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Sample records for triangle islamabad pakistan

  1. Seismic Microzonation of Islamabad-Rawalpindi Metropolitan Area, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sarfraz; Khan, M. Asif

    2018-01-01

    Microzonation deals with classifying seismic hazards in terms of ground motions resulting from amplification of seismic waves by nature of soil profiles underlying a site, town or city. This paper presents the results of microzonation study for Islamabad metropolitan, the capital of Pakistan. Cumulative SPT- N values from geophysical borehole and microtremor (Tromino Engy Plus) data were used to classify the soils into classes C (very dense soil profile and soft rock) and D (stiff soil profile) as devised by the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP). Soil response analyses were carried out based on scaled time histories of Kashmir earthquake (2005, 0.02 g), Mangla earthquake (2006, 0.031 g) and Haripur earthquake (2010, 0.13 g) corresponding to return periods of 150, 475, 975 and 2475 years. Spectral accelerations on the ground surface are calculated by two different approaches (1) soil response analysis performed using one dimensional shear wave propagation method (equivalent linear approach); and (2) NEHRP and Borcherdt amplification factors. Microzonation maps are produced with respect to ground shaking intensity for the return periods of 150, 475, 975 and 2475 years taking into account the variation of the spectral accelerations calculated based on these two procedures. The results show that the accelerations at the ground surface in the Islamabad-Rawalpindi metropolitan are in the range of 0.40-0.48 g (for 150 years), 0.59-0.65 g (for 475 years), 0.71-0.77 g (for 975 years), and 0.92-0.94 g (for 2475 years). The amplification factors for these four hazard levels range from 0.96 to 1.38 (150 years), 0.90-1.14 (475 years), 0.85-1.04 (975 years) and 0.84-1.00 (2475 years).

  2. Role of Sociocultural Factors in Depression among Elderly of Twin Cities (Rawalpindi and Islamabad) of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Javed, Saira

    2014-01-01

    This research was conducted to examine the role of sociocultural factors on depression among elderly of twin cities (Rawalpindi and Islamabad) of Pakistan. 310 older adults participated in the present study. Through convenient sampling technique, face to face interview was carried out for data collection. Urdu translated Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form and demographic sheet were used to test hypotheses. Descriptive statistics and t-test were used for data analysis. Results showed signif...

  3. Burn wound infections and antibiotic susceptibility patterns at pakistan institute of medical sciences, islamabad, pakistan.

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    Saaiq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Shehzad; Zaib, Muhammad Salman

    2015-01-01

    Burn wound infections carry considerable mortality and morbidity amongst burn injury victims who have been successfully rescued through the initial resuscitation. This study assessed the prevalent microrganisms causing burn wound infections among hospitalized patients; their susceptibility pattern to commonly used antibiotics; and the frequency of infections with respect to the duration of the burn wounds. This study was carried out at Burn Care Centre, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad, Pakistan over a period of two years (i.e. from June 2010 to May 2012). The study included all wound-culture-positive patients of either gender and all ages, who had sustained deep burns and underwent definitive management with wound excisions and skin auto-grafting. Patients with negative cultures of the wounds were excluded. Tissue specimens for culture and sensitivity were collected from burn wounds using standard collection techniques and analyzed at microbiological laboratory. Out of a total of 95 positive microbial growths, 36 were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (35.29%) as the most frequent isolate found, followed by 21 Klebsiella pneumoniae (20.58%), 19 Staphylococcus aureaus (18.62%), 10 Proteus (9.80%), 7 E. coli (6.86%), 7 Acinetobacter (6.86%), and 4 Candida (3.92%). A variable antibiotic susceptibility pattern was observed among the grown microbes. Positive cultures were significantly more frequent among patients with over two weeks duration of burn wounds. P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus constituted the most common bacterial microbes of burn wounds in our in-patients cases. Positive cultures were more frequent among patients with over two weeks duration of burn wounds. Early excision and skin grafting of deep burns and adherence to infection control measures can help to effectively reduce the burden of these infections.

  4. Preliminary report on the environmnetal geology of the Islamabad-Rawalpindi area, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, V.S.; Sheikh, I.; Pasha, M.K.; Khan, K.S.A.; Reza, Q.

    1994-01-01

    Islamabad, the capital of Pakistan, is a planned city constructed since about 1960 at the foot of the Margala hills just north of the old city of Rawalpindi. Since then, rapid growth of both Islamabad and Rawalpindi to a combined population of about 1.3 million has caused ever increasing demands for natural resources and adverse effects on the environment. To maintain the quality of the capital, municipal authorities need information on the physical environment to guide future development. Environment concerns include (1) availability of building materials, (2) environmental degradation from extraction and processing of building materials, (3) availability of surface and ground water (4) pollution of water by waste disposal, (5) geological hazards, and (6) engineering characteristics of soil ad rock. This preliminary report summarizes information on the environmental geology of the Islamabad-Rawalpindi area. The information has been collected by a cooperative project of the geological Survey of Pakistan and the U.S. Geological Survey, supported by the United States Agency for International Development. (author)

  5. Drinking water quality in Pakistan: a case study of Islamabad and Rawalpindi cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlown, M. A.; Majeed, A.; Ashraf, M.; Tahir, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Generally, major cities of Pakistan are facing problems of shortage of municipal water supplies as the water requirements are increasing due to rapid urbanization. The water being supplied to many cosmopolitan cities and towns is generally of poor quality. Microbial contamination of drinking water is responsible for directly or indirectly spreading major infections and parasitic diseases such as Cholera, Typhoid, Dysentery, Hepatitis, Giardiasis, Cryptosporidiosis and Guinea worm. The Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (PCRWR) has launched a major programme of water quality monitoring in the country to document the existing water quality status. The PCRWR has recently completed water quality assessment studies in twin cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. For monitoring purposes, grids of 2x2 and 3x3 km were established for Islamabad and Rawalpindi respectively. In total, thirty-nine water-sampling points were established. Apart from the groundwater samples, eight samples from surface water sources in Islamabad and one from Rawalpindi were collected. Water samples were collected in 200 ml sterilized containers during July 2001. In both cities, most of water samples except for Simly Reservoir in Islamabad, and Chitti Tanki in Rawalpindi were found fit with respect to color, odor and taste. The average EC values were 0.56 and 0.81 dS m/sup -1/ for Islamabad and Rawalpindi, respectively. The pH of collected samples varied from 7 to 8.3. Arsenic, chloride, chromium, fluoride, nitrate, sodium, and water hardness were within the safe limit. The Lead concentration however, was found within safe limits in only 21% samples. The quality of drinking water in both cities in respect of bacterial contamination was very poor. Only 25% samples in Islamabad and 13% samples in Rawalpindi were found fit for drinking purpose. Water samples collected from the points nearest to the source were free from bacterial contamination. It is concluded that the problem of bacterial

  6. Job satisfaction in nurses working in tertiary level health care settings of Islamabad, Pakistan.

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    Bahalkani, Habib Akhtar; Kumar, Ramesh; Lakho, Abdul Rehman; Mahar, Benazir; Mazhar, Syeda Batool; Majeed, Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Job satisfaction greatly determines the productivity and efficiency of human resource for health. It literally means: 'the extent to which Health Professionals like or dislike their jobs'. Job satisfaction is said to be linked with employee's work environment, job responsibilities, and powers; and time pressure among various health professionals. As such it affects employee's organizational commitment and consequently the quality of health services. Objective of this study was to determine the level of job satisfaction and factors influencing it among nurses in a public sector hospital of Islamabad. A cross sectional study with self-administered structured questionnaire was conducted in the federal capital of Pakistan, Islamabad. Sample included 56 qualified nurses working in a tertiary care hospital. Overall 86% respondents were dissatisfied with about 26% highly dissatisfied with their job. The work environments, poor fringe benefits, dignity, responsibility given at workplace and time pressure were reason for dissatisfaction. Poor work environment, low salaries, lack of training opportunities, proper supervision, time pressure and financial rewards reported by the respondents. Our findings state a low level of overall satisfaction among workers in a public sector tertiary care health organization in Islamabad. Most of this dissatisfaction is caused by poor salaries, not given the due respect, poor work environment, unbalanced responsibilities with little overall control, time pressure, patient care and lack of opportunities for professional development.

  7. Preferences Of Doctors For Working In Rural Islamabad Capital Territory, Pakistan: A Qualitative Study.

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    Rana, Sana Azmat; Sarfraz, Mariyam; Kamran, Irum; Jadoon, Huma

    2016-01-01

    Developing countries are faced with acute shortages of human resources in rural/remote areas. Decisions of human resources for health to work in rural areas are influenced by many financial and non-financial factors. This study focused on preferences of doctors for working in rural and resource constrained areas of Pakistan. The study was based on qualitative research techniques. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with final year medical students and house officers and In-depth Interviews (IDIs) with senior health managers of Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT). Results were analyzed using qualitative content analysis technique to present the findings. The results showed that quality of facilities; career development, lack of incentives, quality of life, and lack of connectivity between rural and urban health facilities, transportation services and governance issues are some of the main factors identified by young doctors of ICT that contribute in their decision of choosing a certain job or not in rural areas. Study results show the indepth detail of deciding factors for attracting and retaining health workforce in rural areas. These can be used for designing DCE (Discrete Choice Experiment) questionnaire to further analyze the preference incentive packages for attracting doctors to work in rural Islamabad.

  8. Biodiversity of soil-mycoflora of islamabad pakistan using two isolation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjum, F.; Asif, M.; Ayub, N.

    2005-01-01

    The soil microfungal flora of Islamabad were investigated, by using the direct plate and dilution plate methods. A total of 4,225 fungal colonies were isolated from 80 samples collected from Islamabad, Pakistan. The species-composition revealed 66 different species belonging to 20 fungal genera. Among these, Penicillium, being most common and prevalent, was ranked as the dominant genus with respect to the test-sites. Most of the species belong to genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. The maximum number of colonies i.e. 1797 were developed on DRBC, followed by PDA (1320) and the minimum number was recorded on SDA (1108). The results indicate that 4 of these species belong to Mucorales, one to Sphaeriales, one to Coelomycetes and 60 to Hyphomycetes. The most widespread genera were Aspergillus (16 species), Penicillium (15 species) and Acremonium (7 species). The most common species were Aspergillus niger (241 colonies), Cladosporium cladosporioides (219 colonies), Penicillium charlesii (201 colonies), Aspergillus flavus (200 colonies), Penicillium frequantus (198 colonies), Penicillium purpurogenum (178 colonies) and Alternaria alternata (176 colonies). Direct plating and dilution plating with three media, i.e. Potato Dextrose Agar, Dichloran Rose Bengal Agar, and Sabrouad Dextrose Agar, were used in this study. Dilution plating with Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol Agar (DRBC) was found to be the most suitable. Other two media i.e. Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) and Sabrouad Dextrose Agar (SDA) were also tried for cultivation of fungal species with successful results. (author)

  9. Socio-Economic Determinants of Working Children: Evidence from Capital Territory of Islamabad, Pakistan

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    Mujahid Hussain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Child labor work is a tireless social wonder in the creating scene particularly in Pakistan. In recent decades, the touchy issue of tyke work has been the consideration of policymakers, statesmen, and analysts. Any correct data on tyke work is normally rare as vast majority of the children, work in disorderly casual division, which is neither controlled by work laws nor is checked by any association. In this review, an endeavor has been made to examine the significant supply side financial determinants of working kids in Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT, Pakistan. Essential information has been gathered from child workers, working in various business markets of ICT. Results demonstrate that the absence of education and obliviousness of guardians, substantial family sizes, low salary of guardians and poor work status, low grown-up business proportion were the causative variables of tyke work. These working children are typically unskilled and secure employment at an early age and are susceptible, when working time-frames are extended in disreputable conditions, have no beneficial protection, abandon adequate and legitimate sustenance and attire, and get little rest and diversion. Enactment against child work is not a perfect arrangement in a nation such as Pakistan. This misuse of child work cannot be ceased by tyke work laws as it were. In such manner, different measures, for example, destitution lessening programs, more offices for instruction and professional preparing are fundamental. In the light of the results, positive steps and policies have been developed.

  10. EVALUATION OF NEW PRIMARY TEACHERS ORIENTATION COURSE PROJECT LAUNCHED THROUGH ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD PAKISTAN

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    Syed Manzoor H. SHAH

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary Education is an important stage in the education system of any country. Every developed and developing nation is keen to develop and improve its primary education. In service training of the primary school teachers is a major factor in improving primary education. In Pakistan efforts have been made from the very beginning to improve the primary education especially in the late seventy’s. Different Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs, Donors Agencies and Institutions had been involved in taking different initiatives for the improvement of the quality of primary education. New Primary Teachers Orientation Course (N-PTOC was a similar effort of the Norwegian Agency for Development Co-operation (NORAD in joint collaboration of Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad (AIOU. The major objective of the project was to improve the teaching of primary school teachers through selected microteaching skills, lesson planning, use of teaching kit and AV aids. This project was started in 1991-92 and completed in the year, 1999. Different studies were conducted which indicated that the project has an impact on the performance of the trained teachers. The present study aimed for evaluation of the N-PTOC project launched through Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad. The study is based on the documentary analysis. All the existing record of the project including different reports, documents etc. were consulted for the purpose. It was concluded that the project achieved its trainee teacher’s targets up to 70% and training of tutors and senior tutors up to 100%. Moreover the project produced a model teachers training module for the in-service training of the primary school teachers. There were some problems and challenges in its implementation including; late release of funds, shifting of targets to next semester and its non continuation by the AIOU.

  11. Do habitat variables correlate anuran abundance in arid terrain of Rawalpindi–Islamabad Areas, Pakistan?

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    Ayesha Akram

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The quantification of anuran abundance and habitat provides valuable baseline data for future monitoring in areas of planned or anticipated human activities. We carried out the present study to see if anuran abundance is associated with habitat variables (water quality, gravel size and vegetation in Rawalpindi–Islamabad Area, Pakistan. We used area-constrained searches and quadrat method to gather data on anuran abundance and vegetation diversity, respectively, from September, 2012 to July, 2013. We recorded 28 ± 4.83 (mean number ± SE individuals of six anuran species from the study area. We recorded Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (10 ± 2.39 as the most abundant anuran species while Microhyla ornata (<1 ± 0.09 as the least abundant species. The Kernel regression revealed strong and statistically significant association between habitat variables and abundance of Hoplobatrachus tigerinus (R2 = 0.678 and Bufo stomaticus (R2 = 0.624 but weak and statistically significant association between habitat variables and abundance of E. cyanophlyctis (R2 = 0.482; Duttaphrynus melanostictus (R2 = 0. 451; M. ornata (R2 = 0.223 and Limnonectes limnocharis (R2 = 0. 006. We concluded that the common frogs and toads in our area belong to families Dicroglossidae and Bufonidae while uncommon frogs are of family Microhylidae. We suggest inclusion of monitoring of water quality (dissolved oxygen and pH and maintenance of native wild vegetation particularly herbs, shrubs and hydrophytes of the area in the on-going and proposed development schemes of Rawalpindi–Islamabad Areas.

  12. DENTAL ANXIETY AMONG CHILDREN OF AGE BETWEEN 5 TO 10 YEARS VISITING A TEACHING DENTAL HOSPITAL IN ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN.

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    Raja, Gulrez Hanif; Malik, Faisal Shafiq; Bashir, Ulfat; Attaullah

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of dental anxiety among children will aid in dealing with management issues related to dental treatment. There is no study available from Pakistan on dental anxiety in children. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental anxiety in children attending a teaching dental hospital in Islamabad, Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 252 children aged between 5-10 years attending a dental clinic in a dental hospital in Islamabad, Pakistan. Dental anxiety was assessed by using the Faces Version of the Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale. This scale uses faces as pictograms to indicate the levels of dental anxiety making it easier for children to answer the questionnaire. A total of 252 children were observed for assessment of dental anxiety having mean age of 7.88±1.55 years with 123 (48.8%) males and 129 (51.2%) females. Out of these children 150 (59.5%) had previously visited a dentist and 102 (40.5%) had no experience with a dentist before; 38% (95/252) of children had moderate and severe dental anxiety. Dental anxiety decreased significantly with age (p=0.0003). The difference in anxiety levels was not statistically significant between males and females and in different socio-economic status. This study has highlighted dental anxiety as a potential public health concern regarding children in Pakistan. Assessment of dental anxiety is a useful way to identify anxious dental patients.

  13. Awareness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in medical-students and doctors in Rawalpindi-Islamabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamir, Q.; Nadeem, A.; Rizvi, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the level of awareness regarding basic and practical knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and its importance in the eyes of medical/dental students and doctors. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted in medical and dental colleges as well as hospitals of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan, from June to September 2011. Non-probability convenience sampling was used and structured questionnaires on basic and practical knowledge of the procedure were distributed. The questionnaire had 26 items related to basic and advanced knowledge of the required skills. Doctors were divided into two groups based on their years of service and practice. Those with less than 5 years' experience were grouped as junior doctors, while rest as senior doctors. Descriptive statistics were employed to analyse the data using SPPS version 17 and Microsoft Excel. Percentages were worked out and the results were interpreted. Result: Of the 1000 questionnaires distributed, 646 (64.6%) were received duly filled and represented the study sample. Of the 646 participants, 34 (5.26%) were dentists, 424 (65.63%) were medical students, 92 (14.24%) were doctors and 96 (14.86%) were dental students. Basic knowledge of doctors was found to be better than that of dentists (n=96; 50% vs. n=8; 23%). Similarly, the advance knowledge of doctors was better than the dentists (n=53; 58% vs. n=11; 31%). The basic knowledge of junior doctors was found to be almost equal to the senior doctors (n=26; 44.75% vs. n=15; 45.5%). The advance knowledge of junior doctors was found to be better than the senior doctors (n=27; 45.37% vs. n=10; 29.48%). Among the students, 157 (37%) of the medical students had basic knowledge of CPR, while 36 (38%) dental students had basic knowledge of the topic. Medical students had more advanced knowledge (n=157; 37%) than dental students (n=34; 35%). Conclusion: The awareness of basic and advance knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills in medical

  14. Assessment of Iodine Status among Hostel Employees and Students of a University in Islamabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafi, M.; Tufail, M.; Chaudhry, M.M.; Irfan, N.

    2010-01-01

    Iodine deficiency and related disorders are the major health hazard in the world, especially along the Himalayas. A study has been carried out to assess the status of iodine in students and employees living in the hilly area in the premises of a university in Islamabad, Pakistan. The study was carried out for 76 students living in university hostels and 32 employees serving in the hostels. Urinary iodide excretion (UIE) was used as the biochemical marker of iodine concentration in the donors. Catalytic kinetic method based on Sandell-Kolthoff reaction was employed for the measurement of iodine concentration in the samples of urine. Out of 76 students, 8% had UIE greater or equal to 100 mg/L, while 39% had between 50-99 mg/L, 49% had between 20-49 mg/L and 4% had < 20 mg/L, resulting in mild, moderate and severe iodine deficiency, respectively. Similarly, out of 32 employees, 22% had UIE greater or equal 100 mg/L while 28% had between 50-99 mg/L, 44% had between 20-49 mg/L and 6% had < 20 mg/L, resulting in mild, moderate and severe iodine deficiency, respectively. Target groups of the study area were iodine deficient, indicating mild to severe iodine deficiency. The iodine level in the employees was relatively better than that in the students. Improvement of iodine status is recommended among the students and employees by the mandatory use of iodized salt in all the cafeterias of the university. (author)

  15. Validation of Satellite AOD Data with the Ground PM10 Data over Islamabad Pakistan

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    Bulbul, Gufran; Shahid, Imran

    2016-07-01

    health. In this study, concentrations of PM10 will be monitored at different sites in H-12 sector and Kashmir Highway Islamabad using High volume air sampler and its chemical characterization will be done using Energy Dispersive XRF. The first application of satellite remote sensing for aerosol monitoring began in the mid-1970s to detect the desert particles above the ocean using data from Landsat, GOES, and AVHRR remote sensing satellites. Maps of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) over the ocean were produced using the 0.63 µm channel of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) . Aerosols properties were retrieved using AVHRR. The useable range of wavelengths of spectrum (shorter wavelengths and the longer wavelengths) for the remote sensing of the aerosols particles is mostly restricted due to ozone and gaseous absorptions. The purpose of the study is to validate the satellite Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data for the regional and local scale for Pakistan Objectives • To quantify the concentration of PM10 • To investigate their elemental composition • To find out their possible sources • Validation with MODIS satellite AOD Methodology: PM10 concentration will be measured at different sites of NUST Islamabad, Pakistan using High volume air sampler an Air sampling equipment capable of sampling high volumes of air (typically 57,000 ft3 or 1,600 m3) at high flow rates (typically 1.13 m3/min or 40 ft3/min) over an extended sampling duration (typically 24 hrs). The sampling period will be of 24 hours. Particles in the PM10 size range are then collected on the filter(s) during the specified 24-h sampling period. Each sample filter will be weighed before and after sampling to determine the net weight (mass) gain of the collected PM10 sample (40 CFR Part 50, Appendix M, US EPA). Next step will be the chemical characterization. Element concentrations will be determined by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) technique. The ED-XRF system uses an X-ray tube to

  16. Dental anxiety among children of age between 5 to 10 years visiting a teaching dental hospital Islamabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, G.H.; Malik, F.S.; Attaullah, M.; Bashir, U.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The assessment of dental anxiety among children will aid in dealing with management issues related to dental treatment. There is no study available from Pakistan on dental anxiety in children. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental anxiety in children attending a teaching dental hospital in Islamabad, Pakistan. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 252 children aged between 5-10 years attending a dental clinic in a dental hospital in Islamabad, Pakistan. Dental anxiety was assessed by using the Faces Version of the Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale. This scale uses faces as pictograms to indicate the levels of dental anxiety making it easier for children to answer the questionnaire. Results: A total of 252 children were observed for assessment of dental anxiety having mean age of 7.88±1.55 years with 123 (48.8 percentage) males and 129 (51.2 percentage) females. Out of these children 150 (59.5 percentage) had previously visited a dentist and 102 (40.5 percentage) had no experience with a dentist before; 38 percentage (95/252) of children had moderate and severe dental anxiety. Dental anxiety decreased significantly with age (p=0.0003). The difference in anxiety levels was not statistically significant between males and females and in different socio-economic status. Conclusion: This study has highlighted dental anxiety as a potential public health concern regarding children in Pakistan. Assessment of dental anxiety is a useful way to identify anxious dental patients. (author)

  17. Distribution of Cytomegalovirus Genotypes among Neonates Born to Infected Mothers in Islamabad, Pakistan.

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    Ghulam Mujtaba

    Full Text Available Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV infection contributes to considerable long-term sequelae in neonates and children all over the world. The association between viral genotypes and severity of clinical cytomegalovirus (CMV infection is yet to be defined. The objective of this study was to find the impact of active CMV infection during pregnancy and the clinical significance of genotypes in neonates with congenital cytomegalovirus infections in Pakistan.A total of 409 blood samples from pregnant women seeking health care services at the two antenatal hospitals of Islamabad during January to December 2012 were tested by ELISA and nested-PCR. Pregnant women with active infection (detected as IgM positive, PCR positive or positive on both assays were followed until delivery, to detect the outcome of overt cCMV infection in neonates. Genetic characterization of CMV strains was performed by sequence analysis of envelope glycoproteins: gB, gN and gH to detect the contributing CMV genotypes.The seroprevalence of anti-CMV IgG and IgM was 97.5% (399 out of 409 and 12.7% (52 out of 409, respectively, while 20% (82/409 pregnant women were found positive for CMV DNA by PCR. Logistic regression analysis showed a significant association of active infection with parity [OR = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.82-2.62, p = 0.04], febrile illness [OR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.76-3.65, p = 0.01] and jaundice [OR = 22.5, 95% CI = 4.53-85.02, p = 0.002]. We were able to isolate virus in 41 out of 70 neonates; 36.6% (15 out of 41 of them were symptomatic at birth while 63.4% (26 out of 41 were asymptomatic. The most prominent clinical feature observed in symptomatic neonates was hepatosplenomegaly (26.6%; 4 out of 15. All three genotypes gB, gN and gH were found with the highest frequency of gB1 genotype, found in 75% infants with hepatic damage. Phylogenetic analysis of Pakistani strains showed 96%-100% homology to their prototype strains.Active CMV infection during pregnancy is a major cause

  18. Prevalence of hepatitis C in people who inject drugs in the cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheed, Yasir; Najmi, Muzammil Hasan; Aziz, Hafsa; Waheed, Hasnain; Imran, Muhammad; Safi, Sher Zaman

    2017-09-01

    Pakistan has the second highest burden of hepatitis C (HCV) in the world. The major route of HCV transmission is contaminated blood or needle sharing. Seventy percent of people who inject drugs (PWIDs) shared needles at some time in their addiction history. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of HCV in PWIDs in cities of Pakistan. We enrolled 100 PWIDs from the Rawalpindi and Islamabad cities of Pakistan. Blood samples were taken in collection tubes and were subjected to HCV screening by using three rapid HCV screening kits including one step anti-HCV test, onsite HCV Ab rapid test and advance quality rapid anti-HCV test. All 100 blood samples were also subjected to HCV detection by using Elecsys anti-HCV II performed on the Roche Cobas 601 platform based on the ECLIA principle. Seventy-two percent of PWIDs showed the presence of HCV antibodies using the Roche anti-HCV II ECLIA test. We also compared the performance of different rapid kits in comparison with the anti-HCV II by Roche. The sensitivity of CTK kit was 84.72%, which was almost equal to the sensitivity by the SD Bioline HCV and Advanced Quality Rapid HCV tests, which was 83.33%. All three kits showed 100% specificity and positive predictive values. The results showed that the three market competitors of HCV rapid test showed almost equal results. The prevalence of HCV is very high in PWIDs in the capital twin cities of Pakistan. There is dire need to initiate the administration of a hepatitis test and treatment program for both high-risk and the general HCV-positive population. This is the optimal way to achieve HCV control targets established by the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and Global Health Sector Strategy by WHO.

  19. Pollution level and health risk assessment of road dust from Islamabad expressway, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faiz, Y.; Siddique, N.

    2012-01-01

    Thirteen road dust and four soil samples were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to determine the elemental composition of road dust collected from Islamabad Expressway. The amounts of most of the elements determined were generally in the lower range of the global data with the exception of Ce, Nd, Sn and Zr which were measured at higher concentrations in Islamabad. Pollution parameters and indicators such as Enrichment Factors (EFs), Pollution Load Index (PLI), Geo accumulation Index (Igeo), Pollution Index (PI) and Integrated Pollution Index (IPI) showed that the area around Islamabad Expressway is low to moderately polluted especially by elements such as Mg and Sb. The IPI of the elements was found to vary in the order; Mg>Sb>Cu>Sr Pb>Ga>Na >Sn Zn>Yb>Se>Hf. Elemental health risk was assessed through dose calculations for carcinogenic and non carcinogenic metals; and by the determination of LADD (lifetime average daily dose). The carcinogenic metals studied showed the following variation in their LADD values; Cr>Ni>Co>Cd>As. Dose calculations for non-cancerous and cancerous elements showed the data obtained to lie within the safe threshold of 10 3 10 6 mg kg/sup -1/ day/sup -1/ for most elements. The soil based elements Al, Fe, K, Mg, Na and Ti were the exception and originated from the exposed soil around the highway. Moreover highest Hazard Index (HI) was found to be associated with the presence of Al, Cr, Pb and V in road dust showing soil, transport and industry to be the major sources of road dust. (orig./A.B.)

  20. General prevalence of helicobacter pylori infection in dyspeptic population of islamabad, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, T.Z.; Saleem, K.; Zafar, S.

    2008-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori was known as campylobacter pyloridis in the beginning of the twentieth century. Doenges was the first to find this bacterium in the autopsy specimens of stomach using haematoxylin and eosin Stains. In 1940 Freedburg and Baron carried out a study on 35 partial gastrectomy specimens and found spirochetes in 37% after a long search. A major breakthrough occurred with the advent of fibroptic biopsy technique permitting the biopsy of stomach. Then in 1975 Steer and Colin Jones observed gram negative bacilli in 80% of patients with gastric ulcer. The bacterium was closely associated with the surface epithelium, both within and between pits. These microorganisms were poorly stained by haematoxylin and eosin stains but could be seen easily with Warthin Starry silver stain. Later on, a heavy growth of campylobacter like organism was found on non-selective culture media and so the first culture of helicobacter pylori was achieved in April 1982. Since then eight other helicobacter species have been found, one in man and the remainder in other animals including birds. The organism may remain silent for years or produce serious gastric disorders in the beginning. Many studies have been conducted on asymptomatic healthy individuals but its presence in dyspeptic patients has always been ignored and dyspepsia has been treated as a result of over acid production This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of helicobacter pylori (hp) infection in dyspeptic population of Islamabad using /sup 13/C urea breath test, and to find the possible role of water in bug transmission. We have also tried to assess the type of gastric pathology resulted by bacterial colonization in stomach. A total of 278 individuals were studied. Out of these 115 who had serious complaints/symptoms were sent for endoscopy to get the antral biopsy sample. Breath samples of dyspeptic individuals were sent to Isotope Application Division, PINSTECH for /sup 13/C//sup 12/C isotope ratio

  1. The India-Pakistan-China strategic triangle and the role of nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chellaney, B

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents the Asian landscape with its regional balances and imbalances and its changes after September 11 and subsequent events. The nuclear posture and the role of nuclear weapons inside the China-India-Pakistan triangle is analyzed with respect to the US non-proliferation policy and its expanding military presence over the Asian continent. (J.S.)

  2. The India-Pakistan-China strategic triangle and the role of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chellaney, B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the Asian landscape with its regional balances and imbalances and its changes after September 11 and subsequent events. The nuclear posture and the role of nuclear weapons inside the China-India-Pakistan triangle is analyzed with respect to the US non-proliferation policy and its expanding military presence over the Asian continent. (J.S.)

  3. Determination of toxic heavy metals in indigenous medicinal plants used in Rawalpindi and Islamabad cities, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Adeel; Rashid, Sadia; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2013-06-21

    History of medicinal plants used in local healthcare systems dates back centuries as the user considers them safe from toxic effects. Present study was aimed to document the commonly used indigenous medicinal plants and to investigate the metal toxicity and impact of pollution load in most frequently used medicinal plants from study area. Semi-structured interviews and rapid appraisal approach were employed to record the ethnomedicinal information and toxic metals were analyzed through flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. A total of 21 wild medicinal plants was reported, and 7 were screened for toxic metal analysis. Oral mode of application (93%) was the chief route of herbal remedy administration, and leaves were found to be used as major plant part against different diseases. Main sources of remedies were wild herb (68%) followed by wild trees (18%), wild spiny shrubs (09%) and wild shrubs (5%). Trend of metal concentration was found as Fe>Ni>Cr>Pb>Cu>Zn>Mn>Cd. Indigenous medicinal plants of both cities posed the toxicity risk for Ni, Cu, Fe and crossed the safety limits set by WHO. Medicinal plants of Rawalpindi were more toxic compared to the medicinal plants of Islamabad. Prolonged intake or over dose of these medicinal plants may lead to chronic accumulation of various elements that may cause severe hazardous effect upon human health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Triangles

    CERN Document Server

    Borth, Teddy

    2016-01-01

    Most shapes can be cut into triangles. They are an important shape. They make bridges stronger and they help push sailboats. Easy text and large pictures help early readers discover that triangles are fun!.

  5. "Who am I? Where am I?" Experiences of married young women in a slum in Islamabad, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Eva

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Pakistan, 16% of the women aged 15–19 years are married. Many get married shortly after they attain menarche. This study explores the preparedness for and actual experiences of married life (inter-spousal relationship, sexual activity and pregnancy among adolescent women. Methods Among married adolescent women residing in a slum of Islamabad ten were selected with the help of a community health worker and interviewed qualitatively till saturation was reached. They were interviewed three times at different occasions. Narrative structuring was used to explore how the participants represented their background, social situation, decision making and spousal communication and how they explained, understood and managed married life and bore children. Results Two categories identifying the respondents as either submissive-accepting or submissive-victims emerged. The married young women who belonged to the accepting group lived under compromised conditions but described themselves as satisfied with their situation. They were older than the other group identifying themselves as victims. However, none of the respondents felt prepared for marriage. Women belonging to the victimized group experienced physical and verbal abuse for their inability to cope with the duties of a wife, caretaker of the home and bearer of children. Their situation was compounded by the power dynamics within the household. Conclusion Knowledge about sexuality could prepare them better for the future life and give them more control of their fertility. Adolescent development and life skills education need to be addressed at a national level. There is need for innovative interventions to reach out and provide support to young women in disadvantaged homes.

  6. Traumatic injuries of the permanent maxillory incisors at dental department, pakistan institute of medical sciences islamabad: A retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.A.; Maxood, A.; Khan, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The study aims to ascertain the prevalence of traumatic dental injures of the maxillary permanent incisors at Dental Department, Pakistan Institute of Medical Science Islamabad during the years 2003-2005. Information concerning age, sex, cause, type of tooth number of injured teeth and patterns of tooth injury were recorded retrospectively from 33 patients aged between 8-40 years, comprising 498 traumatized teeth. The dental record of all the patients presenting with dental trauma were examined for collection of data relating to age, sex, cause, number of injured teeth, type of tooth and type of tooth trauma. Type of tooth trauma was recorded according to the Andreason classification. The data was subsequently processed and analyzed using the SPSS statistical software programme. The statistical significance level was set at 5%. Of the 336 patients, 227 were males (67.6%) and 109 were female (32.4%). The gender difference was statistically significant (p<0.0001). The patients had a total of 498 traumatized teeth. A large number of dental trauma occurred in patients aged between 9-11 years. Most injuries involved one tooth in 227 patients (67.6%). However two teeth in 90 patients (26.7%), three teeth in 11 patients (3.2%) and only in 8 patients (2.3%) four teeth were involved. Fractures in enamel only occurred in 74 teeth (14.6%). Uncomplicated crown fractures in 208 teeth (41.9%) were the most commonly encountered dental trauma. 137 teeth (27.6%) suffered complicated crown fractures, 44 teeth (8.9%) uncomplicated crown-root fractures, 19 teeth (3.8%) complicated crown-root fractures and avulsion in 16 teeth (3.2%) only. The main causes were falls in 225 patients (66.9%), collision with objects in 40 patients (11.9%), road traffic accident in 31 patients (9.2%) violence in 31 patients (6.2%), and sports in 19 patients (5.6%). The maxillary central incisor was traumatized in 384 teeth showing a high percentage of 77%. Raising public dental awareness regarding the

  7. Dynamics of land use and land cover change (LULCC) using geospatial techniques: a case study of Islamabad Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Zahra; Shabbir, Rabia; Ahmad, Sheikh Saeed; Malik, Amir Haider; Aziz, Neelam; Butt, Amna; Erum, Summra

    2016-01-01

    One of the detailed and useful ways to develop land use classification maps is use of geospatial techniques such as remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS). It vastly improves the selection of areas designated as agricultural, industrial and/or urban sector of a region. In Islamabad city and its surroundings, change in land use has been observed and new developments (agriculture, commercial, industrial and urban) are emerging every day. Thus, the rationale of this study was to evaluate land use/cover changes in Islamabad from 1992 to 2012. Quantification of spatial and temporal dynamics of land use/cover changes was accomplished by using two satellite images, and classifying them via supervised classification algorithm and finally applying post-classification change detection technique in GIS. The increase was observed in agricultural area, built-up area and water body from 1992 to 2012. On the other hand forest and barren area followed a declining trend. The driving force behind this change was economic development, climate change and population growth. Rapid urbanization and deforestation resulted in a wide range of environmental impacts, including degraded habitat quality.

  8. Comparison between hemoglobin and packed cell volume among young male and female students from a Medical College of Islamabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zia, Q.U.A.

    2015-01-01

    To high light the importance of laboratory investigations for students and encourage them to participate in research. Methodology: This cross sectional study was carried out at Islamabad Medical and Dental College Islamabad for a three months period from April 1, 2014 to June 30, 2014. Students with age 18-20 years were chosen by convenience sampling for sample collection. Verbal consent was taken from candidates before sample collection. Packed cell volume (PCV) was measured by using Micro Hematocrit method and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration by Sahli acid haematin method. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: Out of 106 students, there were 32 males and 74 females. Male participants had significantly greater Hb concentration and PCV as compared to females (p=0.05). Conclusion: Both Hb and PCV were significantly higher in males as compared to females of almost same age. For improving Hb concentration, dietary sources of iron and iron supplements may be used for better health of future generation. (author)

  9. Situation analysis of health care waste management in private sector hospitals in federal capital territory, islamabad, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, M.; Hasan, S.; Umar, M.; Azad, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    The deleterious and harmful effects of hospital waste on environment and human health is well documented in Pakistan. The hospital waste that may be produced as a result of patient care in hospitals, clinical settings including the diagnostic laboratories is one of the potential health hazards. It significantly contributes to the transfusion transmitted diseases and ever increasing incidence of HBV, HCV and HIV. (author)

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and CTX-M β-lactamase producing clinical isolates from burn patients in Islamabad, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubbashir Hussain

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL in clinical isolates from burn patients using phenotypic and genotypic analyses. Methods: During 2015–2016, a total of 126 samples were collected at a tertiary care hospital, Islamabad. Antibiotic sensitivity and ESBL prevalence were evaluated according to the Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute, and molecular analysis of the CTX-M type ESBL gene was performed in 225 bacterial isolates from these samples. Results: The most prevalent bacterial species were Escherichia coli (28.4%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22.2%, Staphylococcus aureus (19.6%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (16.4%, and coagulase-negative staphylococci (13.3%. Of the 225 bacterial isolates, 89 (39.5% were found to be ESBL producers. The isolates were highly susceptible to meropenem (88% and imipenem (84%, followed by the aminoglycoside amikacin (81%. Molecular epidemiology of the ESBL isolates indicated 19% prevalence of CTX-M. Resistance to antibiotics was exhibited by 28% isolates. Conclusions: In the present study, bacteria such as P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, S. aureus, and E. coli isolated from burn patients exhibited resistance to one or more antibiotics and produced large amounts of ESBL. Further studies are needed to investigate the virulence and epidemiology of CTX-M type ESBL in clinical isolates from burn patients.

  11. External dose assessment from the measured radioactivity in soil samples collected from the Islamabad capital territory, Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, S U; Anwar, J [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Faheem, M [Department of Physics, Islamabad Model College for Girls, F-6/2, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ziafat, M [Department of Physics, Gomal University, D I Khan (Pakistan); Nasir, T [KRL, Kahuta, Rawalpindi (Pakistan); Matiullah [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), PO Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2009-12-01

    It is a well known fact that natural radionuclides are the major contributors towards the gamma ray exposure received by the general public. In this context, soil samples were collected from the Islamabad capital territory and activities due to {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs were measured using gamma ray spectrometry: activities ranged from 41.5-106.2 Bq kg{sup -1}, 4.0-193.8 Bq kg{sup -1}, 325.3-657.4 Bq kg{sup -1} and 1.6-9.45 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. From the measured activities, the external hazard index, internal hazard index, absorbed dose rate and mean annual effective dose were calculated. External and internal hazard indices were calculated as 0.76 and 0.95, respectively. The mean absorbed dose rate was found to be 130.97 nGy h{sup -1}. The mean effective dose was estimated as 0.16 mSv y{sup -1}, which is less than the maximum permissible dose of 1 mSv y{sup -1}.

  12. Assessment of groundwater quality using physiochemical and geochemical analysis in the vicinity of Lei Nala, Islamabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, S.; Zafar, M.; Mahmood, T.; Mashiatullah, A.; Mahmood, S.

    2011-01-01

    Quality of groundwater samples in vicinity of Lei Nala in Islamabad was assessed using physio-chemical and geochemical parameters. Lei Nala was sampled at four different locations, ten shallow groundwater samples (up to 200 feet) and twelve deep groundwater (>200 feet) were collected for analysis. Absence of carbonate ions (CO/sub 3/sup -2/) in all groundwater samples indicates presence of limestone dissolution giving rise to bicarbonate and ultimately Ca-Mg type waters. Piper diagram reveals dominance with 53.86 % of Ca-Mg-type of water in the studied area. For anion concentration, HCO/sub 3/-type of water predominated with 96.15 % samples. There is no significant change in the hydro-chemical facies in the study area, indicating that most of the major ions are natural in origin which is due to the fact that groundwater is passing through sedimentary rocks and dissolves Margalla Hill Limestone thus dominating HCO/sub 3/ and Ca-Mg facies. (author)

  13. Assessing soil pollution from a municipal waste dump in Islamabad, Pakistan. A study by INAA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Siddique, N.

    2010-01-01

    INAA and AAS techniques have been employed to determine 40 elements in soil of a municipal waste dump in sector H-11, Islamabad. Background soil was also analyzed to study the extent of contamination of the dump site soil. Most of the major elements in these soils represented the geochemical composition of the soil in this area. The enrichment factors for quantified elements identified high Sb and Mg contents that could be attributed to the presence of PET and food materials in the waste. Geo-accumulation Index (I geo ), Pollution Index (PI) and the Integrated Pollution Index (IPI) have also been calculated for all elements. The values for these indices show that municipal waste has distorted the soil ambiance and the soil of waste dump site is slightly to moderately polluted as compared to the background soil. The dump soil was found to be moderately polluted by the elements Ba, Br, Ga, Rb, Zn, Ni and Pb. Significantly high Cu, Mg and Sb contamination was observed for the waste soil that is likely to pose an environmental issue if current waste disposal procedures are continuously employed. (author)

  14. Health care seeking patterns and out of pocket payments for children under five years of age living in Katchi Abadis (slums), in Islamabad, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Aneeqa; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Ronis, Katrina A

    2014-04-16

    Since 1990, Pakistan has faced an unprecedented rate of urbanization, thereby resulting in the uncontrolled proliferation of slums (Katchi Abadis) in all large cities. These areas lack the basic municipal services such as safe water supply, sanitation and waste collection. There is limited access to quality health care services, both curative and preventive. Therefore, communities living in katchi abadis are faced with health seeking challenges and catastrophic expenditure to pay for health care services (formal or informal). This cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted in Islamabad, using a semi-structured questionnaire with mothers of children 5 years of age. There are 34 katchi abadis, 11 are recognized by the Capital Development Authority, out of which seven were included in the study. The calculated sample size was 207. Average household income was found to be Pak Rupee 10,000 (approx.US$100) per month. Diarrhea, fever, common cold and cough were common illnesses among under 5 children. Approximately 43% of the mothers were illiterate and they preferred consulting a private doctor or a private dispenser in the katchi abadi. Mother's level of education was significantly associated with the type of health provider consulted. Majority had to spend out of pocket, while many either borrowed money from relatives or friends or sold a household item. Delay in seeking health care added to the out of pocket expense. The mean cost on child's treatment was approximately PkRs400 (approximately US$ 4) for a single consultation. There are several factors associated with health seeking behavior of mothers of children under the age of 5 years, living in the katchi abadis of Islamabad. The latter population group is one of the most vulnerable given their poor standard of living conditions. A multi-sectoral approach is needed to address the provision of basic amenities, the availability of safety nets to pay for health care is crucial to avoid catastrophic expenditure

  15. KEY FACTORS FOR DETERMINING STUDENT SATISFACTION IN DISTANCE LEARNING COURSES: A STUDY OF ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY (AIOU ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzaal ALI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the primary objective of the research team was to find out the relationship between student satisfaction and the following variables of the distance learning environment: instructors' performance, course evaluation and student-instructor interaction. The sample consisted of 245 students of Allama Iqbal Open University of Pakistan. The purpose of this study was to address the most recent problem of AIOU students relevant to their distance learning. The problem was that most of the people in Pakistan perceived distance learning as poorer quality. Therefore, the researchers conducted this study to find out whether it's only people perception or there is any thing in reality about the poorer outcome of the distance learning students as compare to traditional students. By using correlation, regression and descriptive analysis, it was found that just like the traditional education, in distance learning education at AIOU, enough interaction take place between students and their instructors, courses are up to date and well designed, instructors are devoted, motivated and equipped with the required skill and knowledge. Moreover, the faculty at AIOU is delivering distance learning courses that meet the students' needs in regard to students-instructor interaction, instructor performance and course evaluation.

  16. Awareness about organ donation especially kidney donation in Nurpur Shahan, a rural community area in Islamabad, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroof, Sana; Kiyani, Nimrah; Zaman, Zahra; Gul, Raisa Khan; Nayyar, Sarah; Azmat, Ayesha; Anwar, Nageen; Shah, Rahim; Iqbal, Saima; Junaid, Aliya

    2011-08-01

    To assess the level of awareness and ethical issues related to organ donation especially kidney donation and the willingness to donate a kidney among the rural population of Pakistan. A cross sectional study was conducted in a sample of 324 subjects residing in Nurpur Shahan by means of a pre tested questionnaire. Data collection was carried out via a face to face interview and the data was analyzed using SPSS 10.0 and associations were tested using the Chi-square test. Knowledge about organ donation was significantly associated with age (p = 0.00) and education (p = 0.024). Allowance of organ donation in religion was an important factor in determining the attitude of individuals towards organ donation and their willingness to donate. Media emerged as a major source of information for the population of Nurpur Shahan; kidney was the organ most known for its donation. Most (69%) respondents did not consider organ vending to be ethically correct but a sizeable proportion (25%) thought it may be considered in times of dire need. Awareness of organ donation in our sample was high and more than half of the people were willing to become donors.

  17. Mapping sediment thickness of Islamabad city using empirical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mapping sediment thickness of Islamabad city using empirical relationships: Implications for seismic hazard assessment. Sarfraz Khan1,∗ and M Asif Khan2. 1National Centre of Excellence in Geology, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25120, KP, Pakistan. 2Karakorum International University, Gilgit, Pakistan. ∗.

  18. A encruzilhada de Islamabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO DOS SANTOS POLETTO

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo busca delinear as dificuldades e questões sofridas pelo governo militar de Islamabad, focando tanto nos problemas internos, tal como as milícias, quanto nos externos, como as tensas relações com sua vizinha, a Índia.

  19. Pythagorean triangles

    CERN Document Server

    Sierpinski, Waclaw

    2011-01-01

    The Pythagorean Theorem is one of the fundamental theorems of elementary geometry, and Pythagorean triangles - right triangles whose sides are natural numbers - have been studied by mathematicians since antiquity. In this classic text, a brilliant Polish mathematician explores the intriguing mathematical relationships in such triangles.Starting with ""primitive"" Pythagorean triangles, the text examines triangles with sides less than 100, triangles with two sides that are successive numbers, divisibility of one of the sides by 3 or by 5, the values of the sides of triangles, triangles with th

  20. A Qualitative Study from Pakistan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To explore medical practitioners' perceptions towards irrational malaria treatment practices in Pakistan. Methods: A qualitative study was designed to explore the perceptions of medical practitioners regarding antimalarial prescribing practices in two major cities of Pakistan, namely, Islamabad (national capital) and ...

  1. Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    This information sheet about Pakistan, by the U.S. State Dept., summarizes its geography, political history, government, economy and international relations. Pakistan, lying on the Arabian Sea between Iran and India, and neighboring Afghanistan and China, has been independent from British control since 1947. Her people, 98 million, come from several Indo-European ethnic groups, but are 97% Muslim. Most live in the fertile Indus river valley; 53% work in agriculture; 13% in industry; mean per capita income is $331. The infant mortality rate is about 119/1000; life expectancy around 51 years. The country is endowed with resources, besides farmland, of oil, gas, coal, iron and hydroelectric power. It produces cotton, rice, fruits and vegetables as well for export. Pakistan's history is filled with strife, armed or political, marked by the independence of East Pakistan, now Bangladesh, in 1970, and rivalry for power by military and democratic factions, ending with a real election of Benazir Bhutto in 1986. Despite basic resources and a net export of food and textiles, the country has a significant debt and runs a deficit, and supports a rapidly growing young population (3.1% growth rate). Pakistan partakes in a complicated net of international relations due to the alignment of countries on her borders. Religious and ethnic conflicts with India, ideological difficulties and millions of refugees flowing from Afghanistan, but good relations with Iran and China make up this pattern.

  2. Evaluation of trace elemental composition of aerosols in the atmosphere of Rawalpindi and Islamabad using radio analytical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qadir, Muhammad Abdul, E-mail: mabdulqadir@gmail.com [Institute of Chemistry, University of the Punjab, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan); Zaidi, Jamshaid Hussain [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Nilore, Islamabad Capital Territory (Pakistan); Ahmad, Shaikh Asrar; Gulzar, Asad [Division of Science and Technology, University of Education, Township, Lahore (Pakistan); Yaseen, Muhammad [Department of Chemistry, Gugrat University, Gugrat (Pakistan); Atta, Sadia; Tufail, Asma [Institute of Chemistry, University of the Punjab, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan)

    2012-05-15

    Geological and anthropogenic contributions to air pollution were monitored by analyzing aerosol particulates present in the atmosphere of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan, using instrumental neutron activation for trace elemental analysis. A scanning electron microscope was used to study particulate size distribution and morphology. Twenty two elements were analyzed and their likely sources were identified. It was found that 69% of the suspended particulate matter in the atmosphere of Islamabad, and 52% in Rawalpindi, were of a diameter less than 3 {mu}m. The presence of Yb, Cs, Sc, Rb, Co, Eu, La, Ba, Zn and Hf indicates that a major portion of the trace elements in the aerosol particulates was due to the geological nature of the land, while Sc was considered to be arising from coal burning. The presence of Cr, Fe, Ce, Pb and Cd was attributed to anthropogenic activities at Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Unusually high concentrations of Mo and Nb were found in the atmosphere of Islamabad, based on soil derived aerosols. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Discussion is made on Total suspended Particulate (TSP) matter in the atmosphere. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Measurement of Radio active elements in the TSP by using SSNTD which was found non significant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 23 Trace element analysis of the TSPs in the atmosphere of twin cities i.e. Rawalpindi and Islamabad and their relation to their sources by using Neutron activation analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mountain of Islamabad has some unique and important deposits of Nb and Gd , this paper will help the Geological survey of Pakistan to explore their deposits. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is high level of TSPs>10 um, which is a great threat to the peoples of Islamabad.

  3. Evaluation of trace elemental composition of aerosols in the atmosphere of Rawalpindi and Islamabad using radio analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadir, Muhammad Abdul; Zaidi, Jamshaid Hussain; Ahmad, Shaikh Asrar; Gulzar, Asad; Yaseen, Muhammad; Atta, Sadia; Tufail, Asma

    2012-01-01

    Geological and anthropogenic contributions to air pollution were monitored by analyzing aerosol particulates present in the atmosphere of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan, using instrumental neutron activation for trace elemental analysis. A scanning electron microscope was used to study particulate size distribution and morphology. Twenty two elements were analyzed and their likely sources were identified. It was found that 69% of the suspended particulate matter in the atmosphere of Islamabad, and 52% in Rawalpindi, were of a diameter less than 3 μm. The presence of Yb, Cs, Sc, Rb, Co, Eu, La, Ba, Zn and Hf indicates that a major portion of the trace elements in the aerosol particulates was due to the geological nature of the land, while Sc was considered to be arising from coal burning. The presence of Cr, Fe, Ce, Pb and Cd was attributed to anthropogenic activities at Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Unusually high concentrations of Mo and Nb were found in the atmosphere of Islamabad, based on soil derived aerosols. - Highlights: ► Discussion is made on Total suspended Particulate (TSP) matter in the atmosphere. ► Measurement of Radio active elements in the TSP by using SSNTD which was found non significant. ► 23 Trace element analysis of the TSPs in the atmosphere of twin cities i.e. Rawalpindi and Islamabad and their relation to their sources by using Neutron activation analysis. ► The mountain of Islamabad has some unique and important deposits of Nb and Gd , this paper will help the Geological survey of Pakistan to explore their deposits. ► There is high level of TSPs>10 um, which is a great threat to the peoples of Islamabad.

  4. Pakistans Nuclear Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-12

    nuclear energy, or 400 MWe and electricity consumption in Pakistan is increasing. Islamabad plans to increase nuclear energy production to 8,800 MWe by...Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons Paul K. Kerr Analyst in Nonproliferation Mary Beth Nikitin Specialist in Nonproliferation February 12, 2016...Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov RL34248 Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons Congressional Research Service Summary Pakistan’s nuclear

  5. Pascal's Triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Patricia Shea

    2003-01-01

    Notes that Montessori classrooms provide children with the opportunity to explore and discover mathematics. Describes the introduction to Pascal's Triangle as a suggested opportunity to connect young children to deep mathematical truths. Provides teachers with materials requirements, and notes ideas on what can be acquired from the problem, the…

  6. Perceptions of Hospital Pharmacist's Role in Pakistan's Healthcare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate hospital pharmacists' perception of their current clinical role in Pakistan's healthcare system. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in a population that consisted of hospital pharmacists in Islamabad, Faisalabad and Lahore which are three cities in Punjab State, Pakistan. A sample of 116 ...

