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Sample records for trench isolation chemical

  1. Minimizing Isolate Catalyst Motion in Metal-Assisted Chemical Etching for Deep Trenching of Silicon Nanohole Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingyu; Zhao, Yunshan; Dasgupta, Binayak; Ren, Yi; Hippalgaonkar, Kedar; Li, Xiuling; Chim, Wai Kin; Chiam, Sing Yang

    2017-06-21

    The instability of isolate catalysts during metal-assisted chemical etching is a major hindrance to achieve high aspect ratio structures in the vertical and directional etching of silicon (Si). In this work, we discussed and showed how isolate catalyst motion can be influenced and controlled by the semiconductor doping type and the oxidant concentration ratio. We propose that the triggering event in deviating isolate catalyst motion is brought about by unequal etch rates across the isolate catalyst. This triggering event is indirectly affected by the oxidant concentration ratio through the etching rates. While the triggering events are stochastic, the doping concentration of silicon offers a good control in minimizing isolate catalyst motion. The doping concentration affects the porosity at the etching front, and this directly affects the van der Waals (vdWs) forces between the metal catalyst and Si during etching. A reduction in the vdWs forces resulted in a lower bending torque that can prevent the straying of the isolate catalyst from its directional etching, in the event of unequal etch rates. The key understandings in isolate catalyst motion derived from this work allowed us to demonstrate the fabrication of large area and uniformly ordered sub-500 nm nanoholes array with an unprecedented high aspect ratio of ∼12.

  2. Chemical Characteristics of Seawater and Sediment in the Yap Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, H.; Sun, C.; Yang, G.

    2017-12-01

    In June 2016, seawater samples at sediment-seawater interface and sediment samples were collected by the he Jiaolong, China's manned submersible, at four sampling sites located in the Yap Trench. Seawater samples from different depths of the trench were also collected by CTD. Chemical parameters, including pH, alkanility, concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved and total organic carbon, methane, dimethylsulfoniopropionate, nutrients, carbohydrates, and amino acids were analyzed in the seawater samples. Concentrations of total organic carbon, six constant elements and nine trace elements were determined in the sediment samples. All the vertical profiles of the chemical parameters in the seawater have unique characteristics. Our resluts also showed that the carbonate compensation depth (CCD) was between 4500 m and 5000 m in the trench. The hadal sediment at 6500 m depth under the CCD line was siliceous ooze favored for the burial of orgaic carbon, attributed to accumulation of surface sediment by gravity flow. The abyssal sediment at the 4500 m depth was calcareous ooze. Various microfossils, such as discoasters and diatoms, were identified in different sediment layers of the sediment samples.Based on the ratios of Fe/Al and Ti/Al, and the correlation between different elements, the sediment in the Yap Trench were derived from biogenic, terrestrial, volcanic and autogenic sources. The ratios of Ni/Co and V/Cr showed that the deposition environment of the trench should be oxidative, arributed to inflow of the Antractic bottom oxygen-rich seawater.The high concentraiont of Ca in the sediment from the station 371-Yap-S02 below 4 cm depth indicated that there was no large-scale volcanic eruption in the research area and the volcanic materials in the sediment might orginated from the Mariana Volcanic Arc, and the Carolyn Ridge has been slowly sinking on the east side of the trench due to plate subduction. This study is the first systematic study of

  3. A parylene-filled-trench technique for thermal isolation in silicon-based microdevices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Yinhua; Wang Wei; Li Ting; Jin Yufeng; Zhang Haixia; Li Zhihong; Yu Huaiqiang; Luo Yingcun

    2009-01-01

    Microdevices prepared in a silicon substrate have been widely used in versatile fields due to the matured silicon-based microfabrication technique and the excellent physical properties of silicon material. However, the high thermal conductivity of silicon restricts its application in most thermal microdevices, especially devices comprising different temperature zones. In this work, a parylene-filled-trench technique was optimized to realize high-quality thermal isolation in silicon-based microdevices. Parylene C, a heat transfer barricading material, was deposited on parallel high-aspect-ratio trenches, which surrounded the isolated target zones. After removing the remnant silicon beneath the trenches by deep reactive ion etching from the back side, a high-quality heat transfer barrier was obtained. By using narrow trenches, only 5 µm thick parylene was required for a complete filling, which facilitated multi-layer interconnection thereafter. The parylene filling performance inside the high-aspect-ratio trench was optimized by two approaches: multiple etch–deposition cycling and trench profile controlling. A 4 × 6 array, in which each unit was kept at a constant temperature and was well thermally isolated individually, was achieved on a silicon substrate by using the present parylene-filled-trench technique. The preliminary experimental results indicated that the present parylene-filled-trench structure exhibited excellent thermal isolation performance, with a very low power requirement of 0.134 mW (K mm 2 ) −1 for heating the isolated silicon unit and a high thermal isolation efficiency of 72.5% between two adjacent units. Accompanied with high-quality isolation performance, the microdevices embedded the present parylene-filled-trench structure to retain a strong mechanical connection larger than 400 kPa between two isolated zones, which is very important for a high-reliability-required micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) device. Considering its room

  4. Chemical characteristics of hadal waters in the Izu-Ogasawara Trench of the western Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamo, Toshitaka; Shitashima, Kiminori

    2018-01-01

    Vertical profiles of potential temperature, salinity, and some chemical components were obtained at a trench station (29°05'N, 142°51'E; depth = 9768 m) in the Izu-Ogasawara (Bonin) Trench in 1984 and 1994 to characterize the hadal waters below ∼6000 m depth. We compared portions of both the 1984 and 1994 profiles with nearby data obtained between 1976 and 2013. Results demonstrated that the hadal waters had slightly higher potential temperature and nitrate and lower dissolved oxygen than waters at sill depths (∼6000 m) outside the trench, probably due to the effective accumulation of geothermal heat and active biological processes inside the trench. The silicate, iron, and manganese profiles in 1984 showed slight but significant increases below ∼6000 m depth, suggesting that these components may have been intermittently supplied from the trench bottom. Significant amounts of 222 Rn in excess over 226 Ra were detected in the hadal waters up to 2675 m from the bottom, reflecting laterally supplied 222 Rn from the trench walls.

  5. Radiation-enhanced short channel effects due to multi-dimensional influence from charge at trench isolation oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youk, G.U.; Khare, P.S.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Massengill, L.W.; Galloway, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation enhanced drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) was experimentally observed and verified by 3-D simulations for submicron devices with trench isolation oxides. Submicron MOSFETs with shallow trench isolation were exposed to total-ionizing-dose radiation. Prior to irradiation, the devices exhibited near-ideal current-voltage characteristics, with no significant short-channel effects for as-drawn gate lengths of 0.4 microm. Following irradiation, the off-state leakage current increased significantly for total doses above about 650 krad(SiO 2 ). In addition, the irradiated devices exhibited DIBL that increased the drain current by 5--10x for a gate length of 0.4 microm (the nominal minimum gate length for this process) and much more for slightly shorter devices (0.35 microm). The increase in the off-state leakage current and the accompanying DIBL are shown to be associated with a parasitic field-effect transistor that is present at the edge of the shallow trench. Three-dimensional simulations are used to illustrate the effect. Simulations show that trapped charge at the trench sidewalls enhance the DIBL by depleting the edges of the channel. Radiation-induced charge may decrease the effectiveness of short-channel engineering

  6. Wafer-bonded 2-D CMUT arrays incorporating through-wafer trench-isolated interconnects with a supporting frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xuefeng; Wygant, Ira O; Lin, Der-Song; Kupnik, Mario; Oralkan, Omer; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on wafer-bonded, fully populated 2-D capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) arrays. To date, no successful through-wafer via fabrication technique has been demonstrated that is compatible with the wafer-bonding method of making CMUT arrays. As an alternative to through-wafer vias, trench isolation with a supporting frame is incorporated into the 2-D arrays to provide through-wafer electrical connections. The CMUT arrays are built on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer, and all electrical connections to the array elements are brought to the back side of the wafer through the highly conductive silicon substrate. Neighboring array elements are separated by trenches on both the device layer and the bulk silicon. A mesh frame structure, providing mechanical support, is embedded between silicon pillars, which electrically connect to individual elements. We successfully fabricated a 16 x 16-element 2-D CMUT array using wafer bonding with a yield of 100%. Across the array, the pulse-echo amplitude distribution is uniform (rho = 6.6% of the mean amplitude). In one design, we measured a center frequency of 7.6 MHz, a peak-to-peak output pressure of 2.9 MPa at the transducer surface, and a 3-dB fractional bandwidth of 95%. Volumetric ultrasound imaging was demonstrated by chip-to-chip bonding one of the fabricated 2-D arrays to a custom-designed integrated circuit (IC). This study shows that through-wafer trench-isolation with a supporting frame is a viable solution for providing electrical interconnects to CMUT elements and that 2-D arrays fabricated using waferbonding deliver good performance.

  7. Nanoscale Stress Field Evaluation with Shallow Trench Isolation Structure Assessed by Cathodoluminescence Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, and Finite Element Method Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodera, Masako; Iguchi, Tadashi; Tsuchiya, Norihiko; Tamura, Mizuki; Kakinuma, Shigeru; Naka, Nobuyuki; Kashiwagi, Shinsuke

    2008-04-01

    Stress engineering related to the LSI process is required. With shallow trench isolation (STI) structures, a high stress field causes a variation in electrical characteristics. Although stress fields in a Si substrate can be detected by Raman spectroscopy, no effective technique has been reported for the measurement of nanoscale stress fields in a dielectric material used for STI filling. Recently, we have reported that “cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy” enables us to detect nanometer-scale stress fields in LSI structures. In this study, we performed the first estimation of the stress fields with a STI structure by CL and Raman spectroscopy, as well as finite element method (FEM) calculation. We were able to repeatedly acquire clear stress distributions by CL and Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, CL, Raman, and FEM results showed excellent agreement with one another, revealing that a large variation in stresses along the AA/STI boundary was induced by the intrinsic tensile stress of the SiO2 film.

  8. Microbacterium indicum sp. nov., isolated from deep-sea sediment sample from the Chagos Trench, Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shivaji, S.; Bhadra, B.; Rao, R.S.; Chaturvedi, P.; Pindi, P.K.; Raghukumar, C.

    Correspondence S. Shivaji shivas@ccmb.res.in 1 Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Uppal Road, Hyderabad 500 007, India 2 National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India Two bacterial strains, BBH6 T and BBH9, were isolated from a deep...

  9. Dipodascus tetrasporeus sp. nov., an ascosporogenous yeast isolated from deep-sea sediments in the Japan Trench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahama, Takahiko; Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed Ahmed; Nogi, Yuichi; Miyazaki, Masayuki; Uematsu, Katsuyuki; Hamamoto, Makiko; Horikoshi, Koki

    2008-04-01

    Dipodascus tetrasporeus sp. nov. is described as a novel yeast species in the family Dipodascaceae to accommodate an isolate recovered from sediments collected on the deep-sea floor in the north-western Pacific Ocean. In the clade comprising the genera Dipodascus, Galactomyces and Geotrichum, this is the only species that forms asci that bear four ascospores. The ascospore is surrounded by an irregular exosporium wall, similar to what is observed in the genus Galactomyces, but they are released by rupture, which is characteristic of Dipodascus and not Galactomyces. D. tetrasporeus is remarkably divergent (>10 % difference) in its D1/D2 26S rDNA sequence from any other known species. Although maximum-likelihood analysis of combined 18S rDNA and D1/D2 26S rDNA sequences cannot elucidate a reliable position for this species, it was placed among Geotrichum carabidarum, Geotrichum cucujoidarum, Geotrichum fermentans and Geotrichum histeridarum, which also have morphological and physiological affinity with the species. The species is homothallic. The type strain of Dipodascus tetrasporeus sp. nov. is strain SY-277T (=NBRC 103136T =CBS 10071T).

  10. Chemical enrichment in isolated barred spiral galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Hugo; Carles, Christian; Robichaud, Fidéle; Ellison, Sara L.; Williamson, David J.

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the role of bars in the chemical evolution of isolated disc galaxies, we performed a series of 39 gas dynamical simulations of isolated barred and unbarred galaxies with various masses, initial gas fractions, and AGN feedback models. The presence of a bar drives a substantial amount of gas toward the central region of the galaxy. In the most massive galaxies, this results in a violent starburst, followed by a drop in star formation resulting from gas exhaustion. The time delay between Type Ia and Type II supernovae explosions means that barred galaxies experience a rapid increase in [O/H] in the central region, and a much more gradual increase in [Fe/H]. In unbarred galaxies, star formation proceeds at a slow and steady rate, and oxygen and iron are produced at steady rates which are similar except for a time offset. Comparing the abundance ratios in barred and unbarred galaxies with the same central stellar mass M*, we find in barred galaxies an enhancement of 0.07 dex in [O/H], 0.05 dex in [Fe/H], and 0.05 dex in [O/Fe]. The [O/H] enhancement is in excellent agreement with observations from the SDSS. The initial gas fraction has very little effect on the abundance ratios in barred and unbarred galaxies, unless the galaxies experience a starburst. We considered AGN-host galaxies located near the bottom of the AGN regime, M* ≳ 3 × 1010M⊙, where AGN feedback dominates over supernovae feedback. We found that the impact of AGN feedback on the central abundances is marginal.

  11. Request for interim approval to operate Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground as a chemical waste landfill for disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl waste in submarine reactor compartments. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, G.D.

    1994-06-01

    This request is submitted to seek interim approval to operate a Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) of 1976 chemical waste landfill for the disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste. Operation of a chemical waste landfill for disposal of PCB waste is subject to the TSCA regulations of 40 CFR 761. Interim approval is requested for a period not to exceed 5 years from the date of approval. This request covers only the disposal of small 10 quantities of solid PCB waste contained in decommissioned, defueled submarine reactor compartments (SRC). In addition, the request applies only to disposal 12 of this waste in Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground (Trench 94) in the 13 200 East Area of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Facility. Disposal of this waste will be conducted in accordance with the Compliance 15 Agreement (Appendix H) between the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and 16 the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 10. During the 5-year interim approval period, the DOE-RL will submit an application seeking final 18 approval for operation of Trench 94 as a chemical waste landfill, including 19 any necessary waivers, and also will seek a final dangerous waste permit from 20 the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) for disposal of lead 21 shielding contained in the SRCS.

  12. Request for interim approval to operate Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground as a chemical waste landfill for disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl waste in submarine reactor compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, G.D.

    1994-06-01

    This request is submitted to seek interim approval to operate a Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) of 1976 chemical waste landfill for the disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste. Operation of a chemical waste landfill for disposal of PCB waste is subject to the TSCA regulations of 40 CFR 761. Interim approval is requested for a period not to exceed 5 years from the date of approval. This request covers only the disposal of small 10 quantities of solid PCB waste contained in decommissioned, defueled submarine reactor compartments (SRC). In addition, the request applies only to disposal 12 of this waste in Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground (Trench 94) in the 13 200 East Area of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Facility. Disposal of this waste will be conducted in accordance with the Compliance 15 Agreement (Appendix H) between the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and 16 the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 10. During the 5-year interim approval period, the DOE-RL will submit an application seeking final 18 approval for operation of Trench 94 as a chemical waste landfill, including 19 any necessary waivers, and also will seek a final dangerous waste permit from 20 the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) for disposal of lead 21 shielding contained in the SRCS

  13. activity guided isolation of chemical constituents from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MeOH fraction was subjected to various chromatographic techniques led to the isolation of miquelianin (1), kaempferol 3-O-glucuronide (2) and quercitrin (3). Compounds (1-3) were isolated from this plant for the first time. KEY WORDS: Euphorpia schimperi C. Presl, Wound healing, Chromatographic techniques, Chemical.

  14. Mineralogical characterization of chemically isolated ingredients from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S.; Alkan, M.; Kucukbayrak, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Isolation methods have an intrinsic weakness. • Isolated ingredients contain no ignorable inorganics in different forms. • The first study dealing with the mineral phases in isolated lignin and holocellulose. - Abstract: The complex structure of biomass materials can be studied by means of a number of different techniques. Of which, chemical isolation of macromolecular biomass ingredients such as lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose, and then characterization of each isolated ingredient has been a common practice. However, the isolated individual ingredients have always been regarded as pure materials, and so far potential inorganic impurities resulting from the parent biomass have not been considered. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the determination of inorganics, if any, in the isolated parts of biomass. For this, two different biomass species such as hybrid poplar wood and apricot stones have been subjected to sequential isolation procedures of ASTM D1105, Wise’s Chlorite Method, and van Soest’s Method. The isolated holocellulose (hemicellulose + cellulose), lignin, and extractives-free bulk were then characterized mineralogically by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) techniques, and the results were compared with those for the parent biomass species. It was found that the isolated holocelluloses and lignins are not just ash-free and they have ash contents up to 2.2% and 4.0%, respectively. Also, various minerals including potassium chloride, several phosphate minerals, and alumina silicates were found to survive after chemical treatments applied during isolation. In addition, several heavy metals were also detected. These results reveal that minerals cannot be eliminated entirely because of the natures of the chemicals used, and they unavoidably remain in the isolated macromolecules

  15. Process hazards review of the 904-A trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    The 904-A trench is an enclosed underground concrete containment for high level and low level radioactive waste lines between the main Laboratory Building 773-A and waste storage and shipping Building 776-A. The waste generated in laboratories and other facilities in 773-A flows by gravity into the high level and low level drain lines, which proceed from 773-A through the 904-A trench. The trench ends at 776-2A, where the underground was handling tanks for both high level and low level liquids are located. The trench serves to contain any leaks originating in the drain lines. The trench is sloped downward toward the Building 776-2A pipe gallery. Any liquid collected from the sump can be pumped automatically to a waste tank sampled. The review of the 904-A trench system included a study of the trench and piping itself, as well as a study of the high level and low level drain lines from the laboratories to the trench. The present review emphasized on examination of the hazards involved in chemical reactions in the drain lines, misuse of the drains, and criticality. The following items were examined: Process Hazards Review of the Liquid Waste Collection System, Nuclear Criticality Review of the High Level Drain System, Improvements in the 904-A Trench System, Operating Procedures, and Unusual Incidents

  16. Trench reactor: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrad, B.I.; Rohach, A.F.; Razzaque, M.M.; Sankoorikal, J.T.; Schmidt, R.S.; Lofshult, J.; Ramin, T.; Sokmen, N.; Lin, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    Recent fast, sodium-cooled reactor designs reflect new conditions. In nuclear energy these conditions are (a) emphasis on maintainability and operability, (b) design for more transparent safety, and (c) a surplus of uranium and enrichment availability that eases concerns about light water reactor fueling costs. In utility practice the demand is for less capital exposure, short construction time, smaller new unit sizes, and low capital cost. The PRISM, SAFR, and integral fast reactor (IFR) concepts are responses to these conditions. Fast reactors will not soon be deployed commercially, so more radical designs can be considered. The trench reactor is the product of such thinking. Its concepts are intended as contributions to the literature, which may be picked up by one of the existing programs or used in a new experimental project. The trench reactor is a thin-slab, pool-type reactor operated at very low power density and- for sodium-modest temperature. The thin slab is repeated in the sodium tank and the reactor core. The low power density permits a longer than conventional core height and a large-diameter fuel pin. Control is by borated steel slabs that can be lowered between the core and lateral sodium reflector. Shutdown is by semaphore slabs that can be swung into place just outside the control slabs. The paper presents major characteristics of the trench reactor that have been changed since the last report

  17. Chemical characterization of Phoma pomorum isolated from Danish maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Aveskamp, M.M.; Thrane, Ulf

    2010-01-01

    the Danish A pomorum strains with representative P. pomorum strains isolated from other sources. The metabolite production on dichloran Rose Bengal yeast extract sucrose agar (DRYES) was analyzed and the strains were clustered using an in-house Chemical Image Analysis (CIA) program. The resulting tree showed...

  18. Habitat heterogeneity of hadal trenches: Considerations and implications for future studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Heather A.; Jamieson, Alan J.

    2018-02-01

    The hadal zone largely comprises a series of subduction trenches that do not form part of the continental shelf-slope rise to abyssal plain continuum. Instead they form geographically isolated clusters of deep-sea (6000-11,000 m water depth) environments. There is a growing realization in hadal science that ecological patterns and processes are not driven solely by responses to hydrostatic pressure, with comparable levels of habitat heterogeneity as observed in other marine biozones. Furthermore, this heterogeneity can be expressed at multiple scales from inter-trench levels (degrees of geographical isolation, and biochemical province), to intra-trench levels (variation between trench flanks and axis), topographical features within the trench interior (sedimentary basins, ridges, escarpments, 'deeps', seamounts) to the substrate of the trench floor (seabed-sediment composition, mass movement deposits, bedrock outcrop). Using best available bathymetry data combined with the largest lander-derived imaging dataset that spans the full depth range of three hadal trenches (including adjacent slopes); the Mariana, Kermadec and New Hebrides trenches, the topographic variability, fine-scale habitat heterogeneity and distribution of seabed sediments of these three trenches have been assessed for the first time. As well as serving as the first descriptive study of habitat heterogeneity at hadal depths, this study also provides guidance for future hadal sampling campaigns taking into account geographic isolation, total trench particulate organic matter flux, maximum water depth and area.

  19. Chemical rationale for selection of isolates for genome sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Christian; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    The advances in gene sequencing will in the near future enable researchers to affordably acquire the full genomes of handpicked isolates. We here present a method to evaluate the chemical potential of an entire species and select representatives for genome sequencing. The selection criteria for new...... strains to be sequenced can be manifold, but for studying the functional phenotype, using a metabolome based approach offers a cheap and rapid assessment of critical strains to cover the chemical diversity. We have applied this methodology on the complex A. flavus/A. oryzae group. Though these two species...... are in principal identical, they represent two different phenotypes. This is clearly presented through a correspondence analysis of selected extrolites, in which the subtle chemical differences are visually dispersed. The results points to a handful of strains, which, if sequenced, will likely enhance our...

  20. Matrix isolation as a tool for studying interstellar chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, D.W.; Ortman, B.J.; Hauge, R.H.; Margrave, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Since the identification of the OH radical as an interstellar species, over 50 molecular species were identified as interstellar denizens. While identification of new species appears straightforward, an explanation for their mechanisms of formation is not. Most astronomers concede that large bodies like interstellar dust grains are necessary for adsorption of molecules and their energies of reactions, but many of the mechanistic steps are unknown and speculative. It is proposed that data from matrix isolation experiments involving the reactions of refractory materials (especially C, Si, and Fe atoms and clusters) with small molecules (mainly H2, H2O, CO, CO2) are particularly applicable to explaining mechanistic details of likely interstellar chemical reactions. In many cases, matrix isolation techniques are the sole method of studying such reactions; also in many cases, complexations and bond rearrangements yield molecules never before observed. The study of these reactions thus provides a logical basis for the mechanisms of interstellar reactions. A list of reactions is presented that would simulate interstellar chemical reactions. These reactions were studied using FTIR-matrix isolation techniques

  1. Trenching as a exploratory method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatheway, A.W.; Leighton, F.B.

    1979-01-01

    The critical nature of siting nuclear power plants has led to increased emphasis on exploratory methods; it permits inspection of a continuous geologic section by both geologists and regulatory authorities and makes possible the preparation of a graphic log that delineates both obvious and subtle geologic features. About one of every two nuclear plant licensing efforts utilizes exploratory trenching. Many geologic hazards, such as ''capable'' faults, can be detected from trench exposures; they may otherwise remain undetected. Trenches must be judiciously located, survey-controlled, excavated safetly and adequately shored, logged in detail, and properly diagnosed. Useful techniques of trench logging include thorough cleaning of the trench walls, teamwork between geologist and recorder, logging against a carefully surveyed baseline and vertical reference grid, and panoramic photography. Soils, including paleosols, and glacial and glaciofluvial deposits present some of the most difficult media to log. Trench logs must be thoroughly interpreted and correlated so that they document the geologic conditions governing suitability of the site. Age-determination techniques utilized in exploratory trenching include petrographic analyses, quartz inclusion studies, clay mineralogic analyses, and radiometric methods

  2. Electrospray deposition of isolated chemically synthesized magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, Pierre; Meffre, Anca; Lacroix, Lise-Marie; Ugnati, Damien [Université de Toulouse (France); INSA, UPS, CNRS, Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie des Nano-objets (LPCNO) (France); Ondarçuhu, Thierry [Centre d’Elaboration de Matériaux et d’Etudes Structurales (CEMES-CNRS) (France); Respaud, Marc; Lassagne, Benjamin, E-mail: lassagne@insa-toulouse.fr [Université de Toulouse (France); INSA, UPS, CNRS, Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie des Nano-objets (LPCNO) (France)

    2016-01-15

    The deposition of isolated magnetic nanoparticles onto a substrate was performed using electrohydrodynamic spraying. Two kinds of nanoparticles were sprayed, 11 nm CoFe carbide nanospheres and 10.5 nm Fe nanocubes. By studying carefully the evolution of the sprayed charged droplets and the mechanism of nanoparticle dispersion in them, we could optimize the nanoparticle concentration within the initial nanoparticle solution (i) to reduce the magnetic interaction and therefore prevent agglomeration and (ii) to obtain in a relatively short period (1 h) a deposit of isolated magnetic nanoparticles with a density of up to 400 nanoparticles per µm{sup 2}. These results open great perspectives for magnetic measurements on single objects using advanced magnetometry techniques as long as spintronics applications based on single chemically synthesized magnetic nanoparticles.

  3. Antibacterial activity of chemical constituents isolated from Asparagus racemosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abdullah Shah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Asparagus racemosus is a medical extensively used in traditional medicine for various disorders including its use in infectious. So far work has been done to identify its active constituents responsible for antiseptic folk use of this plant. In the current investigation, we have made an effort to identify its chemical constituents that might be partly responsible for antimicrobial properties. Extraction and isolation of plant extract lead to isolation of two nor-lignans and two steroidal triterpenes (compound 1 to 4. All compound showed considerable antibacterial activities against E. coli and S. aureus while no significant activity was observed against S. typhi. This study highlighted the potential of A. racemosus to be further explored as a source of bioactive natural products.

  4. Anomalous effect of trench-oxide depth on alpha-particle-induced charge collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, H.; Kim, N.M.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of trench-oxide depth on the alpha-particle-induced charge collection is analyzed for the first time. From the simulation results, it was found that the depth of trench oxide has a considerable influence on the amount of collected charge. The confining of generated charge by the trench oxide was identified as a cause of this anomalous effect. Therefore, the tradeoff between soft error rate and cell to cell isolation characteristics should be considered in optimizing the depth of trench oxide

  5. Performance monitoring of an improved disposal trench in a humid environment in a fractured geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.; Razor, J.

    1988-01-01

    An engineering evaluation of an improved disposal trench at the Maxey Flats Waste Disposal Site is being conducted in order to demonstrate the feasibility of a burial trench suitable for use at a site in a humid environment and underlain by complex and fractured geologic media. This demonstration is one of several proposed final site stabilization alternatives which will have to be evaluated prior to final site closure. Due to requirements in the Central Midwest Compact Commission, no waste generated as a result of the site closure may be disposed in the Commission's disposal site. Hence, the waste will be disposed on-site. The demonstration trench was constructed and filled with waste during the fall of 1985 with final trench capping being completed in July 1986. Since that time the trench has been evaluated utilizing trench settlement monument elevations, leachate production measurements, leachate radionuclide analysis, chemical tracer analysis and trench water balance. Measurements performed to date indicated that the trench lower infiltration barrier has a permeability of about 1E-7 cm/sec. Water balance measurements indicated that less than one percent of the total rainfall crossed the trench capillary barrier. No settlement of the trench cap has been observed. No liquid has appeared in the leachate collection and monitoring sumps

  6. A novel trench gate MOSFET with a multiple-layered gate oxide for high-reliability operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Gi; Kah, Dong Ha; Na, Kyoung Il; Yang, Yil Suk; Koo, Jin Gun; Kim, Jong Dae; Lee, Jin Ho; Park, Hoon Soo

    2012-01-01

    Gate dielectrics in trench structures for trench gate metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) power devices are very important to realize excellent characteristics. In this paper we describe multiple-layer gate dielectrics for trench gate MOSFETs with both thermal and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) gate oxides that exhibit excellent gate oxide properties and surface roughness. Through various trench etching experiments for better surface conditions in the trench, the optimum etching gas chemistry and etch conditions were found. The destruction of gate dielectric in trench gate MOSFET occurs at the top and the bottom trench corner edges. The structure of the gate electrode is pulled out with the polysilicon layer which is buried in the trench. Thus, high electric field operation is inevitable at the gate between source diffusion and the gate polysilicon. Moreover, the trench corner oxide suffers from the high electric field. We propose a multiple-gate dielectric structure of a thermal oxide and CVD oxide for highly reliable operation of the device. This enables trench surface smoothing and low thermal stress at the trench corners and provides the oxide thickness uniformity, giving superior device characteristics of high breakdown voltage and low leakage current. These improvements are caused by the excellent quality of the gate oxide and the good thickness uniformity that is formed at the inner trench with a specific geometrical factor.

  7. Expedited response action proposal for 316-5 process trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    A summary of the evaluation of remedial alternatives for the 300 Area Process Trench sediment removal at Hanford is presented. Based on the preliminary technology screening, screening factors, and selection criteria the preferred alternative for the 300 Area Process Trench is to remove and interim stabilize the sediments within the fenced area of the process trenches. This alternative involves proven technologies that are applied easily at this mixed waste site. This alternative removes and isolates contaminated sediments from the active portion of the trenches allowing continued used of the trenches until an inspection and treatment facility is constructed. The alternative does not incorporate any materials or actions that preclude consideration of a technology for final remediation of the operable unit. The estimated initial and annual costs would enable this alternative to be implemented under the guidelines for an EPA- funded ERA ($2 million). Implementation of the alternative can be accomplished with trained personnel using familiar procedures to provide a safe operation that accomplishes the objective for removing a potential source of contamination, thereby reducing potential environmental threat to groundwater. 18 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs

  8. Test Area for Remedial Actions (TARA) site characterization and dynamic compaction of low-level radioactive waste trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.C.; Spalding, B.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Hyder, L.K.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a low-level radioactive waste burial ground stabilization and closure technology demonstration project, a group of five burial trenches in Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 was selected as a demonstration site for testing trench compaction, trench grouting, and trench cap installation and performance. This report focuses on site characterization, trench compaction, and grout-trench leachate compatibility. Trench grouting and cap design and construction will be the subject of future reports. The five trenches, known as the Test Area for Remedial Actions (TARA) site, are contained within a hydrologically isolated area of SWSA 6; for that reason, any effects of stabilization activities on site performance and groundwater quality will be separable from the influence of other waste disposal units in SWSA 6. To obviate the chronic problem of burial trench subsidence and to provide support for an infiltration barrier cap, these five trenches were dynamically compacted by repeated dropping of a 4-ton weight onto each trench from heights of approximately 7 m

  9. Recent sediment dynamics in hadal trenches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turnewitsch, Robert; Falahat, Saeed; Stehlikova, Jirina

    2014-01-01

    the surface ocean. It has been speculated that the shape of hadal trenches helps to 'funnel' particulate matter into the deeper parts of the trench, leading to sediment 'focussing' and improved benthic food supply. Here we investigate for five Northwest Pacific trenches the efficiency of sediment focussing...

  10. Benthic carbon mineralization in hadal trenches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzhöfer, F.; Oguri, K.; Middelboe, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Hadal trenches are considered to act as depo-centers for organic material at the trench axis and host unique and elevated biomasses of living organisms as compared to adjacent abyssal plains. To explore the diagenetic activity in hadal trench environments we quantified in situ benthic O-2 consump...

  11. Trench infiltration for managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, V.M.; Watt, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock is increasingly being utilized to enhance resources and maintain sustainable groundwater development practices. One such target is the Navajo Sandstone, an extensive regional aquifer located throughout the Colorado Plateau of the western United States. Spreading-basin and bank-filtration projects along the sandstone outcrop's western edge in southwestern Utah have recently been implemented to meet growth-related water demands. This paper reports on a new cost-effective surface-infiltration technique utilizing trenches for enhancing managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock. A 48-day infiltration trench experiment on outcropping Navajo Sandstone was conducted to evaluate this alternative surface-spreading artificial recharge method. Final infiltration rates through the bottom of the trench were about 0.5 m/day. These infiltration rates were an order of magnitude higher than rates from a previous surface-spreading experiment at the same site. The higher rates were likely caused by a combination of factors including the removal of lower permeability soil and surficial caliche deposits, access to open vertical sandstone fractures, a reduction in physical clogging associated with silt and biofilm layers, minimizing viscosity effects by maintaining isothermal conditions, minimizing chemical clogging caused by carbonate mineral precipitation associated with algal photosynthesis, and diminished gas clogging associated with trapped air and biogenic gases. This pilot study illustrates the viability of trench infiltration for enhancing surface spreading of managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock. ?? 2010.

  12. Chemicals from Agave sisalana Biomass: Isolation and Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jener David Gonçalves; Vieira, Ivo Jose Curcino; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Branco, Alexsandro

    2015-01-01

    Agave sisalana (sisal) is known worldwide as a source of hard fibers, and Brazil is the largest producer of sisal. Nonetheless, the process of removing the fibers of the sisal leaf generates 95% waste. In this study, we applied chemical sequential steps (hydrothermal extraction, precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction, crystallization, SiO2 and Sephadex LH 20 column chromatography) to obtain pectin, mannitol, succinic acid, kaempferol and a mixture of saponins as raw chemicals from sisal biomass. The structural identification of these compounds was performed though spectrometric methods, such as Infrared (IR), Ultraviolet (UV), Mass spectrometry (MS) and Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). All the sisal chemicals found in this work are used by both the chemical and pharmaceutical industries as excipients or active principles in products. PMID:25903149

  13. Chemicals from Agave sisalana Biomass: Isolation and Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jener David Gonçalves Santos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Agave sisalana (sisal is known worldwide as a source of hard fibers, and Brazil is the largest producer of sisal. Nonetheless, the process of removing the fibers of the sisal leaf generates 95% waste. In this study, we applied chemical sequential steps (hydrothermal extraction, precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction, crystallization, SiO2 and Sephadex LH 20 column chromatography to obtain pectin, mannitol, succinic acid, kaempferol and a mixture of saponins as raw chemicals from sisal biomass. The structural identification of these compounds was performed though spectrometric methods, such as Infrared (IR, Ultraviolet (UV, Mass spectrometry (MS and Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. All the sisal chemicals found in this work are used by both the chemical and pharmaceutical industries as excipients or active principles in products.

  14. activity guided isolation of chemical constituents from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation scheme. Wound healing studies. Wistar albino rats of either sex used in these experiments were obtained from experimental animal house, College of Pharmacy, KSU, Riyadh. Animals used were of the same age group, weighing roughly about 180-200 g b.w. The experimental animals were accommodated under.

  15. Study on isolation of chemical constituents from Sophora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sophora flavescens Ait. is a traditional Chinese medicine with a long history in China. It is mainly used in the treatment of heat dysentery and similar ailments in the clinical. The objective of this paper was to isolate, purify and identify alkaloids from Sophora flavescens Ait. and to explore their inhibitory effects on ...

  16. Activity guided isolation of chemical constituents from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study we investigated the chemical constituents of bioactive methanol extract of Euphorbia schimperi C. Presl. For this the methanol extract was fractionated into 20, 40, 60, 80% MeOH in CHCl3, and 100% MeOH fractions respectively by vacuum liquid chromatography. Excision wound surface of the animals were ...

  17. Pentachlorophenol reductive dechlorination in an interceptor trench: Temperature effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, J.D.; Woods, S.L. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Bricker, T.R. [Richard Catlin and Associates, Inc., Stone Mountain, GA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    This paper describes the development of a third remediation strategy, an interceptor trench, and laboratory studies evaluating its application to a pentachlorophenol-contaminated ground water. The interceptor trench is a sophisticated inground chemical and biological reactor equipped with chemical sensors and nutrient or chemical delivery systems. Pentachlorophenol-acclimated methanogenic consortia were incubated at temperatures of 5, 10, 21, and 31 C in physical models of an interceptor trench. Four identical 5.4 cm diameter brass columns packed with a uniform pea gravel were operated with a 2 day hydraulic retention time in a continuous upflow mode. The columns were fed 25 or 50 mg of acetate per liter, 0.32 or 4.0 {micro}M pentachlorophenol, and a dilute vitamin and nutrient mixture. In the columns operated at 31 and 21 C, pentachlorophenol was reductively dechlorinated at the ortho positions to form 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol and 3,4,5-trichlorophenol. 3,4,5-trichlorophenol was the sole degradation product observed in the effluent. The lag period prior to pentachlorophenol biotransformation increased with decreasing temperature. At 31 C, a lag of 72 hours was observed; at 21 C the lag was 120 hours; and at 10 C the lag was 744 hours. No biodegradation of pentachlorophenol was observed at 5 C within an 888 hour period. Conversion of pentachlorophenol to 3,4,5-trichlorophenol was complete within the first 7.6 cm of the column at 31 and 21 C. Loss of 90% of the pentachlorophenol was observed over the 30 cm column at 10 C. An interceptor trench inoculated with a temperature- and pentachlorophenol-acclimated methanogenic consortia has the potential to anaerobically biotransform pentachlorophenol at temperatures as low as 10 C.

  18. Isolation and chemical characterization of dissolved and colloidal organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, G.; Leenheer, J.

    1993-01-01

    Commonly used techniques for the concentration and isolation of organic matter from water, such as preparative chromatography, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis, and the methods used to analyze the organic matter obtained by these methods are reviewed. The development of methods to obtain organic matter that is associated with fractions of the dissolved organic carbon other than humic substances, such as organic bases, hydrophilic organic acids and colloidal organic matter are discussed. Methods specifically used to study dissolved organic nitrogen and dissolved organic phosphorous are also discussed. -from Authors

  19. Other chemical constituents isolated from Solanum crinitum Lam. (Solanaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelius, Marli T.F.; Carvalho, Mario G. de; Silva, Tania M.S. da; Alves, Cassia C.F.; Siston, Ana P.N.; Alves, Kelly Z.; Sant' Anna, Carlos M.R., E-mail: mgeraldo@ufrrj.b [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Benassi Neto, Mario; Eberlin, Marcos N. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais. Lab. de Ciencias Quimicas

    2010-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Solanum crinitum Lam led to the isolation from the fruit trichomes of four flavonoids, tiliroside (1), astragalin (2), kaempferol (3), biochanin A-7-O-{beta}-D-apiofuranosyl-(1->5)-{beta}-D-apiofuranosyl-(1->6)-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside (7), along with 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (12), and four cinnamic acid derivatives, cis- and trans-coumaric acids (10 and 11) and cis- and trans- ethyl coumarate (8 and 9). Three tri-glycosyl-steroidal alkaloids, solamargine (13), 20-epi-solamargine (14) and solasonine (16) were isolated from the methanolic extract of the green fruits. The derivatives 3,5,7,4'-tretra-O-methyl-kaempferol (4), 3,7,4'-tri-O-methyl-kaempferol (5), 3,7,4'-tri-O-methyl-5-O-acetyl-kaempferol (6), the peracetyl-episolamargine (15) and peracetyl-solasonine (17) were prepared. The structures were established through the analysis of their spectral data. The complete {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR data assignments of the new peracetyl derivatives of the alkaloids were made. (author)

  20. Other chemical constituents isolated from Solanum crinitum Lam. (Solanaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelius, Marli T.F.; Carvalho, Mario G. de; Silva, Tania M.S. da; Alves, Cassia C.F.; Siston, Ana P.N.; Alves, Kelly Z.; Sant'Anna, Carlos M.R.; Benassi Neto, Mario; Eberlin, Marcos N.; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2010-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Solanum crinitum Lam led to the isolation from the fruit trichomes of four flavonoids, tiliroside (1), astragalin (2), kaempferol (3), biochanin A-7-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1->5)-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1->6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (7), along with 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (12), and four cinnamic acid derivatives, cis- and trans-coumaric acids (10 and 11) and cis- and trans- ethyl coumarate (8 and 9). Three tri-glycosyl-steroidal alkaloids, solamargine (13), 20-epi-solamargine (14) and solasonine (16) were isolated from the methanolic extract of the green fruits. The derivatives 3,5,7,4'-tretra-O-methyl-kaempferol (4), 3,7,4'-tri-O-methyl-kaempferol (5), 3,7,4'-tri-O-methyl-5-O-acetyl-kaempferol (6), the peracetyl-episolamargine (15) and peracetyl-solasonine (17) were prepared. The structures were established through the analysis of their spectral data. The complete 1 H and 13 C NMR data assignments of the new peracetyl derivatives of the alkaloids were made. (author)

  1. Chemical Constituents Isolated from Lycium shawii and their Chemotaxonomic Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeb Ur Rehman

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of Lycium shawii Roem. & Schult provided fourteen compounds, including lyciumate (1, dehydrocostus lactone (2, costunolide (3, catechin(4, lyciumaside (5, emodin (6, emodin-8-O-β- D -glucoside (7, aloe-emodin (8, aloe-emodin-8-O-β- D -glucoside (9, aloe emodin-11- O -rhamnoside (10 , chrysophanol - 8 - O -β- D - glucoside (11, nonacosane-10-ol (12, betulinic acid (13 and β -sitosterol glucopyranoside (14. The compounds may be classified as three sesquiterpene lactones (1-3, two phenolic compounds (4 and 5, six anthraquinones (6-11, one long chain alcohol (12, one lupane-type triterpenoid (13 and a steroid (14. Compounds 2, 3, 7 and 9-12 are reported here for the first time as isolated from any species of Lycium as well as from the Solanaceae family while compounds 8, 13 and 14 are reported to be found for the first time in the genus Lycium. All structural assignments were made by comparing the NMR spectral data of the pure isolates with that published in the quoted literature.

  2. Test Area for Remedial Actions (TARA) site characterization and dynamic compaction of low-level radioactive waste trenches. FY 1988 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, E. C.; Spalding, B. P.; Lee, S. Y.; Hyder, L. K.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a low-level radioactive waste burial ground stabilization and closure technology demonstration project, a group of five burial trenches in Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 was selected as a demonstration site for testing trench compaction, trench grouting, and trench cap installation and performance. This report focuses on site characterization, trench compaction, and grout-trench leachate compatibility. Trench grouting and cap design and construction will be the subject of future reports. The five trenches, known as the Test Area for Remedial Actions (TARA) site, are contained within a hydrologically isolated area of SWSA 6; for that reason, any effects of stabilization activities on site performance and groundwater quality will be separable from the influence of other waste disposal units in SWSA 6. To obviate the chronic problem of burial trench subsidence and to provide support for an infiltration barrier cap, these five trenches were dynamically compacted by repeated dropping of a 4-ton weight onto each trench from heights of approximately 7 m.

