materials and methods: Active ingredients of the studied combined fungicides, samples of air, and swabs from workers' skin and stripes from overalls were materials of the research. Methods of full-scale in-field hygienic experiment, gas-liquid chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, as well as statistical and bibliographic methods were used in the research. Results and conclusions: Active ingredients of the studied combined fungicides were not detected in the working zone air and atmospheric air at the levels exceeding the limits of its detection by appropriate chromatography methods. Findings confirmed the air environment safety for agricultural workers and rural population if studied combined fungicides are applied following the hygienically approved suggested application rates and in accordance of good agricultural practice rules. However the possible complex risk for workers after certain studied fungicides application may be higher than acceptable due to the elevated values for dermal effects. The complex risk was higher than acceptable in еру case of aerial spraying of both studied fungicides, meanwhile only one combination of active ingredients revealed possible risk for workers applying fungicides by rod method of cereal spiked crops treatment.

  13. The study of antimicrobial activity of 2-((4-R-3-(morpholinomethylene-4H-1,2,4-triazole-5-ylthioacetic acid salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. О. Shcherbyna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work was to study the antimicrobial activity of 2-((4-R-3-(morfolinomethylene-4H-1,2,4-triazole-5-ylthio acetic acid salts by "hanging drop" and “serial dilution” methods in broth (limiting concentration option and establish some patterns of "structure – action" depending. Materials and methods. The objects of research were 9 new compounds of 2-((4-R-3-(morfolinomethylene-4H-1,2,4-triazole-5-ylthio acetic acid salts. These compounds are the crystal substances which are odorless, soluble in water and organic solvents. To achieve a more objective picture of the research we applied two methods: "hanging drop" and “serial dilution” in broth (limiting concentration option. To study the effectiveness of substances we used the test cultures of E. coli, Salmonella typhymurium, Staphylococcus epidermidis, P. aeruginosa. Results and discussion. In the study we have found that 2-((4-R-3-(morfolinomethylene-4H-1,2,4-triazole-5-ylthio acetic acid salts can differently inhibit the growth of test cultures. The results show that the data obtained by two methods correlated with each other. Thus, the 2-((4-R-3-(morfolinomethylene-4H-1,2,4-triazole-5-ylthio acetic acid salts are active against most strains of E. Coli. and Salmonella typhymurium. Analyzing the impact of 2-((4-R-3-(morfolinomethylene-4H-1,2,4-triazole-5-ylthio acetic acid salts we have noted that the replacement of the phenyl radical (PKR-135, 139 on the free amino group at N4 nitrogen of 1,2,4- triazole cycle (PKR-173, 177 leads to the disappearance of antimicrobial activity against the studied strains. It was established that the transition from morfolin cation (PKR-133 to the piperydyn cation (PKR-134 in the molecules of 2-((4-phenyl-3-(morfolinometylen-4H-1,2,4-triazole-5-yl thio acetic acid is accompanied by a significant increase in antimicrobial effect. It was interesting that among all the cations in the molecules of 2-((4-amino-3-(morfolinometylen-4H-1

  14. Synthesis of novel synthetic intermediates from the reaction of benzimidazole and triazole carbenes with ketenimines and their application in the construction of spiro-pyrroles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jun-Ming; Ma, Yang-Guang; Cheng, Ying

    2009-12-07

    2-(2-Alkoxycarbonyl-1-arylamino-1-propenyl)benzimidazolium and 5-(2-alkoxycarbonyl-1-arylamino-1-propenyl)triazolium salts were synthesized in good yields from the reaction of benzimidazole and triazole carbenes with ketenimines. Upon treatment with a base, both salts were converted into novel 1,3-dipoles which underwent [3+2] cycloaddition reactions with electron-deficient alkynes and allenes to produce benzimidazole-spiro-pyrroles or triazole-spiro-pyrroles. This work provides novel synthons for the construction of multifunctional spiro-pyrrole derivatives that are not easy accessible by other synthetic methods and are potentially amenable to further transformations.