  7. Aerobiology and pollen allergy in Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, S.; Raza, S.M.; Khan, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Pollen allergies affect a significant proportion of Islamabad residents. Many patients with pollen allergy Are hospitalized in Islamabad in spring (February to April), fall seasons (July to September) and after monsoons. To determine the type and concentration of airborne pollens causing allergic diseases in the susceptible patients in Islamabad. The study was conducted from January 2005 to December 2006 and Burkard Volumetric Spore Trap' provided by the World Allergy Organization was used. This spore trap was placed in the F-10 area of Islamabad and samples were collected on weekly basis during the whole study period. To obtain the sample, the spore trap drum was loaded with a strip of sticky tape every week. The sampled sticky tape was then collected each week at a specified time and replaced with a fresh strip of sticky tape, which was then collected next week. This cycle , continued for whole study period. From each sample seven permanent slides were made and mounted with gelevitol mounting media; The slides were then examined microscopically. A total of 702 individuals irrespective of age or gender were included in the study. Skin prick tests were performed for pollens using allergen extracts of Hollister-Steir, USA and the results were recorded. The two flowering seasons in Islamabad i.e., spring and fall caused maximum pollen allergies. The Broussonetia papyrifera (paper mulberry) tree in spring, and the Cannabis sativa (bhang) weed in the fall season, Produced the highest seasonal pollen counts. In the spring season of 2005, Broussonetia papyrifera produced the highest pollen count, (73%) of the total pollen count, with a maximum count of 1390 pollen/cu meter of air/hour on 20th of March, while in 2006, it accounted for 75% of the total pollen-count with a maximum count of 1430 pollen/cu meter of air/hour on 10th of March. in fall Season of 2005, Cannabis sativa produced maximum pollen counts of 85 pollens/cu meter of air/hr on 18th of August, while in 2006

  8. Dignity of environmental protection. A lesson well learnt by the Facto cement Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, B.; Hussain, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    FECTO Cement, Islamabad was commissioned in the late 80's to cope the ever-increasing demand of building material in Pakistan. The first ever heavy industry issued license in the Capital area. At that time, environmental issues in Pakistan were merely a subject, discussed only by the professionals in their drawing rooms. The Management of Fecto Cement foresaw the now's burning whirlpool issue and fabricated the company's policy under the slogan ' no race will prosper until it learns the dignity of environmental protection'. The Management's true commitment, consistent, support and steps taken to preserve the biodiversity of eco system in surrounding including Social impacts were discussed. Every industrial process has certain adverse effects on environment. The only way to cope / fight them is approximation, which minimizes those to such an extent that they become appreciably harmless to Biodiversity. Plantation of thousands of plant's and orchids in suburb by Fecto cement, employing costly but highly efficient dust collectors besides Cone's which consume 13 % of the plant energy. To reduce SO/sub x/ in emission gases designing of the efficient and trust worthy Raw meal design, use of low SO/sub x. fuels stagnant Quality Control System and environmentally efficient GMP's enforced in production area plus the supply to municipal facilities like fresh water, schools for children specially girls and jobs to fight the ever increasing unemployment in Islamabad, Made it a prestigious, trust worthy environmental friendly state of the art industrial establishment, which stood as a hallmark and glittering example to other industrial enterprises in Pakistan. (author)

  9. Preparing Future Teachers through Distance Learning: An Empirical Study on Students' Perception of Teacher Education Program Provided by AIOU Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Mohammed; Ali, Akhtar; Maqbool, Saira

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to analyse the pre service teachers training programs for the distance learners of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) Islamabad, Pakistan. This kind of training is provided to the future teachers enrolled to acquire pre service training to become a teacher in a Government educational institution in Pakistan.…

  10. Trend of blood groups and Rh factor in the twin cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Shoaib; Farooq, Najam; Qamar, Nosheen; Tahir, Faheem; Subhan, Fazli; Kazi, Birjees Mazhar; Fiyaz, Mohammad; Karamat, Karamat A

    2006-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of different blood groups and Rh factors in a random population sample from urban and rural areas of Rawalpindi and Islamabad region of Pakistan. Blood group and Rh factor determination was carried out by the antigen-antibody agglutination test from October 2003 to October 2004, and encompassed 2518 subjects. The percentages of various groups among male and female subjects, respectively, were recorded as 27.01% and 24.02% (for blood group A), 33.75% and 32.87% (for blood group B), 8.93% and 11.20% (for blood group AB) and 30.31% and 31.91% (for blood group O). The Rh positive and negative distribution in the studied population was 92.45% and 7.55% respectively. The determination of the frequency of blood groups in the region would not only help in blood transfusion services, but also eliminate the risk of erythroblastosis foetalis in the neonates.

  11. De weg naar Kaboel loopt via Islamabad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekestijn, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Deze week vonden er de zwaarste gevechten in Afghanistan plaats sinds de Amerikaanse invasie in 2001. De verslechterde situatie in Afghanistan heeft alles te maken met de Amerikaanse buitenlandse politiek t.a.v. Pakistan. Vrede in Afghanistan blijft namelijk precair zolang Washington zaken blijft

  12. The Fission-Based  99Mo Production Process ROMOL-99 and Its Application to PINSTECH Islamabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Muenze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An innovative process for fission based 99Mo production has been developed under Isotope Technologies Dresden (ITD GmbH (former Hans Wälischmiller GmbH (HWM, Branch Office Dresden, and its functionality has been tested and proved at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH, Islamabad. Targets made from uranium aluminum alloy clad with aluminum were irradiated in the core of Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1. In the mean time more than 50 batches of fission molybdenum-99 (99Mo have been produced meeting the international purity/pharmacopoeia specifications using this ROMOL-99 process. The process is based on alkaline dissolution of the neutron irradiated targets in presence of NaNO3, chemically extracting the 99Mo from various fission products and purifying the product by column chromatography. This ROMOL-99 process will be described in some detail.

  13. Beyond Pascal's Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Darrell P.

    2005-01-01

    In "Beyond Pascals Triangle" the author demonstrates ways of using "Pascallike" triangles to expand polynomials raised to powers in a fairly quick and easy fashion. The recursive method could easily be implemented within a spreadsheet, or simply by using paper and pencil. An explanation of why the method works follows the several examples that are…

  14. systemic chemistry triangle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temechegn

    Systemic, problem solving, active learning, and cooperative learning. etc). USES OF SCT IN TEACHING AND LEARNING GENERAL CHEMISTRY CONCEPTS. In the present work we make use of SATL & Chemists triangle as teaching and learning methodologies to introduce the systemic triangle [SCT] as an easy model ...

  15. Prevalence of helicobacter pylori infection in school going children of Bhara Kahu area, Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, T.; Bilal, R.; Khanum, A.

    2009-07-01

    Most Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infected individuals remain asymptomatic, but the presence of H. pylori is a risk factor for the development of peptic ulcer disease and gastric adenocarcinoma. Despite the fact of high prevalence of H. pylori infection around the world, data about its prevalence in children in Pakistan is scanty. Our study was the first epidemiologic study in Pakistan designed to assess H. pylori prevalence in a school based population of children without gastrointestinal symptoms. The children were enrolled from three schools in the suburbs of Islamabad and their anthropometric data were noted. The non-invasive urea breath test was applied to find the prevalence of H. pylori infection. Overall, 72.3% of apparently healthy children were harboring the H. pylori bacterium and the prevalence was 69% in 3-6 years, 71% in 7-8 years, 79% in 9-10 years, 76% in 11-12 years and 55% in 13-16 years of age. The prevalence decreased in the higher age group significantly, while gender was not a risk factor for acquiring this infection as the prevalence of infection was not significantly different in males and females (74.0% vs. 70.3%, p=0.41). The lower prevalence in higher age group might be explained by change in degree of contact, Increasing antibody production with increasing age or improvement in sanitary habits of children as compared to younger children. (author)

  16. Mapping sediment thickness of Islamabad city using empirical relationships: Implications for seismic hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sarfraz; Khan, M. Asif

    2016-04-01

    Soft sediments make an important component of the subsurface lithology, especially in areas underlain by river/stream basins. Occupying a position directly above the bedrock up to the land surface, these soft sediments can range in thickness from few centimeters to hundreds of meters. They carry a special nuisance in seismic hazards, as they serve as a source of seismic amplification that may enhance the seismic shaking of many folds. Determination of the thickness of the soft sediments is therefore crucial in seismic hazard analysis. A number of studies in recent years have demonstrated that frequency and amplitude spectrum obtained from the noise measurements during the recording of natural seismicity can be used to obtain thickness of soft sediments covering the bedrock. Nakamura (1989) presented a technique to determine such spectrum using ratio of horizontal to vertical components of the Rayleigh waves. The present study is based on an extensive set of microtremor measurements carried out in the Islamabad city, Pakistan. Fundamental frequencies were obtained from weak motion sensors and Tromino Engy Plus instruments to show that the correlation is clearly valid for a wide range of sediment thickness. A simple formula was derived for the investigated area to determine directly the thickness of sediments from the main peaks in the H/ V spectrum for seismometer and Tromino data separately. A comparison is made between sediment thicknesses derived from empirical relations developed in this study with those given in literature to demonstrate a positive correlation. The correlation of instrumental resonant frequencies with calculated resonant frequencies (theoretical) suggests that the relation derived from the noise measurements mostly depends on the velocity depth function of the shear wave. The fundamental frequency of the main peak of spectral ratio of H/ V using the both instruments correlates well with the thickness of sediments at the site obtained from the

  17. Nearly Nice Right Triangles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Bob

    1989-01-01

    Relationships among the sides are developed for right triangles whose sides are in the ratios 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5. The golden ratio appears in the results which can be used in secondary mathematics. (DC)

  18. Graphing trillions of triangles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Paul

    2017-07-01

    The increasing size of Big Data is often heralded but how data are transformed and represented is also profoundly important to knowledge discovery, and this is exemplified in Big Graph analytics. Much attention has been placed on the scale of the input graph but the product of a graph algorithm can be many times larger than the input. This is true for many graph problems, such as listing all triangles in a graph. Enabling scalable graph exploration for Big Graphs requires new approaches to algorithms, architectures, and visual analytics. A brief tutorial is given to aid the argument for thoughtful representation of data in the context of graph analysis. Then a new algebraic method to reduce the arithmetic operations in counting and listing triangles in graphs is introduced. Additionally, a scalable triangle listing algorithm in the MapReduce model will be presented followed by a description of the experiments with that algorithm that led to the current largest and fastest triangle listing benchmarks to date. Finally, a method for identifying triangles in new visual graph exploration technologies is proposed.

  19. The Incompatibility Triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Amarița

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Launch of the euro in the late 90s, can be interpreted as a first step towards the monetarysystem outlined by Mundell. Economists have noted the incompatibility of fixed exchange regime,perfect mobility of capital and the independence of monetary policy, the so-called triangle ofincompatibility, which was highlighted by Robert Mundell since 1968. Tommaso Padoa - Schioppacontinued his research on the harmonization and convergence required to economic policies in“Financial Europe". The author shows that the triangle is the freedom of movement of capital, theexchange rate stability and the autonomy of national monetary policies. The triangle ofincompatibility stems from the fact that they can be combined in their entirety, but only two. Theautonomy of monetary policy is the freedom of states to choose the appropriate monetary policyand take appropriate measures in case of recessions.

  20. Few determinants of compulsive buying of youth in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Saleem, Salman; Salaria, Dr Rashid

    2010-01-01

    Consumer compulsive buying has been an important area of study in consumer behavior research. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of factors like age, tendency to spend, post purchase guilt, drive to spend compulsively, feeling about shopping and spending and dysfunctional spending on compulsive buying behavior of youth in Pakistan. The primary data for this study was collected from questionnaire that was administered in Bahawalpur, Lahore and Islamabad. A convenience sample of...

  1. The Copenhagen Triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irwin, Alan

    2014-01-01

    I denne måneds klumme fra Direktionen skriver forskningsdekan Alan Irwin om den omvendte Bermuda-Trekant, The Copenhagen Triangle, et sted hvor mennesker, idéer og innovation opstår, og ansporer og nærer hinanden.......I denne måneds klumme fra Direktionen skriver forskningsdekan Alan Irwin om den omvendte Bermuda-Trekant, The Copenhagen Triangle, et sted hvor mennesker, idéer og innovation opstår, og ansporer og nærer hinanden....

  2. Frequency of HEV contamination in sewerage waters in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tahir; Waheed, Yasir; Tahir, Sadia; Safi, Sher Zaman; Fatima, Kaneez; Afzal, Muhammad Sohail; Farooqi, Zia-ur-Rehman; Qadri, Ishtiaq

    2010-12-23

    Enteric viruses, including Hepatitis E virus (HEV), are able to persist under environmental conditions and may cause public health problems by contaminating natural and drinking water resources. Routine procedures for monitoring viruses in water samples have not been established for the water microbiology screening panel. Eighty-six raw sewerage samples were collected from the different regions of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, the twin cities of Pakistan. Samples were concentrated for HEV, using a polyethylene glycol-based method followed by viral RNA extraction using a commercial kit-based method. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with HEV specific primers was used for the detection of HEV. The present investigation focused on 86 raw sewerage water samples taken from different locations of drainage outlets of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. After careful experimentation, 35 samples were found to be RT-PCR positive.  Nineteen (44.7%) out of 47 samples from Rawalpindi city were HEV positive while 16 (41.02%) out of 39 samples from Islamabad were HEV positive. All positive samples were found in the highly congested areas. The high detection rate of HEV in this study shows that HEV circulates at a relatively high frequency in the sewerage waters in Pakistan. This study is the first report on detection of HEV from sewerage waste water from Pakistan and suggests that HEV might be a potent indicator of viral pollution in environmental specimens.

  3. Water pollution in Rawal lake Islamabad (part-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Ali, S.; Tariq, M.; Ikram, M.

    2001-01-01

    Water pollution of Rawal Lake, one of the three major drinking water sources (21 MG) to Rawalpindi and Islamabad, by anionic pollutants is reported. Physicochemical analysis of water samples collected during September 1996 - January 1997, was carried out using ASTM and AOAC methods. Water samples from Rawal Lake and its tributaries were collected periodically and analyzed for pH, conductivity, turbidity, alkalinity, TDS, TSS, anions (chlorides, phosphates, nitrates, sulfates) and trace metals. (author)

  4. Gamma-ray triangles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibarra, Alejandro; Lopez-Gehler, Sergio; Molinaro, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new type of gamma-ray spectral feature, which we denominate gamma-ray triangle. This spectral feature arises in scenarios where dark matter self-annihilates via a chiral interaction into two Dirac fermions, which subsequently decay in flight into another fermion and a photon...

  5. Discovery: Triangle Inequality Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mestre, Neville

    2016-01-01

    As outlined in the paper "The 20 Matchstick Triangle Challenge: An Activity to Foster Reasoning and Problem Solving" by Pat Graham and Helen Chick [EJ1093090], an incredibly useful set of information about the mathematical ability of your students will be revealed. You can look at the way your students try to solve the 20 matchsticks…

  6. Evaluation of drinking water quality in Rawalpindi and Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzaira, R.; Sumreen, I.; Uzma, R.

    2005-01-01

    Drinking water quality of Rawalpindi and Islamabad was determined in terms of its microbiological and physicochemical characteristics. Water samples were collected from fifty schools of cantonment area Rawalpindi and fifty houses of Sector G-9/4 Islamabad. Survey revealed that surface and ground water are the two major sources of drinking water. Efficiency of domestic filtration units was determined by taking samples before and after filtration, whereas, level of contamination was assessed by collecting samples from storage and dispensing devices in schools. Water quality was determined by pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, concentration of anions and cations, coliforms, viable and colony counts using multiple tube fermentation, titrimetry, UV-Visible spectrophotometry and flame emission photometry. Drinking water quality of Islamabad was found to be better than Rawalpindi. However filtration showed no significant impact in improving water quality due to improper cleaning of filters. Samples were found to exceed WHO guidelines and EPA standards for total dissolved solids and microbiological parameters (WHO, 1996 and EPA, 1980) making water unfit for use due to poor sanitation and cross contamination with sewers in distribution network. (author)

  7. Proceedings of Seminar on Emerging Environmental Issues in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhami, M.S.I.; Anees, S.

    1999-01-01

    The seminar on emerging environmental issues in Pakistan was held from December 5-7, 1998, in Islamabad, Pakistan. The nature and magnitude of environmental contamination, and who is exposed to it, depend not only on scientific and technological factors but also reflect economic, political, social and many other influences. In the process of creating social and economic benefits to society, industrial production generates hazardous waste and chemical contaminants that impact negatively on quality of life. The main emphases in this proceedings are on different type pollution and their impacts on humane life. (A.B.)

  8. PM10 Sampling and AOD Trends during 2016 Winter Fog Season in the Islamabad Region

    KAUST Repository

    Bulbul, Gufran

    2017-07-24

    PM samples were collected during intensive fog days in Islamabad, Pakistan, to investigate the impact of particulate matter on fog formation. The PM concentrations were monitored at the Institute of Space Technology site using a high-volume air sampler and its elemental composition was studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). Sampling was done for a duration of 24 hours on selected days, including all foggy days in a period from January 2016 to February 2016. The concentration of PM varied from 123 µg m to 202 µg m with an overall mean concentration of 177 µg m. On most occasions, PM levels were considerably high as compared to permissible limits of both Pak-NEQS and WHO guidelines. It has been observed that the air quality during fog days was much worse, with elevated levels of particulate matter observed during foggy days. The SEM-EDS revealed the presence of different elements including some metals Si, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cr, Pb, Al etc. The morphological studies suggest that most of the particles are crystalline in shape, suggesting their main source as soil. Some samples also showed round spherical shape which refers their anthropogenic source. The sun photometer observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and satellite observations from Aqua’s Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) showed significant correlation. Moreover, elevated level of AOD were found during heavy fog days. The validated high satellite AOD were associated with high PM concentration during heavy fog days.

  9. Pascal's Infinite Set of Triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurnick, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    Pascal's Triangle is, without question, the most well-known triangular array of numbers in all of mathematics. A well-known algorithm for constructing Pascal's Triangle is based on the following two observations. The outer edges of the triangle consist of all 1's. Each number not lying on the outer edges is the sum of the two numbers above it in…

  10. The Baloch-Islamabad Tensions: Problems of National Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Development and Terrorism,” 280. 55 Harrison, In Afghanistan’s Shadow, 36. 56 Selig S. Harrison, "Pakistan’s Baluch Insurgency," Le Monde Diplomatique ...136– 60. ———. "Pakistan’s Baluch Insurgency." Le Monde Diplomatique - English Edition. October 2006. http://mondediplo.com/2006/10/05baluchistan

  11. Donation of CERN computing equipment to Pakistan

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2015-01-01

    An official ceremony marking the eighth donation of CERN computing equipment to an outside institute, this time a university in Pakistan, took place on Monday, 2 March.     From left to right: Sajjad Mohsin, Dean at the COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General, S. M. Junaid Zaidi, Rector of CIIT, Aumair Qayyum (CIIT) and Syed Ali Zahir Bukhari (CIIT).   On this occasion, 224 servers and 30 network hubs were donated to the CIIT (COMSATS Institute of Information Technology) in Islamabad, Pakistan, where they will be used by scientists working on the LHC’s ALICE experiment. For several years now, CERN has regularly donated computing equipment that no longer meets its highly specific requirements but is still more than adequate for less exacting environments. To date, a total of 1,149 servers and 79 hubs have been donated to eight countries, namely Bulgaria, Egypt, Ghana, Morocco, the Philippines, Senegal, Serbia and now P...

  12. Coliform bacterial pollution in Rawal lake, Islamabad and its feeding streams / river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashiatullah, A.; Chaudhary, M.Z.; Khan, M.S.; Javed, T.; Qureshi, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    Total coliform and fecal coliform are indicators of drinking water quality. The presence of fecal coliform in water indicates contamination with fecal materials of man and other animals. This paper documents the population of total coliform colonies as well as fecal coliform contamination in Rawal lake, which is one of major source of drinking water supply to inhabitants of Rawalpindi, and its feeding streams (mainly Kurang River and three perennial streams) flowing in the administrative jurisdiction of the capital city, Islamabad, Pakistan. Coliform bacteria in Rawal lake and feeding streams water was determined by membrane filtration technique. The results indicated that E. Coli population in four streams (input waters) feeding the Rawal Lake ranged from 25 - 57 (mean 36) fecal coliform per 100 mL. The Kurang River, one of the feeding streams, hosted the largest population of fecal coliform (57 fecal coliform per 100 mL). The highest population of fecal coliform (105 fecal coliform per 100 mL) in Rawal Lake surface water was observed at the confluence of Kurang River and the Lake in the vicinity of village 'New Ampler'. While in the Rawal Lake water columns, it ranged from 12 - 65 (mean 25) fecal coliform/ 100mL. The measured levels of fecal coliform bacteria are much higher than the maximum permissible levels for drinking water as recommended by WHO and US-EPA (No fecal coliform in drinking water). It is concluded that the indiscriminate amount of pollution from domestic sewage and poultry industry has seriously affected the biological quality of stream waters and the Rawal Lake waters. (author)

  13. Investigation the awareness level about diabetes mellitus and associated factor in Tarlai (rural Islamabad)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulvi, O.S.; Chaudhary, R.Y.

    2009-01-01

    To determine the baseline level of awareness amongst a rural community about Diabetes Mellitus (irrespective of type 1 or type 2), its risk factors and complications. This was a cross-sectional survey conducted at the community of Tarlai, Islamabad, Pakistan, in January of 2008. A structured questionnaire was used and 300 adults (age > 18 years) were assessed on their knowledge regarding awareness of Diabetes Mellitus, its risk factors and complications. All data collected was entered into SPSS version 10.0. The data was re-validated and analyzed. Out of the three hundred adults subjected to the survey, only 129 (43%) adults had any awareness of Diabetes Mellitus. Adults with no regular, scheduled exercise were 221 (73.7%) and 256 (85.3%) did not have healthy eating habits. Awareness of risk factors was present in 42 (14%) while awareness of the complications associated with the disease was 65 (22%). Adults which reported as never going for regular checkups to any clinic or hospital were 232 (77%). Family history of diabetes mellitus was statistically significantly associated with awareness about diabetes mellitus (65% vs 32%, p <0.001), people who were in contact regularly with health care providers were more aware about diabetes and the associated risk factors than those who were not (71% vs 35%, p <0.001). Sex was not associated (p=0.28) with awareness about diabetes mellitus, nor was the educational status (p=0.46). Majority of adults were unaware of Diabetes Mellitus itself and associated risk factors. Raising public awareness of the disease through outreach programmes and mass media should be planned and implemented (JPMA 59:798; 2009).

  14. Properties of hyperbolic Pascal triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belbachir, Hacene; Németh, László; Szalay, László

    2017-08-01

    Here we summarize some results on a recently introduced new generalization of Pascal's triangle called hyperbolic Pascal triangles. The name comes from the mathematical background, which goes back to regular mosaics on the hyperbolic plane. A few open questions will also be posed.

  15. A Bermuda Triangle of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelsas, John

    2006-01-01

    The Bermuda Triangle is famous for the unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft, and for strange meteorological phenomena that allegedly have occurred within its boundaries. This article presents an activity wherein students are asked to create their own geographical triangles to research, but instead of focusing on the unexplainable,…

  16. The Bermuda Triangle of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Yves

    The pedagogical triangle of teacher, learner, and subject matter has in its center a fourth element: the communication system. Each feature of the pedagogical triangle, and the communication system as well, relies on a very important cultural component. Problems occur when communication processes in a classroom are fragmented and related to…

  17. Prevalence and factors associated with hepatitis C virus seropositivity in female individuals in Islamabad, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjum Hashmi

    2010-01-01

    Conclusions: The study highlights the poor quality of care pro-vided and a massive need to educate general population including patients as well as health professionals and allied health workers for controlling, combating and preventing the wild epidemic of HCV.

  18. Organizational Environment and its Impact on Turnover Intensions in Education Sector of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ayaz Ul Haq; Asad Iqbal Khattak; Syed Neiman Raza Shah; Kashif-ur-Rehman

    2011-01-01

    It investigates the issues affecting the job satisfaction of the teachers of private colleges of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan and further the overall effect of job satisfaction on turnover intention. A questionnaire consists of 6 sections depending on the independent and dependent variables were circulated among the educational professionals. This questionnaire was based on 5 likert-type scale. Results show that culture of an organization and its reward system are having positive impact...

  19. Air quality monitoring in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghauri, B.; Lodhi, A.

    2005-01-01

    Clean air is an important prerequisite for sustainable economic development and is a basic requirement for human health and welfare. The baseline information helps the policy maker in decision making and future planning such as industrial and economic development, establishment and implementation of environmental guidelines etc. Pakistan is a developing country and is confronted with a number of severe environmental problems, such as degradation of natural resources, industrial and vehicle related pollution, degradation of human health etc. SUPARCO has conducted a year long (2003-2004) baseline air quality study in the major urban areas of the country including Karachi, Lahore, Quetta, Rawalpindi, Islamabad and Peshawar in collaboration with ENERCON/ UNDP. The objectives of this study were to establish baseline levels and behavior of ambient airborne pollutants in urban centers with temporal and spatial parameters. Our study reveals that the maximum concentrations of CO were observed at Quetta (38 ppm) while other pollutants like SO/sub 2/, (52.5 ppb), NO/sub x/ (60.75 ppb), and 03 (44.8) were higher at Lahore compared to other urban areas of the country like Karachi, Peshawar etc. Maximum levels of all these pollutants were found in summer months. Comparatively lower concentrations of these pollutants were observed in Islamabad/Rawalpindi including CO (13.6 ppm), NO/sub x/ (41 ppb), SO/sub 2/ (32 ppb) and 03 (24.7 ppb). The maximum Particulate (TSP) and PM 10 levels were observed at Lahore (990,372 micro g/m3), Karachi (410, 306 micro g/m3), and in Quetta (778, 290 micro g/m3) etc. Airborne trace/ toxic metals including Pb, along with noise level were also determined. The existing levels of these pollutants were correlated with meteorological data (temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction) to assess the pollutant dispersion, as well as source apportionment. A data bank of the study will be prepared for air pollution impact studies. (author)

  20. Is it a triangle?

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In the theory of the Standard Model, the masses, interactions and physical states of quarks – the basic constituents of matter – are described mathematically by a matrix known as the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. Three angles enter into the definition of the elements of the matrix. If their sum is not 180°, new physics might be the reason.   A typical LHCb event during the recent proton-lead ion run. The LHCb experiment at CERN has measured precisely for the first time at a hadron collider one of the three angles - the “gamma” angle – so far known with the largest uncertainty.  It’s a matter of angles: if their sum is not exactly 180°, the geometric shape is not a triangle. And if the angles are those related to the CKM matrix, we enter the realm of physics beyond the Standard Model. Experiments at B-factories have measured the three angles – α, β and γ &...

  1. Environmental isotope and chemical characterization of groundwater in Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, T.; Qureshi, R.M.; Mashiatullah, A.; Ahmad, N.; Akram, W.; Tasneem, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    52 groundwater samples were collected from tube-wells and hand-pumps installed in the jurisdiction of Islamabad city. Samples were analyzed for various pollution parameters such as the physiochemical parameters (E.C., redox, pH, dissolved oxygen), stable isotope parameters (/sup 13/C/sub TDIC/ and /sup 18/O, /sup 2/H of water), as well as major cation and anion (HCO/sub 3//sup -2/. SO/sub 4//sup -2/. Cl/sup -/, Na/sup +l/, K/sup +1/, Ca/sup +2/, and Mg/sup +1/. Electrical conductivity of a majority of these samples was found to lie in the range of 429- 950 micro S/cm. Most of the groundwater samples have nearly neutral pH values. Concentration of anions and cation in shallow groundwater lies in range of HCO/sub 3/ (259-345 ppm), SO/sub 4/ (8-26 ppm), Cl (16-43 ppm), Na (19-33 ppm), K (0.3-2.1 ppm), Ca (65-93 ppm) and Mg (14-22 ppm) respectively. For deep groundwater samples, these values are in range HCO/sub 3/(218-356 ppm), SO/sub 4/ (9-41 ppm), Cl (13-58 ppm), Na (9-58 ppm), K (0.8-6.1 ppm), Ca (62-102 ppm), and Mg (10-26 ppm) respectively. The delta /sup 13/C values lie in the range of -6.2 to -2.0 % V- SMOW for deep groundwater and -5.3 to -3.6 % V- SMOW for shallow groundwater. The delta /sup 13/C values of Total dissolved Inorganic Carbon (TDIC) lie in the range of -8.2 to- 1.18 % PDB for tube well samples and -7.3 to -1.8 % PDB for shallow wells. Depleted values of delta sup 13/C indicate domestic waste input in groundwater. Delta /sup 13/C values in the range of -3 plus minus 2 % PDB represent limestone dissolution as the main source of dissolved inorganic carbon. In view of the neutral pH range (pH=7 plus minus 0.5) of water samples collected in the Islamabad area, bicarbonate is the main dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) specie in groundwater with delta /sup 13/C values up to -8.3 % PDB. In general most of the water samples are suitable for drinking with respect to physiochemical and major cation and anion. (author)

  2. The quality assessment to drinking water supplied to Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, D.; Hussain, F.; Ashraf, H.; Hussain, S.; Rana, N.N.; Anwar, K.; Sami, Z.; Dil, S.

    1997-01-01

    Drinking water supply system of Islamabad draws major quantities of water from sources such as Simli dam, Rawal dam and the underground aquifer through an integrated system of tube wells sunk in different parts of the city. For an extensive assessment of drinking water quality samples were collected at source from 80 CDA tube wells. Samples were also collected from 3 to 5 predetermined consumer points in sectors 1-8, 1-9, 1-10, G-9, G-10, F-9 and F-10. All these samples apart form coliform organisms, cationic and anionic species present, were analyzed for different parameters required to delineate the drinking water quality using the most reliable techniques like ICP-AES, AAS, HPLC, TIMS and Electro-chemistry. The tube well water samples, generally, contained higher amounts of the TDS and hence higher Ca++ and Mg++ concentration as compared with those of dam water samples. Further all these samples contained reasonable concentration of Sr, an element usually associated with calcite deposits. Samples were also checked for the total radioactivity and were found to be free of such contamination. The results have been discussed with a view to assess the quality of drinking water during the stipulated period. (author)

  3. Going Tactical: Pakistan's Nuclear Posture and Implications for Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Feroz Hassan

    2015-09-01

    For decades, the Asian security environment has been characterized by multiple strategic rivalries with cascading effects. Due to its competition with China, India modernizes its armed forces, thus reinforcing its conventional advantage over Pakistan. In the subcontinent, geography, military imbalance, the legacy of past conflicts and infiltration of extremist groups considerably weaken strategic stability. To strengthen its deterrent capability against its stronger neighbour, Pakistan faces significant challenges in developing a conventional response to perceived threats from India. Islamabad thus committed to a 'full spectrum' build-up of its nuclear forces, which includes the development of tactical nuclear weapons. As Cold War experience informs, far from simply strengthening its deterrent vis-a-vis India, this move poses numerous operational dilemmas for Pakistan. The ongoing regional quantitative and qualitative arms race combines with continued political tensions between India and Pakistan to create a worrying strategic dynamic in South Asia. (author)

  4. Pakistan. Spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, M

    1985-01-01

    Focus in this discussion of Pakistan is on demographic factors, the issue of ethnic versus national solidarity, and economic and social development. The population was estimated at 99.2 million in 1985. The birthrate was 43/1000 in 1984 and the deaths were 15/1000. The infant mortality rate is 105 infant deaths/1000 live births, and life expectancy at birth is 51 years. In 1983 the gross national product per capita was US$390. The population of Pakistan is concentrated around Karachi on the Arabian Sea and in the crescent formed by Lahore, Rawalpindi, and Peshawar. Pakistan was a British colony, part of the Indian subcontinent until partition in 1947, when Britain gave Pakistan and India their freedom. Pakistan is not a theocracy, but the military government turns to traditional Islam for affirmation of its authority. Its martial law regime, established in 1977, is headed by President Ziaul Haq. The issue of ethnic versus national solidarity has been a problem since independence. Bengali-speaking East Pakistanis felt they did not have equal power in their country whose official language was Urdu and whose capital was in West Pakistan. East and West Pakistan ended up in armed conflict with the formation of Bangladesh in 1971 as the result. Regional and ethnic conflict is exacerbated by the low rate of literacy and the low status of certain ethnic groups in Pakistan. In addition, Pakistan suffers problems typical of many developing nations: a low per capita income, a large and growing population, and a highly stratified traditional society. In 1981 doctors, engineers, and craftsmen were in short supply, but there was a surplus of 300,000 agricultural workers. Agriculture makes up 30% of the GNP and employs 55% of the work force. In Pakistan's 6th Five Year Plan, initiated in July 1983, the government acknowledged for the 1st time the extremely poor conditions for women as indicated by literacy, health, and fertility. The total fertility rate is 6.4 average births

  5. Over dental anxiety problems among university students: perspective from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Masood Ali; Kamal, Anila

    2011-04-01

    Oral health seeking behavior is compromised by dental anxiety, and affects quality of life. This preliminary study using convenience sampling was conducted among university students in the cities of Islamabad, Rawalpindi, and Multan, Pakistan, using standardized, valid and reliable scales to determine the prevalence and correlates of dental anxiety. Cumulatively 503 students including 278 males and 225 females, completed the questionnaire. High to severe anxiety on Dental Anxiety Scale-Revised was reported by 60 (21.6%) males and 54 (24%) females. Seventy-five (27%) males and 62 (27.6%) females reported being quite afraid to very afraid on Dental Anxiety Question. Results underline the need for population-based representative studies to determine the prevalence and correlates of dental anxiety for better dental health in Pakistan.

  6. Multigrid for refined triangle meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapira, Yair

    1997-02-01

    A two-level preconditioning method for the solution of (locally) refined finite element schemes using triangle meshes is introduced. In the isotropic SPD case, it is shown that the condition number of the preconditioned stiffness matrix is bounded uniformly for all sufficiently regular triangulations. This is also verified numerically for an isotropic diffusion problem with highly discontinuous coefficients.

  7. Studying the Association between Green Space Characteristics and Land Surface Temperature for Sustainable Urban Environments: An Analysis of Beijing and Islamabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Naeem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing trends of urbanization lead to vegetation degradation in big cities and affect the urban thermal environment. This study investigated (1 the cooling effect of urban green space spatial patterns on Land Surface Temperature (LST; (2 how the surrounding environment influences the green space cool islands (GCI, and vice versa. The study was conducted in two Asian capitals: Beijing, China and Islamabad, Pakistan by utilizing Gaofen-1 (GF-1 and Landsat-8 satellite imagery. Pearson’s correlation and normalized mutual information (NMI were applied to investigate the relationship between green space characteristics and LST. Landscape metrics of green spaces including Percentage of Landscape (PLAND, Patch Density (PD, Edge Density (ED, and Landscape Shape Index (LSI were selected to calculate the spatial patterns of green spaces, whereas GCI indicators were defined by Green Space Range (GR, Temperature Difference (TD, and Temperature Gradient (TG. The results indicate that both vegetation composition and configuration influence LST distributions; however, vegetation composition appeared to have a slightly greater effect. The cooling effect can be produced more effectively by increasing green space percentage, planting trees in large patches with equal distribution, and avoiding complex-shaped green spaces. The GCI principle indicates that LST can be decreased by increasing the green space area, increasing the water body fraction, or by decreasing the fraction of impervious surfaces. GCI can also be strengthened by decreasing the fraction of impervious surfaces and increasing the fraction of water body or vegetation in the surrounding environment. The cooling effect of vegetation and water could be explained based on their thermal properties. Beijing has already enacted the green-wedge initiative to increase the vegetation canopy. While designing the future urban layout of Islamabad, the construction of artificial lakes within the urban green

  8. Characterization of energy exchange parameters in the Himalayan foothills Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Bushra; Kumar, Mukul; Cholaw, Bueh; Aziz Khan, Junaid; Hayat Khan, Azmat

    2017-04-01

    The characterization of energy exchange parameters for spring season (April-May) has been done for Margalla hills national park (MHNP) Islamabad, Pakistan. It is important because Islamabad city lies in the foothills of Himalayas and micro meteorological activity makes the climate of surrounding areas. The activity on Himalaya's foothills (i.e., Margalla hills) regulate weather and also provide fresh water to the lakes and ponds by late afternoon thunder showers. This research is also important from the perspective of rain water harvesting in Islamabad, Pakistan. The objective of this study is to characterize the energy exchange parameters in the foothills of great Himalayas particularly on MHNP. Landsat ETM+ imageries have been used for calculating the land surface temperature (LST), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and normalized difference moisture index (NDMI). SPOT 5 image has been used for land use/land cover classification over MHNP. The turbulent fluxes have been calculated by computing the values acquired from the processing of satellite imageries and real time observation data sets. The comparisons have been made between the land and atmospheric temperature and moisture to see the difference and its impacts on weather of twin cities i.e., Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The energy exchange parameters have been characterized by analyzing the impacts of weather parameters and turbulent fluxes on MHNP and surrounding cities. The potential rain water harvesting sites have been marked in the foothills. Weather and surface conditions become more favorable for the growth of vegetation by the end of April as the spring season reaches at its peak. There is the start of growing season in the month of April whereas the vegetation becomes thick over time during the month of May over Margalla hills however, the energy exchange parameters follow the same pattern in May as in April. The relative humidity remains between 18 - 55 % and the atmospheric temperature

  9. Nasal Soft-Tissue Triangle Deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2016-08-01

    The soft-tissue triangle is one of the least areas attended to in rhinoplasty. Any postoperative retraction, notching, or asymmetries of soft triangles can seriously affect the rhinoplasty outcome. A good understanding of the risk factors predisposing to soft triangle deformities is necessary to prevent such problems. The commonest risk factors in our study were the wide vertical domal angle between the lateral and intermediate crura, and the increased length of intermediate crus. Two types of soft triangle grafts were described to prevent and treat soft triangle deformities. The used soft triangle grafts resulted in an excellent long-term aesthetic and functional improvement. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. Enjoyment of Euclidean planar triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V. K.

    2013-09-01

    This article adopts the following classification for a Euclidean planar ?, purely based on angles alone. A Euclidean planar triangle is said to be acute angled if all the three angles of the Euclidean planar ? are acute angles. It is said to be right angled at a specific vertex, say B, if the angle ? is a right angle with the two remaining angles as acute angles. It is said to be obtuse angled at the vertex B if ? is an obtuse angle, with the two remaining angles as acute angles. In spite of the availability of numerous text books that contain our human knowledge of Euclidean plane geometry, softwares can offer newer insights about the characterizations of planar geometrical objects. The author's characterizations of triangles involve points like the centroid G, the orthocentre H of the ?, the circumcentre S of the ?, the centre N of the nine-point circle of the ?. Also the radical centre rc of three involved diameter circles of the sides BC, AC and AB of the ? provides a reformulation of the orthocentre, resulting in an interesting theorem, dubbed by the author as 'Three Circles Theorem'. This provides a special result for a right-angled ?, again dubbed by the author as 'The Four Circles Theorem'. Apart from providing various inter connections between the geometrical points, the relationships between shapes of the triangle and the behaviour of the points are reasonably explored in this article. Most of these results will be useful to students that take courses in Euclidean Geometry at the college level and the high school level. This article will be useful to teachers in mathematics at the high school level and the college level.

  11. Pascal's Triangle: 100% of the Numbers Are Even!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhindi, Nayan; McMenamin, Justin

    2010-01-01

    Pascal's triangle is an arrangement of the binomial coefficients in a triangle. Each number inside Pascal's triangle is calculated by adding the two numbers above it. When all the odd integers in Pascal's triangle are highlighted (black) and the remaining evens are left blank (white), one of many patterns in Pascal's triangle is displayed. By…

  12. Fulfilling the Promise of the Learning Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The learning triangle described by Black, Wilson, and Yao (this issue) offers a powerful vision for improved student learning. Learning theory clearly plays a central role in the construct-centered approach presented by the learning triangle. But the assumption of such an important role requires Black et al. to devote corresponding care to the…

  13. The Weimar Triangle and The Ukrainian Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Romer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the activity of Weimar Triangle (Germany, France, Poland during Ukrainian crisis (2013-2014 as an efficient, but still largely underestimated negotiation force of the European Union. The evolution of role of Weimar Triangle in post-bipolar era is indicated, as well as the role of this specific structure during Ukrainian crisis.

  14. Toughness and Triangle-Free Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, D.; van den Heuvel, J.; Schmeichel, E.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we prove that there exist triangle-free graphs with arbitrarily large toughness, thereby settling a longstanding open question. We also explore the problem of whether there exists a t-tough, n/(t + 1)-regular, triangle-free graph on n vertices for various values of t, and provide a

  15. The posterior triangle in radical neck surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolnik, E M; Yee, K F; Friedman, M; Golden, T A

    1976-01-01

    We evaluate the importance of cancer spread to the lymphatic system in the posterior triangle. The posterior triangle tissues of 51 radical neck specimens were serially sectioned and studied for metastic involvement. The findings were correlated with the findings in the anterior triangle and the primary tumor. Of the 51 neck operations performed, 25 were elective and 26 were therapeutic for carcinoma of the larynx, pharynx, and oral cavity. Metastasis in the anterior triangles was detected in 88.4% of the therapeutic group and in 24.0% of the elective group. However, no metastasis in the posterior triangel was found in either group, regardless of the site of the tumor. We suggest that the posterior triangle can be totally preserved in radical neck surgery, which may make preservation of the spinal accessory nerve a more likely practice.

  16. Obtuse triangle suppression in anisotropic meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Feng

    2011-12-01

    Anisotropic triangle meshes are used for efficient approximation of surfaces and flow data in finite element analysis, and in these applications it is desirable to have as few obtuse triangles as possible to reduce the discretization error. We present a variational approach to suppressing obtuse triangles in anisotropic meshes. Specifically, we introduce a hexagonal Minkowski metric, which is sensitive to triangle orientation, to give a new formulation of the centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) method. Furthermore, we prove several relevant properties of the CVT method with the newly introduced metric. Experiments show that our algorithm produces anisotropic meshes with much fewer obtuse triangles than using existing methods while maintaining mesh anisotropy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Triangle and GA Methods for UAVs Jamming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on how to jam UAVs network efficiently. The system model is described and the problem is formulated. Based on two properties and a theorem which helps to decide good location for a jammer, we present the Triangle method to find good locations for jammers. The Triangle method is easy to understand and has overall computational complexity of ON2. We also present a genetic algorithm- (GA- based jamming method, which has computational complex of OLMN2. New chromosome, mutation, and crossover operations are redefined for the GA method. The simulation shows that Triangle and GA methods perform better than Random method. If the ratio of jammers’ number to UAVs’ number is low (lower than 1/5 in this paper, GA method does better than Triangle method. Otherwise, Triangle method performs better.

  18. Monitoring urban transport air pollution and energy demand in Rawalpindi and Islamabad using leap model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabbir, Rabia; Ahmad, Sheikh Saeed [Department of Environmental Sciences, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi (Pakistan)

    2010-05-15

    A research associated with urban transportation was carried out in Rawalpindi and Islamabad to analyze the status of emission of air pollutants and energy demands. The study included a discussion of past trends and future scenarios in order to reduce the future emissions. A simple model of passenger transport has been developed using computer based software called Long-Range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP). The LEAP model was used to estimate total energy demand and the vehicular emissions for the base year 2000 and extrapolated till 2030 for the future predictions. Transport database in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, together with fuel consumption values for the vehicle types and emission factors of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and PM{sub 10} corresponding to the actual vehicle types, formed the basis of the transport demand, energy consumption and total emission calculations. Apart from base scenario, the model was run under three alternative scenarios to study the impact of different urban transport policy initiatives that would reduce energy demand and emissions in transport sector of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The prime objective was to arrive at an optimal transport policy, which limits the future growth of fuel consumption as well as air pollution. (author)

  19. Quality assurance of Vari-source high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy- remote after loader and cost effectiveness of Vari-source HDR- brachytherapy: NORI, Islamabad experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.; Mahmood, H.; Jafri, S.R.A.

    2004-01-01

    A quality control of Vari-Source high dose rate (HDR) remote after loading brachytherapy machine was carried out and the cost effectiveness of HDR brachytherapy machine was also evaluated considering the cost of ten Iridium-192 wire sources at Nuclear Medicine, Oncology and Radiotherapy Institute (NORI), Islamabad, Pakistan. A total number of 253 intracavitary insertions were done in 98 patients from October 1996 to May 2001. The results of the quality control tests performed during 1996 to 2001 were within the acceptable limits. The cost effectiveness of Vari-Source HDR brachytherapy machine was also evaluated. The average cost per patient was calculated as US$ 491. Small number of patients was treated as the machine was used for gynecologic malignancies only. The objective was to assess the quality control status of HDR brachytherapy machine on patient treatment day, source exchange day and periodic day (monthly basis). It was found that the cost per patient can be minimized if other type of cancer patients are also treated on Vari-Source HDR machine. (author)

  20. Development of radiochemistry in Pakistan - 1960 to 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, J.H.; Wasim, M.; Arif, M.; Mushtaq, A.

    2012-01-01

    With the inception of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) in 1956, peaceful uses of atomic energy commenced for the benefit of scientific community as well as masses of Pakistan. Radiochemistry played a vital role right from the beginning. The research and development in this field accelerated soon after the criticality of the first research reactor named as Pakistan Research Reactor (PARR-1) at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), Islamabad. The first radioisotope produced at PARR-1 for application in nuclear medicine was 131 I. Later on, many other radioisotopes were prepared and radiopharmaceuticals were synthesised for their use in industry and hospitals. Besides providing pure radioactive tracers for nuclear medicine, radiochemistry also enhanced the detection limit of impurities at all stages of nuclear fuel cycle for power generation. In 1983, research in the field of nuclear data measurement began. The main aim was to identify suitable conditions for the production of radionuclides for cancer diagnostics, treatment and therapy. With the establishment of a second research reactor (PARR-2) at PINSTECH, research in neutron activation analysis, radioisotope production and separation studies gained more momentum and many research articles were published. Solvent extraction, adsorption and ion-exchange were the main routes of separation in those studies. Separation of heavy metals and treatment of waste generated in a nuclear power plant are other important aspects related to environmental restoration and nuclear waste management, where radiochemistry is required. In future, work in radiochemistry will be continued on similar lines to develop novel radiopharmaceuticals, identify indigenous schemes for nuclear waste management and work out intelligent procedures for material characterization for benefit to mankind, especially the people of Pakistan. (orig.)

  1. HPLC-DAD analysis, antioxidant potential and anti-urease activity of Asparagus gracilis collected from District Islamabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Naseer Ali; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Sattar, Saadia; Ahmad, Bushra; Mirza, Bushra

    2014-09-23

    Asparagus gracilis subspecie of Asparagus capitatus Baker, is described as food and medicine for various ailments. In this study we investigated, its phenolic constituents, in vitro antioxidant potential against various free radicals and anti-urease potential. Asparagus gracilis aerial parts collected from District Islamabad, Pakistan were extracted with crude methanol which was further fractionated into n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fraction. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated for extract and all the derived fractions. Diverse in vitro antioxidants assays such as DPPH, H2O2, •OH, ABTS, β-carotene bleaching assay, superoxide radical, lipid peroxidation, reducing power, and total antioxidant capacity were studied to assess scavenging potential. Antiurease activity of methanol extract and its derived fractions was also investigated. HPLC-DAD analysis of crude methanol extract was performed by using different phenolic standards. Ethyl acetate fraction expressed maximum content of flavonoids (240.6 ± 6.1 mg RE/g dry sample), phenolics (615 ± 13 mg GAE/g dry sample) and best antioxidant potential among different fractions of crude methanol extract. Hydrogen peroxide assay and hydroxyl, supeoxide, nitric oxide free radicals antioxidant assays as well as beta carotene assay showed significant correlation with flavonoid content while hydrogen peroxide, ABTS and lipid peroxidation assay displayed significant correlation with phenolic content. HPLC analysis showed the presence of important phenolics i.e. catechin (4.04 ± 0.02 μg/mg sample), caffeic acid (0.89 ± 0.003 μg/mg sample), rutin (24.58 ± 0.1 μg/mg sample), myricetin (1.13 ± 0.07 μg/mg sample) and quercetin (14.91 ± 0.09 μg/mg sample). Ethyl acetate fraction expressed lowest IC50 in antiurease activity. Correlation analysis of antiurease activity expressed significant correlation with flavonoids (P < 0.004) and phenolics (P < 0.02) proposing multipotent activity of

  2. Are bilinear quadrilaterals better than linear triangles?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Azevedo, E.F.

    1993-08-01

    This paper compares the theoretical effectiveness of bilinear approximation over quadrilaterals with linear approximation over triangles. Anisotropic mesh transformation is used to generate asymptotically optimally efficient meshes for piecewise linear interpolation over triangles and bilinear interpolation over quadrilaterals. The theory and numerical results suggest triangles may have a slight advantage over quadrilaterals for interpolating convex data function but bilinear approximation may offer a higher order approximation for saddle-shaped functions on a well-designed mesh. This work is a basic study on optimal meshes with the intention of gaining insight into the more complex meshing problems in finite element analysis.

  3. Are Bilinear Quadrilaterals Better Than Linear Triangles?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Azevedo, E.F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper compares the theoretical effectiveness of bilinear approximation over quadrilaterals with linear approximation over triangles. Anisotropic mesh transformation is used to generate asymptotically optimally efficient meshes for piecewise linear interpolation over triangles and bilinear interpolation over quadrilaterals. For approximating a convex function, although bilinear quadrilaterals are more efficient, linear triangles are more accurate and may be preferred in finite element computations; whereas for saddle-shaped functions, quadrilaterals may offer a higher order approximation on a well-designed mesh. A surprising finding is different grid orientations may yield an order of magnitude improvement in approximation accuracy.

  4. The Relationship between Growth-Inequality-Poverty Triangle and Environmental Degradation: Unveiling the Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Anam Hassan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is important to recognize that increase in well-being is no longer dependent on further economic growth, but on economic and social well-being, which means that the decline in carbon dioxide emission without reducing real wellbeing and growth. The aim of this study is to investigate the main driving forces affecting short and long-run carbon emissions pattern due to changes in growth, inequality and poverty triangle in Pakistan over the period 1980 – 2011 by using multivariate cointegration approach. This study uses five different models i.e., each model have an important policy implication in the context of Pakistan. The results indicate that, on the short run, there is a significant negative relationship between economic growth & carbon emissions and economic growth & poverty while there is a positive relationship between i economic growth & income inequality; and ii poverty & income inequality. On the long-run, there is a significant positive relationship between GDP & income inequality, carbon dioxide emissions & income inequality, and poverty & income inequality in Pakistan. On the other side, there is a negative relationship between carbon emissions & economic growth, carbon emissions & income inequality, and economic growth & income inequality. The results of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC hypothesis show an inverted U-shaped trajectory in relation to economic growth in Pakistan. This study contributes to the debate on the existence and policy relevance of the EKC for Pakistan. The conclusion ensures the sustainability of an urgent need to look beyond the EKC by adopting courageous policy measures of environmental preservation in Pakistan irrespective of the country's level of income. For reduction of CO2 emission, environmental progressive management policies, economic transport system regulations, and low emit fuel consumption by industries are the need of the world.

  5. Paleozoic Reef in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, C; Stauffer, K W

    1965-12-03

    A Silurian, and perhaps Devonian, limestone belt in northern West Pakistan contains the first Paleozoic reefs found on the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent. The belt contains a rich fauna entirely new to Pakistan. Its presence indicates that this area was inundated in Silurian and Devonian times by seas bordered by reefs or containing reef platforms.

  6. Library Automation in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Syed Jalaluddin

    1998-01-01

    Examines the state of library automation in Pakistan. Discusses early developments; financial support by the Netherlands Library Development Project (Pakistan); lack of automated systems in college/university and public libraries; usage by specialist libraries; efforts by private-sector libraries and the National Library in Pakistan; commonly used…

  7. Job satisfaction among nurses working in the private and public sectors: a qualitative study in tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Saima Hamid,1 Asmat Ullah Malik,2 Irum Kamran,3 Musarat Ramzan41Health Services Academy, Islamabad, Pakistan; 2Integrated Health Services, Islamabad, Pakistan; 3GIZ, Islamabad, Pakistan; 4Wah Medical College, Wah Cantt, University of Health Sciences, Wah, PakistanBackground: Many low and middle income countries lack the human resources needed to deliver essential health interventions. A health care system with a limited number of nurses cannot function effectively. Although the recommended nurse to doctor ratio is 4:1, the ratio in Pakistan is reversed, with 2.7 doctors to one nurse.Methods: A qualitative study using narrative analysis was undertaken in public and private tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan to examine and compare job satisfaction among nurses and understand the factors affecting their work climate. Interactive interviews were conducted with nurses working with inpatients and outpatients.Results: All of the respondents had joined the profession by choice and were supported by their families in their decision to pursue their career, but now indicated that they were dissatisfied with their jobs. Three types of narratives were identified, namely, “Working in the spirit of serving humanity”, “Working against all odds”, and “Working in a functional system and facing pressures of increased accountability”. Nurses working in a public sector hospital are represented in the first two narrative types, whereas the third represents those working in a private sector hospital. The first narrative represents nurses who were new in the profession and despite hard working conditions were performing their duties. The second narrative represents nurses working in the public sector with limited resources, and the third narrative is a representation of nurses who were working hard and stressed out despite a well functioning system.Conclusion: The study shows that the presence of a well trained health workforce is vital, and that certain

  8. Density conditions for triangles in multipartite graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondy, Adrian; Shen, Jin; Thomassé, Stephan

    2006-01-01

    subgraphs in G. We investigate in particular the case where G is a complete multipartite graph. We prove that a finite tripartite graph with all edge densities greater than the golden ratio has a triangle and that this bound is best possible. Also we show that an infinite-partite graph with finite parts has......We consider the problem of finding a large or dense triangle-free subgraph in a given graph G. In response to a question of P. Erdos, we prove that, if the minimum degree of G is at least 9 vertical bar V(G)vertical bar/10, the largest triangle-free subgraphs are precisely the largest bipartite...... a triangle, provided that the edge density between any two parts is greater than 1/2....