  3. Chemical and spectroscopic analysis of lignin in isolated flax fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, W H; Himmelsbach, D S; Akin, D E; Evans, J D

    2003-04-23

    The chemistry of pure flax fibers, free of contaminating nonfiber components, has not been determined. Fibers from the center sections of the stem of seed and fiber flax (Linum usitatissium L.), which had been retted after soaking in water and removal of the epidermis by hand, underwent chemical and spectroscopic analysis. Wet chemical analysis showed only trace indications of aromatics and no long chain fatty acids or alcohols in fibers. Pyrolysis mass spectroscopy (PyMS) and pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (PyGCMS) showed only trace amounts of aromatic constituents that could be attributed to the presence of lignin. Mid-infrared (Mid-IR) and Raman spectroscopy of these fibers showed no aromatic compounds present. This study suggests that earlier work reporting the presence of lignin ranging from 1 to 4% may be the result of residual shive or epidermis/cuticle material remaining after the retting process which may be responsible for the favorable properties desired by the composites industry.

  4. Chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles as cell lysis agent for bacterial genomic DNA isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Gunajit; Boruah, Himangshu; Gautom, Trishnamoni; Jyoti Hazarika, Dibya; Barooah, Madhumita; Boro, Robin Chandra

    2017-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have seen a recent spurt of use in varied fields of science. In this paper, we showed a novel application of AgNP as a promising microbial cell-lysis agent for genomic DNA isolation. We utilized chemically synthesized AgNPs for lysing bacterial cells to isolate their genomic DNA. The AgNPs efficiently lysed bacterial cells to yield good quality DNA that could be subsequently used for several molecular biology works.

  5. The Micro Trench Gas Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, J.

    1991-07-01

    A novel design is presented for a gas avalanche chamber with micro-strip gas readout. While existing gaseous microstrip detectors (Micro-strip Gas Counters, Knife edge chambers) have a minimum anode pitch of the order of 100 μm, the pitch of the discussed Micro Trench Gas Counter goes down to 30-50 μm. This leads to a better position resolution and two track separation, and a higher radiation resistivity. Its efficiency and signal speed are expected to be the same as the Microstrip Gas Counter. The energy resolution of the device is expected to be equal to or better than 10 percent for the 55 Fe peak. Since the anode strip dimensions are larger than those in a MSGC, the device may be not as sensitive to discharges and mechanical damage. In this report production of the device is briefly described, and predictions on its operation are made based on electric field calculations and experience with the Microstrip Gas Counter. The authors restrict themselves to the application in High Energy Physics. (author). 10 refs.; 9 figs

  6. 300 Area Process Trenches Verification Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, J.A.

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this verification package is to document achievement of the remedial action objectives for the 300 Area Process Trenches (300 APT) located within the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit (OU). The 300 APT became active in 1975 as a replacement for the North and South Process Pond system that is also part of the 300-FF-1 OU. The trenches received 300 Area process effluent from the uranium fuel fabrication facilities. Waste from the 300 Area laboratories that was determined to be below discharge limits based on monitoring performed at the 307 retention basin was also released to the trenches. Effluent flowed through the headworks sluice gates, down a concrete apron, and into the trenches. From the beginning of operations in 1975 until 1993, a continuous, composite sampler was located at the headwork structure to analyze process effluent at the point of discharge to the environment

  7. Mariana Trench Bathymetric Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) created a bathymetric digital elevation model (DEM) for the Mariana Trench and adjacent seafloor in the Western...

  8. Diode having trenches in a semiconductor region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, Tomas Apostol; Lu, Bin; Matioli, Elison de Nazareth

    2016-03-22

    An electrode structure is described in which conductive regions are recessed into a semiconductor region. Trenches may be formed in a semiconductor region, such that conductive regions can be formed in the trenches. The electrode structure may be used in semiconductor devices such as field effect transistors or diodes. Nitride-based power semiconductor devices are described including such an electrode structure, which can reduce leakage current and otherwise improve performance.

  9. 40 CFR 265 interim status indicator-evaluation ground-water monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, B.N.; Dudziak, S.

    1989-03-01

    This document outlines a ground-water monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench located in the northeast corner of the 200-East Area on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. It has been determined that hazardous materials (corrosives) were disposed of to the trench during past operations. Installation of an interim-status ground-water monitoring system is required to determine whether hazardous chemicals are leaching to the ground water from beneath the trench. This document summarizes the existing data that are available from near the 216-B-63 trench and presents a plan to determine the extent of ground-water contamination, if any, derived from the trench. The plan calls for the installation of four new monitoring wells located near the west end of the trench. These wells will be used to monitor ground-water levels and water quality immediately adjacent to the trench. Two existing RCRA monitoring wells, which are located near the trench and hydraulically upgradient of it, will be used as background wells. 46 refs., 15 figs., 12 tabs.

  10. ALARA review for the decontamination and decommissioning of the 233-S pipe trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornish, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The 233-S Facility was completed in 1955 to expand plutonium production by further concentrating the plutonium nitrate product solution from the Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) Plant. The facility is radiologically contaminated because of operations and accidents. Isolation from REDOX and removal of the product transfer lines from the pipe trench is the second step in the decontamination and decommissioning of the entire 233-S Facility. The work scope is to isolate all piping from REDOX and then to remove all the piping/equipment from the pipe trench. The building is presently a Hazard Category 2 Nuclear Facility. A formal as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) review is required by BHI-SH-02, Vol. 1, Procedure No. 1.22, Planning Radiological Work, when radiological conditions exceed trigger levels. The level of contamination inside the pipe trench and the process fluid piping is unknown. The potential exists to exceed the level of loose surface contamination, which requires a formal ALARA review when opening the pipe trench and cutting of piping commences. This ALARA review is for task instruction 1997-03-18-009 Revision 1, 233-S Pipe Trench Decon and Pipe Removal

  11. Fourier transform IR studies on the interaction of selected chemicals with isolated cuticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luque, P.; Ramirez, F.J.; Heredia, A.; Bukovac, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    It is known that the plant cuticle represents the first barrier that must be overcome by any chemical reaching the plant surface from the atmosphere before entering the plant. Because of the importance of the cuticle as a barrier to penetration of a wide variety of compounds, its morphology, chemistry, and permeability have been extensively studied. However, only limited information is available on the nature of functional chemical groups present and their interaction and role during the penetration process. The usefulness of in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies in identifying functional groups present in isolated cuticles is described and their relationships to the structure of the cuticular membrane are discussed. Applications of infrared spectroscopy on the presence and role of phenolics in the cuticle structure and during the cuticle development, nitrogen oxide binding to isolated cuticles, and the interactions between selected chemical probes during sorption by the cuticle are also described. (orig.)

  12. Mashed potatoes enriched with soy protein isolate and inulin: chemical, rheological and structural basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, M D; Olivares, M D; Blanch, M; Canet, W

    2013-10-01

    Soy protein isolate is typical vegetable protein with health-enhancing activities. Inulin, a prebiotic no digestible carbohydrate, has functional properties. A mashed potato serving of 200 g with added soy protein isolate and/or inulin concentrations of 15-60 g/kg provides from 3 to 12 g of soy protein isolate and/or inulin, respectively. Currently, no information is available about the possible texture-modifying effect of this non-ionizable polar carbohydrate in different soy-based food systems. In this study, the effect of the addition of soy protein isolate and inulin blends at different soy protein isolate: inulin ratios on the degree of inulin polymerization and the rheological and structural properties of fresh mashed and frozen/thawed mashed potatoes were evaluated. The inulin chemical structure remained intact throughout the various treatments, and soy protein isolate did not affect inulin composition being a protein compatible with this fructan. Small-strain rheology showed that both ingredients behaved like soft fillers. In the frozen/thawed mashed potatoes samples, addition of 30 : 30 and 15 : 60 blend ratios significantly increased elasticity (G' value) compared with 0 : 0 control, consequently reducing the freeze/thaw stability conferred by the cryoprotectants. Inulin crystallites caused a significant strengthening effect on soy protein isolate gel. Micrographs revealed that soy protein isolate supports the inulin structure by building up a second fine-stranded network. Thereby, possibility of using soy protein isolate and inulin in combination with mashed potatoes to provide a highly nutritious and healthy product is promising.

  13. 300 Area process trench sediment analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, M.G.; Kossik, C.D.

    1987-12-01

    This report describes the results of a sampling program for the sediments underlying the Process Trenches serving the 300 Area on the Hanford reservation. These Process Trenches were the subject of a Closure Plan submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology and to the US Environmental Protection Agency in lieu of a Part B permit application on November 8, 1985. The closure plan described a proposed sampling plan for the underlying sediments and potential remedial actions to be determined by the sample analyses results. The results and proposed remedial action plan are presented and discussed in this report. 50 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. A dual model approach to ground water recovery trench design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clodfelter, C.L.; Crouch, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    The design of trenches for contaminated ground water recovery must consider several variables. This paper presents a dual-model approach for effectively recovering contaminated ground water migrating toward a trench by advection. The approach involves an analytical model to determine the vertical influence of the trench and a numerical flow model to determine the capture zone within the trench and the surrounding aquifer. The analytical model is utilized by varying trench dimensions and head values to design a trench which meets the remediation criteria. The numerical flow model is utilized to select the type of backfill and location of sumps within the trench. The dual-model approach can be used to design a recovery trench which effectively captures advective migration of contaminants in the vertical and horizontal planes

  15. A case of bilateral trench foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, S L; Leach, I H; Charnley, R M

    1993-12-01

    A case of severe bilateral trench foot is presented in a patient who lived rough for 3 weeks without removing his boots. Non-operative management yielded no clinical improvement and bilateral below-knee amputation was necessary. Histology revealed subcutaneous and muscle necrosis with secondary arterial thrombosis.

  16. Trench sampling report Salmon Site Lamar County, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This report describes trench excavation and sample-collection activities conducted by IT Corporation (IT) as part of the ongoing Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study at the Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi (DOE, 1992). During construction, operation, and closure of the site wastes of unknown composition were buried in pits on site. Surface-geophysical field investigations were conducted intermittently between November 1992 and October 1993 to identify potential waste-burial sites and buried metallic materials. The geophysical investigations included vertical magnetic gradient, electromagnetic conductivity, electromagnetic in-phase component, and ground-penetrating radar surveys. A number of anomalies identified by the magnetic gradiometer survey in the Reynolds Electrical ampersand Engineering Co., Inc., (REECo) pits area indicated buried metallic objects. All of the anomalies were field checked to determine if any were caused by surface features or debris. After field checking, 17 anomalies were still unexplained; trenching was planned to attempt to identify their sources. Between December 8, 1993, and December 17, 1993, 15 trenches were excavated and soil samples were collected at the anomalies. Samples were collected, placed in 250- and 500-milliliter (m ell) amber glass containers, and shipped on ice to IT Analytical Services (ITAS) in St. Louis, Missouri, using standard IT chain-of-custody procedures. The samples were analyzed for various chemical and radiological parameters. Data validation has not been conducted on any of the samples. During excavation and sampling, soil samples were also collected by IT for the MSDEQ and the Mississippi Department of Radiological Health, in accordance with their instructions, and delivered into their custody

  17. Trench sampling report Salmon Site Lamar County, Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This report describes trench excavation and sample-collection activities conducted by IT Corporation (IT) as part of the ongoing Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study at the Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi (DOE, 1992). During construction, operation, and closure of the site wastes of unknown composition were buried in pits on site. Surface-geophysical field investigations were conducted intermittently between November 1992 and October 1993 to identify potential waste-burial sites and buried metallic materials. The geophysical investigations included vertical magnetic gradient, electromagnetic conductivity, electromagnetic in-phase component, and ground-penetrating radar surveys. A number of anomalies identified by the magnetic gradiometer survey in the Reynolds Electrical & Engineering Co., Inc., (REECo) pits area indicated buried metallic objects. All of the anomalies were field checked to determine if any were caused by surface features or debris. After field checking, 17 anomalies were still unexplained; trenching was planned to attempt to identify their sources. Between December 8, 1993, and December 17, 1993, 15 trenches were excavated and soil samples were collected at the anomalies. Samples were collected, placed in 250- and 500-milliliter (m{ell}) amber glass containers, and shipped on ice to IT Analytical Services (ITAS) in St. Louis, Missouri, using standard IT chain-of-custody procedures. The samples were analyzed for various chemical and radiological parameters. Data validation has not been conducted on any of the samples. During excavation and sampling, soil samples were also collected by IT for the MSDEQ and the Mississippi Department of Radiological Health, in accordance with their instructions, and delivered into their custody.

  18. Launch Pad Flame Trench Refractory Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Bucherl, Cori; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark; Perusich, Steve; Whitten, Mary

    2010-01-01

    The launch complexes at NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) are critical support facilities for the successful launch of space-based vehicles. These facilities include a flame trench that bisects the pad at ground level. This trench includes a flame deflector system that consists of an inverted, V-shaped steel structure covered with a high temperature concrete material five inches thick that extends across the center of the flame trench. One side of the "V11 receives and deflects the flames from the orbiter main engines; the opposite side deflects the flames from the solid rocket boosters. There are also two movable deflectors at the top of the trench to provide additional protection to shuttle hardware from the solid rocket booster flames. These facilities are over 40 years old and are experiencing constant deterioration from launch heat/blast effects and environmental exposure. The refractory material currently used in launch pad flame deflectors has become susceptible to failure, resulting in large sections of the material breaking away from the steel base structure and creating high-speed projectiles during launch. These projectiles jeopardize the safety of the launch complex, crew, and vehicle. Post launch inspections have revealed that the number and frequency of repairs, as well as the area and size of the damage, is increasing with the number of launches. The Space Shuttle Program has accepted the extensive ground processing costs for post launch repair of damaged areas and investigations of future launch related failures for the remainder of the program. There currently are no long term solutions available for Constellation Program ground operations to address the poor performance and subsequent failures of the refractory materials. Over the last three years, significant liberation of refractory material in the flame trench and fire bricks along the adjacent trench walls following Space Shuttle launches have resulted in extensive investigations of

  19. Trench capacitor and method for producing the same

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, J.; Roest, A.L.; Roozeboom, F.; Shabro, V.

    2013-01-01

    A method of fabricating a trench capacitor, and a trench capacitor fabricated thereby, are disclosed. The method involves the use of a vacuum impregnation process for a sol-gel film, to facilitate effective deposition of high-permittivity materials within a trench in a semiconductor substrate, to

  20. Chemical and rheological properties of exopolysaccharides produced by four isolates of rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Cristiane; Castellane, Tereza Cristina Luque; Lopes, Erica Mendes; Omori, Wellington Pine; Sacco, Laís Postai; Lemos, Eliana Gertrudes de Macedo

    2015-11-01

    The rheological, physicochemical properties, emulsification and stability of exopolysaccharides (EPSs) from four rhizobia isolates (LBMP-C01, LBMP-C02, LBMP-C03 and LBMP-C04) were studied. The EPS yields of isolates under these experimental conditions were in the range of 1.5-6.63gL(-1). The LBMP-C04 isolate, which presented the highest EPS production (6.63gL(-1)), was isolated from Arachis pintoi and was identified as a Rhizobium sp. strain that could be explored as a possible potential source for the production of extracellular heteropolysaccharides. All polymers showed a pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid behavior or shear thinning property in aqueous solutions. Among the four EPS tested against hydrocarbons, EPS LBMP-C01 was found to be more effective against hexane, olive and soybean oils (89.94%, 82.75% and 81.15%, respectively). Importantly, we found that changes in pH (2-11) and salinity (0-30%) influenced the emulsification of diesel oil by the EPSs. EPSLBMP-C04 presented optimal emulsification capacity at pH 10 (E24=53%) and 30% salinity (E24=27%). These findings contribute to the understanding of the influence of the chemical composition, physical properties and biotechnology applications of rhizobial EPS solutions their bioemulsifying properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. THE CHARACTERIZATION OF SIMPLISIA, ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF CHEMICAL CONSTITUENS FROM THALLUS Turbinaria decurrens Bory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Sari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of simplisia, phytochemical screening, extraction, isolation and identification of chemical constituens  from thallus Turbinaria decurrens Bory have been carried out. The examination of simplisia characteristics gave the water soluble extract the value of 10.59%, ethanol soluble extract valued at 0.93%, total ash valued at 15.64%, the acid insoluble ash value 0.79% and the water content valued at 8.66%. The result of phytochemical screening showed that there was triterpens/steroids present. The extraction process was carried out by percolation and then was separated by liquid vacum column chromatography. Then by preparative thin layer chromatography isolate B1 was obtained. The analysis of isolate B1 by infra red spectrophotometry showed hydroxyl, aliphatic C-H bond, C=O bond, double bond of C=C, C=O bond, C=H bond of CH3 and CH2, were present. Ultra violet spectrophotometry exhibited a maximum absorption at 242 nm and mass spectrometric fragmentation pattern exhibited that the molecular weight of isolate B1 was 394, it was suspected ergosta -4,7,22 –trien -3 one.

  2. GaAs on Si epitaxy by aspect ratio trapping: Analysis and reduction of defects propagating along the trench direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orzali, Tommaso, E-mail: tommaso.orzali@sematech.org; Vert, Alexey; O' Brien, Brendan; Papa Rao, Satyavolu S. [SEMATECH, 257 Fuller Rd Suite 2200, Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Herman, Joshua L.; Vivekanand, Saikumar [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, SUNY Polytechnic Institute, 251 Fuller Road, Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Hill, Richard J. W. [Now at Micron Technologies, 8000 S Federal Way, Boise, Idaho 83716 (United States); Karim, Zia [AIXTRON, Inc., 1139 Karlstad Dr., Sunnyvale, California 94089 (United States)

    2015-09-14

    The Aspect Ratio Trapping technique has been extensively evaluated for improving the quality of III-V heteroepitaxial films grown on Si, due to the potential for terminating defects at the sidewalls of SiO{sub 2} patterned trenches that enclose the growth region. However, defects propagating along the trench direction cannot be effectively confined with this technique. We studied the effect of the trench bottom geometry on the density of defects of GaAs fins, grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on 300 mm Si (001) wafers inside narrow (<90 nm wide) trenches. Plan view and cross sectional Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy, together with High Resolution X-Ray Diffraction, were used to evaluate the crystal quality of GaAs. The prevalent defects that reach the top surface of GaAs fins are (111) twin planes propagating along the trench direction. The lowest density of twin planes, ∼8 × 10{sup 8 }cm{sup −2}, was achieved on “V” shaped bottom trenches, where GaAs nucleation occurs only on (111) Si planes, minimizing the interfacial energy and preventing the formation of antiphase boundaries.

  3. Chemical Investigations of ISOL target units for carbon and nitrogen beams

    CERN Document Server

    Franberg, H; Gäggeler, H W; Köster, U

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive Ion Beams (RIB) are of significant interest in a number of applications. ISOL (Isotope Separation On Line) facilities provide RIB with high beam intensities and good beam quality. An atom that is produced within the ISOL target will first diffuse out from the target material. During the effusion towards the transfer line and into the ion source the many contacts with the surrounding surfaces may cause unacceptable delays in the transport and, hence, losses of the shorter-lived isotopes. We performed systematic chemical investigations of adsorption in a temperature and concentration regime relevant for ISOL targets and ion source units, with regard to COx and NOx on Al2O3 and SiO2. These materials are potential construction materials for the above mentioned areas. Off-line and on-line tests have been performed using a gas thermo-chromatography set-up with radioactive tracers. The experiments were performed at the PROTRAC facility at Paul Scherrer Institute in Villigen, Switzerland.

  4. Revised ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 300 area process trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalla, R.; Aaberg, R.L.; Bates, D.J.; Carlile, J.V.M.; Freshley, M.D.; Liikala, T.L.; Mitchell, P.J.; Olsen, K.B.; Rieger, J.T.

    1988-09-01

    This document contains ground-water monitoring plans for process-water disposal trenches located on the Hanford Site. These trenches, designated the 300 Area Process Trenches, have been used since 1973 for disposal of water that contains small quantities of both chemicals and radionuclides. The ground-water monitoring plans contained herein represent revision and expansion of an effort initiated in June 1985. At that time, a facility-specific monitoring program was implemented at the 300 Area Process Trenches as part of a regulatory compliance effort for hazardous chemicals being conducted on the Hanford Site. This monitoring program was based on the ground-water monitoring requirements for interim-status facilities, which are those facilities that do not yet have final permits, but are authorized to continue interim operations while engaged in the permitting process. The applicable monitoring requirements are described in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 40 CFR 265.90 of the federal regulations, and in WAC 173-303-400 of Washington State's regulations (Washington State Department of Ecology 1986). The program implemented for the process trenches was designed to be an alternate program, which is required instead of the standard detection program when a facility is known or suspected to have contaminated the ground water in the uppermost aquifer. The plans for the program, contained in a document prepared by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) in 1985, called for monthly sampling of 14 of the 37 existing monitoring wells at the 300 Area plus the installation and sampling of 2 new wells. 27 refs., 25 figs., 15 tabs.

  5. Micromorphology of carbonate-silica deposits from Trench 14 and Busted Butte, Yucca Mountain, NV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butcher, P.M.; Cerling, T.E.

    1993-01-01

    The origin of banded carbonate-silica deposits in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, NV is controversial and has been attributed to both downward percolating waters, subject to soil-forming processes, and to upward movement and discharge of hot or cold ground waters. Using petrographic and SEM techniques, deposits from Trench 14 were compared to pedogenic carbonates from Busted Butte and carbonate deposits from known modern and paleosprings to determine how they formed. Busted Butte and Trench 14 samples are nearly identical, and contain many common pedogenic micromorphological features such as alveolar texture, calcified needle fibers, tubes, and rhomb chains, peloids and pellets, and silica cementation. Alveolar texture, calcified tubes, and root tubules suggest biogenic mechanisms are important in carbonate formation. The spring carbonates contain greater amounts of sparry calcite in rims and pore fillings, shells, and few biogenic structures while lacking pedogenic features listed previously. This suggests that Trench 14 deposits were not formed by ground water, but by pedogenic processes in both vertically and horizontally oriented deposits. The presence of chemically distinct volcanic ash throughout Trench 14 and Busted Butte carbonate deposits, along with other detrital materials and pedogenic features in a finely banded manner, suggests the deposits were formed over long periods of time by surficial processes. These processes allowed incorporation of surface materials and developed of extensive root systems resulting in deposition of carbonate-silica deposits in the structures observed. No evidence of hydrothermal alteration of either wall rock or included detritus is observed

  6. Grout testing and characterization for shallow-land burial trenches at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallent, O.K.; Sams, T.L.; Tamura, T.; Godsey, T.T.; Francis, C.L.; McDaniel, E.W.

    1986-10-01

    An investigation was conducted to develop grout formulations suitable for in situ stabilization of low-level and transuranic (TRU) waste in shallow-land burial trenches at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The acceptabilities of soil, ordinary particulate, and fine particulate grouts were evaluated based on phase separation, compressive strength, freeze/thaw, penetration resistance, rheological, water permeability, column, and other tests. Soil grouts with soil-to-cement weight ratios from 0.91 to 1.60 were found to be suitable for open trench or drum disposal. Ordinary particulate grouts containing type I,II Portland cement, class C fly ash, bentonite, water, and a fluidizer were formulated to fill large voids within the soil/waste matrix of a closed shallow-land burial trench. Fine particulate grouts containing fine (mean particle size, 9.6 m) cement and water were formulated to fill smaller voids and to establish a grout-soil barrier to prevent water intrusion into the grouted waste trench. Solution, or chemical grouts, were evaluated as possible substitutes for the fine particulate grouts

  7. Remedial action planning for Trench 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primrose, A.; Sproles, W.; Burmeister, M.; Wagner, R.; Law, J.; Greengard, T.; Castaneda, N.

    1998-01-01

    The accelerated action to remove the depleted uranium chips and associated soils and wastes from Trench 1 at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) will begin in June 1998. To ensure that the remedial action is conducted safely, a rigorous and disciplined planning process was followed that incorporates the principles of Integrated Safety Management and Enhanced Work Planning. Critical to the success of the planning was early involvement of project staff (salaried and hourly) and associated technical support groups and disciplines. Feedback was and will continue to be solicited, and lessons learned incorporated to ensure the safe remediation of this site

  8. Chemical Composition of Laurencia obtusa Extract and Isolation of a New C15-Acetogenin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Esselin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A new C15-acetogenin, sagonenyne (20, exhibiting an unusual single tetrahydropyran ring was isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of Laurencia obtusa collected on the Corsican coastline. Its structure was established by detailed NMR spectroscopic analysis, mass spectrometry, and comparison with literature data. Twenty-three known compounds were identified in the same extract by means of column chromatography steps, using a 13C-NMR computer aided method developed in our laboratory. In addition to sesquiterpenes, which represent the main chemical class of this extract, diterpenes, sterols, and C15-acetogenins were identified. The crude extract was submitted to a cytotoxicity assay and was particularly active against THP-1 cells, a human leukemia monocytic cell line.

  9. Acoustic-Gravity Waves Interacting with a Rectangular Trench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Kadri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical solution of the two-dimensional linear problem of an acoustic-gravity wave interacting with a rectangular trench, in a compressible ocean, is presented. Expressions for the flow field on both sides of the trench are derived. The dynamic bottom pressure produced by the acoustic-gravity waves on both sides of the trench is measurable, though on the transmission side it decreases with the trench depth. A successful recording of the bottom pressures could assist in the early detection of tsunami.

  10. Ocean mixing in deep-sea trenches: New insights from the Challenger Deep, Mariana Trench

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.; Berndt, C.; Klaucke, I.

    2017-01-01

    Reliable very deep shipborne SBE 911plus Conductivity Temperature Depth (CTD) data to within 60 m from the bottom and Kongsberg EM122 0.5° × 1° multibeam echosounder data are collected in the Challenger Deep, Mariana Trench. A new position and depth are given for the deepest point in the world's

  11. Isolation and identification of chemical constituents from the bacterium Bacillus sp. and their nematicidal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Liming; Jin, Hui; Lu, Dengxue; Yang, Xiaoyan; Pan, Le; Cui, Haiyan; He, Xiaofeng; Qiu, Hongdeng; Qin, Bo

    2015-10-01

    A strain SMrs28 was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of a toxic plant Stellera chamaejasme and identified as Bacillus sp. on the basis of morphological and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The crude extract of SMrs28 fermentation broth showed strong nematocidal activities in preliminary test. To define the active nematocidal metabolites of SMrs28, a novel compound (1), 4-oxabicyclo[3.2.2]nona-1(7), 5,8-triene, along with five known compounds (2-6), were isolated from the strain by various column chromatographic techniques and characterized on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Results of the in vitro nematicidal tests showed that the metabolites presented different levels of activity at certain exposure conditions. Compounds (1-3) displayed LC50 values of 904.12, 451.26, 232.98 µg/ml and 1594.0, 366.62, 206.38 µg/ml against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Ditylenchus destructor at 72 h, respectively. This is the first report of the nematicidal activity of the compounds as constituents of Bacillus sp.. Our findings help to find potential chemical structures to develop nematicides from microbial source for the management of nematode-infected plant diseases. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The identification and characterization of osmotolerant yeast isolates from chemical wastewater evaporation ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, R; Fareleira, P; Nejidat, A; Abeliovich, A

    2002-04-01

    Ramat Hovav is a major chemical industrial park manufacturing pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and various aliphatic and aromatic halogens. All wastewater streams are collected in large evaporation ponds. Salinity in the evaporation ponds fluctuates between 3% (w/v) and saturation and pH values range between 2.0 and 10.0. We looked for microorganisms surviving in these extreme environmental conditions and found that 2 yeast strains dominate this biotope. 18S rDNA sequence analysis identified the isolates as Pichia guilliermondii and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. Both isolates grew in NaCl concentrations ranging up to 3.5 M and 2.5 M, respectively, and at a pH range of 2-10. There was a distinct difference between the Rhodotorula and Pichia strains and S. cerevisiae RS16 that served as a control strain with respect to accumulation of osmoregulators and internal ion concentrations when exposed to osmotic stress. The Pichia and Rhodotorula strains maintained high glycerol concentration also in media low in NaCl. Utilization of various carbon sources was examined. Using a tetrazolium-based assay we show that the Rhodotorula and Pichia strains are capable of utilizing a wide range of different carbon sources including anthracene, phenanthrene, and other cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  13. Effects-driven chemical fractionation of heavy fuel oil to isolate compounds toxic to trout embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Jason M; Adams, Julie; Hollebone, Bruce; King, Thomas; Hodson, Peter V; Brown, R Stephen

    2014-04-01

    Heavy fuel oil (HFO) spills account for approximately 60% of ship-source oil spills and are up to 50 times more toxic than medium and light crude oils. Heavy fuel oils contain elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkyl-PAHs, known to be toxic to fish; however, little direct characterization of HFO toxicity has been reported. An effects-driven chemical fractionation was conducted on HFO 7102 to separate compounds with similar chemical and physical properties, including toxicity, to isolate the groups of compounds most toxic to trout embryos. After each separation, toxicity tests directed the next phase of fractionation, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis correlated composition with toxicity, with a focus on PAHs. Low-temperature vacuum distillation permitted the separation of HFO into 3 fractions based on boiling point ranges. The most toxic of these fractions underwent wax precipitation to remove long-chain n-alkanes. The remaining PAH-rich extract was further separated using open column chromatography, which provided distinct fractions that were grouped according to increasing aromatic ring count. The most toxic of these fractions was richest in PAHs and alkyl-PAHs. The results of the present study were consistent with previous crude oil studies that identified PAH-rich fractions as the most toxic. © 2013 SETAC.

  14. Burial trench dynamic compaction demonstration at a humid site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.

    1985-01-01

    This task has the objective of determining the degree of consolidation which can be achieved by dynamic compaction of a closed burial trench within a cohesive soil formation. A seven-year-old burial trench in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was selected for this demonstration. This 251 m 3 trench contained about 80 Ci of mixed radionuclides, mostly 90 Sr, in 25 m 3 of waste consisting of contaminated equipment, dry solids, and demolition debris. Prior to compaction, a total trench void space of 79 m 3 was measured by pumping the trench full of water with corrections for seepage. Additional pre-compaction characterization included trench cap bulk density (1.68 kg/L), trench cap permeability (3 x 10 -7 m/s), and subsurface waste/backfill hydraulic conductivity (>0.01 m/s). Compaction was achieved by repeatedly dropping a 4-ton steel-reinforced concrete cylinder from heights of 4 to 8 m using the whipline of a 70-ton crane. The average trench ground surface was depressed 0.79 m, with some sections over 2 m, yielding a surveyed volumetric depression which totaled to 64% of the measured trench void space. Trench cap (0 to 60 cm) bulk density and permeability were not affected by compaction indicating that the consolidation was largely subsurface. Neither surface nor airborne radioactive contamination were observed during repeated monitoring during the demonstration. Dynamic compaction was shown to be an excellent and inexpensive (i.e., about $20/m 2 ) method to collapse trench void space, thereby hastening subsidence and stabilizing the land surface. 15 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Morphological, physico-chemical and structural characterization of mucilage isolated from the seeds of Buchanania lanzan Spreng

    OpenAIRE

    Sudarshan Singh; Sunil B Bothara

    2014-01-01

    Context: Mucilage isolated from the seeds of Buchanania lanzan a wild Indian plant. This mucilage can be commercially exploited, by evaluating physico-chemical properties of this mucilage. Materials and Methods: Various physico-chemical parameter using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), molecular weight, X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrometry, zeta potential (ZP), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and 1D ( 1 H and 13 C) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) have been employed to chara...

  16. The Japan Trench and its juncture with the Kuril Trench: cruise results of the Kaiko project, Leg 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadet, J.-P.; Kobayashi, K.; Aubouin, J.; Boulegue, J.; Deplus, C.; Dubois, J.; von Huene, Roland E.; Jolivet, L.; Kanazawa, T.; Kasahara, J.; Koizumi, K.; Lallemand, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Pautot, G.; Suyehiro, K.; Tani, S.; Tokuyama, H.; Yamazaki, T.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a detailed survey combining Seabeam mapping, gravity and geomagnetic measurements as well as single-channel seismic reflection observations in the Japan Trench and the juncture with the Kuril Trench during the French-Japanese Kaiko project (northern sector of the Leg 3) on the R/V "Jean Charcot". The main data acquired during the cruise, such as the Seabeam maps, magnetic anomalies pattern, and preliminary interpretations are discussed. These new data cover an area of 18,000 km2 and provide for the first time a detailed three-dimensional image of the Japan Trench. Combined with the previous results, the data indicate new structural interpretations. A comparative study of Seabeam morphology, single-channel and reprocessed multichannel records lead to the conclusion that along the northern Japan Trench there is little evidence of accretion but, instead, a tectonic erosion of the overriding plate. The tectonic pattern on the oceanic side of the trench is controlled by the creation of new normal faults parallel to the Japan Trench axis, which is a direct consequence of the downward flexure of the Pacific plate. In addition to these new faults, ancient normal faults trending parallel to the N65?? oceanic magnetic anomalies and oblique to the Japan trench axis are reactivated, so that two directions of normal faulting are observed seaward of the Japan Trench. Only one direction of faulting is observed seaward of the Kuril Trench because of the parallelism between the trench axis and the magnetic anomalies. The convergent front of the Kuril Trench is offset left-laterally by 20 km relative to those of the Japan Trench. This transform fault and the lower slope of the southernmost Kuril Trench are represented by very steep scarps more than 2 km high. Slightly south of the juncture, the Erimo Seamount riding on the Pacific plate, is now entering the subduction zone. It has been preceded by at least another seamount as revealed by magnetic

  17. Slurry walls and slurry trenches - construction quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletto, R.J.; Good, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Slurry (panel) walls and slurry trenches have become conventional methods for construction of deep underground structures, interceptor trenches and hydraulic (cutoff) barriers. More recently polymers mixed with water are used to stabilize the excavation instead of bentonite slurry. Slurry walls are typically excavated in short panel segments, 2 to 7 m (7 to 23 ft) long, and backfilled with structural materials; whereas slurry trenches are fairly continuous excavations with concurrent backfilling of blended soils, or cement-bentonite mixtures. Slurry trench techniques have also been used to construct interceptor trenches. Currently no national standards exist for the design and/or construction of slurry walls/trenches. Government agencies, private consultants, contractors and trade groups have published specifications for construction of slurry walls/trenches. These specifications vary in complexity and quality of standards. Some place excessive emphasis on the preparation and control of bentonite or polymer slurry used for excavation, with insufficient emphasis placed on quality control of bottom cleaning, tremie concrete, backfill placement or requirements for the finished product. This has led to numerous quality problems, particularly with regard to identification of key depths, bottom sediments and proper backfill placement. This paper will discuss the inspection of slurry wall/trench construction process, identifying those areas which require special scrutiny. New approaches to inspection of slurry stabilized excavations are discussed

  18. Scattering and extinction from high-aspect-ratio trenches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Alexander Sylvester; Søndergaard, Thomas; Chirumamilla, Manohar

    2015-01-01

    We construct a semi-analytical model describing the scattering, extinction and absorption properties of a high aspect-ratio trench in a metallic film. We find that these trenches act as highly efficient scatterers of free waves. In the perfect conductor limit, which for many metals is approached...

  19. Characterization of chemical bonding in low-k dielectric materialsfor interconnect isolation: a xas and eels study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, P.; Schmeisser, D.; Engelmann, H.-J.; Zschech, E.; Stegmann, H.; Himpsel, F.; Denlinger, J.

    2006-04-10

    The use of low dielectric constant materials in the on-chipinterconnect process reduces interconnect delay, power dissipation andcrosstalk noise. To achieve the requirements of the ITRS for 2007-2009minimal sidewall damage from etch, ash or cleans is required. In chemicalvapor deposited (CVD) organo-silicate glass (OSG) which are used asintermetal dielectric (IMD) materials the substitution of oxygen in SiO2by methyl groups (-CH3) reduces the permittivity significantly (from 4.0in SiO2 to 2.6-3.3 in the OSG), since the electronic polarizability islower for Si-C bonds than for Si-O bonds. However, plasma processing forresist stripping, trench etching and post-etch cleaning removes C and Hcontaining molecular groups from the near-surface layer of OSG.Therefore, compositional analysis and chemical bonding characterizationof structured IMD films with nanometer resolution is necessary forprocess optimization. OSG thin films as-deposited and after plasmatreatment are studied using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) andelectron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). In both techniques, the finestructure near the C1s absorption or energy loss edge, respectively,allows to identify C-H, C-C, and C-O bonds. This gives the opportunity todifferentiate between individual low-k materials and their modifications.The O1s signal is less selective to individual bonds. XAS spectra havebeen recorded for non-patterned films and EELS spectra for patternedstructures. The chemical bonding is compared for as-deposited andplasma-treated low-k materials. The Fluorescence Yield (FY) and the TotalElectron Yield (TEY) recorded while XAS measurement are compared.Examination of the C 1s near-edge structures reveal a modified bonding ofthe remaining C atoms in the plasma-treated sample regions.

  20. Trial coring in LLRW trenches at Chalk River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donders, R.E.; Killey, R.W.D.; Franklin, K.J.; Strobel, G.S.

    1996-11-01

    As part of a program to better characterize the low-hazard radioactive waste managed by AECL at Chalk River Laboratories, coring techniques in waste trenches are being assessed. Trial coring has demonstrated that sampling in waste regions is possible, and that boreholes can be placed through the waste trenches. Such coring provides a valuable information-gathering technique. Information available from trench coring includes: trench cover depth, waste region depth, waste compaction level, and detailed stratigraphic data; soil moisture content and facility drainage performance; borehole gamma logs that indicate radiation levels in the region of the borehole; biochemical conditions in the waste regions, vadose zone, and groundwater; site specific information relevant to contaminant migration modelling or remedial actions; information on contaminant releases and inventories. Boreholes through the trenches can also provide a means for early detection of potential contaminant releases. (author). 4 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs

  1. Activation properties of chemically skinned fibres from human isolated bronchial smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savineau, J P; Marthan, R

    1994-01-01

    1. The contractile activation properties of human isolated bronchial smooth muscle were investigated using chemically (beta-escin) skinned strips. 2. Concentration-dependent contractions were induced by free ion concentrations of Ca2+ (0.5-3 microM), Sr2+ (2-200 microM) and Ba2+ (50-1000 microM). The resulting -log[cation]-tension relationships were fitted by sigmoidal curves with EC50 values (cation concentration required to produce half-maximal tension) and co-operativity factors (Hill coefficient, nH) of, respectively, 0.25 microM and 3.4 for Ca2+, 12 microM and 2.64 for Sr2+ and 100 microM and 1.73 for Ba2+. Maximal responses to Sr2+ and Ba2+ were 125.5 +/- 15.4 and 96 +/- 8.1% (n = 5) respectively of the maximum tension induced by Ca2+. 3. Trifluoperazine (5-100 microM), cyclic AMP (50-300 microM) and cyclic GMP (50-100 microM) each antagonized Ca2+ in a concentration-dependent manner. On the other hand, okadaic acid (OA, 0.2-1 microM) potentiated Ca2+ and increased the maximum response to Ca2+ (+25 +/- 5.4%, n = 5, for 1 microM OA). 4. This study has demonstrated the high Ca2+ sensitivity of the activation mechanism of human isolated bronchial smooth muscle. It also suggests that control of the contractile machinery in the human bronchus involves processes of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. The beta-escin-treated human bronchus may be a useful model for investigating the cellular basis of some pathophysiological processes such as bronchial hyper-responsiveness. PMID:8014904

  2. Preparation and characterization of baru (Dipteryx alata Vog) nut protein isolate and comparison of its physico-chemical properties with commercial animal and plant protein isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Ângela A; Favaro, Simone P; Miranda, Cesar H B; Neves, Valdir A

    2017-01-01

    The Brazilian leguminous tree locally known in the Cerrado Biome as baru (Dipteryx alata Vog), provides a healthy edible oil source. The proteinaceous cake remaining after oil extraction could be transformed into new products to foodstuff development, such as protein concentrates and isolates, adding value to the production chain. In this study, it is described the preparation and characterization of baru nut protein isolate (BPI) from deffated baru flour, and measurements of its functional, nutritional, and thermal properties, in comparison to the more common vegetable (soybeans) and animal (casein and albumin) protein sources of the food industry. BPI presented higher protein content than soybean, casein and albumin commercial protein isolates, despite losses of albumins and low molecular weight globulins during the isolation procedure. Thermodynamics studies suggested that BPI has a well-conserved protein arrangement and lower thermostability than the other protein sources. BPI showed high in vitro digestibility and suitable and desirable functional properties such as water and oil absorption capacity, emulsifying activity, and foam formation and stability at mild and neutral pH. BPI could be used either as a substitute ingredient in oily food formulations or in the development of new products of its own. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Isolation and characterization of cellulose nanofibers from bamboo using microwave liquefaction combined with chemical treatment and ultrasonication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiulong Xie; Chung Hse; Cornelis F. De Hoop; Tingxing Hu; Jinqiu Qi; Todd F. Shupe

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose nanofibers were successfully isolated from bamboo using microwave liquefaction combinedwith chemical treatment and ultrasonic nanofibrillation processes. The microwave liquefaction couldeliminate almost all the lignin in bamboo, resulting in high cellulose content residues within 7 min, andthe cellulose enriched residues could be readily purified by...

  4. Comparative study on chemical compositions and properties of protein isolates from mung bean, black bean and bambara groundnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudre, Tanaji G; Benjakul, Soottawat; Kishimura, Hideki

    2013-08-15

    Different legume seeds may have different protein compositions and properties, thereby affecting applications in food systems. This study aimed to extract and characterize protein isolates from legumes grown in Thailand, including mung bean (MBPI), black bean (BBPI) and bambara groundnut (BGPI). All protein isolates had a protein content in the range of 85.2-88.2%. The highest trypsin inhibitory activity was found in BGPI. All protein isolates exhibited satisfactory balanced amino acids with respect to the FAO/WHO pattern. MBPI and BBPI had three predominant proteins with a molecular weight (MW) range of 42-54 kDa, whereas BGPI had two dominant proteins with MW of 52 and 62 kDa. Based on differential scanning calorimetric analysis, MBPI and BGPI had two endothermic peaks, whereas three peaks were found for BBPI. All protein isolates exhibited similar FTIR spectra, indicating similarity in functional group and structure. All protein isolates showed a minimum protein solubility at around pH 4-5. All protein isolates were important sources of proteins with high lysine content. Isolates from different legumes showed slight differences in physiochemical and thermal properties. Those isolates can be used as proteinaceous ingredients in a variety of food products such as salad dressing, meat products and desserts. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Physico-chemical and structural characterization of mucilage isolated from seeds of Diospyros melonoxylon Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarshan Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mucilage was isolated from the seeds of Diospyros melonoxylonRoxb., a plant growing naturally in the forests of India. Various physico-chemical methods like particle analysis, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetry analysis, molecular weight by gel permeation chromatography, rheometry, elemental analysis, x-ray diffraction spectrometry, zeta potential, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1D(1H and 13C (NMR have been employed to characterize this gum in the present study. Particle analyses suggest that mucilage had particle size in nanometer. SEM analysis suggested that the mucilage had irregular particle size. The glass transition temperature of the gum observed was 78 °C and 74 °C by DSC and DTA respectively. The Thermogravimetry analysis suggested that mucilage had good thermal stability with two stage decomposition. The molecular weight of mucilage was determined to be 8760, by gel permeation chromatography, while the viscosity of mucilage was observed to be 219.1 cP. The XRD pattern of the mucilage indicated a complete amorphous nature. Elemental analysis of the gum revealed specific contents of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum include 3441 cm-1 (-OH, 1632 cm-1 (-COO-, 1414 cm-1 (-COO- and 1219 cm-1 (-CH3CO. Analysis of mucilage by paper chromatography and 1D NMR indicated the presence of sugars.