  15. Ultrasound-Assisted Synthesis of 1-N-glycosyl-1H-1,2,3-Triazole Derivatives and their Anti-inflammatory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Bezerra Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We have been synthesized various glycosyl triazoles from the reaction between glycosyl azide (1 and terminal alkynes (2a-g. The glycopiranosyl 1,2,3-triazoles (3-9 have been obtained in moderate-to-excellent yields (63-99% through the copper (I-catalyst 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction at room temperature using ultrasound irradiation. In addition, preliminary anti-inflammatory tests have been performed in the compounds conjugates with benzoheterocycles (3-7 moieties that shown moderate activity

  16. Synthesis, physical and chemical properties of 2-((5-(hydroxy(phenylmethyl-4R-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acids and its salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Rud

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Today’s a creation of new domestic medicines is very important problem for pharmacy and medicine. Therefore, it is relevant to synthesize new domestic biologically active compounds. It is known that a large number of new 3-thio and 4-amino derivatives on the basis of 1,2,4-triazole have recently been synthesized, among which compounds with high pharmacological activity have been found. Based on the experience of previous studies and with the aim of creating new original drugs, our goal was to synthesize 2-((5-(hydroxy(phenylmethyl-4-R-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acids series and to obtain salts on its basis, which have high indicators of pharmacological activity based on the literature data. The goal of the work is a targeted synthesis of potential low-toxic and highly effective compounds with a wide spectrum of pharmacological activity among 5-(hydroxy(phenylmethyl-4-R-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thione derivatives, confirmation of their individuality and structure, as well as the study of physical-chemical properties, for the further pharmacological screening. Materials and methods. 2-((5-(hydroxy(phenylmethyl-4-R-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acids were prepared by heating 5- (hydroxy(phenylmethyl-4-R-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-thiones with chloroacetic acid. Subsequently, the synthesized thioacetic acids were subject for modification. Salts of 2-((5-(hydroxy(phenylmethyl-4-R-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acids were obtained by reacting thioacetic acids with equivalents of sodium or potassium hydroxides. To obtain Iron(II, Copper(II or Zinc(II salts, half-molar amounts of the appropriate sulfates were added to the obtained solutions. Salts of 2-((5-(hydroxy(phenylmethyl-4-R-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acids with organic bases were obtained by the reaction of acids with piperidine or morpholine in ethanol medium. Results. During the synthetic studies, 13 previously undescribed new compounds were obtained. The individuality of 2-((5-(hydroxy

  17. Synthesis, spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of mononuclear and dinuclear bis(bipy)ruthenium(II) complexes containing dimethoxyphenyl(pyridin-2-yl)-1,2,4-triazole ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passaniti, Paolo; Browne, Wesley R.; Lynch, Fiona C.; Hughes, Donal; Nieuwenhuyzen, Mark; James, Paraic; Maestri, Mauro; Vos, Johannes G.

    2002-01-01

    The ligands HL1 and H(2)L2 and the complexes [Ru(bipy)(2)L1]PF6.2H(2)O 1, [(Ru(bipy)(2))(2)L2](PF6)(2).7H(2)O 2, {where HL1 = 3-(2', 5'-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-(pyridin-2"-yl)- 1H-1,2,4-triazole, H(2)L2 = 1,4- bis(5'-(pyridin-2"-yl)- 1'H- 1', 2', 4'-triazol-3'-yl)- 2,5-dimethoxybenzene and bipy =

  18. Cytotoxic, trypanocidal activities and physicochemical parameters of nor-beta-lapachone-based 1,2,3-triazoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Junior, Eufranio N. da [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi , RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica; Moura, Maria Aline B. F. de [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica e Biotecnologia; Pinto, Antonio V. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais] (and others)

    2009-07-01

    The cytotoxicities of five nor-{beta}-lapachone-based 1,2,3-triazoles and the precursor azidonaphthoquinone were assayed against six neoplasic cancer cell lines: SF-295 (central nervous system), HCT-8 (colon), MDAMB-435 (melanoma), HL-60 (leukaemia), PC-3 (prostate) and B-16 (murine melanoma). IC{sub 50} values ranging from 0.43 to 9.48 {mu}M were obtained. 3-(4-(1-hydroxycyclohexyl)-{sup 1}H-1,2,3-triazol-1- yl)-2,2-dimethylnaphtho[1,2-b]furan-4,5-dione proved highly cytotoxic to MDAMB-435, with IC{sub 50} even lower than the one from doxorubicin (positive control). In an attempt to correlate physicochemical parameters (reduction potentials and calculated log P) with cytotoxic activity, electrochemical studies were conducted in acetate buffer, pH 4.5, using a vitreous carbon electrode and calculated log P values were obtained. Despite the absence of a structural conjugative interaction between the two systems (quinone and triazole), the heterocyclic group was found to influence the voltammetric behaviour, as indicated by anodic shifts in the reduction potentials. No correlation was found between Ep{sub Ic} and cytotoxicity. In contrast, a comparison of Ep{sub Ic} with previously reported trypanocidal activities reconfirmed the trend for higher activity coupled with better quinone electrophilicity (> Ep{sub Ic}). A leading term in the correlation of cytoxicity, despite the absence of a linear correlation, was the calculated log P: the lower the lipophilicity, the lower the cytoxicity (> IC{sub 50}). (author)