  9. Activities: Golden Triangles, Pentagons, and Pentagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William A.; Clason, Robert G.

    1994-01-01

    Presents lesson plans for activities to introduce recursive sequences of polygons: golden triangles, regular pentagons, and pentagrams. The resulting number patterns involve Fibonacci sequences. Includes reproducible student worksheets. (MKR)

  10. Health care waste management (HCWM) in Pakistan: current situation and training options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Khan, E.A.; Ahmed, J.; Khan, Z.; Magan, M.; Nousheen; Mughal, M.I.

    2010-01-01

    Hospitals in Pakistan produce about 250,000 tons of waste per year. Hospital waste has been reported to be poorly handled and managed by the hospital staff and administration respectively. This leads to environmental and health consequences within hospitals as well as to outside population. Our study aimed to describe the qualitative results of observations of ten large private and public hospitals in the cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad Pakistan. Methods: The qualitative data was obtained through direct and indirect observations on hospital staff including doctors, nurses, sweepers and persons in administration and the way they handled the waste. Also direct observations of the hospitals premises inside and outside were made and noted. We also describe the process of involving the hospital staff for training. Results: Our results showed that almost all of the hospitals did not have practice of HCWM on their priority. Segregation, handling, storage, transportation and disposal of waste were below WHO and Pakistan bio-safety rules 2005 standards. The ten hospitals did not have HCWM rules and regulations in place hence the staff do not follow the best practices in this regard which causes numerous health and environmental consequences not only within the catchment area but also to patients and staff. Conclusions: Our study highlights the lack of HCWM practices within the ten public and private hospitals in two major cities in Pakistan. There is need of training of hospital staff in Pakistan. We also found that such training s are highly feasible if accompanied with incentives to participants. (author)

  11. Is the Barthel Scale appropriate in non-industrialized countries? A view of rural Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S M; Mulley, G P

    1998-05-01

    To determine if the Barthel Index, a conventional scale for assessing disability, is appropriate for stroke patients in rural Pakistan, rather than an observational study by visiting stroke patients in their homes. Stroke patients attending hospital out patient clinics in Islamabad, together with others identified in local villages, were assessed to test the validity of the Barthel Activities of Daily Living Scale. For each item on the disability scale, differences in local customs, lifestyle and architecture meant that the Barthel Scale was not appropriate in rural Pakistan. There is unlikely to be a disability scale which can be applicable universally. Care must be taken when standard scales are used for international comparisons of stroke disability.

  12. Application of Sivasubramanian Kalimuthu Hypothesis to Triangles

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sivasubramanian

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: The interior angles sum of a number of Euclidean triangles was transformed into quadratic equations. The analysis of those quadratic equations yielded the following proposition: There exists Euclidean triangle whose interior angle sum is a straight angle. Approach: In this study, the researchers introduced a new hypothesis for quadratic equations and derived an entirely new result. Results: The result of the study was controversial, but mathematically consistent. Conclusion...

  13. Numerical climate modeling and verification of selected areas for heat waves of Pakistan using ensemble prediction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amna, S; Samreen, N; Khalid, B; Shamim, A

    2013-01-01

    Depending upon the topography, there is an extreme variation in the temperature of Pakistan. Heat waves are the Weather-related events, having significant impact on the humans, including all socioeconomic activities and health issues as well which changes according to the climatic conditions of the area. The forecasting climate is of prime importance for being aware of future climatic changes, in order to mitigate them. The study used the Ensemble Prediction System (EPS) for the purpose of modeling seasonal weather hind-cast of three selected areas i.e., Islamabad, Jhelum and Muzaffarabad. This research was purposely carried out in order to suggest the most suitable climate model for Pakistan. Real time and simulated data of five General Circulation Models i.e., ECMWF, ERA-40, MPI, Meteo France and UKMO for selected areas was acquired from Pakistan Meteorological Department. Data incorporated constituted the statistical temperature records of 32 years for the months of June, July and August. This study was based on EPS to calculate probabilistic forecasts produced by single ensembles. Verification was done out to assess the quality of the forecast t by using standard probabilistic measures of Brier Score, Brier Skill Score, Cross Validation and Relative Operating Characteristic curve. The results showed ECMWF the most suitable model for Islamabad and Jhelum; and Meteo France for Muzaffarabad. Other models have significant results by omitting particular initial conditions.

  14. 75 FR 68398 - Golden Triangle Railroad, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Golden Triangle Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35428] Golden Triangle Railroad, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Golden Triangle Railroad Company Golden Triangle...) Acquire from Golden Triangle Railroad Company (Old GTRA) and to operate approximately 8.6 miles of rail...

  15. Job satisfaction among public health professionals working in public sector: a cross sectional study from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ramesh; Ahmed, Jamil; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Hafeez, Rehan; Hafeez, Assad

    2013-01-09

    Job satisfaction largely determines the productivity and efficiency of human resource for health. It literally depicts the extent to which professionals like or dislike their jobs. Job satisfaction is said to be linked with the employee's work environment, job responsibilities and powers and time pressure; the determinants which affect employee's organizational commitment and consequently the quality of services. The objective of the study was to determine the level of and factors influencing job satisfaction among public health professionals in the public sector. This was a cross sectional study conducted in Islamabad, Pakistan. Sample size was universal including 73 public health professionals, with postgraduate qualifications and working in government departments of Islamabad. A validated structured questionnaire was used to collect data from April to October 2011. Overall satisfaction rate was 41% only, while 45% were somewhat satisfied and 14% of professionals highly dissatisfied with their jobs. For those who were not satisfied, working environment, job description and time pressure were the major causes. Other factors influencing the level of satisfaction were low salaries, lack of training opportunities, improper supervision and inadequate financial rewards. Our study documented a relatively low level of overall satisfaction among workers in public sector health care organizations. Considering the factors responsible for this state of affairs, urgent and concrete strategies must be developed to address the concerns of public health professionals as they represent a highly sensitive domain of health system of Pakistan. Improving the overall work environment, review of job descriptions and better remuneration might bring about a positive change.

  16. Identifying the Risk Factors for Typhoid Fever among the Residents of Rural Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, N.; Bashir, F.; Abbasi, S.; Tahir, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: During August 2015, unusually high typhoid fever cases were reported from rural Islamabad at Federal General Hospital (FGH), Islamabad. Objectives: To determine the risk factors for typhoid fever outbreak and recommend preventive measures. Study design, settings and duration: Outbreak investigation study conducted in Union Councils 19 and 22 of rural Islamabad in the catchment area for Federal General Hospital, from 7th July-30th August 2015. Subjects and Methods: A questionnaire was used to identify risk factors of typhoid fever. A case was defined as any resident of the rural Islamabad within the mauza Chatta Bakhtawar and Terlai Kalan presenting with high grade fever (>101 F) with one of the following signs/symptoms; headache, abdominal pain and vomiting with positive typhidot test from 7th July-30th August 2015. Two age and sex matched controls for each case was selected from the neighborhood. Epi Info 7 was used for analysis. Results: Total of 50 cases and 100 controls were enrolled. Among cases 30 (61 percent) were females and 20 (39 percent) males with M;F ratio of 1:1.5. Mean age was 23.0 years (9.9 +- SD). The most affected age group was 15-25 years (AR 0.19 percent, n=21). Only one case died (CFR 2percent). Use of untreated public water after rains (OR 3.7 CI 1.6-9.7 p< 0.0002), reconstruction areas and bursting/leaking of water pipes (OR 4.017 CI 1.6-9.7 p < 0.001) and presence of confirmed typhoid cases at home/close contacts (OR 5.7 CI 2.019-16.18 p < 0.0003) were the significant risk factors found associated with the disease. Whereas using well/private bore (OR 0.29 CI 0.329-0.653 p < 0.001) and hand washing practices (OR 0.7 CI 0.297-1.9 < 0.5) had a protective effect. Multivariate analysis showed that use of untreated public water (OR: 3.34, CI: 1.52-7.29, p < 0.002), bursting/leaking pipes (OR 2.86, CI 0.96-8.48, p < 0.05) were significantly associated with typhoid disease. Conclusion

  17. LR: Compact connectivity representation for triangle meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurung, T; Luffel, M; Lindstrom, P; Rossignac, J

    2011-01-28

    We propose LR (Laced Ring) - a simple data structure for representing the connectivity of manifold triangle meshes. LR provides the option to store on average either 1.08 references per triangle or 26.2 bits per triangle. Its construction, from an input mesh that supports constant-time adjacency queries, has linear space and time complexity, and involves ordering most vertices along a nearly-Hamiltonian cycle. LR is best suited for applications that process meshes with fixed connectivity, as any changes to the connectivity require the data structure to be rebuilt. We provide an implementation of the set of standard random-access, constant-time operators for traversing a mesh, and show that LR often saves both space and traversal time over competing representations.

  18. Triangle Counting in Dynamic Graph Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulteau, Laurent; Froese, Vincent; Pagh, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the number of triangles in graph streams using a limited amount of memory has become a popular topic in the last decade. Different variations of the problem have been studied, depending on whether the graph edges are provided in an arbitrary order or as incidence lists. However......, with a few exceptions, the algorithms have considered insert-only streams. We present a new algorithm estimating the number of triangles in dynamic graph streams where edges can be both inserted and deleted. We show that our algorithm achieves better time and space complexity than previous solutions...... for various graph classes, for example sparse graphs with a relatively small number of triangles. Also, for graphs with constant transitivity coefficient, a common situation in real graphs, this is the first algorithm achieving constant processing time per edge. The result is achieved by a novel approach...

  19. The Asia-Pacific Strategic Triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to give insight into the debate over the strategic triangle and how it impacts conflict and security in South Asia. First the new geopolitical motives of the United States in the Asia-Pacific are outlined. Then the concept of strategic triangle is elaborated and its...... of foreign policy calculations and moves in the strategic triangle; and finally, some concluding remarks are offered to explain the recent shifts in interactions between these core players in the emerging world order and whether a new geopolitical architecture is emerging...... applicability discussed; third, details about China and India’s relations and responses to the new US policy are being analyzed; the perspective turns to the implications for conflict and security in South Asia with a focus on Afghanistan and Iran where oil and energy security are the main denominators...

  20. Comprehensive urban air quality studies of Islamabad: elemental characterization of PM10 and PM2.5, source apportionment and transboundary pollutant migration (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Siddique, N.; Daud, M.

    2011-01-01

    Long term urban air quality of Islamabad, the capital city of Pakistan, has been investigated as a part of the joint UNDP/IAEA/RCA/RAS/7/015 project, entitled C haracterization and source identification of particulate air pollution in the Asian region (RCA) . Around 380 pairs of fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10-2.5) polycarbonate filters from the Nilore area were collected using GENT sampler. The average PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 masses at this site were found to be 15.02 and 37.01 g/m/sup 3/ respectively that are far below to the Pakistani limit for PM10 of 100 g/m/sup 3/. The average Black Carbon (BC) was found to be 2.58 and 1.22 g/m/sup 3/ corresponding to 20.7% and 4.54% of the fine and coarse mass respectively. The non destructive Ion Beam Analysis method, Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Proton induced gamma ray emission (PIGE) were employed to quantify more than 40 elements in both fine and coarse fractions. The acquired elemental data has been statistically treated and subjected to mass closure studies, principal component and factor analysis to calculate correlation matrices. The reconstructed mass (RCM) was calculated for both particle modes using soil, sulphate, smoke, sea salt and BC as pseudo sources. Data analysis performed using EPA-PMF3 shows that the fine and coarse data for the suburban site identifies 4 sources; biomass/ combustion, road dust, soil and automobile. Long range transport of pollutants was studied using HYSPLIT4 model. It was observed that high fine soil contributions in this area were mainly from dust storms arriving from west and North West of the country. (author)

  1. Fibonacci-like sequences and generalized Pascal's triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenzi, G.; Siani, S.

    2014-05-01

    The properties pertaining to diagonals of generalized Pascal's triangles are studied. Combinatorial relationships between Fibonacci-like sequences and Fibonacci sequence itself are determined, using the sequence of diagonals of generalized Pascal's triangle.

  2. Evaluation of the Historic Triangle Wayfinding Sign System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The "Historic Triangle" in Virginia is named for the historic areas comprising and surrounding Williamsburg, Jamestown, and Yorktown, Virginia. A Historic Triangle Wayfinding Sign System was designed to lead travelers from I-64 to historic sites in W...

  3. Scaling Ratios and Triangles in Siegel Disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buff, Xavier; Henriksen, Christian

    1999-01-01

    Let f(z)=e^{2i\\pi \\theta} + z^2, where \\theta is a quadratic irrational. McMullen proved that the Siegel disk for f is self-similar about the critical point, and we show that if \\theta = (\\sqrt{5}-1)/2 is the golden mean, then there exists a triangle contained in the Siegel disk, and with one...

  4. Transfinite C2 interpolant over triangles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfeld, P.; Barnhill, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A transfinite C 2 interpolant on a general triangle is created. The required data are essentially C 2 , no compatibility conditions arise, and the precision set includes all polynomials of degree less than or equal to eight. The symbol manipulation language REDUCE is used to derive the scheme. The scheme is discretized to two different finite dimensional C 2 interpolants in an appendix

  5. Towards better management of Coral Triangle tuna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bailey, M.L.; Flores, J.; Pokajam, S.; Rashid Sumaila, U.

    2012-01-01

    Indonesia, the Philippines, and Papua New Guinea, all part of a regional sub-group known as the Coral Triangle, have sizeable skipjack, yellowfin and bigeye tuna fisheries. Recent figures suggest that as much as a third of tuna catch from the western and central Pacific Ocean can be attributed to

  6. Dodecagonal Square-Triangle Tiling Growth Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, B; Ben-Abraham, S.

    1999-01-01

    Some alloy systems such as NiCr and VNiSi have quasicrystalline phases with twelve-fold symmetry. These can be interpreted in terms of dodecagonal tilings by squares and equilateral triangles. The formation of quasicrystals may be due to a number of mechanisms such as local growth rules, cluster covering, etc., which may act separately or in synergy. This research focuses on the growth of such dodecagonal quasicrystals as well as the abundance of their vertex configurations, both regular and defective. We have simulated growth from the melt under various conditions in order to find the minimal constraints necessary to produce realistic Patterns as well as realistic vertex statistics. We have also calculated the exact vertex frequencies of the ideal square-triangle tiling by relying on inflation symmetry. The simulation showed that unrestricted random growth typically results in phase separation of triangles from squares. Favoring triangles to attract squares and vice versa brings about nearly perfect patterns with nearly perfect vertex abundances and very realistic defect concentrations

  7. Moral Education in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Shafiqua

    1980-01-01

    This report describes formal and informal methods of moral education operative in Pakistan. The nation's Islamic environment is explained; school policy, objectives, and practices are outlined; and informal moral education efforts through the mass media are noted. Problems in moral education in Pakistan and proposals for the future are discussed.…

  8. Simple energy auditing of male and female campus International Islamic University, Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anam, S.; Irum, S.; Tahira, S.; Anjuman, S.

    2011-01-01

    Natural resources are an important source of national wealth around the world play an important role in the development of a nation. Due to limited amount of nonrenewable energy sources it is important to conserve natural resources so that they will be available for future generations. Energy audit is a tool to conserve energy. A simple energy audit was conducted at male and female campus of International Islamic university Islamabad. The data has been collected through w alk through survey . Total electricity consumption was determined by calculating the watts of existing electrical appliances in the campuses and than calculate saving potential by replacing three parameters computers, large tube lights and air conditions by energy efficient appliances. The results shows that by replacing current electrical appliances installed in the buildings about 26.5 % of energy would be saved. The university is still under construction it is suggested that in new buildings energy efficient appliance should be installed. (author)

  9. The Triangle of Smallest Area Which Circumscribes a Semicircle

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    An interesting problem that determine a triangle of smallest area which circumscribes a semicircle is solved. Then a generalized golden right triangles sequence $T_n$ is obtained, and an interesting construction of the maximum generalized golden right triangle $T_2$ is also shown.

  10. 76 FR 52649 - Golden Triangle Storage, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP11-531-000] Golden Triangle Storage, Inc.; Notice of Application On August 5, 2011, Golden Triangle Storage, Inc. (Golden... County, Texas. Golden Triangle also seeks market based rates for its proposed expansion services, all as...

  11. Space vector-based analysis of overmodulation in triangle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The equivalence of triangle-comparison-based pulse width modulation (TCPWM) and space vector based PWM (SVPWM) during linear modulation is well-known. This paper analyses triangle-comparison based PWM techniques (TCPWM) such as sine-triangle PWM (SPWM) and common-mode voltage injection PWM ...

  12. Detecting Statistically Significant Communities of Triangle Motifs in Undirected Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-26

    extend the work of Perry et al. [6] by developing a statistical framework that supports the detection of triangle motif- based clusters in complex...priori, the need for triangle motif- based clustering. 2. Developed an algorithm for clustering undirected networks, where the triangle con guration was...13 5 Application to Real Networks 18 5.1 2012 FBS Football Schedule Network

  13. Pottery from Pakistan. A Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammage, Alix

    One of three handbooks dealing with pottery traditions from around the world, this packet draws together information about historical, ethnographic, and pottery traditions of Pakistan. The handbook begins with a brief discussion of Pakistan's land and people, a short history of Pakistan, Islamic pottery traditions, and Pakistan potters and…

  14. Properties of distance spaces with power triangle inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Greenhoe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Metric spaces provide a framework for analysis and have several very useful properties. Many of these properties follow in part from the  triangle inequality. However, there are several applications in which the triangle inequality does not hold but in which we may still like to perform analysis. This paper investigates what happens if the triangle inequality is removed all together, leaving what is called a distance space, and also what happens if the triangle inequality is replaced with a much more general two parameter relation, which is herein called the "power triangle inequality". The power triangle inequality represents an uncountably large class of inequalities, and includes the  triangle inequality,  relaxed triangle inequality, and   inframetric inequality as special cases. The power triangle inequality is defined in terms of a function that is herein called the power triangle function. The power triangle function is itself a power mean, and as such is continuous and monotone with respect to its exponential parameter, and also includes the operations of  maximum,  minimum,  mean square,  arithmetic mean, geometric mean, and  harmonic mean as special cases.

  15. Pakistan and the bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalilzad, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Pakistan is thought to be the next candidate for the nuclear club. A civilian program inevitably greatly reduces the incremental time and cost for further steps that might be taken toward military uses. Pakistani leaders realized that a civilian nuclear program could bring their country close to a nuclear weapons capability, and that emphasis on the non-military importance and economic necessity of certain civilian technologies can provide a cover for essentially military programs. In 1975, Pakistan announced its energetic nuclear plan for the remainder of this century, in which it called for the installation of a 600-MW reactor in 1980 and 10 more reactors in the decade following. In 1976, Pakistan signed an agreement with France for the purchase of a nuclear reprocessing facility. With reprocessing and testing and construction of the non-nuclear parts of nuclear devices a nonweapon state can come anywhere from a few hours to a few days within putting a nuclear device together, depending on the technical capabilities of the countries concerned. But, Pakistan's interest in reprocessing has been taken as a serious indicator of a desire to be able to produce nuclear weapons. The effects and the impact of 1974 Indian explosion on Pakistan are examined. If India's 1974 explosion results in the production of nuclear weapons, Pakistan will probably follow suit. Pakistan has refused to become a party to the Partial Test Ban and the Non-Proliferation Treatly. 28 references

  16. Urbanisation and environmental degradation in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahibzada, S A

    1993-01-01

    Environmental degradation in urban Pakistan is described and solutions offered for policy changes and changes in design of development projects. Government intervention should involve the development of institutional and legal structures for implementing effective pollution control laws and ordinances, the development of skills for evaluation of environmental consequences of development projects, and training in the aforementioned areas. Past development policies have ignored environmental consequences. The policy of incorporation of protectionists practices is feared as a strategy that would result in a decline in income and standard of living. The Report of the World Commission in 1987 revealed that environmental pollution would increase with rising urbanization. 52% of the urban population reside in the cities of Karachi, Lahore, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi/Islamabad, Hyderabad, Multan, and Gujranwala. Environmental degradation due to industrialization results in waste dumped into rivers and canals. In Karachi, industrial waste water is contaminated with toxic chemicals, which disrupts marine life, reduces quantities of fish for harvesting, and creates a health hazard for polluted fish that are eaten. The pollution in the Peshawar Vale and the Kabul River is threatening not only the water fishery industry but also irrigation of farmland. Transportation discharges due to leaded fuels are a major source of air pollution, with concomitant effects of lung cancer and mental retardation. Air emission standards established by the World Health Organization have not been met. Energy consumption is costly even without including the costs of pollution. Environmental degradation leads to poverty. Environmental problems must be included as externalities in market analyses. Command and control approaches need to be directed to industrial polluters. Public environmental education is needed. Policy should be directed to changing the residential energy consumptions patterns, and

  17. A survey of numerical cubature over triangles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyness, J.N.; Cools, R.

    1993-12-31

    This survey collects together theoretical results in the area of numerical cubature over triangles and is a vehicle for a current bibliography. We treat first the theory relating to regular integrands and then the corresponding theory for singular integrands with emphasis on the ``full comer singularity.`` Within these two sections we treat successively approaches based on transforming the triangle into a square, formulas based on polynomial moment fitting, and extrapolation techniques. Within each category we quote key theoretical results without proof, and relate other results and references to these. Nearly all the references we have found may be readily placed in one of these categories. This survey is theoretical in character and does not include recent work in adaptive and automatic integration.

  18. Scaling Ratios and Triangles in Siegel Disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buff, Xavier; Henriksen, Christian

    1999-01-01

    Let f(z)=e^{2i\\pi \\theta} + z^2, where \\theta is a quadratic irrational. McMullen proved that the Siegel disk for f is self-similar about the critical point, and we show that if \\theta = (\\sqrt{5}-1)/2 is the golden mean, then there exists a triangle contained in the Siegel disk, and with one ver...

  19. State of the Coral Triangle: Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia has made a firm commitment to sustainable management and conservation of its coastal and marine resources, helping formulate and implement the Sulu–Sulawesi Marine Ecoregion Initiative and the Coral Triangle Initiative. Rapid economic growth, uncontrolled tourism development, unregulated fishing, and unsustainable use of marine resources have depleted the country’s fish stocks, lost nearly 36% of its mangrove forests, and increased the number of endangered species. Despite impressive...

  20. Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The CKM Unitarity Triangle Workshop is meant to provide an opportunity for an intense and fruitful exchange of ideas between experimentalists and theorists to assess the present knowledge on fundamental parameters from the data of LEP and other colliders, to define an agenda of future measurements to further probe the model assumptions employed in the interpretation of the data and to indicate paths for the B physics programme at LHC.

  1. Impact of Training and Mentoring on Employee Performance - Empirical analysis of Public and Private Universities’ staff members of Islamabad

    OpenAIRE

    Tanoli, Mubashar Farooq

    2016-01-01

    This study tries to illustrate the relationship between training, mentoring and employee performance. The purpose of the study is to highlight the role of different practices which are mainly out of a few practices of HR. Employee training and mentoring shows their influence on the employee performance. It will generate different results of empirically tested and analyzed data. Data from 250 staff members will be collected from different public and private sector universities of Islamabad...

  2. Comparative Study on Educational Management in Public and Private Institutions in the Twin Cities of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Muhammad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research paper is to compare the quality of education delivered at the undergraduate level in the public and private institutions of the Twin Cities (Islamabad and Rawalpindi in Pakistan. Data is collected with the help of questionnaires from 246 students. The data was collected from three public and three private educational institutions of the Twin Cities, and the age of students ranged from 18 to 27 years. The research instrument used in this paper is the independent sample t-test to find the difference between the three private and three public educational institutions selected in Rawalpindi and Islamabad in terms of different variables that are very important in measuring the quality of education. For analysis, Levene’s test was adopted, which reflects the variations in educational quality with respect to academic staff availability in the twin cities. The differences in close supervision of students by academic staff between public and private sector educational institutions were also analysed, and the results reflected a difference between private and public educational institutions with respect to close supervision of students. The results also highlighted the factors that are involved in higher performance of students in private institutes as compared to that of students in public institutes. These factors can be implemented in the public sector to increase student performance.

  3. Factors promoting knowledge sharing & knowledge creation in banking sector of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Abbas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors promoting knowledge sharing and knowledge creation in banking sector of Pakistan. With the help of literature review, we identified most important factors in knowledge sharing and knowledge creation including organizational culture, trust, motivation, employee’s attitude and socialization. The populations selected for analysis consist of (250 male and female employees of banking sector of Pakistan and response have been received from 225 respondents. The collection of data was a very difficult task and it has taken almost four months. The data were collected from the five cities of Pakistan including Islamabad, Faisalabad, Multan, Peshawar and Lahore. The results show that all the factors have significant impact on knowledge creation and Knowledge sharing. The findings of the study also show that these factors are necessary for the promotion of knowledge creation and knowledge sharing culture in an organization. The knowledge sharing and knowledge creation are the keys for the success of an organization. A firm or an organization can sustain its competitive edge in market with the help of Knowledge sharing and knowledge creation. The final results of this study conclude that socialization factor is at top, trust factor is at second and motivational factor is at third according to the respondents’ point of view.

  4. Role of Marketing Intelligence by Strategic Function in Organizational Performance: Evidence from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslan Ayub

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is multifaceted; firstly, it aims to explore the extent to which marketing intelligence is utilized within corporate sector in Pakistan. Secondly, this paper measures the role of marketing intelligence by strategic function on organizational performance. Research on marketing intelligence has consequently increased and grabbed the attention of researchers and marketers to leverage marketing intelligence resulting in increased organizational performance for the last decade. The study uses exploratory approach, sample of the study consisted of 145 professionals from 30 companies related to different sectors operating in Islamabad and Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Structural Equation Model (SEM Technique was used to test the hypotheses. The study found a strong positive relationship between marketing intelligence by strategic function and organizational performance. The study also found that majority of corporate sector of Pakistan have incorporated and utilized marketing intelligence system. This piece of writing has thrown light on the significance of marketing intelligence and its usefulness as a marketing strategy which not only contributes in the existing body of knowledge but also has many managerial implications. The study endorsed the importance of marketing intelligence by strategic function to heading on this fast-paced competition. As for marketing managers in order to formulate policies; marketing intelligence by strategic function provides a leapfrogging approach to outer perform in the market place.

  5. An overview of environmental pollution status and waste treatment technology used in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, T.; Qureshi, R.M.; Ahmad, S.; Sajjad, M.I.; Mashiatullah, A.; Shah, Z.

    1998-01-01

    There is little pollution consciousness in Pakistan. Rapid growth in population and unplanned disposal of untreated industrial, agricultural and domestic wastes has caused severe pollution problems in air, soil, drinking water and coastal marine water environments. To date, no systematic approach is being used in the domestic and industrial sectors for continuous processing and decontamination of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes prior to disposal. The two large industrial and population centers namely, the cities of Karachi and Islamabad, use small scale wastewater treatment facilities consisting of trickling filters and activated sludge process, respectively. Presently, no accelerator is being used in Pakistan for decontamination of hospital, industrial or domestic wastes. However, the prospects of Radiation Technology for waste treatment are well realized and a 250 keV ion accelerator has been developed at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH) for research, development and training purposes. The main emphasis is now to locally design and fabricate user dedicated electron beam machines for radiation curing and decontamination of domestic, industrial and hospital wastes

  6. "Save Pakistan from population bomb which is ticking away." Mrs. Bhutto's call to parliamentarians and ulemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto, prime minister of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, addressed Pakistan's parliamentarians on June 11, 1995, in regard to population growth. She called upon the people, the parliamentarians, all political parties, and the ulemas (religious scholars) to save Pakistan from its "population bomb." The first national convention of the Parliamentarians on Population and Development was held in Islamabad to generate their support for the follow-up actions after the Cairo conference. The convention was organized by the Core Group of Parliamentarians on Population and Development with support from the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). According to Dr. Nesim Tumkaya, the country director of UNFPA in Pakistan, the convention was held to promote the commitments made in the declaration issued at the International Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development in Cairo. Syed Zafar Ali Shah, deputy speaker of the National Assembly, who heads the Pakistan Parliamentarian Group on Population, organized the convention as a first step toward mobilizing parliamentarians and public, private, and nongovernmental organizations to join a broad-based movement for sustainable development through population stabilization. The convention passed resolutions endorsing the ICPD Plan of Action and the declaration of the International Parliamentarians at the September 1994 meeting in Cairo. Members of all legislative assemblies were requested to accord the highest priority to issues concerning population growth, to dedicate one day per quarter to discussion of population issues, and to form similar groups on population and development in each provincial assembly. On July 10, the Provincial Assembly of Baluchistan announced the formation of a Provincial Multi-party Parliamentarians Group on Population and Development under the leadership of Mr. Wahid Baluch.

  7. Evaluation of environmental education at higher secondary level in the model schools of Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, F.; Ahmad, U.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental education (EE) has emerged as a new dimension in the dimensional sphere. It is a process aimed at the developing world's population, which should be well aware and concerned about the total environment and its associated problems and which should have knowledge, attitudes, skills, motivation and commitment to work, individually and collectively, towards the solution of current problems and the prevention of new ones. Evaluation is a process that provides feedback for the improvement of any project. The present study has been designed to investigate the current performance of EE at higher secondary level. Data were collected from Biology teachers and F. Sc. students of Islamabad Model Colleges, through separate questionnaires. The information collected from teachers was regarding their qualifications and involvement, institutional provisions and their opinion about EE. Students were evaluated on the basis of EE. The results showed that Biology is the only subject that contains a considerable content of EE at higher secondary level. In these institutions, although there is no deficiency of competent teaching staff, A/V aids and other physical facilities , the teacher's involvement and utility of teaching aids is not up to the mark, Book/magazines relevant to EE are not available in most of the institutions. Although students have enough knowledge and awareness about environmental issues, there is a need to produce appropriate skills and attitudes for making them 'environment-friendly'. (author)

  8. MEASURING SERVICE QUALITY PERCEPTIONS OF THE CUSTOMERS OF RESTAURANTS IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahab Alam Malik

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to descriptively analyze different service quality attributes and ranking of services in renowned and successful restaurants. A sample of 407 customers of 10 reputed restaurants was gathered, operating in vicinity of twin cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi of Pakistan, using abilingual survey instrument to measure service quality perceptions of customers.Five service quality attributes of restaurant staff, tips, tangibles, convenience, and food quality were used and their relationship with overall satisfaction was measured. Besides, key reasons to visit a restaurant were also inquired. Majority of the participants was comprised of private sector employees and students. Results of current study will be beneficial for the restaurants' managers in knowing customers evaluations and formulating future strategies accordingly.

  9. Medicinal folk recipes used as traditional phyto therapies in district Dera Ismail Khan, KPK, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwat, S.K.; Rehman, F.; Khan, M.A.; Ahmad, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is based on the results of an ethno medicinal research work conducted in Dera Ismail Khan (D.I. Khan) District, Khyber Pakhtun Khwa (KPK), Pakistan, during May 2006 to March 2007. The study was focused for documentation of traditional knowledge of local people about the use of medicinal folk recipes of native plants. During field survey, questionnaires were used to interview the local inhabitants, older people including men and women both, who were familiar with traditional uses of indigenous plants. In total 40 new medicinal folk recipes of 26 plant species, belonging to 19 families were recorded. These folk recipes are used as traditional phyto therapies in the area. Plant specimens were identified, preserved and vouchers were deposited in the Department of Botany, Quaid-i-University Islamabad for future references. Results were systematically arranged by alphabetic order of botanical names followed by medicinal folk recipes. English name, local name, family name and voucher no., were listed. (author)

  10. Job satisfaction among public health professionals working in public sector: a cross sectional study from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Job satisfaction largely determines the productivity and efficiency of human resource for health. It literally depicts the extent to which professionals like or dislike their jobs. Job satisfaction is said to be linked with the employee’s work environment, job responsibilities and powers and time pressure; the determinants which affect employee’s organizational commitment and consequently the quality of services. The objective of the study was to determine the level of and factors influencing job satisfaction among public health professionals in the public sector. Methods This was a cross sectional study conducted in Islamabad, Pakistan. Sample size was universal including 73 public health professionals, with postgraduate qualifications and working in government departments of Islamabad. A validated structured questionnaire was used to collect data from April to October 2011. Results Overall satisfaction rate was 41% only, while 45% were somewhat satisfied and 14% of professionals highly dissatisfied with their jobs. For those who were not satisfied, working environment, job description and time pressure were the major causes. Other factors influencing the level of satisfaction were low salaries, lack of training opportunities, improper supervision and inadequate financial rewards. Conclusion Our study documented a relatively low level of overall satisfaction among workers in public sector health care organizations. Considering the factors responsible for this state of affairs, urgent and concrete strategies must be developed to address the concerns of public health professionals as they represent a highly sensitive domain of health system of Pakistan. Improving the overall work environment, review of job descriptions and better remuneration might bring about a positive change.

  11. Sex determination of human crania using Mastoid triangle and Opisthion-Bimastoid triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Deepali; Jasuja, O P; Nath, Surinder

    2013-05-01

    In the present study an attempt has been made to establish standards for sex determination from the various direct and indirect measurements of the cranium. A total of 100 cranium (50 of either sex) were measured for nine direct measurements pertaining to Mastoid triangle and Opisthion-Bimastoid triangle. These measurements were used further to calculate four indirect measurements pertaining to the calculation of Opisthion-Bimastoid triangle area and angles. Analysis of data reveals that the male crania exhibit greater values for all the measurements except the angle right Mastoidale-Opisthion-left Mastoidale. The sex difference has been observed to be statistically significant for all the measurements except for the angles of the Opisthion-Bimastoid triangle. Sectioning point was calculated for the diagnosis of sex based on the mean values of these measurements; the accuracy of sex determination varied from measurement to measurement. The highest value for determining sex was obtained for Asterion-Mastoidale length of right side i.e. 80%, followed by Bi-mastoid breadth i.e. 75%. This suggests that these measurements could be used with relatively high degree of accuracy in determining sex of the unknown crania. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  12. Sweeper’s lung disease: a cross-sectional study of an overlooked illness among sweepers of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar SK

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Shaikh Khurshid Anwar, Naeem Mehmood, Nasir Nasim, Maryam Khurshid, Bilal Khurshid Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS, Islamabad, Pakistan Background: Sweepers are prone to develop chronic obstructive pulmonary disease even without tobacco smoking. Purpose: To investigate roadside dust as a cause of air flow obstruction among sweepers, and the role of spirometry in its preclinical diagnosis. Material and methods: One-hundred nonsmoking sweepers (aged 30–60 years of both sexes sweeping on roads for 8–12 hours a day for the Capital Development Authority of Islamabad, Pakistan were used as study participants (Group A. One-hundred healthy nonsmokers (aged 30–60 years in the same socioeconomic group and living in the same environment represented the nonsweeper group (Group B. After proper clinical evaluation and chest X-rays, spirometric evaluation was carried out in both groups. Comparisons were drawn between various spirometric parameters. Results: Pulmonary function tests showed that the mean forced vital capacity was 78 ± 1.40 in the sweeper group (Group A and 83 ± 0.86 in the nonsweeper group (Group B. Mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second was 66 ± 1.67 in Group A and 85 ± 0.85 in Group B (P < 0.05, a difference of 19%. The forced midexpiratory flow was 41% lower in Group A than in Group B (P < 0.0001. The pattern of pulmonary function obstruction was shown to be proportional to the duration of exposure to dust caused by sweeping. Conclusion: Occupational exposure to dust leads to an obstructive pattern among sweepers. Spirometry is the simplest, noninvasive technique to detect preclinical disease. Keywords: COPD, sweepers, dust, spirometry

  13. Integral Isosceles Triangle-Parallelogram and Heron triangle-Rhombus Pairs with a Common Area and Common Perimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Pradeep; Juyal, Abhishek; Moody, Dustin

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we show that there are infinitely many pairs of integer isosceles triangles and integer parallelograms with a common (integral) area and common perimeter. We also show that there are infinitely many Heron triangles and integer rhombuses with common area and common perimeter. As a corollary, we show there does not exist any Heron triangle and integer square which have a common area and common perimeter.

  14. Outcomes Of Intensive Care Patients Having Septic Shock At A Tertiary Care Hospital Of Islamabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Azmat; Abbasi, Awais Saeed; Sheikh, Maliha

    2017-01-01

    Septic shock is defined as sepsis with circulatory, cellular and metabolic abnormalities which are associated with greater mortality more than 40%. The objective of this study was to identify shortcomings and act promptly and adequately. This case series included 32 patients over a period of 03 months, September to November 2016 done at ICU of KRL Hospital Islamabad. The study only enrolled patients who fulfilled the criteria of septic shock. Mortality was as high as 50%. (UTI) was the most common infection (43.75%). In patients who died Pneumonia was commonest infection (43.75%). Mean TLC, CRP and lactate was 17.48×109/l, 29.28 mg/L and 6.81mmom/L respectively. Escherichia Coli (E. coli) was the most common isolated pathogen (31.25%) followed by Staphylococcus Aureus (12.5%). Mean initial MAP was 49.7 mmHg and mean MAP at end of 3-day period was 71.4 mmHg. Mean norepinephrine dose given on day 1, 2 & 3 was 0.90 μg/kg/min, 1.01 μg/kg/min & 1.28 μg/kg/min respectively. Mean hospital stay was 7.1 days. Six out of 08 (75%) patients who needed ventilator support died while 02 out of 08 (25%) patients survived. Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) was the most common End Organ Damage (EOD). Mortality remains high in septic shock despite maximum efforts. In current study MAP, serum lactate level, hospital stay, need for ventilator support, comorbidities, need for newer generation antimicrobials were the important cofounders in differentiating patients who died and those who survived with significant p-values in the 1st four conditions.

  15. Hyper accumulators of heavy metals of industrial areas of Islamabad and Rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazir, A.; Malik, R.N.; Ajaib, M.; Khan, N.; Siddiqui, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    Contamination of heavy metals is one of the major threats to water and soil as well as human health. Phytoremediation has been used to remediate metal-contaminated sites. This study evaluated the potential of 23 plant species growing on contaminated sites in Industrial areas of the Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Plant root, shoot and the soil samples were collected and analyzed for selected metal concentration values. To evaluate the potential of plant species for phyto remediation: Bioconcentration Factor (BCF), Biological Accumulation Coefficient (BAC) and Biological Transfer Coefficient (BCF) were calculated. The concentration of Pb in soils varied from 2-29 mg/kg, Zn from 28.82-172.56 mg/ kg, Cu from 8.88-306 mg/kg, respectively. The concentration of Pb in plant shoots varied from 1.0 to 39 mg/kg, Zn from 17.25 to 194.03 mg/kg, Cu from 0.65 to 171.83 mg/kg. The concentration of Pb in roots of plant varied 1-43 mg/kg, Zn from 3.34-116.16 mg/kg, Cu from 3.35- 416.89 mg/kg. Brachiaria raptans and Malvastrum coromandelianum were found most suitable for phyto stabilization of sites contaminated with Pb and Cu (BCF= 18 and 9.12). Considering the BAC values, 15 species for Pb, two species for Cu, five species for Zn possessed the characteristics of hyper accumulator, none of the plant species was found as hyper accumulator; however plants with high BCF (metal concentration ratio of plant root to soil) and low BTC (metal concentration ratio of plants shoots to roots) have the potential for phyto stabilization and phyto extraction. The results of this study can be used for management and decontamination of soils with heavy metals using plant species having phyto remediation potential/characteristics. (author)

  16. From Concept to Reality in Implementing the Knowledge Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoer, Ellen; Nørgaard, Bente; Goossens, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The concept of Knowledge Triangle (KT) links together research, education and innovation and replaces the traditional "one way" flow of knowledge, essentially from research to education, by a "both ways" circular motion between all the corners of a triangle that, besides research and education, also includes innovation, the…

  17. Developing Formulas by Skipping Rows in Pascal's Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonpastore, Robert J.; Osler, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    A table showing the first thirteen rows of Pascal's triangle, where the rows are, as usual numbered from 0 to 12 is presented. The entries in the table are called binomial coefficients. In this note, the authors systematically delete rows from Pascal's triangle and, by trial and error, try to find a formula that allows them to add new rows to the…

  18. Teaching Pascal's Triangle from a Computer Science Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurnick, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Pascal's Triangle is named for the seventeenth-century French philosopher and mathematician Blaise Pascal (the same person for whom the computer programming language is named). Students are generally introduced to Pascal's Triangle in an algebra or precalculus class in which the Binomial Theorem is presented. This article, presents a new method…

  19. What Do You Find? Students Investigating Patterns in Pascal's Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, students used problem-solving skills to investigate what patterns exist in the Pascal triangle and incorporated technology using Geometer's Sketchpad (GSP) in the process. Students came up with patterns such as natural numbers, triangular numbers, and Fibonacci numbers. Although the patterns inherent in Pascal's triangle may seem…

  20. Albime triangles and Guy’s favourite elliptic curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Erika; Chahal, Jasbir S; Top, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    This text discusses triangles with the property that a bisector at one vertex, the median at another, and the altitude at the third vertex are concurrent. It turns out that since the 1930s, such triangles appeared in the problem sections of various journals. We recall their well known relation with

  1. THE SPECTRA OF THE SPHERICAL AND EUCLIDEAN TRIANGLE GROUPS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Harmer, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 2 (2008), s. 217-227 ISSN 1446-7887 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : triangle groups * spectral multiplicity * equilateral triangle Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.315, year: 2008

  2. Coloring triangle-free graphs with fixed size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten; Gimbel, John

    2000-01-01

    Combining recent results on colorings and Ramsey theory, we show that if G is a triangle-free graph with e edges then the chromatic number of G is at most cel(1/3)(log e)(-2/3) for some constant c. In a previous paper, we found an upper bound on the chromatic number of a triangle-free graph...

  3. Some Unusual Expressions for the Inradius of a Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Thomas J.; Chandrupatla, Tirupathi R.

    2005-01-01

    Several formulae for the inradius of various types of triangles are derived. Properties of the inradius and trigonometric functions of the angles of Pythagorean and Heronian triangles are also presented. The entire presentation is elementary and suitable for classes in geometry, precalculus mathematics and number theory.

  4. Triangle-free graphs whose independence number equals the degree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    In a triangle-free graph, the neighbourhood of every vertex is an independent set. We investigate the class S of triangle-free graphs where the neighbourhoods of vertices are maximum independent sets. Such a graph G must be regular of degree d = α (G) and the fractional chromatic number must...

  5. Homothetic Transformations and Geometric Loci: Properties of Triangles and Quadrilaterals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammana, Maria Flavia

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we use geometric transformations to find some interesting properties related with geometric loci. In particular, given a triangle or a cyclic quadrilateral, the locus generated by the centroid or by the orthocentre (for triangles) or by the anticentre (for cyclic quadrilaterals) when one vertex moves on the circumcircle of the…

  6. Uses of systemic approach and chemist's triangle in teaching and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes uses of the systemic chemistry triangle [SCT] in which we get the benefits of both systemic approach and chemist's triangle in teaching and learning chemistry. SCT creates active learning environment enable students to gain high mental and professional skills, correct cognition, positive attitudes ...

  7. How to get the magic triangle and the MAD triangle into your protein crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Tobias; Cunha, Carlos Eduardo da; Sheldrick, George M.

    2009-01-01

    The handling of the phasing tools I3C and B3C is described, emphasizing practical aspects such as the preparation of solutions and incorporation of the compounds into protein crystals. The magic triangle 5-amino-2,4,6-triiodoisophthalic acid (I3C) and the MAD triangle 5-amino-2,4,6-tribromoisophthalic acid (B3C) are two representatives of a novel class of compounds that combine heavy atoms for experimental phasing with functional groups for protein interactions. These compounds are readily available and provide easy access to experimental phasing. The preparation of stock solutions and the incorporation of the compounds into protein crystals are discussed. As an example of incorporation via cocrystallization, the incorporation of B3C into bovine trypsin, resulting in a single site with high occupancy, is described

  8. "The mother of all black triangles" case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David

    2012-02-01

    Before the Bioclear matrix and a disciplined approach to composite treatment of black triangles, many treatments ended with significant compromise in periodontal health. Many cases debonded soon after placement. Others suffered problems with stain. Nonetheless, our patients are hopeful for a better solution. The interdental papilla serves as both a functional and aesthetic asset. Anatomically ideal interproximal composite shapes that are mirror smooth can serve as a predictable scaffold to regain this valuable gingival architecture. Clean enamel surfaces can be leveraged to permanently retain the restorations. However, the reader is cautioned that to attempt this elective procedure using no magnification, without a strict adherence to dentin detoxification with a blasting appliance, and using a flat matrix, nontreatment or referral is recommended. Our profession can change its thought processes, retrain its hands and expand its armamentarium to perform techniques that were previously impossible.

  9. Country Profiles, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardee, J. Gilbert; Satterthwaite, Adaline P.

    A profile of Pakistan is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  10. Empowering growth in Pakistan?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid); H. Majid (Hadia)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractPakistan's Vision 2025 connects a policy commitment to greater gender equality with inclusive growth. It prioritises a "good quality of life and high living standard for all citizens across regions, gender" and to "achieve an annual average growth rate of 7 to 8 per cent that is

  11. Afghan refugees in Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exterkate, M.

    2003-01-01

    Against the background of the changing situation in Afghanistan, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) requested NIDI in the beginning of 2002 to conduct a rapid survey among Afghan refugees living in Pakistan. It's purpose was to assess the demographic and socio-economic

  12. Biofortification: High zinc wheat programme – The potential agricultural options for alleviating malnutrition in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qadir Bux Baloch

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The deficiency of micronutrients (zinc, iron, iodine and vitamin A is persistently afflicting millions of people living across Africa, Southern Americas, Asia and Pakistan. Among these, the zinc deficiency syndrome is occurring by 47.6, 41.3, and 39.2% in pregnant, non-pregnant and children under 5 years, respectively in Pakistan. The reason being that majority of the people subsists on cereal-based diets, i.e., wheat. The commercially grown wheat varieties contain zinc about 25 mg/g, whereas about 40 mg/g zinc is required in daily diet.The potential risk of zinc deficiency could be mitigated through certain interventions i.e., mineral drugs, food supplements, diversity in diets, production of fortified foods, and genetic biofortification of staple food crops. Among these, quantum increase in zinc content in wheat grains through genetic manipulation would be basics to alleviate zinc deficiency in the malnourished communities. The objective of the programme is to enhance the concentration of zinc nutrient from 25 to 40 mg/g in wheat grains through conventional plant breeding techniques.Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad in collaboration with Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR and International Maize & Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT and HarvestPlus, Pakistan started R&D works to develop biofortified high zinc wheat varieties containing around 40 mg/g in the year 2009. The biofortified wheat crop is developed through conventional plant breeding techniques. The germplasm inherited with high zinc nutrient are crossed with high yielding and adopted to ecological conditions. The varieties are high yielding, and inheriting zinc around 40 mg/g in the grains under both irrigated and rainfed production environments. The Government of Punjab has also given high priority to develop and consume biofortified high zinc wheat in its multi-sectoral Nutrition Strategy Plan 2015, as potential agricultural option to

  13. Biofortification: High zinc wheat programme – The potential agricultural options for alleviating malnutrition in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qadir Bux Baloch

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The deficiency of micronutrients (zinc, iron, iodine and vitamin A is persistently afflicting millions of people living across Africa, Southern Americas, Asia and Pakistan. Among these, the zinc deficiency syndrome is occurring by 47.6, 41.3, and 39.2% in pregnant, non-pregnant and children under 5 years, respectively in Pakistan. The reason being that majority of the people subsists on cereal-based diets, i.e., wheat. The commercially grown wheat varieties contain zinc about 25 mg/g, whereas about 40 mg/g zinc is required in daily diet.The potential risk of zinc deficiency could be mitigated through certain interventions i.e., mineral drugs, food supplements, diversity in diets, production of fortified foods, and genetic biofortification of staple food crops. Among these, quantum increase in zinc content in wheat grains through genetic manipulation would be basics to alleviate zinc deficiency in the malnourished communities. The objective of the programme is to enhance the concentration of zinc nutrient from 25 to 40 mg/g in wheat grains through conventional plant breeding techniques.Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad in collaboration with Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR and International Maize & Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT and HarvestPlus, Pakistan started R&D works to develop biofortified high zinc wheat varieties containing around 40 mg/g in the year 2009. The biofortified wheat crop is developed through conventional plant breeding techniques. The germplasm inherited with high zinc nutrient are crossed with high yielding and adopted to ecological conditions. The varieties are high yielding, and inheriting zinc around 40 mg/g in the grains under both irrigated and rainfed production environments. The Government of Punjab has also given high priority to develop and consume biofortified high zinc wheat in its multi-sectoral Nutrition Strategy Plan 2015, as potential agricultural option to

  14. Variation in Antioxidant Attributes at Three Ripening Stages of Guava (Psidium guajava L. Fruit from Different Geographical Regions of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ashraf

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to appraise the levels of total phenols and vitamin C as well as antioxidant potential at three different ripening stages (un-ripe, semi-ripe and fully-ripe of guava (Psidium guajava L. fruit collected from three different geographical regions of Pakistan (Islamabad, Faisalabad and Bhakkar. The antioxidant potential of guava fruit extracts was assessed by means of different in-vitro antioxidant assays, namely inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system, reducing power and radical scavenging capability. Overall, fruit at the un-ripe stage (G1 exhibited the highest levels of TPC, TFC, reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging activity, followed by the semi-ripe (G2 and fully-ripe (G3 stages. On the other hand, vitamin C content increased as the fruit maturity progressed, with highest value seen at the fully-ripe stage (G3 followed by the semi-ripe (G2 and un-ripe stage (G1. The concentration of vitamin C in fruits varied as: Faisalabad (136.4–247.9 mg 100 g−1, Islamabad (89.7–149.7 mg 100 g−1 and Bhakkar (73.1–129.5 mg 100 g−1. The results showed that different stages of maturation and geographical locations had profound effects on the antioxidant activity and vitamin C contents of guava fruit.

  15. Variation in antioxidant attributes at three ripening stages of guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruit from different geographical regions of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gull, Javaria; Sultana, Bushra; Anwar, Farooq; Naseer, Rehana; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ashrafuzzaman, M

    2012-03-14

    The present investigation was carried out to appraise the levels of total phenols and vitamin C as well as antioxidant potential at three different ripening stages (un-ripe, semi-ripe and fully-ripe) of guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruit collected from three different geographical regions of Pakistan (Islamabad, Faisalabad and Bhakkar). The antioxidant potential of guava fruit extracts was assessed by means of different in-vitro antioxidant assays, namely inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system, reducing power and radical scavenging capability. Overall, fruit at the un-ripe stage (G1) exhibited the highest levels of TPC, TFC, reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging activity, followed by the semi-ripe (G2) and fully-ripe (G3) stages. On the other hand, vitamin C content increased as the fruit maturity progressed, with highest value seen at the fully-ripe stage (G3) followed by the semi-ripe (G2) and un-ripe stage (G1). The concentration of vitamin C in fruits varied as: Faisalabad (136.4-247.9 mg 100 g⁻¹), Islamabad (89.7-149.7 mg 100 g⁻¹) and Bhakkar (73.1-129.5 mg 100 g⁻¹). The results showed that different stages of maturation and geographical locations had profound effects on the antioxidant activity and vitamin C contents of guava fruit.

  16. Grouper: A Compact, Streamable Triangle Mesh Data Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luffel, Mark [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Visualization and Usability Center (GVU); Gurung, Topraj [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Visualization and Usability Center (GVU); Lindstrom, Peter [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rossignac, Jarek [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Visualization and Usability Center (GVU)

    2014-01-01

    Here, we present Grouper: an all-in-one compact file format, random-access data structure, and streamable representation for large triangle meshes. Similarly to the recently published SQuad representation, Grouper represents the geometry and connectivity of a mesh by grouping vertices and triangles into fixed-size records, most of which store two adjacent triangles and a shared vertex. Unlike SQuad, however, Grouper interleaves geometry with connectivity and uses a new connectivity representation to ensure that vertices and triangles can be stored in a coherent order that enables memory-efficient sequential stream processing. We also present a linear-time construction algorithm that allows streaming out Grouper meshes using a small memory footprint while preserving the initial ordering of vertices. In this construction, we show how the problem of assigning vertices and triangles to groups reduces to a well-known NP-hard optimization problem, and present a simple yet effective heuristic solution that performs well in practice. Our array-based Grouper representation also doubles as a triangle mesh data structure that allows direct access to vertices and triangles. Storing only about two integer references per triangle-i.e., less than the three vertex references stored with each triangle in a conventional indexed mesh format-Grouper answers both incidence and adjacency queries in amortized constant time. Our compact representation enables data-parallel processing on multicore computers, instant partitioning and fast transmission for distributed processing, as well as efficient out-of-core access. We demonstrate the versatility and performance benefits of Grouper using a suite of example meshes and processing kernels.