  6. STRENGTHENING OF TRENCH COVER PLATES FOR SWITCHGEAR BUILDING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.S. RUBEN

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to strengthen the existing trench cover plates of the Electrical Switchgear Building (BLDG 5010) of the Exploratory Studies Facility. A remodeling effort will change the portion of the facility that has the trenches for electrical cables to a craft/shop area. The users of the building will be using a forklift in this area (Clark CGP 30 forklift with a capacity of 3 tons). The trench covers require strengthening to support the wheel loads from the forklift. The output of this calculation will be sketches revising the floor plate details of DWG YMP-025-1-7007-ST103,2. (Details 4 and 5)

  7. Isolated Fungal Promoters and Gene Transcription Terminators and Methods of Protein and Chemical Production in a Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ziyu; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnuson, Jon K.

    2008-11-11

    The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

  8. Chemical structure and physical properties of mung bean starches isolated from 5 domestic cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S-H; Lee, B-H; Baik, M-Y; Joo, M-H; Yoo, S-H

    2007-11-01

    Chemical structure and physical properties of starches isolated from 5 domestic mung bean cultivars (Gyungsun, Geumsung, Sunhwa, Eohul, and Jangan) were examined. The granules were jelly bean like in shape and smooth on surface, and the size was within 10 to 30 microm. Mung bean starches displayed a C(A)-type crystalline structure when judged by the X-ray diffraction patterns. Branch chain-length distribution patterns of amylopectin (AP) revealed that peak chain length of APs was at either DP (degree of polymerization) 12 or DP13. Apparent amylose contents of 5 cultivars by iodine affinity test were 31.7% to 33.8%. Mung bean APs showed a unique molecular size distribution that has not been observed from other plant-derived starches. Two distinct peaks of AP fraction were identified on the size-exclusion chromatogram, and the ratios of these 2 peaks were different depending on the mung bean cultivars. Weight-average chain length (CL(avg)) of APs was in the range of 16.9 (Eohul) and 17.5 (Geumsung). The onset temperature (T(o)) and enthalpy change (DeltaH(gel)) of starch gelatinization were 54.6 to 60.2 degrees C and 11.6 to 13.2 J/g. The DeltaH of the retrograded mung bean starches was 5.5 to 6.6 J/g, which indicated 44.5% to 52.7% of recrystallization. The pasting temperature, peak viscosity, and setback were 66.1 to 69.2 degrees C, 510 to 579 Rapid Visco Unit (RVU), and 66 to 90 RVU, respectively.

  9. Evaluation of 1985--1986 corrective actions at ORNL liquid waste disposal trench 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.

    1991-04-01

    Several corrective actions were taken in 1985--1986 at the site of ORNL radioactive liquid waste seepage trench 7 in an effort to reduce the discharge of radionuclides, mostly 60 Co, from a groundwater seep on the eastern side of the site. First, the size of the asphalt cap over the trench was doubled, and cap runoff was diverted away from the site to the west. Second, the buried waste transfer line to the trench was excavated and plugged and its pipe trench was damned with clay backfill. These actions were designed to reduce groundwater recharge in the area that might be the source of water to the seep. Third, a series of grout injections was carried out at 5-ft intervals along a perimeter line on the eastern and northern edges of the site. A total of 65,500 gal of lime-fly-ash grout was injected at 303 locations at depths up to 40 ft in an effort to seal relict contaminated strata with probable hydrologic connection to the seep. However, the grout formulation specified in the contract would not set to a detectable compressive strength nor would the grout samples exhibit a reduction in hydraulic conductivity during over a year of observation. Thus, the material specification for the grout was inappropriate for the desired effect of in situ hydrologic isolation. Core sampling at the site revealed that the grout flowed into the soil formation along discrete thin layers. Only three grout layers, with a maximum thickness of 0.25 in., were found in over 90 ft of core from three locations along the grout injection line. Thus, this grouting action would have little potential to influence containment of radionuclides that leach from contaminated strata. 11 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs

  10. 300 Area Process Trenches Postclosure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badden, J.W.

    1998-05-01

    The 300 Area Process Trenches (300 APT) certified closure under a modified closure option and in compliance with Condition II.K.3 oft he Hartford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit (Penit) (Ecology 1994). Modified closure has been determined to be the appropriate closure option for this unit due to groundwater that remains contaminated from past operations at the 300 APT. Corrective actions required for dangerous waste constituents remaining in groundwater will occur pursuant to the 300 APT Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Final Status Facility Ground Water Monitoring Plan, the Hanford Site Wide Dangerous Waste Permit, and in conjunction with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial actions at the 300-FF-5 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) pursuant to the Record of Decision (ROD) (EPA 1996). This postclosure plan identifies the modified closure actions required at the unit under postclosure care. It contains a description of the unit, past closure actions, and postclosure care requirements subject to compliance under the Permit (condition II.K.3)

  11. Nuclear testing of utility trench backfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perricelli, V.J.

    1979-01-01

    For many years, Westchester County municipalities were resigned to the fact that compaction of utility trenches could not be done satisfactorily and that settlement and road failure would inevitably occur. To reduce the impact of such settlement, they established natural-consolidation time-delay periods which extend up to 6 months. The use of the nuclear moisture-density gauge for testing backfill compaction has proven that settlements need not occur. Advantages of this type testing versus conventional methods are: simplicity, speed; immediate test results while backfill is taking place; no disturbance of the compacted soil. Disadvantages are initial cost of the gauge; need for specially trained personnel; need for a State Radiological Materials License. Twenty-eight governmental agencies in Westchester County have relaxed their time-delay periods and now permit immediate permanent pavement restorations on those projects where nuclear moisture-density testing is used for control. Ancillary benefits include fewer complaints, reduced claims for vehicle damage, and improved public relations

  12. Corrective action investigation plan: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This Correction Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains environmental sample collection objectives and logic for the CAU No. 426, which includes the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, CAS No. RG-08-001-RG-CS. The Cactus Spring Waste Trenches are located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) which is part of the Nellis Air Force Range, approximately 255 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air. The purpose of this investigation is to generate sufficient data to establish the types of waste buried in the trenches, identify the presence and nature of contamination, determine the vertical extent of contaminant migration below the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, and determine the appropriate course of action for the site. The potential courses of action for the site are clean closure, closure in place (with or without remediation), or no further action

  13. Retrieval of buried depleted uranium from the T-1 trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burmeister, M.; Castaneda, N.; Hull, C.; Barbour, D.; Quapp, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Trench 1 remediation project will be conducted this year to retrieve depleted uranium and other associated materials from a trench at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. The excavated materials will be segregated and stabilized for shipment. The depleted uranium will be treated at an offsite facility which utilizes a novel approach for waste minimization and disposal through utilization of a combination of uranium recycling and volume efficient uranium stabilization

  14. Evaluation of a prototype decision support system for selecting trench cap designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paige, G.B.; Stone, J.J.; Lane, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    A computer-based prototype decision support system (PDSS) to assist the risk manager in selecting an appropriate trench cap design for waste disposal sites is evaluated. The selection of the open-quotes bestclose quotes design among feasible alternatives requires consideration of multiple and often conflicting objectives. The methodology used in the selection process consists of. selecting and parameterizing decision variables, using data, simulation models, or expert opinion; selecting feasible trench cap design alternatives; ordering the decision variables and ranking the design alternatives. The simulation models incorporated in the PDSS are the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model which is used to simulate the trench cap water balance and the Chemicals, Runoff, and Erosion from Agricultural Management Systems (CREAMS) erosion component that is used to simulate trench cap erosion. The decision model is based on multi-objective decision theory and uses a unique approach to order the decision variables and rank the design alternatives. The PDSS is evaluated using the Hill Air Force Base landfill cover demonstration project. The water balance and surface erosion of four alternative landfill cover designs were monitored for a 4-yr period. Two of the cover designs were used to calibrate and test the simulation models. The results of the PDSS, using both data from all four designs and long-term simulations from two of the designs, illustrate the relative advantages of each of the cover designs and which cover is the open-quotes bestclose quotes alternative for a given set of criteria and a particular importance order of those decision criteria. 22 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Adsorption and degradation of14C-bisphenol A in a soil trench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian; Wang, Xin-Ze; Zhang, Zhen; Sui, Yan-Ming; Wu, Hai-Lu; Feng, Ji-Meng; Tong, Xin-Nan; Zhang, Zhen-Yu

    2017-12-31

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has caused widespread concern among scholars as a result of its estrogenic toxicity. It exists mainly in natural waters, sediments, and soil, as well as sewage and wastewater sludge. Considering that BPA is a common environmental pollutant that is removed along with chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrogen, and phosphorus in drainage treatment systems, it is important to research the fate of BPA in sewage treatment systems. In this research, laboratory batch experiments on soil degradation and adsorption were conducted with 14 C-BPA, aiming to discuss the transport and degradation characteristics of BPA in both simulated facilities and a soil trench. Based on the experimental results, the Freundlich model could be applied to fit the isothermal adsorption curve of the BPA in soil. A low mobility characteristic of BPA was discovered. The mineralization rate of BPA was fast and that of the reaction showed small fluctuations. After degradation, 21.3 and 17.7% of the BPA groups (the experimental group treated with ammonia oxidase (AMO) inhibitor and the control group) were converted into 14 CO 2 , respectively. This indicates that the nitrification and degradation of BPA had a certain competitive relationship. Besides, nitrification did not significantly affect the soil residue of BPA. Through the soil trench test, the average removal rate of BPA in the soil trench was 85.5%. 14 CO 2 was discharged via the mineralization of BPA, accounting for 2.5% of the initial input. BPA easily accumulated in the bottom soil of the soil trench. BPA and its metabolites in the effluent accounted for 14.5% of the initial dosage. The residual extractable BPA and its metabolites in the soil accounted for 51.3%, and the remaining part of the unextractable residue represented 19.8% of the initial radioactive dosage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A radiochemical study of sedimentation onto the Japan Trench floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, M.; Kitaoka, H.; Tsunogai, S.

    1983-01-01

    Box cores were taken from the Japan Trench (water depth, 8260 m) and two neighboring shallower stations (water depth, 2970 and 4310 m) and analyzed for uranium isotopes, thorium isotopes, 210 Pb, CaCO 3 , Fe, Mn, Al, and Cu. The 230 Th: 232 Th activity ratios in the top layer (0 to 1 cm) were 12 to 15 at the three stations, indicating no appreciable addition of 230 Th during descent through the water column below 4 km depth. There are no significant differences in the concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th, and 230 Th on a carbonate-free basis at the three stations. The 230 Th: 232 Th activity ratios of the Japan Trench sediments in the upper 30 cm are nearly constant with depth, indicating rapid sedimentation or active vertical mixing of the sediments. The mixing depth of the Japan Trench sediments is estimated to be 7 cm from the vertical distribution of excess 210 Pb. The maximum concentration of 210 Pb in the Japan Trench sediment is at 2- to 3-cm depth. The results suggest that sediment deposited on the shallower slope of the trench slides down and accumulates on the trench floor. (author)

  17. Eco-trench: a novel trench solution based on reusing excavated material and a finishing layer of expansive concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Blanco

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Installing utility pipelines generates a significant amount of trench arisings, which are usually transported to landfills instead of being reused as backfill material. This practice generates CO2 emissions and wastes raw materials. This paper presents a more sustainable solution, an eco-trench, which is based on re-using trench arisings as backfill and adding a top layer of expansive concrete to improve the eco-trench’s structural performance. The technical feasibility of the eco-trench was evaluated through a finite element model, which identified the degree of expansion in concrete required to avoid failure or subside the stresses caused by traffic. The potential expansion of concrete was measured under confined conditions in the laboratory by means of a novel test developed for this purpose. The results showed that adding calcium oxide generates the required internal stress. The results were then confirmed in a pilot experience.

  18. Isolation, characterization, spectroscopic properties and quantum chemical computations of an important phytoalexin resveratrol as antioxidant component from Vitis labrusca L. and their chemical compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güder, Aytaç; Korkmaz, Halil; Gökce, Halil; Alpaslan, Yelda Bingöl; Alpaslan, Gökhan

    2014-12-01

    In this study, isolation and characterization of trans-resveratrol (RES) as an antioxidant compound were carried out from VLE, VLG and VLS. Furthermore, antioxidant activities were evaluated by using six different methods. Finally, total phenolic, flavonoid, ascorbic acid, anthocyanin, lycopene, β-carotene and vitamin E contents were carried out. In addition, the FT-IR, 13C and 1H NMR chemical shifts and UV-vis. spectra of trans-resveratrol were experimentally recorded. Quantum chemical computations such as the molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies, UV-vis. spectroscopic parameters, HOMOs-LUMOs energies, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), natural bond orbitals (NBO) and nonlinear optics (NLO) properties of title molecule have been calculated by using DFT/B3PW91 method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set in ground state for the first time. The obtained results show that the calculated spectroscopic data are in a good agreement with experimental data.

  19. SWEETLEAD: an in silico database of approved drugs, regulated chemicals, and herbal isolates for computer-aided drug discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Novick

    Full Text Available In the face of drastically rising drug discovery costs, strategies promising to reduce development timelines and expenditures are being pursued. Computer-aided virtual screening and repurposing approved drugs are two such strategies that have shown recent success. Herein, we report the creation of a highly-curated in silico database of chemical structures representing approved drugs, chemical isolates from traditional medicinal herbs, and regulated chemicals, termed the SWEETLEAD database. The motivation for SWEETLEAD stems from the observance of conflicting information in publicly available chemical databases and the lack of a highly curated database of chemical structures for the globally approved drugs. A consensus building scheme surveying information from several publicly accessible databases was employed to identify the correct structure for each chemical. Resulting structures are filtered for the active pharmaceutical ingredient, standardized, and differing formulations of the same drug were combined in the final database. The publically available release of SWEETLEAD (https://simtk.org/home/sweetlead provides an important tool to enable the successful completion of computer-aided repurposing and drug discovery campaigns.

  20. Isolation, characterization and engineering of Bacillus smithii : a novel thermophilic platform organism for green chemical production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, E.F.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the globally increasing demand for chemicals and fuels and the high environmental impact and limited amount of fossil resources, there is a growing interest in green chemicals and fuels derived from renewable resources. As described in Chapter 1, one of the most feasible

  1. Reappraising elastic thickness variation at oceanic trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bry, Madeleine; White, Nicky

    2007-08-01

    We reassess the variation of elastic thickness as a function of lithospheric plate age using a global database of bathymetric and free-air gravity profiles which are perpendicular to oceanic trenches. As in many previous studies, our starting point is the well-known floating elastic plate model. In order to remove the influence of short-wavelength features not associated with lithospheric bending, adjacent profiles from 10-Myr bins have been stacked together to construct average profiles with standard deviations. Each average profile was then inverted in a two-stage procedure. First, singular value decomposition was used to determine two unknown flexural parameters, together with a regional slope and offset, for any given elastic thickness. This procedure was repeated for a range of elastic thicknesses. Second, residual misfit was plotted as a function of elastic thickness, and the global minimum was identified. This two-stage procedure makes no prior assumptions about magnitude of the load, size of the bending moment, or whether the elastic plate is broken/continuous. We obtained excellent fits between theory and observation for both bathymetric and gravity profiles from lithosphere with an age range of 0-150 Ma. The shape of the residual misfit function indicates the degree of confidence we have in our elastic thickness estimates. The lower limit of elastic thickness is usually well determined but upper limits are often poorly constrained. Inverse modeling was carried out using a range of profile lengths (250-300, 500, and 700 km). In general, our estimates show no consistent increase of elastic thickness as a function of plate age. This surprising result is consistent with recent reassessments of elastic thickness beneath seamounts and implies either that elastic thickness is independent of plate age or that elastic thickness cannot be measured with sufficient accuracy to reveal such a relationship. Modeling of short free-air gravity profiles (250-300 km) does

  2. Design and construction of a deep slurry trench barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deming, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    A 24 m (80 ft) deep slurry trench surrounding a former chromium manufacturing facility on the Patapsco River in Baltimore, Maryland was constructed in 1995 to contain groundwater and site Soils, and to reduce the volume of groundwater extracted to maintain an inward gradient. In 1992, an embankment made of crushed stone was constructed in the Patapsco River to make land for barrier construction outboard of the bulkheads, and to protect the barrier. Stability of the slurry-supported trench excavation in the embankment required construction from an elevated work platform. An extended reach backhoe was used to excavate the deep slurry trench and to clean the trench bottom. Soil-Bentonite backfill was prepared at a central mixing area and transported by truck to the perimeter barrier. A synthetic membrane was inserted partially into the backfill for connection to a multimedia cap, and for redundancy and erosion control in the tidal zone. Hydraulic testing of the aquitard contained by the barrier demonstrated excellent performance of the barrier and bottom closure. Detailed definition of subsurface conditions and the closure stratum was necessary for the design and successful construction of the barrier, and is recommended for comparable slurry trench construction projects

  3. Isolation and chemical structure of the peptidoglycan of Spirillum serpens cell walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolenbrander, P E; Ensign, J C

    1968-01-01

    The peptidoglycan layer of Spirillum serpens cell walls was isolated from intact cells after treatment with sodium dodecylsulfate and digestion with Pronase. The isolated peptidoglycan contained glucosamine, muramic acid, alanine, glutamic acid, and meso-diaminopimelic acid in the approximate molar ratio of 1:1:2:1:1. Aspartic acid and glycine were the only other amino acids found in significant quantities. N-terminal amino acid analyses of the tetrapeptide amino acids in the peptidoglycan revealed that 54% of the diaminopimelic acid molecules are involved in cross-linkage between tetrapeptides. This amount of cross-linkage is greater than that found in the peptidoglycan of previously studied cell walls of gram-negative bacteria. The polysaccharide backbone was isolated, after myxobacter AL-1 enzyme digestion of the peptidoglycan, by fractionation with ECTEOLA-cellulose and Sephadex G-100. An average length of 99 hexosamines for the polysaccharide chains was found (ratio of total hexosamines to reducing end groups).

  4. Investigation of gold fluorides and noble gas complexes by matrix-isolation spectroscopy and quantum-chemical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefeng; Andrews, Lester; Willmann, Knut; Brosi, Felix; Riedel, Sebastian

    2012-10-15

    Noble with a difference: Matrix-isolation experiments and quantum-chemical calculations have led to the characterization of two new compounds, namely first open-shell binary gold fluoride, AuF(2), and a NeAuF complex. Moreover, ArAuF, AuF(3), Au(2)F(6), and monomeric AuF(5) have been produced and identified under cryogenic conditions in neon and argon matrices. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Chemical composition, molecular weight distribution, secondary structure and effect of NaCl on functional properties of walnut (Juglans regia L) protein isolates and concentrates

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Xiao-Ying; Hua, Yu-Fei

    2012-01-01

    Chemical composition, molecular weight distribution, secondary structure and effect of sodium chloride concentration on functional properties of walnut protein isolates, concentrates and defatted walnut flour were study. Compared with walnut protein concentrates (75.6%) and defatted walnut flour (52.5%), walnut protein isolates contain a relatively high amount of protein (90.5%). The yield of walnut protein isolates and concentrates was 43.2% and 76.6%, respectively. In molecular weight distr...

  6. A comparison of trenched plot techniques for partitioning soil respiration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Bronson, Dustin; Bladyka, Emma; Gower, Stith T.

    2011-07-16

    Partitioning the soil surface CO{sub 2} flux (R{sub S}) flux is an important step in understanding ecosystem-level carbon cycling, given that R{sub S} is poorly constrained and its source components may have different responses to climate change. Trenched plots are a classic method of separating the R{sub S} source fluxes, but labor-intensive and may cause considerable disturbance to the soil environment. This study tested if various methods of plant suppression in trenched plots affected R{sub S} fluxes, quantified the R{sub S} response to soil temperature and moisture changes, and estimated the heterotrophic contribution to R{sub S}. It was performed in a boreal black spruce (Picea mariana) plantation, using a complete randomized design, during the 2007 growing season (May-November). Trenched plots had significantly lower R{sub S} than control plots, with differences appearing {approx}100 days after trenching; spatial variability doubled after trenching but then declined throughout the experiment. Most trenching treatments had significantly lower (by {approx}0.5 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) R{sub S} than the controls, and there was no significant difference in R{sub S} among the various trenching treatments. Soil temperature at 2 cm explained more R{sub S} variability than did 10-cm temperature or soil moisture. Temperature sensitivity (Q10) declined in the control plots from {approx}2.6 (at 5 C) to {approx}1.6 (at 15 C); trenched plots values were higher, from 3.1 at 5 C to 1.9 at 15 C. We estimated R{sub S} for the study period to be 241 {+-} 40 g C m{sup -2}, with roots contributing 64% of R{sub S} after accounting for fine root decay, and 293 g C m{sup -2} for the entire year. These findings suggest that laborious hand weeding of vegetation may be usefully replaced by other methods, easing future studies of this large and poorly-understood carbon flux.

  7. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Waste Disposal In Engineered Trench #3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L. L.; Smith, F. G. III; Flach, G. P.; Hiergesell, R. A.; Butcher, B. T.

    2013-07-29

    Because Engineered Trench #3 (ET#3) will be placed in the location previously designated for Slit Trench #12 (ST#12), Solid Waste Management (SWM) requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) determine if the ST#12 limits could be employed as surrogate disposal limits for ET#3 operations. SRNL documented in this Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation (UDQE) that the use of ST#12 limits as surrogates for the new ET#3 disposal unit will provide reasonable assurance that Department of Energy (DOE) 435.1 performance objectives and measures (USDOE, 1999) will be protected. Therefore new ET#3 inventory limits as determined by a Special Analysis (SA) are not required.

  8. Cleanup Verification Package for the 116-K-2 Effluent Trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capron, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 116-K-2 effluent trench, also referred to as the 116-K-2 mile-long trench and the 116-K-2 site. During its period of operation, the 116-K-2 site was used to dispose of cooling water effluent from the 105-KE and 105-KW Reactors by percolation into the soil. This site also received mixed liquid wastes from the 105-KW and 105-KE fuel storage basins, reactor floor drains, and miscellaneous decontamination activities

  9. Cleanup Verification Package for the 116-K-2 Effluent Trench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2006-04-04

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 116-K-2 effluent trench, also referred to as the 116-K-2 mile-long trench and the 116-K-2 site. During its period of operation, the 116-K-2 site was used to dispose of cooling water effluent from the 105-KE and 105-KW Reactors by percolation into the soil. This site also received mixed liquid wastes from the 105-KW and 105-KE fuel storage basins, reactor floor drains, and miscellaneous decontamination activities.

  10. Trench formation and corner rounding in vertical GaN power devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuhao; Sun, Min; Liu, Zhihong; Piedra, Daniel; Hu, Jie; Gao, Xiang; Palacios, Tomás

    2017-05-01

    Trench formation and corner rounding are the key processes to demonstrate high-voltage trench-based vertical GaN devices. In this work, we developed a damage-free corner rounding technology combining Tetramethylammonium hydroxide wet etching and piranha clean. By optimizing the inductively coupled plasma dry etching conditions and applying the rounding technology, two main trench shapes were demonstrated: flat-bottom rounded trench and tapered-bottom rounded trench. TCAD simulations were then performed to investigate the impact of trench shapes and round corners on device blocking capability. GaN trench metal-insulator-semiconductor barrier Schottky rectifiers with different trench shapes were fabricated and characterized. A breakdown voltage over 500 V was obtained in the device with flat-bottom rounded trenches, compared to 350 V in the device with tapered-bottom rounded trenches and 150 V in the device with non-rounded trenches. Both experimental and simulation results support the use of rounded flat-bottom trenches to fabricate high-voltage GaN trench-based power devices.

  11. Isolation and antitrichomonal activity of the chemical constituents of the leaves of Maytenus phyllanthoides Benth. (Celastraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moo-Puc, Juan Alberto; Martin-Quintal, Zhelmy; Miron-Lopez, Gumersindo; Mena-Rejon, Gonzalo J., E-mail: mrejon@uady.mx [Laboratorio de Quimica Farmaceutica. Facultad de Quimica. Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan (Mexico); Moo-Puc, Rosa Esther [Unidad de Investigacion Medica Yucatan, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Yucatan (Mexico); Quijano, Leovigildo [Instituto de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoacan (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    Cyclolignan (+)-lyoniresinol (1), veratric acid (2), vanillic acid (3), lupeol, oleanolic acid, 3β-hydroxy-urs-11-en-28,13β-lactone (4), the mixture of α- and β-amyrin, trans-polyisoprene, and β-sitosterol were isolated from the leaves of Maytenus phyllanthoides. The structures of the isolated compounds were established based on spectroscopic data, mainly {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Compound 1, its acetate analog 1a, and compounds 2, 3, and 4 were tested against Trichomonas vaginalis. (+)-Lyoniresinol showed activity corresponding to IC{sub 50} 17.57 μM. This is the first report on the occurrence of 3β-hydroxy-urs-11-en-28,13β-lactone (4) in the Celastraceous family and lyoniresinol in the Maytenus genus, and on the antitrichomonal activity of lyoniresinol. (author)

  12. Anti-inflammatory activities of the chemical constituents isolated from Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Mei; Zhou, Wei; Jin, Chunshi; Jiang, Zhe; Diao, Shengbao; Jin, Zhehu; Li, Gao

    2018-03-09

    Twenty-seven compounds including nine triterpenoids (1-9), eight sterols (10-17), two ribonucleotides (18, 19), four phenols (20-23), three glycosides (24-26), and one furan (27) were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Trametes versicolor (L.) Lloyd. This study is the first confirmation of the presence of the 11 compounds (3, 5, 6, 8, 18, 20, 21, 23-25, and 27) isolated from the Polyporaceae family, with six of these (2 and 12-16) from the genus Trametes. Compounds 3, 4, 10, 11, 16 and 17 were found to significantly inhibit the production of NO, TNF-α and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner.

  13. Isolation and antitrichomonal activity of the chemical constituents of the leaves of Maytenus phyllanthoides Benth. (Celastraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Alberto Moo-Puc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclolignan (+-lyoniresinol (1, veratric acid (2, vanillic acid (3, lupeol, oleanolic acid, 3β-hydroxy-urs-11-en-28,13β-lactone (4, the mixture of α- and β-amyrin, trans-polyisoprene, and β-sitosterol were isolated from the leaves of Maytenus phyllanthoides. The structures of the isolated compounds were established based on spectroscopic data, mainly ¹H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. Compound 1, its acetate analog 1a, and compounds 2, 3, and 4 were tested against Trichomonas vaginalis. (+-Lyoniresinol showed activity corresponding to IC50 17.57 µM. This is the first report on the occurrence of 3β-hydroxy-urs-11-en-28,13β-lactone (4 in the Celastraceous family and lyoniresinol in the Maytenus genus, and on the antitrichomonal activity of lyoniresinol.

  14. Field evaluation of two shallow land burial trench cap designs for long-term stabilization and closure of waste repositories at Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.; Drennon, B.; Hakonson, T.

    1989-02-01

    The results from several field experiments on methods to control soil erosion, biointrusion, and water infiltration were used to design and test a burial site cover which improves the ability of the disposal site to isolate the wastes. The performance of the improved cover design in managing water and biota at the disposal site was compared with a more conventional design widely used in the industry. The conventional trench cover design consists of 15 cm of sandy loam topsoil over 75 cm of sandy silt backfill, whereas the improved trench cover design consists of 75 cm of topsoil over a minimum of 25 cm of gravel and 90 cm of river cobble. Each plot was lined with an impermeable liner to allow for mass balance calculation of water dynamics and contains hydrologic tracer ions (iodide and bromide) to demonstrate movement of water through the various zones of the trench cap. Cesium was emplaced beneath the trench cap to indicate root penetration through the trench cap, observed by sampling plant samples collected on the plots and assaying them for cesium. The field data are summarized and discussed in terms of its usefulness for waste management decisions. 67 refs., 44 figs., 4 tabs

  15. SPECIAL ANALYSIS OF OPERATIONAL STORMWATER RUNOFF COVERS OVER SLIT TRENCHES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collard, L; Luther Hamm, L

    2008-12-18

    Solid Waste Management (SWM) commissioned this Special Analysis (SA) to determine the effects of placing operational stormwater runoff covers (referred to as covers in the remainder of this document) over slit trench (ST) disposal units ST1 through ST7 (the center set of slit trenches). Previously the United States Department of Energy (DOE) entered into an agreement with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to place covers over Slit Trenches 1 and 2 to be able to continue disposing Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) solid waste (see USDOE 2008). Because the covers changed the operating conditions, DOE Order 435.1 (DOE 1999) required that an SA be performed to assess the impact. This Special Analysis has been prepared to determine the effects of placing covers over slit trenches at about years 5, 10 and 15 of the 30-year operational period. Because some slit trenches have already been operational for about 15 years, results from analyzing covers at 5 years and 10 years provide trend analysis information only. This SA also examined alternatives of covering Slit Trenches 1 and 2 with one cover and Slit Trenches 3 and 4 with a second cover versus covering them all with a single cover. Based on modeling results, minimal differences exist between covering Slit Trench groups 1-2 and 3-4 with two covers or one large cover. This SA demonstrates that placement of covers over slit trenches will slow the subsequent release and transport of radionuclides in the vadose zone in the early time periods (from time of placement until about 100 years). Release and transport of some radionuclides in the vadose zone beyond 100 years were somewhat higher than for the case without covers. The sums-of-fractions (SOFs) were examined for the current waste inventory in ST1 and ST2 and for estimated inventories at closure for ST3 through ST7. In all

  16. Isolation of pronephros cells which endocytose chemically modified proteins in the rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dannevig, B.H.; Berg, T.

    1986-01-01

    Modified serum albumin is cleared from the blood by kidney cells in salmonid fishes. The present study deals with isolation of cells from pronephros which endocytose formaldehyde-treated human serum albumin (fHSA). Radioactively labelled fHSA or dinitrophenyl-conjugated albumin (DNP-HSA) were injected intravenously into rainbow trouts. Pronephros cells, containing the endocytosed protein, were isolated and further separated by centrifugal elutriation and density-gradient centrifugation. Most of the radioactive protein was elutriated together with small cells. After centrifuging the cells through a Percoll density gradient, radioactive protein was located in cells recovered in the upper part of the gradient. In mammals, fHSA and other modified proteins are mainly taken up by sinusoidal endothelial cells in the liver via a scavenger receptor 0. Our results suggest that a comparable function in salmonids is located in a subpopulation of relatively small cells in kidney tissue, possibly sinusoidal lining cells. The separation techniques used seemed to be suitable for isolation of different populations of pronephros cells

  17. Chemical characterization of bioactive compounds from the endophytic fungus Diaporthe helianthi isolated from Luehea divaricata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Specian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic microorganisms, defined as fungi or bacteria that colonize the interior of plants without causing any immediate negative effects or damages, have reciprocal relationships with host plants. In some cases their presence is beneficial to the host due to the synthesis of bioactive compounds, among which several alcohols, esters, ketones and others that may react with other compounds and may be lethal to pathogenic microorganisms. Diaporthe helianthi (Phomopsis helianthi in its anamorphic phase is available worldwide, especially in Europe, Asia and America. Isolated in Europe as an agent of the sunflower stem cancer, it has also been endophytically isolated from tropical and temperate plants. A D. helianthi strain isolated from Luehea divaricata has been employed in current research. An investigation of the secondary metabolite from D. helianthi by CC and NMR of ¹H and 13C yielded the separation of 10 fractions and the identification of the phenolic compound 2(-4 hydroxyphenyl-ethanol (Tyrosol. Its antimicrobial reaction was tested and the ensuing antagonistic effects on the human pathogenic bacteria Enterococcus hirae, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, phytopathogenic Xanthomonas asc. phaseoli and phytopathogenic fungi were demonstrated. Results show that bioactive compounds and Tyrosol produced by D. helianthi have a biotechnological potential.

  18. Effect of Separation Method on Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of Lamiaceae Isolates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sajfrtová, Marie; Sovová, Helena; Karban, Jindřich; Rochová, Kristina; Pavela, R.; Barnet, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 47, MAY (2013), s. 69-77 ISSN 0926-6690 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06049; GA TA ČR TA01010578 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : supercritical fluid extraction * iInsecticidal activity * lamiaceae Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.208, year: 2013

  19. Trench dynamics: Effects of dynamically migrating trench on subducting slab morphology and characteristics of subduction zones systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masaki

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of trench migration (retreat or advance) is crucial to characterizing the driving forces of Earth's tectonics plates, the origins of subducting slab morphologies in the deep mantle, and identifying the characteristics of subduction zones systems, which are among the fundamental issues of solid Earth science. A series of numerical simulations of mantle convection, focusing on plate subduction in a three-dimensional (3-D) regional spherical shell coordinate system, was performed to examine subduction zone characteristics, including geodynamic relationships among trench migration, back-arc stress, and slab morphology. The results show that a subducting slab tends to deflect around the base of the mantle transition zone and form a sub-horizontal slab because its front edge (its 'toe') is subject to resistance from the highly viscous lower mantle. As the sub-horizontal slab starts to penetrate into the lower mantle from its 'heel,' the toe of the slab is drawn into the lower mantle. The results for models with dynamically migrating trenches suggest that trench retreat is the dynamically self-consistent phenomenon in trench migration. The reason for this is that the strong lateral mantle flow that is generated as a sequence of events leading from corner flow at the subduction initiation to return flow of the formation of a sub-horizontal slab in the shallower part of mantle wedge produces the retreat of the subducting slab. In fact, a 'mantle suction force,' which is generated in the mantle wedge to fill space left by the retreating subducting plate, is enhanced by the subsequent trench retreat. Even when upwelling flow with significant positive buoyancy originates just above a mantle phase boundary at a depth of 410 km (as inferred from independent seismic tomographic, geodynamic, geochemical, and mineral physics), reaches the base of the overriding plate, and the overriding plate is slightly thinned, lithospheric stress tends to be

  20. Comparison of Chemical Sensitivity of Fresh and Long-Stored Heat Resistant Neosartorya fischeri Environmental Isolates Using BIOLOG Phenotype MicroArray System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Panek

    Full Text Available Spoilage of heat processed food and beverage by heat resistant fungi (HRF is a major problem for food industry in many countries. Neosartorya fischeri is the leading source of spoilage in thermally processed products. Its resistance to heat processing and toxigenicity makes studies about Neosartorya fischeri metabolism and chemical sensitivity essential. In this study chemical sensitivity of two environmental Neosartorya fischeri isolates were compared. One was isolated from canned apples in 1923 (DSM3700, the other from thermal processed strawberry product in 2012 (KC179765, used as long-stored and fresh isolate, respectively. The study was conducted using Biolog Phenotype MicroArray platforms of chemical sensitivity panel and traditional hole-plate method. The study allowed for obtaining data about Neosartorya fischeri growth inhibitors. The fresh isolate appeared to be much more resistant to chemical agents than the long-stored isolate. Based on phenotype microarray assay nitrogen compounds, toxic cations and membrane function compounds were the most effective in growth inhibition of N. fischeri isolates. According to the study zaragozic acid A, thallium(I acetate and sodium selenate were potent and promising N. fischeri oriented fungicides which was confirmed by both chemical sensitivity microplates panel and traditional hole-plate methods.

  1. Physio-chemical, microbiological properties of tempoyak and molecular characterisation of lactic acid bacteria isolated from tempoyak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Li-Oon; Shamila-Syuhada, Ahamed Kamal; Liong, Min Tze; Rosma, Ahmad; Thong, Kwai Lin; Rusul, Gulam

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to determine physio-chemical properties of tempoyak, characterise the various indigenous species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) present at different stages of fermentation and also to determine the survival of selected foodborne pathogens in tempoyak. The predominant microorganisms present in tempoyak were LAB (8.88-10.42 log CFU/g). Fructobacillus durionis and Lactobacillus plantarum were the dominant members of LAB. Other LAB species detected for the first time in tempoyak were a fructophilic strain of Lactobacillus fructivorans, Leuconostoc dextranicum, Lactobacillus collinoides and Lactobacillus paracasei. Heterofermentative Leuconostoc mesenteroides and F. durionis were predominant in the initial stage of fermentation, and as fermentation proceeded, F. durionis remained predominant, but towards the end of fermentation, homofermentative Lb. plantarum became the predominant species. Lactic, acetic and propionic acids were present in concentrations ranging from 0.30 to 9.65, 0.51 to 7.14 and 3.90 to 7.31 mg/g, respectively. Genotyping showed a high degree of diversity among F. durionis and Lb. plantarum isolates, suggesting different sources of LAB. All tested Lb. plantarum and F. durionis (except for one isolate) isolates were multidrug resistant. Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus were not detected. However, survival study showed that these pathogens could survive up to 8-12 days. The results aiming at improving the quality and safety of tempoyak. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rhizomes of Eremostachys laciniata: Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Chemical Constituents and a Clinical Trial on Inflammatory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Delazar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was the isolation and structure elucidation of chemical compounds from the rhizomes of Eremostachys laciniata (L Bunge (EL, an Iranian traditional medicinal herb with a thick root and pale purple or white flowers as well as the clinical studies on the therapeutic efficacy and safety of topical application of the EL extract in the management of some inflammatory conditions, e.g., arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and septic arthritis (Riter’s syndrome. Methods: The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated unequivocally on the basis of one and two dimensional NMR, UV and HR-FABMS spectroscopic data analyses. A single-blinded randomized clinical trial was carried out with the extract of the rhizomes of E. laciniata (EL to determine the efficacy and safety of the traditional uses of EL compared to that of piroxicam in treatment of inflammatory diseases, e.g., osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and Reiter’s syndrome. Results: Eleven iridoid glycosides, two phenylethanoids and two phytosterols were isolated and identified for the first time from the rhizomes of EL. After 14 days of treatment with the EL and piroxicam ointments, all groups showed significant improvements compared to the control groups. EL (5% ointment induced better initial therapeutic response than piroxicam (5% onitment. Conclusion: This clinical trial established that EL was suitable for topical applications as a safe and effective complementary therapy for inflammatory diseases.

  3. U.S. Department of Energy Implementation of Chemical Evaluation Requirements for Transuranic Waste Disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Alison [USDOE Office of Environmental Management (EM), Washington, DC (United States); Barkley, Michelle [USDOE Office of Environmental Management (EM), Washington, DC (United States); Poppiti, James [USDOE Office of Environmental Management (EM), Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report summarizes new controls designed to ensure that transuranic waste disposed at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) does not contain incompatible chemicals. These new controls include a Chemical Compatibility Evaluation, an evaluation of oxidizing chemicals, and a waste container assessment to ensure that waste is safe for disposal. These controls are included in the Chapter 18 of the Documented Safety Analysis for WIPP (1).

  4. U.S. Department of Energy Implementation of Chemical Evaluation Requirements for Transuranic Waste Disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Alison; Barkley, Michelle; Poppiti, James

    2017-01-01

    This report summarizes new controls designed to ensure that transuranic waste disposed at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) does not contain incompatible chemicals. These new controls include a Chemical Compatibility Evaluation, an evaluation of oxidizing chemicals, and a waste container assessment to ensure that waste is safe for disposal. These controls are included in the Chapter 18 of the Documented Safety Analysis for WIPP (1).

  5. Pyrolysis-Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry to Characterize Soil Organic Matter Composition in Chemically Isolated Fractions from Differing Land Uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plante, A. F.; Magrini-Bair, K.; Vigil, M.; Paul, E. A.

    2009-01-01

    Today's questions concerning the role of soil organic matter (SOM) in soil fertility, ecosystem functioning and global change can only be addressed through knowledge of the controls on SOM stabilization and their interactions. Pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry (py-MBMS) provides a powerful and rapid means of assessing the biochemical composition of SOM. However, characterization of SOM composition alone is insufficient to predict its dynamic behavior. Chemical fractionation is frequently used to isolate more homogeneous SOM components, but the composition of fractions is frequently unknown. We characterized biochemical SOM composition in two previously studied soils from the USA, under contrasting land uses: cultivated agriculture and native vegetation. Bulk soils, as well as chemically isolated SOM fractions (humic acid, humin and non-acid hydrolysable), were analyzed using py-MBMS. Principal components analysis (PCA) showed distinct differences in the SOM composition of isolated fractions. Py-MBMS spectra and PCA loadings were dominated by low molecular weight fragments associated with peptides and other N-containing compounds. The py-MBMS spectra were similar for native whole-soil samples under different vegetation, while cultivation increased heterogeneity. An approach based on previously published data on marker signals also suggests the importance of peptides in distinguishing samples. While the approach described here represents significant progress in the characterization of changing SOM composition, a truly quantitative analysis will only be achieved using multiple internal standards and by correcting for inorganic interference during py-MBMS analysis. Overall, we have provided proof of principle that py-MBMS can be a powerful tool to understand the controls on SOM dynamics, and further method development is underway.

  6. Chemical compounds toxic to invertebrates isolated from marine cyanobacteria of potential relevance to the agricultural industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essack, Magbubah; Alzubaidy, Hanin S; Bajic, Vladimir B; Archer, John A C

    2014-10-29

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review.

  7. Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry

    KAUST Repository

    Essack, Magbubah

    2014-10-29

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review.

  8. Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magbubah Essack

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review.

  9. High aspect ratio titanium nitride trench structures as plasmonic biosensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shkondin, Evgeniy; Repän, Taavi; Takayama, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    High aspect ratio titanium nitride (TiN) grating structures are fabricated by the combination of deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and atomic layer deposition (ALD) techniques. TiN is deposited at 500 ◦C on a silicon trench template. Silicon between vertical TiN layers is selectively etched...

  10. A decision tool for selecting trench cap designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paige, G.B.; Stone, J.J.; Lane, L.J. [USDA-ARS, Tucson, AZ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    A computer based prototype decision support system (PDSS) is being developed to assist the risk manager in selecting an appropriate trench cap design for waste disposal sites. The selection of the {open_quote}best{close_quote} design among feasible alternatives requires consideration of multiple and often conflicting objectives. The methodology used in the selection process consists of: selecting and parameterizing decision variables using data, simulation models, or expert opinion; selecting feasible trench cap design alternatives; ordering the decision variables and ranking the design alternatives. The decision model is based on multi-objective decision theory and uses a unique approach to order the decision variables and rank the design alternatives. Trench cap designs are evaluated based on federal regulations, hydrologic performance, cover stability and cost. Four trench cap designs, which were monitored for a four year period at Hill Air Force Base in Utah, are used to demonstrate the application of the PDSS and evaluate the results of the decision model. The results of the PDSS, using both data and simulations, illustrate the relative advantages of each of the cap designs and which cap is the {open_quotes}best{close_quotes} alternative for a given set of criteria and a particular importance order of those decision criteria.

  11. Convective mixing by internal waves in the Puerto Rico Trench

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.; Gostiaux, L.