  19. High prevalence of clinical and environmental triazole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus in Iran: is it a challenging issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabili, Mojtaba; Shokohi, Tahereh; Moazeni, Maryam; Khodavaisy, Sadegh; Aliyali, Masoud; Badiee, Parisa; Zarrinfar, Hossein; Hagen, Ferry; Badali, Hamid

    2016-06-01

    Triazole antifungal agents are the mainstay of aspergillosis treatment. As highlighted in numerous studies, the global increase in the prevalence of triazole resistance could hamper the management of aspergillosis. In the present three-year study, 513 samples (213 clinical and 300 environmental samples) from 10 provinces of Iran were processed and screened in terms of azole resistance (4 and 1 mg l-1 of itraconazole and voriconazole, respectively), using selective plates. Overall, 150 A. fumigatus isolates (71 clinical and 79 environmental isolates) were detected. The isolates were confirmed by partial sequencing of the β-tubulin gene. Afterwards, in vitro antifungal susceptibility tests against triazole agents were performed, based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M38-A2 document. The CYP51A gene was sequenced in order to detect mutations. The MIC of itraconazole against 10 (6.6 %) strains, including clinical (n=3, 4.2 %) and environmental (n=7, 8.8 %) strains, was higher than the breakpoint and epidemiological cut-off value. Based on the findings, the prevalence of azole-resistant A. fumigatus in Iran has increased remarkablyfrom 3.3 % to 6.6 % in comparison with earlier epidemiological research. Among resistant isolates, TR34/L98H mutations in the CYP51A gene were the most prevalent (n=8, 80 %), whereas other point mutations (F46Y, G54W, Y121F, G138C, M172V, F219C, M220I, D255E, T289F, G432C and G448S mutations) were not detected. Although the number of patients affected by azole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates was limited, strict supervision of clinical azole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates and persistent environmental screening of azole resistance are vital to the development of approaches for the management of azole resistance in human pathogenic fungi.

  20. Conjugation and Evaluation of Triazole?Linked Single Guide RNA for CRISPR?Cas9 Gene Editing

    OpenAIRE

    He, Kaizhang; Chou, Eldon T.; Begay, Shawn; Anderson, Emily M.; van?Brabant?Smith, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The CRISPR?Cas9 gene editing system requires Cas9 endonuclease and guide RNAs (either the natural dual RNA consisting of crRNA and tracrRNA or a chimeric single guide RNA) that direct site?specific double?stranded DNA cleavage. This communication describes a click ligation approach that uses alkyne?azide cycloaddition to generate a triazole?linked single guide RNA (sgRNA). The conjugated sgRNA shows efficient and comparable genome editing activity to natural dual RNA and unmodified s...

  1. 5-[(1-Benzyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-ylmethyl]-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Lokanath

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C24H20N4, the azepine ring adopts a boat conformation. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings fused to the azepine ring is 49.40 (9°. The triazole ring makes a dihedral angle of 77.88 (9° with the terminal phenyl ring. In the crystal, molecules are linked via C—H...π interactions and a parallel slipped π–π interaction [centroid–centroid distance = 3.7324 (9, normal distance = 3.4060 (6 and slippage = 1.526 Å], forming a three-dimensional network.

  2. Design, Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Arylamides Containing 1,2,4-triazole Nuclei for Possible Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Dhol

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Diphenyl aceto hydrazide on reaction with carbon disulfide and potassium hydroxide gave potassium α,α-diphenyl acetamido dithiocarbamate, which on cyclisation with hydrazine hydrate yielded key intermediate 3-mercapto-4,N-amino-5-benzhydryl-1,2,4-triazoles. The key intermediate on condensation with different acid chloride afforded our titled compounds. The synthesised compounds have been confirmed elemental analyses and further supported by spectral data. All the synthesised compounds have been evaluated for their in vitroin vitro antimicrobial activity.