  17. Pakistan's Nuclear Weapons: Proliferation and Security Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kerr, Paul; Nikitin, Mary B

    2007-01-01

    Pakistan's nuclear arsenal consists of approximately 60 nuclear warheads. Pakistan continues fissile material production for weapons, and is adding to its weapons production facilities and delivery vehicles...

  18. Protocol to the 1994 Co-operation Agreement between The Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and CERN concerning a Special Contribution by Pakistan towards the Construction of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    CERN signed a Co-operation Agreement with the Government of Pakistan in 1994, which was followed in 1997 by a Protocol signed with the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) concerning CMS magnet supports. CERN and PAEC then signed in 1998 a Memorandum of Understanding for collaboration in the construction of the CMS detector. The participation by Pakistani scientists and engineers in the CERN programme is channelled through the National Centre of Physics (NCP) established at the Quaid-i-Azzam University in Islamabad, under the terms of a 1999 Protocol to the 1994 Co-operation Agreement. The engineering and detector construction work performed under these Agreements has been of high quality, and the Pakistani participation is valued highly by the CMS collaboration. In continuation of this co-operation, Pakistan, represented by PAEC as funding agency, has now proposed to make in-kind contributions to the LHC Project of a value of up to ten million US dollars. Under the proposed scheme, CERN shall pay 50% of ...

  19. Protocol to the 1994 Co-operation Agreement between The Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and CERN concerning a Special Contribution by Pakistan towards the Construction of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    CERN signed a Co-operation Agreement with the Government of Pakistan in 1994, which was followed in 1997 by a Protocol signed with the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) concerning CMS magnet supports. CERN and PAEC then signed in 1998 a Memorandum of Understanding for collaboration in the construction of the CMS detector. The participation by Pakistani scientists and engineers in the CERN programme is channelled through the National Centre of Physics (NCP) established at the Quaid-i-Azzam University in Islamabad, under the terms of a 1999 Protocol to the 1994 Co-operation Agreement. The engineering and detector construction work performed under these Agreements has been of high quality, and the Pakistani participation is valued highly by the CMS collaboration. In continuation of this co-operation, Pakistan, represented by PAEC as funding agency, has now proposed to make in-kind contributions to the LHC Project, such as mechanical components and assembly work, with a value of up to ten million US dollar...

  20. Penrose triangles of the fossil-to-bio-based transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankiewicz, Andrzej

    2017-09-21

    Transition within the chemical industry from fossil to green feedstocks is a complex process characterized by the generation of commercially viable feedstock-process-product triangles. The research in this area encompasses a great diversity of relevant topics. A number of those topics have been addressed within this volume of Faraday Discussions and are summarized in this paper. They are categorized and discussed along with seven general questions arising from the feedstock-process-product triangles. Opportunities are identified that should make more of these triangles technically and economically feasible. The future role of renewable electricity as the primary energy source for the bio-based industry is emphasized.

  1. Internal Security Threats to Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    DENSITY (PERSON/SQ. MILE) URBANIZATION (PERCENTAGE) LITERACY (PERCENTAGE) 1951 1961 1951 1961 1951 1961 1951 1961 East Pakistan 41.9 50.8...issues, affected the Mohajirs of urban Sindh and thus, triggered their demand for identification as a fifth ethnic group in Pakistan . To safeguard...noticeable progress in agricultural sector. Pakistan was considered to be a model capitalist economy in the 1960s.176 Periods of rapid growth

  2. Radiological mapping of the area around two research reactors in Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahan Zeb; Abdul Rashid; Waheed Arshed; Mohammad Wasim

    2015-01-01

    This study presents survey of gamma radiation exposure around Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH). PINSTECH hosts two research reactors, two isotope production plants and several radiochemistry laboratories. Dose measurement was performed in thirty villages around PINSTECH. The average outdoor absorbed dose rate in air was 59 ± 16 nGy h -1 . The average annual outdoor dose rate due to terrestrial gamma-rays was 71.4 ± 20.0 μSv y -1 . The annual collective effective dose equivalent was 415 man-Sv and the estimated excess life-time cancer risk was 7.3 × 10 -4 . The study revealed that inhabitants living in the area surrounding PINSTECH were radiologically safe. (author)

  3. Contributions of Science and Technology Parks Towards Firms' Performance in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangrio, W.B.; Naqvi, I.B.

    2013-01-01

    Several countries have adopted different strategies, models and policies to assist companies to develop their technological capabilities. These include high tech cluster development, creation of venture capital fund, establishment of technology incubation center, and Science and Technology parks. In turn, the creation of knowledge base industries, regional development, improves the technological infrastructure and life standard of the people. This paper discusses the contribution of science and technology parks in firms' performance in particularly employment, sales and profitability and also in creation of new businesses in information technology sector in Pakistan. This study is based on the case study of STPs (Software Technology Parks) of Islamabad. The results revealed that the establishment of STPs could be helpful in the creation of new companies as half of firms located at the STPs were startup enterprises. It helps firms to enhance its growth performance in the first five years after starting their business at these STPs. By developing software parks in three major cities, Pakistan Software Export Board have achieved partially its objectives. (author)

  4. Soil degradation in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper diagnoses the issues involved behind the current state, usage, interactions and linkages in the soils in Pakistan. The condition of soils is deteriorating due to developmental and environmental factors such as soil degradation, water pollution, fauna degeneration etc. Issues, problems and constraints faced in the management and usage of soils are diagnosed at different levels in the ecosystems predominant in Pakistan. The research questions propose effective solutions, types of instruments, methods or processes to resolve the issues within the various areas or ecosystems in the most sustainable and effective manner [23]. Biological solutions and methods can be applied at the sub-system level by private individuals or communities at a lower cost, and at a more localized level than engineering methods. Engineering methods may be suited for interventions at a system level rather than at a sub-system level; but even at this level they will be complementary with biological methods. (author)

  5. Energy Crisis In Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Pakistan and Iran was inked at Ankara. India withdrew from the project, possibly due to strained U.S.-Iran relations and India’s apprehension about...imports, China promptly exploited the opportunity and inked an agreement with Turkmenistan for constructing two additional pipelines (lines C and D...and revenue earnings. Realizing the danger of its sole economic dependence on China, Turkmenistan decided to diversify its export markets. Besides

  6. DIGITAL PAKISTAN: OPPORTUNITIES & CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Muhammad Kundi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available IT has revolutionized the social and organizational life around the globe. Given the newness of IT as a technology, there is a lot of potential that needs to be explored. It is however, argued that as IT can revolutionize the economic development, by the same coin, although its mismanagement in adoption process can end up in problems or even straight failure of the technology at the business-end. This study was conducted with reference to opportunities and challenges in the IT adoption process in Pakistan. The aim of the study was to point out the barriers that are impeding the country’s computerization process in order to provide facts to the policy makers for smooth computerization. The primary data collected through structured questionnaires was analyzed and tested through correlation, regressions analysis and t-test. Out of 10 hypotheses, 3 were accepted while in the rest null hypotheses were not substantiated. Based on primary and secondary data analysis this study has found that all independent bureaucratic, political, education and social and cultural variables are mutually correlated and have significant impact on shaping and reshaping of IT in Pakistan, while the Pakistan IT policy is inconsistent, administrative machinery attitude is negative and non cooperative, procedures are cumbersome and implementation is weak and ineffective, not to mention the lack of IT knowledge on the bureaucratic side. The political environment is instable and law and order is worse which is discouraging the investment. Moreover, physical and legal infrastructure is insufficient and the country is lacking good quality IT professionals. IT organization alignment is another serious issue in Pakistan. However, government incentives and growing interest from the private sector indicate positive attitude towards computerization of the country.

  7. DIGITAL PAKISTAN: OPPORTUNITIES & CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Muhammad Kundi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT IT has revolutionized the social and organizational life around the globe. Given the newness of IT as a technology, there is a lot of potential that needs to be explored. It is however, argued that as IT can revolutionize the economic development, by the same coin, although its mismanagement in adoption process can end up in problems or even straight failure of the technology at the business-end. This study was conducted with reference to opportunities and challenges in the IT adoption process in Pakistan. The aim of the study was to point out the barriers that are impeding the country’s computerization process in order to provide facts to the policy makers for smooth computerization. The primary data collected through structured questionnaires was analyzed and tested through correlation, regressions analysis and t-test. Out of 10 hypotheses, 3 were accepted while in the rest null hypotheses were not substantiated. Based on primary and secondary data analysis this study has found that all independent bureaucratic, political, education and social and cultural variables are mutually correlated and have significant impact on shaping and reshaping of IT in Pakistan, while the Pakistan IT policy is inconsistent, administrative machinery attitude is negative and non cooperative, procedures are cumbersome and implementation is weak and ineffective, not to mention the lack of IT knowledge on the bureaucratic side. The political environment is instable and law and order is worse which is discouraging the investment. Moreover, physical and legal infrastructure is insufficient and the country is lacking good quality IT professionals. IT organization alignment is another serious issue in Pakistan. However, government incentives and growing interest from the private sector indicate positive attitude towards computerization of the country.

  8. CREATION OF PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Sindhu, Shakila Noor

    2018-01-01

    Creation of a country is not an ordinary situation. But creation of Pakistan is an exception in the world history. This is one of the most debated topics in the subcontinent's socioeconomic, literature, art and political realm. Scores of researchers have investigated this extraordinary historical development in a diversity of perspectives and paradigms. Variety of exogenous and endogenous factors and a range of variables that acted, reacted and interacted among each other are evaluated. ...

  9. GLINT. Gravitational-wave laser INterferometry triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aria, Shafa; Azevedo, Rui; Burow, Rick; Cahill, Fiachra; Ducheckova, Lada; Holroyd, Alexa; Huarcaya, Victor; Järvelä, Emilia; Koßagk, Martin; Moeckel, Chris; Rodriguez, Ana; Royer, Fabien; Sypniewski, Richard; Vittori, Edoardo; Yttergren, Madeleine

    2017-11-01

    When the universe was roughly one billion years old, supermassive black holes (103-106 solar masses) already existed. The occurrence of supermassive black holes on such short time scales are poorly understood in terms of their physical or evolutionary processes. Our current understanding is limited by the lack of observational data due the limits of electromagnetic radiation. Gravitational waves as predicted by the theory of general relativity have provided us with the means to probe deeper into the history of the universe. During the ESA Alpach Summer School of 2015, a group of science and engineering students devised GLINT (Gravitational-wave Laser INterferometry Triangle), a space mission concept capable of measuring gravitational waves emitted by black holes that have formed at the early periods after the big bang. Morespecifically at redshifts of 15 big bang) in the frequency range 0.01 - 1 Hz. GLINT design strain sensitivity of 5× 10^{-24} 1/√ { {Hz}} will theoretically allow the study of early black holes formations as well as merging events and collapses. The laser interferometry, the technology used for measuring gravitational waves, monitors the separation of test masses in free-fall, where a change of separation indicates the passage of a gravitational wave. The test masses will be shielded from disturbing forces in a constellation of three geocentric orbiting satellites.

  10. TRIANGLING BELLOW’S SEIZE THE DAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nita Novianti

    2015-12-01

     Abstrak Teori-teori kritik sastra terus bermunculan, baik sebagai tanggapan, kritik, atau perkembangan dari teori-teori sebelumnya. Makalah ini memperkenalkan sebuah teori yang cukup baru yang bisa memperkaya khasanah kritik sastra di Indonesia, yaitu terapi sistem keluarga, melalui sebuah analisis terhadap novel berjudul Seize the Day karangan Saul Bellow, seorang penulis Amerika yang karya-karyanya terutama mengangkat tema keluarga dan permasalahan yang melingkupinya. Sebagai kritik terhadap teori Psikoanalisis oleh Freud dan variasi-variasinya, terapi sistem keluarga percaya bahwa identitas seseorang adalah bagian dari matriks identitas, sehingga analisis terhadap keterhubungan seseorang dengan orang lain yang terlibat dalam matriks tersebut diperlukan jika ingin memahami diri seseorang. Analisis menunjukkan bahwa protagonis novel tersebut, Wilhelm, terlibat dalam sebuah hubungan segitiga atau triangling dalam usahanya untuk menghadapi kegelisahan hidupnya; selain itu, hubungan segitiga hanyalah satu dari sekian jalan keluar untuk kegelisahan yang dihadapi protagonis. Makalah ini menyimpulkan bahwa teori psikoterapi keluarga cocok untuk menganalisis secara kritis karya-karya sastra yang berkenaan dengan masalah keluarga, seperti Seize the Day. Teori ini menawarkan sudut pandang baru, tidak hanya terhadap praktik dalam kritik sastra, tapi juga terhadap cara melihat permasalahan dalam hidup. Kata kunci: Terapi sistem keluarga, segitiga, kegelisahan.

  11. Band structures in Sierpinski triangle fractal porous phononic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kai; Liu, Ying, E-mail: yliu5@bjtu.edu.cn; Liang, Tianshu

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the band structures in Sierpinski triangle fractal porous phononic crystals (FPPCs) are studied with the aim to clarify the effect of fractal hierarchy on the band structures. Firstly, one kind of FPPCs based on Sierpinski triangle routine is proposed. Then the influence of the porosity on the elastic wave dispersion in Sierpinski triangle FPPCs is investigated. The sensitivity of the band structures to the fractal hierarchy is discussed in detail. The results show that the increase of the hierarchy increases the sensitivity of ABG (Absolute band gap) central frequency to the porosity. But further increase of the fractal hierarchy weakens this sensitivity. On the same hierarchy, wider ABGs could be opened in Sierpinski equilateral triangle FPPC; whilst, a lower ABG could be opened at lower porosity in Sierpinski right-angled isosceles FPPCs. These results will provide a meaningful guidance in tuning band structures in porous phononic crystals by fractal design.

  12. A Pascal-like triangle from finding power sums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhibo

    2014-08-01

    A Pascal-like triangle is constructed so that power sums can be conveniently obtained by college (or high school) students with no need for memorizing complicated formulas or performing difficult calculations.

  13. The comfort triangles : A new tool for bioclimatic design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents a new graphic tool to identify and select bioclimatic strategies according to climate conditions and comfort requirements. The Comfort Triangle relates outdoor daily temperature variations with the modification of thermal performance achieved indoors, using two key variables,

  14. Note: Design and capability verification of fillet triangle flexible support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; San, Xiao-Gang; Gao, Shi-Jie; Wang, Jing; Ni, Ying-Xue; Sang, Zhi-Xin

    2017-12-01

    By increasing the section thickness of a triangular flexible hinge, this study focuses on optimal selection of parameters of fillet triangle flexible hinges and flexible support. Based on Castigliano's second theorem, the flexibility expression of the fillet triangle flexible hinge was derived. Then, the case design is performed, and the comparison of three types of flexible hinges with this type of flexible hinge was carried out. The finite element models of fillet triangle flexible hinges and flexible support were built, and then the simulation results of performance parameters were calculated. Finally, the experiment platform was established to validate analysis results. The maximum error is less than 8%, which verifies the accuracy of the simulation process and equations derived; also the fundamental frequency fits the requirements of the system. The fillet triangle flexible hinge is proved to have the advantages of high precision and low flexibility.

  15. A Heuristic Algorithm for Solving Triangle Packing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research on the triangle packing problem has important theoretic significance, which has broad application prospects in material processing, network resource optimization, and so forth. Generally speaking, the orientation of the triangle should be limited in advance, since the triangle packing problem is NP-hard and has continuous properties. For example, the polygon is not allowed to rotate; then, the approximate solution can be obtained by optimization method. This paper studies the triangle packing problem by a new kind of method. Such concepts as angle region, corner-occupying action, corner-occupying strategy, and edge-conjoining strategy are presented in this paper. In addition, an edge-conjoining and corner-occupying algorithm is designed, which is to obtain an approximate solution. It is demonstrated that the proposed algorithm is highly efficient, and by the time complexity analysis and the analogue experiment result is found.

  16. Biogas technology in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.

    1997-02-01

    Although biomethanation is a mature technology its implementation is paradoxically only partly a success in Pakistan. Biogas plants on family farms can be economical but seldom are so in Pakistan. Either the investment cost has been high or satisfactory performance of the process could not be maintained or in some case for a short period of time only. It is, however, concluded that biogas plants, if correctly operated and maintained, may prove to be appropriate to the technical abilities and economic capacity of Pakistani farmers. It can get a change to be disseminated in rural areas. Biogas technology is appropriate to the ecological and economic demands of the future. With the potential from existing cattle population only, 3 to 4 million family size biogas plants may be installed in Pakistan which can substitute of considerable part of rural fuel wood demand for their daily household energy requirements. A large amount of dung is burnt every year by households which if put in the biogas plant, may provide a considerable amount of energy along with organic fertilizer could be saved from being burned at the same time. On the basis of available data from the livestock excluding agriculture residue (50% collectivity-1991), in terms of fuel substitution, this would be equivalent to 1200 million litres of kerosene at worth economic value of 9021 million rupees saving in the form of gas and 821 million rupees as additional fertilizer value annually. (LN)

  17. Palliative care in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Robyna Irshad

    2017-01-01

    Pakistan is a developing country of South East Asia, with all the incumbent difficulties currently being faced by the region. Insufficient public healthcare facilities, poorly regulated private health sector, low budgetary allocation for health, improper priority setting while allocating limited resources, have resulted essentially in an absence of palliative care from the healthcare scene. Almost 90% of healthcare expenditure is out of the patient's pocket with more than 45% of population living below the poverty line. All these factors have a collective potential to translate into an end-of-life care disaster as a large percentage of population is suffering from chronic debilitating/terminal diseases. So far, such a disaster has not materialised, the reason being a family based culture emphasising the care of the sick and old at home, supported by religious teachings. This culture is not limited to Pakistan but subsists in the entire sub-continent, where looking after the sick/elderly at home is considered to be the duty of the younger generation. With effects of globalisation, more and more older people are living alone and an increasing need for palliative care is being realised. However, there does not seem to be any plan on the part of the public or private sectors to initiate palliative care services. This paper seeks to trace the social and cultural perspectives in Pakistan with regards to accessing palliative care in the context of healthcare facilities available.

  18. Perilaku Kecurangan Akademik Mahasiswa Akuntansi: Dimensi Fraud Triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annisa Fitriana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examine the dimensions of Fraud Triangle to explain this effect on the student’s cheating. This study uses a model of research The Academic Dishonesty Scale modifi cation. Sample in this study were 217 accounting students in Brawijaya University Malang. Data was collected through survey methods. This study have obtained empirical evidence that student’s cheating behaviorwas determined by the dimensions of the Fraud Triangle consists of incentive, opportunity and rationalization.

  19. The stable stiffness triangle - drained sand during deformation cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    Cyclic, drained sand stiffness was observed using the Danish triaxial appa- ratus. New, deformation dependant soil property (the stable stiffness triangle) was detected. Using the the stable stiffness triangle, secant stiffness of drained sand was plausible to predict (and control) even during ir...... findings can find application in off-shore, seismic and other engi- neering practice, or inspire new branches of research and modelling wherever dynamic, cyclic or transient loaded sand is encountered....

  20. Some constructions on total labelling of m triangles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voon, Chen Huey; Hui, Liew How; How, Yim Kheng

    2016-01-01

    Let mK 3 = (V m , E m ) be a finite disconnected graph consisting of m disjoint triangles K 3 , where V m is the set of vertices, E m is the set of edges and both V m and E m are of the same size 3m. A total labelling of mK 3 is a function f which maps the elements in V m and E m to positive integer values, i.e. f : V m ∪ E m → {1, 2, 3,···}. Let c be a positive integer. A triangle is said have a c-Erdősian triangle labelling if it is a total labelling f : V m ∪ E m → {c, c + 1, ···, c + 6m − 1} such that f (x) + f (y) = f (xy) for any x, y ∈ V m and an edge xy ∈ E m joining them. In order to find all the c-Erdősian triangle labelling, a straightforward is to use the exhaustive search. However, the exhaustive search is only able to find c-Erdősian triangle labelling for m ≤ 5 due to combinatorial explosion. By studying the constant sum of vertex labels, we propose a strong permutation approach, which allows us to generate a certain classes of c-Erdősian triangle labelling up until m = 8.

  1. Pakistan-U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kronstadt, K. A

    2008-01-01

    ...; and economic development. U.S.-Pakistan relationship marked by periods of both cooperation and discord was transformed by the September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States and the ensuing enlistment of Pakistan as a key ally in U.S...

  2. Street children in Pakistan: a situational analysis of social conditions and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Moazzam; Shahab, Saqib; Ushijima, Hiroshi; de Muynck, Aime

    2004-10-01

    This paper examines the social conditions and nutritional status of street children in Pakistan. Nutritional status is evaluated by an assessment of height and weight relative to age. A heterogeneous sample of 108 street children in the twin cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad was studied. One hundred and one of them were children "on the street" having regular family contact; seven were "of the street", without any family contact. Most street children came from large families which had recently moved to the city in search of economic opportunities. Their parents had low education levels and were either unemployed or employed in unskilled occupations. Poverty clearly was an important factor. The majority of the children moved to the street to augment family income. Most of the children were males (81%) and the average age at beginning life on the street was under 10 years. The majority was working 8-12 h daily with an average income of Rs. 40-60 per day (USD 1 = Rs. 60). Important issues were parental exploitation, police harassment, abuse, and the impact of other street peers in their lives. The distribution of height-for-age relative to the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) reference standard showed that 20% were stunted and 12% had wasting. Wasting was equal between sexes, while fewer girls than boys were stunted. The study concludes that the issue of street children in Rawalpindi and Islamabad is mainly one of "children on the street," while "children of the street" are an exceptional phenomenon. It was noted that, with some exceptions, street children in other world regions share similar risk factors and backgrounds. Findings from this study will facilitate both the identification of high-risk families, i.e. those whose children are likely to take to the street, and timely preventive and rehabilitative measures.

  3. PREVALENCE OF HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS IN NATURALLY INFECTED SMALL RUMINANTS GRAZING IN THE POTOHAR AREA OF PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. CHAUDARY, M. F. U. KHAN1 AND M. QAYYUM

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and seasonal trend of the Haemonchus contortus in sheep and goats in the Potohar areas of northern Punjab, Pakistan from December 2004 to January 2006. Faecal samples collected from 968 sheep and 961 goats of different breeds were examined by the modified McMaster technique using saturated solution of sodium chloride. Results revealed that the infection was significantly (P<0.05 higher in sheep compared to goats. The peak infection level was recorded during rainy season (July-October. On the other hand, low infection level was noted from December upto May. In sheep, highest log faecal egg counts (LFECs were recorded in Islamabad, followed by Attock, Jhelum and Chakwal. However, in goats the LFECs trend was highest in Islamabad, followed by Jhelum, Attock and Chakwal districts. A significant (P<0.05 variability in LFECs was noted between sheep and goat breeds from site-site, while no significant difference was observed between breeds at the same site. Hairy (Jattal goats and Salt-Range (Latti sheep breeds exhibited significantly reduced LFECs level along with higher packed cell volume (PCV and haemoglobin (Hb levels compared to other breeds. Moreover, FAMACHA© chart scoring in relation with worm infection (FECs was more valid in sheep than goats. High prevalence of H. contortus in Potohar areas was due to favourable agro-climatic conditions that favour the development and survival of the free-living stages of H. contortus. The findings are discussed with regard to their relevance for strategic control of haemonchosis in small ruminants.

  4. Highest priority in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil, E

    1968-01-01

    Responding to the challenge posed by its population problem, Pakistan's national leadership gave the highest priority to family planning in its socioeconomic development plan. In Pakistan, as elsewhere in the world, the first family planning effort originated in the private sector. The Family Planning Association of Pakistan made a tentative beginning in popularizing family planning in the country. Some clinics were opened and some publicity and education were undertaken to emphasize the need for family limitation. It was recognized soon that the government needed to assume the primarily responsibility if family planning efforts were to be successful. For the 1st plan period, 1955-60, about $10 million was allocated by the central government in the social welfare sector for voluntary family planning. The level of support continued on the same basis during the 2nd plan, 1960-65, but has been raised 4-fold in the 1965-70 scheme of family planning. Pakistan's Family Planning Association continues to play vital collaborative roles in designing and pretesting of prototype publicity material, involvement of voluntary social workers, and functional research in the clinical and public relations fields. The real breakthrough in the program came with the 3rd 5-year plan, 1965-70. High priority assigned to family planning is reflected by the total initial budget of Rs.284 million (about $60,000,000) for the 5-year period. Current policy is postulated on 6 basic assumptions: family planning efforts need to be public relations-oriented; operations should be conducted through autonomous bodies with decentralized authority at all tiers down to the grassroots level, for expeditious decision making; monetary incentives play an important role; interpersonal motivation in terms of life experience of the clientele through various contacts, coupled with mass media for publicity, can produce a sociological breakthrough; supplies and services in all related disciplines should be

  5. Nuclear minerals in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansoor, M.

    2005-01-01

    Strategic importance of Nuclear Minerals was recognized during early formative years of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, and prospecting for uranium was started in Dera Ghazi Khan in collaboration with the Geological Survey of Pakistan (GSP) as early as 1961. Later, the responsibility for countrywide surveys and exploration was fully entrusted with PAEC and in this respect a Directorate of Nuclear Minerals(DNM) was established in 1966 at Lahore. Later, DNM was shifted to the Atomic Energy Centre (AEC), Lahore building and renamed as Atomic Energy Minerals Centre. It has state-of-the-art Chemistry, Mineralogy, Remote Sensing and Electronics Laboratories and an Ore Processing Pilot Plant. The Centre has Prospecting, Exploration, Geophysics, Geochemistry, Geo-tectonics, Mining and Drilling Sections. Regional Offices have been established to facilitate work at Karachi, Quetta and Peshawar. Siwaliks were recognized as a favorable geological formation of prime importance. Sandstone-shale sequence of Siwaliks Formation is exposed in all provinces of Pakistan and in Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), broadly categorized into Rajanpur-Dera Ghazi Khan, Bannu Basin-Kohat Plateau and Potwar-AJK zones. Baghalchur, Nangar Nai and Taunsa uranium deposits have been discovered in the Rajanpur- D.G. Khan Zone. Qabul Khel and Shanawah Uranium deposits have been discovered in the Shanawah-Kohat Plateau Zone. Prospection and exploration is in progress. The first uranium mine was opened at Baghalchur, and uranium mill was established at D.G Khan in 1977-78 all by indigenous effort. The uranium mine was the most advanced and mechanized mine of that time in the country. Later, a second uranium mine was opened at Qabul Khel in 1992, which was based on a new and advanced in situ leach technology, developed to suit local geological and ore zone parameters. Mining of Nanganai and Taunsa Deposits was started respectively in 1996 and 2002, and is also based on in situ leach technology which is

  6. Pakistan: History and Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1961-06-20

    planta - tion ovmer and the ^«J^^X SE worker also"de- •income wxth them. ine persoiiax J.J.A«= «* ...„«. +v,Ä pends on the plantation owner...present on the planta - ?ions of lasfpakistan and the Draft Five Year Plan for, al means to tie the plantation worker to the plantatxon. -49- Some...for 10,000 rupees apiece.29 According to figures given by the United Kingdom Industrxal ; mission in Pakistan, in 1950 there were less than 100

  7. Rapid Separation of Disconnected Triangle Meshes Based on Graph Traversal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, S J; Wang, Y

    2006-01-01

    In recent year, The STL file become a de facto standard on the file presentation in CAD/CAM, computer graph and reverse engineering. When point cloud which is obtained by scanning object body using optical instrument is used to reconstruct an original model, the points cloud is presented by the STL file. Usually, datum of several separated and relative objects are stored in a single STL file, when such a file is operated by a computer, the datum in the file is firstly separated and then each element of every triangle pitch on the triangle mesh is traversed and visited and is calculated. The problem is analyzed and studied by many experts, but there is still a lack of a simple and quick algorithm. An algorithm which uses graph traversal to traverse each element of the triangle meshes and separate several disconnected triangle meshes is presented by the paper, the searching and calculating speed of the data on the triangle meshes is enhanced, memory size of the computer is reduced, complexity of the data structure is simplified and powerful guarantee is made for the next process by using this algorithm

  8. Value Triangles in the Management of Building Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate value triangles and their implementation in the management of building projects. The paper is based on results from a research project on space strategies and building values, which included a major case study of the development of facilities for Danish...... Broadcasting Corporation (DR) over time. The conventional iron triangle of quality, cost and schedule for project management is the theoretical starting point, but this is seen as mainly being related to process integrity in the construction stage. It is supplemented by a similar value triangle of cultural...... value, use value and quality of realization for product integrity, mainly for the design stage. Based on this framework an evaluation is made of the value management in six of DR’s building projects from the first around 1930 to the most recent – the new headquarters DR Byen finalised in 2009...

  9. Developing Lesson Design to Help Students’ Triangle Conseptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabawanto, S.; Mulyana, E.

    2017-09-01

    The research was aimed to develop a lesson design so that students’ triangle conceptual understanding could be achieved. The method that be used in this research was qualitative with applied didactical design research (DDR). The DDR consisted of three main stepts, namely prospective analysis, metapedadicdactic analysis, and retrospective analysis. From the three stepts above, it was gained the empirical lesson design of triangle topic. The reseach results are: (1) there were some learning obstacles of students deal with the triangle topic, namely ontogenical, epietimological, and didactical obstacles; (2) implementaion of the lesson was conducted under three main stepts, namely action, formulation, and validation. For answering weather the design can be applied to other group of students, it was recommended that it cound be investigated by doing advanced reseach.

  10. An Indoor Collaborative Coefficient-Triangle APIT Localization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Ting Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Approximate Point-In-Triangulation (APIT localization algorithm is a widely used indoor positioning technology due to its simplicity and low power consumption. However, in practice, In-to-Out misjudgments exist regularly in APIT, and a considerable amount of nodes cannot be positioned due to the low node density. To tackle this issue, a Collaborative Coefficient-triangle APIT Localization (CCAL algorithm is proposed. Firstly, an effective triangle criterion is put forward to reduce the probability of In-to-Out misjudgment and reduce the computational complexity. Then, a further Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI location and weighted triangle coordinate calculation method is adopted to reduce the positioning error. Meanwhile, the idea of iterative collaborative positioning of the positioned unknown nodes is introduced to remarkably expand the localization coverage rate. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms APIT, RSSI, and other improved algorithms in terms of both node location error and localization coverage rate.

  11. Some constructions on total labelling of m triangles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voon, Chen Huey, E-mail: chenhv@utar.edu.my; Hui, Liew How, E-mail: liewhh@utar.edu.my; How, Yim Kheng, E-mail: tidusyimhome@hotmail.com [Department of Mathematical and Actuarial Sciences, Lee Kong Chian Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Sungai Long, Bandar Sungai Long, Cheras 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-06-02

    Let mK{sub 3} = (V{sub m}, E{sub m}) be a finite disconnected graph consisting of m disjoint triangles K{sub 3}, where V{sub m} is the set of vertices, E{sub m} is the set of edges and both V{sub m} and E{sub m} are of the same size 3m. A total labelling of mK{sub 3} is a function f which maps the elements in V{sub m} and E{sub m} to positive integer values, i.e. f : V{sub m} ∪ E{sub m} → {1, 2, 3,···}. Let c be a positive integer. A triangle is said have a c-Erdősian triangle labelling if it is a total labelling f : V{sub m} ∪ E{sub m} → {c, c + 1, ···, c + 6m − 1} such that f (x) + f (y) = f (xy) for any x, y ∈ V{sub m} and an edge xy ∈ E{sub m} joining them. In order to find all the c-Erdősian triangle labelling, a straightforward is to use the exhaustive search. However, the exhaustive search is only able to find c-Erdősian triangle labelling for m ≤ 5 due to combinatorial explosion. By studying the constant sum of vertex labels, we propose a strong permutation approach, which allows us to generate a certain classes of c-Erdősian triangle labelling up until m = 8.

  12. Vertex Normals and Face Curvatures of Triangle Meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiang

    2016-08-12

    This study contributes to the discrete differential geometry of triangle meshes, in combination with discrete line congruences associated with such meshes. In particular we discuss when a congruence defined by linear interpolation of vertex normals deserves to be called a ʼnormal’ congruence. Our main results are a discussion of various definitions of normality, a detailed study of the geometry of such congruences, and a concept of curvatures and shape operators associated with the faces of a triangle mesh. These curvatures are compatible with both normal congruences and the Steiner formula.

  13. Coloring triangle-free graphs with fixed size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten; Gimbel, John

    2000-01-01

    Combining recent results on colorings and Ramsey theory, we show that if G is a triangle-free graph with e edges then the chromatic number of G is at most cel(1/3)(log e)(-2/3) for some constant c. In a previous paper, we found an upper bound on the chromatic number of a triangle-free graph...... of genus g. Using the new result, we slightly improve this bound to cg(1/3)(log g)(-2/3). Both bounds are best possible, up to a constant multiple. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  14. Predicting Bankruptcy in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul RASHID

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the financial ratios that are most significant in bankruptcy prediction for the non-financial sector of Pakistan based on a sample of companies which became bankrupt over the time period 1996-2006. Twenty four financial ratios covering four important financial attributes, namely profitability, liquidity, leverage, and turnover ratios, were examined for a five-year period prior bankruptcy. The discriminant analysis produced a parsimonious model of three variables viz. sales to total assets, EBIT to current liabilities, and cash flow ratio. Our estimates provide evidence that the firms having Z-value below zero fall into the “bankrupt” whereas the firms with Z-value above zero fall into the “non-bankrupt” category. The model achieved 76.9% prediction accuracy when it is applied to forecast bankruptcies on the underlying sample.

  15. Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance Among Clinical Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolated From a Tertiary Care Hospital in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin, A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance pattern and extended spectrum β-lactamase production was investigated in cultures of forty Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates isolated in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Islamabad Pakistan towards novel cephalosporin (first, second and third generation, floroquinolones, carbapenems, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and lincomycin by disc sensitivity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC. Cephalosporin was reported as highly resistant (cephradine 100%, cephalexin 75%, cefeclor 87.5%, ceftriaxone 85%, cefotaxime 82.5%, lincomycin (100%, followed by quinolones (ciprofloxacin 55%, ofloxacin 47.5%, nalidixic acid 42.5%, norfloxacin 35%, moxifloxacin 25%, gatifloxacin 15%, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 12.5%, and carbapenams (imipenem, meropenem with the least resistance at 7.5%. About 47.5% strains were found to be ESBLs positive among which 15.8% of the strains were producing carbapenamase, 26.5% with inducible cephalosporinase of bush functional gene 2e. No inhibitor resistant TEM-β lactamases (IRT positive strains were found. High antibiotic resistance rate against commonly used antibiotics is a disadvantage for health care system in countries like Pakistan as it can greatly effect patient management. Therefore physicians must change prescription priorities towards alternative antibiotics to reduce the burden of antibiotics resistance.

  16. PREPARING FUTURE TEACHERS THROUGH DISTANCE LEARNING: An Empirical Study on Students’ Perception of Teacher Education Program Provided by AIOU Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad NADEEM

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to analyse the pre service teachers training programs for the distance learners of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU Islamabad, Pakistan. This kind of training is provided to the future teachers enrolled to acquire pre service training to become a teacher in a Government educational institution in Pakistan. The data was collected by administering a 45 items agree disagree four points Likert type scale to the subjects mainly through the scheduled meetings during the workshops. The independent sample t-test, and one way ANOVA along with mean difference was worked out for the data set. A group of 490 student teachers were randomly selected from the regions of Bahawalpur, Bahawalnagar, Rahimyarkhan, Multan, and D.G.Khan Districts (Southern Punjab. The planning for training is made timely but lacking physical facilities remains dominant in trainings. Although training plays an important role in students learning yet it is considered just a routine activity which made it a useless exercise. Similarly, findings reveal that co-curricular activities and child psychology are those aspects which ignored in the training. Future studies may be aimed at comparing the training system of teachers with teacher training through other channels of formal system of governments.

  17. From the Triangle Inequality to the Isoperimetric Inequality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 2. From the Triangle Inequality to the Isoperimetric Inequality. S Kesavan. General Article Volume 19 Issue 2 February 2014 pp 135-148. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  18. Characteristic mixing triangles in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.; Sastry, J.S.

    Temperature-salinity structures in the inner part of Bay of Bengal showed complete mixing processes in the upper bay, less than about 600 m can be characterisEd. by a mixing triangle constitutEd. by three characteristic water properties. In outer...

  19. Borromean Triangles and Prime Knots in an Ancient Temple

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 5. Borromean Triangles and Prime Knots in an Ancient Temple. Arul Lakshminarayan. General Article Volume 12 ... Author Affiliations. Arul Lakshminarayan1. Department of Physics Indian Institute of Technology Madras Chennai, 600036, India.

  20. Cohabitation promotes high diversity of clownfishes in the Coral Triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Emma F; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; De Brauwer, Maarten; Dumbrell, Alex J; Smith, David J

    2016-03-30

    Global marine biodiversity peaks within the Coral Triangle, and understanding how such high diversity is maintained is a central question in marine ecology. We investigated broad-scale patterns in the diversity of clownfishes and their host sea anemones by conducting 981 belt-transects at 20 locations throughout the Indo-Pacific. Of the 1508 clownfishes encountered, 377 fish occurred in interspecific cohabiting groups and cohabitation was almost entirely restricted to the Coral Triangle. Neither the diversity nor density of host anemone or clownfish species alone influenced rates of interspecific cohabitation. Rather cohabitation occurred in areas where the number of clownfish species exceeds the number of host anemone species. In the Coral Triangle, cohabiting individuals were observed to finely partition their host anemone, with the subordinate species inhabiting the periphery. Furthermore, aggression did not increase in interspecific cohabiting groups, instead dominant species were accepting of subordinate species. Various combinations of clownfish species were observed cohabiting (independent of body size, phylogenetic relatedness, evolutionary age, dentition, level of specialization) in a range of anemone species, thereby ensuring that each clownfish species had dominant reproductive individuals in some cohabiting groups. Clownfishes are obligate commensals, thus cohabitation is an important process in maintaining biodiversity in high diversity systems because it supports the persistence of many species when host availability is limiting. Cohabitation is a likely explanation for high species richness in other obligate commensals within the Coral Triangle, and highlights the importance of protecting these habitats in order to conserve unique marine biodiversity. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Triangles and tribulations: the politics of Nazi symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elman, R A

    1996-01-01

    This article explores the politics of "reclamation." Its focus is on pink and black triangles, currently used as symbols for gay and lesbian pride and liberation. Previously, these same identifiers were worn by those destined for annihilation during the Holocaust. I suggest that, in [re]claiming these markers, activists, however well intentioned, run a path dangerously close to the denial of history.

  2. Self-assembly of self-assembled molecular triangles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    While the solution state structure of 1 can be best described as a trinuclear complex, in the solidstate well-fashioned intermolecular - and CH- interactions are observed. Thus, in the solid-state further self-assembly of already self-assembled molecular triangle is witnessed. The triangular panels are arranged in a linear ...

  3. Determination of the CKM unitarity triangle parameters by end 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roudeau, P.; Stocchi, A.; Parodi, F.; Caravaglios, F.

    2000-02-01

    Within the Standard Model, a review of the current determination of the CKM unitarity triangle parameters is presented, using experimental constraints from the measurements of |ε K |, |V ub /V cb |, Δm d and from the limit on Δm s , available by end 1999. (authors)

  4. Triangle of Safety Technique: A New Approach to Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman F. M. S. Almutairi

    2009-01-01

    dissection of the Calot's triangle can lead to such injuries. The aim of the authors in this study is to present a new safe triangle of dissection. Patients and Method. 501 patients under went LC in the following approach; The cystic artery is identified and mobilized from the gall bladder (GB medial wall down towards the cystic duct which would simultaneously divide the medial GB peritoneal attachment. This is then followed by dividing the lateral peritoneal attachment. The GB will be unfolded and the borders of the triangle of safety (TST are achieved: cystic artery medially, cystic duct laterally and the gallbladder wall superiorly. The floor of the triangle is then divided to delineate both cystic duct and artery in an area relatively far from CBD. Results. There were little significant immediate or delayed complications. The mean operating time was 68 minutes, nearly equivalent to the conventional method. Conclusions. Dissection at TST appears to be a safe procedure which clearly demonstrates the cystic duct and may help to reduce the CBD injuries.

  5. Balancing in direction (1,-1 in Pascal's Triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacene Belbachir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the problem of balancing binomial coefficients in Pascal's triangle. We give the complete solution in the direction (1,-1 for the first four cases of the possible rays. Some linked questions have been also examined.

  6. The chemist's triangle and a general systemic approach to teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The three levels of science thought (macro, micro, symbolic), identified by Johnstone and represented by a triangle, may be viewed as a core closed-cluster concept map of the type advocated in the systemic approach to teaching and learning of chemistry. Some of the implications of this view for teaching, learning and ...

  7. Borromean Triangles and Prime Knots in an Ancient Temple

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    have also been found in Japanese shrines and family emblems, and in medieval Christian iconography where it reconciles mono- theism with the potential polytheism implied by the Trinity of the. Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost. While the Borromean circles and triangles are topologically similar, they are geometrically ...

  8. Pakistan's Madrassas -- Weapons of Mass Instruction?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, Paul M

    2007-01-01

    .... The madrassas are not unique to Pakistan, but are found throughout the Muslim world. However, Pakistan is a particularly interesting case since it was the staging ground for the CIA-led opposition to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan...

  9. U.S. Arms Sales to Pakistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimmett, Richard F

    2008-01-01

    This report briefly reviews the issue of U.S. arms sales to Pakistan. It provides background details regarding recent major weapons transactions between the United States and Pakistan, as well as the rationale given for such sales...

  10. CERN and Pakistan consolidate their partnership

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    During the President of Pakistan's visit to CERN, the Laboratory and Pakistan decided to strengthen their collaboration. The President of Pakistan, Pervez Musharraf, the Chairman of PAEC, Parvez Butt, and CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar, exchange congratulations following the signing of the letter of intent to strengthen partnership between CERN and Pakistan.The President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Pervez Musharraf, during his speech in the Council Chamber. The President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, General Pervez Musharraf, visited CERN on 27 January this year, accompanied by an important delegation of five ministers from the Pakistani Government, the Chairman of Pakistan's Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), Parvez Butt, and an eminent former Chairman of the Commission, Ishfaq Ahmad, who pioneered cooperation with CERN. Welcomed by CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar, the President visited the CMS experiment to which Pakistan is making a substantial contribution. The presidential pa...

  11. U.S. Arms Sales to Pakistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimmett, Richard F

    2007-01-01

    This report briefly reviews the issue of U.S. arms sales to Pakistan. It provides background details regarding recent major weapons transactions between the United States and Pakistan, as well as the rationale given for such sales...

  12. Militancy in Pakistan: Rebottling the Genie

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    role in ensuring the safety of the people of Pakistan . They are critical to maintaining the law and order in their both urban and rural areas. The...a Pakistan -centric approach. Pakistan must view strong, effective public education as a necessity not only for economic growth but as a measure of...and growth through a combination of direct assistance and favorable terms of trade. There is no dearth of natural resources, but Pakistan must

  13. PAKISTAN MEASURES, IN CONTROLLING NARCOTICS TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    ALASMARI Khaled

    2013-01-01

    Pakistan is one of the worldâ€(tm)s top producers of narcotics. Pakistan neighbors Afghanistan, the worldâ€(tm)s top producer of opium. Pakistan faces a task of controlling, cultivating, producing and trafficking narcotics within its territory (World Drug Report, 2005). Riddled with corruption, poverty, high unemployment rate amongst its population, the government of Pakistan has invested much resource in the fight to the social vice inflicting its population (Niazi et al, 2009). This paper s...

  14. Identifying translational science within the triangle of biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Griffin M

    2013-05-24

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap places special emphasis on "bench-to-bedside" research, or the "translation" of basic science research into practical clinical applications. The Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) Consortium is one example of the large investments being made to develop a national infrastructure to support translational science, which involves reducing regulatory burdens, launching new educational initiatives, and forming partnerships between academia and industry. However, while numerous definitions have been suggested for translational science, including the qualitative T1-T4 classification, a consensus has not yet been reached. This makes it challenging to tract the impact of these major policy changes. In this study, we use a bibliometric approach to map PubMed articles onto a graph, called the Triangle of Biomedicine. The corners of the triangle represent research related to animals, cells and molecules, and humans; and, the position of a publication on the graph is based on its topics, as determined by its Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). We define translation as movement of a collection of articles, or the articles that cite those articles, towards the human corner. The Triangle of Biomedicine provides a quantitative way of determining if an individual scientist, research organization, funding agency, or scientific field is producing results that are relevant to clinical medicine. We validate our technique using examples that have been previously described in the literature and by comparing it to prior methods of measuring translational science. The Triangle of Biomedicine is a novel way to identify translational science and track changes over time. This is important to policy makers in evaluating the impact of the large investments being made to accelerate translation. The Triangle of Biomedicine also provides a simple visual way of depicting this impact, which can be far more powerful than numbers alone.

  15. The Pakistan Experiment and the Language Issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schendel, W.; Guhathakurta, M.; van Schendel, W.

    2013-01-01

    The partition of 1947 created two new independent states, India and Pakistan. The eastern part of Bengal joined Pakistan. Pakistan was a highly ambitious experiment in twentieth-century state making. And yet, from the beginning the state was beset with enormous challenges. This excerpt from a recent

  16. Pakistan's Approach Towards Cem-Bio Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M. A.; Iqbal, J.

    2007-01-01

    Pakistan ratified the BWC and CWC as a non-possessive state at that time when international environment were fraught with uncertainties about Chem-Bio threat. The geographical location of Pakistan faces a serious multidimensional WMD threat which includes threat from, non-state actors and her neighbours especially after declaration of chemical weapons during process of ratification of CWC. Pakistan never pursued such chem-bio program with the aim to use it as a mean of deterrence in overall context of security policy and always encouraged any move regarding strengthening of national/international institutional efforts to counter potential misuse of chem-bio technology. Pakistan's position has consistently been positive, pragmatic and supportive. For better implementation of BWC and CWC in Pakistan, comprehensive policies have been formulated and National Authority has been established to work as National point of contact on CWC affairs. Pakistan CWC Act 2000, Pakistan Bio Safety Rules 2005 and Pakistan Export Control Act 2004 are the evidences of Pakistan's sincerity to the implementation of CWC and BWC. Pakistan has declared 15 industries involved with chemicals, out of which 06 have already been inspected by OPCW Inspectors. Pakistan has declared its national protective program and pursuing all possible measures to enhance the national capacity and potential to guard against chem-bio threats. Pakistan has proved that it is committed to the principles of disarmament, which could serve as confidence building measures and may help reducing distrust and regional tension.(author)

  17. Serious fungal infections in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, K; Farooqi, J; Mirza, S; Denning, D; Zafar, A

    2017-06-01

    The true burden of fungal infection in Pakistan is unknown. High-risk populations for fungal infections [tuberculosis (TB), diabetes, chronic respiratory diseases, asthma, cancer, transplant and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection] are numerous. Here, we estimate the burden of fungal infections to highlight their public health significance. Whole and at-risk population estimates were obtained from the WHO (TB), BREATHE study (COPD), UNAIDS (HIV), GLOBOCAN (cancer) and Heartfile (diabetes). Published data from Pakistan reporting fungal infections rates in general and specific populations were reviewed and used when applicable. Estimates were made for the whole population or specific populations at risk, as previously described in the LIFE methodology. Of the 184,500,000 people in Pakistan, an estimated 3,280,549 (1.78%) are affected by a serious fungal infection, omitting all cutaneous infection, oral candidiasis and allergic fungal sinusitis, which we could not estimate. Compared with other countries, the rates of candidaemia (21/100,000) and mucormycosis (14/100,000) are estimated to be very high, and are based on data from India. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis rates are estimated to be high (39/100,000) because of the high TB burden. Invasive aspergillosis was estimated to be around 5.9/100,000. Fungal keratitis is also problematic in Pakistan, with an estimated rate of 44/100,000. Pakistan probably has a high rate of certain life- or sight-threatening fungal infections.

  18. Qualification, knowledge and experience of dispensers working at community pharmacies in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Azhar; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham M

    2011-04-01

    Pharmacies are managed by a variety of dispensers in terms of qualification, knowledge and experience in Pakistan. The study aimed to document the state of knowledge, experience and qualification of dispensers working at community pharmacies in Pakistan. A comparative cross sectional study was conducted at a randomly selected sample of 371 pharmacies in the three cities of Pakistan. A structured questionnaire for data collection was developed and finalized by focused group discussions and pilot testing. The data was coded, entered and analyzed by using SPSS Version 16. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (p≤0.05) were performed to find out differences. Out of total sample of 371 pharmacies, 31.8 % (118) were in Islamabad, 32.4 % (120) in Peshawar and 35.8 % (133) were in Lahore. Fifty percent of the respondents had correct knowledge of range of room temperature at which medicines should be stored. Only 11.1% (41) of the respondents knew about OTC (over the counter drugs) which can be sold without prescription while 5.9 % (22) of the respondents were aware of POM (prescription only medicines) which can be only sold on a valid prescription. While 87.6% (325), 88.1% (327), 58.7% (318) and 95.7 % (355) of the respondents did not know the meaning of the dispensing abbreviations such as 'h.s', 'q.d', 'sos' and 'p.r.n'. The respondents did not know correctly the status of Deltacortil® (Prednisolone), Septran® (Sulfamethoxazole) and Fansidar® (Pyrimethamine and Sulfadoxine) either as OTC or POM in 26.7% (99), 64.2% (238), and 44.5 % (165) of the cases, respectively. There was a significant difference (p≤0.05) in knowledge of dispensers regarding storage temperature, prescription terminologies and status of medicines having different level of qualification and experience. The overall knowledge and training of dispensers working at community pharmacies is inadequate in Pakistan. However, pharmacists had relatively better knowledge regarding storage temperature

  19. University Libraries in Pakistan University Libraries in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zulqarnain Akhtar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to examine the development and growth of the university libraries in Pakistan. It also examines the obstacles in the provision of better library services in the universities of the country. The study is based on an extensive review of the available literature, personal observations of the author and discussions with the senior library professionals. It was found that the situation of university libraries in Pakistan is a satisfactory compared to other types of libraries, but they are not meeting the required standards and are not participating in the universities' educational and research programs satisfactorily.

  20. Pakistan liberalises the petroleum sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    With the independence of the Indian sub-continent, Pakistan was declared a Dominion on 14 August 1947. Following political turbulence, East Pakistan declared itself an independent state, Bangladesh in December 1971. Although Pakistan has some coal, oil, natural gas and hydroelectricity (the huge Tarbela Dam on the Indus) it is an importer of energy. Many of the population of 90 million live in the 44000 villages only about half of which have mains electricity supplies. About 85 percent of the energy consumption in rural areas is provided by non-commercial sources such as dung and firewood. To replace these non-commercial fuels, even with considerable increases in energy efficiency, would mean a trebling of the present levels of burning kerosine and gas oil consumption. (?)

  1. Eradication of dracunculiasis from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, D R; Azam, M; Ruiz-Tiben, E; Kappus, K D

    1995-09-02

    In 1986 the World Health Organization targeted dracunculiasis (Guinea-worm disease), which seriously impairs socioeconomic development in 16 African countries, India, Pakistan, and Yemen, to be eradicated globally. The target date for eradication by the end of 1995 was established in 1991. Pakistan eradicated dracunculiasis from the country in October, 1993, after a national campaign which began in 1987 with a nationwide village-by-village search for cases. The infection, which is transmitted by drinking water from ponds containing infected water fleas, was eradicated by using health education, cloth filters, and the cyclopsicide, temephos; and in the later stages, by case containment. Methods pioneered in Pakistan's National Guinea Worm Eradication Program are now being applied in remaining endemic countries.

  2. Family satisfaction with patient care in critical care units in Pakistan: a descriptive cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahtisham, Younas; Subia, Parveen; Gideon, Victor

    2016-11-23

    To assess family satisfaction with care provided to patients in critical care units in Islamabad. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 11 medical and surgical critical care units at two private hospitals in Islamabad, Pakistan. The purposive sample consisted of 323 immediate family members and other relatives and friends (referred to as family members in this article) of 323 patients admitted to the critical care units for at least 24 hours. The revised Critical Care Family Satisfaction Survey was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. A total of 149/323 (46%) family members were 'very satisfied' with the honesty (openness) of staff in explaining the patient's condition, and 137/323 (42%) family members were 'very satisfied' with the nurses' availability to speak to them. A total of 143/323 (44%) family members were 'satisfied' with the honesty (openness) of staff in explaining the patient's condition, and 131/323 (41%) were 'satisfied' with the nurses' availability to speak to them. A few family members (21/323, 6%) were 'very dissatisfied' with the flexibility of the visiting hours and a few (20/323, 6%) were 'very dissatisfied' with the noise level in the critical care units. Some family members (38/323, 12%) were 'not satisfied' with the flexibility of the visiting hours, and some (18/323, 6%) were 'not satisfied' with the noise level in the critical care units. The majority of family members (244/323, 75%) were 'satisfied' or 'very satisfied' that their relatives' needs were being met in the critical care units. However, qualitative data indicate that most family members wanted greater involvement in decision making. These findings should be considered by staff working in critical care settings to ensure high-quality patient care.