    2016-01-01

    A2.4 km long deep-sea mooringwas deployed for 14 months in the Puerto Rico Trench, the deepestpart of the Atlantic Ocean. Below its top buoyancy package, the mooring line held a 200 m long stringof high-resolution temperature sensors and a current meter. Over the instrumented range between6,004 and

  12. A Generic Water Balance Model for a Trench Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Choi, Hee Joo

    2016-01-01

    To quantify the exposure dose rates from the nuclide release and transport through the various pathways possible in the near- and far-fields of the LILW repository system, various scenarios are to be conveniently simulated in a straightforward manner and extensively with this GoldSim model, as similarly developed for other various types of repositories in previous studies. Through this study, a result from four scenario cases, each of which is or is not associated with water balance, are compared to each other to see what happens in different cases in which an overflow over a trench rooftop, stochastic rainfall on the trench cover, and an unsaturated flow scheme under the trench bottom are combined. The other two latter elements vary periodically owing to stochastic behavior of the time series data for the past rain-fall records. This program is ready for a total system performance assessment and is able to deterministically and probabilistically evaluate the nuclide release from a repository and farther transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various scenarios that can occur after a failure of waste packages with associated uncertainty. An illustration conducted through a study with a new water balance scheme shows the possibility of a stochastic evaluation associated with the stochastic behavior and various pathways that happen around the trench repository.

  13. A Generic Water Balance Model for a Trench Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Choi, Hee Joo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To quantify the exposure dose rates from the nuclide release and transport through the various pathways possible in the near- and far-fields of the LILW repository system, various scenarios are to be conveniently simulated in a straightforward manner and extensively with this GoldSim model, as similarly developed for other various types of repositories in previous studies. Through this study, a result from four scenario cases, each of which is or is not associated with water balance, are compared to each other to see what happens in different cases in which an overflow over a trench rooftop, stochastic rainfall on the trench cover, and an unsaturated flow scheme under the trench bottom are combined. The other two latter elements vary periodically owing to stochastic behavior of the time series data for the past rain-fall records. This program is ready for a total system performance assessment and is able to deterministically and probabilistically evaluate the nuclide release from a repository and farther transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various scenarios that can occur after a failure of waste packages with associated uncertainty. An illustration conducted through a study with a new water balance scheme shows the possibility of a stochastic evaluation associated with the stochastic behavior and various pathways that happen around the trench repository.

  14. EARTHSAWtm IN-SITU CONTAINMENT OF PITS AND TRENCHES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest E. Carter, P.E.

    2002-09-20

    EarthSaw{trademark} is a proposed technology for construction of uniform high quality barriers under and around pits and trenches containing buried radioactive waste without excavating or disturbing the waste. The method works by digging a deep vertical trench around the perimeter of a site, filling that trench with high specific gravity grout sealant, and then cutting a horizontal bottom pathway at the base of the trench with a simple cable saw mechanism. The severed block of earth becomes buoyant in the grout and floats on a thick layer of grout, which then cures into an impermeable barrier. The ''Interim Report on task 1 and 2'' which is incorporated into this report as appendix A, provided theoretical derivations, field validation of formulas, a detailed quantitative engineering description of the technique, engineering drawings of the hardware, and a computer model of how the process would perform in a wide variety of soil conditions common to DOE waste burial sites. The accomplishments of task 1 and 2 are also summarized herein Task 3 work product provides a comprehensive field test plan in Appendix B and a health and safety plan in Appendix C and proposal for a field-scale demonstration of the EarthSaw barrier technology. The final report on the subcontracted stress analysis is provided in Appendix D. A copy of the unified computer model is provided as individual non-functional images of each sheet of the spreadsheet and separately as a Microsoft Excel 2000 file.

  15. EARTHSAWtm IN-SITU CONTAINMENT OF PITS AND TRENCHES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernest E. Carter, P.E.

    2002-01-01

    EarthSaw(trademark) is a proposed technology for construction of uniform high quality barriers under and around pits and trenches containing buried radioactive waste without excavating or disturbing the waste. The method works by digging a deep vertical trench around the perimeter of a site, filling that trench with high specific gravity grout sealant, and then cutting a horizontal bottom pathway at the base of the trench with a simple cable saw mechanism. The severed block of earth becomes buoyant in the grout and floats on a thick layer of grout, which then cures into an impermeable barrier. The ''Interim Report on task 1 and 2'' which is incorporated into this report as appendix A, provided theoretical derivations, field validation of formulas, a detailed quantitative engineering description of the technique, engineering drawings of the hardware, and a computer model of how the process would perform in a wide variety of soil conditions common to DOE waste burial sites. The accomplishments of task 1 and 2 are also summarized herein Task 3 work product provides a comprehensive field test plan in Appendix B and a health and safety plan in Appendix C and proposal for a field-scale demonstration of the EarthSaw barrier technology. The final report on the subcontracted stress analysis is provided in Appendix D. A copy of the unified computer model is provided as individual non-functional images of each sheet of the spreadsheet and separately as a Microsoft Excel 2000 file

  16. Monitored Retrievable Storage conceptual system study: cask-in-trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-11-01

    This report provides a description of the Cask-in-Trench Storage Concept which meets a specified set of requirements; an estimate of the costs of construction, operation and decommissioning of the concept; the costs required to expand the facility throughput and storage capability; and the life cycle costs of the facility. 22 figures, 34 tables

  17. Isolation and chemical analysis of nanoparticles from English ivy (Hedera helix L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaghan, Scott C; Burris, Jason N; Chourey, Karuna; Huang, Yujian; Xia, Lijin; Lady, Belinda; Sharma, Ritin; Pan, Chongle; LeJeune, Zorabel; Foister, Shane; Hettich, Robert L; Stewart, C Neal; Zhang, Mingjun

    2013-10-06

    Bio-inspiration for novel adhesive development has drawn increasing interest in recent years with the discovery of the nanoscale morphology of the gecko footpad and mussel adhesive proteins. Similar to these animal systems, it was discovered that English ivy (Hedera helix L.) secretes a high strength adhesive containing uniform nanoparticles. Recent studies have demonstrated that the ivy nanoparticles not only contribute to the high strength of this adhesive, but also have ultraviolet (UV) protective abilities, making them ideal for sunscreen and cosmetic fillers, and may be used as nanocarriers for drug delivery. To make these applications a reality, the chemical nature of the ivy nanoparticles must be elucidated. In the current work, a method was developed to harvest bulk ivy nanoparticles from an adventitious root culture system, and the chemical composition of the nanoparticles was analysed. UV/visible spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and electrophoresis were used in this study to identify the chemical nature of the ivy nanoparticles. Based on this analysis, we conclude that the ivy nanoparticles are proteinaceous.

  18. Soil Characteristics and Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Performance Two Decades after Disk Trenching of Unburned and Broadcast-Burned Plots in Subboreal British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob O. Boateng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of low-impact broadcast-burning and disk-trenching planting position (control, hinge, trench on soil characteristics and lodgepole pine foliar nutrition and growth over two decades at a subboreal site in British Columbia, Canada. Broadcast burning had virtually no effect on either the bulk density or chemical properties of soil. In contrast, significant reductions in soil bulk density and increases in soil nutrient availability persisted for 20 years in hinge position soils relative to undisturbed (control soil between trenches. These effects on bulk density and nutrient availability are associated with significant differences in pine size by year 6. Burning and planting positions interacted significantly in their effect on pine height, diameter, and stem volume for at least 19 years. Pine survival was high regardless of burning or planting position. Neither broadcast burning nor planting position significantly affected lodgepole pine foliar nutrient status in this study.

  19. Isolation and characterization of cellulose nanofibers from culinary banana peel using high-intensity ultrasonication combined with chemical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawas, Prerna; Deka, Sankar C

    2016-02-10

    In the present study, culinary banana peel was explored as a source of raw material for production of cellulose nanofibers (CNFs). For isolation of CNFs, first the peel flour was subjected to different chemical treatments to eliminate non-cellulosic compounds. The obtained chemically treated cellulose fibers were then mechanically tailored and separated into nanofibers using high-intensity ultrasonication at different output power ranging from 0 to 1000 W. The presences of nanofibers in all samples were confirmed by TEM. Increasing output power of ultrasonication reduced size of CNFs and generated more thinner and needle-like structure. SEM, FT-IR and XRD results indicated chemical treatment employed was effective in removing compounds other than cellulose fibers. Thermal analyses evinced the developed CNFs enhanced thermal properties which serve the purpose as an effective reinforcing material to be used as bionanocomposites. Hence, the production of CNFs from this underutilized agro-waste has potential application in commercial field that can add high value to culinary banana. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Modeling the radiation balance within a planted trench system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Isaac; Agam, Nurit; Berliner, Pedro

    2017-04-01

    Micro-catchment systems (MCs) are designed to harvest and utilize rainwater, with the aim of supporting tree growth in arid regions. While MCs were traditionally built with shallow infiltration basins, recent research indicates that MCs with deeper basins retain more water than MCs with shallower basins, and that trees grown in deeper MCs outperform those grown in shallow MCs. This may be partially because the flux of incoming shortwave radiation reaching the surface is decreased in deeper basins. The degree to which the incoming radiation reaching the floor of the MC is reduced, however, depends on the system's dimensions and orientation, geographical location, canopy geometry, soil properties, date, and time. Existing radiation models are either capable of modeling radiation penetration into trenches, or describe transmission of radiation through canopy. None can describe the penetration of radiation through canopy into a trench. The goal of our research was to model the incoming shortwave and longwave radiation flux densities reaching a MC floor in which trees are planted. The model calculates the incoming shortwave and longwave radiation at any given point on the trench floor. In calculating the incoming shortwave radiation, the model considers direct radiation, diffuse radiation, and direct and diffuse radiation reflected from the walls of the MC system. The model also accounts for possible shading and attenuation of the radiation caused by the presence of a canopy in the system. Validation of the model is performed by comparing measured incoming shortwave radiation to modeled outputs. The measurements are conducted at various positions within existing trenches with width of 1 m and length of 12 m, in which three 6-year old olive trees are grown, with 4 m spacing between trees. The flexibility of the model and the ability to change the trench configurations will help enable the maximization of water use efficiency inside MC systems.

  1. In situ respiration measurements of megafauna in the Kermadec Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunnally, Clifton C.; Friedman, Jason R.; Drazen, Jeffrey C.

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to measure metabolic rates of megafauna living in depths greater than 6000 m. Echinoderms, actinarians and a polychaete were captured by remotely operated vehicle (ROV) and inserted into respiration chambers in situ at depths of 4049 m, 7140 m and 8074 m in the region of the Kermadec Trench SW Pacific Ocean. Hadal research has moved into a new frontier as technological improvements now allow for a meticulous investigation of trench ecology in depths greater than 6000 m. The development of an in situ respirometer for use in these studies was deployed in the Kermadec Trench to obtain the first ever rates of basal metabolic rates of hadal megafauna. Typical deep-sea experiments of individual animal physiology must deal with covarying factors of pressure, temperature, light and food supply in this study investigated the effects of pressure and increased food supply on overall animal metabolism. In the Kermadec Trench, holothurian respiration rates (n=4), 0.079±0.011 (mean±SE) μmol-O2 g-1 h-1, were higher than those captured at abyssal depths (n=2), 0.018±0.002 μmol-O2 g-1h-1, in the same region (p<0.001). When Q10 adjusted to a common temperature of 2.5 °C trench holothurian respiration rates ranged between 0.068 and 0.119 μmol-O2 g-1 h-1. Anemone respiration rates were remarkably similar between abyssal and hadal specimens, 0.110 and 0.111 μmol-O2 g-1 h-1, respectively. Our results on echinoderm respiration when corrected for temperature and mass fall below the slope regression when compared with other in situ measurements at shallower ocean depths.

  2. Interpretation of vadose zone monitoring system data near Engineered Trench 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Whiteside, T. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-12-12

    The E-Area Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VZMS) includes lysimeter sampling points at many locations alongside and angling beneath the Engineered Trench #1 (ET1) disposal unit footprint. The sampling points for ET1 were selected for this study because collectively they showed consistently higher tritium (H-3) concentrations than lysimeters associated with other trench units. The VZMS tritium dataset for ET1 from 2001 through 2015 comprises concentrations at or near background levels at approximately half of locations through time, concentrations up to about 600 pCi/mL at a few locations, and concentrations at two locations that have exceeded 1000 pCi/mL. The highest three values through 2015 were 6472 pCi/mL in 2014 and 4533 pCi/mL in 2013 at location VL-17, and 3152 pCi/mL in 2007 at location VL-15. As a point of reference, the drinking water standard for tritium and a DOE Order 435.1 performance objective in the saturated zone at the distant 100-meter facility perimeter is 20 pCi/mL. The purpose of this study is to assess whether these elevated concentrations are indicative of a general trend that could challenge 2008 E-Area Performance Assessment (PA) conclusions, or are isolated perturbations that when considered in the context of an entire disposal unit would support PA conclusions.

  3. Dynamic soil properties of some deep trenches in Mashhad city, NE ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tremor analyses were used. In microtremor stud- ies, floor spectral ratio (FSR) method was used to define dynamical properties of the trench wall. In. 1D equivalent linear, dynamical properties of the trench wall were estimated by determining the top and bottom layers of the trenches as outcrops. The results are presented in ...

  4. Fabrication of large-volume rectangular channels using trench-sidewall technology and a SOI substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltkamp, Henk-Willem; Zhao, Yiyuan; de Boer, Meint J.; Groenesteijn, Jarno; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we propose an extension of surface channel technology (SCT) which is based on trench side wall technologies from the micro-electronics industry and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers. In this CMOS compatible trench-assisted surface channel technology (TASCT) process, refilled trenches

  5. Experimental and quantum chemical studies on poriferasterol - A natural phytosterol isolated from Cassia sophera Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmachari, Goutam; Mondal, Avijit; Nayek, Nayana; Kumar, Abhishek; Srivastava, Ambrish Kumar; Misra, Neeraj

    2017-09-01

    Poriferasterol, a biologically relevant phytosterol, has been isolated and identified first-time from Cassia sophera Linn. (family: Caesalpiniaceae) based on detailed spectral studies. Exhaustive theoretical studies on the molecular structure, vibrational spectra, HOMO, LUMO, MESP surfaces and reactivity descriptor of this plant-derived natural molecule have been performed. The experimentally observed FT-IR spectrum of the title compound has been compared with spectral data obtained by DFT-B3LYP/6-311 + G (d,p) method. The UV-visible spectrum of the title compound has also been recorded and the electronic properties, such as frontier orbitals and band gap energy are measured by TD-DFT approach. The 1H and 13C NMR spectrum has been calculated by using the gauge independent atomic orbital method and compared with the observed data.

  6. Chemical constituents isolated from turnera subulata Sm. and electrochemical characterization of phaeophytin b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Gonçalves de Brito Filho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Turnera subulata Sm., known as "Chanana" or "flor-do-Guarujá" in Brazilian folklore, is a plant species belonging to the subfamily Turneroideae of family Passifloraceae, which is used for various medicinal purposes in Brazil. The phytochemical study conducted here led to the isolation and identification of ten compounds present in T. subulata: two mixtures of steroids, sitosterol and stigmasterol (nonglycosylated and glycosylated; a mixture of flavonoids, 5,7,4′-trihidroxiflavona-8-C-α-glucopyranoside and 5,7,3′,4′-tetrahidroxiflavona-8-C-α-glucopyranosidel; and four phaeophytins, phaeophytin purpurin-18-phytyl ester, a rare natural product, phaeophytin a , 13²-hydroxy-(13²-S-phaeophytin a , and phaeophytin b Phaeophytin b exhibited electrochemical activity similar to that of phthalocyanines.

  7. Chemical constituents isolated from turnera subulata Sm. and electrochemical characterization of phaeophytin b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito Filho, Severino Goncalves de; Fernandes, Marianne Guedes; Souza, Maria de Fatima Vanderlei de, E-mail: mfvanderlei@ltf.ufpb.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude

    2014-07-01

    Turnera subulata Sm., known as 'Chanana' or 'flor-do-Guaruja' in Brazilian folklore, is a plant species belonging to the subfamily Turneroideae of family Passifloraceae, which is used for various medicinal purposes in Brazil. The phytochemical study conducted here led to the isolation and identification of ten compounds present in T. subulata: two mixtures of steroids, sitosterol and stigmasterol (nonglycosylated and glycosylated); a mixture of flavonoids, 5,7,4′-trihidroxiflavona-8-C-α-glucopyranoside and 5,7,3′,4′-tetrahidroxiflavona-8-C-α-glucopyranosidel; and four phaeophytins, phaeophytin purpurin-18-phytyl ester, a rare natural product, phaeophytin a , 13{sup 2}-hydroxy-(13{sup 2}-S)-phaeophytin a , and phaeophytin b Phaeophytin b exhibited electrochemical activity similar to that of phthalocyanines. (author)

  8. Chemical Composition, Biological and Cytotoxic Activities of Plant Extracts and Compounds Isolated from Ferula lutea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Znati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the phytochemical study on Ferula lutea flowers. Total phenolics and flavonoids of the n-butanol and ethyl acetate extracts were quantified (phenolics [40.68–52.29 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of dry weight], flavonoids [12.38–14.72 mg quercitin/g dry weight]. Two diastereoisomers were isolated and identified using spectroscopic techniques (1D, 2D NMR and GC-MS. The extracts and diastereoisomers were tested for antioxidant, antiacetylcholinesterase, antimicrobial, antidiabectic, cytotoxic (leukemia cell line activities and allelopathic potentialities. The strongest antioxidant activity was obtained for the ethyl acetate extract (IC50 = 12.8 ± 1.29 µg/mL. The two extracts exhibited high antidiabetic activity (54.1 and 52.1% at 40 µg/mL.

  9. Relationship Between Chemical Structure and Antioxidant Activity of Luteolin and Its Glycosides Isolated from T . sipyleus subsp. sipyleus var. sipyleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Özgen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One triterpenic acid (ursolic acid, one phenolic acid (rosmarinic acid, and four flavonoids (luteolin, luteolin 7-O-(6”-feruloyl- b -glucopyranoside, luteolin 5-O- b -glucopyranoside, and luteolin 7-O- b -glucuronide were isolated from the aerial parts of Thymus sipyleus subsp. sipyleus var. sipyleus and identified by spectroscopic methods. In vitro lipid peroxidation inhibition effects of the compounds were determined using TBA test method in a bovine brain liposome system. All compounds inhibited lipid peroxidation in various degrees except for ursolic acid. The order of the lipid peroxidation activities of luteolin and its glycosides were: Luteolin 7-O- b -glucuronide> luteolin 5-O- b -glucopyranoside> luteolin 7-O-(6”-feruloyl- b -glucopyranoside > rosmarinic acid >luteolin. However, the activity order of the compounds was completely different in DPPH radical-scavenging activity. None of the compounds shows Fe chelating activity. The results were discussed based on their chemical structures and polarities.

  10. Field application of the Numobag as a portable disposable isolation unit and for treating chemical, radiological or biologically induced wounds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Keith A.; Felton, Robert; Vaughan, Courtenay Thomas

    2005-04-01

    Numotech Inc. has developed the Numobag{trademark}, a disposable, lightweight, wound healing device which produces Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (THOT). The Numobag{trademark} is cost effective and has been clinically validated to heal large skin lesions rapidly and has proven to arrest wound advancement from several insidious forms of biological attack including dermal anthrax, small pox, necrotizing fasciitis etc. The Numobag{trademark} can treat mass casualties wounded by chemical/radiological burns or damaging biological exposures. The Numobag{trademark} can be a frontline tool as an isolation unit, reducing cross-contamination and infection of medical personnel. The heightened oxygen content kills organisms on the skin and in the wound, avoids expensive hospital trash disposal procedures, and helps the flesh heal. The Numobag{trademark} requires high purity oxygen. Numotech Inc. is teaming with Sandia National Laboratories and Spektr Conversion in Russia to develop a cost effective, portable, low power oxygen generator.

  11. Review of corrective measures to stabilize subsidence in shallow-land burial trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roop, R.D.; Staub, W.P.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Ketelle, R.H.; Lee, D.W.; Pin, F.G.; Witten, A.J.

    1983-05-01

    Shallow-land burial of low-level radioactive wastes is frequently followed by subsidence: the slumping, cave-in, or depression of the trench's surface. This report describes and evaluates the measures proposed for correcting subsidence, including roller compaction, grouting, explosives, surcharging, falling mass, pile driving, in situ incineration, and accelerated decomposition. Subsidence, which has occurred at all the major waste disposal sites, has two major causes: filling of packing voids (spaces between waste containers) and filling of interior voids (spaces within containers). Four additional mechanisms also contribute to subsidence: collapse of trench walls, chemical and biological degradation, soil consolidation, and shrink and swell phenomena. Corrective measures for subsidence are evaluated on three criteria: effectiveness, applicability, and cost. The evaluation indicates that one method, falling mass, is considered to be effective, widely applicable, and relatively low in cost, suggesting that this would be the most generally useful technique and would yield the greatest payoff from further development and field trials. There are many uncertainties associated with the cost and effectiveness of corrective measures which can best be resolved by experimental field demonstrations. Site-specific analyses for each disposal area are recommended, to determine which techniques are appropriate and to evaluate the overall desirability of applying corrective measures

  12. Some interactive factors affecting trench-cover integrity on low-level waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.; Lane, L.J.; Steger, J.G.; DePoorter, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes important mechanisms by which radionuclide can be transported from low-level waste disposal sites into biological pathways, discuss interactions of abiotic and biotic processes, and recommends environmental characteristics that should be measured to design sites that minimize this transport. Past experience at shallow land burial sites for low-level radioactive wastes suggest that occurrences of waste exposure and radionuclide transport are often related to inadequate trench cover designs. Meeting performance standards at low-level waste sites can only be achieved by recognizing that physical, chemical, and biological processes operating on and in a trench cover profile are highly interactive. Failure to do so can lead to improper design criteria and subsequent remedial action procedures that can adversely affect site stability. Based upon field experiments and computer modeling, recommendations are made on site characteristics that require measurement in order to design systems that reduce surface runoff and erosion, manage soil moisture and biota in the cover profile to maximize evapotranspiration and minimize percolation, and place bounds on the intrusion potential of plants and animals into the waste material. Major unresolved problems include developing probabilistic approaches that include climatic variability, improved knowledge of soil-water-plant-erosion relationships, development of practical vegetation establishment and maintenance procedures, prediction and quantification of site potential and plant succession, and understanding the interaction of processes occurring on and in the cover profile with deeper subsurface processes

  13. Hit-Validation Methodologies for Ligands Isolated from DNA-Encoded Chemical Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Gunther; Li, Yizhou; Rieder, Ulrike; Mattarella, Martin; Neri, Dario; Scheuermann, Jörg

    2017-05-04

    DNA-encoded chemical libraries (DECLs) are large collections of compounds linked to DNA fragments, serving as amplifiable barcodes, which can be screened on target proteins of interest. In typical DECL selections, preferential binders are identified by high-throughput DNA sequencing, by comparing their frequency before and after the affinity capture step. Hits identified in this procedure need to be confirmed, by resynthesis and by performing affinity measurements. In this article we present new methods based on hybridization of oligonucleotide conjugates with fluorescently labeled complementary oligonucleotides; these facilitate the determination of affinity constants and kinetic dissociation constants. The experimental procedures were demonstrated with acetazolamide, a binder to carbonic anhydrase IX with a dissociation constant in the nanomolar range. The detection of binding events was compatible not only with fluorescence polarization methodologies, but also with Alphascreen technology and with microscale thermophoresis. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Draft genome sequences of three chemically rich actinomycetes isolated from Mediterranean sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Hannes; Cheng, Cheng; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; Hentschel, Ute; Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan

    2015-12-01

    Metabolomic analysis has shown the chemical richness of the sponge-associated actinomycetes Streptomyces sp. SBT349, Nonomureae sp. SBT364, and Nocardiopsis sp. SBT366. The genomes of these actinomycetes were sequenced and the genomic potential for secondary metabolism was evaluated. Their draft genomes have sizes of 8.0, 10, and 5.8 Mb having 687, 367, and 179 contigs with a GC content of 71.6, 70.7, and 72.7%, respectively. Moreover, antiSMASH 3.0 predicted 108, 149, and 75 secondary metabolite gene clusters, respectively which highlight the metabolic capacity of the three actinomycete species to produce diverse classes of natural products. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. In Situ Chemical Mapping and Analysis of Stardust Impact Tracks: Isolation of Cometary Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, H. A.; Brennan, S.; Luening, K.; Ignatyev, K.; Pianetta, P.; Bradley, J. P.

    2006-12-01

    Since the Stardust mission returned in January 2006 with particles from the coma of Comet P/Wild-2, several research groups at synchrotrons around the world have been involved in the Preliminary Examination of Stardust comet dust captured in silica aerogel cells. In situ analysis by x-ray microprobe of intact particle deceleration tracks, impact tracks, in the aerogel collection medium provides the chemical distribution of the cometary material. This includes the typically larger-grained and robust particles deposited at the track terminus as well as the more fine-grained and dispersed material that is deposited near the track entrance and is less accessible to traditional mineralogy studies by TEM. X-ray microprobes on synchrotron sources are powerful tools that can provide compositions of elements present only in trace quantities. Chemical maps and quantitative compositions of impact tracks and their terminal particles have been reported for the set of Stardust samples analyzed during the Preliminary Examination. A significant issue that arose in this process was how to distinguish the background contribution arising from contamination in the aerogel collection medium itself. These elements are present in addition to the ubiquitous Si in the aerogel, vary in concentration from cell to cell and include elements such as Fe and Ca that are relevant to the mineralogy and chemistry of the Stardust samples. Proper removal of this background is necessary for accurate results. We present an approach based on thresholds for distinguishing between the synchrotron x-ray fluorescence originating from the cometary material and that originating from the aerogel and contaminants. Results of this method applied to Stardust tracks are also presented. This approach may be used on any sample in a matrix containing elements of interest in the sample itself.

  16. Intra- and intertrench variations in flexural bending of the Manila, Mariana and global trenches: implications on plate weakening in controlling trench dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Lin, Jian; Zhou, Zhiyuan; Yang, Hongfeng; Zhan, Wenhuan

    2018-02-01

    We conducted detailed analyses of a global array of trenches, revealing systematic intra- and intertrench variations in plate bending characteristics. The intratrench variations of the Manila and Mariana Trenches were analysed in detail as end-member cases of the relatively young (16-36 Ma) and old (140-160 Ma) subducting plates, respectively. Meanwhile, the intertrench variability was investigated for a global array of additional trenches including the Philippine, Kuril, Japan, Izu-Bonin, Aleutian, Tonga-Kermadec, Middle America, Peru, Chile, Sumatra and Java Trenches. Results of the analysis show that the trench relief (W0) and width (X0) of all systems are controlled primarily by the faulting-reduced elastic thickness near the trench axis (Tem) and affected only slightly by the initial unfaulted thickness (TeM) of the incoming plate. The reduction in Te has caused significant deepening and narrowing of trench valleys. For the cases of relatively young or old plates, the plate age could be a dominant factor in controlling the trench bending shape, regardless the variations in axial loadings. Our calculations also show that the axial loading and stresses of old subducting plates can vary significantly along the trench axis. In contrast, the young subducting plates show much smaller values and variations in axial loading and stresses.

  17. In situ grouting of low-level burial trenches with a cement-based grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, C.W.; Spalding, B.P.

    1991-01-01

    A restoration technology being evaluated for use in the closure of one of the low-level radwaste burial grounds at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is trench stabilization using a cement-based grout. To demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of this technology, two interconnecting trenches in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6) were selected as candidates for in situ grouting with a particulate grout. The primary objective was to demonstrate the increased trench stability and decreased potential for leachate migration following in situ injection of a particulate grout into the waste trenches. Stability against trench subsidence is a critical issue. 7 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  18. The Chemical Characteristics and Immune-Modulating Activity of Polysaccharides Isolated from Cold-Brew Coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kwang-Soon

    2017-06-01

    To elucidate new biological ingredients in cold-brew coffee extracted with cold water, crude polysaccharide (CCP-0) was isolated by ethanol precipitation, and its immune-stimulating activities were assayed. CCP-0 mainly comprised galactose (53.6%), mannose (15.7%), arabinose (11.9%), and uronic acid (12.4%), suggesting that it might exist as a mixture of galactomannan and arabinogalactan. CCP-0 significantly increased cell proliferation on both murine peritoneal macrophages and splenocytes in a dose dependent manner. CCP-0 also significantly augmented nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production by murine peritoneal macrophages. In addition, macrophages stimulated by CCP-0 enhanced production of various cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-12. In an in vitro assay for intestinal immune-modulating activity, CCP-0 showed higher bone-marrow cell-proliferation activity through Peyer's patch cells at 100 μg/mL than the negative control. These results suggest that CCP-0 may potentially enhance macrophage functions and the intestinal immune system.

  19. Isolation, chemical characterization and biological activity of alfalfa (Medicago media Pers. root saponins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Oleszek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Saponins from alfalfa (Medicago media Pers. roots were isolated and their acid hydrolysis revealed several aglycones that were obtained in crystalline form and characterized. Medicagenic acid, hederagenin and soyasapogenols A. B, C. D, E and F were found. Crude saponins were separated into cholesterol-precipitable and nonprecipitable fractions. The precipitable fraction consisted of medicagenic acid glycosides: glucose, arabinose, xylose and rhamnose were found as their sugar chain components. The nonprecipitable fraction was a mixture of hederagenine and soyasapogenol glycosides, and glucose arthinose. xylose. galactose and glucuronic acid were found in the sugar component,. 7 he medicagenic acid glycosides made up 6% of root dry matter and showed high biological activity. They cuased red blood cells lysis (haemolytic index 3000, completely inhibited Trichoderma viride growth at the concentration of 2.5 Mg. 100 cm-3 of growth medium and retarded wheat seedling growth at concentrations as low as 100 ppm. The cholesterol-nonprecipitable fraction caused no blood cell lysis and fungus growth inhibition, although it did inhibit seedling growth, but to a much lesser extent than medicagenic acrd glycosides. The detrimental effect of alfalfa root saponins on winter wheat crop after alfalfa is discussed.

  20. Physico-chemical properties of starches isolated from potato cultivars grown in soils with different phosphorus availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonel, Magali; Carmo, Ezequiel L; Fernandes, Adalton M; Franco, Célia M L; Soratto, Rogério P

    2016-04-01

    Starch is the major component of potato tubers, amounting approximately to 150-200 g kg (-1) of the tuber weight. Starch is considered to be a major factor for the functionality of the potato in food applications. This study evaluated the physical characteristics of potato starches isolated from tubers of different potato cultivars grown in soil with three levels of phosphorus (P) availability. All potatoes were growing according the same method. The starches were isolated by physical methods and the samples were analyzed for the amylose, P content, paste properties (RVA) and thermal properties of gelatinization and retrogradation (DSC). Experimental data were analyzed considering the potato cultivars and the three soil P availability. For all measured parameters significant impact of cultivar and soil P availability was determined. Phosphorus contents in potato starches ranged from 0.252 to 0.647 g kg(-1) and amylose from 27.18 to 30.8%. Starches from different potato cultivars independent of soil showed a small range of gelatinization temperature. All starches showed low resistance heating and shear stress. The results showed the influence of growing conditions (soil P availability) and also of the differences between the potato cultivars on important characteristics of applicability of starches. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Assay of antioxidant potential of two Aspergillus isolates by different methods under various physio-chemical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Daljit Singh; Chandra, Priyanka

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this work was to screen fungi isolated from soil of different areas of Punjab, India for antioxidant activity by dot blot assay and around 45% of fungal isolates demonstrated antioxidant potential. Two selected strains of Aspergillus spp (Aspergillus PR78 and Aspergillus PR66) showing quantitatively best antioxidant activity by DPPH assay were further tested for their reducing power, ferrous ion and nitric oxide ion scavenging activity, FRAP assay and total phenolic content. Different physio-chemical parameters were optimized for enhancement of the activity. This revealed stationary culture grown for 10 days at 25 (o)C at pH 7 to be the best for antioxidant activity. Sucrose in the medium as carbon source resulted in highest antioxidant activity. Sodium nitrate, yeast extract, and peptone were good sources of nitrogen but sodium nitrate was the best among these. The extraction of the broth culture filtrates with different solvents revealed ethyl acetate extract to possess the best antioxidant activity. The activity as expressed by ethyl acetate extract of Aspergillus PR78 was equally effective as that of commonly used antioxidant standard, ascorbic acid.

  2. Assay of antioxidant potential of two Aspergillus isolates by different methods under various physio-chemical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daljit Singh Arora

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to screen fungi isolated from soil of different areas of Punjab, India for antioxidant activity by dot blot assay and around 45% of fungal isolates demonstrated antioxidant potential. Two selected strains of Aspergillus spp (Aspergillus PR78 and Aspergillus PR66 showing quantitatively best antioxidant activity by DPPH assay were further tested for their reducing power, ferrous ion and nitric oxide ion scavenging activity, FRAP assay and total phenolic content. Different physio-chemical parameters were optimized for enhancement of the activity. This revealed stationary culture grown for 10 days at 25ºC at pH 7 to be the best for antioxidant activity. Sucrose in the medium as carbon source resulted in highest antioxidant activity. Sodium nitrate, yeast extract, and peptone were good sources of nitrogen but sodium nitrate was the best among these. The extraction of the broth culture filtrates with different solvents revealed ethyl acetate extract to possess the best antioxidant activity. The activity as expressed by ethyl acetate extract of Aspergillus PR78 was equally effective as that of commonly used antioxidant standard, ascorbic acid.

  3. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  4. Investigation on proper materials of a liner system for trench type disposal facilities of radioactive wastes from research, industrial and medical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Hisakazu; Amazawa, Hiroya; Sakai, Akihiro; Arikawa, Masanobu; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki

    2011-08-01

    The Low-level Radioactive Waste Disposal Project Center of Japan Atomic Energy Agency will settle on near surface disposal facilities with and without engineered barriers for radioactive wastes from research, industrial and medical facilities. Both of them are so called 'concrete pit type' and 'trench type', respectively. The technical standard of constructing and operating a disposal facility based on 'Law for the Regulations of Nuclear Source Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and Reactors' have been regulated partly by referring to that of 'Waste Management and Public Cleansing Law'. This means that the concrete pit type and the trench type disposal facility resemble an isolated type for specified industrial wastes and a non leachate controlled type final disposal site for stable industrial wastes, respectively. On the other, We plan to design a disposal facility with a liner system corresponding to a leachate controlled type final disposal site on a crucial assumption that radioactive wastes other than stable industrial wastes to be disposed into the trench type disposal facility is generated. By current nuclear related regulations in Japan, There are no technical standard of constructing the disposal facility with the liner system referring to that of 'Waste Management and Public Cleansing Law'. We investigate the function of the liner system in order to design a proper liner system for the trench type disposal facility. In this report, We investigated liner materials currently in use by actual leachate controlled type final disposal sites in Japan. Thereby important items such as tensile strength, durability from a view point of selecting proper liner materials were studied. The items were classified into three categories according to importance. We ranked proper liner materials for the trench type disposal facility by evaluating the important items per material. As a result, high density polyethylene(HDPE) of high elasticity type polymetric sheet was selected

  5. Isolation and physico-chemical characterization of Butea parviflora seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaki, S. S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Butea parviflora were investigated for oil extraction and the oil was studied for complete physico-chemical properties. The fatty acid profile of the seed oil showed oleic acid (18:1 at 27.5%, linoleic acid (18:2 at 26.4%, palmitic acid (16:0 at 16.1% and behenic acid (22:0 at 14.1% as the major fatty acids. The physico-chemical characteristics of the seed oil were studied for parameters such as free fatty acids (0.71%, iodine value (76.2 g/100g, peroxide value (5.95 ppm, saponification value (177.32 mg KOH/g, unsaponifiable matter (0.82%, phosphorous content (197 ppm, triglyceride analysis, tocols, specific gravity and refractive index following standard procedures.Se ha estudiado la extracción de aceite de semillas de Butea parviflora así como las características físico-químicas completas del aceite. El perfil de ácidos grasos está compuesto de un 27,5% de ácido oleico (18:1, 26,4% de ácido linoleico (18:2, 16,1% de ácido palmítico (16:0 y 14.1% de behénico (22:0 como principales ácidos grasos. Se han estudiado las características físico-químicas del aceite de las semilla tales como los ácidos grasos libres (0,71%, índice de yodo (76,2 g/100 g, índice de peróxido (5,95 ppm, índice de saponificación (177,32 mg KOH/g, materia insaponificable (0,82%, contenido en fósforo (197 ppm, análisis de triglicéridos, gravedad específica e índice de refracción, siguiendo los protocolos recogidos en procedimientos estandarizados.

  6. Variably-saturated groundwater modeling for optimizing managed aquifer recharge using trench infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Benoit, Jerome; Healy, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    Spreading-basin methods have resulted in more than 130 million cubic meters of recharge to the unconfined Navajo Sandstone of southern Utah in the past decade, but infiltration rates have slowed in recent years because of reduced hydraulic gradients and clogging. Trench infiltration is a promising alternative technique for increasing recharge and minimizing evaporation. This paper uses a variably saturated flow model to further investigate the relative importance of the following variables on rates of trench infiltration to unconfined aquifers: saturated hydraulic conductivity, trench spacing and dimensions, initial water-table depth, alternate wet/dry periods, and number of parallel trenches. Modeling results showed (1) increased infiltration with higher hydraulic conductivity, deeper initial water tables, and larger spacing between parallel trenches, (2) deeper or wider trenches do not substantially increase infiltration, (3) alternating wet/dry periods result in less overall infiltration than keeping the trenches continuously full, and (4) larger numbers of parallel trenches within a fixed area increases infiltration but with a diminishing effect as trench spacing becomes tighter. An empirical equation for estimating expected trench infiltration rates as a function of hydraulic conductivity and initial water-table depth was derived and can be used for evaluating feasibility of trench infiltration in other hydrogeologic settings

  7. Transfection of isolated rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, granulosa cells through chemical transfection and electroporation at 12°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marivin, E; Mourot, B; Loyer, P; Rime, H; Bobe, J; Fostier, A

    2015-09-15

    Over-expression or inhibition of gene expression can be efficiently used to analyse the functions and/or regulation of target genes. Modulation of gene expression can be achieved through transfection of exogenous nucleic acids into target cells. Such techniques require the development of specific protocols to transfect cell cultures with nucleic acids. The aim of this study was to develop a method of transfection suitable for rainbow trout granulosa cells in primary culture. After the isolation of rainbow trout granulosa cells, chemical transfection of cells with a fluorescent morpholino oligonucleotide (MO) was tested using FuGENE HD at 12 °C. Electroporation was also employed to transfect these cells with either a plasmid or MO. Transfection was more efficient using electroporation (with the following settings: 1200 V/40 ms/1p) than chemical transfection, but electroporation by itself was deleterious, resulting in a decrease of the steroidogenic capacity of the cells, measured via estradiol production from its androgenic substrate. The disturbance of cell biology induced by the transfection method per se should be taken into account in data interpretation when investigating the effects of under- or over-expression of candidate genes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical composition of the essential oils isolated from peel of three citrus species and their mosquitocidal activity against Culex pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Mohamed E I; Taktak, Nehad E M; El-Aswad, Ahmed F

    2017-10-10

    Three essential oils (EOs) were isolated from the peel of citrus fruits Citrus reticulata L., Citrus reticulata chinase Blanco and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Family: Rutaceae) and evaluated against Culex pipiens L.1758 (Family: Culicidae). Chemical composition indicated that the EOs were rich in essential phytochemicals including hydrocarbons, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. These constituents revealed some variability among the oils displaying interesting chemotypes limonene (35-51%), 1R-α-pinene (1.04-2.5%), γ-terpinene (0.46-5.65%) and sabinene (0.51-5.42%). The toxicity proved that C. sinensis oil had more effect than C. reticulata chinase and C. reticulata oils against larvae (LC 50  = 15.35, 16.11 and 32.84 mg/L, respectively). However, C. reticulate was the most active as fumigant against adults (LC 50 2.74 μL/L air). The in vivo effect on acetylcholine esterase (AChE), carboxyl esterase (CbE), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were also demonstrated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about the chemical composition and mosquitocidal activity of C. reticulata chinase essential oils. Conclusively, the tested essential oils could be used as eco-friendly alternatives in mosquitoes control programme.

  9. Prediction of ocular irritancy of 26 chemicals and 26 cosmetic products with isolated rabbit eye (IRE) test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiang; Yang, Xing Fen; Yang, Ying; Hans, Raabe; Cai, Jing Heng; Xue, Jin Yu; Tan, Xiao Hua; Xie, Xiao Ping; Xiong, Xi Kun; Huang, Jun Ming

    2012-06-01

    This study aims to establish and evaluate the methodology of isolated rabbit eye (IRE) test. IRE test was performed according to modifications of the in vitro toxicology (INVITTOX) Protocol No.85: Rabbit enucleated eye test by European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), and then 26 chemicals and 26 cosmetic products were tested in both in vitro IRE and in vivo Draize tests. A statistical analysis was conducted to determine the relevance of the IRE test to the data generated in the Draize test. IRE test was established successfully in our laboratory. It was shown that ranking correlation and class concordance were fairly well between the IRE test and the Draize test for 26 reference chemicals (Fisher's Exact Test χ(2)=51.314, PTest χ(2)=15.522, Ptest was established successfully for in vitro testing of eye irritation as an alternative to Draize test. Copyright © 2012 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Isolation, culture optimization and physico-chemical characterization of laccase enzyme from Pleurotus fossulatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, P; Hari, R; Chakraborty, B; Mandal, B; Naskar, S; Das, Nirmalendu

    2014-01-15

    Pleurotus fossulatus (Cooke) Sace is member of oyster mushroom can produced extracellular laccase (benzenediol: oxygen oxidoreductase; EC 1.10.3.2) in submerged fermentation. To analyze the optimum production for laccase P. fossulatus was cultured both in stationary and shaking condition in different media. Partial purification of laccase was done after 0-80% ammonium sulphate precipitation, followed by DEAE (Diethylaminoethyl) Sephadex (A-50) anion exchange chromatography. Potato-sucrose peptone (PSP) medium and Potato-dextrose (PD) medium showed highest laccase production in shaking and stationary conditions, respectively. Though the time required for optimum laccase production in stationary condition was much more than the shaking condition but the amount of laccase was about 2.75t greater in former condition. The laccase produced in stationary condition was more stable than the enzyme produced in shaking condition. The partially purified enzyme showed highest affinity towards o-dianisidine than guaiacol and ABTS (2,2'-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) as evidenced by their K(m). The physico-chemical properties of the laccase suggested the significance of this enzyme in industrial applications.

  11. Geophysical investigation of the 116-H-1 liquid waste disposal trench, 100-HR-1 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstrom, K.A.; Mitchell, T.H.