  3. In Vitro Antioxidant Evaluation of Some Mannich Bases which Contain Bis-1,2,4 -Triazole Derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlak, A. E.; Karatepe, M.; Koparir, M.; Alayunt, N. O.; Keser, S.; Dastan, S. D.; Ulas, M.; Celik, S.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the antioxidant effects of some Mannich bases containing bis-1, 2, 4 triazole, which are synthesized afresh. The antioxidant activities of the derivatives were measured using different methods in this study, including reducing power capacity, metal chelating activity, superoxide anion radicals scavenging activity, H/sub 2/ O/sub 2/ scavenging activity and hydroxyl radical scavenging. As a result, derivatives had efficient antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity when compared to ascorbic acid, BHT and alpha-tocopherol as associated antioxidants. (author)

  4. Effect of the spray volume adjustment model on the efficiency of fungicides and residues in processing tomato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratajkiewicz, H.; Kierzek, R.; Raczkowski, M.; Hołodyńska-Kulas, A.; Łacka, A.; Wójtowicz, A.; Wachowiak, M.

    2016-11-01

    This study compared the effects of a proportionate spray volume (PSV) adjustment model and a fixed model (300 L/ha) on the infestation of processing tomato with potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary) (PLB) and azoxystrobin and chlorothalonil residues in fruits in three consecutive seasons. The fungicides were applied in alternating system with or without two spreader adjuvants. The proportionate spray volume adjustment model was based on the number of leaves on plants and spray volume index. The modified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) method was optimized and validated for extraction of azoxystrobin and chlorothalonil residue. Gas chromatography with a nitrogen and phosphorus detector and an electron capture detector were used for the analysis of fungicides. The results showed that higher fungicidal residues were connected with lower infestation of tomato with PLB. PSV adjustment model resulted in lower infestation of tomato than the fixed model (300 L/ha) when fungicides were applied at half the dose without adjuvants. Higher expected spray interception into the tomato canopy with the PSV system was recognized as the reasons of better control of PLB. The spreader adjuvants did not have positive effect on the biological efficacy of spray volume application systems. The results suggest that PSV adjustment model can be used to determine the spray volume for fungicide application for processing tomato crop. (Author)

  5. Observations on the Behaviour of Different Populations of Plasmopara viticola Resistant to QoI Fungicides in Italian Vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Gullino

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine downy mildew, caused by Plasmopara viticola, is probably the most damaging fungal disease of grapevine world-wide. Among the fungicides recently developed for downy mildew control is the QoI class of fungicides, which inhibits mitochondrial respiration. Since 1999, selected P. viticola populations in northern Italy have been monitored for resistance to QoI fungicides. Detached leaf discs and whole potted plants were used under controlled conditions to test the sampled populations. QoI-resistant populations of P. viticola were found in all the vineyards sampled in 2001 and 2002 in Trentino Alto Adige and Friuli Venezia Giulia, where failure in QoI control was reported. Many of the populations had minimum inhibition concentration (MIC values 3– 30 times higher than those of sensitive reference populations. Populations of P. viticola sampled from vineyards in Piedmont, where no QoI fungicides had previously been used, showed MIC values equal to, or lower than those of the reference populations. Most of the P. viticola populations collected in Trentino Alto Adige in 2001 showed high virulence in leaf disc test and were not controlled by QoI fungicides, applied both at field and double field rates in the whole plant test. Most of these populations retained their virulence in the subsequent leaf disc test in water.

  6. Effect of the spray volume adjustment model on the efficiency of fungicides and residues in processing tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Ratajkiewicz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effects of a proportionate spray volume (PSV adjustment model and a fixed model (300 L/ha on the infestation of processing tomato with potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary (PLB and azoxystrobin and chlorothalonil residues in fruits in three consecutive seasons. The fungicides were applied in alternating system with or without two spreader adjuvants. The proportionate spray volume adjustment model was based on the number of leaves on plants and spray volume index. The modified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS method was optimized and validated for extraction of azoxystrobin and chlorothalonil residue. Gas chromatography with a nitrogen and phosphorus detector and an electron capture detector were used for the analysis of fungicides. The results showed that higher fungicidal residues were connected with lower infestation of tomato with PLB. PSV adjustment model resulted in lower infestation of tomato than the fixed model (300 L/ha when fungicides were applied at half the dose without adjuvants. Higher expected spray interception into the tomato canopy with the PSV system was recognized as the reasons of better control of PLB. The spreader adjuvants did not have positive effect on the biological efficacy of spray volume application systems. The results suggest that PSV adjustment model can be used to determine the spray volume for fungicide application for processing tomato crop.