  3. Dengue transmission based on urban environmental gradients in different cities of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Bushra; Ghaffar, Abdul

    2015-03-01

    This study focuses on the dengue transmission in different regions of Pakistan. For this purpose, the data of dengue cases for 2009-2012 from four different cities (Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Lahore, and Karachi) of the country is collected, evaluated, and compiled. To identify the reasons and regions of higher risk of Dengue transmission, land use classification, analysis of climate covariates and drainage patterns was done. Analysis involves processing of SPOT 5 10 m, Landsat TM 30 m data sets, and SRTM 90 m digital elevation models by using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The results are based on the change in urbanization and population density, analysis of temperature, rainfall, and wind speed; calculation of drainage patterns including stream features, flow accumulation, and drainage density of the study areas. Results suggest that the low elevation areas with calm winds and minimum temperatures higher than the normal, rapid increase in unplanned urbanization, low flow accumulation, and higher drainage density areas favor the dengue transmission.

  4. Real time and accelerated stability studies of Tetanus toxoid manufactured in public sector facilities of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Ghazala; Hussain, Shahzad; Malik, Farnaz; Begum, Anwar; Mahmood, Sidra; Raza, Naeem

    2013-11-01

    Tetanus is an acute illness represented by comprehensive increased inflexibility and spastic spasms of skeletal muscles. The poor quality tetanus toxoid vaccine can raise the prevalence of neonatal tetanus. WHO has taken numerous steps to assist national regulatory authorities and vaccine manufacturers to ensure its quality and efficacy. It has formulated international principles for stability evaluation of each vaccine, which are available in the form of recommendations and guidelines. The aim of present study was to ensure the stability of tetanus vaccines produced by National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan by employing standardized methods to ensure constancy of tetanus toxoid at elevated temperature, if during storage/transportation cold chain may not be maintained in hot weather. A total of three batches filled during full-scale production were tested. All Stability studies determination were performed on final products stored at 2-8°C and elevated temperatures in conformance with the ICH Guideline of Stability Testing of Biological Products. These studies gave comparison between real time shelf-life stability and accelerated stability studies. The findings indicate long﷓term thermo stability and prove that this tetanus vaccine can remain efficient under setting of routine use when suggested measures for storage and handling are followed in true spirit.

  5. Environmental risk factors and hotspot analysis of dengue distribution in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Bushra; Ghaffar, Abdul

    2015-11-01

    This study is an attempt to find out the factors responsible for sudden dengue outbreak in different cities of Pakistan during 2011. For this purpose, spatio-temporal distribution of dengue in Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Lahore, and Karachi has been taken into account. According to the available data, the factors responsible for this spread includes climate covariates like rainfall, temperature, and wind speed; social covariates like population, and area of locality, and environmental risk factors like drainage pattern and geo-hydrological conditions. Reported dengue cases from localities and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 90 m digital elevation model (DEM) of study areas have been processed for hotspots, regression model and stream density in the localities of high dengue incidence. The relationship of daily dengue incidence with climate covariates during the months of July-October of the study year is analyzed. Results show that each dry spell of 2-4 days provides suitable conditions for the development and survival of dengue vectors during the wet months of July and August in the areas of high stream density and population. Very few cases have been reported in July while higher number of cases reported in the months of August, September, until late October. Hotspot analysis highlights the areas of high dengue incidence while regression analysis shows the relationship between the population and the areas of localities with the dengue incidence.

  6. Multi-Objective Analysis of a CHP Plant Integrated Microgrid in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Waqar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries like Pakistan, the capacity shortage (CS of electricity is a critical problem. The frequent natural gas (NG outages compel consumers to use electricity to fulfill the thermal loads, which ends up as an increase in electrical load. In this scenario, the authors have proposed the concept of a combined heat & power (CHP plant to be a better option for supplying both electrical and thermal loads simultaneously. A CHP plant-based microgrid comprising a PV array, diesel generators and batteries (operating in grid-connected as well as islanded modes has been simulated using the HOMER Pro software. Different configurations of distributed generators (DGs with/without batteries have been evaluated considering multiple objectives. The multiple objectives include the minimization of the total net present cost (TNPC, cost of generated energy (COE and the annual greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, as well as the maximization of annual waste heat recovery (WHR of thermal units and annual grid sales (GS. These objectives are subject to the constraints of power balance, battery operation within state of charge (SOC limits, generator operation within capacity limits and zero capacity shortage. The simulations have been performed on six cities including Islamabad, Lahore, Karachi, Peshawar, Quetta and Gilgit. The simulation results have been analyzed to find the most optimal city for the CHP plant integrated microgrid.

  7. Migration and Fertility in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    M. FRAMURZ K. KIANI

    1987-01-01

    The phenomena of migration and fertility has not drawn much attention in Pakistan. A few studies based on census data, the National bnpact Survey 1968-69 and the Population Growth Survey 1968-71 showed higher crude birth rates for rural areas than for urban areas. However, recent studies showed higher urban fertility in Pakistan. In view of the increasing rate of rural migration to the urban areas it is important to understand the contribution of migration to popUlation growth. The main objec...

  8. On degree sums of a triangle-free graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Harant, J.; Naumann, S.

    2014-01-01

    For a simple triangle-free k-chromatic graph G with k >= 2 the upper bound m(n-f (k-2)) on the sum Sigma(2)(G) = Sigma(x is an element of V(G))d(2)(x) of the squares of the degrees of G is proved, where n, m, and f(1) are the order of G, the size of G, and the minimum order of a triangle-free l......-chromatic graph, respectively. Consequences of this bound are discussed. Moreover, we generalize the upper bound on Ep (G) = Sigma(p)(G) = Sigma(x is an element of V(G))d(x)) for p = 2 to P >= 3. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  9. Natural gas hydrates and the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruy, H.J.

    1998-03-01

    Natural gas hydrates occur on the ocean floor in such great volumes that they contain twice as much carbon as all known coal, oil and conventional natural gas deposits. Releases of this gas caused by sediment slides and other natural causes have resulted in huge slugs of gas saturated water with density too low to float a ship, and enough localized atmospheric contamination to choke air aspirated aircraft engines. The unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft along with their crews and passengers in the Bermuda Triangle may be tied to the natural venting of gas hydrates. The paper describes what gas hydrates are, their formation and release, and their possible link to the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle.

  10. Applied psychometrics in clinical psychiatry: the pharmacopsychometric triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P; Bech, P

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To consider applied psychometrics in psychiatry as a discipline focusing on pharmacopsychology rather than psychopharmacology as illustrated by the pharmacopsychometric triangle. METHOD: The pharmacopsychological dimensions of clinically valid effects of drugs (antianxiety, antidepress......OBJECTIVE: To consider applied psychometrics in psychiatry as a discipline focusing on pharmacopsychology rather than psychopharmacology as illustrated by the pharmacopsychometric triangle. METHOD: The pharmacopsychological dimensions of clinically valid effects of drugs (antianxiety......, antidepressive, antimanic, and antipsychotic), of clinically unwanted effects of these drugs, and the patients' own subjective perception of the balance between wanted and unwanted effects are analysed using rating scales assessed by modern psychometric tests (item response theory models) RESULTS: Symptom rating...... scales fulfilling the item response theory models have been shown to be psychometrically valid outcome scales as their total scores are sufficient statistics for demonstrating dose-response relationship within the various classes of antianxiety, antidepressive, antimanic or antipsychotic drugs. The total...

  11. The local triangle axiom in topology and domain theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Waszkiewicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a general notion of distance in weakly separated topological spaces. Our approach differs from existing ones since we do not assume the reflexivity axiom in general. We demonstrate that our partial semimetric spaces provide a common generalization of semimetrics known from Topology and both partial metrics and measurements studied in Quantitative Domain Theory. In the paper, we focus on the local triangle axiom, which is a substitute for the triangle inequality in our distance spaces. We use it to prove a counterpart of the famous Archangelskij Metrization Theorem in the more general context of partial semimetric spaces. Finally, we consider the framework of algebraic domains and employ Lebesgue measurements to obtain a complete characterization of partial metrizability of the Scott topology.

  12. Visualization on triangle concept using Adobe Flash Professional SC6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagita, Laela; Ratih Kusumarini, Adha

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop teaching aids using Adobe Flash Professional CS6 emphasize on Triangle concept. A new alternative way to deliver a basic concept in geometry with visualization is software Adobe Flash Professional CS 6. Research method is research and development with 5 phase of Ploom’s model, namely (1) preliminary, (2) design, (3) realization/ construction, (4) test, evaluation and revision, and 5) implementation. The results showed that teaching aids was valid, practice, and effective. Validity: expert judgement for material score is 3.95 and media expert judgement produce an average score of 3,2, both in the category are valid. Practically: the average of questionnaire response is 4,04 (good). Effectiveness: n-gain test value is 0,36 (medium). It concluded that developed of teaching aids using Adobe Flash CS6 on triangle can improve student achievement.

  13. The Software Industry in the Coffee Triangle of Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Albeiro; Joyanes, Luis; López, Marcelo

    The so-called "Coffee Triangle" region is located in the Andean Region, in central Colombia, South America. This Andean Region is composed of the Departments of Caldas, Quindío and Risaralda. The Andean Region has been characterized by the production of coffee as a worldwide industry supported by high Quality and Research standards. These components have become the key bastions to compete in international markets. After the decline of the Coffee industry it is necessary to consider alternatives, supplemented by the success of the Software Industry at the global level. The strengthening of the Software Industry in the Coffee Triangle seeks to establish a productive alternative for regional growth in a visionary way, where knowledge, a fundamental input of the Software Industry, is emerging as one of the greatest assets present in this geographical area - Andean Region - of Colombia.

  14. Triangle Interception Scenario: A Finite-Time Guidance Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering an aircraft threatened by an interceptor, one of the effective penetration strategies is to release a Defender from the aircraft to confront the interceptor. In this case, the aircraft, the Defender, and the interceptor constitute the three-body guidance relationship, and the cooperation of the aircraft and its Defender to achieve the best tactical effects turns into a concerned problem. This paper studies the triangle interception guidance problem via the finite-time theory. The paper presents linear system Input-Output Finite-Time Stabilization (IO-FTS method. The sufficient conditions of the linear system, being IO-FTS, under Finite-Time Boundedness (FTB constraint are proposed, by which the state feedback controllers design method is obtained, via Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs. The triangle interception guidance problems are studied in three different cases, where the proposed methods are applied to the guidance design. The simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  15. From the Triangle Inequality to the Isoperimetric Inequality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    move so that the distances PA and PB are fixed and the areas shaded in the figure (i.e., all parts of the en- closed area, except the triangle ∆PAB) are fixed. The new polygon got by reflecting this figure across the line. LM will still be an equilateral polygon with the same perimeter. The change in the area is got by changing.

  16. Is Chronic Groin Pain a Bermuda Triangle of Sports Medicine?

    OpenAIRE

    Šebečić, Božidar; Japjec, Mladen; Janković, Saša; Čuljak, Vencel; Dojčinović, Bojan; Starešinić, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Chronic groin pain is one the most complex conditions encountered in the field of sports medicine. Conservative treatment is long lasting and the result of treatment is often uncertain and symptom recurrences are common, which can be very frustrating for both the patient and the physician. The complex etiology and uncertainties during treatment of chronic groin pain is the reason why some authors call it the Bermuda Triangle of sports medicine. In our prospective, 7-year study, 114 athletes w...

  17. Numerical problems with the Pascal triangle in moment computation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kautsky, J.; Flusser, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 306, č. 1 (2016), s. 53-68 ISSN 0377-0427 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : moment computation * Pascal triangle * appropriate polynomial basis * numerical problems Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 1.357, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/ZOI/flusser-0459096.pdf

  18. Sequential Triangle Strip Generator based on Hopfield Networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šíma, Jiří; Lněnička, Radim

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2009), s. 583-617 ISSN 0899-7667 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545; GA AV ČR 1ET100300517; GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504; CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : sequential triangle strip * combinatorial optimization * Hopfield network * minimum energy * simulated annealing Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 2.175, year: 2009

  19. Enumeration of Triangles in a Divisor Cayley Graph | Chalapathi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper a new class of arithmetic Cayley graphs, namely, divisor Cayley graphs associated with the divisor function d ƒvnƒw , n „d1,an integer is introduced. It is shown that this graph is regular, hamiltonian, connected and not bipartite, and when n is odd it is eulerian. The enumeration of triangles in this graph is also ...

  20. The phases of large networks with edge and triangle constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Richard; Radin, Charles; Ren, Kui; Sadun, Lorenzo

    2017-10-01

    Based on numerical simulation and local stability analysis we describe the structure of the phase space of the edge/triangle model of random graphs. We support simulation evidence with mathematical proof of continuity and discontinuity for many of the phase transitions. All but one of the many phase transitions in this model break some form of symmetry, and we use this model to explore how changes in symmetry are related to discontinuities at these transitions.

  1. Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

  2. Golden triangle for folding rates of globular proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuzynskiy, Sergiy O; Ivankov, Dmitry N; Bogatyreva, Natalya S; Finkelstein, Alexei V

    2013-01-02

    The ability of protein chains to spontaneously form their spatial structures is a long-standing puzzle in molecular biology. Experimentally measured rates of spontaneous folding of single-domain globular proteins range from microseconds to hours: the difference (11 orders of magnitude) is akin to the difference between the life span of a mosquito and the age of the universe. Here, we show that physical theory with biological constraints outlines a "golden triangle" limiting the possible range of folding rates for single-domain globular proteins of various size and stability, and that the experimentally measured folding rates fall within this narrow triangle built without any adjustable parameters, filling it almost completely. In addition, the golden triangle predicts the maximal size of protein domains that fold under solely thermodynamic (rather than kinetic) control. It also predicts the maximal allowed size of the "foldable" protein domains, and the size of domains found in known protein structures is in a good agreement with this limit.

  3. Lattice QCD inputs to the CKM unitarity triangle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laiho, Jack; Lunghi, E.; Van de Water, Ruth S.

    2010-01-01

    We perform a global fit to the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa unitarity triangle using the latest experimental and theoretical constraints. Our emphasis is on the hadronic weak matrix elements that enter the analysis, which must be computed using lattice QCD or other nonperturbative methods. Realistic lattice QCD calculations which include the effects of the dynamical up, down, and strange quarks are now available for all of the standard inputs to the global fit. We therefore present lattice averages for all of the necessary hadronic weak matrix elements. We attempt to account for correlations between lattice QCD results in a reasonable but conservative manner: whenever there are reasons to believe that an error is correlated between two lattice calculations, we take the degree of correlation to be 100%. These averages are suitable for use as inputs both in the global Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa unitarity triangle fit and other phenomenological analyses. In order to illustrate the impact of the lattice averages, we make standard model predictions for the parameters B-circumflex K , |V cb |, and |V ub |/|V cb |. We find a (2-3)σ tension in the unitarity triangle, depending upon whether we use the inclusive or exclusive determination of |V cb |. If we interpret the tension as a sign of new physics in either neutral kaon or B mixing, we find that the scenario with new physics in kaon mixing is preferred by present data.

  4. Surgery, public health, and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Syed Nabeel; McQueen, K A Kelly

    2011-12-01

    Surgical healthcare is rapidly gaining recognition as a major public health issue. Surgical disparities are large, with poorest populations receiving the least amount of emergency and essential surgical care. In light of recent evidence, developing countries, such as Pakistan, must acknowledge surgical disease as a major public health issue and prioritize research and intervention accordingly. We review information from various sources and describe the current situation of surgical health care in Pakistan and highlight areas of neglect. Pakistan suffers an annual deficit of 17 million surgeries. Surgical disease kills more people than infectious diseases inclusive of tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, diarrheal disease, and childhood infections. The incidence of trauma and maternal mortality ratio are staggeringly high. There is a severe dearth of surgical and anesthesia-related epidemiological data. Important information that would help to drive policy and planning is not available. Corruption and neglect have led to a dilapidated health care infrastructure. Surgical care is largely inaccessible to the poor, especially those living in rural areas. The country faces a dearth of healthcare professionals, especially paramedics, anesthetists, and surgeons. Unsafe surgery and anesthesia poses a significant risk to patients. There is no national policy on surgical illness and the preventive aspects of surgery are nonexistent. Consistent with other underdeveloped countries, surgical care in Pakistan is dismal. Neglecting surgery and safe anesthesia has led to countless deaths and disability. Physicians, researchers, policy makers, and the government health care system must engage and commit to provide access to emergency, essential, and safe surgical care.

  5. Pakistan : Oil and Gas Review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Substantial progess has been made in Pakistan in the restructuring and reform of the oil and gas sectors, deregulation of prices, and privatization of selected assets. The reforms have enhanced transparency, making decisionmakers aware of the various aspects of the business. This review documents the accomplishments to date, and attempts to identify measures that merit priority attention w...

  6. Agroforestry trends in Punjab, Pakistan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    INTRODUCTION. Pakistan is a unique combination of deserts, alluvial .... biological processes associated with the seasonal and long term return .... of the desert, large elongated channels and their alignment suggest that they were formerly occupied by the shifting courses of river Indus. The desert is quite profusely dotted ...

  7. Pakistan's Transformation: Why It WIll Not (and Need Not) Happen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wirsing, Robert G

    2005-01-01

    .... Pakistan's critics demand fundamental change in all of them. Its critics notwithstanding, Pakistan's radical strategic transformation is most unlikely to happen because it would sacrifice Pakistan's vital national interests...

  8. Spatio-Temporal Extension and Spatial Analyses of Dengue from Rawalpindi, Islamabad and Swat during 2010–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Fareed

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and Land-Use Land-Cover change (LULC has significantly displaced the local rainfall patterns and weather conditions in Pakistan. This has resulted in a different climate-related problem, particularly vector borne diseases. Dengue transmission has emerged as one of the most devastating and life threatening disease in Pakistan, causing hundreds of deaths since its first outbreak. This study is designed to understand and analyze the disease patterns across two distinct study regions, using Geographic Information System (GIS, Satellite Remote Sensing (RS along with climate and socio-economic and demographics datasets. The datasets have been analyzed by using GIS statistical analysis techniques. As a result, maps, tables and graphs have been plotted to estimate the most significant parameters. These parameters have been assigned a contribution weight value to prepare a model and Threat Index Map (TIM for the study areas. Finally, the model has been tested and verified against existing datasets for both study areas. This model can be used as a disease Early Warning System (EWS.

  9. A triangle voting algorithm based on double feature constraints for star sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qiaoyun; Zhong, Xuyang

    2018-02-01

    A novel autonomous star identification algorithm is presented in this study. In the proposed algorithm, each sensor star constructs multi-triangle with its bright neighbor stars and obtains its candidates by triangle voting process, in which the triangle is considered as the basic voting element. In order to accelerate the speed of this algorithm and reduce the required memory for star database, feature extraction is carried out to reduce the dimension of triangles and each triangle is described by its base and height. During the identification period, the voting scheme based on double feature constraints is proposed to implement triangle voting. This scheme guarantees that only the catalog star satisfying two features can vote for the sensor star, which improves the robustness towards false stars. The simulation and real star image test demonstrate that compared with the other two algorithms, the proposed algorithm is more robust towards position noise, magnitude noise and false stars.

  10. Pakistan: Some Reflections on Its Economic Future,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    the data of Table I suggests, structurally Pakistan is a good deal different from low income countries: it is much more urbanized ; agriculture...mention. First, over the last three and a half decades, Pakistan has experienced wide fluctuations in the rate of growth of the national product. The...country’s human resource and emphasized the develop- ment of the sectors with high growth potential. The Future It should be poisible for Pakistan to

  11. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-26

    edly swept the polls at all levels in urban Sindh. The coalition had provoked Sindhi nationalism further as PPP [ Pakistan People’s Party], the...Viewed in this perspective and the population growth in developing countries (around 2.0 percent per annum), the population upsurge in Pakistan at a...of total population. To meet the requirements of additional urban population alone, Pakistan will have to improve the provision of essential services

  12. Reforms for competitive markets in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, Nadeem; Ahmed, Vaqar; Shahid, Sana

    2011-01-01

    While Pakistan has taken several steps to promote competition in its markets, further reforms are required in improving domestic commerce, agricultural markets and industries. With increasing risks and cost of doing business due to deteriorating law and order situation as well as massive energy shortages, Pakistan needs to compensate its entrepreneurs and investors by enhancing its investment and business climate. By adopting certain administrative and legal reforms, Pakistan can considerably...

  13. Pakistan : a nation at war with itself

    OpenAIRE

    Baggavalli, Raju S.

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited K from India, to weaken India and its army, and to mobilize international support for Pakistan's position on Kashmir. While this strategy had some initial success, it slowly began to damage key political, economic and social structures within Pakistan. The thesis looks at both the gains and the pitfalls of LIC, and its impact on Pakistan's "well being," as measured by its prosperity, stability and international stature from the periods...

  14. CO Pollution: a comparative study during high traffic conditions in the cities of Athens, Naples and Islamabad. Health impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polichetti, Juliano; Grigoropoulos, Konstantinos; Ferentinos, George; Tselentis, Vasilios; Nastos, Panagiotis; Xatzioakeimidis, Konstantinos; Dimas, Konstantinos; Khan, Ubaidullah

    2010-05-01

    Since the 19th century anthropogenic activities in urban areas have increased dramatically due to socio-economic evolution, increased urbanization and transport needs. Fifty seven years ago London experienced the impacts of an acute atmospheric pollution episode, due to elevated levels of black carbon aerosols (BC) and SO2, leading to the realization that uncontrolled emissions to the atmosphere lead to severe impacts on human health. Many large cities (Mega cities) in the developed and developing world have, for the last two decades, been plagued by high levels of atmospheric pollution, a problem that the European and worldwide scientific community are at present studying with measurable success. However, due to rapid industrial development and the ever increasing traffic, many more studies are required to support decision makers and governments on measures to reduce atmospheric pollution and mitigate the associated serious health effects on the population. Registered health problems are numerous and dramatic in all ages groups, but particularly so in infants, and patients suffering from chronic diseases due to increased levels of pollutants and nocive substance inhaled, entering the lungs and blood stream and finally being deposited in several organs. Recent studies indicate that cardiac arrhythmias associated to increased atmospheric pollution pose a serious threat to human health. K.N.Grigoropoulos,et al.2008. This study is based on monitoring and mapping CO levels in six areas 3 different cities i.e. Athens, Naples and Islamabad, the objective being to present and analyze the spatial and temporal variability of carbon monoxide (CO) levels leading to the estimation of the concentration levels and the quantities inhaled by pedestrians on a daily basis. It is well know that exposure to carbon monoxide concentration values in excess of 200ppm for 2-3 h usually create headaches, tiredness, fatigue and nausea, whereas human exposure of values of 800 ppm for over

  15. Pakistan combats hidden AIDS menace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-20

    The conservative Islamic society in Pakistan associates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) with prostitution, homosexuality, and drug abuse, activities which are prohibited in Pakistan. There are 1000 reported cases of HIV, 55 with advanced AIDS (53 have died) in Pakistan. Birjees Mazhar Kazi, head of the National AIDS Program, believes that, based on the computer model of the World Health Organization (WHO), the number of HIV cases in Pakistan can be 50,000 to 80,000. Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto's government has allocated $2 million for AIDS prevention. Although some officials argue that Islamic strictures and traditional social pressures discourage sexual license, the poor public health and education standards in Pakistan make it vulnerable to AIDS. Drug abuse has risen in the last 20 years; there are an estimated 1.5 million heroin users among an estimated 3 million addicts. According to Health Ministry Director General Naik Muhammad Shaikh, the government has established 30 HIV/AIDS screening centers and is sponsoring a law that would require all blood banks to provide only safe blood and blood products for transfusion. Marvi states that the reuse and poor disposal of needles, a common practice in Pakistan, could be responsible for most of the transmission there of AIDS and hepatitis C. Health experts acknowledge the obstacles placed in the way of AIDS awareness campaigns by sex taboos and religious sensitivities; condoms cannot be mentioned or displayed in shops, or used in electronic or print media campaigns. They can be mentioned in a recorded message on a 24-hr AIDS hotline. Community-based and nongovernmental organizations are being used to reach segments of society who cannot use the hotline. Eunuchs (hijras), who are much in demand as "female" entertainers at weddings, are particularly resistant to safe sex messages, according to Abid Atiq, head of the information and education section of the

  16. Teaching and learning apheresis medicine: The Bermuda Triangle in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crookston, Kendall P; Richter, Deana M

    2010-01-01

    Apheresis Medicine has evolved markedly due to an explosion of knowledge and technology, whereas the time available for training has shrunk as curricula have become increasingly overloaded. Apheresis teaching has inherited a strong clinical context where real patient problems are used in a hands-on environment. To optimize instruction, those involved in the education of apheresis professionals need to have (1) knowledge of how clinical laboratory medicine education has developed as a field, (2) an understanding of what is known from theory and research about how people learn, and (3) the skills to design teaching/learning activities in ways consistent with literature-based principles of adult education. These developments in education provide a context for curriculum projects currently underway by the American Society for Apheresis. Teachers must determine which competencies are central to the essence of a trained professional. Specific, robust, learning objectives targeted toward the development of higher levels of thinking, professional attitudes, and requisite skills are formulated to guide the learner toward mastering those competencies. Curriculum is developed for each objective, consisting of content and the best teaching/learning methods to help learners attain the objective. Appropriate assessment strategies are identified to determine whether the objective is being achieved. The integration of objectives, curriculum, and assessment creates The Bermuda Triangle of Education (Richter, The Circle of Learning and Bermuda Triangle in Education, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, 2004). When educators do not effectively navigate The Bermuda Triangle of Education, learning may disappear into the murky depths of confusion and apathy. When successfully navigated, the result will be a significant learning experience that leads to transformation through education. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) Change Detection in Islamabad and its Comparison with Capital Development Authority (CDA) 2006 Master Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasaan, Zahra

    2016-07-01

    Remote sensing is very useful for the production of land use and land cover statistics which can be beneficial to determine the distribution of land uses. Using remote sensing techniques to develop land use classification mapping is a convenient and detailed way to improve the selection of areas designed to agricultural, urban and/or industrial areas of a region. In Islamabad city and surrounding the land use has been changing, every day new developments (urban, industrial, commercial and agricultural) are emerging leading to decrease in vegetation cover. The purpose of this work was to develop the land use of Islamabad and its surrounding area that is an important natural resource. For this work the eCognition Developer 64 computer software was used to develop a land use classification using SPOT 5 image of year 2012. For image processing object-based classification technique was used and important land use features i.e. Vegetation cover, barren land, impervious surface, built up area and water bodies were extracted on the basis of object variation and compared the results with the CDA Master Plan. The great increase was found in built-up area and impervious surface area. On the other hand vegetation cover and barren area followed a declining trend. Accuracy assessment of classification yielded 92% accuracies of the final land cover land use maps. In addition these improved land cover/land use maps which are produced by remote sensing technique of class definition, meet the growing need of legend standardization.

  18. Colouring the triangles determined by a point set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Fabila-Monroy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Let P be a set of n points in general position in the plane. We study the chromatic number of the intersection graph of the open triangles determined by P. It is known that this chromatic number is at least n3/27+O(n2 and, if P is in convex position, the answer is n3/24+O(n2. We prove that for arbitrary P, the chromatic number is at most n3/19.259+O(n2.

  19. Food irradiation development in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, I.

    The large scale trials were held to extend the storage life of potatoes, onions and dry fruits by gamma radiation. It was concluded that radiation preservation of potatoes and onions was much cheaper as compared to conventional methods. A dose of 1 kGy can control the insects in dry fruits and nuts. The consumers' acceptability and market testing performed during the last four years are also conducive to the commercialization of the technology in this country. The Government of Pakistan has accorded clearance for the irradiation of some food items like potatoes, onions, garlic and spices for human consumption. The Pakistan Radiation Services (PARAS), the commercial irradiator (200 Kci) at Lahore, has already started functioning in April, 1987. It is planned to start large scale sterilization of spices by gamma radiation in PARAS shortly.

  20. NGO field workers in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Haroon SIDDIQUE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available NGOs came into the society in their present form after World War II and more precisely in 1960s. Before that also different forms of philanthropy existed. Like elsewhere in the world, in Pakistan also state and the market were the two sectors catering for different needs of the people. When foreign funding started coming into the poor countries, the channel of NGOs was considered more appropriate including the fact they had roots in the society and the benefit could reach the far flung areas. NGO field workers are the real actors in the NGOs’ activities but sadly the NGOs those raise the slogans of working for the destitute do not bother to facilitate the NGO field workers. Eventually the NGO field workers are facing problems of job insecurity, poor salary structure, unhealthy working environment and even harassment especially in case of women NGO field workers in Pakistan

  1. Allelic variation at loci controlling stripe rust resistance in spring wheat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Studies in Agriculture, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad 45500, Pakistan; National Institute for Genomics & Advanced Biotechnology, National Agricultural Research Centre, Park Road, Islamabad 45500, Pakistan; Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, ...

  2. Interpreting Ethnic Movements in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Soofia Mumtaz

    1999-01-01

    My difficulties with this paper relate primarily to the methodology. Professor Christophe Jaffrelot has chosen to omit the section on Kashmir that figured in the version first presented at the Fourteenth Annual General Meeting, of the Pakistan Society of Development Economists. The omission reinforces the exception I have to the approach. In my comments therefore, I will include some inter-related, and overlapping dimensions of the subject addressed, the exclusion of which, to my mind, hamper...

  3. Pakistan-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-22

    announced intention to open the disputed territory of the Siachen Glacier to tourism , saying the region was “illegally occupied” by Indian troops in 1984...against the existential threat to Pakistani sovereignty they believe alliance with Washington entails. Most analysts contend that two December 2003...with domestic extremism or his promises to restore authentic democracy. The U.S. partnership with Pakistan would probably be on CRS-77 248 Marvin

  4. Pakistan-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-06

    in Afghanistan and Pakistan,” Defense & Foreign Affairs Special Analysis , June 4, 2008; “American Failure in Afghanistan & Need for a New Social...center, a café frequented by foreigners, a cinema house, and two hospitals. Six American citizens were among the 26 foreigners reported dead. Indian... rhetoric of national leaders.163 Yet Indian leaders shied from explicit saber-rattling and many analysts have concluded that circumstances present New

  5. China-Pakistan Economic Corridor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, Tucker [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    International trade and related economic activities in Central and South Asia are increasing as developing economies, particularly India and Pakistan, grow. China continues to emerge as a major regional and global power and has embarked upon numerous regional economic and political initiatives . A major development is the China - Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), a host of infrastructure and trade projects worth over 40 billion American dollars . This report analyzes CPEC a nd its potential regional effects, including the trade security implications of the port and land infrastructure developments . As trade increase s in the reg ion and the major CPEC infrastructure projects are completed, there will be numerous implications on trade security and geopolitics within South Asia. CPEC projects uniquely intersect numerous regional situations, including territorial disputes in Kashmir, the Afghanistan/Pakistan border, and Chinese foreign policy a mbitions. A nuanced understanding of these effects can influence future policy adjustments in this region . The views expressed in this report are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the position of Sandia National Laboratories or the author's current and past institutions.

  6. Assembling molecular Sierpiński triangle fractals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jian; Wang, Yongfeng; Chen, Min; Dai, Jingxin; Zhou, Xiong; Kuttner, Julian; Hilt, Gerhard; Shao, Xiang; Gottfried, J Michael; Wu, Kai

    2015-05-01

    Fractals, being "exactly the same at every scale or nearly the same at different scales" as defined by Benoit B. Mandelbrot, are complicated yet fascinating patterns that are important in aesthetics, mathematics, science and engineering. Extended molecular fractals formed by the self-assembly of small-molecule components have long been pursued but, to the best of our knowledge, not achieved. To tackle this challenge we designed and made two aromatic bromo compounds (4,4″-dibromo-1,1':3',1″-terphenyl and 4,4‴-dibromo-1,1':3',1″:4″,1‴-quaterphenyl) to serve as building blocks. The formation of synergistic halogen and hydrogen bonds between these molecules is the driving force to assemble successfully a whole series of defect-free molecular fractals, specifically Sierpiński triangles, on a Ag(111) surface below 80 K. Several critical points that govern the preparation of the molecular Sierpiński triangles were scrutinized experimentally and revealed explicitly. This new strategy may be applied to prepare and explore various planar molecular fractals at surfaces.

  7. Is chronic groin pain a Bermuda triangle of sports medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šebečić, Božidar; Japjec, Mladen; Janković, Saša; Vencel Čuljak; Dojčinović, Bojan; Starešinić, Mario

    2014-12-01

    Chronic groin pain is one the most complex conditions encountered in the field of sports medicine. Conservative treatment is long lasting and the result of treatment is often uncer- tain and symptom recurrences are common, which can be very frustrating for both the patient and the physician. The complex etiology and uncertainties during treatment of chronic groin pain is the reason why some authors call it the Bermuda Triangle of sports medicine. In our prospective, 7-year study, 114 athletes with chronic groin pain resistant to conservative therapy were treated surgically. In 109 athletes with sports hernia, we performed nerve neurolysis along with resection of the genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve and we also reinforced the posterior wall of inguinal canal using a modified Shouldice technique. In 26 athletes that had concomitant adductor tendinosis and in 5 athletes with isolated tendinosis we performed tenotomy. Eighty-one of 83 patients with isolated sports hernia returned to sports within a mean of 4.4 (range, 3-16) weeks. Thirty-one athletes with adductor tenotomy returned to sports activity within a mean of 11.8 (range, 10-15) weeks. If carefully diagnosed using detailed history taking, physical examination and correct imaging techniques, chronic groin pain can be treated very successfully and quickly, so it need not be a Bermuda Triangle of sports medicine.

  8. Applied psychometrics in clinical psychiatry: the pharmacopsychometric triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, P

    2009-11-01

    To consider applied psychometrics in psychiatry as a discipline focusing on pharmacopsychology rather than psychopharmacology as illustrated by the pharmacopsychometric triangle. The pharmacopsychological dimensions of clinically valid effects of drugs (antianxiety, antidepressive, antimanic, and antipsychotic), of clinically unwanted effects of these drugs, and the patients' own subjective perception of the balance between wanted and unwanted effects are analysed using rating scales assessed by modern psychometric tests (item response theory models) Symptom rating scales fulfilling the item response theory models have been shown to be psychometrically valid outcome scales as their total scores are sufficient statistics for demonstrating dose-response relationship within the various classes of antianxiety, antidepressive, antimanic or antipsychotic drugs. The total scores of side-effect rating scales are, however, not sufficient statistics, implying that each symptom has to be analysed individually. Self-rating scales with very few items appear to be sufficient statistics when measuring the patients' own perception of quality of life. Applied psychometrics in psychiatry have been found to cover a pharmacopsychometric triangle illustrating the measurements of wanted and unwanted effects of pharmacotherapeutic drugs as well as health-related quality of life.

  9. Species richness accelerates marine ecosystem restoration in the Coral Triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan L; Ambo-Rappe, Rohani; Sur, Christine; Abbott, Jessica M; Limbong, Steven R

    2017-11-07

    Ecosystem restoration aims to restore biodiversity and valuable functions that have been degraded or lost. The Coral Triangle is a hotspot for marine biodiversity held in its coral reefs, seagrass meadows, and mangrove forests, all of which are in global decline. These coastal ecosystems support valuable fisheries and endangered species, protect shorelines, and are significant carbon stores, functions that have been degraded by coastal development, destructive fishing practices, and climate change. Ecosystem restoration is required to mitigate these damages and losses, but its practice is in its infancy in the region. Here we demonstrate that species diversity can set the trajectory of restoration. In a seagrass restoration experiment in the heart of the Coral Triangle (Sulawesi, Indonesia), plant survival and coverage increased with the number of species transplanted. Our results highlight the positive role biodiversity can play in ecosystem restoration and call for revision of the common restoration practice of establishing a single target species, particularly in regions having high biodiversity. Coastal ecosystems affect human well-being in many important ways, and restoration will become ever more important as conservation efforts cannot keep up with their loss. Published under the PNAS license.

  10. STRATEGIC PLACE TRIANGLE PENGEMBANGAN POTENSI KAWASAN PARIWISATA BOJONEGERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchammad Nurif

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Kabupaten Bojonegoro ditetapkan sebagai salah satu Daerah Tujuan Wisata (DTW di Jawa Timur karena memiliki potensi obyek wisata alam dan budaya yang telah mendapatkan perhatian wisatawan nusantara pada umumnya. Dalam kebijakan pengembangan yang tertuang dalam Rencana Induk Pengembangan Pariwisata (RIPP Jawa Timur 1999-2015 Kabupaten Bojonegoro meskipun bukan sebagai gerbang utama namun memiliki peran strategis untuk mendorong pertumbuhan kawasan di sekitarnya. Dalam penelitian, peneliti melakukan pemetakan perubahan lingkungan eksternal, pemetakan pesaing dan pelanggan, analisis internal, dan analisis TOWS. Selanjutnya akan dirumuskan Strategic Place Triangle. Yang dimaksud dengan Strategic Place Triangle adalah suatu pendekatan strategi pemasaran wilayah yang mencakup tiga hal kunci, yaitu (1 Strategi yang mencakup Segmentasi-Targeting-Positioning, (2 Taktik yang mencakup Diferensiasi-Marketing Mix-Selling, (3 Value yang mencakup Brand-Servis-Proses. Analisis pemetaan terhadap lingkungan eksternal dan internal dengan menggunakan pendekatan Strategi Pemasaran Wilayah (Marketing Places tersebut akan menghasilkan Positioning, Diferensiasi, dan Brand, bagi potensi kawasan pariwisata Bojonegoro. Positioning- nya adalah ibarat Bali bagi Jawa Timur dengan kekhasan tetap memegang nilai-nilai religi dan kultur lokal setempat. Diferensiasi-nya adalah one-stop-shopping services, pesona wisata yang tak berakhir, cantik alami, penduduknya yang santun, ramah dan mempesona. Brand-nya adalah Pesona Wisata Bojonegoro.

  11. The Surgical Anatomy of the Lumbosacroiliac Triangle: A Cadaveric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccali, Carmine; Skoch, Jesse; Patel, Apar S; Walter, Christina M; Avila, Mauricio J; Martirosyan, Nikolay L; Demitri, Silvio; Baaj, Ali A

    2016-04-01

    The anatomic area delineated medially by the lateral part of the L4-L5 vertebral bodies, distally by the anterior-superior surface of the sacral wing, and laterally by an imaginary line joining the base of the L4 transverse process to the proximal part of the sacroiliac joint, is of particular interest to spine surgeons. We are referring to this area as the lumbo-sacro-iliac triangle (LSIT). Knowledge of LSIT anatomy is necessary during approaches for L5 vertebral and sacral fractures, sacral and iliac tumors, and extraforaminal decompression of the L5 nerve roots. We performed an anatomic dissection of the LSIT in 3 embalmed cadavers (6 triangles), using an anterior and posterior approach. We identified 3 key tissue planes: the neurological plexus plane, constituted by L4 and L5 nerve roots; an intermediate level constituted by the ileosacral tunnel; and posteriorly, by the lumbosacral ligament, and the posterior muscular plane. Improving anatomic knowledge of the LSIT may help surgeons decrease the risk of possible complications. When LSIT pathology is present, a lateral approach corresponding to the tip of the L4 transverse process, medially, is suggested to decrease the risk of vessel and nerve root damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Cysts in the posterior triangle of the neck in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brea-Álvarez, Beatriz; Roldán-Hidalgo, Amaya

    2015-01-01

    Cystic lesions of the posterior triangle are a pathologic entity whose diagnosis is made in the first two years of life. Its presentation in adulthood is an incidental finding and the differential diagnosis includes cystic lymphangioma, lymphatic metastasis of thyroid cancer and branchial cyst. Often with the finding of a cervical lump, FNA is made before diagnostic imaging is performed, however, this procedure is not always advisable. We reviewed the cases of patients who came last year to our department with a cystic mass in this location and correlating the imaging findings with pathologic specimen. We show characteristic findings of these lesions in order to make an early diagnosis and thus to get the approach and treatment appropriate of adult patients with a cystic lesion in the posterior cervical triangle. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  13. Rationale, design, and cohort enrolment of a prospective observational study of the clinical performance of the new contraceptive implant (Femplant in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmat SK

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Syed Khurram Azmat,1 Waqas Hameed,1 Anja Lendvay,2 Babar Tasneem Shaikh,3 Ghulam Mustafa,1 Muhammad Ahmed Siddiqui,1 Sajid Brohi,1 Asif Karim,1 Muhammad Ishaque,1 Wajahat Hussain,1 Mohsina Bilgrami,1 Paul J Feldblum2 1Research, Monitoring and Evaluation Department, Marie Stopes Society, Karachi, Pakistan; 2FHI 360, Durham, NC, USA; 3Health Services Academy, Islamabad, Pakistan Introduction: The use of hormonal implants has gained positive traction in family planning programs in recent times. Compared to other popular methods, such as long-term reversible intrauterine devices, the use of hormonal implants as a family planning method has distinct advantages in terms of long-term efficiency and better user compliance and availability. This paper presents a study protocol to document and evaluate the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of Femplant (contraceptive implant in Pakistan during the first year of its use among married women of reproductive age (18–44 years at clinics in two provinces of Pakistan (Sindh and Punjab. Materials and methods: A total of 724 married women were enrolled in a noncomparative prospective observational study. The study involved six government clinics from the Population Welfare Department in Sindh Province and 13 clinics run by the Marie Stopes Society (a local nongovernmental organization in both provinces. The participation of women was subject to voluntary acceptance and medical eligibility. All respondents were interviewed at baseline and subsequently at each scheduled visit during the study period. Side effects, complications and adverse events, if any, were recorded for every participant at each visit to the facility. Discussion: Over the next 5-year period (2013–2018, 27 million hormonal implants will be made available in lower- to middle-income countries by international donors and agencies. The evidence generated from this study will identify factors affecting the acceptability and satisfaction of end

  14. Public Accountability Institutions in Pakistan and their ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Public Accountability Institutions in Pakistan and their Macroeconomic Impacts. Corruption is the single most important impediment to governance and the functioning of the economy in Pakistan. This project will elucidate the root causes of corruption through an examination of the origin and evolution of public accountability ...

  15. India and Pakistan Civil-Military Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    Buddhists , Sikhs, and Jains in India in 1909. In 1947, the British granted Independence from both India and Pakistan. Pakistan was to be based on...lobbied him to withdraw his resignation, which he finally did.101 Chou complained about the political activities of Tibetan dissidents and suggest

  16. Higher Education and Women's Empowerment in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Samina; Courtney, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarises the findings of a 2005 doctoral study by Malik which explored to what extent participation in higher education offers empowerment to women in Pakistan. A survey instrument was used to question female faculty members and female students from 10 public universities in Pakistan; 1290 students and 290 faculty members responded.…

  17. English-Teaching Institutions in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Tariq

    2001-01-01

    Discusses English medium teaching in Pakistan and suggests that at the moment it is an elitist preserve and a stumbling block for Pakistanis not taught through English. Indicates that exposing other students to English could counteract growing cultural and religious intolerance in Pakistan. (Author/VWL)

  18. Pakistan strong industrial base urged for economic progress

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    A conference organized by Pakistan Nuclear Society urged that Pakistan should develop a strong industrial base and capability to export equipment for economic progress. The chairmen of PAEC pointed out that Pakistan is already showing remarkable progress in export of science-related equipment to CERN. He also asked scientists to wage a war against Pakistans inability to acquire indigenous technology (1 page).

  19. A novel chiral phase of achiral hard triangles and an entropy-driven demixing of enantiomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gantapara, A.P.; Qi, W.; Dijkstra, M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the phase behavior of a system of hard equilateral and right-angled triangles in two dimensions using Monte Carlo simulations. Hard equilateral triangles undergo a continuous isotropic–triatic liquid crystal phase transition at packing fraction f = 0.7. Similarly, hard right-angled

  20. Relations among Five Radii of Circles in a Triangle, Its Sides and Other Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler, Avi; Stupel, Moshe; Flores, Alfinio

    2017-01-01

    Students use GeoGebra to explore the mathematical relations among different radii of circles in a triangle (circumcircle, incircle, excircles) and the sides and other segments in the triangle. The more formal mathematical development of the relations that follows the explorations is based on known geometrical properties, different formulas…

  1. Revisiting the Didactic Triangle in the Case of an Adaptive Learning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassine Zaoui Seghroucheni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we revisit the classical approach of the didactic triangle designed for the classical learning situation (face to face and adapt it to the situation of an adaptive learning system, we discuss also the different components involved in this didactic triangle and how they interact and influence the learning process in an adaptive learning system.

  2. Revisiting the Pink Triangle Exercise: An Exploration of Experiential Learning in Graduate Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Greg L.

    2014-01-01

    The pink triangle exercise is an example of an experiential learning exercise that creates cognitive dissonance and deep learning of unrealized internalized biases among social work students. Students wear a button with a pink triangle on it for 1 day and write a reflection paper. The exercise increases self-awareness, cultural competence, and the…

  3. Maximal outerplanar graphs as chordal graphs, path-neighborhood graphs, and triangle graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.C. Laskar (R.C.); H.M. Mulder (Martyn); B. Novick (Beth)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractMaximal outerplanar graphs are characterized using three different classes of graphs. A path-neighborhood graph is a connected graph in which every neighborhood induces a path. The triangle graph $T(G)$ has the triangles of the graph $G$ as its vertices, two of these being adjacent

  4. Awareness and reported violations of the WHO International Code and Pakistan's national breastfeeding legislation; a descriptive cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faragher Brian

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background National legislation in Pakistan adopted the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes in 2002 to restrict the promotion of infant formula feeding. Our objectives were to assess health professionals' awareness of this law in urban government hospitals and describe their reports of violations, including receiving free samples, gifts and sponsorship. Methods Structured interviews were conducted with health staff between July and August 2006 at 12 urban government hospitals in Islamabad, Rawalpindi and Peshawar including paediatricians, obstetricians, nurses, resident doctors, midwives and lady health visitors (LHVs. Results Of the 427 health workers interviewed, the majority were not aware of the national breastfeeding law (70.5%; n = 301 or the International Code (79.6%; n = 340. Paediatricians, and staff who had been working for 10 years or more, were more likely to be aware of the law [OR = 7.00, 95% CI 3.12, 15.7 (paediatricians; OR = 2.48, 95% CI 1.45, 4.24 (10 years working]. More than one third (38.4%, n = 164 had received small gifts such as pens, pencils and calendars; 12.4% (n = 53 had received sponsorship for training or conferences; and 15.9% (n = 68 had received free samples of infant formula from the Companies. Staff who were aware of the law were also more likely to report receiving gifts (OR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.08, 2.51 and free samples (OR = 1.86, 95% CI 1.09, 3.19. Conclusion Most hospital health professionals were unaware of national breastfeeding legislation in Pakistan, and infant formula companies were continuing to flout the ban on gifts, free samples and sponsorship for health staff.

  5. Patterns of radiographic damage to cervical spine in polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients presenting to tertiary care hospital in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khyzer, E.; Aftab, T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To see the radiographic cervical spine damage in polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (PJIA) coming to a tertiary care hospital in Islamabad, Pakistan. Study Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in department of Rheumatology at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences from Jun 2013 to Dec 2013. Subjects and Methods: A total of 50 patients of PJIA coming to Rheumatology Outpatient Department were recruited in the study after informed consent. Radiographs of cervical spine were performed for each patient in antero-posterior, lateral with flexion and extension and open-mouth views. Radiographs were reviewed for the following eatures: loss of cervical lordosis, odontoid process erosion, anterior atlantoaxial subluxation, C1-C2 arthritis, atlantoaxial impaction, inflammation of disc, apophyseal joint arthritis, anterior ankylosis, apophyseal joint ankylosis, anterior and posterior subaxial subluxation and growth disturbances. Data was analysed using SPSS version 18. Results: Out of the total 50 patients, 28 (56%) were females while 22 (44%) were males. The mean duration of pJIA was 5.54 +- 3.28 years. Radiological cervical spine involvement was seen in 52% patients. The most common structural lesions were anterior atlantoaxial subluxation (30%), C1-C2 arthritis (22%) erosion of the odontoid process (18%), and apophyseal joint arthritis (16%). Loss of cervical lordosis was found in 7(14%) patients. There was no growth disturbances observed in vertebra. Conclusion: Cervical spine involvement is common in patients of PJIA. It is mostly asymptomatic, so routine cervical spine radiographs in all patients suffering from PJIA is recommended. (author)

  6. [Pakistan: emigration in the Gulf and its effects on the home economy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imdad, N

    1985-01-01

    Pakistani emigration since the early 1970s has been primarily directed toward the oil-rich Gulf states. Over 2 million Pakistanis, 10% of the adult male workforce, now live outside their home country, 3/4 of them in the Gulf states. The emigration has shortterm advantages for Pakistan, which has a high unemployment rate and few other exports. 2 government bureaus and over 300 recruiting agencies encourage Pakistani emigration to the Gulf, and because of the foreign exchange earnings generated, such emigration has become an important concern of the government. Emigration has a long history in Pakistan as part of the migratory movements of the Indian subcontinent in general. Emigration in the 1960s was prompted by mechanization of agriculture and disturbances of traditional agrarian labor arrangements brought on by the Green Revolution. Concentrations of lands among the successful middle-sized producers led to a rural proletariat and exodus towards the cities, where possibilities of employment were scarce. Regions of declining income around the new capital of Islamabad were the 1st to take advantage of new employment opportunities in the Gulf states. Pakistani migration to the Gulf countries is temporary for individual workers, who stay an average of 3-6 years, but the effect is of chain migration as returning workers are replaced by other family members. Workers are not accompanied by family members and have almost no contact with the local Arab populations. They send most of their earnings to their families in Pakistan. 3/4 are under 30 years old, most are of rural origin, and the majority are from the northern provinces. Although 70% are married, only 4% of migrants, the most highly qualified, are accompanied by their families. About 41% are unskilled workers and 42.6% are semiskilled or skilled manual workers. In 1981, the average annual salary repatriated by a Pakistani working in the Gulf was $3000. The Pakistani government has not defined a migration policy

  7. Nursing students' perceptions of their educational environment in the bachelor's programs of the Shifa College of Nursing, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Gideon; Ishtiaq, Muhammad; Parveen, Subia

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate nursing students' perceptions of their educational environment in a private college. Perceptions were compared between genders and 2 bachelor's programs. A total of 219 students participated in this study, drawn from the Generic Bachelor of Science in Nursing (GBSN) and the Post-Registered Nurse Bachelor of Science in Nursing (PRBSN) programs of the Shifa College of Nursing, Islamabad, Pakistan. The Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure was utilized for data collection. Descriptive statistics were used to calculate total scores, as well as means and standard deviations, and the t-test was applied for comparisons according to program and gender. The overall total mean score (119 of 200) is suggestive of more positive than negative perceptions of the educational environment. The mean score of 13 of 28 on the social self-perception subscale suggests that the social environment was felt to be 'not a nice place.' The t-test revealed more positive perceptions among students enrolled in the PRBSN program (Penvironment was present, but the social component requires immediate attention, along with other unsatisfactory components. Establishing a supportive environment conducive to competence-based learning would play an important role in bringing desirable changes to the educational environment.

  8. Prevalence of non-communicable diseases and their risk factors at a semi-urban community, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Sajida; Khattak, Umme Kulsoom; Ghazanfar, Haider; Irfan, Awais

    2016-01-01

    Pakistan is currently facing the double burden of communicable (38%) and non- communicable diseases (49%) according to WHO NCD Country Profiles 2014. About 50% of all deaths are attributed to NCD's. The objective of this study was to determine the burden of non-communicable diseases in semi urban community of Islamabad. We carried a cross sectional study to estimate the burden of non-communicable diseases in an urban setting, a community based cross sectional survey covering 1210 households was carried out over a period of three months. Households were selected through consecutive non-probability sampling, among which adult females and males who were permanent resident of the community were interviewed through a structured questionnaire in urdu language. SPSS version 21 was used to analyze the data. Descriptive statistics were calculated. About 38.7% individuals had High BP / IHD, 34.4% had oro-dental health problems, 24.3% were physically disabled and 14.6% had diabetes. Among the risk factors, 48.2% were tobacco user, 13.60% were drug abuser and 1.8% alcoholics. We conclude that the prevalence of non-communicable diseases is quite high in the above setting as compared to the National indicators, which demands timely intervention to curtail the existing burden of NCD.

  9. Development, Physico-Chemical and Sensory Properties of Biscuits Supplemented with Pumpkin Seeds to Combat Childhood Malnutrition in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanwal, S.; Raza, S.; Naseem, K.; Amjad, M.; Bibi, N.; Gillani, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out in Food Science and Product Development Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan in 2014. Nutritive pumpkin seed flour fortified biscuits were prepared with four different substituted levels of pumpkin seed flour in wheat flour (T/sub 2/ = 5%, T/sub 3/ = 10%, T/sub 4/ = 15% and T/sub 5/ = 20%), were compared with control (T/sub 1/). Chemical attributes of biscuits showed that T/sub 5/ has maximum level of pumpkin flour (20%) with maximum protein (12.30%), fat (28.29%), ash (4.13%), iron (2.28%) and zinc (3.11%). Sensory results also revealed increasing trend in all sensory parameters. Results showed acceptability at all levels but treatment T/sub 4/ with 15 % pumpkin seed flour scored highest (8.0) for maximum overall acceptability. It was concluded that pumpkin seed flour can be supplemented successfully to partially replace wheat flour to prepare highly nutritious biscuits without affecting its overall acceptability. (author)

  10. Flexible Triangle Search Algorithm for Block-Based Motion Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Antoniou

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A new fast algorithm for block-based motion estimation, the flexible triangle search (FTS algorithm, is presented. The algorithm is based on the simplex method of optimization adapted to an integer grid. The proposed algorithm is highly flexible due to its ability to quickly change its search direction and to move towards the target of the search criterion. It is also capable of increasing or decreasing its search step size to allow coarser or finer search. Unlike other fast search algorithms, the FTS can escape from inferior local minima and thus converge to better solutions. The FTS was implemented as part of the H.264 encoder and was compared with several other block matching algorithms. The results obtained show that the FTS can reduce the number of block matching comparisons by around 30–60% with negligible effect on the image quality and compression ratio.