    1996-04-01

    A geophysical investigation and data integration were conducted for the 116-H-1 Liquid Waste Disposal Trench, which is located in the 100-HR-1 Operable Unit. The 116-H-1 Liquid Waste Disposal Trench is also known as the 107-H Liquid Waste Disposal Trench, the 107-H Rupture Effluent Trench, and the 107-H Trench (Deford and Einan 1995). The trench was primarily used to hold effluent from the 107-H Retention Basin that had become radioactive from contact with ruptured fuel elements. The effluent may include debris from the ruptured fuel elements (Koop 1964). The 116-H-1 Liquid Waste Disposal Trench was also used to hold water and sludge from the 107-H Retention Basin during the basin's deactivation in 1965

  12. Interim safety basis compliance matrix for Trenches 31 and 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ames, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    The tables provided in this document identify the specific requirements and basis for the administrative controls established in the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Solid Waste Burial Ground (SWBG) Interim Safety Basis (ISB) for operation of the Project W-025, Mixed Waste Lined Landfill (Trenches 31 and 34). The tables document the necessary controls and implementing procedures to ensure compliance with the requirements of the ISB. These requirements provide a basis for future Unreviewed Safety Questions (USQ) screening of applicable procedure changes, proposed physical modifications, tests, experiments, and occurrences. Table 1 provides the SWBG interim Operational Safety Requirements administrative controls matrix. The specific assumptions and commitments used in the safety analysis documents applicable to disposal of mixed wastes in Trenches 31 and 34 are provided in Table 2. Table 3 is provided to document the potential engineered and administrative mitigating features identified in the Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) for disposal of mixed waste

  13. The East Garrington Trench and Gate system: it works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowles, M.; Rimbey, S.; Bentley, L.; Thomas, D.; Hoyne, B.

    1997-01-01

    A 'trench and gate' system (a modification of the 'funnel and gate' system) has been installed at the Amoco-operated East Garrington gas plant in Alberta to provide long-term remediation for treating contaminated groundwater plumes hosted by low hydraulic conductivity sediments. Modification to the funnel and gate design includes an up gradient high hydraulic conductivity trench and a down gradient infiltration gallery which was found to be effective in biodegrading BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene) compounds. A comprehensive monitoring program was set up to characterize the groundwater flow system. Several indigenous hydrocarbon degrading organisms have been identified. It was shown that locally, under aerobic conditions, phosphorus was the limiting nutrient. 13 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs

  14. Evaluation of some physical and chemical treatments for inactivating microsporidian spores isolated from fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiro, José M; Piazzon, Carla; Domínguez, Berta; Mallo, Natalia; Lamas, Jesús

    2012-05-15

    Microsporidia are a large diverse group of intracellular parasites now considered as fungi. They are particularly prevalent in fish and are recognized as important opportunistic parasites in humans. Although the mode of transmission of microsporidia has not been fully clarified, the consumption and manipulation of infected fish may be a risk factor for humans. Comparative analysis of rDNA sequence revealed that the microsporidians used in the present study had 99-100% identity with anglerfish microsporidians of the genus Spraguea and very low identity with microsporidians that infect humans. Microsporidian spores were exposed to different physical and chemical treatments: freezing at -20°C for 24-78 h, heating at 60°C for 5-15 min, microwaving at 700 W, 2.45 GHz for 15-60s, and treatment with ethanol at concentrations of between 1 and 70% for 15 min. The viability of the spores after each treatment was evaluated by two methods: a) haemocytometer counts, measuring the extrusion of the polar filament in control and treated spores, and b) a fluorometric method, testing the membrane integrity by propidium iodide exclusion. The results of both methods were concordant. Spores were inactivated by freezing at -20°C for more than 48 h, by heating to 60°C for 10 min and by microwaving at 750 W, for 20s. Exposure to 70% ethanol for 15 min also inactivated microsporidian spores. The results suggest that both freezing and heating are effective treatments for destroying microsporidian spores in European white anglerfish, and that 70% ethanol could be used by fish processors to disinfect their hands and the utensils used in processing fish. The fluorometric method can be used as an alternative to haemocytometer counts in disinfection studies aimed at establishing strategies for inactivating and reducing the viability and the potential infectivity of microsporidians present in fish or in the environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ultrafiltration, a useful method for isolation of intermediates in native chemical ligation exemplified with the total synthesis of Sortase AΔN59.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Fang-kun

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, ultrafiltration was employed to facilitate the isolation of intermediates in native chemical ligation. Depending on the molecular weight cutoff of the membrane used, molecules with different sizes could be purified, separated, or concentrated by the ultrafiltration process. Total chemical synthesis of the polypeptide chain of the enzyme Sortase AΔN59 was used as an example of the application of ultrafiltration in chemical protein synthesis. Sortase A is a ligase that catalyzes transpeptidation reactions between proteins that have C-terminal LPXTG recognition sequence and Gly5- on the peptidoglycan of bacterial cell walls. Ultrafiltration technique facilitated synthesis of Sortase AΔN59 and was a promising tool in isolation of intermediates in native chemical ligation. Copyright © 2015 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Color Image of Snow White Trenches and Scraping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image was acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on the 31st Martian day of the mission, or Sol 31 (June 26, 2008), after the May 25, 2008 landing. This image shows the trenches informally called 'Snow White 1' (left), 'Snow White 2' (right), and within the Snow White 2 trench, the smaller scraping area called 'Snow White 3.' The Snow White 3 scraped area is about 5 centimeters (2 inches) deep. The dug and scraped areas are within the diggiing site called 'Wonderland.' The Snow White trenches and scraping prove that scientists can take surface soil samples, subsurface soil samples, and icy samples all from one unit. Scientists want to test samples to determine if some ice in the soil may have been liquid in the past during warmer climate cycles. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver

  17. Physico-chemical and techno-functional properties of proteins isolated from the green microalgae Tetraselmis sp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwenzfeier, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, the mild isolation of an algae soluble protein isolate (ASPI) and the characterisation of its techno-functional properties are described. The ASPI was isolated from the green microalgae Tetraselmis sp. by beadmilling and subsequent anion exchange adsorption. The isolate obtained

  18. Mycelium cultivation, chemical composition and antitumour activity of a Tolypocladium sp. fungus isolated from wild Cordyceps sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, P H; Zhang, Q X; Wu, J Y

    2006-08-01

    To examine and illustrate the morphological characteristics and growth kinetics of Cs-HK1, a Tolypocladium fungus, isolated from wild Cordyceps sinensis in solid and liquid cultures, and the major chemical constituents and antitumour effects of Cs-HK1 mycelium. The Cs-HK1 fungus was isolated from the fruiting body of a wild C. sinensis and identified as a Tolypocladium sp. fungus. It grew rapidly at 22-25 degrees C on a liquid medium containing glucose, yeast extract, peptone and major inorganic salts, with a specific growth rate of 1.1 day(-1), reaching a cell density of 23.0 g dw l(-1) in 7-9 days. Exopolysaccharides accumulated in the liquid culture to about 0.3 g l(-1) glucose equivalent. In comparison with natural C. sinensis, the fungal mycelium had similar contents of protein (11.7-microg) and carbohydrate (654.6-microg) but much higher contents of polysaccharide (244.2 mg vs 129.5 mg), adenosine (1116.8-microg vs 264.6 microg) and cordycepin (65.7 microg vs 20.8 microg) (per gram dry weight). Cyclosporin A, an antibiotic commonly produced by Tolypocladium sp., was also detected from the mycelium extract. The hot water extract of mycelium showed low cytotoxic effect on B16 melanoma cells in culture (about 25% inhibition) but significant antitumour effect in animal tests, causing 50% inhibition of B16 cell-induced tumour growth in mice. The Tolypocladium sp. fungus, Cs-HK1, can be easily cultivated by liquid fermentation. The mycelium biomass contained the major bioactive compounds of C. sinensis, and the mycelium extract had significant antitumour activity. The Cs-HK1 fungus may be a new and promising medicinal fungus and an effective and economical substitute of the wild C. sinensis for health care.

  19. Trench 'bathtubbing' and surface plutonium contamination at a legacy radioactive waste site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Timothy E; Harrison, Jennifer J; Hughes, Catherine E; Johansen, Mathew P; Thiruvoth, Sangeeth; Wilsher, Kerry L; Cendón, Dioni I; Hankin, Stuart I; Rowling, Brett; Zawadzki, Atun

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive waste containing a few grams of plutonium (Pu) was disposed between 1960 and 1968 in trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), near Sydney, Australia. A water sampling point installed in a former trench has enabled the radionuclide content of trench water and the response of the water level to rainfall to be studied. The trench water contains readily measurable Pu activity (~12 Bq/L of (239+240)Pu in 0.45 μm-filtered water), and there is an associated contamination of Pu in surface soils. The highest (239+240)Pu soil activity was 829 Bq/kg in a shallow sample (0-1 cm depth) near the trench sampling point. Away from the trenches, the elevated concentrations of Pu in surface soils extend for tens of meters down-slope. The broader contamination may be partly attributable to dispersion events in the first decade after disposal, after which a layer of soil was added above the trenched area. Since this time, further Pu contamination has occurred near the trench-sampler within this added layer. The water level in the trench-sampler responds quickly to rainfall and intermittently reaches the surface, hence the Pu dispersion is attributed to saturation and overflow of the trenches during extreme rainfall events, referred to as the 'bathtub' effect.

  20. A newly isolated Bacillus licheniformis strain thermophilically produces 2,3-butanediol, a platform and fuel bio-chemical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixiang; Zhang, Lijie; Li, Kun; Wang, Yu; Gao, Chao; Han, Binbin; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2013-08-28

    2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD), a platform and fuel bio-chemical, can be efficiently produced by Klebsiella pneumonia, K. oxytoca, and Serratia marcescens. However, these strains are opportunistic pathogens and not favorable for industrial application. Although some generally regarded as safe (GRAS) microorganisms have been isolated in recent years, there is still a demand for safe 2,3-BD producing strains with high productivity and yield under thermophilic fermentation. Bacillus licheniformis strain 10-1-A was newly isolated for 2,3-BD production. The optimum temperature and medium pH were 50°C and pH 7.0 for 2,3-BD production by strain 10-1-A. The medium composition was optimized through Plackett-Burman design and response surface methodology techniques. With a two-stage agitation speed control strategy, 115.7 g/L of 2,3-BD was obtained from glucose by fed-batch fermentation in a 5-L bioreactor with a high productivity (2.4 g/L·h) and yield (94% of its theoretical value). The 2,3-BD produced by strain 10-1-A comprises (2R,3R)-2,3-BD and meso-2,3-BD with a ratio of nearly 1:1. The bdh and gdh genes encoding meso-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase (meso-BDH) and glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH) of strain 10-1-A were expressed in Escherichia coli and the proteins were purified. meso-2,3-BD and (2R,3R)-2,3-BD were transformed from racemic acetoin by meso-BDH and GDH with NADH, respectively. Compared with the reported GRAS 2,3-BD producers, B. licheniformis 10-1-A could thermophilically produce 2,3-BD with a high concentration, productivity and yield. Thus, the newly isolated GRAS strain 10-1-A might be a promising strain for industrial production of 2,3-BD. Two key enzymes for meso-2,3-BD and (2R,3R)-2,3-BD production were purified and further studied, and this might be helpful to understand the mechanism for 2,3-BD stereoisomers forming in B. licheniformis.

  1. Nematode communities in sediments of the Kermadec Trench, Southwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Daniel; Rowden, Ashley A.

    2018-04-01

    Hadal trenches are characterized by environmental conditions not found in any other deep-sea environment, such as steep topography and periodic disturbance by turbidity flows, which are likely responsible for the distinct nature of benthic communities of hadal trenches relative to those of the abyssal plain. Nematodes are the most abundant metazoans in the deep-sea benthos, but it is not yet clear if different trenches host distinct nematode communities, and no data are yet available on the communities of most trenches, including the Kermadec Trench in the Southwest Pacific. Quantitative core samples from the seafloor of the Kermadec Trench were recently obtained from four sites at 6000-9000 m depth which allowed for analyses of meiofauna, and nematodes in particular, for the first time. Nematode community and trophic structure was also compared with other trenches using published data. There was a bathymetric gradient in meiofauna abundance, biomass, and community structure within the Kermadec Trench, but patterns for species richness were ambiguous depending on which metric was used. There was a change in community structure from shallow to deep sites, as well as a consistent change in community structure from the upper sediment layers to the deeper sediment layers across the four sites. These patterns are most likely explained by variation in food availability within the trench, and related to trench topography. Together, deposit and microbial feeders represented 48-92% of total nematode abundance in the samples, which suggests that fine organic detritus and bacteria are major food sources. The relatively high abundance of epigrowth feeders at the 6000 and 9000 m sites (38% and 31%, respectively) indicates that relatively freshly settled microalgal cells represent another important food source at these sites. We found a significant difference in species community structure between the Kermadec and Tonga trenches, which was due to both the presence/absence of

  2. Chemical Assessment and Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Endophytic Fungi Extracts Isolated from Costus spiralis (Jacq.) Roscoe (Costaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marson Ascêncio, Poliana Guerino; Ascêncio, Sérgio Donizeti; Aguiar, Aline Aires; Fiorini, Adriana; Pimenta, Raphael Sanzio

    2014-01-01

    Costus spiralis (Costaceae) is a species native to the Amazon region and is used in traditional medicine. The endophytic fungi used in this study were obtained from leaves of this plant. 13 strains were selected to obtain hydroethanolic extracts and were submitted to hydroalcoholic extraction and evaluated for antioxidant activity by DPPH (2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power), and all of the fungi had positive results. The antimicrobial action of crude extracts had a good range of activities. All extracts had inhibitory activities against the yeasts of Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis, with 125 to 500 μg/mL MIC. Eight extracts had antimicrobial activities against Bacillus subtilis (MIC from 62.4 to 125 μg/mL), 5 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC from 125 to 500 μg/mL), 2 against Salmonella enterica (MIC from 125 to 62.5 μg/mL), and 2 against Enterococcus faecalis (MIC from 500 to 125 μg/mL). The presence of secondary metabolites, including coumarins, was observed during chemical evaluation by thin layer chromatography. Total phenol content was estimated, and a strong positive correlation to antioxidant activity was observed, according to its Pearson coefficient. This is the first report of the bioactive potential of endophytic fungi isolated from the Costaceae family in Brazilian ecosystems. PMID:25587339

  3. Chemical composition and nutrient degradability in elephant grass silage inoculated with Streptococcus bovis isolated from the rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELE J. FERREIRA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to assess the chemical and bromatological composition and in situ degradability of elephant grass silages inoculated with Streptococcus bovis isolated from cattle rumen. A complete randomized design was used with four treatments and six replications: elephant grass silage, elephant grass silage inoculated with 106 CFU/g Streptococcus bovis JB1 strains; elephant grass silage inoculated with 106 CFU/g Streptococcus bovis HC5 strains; elephant grass silage inoculated with 106 CFU/g Enterococcus faecium with six replications each. The pH and ammoniacal nitrogen values were lower (P<0.05 for the silages inoculated with Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5, respectively. The silage inoculated with Streptococcus bovis had a higher crude protein content (P<0.05 and there were no differences for the fiber contents in the silage. The (asoluble fraction degradability, especially in the silages inoculated with Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5, had higher values, 30.77 and 29.97%, for dry matter and 31.01 and 36.66% for crude protein, respectively. Inoculation with Streptococcus bovis improved the fermentation profile, protein value and rumen degradability of the nutrients.

  4. Chemical Variability of the Essential Oil Isolated from Aerial Parts of Tetraclinis articulata from North-Western Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussaïd, Maghnia; Bekhechi, Chahrazed; Beddou, Fawzia; Sari, Daoudi Chabane; Bighelli, Ange; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix

    2015-08-01

    The objective was to investigate the yield and chemical composition of 50 essential oil samples isolated from leaves and flowers of Tetraclinis articulata harvested in eight locations (coastal township and highlands) of Tlemcen Province (North-Western Algeria). Essential oil yields varied drastically from sample to sample (0.03 to 0.86%, w/w). No direct correlation was observed between the yield and the altitude of the harvest areas. The oils consisted mainly of monoterpenes: α-pinene (9.2-56.5%), bornyl acetate (1.2-45.1%), camphor (0.5-40.3%), borneol (0.2-12.9%), limonene (3.6-12.5%), and myrcene (1.6-9.7%). Sesquiterpenes were represented by germacrene D (up to 14.2%) and (E)-β-caryophyllene (up to 13.3%). PCA analysis of the data allowed the distinction of two groups within the samples. The composition of group I (9 samples) was dominated by camphor, (Mean = 30.9%) followed by α-pinene (M = 19.1%) and bornyl acetate (M = 11.4%). Group II was divided into two sub-groups. Samples of sub-group IIA (8 samples) contained mainly α-pinene (M = 45.4%). Samples of the largest group IIB (33 samples) were characterized by similar contents of α-pinene (M = 28.2%) and bornyl acetate (M = 24.5%) and the occurrence of camphor to a lesser extent (M = 10.0%).

  5. Chemical Assessment and Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Endophytic Fungi Extracts Isolated from Costus spiralis (Jacq. Roscoe (Costaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Guerino Marson Ascêncio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Costus spiralis (Costaceae is a species native to the Amazon region and is used in traditional medicine. The endophytic fungi used in this study were obtained from leaves of this plant. 13 strains were selected to obtain hydroethanolic extracts and were submitted to hydroalcoholic extraction and evaluated for antioxidant activity by DPPH (2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power, and all of the fungi had positive results. The antimicrobial action of crude extracts had a good range of activities. All extracts had inhibitory activities against the yeasts of Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis, with 125 to 500 μg/mL MIC. Eight extracts had antimicrobial activities against Bacillus subtilis (MIC from 62.4 to 125 μg/mL, 5 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC from 125 to 500 μg/mL, 2 against Salmonella enterica (MIC from 125 to 62.5 μg/mL, and 2 against Enterococcus faecalis (MIC from 500 to 125 μg/mL. The presence of secondary metabolites, including coumarins, was observed during chemical evaluation by thin layer chromatography. Total phenol content was estimated, and a strong positive correlation to antioxidant activity was observed, according to its Pearson coefficient. This is the first report of the bioactive potential of endophytic fungi isolated from the Costaceae family in Brazilian ecosystems.

  6. Determining the extent of groundwater interference on the performance of infiltration trenches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locatelli, Luca; Mark, Ole; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2015-01-01

    Infiltration trenches are widely used in stormwater management, but their capacity decreases when installed in areas with shallow groundwater where infiltration is limited by groundwater drainage. Here the hydrological performance of single infiltration trenches in areas with shallow water tables...... is quantified in terms of their capability to reduce peak flow, peak volume and annual stormwater runoff volume. To simulate the long term hydrological performance of infiltration trenches two different models are employed. The models continuously simulate infiltration rates from infiltration trenches using...... to quantify the impact of parameter variability for each scenario. Statistical analysis of the continuous long term model simulations was used to quantify the hydrological performance of infiltration trenches. Results show that infiltration trenches are affected by groundwater when there is an unsaturated...

  7. ORNL Solid Waste Storage Area 6 trench photos and geologic descriptions, July 1984-September 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.C.; Marshall, D.S.; Stansfield, R.G.; Dreier, R.B.

    1986-03-01

    The Environmental Sciences Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has initiated a photographic and descriptive geologic study of low-level waste trenches opened in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA-6). From July 1984 through September 1985, trenches were excavated, geologically described, and photographed before being filled and closed. Only three trenches (Nos. 438, 448, and 465) were excavated and closed before photography could be scheduled. It is recommended that the systematic trench characterization procedure outlined in this report be continued under the direction of ORNL's Operations Division with support from both Environmental Sciences and the Engineering divisions. Publication of such a compilation of trench photos on a yearly basis will serve not only as a part of Department of Energy trench documentation requirements but also as a component of a SWSA-6 geologic data base being developed for current research and development activities. 2 refs., 38 figs

  8. In Silico and In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Isolated Novel Marker Compound from Chemically Modified Bioactive Fraction from Curcuma longa (NCCL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Arshi; Malasoni, Richa; Gupta, Swati; Srivastava, Akansha; Pandey, Rishi R; Dwivedi, Anil Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Turmeric ( Curcuma longa ) is reported to possess wide array of biological activities. Herbal Medicament (HM) is a standardized hexane-soluble fraction of C. longa and is well known for its neuroprotective effect. In this study, we attempted to synthesize a novel chemically modified bioactive fraction from HM (NCCL) along with isolation and characterization of a novel marker compound (I). NCCL was prepared from HM. The chemical structure of the marker compound isolated from NCCL was determined from 1D/2D nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared. The compound so isolated was subjected to in silico and in vitro screenings to test its inhibitory effect on estrogen receptors. Molecular docking studies revealed that the binding poses of the compound I was energetically favorable. Among NCCL and compound I taken for in vitro studies, NCCL had exhibited good anti-cancer activity over compound I against MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, DU-145, and PC-3 cells. This is the first study about the synthesis of a chemically modified bioactive fraction which used a standardized extract since the preparation of the HM. It may be concluded that NCCL fraction having residual components induce more cell death than compound I alone. Thus, NCCL may be used as a potent therapeutic drug. In the present paper, a standardized hexane soluble fraction of Curcuma longa (HM) was chemically modified to give a novel bioactive fraction (NCCL). A novel marker compound was isolated from NCCL and was characerized using various spectral techniques. The compound so isolated was investigated for in-silico screenings. NCCL and isolated compound was subjected to in-vitro anti-cancer screenings against MCF 7, MDA MB 231 (breast adenocarcinoma) and DU 145 and PC 3 cell lines (androgen independent human prostate cancer cells). The virtual screenings reveals that isolated compound has shown favourable drug like properties. NCCL fraction having residual components induces more cell

  9. Determining the extent of groundwater interference on the performance of infiltration trenches

    OpenAIRE

    Locatelli, Luca; Mark, Ole; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Wong, Tony; Binning, Philip John

    2015-01-01

    Infiltration trenches are widely used in stormwater management, but their capacity decreases when installed in areas with shallow groundwater where infiltration is limited by groundwater drainage. Here the hydrological performance of single infiltration trenches in areas with shallow water tables is quantified in terms of their capability to reduce peak flow, peak volume and annual stormwater runoff volume. To simulate the long term hydrological performance of infiltration trenches two differ...

  10. Imaging trench-line disruptions: Swath mapping of subduction zone

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Mukhopadhyay, R.

    these earthquakes caused tsunamis. The fifth tsunami in this region was caused by the eruption of Krakatoa vo l cano . The trench is sharply delineated on the east by piled - up under - thrusted sediment scraped from the top surface of the subducting Ind ian... plate (red - brown shaded area, Figure 1). The resulting en - echelon piling of sed i ments forms the Andaman Ridge, at the top sub - aerial part of which the A n- daman group of Islands is located. The dee p est part along this sediment - filled...

  11. Chemical composition, molecular weight distribution, secondary structure and effect of NaCl on functional properties of walnut (Juglans regia L) protein isolates and concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiao-Ying; Hua, Yu-Fei

    2014-08-01

    Chemical composition, molecular weight distribution, secondary structure and effect of sodium chloride concentration on functional properties of walnut protein isolates, concentrates and defatted walnut flour were study. Compared with walnut protein concentrates (75.6%) and defatted walnut flour (52.5%), walnut protein isolates contain a relatively high amount of protein (90.5%). The yield of walnut protein isolates and concentrates was 43.2% and 76.6%, respectively. In molecular weight distribution study, Walnut protein isolates showed one peak with molecular weight of 106.33 KDa (100%) and walnut protein concentrates showed four peaks with molecular weight of 16,725 KDa (0.8%),104.943 KDa(63.9%), 7.3 KDa (11.4%), 2.6 KDa (23.9%). The secondary structure of walnut protein isolates was similar to that of walnut protein concentrates, but was differ from that of defatted walnut flour. The addition of sodium chloride (0 ~ 1 M) could improve the functionality of walnut protein concentrates, isolates and defatted walnut flour. The maximum solubility, water absorption capacity, emulsifying properties and foaming properties of walnut protein isolates, concentrates and defatted walnut flour were at sodium chloride solutions of 1.0 M, 0.6 M, 0.4 M, 0.6 M, respectively. The solubility of walnut protein concentrates (32.5%) in distilled water with 0 M sodium chloride was lower than that of walnut protein isolates (35.2%). The maximum solubility of walnut protein isolates, concentrates and defatted walnut flour in solution were 36.8%, 33.7% and 9.6% at 1.0 M sodium chloride solutions, respectively. As compared with other vegetable proteins, walnut protein isolates and concentrates exhibited better emulsifying properties and foam stability.

  12. Chemical analysis, inhibition of biofilm formation and biofilm eradication potential of Euphorbia hirta L. against clinical isolates and standard strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Shanmugapriya; Mahmud, Roziahanim

    2013-12-09

    The frequent occurrences of antibiotic-resistant biofilm forming pathogens have become global issue since various measures that had been taken to curb the situation led to failure. Euphorbia hirta, is a well-known ethnomedicinal plant of Malaysia with diverse biological activities. This plant has been used widely in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal, bronchial and respiratory ailments caused by infectious agents. In the present study, chemical compositions of methanol extract of E. hirta L. aerial part was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. A relevant in vitro model was developed to assess the potency of the E. hirta extract to inhibit the bacterial biofilm formation as well as to eradicate the established biofilms. Besides biofilm, E. hirta extract was also evaluated for the inhibition efficacy on planktonic cells using tetrazolium microplate assay. For these purposes, a panel of clinically resistant pathogens and American type culture collection (ATCC) strains were used. The methanolic extract of aerial part of E. hirta was predominantly composed of terpenoid (60.5%) which is often regarded as an active entity accountable for the membrane destruction and biofilm cell detachment. The highest antibacterial effect of crude E. hirta extract was observed in the clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 0.062 mg/ml. The extract also displayed potent biofilm inhibition and eradication activity against P. aeruginosa with minimum biofilm inhibition concentration (MBIC) and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) values of 0.25 mg/ml and 0.5 mg/ml, respectively. The crude methanol extract of E. hirta has proven to have interesting and potential anti-biofilm properties. The findings from this study will also help to establish a very promising anti-infective phytotherapeutical to be exploited in the pharmaceutical industries.

  13. The Incident in Trench A - Follow-up and Lessons

    CERN Multimedia

    Olga Beltramello; Peter Jenni

    An incident happened on 12th October during the dismounting of the HF truck platform in Trench A in the ATLAS cavern. Nobody was injured or in direct danger to be hurt, thanks in particular to the vigilance of the lifting operation crew. However, there is ample matter to reflect upon, and to recall safety measures applicable at any time in the cavern. What happened? During the lifting operation of a lateral platform from the orange HF Truck, used for example for the calorimeter assembly, one of the ~7 m long pillars fell on the access stairs into the ATLAS detector (sector 13). The standard operation to dismount the platform consisted in first unbolting the platform from its support pillars and removing it. Then, after securing a given pillar with the crane, this pillar is unbolted from the floor and removed. By mistake, this pillar was not bolted onto the floor, and fell when the platform was removed. Nobody was present in the trench during the lifting operation and the fall of the pillar. The contractor in...

  14. The oldest cultural horizon of trench XV at Drenovac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perić Slaviša

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Re-excavation of a Neolithic site at Slatina - Turska česma in Drenovac near Paraćin started in 2004. Trench XV, with an area of 36 sq. m., was explored between 2004 and 2006. The cultural layer in this trench ended at the depth of approx. 6m, where a pit was noted and defined as a dwelling structure. The back-fill of the pit and the layer immediately above were covered with alluvium, so that the archaeological finds below the alluvium can be considered a closed unit. The results of the preliminary analyses of the stratigraphy and small finds below the alluvium have revealed that the pit had been abandoned before the flooding and that, for a longer period, there was no dwelling structure in that place. The main features of the small finds from the pit itself indicate the earlier Neolithic origin, i.e. the earlier period of the Starčevo culture group.

  15. Water sources as reservoirs of Vibrio cholerae O1 and non-O1 strains in Bepanda, Douala (Cameroon): relationship between isolation and physico-chemical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoachere, Jane-Francis Tatah Kihla; Mbuntcha, Christelle Kwedjeu Pulcherie

    2014-07-30

    Cholera has been endemic in Douala since 1971. Most outbreaks start from Bepanda, an overcrowded neighbourhood with poor hygiene and sanitary conditions. We investigated water sources in Bepanda as reservoirs of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, determined its antibiotic susceptibility and some physico-chemical characteristics that could maintain the endemicity of this organism in Bepanda. Three hundred and eighteen water samples collected from 45 wells, 8 taps and 1 stream from February to July 2009 were analyzed for V. cholerae using standard methods. Isolates were characterized morphologically, biochemically and serologically. The disc diffusion technique was employed to investigate antibiotic susceptibility. Differences in prevalence of organism between seasons were analysed. Correlation strength and direction of association between physico-chemical parameters and occurrence of V. cholerae was analyzed using the Kendall tau_b non-parametric correlation. This was further confirmed with the forward-stepwise binary logistic regression. Eighty-seven (27.4%) samples were positive for V. cholerae. Isolation was highest from wells. The organism was isolated in the rainy season and dry season but the frequency of isolation was significantly higher (χ2 = 7.009, df = 1, P = 0.008) in the rainy season. Of the 96 confirmed V. cholerae isolates, 32 (33.3%) belonged to serogroup O1 and 64 (66.6%) were serogroup non-O1/non-O139. Isolates from tap (municipal water) were non-O1/non-O139 strains. Salinity had a significant positive correlation with isolation in the dry season (+0.267, P = 0.015) and rainy season (+0.223, P = 0.028). The forward-stepwise method of binary logistic regression indicated that as pH (Wald = 11.753, df = 1), P = 0.001) increased, odds of isolation of V. cholerae also increased (B = 1.297, S.E = 0.378, Exp(B) = 3.657). All isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin. Multi-drug resistance was predominant among the non-O1/non

  16. CHEMICAL STUDY OF Hortia superba (Rutaceae) AND INVESTIGATION OF THE ANTIMYCOBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CRUDE EXTRACTS AND CONSTITUENTS ISOLATED FROM Hortia SPECIES

    OpenAIRE

    Severino, Vanessa Gisele Pasqualotto; Felix, Monteiro Afif; Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes da; Lucarini, Rodrigo; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the chemical study of Hortia superba and antimycobacterial potential of Hortia species were investigated. Crude extracts and limonoids, alkaloids, dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives and coumarins isolated from Hortia superba, Hortia oreadica and Hortia brasiliana were evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium avium. The results obtained demonstrated an inhibitory effect of the dichloromethane extract of leaves of H. oreadica (MIC...

  17. Hadal disturbance in the Japanese Trench as induced by the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oguri, Kazumasa; Kawamura, Kiichiro; Sakaguchi, Arito

    2013-01-01

    In situ video observations and sediment core samplings were performed at two hadal sites in the Japan Trench on July, 2011, four months after the Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Video recordings documented dense nepheloid layers extending similar to 30-50 m above the sea bed. At the trench axis, benthic...

  18. 29 CFR Appendix D to Subpart P of... - Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring for Trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... 1926, Subpt. P, App. D Appendix D to Subpart P of Part 1926—Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring for Trenches (a... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring for Trenches D Appendix D to Subpart P of Part 1926 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...

  19. Silicon drift detectors with the drift field induced by pureB-coated trenches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanver, Lis Karen; Kneževi´c, Tihomir; Suligoj, Tomislav

    2016-01-01

    Junction formation in deep trenches is proposed as a new means of creating a built-in drift field in silicon drift detectors (SDDs). The potential performance of this trenched drift detector (TDD) was investigated analytically and through simulations, and compared to simulations of conventional

  20. Chasing the Ghost of Melesina Trench: A film by Qina Liu in collaboration with Katharine Kittredge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Kittredge

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Filmmaker Qina Liu has created a short documentary about Katharine Kittredge's decade-long quest to learn about the life and work of Anglo-Irish diarist and poet Melesina Trench. The story tells of remarkable coincidences, documents lost and found, and the emergence of Trench's descendants in the project's final chapter.

  1. Comparison between infaunal communities of the deep floor and edge of the Tonga Trench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leduc, Daniel; Rowden, Ashley A.; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2016-01-01

    Hadal trenches are characterised by environmental conditions not found in any other environment, thereby providing new opportunities to understand the processes that shape deep-sea benthic cornmunities. Technological advances have led to an increase in the number of investigations in hadal trench...

  2. Simple analytical expression for crosstalk estimation in homogeneous trench-assisted multi-core fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Feihong; Tu, Jiajing; Saitoh, Kunimasa

    2014-01-01

    An analytical expression for the mode coupling coe cient in homogeneous trench-assisted multi-core fibers is derived, which has a sim- ple relationship with the one in normal step-index structures. The amount of inter-core crosstalk reduction (in dB) with trench-assisted structures compared...

  3. Influence of lateral slab edge distance on plate velocity, trench velocity, and subduction partitioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W. P.; Stegman, D. R.; Farrington, R. J.; Moresi, L.

    2011-01-01

    Subduction of oceanic lithosphere occurs through both trenchward subducting plate motion and trench retreat. We investigate how subducting plate velocity, trench velocity and the partitioning of these two velocity components vary for individual subduction zone segments as a function of proximity to

  4. Preparation of mayonnaise from extracted plant protein isolates of chickpea, broad bean and lupin flour: chemical, physiochemical, nutritional and therapeutic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alu'datt, Muhammad H; Rababah, Taha; Alhamad, Mohammad N; Ereifej, Khalil; Gammoh, Sana; Kubow, Stan; Tawalbeh, Deia

    2017-05-01

    This investigation was aimed to study the molecular, physico-chemical, and biofunctional health properties of mayonnaise prepared using proteins isolated from broad bean, lupin and chickpea flour. Proteins were isolated from chickpea (CPPI), broad bean (BBPI) and lupin (LPPI) flour and assessed for molecular, physico-chemical, biofunctional, and protein yield. The highest water holding capacity, foaming stability, emulsion stability as well as protein yield and protein content of 44.0, 70.8, 37.5, 81.2, and 36.4, respectively were observed for BBPI. Mayonnaise prepared from the isolated plant proteins was evaluated for chemical composition, molecular properties of the protein subunits, and potential nutraceutical properties. Preparation of mayonnaise using BBPI or a mixture of either BBPI and CPPI or BBPI and LPPI showed superior values for lightness and lowered values for redness. Mayonnaise prepared from either BBPI or the BBPI and CPPI mixture showed the best antioxidant, antihypertensive and antidiabetic properties. The present study results indicated that the use of the BBPI and CPPI mixture can be a novel technological approach for the development of a mayonnaise with improved health promoting properties.

  5. Capacity of a newly isolated fungus Pleurotus eryngii from Tunceli, Ovacik for chemical oxygen demand reduction and biodecolorization of Azo-Dye Congo Red.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, N; Gonen, U

    2015-06-07

    Biodecolorization of Congo red dye in both agar—plate and agitated liquid culture mediums by newly isolated white rot fungus Pleurotus eryngii has been studied. This fungus isolated from Tunceli—Ovacik province of Turkey. We have also examined the chemical oxygen demand reduction after decolorization under agitated liquid culture medium. For agar plate screening the decolorization capacity of P. eryngii, growth and decolorization halos were determined on saboroud dextrose agar (SDA) plates containing 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 g/l of Congo red. P. eryngii showed certain decolorization capacities and was able to decolorize all studied concentrations of Congo red, but not to the same extent. Our results indicated that the new isolate P. eryngii had maximum decolorization (87% at 100 mg/l initial dye concentration) and chemical oxygen demand reduction (82% at 25 mg/l initial dye concentration) activities after 7 days under agitated submerged culture conditions. This new isolate could be an effective bioremediation tool for treatment of Congo red containing textile wastewater.

  6. Interim-status groundwater monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, M.D.

    1995-06-13

    This document outlines the groundwater monitoring plan for interim-status detection-level monitoring of the 216-B-63 Trench. This is a revision of the initial groundwater monitoring plan prepared for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by Bjornstad and Dudziak (1989). The 216-B-63 Trench, located at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State, is an open, unlined, earthern trench approximately 1.2 m (4 ft) wide at the bottom, 427 m (1400 ft) long, and 3 m (10 ft) deep that received wastewater containing hazardous waste and radioactive materials from B Plant, located in the 200 East Area. Liquid effluent discharge to the 216-B-63 Trench began in March 1970 and ceased in February 1992. The trench is now managed by Waste Tank Operations.

  7. Geophysical investigation of trench 4, Burial Ground 218-W-4C, 200 west area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiesler, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    This report contains the results of a geophysical investigation conducted to characterize Trench 4, located in Burial Ground 218-W-4C, 200 West Area. Trench 4 is where transuranic (TRU) waste is stored. The primary objective of these geophysical investigations was to determine the outer edges of the trench/modules and select locations for plate-bearing tests. The test locations are to be 5 to 8 ft. beyond the edges of the trench. Secondary objectives include differentiating between the different types of waste containers within a given trench, determining the amount of soil cover over the waste containers, and to locate the module boundaries. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic induction (EMI) were the methods selected for this investigation

  8. Relationships between environment and characteristics of marine Fe-Mn deposits in the Romanche trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonte, Philippe.

    1981-11-01

    The geological characteristics and Fe-Mn deposits from the North wall of the Romanche trench (Atlantic ocean) were studied in order to investigate possible relationships of these deposits with hydrothermalism. The results indicate diffuse hydrothermal activity in all of the rock samples which may explain the notable mineralogical associations observed, such as talc-dolomite-hematite-serpentine. All rock outcrops were covered with Fe-Mn deposits, but no such deposits were noted on sedimentary platforms. The variations in average chemical composition are very low among the different deposits. Hence, the phenomenon which produces these deposits is not localized. From this study, we conclude that marine Fe-Mn deposits result from the continuous supply of terrigenous iron and discontinuous supply of manganese, probably hydrothermal in origin. Detrital particles and numerous chemical elements are scavenged during the accretion process itself, whereas some trace elements, among the least soluble (Co, Ti, Th, Ce), are adsorbed on these deposits, independently of the accretion. This explains the inverse variation of the content of these elements versus deposit thickness [fr

  9. Groundwater monitoring plan for the 300 Area process trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, J.W.; Chou, C.J.; Johnson, V.G.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the groundwater monitoring program for the Hanford Site 300 Area Process Trenches (300 APT). The 300 APT are a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) regulated unit. The 300 APT are included in the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Dangerous Waste, Permit No. WA890008967, and are subject to final-status requirements for groundwater monitoring. This document describes a compliance monitoring program for groundwater in the uppermost aquifer system at the 300 APT. This plan describes the 300 APT monitoring network, constituent list, sampling schedule, statistical methods, and sampling and analysis protocols that will be employed for the 300 APT. This plan will be used to meet groundwater monitoring requirements from the time the 300 APT becomes part of the Permit and through the postclosure care period until certification of final closure

  10. A synthetic seismicity model for the Middle America Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Steven N.

    1991-01-01

    A novel iterative technique, based on the concept of fault segmentation and computed using 2D static dislocation theory, for building models of seismicity and fault interaction which are physically acceptable and geometrically and kinematically correct, is presented. The technique is applied in two steps to seismicity observed at the Middle America Trench. The first constructs generic models which randomly draw segment strengths and lengths from a 2D probability distribution. The second constructs predictive models in which segment lengths and strengths are adjusted to mimic the actual geography and timing of large historical earthquakes. Both types of models reproduce the statistics of seismicity over five units of magnitude and duplicate other aspects including foreshock and aftershock sequences, migration of foci, and the capacity to produce both characteristic and noncharacteristic earthquakes. Over a period of about 150 yr the complex interaction of fault segments and the nonlinear failure conditions conspire to transform an apparently deterministic model into a chaotic one.

  11. Groundwater monitoring plan for the 300 Area process trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, J.W.; Chou, C.J.; Johnson, V.G.

    1995-05-23

    This document describes the groundwater monitoring program for the Hanford Site 300 Area Process Trenches (300 APT). The 300 APT are a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) regulated unit. The 300 APT are included in the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Dangerous Waste, Permit No. WA890008967, and are subject to final-status requirements for groundwater monitoring. This document describes a compliance monitoring program for groundwater in the uppermost aquifer system at the 300 APT. This plan describes the 300 APT monitoring network, constituent list, sampling schedule, statistical methods, and sampling and analysis protocols that will be employed for the 300 APT. This plan will be used to meet groundwater monitoring requirements from the time the 300 APT becomes part of the Permit and through the postclosure care period until certification of final closure.

  12. Identification of Free-living and Particle-Associated Microbial Communities Present in Hadal regions of the Mariana Trench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eTarn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Relatively few studies have described the microbial populations present in ultra-deep hadal environments, largely as a result of difficulties associated with sampling. Here we report Illumina-tag V6 16S rRNA sequence-based analyses of the free-living and particle-associated microbial communities recovered from locations within two of the deepest hadal sites on Earth, the Challenger Deep (10,918 meters below surface-mbs and the Sirena Deep (10,667 mbs within the Mariana Trench, as well as one control site (Ulithi Atoll, 761 mbs. Seawater samples were collected using an autonomous lander positioned ~1m above the seafloor. The bacterial populations within the Mariana Trench bottom water samples were dissimilar to other deep-sea microbial communities, though with overlap with those of diffuse flow hydrothermal vents and deep-subsurface locations. Distinct particle-associated and free-living bacterial communities were found to exist. The hadal bacterial populations were also markedly different from one another, indicating the likelihood of different chemical conditions at the two sites. In contrast to the bacteria, the hadal archaeal communities were more similar to other less deep datasets and to each other due to an abundance of cosmopolitan deep-sea taxa. The hadal communities were enriched in thirty four bacterial and four archaeal operational taxonomic units (OTUs including members of the Gammaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, Marinimicrobia, Cyanobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Atribacteria, Spirochaetes, and Euryarchaeota. Sequences matching cultivated piezophiles were notably enriched in the Challenger Deep, especially within the particle-associated fraction, and were found in higher abundances than in other hadal studies, where they were either far less prevalent or missing. Our results indicate the importance of heterotrophy, sulfur-cycling, and methane and hydrogen utilization within the bottom waters of the deeper

  13. Unusual swimbladder behavior of fish in the Cariaco Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Richard H.; Fisher, Robert A.; Wilson, Marcia A.; Nero, Redwood W.