  7. Synthesis of thin film containing 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole iron(II) complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onggo, Djulia, E-mail: djulia@Chem.itb.ac.id [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Research Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    The Iron(II) complex with 4-amino-1,2,4 triazole (NH{sub 2}-trz) ligand has potential applications as smart material since the compounds show a distinct color change from lilac at low temperature to colorless at high temperature. The lilac color of the complex represent the diamagnetic low spin state while the colorless correspond to the paramagnetic high spin state of iron(II). The transition between the two states could be tuned by changing the anionic group. Generally, the complex was synthesized directly from aqueous solution of iron(II) salt with considerable amounts of NH{sub 2}-trz solution produced solid powder compound. For application as an electronic molecular device, the complex should be obtained as a thin film. The transparent [Fe(NH{sub 2}trz){sub 3}]-Nafion film has been successfully obtained, however, no anion variation can be produced since the nafion is an anionic resin. In this work, the [Fe(NH{sub 2}trz){sub 3}]-complexes with several anions have been synthesized inside nata de coco membrane that commonly used as a medium for deposition metal nano-particles. After drying the membrane containing the complex became a thin film. At room temperature, the film containing iron(II) complexes of sulphate and nitrate salts show lilac color, similar to that of the original complexes in the powder form. On heating, the color of the complex film changed to colorless and this color change was observed reversibly. In contrast, the films containing perchlorate and tetrafluoroborate iron(II) complexes are colorless at room temperature and changed to lilac on cooling. The significant color changing of the iron(II)complexes in the nata de coco film can be used for demonstration thermo chromic effect of smart materials with relatively small amount of the compounds.

  8. New Benzimidazole-1,2,4-Triazole Hybrid Compounds: Synthesis, Anticandidal Activity and Cytotoxicity Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Karaca Gençer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the growing need for antifungal agents, we synthesized a new series 2-((5-(4-(5-substituted-1H-benzimidazol-2-ylphenyl-4-substituted-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio-1-(substitutedphenylethan-1-one derivatives, which were tested against Candida species. The synthesized compounds were characterized and elucidated by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and HR-MS spectroscopies. The synthesized compounds were screened in vitro anticandidal activity against Candida species by broth microdiluation methods. In vitro cytotoxic effects of the final compounds were determined by MTT assay. Microbiological studies revealed that compounds 5m, 5o, 5r, 5t, 5y, 5ab, and 5ad possess a good antifungal profile. Compounds 5w was the most active derivative and showed comparable antifungal activity to those of reference drugs ketoconazole and fluconazole. Cytotoxicity evaluation of compounds 5m, 5o, 5r, 5w, 5y, 5ab and 5ad showed that compounds 5w and 5ad were the least cytotoxic agents. Effects of these two compounds against ergosterol biosynthesis were observed by LC-MS-MS method, which is based on quantification of ergosterol level in C. albicans. Compounds 5w and 5d inhibited ergosterol biosynthesis concentration dependently. A fluorescence microscopy study was performed to visualize effect of compound 5w against C. albicans at cellular level. It was determined that compound 5w has a membrane damaging effect, which may be related with inhibition of biosynthesis of ergosterol.

  9. Effects of Insecticides and Fungicides Commonly Used in Tomato Production on Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phtyoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditillo, J L; Kennedy, G G; Walgenbach, J F