  11. Using the Golden Triangle to optimize clearance and oral absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ted W; Dress, Klaus R; Edwards, Martin

    2009-10-01

    The Golden Triangle is a visualization tool developed from in vitro permeability, in vitro clearance and computational data designed to aid medicinal chemists in achieving metabolically stable, permeable and potent drug candidates. Classifying compounds as permeable and stable and plotting molecular weight (MW) versus octanol:buffer (pH 7.4) distribution coefficients (logD) or estimated octanol:buffer (pH 7.4) distribution coefficients (elogD) reveals useful trends. Analysis of at least two orthogonal trends, such as permeability and clearance, can be extremely effective in balancing and optimizing multiple properties. In addition, molecular weight and logD impact potency-efficiency calculations, allowing potency, clearance and permeability to be optimized simultaneously.

  12. 9th International Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle

    CERN Document Server

    CKM2016

    2016-01-01

    The 9th International Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle (CKM 2016) will be held during November 28 to December 3, 2016 at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Mumbai, India. The CKM series is a well-established international meeting in the field of quark-flavour physics that brings both experimenters and theorists on a common platform. On the experimental front, we bridge borders between neutron, kaon, charm and beauty hadron, and top quark physics. The theory program tries to cover a wide range of approaches. We shall discuss how this marriage of the two can indirectly probe physics beyond the standard model, taking into account the interplay with high-pT collider searches.

  13. The Triangle of the Space Launch System Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayolle, Eric

    2010-09-01

    Firemen know it as “fire triangle”, mathematicians know it as “golden triangle”, sailormen know it as “Bermuda triangle”, politicians know it as “Weimar triangle”… This article aims to present a new aspect of that shape geometry in the space launch system world: “the triangle of the space launch system operations”. This triangle is composed of these three following topics, which have to be taken into account for any space launch system operation processing: design, safety and operational use. Design performance is of course taking into account since the early preliminary phase of a system development. This design performance is matured all along the development phases, thanks to consecutives iterations in order to respect the financial and timing constraints imposed to the development of the system. This process leads to a detailed and precise design to assess the required performance. Then, the operational use phase brings its batch of constraints during the use of the system. This phase is conducted by specific procedures for each operation. Each procedure has sequences for each sub-system, which have to be conducted in a very precise chronological way. These procedures can be processed by automatic way or manual way, with the necessity or not of the implication of operators, and in a determined environment. Safeguard aims to verify the respect of the specific constraints imposed to guarantee the safety of persons and property, the protection of public health and the environment. Safeguard has to be taken into account above the operational constraints of any space operation, without forgetting the highest safety level for the operators of the space operation, and of course without damaging the facilities or without disturbing the external environment. All space operations are the result of a “win-win” compromise between these three topics. Contrary to the fire triangle where one of the topics has to be suppressed in order to avoid the

  14. Food supply depends on seagrass meadows in the coral triangle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsworth, Richard K F; Hinder, Stephanie L; Bodger, Owen G; Cullen-Unsworth, Leanne C

    2014-01-01

    The tropical seascape provides food and livelihoods to hundreds of millions of people, but the support of key habitats to this supply remains ill appreciated. For fisheries and conservation management actions to help promote resilient ecosystems, sustainable livelihoods, and food supply, knowledge is required about the habitats that help support fisheries productivity and the consequences of this for food security. This paper provides an interdisciplinary case study from the coral triangle of how seagrass meadows provide support for fisheries and local food security. We apply a triangulated approach that utilizes ecological, fisheries and market data combined with over 250 household interviews. Our research demonstrates that seagrass associated fauna in a coral triangle marine protected area support local food supply contributing at least 50% of the fish based food. This formed between 54% and 99% of daily protein intake in the area. Fishery catch was found to significantly vary with respect to village (p < 0.01) with habitat configuration a probable driver. Juvenile fish comprised 26% of the fishery catch and gear type significantly influenced this proportion (<0.05). Limited sustainability of fishery practices (high juvenile catch and a 51% decline in CPUE for the biggest fishery) and poor habitat management mean the security of this food supply has the potential to be undermined in the long-term. Findings of this study have implications for the management and assessment of fisheries throughout the tropical seascape. Our study provides an exemplar for why natural resource management should move beyond biodiversity and consider how conservation and local food security are interlinked processes that are not mutually exclusive. Seagrass meadows are under sustained threat worldwide, this study provides evidence of the need to conserve these not just to protect biodiversity but to protect food security. (letter)

  15. Comparing MapReduce and Pipeline Implementations for Counting Triangles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelmira Pasarella

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A common method to define a parallel solution for a computational problem consists in finding a way to use the Divide and Conquer paradigm in order to have processors acting on its own data and scheduled in a parallel fashion. MapReduce is a programming model that follows this paradigm, and allows for the definition of efficient solutions by both decomposing a problem into steps on subsets of the input data and combining the results of each step to produce final results. Albeit used for the implementation of a wide variety of computational problems, MapReduce performance can be negatively affected whenever the replication factor grows or the size of the input is larger than the resources available at each processor. In this paper we show an alternative approach to implement the Divide and Conquer paradigm, named dynamic pipeline. The main features of dynamic pipelines are illustrated on a parallel implementation of the well-known problem of counting triangles in a graph. This problem is especially interesting either when the input graph does not fit in memory or is dynamically generated. To evaluate the properties of pipeline, a dynamic pipeline of processes and an ad-hoc version of MapReduce are implemented in the language Go, exploiting its ability to deal with channels and spawned processes. An empirical evaluation is conducted on graphs of different topologies, sizes, and densities. Observed results suggest that dynamic pipelines allows for an efficient implementation of the problem of counting triangles in a graph, particularly, in dense and large graphs, drastically reducing the execution time with respect to the MapReduce implementation.

  16. Association of socio-economic features, hygienic status, age group and gender with prevalence of waterborne diseases in rawalpindi and islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, M.S.; Amin, M.; Amber, M.; Malik, M.W.; Sherwani, S.K

    2012-01-01

    Prevention of waterborne illness is of great concern all over the world. Waterborne diseases represent significant burden of diseases in the globe. Nearly 4% of diseases are attributable to water, sanitation and hygiene, and approximately 2.2 million people die every year due to diarrheal diseases worldwide. This study was carried out to find association of socio-economic features, hygienic status, age groups and gender with prevalence of water borne diseases in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. A research questionnaire was designed with questions related to demographic data, drinking water data and prevalence of water borne disease. The research questionnaire was interviewed to different respondents above 18 years of age randomly selected from different settings of Rawalpindi and Islamabad belonging to different socio-economic statuses. Data was analysed by employing cross tabulation and chi-square test with help of statistical software. The more frequent age group (47%) was 30 to 45 years. Proportion of diarrhea in females and males of middle age group were calculated as 36.11 % and 11.11 %, respectively. The second more frequent reported disease was jaundice with 15.9% of the target population being males and 16.7% females. Diarrhea was observed to be the major waterborne disease constituting 41 % of the population with poor hygiene practices. The hygienic practices were significantly associated with waterborne diseases (P = <0.001). Waterborne diseases were also, associated with financial status (P=0.02) and literacy rate (p=0.03). The current study concludes that improvement in the hygienic conditions and hygienic practices will playa pivotal role to prevent faeco-oral infections and reduce the waterborne disease burden. In targeted areas due to poor economic conditions, the population failed to achieve better hygienic practices and therefore there is a need to strengthen water filtration system and awareness of hygienic routine practices in these areas. (author)

  17. 76 FR 54762 - Golden Triangle Storage, Inc.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... Triangle Storage, Inc.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Golden...) that will discuss the environmental impacts of the Golden Triangle Storage Expansion Project (GTS Expansion Project), involving construction and operation of facilities by Golden Triangle Storage, Inc. (GTS...

  18. Mobile Application Testing in Pakistan: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saqib

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Research regarding MAT (Mobile Application Testing in Pakistan is hard to discover and to the best of our knowledge, no work has been done in surveying MAT in Pakistan. In this work, we have examined the current trend and status of MAT in Pakistan. Main objective was to investigate to what extent MAT is currently applied in Pakistan software companies and what experience the companies have with using MAT. Furthermore, efforts were made to find out what testers think about MAT, e.g. issue, advantages and disadvantages of MAT, what factors affects MAT and how they plan to improve MAT. In order to achieve our objectives, we used a comprehensive online survey so we converted our research questions into correspondence survey questions. We served a questionnaire of the survey to 66 testing relevant officials of leading software companies in different cities of Pakistan to develop a model study about general trend and status of MAT which can be generalized all over Pakistan. We received 56 replies in total after over 2 months. After that, we used SPSS tool to analyze the replies of this questionnaire. Cross-Tabulation Analysis and Pearson Chi-square tests have been computed to examine the results. We found some interesting results on current status and practice of MAT in Pakistan software companies.

  19. Safeguards in Pakistan: State-Agency Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.; Mulla, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of IAEA Safeguards in Pakistan dates back to March, 1962 when a trilateral safeguards agreement (INFCIRC/34) was signed for the supply of Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1), under the ''Atoms for Peace program''. At that time there were few nuclear facilities under IAEA safeguards around the globe. Since then Pakistan has concluded several safeguards agreements with the Agency. All the safeguards agreements concluded by Pakistan are governed under the Safeguards Document INFCIRC/66/Rev.2. Under this model, an item-specific or facility-specific safeguards is applied which employs diverse approaches and, from some aspects, is more stringent than Comprehensive Safeguards approach. However, Pakistan believes in strong State-Agency cooperation for successful implementation of safeguards. Throughout the history of safeguards in Pakistan since 1962, the atmosphere of coordination and cooperation with Agency in safeguards implementation has been exceptional. Pakistan has been extending its utmost cooperation with the Agency in resolving the emerging safeguards issues at its safeguarded facilities. KANUPP remained involved in the Agency project on ''Development of In situ Verification for CANDU Spent Fuel Bundles'' as well as in performance evaluation of bundle counters. KANUPP has been providing analytical services for heavy water samples and various manufacturing services on Agency's requests. Pakistan is participating in voluntary reporting scheme established by the Agency regarding any export of separated neptunium (Np) and americium (Am) to any of the Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement (CSA) State since 2000. Various emerging issues of safeguards implementation have been resolved with the Agency by agreeing to a number of Safeguards Approaches with the Agency. Recently this number has been increased to 36. We intend to maintain this spirit of cooperation with the Agency in future regarding safeguards

  20. Polyester projects for India, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, R.

    1993-01-01

    India's Indo Rama Synthetics (Bombay) is planning a $186-million integrated polyester fiber and filament complex at Nagpur, Maharashtra. The complex will have annual capacities for 38,000 m.t. of polyester chips by polycondensation, 25,000 m.t. of polyester staple fiber, and 12,000 m.t. of polyester blended yarn. The company is negotiating with the main world suppliers of polycondensation technology. The first stage of the project is slated to begin production by the end of this year and be fully completed by 1994. In Pakistan, National Fibers Ltd. (PNF; Karachi) has signed a deal with Zimmer (Frankfurt) for technology, procurement, construction, and support work to expand polyester staple fiber capacity from 14,000 m.t./year to 52,000 m.t./year. The technology involves a continuous polymerization process. The project also calls for improvements to PNF's existing batch plant. It is scheduled for completion by the end of 1994. Total cost of the project is estimated at Rs1.745 billion ($70 million), out of which the foreign exchange component is Rs1.05 billion. The Islamic Development Bank (Jeddah; Saudi Arabia) has already approved a $27-million slice of the financing, while the balance of the foreign exchange loan is being arranged through suppliers credit. Local currency loans will be provided by other financial institutions in Pakistan

  1. Pakistan: Key Current Issues and Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    coordinate U.S. government efforts with both Pakistan and Afghanistan. Pakistan is among the world’s leading recipients of U.S. aid and will by the...challenges. Along with this treacherous geography, the constantly morphing stew of militant groups in the region cannot be tackled without a large body of...speech.303 U.S. Foreign Assistance and Congressional Action Pakistan is today among the world’s leading recipients of U.S. aid. Since the 2001 renewal

  2. Stephen Cohen, The Idea of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Mufti

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The central question that Stephen Cohen grapples with in his book, The Idea of Pakistan, is what is Pakistan? Is it a ‘rogue state’, ‘a delinquent nation’, ‘Taliban East’ a ‘failing state’ or just ‘misunderstood but an effective US ally’ (p. 2? To probe beyond these descriptions of Pakistan, Cohen has two purposes in mind. First, he wants to demonstrate why Indian Muslims felt the need for a separate homeland to pursue their ‘civilizational destiny’. Second, he wants to narrate how the state...

  3. Triangle islands and cavities on the surface of evaporated Cu(In, Ga)Se2 absorber layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Anjun; Zhang Yi; Liu Wei; Li Boyan; Sun Yun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Lots of uncommon triangle islands and cavities are found on (1 1 2) planes terminated by Se atoms of evaporated Cu(In, Ga)Se 2 thin films. ► Se ad-dimer as a nucleus, Cu atom diffusion from Cu(In, Ga)Se 2 grains brings the epitaxial triangle island. ► The triangle islands grow with a two-dimensional layered mode. ► The triangle cavities are formed due to the insufficient coalescence of triangle islands. ► The performance of solar cell without triangle islands is improved. - Abstract: Cu(In, Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) thin films are co-evaporated at a constant substrate temperature of 500 °C on the Mo/soda lime glass substrates. The structural properties and chemical composition of the CIGS films are studied by an X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and an X-ray fluorescent spectrometer (XRF), respectively. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to study the surface morphology. Lots of uncommon triangle islands and cavities are found on some planes of the CIGS thin films. We investigate the formation mechanism of these triangle islands. It is found that the planes with the triangle islands are (1 1 2) planes terminated by Se atoms. Se ad-dimer as a nucleus, Cu diffusion from CIGS grains brings the epitaxial triangle islands which grow with a two-dimensional layered mode. The film with Cu/(Ga + In) = 0.94–0.98 is one key of the formation of these islands. The triangle cavities are formed due to the insufficient coalescence of triangle islands. The growth of triangle islands brings a compact surface with large layered grains and many jagged edges, but no triangle cavity. Finally, we compare the performance of solar cell with triangle islands and layered gains. It is found that the performance of solar cell with large layered gains is improved.

  4. The number of colorings of planar graphs with no separating triangles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    A classical result of Birkhoff and Lewis implies that every planar graph with . n vertices has at least . 152n-1 distinct 5-vertex-colorings. Equality holds for planar triangulations with . n-4 separating triangles. We show that, if a planar graph has no separating triangle, then it has at least...... . (2+10-12)n distinct 5-vertex-colorings. A similar result holds for . k-colorings for each fixed . k≥5. Infinitely many planar graphs without separating triangles have less than . 2.252n distinct 5-vertex-colorings. As an auxiliary result we provide a complete description of the infinite 6-regular...

  5. Neuropsychiatric events attributed to systemic lupus erythematosus: a single center study form pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumtaz, S.; Rasheed, U.; Zammurrad, S.; Aziz, W.

    2017-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) is a relatively common and potentially serious manifestation of SLE. This study was designed to collect evidence about clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with NPSLE in a Pakistani lupus cohort. ethodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Department of Rheumatology, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan between July 2016 and December 2016. Patients fulfilling diagnostic criteria for SLE as defined by ACR were enrolled. For detection of neuropsychiatric involvement the One-Hour Neuropsychological Battery proposed by the ACR was performed. Neuropsychiatric manifestations were classified into major and minor. Relationship of presence and severity of individual neuropsychiatric manifestations to disease duration in years and organ damage using SLICC/ACR-DI was studied. esults: Out of 100 SLE patients, there were 96 females and 4 males (female to male ratio of 24:1). Mean age of all participants was 30.99 years (range 17-72 years) and average disease duration at the time of enrolment was 3.89 years. Neuropsychiatric manifestations were observed in 84 patients. 20 out of these 84 patients (23.8%) had major neurological manifestations including seizures (13 patients), altered consciousness (10 patients) and cerebro-vascular accident (5 patients). While 7 out of these 84 patients (8.3%) had major psychiatric manifestations including psychosis (5 patients) and depression with suicidal ideation (2 patients). All major neurological manifestations occurred beyond and major psychiatric manifestations occurred within 2 years of diagnosis of SLE. Minor psychiatric manifestations observed included severe anxiety (52 patients), cognitive impairment (43 patients) and mood disorder (25 patients). No statistically significant difference in mean SLICC/ACR-DI score was observed between NPSLE patients and non-NPSLE patients when points received for neurologically related damage were

  6. Population and population policy in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, W P

    1963-02-01

    Pakistan is a divided country with different religious groups represented. Since independence in 1941, the Muslim population has increased more rapidly than the Hindu population, the West Pakistan population more rapidly and steadily than the East Pakistan population. In the late 1950s the Pakistan government initiated a family planning program. The program has trained medical and paramedical personnel in family planning, added family planning services to existing medical centers, planned for a National Research Institute of Family Planning, employed mobile units to reach outlying areas, conducted limited clinical studies on some contraceptives, and used mass media advertising. Only India and Japan are doing more with government-sponsored family planning. A weak organizational structure and an inadequate number of trained personnel are the main weakness of the program. It is too early to assess the success of the program. A 10-point reduction in annual birth rates will be considered successful.

  7. Lagunenud valitsusega Pakistan vaevleb kriisis / Sandra Maasalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maasalu, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 27. aug. 2008, lk. 7. Pakistani valitsuse lagunemisest, kui endine peaminister Navaz Sharif oma parteiga koalitsioonist lahkus. Vt. samas: Pakistani ahistavad separatistid ja majanduse allakäik. Kaart: Pakistan

  8. India and Pakistan: Trading for Peace

    OpenAIRE

    Mamoon, Dawood; S. Murshed, Mansoob

    2008-01-01

    Are shared democratic values the most important factors in promoting peace between countries, or common economic interests? New econometric research shows that, in the case of India and Pakistan, trade with other countries increases the chance of peace.

  9. Reforming mysticism: Sindhi separatist intellectuals in Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkaaik, O.; Marsden, M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Anthropology, Islam, and Pakistan / Magnus Marsden -- Of children and jinns : an enquiry into an unexpected friendship during uncertain times / Naveeda Khan -- The modern businessman and the Pakistani saint : the interpenetration of worlds / Katherine P. Ewing -- Islamic influences on

  10. Prime Minister of Pakistan visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2016-01-01

    On Saturday, 23 January 2016, CERN welcomed Mr Muhammad Nawaz Sharif, Prime Minister of Pakistan.   From left to right: Minister of Finance Mr Mohammad Ishaq Dar, Prime Minister of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Muhammad Nawaz Sharif, CERN Director-General Fabiola Gianotti and CMS national contact physicist Hafeez Hoorani. Mr Muhammad Nawaz Sharif arrived at Point 5 in Cessy, where he was welcomed onto French soil by the sous-préfet of Cessy, Stéphane Donnot, and, representing CERN, Director-General Fabiola Gianotti, Directors Eckhard Elsen and Charlotte Warakaulle, and Rüdiger Voss, the adviser for relations with Pakistan. It was the first visit by a head of government of Pakistan since the country became CERN's latest Associate Member State in July 2015. The Prime Minister then had the opportunity to visit the CMS underground experimental area accompanied by the CMS Spokesperson, Tiziano Camporesi, and the CMS collaboration’...

  11. Security Decision-Making in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    views in some detail in the next chapter, but it is important to note that they quickly became embedded in the very identity of the Pakistan army officer...was o.k., not openly--I was comanding Muslim troops. Pakistan Army officers regard with some derision the debates in India over supplying rum to Indian...provinces (they were also Corps Comanders and Deputy Martial Law Administrators) were separated in April, 1980 and new Corps Commanders have been appointed

  12. Islamic Banking in Pakistan: A Critical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikh, Salman

    2012-01-01

    Islamic banking in Pakistan has completed one decade of operations in Pakistan and now there are 5 full-fledged Islamic banks and more than 15 conventional banks with Islamic banking windows. Due to the consistent double digit growth in total assets, the market share had steadily risen to 7% by the end of 2011. However, meaningful assessment of Islamic banking requires looking at how far they have contributed to uphold Islamic principles, values and bringing about or at least working towards ...

  13. Modelling the Demand for Money in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Qayyum, Abdul

    2005-01-01

    The study estimates the dynamic demand for money (M2) function in Pakistan by employing cointegration analysis and error correction mechanism. The parameters of preferred model are found to be super-exogenous for the relevant class of interventions. It is found that the rate of inflation is an important determinant of money demand in Pakistan. The analysis reveals that the rates of interest, market rate, and bond yield are important for the long-run money demand behaviour. Since the preferred...

  14. Exploring environmental literacy in low-literate communities of Pakistan: A descriptive study to recommend strategies for planning environmental education programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudi, Sabiha Shafique

    2000-10-01

    The widely accepted definition of environmental education as stated by The Tbilisi Declaration of 1978 focuses on developing an environmentally literate citizenry which is capable of working "...individually and collectively toward solutions of current [environmental] problems and the prevention of new ones". The two basic tenets of environmental literacy are further defined in this study as the ability to understand environmental problems and the ability to address those environmental problems in a responsible manner. Acquisition of knowledge has also been considered an important element when developing environmental literacy programs. However, a large sector of the world population is non- or low-literate and communication is through channels other than the written word. The challenge for environmental educators is to reach the low-literate learners who have not had many opportunities to participate in formal education activities through established institutions. The purpose of this study was to describe levels of environmental literacy in communities with varying levels of formal literacy in two cities, Karachi and Islamabad, Pakistan to determine the role formal literacy plays in enhancing environmental literacy and decision making in relation to age, sex, location, number of years spent in formal education, and the socio-economic status (SES) of adult learners. Based on the outcomes, recommendations were made for designing effective programs to ensure involvement of low-literate communities in established decision-making processes through relevant program planning. This study suggested strategies to program planners and environmental educators for designing programs that reach low-literate communities, highlight local environmental concerns, and empower these communities in addressing local environmental issues. A purposive sample was identified from the constituencies of five non-governmental organizations in Karachi and Islamabad, Pakistan. Two instruments

  15. Bermuda Triangle for the liver: alcohol, obesity, and viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhari, Samir

    2013-08-01

    Despite major progress in understanding and managing liver disease in the past 30 years, it is now among the top 10 most common causes of death globally. Several risk factors, such as genetics, diabetes, obesity, excessive alcohol consumption, viral infection, gender, immune dysfunction, and medications, acting individually or in concert, are known to precipitate liver damage. Viral hepatitis, excessive alcohol consumption, and obesity are the major factors causing liver injury. Estimated numbers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected subjects worldwide are staggering (370 and 175 million, respectively), and of the 40 million known human immunodeficiency virus positive subjects, 4 and 5 million are coinfected with HBV and HCV, respectively. Alcohol and HCV are the leading causes of end-stage liver disease worldwide and the most common indication for liver transplantation in the United States and Europe. In addition, the global obesity epidemic that affects up to 40 million Americans, and 396 million worldwide, is accompanied by an alarming incidence of end-stage liver disease, a condition exacerbated by alcohol. This article focuses on the interactions between alcohol, viral hepatitis, and obesity (euphemistically described here as the Bermuda Triangle of liver disease), and discusses common mechanisms and synergy. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: Revelation of the gastrinoma triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Hsin Yang, MD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is a complex condition in which one or more tumors form in the patient's pancreas or upper duodenum. These tumors, called gastrinomas, secrete excessive amounts of gastrin, and almost all develop ulcers. The vast majority of gastrinomas are present within the “gastrinoma triangle,” which is composed of the porta hepatis, duodenal sweep, and pancreatic head. As surgery remains the treatment of choice, localization of the primary lesion is often challenging but essential. We present a 50-year-old man with a tentative diagnosis of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. His In-111 pentetreotide scan, fused onto a Tc-99m abdomen image, revealed an avid lesion adjacent to the duodenal loop. Operative resection was performed, and a primary pancreatic gastrinoma was diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining. The neuroendocrine tumors have somatostatin receptors upon them. Therefore, a penteteotide scan, using In-111 radiolabelled somatostatin analogues, is the current technique of choice. This dual-isotope display permits a visual perception of anatomic landmarks around the lesion.

  17. Sistem Prevensi School Violence di Madura Berbasis Galtung Conflict Triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auliya Ridwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available School violence may be understood as the threat or use of physical force with the intention to cause physical injury, damage of property or intimidation of another person at school. School violence is also violence that happens outside school as a result of a social interaction among the students. With regards to their prevention, many theories and propositions have been introduced including that of Conflict Triangle theory by Johan Galtung. This paper is aimed at analyzing school violence in Madura by using this theory as a general framework of analysis. The paper will begin by providing a general overview of both the theory and the so-called carok tradition of Madura; a tradition of self-defense using traditional blade which often involves killing. Upon highlighting school violence in this island, the paper will then move on by suggesting that in order to delegitimize this violence, one must speak of preventive programs at practical level, and of deconstructing the cultural strength of carok tradition at the discursive one. We assume that once the carok tradition is being deconstructed, one would loose the cultural legitimacy of committing violence. In Madura violence is often legitimated by the culture and tradition of carok. To eradicate violence is therefore to get rid of carok tradition in the first place.

  18. James Williamson d/b/a Golden Triangle Builders Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Williamson d/b/a Golden Triangle Builders (the Company) is located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

  19. Fact Sheet on EPA's Science, Technology, Engineering & Math (STEM) Outreach Program in Research Triangle Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employees from EPA’s Research Triangle Park (RTP) campus serve as guest speakers at local schools and in the community. Hands-on activities and interactive discussions supplement classroom instruction and promote environmental awareness

  20. Airspora concentrations in the Vaal-triangle-monitoring and potential health-effects.2, fungal spores

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vismer, HF

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric fungal spores were monitored in Vanderbijlpark for the period 1991-92 as part of the Vaal triangle air pollution health study of the medical research council and the CSIR. Cladosporium, Aspergillus/ Penicillium, Alternaria and Epicoccum...

  1. Texas Urban Triangle : pilot study to implement a spatial decision support system (SDSS) for sustainable mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This project addressed sustainable transportation in the Texas Urban Triangle (TUT) by conducting a pilot : project at the county scale. The project tested and developed the multi-attribute Spatial Decision Support : System (SDSS) developed in 2009 u...

  2. Solid waste management - Pakistan's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.

    2003-01-01

    The discipline of 'Solid Waste Management' is as old as human civilization itself. The problem had been felt when the human beings commenced living together in the form of communities. The situation got worsened with ever-increasing population and growing industrialization. The developed nations have endeavored to tackle the issue of the industrial and municipal wastes according to the principles of engineering and environment. Most of the developing countries have not dealt with the 'Third Pollution' in the eco-friendly manner. Ironically Pakistan is facing this serious menace because of ever-expanding population (2.2% per annum) and ill management of the wastes and effluents being generated from multifarious activities. These pollutants are degrading the land, air and water resources at alarming rates. In Pakistan about 7,250 tonnes of solid waste is generated per day. Of this quantity only 60-70% is collected and the remaining quantity is allowed to burn indiscriminately or decay in situ. Unfortunately the industrial waste, animal dung and hospital waste are allowed to mix with the municipal waste, which adds to inefficiency of the existing 'Solid Waste Management System'. Scores of faecal, fly, rodent and mosquito born diseases are caused due to open dumping of the waste besides aesthetic impairment of the surroundings. None of the scientifically recognized methods of disposal is practiced. It is not based on administrative, financial, environmental and technical consideration. There is dire necessity of educating the masses to adopt clean habits and resort to generation of minimum waste. Further, nothing is waste as the so-called 'waste material' is the raw material after reuse and recycling for another process. (author)

  3. Strengthening Regulatory Competence in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq, M.

    2016-01-01

    Capacity building of Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority is considered an essential element in pursuit of its vision to become a world class regulatory body. Since its inception in 2001, PNRA has continuously endeavoured to invest in its people, develop training infrastructure and impart sound knowledge and professional skills with the aim to improve its regulatory effectiveness. The use of nuclear and radioactive material in Pakistan has increased manifold in recent years, thus induction of more manpower was needed for regulatory oversight. PNRA adopted two pronged approach for meeting the manpower demand (a) employment of university graduates through fast track recruitment drive and (b) induction of graduates by offering fellowships for Master degree programs. Although, the newly employed staff was selected on the basis of their excellent academic qualifications in basic and applied sciences, but they required rigorous knowledge and skills in regulatory perspectives. In order to implement a structured training program, PNRA conducted Training Needs Assessment (TNA) and identified competency gaps of the regulatory staff in legal, technical, regulatory practice and behavioural domains. PNRA took several initiatives for capacity building which included establishment of a training centre for sustainability of trainings, initiation of a fellowship scheme for Master program, attachment of staff at local institutes for on-the-job training and placement at foreign regulatory bodies and organizations for technical development with the assistance of IAEA. The above strategies have been very beneficial in competence building of the PNRA staff to perform all regulatory activities indigenously for nuclear power plants, research reactors and radiation facilities. Provision of vibrant technical support to IAEA and Member States in various programs by PNRA is a landmark of these competence development efforts. This paper summarizes PNRA initiatives and the International Atomic

  4. Current uranium activities in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghal, M.Y.

    2001-01-01

    The rocks of Siwaliks group in Pakistan, extending from Kashmir in the east through Potwar Plateau, Bannu Basin and Sulaiman range up to the Arabian Sea in the west have been extensively explored for uranium. The Dhok Pathan Formation, which is younger member of the middle Siwaliks has been aeroradiometrically surveyed and extensively prospected on foot. A large number of anomalies were encountered in Kashmir, Potwar Plateau, Bannu Basin and Sulaiman range. While exploratory work in Sulaiman range and Bannu Basin yielded a few workable deposits, none of the anomalous areas yielded an ore grade concentration in Potwar Plateau. As conventional exploration activities in Potwar Plateau did not yield any ore grade concentration therefore a resource potential evaluation programme through geological modeling was started under the guidance of an IAEA expert. The volcanic material found in the middle Siwaliks is considered to be the main source of uranium and siliceous cement in the sandstones. These findings have considerably increased uranium potential in Siwaliks. The tectonic deformation during and after the deposition of Siwaliks is considered to be the main reason for mobilization of uranium, while permeability barriers and upward movement of oil products may provide trappings for the mobilized uranium. Through this survey south western part of Potwar Plateau being relatively less deformed is considered to provide conducive environments for concentration of uranium. Low grade uranium concentrations have also been discovered in carbonatites in northern part of Pakistan. Preliminary exploration in Sallai Patti carbonatite through drilling supplemented by trenching, pitting and aditing, subsurface continuation of surface concentrations has been confirmed. The ore contains about 200 ppm of uranium and 3 to 4% phosphate in addition to magnetite, rare metals and rare earths. It has been demonstrated on laboratory/pilot scale that the concentrations of uranium and phosphate

  5. Functioning of the knowledge triangle in the example of IT education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHIVITSKAYA H.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the interactions between knowledge triangle components in IT-education in the Republic of Belarus is described. This paper describes the results of research in the framework of the program of the European Union Tempus IV «Fostering the Knowledge Triangle in Belarus, Ukraine and Moldova» - «FKTBUM». The analysis of the obstacles to the effective integration of higher education, research and innovation is performed.

  6. Metric assessment of the "mastoid triangle" for sex determination: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemkes, Ariane; Göbel, Tanja

    2006-09-01

    Recently, a metric approach to skeletal sex determination was published by Paiva and Segre which is based on the summation of two triangular areas defined by three distinct craniometric landmarks: Porion, Mastoidale, and Asterion. According to the authors, values for the total triangle > or =1447.40 mm(2) are characteristic for male crania, while values asterion location undermine the value of the mastoid triangle as a sex determinant.

  7. Three-coloring graphs with no induced seven-vertex path II : using a triangle

    OpenAIRE

    Chudnovsky, Maria; Maceli, Peter; Zhong, Mingxian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we give a polynomial time algorithm which determines if a given graph containing a triangle and no induced seven-vertex path is 3-colorable, and gives an explicit coloring if one exists. In previous work, we gave a polynomial time algorithm for three-coloring triangle-free graphs with no induced seven-vertex path. Combined, our work shows that three-coloring a graph with no induced seven-vertex path can be done in polynomial time.

  8. The coral triangle initiative: What are we missing? A case study from Aceh

    KAUST Repository

    Rudi, Edi

    2012-10-01

    Abstract The Coral Triangle Initiative is an ambitious attempt to conserve the marine biodiversity hotspot known as the Coral Triangle. However, the reef fauna in many nearby regions remains poorly explored and, consequently, the focus on the Coral Triangle risks overlooking other areas of high conservation significance. One region of potential significance, Aceh, Indonesia, has not been visited by coral taxonomists since the Dutch colonial period. Here we document the species richness of scleractinian corals of Pulau Weh, Aceh. We also compare the species richness of the genus Acropora at 3-5 sites in each of nine regions in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. Although dominated by widespread Indo-Pacific species, the coral fauna of Pulau Weh is also the eastern and western boundary for many Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean species, respectively. We identified a total of 133 scleractinian species, of which three have been previously recorded only in the western Indian Ocean and five are presently undescribed. The mean species richness of the Acropora at Pulau Weh is similar to regions within the Coral Triangle. This high species richness plus the high proportion of endemics suggests that the Andaman Sea is of similarly high conservation value to the Coral Triangle. We suggest that an international initiative similar to the Coral Triangle Initiative is required to conserve this region, which includes the territorial waters of six countries. © 2012 Fauna & Flora International.

  9. Comparative analysis of factor affecting child mortality in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Rabbani, Sarah; Qayyum, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    This study is investigated determinants of child mortality in the Pakistan. The Pakistan is amongst one of the five countries who have the highest child mortality rates in the world. Literature on the subject has found extensive variation in causes of child death. We used micro-data of Pakistan Demographic Health Survey (PDHS) of 2006-07 collected by National Institute of Population Studies (NIPS). In the descriptive analysis, it is founded that neo-natal mortality rate is high for Pakistan. ...

  10. Comparative Analysis of Factor Affecting Child Mortality in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Rabbani, Sarah; Qayyun, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    This study is investigated determinants of child mortality in the Pakistan. The Pakistan is amongst one of the five countries who have the highest child mortality rates in the world. Literature on the subject has found extensive variation in causes of child death. We used micro-data of Pakistan Demographic Health Survey (PDHS) of 2006-07 collected by National Institute of Population Studies (NIPS). In the descriptive analysis, it is founded that neo-natal mortality rate is high for Pakistan. ...

  11. The Political Economy of Trade Relations between India-Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Kishore C. Dash.; Robert K. McCleery.

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of scholarly studies in and outside South Asia suggest the linkage between trade, economic development and peace between India and Pakistan. Despite many tangible political and economic gains of expanded India-Pakistan trade, the level of trade between India and Pakistan has remained anemic over the past six decades. Why hasn’t trade grown between India and Pakistan? What are the prospects of trade expansion between these two countries? Drawing on the growing political econ...

  12. Exploring the China-Pakistan Relationship. Roundtable Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    The China -Pakistan relationship is underpinned by traditional geo-political interests. These include concerns about India , about terrorism and...religious extremism, and about domestic and regional stability. China and Pakistan have similar geographical and historical concerns with respect to India ...together by mutual tensions and border conflicts with India . Appendix A describes key events in the China - Pakistan bilateral relationship. China

  13. Unusual rainfall shift during monsoon period of 2010 in Pakistan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arslan

    2013-09-04

    Sep 4, 2013 ... Floods due to “blocking event” in the jet stream during 2010 caused intense rainfall and flash floods in northern Pakistan which resulted to riverine flooding in southern Pakistan. In the beginning of July. 2010, changes in summer monsoon rainfall patterns caused the most severe flooding in Pakistan history.

  14. Climate Change Adaptation, Water, and Food Security in Pakistan ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Climate Change Adaptation, Water, and Food Security in Pakistan. Pakistan's devastating 2010 Indus basin floods left approximately one-fifth of Pakistan's land area underwater and directly affected about 20 million people. Subsequent flooding in the Indus deserts the following year also showed how vulnerable the country ...

  15. Chaos in power: Pakistan's electricity crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessides, Ioannis N.

    2013-01-01

    Pakistan is facing a severe electricity crisis due to a persistent and widening gap between demand and available system generating capacity. The worsening of power shortages has become a major political issue, reflecting the hardships for individuals and businesses. It threatens to undermine the credibility and legitimacy of government and to further stress the social fabric of the country. The power crisis did not emerge suddenly. It is the direct result of imprudent and reckless energy policies over the last three decades. These policies have impeded the development of cheap and abundant domestic energy sources. They have also resulted in very inefficient fuel-mix choices, compromising energy and economic security. Pakistan's energy bankruptcy is ultimately due to massive institutional and governance failure. This paper analyzes the problems confronting Pakistan's electricity sector and identifies the key elements of a potential policy response to address the country's severe power crisis. - Highlights: ► We analyze the structure, conduct, and performance of Pakistan's electricity sector. ► The causes and economic impacts of Pakistan's electricity shortages are analyzed. ► We identify the potential policy response to the power crisis

  16. Triangle network motifs predict complexes by complementing high-error interactomes with structural information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labudde Dirk

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A lot of high-throughput studies produce protein-protein interaction networks (PPINs with many errors and missing information. Even for genome-wide approaches, there is often a low overlap between PPINs produced by different studies. Second-level neighbors separated by two protein-protein interactions (PPIs were previously used for predicting protein function and finding complexes in high-error PPINs. We retrieve second level neighbors in PPINs, and complement these with structural domain-domain interactions (SDDIs representing binding evidence on proteins, forming PPI-SDDI-PPI triangles. Results We find low overlap between PPINs, SDDIs and known complexes, all well below 10%. We evaluate the overlap of PPI-SDDI-PPI triangles with known complexes from Munich Information center for Protein Sequences (MIPS. PPI-SDDI-PPI triangles have ~20 times higher overlap with MIPS complexes than using second-level neighbors in PPINs without SDDIs. The biological interpretation for triangles is that a SDDI causes two proteins to be observed with common interaction partners in high-throughput experiments. The relatively few SDDIs overlapping with PPINs are part of highly connected SDDI components, and are more likely to be detected in experimental studies. We demonstrate the utility of PPI-SDDI-PPI triangles by reconstructing myosin-actin processes in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cytoskeleton, which were not obvious in the original PPIN. Using other complementary datatypes in place of SDDIs to form triangles, such as PubMed co-occurrences or threading information, results in a similar ability to find protein complexes. Conclusion Given high-error PPINs with missing information, triangles of mixed datatypes are a promising direction for finding protein complexes. Integrating PPINs with SDDIs improves finding complexes. Structural SDDIs partially explain the high functional similarity of second-level neighbors in PPINs. We estimate that

  17. Coaptation Triangle and Golden Proportion in mitral valve anatomy. Does nature play with geometry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deorsola, Luca; Bellone, Alessandra

    2018-01-01

    The Coaptation Triangle, or Tenting Area, can be identified on long-axis 2D images. Its assessment is a routine practice during echocardiographic mitral evaluation. The Golden Proportion is a particular geometric ratio between two segments. Its value is an irrational number, commonly rounded to 0.618 and showing unique geometrical/mathematical properties. Interestingly, its presence has been documented in an extremely variable number of natural settings. Hypothesizing the presence of the Golden Proportion in normal mitral anatomy, we examined the Coaptation Triangle of healthy valves to investigate such a theory. A total of 41 healthy adults, with normal mitral valves, underwent 2D echocardiography. Adequate images were chosen and loaded into custom software. Firstly, the Coaptation Triangle was manually drawn by the operator. Then, a second Coaptation Triangle, with the same base, but based on Golden Proportion, was automatically built by the software. Eventually, the two triangles were analyzed and compared. All retrieved measurements were investigated for differences and correlations. Ratios close to the Golden Proportion were found in several locations of the manually drawn Coaptation Triangle. On the other hand, comparing the manually drawn Coaptation Triangle with the automatically built one, no significant differences were revealed, and very strong correlations were demonstrated. The Golden Proportion appears present in the geometry of normal mitral valves. Studying such an aspect and identifying disruption in anatomical proportions could improve early diagnosis of mitral alterations, and allows a more standardized follow-up and help surgeons to plan a repair strategy, particularly quantifying the needed surgical modifications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Qualitative exploration of facilitating factors and barriers to use of antenatal care services by pregnant women in urban and rural settings in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Yasir Bin; Aurangzeb, Brekhna; Dibley, Michael J; Alam, Ashraful

    2016-03-01

    World Health Organisation recommends that pregnant women with no complications should visit a healthcare provider at least four times to receive sufficient antenatal care services. In Pakistan only 37% of women reported to have had four or more antenatal care visits during their last pregnancy. This study aimed to explore facilitators and barriers to use of antenatal care services in rural and urban communities of two selected districts in Pakistan. Qualitative explorative study using in-depth interviews with currently pregnant women, lady health workers and doctors providing antenatal care services, and focus group discussion with women who had a child aged 5 years or younger, was conducted in a rural community in the district Swabi and in a tertiary care hospital in urban Islamabad in Pakistan. The audio-recorded interviews and discussions were transcribed verbatim in Urdu (the language spoken by the respondents). A list of topical codes for all topics related to the research questions was developed. Subsequently the text pertaining to each topical code was discussed and summarised in a document that presented the findings for each topic using quotes and tables. We conducted in-depth interviews with six lady health workers, four doctors, and ten currently pregnant women, and facilitated ten focus group discussions with women who had a child aged 5 years or younger. Currently pregnant women, and women who had a child aged 5 years or younger, were not aware of the recommended minimum number of antenatal care visits to be made during pregnancy. Facilitating factors to visit a particular health care facility were: availability of qualified healthcare providers (private facility); trust in healthcare providers; recommendation from a family member, friend or lady health worker (in rural areas); availability of good quality services including medical equipment and laboratory facilities; low cost (public facility); and easy access to the health facility (private facility

  19. Advisory board approves Pakistan SMC marketing plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Under a 2-year contract funded by the US Agency for International Development, PSI Marketing Associates is providing technical assistance for the development of a social marketing project in Pakistan. The national launch of a new condom, Sathi, is planned for 1987. This new social marketing of contraceptives project emphasizes child spacing and will use the slogan, "Until you want another child." As a result of the Pakistan Government's generic family planning advertising and promotion campaigns, there is a high degree of public awareness of contraception. However, this awareness is not reflected in levels of contraceptive use. A 3-month test market for Sathi (which means "companion") will take place in 2 areas representative of Pakistan's socioeconomic and ethnic composition. All printed materials (including posters, stickers, mobiles, and shop signs) will use the Sathi logo--2 birds flying into the sun. Other project materials include a 1-minute video and pamphlets for consumers, dealers, and medical professionals.

  20. In the golden triangle with a handful of dollars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepote, J

    1976-01-01

    The only way of reaching this part of the world, which is on the borders of northern Thailand, Burma and Laos, is by helicopter. It is a mountainous region, mostly covered by forest and inhabited by a tribal population estimated at 300,000 to 500,000 persons who live in some 3,000 villages. The people, who are seminomadic move about with their personal property and weapons, without any form of control. They have been cultivating the opium poppy since the beginning of the century and this single crop provides all that is needed for the livelihood of the families. In an area where all transport is by back-pack, opium provides a good return for a low weight. The opium is used to supply the international market and is also the source of regional drug addiction, which can perhaps be better described as the local therapy for the pains of illness and old age. To consider banning poppy cultivation or destruction of the plantations is a pipe-dream in this inaccessible, uncontrollable area, which has no administrative infrastructure. Consequently, repressive action is directed only against traffickers. Because of the geographical position of the "Golden Triangle", there is substantial cross-frontier traffic. The boundary lines are tortuous, mountainous and frostcovered, and surveillance is therefore quite impossible. Police tactics are therefore to let traffickers proceed sufficiently far into the country so that they can be attacked without their being able to escape across the frontier. The over all enforcement activity throughout Thailand has yielded results and statistics are available to prove it. What is now needed is to find a substitute for opium poppy cultivation and start on this has been made with the help of the United Nations Fund for Drug Abuse Control (UNFDAC). This very ambitious plan consists in completely transforming the economic life of the tribes. The people will be induced to abandon their nomadic life and become sedentary and to switch over from a

  1. Development of agriculture biotechnology in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Yusuf

    2007-01-01

    Agriculture plays an important role in the national economy of Pakistan, where most of the rapidly increasing population resides in rural areas and depends on agriculture for subsistence. Biotechnology has considerable potential for promoting the efficiency of crop improvement, food production, and poverty reduction. Use of modern biotechnology started in Pakistan since 1985. Currently, there are 29 biotech centers/institutes in the country. However, few centers have appropriate physical facilities and trained manpower to develop genetically modified (GM) crops. Most of the activities have been on rice and cotton, which are among the top 5 crops of Pakistan. Biotic (virus/bacterial/insect) and abiotic (salt) resistant and quality (male sterility) genes have already been incorporated in some crop plants. Despite acquiring capacity to produce transgenic plants, no GM crops, either produced locally or imported, have been released in the country. Pakistan is signatory to the World Trade Organization, Convention on Biological Diversity, and Cartagena protocols. Several legislations under the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights have been promulgated in the country. National Biosafety Guidelines have been promulgated in April 2005. The Plant Breeders Rights Act, Amendment in Seed Act-1976, and Geographical Indication for Goods are still passing through discussion, evaluation, and analysis phases. Meanwhile, an illegal GM crop (cotton) has already sneaked into farmer's field. Concerted and coordinated efforts are needed among various ministries for implementation of regulation and capacity building for import/export and local handling of GM crops. Pakistan could easily benefit from the experience of Asian countries, especially China and India, where conditions are similar and the agriculture sector is almost like that of Pakistan. Thus, the exchange of information and experiences is important among these nations.

  2. Impact of Role Clarity and Strategic Fit on Average Project Success: Moderating Role of Market Turbulence on Telecom Companies of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najam UL MABOOD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Advancement in technology has reshaped the businesses across the globe forcing companies to perform tasks and activities in the form of projects. Stakeholder behavior, stakeholder management, strategic fit, role and task clarity are some of the factors that redesign the project success. The current study examine the impact of strategic fit and role clarity on the Average project success and further it enlightens the moderating role of Market turbulence on the relationship between the aforementioned independent and dependent variables. The population of the study comprises of telecom sector of Pakistan. The Data was collected from 201 project team members working on diverse project in Telecom companies of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The Data was gathered through a questionnaires measured on Likert scale adopted from the study of Beringer, Jonas & Kock (2013. Each Questionnaire comprises of 3 items to measure each variable. SPSS 20.0 Version was used to analyze the data by applying Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis technique. Findings depicted that role clarity and strategic fit contributed significantly in enhancing success of a project. Results further evidenced that market turbulence negatively moderated the relationship of independent variables on Average project success. The study at the end highlights recommendations for the future researchers.

  3. Visual Search for Wines with a Triangle on the Label in a Virtual Store.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Huang, Fuxing; Spence, Charles; Wan, Xiaoang

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted in a virtual reality (VR) environment in order to investigate participants' in-store visual search for bottles of wines displaying a prominent triangular shape on their label. The experimental task involved virtually moving along a wine aisle in a virtual supermarket while searching for the wine bottle on the shelf that had a different triangle on its label from the other bottles. The results of Experiment 1 revealed that the participants identified the bottle with a downward-pointing triangle on its label more rapidly than when looking for an upward-pointing triangle on the label instead. This finding replicates the downward-pointing triangle superiority (DPTS) effect, though the magnitude of this effect was more pronounced in the first as compared to the second half of the experiment, suggesting a modulating role of practice. The results of Experiment 2 revealed that the DPTS effect was also modulated by the location of the target on the shelf. Interestingly, however, the results of a follow-up survey demonstrate that the orientation of the triangle did not influence the participants' evaluation of the wine bottles. Taken together, these findings reveal how in-store the attention of consumers might be influenced by the design elements in product packaging. These results therefore suggest that shopping in a virtual supermarket might offer a practical means of assessing the shelf standout of product packaging, which has important implications for food marketing.

  4. Visual Search for Wines with a Triangle on the Label in a Virtual Store

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted in a virtual reality (VR environment in order to investigate participants’ in-store visual search for bottles of wines displaying a prominent triangular shape on their label. The experimental task involved virtually moving along a wine aisle in a virtual supermarket while searching for the wine bottle on the shelf that had a different triangle on its label from the other bottles. The results of Experiment 1 revealed that the participants identified the bottle with a downward-pointing triangle on its label more rapidly than when looking for an upward-pointing triangle on the label instead. This finding replicates the downward-pointing triangle superiority (DPTS effect, though the magnitude of this effect was more pronounced in the first as compared to the second half of the experiment, suggesting a modulating role of practice. The results of Experiment 2 revealed that the DPTS effect was also modulated by the location of the target on the shelf. Interestingly, however, the results of a follow-up survey demonstrate that the orientation of the triangle did not influence the participants’ evaluation of the wine bottles. Taken together, these findings reveal how in-store the attention of consumers might be influenced by the design elements in product packaging. These results therefore suggest that shopping in a virtual supermarket might offer a practical means of assessing the shelf standout of product packaging, which has important implications for food marketing.

  5. Sex Determination Using Inion-Opistocranium-Asterion (IOA) Triangle in Nigerians' Skulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orish, C N; Didia, B C; Fawehinmi, H B

    2014-01-01

    Background. Determination of sex is an important concern to the forensic anthropologists as it is critical for individual identification. This study has investigated the existence of sexual dimorphism in the dimensions and the area of the IOA triangle. Methods. A total of 100 adult dry skulls, (78 males; 22 females) from departments of anatomy in Nigerian universities were used for this study. Automatic digital calliper was used for the measurement. Coefficient of variation, correlation, linear regression, percentiles, and sexual dimorphism ratio were computed from the IOA triangle measurements. The IOA triangle area was compared between sexes. Results. The male parameters were significantly (P asterion length was 71.09 ± 0.56 and 61.68 ± 3.35 mm and the right opistocranium-asterion length was 69.73 ± 0.49 and 60.92 ± 2.10 mm for male and female, respectively. A total area of IOA triangle of 1938.88 mm(2) and 1305.68 mm(2) for male and female, respectively, was calculated. The left IOA indices were 46.42% and 37.40% in males and females, respectively, while the right IOA indices for males and females were 47.19% and 38.87%, respectively. Conclusion. The anthropometry of inion-opistocranium-asterion IOA triangle can be a guide in gender determination of unknown individuals.

  6. Sex Determination Using Inion-Opistocranium-Asterion (IOA Triangle in Nigerians’ Skulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Orish

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Determination of sex is an important concern to the forensic anthropologists as it is critical for individual identification. This study has investigated the existence of sexual dimorphism in the dimensions and the area of the IOA triangle. Methods. A total of 100 adult dry skulls, (78 males; 22 females from departments of anatomy in Nigerian universities were used for this study. Automatic digital calliper was used for the measurement. Coefficient of variation, correlation, linear regression, percentiles, and sexual dimorphism ratio were computed from the IOA triangle measurements. The IOA triangle area was compared between sexes. Results. The male parameters were significantly (P<0.05 higher than female parameters. The left opistocranium-asterion length was 71.09±0.56 and 61.68±3.35 mm and the right opistocranium-asterion length was 69.73±0.49 and 60.92±2.10 mm for male and female, respectively. A total area of IOA triangle of 1938.88 mm2 and 1305.68 mm2 for male and female, respectively, was calculated. The left IOA indices were 46.42% and 37.40% in males and females, respectively, while the right IOA indices for males and females were 47.19% and 38.87%, respectively. Conclusion. The anthropometry of inion-opistocranium-asterion IOA triangle can be a guide in gender determination of unknown individuals.

  7. Holliday Triangle Hunter (HolT Hunter): Efficient Software for Identifying Low Strain DNA Triangular Configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, W.B.

    2012-04-16

    Synthetic DNA nanostructures are typically held together primarily by Holliday junctions. One of the most basic types of structures possible to assemble with only DNA and Holliday junctions is the triangle. To date, however, only equilateral triangles have been assembled in this manner - primarily because it is difficult to figure out what configurations of Holliday triangles have low strain. Early attempts at identifying such configurations relied upon calculations that followed the strained helical paths of DNA. Those methods, however, were computationally expensive, and failed to find many of the possible solutions. I have developed a new approach to identifying Holliday triangles that is computationally faster, and finds well over 95% of the possible solutions. The new approach is based on splitting the problem into two parts. The first part involves figuring out all the different ways that three featureless rods of the appropriate length and diameter can weave over and under one another to form a triangle. The second part of the computation entails seeing whether double helical DNA backbones can fit into the shape dictated by the rods in such a manner that the strands can cross over from one domain to the other at the appropriate spots. Structures with low strain (that is, good fit between the rods and the helices) on all three edges are recorded as promising for assembly.