    2004-01-01

    An extensive acoustic and biological experiment was conducted to examine the swimbladder behavior of fish in the Cariaco Trench, off Venezuela, whose deeper waters are anoxic. Forty-eight hours of broadband (1-20 kHz) acoustic scattering measurements determined volume scattering strengths as a function of depth, frequency, and time of day. Fifty-nine successful biological trawl deployments determined species composition and their depths as a function of time of day. A swimbladder scattering model was used to correlate biological and acoustic results. The variations in swimbladder parameters required to match model results to the measured scattering strengths provide the basis of the explanation of swimbladder behavior. Adults of only two fish species, Bregmacerous cantori and Steindachneria argentea, were caught. Both species were in the upper 200 m at night and began a downward migration shortly before sunrise. S. argentea settled in the vicinity of the oxic-anoxic interface, at 300-440 m, and remained there until late afternoon. B. cantori migrated to depths greater than 800 m, deep into anoxic water. B. cantori dispersed in early afternoon and eventually congregated at depths of 360-550 m in late afternoon. Both species began an upward migration to their nighttime depths shortly before sunset. In the pre-dawn hours, scattering in the 3-8 kHz range increased dramatically. Swimbladder scattering modeling indicates that during this time swimbladder volumes expanded significantly, tension in the swimbladder walls increased, the properties of the flesh surrounding the swimbladders changed, and most importantly, the mass of gas in the swimbladders increased. The modeling further indicates that both species use the oxygen added before dawn to survive in their respective hostile environments during the day. Thus, the results of this experiment indicate that fish inhabiting the Cariaco Trench are able to live at hostile depths during the daytime because of changes they

  14. Design of a multi-model observer-based estimator for Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI strategy: application to a chemical reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Chetouani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a FDI strategy for nonlinear dynamic systems. It shows a methodology of tackling the fault detection and isolation issue by combining a technique based on the residuals signal and a technique using the multiple Kalman filters. The usefulness of this combination is the on-line implementation of the set of models, which represents the normal mode and all dynamics of faults, if the statistical decision threshold on the residuals exceeds a fixed value. In other cases, one Extended Kalman Filter (EKF is enough to estimate the process state. After describing the system architecture and the proposed FDI methodology, we present a realistic application in order to show the technique's potential. An algorithm is described and applied to a chemical process like a perfectly stirred chemical reactor functioning in a semi-batch mode. The chemical reaction used is an oxido reduction one, the oxidation of sodium thiosulfate by hydrogen peroxide.

  15. Evaluating potential chlorinated methanes degradation mechanisms and treatments in interception trenches filled with concrete-based construction wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fernandez, Diana; Torrentó, Clara; Rosell, Mònica; Audí-Miró, Carme; Soler, Albert

    2014-05-01

    conditions in the trenches with in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), which would be able to remove the rest of the accompanying pollutants, is proposed and merits evaluation. Preliminary batch experiments were performed to evaluate the feasibility of different chemical oxidation reactions (permanganate, persulphate, hydrogen peroxide and Fenton) on the complex contaminated recharge water which were, in general, more effective for degrading the chlorinated ethenes than for the chlorinated methanes (Torrentó et al. EGU 2012). Therefore, this study seeks to improve the understanding of CF and CT degradation mechanisms/processes that are going on in the interception trenches as well as to select between the two most effective chemical oxidation remediation treatments (persulphate and permanganate) taking into account their efficiency respect the chlorinated methanes removal, the generated acute toxicity and the applicability of the carbon isotopic fractionation as an indicator of the effectiveness of the future in situ remediation. Additionally, ongoing batch experiments are expected to elucidate if CT is undergoing abiotic reductive dechlorination by Fe-bearing minerals such as hydrophobic green rust (Ayala-Luis et al., 2012) which transform CT into non-chlorinated substances such as formic acid and carbon monoxide. This unstable iron compound might be formed in the interception trenches during chloride induced corrosion of iron mineral phases present in the concrete-based construction wastes (Sagoe-Crentsil and Glasser, 1993). The role of other minerals like iron oxy-hydroxides, carbonates or sulphides cannot be discarded at all. The potential of δ13C values to assess the efficiency of this abiotic CT degradation reaction will be also evaluated. References Ayala-Luis, K.; Cooper, N.; Bender C. and Hansen. H. (2012) Efficient dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride by hydrophobic green rust intercaled with dodecanoate anions. Environmental Science & Technology 46, 3390

  16. Progress toward isolation of strains and genetically engineered strains of microalgae for production of biofuel and other value added chemicals: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Ashmita; Khanra, Saumyakanti; Mondal, Madhumanti; Halder, Gopinath; Tiwari, O.N.; Saini, Supreet; Bhowmick, Tridib Kumar; Gayen, Kalyan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sample collection, isolation and identification to obtain a pure microalgal species. • Isolation of microalgal strains worldwide based on continent and habitat. • Genetic engineering tools for enhanced production of biodiesel and value added chemicals. • Cultivation systems for genetically modified strain. - Abstract: Microalgae and cyanobacteria are promising sources of biodiesel because of their high oil content (∼10 fold higher) and shorter cultivation time (∼4 fold lesser) than conventional oil producing territorial plants (e.g., soybean, corn and jatropha). These organisms also provide source of several valuable natural chemicals including pigments, food supplements like eicosapentanoic acid [EPA], decosahexaenoic acid [DHA] and vitamins. In addition, many cellular components of these organisms are associated with therapeutic properties like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulating, and antiviral. Isolation and identification of high-yielding strains with the faster growth rate is the key for successful implementation of algal biodiesel (or other products) at a commercial level. A number of research groups in Europe, America, and Australia are thus extensively involved in exploration of novel microalgal strain. Further, genetic engineering provides a tool to engineer the native strain resulting in transgenic strain with higher yields. Despite these efforts, no consensus has yet been reached so far in zeroing on the best microalgal strain for sustainable production of biofuel at reasonable cost. The search for novel microalgal strain and transgenesis of microalgae, are continuing side by side with the hope of commercial scale production of microalgae biofuel in near future. However, no consolidated review report exists which guides to isolate and identify a uncontaminated microalgal strain along with their transgenesis. The present review is focused on: (i) key factors for sample collection, isolation, and identification to

  17. High Power Self-Aligned, Trench-Implanted 4H-SiC JFETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamvoukakis K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The process technology for the fabrication of 4H-SiC trenched-implanted-gate 4H–SiC vertical-channel JFET (TI-VJFET has been developed. The optimized TIVJFETs have been fabricated with self-aligned nickel silicide source and gate contacts using a process sequence that greatly reduces process complexity as it includes only four lithography steps. A source-pillars sidewall oxidation and subsequent removal of the metallization from the top of the sidewall oxide ensured isolation between gate and source. Optimum planarization of the source pillars top has been performed by cyclotene spin coating and etch back. The effect of the channel geometry on the electrical characteristics has been studied by varying its length (0.3 and 1.2μm and its width (1.5-5μm. The voltage blocking exhibits a triode shape, which is typical for a static-induction transistor (SIT operation. The transistors exhibited high ON current handling capabilities (Direct Current density >1kA/cm2 and values of RON ranging from 6 - 12 mΩ•cm2 depending on the channel length. Maximum voltage blocking was 800V limited by the edge termination. The maximum voltage gain was 51. Most transistors were normally-on. Normally-off operation has been observed for transistors lower than 2μm channel width (mask level and deep implantation.

  18. Target deployment and retrieval using JIAOLONG manned submersible in the depth of 6600 m in Mariana Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiang; Ding, Kang; Ren, Yu-gang; Fu, Wen-tao; Ding, Zhong-jun; Zhao, Sheng-ya; Liu, Bao-hua

    2017-10-01

    China's 7000 m manned submersible JIAOLONG carried out an exploration cruise at the Mariana Trench from June to July 2016. The submersible completed nine manned dives on the north and south area of the Mariana Trench from the depth of 5500 to 6700 m, to investigate the geological, biological and chemical characteristics in the hadal area. During the cruise, JIAOLONG deployed a gas-tight serial sampler to collect the water near the sea bottom regularly. Five days later, the sub located the sampler in another dive and retrieved it successfully from the same location, which is the first time that scientists and engineers finished the high accuracy in-situ deployment and retrieval using a manned submersible with Ultra-Short Base Line (USBL) positioning system at the depth more than 6600 m. In this task, we used not only the USBL system of the manned submersible but also a compound strategy, including five position marks, the sea floor terrain, the depth contour, and the heading of the sub. This paper introduces the compound strategy of the target deployment and retrieval with the practical diving experience of JIAOLONG, and provides a promising technique for other underwater vehicles such as manned submersible or Remote Operated Vehicle (ROV) under similar conditions.

  19. The relationship between plate velocity and trench viscosity in Newtonian and power-law subduction calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Scott D.; Hager, Bradford H.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between oceanic trench viscosity and oceanic plate velocity is studied using a Newtonian rheology by varying the viscosity at the trench. The plate velocity is a function of the trench viscosity for fixed Rayleigh number and plate/slab viscosity. Slab velocities for non-Newtonian rheology calculations are significantly different from slab velocities from Newtonian rheology calculations at the same effective Rayleigh number. Both models give reasonable strain rates for the slab when compared with estimates of seismic strain rate. Non-Newtonian rheology eliminates the need for imposed weak zones and provides a self-consistent fluid dynamical mechanism for subduction in numerical convection models.

  20. In situ grouting of a low-level radioactive waste trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Godsey, T.T.; McDaniel, E.W.

    1987-11-01

    A shallow land burial trench containing low level radioactive waste was injected with a particulate grout to help control subsidence and radionuclide migration. The trench's accessible voids have been estimated at 20 vol %, and most of these voids appear to have been filled with grout. This injection was accomplished with a simple, labor intensive technique, and an inexperienced crew at an estimated cost of about $55,000. The grout costs $0.21/gal and 8081 gal was injected into the trench. 5 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Chemical studies on tobacco smoke. LXIII. Use of radioactive tobacco isolates for studying the formation of smoke components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmeltz, I.; Wenger, A.; Hoffmann, D.; Tso, T.C.

    1978-01-01

    Tobacco plants exposed to 14 CO 2 during growth served as sources for radioactive phytosterols, neophytadiene, alkaloids, fatty acids and others. Techniques for the isolation and identification of these compounds included solvent distribution, gel-permeation chromatography, thin-layer chromatography in conjunction with radioscanning, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The radioactive isolates were then incorporated into cigarettes, and their distribution patterns in the smoke were determined. A substantial portion of the labeled isolates was combusted to 14 CO 2 , in addition to being transferred intact into the smoke ''tars,'' and degraded to volatile organic compounds. Measurable quantities (less than 1%) were also converted to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. The techniques utilized can serve as models for additional studies of this kind and lead to practical approaches for modifying smoke composition

  2. Other compounds isolated from Simira glaziovii and the {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR chemical shift assignments of new 1-epi-castanopsol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Marcelo F. de; Vieira, Ivo J. Curcino [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas. Lab. de Ciencias Quimicas; Carvalho, Mario G. de, E-mail: mgeraldo@ufrrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (NPPN/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Nucleo de Pesquisa em Produtos Naturais

    2012-07-01

    A new triterpene, 1-epi-castanopsol, besides eleven known compounds: sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, lupeol, lupenone, simirane B, syringaresinol, scopoletin, isofraxidin, 6,7,8-trimethoxycoumarin and harman, were isolated from the wood of Simira glaziovii. The structures of the known compounds were defined by 1D, 2D {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C NMR spectra data analyses and comparison with literature data. The detailed spectral data analyses allowed the definition of the structure of the new 1-epi isomer of castanopsol and performance of {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR chemical shift assignments. (author)

  3. Bioactivity-guided isolation of chemical constituents against H2O2-induced neurotoxicity on PC12 from Cimicifuga dahurica (Turcz.) Maxim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chongning; Yang, Fan; Qin, Rulan; Qi, Zheyuan; Zhou, Wanrong; Lu, Jincai

    2017-08-01

    Three new compounds (1, 6, 9), with six known compounds (2-5, 7-8) were obtained from water-soluble extract of Cimicifuga dahurica (Turcz.) Maxim. by bioactivity-guided isolation. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectral analysis, including 1D, 2D NMR data and HRESIMS. H 2 O 2 -induced neurotoxicity on PC12 cells model were conducted to evaluate the neuro-protective capability of these compounds. The piscidic acid derivatives compounds 4-7 showed marked neuro-protective effect at certain concentration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND BROMATOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ARENCA AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF OIL-IN-WATER EMULSIONS CONTAINING ISOLATED PROTEIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaris Elena Quintana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The design, formulation and development of a new product or the improvement of a traditional product are dependent on the knowledge of the physicochemical, bromatological and rheological characteristics of that product. An important aspect of the study of food is complex dispersions such as emulsions. For preparation and formulation of emulsions, surfactants like protein are used to constitute a molecular barrier that helps emulsions to form and stabilizes dispersions. The aim of this work was to standardize an oil in water (O/W food emulsion with Arencas (Triportheus magdalenae isolated protein. For this procedure, a physicochemical and bromatological characterization of fish muscle has been done, in which a protein percentage of 17.85±0.12 has been achieved. This has allowed for the recovery of 72-90% of isolated protein to be used in food products such as salad dressing, mayonnaise, spreads, dressings and other products. Stable emulsions with adequate rheological and microstructural characteristics were prepared using 40% w/w palm oil and different concentrates of isolated protein from Arenca, between 2.5 and 3.5% w/w. Therefore, we have obtained an oil in water (O/W food emulsion with isolated proteins from Arenca that presented non-Newtonian fluid type pseudoplasticity and homogeneous distribution of droplets.

  5. The chemical and mechanical differences between alginate-like exopolysaccharides isolated from aerobic flocculent sludge and aerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y. M.; Sharma, P. K.; van Loosdrecht, M. C. M.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate differences in the gel matrix of aerobic granular sludge and normal aerobic flocculent sludge. From both types of sludge that fed with the same municipal sewage, the functional gel-forming exopolysaccharides, alginate-like exopolysaccharides, were isolated. These two

  6. Comparative study of chemical composition, isolation and identification of micro-flora in traditional fermented camel milk products: Gariss, Suusac, and Shubat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Bakr Shori

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of micro-flora in dairy products cannot be overemphasised. Although there are scores of academic papers that elucidated on this subject, however, to the best knowledge of the researcher, there is no published paper that compares the composition of the traditional fermented camel milk products. Therefore, this paper aims to compare the preparation methods, chemical compositions, microbial counts and pH, isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria, as well as yeasts in Gariss, Suusac, and Shubat. Through comparative analysis of previous existing published papers, the researcher discovered that different preparation methods of these three products have effects on their chemical compositions, microbial counts and pH, and as well as growth of lactic acid bacteria and yeast species.

  7. Fast recovery SOI PiN diode with multiple trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Long; Zhu, Jing; Zhao, Minna; Ding, Desheng; Chen, Jian; Sun, Weifeng

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a 500V SOI PiN lateral diode is proposed and investigated by simulations and experiments. The proposed structure features multiple deep-oxide trenches (MDOT) arranged in the silicon region. Two DOTs (T1 and T2) locating in the i-layer help to block the cathode-anode voltage (VCA), allowing the diode to shorten its i-layer length. With a similar breakdown voltage (BV) of 560V, the i-layer length is shortened from 47 μm for the conventional diode to 21.9 μm for the proposed MDOT diode. The shortened i-layer leads to a reduced number of stored carriers in the i-layer. Another DOT (T3) is inserted at the anode region of proposed MDOT diode and shorted with P+ anode. T3 acts as a vertical field plate, reshaping the electric potential distribution at the anode region and accelerating the depletion during the reverse recovery process. Thanks to the decreased number of the stored carriers and the accelerated depletion, the reverse recovery time (trr) of the proposed MDOT diode (211 ns) can be decreased by 56.7% compared with the conventional diode (487 ns) at the forward current density of 400 A/cm2 at T = 300 K. The proposed MDOT diode exhibits a better trade-off between forward voltage drop (VF) and reverse recovery time (trr) than the conventional and other reported diodes.

  8. Depth-Resolved Variations of Cultivable Bacteria and Their Extracellular Enzymes in the Water Column of the New Britain Trench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianfeng Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine microorganisms and their extracellular enzymes (ECEs play an important role in the remineralization of organic material by hydrolyzing high-molecular-weight substrates to sizes sufficiently small to be transported through cell membrane, yet the diversity of the enzyme-producing bacteria and the types of ECEs involved in the degradation process are largely unknown. In this work, we investigated the diversity of cultivable bacteria and their ECEs and the potential activities of aminopeptidase in the water column at eight different depths of the New Britain Trench. There was a great diversity of cultivable bacteria and ECEs, and depth appears an important driver of the diversity. The 16S rRNA sequence analysis revealed that the cultivable bacteria were affiliated mostly with the phyla Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, and the predominant genera were Pseudoalteromonas (62.7% and Halomonas (17.3%. Moreover, 70.7% of the isolates were found to produce hydrolytic zone on casein and gelatin plates, in which Pseudoalteromonas was the predominant group, exhibiting relatively high protease production. Inhibitor analysis showed that the extracellular proteases from the isolated bacteria were serine proteases in the surface water and metalloproteases in the deep water. Meanwhile, the Vmax and Km of aminopeptidase exhibited a maximum in the surface water and low values in the deep bathy- and abyssopelagic water, indicating lower rates of hydrolysis and higher substrate affinity in the deeper waters. These results shed new insights into the diversity of the cultivable bacteria and bacterial ECEs and their likely biogeochemical functions in the trench environment.

  9. Subsidence evaluation in 218-E-E12B, trench 38

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streit, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    An area in Trench 38 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground has been gradually sinking over the past few years. The area spans the width of the trench and extends approximately 80 feet down the trench. The depth of the depression is approximately 3 feet in the center and gradually rises to existing grade at the trench edge. It has been determined that the most likely cause of the subsidence is decomposition of buried waste material. Fifty-six percent of the waste buried in the subject area is decomposable and has been in the ground for nine years. Waste packaging is largely plastic lined dump trucks and fiberboard boxes. It is recommended that this area be treated with dynamic compaction to stabilize the waste and minimize the reoccurrence of subsidence in this area

  10. Modeling of leachate recirculation using combined drainage blanket-horizontal trench systems in bioreactor landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shi-Jin; Cao, Ben-Yi; Xie, Hai-Jian

    2017-10-01

    Leachate recirculation in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills operated as bioreactors offers significant economic and environmental benefits. Combined drainage blanket (DB)-horizontal trench (HT) systems can be an alternative to single conventional recirculation approaches and can have competitive advantages. The key objectives of this study are to investigate combined drainage blanket -horizontal trench systems, to analyze the effects of applying two recirculation systems on the leachate migration in landfills, and to estimate some key design parameters (e.g., the steady-state flow rate, the influence width, and the cumulative leachate volume). It was determined that an effective recirculation model should consist of a moderate horizontal trench injection pressure head and supplementary leachate recirculated through drainage blanket, with an objective of increasing the horizontal unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and thereby allowing more leachate to flow from the horizontal trench system in a horizontal direction. In addition, design charts for engineering application were established using a dimensionless variable formulation.

  11. Oceanographic cruise: Coral Sea, Arafura Sea, and Java Trench, April - May 1969 (NODC Accession 7100914)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report contains oceanographic data which was obtained aboard HMAS DIAMANTINA during an oceanographic cruise in the Coral Sea, Arafura Sea, and Java Trench...

  12. Oceanographic cruise Indian Ocean and Java Trench June 1969 (NODC Accession 7100908)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report contains oceanographic data which was obtained aboard H.M.A.S DIAMANTINA during an oceanographic cruise in the Java Trench and the Indian Ocean during...

  13. Barrier holes and trench application to reduce blast induced vibration in Seyitomer coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erarslan, Kaan; Uysal, Önder; Arpaz, Ercan; Cebi, M. Akif

    2008-05-01

    In this research, experimental applications have been performed to reduce blast induced vibrations in open pit mines. For this purpose, artificial discontinuity zones such as barrier holes and trench were opened in a dragline panel of Seyitomer Lignite Enterprise, Kutahya, Turkey. Peak particle velocities in front of and behind them were measured by seismographs. In this way, their effect against vibration was observed and compared. Barrier holes were opened 24 m deep through 3 parallel lines and aligned at 1 m spacing. On the other hand, the trench had 8 m depth and 4 m width. During the research, 209 measurements were taken belonging to 105 explosions. Twenty-eight explosions were carried out in the barrier holes experiments and 77 explosions were carried out in the trench experiments. A decrease in vibration of 14.3 18.5% was obtained behind the barrier holes while a decrease of 24.8 58.1% was provided by the trench.

  14. Analysis and mitigation of interface losses in trenched superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calusine, G.; Melville, A.; Woods, W.; Das, R.; Stull, C.; Bolkhovsky, V.; Braje, D.; Hover, D.; Kim, D. K.; Miloshi, X.; Rosenberg, D.; Sevi, A.; Yoder, J. L.; Dauler, E.; Oliver, W. D.

    2018-02-01

    Improving the performance of superconducting qubits and resonators generally results from a combination of materials and fabrication process improvements and design modifications that reduce device sensitivity to residual losses. One instance of this approach is to use trenching into the device substrate in combination with superconductors and dielectrics with low intrinsic losses to improve quality factors and coherence times. Here, we demonstrate titanium nitride coplanar waveguide resonators with mean quality factors exceeding two million and controlled trenching reaching 2.2 μm in the silicon substrate. Additionally, we measure sets of resonators with a range of sizes and trench depths and compare these results with finite-element simulations to demonstrate quantitative agreement with a model of interface dielectric loss. We then apply this analysis to determine the extent to which trenching can improve resonator performance.

  15. Complex morphology of subducted lithosphere in the mantle beneath the Tonga trench

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilst, R.D. van der

    1995-01-01

    At the Tonga trench, old Pacific sea floor subducts at a rapid rate below the Indo-Australia plate, generating most of the world's deep earthquakes and producing a deep slab of former oceanic lithosphere.

  16. Wavelength-dependent Crosstalk in Trench-Assisted Multi-Core Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Feihong; Tu, Jiajing; Saitoh, Kunimasa

    2014-01-01

    Analytical expressions for wavelength-dependent crosstalk in homogeneous trench-assisted multi-core fibers are derived. The calculated results from the expressions agree well with the numerical simulation results based on finite element method.......Analytical expressions for wavelength-dependent crosstalk in homogeneous trench-assisted multi-core fibers are derived. The calculated results from the expressions agree well with the numerical simulation results based on finite element method....

  17. STUDY OF ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF NEW P-TYPE TRENCHED UMOSFET

    OpenAIRE

    Akansha Ephraim*, Neelesh Agrawal, Anil Kumar, A.K. Jaiswal

    2017-01-01

    In this paper p-type trenched UMOSFET was designed without super junction and constructed like any other conventional MOSFET. Characteristic curve was studied between drain current verses drain voltage and drain current verses gate voltage. The trench was designed under TCAD simulation tool Silvaco software using etching process. The specific channel length of the p-type UMOSFET has been concentrated as 0.9 microns. The device structures are designed using Silvaco Athena and characteristics w...

  18. Taxonomy and chemical characterization of new antibiotics produced by Saccharothrix SA198 isolated from a Saharan soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubetra, D; Sabaou, N; Zitouni, A; Bijani, C; Lebrihi, A; Mathieu, F

    2013-05-06

    Actinomycete strain SA198, isolated from a Saharan soil sample of Algeria, exhibited antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and phytopathogenic and toxinogenic fungi. The morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics of the strain were consistent with those of the genus Saccharothrix. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain SA198 showed a similarity level ranging between 97.2 and 98.8% within Saccharothrix species, S. australiensis being the most closely related. Two new active products were isolated by reverse HPLC using a C18 column. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS), infrared (IR), mass, and (1)H and (14)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra showed that these products were new bioactive compounds. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of these antibiotics showed a strong activity against fungi and moderate activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemical modification and structural analysis of protein isolates to produce hydrogel using Whitemouth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri) wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Vilásia Guimarães; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira; Damodaran, Srinivasan; Prentice, Carlos

    2011-09-01

    Recovery and alteration of fish protein from wastes and its use has been regarded as a promising alternative to develop useful products once polymer gels have a high capacity of water uptake. This study aims to produce hydrogel, a super absorbent biopolymer from modified fish protein, in order to evaluate the protein structure. In the modified proteins, analyses of the extent of modification of the lysine residues, electrophoresis, and electrometric titration were performed. In the hydrogels were realized assays of swelling water. The proteins with more modifications were shown as 63.5% and 75.9% of lysine residues, from fish protein isolate obtained with alkaline and acid solubilization, respectively. The modified protein in that same rate presented 332.0 and 311.4 carboxyl groups. Accordingly, the hydrogel produced from alkaline and acid isolates reached a maximum water uptake in 24 h of 79.42 and 103.25 g(water)/g(dry gel), respectively.

  20. Characterization of trench water at the Maxey Flats low-level radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, A.J.; Francis, A.J.; Colombo, P.

    1977-01-01

    Currently the United States Geological Survey is conducting a study of the hydrogeological and geochemical behavior of commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. The data collected from this study will be used to establish criteria for selection of new sites for disposal of radioactive wastes. As part of this study, water samples from trenches at the Maxey Flats, Kentucky site were analyzed at Brookhaven National Laboratory to determine the source terms of the radionuclides and other components in solution in the trenches. Procedures for collection and filtration of the samples under anoxic conditions are described. The samples were analyzed for inorganic, radiochemical and organic constituents. The inorganic analysis includes the measurements of pH, specific conductance, alkalinity, and various cations and anions. The radionuclides were measured by the gross alpha, gross beta, tritium, and gamma activities, followed by specific measurements of strontium-90 and plutonium isotopes. The organics were extracted, concentrated, and identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Considerable quantities of organics were detected in all of the trench waters sampled. Specific organics were found in most of the trenches, however, the organic composition of the trench waters vary. The presence of a variety of organic compounds in trench waters suggest that they may play an important role in the transport of radionuclides

  1. Efficiency Enhancement of Nanoporous Silicon/Polycrystalline-Silicon Solar Cells by Application of Trenched Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuen-Hsien Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trenched electrodes were proposed to enhance the short-circuit current and conversion efficiency of polycrystalline-silicon (poly-Si solar cells with nanoporous silicon (NPS surface layers. NPS films that served as textured surface layers were firstly prepared on heavily doped p+-type (100 poly-Si wafers by anodic etching process. Interdigitated trenches were formed in the NPS layers by a reactive-ion-etch (RIE process and Cr/Al double-layered metal was then deposited to fill the trenches and construct trenched-electrode-contacts (TEC’s. Cells with TEC structures (called “TEC cells” obtained 5.5 times higher short-circuit current than that of cells with planar electrode contacts (called “non-TEC cells”. Most significantly, a TEC cell achieved 8 times higher conversion efficiency than that of a non-TEC cell. The enhanced short-circuit current and conversion efficiency in TEC cells were ascribed to the reduced overall series resistance of devices. In a TEC cell, trenched electrodes provided photocurrent flowing routes that directly access the poly-Si substrates without passing through the high resistive NPS layers. Therefore, the application of NPS surface layers with trenched electrodes is a novel approach to development of highly efficient poly-Si solar cells.

  2. Strain release at the trench during shallow slow slip: The example of Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Liu, Zhen; Davis, Earl E.; Schwartz, Susan Y.; Dixon, Timothy H.; Voss, Nick; Malservisi, Rocco; Protti, Marino

    2017-05-01

    The near-trench behavior of subduction megathrust faults is critical for understanding earthquake hazard and tsunami generation. The shallow subduction interface is typically located in unconsolidated sediments that are considered too weak to accumulate elastic strain. However, the spectrum of shallow fault slip behavior is still elusive, due in large part to the lack of near-field observations. Here we combine measurements from seafloor pressure sensors near the trench and an onshore GPS network in a time-dependent inversion to image the initiation and migration of a well-documented slow slip event (SSE) in 2007 at the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica. Our results show that the shallow SSE initiated on the shallow subduction interface at a depth of 15 km, where pore fluid pressure is inferred to be high, and propagated all the way to the trench. The migrating event may have triggered a second subevent that occurred 1 month later. Our results document the release of elastic strain at the shallow part of the subduction megathrust and suggest prior accumulation of elastic strain. In conjunction with near-trench shallow slow slip recently reported for the Hikurangi subduction zone and trench breaching ruptures revealed in some large earthquakes, our results suggest that near-trench strain accumulation and release at the shallower portions of the subduction interface is more common than previously thought.

  3. A low on-resistance SOI LDMOS using a trench gate and a recessed drain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Rui; Luo Xiaorong; Jiang Yongheng; Zhou Kun; Wang Pei; Wang Qi; Wang Yuangang; Zhang Bo; Li Zhaoji

    2012-01-01

    An integrable silicon-on-insulator (SOI) power lateral MOSFET with a trench gate and a recessed drain (TGRD MOSFET) is proposed to reduce the on-resistance. Both of the trench gate extended to the buried oxide (BOX) and the recessed drain reduce the specific on-resistance (R on,sp ) by widening the vertical conduction area and shortening the extra current path. The trench gate is extended as a field plate improves the electric field distribution. Breakdown voltage (BV) of 97 V and R on,sp of 0.985 mΩ·cm 2 (V GS = 5 V) are obtained for a TGRD MOSFET with 6.5 μm half-cell pitch. Compared with the trench gate SOI MOSFET (TG MOSFET) and the conventional MOSFET, R on,sp of the TGRD MOSFET decreases by 46% and 83% at the same BV, respectively. Compared with the SOI MOSFET with a trench gate and a trench drain (TGTD MOSFET), BV of the TGRD MOSFET increases by 37% at the same R on,sp . (semiconductor devices)

  4. Isolation, identification, and antibacterial activity of chemical compounds from ethanolic extract of suji leaf (Pleomele angusifolia NE Brown)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridah; Natalia; Lina, Maria; W, Hendig

    2014-03-01

    Suji (Pleomele angustifolia NE Brown) is one of the medicinal plants of the tribe of Liliaceae, empirically useful to treat coughs and respiratory diseases such as tuberculosis (TB) and pneumonia. In this study, ethanolic extract of suji leaves was tested its activity against bacteria that attacks the respiratory organs, namely Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Streptococcus pneumoniae, using a paper disc diffusion and dilution agar method. These extracts have activity in inhibiting the growth of M. tuberculosis at a concentration of 8 mg and against S. pneumoniae at a concentration of 4 mg. The fractions were tested their antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae using paper disc diffusion method. The most active fraction was chosen based on the inhibition diameter. The fractions contained flavonoids, steroids, and essential oils. The precipitate isolated from the extraction process shows needle-shaped, white, cold and tasteless crystals. Moreover, the HPLC analysis of isolate revealed a single peak with a retention time of 7.183 minutes. The exact compounds in the isolate could not be determined but it was known the compounds contained the functional groups of alkene, alkane, C=O, -OH. Test results obtained from UV-Vis spectrophotometer provides maximum absorption at a wavelength of 203.0 nm.

  5. Isolation, Chemical Fingerprinting and Simultaneous Quantification of Four Compounds from Tanacetum gracile Using a Validated HPLC–ESI-QTOF-Mass Spectrometry Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neha; Kumar, Chetan; Dutt, Prabhu; Gupta, Suphla; Satti, Naresh K.; Chandra, Suresh; Kitchlu, Surinder; Paul, Satya; Vishwakarma, Ram A.; Verma, Mahendra K.

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to carry out the phytochemical investigation of Tanacetum gracile Hook. f. & Thomson and to develop a method for the simultaneous quantification of the isolated compounds in the extracts of T. gracile growing in different locations. Cluster analysis rectangular similarity matrix was performed to understand the chemical fingerprinting variations in the extracts. High-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS) was used to quantify four bioactive compounds, and separation of the compounds was achieved on a reverse-phase C8 column using a mobile phase of acetonitrile: 0.1% formic acid in water with a gradient elution by maintaining the flow rate of 300 μL/min. The QTOF–MS was operated using the electro-spray ionization technique with the positive ion polarity mode. The calibration curves of four marker compounds were linear over the concentration range of 3.12–100 ng/µL (R2> 0.996). A specific, accurate and precise HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS method was optimized for the determination of kaempferol, ketoplenolide, tetramethoxyflavone and artemetin both individually and simultaneously. Quantification of these chemical markers in different extracts was carried out using this validated method. Kaempferol was isolated for the first time from T. gracile. PMID:26951542

  6. Isolation, Chemical Fingerprinting and Simultaneous Quantification of Four Compounds from Tanacetum gracile Using a Validated HPLC-ESI-QTOF-Mass Spectrometry Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neha; Kumar, Chetan; Dutt, Prabhu; Gupta, Suphla; Satti, Naresh K; Chandra, Suresh; Kitchlu, Surinder; Paul, Satya; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Verma, Mahendra K

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to carry out the phytochemical investigation of Tanacetum gracile Hook. f. & Thomson and to develop a method for the simultaneous quantification of the isolated compounds in the extracts ofT. gracile growing in different locations. Cluster analysis rectangular similarity matrix was performed to understand the chemical fingerprinting variations in the extracts. High-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS) was used to quantify four bioactive compounds, and separation of the compounds was achieved on a reverse-phase C8 column using a mobile phase of acetonitrile: 0.1% formic acid in water with a gradient elution by maintaining the flow rate of 300 μL/min. The QTOF-MS was operated using the electro-spray ionization technique with the positive ion polarity mode. The calibration curves of four marker compounds were linear over the concentration range of 3.12-100 ng/µL (R(2)> 0.996). A specific, accurate and precise HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS method was optimized for the determination of kaempferol, ketoplenolide, tetramethoxyflavone and artemetin both individually and simultaneously. Quantification of these chemical markers in different extracts was carried out using this validated method. Kaempferol was isolated for the first time from T. gracile. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Detailed adsorption mechanism of plasmid DNA by newly isolated cellulose from waste flower spikes of Thypa latifolia using quantum chemical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujtaba, Muhammad; Kaya, Murat; Akyuz, Lalehan; Erdonmez, Demet; Akyuz, Bahar; Sargin, Idris

    2017-09-01

    Current study was designed to use the newly obtained cellulose from waste flower spikes of Thypa latifolia plant for plasmid DNA adsorption. Cellulose was isolated according to a previously described method including acid and base treatment, and cellulose content was recorded as 17%. T. latifolia cellulose was physicochemically characterized via FT-IR, TGA and SEM techniques. Detailed mechanism of plasmid DNA adsorption by newly isolated cellulose was described using chemical quantum calculations. To check the effect of Cu ++ immobilization on the affinity of cellulose for plasmid DNA, copper ions were immobilized onto T. latifolia cellulose. pUC18 plasmid DNA was used for adsorption studies. Membranes prepared with only T. latifolia cellulose and Cu ++ immobilized T. latifolia cellulose revealed different adsorption ratios as 43.9 and 86.9% respectively. This newly isolated cellulose from waste flower spikes of T. latifolia can be utilized as a suitable carrier for plasmid DNA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. High-Performance Shuffle Motor Fabricated by Vertical Trench Isolation Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarajlic, Edin; Yamahata, Christophe; Berenschot, Johan W.; Tas, Niels Roelof; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Shuffle motors are electrostatic stepper micromotors that employ a built-in mechanical leverage to produce large output forces as well as high resolution displacements. These motors can generally move only over predefined paths that served as driving electrodes. Here, we present the design, modeling

  9. Analysis of Self-Heating Effects on vertical FET according to Shallow Trench Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myeong, Ilho; Son, Dokyun; Kim, Hyunsuk; Kang, Myounggon; Shin, Hyungcheol

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, Self-Heating Effect (SHE) according to depth of STI was analyzed and STI thickness optimization was performed in the plate-shaped vertical field effect transistor (VFET). In case of a VFET, the path of leakage current (Ioff) is different from that of a lateral FET (LFET). As a result, Ioff of VFET is not influenced by STI depth. For this reason, the STI depth of the VFET is not needed as much as the depth needed to reduce Ioff in the LFET. As a result, if the STI depth of the VFET is reduced from 100 nm to 20 nm, which is the drain region depth doped with Arsenic, thermal resistance (Rth) is expected to be reduced by 32.19% and on current (Ion) is expected to be increased by 1.54% without affecting the Ioff as compared with STI depth of 100 nm in VFET.

  10. Brevibacterium oceanic sp. nov., isolated from deep-sea sediment of the Chagos Trench, Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhadra, B.; Raghukumar, C.; Pindi, P.K.; Shivaji, S.

    growth The GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession numbers for the 16S rRNA gene sequences of BBH7 T and BBH5 are AM158906 and AM158905, respectively. An extended phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and tables comparing the phenotypic characteristics...; NA, data not available. Characteristic 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Colony colour Pale orange Greyish Pale yellow Yellow–orange Orange Whitish grey Whitish yellow Greyish white Colony texture Sticky Smooth Smooth Smooth NA Smooth Smooth Sticky or smooth Growth at...

  11. Antifungal Compounds Isolated from Smyrnium olusatrum L. Essential Oil, Growing Wild in Cephalonia, Greece. Chemical Analysis and Structure Elucidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimia Tsasi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils (EOs from the leaves and the flowers of Smyrnium olusatrum L. , growing wild in the island of Cephalonia (Greece, were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Fifty nine constituents, which accounted for 90.3% (fl and 97.1% (lvs of the oils, were identified. Furanodiene, g ermacrone and furanoeremophil-1-one were the major constituents in both essential oils; they were also isolated from the flowers essential oil and identified using spectroscopic methods, ie. 1D and 2D NMR, GC-MS . In addition b -myrcene ( 11.7% and b -phellandrene (5.2% were main constituents in the essential oil of the leaves. The essential oils and the pure isolates were evaluated for antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus , A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, A. niger, Trichoderma viride, Penicillium funiculosum, P. ochrochloron, P. verucosum var. cyclopium by using the microdilution method and proved to possess significant antifungal effect. Among them, (+ furanoeremophil-1-one was particularly active with MIC values in the range of 0.0008-0.125 mg/mL and MFC values of 0.025-0.050 mg/mL and proved more effective than the commercial mycotics ketoconazole and bifonazole used as positive controls.

  12. Inhibitory Effect of Chemical Constituents Isolated from Artemisia iwayomogi on Polyol Pathway and Simultaneous Quantification of Major Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Kyoung Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Blocking the polyol pathway plays an important role preventing diabetic complications. Therefore, aldose reductase (AR and advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs formation has significant effect on diabetic complications. Artemisia iwayomogi has long been used as treatment of various diseases in Korea. However, no literatures have reported on AR and AGEs formation inhibitory activities of A. iwayomogi. For these reasons, we aimed to assess that A. iwayomogi had potential as anti-diabetic complications agents. We led to isolation of two coumarins (1 and 2, nine flavonoids (3–11, five caffeoylquinic acids (12–16, three diterpene glycosides (17–19, and one phenolic compound (20 from A. iwayomogi. Among them, hispidulin (4, 6-methoxytricin (6, arteanoflavone (7, quercetin-3-gentiobioside (10, 1,3-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (13, and suavioside A (18 were first reported on the isolation from A. iwayomogi. Not only two coumarins (1 and 2, nine flavonoids (3–11, and five caffeoylquinic acids (12–16 but also extracts showed significant inhibitor on AR and AGEs formation activities. We analyzed contents of major bioactive compounds in Korea’s various regions of A. iwayomogi. Overall, we selected Yangyang, Gangwon-do, from June, which contained the highest amounts of bioactive compounds, as suitable areas for cultivating A. iwayomogi as preventive or therapeutic agent in the treatment of diabetic complications.

  13. Deep-Sea Trench Microbiology Down to 10.9 Kilometers Below the Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, D. H.

    2012-12-01

    Deep-sea trenches, extending to more than 10.9 km below the sea surface, are among the most remote and infrequently sampled habitats. As a result a global perspective of microbial diversity and adaptation is lacking in these extreme settings. I will present the results of studies of deep-sea trench microbes collected in the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT), Tonga Trench, New Britain Trench and Mariana Trench. The samples collected include sediment, seawater and animals in baited traps. The analyses to be described include microbial community activity and viability measurements as a function of hydrostatic pressure, microbial culturing at high pressure under various physiological conditions, phylogenetics and metagenome and single-cell genome characterizations. Most of the results to date stem from samples recovered from the PRT. The deep-sea PRT Trench microbes have more in common at the species level with other deep-sea microbial communities previously characterized in the Pacific Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea than with the microbial populations above them in shallow waters. They also harbor larger genomes with more genes assigned to signal transduction, transcription, replication, recombination and repair and inorganic ion transport. The overrepresented transporters in the PRT metagenome include di- and tri-carboxylate transporters that correspond to the prevailing catabolic processes such as butanoate, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism. A surprisingly high abundance of sulfatases for the degradation of sulfated polysaccharides were also present in the PRT. But, perhaps the most dramatic adaptational feature of the PRT microbes is heavy metal resistance, as reflected in the high numbers of metal efflux systems present. Single-cell genomics approaches have proven particularly useful for placing PRT metagenomic data into context.

  14. Lateral-delivered organic matter boosts hadal bacterial abundance in the Mariana Trench: A hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Liu, H.; Lu, F.; Zou, L.; Tian, J.

    2017-12-01

    Hadal trenches are part of the least investigated biosphere on Earth due to the great challenge of sampling. Limited studies on microbiology by far have suggested that the hadalsphere hosts a heterotrophic microbial community that is likely fed by organic matter from surface-sinking biomass or re-suspended and laterally transported sediments. The uniqueness of trench environment and its potential role in global carbon sequestration entitle a detailed study on microbial-driven carbon cycle of the trench system. In this study, we conducted a vertical sampling of the microbial community and measured the environmental factors from the epipelagic zone down to the hadal zone at the Mariana Trench. 16S rRNA gene composition showed high stratification at the first 1000 meters below surface (mbs) but a nearly uniformed microbial community composition was observed at the abyssopelagic and the hadalpelagic water columns. The deep-sea bacteria were generally chemoheterotrophs and the majority of them were similar to those present at the ocean surface, suggesting influence of epipelagic primary production on deep sea bacterial communication at the trench location. Several deep-sea-enriched but surface-depleted bacteria could be characterized by potential degraders of polysaccharides and n-alkanes. Therefore, recalcitrant hydrocarbons or carbohydrates are likely important carbon sources supporting the deep-sea biosphere. In spite of consistent community composition, a remarkable increase in biomass of small-sized microbial aggregates was detected at 8727 mbs. Enhanced CDOM proportions in the trench imply intensified microbial activity in hadal water compared to the above water column, which agree with the notion of possible extra carbon input from lateral transportation of slope material. These observations extend our understanding in carbon cycle driven by metabolically diverse microorganisms at the trench and may shed light on the complexity of hadal biogeochemistry.