    2016-12-01

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is an important pest of tomatoes in North Carolina. Resident populations of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis have recently been detected on field-grown tomatoes in central North Carolina, and potentially can be a useful biological control agent against T. urticae Laboratory bioassays were used to assess lethal and reproductive effects of 10 insecticides and five fungicides commonly used in commercial tomato production (chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram, permethrin, imidacloprid, dimethoate, dinotefuran, thiamethoxam, bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil, boscalid, cyazofamid, and mancozeb) on P. persimilis adult females and eggs. Insecticides were tested using concentrations equivalent to 1×, 0.5×, and 0.1× of the recommended field rates. Fungicides were tested at the 1× rate only. Dimethoate strongly impacted P. persimilis with high adult mortality, reduced fecundity, and reduced hatch of eggs laid by treated adults, particularly at high concentrations. The pyrethroids lambda-cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, and fenpropathrin were associated with repellency and reproductive effects at high concentrations. Bifenthrin additionally caused increased mortality at high concentrations. Chlorantraniliprole, dinotefuran, and permethrin did not significantly affect mortality or reproduction. Imidacloprid significantly reduced fecundity and egg viability, but was not lethal to adult P. persimilis Thiamethoxam negatively impacted fecundity at the 1× rate. There were no negative effects associated with fungicide exposure with the exception of mancozeb, which impacted fecundity. Field trials were conducted to explore the in vivo impacts of screened insecticides on P. persimilis populations in the field. Field trials supported the incompatibility of dimethoate with P. persimilis populations. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  10. Effects of fungicides and biofungicides on population density and community structure of soil oribatid mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Assiuty, Abdel-Naieem I M; Khalil, Mohamed A; Ismail, Abdel-Wahab A; van Straalen, Nico M; Ageba, Mohamed F

    2014-01-01

    To compare the side-effects of chemical versus biofungicides on non-target organisms in agricultural soil, a study of population structure, spatial distribution and fecundity of oribatid mites, a diverse and species-rich group of microarthropods indicative of decomposer activity in soil was done. Plots laid out in agricultural fields of a research station in Egypt, were cultivated with cucumber and treated with two chemical fungicides: Ridomil Plus 50% wp (active ingredients=metalaxyl and copper oxychloride) and Dithane M-45 (active ingredient=mancozeb), and two biofungicides: Plant Guard (containing the antagonistic fungus Trichoderma harzianum) and Polyversum (containing the fungi-parasitic oomycete Pythium oligandrum). All treatments were done using both low-volume and high-volume spraying techniques to check whether any effects were dependent on the method of application. Oribatid mite communities were assessed from soil core samples collected during the growing season. Total abundance of oribatids was not different across the plots, but some species decreased in number, while one species increased. Species diversity and community equitability decreased with the application of chemical and biofungicides especially when using high-volume spraying. In control plots most oribatid species showed a significant degree of aggregation, which tended to decrease under fungicide treatment. Ridomil Plus, Plant Guard and Polyversum had a negative effect on the gravid/ungravid ratio of some species. Egg number averaged over the whole adult population was not directly related to the application of chemical and biofungicides but it showed a species-specific relationship with population density. In general biofungicides had a smaller effect on population size and community structure of oribatid mite species than chemical fungicides. The results indicate that biofungicides may be the preferred option when aiming to prevent side-effects on sensitive groups among the species

  11. Impact of Fungicide Residues on Polymerase Chain Reaction and on Yeast Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gildo Almeida da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The indiscriminate use of pesticides on grape crops is harmful for consumers´ healthin “in natura” consumption and in the ingestion of wine and grape juice. During winemaking, a rapid and efficient fermentation stage is critical to avoid proliferation of contaminating microorganisms and to guarantee the product´s quality. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR has the advantage of detecting these contaminants in the early stages of fermentation. However,this enzymatic reaction may also be susceptible to specific problems, reducing its efficiency. Agricultural practices, such as fungicide treatments, may be a source of PCR inhibiting factors and may also interfere in the normal course of fermentation.The action of the pesticides captan and folpet on PCR and on yeast metabolism was evaluated, once these phthalimide compounds are widely employed in Brazilian vineyards. DNA amplification was only observed at 75 and 37.5 µg/mL of captan concentrations, whereas with folpet, amplification was observed only in the two lowest concentrations tested (42.2 and 21.1µg/mL.Besides the strong inhibition on Taq polymerase activity, phthalimides also inhibited yeast metabolism at all concentrations analyzed.Grape must containing captan and folpet residues could not be transformed into wine due to stuck fermentation caused by the inhibition of yeast metabolism. Non-compliance with the waiting period for phthalimide fungicides may result in financial liabilities to the viticulture sector.The use of yeasts with high fungicide sensitivity should be selected for must fermentation as a strategy for sustainable wine production and to assure that products comply with health and food safety standards.