  8. CHALLENGES AFFECTING THE TOURISM INDUSTRY IN PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Munawar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to conduct to find the challenges faced by tourism industry in Pakistan. Tourism plays vital role in economic growth of a country. The countries of world, where there is nothing for tourists or traders are lagging behind from other nations of the world. Pakistan is one of those countries which rich in historical places, natural beauty, and uniqueness in handmade items and also of green forests. Present study was conducted to find the challenges being faced by to...

  9. Money Supply, Deficit, and Inflation in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Aslam Chaudhary; Naved Ahmad

    1995-01-01

    Inflation is a burning issue in Pakistan. It is generally felt that for several years Pakistan has had a double-digit inflation. The public sector has used a mix of policies to control inflation, and it is also held responsible for its creation. The consumer price index (CPI) increased over 11 percent in 1981-82, and over 12 percent in 1990-91. Similarly, sensitive price index (SPI) increased over 15 percent in 1981-82, and over 12 percent in 1990-91. The GDP deflator was also double-digit fo...

  10. Canadian firms hear pitch from Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, A.

    2000-12-11

    A high Pakistani government official recently paid a visit to Canadian resource exploration and investment companies to assure them that Pakistan is open for business. The government is carrying through a massive privatization campaign and is about to finalize a Canadian government-sponsored regulatory agency modeled on Alberta's Energy and Utilities Board; a further indication of a more secure environment for private sector investment. The Pakistani government intends to privatize all formerly government-owned exploration and production companies and sell up to 51 per cent of each company. The delegation hopes to entice Husky Oil, Talisman Energy, Bow Valley Industries, Enbridge Pipelines and BC Gas to look closely at the potential in Pakistan. With a domestic market of 142 million and energy-hungry neighbours on all sides who are willing to buy any oil or gas that Pakistan can produce, and total proven recoverable reserves estimated at 643 million barrels, with remaining recoverable reserves of 240 million barrels, the prospects for a healthy oil and natural gas industry in Pakistan are very good, indeed. On the gas side, about 24 Tcf of gas remains of the 40 Tcf discovered. Pakistan currently exports 10,000 barrels of waxy crude each day which their refineries can't handle. The remainder of domestic production is consumed locally, but it satisfies only about 20 per cent of the nation's current needs. The balance is imported from Saudi Arabia, Iran and the United Arab Emirates. All natural gas produced within Pakistan is consumed domestically, but currently only 16 per cent of the population has access to natural gas. Since October 1999, 33 new wells have been drilled resulting in some excellent discoveries. These will add about one bcf of gas to the current average daily production of 2.3 bcf. Despite the good prospects and the appeal of the privatization plan, Pakistan remains a hard sell. The risk of political unrest and deadly violence is high

  11. Results of mitigation studies from Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    At the international level, Pakistan's contractual obligations to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) include the preparation of a greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions abatement program, a national communication on climate change, and the formulation of a least-cost GHG abatement action plan and strategy. Pakistan ratified the UNFCCC in June 1994. The ratification of the Convention has lead to the undertaking of activities such as the Asia Least-cost Greenhouse Gas Abatement Strategy (ALGAS) Project, which aims to build capacity in Asian countries in the preparation of GHG inventories and mitigation programs. (au)

  12. A mechanism for the downturn in inverse susceptibility in triangle-based frustrated spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoda, M

    2008-01-01

    A mechanism for the downturn of inverse magnetic susceptibility below an intermediate temperature, recently observed in many experiments, is proposed as an intrinsic feature of lattices with triangle-based frustrated geometries. The temperature at the bending of the inverse susceptibility curve may be related to the features of other thermodynamic properties; the hump of the specific heat and the emergence of a 1/3 plateau in magnetization under a magnetic field. This fact is derived through a Monte Carlo simulation study of the Ising model on triangular and kagome lattices, and the exact calculation for the single and small-sized triangle clusters, on both the Ising and Heisenberg models. These results may indicate the dominance of S(S z ) = 1/2 quantum (classical) trimer formation in the intermediate-energy regime in two-dimensional triangle-based lattices

  13. A Dissimilarity Measure for Clustering High- and Infinite Dimensional Data that Satisfies the Triangle Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socolovsky, Eduardo A.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The cosine or correlation measures of similarity used to cluster high dimensional data are interpreted as projections, and the orthogonal components are used to define a complementary dissimilarity measure to form a similarity-dissimilarity measure pair. Using a geometrical approach, a number of properties of this pair is established. This approach is also extended to general inner-product spaces of any dimension. These properties include the triangle inequality for the defined dissimilarity measure, error estimates for the triangle inequality and bounds on both measures that can be obtained with a few floating-point operations from previously computed values of the measures. The bounds and error estimates for the similarity and dissimilarity measures can be used to reduce the computational complexity of clustering algorithms and enhance their scalability, and the triangle inequality allows the design of clustering algorithms for high dimensional distributed data.

  14. Nursing students’ perceptions of their educational environment in the bachelor’s programs of the Shifa College of Nursing, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Victor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The objective of this study was to evaluate nursing students’ perceptions of their educational environment in a private college. Perceptions were compared between genders and 2 bachelor’s programs. Methods A total of 219 students participated in this study, drawn from the Generic Bachelor of Science in Nursing (GBSN and the Post-Registered Nurse Bachelor of Science in Nursing (PRBSN programs of the Shifa College of Nursing, Islamabad, Pakistan. The Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure was utilized for data collection. Descriptive statistics were used to calculate total scores, as well as means and standard deviations, and the t-test was applied for comparisons according to program and gender. Results The overall total mean score (119 of 200 is suggestive of more positive than negative perceptions of the educational environment. The mean score of 13 of 28 on the social self-perception subscale suggests that the social environment was felt to be ‘not a nice place.’ The t-test revealed more positive perceptions among students enrolled in the PRBSN program (P<0.0001 than among those enrolled in the GBSN program and more positive perceptions among female students than among male students (P<0.0001. Conclusion Commonalities and differences were found in the perceptions of the nursing students. Both positive and negative perceptions were reported; the overall sense of a positive environment was present, but the social component requires immediate attention, along with other unsatisfactory components. Establishing a supportive environment conducive to competence-based learning would play an important role in bringing desirable changes to the educational environment.

  15. Depression among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and its Association with Poor Glycemic Control in Patients Visiting Tertiary Care Hospital of Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq, J.; Khan, R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Depression among type 2 diabetes mellitus patient results in negative health outcomes. Objectives: To determine the association between depression and glycemic control in patients suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus. Study design, settings and duration: This comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in the diabetic patients attending diabetic clinic of Capital Hospital, Islamabad which is a tertiary care hospital from 1st September 2015 to 30th November 2015. Patients and Methods: The serum glycosylated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c) were recorded from the medical records of patients while Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to assess depression in these patients. Poor glycemic control was taken as value of HbA1c = 7 percent. Equal number of depressive and non-depressive type 2 diabetics were recruited. The data was analyzed using SPSS 20.0 and Chi-square was used to find out association between depression and glycemic control among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Results: A total of 250 type 2 diabetes patients were enrolled in the study. Their mean HbA1c level was 8.5% (S.D +- 2.15) and the PHQ-9 score was 9.0 (S.D +- 4.11). Almost 83.2 percent patients had poor glycemic control and were depressed while 57.6 percent had poor glycemic control but were non-depressed. Depression was strongly associated with poor glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: Depression among type 2 diabetes patients was significantly associated with poor glycemic control. Policy message: Type 2 diabetic patients should be regularly monitored for their glycemic control and assessed for depression and treated accordingly.(author)

  16. The Economics of Dowry Payments in Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, K.S.

    2000-01-01

    Although there are numerous studies of the dowry phenomenon in India, research pertaining to the custom in the rest of South Asia is sparse.The aim of this paper is to study dowry payments in Pakistan.Several interpretations for dowry are distinguished using a simple theoretical framework and the

  17. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-09

    the two loci of power. worse. Today, Pakistan is held hostage by a multiplyinghost of armed minorities--of feudal lords, drug lords, One cannot blame... genius to figure out) that in 9 years, there will be 28 Mahbub ul Haq’s unfolding of the UNDP Report, fol- million more Pakistanis living in a

  18. Gender, Power Relations and Decentralization in Pakistan

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Karen Kershaw

    Fareeha Ummar, Virginia Khan, Shakila Bibi. Rural Support Programmes Network. Pakistan. Parallel ... There is some resistance to women because of the reservation quota: patterns vary. • Some women Councillors ... Support from the Nazims and family members. • A family or personal history of political activism or social ...

  19. Peace Education in Pakistan. Special Report 400

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zahid Shahab

    2017-01-01

    With an eye to the theory that radicalization is a function of social and political marginalization more than of economic poverty, this report examines a cross-section of peace education initiatives in Pakistan. It relies on data collected through interviews with program teachers and students when possible. Funded by the United States Institute of…

  20. Status of Project Management Education in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Faisal Manzoor; Tipu, Syed Awais Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Emerging contractual delivery systems, collaborative partnerships, new management initiatives, and global product markets require professionals and students to have a broader awareness of construction methods and project management issues. This paper presents the state of the project management education in Pakistan. The analysis is based on…

  1. Pesticides exposure in Pakistan: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Muhammad Ilyas; Afzal, Shahzad; Hussain, Ishtiaq; Sultana, Nargis

    2007-11-01

    This is the first systematic review of studies done since 1960, and to give an integrated picture of pesticides exposure to humans, animals, plants, waters, soils/sediments, atmosphere etc. in Pakistan. Authors have extracted data from different departments, published literature in research journals and National reports. Although the wide-spread usage of pesticides in Pakistan has controlled the pests, but like other countries, it has started causing environmental problems in the area. In some areas of Punjab and Sindh groundwater has been found contaminated and is constantly being under the process of contamination due to pesticide use. There is considerable evidence that farmers have overused and misused pesticides especially in cotton-growing areas. It is evident from the biological monitoring studies that farmers are at higher risk for acute and chronic health effects associated with pesticides due to occupational exposure. Furthermore, the intensive use of pesticides (higher sprays more than the recommended dose) in cotton areas involves a special risk for the field workers, pickers, and of an unacceptable residue concentration in cottonseed oil and cakes. The authors have also discussed the merits and demerits of different studies. The review will set the future course of action of different studies on pesticide exposure in Pakistan. Data limitations are still the major obstacle towards establishing clear environmental trends in Pakistan. The authors suggest that a reliable monitoring, assessment and reporting procedures shall be implemented in accordance with appropriate environmental policies, laws and regulations in order to minimize the pesticides exposure.

  2. Food safety challenges--a Pakistan's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Biological, chemical, and physical contamination of foods is a terrifying threat for the health and economic growth in developing societies. Rampantly available literature on foodborne illnesses especially diarrhea among children exclusively depicts the intensified disease burden associated with foodborne illness in the underdeveloped economies. Prevalence of many pathogens in several foods is commonplace in Pakistan. Precise estimates for foodborne illnesses in Pakistan are hard to make because of the absence of any monitoring, surveillance, and infection control. Poor processing and storage of milk, cereal grains, and nuts are a major cause of aflatoxin contamination and mold proliferation. Numerous studies manifest a multitude of foods to be contaminated with heavy metals. Escalating population growth limits the economic potential of the individual and the state through a tendency among the traders and manufacturers to intentionally debase food commodities offered for sale to make profit at the cost of their quality and safety. Therefore, a growing trend of adulteration in foods during the recent past, particularly adulteration of milk, poses a pressing challenge for the government. This review is a concerted attempt to elucidate the prevailing food safety scenario in Pakistan. Information derived from local and related international studies will be presented to clearly depict a picture of food safety in Pakistan. It is proposed that an extensive food safety infrastructure leading to a safer supply of foods needs to be devised, designed, and implemented.

  3. COST OF PRIMARY HEALTH CARE IN PAKISTAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Muhammad Ashar; Gul, Wahid; Iqbal, Saleem Perwaiz; Abrejo, Farina

    2015-01-01

    Detailed cost analysis is an important tool for review of health policy and reforms. We provide an estimate of cost of service and its detailed breakup on out-door patient visits (OPV) to basic health units (BHU) in Pakistan. Six BHUs were randomly selected from each of the five districts in Khyber Pukhtonkhawa (KPK) and two agencies in Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan for this study. Actual expenditure data and utilization data in the year 2005-06 of 42 BHUs was collected from selected district health offices in KPK and FATA. Costs were estimated for outpatient visits to BHUs. Perspective on cost estimates was district-based health planning and management of BHUs. Average recurring cost was PKR.245 (USD 4.1) per OPV to BHU. Staff salaries constituted 90% of recurrent cost. On the average there were 16 OPV per day to the BHUs. CONCLUDION: Recurrent cost per OPV has doubled from the previous estimates of cost of OPV in Baluchistan. The estimated recurrent cost was six times higher than average consultation charges with the private general practitioner (GP) in the country (i.e., PKR 50/ GP consultation). Performance of majority of the BHUs was much lower than the performance target (50 patients per day) set in the sixth five-year plan of the government of Pakistan. The Government of Pakistan may use these analyses to revisit the performance target, staffinL and location of BHUs.

  4. OUTLINE OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING IN PAKISTAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Perth.

    IN 1964, THE TWO PROVINCES OF PAKISTAN HAD A COMBINED POPULATION OF 101 MILLION. THE ECONOMY OF THE NATION IS HEAVILY DEPENDENT ON AGRICULTURE, BUT INDUSTRIAL EXPANSION IS RAPID ENOUGH TO CAUSE SHORTAGE OF SKILLED PERSONNEL. A 5-YEAR PRIMARY EDUCATION BRANCHES INTO TWO SECONDARY STREAMS. STUDENTS MAY ENTER A 5-YEAR HIGH SCHOOL TOWARD UNIVERSITY,…

  5. Polarisation of Social Studies Textbooks in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Syed Manzar Abbas

    2011-01-01

    This article looks at the evolution of the social studies curricula in Pakistan, which are of critical importance in shaping the outlook of many young Pakistanis, who are affected by this polarised discourse. The author argues that this trend of polarisation springing from dynamics of education also effectively contributes to a widening social…

  6. The Talibanisation of society in Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breman, J.

    2012-01-01

    Abandoned by their government, the poor of Pakistan have turned to the Taliban and other fundamentalist groups for support and solace. At the same time, a growing pressure for emancipation presses against fundamentalism. Which force will triumph? A report based on travel in rural Sindh.

  7. Validation and scale dependencies of the triangle method for the evaporative fraction estimation over heterogeneous areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Tomás, Alberto; Nieto, Héctor; Guzinski, Radoslaw

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing has proved to be a consistent tool for monitoring water fluxes at regional scales. The triangle method, in particular, estimates the evaporative fraction (EF), defined as the ratio of latent heat flux (LE) to available energy, based on the relationship between satellite observations...... a heterogeneous area in central Spain, using Landsat5-TM, Envisat-AATSR/MERIS and MSG-SEVIRI images. Some aspects affecting the model performance such as spatial resolution, terrain conditions, vegetation index applied and method for deriving the triangle edges have been assessed. The derived EF estimations have...

  8. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water year 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgino, M.J.; Rasmussen, R.B.; Pfeifle, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area's water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2007 through September 2008. Major findings for this period include:

  9. Towards balanced development in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatt, G

    1992-01-01

    Pakistan is a country whose economic growth is surprising in light of its social indicators. The aim of this article is to examine why conditions are such and to develop a framework for understanding the issues as an aid to redesigning policies. 5 sections are devoted to a summary of the main findings, the diagnosis of development and the impact on social sectors, a proposal for balanced development, and implications for policy changes. A sound macro economic context is needed with reforms economically in price and incentive systems, institutionally, and in the law and order sector. Public administration needs to be improved and individual opportunities need to be expanded. Internal security needs to be secured, so that law and order are restored. Economic growth has been high between 1960 and 1988, due to exploitation of natural resources and cheap unskilled labor, expansion of irrigated land, and growth of the unregulated informal sector. The major constraints on economic growth will come from a lack of fiscal discipline. 40% of government revenues are consumed by the military and 20% for servicing debt. Other constraints are the population growth rate in excess of 3%/year, an urban bias in allocation of resources, neglected primary education, and gender bias in education. There has been little incentive for provincial governments to balance budgets, and civil service has become disorganized. Balanced development entails recognizing human capital, natural resources, and infrastructure; accepting the status quo; and creating and maintaining an institutional framework to correct market failures and promote individual opportunities. The environmental polluter must pay. Income must be increased through higher wages, increasing the demand for labor, and transfers to households in the form of food rations, schooling, and medical care. Investment in women will increase household earnings, and improve living conditions and the health of themselves and their children

  10. Allelic variation at loci controlling stripe rust resistance in spring wheat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-08-20

    Aug 20, 2014 ... 1Department of Plant Genomics & Biotechnology, PARC Institute of Advanced Studies in Agriculture, National Agricultural. Research Centre, Islamabad 45500, Pakistan. 2National Institute for Genomics & Advanced Biotechnology, National Agricultural Research Centre,. Park Road, Islamabad 45500, ...

  11. Check list of first recorded dragonfly (Odonata: Anisoptera fauna of District Lower Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Perveen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The dragonflies (Odonata: Anisoptera are large, intermediate to small size, having different colours and variable morphological characters. They also carry ornamental and environmental indicator values. The first recorded, the collection of 318 dragonflies was made during May-July 2011 from district Lower Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Among them 11 species of dragonflies were identified belonging to 3 families. The golden-ringed, Cordulegaster brevistigma brevistigma Selys is belonging to family Cordulegasteridae and Clubtails, Onychogomphus bistrigatus Selys is belonging to family Gomophidaed. The spine-legged redbolt, Rhodothemis rufa (Rambur; black-tailed skimmer, Orthetrum cancellatum Linnaeus; blue or black-percher, Diplacodes lefebvrei (Ramber; ground-skimmer, Diplacodes trivialis Rambur; common red-skimmer, Orthetrum pruinosum neglectum (Rambur; triangle-skimmer, Orthetrum triangulare triangulare (Selys; common-skimmer, Sympetrum decoloratum Selys; slender-skimmer, Orthetrum Sabina (Drury and wandering-glider or global-skimmer, Pantala flavescens (Fabricius are belonging to family Libellulidae. It is concluded that there is a diversity to explain dragonfly fauna from district Lower Dir.

  12. An improved approximation algorithm for the asymmetric TSP with strengthened triangle inequalityd

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bläser, M.; Manthey, B.; Sgall, Jiří

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 4 (2006), s. 623-632 ISSN 1570-8667 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1019401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : traveling salesman problem * strengthened triangle inequality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  13. On the Structure of a Triangle-Free Infinite-Chromatic Graph of Gyarfas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Eggan

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Gyárfás has recently constructed an elegant new example of a triangle-free infinite graph G with infinite chromatic number. We analyze its structure by studying the properties of a nested family of subgraphs Gn whose union is G.

  14. Some Nice Relations between Right-Angled Triangles and the Golden Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scimone, Aldo

    2011-01-01

    The international debate about experimental approaches to the teaching and learning mathematics is very current. While number theory lends itself naturally to such approaches, elementary geometry can also provide interesting starting points for creative work in class. This article shows how simple considerations about right triangles and the…

  15. Grading and Academic Freedom: An English Academic's Angle on Hill's Contentious Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buglear, John

    2011-01-01

    Following the dismissal of a Canadian professor over disputed grading practices, Hill produced his triangle model of competing interests of academics, administrators and students. In the UK, academic freedom in relation to grading is increasingly constrained reflecting more assertive institutional management supervising over-burdened academic…

  16. Some peculiarities of chiral breaking for triangles in the Bogoliubov-Parasiuk renormalization scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucheryavy, V.I.

    1993-01-01

    The character of a canonical Ward identities violation in the quantum field theory (QFT) is extremely important for QFT itself and for its applications in physics. Triangle spinor amplitudes are the most popular objects of QFT in such investigations. The result of an application some effective realization of the Bogoliubov-Parasiuk (BP) renormalization scheme to the well-known subject is present

  17. Variation in the Course and Termination of the Cephalic Vein in the Deltopectoral Triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogood Atoni Atoni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of cephalic vein variation would aid proper identification and prevent error in surgical emergencies. The path, distribution, and termination of the cephalic vein in relation to the deltopectoral triangle were studied in twenty formalin-embalmed cadavers.

  18. DNA nanotubes assembled from tensegrity triangle tiles with circular DNA scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshan, Noshin; Ali, Mashooq; Wang, Meng; Baig, Mirza Muhammad Faran Ashraf; Xiao, Shou-Jun

    2017-11-16

    Using small circular DNA molecules of different lengths as scaffolds, we successfully synthesised DNA nanotubes consisting of Mao's DNA tensegrity triangle tiles with four-arm junctions (Holliday junctions) at all vertices. Due to the intrinsic curvature of the triangle tile and the consecutive tile alignment, the 2D arrays are organised in the form of nanotubes. Two sized triangle tiles with equilateral side lengths of 1.5 and 2.5 full helical turns are connected by the sticky ended cohesion of a duplex with a length of 2.5 helical turns respectively, and their parallel lozenge tiling lattices were demonstrated by high resolution AFM images, where the former lozenge unit cell has a lattice constant of 13.6 nm, and the latter has a larger lattice constant of 17.0 nm. Modification of the triangle tile with infinitesimal disturbance on side lengths and insertion of one thymine single stranded loop at every vertex resulted in comparably similar nanotubes.

  19. INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND FURNITURE PROCUREMENT IN EPA'S NEW RESEARCH TRIANGLE CAMPUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses various aspects of the EPA's new 1.2 million square foot building in Research Triangle Park that pertain to indoor air, with a particular focus on the process EPA used to select furniture to meet its indoor air guidelines. In keeping with its mission of protec...

  20. On the chromatic number of a space with forbidden equilateral triangle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvonarev, A E; Raigorodskii, A M; Kharlamova, A A; Samirov, D V

    2014-01-01

    We improve the Frankl-Rödl estimate for the product of the numbers of edges in uniform hypergraphs with forbidden cardinalities of the intersection of edges. By using this estimate, we obtain explicit bounds for the chromatic number of a space with forbidden monochromatic equilateral triangles. Bibliography: 31 titles

  1. Invariant triangle-based stationary oil platform detection from multitemporal synthetic aperture radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Yang, Kang; Tong, Lihua; Liu, Yongxue; Li, Manchun

    2013-01-01

    An automatic algorithm for stationary oil platform detection from multitemporal synthetic aperture radar data is proposed. The proposed algorithm consists of the following two parts. (1) A two-parameter constant false-alarm rate (CFAR) algorithm is used to extract targets from the Environment Satellite (ENVISAT) advanced synthetic aperture radar (ASAR), in which the focus is to determine the appropriate parameters of CFAR, thus ensuring as few as possible false-alarm targets when sea-surface targets are effectively extracted. (2) A simple point cluster matching pattern is proposed based on an invariant triangle rule, by which targets extracted from multitemporal ENVISAT ASAR images are automatically matched for detection of stationary targets (e.g., oil platforms). This invariant triangle rule is that any three moving targets have an extremely low probability of maintaining a relative position in multitemporal images, whereas stationary targets can always maintain a fixed relative position. Even under high noise, this invariant triangle rule can be used to realize the target data matching with high robustness. The experiment shows that the false-alarm rate and the missing rate are relatively low when all the targets are detected. The proposed invariant-triangle-based point cluster matching pattern can conduct effective detection and monitoring of stationary oil platforms.

  2. Managing Online Discussion Forums: Building Community by Avoiding the Drama Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlock, Jennifer Ann; McBride, Dawn Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    The authors critically analyze how the concept of the drama triangle--part of the game theory associated with transactional analysis--can be used by post secondary instructors teaching online to build a sense of community and decrease students' dependence on instructors in discussion forums. The article begins with an overview of sense of…

  3. Constructing Geometric Properties of Rectangle, Square, and Triangle in the Third Grade of Indonesian Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilham Rizkianto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have provided that when learning shapes for the first time, young children tend to use the prototype as the reference point for comparisons, but often fail when doing so since they do not yet think about the defining attributes or the geometric properties of the shapes. Most of the time, elementary students learn geometric properties of shapes only as empty verbal statements to be memorized, without any chance to experience the contepts meaningfully. In the light of it, a sequence of instructional activities along with computer manipulative was designed to support Indonesian third graders in constructing geometric properties of square, rectangle, and triangle. The aim of the present study is to develop a loval instructional theory to support third graders in constructing geometric properties of rectangle, square, and triangle. Thirty seven students of one third grade classes in SD Pupuk Sriwijaya Palembang, along with their class teacher, were involved in the study. Our findings suggest that the combination of computer and non-computer activities suppots third graders in constructing geometric properties of square, rectangle, and triangle in that it provides opportunities to the students to experience and to develop the concepts meaningfully while using their real experiences as the bases to attain a higher geometric thinking level.Key concepts: Geometric properties, rectangle, square, triangle, design research, realistic mathematics education DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.4.2.414.160-171

  4. From apathy to oblivion? The shameful history of heritage resource management in the Vaal Triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite Prins

    2007-04-01

    archaeological reserves, have been completely obliterated. Redan has become progressively neglected and abandoned. This paper examines the impasse presently surrounding Redan, and the failure of the relevant bodies, to conserve and sustain the non-renewable prehistoric culture remains of the Vaal Triangle.

  5. 75 FR 61788 - Triangle Capital Corporation, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... investments and capital appreciation from equity related investments. Triangle has an eight member board of... exceptions, sales or purchases of any security or other property between BDCs and certain of their affiliates... Subsidiary with respect to the purchase or sale of securities or other property. Applicants also seek an...

  6. From Commodity Production to Sign Production: A Triple Triangle Model for Marx's Semiotics and Peirce's Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joohoan

    Using the viewpoint of semiotics, this paper "re-reads" Karl Marx's labor theory of value and suggests a "triple triangle" model for commodity production and shows how this model could be a model for semiosis in general. The paper argues that there are three advantages to considering homogeneity of the sign production and the…

  7. A BPTTF-based self-assembled electron-donating triangle capable of C60 binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeb, Sébastien; Bivaud, Sébastien; Dron, Paul Ionut; Balandier, Jean-Yves; Chas, Marcos; Sallé, Marc

    2012-03-25

    A kinetically stable self-assembled redox-active triangle is isolated. The resulting electron-donating cavity, which incorporates three BPTTF units, exhibits a remarkable binding ability for electron-deficient C(60), supported by a favorable combination of structural and electronic features.

  8. Evaluation of the mastoid triangle for determining sexual dimorphism: A Saudi population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadin, Mohammed; Menezes, Ritesh G; Al Dhafeeri, Obaid; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Al Ibrahim, Rana; Nagesh, K R; Ramadan, Selma Uysal

    2015-09-01

    Demographic assessment of skeletal remains in forensic investigations includes identification of sex. The present study aimed to develop population-specific, sex-discriminating anthropometric standards for the mastoid triangle of a documented Saudi population using computed tomographic (CT) images of the lateral aspect of the skull. The present study was performed on 206 CT images of a documented Saudi population of known sex and age. The clinical CT images of subjects visiting the Department of Radiology, Dammam Medical Complex, Dammam, Saudi Arabia (KSA) were evaluated to know the validity of the metric assessment of the mastoid triangle for identification of sex in a Saudi population. The distance between asterion to porion (AP), asterion to mastoidale (AM), porion to mastoidale (PM) were measured and the area of the mastoid triangle (AMT) was calculated using these measurements. Discriminant function procedure was used to analyze the data for sexual dimorphism. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that all the 3 sides of the mastoid triangle and AMT were sexually dimorphic in the sampled Saudi population with PM being the best individual parameter in discriminating sex with an accuracy of 69.4%. Whereas, all the parameters combined showed the highest accuracy (71.4%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tributes beyond Words: Art Educators' Use of Textiles to Memorialize the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Mia Lynn; Randall, Régine

    2016-01-01

    Through the study of The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, pre-service art teachers learn the about interdisciplinary design and the importance of using discipline-specific literacy strategies alongside the materials and methods of their craft. The creativity and enthusiasm with which these preservice teachers approached the work convinced us that…

  10. Surrounding the consequences of watershed disasters in the periphery of the Indian triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohan Ekanayake

    1991-01-01

    The watershed of the 'Indian Triangle' is formed by the flow of two mighty rivers which emanate from the Himalaya. The Ganges and teh Brahmaputra embrace the lands and the peoples of Nepal*, India* and Bangladesh* before emptying in the Bay of Bengal. A recent monsoon submerged two thirds of the low-lying Bangladesh rendering 23 million people homeless. can...

  11. 76 FR 17327 - 100th Anniversary of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... since the Triangle factory fire, we are still fighting to provide adequate working conditions for all... the flames--giving the factory workers there little time to escape. When the panicked workers tried to... collective bargaining as a tool to give workers a seat at the tables of power. Working Americans are the...

  12. Color Degree Sum Conditions for Rainbow Triangles in Edge-Colored Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Ruonan; Ning, Bo; Zhang, Shenggui

    Let G be an edge-colored graph and v a vertex of G. The color degree of v is the number of colors appearing on the edges incident to v. A rainbow triangle in G is one in which all edges have distinct colors. In this paper, we first prove that an edge-colored graph on n vertices contains a rainbow

  13. Decomposing series-parallel graphs into paths of length 3 and triangles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merker, Martin

    2015-01-01

    An old conjecture by Jünger, Reinelt and Pulleyblank states that every 2-edge-connected planar graph can be decomposed into paths of length 3 and triangles, provided its size is divisible by 3. We prove the conjecture for a class of planar graphs including all 2-edge-connected series-parallel...

  14. Pakistan Education Systems and the Radical Islamic Jihadist Ideology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-15

    public educational failures and widespread poverty are not necessarily due to poor macroeconomic performance-- Pakistan has seen a respectable growth rate...Literacy is notably higher in urban areas than in rural areas and in males than in females. According to the International Crisis Group (ICG), Pakistan ...Supporting Pakistan’s economic growth and prosperity is vital. Assisting Pakistan with economic reform initiatives will encourage future self

  15. Marketing Strategy of Islamic Banking Sector In Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Tahir, Muhammad; Umar, Muhammad

    2008-01-01

    There has come a swift transition in the financial services in the world including Pakistan. A new mode of banking i.e. Islamic banking has been introduced and accepted widely in many countries of the world including Pakistan. Our thesis has portrayed the current situation for Islamic banking in Pakistan by investigating the current competition of the industry using porter five forces model and at macro level using PEST analysis. We have analyzed that the competition is very high in the indus...

  16. Ethnic Separatism in Pakistan as a Threat to Regional Security

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Isaevich Khahkhanov

    2015-01-01

    At present ethnic separatism is shown in various regions practically on all continents and it is the same serious call of the international stability and safety, as religious extremism and drugs. Ethnic separatism is shown and in the Southern Asia, particularly, in India, Pakistan, Sri - Lanka, leading to terrorism acts and a numerous death. The author analyzes sources and the reasons of ethnic separatism in Pakistan. Author marks that the basis for statehood of Pakistan while independence de...

  17. Environment Friendly Coal Based Power Generation in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, S. A.; Javed, M. Adnan

    2010-06-01

    The main emphasis of this paper is on the engineering economics and design developments in the field of thermal power generation in Pakistan. Pakistan is rich with coal fields but is making no use of this available natural resource to fulfil its energy demands. The shortage of power is getting worst day by day and to align with the power requirements, Pakistan needs to add 2000 MW each year to national grid. With the increasing prices of natural gas and oil, Pakistan should consider coal, the abundantly available natural resource, as an alternate fuel for its new power plants to overcome the power crises.

  18. The Mass-Longevity Triangle: Pareto Optimality and the Geometry of Life-History Trait Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, Pablo; Korem, Yael; Moran, Uri; Mayo, Avi; Alon, Uri

    2015-10-01

    When organisms need to perform multiple tasks they face a fundamental tradeoff: no phenotype can be optimal at all tasks. This situation was recently analyzed using Pareto optimality, showing that tradeoffs between tasks lead to phenotypes distributed on low dimensional polygons in trait space. The vertices of these polygons are archetypes--phenotypes optimal at a single task. This theory was applied to examples from animal morphology and gene expression. Here we ask whether Pareto optimality theory can apply to life history traits, which include longevity, fecundity and mass. To comprehensively explore the geometry of life history trait space, we analyze a dataset of life history traits of 2105 endothermic species. We find that, to a first approximation, life history traits fall on a triangle in log-mass log-longevity space. The vertices of the triangle suggest three archetypal strategies, exemplified by bats, shrews and whales, with specialists near the vertices and generalists in the middle of the triangle. To a second approximation, the data lies in a tetrahedron, whose extra vertex above the mass-longevity triangle suggests a fourth strategy related to carnivory. Each animal species can thus be placed in a coordinate system according to its distance from the archetypes, which may be useful for genome-scale comparative studies of mammalian aging and other biological aspects. We further demonstrate that Pareto optimality can explain a range of previous studies which found animal and plant phenotypes which lie in triangles in trait space. This study demonstrates the applicability of multi-objective optimization principles to understand life history traits and to infer archetypal strategies that suggest why some mammalian species live much longer than others of similar mass.

  19. The Mass-Longevity Triangle: Pareto Optimality and the Geometry of Life-History Trait Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, Pablo; Korem, Yael; Moran, Uri; Mayo, Avi; Alon, Uri

    2015-01-01

    When organisms need to perform multiple tasks they face a fundamental tradeoff: no phenotype can be optimal at all tasks. This situation was recently analyzed using Pareto optimality, showing that tradeoffs between tasks lead to phenotypes distributed on low dimensional polygons in trait space. The vertices of these polygons are archetypes—phenotypes optimal at a single task. This theory was applied to examples from animal morphology and gene expression. Here we ask whether Pareto optimality theory can apply to life history traits, which include longevity, fecundity and mass. To comprehensively explore the geometry of life history trait space, we analyze a dataset of life history traits of 2105 endothermic species. We find that, to a first approximation, life history traits fall on a triangle in log-mass log-longevity space. The vertices of the triangle suggest three archetypal strategies, exemplified by bats, shrews and whales, with specialists near the vertices and generalists in the middle of the triangle. To a second approximation, the data lies in a tetrahedron, whose extra vertex above the mass-longevity triangle suggests a fourth strategy related to carnivory. Each animal species can thus be placed in a coordinate system according to its distance from the archetypes, which may be useful for genome-scale comparative studies of mammalian aging and other biological aspects. We further demonstrate that Pareto optimality can explain a range of previous studies which found animal and plant phenotypes which lie in triangles in trait space. This study demonstrates the applicability of multi-objective optimization principles to understand life history traits and to infer archetypal strategies that suggest why some mammalian species live much longer than others of similar mass. PMID:26465336

  20. The Mass-Longevity Triangle: Pareto Optimality and the Geometry of Life-History Trait Space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Szekely

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available When organisms need to perform multiple tasks they face a fundamental tradeoff: no phenotype can be optimal at all tasks. This situation was recently analyzed using Pareto optimality, showing that tradeoffs between tasks lead to phenotypes distributed on low dimensional polygons in trait space. The vertices of these polygons are archetypes--phenotypes optimal at a single task. This theory was applied to examples from animal morphology and gene expression. Here we ask whether Pareto optimality theory can apply to life history traits, which include longevity, fecundity and mass. To comprehensively explore the geometry of life history trait space, we analyze a dataset of life history traits of 2105 endothermic species. We find that, to a first approximation, life history traits fall on a triangle in log-mass log-longevity space. The vertices of the triangle suggest three archetypal strategies, exemplified by bats, shrews and whales, with specialists near the vertices and generalists in the middle of the triangle. To a second approximation, the data lies in a tetrahedron, whose extra vertex above the mass-longevity triangle suggests a fourth strategy related to carnivory. Each animal species can thus be placed in a coordinate system according to its distance from the archetypes, which may be useful for genome-scale comparative studies of mammalian aging and other biological aspects. We further demonstrate that Pareto optimality can explain a range of previous studies which found animal and plant phenotypes which lie in triangles in trait space. This study demonstrates the applicability of multi-objective optimization principles to understand life history traits and to infer archetypal strategies that suggest why some mammalian species live much longer than others of similar mass.

  1. Pakistan research reactor and its utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal Hussain Qureshi; Naeem Ahmad Khan.

    1983-01-01

    The 5 MW enriched uranium fuelled, light water moderated and cooled Pakistan Research reactor became critical on 21st December, 1965 and was taken to full power on 22nd June, 1966. Since then is has been operated for about 23000 hours till 30th June, 1983 without any major break down. It has been used for the studies of neutron cross-sections, nuclear structure, fission physics, structure of material, radiation damage in crystals and semiconductors, studies of geological, biological and environmental samples by neutron activation techniques, radioisotope production, neutron radiography and for training of scientists, engineers and technicians. In the paper we have described briefly the facility of Pakistan Research Reactor and the major work carried around it during the last decade. (author)

  2. Weighted Complex Network Analysis of Pakistan Highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Tariq Mohmand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure and properties of public transportation networks have great implications in urban planning, public policies, and infectious disease control. This study contributes a weighted complex network analysis of travel routes on the national highway network of Pakistan. The network is responsible for handling 75 percent of the road traffic yet is largely inadequate, poor, and unreliable. The highway network displays small world properties and is assortative in nature. Based on the betweenness centrality of the nodes, the most important cities are identified as this could help in identifying the potential congestion points in the network. Keeping in view the strategic location of Pakistan, such a study is of practical importance and could provide opportunities for policy makers to improve the performance of the highway network.

  3. India-Pakistan: Contours of Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devika Mittal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Even after about 70 years of separation, India and Pakistan continue to live in the prison of the past. The rhetoric of partition is still alive in the memory of the people of both the countries. They have constructed fixed, unchanging and competing images for each other. While Pakistan became an Islamic Republic, India adopted secularism, thereby, negating the two-nation theory. The ‘differences’ along with memories of partition has made Indian and Pakistani to remain in permanent hostile situation. The leaders of the two countries try to settle their disputes but fails because of lack of support from their social and political institutions. Since its coming into power in 2014, the NDA government under the Indian Prime Minister, Mr. Narendra Modi has managed to engage the Pakistani establishment, despite many problems between the two countries. This article tries to highlight upon the contours of relationships post-2014.

  4. Pakistan's experience in transfer of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Khan, Nunir

    1977-01-01

    Of all technologies, nuclear technology is perhaps the most interdisciplinary in character as it encompasses such varied fields as nuclear physics, reactor physics, mechanical, electrical electronics controls, metallurgical and even civil and geological engineering. When we speak of transfer of acquisition of nuclear technology we imply cumulative know-how in many fields, most of which are not nuclear per se but are essential for building the necessry infrastructure and back-up facilities for developing and implementing any nuclear energy program. In Pakistan, efforts on utilization of nuclear energy for peaceful applications were initiated about twenty years ago. During these years stepwise development of nuclear technology has taken place. The experience gained by Pakistan so far in transfer of nuclear technology is discussed. Suggestions have been made for continuing the transfer of this most essential technology from the advanced to the developing countries while making sure that necessary safeguard requirements are fullfilled

  5. Sociopolitical adjustment among Afghan refugees in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centlivres, P; Centlivres-demont, M

    1987-01-01

    Although international organizations and Pakistanis expect Afghans to act like true refugees--dependent, obedient, and grateful--Afghans consider themselves as temporary exiles who, in protest against an anti-Islamic government, found temporary refuge in Pakistan; or as soldiers in the holy wars who temporarily use their Islamic neighbor as a base before returning to fight in Afghanistan. Conforming to this concept and to these objectives, the refugees seek to preserve a certain autonomy and to lean towards forms of organization which are derived either from their traditional social structure, or as is more common now, from the ideology of the Islamic movements. One can understand that this situation may cause many misunderstandings, especially with international organizations which finance and supervise aid to the Afghan refugees in Pakistan. As for anthropologists, it is necessary to go beyond known concepts, to relativize familiar models and to act on changes which have come about in the structures and ideology of the Afghan people.

  6. Solar Energy: Topographical Asset for Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervez Hameed Shaikh; Faheemullah Shaikh; Mushtaq Mirani

    2013-01-01

    The primary energy supply of Pakistan in the financial year 2009-10 was 63.088 million tonnes of oil equivalent (MTOE). Globally, renewable energies generation is around (19%) [1]. Pakistan has a yearly average solar energy shining potential of about 19 Mega Joules per square meter, with 7.6 hours per day with an average solar radiation of 5-7 kW h/(m 2 day). An alarming stage for the government to take serious steps to tackle energy demand, in vision to inclining oil markets, depletion of gas reserves, huge electricity demand and supply gap, lessening of forest reserves, calamity (floods, heavy rainfalls, earth quakes, melting of glaciers etc.), Kyoto bindings etc. All these factors are indicating for the transition towards renewable energy technologies. (authors)

  7. Area Handbook Series. Pakistan: A Country Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    Ixmitilfl% oif pres- ident of the republic. chief martial law administrator. -.nd chief of the arm% stafl lI remained the leadler and spokesman )f the...industries, food processing, tobacco, metal prod- Icts. cbemicals. and engineering Esports : USS2.5 billon in ’Y 1I902 ,larn produscts cottort and man...Ayub Khan. whom he helped to overthrow in 1969. In the IQ96s Pakistan continued the search fw political identity that it had pursued since its

  8. Diversity of edible mushrooms in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, K.; Shinwari, Z.K.; Iftikhar, F.

    2007-01-01

    Fifty six edible species of mushrooms are reported from Pakistan including four from Balochistan, three from Sindh, five from Punjab and 44 from NWFP and Azad Kashmir. Some of species being commercially exploited in the world are Agaricus bisporus, Auricularia spp. Coprinus comatus, Flammulina vellutipes, Lentinus edodes, Phellorina inquinans, Pleurotus ostreatus, Stropharia rugosoannulata, Volvariella volvacea. Because of over collection, urbanization and deforestation, some of species are threatened of extinction. (author)

  9. Pakistan: social basis of the economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, C

    1987-01-01

    Pakistan's gross domestic product (GDP) has grown at an average of 5.3%/year since 1950 and real per capita income has increased 3.7%/year over the past decade, despite a 3% annual population growth rate. Contributing to this dynamic economic growth have been migration, the construction of a new national economy following independence, controlled irrigation, foreign exchange availability, and an expectation on the part of the public of higher earnings and consumption. Despite these trends, the Pakistan economy is structurally weak and there have been rapid increases in both the domestic and foreign debt. Economic growth has been based largely on trading and soft services. Government departments are known for their corruption. This self-contradictory economic picture derives directly from the structure of Pakistani society, which is dominated by the elite of Punjab Province. Urbanization is increasing economic inequality in the society, and government taxation policies are biased toward big agriculture and industry. Pakistan's poor performance in education, social development, and family planning are expected to inhibit future economic development. Only 26% of Pakistanis are literate, reflecting the low social value placed on education. Even in urban areas, there is no evidence of a decline in fertility. This results from the psychological and economic need for children, women's limited roles, Islamic opposition to family planning, and inefficient government delivery of social services. Within a few years, population growth will magnify the structural weaknesses of the Pakistan economy. It is hoped that the dynamic nature of Panjabi values and behavior, especially of the new middle class, will lead to a redress of this situation.

  10. Ethno-botanical studies from northern Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, S.; Afzal, N.

    2009-01-01

    In this research paper efforts have been made to document the ethno-botanical knowledge of important plant species found in Northern Pakistan. It includes Thandiani, Galiat, Kaghan, Swat, Buner, Dir, Chitral and Northern Areas of Pakistan. The area has many climatic and vegetation zones or biomes. Locals residing in mountainous areas belonging to various ethnic groups are traditionally utilizing plants over many generations; these ethnic groups have their distinct life style, belief, traditions and cultural heritage. Plant collection and data regarding traditional uses in various areas of Northern Pakistan has been done periodically in different flowering /fruiting seasons. Locals of old age belonging to various ethnic groups were personally interviewed for establishing uses of plants. Photography is done for easy identification and habitat recognition. Collected plant specimens and seeds were preserved. Plant species were dried, mounted, identified and authenticated. Seventy six species were known to have traditional and ethno botanical uses. Plants have been utilized for many generations. Ethnic groups have distinct life style and have different economic uses for these plants. Due to unsustainable exploitation of natural habitats scarcity of drug plants has occurred. As consequence some species are depleting and may become extinct in near future, e. g. Morchella esculenta, Colchicum lueteum and Viola serpens are just a few of these. Although some sporadic information is available about the flora of this region but very little documented record of the ethno-botanically important plants has been established. It is expected that this research paper will be beneficial for students, researchers, farmers, foresters and general public. On the basis of data obtained it is concluded that ethno-botanical Flora of Northern Pakistan is quite rich and is diverse, due to the difference in altitude, climate and other topographic conditions. (author)

  11. Customer Satisfaction and Islamic Banking in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Fouzia Ali; Hassan Raziq; Abdul Aleem; Shahrukh Latif; M.Arslan; Arsalan Shah Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Purpose-The purpose of this research study is to focus on the customer satisfaction towards Islamic banking in Pakistan based on the different factors including service quality, product quality offered by Islamic banks, customer care level of Islamic banks, financial benefits given to its customers, competition with conventional banks, religion and market reputation. Methodology- This study will help to understand the level of satisfaction of customers regarding Islamic Banks. In this study d...

  12. The Role of Nuclear Power in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, A.; Iqleem, J.

    2002-01-01

    Although the energy and electricity demand in Pakistan have been steadily growing, the per capita electricity consumption at around 300 kWh is still rather small when compared to most countries. The current installed capacity is around 17,700 MW with fossil fuels providing nearly two-third of this capacity, hydro a little less than one-third and nuclear around 2.5%. A major fraction of the oil used in Pakistan has to be imported while hydro remains subject to seasonal changes. The next 20 year projections point to a serious electrical energy generation shortfall even when the contribution from indigenous gas, coal, and hydro is increased optimistically. It is estimated that a deficit of some 3000-5000 MW may exist which will have to be met from an alternate energy resource like nuclear. Two small nuclear power plants (KANUPP, a 137 MWe CANDU which has been operating safely for nearly three decades, and CHASNUPP, the newly built 325 MWe PWR supplied by China) are already on-line. KANUPP has essentially been operated without any vendor support thanks to a systematic self-reliance program. The experience gained through procuring, operating and maintaining these power plants, coupled with the need to meet the projected electrical energy shortfall which cannot be met through conventional resources, makes nuclear a very viable option, and Pakistan an ideal case to study the current and future role of nuclear in a developing country with medium sized grid. This paper will describe an overview of the experience of development of nuclear power in Pakistan. Future strategies, which involve negotiating a case for nuclear with the energy policy makers, interacting with the vendor on matters of obtaining new plants, and increasing self-reliance in the area of nuclear power technology, will also be discussed. (author)

  13. The Status of Women Physicists in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnain, Aziz Fatima; Islam, Jabeen

    2009-04-01

    A significant number of women physicists work in high-ranking positions in the universities and research institutes of Pakistan; however, the number of women is much lower compared with men. We surveyed these women about the challenges they faced in the workplace and the pace of their progress and scientific work in a male-dominant society. We also surveyed girls' attitudes toward studying physics at the graduate and undergraduate levels.

  14. Physical infrastructure and economic development in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Jan, Sajjad Ahmad; Chani, Muhammad Irfan; Pervaiz, Zahid; Chaudhary, Amatul R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the relationship between physical infrastructure and economic development of Pakistan. A composite index of physical infrastructure has been constructed through Principal Component Analysis. This has been done by taking into account three different dimensions of infrastructure i.e. transportation infrastructure, energy infrastructure, and telecommunication infrastructure. Johansen Co-integration Technique has been applied to confirm the existence of co-integrati...

  15. Radio and distance learning in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, R

    1987-01-01

    Radio is a powerful communication vehicle in Pakistan able to reach 3/4 of urban and 2/3 of rural households. Until 1974, most radio broadcasts of the Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation, a state monopoly, were in the categories of music, drama, and features; news and current affairs; and religious broadcasts. The Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU), a distance learning educational institution, was established through an act of the Pakistan Parliament in 1974 and is the only institution in the country to use radio broadcasts for its curriculum. Also established in 1974 within the AIOU was the Institute of Educational Technology (IET). The IET channels the transmission and flow of well-designed educational messages and lessons from the teachers to the students by employing distance teaching methodology that seeks to reinforce students' weekly lessons. IET closely integrates its activities within the University's academic departments. IET staff members not only participate in the development of course curriculum and syllabi, but also help to identify course content needing reinforcement through radio. While the teachers at AIOU convert the course curricula into distance-learning self-study activity-oriented correspondence texts, IET producers transcribe these scripts into actual production scripts. Feedback from students and findings of the University's Research and Statistical Cell are used to make revisions in the scripts. The AIOU enrolls an average of 100,000 students each year. Expansion is being limited only by the costs of purchasing time from the Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (Rs 2000 for a 15-minute lesson) and the availability of appropriate time slots.

  16. Makran Mountain Range, Iran and Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The long folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Ranges of Iran and Pakistan (26.0N, 63.0E) illustrate the classical Trellis type of drainage pattern, common in this region. The Dasht River and its tributaries is the principal drainage network for this area. To the left, the continental drift of the northward bound Indian sub-continent has caused the east/west parallel ranges to bend in a great northward arc.

  17. Pakistan: A Nation at War with Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    LeT Lashkar-e-Taiba LIC Low Intensity Conflict LOC Line of Control LTTE Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam NWFP North Western...Organizations like the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) of Sri Lanka, Hezbollah of Lebanon, or the Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF...Calcutta and the West Bengal /Bihar coal belt, leaving Pakistan with just 10 percent of the industrial base.”69 Partition also separated Pakistani raw

  18. Characterize Respiratory Pathogens Endemic to Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-25

    application or as approved by the agency. If the application lists milestones/target dates for important activities or phases of the project, identify...Pakistan. This pattern is important to study so the highest risk age for growth failure can be identified and appropriate interventions can be planned...pregnancies have concluded as live deliveries, 12 as still births and 31 as spontaneous abortions. We analyzed the data of 243 pregnant     5

  19. A Universal Ts-VI Triangle Method for the Continuous Retrieval of Evaporative Fraction From MODIS Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenbin; Jia, Shaofeng; Lv, Aifeng

    2017-10-01

    The triangle method based on the spatial relationship between remotely sensed land surface temperature (Ts) and vegetation index (VI) has been widely used for the estimates of evaporative fraction (EF). In the present study, a universal triangle method was proposed by transforming the Ts-VI feature space from a regional scale to a pixel scale. The retrieval of EF is only related to the boundary conditions at pixel scale, regardless of the Ts-VI configuration over the spatial domain. The boundary conditions of each pixel are composed of the theoretical dry edge determined by the surface energy balance principle and the wet edge determined by the average air temperature of open water. The universal triangle method was validated using the EF observations collected by the Energy Balance Bowen Ratio systems in the Southern Great Plains of the United States of America (USA). Two parameterization schemes of EF were used to demonstrate their applicability with Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products over the whole year 2004. The results of this study show that the accuracy produced by both of these two parameterization schemes is comparable to that produced by the traditional triangle method, although the universal triangle method seems specifically suited to the parameterization scheme proposed in our previous research. The independence of the universal triangle method from the Ts-VI feature space makes it possible to conduct a continuous monitoring of evapotranspiration and soil moisture. That is just the ability the traditional triangle method does not possess.

  20. Microbial contaminants in Pakistan: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maida Kanwal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide contamination of surface waters with microbial pathogens is of substantial health concern. These contaminants are usually transmitted by improper sanitation measures, unsafe waste disposal, excretions from patients, and physical contacts, i.e., sexual and nonsexual. Majority of these microbial pathogens have been categorized into three classes, i.e., bacteria, viruses and protozoa. Pakistan, being a developing country, is facing a noteworthy threat due to microbial contamination. In Pakistan, bacterial contaminants are reported extensively followed by viral and protozoa contaminants. The health issues associated with bacterial population includes dysentery, abdominal pain, headache, diarrhea etc.; and usually includes faecal and total coliforms, E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Campylobacter. The cases related to viral contamination are lesser but chronic and evidenced the presence of HCV, HAV, HEV viruses causing hepatitis, and other hepatic disorders. Lastly, the health impacts associated with protozoans are least reported; and a number of diseases such as giardia, cryptosporidium and toxoplasma have been linked with this class of contaminants. The current review compiles information of these biological contaminants along with their health issues in Pakistan. Moreover, potential sources and fate of microbial contaminants are also discussed.

  1. Flood forecasting and warning systems in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali Awan, Shaukat

    2004-01-01

    Meteorologically, there are two situations which may cause three types of floods in Indus Basin in Pakistan: i) Meteorological Situation for Category-I Floods when the seasonal low is a semi permanent weather system situated over south eastern Balochistan, south western Punjab, adjoining parts of Sindh get intensified and causes the moisture from the Arabian Sea to be brought up to upper catchments of Chenab and Jhelum rivers. (ii) Meteorological Situation for Category-11 and Category-111 Floods, which is linked with monsoon low/depression. Such monsoon systems originate in Bay of Bengal region and then move across India in general west/north westerly direction arrive over Rajasthan or any of adjoining states of India. Flood management in Pakistan is multi-functional process involving a number of different organizations. The first step in the process is issuance of flood forecast/warning, which is performed by Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD) utilizing satellite cloud pictures and quantitative precipitation measurement radar data, in addition to the conventional weather forecasting facilities. For quantitative flood forecasting, hydrological data is obtained through the Provincial Irrigation Department and WAPDA. Furthermore, improved rainfall/runoff and flood routing models have been developed to provide more reliable and explicit flood information to a flood prone population.(Author)

  2. Exploring Salt Tectonics in Northern Pakistan using InSAR and Seismic Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Abir, I.; Khan, S. D.; Bendick, R. O.; Qadir, A.; Tariq, S.