  15. The origins of the slurry trench cut-off and a review of cement-bentonite cut-off walls in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferis, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    On the occasion of the first International Containment Technology Conference it is appropriate to look back to the origins of containment walls as well as forward to the new technologies that we may need for the complex chemical and physical environments in which containment may be employed in the future. This paper looks at the development of slurry trench technology from the first concepts in 1938, the first field trials in 1945 and on to the cement-bentonite walls used in the UK today and the issues associated with defining appropriate materials performance

  16. Isolation of Chemical Constituents of Centaurea virgata Lam. and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity of the Plant Extract and Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzun, Burcu S; Hajdu, Zsuzsanna; Orban-Gyapai, Orsolya; Zomborszki, Zoltan P; Jedlinszki, Nikoletta; Forgo, Peter; Kıvcak, Bijen; Hohmann, Judit

    2017-01-01

    Centaurea virgata Lam. is a species widely used in the traditional medicine in Turkey for the treatment of diabetes, allergy and gastric ulcers. The rationale of its use in the therapy has not been studied previously, therefore the present work aimed at the chemicalpharmacological evaluation of the plant. The xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity of the MeOH extract and its subextracts (n-hexane, CHCl3 and remaining MeOH-H2O) prepared from C. virgata was investigated in vitro. Moderate activity was exerted in case of the CHCl3 extract (98.9 ± 15.8 μg/mL), therefore constituents of this extract were analysed. Different purification steps, such as VLC, CPC, PLC and crystallization were used for the isolation, and ESIMS, NMR, LC-MS and authentic standards were applied for identification of the compounds. XO inhibitory and DPPH assays were used for evaluation of the bioactivities. Sesquiterpenes [8α-hydroxysonchucarpolide, 8α-(3,4-dihydroxy-2-methylenebutanoyloxy)- dehydromelitensine, and cnicin], flavones (apigenin, hispidulin, salvigenin, eupatorin, 3'-methyleupatorin), and the flavonol isokaempferide were isolated from the active extract. The XO-inhibitory activity of these compounds was analyzed using allopurinol as a positive control (IC50 7.49 ± 0.29 μM). It was found that sesquiterpenes and flavonoids, containing 7- OMe group, are inactive. 7-Hydroxyflavones (apigenin and hispidulin) exerted significant XO inhibitory effect with IC50 values of 0.99 ± 0.33 μM and 4.88 ± 1.21 μM, respectively. Therefore, these compounds are responsible for the XO-inhibitory effect of the extract. The free radical scavenging activity of the isolated flavonoids was determined by DPPH assay, and it was stated that none of the compounds have substantial antioxidant activity, therefore the reduced generation of reactive oxygen species may be the consequence only of XO inhibition. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Seafloor Displacement After the 2011 Tohoku-oki Earthquake in the Northern Japan Trench Examined by Repeated Bathymetric Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Toshiya; dos Santos Ferreira, Christian; Bachmann, Anna Katharina; Strasser, Michael; Wefer, Gerold; Sun, Tianhaozhe; Kanamatsu, Toshiya; Kodaira, Shuichi

    2017-12-01

    We conducted multibeam bathymetric surveys crossing the northern Japan Trench offshore Sanriku and examined seafloor displacement by means of the difference in bathymetry before and after the 11 March 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. The seafloor displacements were less than several meters in vertical displacement and less than 20 m in trench-normal horizontal displacement; consequently, lower amplitude seafloor displacements were evaluated. Comparatively, the landward lower slope near the trench was uplifted, the middle slope was subsided, and the midslope terrace was depressed after the earthquake. Therefore, localized very large fault slip or very large submarine landslide is unlikely. Instead, smaller uplift of the lower slope near the trench extending broader along the trench seems to be plausible explanation for the devastating tsunami source in the northern Japan Trench area.

  18. Isolation and Chemical Structural Characterisation of a Compound with Antioxidant Activity from the Roots of Senna italica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matlou Phineas Mokgotho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Senna italica, a member of the Fabaceae family (subfamily Caesalpiniaceae, is widely used in South African traditional medicine to treat a number of disease conditions. Aqueous extracts of the plant are mainly used to treat sexually transmitted infections and intestinal complications. The roots of S. italica were ground to a fine powder and sequentially extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, acetone, and methanol using serial exhaustive extraction (SEE method. Thin layer chromatography was used to analyse the phytochemical composition of the extracts and DPPH radical scavenging method to detect the presence of antioxidant compounds. The bioassay guided fractionation of the acetone fraction afforded an antioxidant compound with free radical scavenging activity. The isolated compound was subsequently identified as 3,4′,5-trihydroxystilbene (resveratrol. This study represents the first report of the stilbene resveratrol in S. italica.

  19. Study of anti mutagenic and mutagenic effect of different chemicals on clinically isolated strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, A.M.; Durrani, F.; Janjua, M.

    1994-01-01

    This project was undertaken to study the effect of twelve different compounds to test their anti mutagenic and mutagenic activity against clinically isolated strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The effect of these compounds was estimated by counting the number of rifampicin resistant colonies growing in a particular time in a compound. The results were interpreted by plotting graphs between 10g N/NO (Rif R Colonies/ ml) and time to estimate the forward mutation rat. The results revealed that acridine, Basic fuchsin, Caffeine, cycloheximide, Ethidium bromide and Histidine probably have an anti mutagenic effect, while Cysteine, folic acid, Ethyl methane, suplphonate, Manganous Chloride and N-nitrosodietylamine acted as mutagen. Ecoli was used as control through out the study. (author)

  20. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil of Salvia sclarea L. from Bulgaria against isolates of Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Hristova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Salvia sclarea L., growing in Bulgaria, was analyzed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry. A total of 52 different compounds were identified, representing 98.25% of total oil content. Linalyl acetate (56.88% and linalool (20.75% were determined as major essential oil constituents, followed by germacrene D (5.08% and β-cariophyllene (3.41%. Antifungal activities of clary sage essential oil and major compounds linalyl acetate and linalool against 30 clinical isolates, belonging to species Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis were evaluated. Essential oil characterized with stronger anticandidial activity in comparison with pure compounds.

  1. Chemical synthesis of La1 isolated from the venom of the scorpion Liocheles australasiae and determination of its disulfide bonding pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Junya; Miyashita, Masahiro; Nakagawa, Yoshiaki; Miyagawa, Hisashi

    2015-08-01

    La1 is a 73-residue cysteine-rich peptide isolated from the scorpion Liocheles australasiae venom. Although La1 is the most abundant peptide in the venom, its biological function remains unknown. Here, we describe a method for efficient chemical synthesis of La1 using the native chemical ligation (NCL) strategy, in which three peptide components of less than 40 residues were sequentially ligated. The peptide thioester necessary for NCL was synthesized using an aromatic N-acylurea approach with Fmoc-SPPS. After completion of sequential NCL, disulfide bond formation was carried out using a dialysis method, in which the linear peptide dissolved in an acidic solution was dialyzed against a slightly alkaline buffer to obtain correctly folded La1. Next, we determined the disulfide bonding pattern of La1. Enzymatic and chemical digests of La1 without reduction of disulfide bonds were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS), which revealed two of four disulfide bond linkages. The remaining two linkages were assigned based on MS/MS analysis of a peptide fragment containing two disulfide bonds. Consequently, the disulfide bonding pattern of La1 was found to be similar to that of a von Willebrand factor type C (VWC) domain. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the experimental determination of the disulfide bonding pattern of peptides having a single VWC domain as well as their chemical synthesis. La1 synthesized in this study will be useful for investigation of its biological role in the venom. Copyright © 2015 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Trench Town Rock”: Reggae Music, Landscape Inscription, and the Making of Place in Kingston, Jamaica

    OpenAIRE

    Rhiney, Kevon; Cruse, Romain

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines place inscriptions in Trench Town, Jamaica, and explores the ways these are used to reinforce, shape, or challenge dominant images of this inner-city community. On one hand, Trench Town is like many of its neighbouring communities, characterised by high levels of poverty, unemployment, political and gang violence, derelict buildings, and overcrowded homes. On the other hand, Trench Town is iconic and unique as it is recognised worldwide for being the birth place of reggae ...

  3. Autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration determined with trenching, soil CO2 fluxes and 13CO2/12CO2 concentration gradients in a boreal forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumpanen, Jukka; Shurpali, Narasinha; Kulmala, Liisa; Kolari, Pasi; Heinonsalo, Jussi

    2017-04-01

    Soil CO2 efflux forms a substantial part of the ecosystem carbon balance, and it can contribute more than half of the annual ecosystem respiration. Recently assimilated carbon which has been fixed in photosynthesis during the previous days plays an important role in soil CO2 efflux, and its contribution is seasonally variable. Moreover, the recently assimilated C has been shown to stimulate the decomposition of recalcitrant C in soil and increase the mineralization of nitrogen, the most important macronutrient limiting gross primary productivity (GPP) in boreal ecosystems. Podzolic soils, typical in boreal zone, have distinctive layers with different biological and chemical properties. The biological activity in different soil layers has large seasonal variation due to vertical gradient in temperature, soil organic matter and root biomass. Thus, the source of CO2 and its components have a vertical gradient which is seasonally variable. The contribution of recently assimilated C and its seasonal as well as spatial variation in soil are difficult to assess without disturbing the system. The most common method of partitioning soil respiration into its components is trenching which entails the roots being cut or girdling where the flow of carbohydrates from the canopy to roots has been isolated by cutting of the phloem. Other methods for determining the contribution of autotrophic (Ra) and heterotrophic (Rh) respiration components in soil CO2 efflux are pulse labelling with 13CO2 or 14CO2 or the natural abundance of 13C and/or 14C isotopes. Also differences in seasonal and short-term temperature response of soil respiration have been used to separate Ra and Rh. We compared the seasonal variation in Ra and Rh using the trenching method and differences between seasonal and short-term temperature responses of soil respiration. I addition, we estimated the vertical variation in soil biological activity using soil CO2 concentration and the natural abundance of 13C and 12C

  4. CHEMICAL STUDY OF Hortia superba (Rutaceae AND INVESTIGATION OF THE ANTIMYCOBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CRUDE EXTRACTS AND CONSTITUENTS ISOLATED FROM Hortia SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Gisele Pasqualotto Severino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the chemical study of Hortia superba and antimycobacterial potential of Hortia species were investigated. Crude extracts and limonoids, alkaloids, dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives and coumarins isolated from Hortia superba, Hortia oreadica and Hortia brasiliana were evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium avium. The results obtained demonstrated an inhibitory effect of the dichloromethane extract of leaves of H. oreadica (MIC 31.25 µg mL-1, indolequinazoline (15.62 µg mL-1 and furoquinoline (31.25 µg mL-1 alkaloids, and dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives (62.50 µg mL-1, on the growth of M. tuberculosis. These results are promising in relation to the search for biologically active natural products and could be useful in the development of effective new drugs against mycobacteria.

  5. The inhibition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by essential oils isolated from leaves and fruits of Schinus areira depending on their chemical compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celaya, Liliana S; Alabrudzińska, Marta H; Molina, Ana C; Viturro, Carmen I; Moreno, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Schinus areira L. is a native plant from South America used for centuries in traditional medicine. Here, we investigate the antimicrobial activity of four essential oils extracted from leaves and fruits of S. areira exhibiting different chemical profiles. The antibacterial activity against the human pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus susceptible as well as methicillin resistant strain was assessed by the broth microdilution assay. The results showed that the limonene-rich oil extracted from the leaves and fruits have potent antibacterial effect on S. aureus ATCC 25923, while the α-phellandrene-rich fruit oil having a lower content of limonene showed the lowest antibacterial efficacy. In this work, for the first time, we demonstrated the bactericidal activity of essential oils isolated from fruits and leaves of S. areira against susceptible and methicillin resistant S. aureus strains. All results point out the potential use of the S. areira oils as antimicrobial agents to be used, at least against Staphylococcal infections.

  6. A Numerical Study of the Screening Effectiveness of Open Trenches for High-Speed Train-Induced Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-hung Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used the 2D boundary element method in time domain to examine the screening effectiveness of open trenches on reducing vibration generated by a high-speed train. The parameters included configurations of the trench, train speed, the distance between the source and the trench, and the Poisson’s ratio of the soil. A reducing displacement level (in dB scale was defined and used to evaluate the screening effectiveness of a wave barrier. The maximal reducing displacement level reached 25 dB when an open trench was used as a wave barrier. The depth of an open trench is a main influential parameter of screening effectiveness. The cutoff frequency of the displacement spectrum increases with decreasing trench depth. The maximal screening effectiveness occurs when the depth is 0.3-0.4 Rayleigh wavelength. Using an open trench as a wave barrier can reduce 10–25 dB of vibration amplitude at frequencies between 30 and 70 Hz. A considerable increase in screening effectiveness of the open trench was observed from 30 to 70 Hz, which matches the main frequencies of vibration induced by Taiwan High Speed Rail. The influence of trench width on screening effectiveness is nonsignificant except for frequencies from 30 to 40 Hz. Poisson’s ratio has various effects on the reduction of vibration at frequencies higher than 30 Hz.

  7. Resisting and pinning of a nanodrop by trenches on a hysteresis-free surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Chung; Wu, Cyuan-Jhang; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2016-10-01

    The encounter of a nanodrop with a trench on a hysteresis-free surface is explored by many-body dissipative particle dynamics to show the effect of surface roughness on droplet wetting. A free nanodrop exhibits Brownian motion and the diffusivity decays exponentially with the liquid-solid contact area. In contrast, as the nanodrop sits on a trench, its random motion is constrained. Work must be done to overcome the energy barriers for the transition between free and trapped states. The potential energy landscape is thus constructed based on the force-displacement plot. It is shown that the trench acts as a hydrophobic blemish for capture but like a hydrophilic blemish for escape. A drop always breaks up after detachment from a hydrophilic trench. Therefore, the drop tends to bypass a small trench when it meets one. The macroscopic experiments are performed by fabricating liquid-infused surfaces with extremely low contact angle hysteresis. The experimental observations agree qualitatively with simulation outcomes.

  8. In situ ground water remediation using the trench and gate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowles, M.W.; Bentley, L.R.; Hoyne, B.; Thomas, D.A.

    2000-04-01

    The trench and gate remediation system is a funnel and gate design modified for installation in tills and other low permeability sediments. Modifications include the addition of high hydraulic conductivity trenches along the upgradient side of the funnel walls and a discharge reinfiltration gallery downgradient from the treatment gate. Preferential ground water flow through the high permeability trenches and reinfiltration gallery prevents mounding, which otherwise forces flow beneath and around funnel walls. The resultant capture zone is larger, both horizontally and vertically, than the cross-sectional funnel area and is significantly larger than the capture zone of a similar funnel and gate system. The system constitutes and economical, in situ, long-term contaminant plume capture and treatment method. In effectiveness and cost, the trench and gate system compares favorably with, or outperforms, other remediation systems in near-surface, low permeability dissolved contaminant scenarios. A prototype trench and gate system was installed at the East Garrington Gas Plant, Alberta, Canada, in 1995. The installation demonstrated the effectiveness of the concept, and the system has successfully prevented off-site migration of dissolved hydrocarbon contaminants.

  9. Near-trench slip potential of megaquakes evaluated from fault properties and conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirono, Tetsuro; Tsuda, Kenichi; Tanikawa, Wataru; Ampuero, Jean-Paul; Shibazaki, Bunichiro; Kinoshita, Masataka; Mori, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Near-trench slip during large megathrust earthquakes (megaquakes) is an important factor in the generation of destructive tsunamis. We proposed a new approach to assessing the near-trench slip potential quantitatively by integrating laboratory-derived properties of fault materials and simulations of fault weakening and rupture propagation. Although the permeability of the sandy Nankai Trough materials are higher than that of the clayey materials from the Japan Trench, dynamic weakening by thermally pressurized fluid is greater at the Nankai Trough owing to higher friction, although initially overpressured fluid at the Nankai Trough restrains the fault weakening. Dynamic rupture simulations reproduced the large slip near the trench observed in the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake and predicted the possibility of a large slip of over 30 m for the impending megaquake at the Nankai Trough. Our integrative approach is applicable globally to subduction zones as a novel tool for the prediction of extreme tsunami-producing near-trench slip. PMID:27321861

  10. Biocide tolerance, phenotypic and molecular response of lactic acid bacteria isolated from naturally-fermented Aloreña table to different physico-chemical stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado Muñoz, María Del Carmen; Benomar, Nabil; Lavilla Lerma, Leyre; Knapp, Charles W; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate

    2016-12-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated throughout the fermentation process of Aloreña table olives were found to be resistant at least to three antibiotics (Casado Muñoz et al., 2014); however, most were sensitive to the biocides tested in this study (with minimum inhibitory concentrations [MIC] below the epidemiological cut-off values). 2-15% of the isolates were found to be biocide resistant: Leuconostoc Pseudomesenteroides, which were resistant to hexachlorophene, and Lactobacillus pentosus to cetrimide and hexadecylpiridinium. We analyzed the effect of different physico-chemical stresses, including antimicrobials, on the phenotypic and genotypic responses of LAB, providing new insights on how they become resistant in a changing environment. Results indicated that similar phenotypic responses were obtained under three stress conditions: antimicrobials, chemicals and UV light. Susceptibility patterns to antibiotics changed: increasing MICs for ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, teicoplanin and tetracycline, and decreasing the MICs for clindamycin, erythromycin, streptomycin and trimethoprim in most strains. Statistically, cross resistance between different antibiotics was detected in all stress conditions. However, expression profiles of selected genes involved in stress/resistance response (rpsL, recA, uvrB and srtA) differed depending on the stress parameter, LAB species and strain, and the target gene. We conclude that, despite the uniform phenotypic response to stresses, the repertoire of induced and repressed genes differs. So, a search for a target to improve stress tolerance of LAB, especially those of importance as starter/protective cultures or probiotics, may depend on the individual screening of each strain, even though we could predict the antibiotic phenotypic response to all stresses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Physico-Chemical Characterization of Carrageenan at Different Temperatures, Isolated from Hypnea musciformis from Karachi Coast Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junaid Mahmood, Syed; Bi, Fatima; Taj, Noor; Seema; Farhan, M.; Shahid, M.; Azmat, Rafia; Uddin, Fahim

    This study describe the basic tools like viscosity measurements and thermodynamic parameters of the polysaccharide isolated from Hypnea musciformis (red algae) of Karachi Coast (Pakistan) showed characteristics of κ-carrageenan. An IR spectrum showed a fairly sharp band at 1210, 1225 cm-1 corresponding to sulphate ester and is in accordance with the high sulphate content of κ-carrageenan. Viscosity measurements revealed a linear relationship with increase in concentration and decreased with the rise in temperature of aqueous solutions of κ-carrageenan. Thermodynamic parameters were determined by the change in viscosity data as a function of temperature and concentration. The free energy change of activation (Î'Gη) increased regularly as the concentration of aqueous κ-carrageenan increased, as well as rises in temperature. Higher values of free energy change of activation, (Î'Gη) showed the higher association of κ-carrageenan with water at given temperature. The values of entropy change of activation (Î'Sη) of viscous flow also increased with the increase in concentration and temperature of aqueous κ-carrageenan solution. The high negative values of entropy change of activation (Î'Sη) showed that the solution of κ-carrageenan was more ordered in initial state than the activated one.

  12. Blasting at a Superfund chemical waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    During the summer of 1989, Maine Drilling and Blasting of Gardiner, Maine was contracted by Cayer Corporation of Harvard, Massachusetts to drill and blast an interceptor trench at the Nyanza Chemical Superfund Site in Ashland, Massachusetts. The interceptor trench was to be 1,365 feet long and to be blasted out of granite. The trench was to be 12 feet wide at the bottom with 1/1 slopes, the deepest cut being 30 feet deep. A French drain 12 feet wide by 15 to 35 feet deep was blasted below the main trench on a 2% slope from its center to each end. A French drain is an excavation where the rock is blasted but not dug. The trench would be used as a perimeter road with any ground water flow going through the French drain flowing to both ends of the trench. Being a Superfund project turned a simple blasting project into a regulatory nightmare. The US Environmental Protection Agency performed all the chemical related functions on site. The US Army Corps of Engineers was overseeing all related excavation and construction on site, as was the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Quality Engineering, the local Hazardous Wastes Council, and the local Fire Department. All parties had some input with the blasting and all issues had to be addressed. The paper outlines the project, how it was designed and completed. Also included is an outline of the blast plan to be submitted for approval, an outline of the Safety/Hazardous Waste training and a description of all the problems which arose during the project by various regulatory agencies

  13. Physico-chemical analysis of tannery solid waste and structural characterization of its isolated humic acids after composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Soumia; Benlboukht, Fatima; Cancian, Nadia; Winterton, Peter; Hafidi, Mohamed

    2008-12-30

    In Marrakech, solid by-products from tanneries are highly polluting, generating large amounts of nitrogenous and organic matter. In the present study composting is tested as a cost-effective method for waste management to overcome many of the environmental hazards and produce a stable, rich material for soil fertilization. Two composting trials were conducted after neutralization by ammonia or lime. The aim of the neutralization was to avoid the antimicrobial effects of the acidity in the tannery waste, thus ensuring correct composting. Different techniques such as elemental analysis and 13C NMR spectroscopy were applied to analyse humic acids isolated from raw and composted materials, and to monitor the process of tannery waste composting, and the stability and maturity of the final product according to the means of neutralization. Comparison of data showed similar behaviour in both trials, but the composting process appeared to be more complete following neutralization with lime. The C, H and N content decreased, while the O increased. The FTIR and 13C NMR spectra show the decrease of aliphatic compounds demonstrated by the reduction of absorbance around 2922cm(-1) and of the resonance in the C-alkyl area around 0-55ppm. The humic acids newly formed during composting were richer in the O-N alkyl and oxidized aromatic structures that increased almost twofold on composting after neutralization with lime. The first principal component axis PC1 (54%) separated C-aliphatic, C-carboxylic and other less stable and less polycondensed compounds such as polyphenols from the more polycondensed O-N alkyl and oxidized C-aromatic compounds.

  14. Identifying Enclosed Chemical Reaction and Dynamics at the Molecular Level Using Shell-Isolated Miniaturized Plasmonic Liquid Marble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuemei; Lee, Hiang Kwee; Lee, Yih Hong; Hao, Wei; Liu, Yejing; Phang, In Yee; Li, Shuzhou; Ling, Xing Yi

    2016-04-21

    Current microscale tracking of chemical kinetics is limited to destructive ex situ methods. Here we utilize Ag nanocube-based plasmonic liquid marble (PLM) microreactor for in situ molecular-level identification of reaction dynamics. We exploit the ultrasensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) capability imparted by the plasmonic shell to unravel the mechanism and kinetics of aryl-diazonium surface grafting reaction in situ, using just a 2-μL reaction droplet. This reaction is a robust approach to generate covalently functionalized metallic surfaces, yet its kinetics remain unknown to date. Experiments and simulations jointly uncover a two-step sequential grafting process. An initial Langmuir chemisorption of sulfonicbenzene diazonium (dSB) salt onto Ag surfaces forms an intermediate sulfonicbenzene monolayer (Ag-SB), followed by subsequent autocatalytic multilayer growth of Ag-SB3. Kinetic rate constants reveal 19-fold faster chemisorption than multilayer growth. Our ability to precisely decipher molecular-level reaction dynamics creates opportunities to develop more efficient processes in synthetic chemistry and nanotechnology.

  15. Detection and delineation of waste trenches by geophysical methods at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selfridge, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Detection and delineation of waste trenches at hazardous waste sites are needed before actual implementation of site corrective measures. In a field study conducted in Solid Waste Storage Area 4 (SWSA4) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), surface geophysical techniques were used to assist in the delineation of waste trenches. A magnetometer/gradiometer survey was used to detect ferrous metals buried at the site. An electromagnetic ground conductivity survey was used to measure the electrical conductivity of the subsurface and aided in supporting the magnetometer/gradiometer results. Results from the two techniques were complimentary and easily integrated into a final interpretation. The reliability, efficiency, and worker safety benefits of these techniques offer a nondestructive surface technique for locating buried waste trenches

  16. Release mechanisms from shallow engineered trenches used as repositories for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locke, J.; Wood, E.

    1987-05-01

    This report has been written for the Department of the Environment as part of their radioactive waste management research programme. The aim has been to identify release mechanisms of radioactivity from fully engineered trenches of the LAND 2 type and, to identify the data needed for their assessment. No direct experimental work has been involved. The report starts with a brief background to UK strategy and outlines a basic disposal system. It gives reviews of existing experience of low level radioactive waste disposal from LAND 1 trenches and of UK experience of toxic waste disposal to provide a practical basis for the next section which covers the implications of identified release mechanisms on the design requirements for an engineered trench. From these design requirements and their interaction with potential site conditions (both saturated and unsaturated zone sites are considered) an assessment of radionuclide release mechanism is made. (author)

  17. Characterisation of a neutron diffraction detector prototype based on the Trench-MWPC technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet, J. C.; Clergeau, J. F.; Cuccaro, S.; Guérard, B.; Mandaroux, N.; Marchal, J.; Pentenero, J.; Platz, M.; Van Esch, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Trench Multi-Wire-Proportional-Chamber is a new type of MWPC which has been designed to fulfill the requirements of the 2D curved neutron detector under development for the XtremeD neutron diffractometer, under construction at ILL. In this design, anode wires are mounted orthogonally to a stack of metallic cathode plates which are insulated from each other by ceramic spacers. A row of teeth is spark-eroded along the edge of the cathode plates so that anode wires appear to be stretched along trenches machined across a segmented cathode plane. This design was tested on a prototype detector module mounted in a vessel filled with a mixture of 3He-Ar-CO2 at 7 bar. The detector configuration as well as measurements performed on this prototype at ILL neutron test beam line are presented. Results show that the Trench-MWPC design provides uniform amplification gain across the detection area despite the absence of the top cathode wires used to balance the electric field in standard Cathode-Anode-Cathode MWPC configurations. The presence of cathode trench side-walls surrounding anode wires minimises the spread of neutron-induced charge across electrodes, allowing for detector operation at reduced amplification gain without compromising the signal to noise per electrode. Pulse-height spectra acquired under various neutron flux conditions demonstrated that the Trench-MWPC design minimises space-charge effects, thanks to its low amplification gain combined with the fast collection of ions by cathode trench side-walls surrounding anode wires. Measurements also showed that this space-charge effect reduction results in a high local count-rate of ~100 kHz at 10% count loss when irradiating the detector with a small 5 mm × 5 mm neutron beam.

  18. Further Evidence for Medieval Faulting along the Puerto Rico Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, B. F.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Fuentes, Z.; Halley, R. B.; Spiske, M.; Tuttle, M. P.; Wei, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Has the Antilles Subduction Zone produced thrust or outer-rise earthquakes east of Hispaniola? An affirmative answer is suggested by tiered evidence for overwash 120 km south of the Puerto Rico Trench. The evidence comes from Anegada, British Virgin Islands, 200 km east-northeast of San Juan, Puerto Rico. PREVIOUS FINDINGS* suggested that a medieval overwash event had greater geologic effects at Anegada than did a Lisbon(?) event, and that both events outrank recent storms. The medieval overwash, in AD 1200-1450, dislodged brain corals from a reef, moved them as much as 500 m across a shallow subtidal flat, and scattered them as solitary boulders as much as 1000 m inland. Gentler overwash in 1650-1800, called Lisbon(?) because it may represent the 1755 tsunami, laid down a sheet of sand and island-derived shells as much as 1500 m from the north shore. A recent hurricane of category 4 left no durable geologic record other than sandy fans within 40 m of the south shore. NEW FINDINGS reinforce the ranking medieval > Lisbon(?) > storm: (1) The medieval event washed ashore marine shells that the Lisbon(?) event did not. An articulated marine bivalve (Codakia orbicularis), probably deposited live, is part of an overwash fan 400 m inland from Windlass Bight. The shell dates to the same time window as the medieval coral boulders. Additional articulated Codakia shells and a conch shell adjoin the buried base of one of these coral boulders 1500 m south of the fringing reef from which the coral was probably derived. (2) Lisbon(?) overwash used breaches that the medieval event had cut through beach ridges of the north shore. The re-use is marked by sand: on the muddy floor of a partly filled breach, on an organic soil in another such breach, and on a pre-existing fan south of an area of beach-ridge dissection. The buried organic soil, inset into a old breach, is 500 m inland from an area, near Cow Wreck High Point, where young beach ridges may have been breached for the first

  19. Design improvements on shallow-land burial trenches for disposing of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamura, E.S.; Salsman, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The lack of success of closed low-level radioactive waste disposal sites has prompted the federal government to increase regulation of these facilities. In order to meet these increased requirements, several waste trench improvements are necessary. These improvements to the trench include sandy-clay caps, compacted sandy-clay bottoms, in-place geophysical instruments and vadose zone sampling equipment, and concrete sidewalls. These design improvements presented in this paper should increase the containment of the radionuclides by decreasing the waste contact with infiltrating groundwater. The design improves on the monitoring and sampling methods for detecting radionuclides transported through the leachate or gas effluent streams. 13 references, 4 figures

  20. Preliminary Hazard Classification for the 116-N-3 Crib and Trench Remediation Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W. J.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a preliminary hazard classification (PHC) for the remediation of the 116-N-3 crib and trench, also known as the 1325-N crib and trench, which are located within the 100-NR-1 Operable Unit of the Hanford Site's 100-N Area. In addition to the work scope described below, current planning also includes removal of some of the pipelines located downstream from the 13 15-N valve box and sampling of other pipelines to determine if remedial actions goals have been met and the pipelines can be left in place

  1. Large-scale structural variation of trench outer slopes and rises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massell, Christina Gisela

    Trench outer slopes are among the most dynamic regions in the world. As lithosphere approaches a subduction zone it first flexes up into an outer rise then down into the trench. The flexure of the lithosphere is most commonly modeled as an elastic process reflecting the age of the lithosphere, however large-scale inelastic deformation coupled to the weakening of the bending plate results in a variety of structures along individual trenches unrelated to age. Deformation of the outer rise and slope of the Peru-Chile Trench and the Tonga-Kermadec Trench is investigated with respect to trench axis strike, outer rise wavelength, age of the lithosphere, presence of incoming features and the trend of abyssal hills. The tectonic history of each region is presented to constrain the orientation of abyssal hill lineations and pre-existing features. The orientation and character of faulting on the outer slope is a function of the strike of incoming abyssal hills with respect to the bending axis. Where abyssal hills strike within 30° of the bending axis, abyssal hill faults are reactivated. At greater angles, new faults are broken parallel to the bending axis. Where the strike of abyssal hills with respect to the bending axis is within 5° of 30° a hybrid between new faults and abyssal hill faults is observed. Trench-facing abyssal hill scarps, relative to originally sea-facing abyssal hill scarps, are preferentially reactivated creating a step fault pattern of faults spaced a few kilometers apart on the order of 150--500m in height. New, bending-axis parallel faults most commonly initiate and evolve as horst and graben structures within 50--60km of the trench axis. They are more widely spaced, on the order of 5--10km apart, and their scarps are commonly as great as 1km in height. Anomalously oriented, oblique scarps crosscut abyssal hills and are not parallel to the bending axis. They are attributed to large changes in plate boundary geometry. The magnitude of outer slope

  2. Removal of the radioactive materials from the trench submergence in Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okita, Takeshi; Ikeda, Akira; Oomura, Hisao; Kojima, Chiaki; Nozawa, Keiji

    2014-01-01

    Toshiba has been contributing for stabilization from the accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. One of the contribution areas is the treatment of highly contaminated water accumulated in the piping trench of Unit 2 and Unit 3. As an emergency countermeasure, Toshiba installed the mobile type water treatment system which is named SMARTS (Simplified Mobile Adsorption and Retrieve for Trench Submergence) for removal of radionuclide. SMARTS has achieved 10 3 ∼ 10 4 decontamination factor (DF) for Cesium (Cs) in the actual operation. This paper describes the formation of SMARTS and the result of performance. (author)

  3. Large-scale trench-perpendicular mantle flow beneath northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, M. C.; Rumpker, G.; Woelbern, I.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the anisotropic properties of the forearc region of the central Andean margin by analyzing shear-wave splitting from teleseismic and local earthquakes from the Nazca slab. The data stems from the Integrated Plate boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC) located in northern Chile, covering an approximately 120 km wide coastal strip between 17°-25° S with an average station spacing of 60 km. With partly over ten years of data, this data set is uniquely suited to address the long-standing debate about the mantle flow field at the South American margin and in particular whether the flow field beneath the slab is parallel or perpendicular to the trench. Our measurements yield two distinct anisotropic layers. The teleseismic measurements show a change of fast polarizations directions from North to South along the trench ranging from parallel to subparallel to the absolute plate motion and, given the geometry of absolute plate motion and strike of the trench, mostly perpendicular to the trench. Shear-wave splitting from local earthquakes shows fast polarizations roughly aligned trench-parallel but exhibit short-scale variations which are indicative of a relatively shallow source. Comparisons between fast polarization directions and the strike of the local fault systems yield a good agreement. We use forward modelling to test the influence of the upper layer on the teleseismic measurements. We show that the observed variations of teleseismic measurements along the trench are caused by the anisotropy in the upper layer. Accordingly, the mantle layer is best characterized by an anisotropic fast axes parallel to the absolute plate motion which is roughly trench-perpendicular. This anisotropy is likely caused by a combination of crystallographic preferred orientation of the mantle mineral olivine as fossilized anisotropy in the slab and entrained flow beneath the slab. We interpret the upper anisotropic layer to be confined to the crust of the overriding continental

  4. High performance trench MOS barrier Schottky diode with high-k gate oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Dong-Yuan; Zhu, Jun; Zhao, Yi; Cai, Yin-Fei; Shi, Yi; Zheng, You-Liao

    2015-07-01

    A novel trench MOS barrier Schottky diode (TMBS) device with a high-k material introduced into the gate insulator is reported, which is named high-k TMBS. By simulation with Medici, it is found that the high-k TMBS can have 19.8% lower leakage current while maintaining the same breakdown voltage and forward turn-on voltage compared with the conventional regular trench TMBS. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CBA00607), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61106089 and 61376097), and the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. LR14F040001).

  5. The potential influence of subduction zone polarity on overriding plate deformation, trench migration and slab dip angle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W. P.

    2007-01-01

    A geodynamic model exists, the westward lithospheric drift model, in which the variety of overriding plate deformation, trench migration and slab dip angles is explained by the polarity of subduction zones. The model predicts overriding plate extension, a fixed trench and a steep slab dip for

  6. Lignin-carbohydrate complexes from sisal (Agave sisalana) and abaca (Musa textilis): chemical composition and structural modifications during the isolation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río, José C; Prinsen, Pepijn; Cadena, Edith M; Martínez, Ángel T; Gutiérrez, Ana; Rencoret, Jorge

    2016-05-01

    Two types of lignins occurred in different lignin-carbohydrate fractions, a lignin enriched in syringyl units, less condensed, preferentially associated with xylans, and a lignin with more guaiacyl units, more condensed, associated with glucans. Lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCC) were isolated from the fibers of sisal (Agave sisalana) and abaca (Musa textilis) according to a plant biomass fractionation procedure recently developed and which was termed as "universally" applicable to any type of lignocellulosic material. Two LCC fractions, namely glucan-lignin (GL) and xylan-lignin (XL), were isolated and differed in the content and composition of carbohydrates and lignin. In both cases, GL fractions were enriched in glucans and comparatively depleted in lignin, whereas XL fractions were depleted in glucans, but enriched in xylans and lignin. Analysis by two-dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (2D-NMR) and Derivatization Followed by Reductive Cleavage (DFRC) indicated that the XL fractions were enriched in syringyl (S)-lignin units and β-O-4' alkyl-aryl ether linkages, whereas GL fractions have more guaiacyl (G)-lignin units and less β-O-4' alkyl-aryl ether linkages per lignin unit. The data suggest that the structural characteristics of the lignin polymers are not homogeneously distributed within the same plant and that two different lignin polymers with different composition and structure might be present. The analyses also suggested that acetates from hemicelluloses and the acyl groups (acetates and p-coumarates) attached to the γ-OH of the lignin side chains were extensively hydrolyzed and removed during the LCC fractionation process. Therefore, caution must be paid when using this fractionation approach for the structural characterization of plants with acylated hemicelluloses and lignins. Finally, several chemical linkages (phenylglycosides and benzyl ethers) could be observed to occur between lignin and xylans in these plants.

  7. Development of the Conceptual Models for Chemical Conditions and Hydrology Used in the 1996 Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LARSON, KURT W.

    2000-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations specify that the DOE must demonstrate on a sound basis that the WIPP disposal system will effectively contain long-lived alpha-emitting radionuclides within its boundaries for 10,000 years following closure. In 1996, the DOE submitted the ''40 CFR Part 191 Compliance Certification Application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant'' (CCA) to the EPA. The CCA proposed that the WIPP site complies with EPA's regulatory requirements. Contained within the CCA are descriptions of the scientific research conducted to characterize the properties of the WIPP site and the probabilistic performance assessment (PA) conducted to predict the containment properties of the WIPP disposal system. In May 1998, the EPA certified that the TRU waste disposal at the WIPP complies with its regulations. Waste disposal operations at WIPP commenced on March 28, 1999. The 1996 WIPP PA model of the disposal system included conceptual and mathematical representations of key hydrologic and geochemical processes. These key processes were identified over a 22-year period involving data collection, data interpretation, computer models, and sensitivity studies to evaluate the importance of uncertainty and of processes that were difficult to evaluate by other means. Key developments in the area of geochemistry were the evaluation of gas generation mechanisms in the repository; development of a model of chemical conditions in the repository and actinide concentrations in brine; selecting MgO backfill and demonstrating its effects experimentally; and determining the chemical retardation capability of the Culebra. Key developments in the area of hydrology were evacuating the potential for groundwater to dissolve the Salado Formation (the repository host formation), development of a regional model for

  8. Development of the Conceptual Models for Chemical Conditions and Hydrology Used in the 1996 Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LARSON, KURT W

    2000-05-24

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations specify that the DOE must demonstrate on a sound basis that the WIPP disposal system will effectively contain long-lived alpha-emitting radionuclides within its boundaries for 10,000 years following closure. In 1996, the DOE submitted the ''40 CFR Part 191 Compliance Certification Application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant'' (CCA) to the EPA. The CCA proposed that the WIPP site complies with EPA's regulatory requirements. Contained within the CCA are descriptions of the scientific research conducted to characterize the properties of the WIPP site and the probabilistic performance assessment (PA) conducted to predict the containment properties of the WIPP disposal system. In May 1998, the EPA certified that the TRU waste disposal at the WIPP complies with its regulations. Waste disposal operations at WIPP commenced on March 28, 1999. The 1996 WIPP PA model of the disposal system included conceptual and mathematical representations of key hydrologic and geochemical processes. These key processes were identified over a 22-year period involving data collection, data interpretation, computer models, and sensitivity studies to evaluate the importance of uncertainty and of processes that were difficult to evaluate by other means. Key developments in the area of geochemistry were the evaluation of gas generation mechanisms in the repository; development of a model of chemical conditions in the repository and actinide concentrations in brine; selecting MgO backfill and demonstrating its effects experimentally; and determining the chemical retardation capability of the Culebra. Key developments in the area of hydrology were evacuating the potential for groundwater to dissolve the Salado Formation (the repository host formation), development

  9. Light extinction and scattering from individual and arrayed high-aspect-ratio trenches in metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Alexander Sylvester; Søndergaard, Thomas; Chirumamilla, Manohar

    2016-01-01

    only on the resonance wavelength. For real metals with nonzero absorption, efficient monomaterial absorbers and emitters can be fabricated. We extend the analysis to tapering trenches that can be readily fabricated employing common milling or etching techniques and verify by reflection spectroscopy...

  10. Light extinction and scattering from individual and arrayed high-aspect-ratio trenches in metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Alexander; Søndergaard, Thomas; Chirumamilla, Manohar

    2016-01-01

    for a two-dimensional scatterer. We construct a simple resonator model which predicts the wavelength-dependent extinction, scattering, and absorption cross section of the trench and compare the model findings with full numerical simulations. Both extinction and scattering cross sections are mainly...

  11. Preliminary fire hazard analysis for the PUTDR and TRU trenches in the Solid Waste Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaschott, L.J.

    1995-01-01

    This document represents the Preliminary Fire Hazards Analysis for the Pilot Unvented TRU Drum Retrieval effort and for the Transuranic drum trenches in the low level burial grounds. The FHA was developed in accordance with DOE Order 5480.7A to address major hazards inherent in the facility

  12. The black silicon method VI: high aspect ratio trench etching for MEMS applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Henricus V.; de Boer, Meint J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    1996-01-01

    Etching high aspect ratio trenches (HART's) in silicon is becoming increasingly important for MEMS applications. Currently, the most important technique is dry reactive ion etching (RIE). This paper presents solutions for the most notorious problems during etching HART's: tilting and the aspect

  13. Characterization and modeling of atomic layer deposited high-density trench capacitors in silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matters-Kammerer, M.K.; Jinesh, K.B.; Rijks, T.G.S.M.; Roozeboom, F.; Klootwijk, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed electrical analysis of multiple layer trench capacitors fabricated in silicon with atomic-layer-deposited Al 2O 3 and TiN is presented. It is shown that in situ ozone annealing of the Al 2O 3 layers prior to the TiN electrode deposition significantly improves the electric properties of

  14. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dave Madsen

    1998-08-01

    This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 426. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 225 kilometers northwest of Las Vegas, NV. CAU 426 consists of one corrective action site (CAS) which is comprised of four waste trenches. The trenches were excavated to receive solid waste generated in support of Operation Roller Coaster, primary the Double Tracks Test in 1963, and were subsequently backfilled. The Double Tracks Test involved use of live animals to assess the biological hazards associated with the nonnuclear detonation of plutonium-bearing devices. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP)which proposed ''capping'' methodology. The closure activities were completed in accordance with the approved CAP and consisted of constructing an engineered cover in the area of the trenches, constructing/planting a vegetative cover, installing a perimeter fence and signs, implementing restrictions on future use, and preparing a Post-Closure Monitoring Plan.

  15. Conductive Oxides Trench Structures as Hyperbolic Metamaterials in Mid-infrared Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takayama, Osamu; Shkondin, Evgeniy; Panah, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee

    oxides can function as hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs) for the mid-infrared wavelength region. We fabricated a probe sample by a combination of atomic layer deposition (ALD) and dry etch techniques. We templated a Si wafer with deep UV photolithography and made trenches by deep reactive ion etching...

  16. Paleoseismic investigations along the Peel Boundary Fault : Geological setting, site selection and trenching results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, M. van den; Vanneste, K.; Dost, B.; Lokhorst, A.; Eijk, M. van; Verbeeck, K.

    2002-01-01

    On the basis of a multidisciplinary approach we have unraveled the palaeo-earthquake history of a trenched section across the Peel Boundary Fault. The area shows at present one of the largest contrasts in relative motion on both sides of the fault on the basis of repeated levelling. The geological

  17. Maskless regrowth of GaN for trenched devices by MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Anchal; Koksaldi, Onur; Gupta, Chirag; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh K.

    2017-12-01

    Blanket regrowth studies were performed on GaN trenches with varying widths and optimized for two types of devices—those that required the profile of the trench to be maintained and those that required the complete filling of trenches, i.e., a planar surface after regrowth. Low temperature Al0.22Ga0.78N growth was optimized and used as the marker layer for SEM. GaN deposition at a medium temperature of 950 °C and using N2 as carrier gas resulted primarily in growth on the (0001) plane, while the growth on the sidewalls was governed by the formation of slow growing semi-polar planes. This gave a conformal profile to the regrown GaN—useful for regrown GaN interlayer based vertical trench MOSFETs. In contrast, high temperature (1150 °C) growth in H2 resulted in high lateral growth rates. The planar surface was achieved under these conditions—a very promising result for CAVET-type devices.