  12. Relationship of Resistance to Benzimidazole Fungicides with Mutation of β-Tubulin Gene in Venturia nashicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonsoo Kwak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pear scab caused by Venturia nashicola has been reported as an important disease of pear resulting in lowering the quality of pear fruits. In this study, it was conducted to investigate the relationship between resistance of V. nashicola and mutation of β-tubulin gene and the fungicide resistance in field isolate group in benzimidazole fungicides. Responce of V. nashicola to carbendazim could be classified into 3 groups as sensitive that does not grow at all on PDA amended with 0.16 μg/ml of carbendazim, low resistance that could not grow in 4.0 μg/ml medium, and high resistance that can grow even at 100 μg/ml. Thirty isolates of V. nashicola collected from 3 regions as Wonju, Naju, and Okcheon were highly resistant to carbendazim. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of β-tubulin gene of V. nashicola showed that there was no difference in the nucleotide sequence between the sensitive and the low-resistant isolate, but GAG at codon 198 (glutamic acid was replaced with GCG (alanine in the high-resistant isolate. Among 10 isolates obtained from the Okcheon, 5 isolates showed the substitution of glycine for glutamic acid, which were resistant to carbendazim, but more sensitive to the mixture of carbendazim and diethofencarb than others. Through these results, all isolates of V. nashicola isolated in pear orchard were found to be resistant to benzimidazoles. Also, mutants E198A and E198G at β-tubulin were found to be important mechanisms of V. nashicola resistance against benzimidazole fungicides.

  13. Community composition of target vs. non-target fungi in fungicide treated wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Kamilla; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Justesen, Annemarie Fejer

    2012-01-01

    disease in wheat and within the last decade, new aggressive strains of yellow rust has caused severe epidemics that lead to substantial yield losses. This study explored the community composition of target versus non-target fungi in yellow rust infected wheat as affected by treatment timing and dose......Fungicide treatments are common control strategies used to manage fungal pathogens in agricultural fields, however, effects of treatments on the composition of total fungal communities, including non-target fungi, in the phyllosphere is not well known. Yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis) is a common...

  14. Impact of fungicide and insecticide use on non-target aquatic organisms in rice paddy fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Cristina Dorneles Wandscheer

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The intensive use of plant protection products in rice paddy fields ( Oryza sativa L. has caused concern about the environmental impact on communities of non-target organisms that are natural inhabitants in these agroecosystems. The purpose of this review is to analyze the data currently available in the literature about some important fungicides and insecticides (such as trifloxystrobin, tebuconazole, tricyclazole, lambda-cyhalothrin, and thiamethoxam, which are currently used to control pests and diseases in rice paddy fields, as well as their effects on the community of non-target aquatic organisms.

  15. Suspension Array for Multiplex Detection of Eight Fungicide-Resistance Related Alleles in Botrytis cinerea

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xin; Xie, Fei; Lv, Baobei; Zhao, Pengxiang; Ma, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    A simple and high-throughput assay to detect fungicide resistance is required for large-scale monitoring of the emergence of resistant strains of Botrytis cinerea. Using suspension array technology performed on a Bio-Plex 200 System, we developed a single-tube allele-specific primer extension (ASPE) assay that can simultaneously detect eight alleles in one reaction. These eight alleles include E198 and 198A of the β-Tubulin gene (BenA), H272 and 272Y of the Succinate dehydrogenase iron–sulfur...

  16. Modeling ecotoxicity impacts in vineyard production: Addressing spatial differentiation for copper fungicides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña, Nancy; Antón, Assumpció; Kamilaris, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Application of plant protection products (PPP) is a fundamental practice for viticulture. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has proved to be a useful tool to assess the environmental performance of agricultural production, where including toxicity-related impacts for PPP use is still associated...... with methodological limitations, especially for inorganic (i.e. metal-based) pesticides. Downy mildew is one of the most severe diseases for vineyard production. For disease control, copper-based fungicides are the most effective and used PPP in both conventional and organic viticulture. This study aims to improve...

  17. Influence of Fungicides Application and Seed Processing on Sunflower Seed Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Šimić, Branimir; Svitlica, Brankica; Ćosić, Jasenka; Andrić, Luka; Rozman, Vlatka; Postić, Jelena; Liović, Ivica

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research was to determine influence of methods of seed processing and application of fungicides on mass of 1000 seeds, intergrowth energy and seed germination of sunflower hybrids ‘Favorit’ and ‘Apolon’ in 2005 and 2006. Selected untreated seeds of both sunflower hybrids (control) had a minimal mass of 1000 seeds (55-59 g), intergrowth energy (18-37 %) and seed germination (39-52 %). In both years of research maximal seed quality, mass of 1000 seeds (67-69 g), intergrowth energ...