    2012-12-01

    Salt tectonics in Northern Pakistan affects the geological structures and the seismology of the area. Salt layers are important in influencing the deformation style of geological structures. The difference in deformation intensity between the Potwar Plateau-Salt Range and the Kohat Plateau-Surghar Range systems is attributed to the presence of a Pre-Cambrian salt layer. Overburden will slide efficiently on the ductile salt detachment and will result in low internal deformation, which is evident in the Potwar Plateau-Salt Range system. In this system, the salt layers act as a lubricant between the overlying sedimentary layers and the basement rocks. In contrast, the Kohat Plateau-Surghar Range system has high internal deformation. This could be due to the absence or the thinning of the salt layers which causes increase friction between the overburden and the basement rocks. Furthermore, north of the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) fault system, where the area is believed to be locked due to the absence or thinning of the salt layer, strain could be accumulating and a potentially huge earthquake could occur. This is significant as the area include three major populated cities, which are Islamabad, Peshawar and Rawalpindi with over 4.1 million in population. This study is an attempt to investigate the role of salt in the geological deformation of the Salt Range-Potwar Plateau using InSAR and 2-D seismic interpretations. The extent and the structures of the Pre-Cambrian salt layer are mapped by interpreting 2D seismic sections. 2-D migrated seismic lines crossing the MBT and several lines located near central Salt Range were obtained. The top of the salt layer can be distinguished easily, as well as the overlying sedimentary sequence. Moreover, published velocity models of Salt Range were used to assist in the interpretation of the seismic sections. Exposed salt layers were mapped using published geological maps of the area. The Salt Range area is highly faulted with thrust

  3. Potential of solar home systems in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, M.; Harijan, K.; Uqaili, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    About 68% of the population of Pakistan resides in rural areas. Most of the rural households have no access to electricity and meet lighting requirements through kerosene which is a major source of indoor air pollution and other environmental and health hazards. Rural villages are scattered over a large area and located far from the main electric grids. They have low population density and requires small load. About 67% of the conventional electricity in Pakistan is generated from fossil fuels with 51% and 16% share of gas and oil respectively. The indigenous reserves of oil and gas are limited and the country heavily depends on imported oil. The oil import bill is a serious strain on the country's economy. The combustion of fossil fuels also causes serious environmental pollution. The conventional power is even not sufficient for meeting the growing demand of electricity from the existing customers. Further more the extension of existing centralized grid system to far away from grid line rural areas with very low population density and small-scattered loads are economically and technically unfeasible. Hence there are remote chances of getting grid connection to most of the rural population in the near future. This whole situation requires urgent measures on priority basis for the development of indigenous, environment friendly, renewable energy sources such as solar energy. This paper presents the assessment of potential of solar home systems (SHS) for rural electrification in Pakistan. The country lies in an excellent solar belt range and receives 16-21 MJ/m 2 per day of solar radiation as an annual mean value, with 19 MJ/m 2 per day over most areas of the country. It is estimated that about 7 million households in Pakistan do not have access to electricity (in 2004). Assuming that about 50% of the households in rural areas without electricity today would be electrified up to 2010, and only 25% of the remaining households could afford and would be willing to pay

  4. Women's Perspectives of Peace: Unheard Voices from Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Zehra

    2013-01-01

    Pakistan is currently impacted by rampant terrorism and is simultaneously grappling with intrastate ethnic and sectarian violence. The focus of this dissertation was on examining grassroots Pakistani women's perspectives on peace and women's contributions to peace in Pakistan. The study was centered on grassroots women because their voices remain…

  5. Malnutrition amongst Under-Five Years Children in Swat, Pakistan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To identify malnourished cases and determine their relationship with weaning time and socioeconomic factors in under-5 children in Swat, Pakistan. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Pediatric Ward and Outpatients Department. (OPD), Saidu Teaching Hospital, Swat, Pakistan using case ...

  6. Measuring and Bridging the Gender Digital Divide in Rural Pakistan ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Measuring and Bridging the Gender Digital Divide in Rural Pakistan. Despite that approximately 70% of Pakistan's 160 million inhabitants living in rural villages, nearly 90% of the ICT-related infrastructure is installed in urban areas. This leaves a large portion of the country's populace without access to ICTs potential to ...

  7. Education Reform in Pakistan: Building for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Robert M., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Washington seems to be in a season of worrying--some might say "obsessing"--about the education system in Pakistan. The 9/11 Commission, whose final report has become a fixture on the bestseller lists, has highlighted the links between international terrorism and Pakistan's religious seminaries, or "madaris", and recommended…

  8. Deconstructive Pedagogy and Ideological Demystification in Post-Colonial Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Asma; Malik, Samina

    2016-01-01

    With post-colonial Pakistan inheriting the British colonial ideological and governmental apparatus, the English literature curriculum implemented at the university level in Pakistan carried the interpellatory baggage of its colonial past. Our interdisciplinary exploration focuses on using deconstructive pedagogy to demystify and subvert the…

  9. On 25 January Pervez Musharraf, president of Pakistan, visited CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, General Pervez Musharraf, welcomed by CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar. The president is accompanied by an important delegation of five ministers from the Pakistani Government, the Chairman of Pakistan's Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), Parvez Butt, and an eminent former Chairman of the Commission, Ishfaq Ahmad, who pioneered cooperation with CERN.

  10. Women's Right to Land in Pakistan | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Women's Right to Land in Pakistan. Unequal access to land is a systemic barrier to gender equality in Pakistan, one that is both a cause and an effect of women's marginalization. Yet, the amount of research on how many women own land and how many control land is negligible. This project will examine the reasons for ...

  11. An Interactive Control Algorithm Used for Equilateral Triangle Formation with Robotic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Hongcai

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an interactive control algorithm, called Triangle Formation Algorithm (TFA), used for three neighboring robotic sensors which are distributed randomly to self-organize into and equilateral triangle (E) formation. The algorithm is proposed based on the triangular geometry and considering the actual sensors used in robotics. In particular, the stability of the TFA, which can be executed by robotic sensors independently and asynchronously for E formation, is analyzed in details based on Lyapunov stability theory. Computer simulations are carried out for verifying the effectiveness of the TFA. The analytical results and simulation studies indicate that three neighboring robots employing conventional sensors can self-organize into E formations successfully regardless of their initial distribution using the same TFAs. PMID:24759118

  12. Golden Root Geometry Structuring the Polyhedra and Other Forms Via Plato’s Triangles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Chr. Stefanides

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Under Golden Root Geometry Structuring the Polyhedra and other Forms Via Plato’s Triangles, we refer to the basic geometric configurations which, as this theory contemplates, are necessary for the progressive mode of formation of the five polyhedral and the geometries involved in their sections and related circles and further to logarithms, via lines, areas and volumes. Basis of all these structures is a very special Scalene Orthogonal Triangle “Plato’s Most Beautiful” [F25], together with his Orthogonal Isosceles one. Structural Forms are identified bearing in common these triangular identities. The particular angle of the Scalene Orthogonal is that whose ArcTan[Θ]=Τ and T = SQR ((SQR. (5 + 1/2.

  13. Pascal (Yang Hui) triangles and power laws in the logistic map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, Carlos; Robledo, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    We point out the joint occurrence of Pascal triangle patterns and power-law scaling in the standard logistic map, or more generally, in unimodal maps. It is known that these features are present in its two types of bifurcation cascades: period and chaotic-band doubling of attractors. Approximate Pascal triangles are exhibited by the sets of lengths of supercycle diameters and by the sets of widths of opening bands. Additionally, power-law scaling manifests along periodic attractor supercycle positions and chaotic band splitting points. Consequently, the attractor at the mutual accumulation point of the doubling cascades, the onset of chaos, displays both Gaussian and power-law distributions. Their combined existence implies both ordinary and exceptional statistical-mechanical descriptions of dynamical properties.

  14. Analysing Diagnostic Assessment on the Ratio of Sine in a Right Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andika, R.; Juandi, D.; Rosjanuardi, R.

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to develop diagnostic assessment with the special topic of the ratio of sinus in a right triangle and analyze the result whether the students are ready to continue to the next lesson of trigonometry specially the sinus rule. The methodology that use in this study is a design research of Plomp model which is it comprises of 3 phases: (a) preliminary research; (b) prototyping phase; and (c) assessment phase. The findings show that almost half of students made a mistake in determining the ratio of sin in a right triangle, consequently the procedure for solving the problem went wrong. In strategic competency and adaptive communication most of students did not solve the problem that was given. According to the result, the students have to get remedial program before to the next lesson, the rule of sin.

  15. A rare case of bifurcated lesser occipital nerve in the posterior triangle of the neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The origin of the lesser occipital nerve (LON may vary, but variations in its pattern are rare. We report here a case of LON, bifurcated into superior and inferior roots in the posterior triangle of the neck. Bifurcation of the LON formed about 1.5 cm above the nerve point of the neck, near the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Both roots ascended obliquely upwards, and later united to form a single trunk in the upper part of the posterior triangle of the neck. It then entered the scalp where its distribution was normal. Since the cutaneous nerves of the cervical plexus are anesthetized for pain relief, as with cervicogenic headache, exceptional morphological variations of these nerves should be taken into consideration before any anesthetic procedures are performed in this region. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2016; 5(3.000: 184-186

  16. Remarks on the P{sub c} structures and triangle singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Feng-Kun [Chinese Academy of Science, CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); Meissner, Ulf G. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut fuer Kernphysik and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Nieves, Juan [Centro Mixto CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (IFIC), Valencia (Spain); Yang, Zhi [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    It was proposed that the narrow P{sub c}(4450) structure observed by the LHCb Collaboration in the reaction Λ{sub b} → J/ψpK might be due to a triangle singularity around the χ{sub c1}-proton threshold at 4.45 GeV. We discuss the occurrence of a similar triangle singularity in the J/ψp invariant mass distribution for the decay Λ{sub b} → J/ψpπ, which could explain the bump around 4.45 GeV in the data. More precise measurements of this process would provide valuable information towards an understanding of the P{sub c} structures. (orig.)

  17. Surface charge method for molecular surfaces with curved areal elements I. Spherical triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2018-03-01

    Parametrizing a curved surface with flat triangles in electrostatics problems creates a diverging electric field. One way to avoid this is to have curved areal elements. However, charge density integration over curved patches appears difficult. This paper, dealing with spherical triangles, is the first in a series aiming to solve this problem. Here, we lay the ground work for employing curved patches for applying the surface charge method to electrostatics. We show analytically how one may control the accuracy by expanding in powers of the the arc length (multiplied by the curvature). To accommodate not extremely small curved areal elements, we have provided enough details to include higher order corrections that are needed for better accuracy when slightly larger surface elements are used.

  18. Proofs to two inequality conjectures for a point on the plane of a triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangjian Huang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We prove two conjectures for a point on the plane of a triangle presented in (Liu in J. Math. Inequal. 8(3:597-611, 2014, doi: 10.1007/s11590-013-0708-4 by using the successive difference substitution algorithm NEWTSDS. Compared with the original proof, the new one is simpler and more easily understood. Similar problems can be treated with the same procedure.

  19. Robust Sierpiński triangle fractals on symmetry-mismatched Ag(100).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Li, Na; Liu, Liwei; Gu, Gaochen; Li, Chao; Tang, Hao; Peng, Lianmao; Hou, Shimin; Wang, Yongfeng

    2016-08-18

    Sierpiński triangle fractals were constructed on both Ag(111) and symmetry-mismatched fourfold Ag(100) surfaces through chemical reaction between H3PH molecules and Fe atoms under vacuum. Density functional theory calculations revealed that the fractals were stabilized by the strong coordination interaction between Fe and O atoms. In comparison, pure H3PH molecules formed fractals via moderately strong hydrogen bonds only on Ag(111), not on Ag(100).

  20. CREATIVE TRAINING REPRESENTED BY THE GOLDEN TRIANGLE PROFESSOR – STUDENT – RESEARCHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda-Marina BĂDULESCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The author highlights the creative training based on the golden triangle in the pedagogical approach: professor-trainer – student – researcher. The individual style of teaching and learning is enhanced by the creative style of the educator-researcher and of the student-researcher. It succeeds in this way to achieve added value in the process of training and self-training for a qualitative leap in scientific research.

  1. Students of two-curriculum types Performance on a proof for congruent triangles

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Ruthmae; Chávez, Óscar

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This descriptive study examines students’ performance on a proof task about corresponding parts of congruent triangles. We collected data from 1936 students, 59.8% used a subject-specific curriculum and 40.2 % used an integrated curriculum. Our findings indicate that, regardless of curriculum type, students experience difficulty with constructing the proof. Additionally, we observed that although students from the integrated curriculum were more likely to obtain partia...

  2. The Uneven City: Planning Insurgencies in Ramlet Bulaq and Maspero Triangle

    OpenAIRE

    Shakran, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Cairo, Egypt holds 4 of the 30 largest “mega-slums” in the world with nearly 60 percent of Cairo’s population inhabiting informal settlements (Davis, 2007; Khalifa, 2013). Two of these settlements, Ramlet Bulaq and the Maspero Triangle in West Cairo, consistently experience evictions inflicted by state and private developers since the mid-2000s. The central question orienting this research is: How do Ramlet Bulaq and Maspero inhabitants develop insurgent planning practices to resist state and...

  3. Modification of Duval Triangle for Diagnostic Transformer Fault through a Procedure of Dissolved Gases Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobhy Serry Dessouky

    2016-08-01

        The evaluation is carried out on DGA data obtained from three different groups of transformers. A Matlab program was developed to automate the evaluation of  Duval Triangle graph to numerical modification, Also the fault gases can be generated due to oil decomposing effected by transformer over excitation which increasing thetransformer exciting current lead to rising the temperature inside transformer core beside the other causes.

  4. Triangles, tricks and tics: Hyper-mentalizing in response to animated shapes in Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Clare M; Cavanna, Andrea E

    2015-10-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) can feature complex tics involving socially inappropriate behaviours. Adults with TS can also demonstrate differences to healthy controls when reasoning about mental states. This study investigated spontaneous mentalizing in TS. Twenty adults with TS and twenty healthy controls completed the animations task. Participants were asked to watch short ambiguous animations involving two triangles and describe what was happening. Some animations featured random movement of the triangles, while others depicted social interactions that were simple (e.g., dancing) or more complex (e.g., one triangle tricking the other). Measures were taken of executive functions, alexithymia and clinical symptoms. Individuals with TS responded similarly to controls when viewing animations featuring simple and complex interactions, demonstrating intact mentalizing ability. However, significant group differences were apparent for the random movement animations. TS was associated with a greater tendency to attribute mental states during this condition, and to describe random movements as motivated actions guided by the intentions of the triangles. There were no group differences for the alexithymia scale, but TS was associated with mild executive deficits. No relationships were apparent between animation responses and other measures. Our findings suggest that TS is associated with a propensity to adopt the intentional stance. Hyper-mentalizing in TS could be linked to both dopamine dysfunction and altered social behaviour, whereby amplified salience of social cues could contribute to the complex interplay between environmental context and tic expression. These observations may offer further insight into the potential effects of dopamine dysfunction on social cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Spinning and tumbling of micron-sized triangles in a micro-channel shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, J.; Kumar, M. Vijay; Mihiretie, B. Mekonnen; Hanstorp, D.; Mehlig, B.

    2018-03-01

    We report on measurements of the angular dynamics of micron-sized equilaterally triangular platelets suspended in a micro-channel shear flow. Our measurements confirm that such particles spin and tumble like a spheroid in a simple shear. Since the triangle has corners, we can observe the spinning directly. In general, the spinning frequency is different from the tumbling frequency and the spinning is affected by tumbling. This gives rise to doubly periodic angular dynamics.

  6. Sex Determination Using Inion-Opistocranium-Asterion (IOA) Triangle in Nigerians’ Skulls

    OpenAIRE

    Orish, C. N.; Didia, B. C.; Fawehinmi, H. B.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Determination of sex is an important concern to the forensic anthropologists as it is critical for individual identification. This study has investigated the existence of sexual dimorphism in the dimensions and the area of the IOA triangle. Methods. A total of 100 adult dry skulls, (78 males; 22 females) from departments of anatomy in Nigerian universities were used for this study. Automatic digital calliper was used for the measurement. Coefficient of variation, correlation, line...

  7. The fast and accurate 3D-face scanning technology based on laser triangle sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinjiang; Chang, Tianyu; Ge, Baozhen; Tian, Qingguo; Chen, Yang; Kong, Bin

    2013-08-01

    A laser triangle scanning method and the structure of 3D-face measurement system were introduced. In presented system, a liner laser source was selected as an optical indicated signal in order to scanning a line one times. The CCD image sensor was used to capture image of the laser line modulated by human face. The system parameters were obtained by system calibrated calculated. The lens parameters of image part of were calibrated with machine visual image method and the triangle structure parameters were calibrated with fine wire paralleled arranged. The CCD image part and line laser indicator were set with a linear motor carry which can achieve the line laser scanning form top of the head to neck. For the nose is ledge part and the eyes are sunk part, one CCD image sensor can not obtain the completed image of laser line. In this system, two CCD image sensors were set symmetric at two sides of the laser indicator. In fact, this structure includes two laser triangle measure units. Another novel design is there laser indicators were arranged in order to reduce the scanning time for it is difficult for human to keep static for longer time. The 3D data were calculated after scanning. And further data processing include 3D coordinate refine, mesh calculate and surface show. Experiments show that this system has simply structure, high scanning speed and accurate. The scanning range covers the whole head of adult, the typical resolution is 0.5mm.

  8. Combined Visibility and Surrounding Triangles Method for Simulation of Crack Discontinuities in Meshless Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Pirali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a combined node searching algorithm for simulation of crack discontinuities in meshless methods called combined visibility and surrounding triangles (CVT is proposed. The element free Galerkin (EFG method is employed for stress analysis of cracked bodies. The proposed node searching algorithm is based on the combination of surrounding triangles and visibility methods; the surrounding triangles method is used for support domains of nodes and quadrature points generated at the vicinity of crack faces and the visibility method is used for points located on the crack faces. In comparison with the conventional methods, such as the visibility, the transparency, and the diffraction method, this method is simpler with reasonable efficiency. To show the performance of this method, linear elastic fracture mechanics analyses are performed on number of standard test specimens and stress intensity factors are calculated. It is shown that the results are in good agreement with the exact solution and with those generated by the finite element method (FEM.

  9. Cressey’s fraud triangle (1953 and agency theory: study applied to brazilian banking institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Rílany Rodrigues Machado

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This research examined if Cressey’s (1953 fraud triangle and the agency theory, jointly, enables investigate corporate fraud occurrence in Brazilian banking institutions. It was formulated  six research hypotheses were segregated in fraud triangle – pressure,  opportunity and rationalization – and measured by variables taken from the agency theory, criminology and empirical papers on corporate fraud. The identification of probability of fraud occurrence was operationalized from multinomial logistic model, applied to data of 44 banking, for the period between January 2001 and December 2012. For element pressure, hypotheses No. 01 was confirmed, since this showed that the lower an institution’s previous performance, the greater probability there is of fraudulent events occurring in the future.  In the element of opportunity, the hypothesis No. 03 was confirmed, which showed that low corporate governance indicators increased the possibility of fraud occurrences.  In rationalization element, the hypothesis No. 08 was confirmed, therefore, the predominance of women in management reduces the probability of fraud.  We thereby conclude that Cressey’s Triangle, when combined with the theory of agency is an appropriate research instrument to use when carrying out an investigation into corporate fraud occurrence in banking institutions.

  10. The Caucasian Triangle (Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia – Tourism Development and Threats to General and Distinctive Interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Roistomashvili

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Caucasus triangle is one of the most interesting regions in the world firstly, with its geo-political location and also being a part of post-social space. These involve a number of factors determining existence and development of these three states. The world order today from economic and political point of view require readiness from certain states for establishing themselves in this big space. It especially concerns developing and semi-developed countries and the countries having less experience of being a state, which in fact are in the process of creating the institutes which will determine their independence and co-existence with the democratic world having more experience in this respect.Study on the Caucasus triangle arises great interest. The actuality of this issue is also determined by the political and economic dynamic changes taking place inside these states (evolution of Soviet space. Their political choice is determined by the less-stable environment and weakness of state, political partners and political and economic interests generally and towards one another. Unpredictable situation within the triangle is more important as it is a live process with new and changeable threats. For this reason it is very interesting for the scientists to study the development of this kind of countries. Ambition of these countries to establish themselves in the field of tourism is very important for us and that is why it is necessary to follow the process in dynamics, analyze and evaluate their development in this respect.

  11. Environmental pollution from illegal waste disposal and health effects: a review on the "triangle of death".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triassi, Maria; Alfano, Rossella; Illario, Maddalena; Nardone, Antonio; Caporale, Oreste; Montuori, Paolo

    2015-01-22

    The term "triangle of death" was used for the first time by Senior and Mazza in the journal The Lancet Oncology referring to the eastern area of the Campania Region (Southern Italy) which has one of the worst records of illegal waste dumping practices. In the past decades, many studies have focused on the potential of illegal waste disposal to cause adverse effects on human health in this area. The great heterogeneity in the findings, and the bias in media communication has generated great healthcare doubts, anxieties and alarm. This paper addresses a review of the up-to-date literature on the "triangle of death", bringing together the available information on the occurrence and severity of health effects related to illegal waste disposal. The Scopus database was searched using the search terms "waste", "Campania", "Naples", "triangle of death" and "human biomonitoring". Despite the methodological and sampling heterogeneity between the studies, this review examines the evidence from published data concerning cancer incidence, childhood mortality and birth defects, so that the current situation, knowledge gaps and research priorities can be established. The review aims to provide a contribution to the scientific community, and to respond to the concerns of the general population.

  12. Assessing the plasmonics of gold nano-triangles with higher order laser modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Hennemann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Regular arrays of metallic nano-triangles – so called Fischer patterns – are fabricated by nano-sphere lithography. We studied such gold nano-triangle arrays on silicon or glass substrates. A series of different samples was investigated with a parabolic mirror based confocal microscope where the sample is scanned through the laser focus. By employing higher order laser modes (azimuthally and radially polarised laser beams, we can excite the Fischer patterns using either a pure in-plane (x,y electric field or a strongly z-directional (optical axis of the optical microscope electric field. We collected and evaluated the emitted luminescence and thereby investigated the respectively excited plasmonic modes. These varied considerably: firstly with the light polarisation in the focus, secondly with the aspect ratio of the triangles and thirdly with the employed substrate. Moreover, we obtained strongly enhanced Raman spectra of an adenine (sub-monolayer on gold Fischer patterns on glass. We thus showed that gold Fischer patterns are promising surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS substrates.

  13. Available pressure amplitude of linear compressor based on phasor triangle model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, C. X.; Jiang, X.; Zhi, X. Q.; You, X. K.; Qiu, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    The linear compressor for cryocoolers possess the advantages of long-life operation, high efficiency, low vibration and compact structure. It is significant to study the match mechanisms between the compressor and the cold finger, which determines the working efficiency of the cryocooler. However, the output characteristics of linear compressor are complicated since it is affected by many interacting parameters. The existing matching methods are simplified and mainly focus on the compressor efficiency and output acoustic power, while neglecting the important output parameter of pressure amplitude. In this study, a phasor triangle model basing on analyzing the forces of the piston is proposed. It can be used to predict not only the output acoustic power, the efficiency, but also the pressure amplitude of the linear compressor. Calculated results agree well with the measurement results of the experiment. By this phasor triangle model, the theoretical maximum output pressure amplitude of the linear compressor can be calculated simply based on a known charging pressure and operating frequency. Compared with the mechanical and electrical model of the linear compressor, the new model can provide an intuitionistic understanding on the match mechanism with faster computational process. The model can also explain the experimental phenomenon of the proportional relationship between the output pressure amplitude and the piston displacement in experiments. By further model analysis, such phenomenon is confirmed as an expression of the unmatched design of the compressor. The phasor triangle model may provide an alternative method for the compressor design and matching with the cold finger.

  14. Evaluation of the cephalometric changes of Tweed triangle in patients with cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Shirazi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Cleft lip and palate patients require orthodontic treatments during their childhood and adolescence. Tweed diagnostic triangle as well as cephalometric assessments provides important data regarding the skeletal patterns for the treatment and diagnostic purposes. The present study determined the cephalometric changes of Tweed triangle in the cleft lip and palate patients compared to normal patients. Materials and Methods: In total, 101 cleft and palate patients as well as 95 normal individuals with the balanced age, gender and race were evaluated. All the cleft and palate patients had similar treatment histories. Radiographic clichés were obtained from both groups and the images were traced after identifying the anatomic landmarks. The studied landmarks included points, lines, and plans as well as dental and skeletal angles and distance ratios measured in radiographic images. The landmarks were statistically analyzed using Student t test. Results: Significant differences were found between the cleft lip and palate patients and normal individuals regarding craniofacial complex morphology (P0.05. Conclusion: In total, significant differences were observed between normal and cleft lip and palate individuals regarding Tweed diagnostic triangle area. These differences were decreased IMPA and increased FMA and FMIA angles. No significant differences were found in terms of other indices.

  15. Pose Self-Measurement of Noncooperative Spacecraft Based on Solar Panel Triangle Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingzhou Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the recognition and location of noncooperative spacecraft, this paper presents a monocular vision pose measurement method based on solar triangle structure. First of all, an autonomous recognition algorithm of feature structure based on sliding window Hough transformation (SWHT and inscribed circle of a triangle is proposed, and the image coordinates of feature points on the triangle can be obtained relying on this algorithm, combined with the P4P algorithm and the structure of spacecraft, calculating the relative pose of target expressed by rotation and translation matrix. The whole algorithm can be loaded into the prewritten onboard program, which will get the autocomplete feature structure extraction and relative pose measurement without human intervention, and this method does not need to mount any markers on the target. Then compare the measured values with the accurate value of the laser tracker, so that a conclusion can be drawn that the maximum position error is lower than 5% and the rotation error is lower than 4%, which meets the requirements of noncooperative spacecraft’s pose measurement for observations, tracking, and docking in the final rendezvous phase.

  16. Walras’s law of markets as special case of the general Triangle Theorem: a laconic proof

    OpenAIRE

    Kakarot-Handtke, Egmont

    2013-01-01

    From the set of the first three structural axioms follows the - economic - triangle theorem. It asserts that the product of the three key ratios, which characterize the firm, the market outcome, and the income distribution, is always equal to unity. The theorem contains only unit-free variables, is testable in principle, and involves no behavioral assumptions. The differentiated triangle theorem applies to an arbitrary number of firms. Therefrom Walras’s Law can be derived without recourse to...

  17. The impact and management of illegal immigration into the Vaal Triangle (1994-2008) / Twala Sibongile Doreen

    OpenAIRE

    Twala, Sibongile Doreen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate that whether the Department of Home Affairs has a proper, effective management skill to deal with the impact of illegal immigrants in the Vaal Triangle Region, since the Department of Home Affairs regional offices has the institutionalized procedures and mechanism to process and deport illegal immigrants. For the purpose of this study, the hypothesis was formulated that “the Department of Home Affairs in the Vaal Triangle is currently unable to mana...

  18. Export boost of Textile Industry of Pakistan by availing EU’s GSP Plus

    OpenAIRE

    Wagan, Shah Mehmood

    2015-01-01

    Pakistan is commonly known as agriculture based economy where vast areas of cultivated lands are producing cotton. This enabled to establish and flourish textile industries in Pakistan, therefore Pakistan is vital part of cheap and quality based textile products exporting country. Recently Pakistan is granted European Union's Generalised Scheme of Preferences (GSP) Plus status as a year from January 2014 by European Union because of that Pakistan's Textile exports surged to $14.22 billion in ...

  19. High Fluoroquinolone Resistant Strains of Helicobacter pylori in the Golden triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaichone, Ratha Korn; Ratanachu ek, Thawee; Gamnarai, Pornpen; Subsomwong, Phawinee; Uchida, Tomahisa; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Mahachai, Varocha

    2017-02-01

    Background and aims: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections, associated with fatal GI diseases such as gastric cancer and MALT lymphoma, remain a major health problem in ASEAN countries. The Golden triangle has long been known as one of Asia’s main opium-producing areas. There have been no prior studies of H. pylori infection in this area. The major objectives of this project were therefore to establish prevalence, antibiotic resistance patterns and associated predictive in the Golden triangle. Methods: We recruited dyspeptic patients in Chiang khong and Chiang saen districts, Chiangrai province of Thailand. All subjects underwent gastroscopy, and 3 antral gastric biopsies were collected for rapid urease tests and H. pylori culture. E-tests were used to evaluate the MICs for metronidazole (MNZ), levofloxacin (LVX), ciprofloxacin (CIP), amoxicillin(AMX), tetracycline (TET) and clarithromycin (CLR). Results: Total of 148 patients was included. H. pylori infection was present in 36.3%(37/102) of Chiang khong and 34.8 % (16/46) of Chiang saen subjects and the overall H. pylori infection rate was 35.8% (53/148). Antibiotic resistance was demonstrated in 44%, including 2% for CLR and 26% for MNZ, whereas fluoroquinolone resistance was demonstrated to be as high as 25% in Chiang khong. Multi-drug resistant H. pylori was detected in 4%. There was no AMX and TET resistance in this study. The prevalence of CLR resistance on a background of gastritis was significantly higher than peptic ulcer disease in the golden triangle area (100%vs 0%: P= 0.04). Conclusions: H. pylori remains a common infection in the Golden triangle. MNZ resistance appears to be high, whereas fluoroquinolone resistance is prevalent and is becoming a significant problem in this area. Diagnosis of gastritis might be a predictor of CLR resistance in the Golden triangle. H. pylori eradication with an appropriate regimen by using the local antibiotic resistant pattern is a key important tool to reduce H

  20. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis of integrating the World Health Organization patient safety curriculum into undergraduate medical education in Pakistan: a qualitative case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samreen Misbah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The purpose of this study was to conduct a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT analysis of integrating the World Health Organization (WHO patient safety curriculum into undergraduate medical education in Pakistan. Methods A qualitative interpretive case study was conducted at Riphah International University, Islamabad, from October 2016 to June 2017. The study included 9 faculty members and 1 expert on patient safety. The interviews were audiotaped, and a thematic analysis of the transcripts was performed using NVivo software. Results Four themes were derived based on the need analysis model. The sub-themes derived from the collected data were arranged under the themes of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, in accordance with the principles of SWOT analysis. The strengths identified were the need for a formal patient safety curriculum and its early integration into the undergraduate program. The weaknesses were faculty awareness and participation in development programs. The opportunities were an ongoing effort to develop an appropriate curriculum, to improve the current culture of healthcare, and to use the WHO curricular resource guide. The threats were attitudes towards patient safety in Pakistani culture, resistance to implementation from different levels, and the role of regulatory authorities. Conclusion The theme of patient safety needs to be incorporated early into the formal medical education curriculum, with the main goals of striving to do no harm and seeing mistakes as opportunities to learn. Faculty development activities need to be organized, and faculty members should to be encouraged to participate in them. The lack of a patient safety culture was identified as the primary reason for resistance to this initiative at many levels. The WHO curriculum, amended according to local institutional culture, can be implemented appropriately with support from the corresponding regulatory bodies.

  1. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis of integrating the World Health Organization patient safety curriculum into undergraduate medical education in Pakistan: a qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misbah, Samreen; Mahboob, Usman

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis of integrating the World Health Organization (WHO) patient safety curriculum into undergraduate medical education in Pakistan. A qualitative interpretive case study was conducted at Riphah International University, Islamabad, from October 2016 to June 2017. The study included 9 faculty members and 1 expert on patient safety. The interviews were audiotaped, and a thematic analysis of the transcripts was performed using NVivo software. Four themes were derived based on the need analysis model. The sub-themes derived from the collected data were arranged under the themes of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, in accordance with the principles of SWOT analysis. The strengths identified were the need for a formal patient safety curriculum and its early integration into the undergraduate program. The weaknesses were faculty awareness and participation in development programs. The opportunities were an ongoing effort to develop an appropriate curriculum, to improve the current culture of healthcare, and to use the WHO curricular resource guide. The threats were attitudes towards patient safety in Pakistani culture, resistance to implementation from different levels, and the role of regulatory authorities. The theme of patient safety needs to be incorporated early into the formal medical education curriculum, with the main goals of striving to do no harm and seeing mistakes as opportunities to learn. Faculty development activities need to be organized, and faculty members should to be encouraged to participate in them. The lack of a patient safety culture was identified as the primary reason for resistance to this initiative at many levels. The WHO curriculum, amended according to local institutional culture, can be implemented appropriately with support from the corresponding regulatory bodies.

  2. Comments on "Consanguineous Marriages in Pakistan".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, A

    1994-01-01

    Some critical comments are made on a paper entitled "Consanguineous Marriages in Pakistan." Most studies have considered early age at marriage, rural or extended family setup and low socioeconomic status when investigating the issue. The background demographic variables and behavioral aspects of consanguinity were studied only by a few, therefore a lack of data exists on pertinent social, cultural, and behavioral dynamics. In Pakistan over 60% of marriages are between first or second cousins. The highest rates of such marriages have been reported in rural areas, among individuals with low educational level, and among the poorest. However, cousin unions are also common among landowning families. In addition to socioeconomic reasons, these marriages are socially acceptable because they facilitate prenuptial negotiations and provide more compatibility between the husband and wife as well as the bride and the mother-in-law. The evidence on consanguinity and fertility is conflicting. The effect of inbreeding on fertility has been demonstrated by most studies. The effect of consanguinity on mortality is also wrought with ambiguities because of methodological flaws. Although the present authors used limited bivariate analysis, they could not account for increased fertility and mortality in consanguineous matings by examining socioeconomic differences and background demographic variables. There is a need to indicate clearly to what extent the genetic effect is responsible for the excess fertility and mortality after controlling for maternal, sociodemographic, and behavioral characteristics. The article made a contribution to elucidating the impact of cousin marriages, a well entrenched custom, on fertility, mortality, and the status of women.

  3. Root cause of waterborne diseases in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashml, H.N.; Ghumman, A.R.; Malik, N.E.

    2005-01-01

    The waterborne diseases are increasing rapidly at an alarming rate in Pakistan due to poor sanitation and unsafe drinking water supplies. This study shows that about 25 percent of all the illnesses in Lahore are due to severe cases of waterborne diseases. Unhygienic sanitation system is the root cause for this scenario. Drinking water, samples were collected from different zones of the city to find out the root cause of waterborne diseases. The samples from the distribution system serving 'Kachi Abbadies' (Underdeveloped areas) were much more contaminated, may be due to non-chlorination as compared to the water which is regularly chlorinated in posh areas of the city. Contribution of soakage pits in groundwater contamination is more significant at shallow depths. From the laboratory results it is clear that water distribution in underdeveloped areas of the city is highly contaminated and ground water available at shallow depth is also infected by microbial activities. Data collected from the different hospitals to investigate the problem shows that waterborne diseases vary their trend seasonally. Here in Pakistan, rainy season (July-August) reveals maximum number of cases of waterborne diseases. Proper sanitation and water supply systems are more essential to control the influence of waterborne diseases within the country. It is strongly recommended that reputable ways of communications are urgently required to highlight the diseases related to unsafe drinking water. (author)

  4. Political determinants of Health: Lessons for Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooma, Rashid; Sabatinelli, Guido

    2014-05-01

    There is much concern about the capacity of the health system of Pakistan to meet its goals and obligations. Historically, the political thrust has been absent from the health policy formulation and this is reflected in the low and stagnant public allocations to health. Successive political leaderships have averred from considering healthcare is a common good rather than a market commodity and health has not been recognized as a constitutional right. Over 120 of world's nation states have accepted health as a constitutional right but the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan does not mandate health or education as a fundamental right and the recently adopted 18th constitutional amendment missed the opportunity to extend access to primary health care as an obligation of the State. It is argued in this communication that missing from the calculations of policy formulation and agenda setting is the political benefits of providing health and other social services to underserved populations. Across the developing world, many examples are presented of governments undertaking progressive health reforms that bring services where none existed and subsequently reaping electoral benefit. The political determinant of healthcare will be realized when the political leaders of poorly performing countries can be convinced that embracing distributive policies and successfully bringing healthcare to the poor can be major factors in their re-elections.

  5. Pakistan's nuclear programme: a net assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Pakistan may have about 100 nuclear weapons and about 200 ballistic missiles (partly for conventional use) and shows all signs of expanding its nuclear force. In the past decade, a robust set of institutions and procedures has been put into place, aimed at preventing the unauthorized use, theft or sale of nuclear weapons, materials, or technology. There is no doubt that the Pakistan military has been taking nuclear security very seriously - first and foremost because it is in its own interest - and does that in a very professional way. This analysis argues that the main risks today are not those of 'weapons falling into the wrong hands' and even less an 'Islamist takeover of the country'. They are risks of deliberate use and perhaps partial loss of control of the nuclear complex in wartime; and low-level leaks of expertise or materials, or a radiological incident in peace time. On the longer run, a weakening of State authority over the territory and a failure of governance, or of a radicalization of current policies towards the West, should not be discounted. (author)

  6. NKM Perspectives of Nuclear Education in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, R.; Jaffar, G.; Haq, S. M. Z.; Khosa, S. U.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Karachi Institute of Power Engineering (KINPOE) and CHASNUPP Centre for Nuclear Training (CHASCENT) are the main institutes providing for the nuclear skilled man power demands of the country’s nuclear technology program. The PIEAS is a public sector university and offers M.Sc. and Ph.D. programmes in nuclear science and technology. The CHASCENT is the training institute which focuses on the training programmes for nuclear power, while the KINPOE offers Master programme in nuclear power engineering, post graduate training programme (PGTP) and Post Diploma Training Program (PDTP) related to nuclear power engineering and technology. The nuclear education programmes and other relevant NKM activities at PIEAS, KINPOE and CHASCENT play a key role in the information management, human resource and competence management. This paper presents the NKM perspective of nuclear education in Pakistan, its continuation and enhancement for the expanding nuclear power programme to meet the country’s energy demands. (author

  7. EARLIEST TRIASSIC CONODONTS FROM CHITRAL, NORTHERNMOST PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA CRISTINA PERRI

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Extensive tracts of very shallow water carbonates in the valleys of the Yarkhun and Mastuj rivers of Chitral (northernmost Pakistan previously though to be Permian (or Cretaceous are shown by conodonts from two horizons in sequences 110 km apart—near Torman Gol (Mastuj valley and near Sakirmul (upper Yarkhun valley—to include earliest Triassic (Scythian—Induan horizons. Both faunas have Isarcicella staeschei Dai & Zhang, Is. lobata Perri, Is. turgida (Kozur et al. and Hindeodus parvus (Kozur & Pjatakova, whereas Is. Isarcica (Huckriede has been recognised only in the Torman Gol occurrence. The presence, respectively, of Is. staeschei in the Sakirmul and Is. isarcica in the Torman Gol occurrences, allows discrimination of the staeschei and isarcica zones respectively the third and the fourth conodont biozones of the Early Triassic conodont biozonation of Perri (in Perri & Farabegoli 2003. Such faunas, consisting mainly of isarcicellids and hindeodids but lacking gondolellids, are characteristic of restricted sea environments across the Permian–Triassic boundary and in the earliest Triassic in other Tethyan areas. The conodont faunas from these two occurrences are remarkably similar, nearly contemporaneous, and indicate shallow water biofacies. They are inferred to equate with the Ailak Dolomite, a sequence of Late Permian–?Late Triassic dolostones discriminated farther up the Yarkhun valley and extending eastwards into the upper Hunza region of northernmost Pakistan. The Zait Limestone and Sakirmul carbonate sequence are consistent with extension of the previously inferred Triassic carbonate platform at least 110 km farther to the SW than previously supposed.

  8. The Debt Overhang Hypothesis: Evidence from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Muhammad Imran

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the debt overhang hypothesis for Pakistan in the period 1960-2007. The study examines empirically the dynamic behaviour of GDP, debt services, the employed labour force and investment using the time series concepts of unit roots, cointegration, error correlation and causality. Our findings suggest that debt-servicing has a negative impact on the productivity of both labour and capital, and that in turn has adversely affected economic growth. By severely constraining the ability of the country to service debt, this lends support to the debt-overhang hypothesis in Pakistan. The long run relation between debt services and economic growth implies that future increases in output will drain away in form of high debt service payments to lender country as external debt acts like a tax on output. More specifically, foreign creditors will benefit more from the rise in productivity than will domestic producers and labour. This suggests that domestic labour and capital are the ultimate losers from this heavy debt burden.

  9. Commercialization of irradiated foods in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.

    2001-01-01

    Preservation of food by gamma radiation is technically feasible and economically viable under conditions existing in Pakistan. To educate the consumers, programme for dissemination of information regarding food irradiation was implemented to educate the consumers. Test marketing of irradiated products was carried out for 5-6 years and more than 8 tons of irradiated vegetables were sold to consumers who were briefed about the advantages of radiation technology. A number of condiments including pepper and chillies were irradiated on a large scale (more than 10 tons) at the Pakistan Radiation Service (PARAS) during the years 1996-1998. Comprehensive Harmonised food irradiation regulations, covering all foods in seven classes, were approved in 1996. The charges for irradiating various food commodities ranged from US$19.71/ton potatoes (0.10 kGy) to US$38.32/ton for spices (10.0 kGy). Once the techno-economic feasibility is demonstrated, huge post-harvest losses of different food commodities can be avoided. This will make the country not only self-sufficient in food, but with enough surplus for export. (author)

  10. Terrorism in Pakistan: a behavioral sciences perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin; Rana, Mowadat Hussain; Hassan, Tariq Mahmood; Minhas, Fareed Aslam

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the behavioral science perspectives of terrorism in Pakistan. It can be argued that Pakistan has gained worldwide attention for "terrorism" and its role in the "war against terrorism". The region is well placed geopolitically for economic successes but has been plagued by terrorism in various shapes and forms. A behavioral sciences perspective of terrorism is an attempt to explain it in this part of the world as a complex interplay of historical, geopolitical, anthropological and psychosocial factors and forces. Drawing from theories by Western scholars to explain the behavioral and cognitive underpinnings of a terrorist mind, the authors highlight the peculiarities of similar operatives at individual and group levels. Thorny issues related to the ethical and human right dimensions of the topic are visited from the unique perspective of a society challenged by schisms and divergence of opinions at individual, family, and community levels. The authors have attempted to minimize the political descriptions, although this cannot be avoided entirely, because of the nature of terrorism. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Financial innovation and monetary policy transmission mechanism in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safdar, S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past there are remarkable financial innovations in Pakistan which have the implications for the monetary policy. In Pakistan there is no or little empirical evidence on the impact of financial innovation on monetary policy transmission mechanism. In this paper we fill this gap by analyzing the impact of financial innovation on monetary policy transmission mechanism by using the interest rate channel. We use the quarterly date covering the period, 1981Q1 to 2010Q4 for Pakistan and for estimation we use OLS. We found that the interest rate channel of monetary policy transmission mechanism dampens by the interest rate channel.

  12. Counterinsurgency and Counterterrorism: Sharing Experiences in Afghanistan and Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Galasz; Syed, Mahroona Hussain; Vestenskov, David

    This study has been undertaken as the first ever joint research publication between defence institutions in Denmark and Pakistan. Given the development in international security politics in the last few years, it is fair to argue that both Denmark and Pakistan are at a point where future security...... challenges require a development of policies and strategies. Though the roles of Denmark and Pakistan respectively are different in nature, a lot of commonalities in conceptual thoughts and actions were found between the two countries at all levels. The book at hand gathers a number of lessons identified...

  13. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty: options before nuclear Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattanaik, Smruti S.

    1998-01-01

    The post-nuclear period has rendered Pakistan's strategic calculations more vulnerable. The decision to go nuclear after seventeen days of debate have started proving costly to Pakistan. This is revealed by the economic crisis resulting out of the foreign currency shortage, leading the country to default on the payment of debts. The pressure imposed by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank and their patrons to sign the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) have exposed Pakistan's economic vulnerability. Under this growing pressure, many have started questioning the decision to go nuclear

  14. Mercury exposure in the work place and human health: dental amalgam use in dentistry at dental teaching institutions and private dental clinics in selected cities of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwaja, Mahmood A; Nawaz, Sadaf; Ali, Saeed Waqar

    2016-03-01

    During the past two decades, mercury has come under increasing scrutiny with regard to its safety both in the general population and in occupationally exposed groups. It's a growing issue of global concern because of its adverse environmental and health impacts. Very few investigations on mercury amalgam use in the dentistry sector have been carried out in South Asia and there is little data reported on mercury contamination of indoor/outdoor air at dental sites. According to an earlier SDPI study, reported in 2013, alarmingly high mercury levels were observed in air (indoor as well as outdoor) at 11 of the 34 visited dental sites (17 dental teaching institutions, 7 general hospitals & 10 dental clinics) in five main cities of Pakistan. 88% of the sites indicated indoor mercury levels in air above the USA EPA reference level of 300 ng/m3. According to our study, carried out at 38 dental teaching institutions in 12 main cities (in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab and Sindh provinces) of Pakistan, respondents were of the opinion that the currently offered BDS curriculum does not effectively guide outgoing dental professionals and does not provide them adequate knowledge and training about mercury/mercury amalgam and other mercury related human health and mercury waste issues. 90% of respondents supported the review and revision of the present dental curriculum offered at dental teaching institutions in the country, at the earliest. A study has also been conducted to assess the status of mercury amalgam use in private dental clinics in Gilgit, Hunza, Peshawar, Rawalpindi and Islamabad. More than 90 private dental clinics were visited and dental professionals/private clinics in-charge were interviewed during June-July, 2015. The focus areas of the study were Hg amalgam toxicity, its waste management practices and safety measures practiced among the dental practitioners. In the light of the findings described and discussed in this brief report, to safeguard public health and

  15. Soil water content assessment: critical issues concerning the operational application of the triangle method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltese, Antonino; Capodici, Fulvio; Ciraolo, Giuseppe; La Loggia, Goffredo

    2015-03-19

    Knowledge of soil water content plays a key role in water management efforts to improve irrigation efficiency. Among the indirect estimation methods of soil water content via Earth Observation data is the triangle method, used to analyze optical and thermal features because these are primarily controlled by water content within the near-surface evaporation layer and root zone in bare and vegetated soils. Although the soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer theory describes the ongoing processes, theoretical models reveal limits for operational use. When applying simplified empirical formulations, meteorological forcing could be replaced with alternative variables when the above-canopy temperature is unknown, to mitigate the effects of calibration inaccuracies or to account for the temporal admittance of the soil. However, if applied over a limited area, a characterization of both dry and wet edges could not be properly achieved; thus, a multi-temporal analysis can be exploited to include outer extremes in soil water content. A diachronic empirical approach introduces the need to assume a constancy of other meteorological forcing variables that control thermal features. Airborne images were acquired on a Sicilian vineyard during most of an entire irrigation period (fruit-set to ripening stages, vintage 2008), during which in situ soil water content was measured to set up the triangle method. Within this framework, we tested the triangle method by employing alternative thermal forcing. The results were inaccurate when air temperature at airborne acquisition was employed. Sonic and aerodynamic air temperatures confirmed and partially explained the limits of simultaneous meteorological forcing, and the use of proxy variables improved model accuracy. The analysis indicates that high spatial resolution does not necessarily imply higher accuracies.

  16. Music Composition from the Cosine Law of a Frequency-Amplitude Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulos, Vaggelis D.; Sotiropoulos, Anastasios D.

    We propose a frequency-amplitude triangle whose cosine law is used as a recurrence equation to algorithmically compose music. The triangle is defined by two sides and the angle between them; one of the sides is the sound frequency, x, at a step, the other side is the sound amplitude, y, at the same step, while the angle between them is a free parameter to be chosen by the composer. The resulting third side of the triangle is defined as the square root of the sound frequency, x, of the next step. The sound amplitude, y, at each step depends, in general, on the amplitude and frequency of the same or previous step(s) in any way the composer chooses. To test our proposition for bifurcation and chaos against known solutions, we consider in detail the case where the amplitude depends only on the frequency of the same or some previous step as yn = b(xn-m)λ, with b being a free parameter, m either zero or a positive integer, and λ a real number greater than or equal to zero. If λ is taken as zero, the resulting equation after a change of variables becomes the one parameter logistic recurrence equation. From the known range of the parameter for bifurcation and chaos, we obtain the range of values for sound amplitude and angle θ for periodic and chaotic music. For specific values, the frequencies corresponding to musical notes are obtained from the proposed triangular recurrence equation and musical chaotic scores are composed and presented. Other λ's are also considered and their effect on the periodicity of the frequencies is examined.

  17. High-order triangle-based discontinuous Galerkin methods for hyperbolic equations on a rotating sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo, Francis X.

    2006-01-01

    High-order triangle-based discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods for hyperbolic equations on a rotating sphere are presented. The DG method can be characterized as the fusion of finite elements with finite volumes. This DG formulation uses high-order Lagrange polynomials on the triangle using nodal sets up to 15th order. The finite element-type area integrals are evaluated using order 2N Gauss cubature rules. This leads to a full mass matrix which, unlike for continuous Galerkin (CG) methods such as the spectral element (SE) method presented in Giraldo and Warburton [A nodal triangle-based spectral element method for the shallow water equations on the sphere, J. Comput. Phys. 207 (2005) 129-150], is small, local and efficient to invert. Two types of finite volume-type flux integrals are studied: a set based on Gauss-Lobatto quadrature points (order 2N - 1) and a set based on Gauss quadrature points (order 2N). Furthermore, we explore conservation and advection forms as well as strong and weak forms. Seven test cases are used to compare the different methods including some with scale contractions and shock waves. All three strong forms performed extremely well with the strong conservation form with 2N integration being the most accurate of the four DG methods studied. The strong advection form with 2N integration performed extremely well even for flows with shock waves. The strong conservation form with 2N - 1 integration yielded results almost as good as those with 2N while being less expensive. All the DG methods performed better than the SE method for almost all the test cases, especially for those with strong discontinuities. Finally, the DG methods required less computing time than the SE method due to the local nature of the mass matrix

  18. Soil Water Content Assessment: Critical Issues Concerning the Operational Application of the Triangle Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Maltese

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of soil water content plays a key role in water management efforts to improve irrigation efficiency. Among the indirect estimation methods of soil water content via Earth Observation data is the triangle method, used to analyze optical and thermal features because these are primarily controlled by water content within the near-surface evaporation layer and root zone in bare and vegetated soils. Although the soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer theory describes the ongoing processes, theoretical models reveal limits for operational use. When applying simplified empirical formulations, meteorological forcing could be replaced with alternative variables when the above-canopy temperature is unknown, to mitigate the effects of calibration inaccuracies or to account for the temporal admittance of the soil. However, if applied over a limited area, a characterization of both dry and wet edges could not be properly achieved; thus, a multi-temporal analysis can be exploited to include outer extremes in soil water content. A diachronic empirical approach introduces the need to assume a constancy of other meteorological forcing variables that control thermal features. Airborne images were acquired on a Sicilian vineyard during most of an entire irrigation period (fruit-set to ripening stages, vintage 2008, during which in situ soil water content was measured to set up the triangle method. Within this framework, we tested the triangle method by employing alternative thermal forcing. The results were inaccurate when air temperature at airborne acquisition was employed. Sonic and aerodynamic air temperatures confirmed and partially explained the limits of simultaneous meteorological forcing, and the use of proxy variables improved model accuracy. The analysis indicates that high spatial resolution does not necessarily imply higher accuracies.

  19. Trautmann's triangle anatomy with application to posterior transpetrosal and other related skull base procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Griessenauer, Christoph; Loukas, Marios; Ansari, Shaheryar F; Fritsch, Michael H; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2014-10-01

    Trautmann's triangle (TT) faces the cerebellopontine angle and is exposed during posterior transpetrosal approaches. However, reports on the morphometric analysis of this structure are lacking in the literature. The goal was to better understand this important operative corridor. TT was exposed from an external approach (transmastoid) in ten cadavers (20 sides) and from an internal approach on 20 dry adult temporal bones. Measurements included calculation of the area of TT and the distance of the endolymphatic sac from the anterior border of the sigmoid sinus. The area range of TT was 45-210 mm(2) (mean 151 mm(2); SD 37 mm(2)). Three types of triangles were identified based on area. Type I triangles had areas less than 75 mm(2), Type II areas were 75-149 mm(2), and Type III areas were 150 mm(2) and greater. These types were observed in 37.5%, 35%, and 27.5% of sides, respectively. The distance from the jugular bulb's anterior border to the posterior border of the posterior semicircular canal ranged from 6 to 11 mm (mean 8.5 mm). The endolymphatic sac was located in the inferior portion of TT and traveled anterior to the sigmoid sinus. The horizontal distance from the anterior edge of the sigmoid sinus to the posterior edge of the endolymphatic sac ranged from 0 to 13.5 mm (mean 9 mm). Additional anatomic knowledge regarding TT may improve neurosurgical procedures in this region by avoiding intrusion into the endolymphatic sac and sigmoid sinus. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. 75 FR 51615 - Establishment of Pakistan and Afghanistan Support Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... civilian control and stable constitutional government in Pakistan, to promote a more capable, accountable... right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the...