  18. Combined HQSAR, topomer CoMFA, homology modeling and docking studies on triazole derivatives as SGLT2 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuling; Yuan, Jintao; Zhang, Yi; Gao, Shufang; Gan, Ying; Han, Meng; Chen, Yuewen; Zhou, Qiaoqiao; Shi, Jiahua

    2017-06-01

    Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) is a promising target for diabetes therapy. We aimed to develop computational approaches to identify structural features for more potential SGLT2 inhibitors. In this work, 46 triazole derivatives as SGLT2 inhibitors were studied using a combination of several approaches, including hologram quantitative structure-activity relationships (HQSAR), topomer comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA), homology modeling, and molecular docking. HQSAR and topomer CoMFA were used to construct models. Molecular docking was conducted to investigate the interaction of triazole derivatives and homology modeling of SGLT2, as well as to validate the results of the HQSAR and topomer CoMFA models. The most effective HQSAR and topomer CoMFA models exhibited noncross-validated correlation coefficients of 0.928 and 0.891 for the training set, respectively. External predictions were made successfully on a test set and then compared with previously reported models. The graphical results of HQSAR and topomer CoMFA were proven to be consistent with the binding mode of the inhibitors and SGLT2 from molecular docking. The models and docking provided important insights into the design of potent inhibitors for SGLT2.

  19. Rhenium Complexes Based on 2-Pyridyl-1,2,3-triazole Ligands: A New Class of CO2 Reduction Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, H Y Vincent; Wang, Xia; He, Menglan; Perujo Holland, Noemi; Guillot, Régis; Slim, Cyrine; Griveau, Sophie; Bertrand, Hélène C; Policar, Clotilde; Bedioui, Fethi; Fontecave, Marc

    2017-03-06

    A series of [Re(N^N)(CO) 3 (X)] (N^N = diimine and X = halide) complexes based on 4-(2-pyridyl)-1,2,3-triazole (pyta) and 1-(2-pyridyl)-1,2,3-triazole (tapy) diimine ligands have been prepared and electrochemically characterized. The first ligand-based reduction process is shown to be highly sensitive to the nature of the isomer as well as to the substituents on the pyridyl ring, with the peak potential changing by up to 700 mV. The abilities of this class of complexes to catalyze the electroreduction and photoreduction of CO 2 were assessed for the first time. It is found that only Re pyta complexes that have a first reduction wave with a peak potential at ca. -1.7 V vs SCE are active, producing CO as the major product, together with small amounts of H 2 and formic acid. The catalytic wave that is observed in the CVs is enhanced by the addition of water or trifluoroethanol as a proton source. Long-term controlled potential electrolysis experiments gave total Faradaic yield close to 100%. In particular, functionalization of the triazolyl ring with a 2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenyl group provided the catalyst with a remarkable stability.

  20. Antibiofilm effect enhanced by modification of 1,2,3-triazole and palladium nanoparticles on polysulfone membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Hong; Xie, Yihui; Villalobos, Luis Francisco; Song, Liyan; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Biofouling impedes the performance of membrane bioreactors. In this study, we investigated the antifouling effects of polysulfone membranes that were modified by 1,2,3-triazole and palladium (Pd) nanoparticles. The modified membranes were evaluated for antibacterial and antifouling efficacy in a monoculture species biofilm (i.e., drip flow biofilm reactor, DFR) and mixed species biofilm experiment (i.e., aerobic membrane reactor, AeMBR). 1,2,3-triazole and Pd nanoparticles inhibited growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The decrease in bacterial growth was observed along with a decrease in the amount of total polysaccharide within the monoculture species biofilm matrix. When the modified membranes were connected to AeMBR, the increase in transmembrane pressure was lower than that of the non-modified membranes. This was accompanied by a decrease in protein and polysaccharide concentrations within the mixed species biofilm matrix. Biomass amount in the biofilm layer was also lower in the presence of modified membranes, and there was no detrimental effect on the performance of the reactor as evaluated from the nutrient removal rates. 16S rRNA analysis further attributed the delay in membrane fouling to the decrease in relative abundance of selected bacterial groups. These observations collectively point to a lower fouling occurrence achieved by the modified membranes.