  18. Magnetron target designs to improve wafer edge trench filling in ionized metal physical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Junqing; Yoon, Jae-Hong; Shin, Keesam; Park, Bong-Gyu; Yang Lin

    2006-01-01

    Severe asymmetry of the metal deposits on the trench sidewalls occurs near the wafer edge during low pressure ionized metal physical vapor deposition of Cu seed layer for microprocessor interconnects. To investigate this process and mitigate the asymmetry, an analytical view factor model based on the analogy between metal sputtering and diffuse thermal radiation was constructed. The model was validated based on the agreement between the model predictions and the reported experimental values for the asymmetric metal deposition at trench sidewalls near the wafer edge for a 200 mm wafer. This model could predict the thickness of the metal deposits across the wafer, the symmetry of the deposits on the trench sidewalls at any wafer location, and the angular distributions of the metal fluxes arriving at any wafer location. The model predictions for the 300 mm wafer indicate that as the target-to-wafer distance is shortened, the deposit thickness increases and the asymmetry decreases, however the overall uniformity decreases. Up to reasonable limits, increasing the target size and the sputtering intensity for the outer target portion significantly improves the uniformity across the wafer and the symmetry on the trench sidewalls near the wafer edge

  19. Ship motion effects in CTD-data from weakly stratified waters of the Puerto Rico trench

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.

    2015-01-01

    Shipborne SBE 911plus Conductivity Temperature Depth (CTD)-casts have been made to maximum 7220 m in the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT). In PRT-waters from 5500 m and deeper and specifically below the 6500 m transition to the hadal-zone, the vertical density stratification is found very weak, with

  20. Subduction zone trench migration : Slab driven or overriding-plate-driven?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W. P.

    Subduction zones on Earth, and their associated trenches and hinges, migrate with respect to the overriding plate, as indicated by overriding plate deformation (e.g. backarc extension or backarc shortening), and migrate with respect to hotspot and no-net-rotation reference frames (global or

  1. A systematic study of BNL's 3D-Trench Electrode detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montalbano, A.; Bassignana, D.; Li, Z.; Liu, S.; Lynn, D.; Pellegrini, G.; Tsybychev, D.

    2014-01-01

    New types of silicon pixel detectors have been proposed because of the need for more radiation hard semiconductor devices for the high luminosity tracking detector upgrades at the Large Hadron Collider. A novel type of 3D Si pixel detectors is proposed, with each cell of the 3D-Trench Electrode pixel detector featuring a concentric trench electrode surrounding the central collecting column electrode. The pixel sensor is an array of those individual cells. Systematic 3D simulations using Silvacos TCAD programs have been carried out to study the characteristics of this novel 3D pixel design and to compare to the traditional 3D column electrode pixel design. The 3D simulations show a much lower depletion voltage and a more uniform electric field in the new 3D-Trench Electrode pixel detectors as compared to the traditional 3D column Electrode detectors. The first prototype 3D-Trench Electrode pixel detectors have been manufactured at the Centro Nacional De Microelectronica. Preliminary electrical measurements are discussed and charge collection efficiency measurements are presented

  2. Latino Families Challenging Exclusion in a Middle School: A Story from the Trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasis, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    This study examines a grassroots, school-centered parent and family organizing effort from the actual "trenches" in the struggle for equity and excellence in education. This is an exploration of the intrinsic value and the complex dynamics of the organizing process of a small group of Latino immigrant parents struggling to improve their children's…

  3. Design of homogeneous trench-assisted multi-core fibers based on analytical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Feihong; Tu, Jiajing; Saitoh, Kunimasa

    2016-01-01

    We present a design method of homogeneous trench-assisted multicore fibers (TA-MCFs) based on an analytical model utilizing an analytical expression for the mode coupling coefficient between two adjacent cores. The analytical model can also be used for crosstalk (XT) properties analysis, such as ...

  4. Above 700 V superjunction MOSFETs fabricated by deep trench etching and epitaxial growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zehong; Ren Min; Zhang Bo; Ma Jun; Hu Tao; Zhang Shuai; Wang Fei; Chen Jian

    2010-01-01

    Silicon superjunction power MOSFETs were fabricated with deep trench etching and epitaxial growth, based on the process platform of the Shanghai Hua Hong NEC Electronics Company Limited. The breakdown voltages of the fabricated superjunction MOSFETs are above 700 V and agree with the simulation. The dynamic characteristics, especially reverse diode characteristics, are equivalent or even superior to foreign counterparts. (semiconductor devices)

  5. Self-assembly and transfer of photoresist suspended over trenches for microbeam fabrication in MEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Zi Yang; Yang, Heng; Li, Xin Xin; Wang, Yue Lin

    2010-01-01

    A novel technique of self-assembly and transfer of a photoresist thin film assisted by metallization is presented for planarization in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) in this paper. The AZ5214 photoresist thin film was self-assembled on the water–gas interface and then the entire film was transferred to the wafer surface. The photoresist suspended over trenches to form a planar surface proved to be useful as a bridge layer for the subsequent processes in MEMS. Metal layers were then sputtered on the photoresist and patterned by dry etching. After sacrificially etching the photoresist bridge layer, metal beams and cantilevers were released and suspended over the trenches. It was found that the suspension capability of the AZ5214 photoresist thin film increased with the film thickness and a 300 nm thick photoresist was sufficient to span a 50 µm trench without breaking. Both 350 nm thick Cu double-clamped beams and cantilevers, suspended over trenches, were successfully prepared using the proposed method

  6. Trench Protection and Principles of Pipe Laying. Instructor Manual. Trainee Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborers-AGC Education and Training Fund, Pomfret Center, CT.

    This packet contains the instructor and trainee manuals for a course dealing with trench protection and principles of pipe laying. Part 1 is the instructor guide for an 80-hour course--12 classroom hours and 68 hours of hands-on exercises. Contents are as follows: a course outline; course schedule; equipment list; material and equipment checklist;…

  7. Characterization of Secondary Solid Wastes in Trench Water in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.A.; Kent, T.E.

    1994-02-01

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that new liquid waste streams, generated as a consequence of closure activities at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 and other sites, can be treated at the existing wastewater treatment facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to meet discharge requirements without producing hazardous secondary solid wastes. Previous bench and pilot-scale treatability studies have shown that ORNL treatment operations will adequately remove the contaminants and that the secondary solid wastes produced were not hazardous when treating water from two trenches in WAG 6. This study used WAG 6 trench water spiked with the minimum concentration of Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) constituents (chemicals that can make a waste hazardous) found in any groundwater samples at ORNL. The Wastewater Treatment Test Facility (WTTF), a 0.5 L/min pilot plant that simulates the treatment capabilities of the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWPT) and Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP), was used for this test. This test system, which is able to produce secondary wastes in the quantities necessary for TCLP testing, was operated for a 59-d test period with a minimum of problems and downtime. The pilot plant operating data verified that WAG 6 trench waters, spiked with the minimum concentration of TCLP contaminants measured to date, can be treated at the PWTP and NRWTP to meet current discharge limits. The results of the TCLP analysis indicated that none of the secondary solid wastes produced during the treatment of these wastewaters will be considered hazardous as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

  8. Paleoseismic evidence of earthquakes and tsunamis along the southern part of the Japan Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarczyk, Jessica; Sawai, Yuki; Horton, Ben; Namegaya, Yuichi; Shinozaki, Tetsuya; Tanigawa, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Dan; Dura, Tina; Fujiwara, Osamu; Shishikura, Masanobu

    2016-04-01

    The northern part of the Japan Trench has frequently generated tsunamigenic-earthquakes with magnitudes up to ~M 8.0. In contrast, the middle and southern parts of the Japan Trench were considered relatively inactive until the 2011 Tohoku (M 9.0) event generated one of the largest tsunamis in recorded history. Geologic evidence from the Sendai plain revealed an event in CE 869 that could have forecast the severity of the Tohoku tsunami in 2011. Seismic models indicate that the Tohoku earthquake may have transferred stress southwards down the fault to the potentially locked southern part of the Japan Trench. This transfer of stress towards a locked section of the trench could produce an earthquake in the near future that would be comparable in magnitude to the Tohoku event. Reconstructing the history of individual great earthquakes and accompanying tsunamis using geological records from the coastal zone adjacent to the southern part of the Japan Trench provides an assessment of the seismic hazard for metropolitan areas in east-central Japan. We have found two anomalous marine sand layers intercalated with muddy peat, which can be traced 3.8 km inland and 5.5 km along the present Kujukuri coastline, approximately 50 km east of Tokyo. Both sand layers have features consistent with tsunami deposits, such as a distinct erosional base, rip-up clasts, normal grading, a mud drape, and marine foraminifera. Results of radiocarbon dating constrain the age of the upper sand to 337 - 299 cal. yrs. BP, which likely corresponds to the only known southern Japan Trench rupture ever recorded, the Empo tsunami of CE 1677. The age of the lower sand is 979 - 903 cal. yrs. BP; marking an event for which there is no historical documentation at present. Preliminary tsunami simulation models indicate that a middle trench (Tohoku-style) rupture is not responsible for significant inundation of the Kujukuri coastline and would likely not have been capable of depositing either sand layer

  9. Benchmarking Exercises To Validate The Updated ELLWF GoldSim Slit Trench Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G. A.; Hiergesell, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) results of the 2008 Performance Assessment (PA) (WSRC, 2008) sensitivity/uncertainty analyses conducted for the trenches located in the EArea LowLevel Waste Facility (ELLWF) were subject to review by the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group (LFRG) (LFRG, 2008). LFRG comments were generally approving of the use of probabilistic modeling in GoldSim to support the quantitative sensitivity analysis. A recommendation was made, however, that the probabilistic models be revised and updated to bolster their defensibility. SRS committed to addressing those comments and, in response, contracted with Neptune and Company to rewrite the three GoldSim models. The initial portion of this work, development of Slit Trench (ST), Engineered Trench (ET) and Components-in-Grout (CIG) trench GoldSim models, has been completed. The work described in this report utilizes these revised models to test and evaluate the results against the 2008 PORFLOW model results. This was accomplished by first performing a rigorous code-to-code comparison of the PORFLOW and GoldSim codes and then performing a deterministic comparison of the two-dimensional (2D) unsaturated zone and three-dimensional (3D) saturated zone PORFLOW Slit Trench models against results from the one-dimensional (1D) GoldSim Slit Trench model. The results of the code-to-code comparison indicate that when the mechanisms of radioactive decay, partitioning of contaminants between solid and fluid, implementation of specific boundary conditions and the imposition of solubility controls were all tested using identical flow fields, that GoldSim and PORFLOW produce nearly identical results. It is also noted that GoldSim has an advantage over PORFLOW in that it simulates all radionuclides simultaneously - thus avoiding a potential problem as demonstrated in the Case Study (see Section 2.6). Hence, it was concluded that the follow

  10. Benchmarking Exercises To Validate The Updated ELLWF GoldSim Slit Trench Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, G. A.; Hiergesell, R. A.

    2013-11-12

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) results of the 2008 Performance Assessment (PA) (WSRC, 2008) sensitivity/uncertainty analyses conducted for the trenches located in the EArea LowLevel Waste Facility (ELLWF) were subject to review by the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group (LFRG) (LFRG, 2008). LFRG comments were generally approving of the use of probabilistic modeling in GoldSim to support the quantitative sensitivity analysis. A recommendation was made, however, that the probabilistic models be revised and updated to bolster their defensibility. SRS committed to addressing those comments and, in response, contracted with Neptune and Company to rewrite the three GoldSim models. The initial portion of this work, development of Slit Trench (ST), Engineered Trench (ET) and Components-in-Grout (CIG) trench GoldSim models, has been completed. The work described in this report utilizes these revised models to test and evaluate the results against the 2008 PORFLOW model results. This was accomplished by first performing a rigorous code-to-code comparison of the PORFLOW and GoldSim codes and then performing a deterministic comparison of the two-dimensional (2D) unsaturated zone and three-dimensional (3D) saturated zone PORFLOW Slit Trench models against results from the one-dimensional (1D) GoldSim Slit Trench model. The results of the code-to-code comparison indicate that when the mechanisms of radioactive decay, partitioning of contaminants between solid and fluid, implementation of specific boundary conditions and the imposition of solubility controls were all tested using identical flow fields, that GoldSim and PORFLOW produce nearly identical results. It is also noted that GoldSim has an advantage over PORFLOW in that it simulates all radionuclides simultaneously - thus avoiding a potential problem as demonstrated in the Case Study (see Section 2.6). Hence, it was concluded that the follow

  11. Special Analysis: 2004 General Revision of Slit and Engineered Trench Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COLLARD, LEONARDB.

    2004-06-14

    This Special Analysis revises the Slit Trench and Engineered Trench inventory limits. Changes have been made in the methods of analyses and in the implementation of those methods. General changes applicable to multiple pathways/scenarios are discussed in this section, while changes specific to individual pathways/scenarios are discussed in their applicable sections. This report provides limits for each nuclide for each pathway/scenario in a single table to help implement the approach introduced in the ''timed sum-of-fractions'' report. The pathways/scenarios include the following: (1) Groundwater; (2) Inadvertent Intruder; (3) Air; (4) Radon. In the timed sum-of-fractions report, the time intervals were selected to be 0-100 years, 100-1000 years, and 1000-10,000 years. The time intervals for this report were refined to 0-12 years, 12-100 years, and 100-1000 years to account for the separation of the tritium groundwater peak from those of other radionuclides. This report includes nuclides not previously included in the process analysis. Some of these nuclides are included because they have been disposed in Slit or Engineered Trenches and the latest screening analysis indicates that they survived the screening process. Other nuclides are only included because they survived the screening process and they have been disposed in other disposal units. Inventory limits for Slit Trenches and Engineered Trenches were recalculated while imposing a multitude of changes. The most important changes both tended to increase limits, such as changing the time of compliance from 10,000 years to 1000 years and tended to decrease limits, such as modifying the aquifer source node selection. The net effect for the groundwater pathway reduced some limits for nuclides that dominate the sum-of-fractions.

  12. Seismic evidence for a slab tear at the Puerto Rico Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meighan, Hallie E.; Pulliam, Jay; ten Brink, Uri S.; López-Venegas, Alberto M.

    2013-01-01

    The fore-arc region of the northeast Caribbean plate north of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands has been the site of numerous seismic swarms since at least 1976. A 6 month deployment of five ocean bottom seismographs recorded two such tightly clustered swarms, along with additional events. Joint analyses of the ocean bottom seismographs and land-based seismic data reveal that the swarms are located at depths of 50–150 km. Focal mechanism solutions, found by jointly fitting P wave first-motion polarities and S/P amplitude ratios, indicate that the broadly distributed events outside the swarm generally have strike- and dip-slip mechanisms at depths of 50–100 km, while events at depths of 100–150 km have oblique mechanisms. A stress inversion reveals two distinct stress regimes: The slab segment east of 65°W longitude is dominated by trench-normal tensile stresses at shallower depths (50–100 km) and by trench-parallel tensile stresses at deeper depths (100–150 km), whereas the slab segment west of 65°W longitude has tensile stresses that are consistently trench normal throughout the depth range at which events were observed (50–100 km). The simple stress pattern in the western segment implies relatively straightforward subduction of an unimpeded slab, while the stress pattern observed in the eastern segment, shallow trench-normal tension and deeper trench-normal compression, is consistent with flexure of the slab due to rollback. These results support the hypothesis that the subducting North American plate is tearing at or near these swarms. The 35 year record of seismic swarms at this location and the recent increase in seismicity suggest that the tear is still propagating.

  13. High‐resolution trench photomosaics from image‐based modeling: Workflow and error analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitman, Nadine G.; Bennett, Scott E. K.; Gold, Ryan D.; Briggs, Richard; Duross, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Photomosaics are commonly used to construct maps of paleoseismic trench exposures, but the conventional process of manually using image‐editing software is time consuming and produces undesirable artifacts and distortions. Herein, we document and evaluate the application of image‐based modeling (IBM) for creating photomosaics and 3D models of paleoseismic trench exposures, illustrated with a case‐study trench across the Wasatch fault in Alpine, Utah. Our results include a structure‐from‐motion workflow for the semiautomated creation of seamless, high‐resolution photomosaics designed for rapid implementation in a field setting. Compared with conventional manual methods, the IBM photomosaic method provides a more accurate, continuous, and detailed record of paleoseismic trench exposures in approximately half the processing time and 15%–20% of the user input time. Our error analysis quantifies the effect of the number and spatial distribution of control points on model accuracy. For this case study, an ∼87  m2 exposure of a benched trench photographed at viewing distances of 1.5–7 m yields a model with <2  cm root mean square error (rmse) with as few as six control points. Rmse decreases as more control points are implemented, but the gains in accuracy are minimal beyond 12 control points. Spreading control points throughout the target area helps to minimize error. We propose that 3D digital models and corresponding photomosaics should be standard practice in paleoseismic exposure archiving. The error analysis serves as a guide for future investigations that seek balance between speed and accuracy during photomosaic and 3D model construction.

  14. Geologic Evidence of Tsunamigenic Earthquakes from the Southern Part of the Japan Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarczyk, J.; Sawai, Y.; Namegaya, Y.; Tamura, T.; Tanigawa, K.; Matsumoto, D.; Shinozaki, T.; Fujiwara, O.; Shishikura, M.; Shimada, Y.; Dura, T.; Horton, B.

    2017-12-01

    The northern and southern parts of the Japan Trench have generated earthquakes with moment magnitudes up to 8.0. Similarly, the middle part of the Japan Trench has historically generated tsunamigenic-earthquakes up to M 7.0. However, in 2011, the Tohoku-oki (M 9.0) event ruptured 500 km along the middle part of the Japan Trench and generated the largest known tsunami to have originated from this part of the subduction zone. Seismic models indicate that the Tohoku-oki earthquake may have transferred stress southwards down the fault to the potentially locked southern part of the Japan Trench. It is unknown if this transfer of stress could produce an earthquake and tsunami that would impact the metropolitan areas of east-central Japan in the near future that may be comparable in magnitude to the Tohoku-oki event. Here, we reconstruct the history of individual great earthquakes and accompanying tsunamis using geological records from the coastal zone adjacent to the southern part of the Japan Trench, providing an assessment of the seismic hazard for metropolitan areas in east-central Japan. In the Kujukuri strand plain, we found three anomalous marine sand layers intercalated within muddy peat, which can be traced 3.8 km inland and 50 km along the present Kujukuri coastline. Each sand layer has features consistent with tsunami deposits, such as a distinct erosional base, rip-up clasts, normal grading, and a mud drape. Preliminary radiocarbon dating suggests three tsunamis inundated the Kujukuri coastline over the last millennium.

  15. Analysis of bacteria by pyrolysis gas chromatography-differential mobility spectrometry and isolation of chemical components with a dependence on growth temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Satendra; Pierce, Karisa M; Schmidt, Hartwig; Rao, Jaya V; Güth, Robert; Bader, Sabine; Synovec, Robert E; Smith, Geoffrey B; Eiceman, Gary A

    2007-10-01

    Pyrolysis gas chromatography-differential mobility spectrometry (py-GC-DMS) analysis of E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. warneri and M. luteus, grown at temperatures of 23, 30, and 37 degrees C, provided data sets of ion intensity, retention time, and compensation voltage for principal component analysis. Misaligned chromatographic axes were treated using piecewise alignment, the impact on the degree of class separation (DCS) of clusters was minor. The DCS, however, was improved between 21 to 527% by analysis of variance with Fisher ratios to remove chemical components independent of growth temperature. The temperature dependent components comprised 84% of all peaks in the py-GC-DMS analysis of E. coli and were attributed to the pyrolytic decomposition of proteins rather than lipids, as anticipated. Components were also isolated in other bacteria at differing amounts: 41% for M. luteus, 14% for P. aeruginosa, and 4% for S. warneri, and differing patterns suggested characteristic dependence on temperature of growth for these bacteria. These components are anticipated to have masses from 100 to 200 Da by inference from differential mobility spectra.

  16. Trench-breaching afterslip following deeper coseismic slip of the 2012 Mw 7.6 Costa Rica earthquake constrained by near-trench pressure and land-based geodetic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tianhaozhe; Davis, Earl E.; Wang, Kelin; Jiang, Yan

    2017-12-01

    Large rupture of the shallowest portion of subduction thrust faults (megathrusts), such as during the 2011 moment magnitude (Mw) 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake, can generate the most devastating tsunamis. However, it remains unclear whether such trench-breaching rupture is typical of other subduction earthquakes. The main difficulty in answering this question is the common lack of near-trench geodetic monitoring in subduction zones worldwide. Seafloor and sub-seafloor fluid pressure measurements at two closely located borehole observatories in the Middle America trench have provided clear evidence for the absence of trench-breaching rupture during the 2012 Mw 7.6 Costa Rica earthquake, and for the presence of substantial trench-breaching afterslip at slow rates after the rupture (Davis et al., 2015). In this study, we compare postseismic seafloor pressure change at the trench with coastal Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) displacements. The same temporal characteristics of the deformation at the trench and coastal sites indicate that both offshore and onshore deformation were the consequence of afterslip that occurred over a wide spatial range updip of the rupture. By determining the co- and post-seismic slip distributions and inferring the associated shear stress changes on the megathrust, we show that the mechanical behaviour varies in the dip direction. The slip behaviour of the shallow megathrust at Costa Rica is consistent with conventional conceptual models, and contrasts with the behaviour of the shallowest megathrust during the Tohoku-oki event.

  17. Long-Term Performance of Transuranic Waste Inadvertently Disposed in a Shallow Land Burial Trench at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shott, Gregory J.; Yucel, Vefa

    2009-01-01

    In 1986, 21 m3 of transuranic (TRU) waste was inadvertently disposed in a shallow land burial trench at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) TRU waste must be disposed in accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 191, Environmental Radiation Protection Standard for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level, and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is the only facility meeting these requirements. The National Research Council, however, has found that exhumation of buried TRU waste for disposal in a deep geologic repository may not be warranted when the effort, exposures, and expense of retrieval are not commensurate with the risk reduction achieved. The long-term risks of leaving the TRU waste in-place are evaluated in two probabilistic performance assessments. A composite analysis, assessing the dose from all disposed waste and interacting sources of residual contamination, estimates an annual total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) of 0.01 mSv, or 3 percent of the dose constraint. A 40 CFR 191 performance assessment also indicates there is reasonable assurance of meeting all requirements. The 40 CFR 191.15 annual mean TEDE for a member of the public is estimated to reach a maximum of 0.055 mSv at 10,000 years, or approximately 37 percent of the 0.15 mSv individual protection requirement. In both assessments greater than 99 percent of the dose is from co-disposed low-level waste. The simulated probability of the 40 CFR 191.13 cumulative release exceeding 1 and 10 times the release limit is estimated to be 0.0093 and less than 0.0001, respectively. Site characterization data and hydrologic process modeling support a conclusion of no groundwater pathway within 10,000 years. Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis indicates that there is reasonable assurance of meeting all regulatory requirements. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the results

  18. Study on filling materials suitable for seawater piping trench closure work at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanai, Shuji; Hibi, Yasuki; Nishikori, Kazumasa; Sato, Keita

    2016-01-01

    Highly contaminated water leaking from the reactor buildings and turbine buildings damaged by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake has accumulated in the seawater piping trenches of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Units 2, 3, and 4. In November 2014, work commenced to replace and remove this contaminated water by filling the trenches with filling materials, and this work was completed in December 2015. This paper summarizes the contents of this study on various filling materials, including special fillers with long-distance underwater flowability applied to the horizontal tunnel parts of the trenches. (author)

  19. Large-scale trench-normal mantle flow beneath central South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, M. C.; Rümpker, G.; Wölbern, I.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the anisotropic properties of the fore-arc region of the central Andean margin between 17-25°S by analyzing shear-wave splitting from teleseismic and local earthquakes from the Nazca slab. With partly over ten years of recording time, the data set is uniquely suited to address the long-standing debate about the mantle flow field at the South American margin and in particular whether the flow field beneath the slab is parallel or perpendicular to the trench. Our measurements suggest two anisotropic layers located within the crust and mantle beneath the stations, respectively. The teleseismic measurements show a moderate change of fast polarizations from North to South along the trench ranging from parallel to subparallel to the absolute plate motion and, are oriented mostly perpendicular to the trench. Shear-wave splitting measurements from local earthquakes show fast polarizations roughly aligned trench-parallel but exhibit short-scale variations which are indicative of a relatively shallow origin. Comparisons between fast polarization directions from local earthquakes and the strike of the local fault systems yield a good agreement. To infer the parameters of the lower anisotropic layer we employ an inversion of the teleseismic waveforms based on two-layer models, where the anisotropy of the upper (crustal) layer is constrained by the results from the local splitting. The waveform inversion yields a mantle layer that is best characterized by a fast axis parallel to the absolute plate motion which is more-or-less perpendicular to the trench. This orientation is likely caused by a combination of the fossil crystallographic preferred orientation of olivine within the slab and entrained mantle flow beneath the slab. The anisotropy within the crust of the overriding continental plate is explained by the shape-preferred orientation of micro-cracks in relation to local fault zones which are oriented parallel to the overall strike of the Andean range. Our

  20. Progress in Visualizing Atomic Size Effects with DFT-Chemical Pressure Analysis: From Isolated Atoms to Trends in AB5 Intermetallics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berns, Veronica M; Engelkemier, Joshua; Guo, Yiming; Kilduff, Brandon J; Fredrickson, Daniel C

    2014-08-12

    The notion of atomic size poses an important challenge to chemical theory: empirical evidence has long established that atoms have spatial requirements, which are summarized in tables of covalent, ionic, metallic, and van der Waals radii. Considerations based on these radii play a central role in the design and interpretation of experiments, but few methods are available to directly support arguments based on atomic size using electronic structure methods. Recently, we described an approach to elucidating atomic size effects using theoretical calculations: the DFT-Chemical Pressure analysis, which visualizes the local pressures arising in crystal structures from the interactions of atomic size and electronic effects. Using this approach, a variety of structural phenomena in intermetallic phases have already been understood in terms that provide guidance to new synthetic experiments. However, the applicability of the DFT-CP method to the broad range of the structures encountered in the solid state is limited by two issues: (1) the difficulty of interpreting the intense pressure features that appear in atomic core regions and (2) the need to divide space among pairs of interacting atoms in a meaningful way. In this article, we describe general solutions to these issues. In addressing the first issue, we explore the CP analysis of a test case in which no core pressures would be expected to arise: isolated atoms in large boxes. Our calculations reveal that intense core pressures do indeed arise in these virtually pressure-less model systems and allow us to trace the issue to the shifts in the voxel positions relative to atomic centers upon expanding and contracting the unit cell. A compensatory grid unwarping procedure is introduced to remedy this artifact. The second issue revolves around the difficulty of interpreting the pressure map in terms of interatomic interactions in a way that respects the size differences of the atoms and avoids artificial geometrical

  1. Chemical composition and bio-pesticidal values of essential oil isolated from the seed of Heracleum persicum Desf. ex Fischer (Apiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asgar Ebadollahi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed to analyse the chemical composition of essential oil isolated from Heracleum persicum Desf. ex Fischer and assess its lethal and sub-lethal effects against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Essential oil from hydro-distilled seeds of H. persicum was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, and hexyl butyrate (50.58%, octyl acetate (9.80% and hexyl hexanoate (8.75% were found as principal constituents. Repellent activity, contact and fumigant toxicity and antifeedant effects of this oil were assessed against the adults of T. castaneum. The essential oil strongly repelled T. castaneum adults even at the lowest concentration (0.035 μL cm-2. Complete repellency (100% occurred when the highest concentration (0.212 μL cm-2 was applied for 8 h. T. castaneum was very susceptible to H. persicum oil at both contact and fumigant bioassays. In the fumigant toxicity, essential oil killed the larvae, pupae and adults and significantly decreased larvae emerged from treated eggs. LC10 to LC40 values of fumigation adult’s bioassay as sub-lethal concentrations were used to evaluate the antifeedant effects. H. persicum essential oil has significant antifeedant effects on T. castaneum adults and decrease of feeding happened when oil concentrations increased. The results of the present study indicate that essential oil of H. persicum, with wide bio-effects on T. castaneum, is a source of biologically active agents which may potentially prove to be efficient insecticides.

  2. Isolation of the volatile fraction from Apium graveolens L. (Apiaceae) by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and hydrodistillation: chemical composition and antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marongiu, B; Piras, A; Porcedda, S; Falconieri, D; Maxia, A; Frau, M A; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Salgueiro, L

    2013-01-01

    Apium graveolens L. (wild celery), belonging to the family of Apiaceae, is a scaposus hemicryptophyte. Instead, the cultivate plant is an annual or biennial herb widely used as a spice and seasoning in food. A broad range of biological activities have been attributed to A. graveolens. These include antimicrobial activity, larvicidal activity, hepatoprotective activity, nematicidal and mosquito repellent potential and antihyperlipidaemic properties.In this study, the authors compare the composition of the volatile fractions of A. graveolens collected in natural populations in Portugal and Italy and evaluate their potential as antifungal agents.The composition of the volatile oils obtained by hydrodistillation and their antifungal activity are reported. The oils were analysed by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods and their composition were compared with that of the volatile extracts isolated by supercritical CO2. A chemical variability in the extracts depending on the origin of the plants and on the extraction method was observed. The results showed the presence of sedanenolide, neocnidilide and neophytadiene as main components. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida guilliermondii, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, Trichophyton verrucosum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. The oil from Italy rich in neophytadiene is the more active, with MIC values of 0.04-0.64 µL mL(-1). Our results show that A. graveolens volatile extracts may be useful in the clinical treatment of fungal diseases.

  3. Uniform lateral etching of tungsten in deep trenches utilizing reaction-limited NF3 plasma process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofuji, Naoyuki; Mori, Masahito; Nishida, Toshiaki

    2017-06-01

    The reaction-limited etching of tungsten (W) with NF3 plasma was performed in an attempt to achieve the uniform lateral etching of W in a deep trench, a capability required by manufacturing processes for three-dimensional NAND flash memory. Reaction-limited etching was found to be possible at high pressures without ion irradiation. An almost constant etching rate that showed no dependence on NF3 pressure was obtained. The effect of varying the wafer temperature was also examined. A higher wafer temperature reduced the threshold pressure for reaction-limited etching and also increased the etching rate in the reaction-limited region. Therefore, the control of the wafer temperature is crucial to controlling the etching amount by this method. We found that the uniform lateral etching of W was possible even in a deep trench where the F radical concentration was low.

  4. Structure of the tsunamigenic plate boundary and low-frequency earthquakes in the southern Ryukyu Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Ryuta; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Kodaira, Shuichi; Kaiho, Yuka; Nakanishi, Ayako; Fujie, Gou; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Yamamoto, Yojiro; Ishihara, Yasushi; Miura, Seiichi; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    It has been recognized that even weakly coupled subduction zones may cause large interplate earthquakes leading to destructive tsunamis. The Ryukyu Trench is one of the best fields to study this phenomenon, since various slow earthquakes and tsunamis have occurred; yet the fault structure and seismic activity there are poorly constrained. Here we present seismological evidence from marine observation for megathrust faults and low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs). On the basis of passive observation we find LFEs occur at 15–18 km depths along the plate interface and their distribution seems to bridge the gap between the shallow tsunamigenic zone and the deep slow slip region. This suggests that the southern Ryukyu Trench is dominated by slow earthquakes at any depths and lacks a typical locked zone. The plate interface is overlaid by a low-velocity wedge and is accompanied by polarity reversals of seismic reflections, indicating fluids exist at various depths along the plate interface. PMID:27447546

  5. Large Mode Area Single Trench Fiber for 2 mu m Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Deepak; Sahu, Jayanta K.

    2016-01-01

    to 25 cm bend radius, respectively, by exploiting high delocalization of the higher order modes. Achievement of a large effective-area can be very useful to address nonlinear effects. Moreover, single trench fiber offers certain advantages such as low-cost fabrication and easy postprocessing (such......Performance of single trench fibers has been investigated using finite-element method at 2 mu m wavelength. Numerical investigations show that an effective single mode operation for large effective area between 3000-4000 mu m(2) and 2000-3000 mu m(2) can be achieved at similar to 40 and similar...... as cleaving and splicing) thanks to the all-solid fiber design....

  6. A Generic Safety Assessment Model for a Trench Type LILW Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn-Myoung; Choi, Hee-Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This program is ready for a total system performance assessment and is able to deterministically and probabilistically evaluate the nuclide release from a repository and farther transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various normal circumstances, disruptive events, and scenarios that can occur after a failure of waste packages with associated uncertainty. Despite the conceptual design of a trench type LILW repository system, all parameter values associated with the repository system were assumed for the time being, and the generic model developed through this study should be helpful because the evaluation of such releases is very important. A simple and effective model for a safety assessment of a conceptual trench repository system, in which an LILW that arises from a nuclear power plant and other sources, has been developed. The computer program based on this model has also been developed as a GoldSim template using the commercial GoldSim development tool.

  7. A Generic Safety Assessment Model for a Trench Type LILW Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn-Myoung; Choi, Hee-Joo

    2015-01-01

    This program is ready for a total system performance assessment and is able to deterministically and probabilistically evaluate the nuclide release from a repository and farther transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various normal circumstances, disruptive events, and scenarios that can occur after a failure of waste packages with associated uncertainty. Despite the conceptual design of a trench type LILW repository system, all parameter values associated with the repository system were assumed for the time being, and the generic model developed through this study should be helpful because the evaluation of such releases is very important. A simple and effective model for a safety assessment of a conceptual trench repository system, in which an LILW that arises from a nuclear power plant and other sources, has been developed. The computer program based on this model has also been developed as a GoldSim template using the commercial GoldSim development tool

  8. Source of high tsunamis along the southernmost Ryukyu trench inferred from tsunami stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Masataka; Kitamura, Akihisa; Tu, Yoko; Ohashi, Yoko; Imai, Takafumi; Nakamura, Mamoru; Ikuta, Ryoya; Miyairi, Yosuke; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Shishikura, Masanobu

    2018-01-01

    Four paleotsunamis deposits are exposed in a trench on the coastal lowland north of the southern Ryukyu subduction zone trench. Radiocarbon ages on coral and bivalve shells show that the four deposits record tsunamis date from the last 2000 yrs., including a historical tsunami with a maximum run-up of 30 m in 1771, for an average recurrence interval of approximately 600 yrs. Ground fissures in a soil beneath the 1771 tsunami deposit may have been generated by stronger shaking than recorded by historical documents. The repeated occurrence of the paleotsunami deposits supports a tectonic source model on the plate boundary rather than a nontectonic source model, such as submarine landslides. Assuming a thrust model at the subduction zone, the seismic coupling ratio may be as low as 20%.

  9. New seafloor map of the Puerto Rico Trench helps assess earthquake and tsunami hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Danforth, William; Polloni, Christopher; Andrews, Brian D.; Llanes Estrada, Pilar; Smith, Shepard; Parker, Eugene; Uozumi, Toshihiko

    2004-01-01

    The Puerto Rico Trench, the deepest part of the Atlantic Ocean, is located where the North American (NOAM) plate is subducting under the Caribbean plate (Figure l). The trench region may pose significant seismic and tsunami hazards to Puerto Rico and the U.S.Virgin Islands, where 4 million U.S. citizens reside. Widespread damage in Puerto Rico and Hispaniola from an earthquake in 1787 was estimated to be the result of a magnitude 8 earthquake north of the islands [McCann et al., 2004]. A tsunami killed 40 people in NW Puerto Rico following a magnitude 7.3 earthquake in 1918 [Mercado and McCann, 1998]. Large landslide escarpments have been mapped on the seafloor north of Puerto Rico [Mercado et al., 2002; Schwab et al., 1991],although their ages are unknown.

  10. Identification of odor signature chemicals in cocaine using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography and detector-dog response to isolated compounds spiked on U.S. paper currency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furton, Kenneth G; Hong, Yi-Cheng; Hsu, Ya-Li; Luo, Tianying; Rose, Stefan; Walton, John

    2002-03-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography (GC) is optimized and applied to the analysis of street-cocaine samples followed by the field-testing of isolated chemicals using certified detector dogs. SPME proves to be a very sensitive and rapid method for isolating odor chemicals from street-cocaine samples. SPME-GC and activated charcoal strip (ACS)-SPME-GC signature profile methods are developed for the detection and quantitation of cocaine-odor chemicals, including the optimization of controllable variables such as fiber chemistry, extraction time, and desorption time. The volatile odor chemicals in representative illicit cocaine samples are identified and quantitated by the ACS-SPME-GC signature profile method and direct injection. Field tests with drug detector dogs show methyl benzoate to be the dominant signature odor chemical along with cocaine on U.S. currency at a threshold level of approximately 1-10 microg when spiked or when 10 ng/s methyl benzoate is diffused from polymer bottles, which is required in order to initiate an alert. No other substance studied initiated consistent responses by the drug dogs. The results indicate that the microgram levels of cocaine that have been reported on circulated U.S. currency are insufficient to signal an alert from law-enforcement trained drug detector dogs.

  11. Electrical Resistivity Correlation to Vadose Zone Sediment and Pore-Water Composition for the BC Cribs and Trenches Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Ward, Anderson L.; Um, Wooyong; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Rucker, Dale F.; Lanigan, David C.; Benecke, Mark W.

    2009-06-01

    This technical report documents the results of geochemical and soil resistivity characterization of sediment obtained from four boreholes drilled in the BC Cribs and Trench area. Vadose zone sediment samples were obtained at a frequency of about every 2.5 ft from approximately 5 ft bgs to borehole total depth. In total, 505 grab samples and 39 six-inch long cores were obtained for characterization. The pore-water chemical composition data, laboratory-scale soil resistivity and other ancillary physical and hydrologic measurements and analyses described in this report are designed to provide a crucial link between direct measurements on sediments and the surface-based electrical-resistivity information obtained via field surveys. A second goal of the sediment characterization was to measure the total and water-leachable concentrations of key contaminants of concern as a function of depth and distance from the footprints of inactive disposal facilities. The total and water-leachable concentrations of key contaminants will be used to update contaminant distribution conceptual models and to provide more data for improving base-line risk predictions and remedial alternative selections. The ERC “ground truthing” exercise for the individual boreholes showed mixed results. In general, the high concentrations of dissolved salts in the pore waters of sediments from C5923, C5924 and C4191 produced a low resistivity “target” in the processed resistivity field surveys, and variability could be seen in the resistivity data that could relate to the variability in pore- water concentrations but the correlations (regression R2 were mediocre ranging from 0.2 to 0.7 at best; where perfect correlation is 1.0). The field-based geophysical data also seemed to suffer from a sort of vertigo, where looking down from the ground surface, the target (e.g., maximum pore-water salt concentration) depth was difficult to resolve. The best correlations between the field electrical

  12. Isolation and partial chemical analysis of exopolysaccharides from cultivated marine diatom Coscinodiscus wailesii (Coscinodiscales, Bacillariophyta); Isolamento e analise quimica parcial de exopolissacarideos da diatomacea marinha cultivada Coscinodiscus wailesii (Coscinodiscales, Bacillariophyta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marson-Ascencio, Poliana G.; Ascencio, Sergio Donizeti [Universidade Federal do Tocantins, Palmas, TO (Brazil); Baggio, Selma Faria Zawadzki, E-mail: polianamarson@uft.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico. Dept. de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular

    2012-07-01

    The marine diatom Coscinodiscus wailesii has attracted ecological interest because their blooms affect fishing areas. The aim of this work was the isolation, extraction and partial chemical characterization of soluble exopolysaccharide and bound exopolysaccharide from C. wailesii. Cultures were grown in Guillards f/2 medium under controlled conditions of temperature, aeration, photo period and light intensity. Percentage of carbohydrate, uronic acids, sulfates groups and cellular lipids was determined. Ion exchange chromatography of exopolysaccharides produced three fractions whose partial chemical structures were disclosed using {sup 13}C NMR and methylation techniques. (author)

  13. Draft Level 1 Remedial Investigation Work Plan: 316-3 waste disposal trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-09-01

    This work plan describes the work to be performed for the initial level of site characterization for the 316.3 Trenches at the Hanford Site. This initial site characterization effort will include a review of existing environmental contamination data for the 300 Area as well as collection and analysis of environmental samples to better characterize subsurface contamination at the site. 7 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Draft Level 1 Remedial Investigation Work Plan: 316-3 waste disposal trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    This work plan describes the work to be performed for the initial level of site characterization for the 316.3 Trenches at the Hanford Site. This initial site characterization effort will include a review of existing environmental contamination data for the 300 Area as well as collection and analysis of environmental samples to better characterize subsurface contamination at the site. 7 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs

  15. Maxillofacial surgery: the impact of the Great War on both sides of the trenches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulos, Panagiotis

    2018-03-01

    "War is the father and King of all", Heraclitus the obscure philosopher, declares. It certainly appears that the specialty of maxillofacial surgery was greatly advanced during WWI. This article focuses on the circumstances under which the specialty was developed, the significant events and the important figures that played a leading role in the advancement of a new fascinating surgical specialty. The literature leaves no doubt that trench warfare despite its devastating outcome for humanity has forged the shape of modern maxillofacial surgery.

  16. A Numerically and Experimentally Investigated Structure of the Turbulent Flow Past a Trench with a Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Afanasiev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the convective heat exchange intensification due to two-dimensional depressions formed on the initially flat surface. This problem is of interest for engineering applications because many different convective surfaces have cavities and depressions of constructive or random occurrence. During flow around a depression the boundary layer separation and its reattachment result in occurring specific phenomena, which have a significant impact on drag and heat exchange.The work involved an experimental study of hydrodynamic and heat characteristics of the turbulent boundary layer formed when there was an external airflow of the flat surface with a single transversal separation trench.The experimental part used an open subsonic low-turbulence wind tunnel operating in suction mode. A numerical simulation involves hydrodynamics and heat exchange parameters analysis via solution of the system of differential equations, which describe momentum and heat transport processes using ANSYS Fluent solver.The experimental data of this study are compared with numerical simulation results obtained by solving the steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS with a two-parametrical Menter k-ω (MSST turbulence model.The comparison shows that simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data, heat exchange surface profiling by a transversal trench system with or without flow separation does not lead to increasing surface drag and, moreover, at the certain ratios of geometrical parameters (cylindrical trenches with h/S£ 0.5 it can decrease the surface drag. Surface conjugations in these depressions should be smooth without any sharp curves and transitions, which can lead to forming stagnation regions.The reason for raising heat exchange is a spatial non-uniformity of the generated turbulence field. During flow analysis there were two sources of turbulence generation found out, namely a wall (heat exchange surface and a mixing

  17. Improving OBS operations in ultra-deep ocean during the Southern Mariana Trench expeditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X.; Lin, J.; Xu, M.; Zhou, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The Mariana Trench Research Initiative, led by the South China Sea Institute of Oceanology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and through international collaboration, focuses on investigating the deep and shallow lithospheric structure, earthquake characteristics, extreme geological environments, and the controlling geodynamic mechanisms for the formation of Earth's deepest basins in the southern Mariana Trench. Two multidisciplinary research expeditions were executed during December 2016 and June 2017, respectively, on board R/V Shiyan 3. A main task of the Mariana Initiative is to conduct the Southern Mariana OBS Experiment (SMOE), the first OBS seismic experiment across the Challenger Deep. The SMOE expeditions include both active and passive source seismic experiments and employed a large number of broadband OBS instruments. Due to the deep water, rough weather, strong winds, and other unfavorable factors, it was challenging to deploy/recover the OBSs. During the two expeditions we developed and experimented with a number of ways to improve the success rate of OBS operations in the harsh ultra-deep ocean environment of the Southern Mariana Trench. All newly acquired OBSs underwent a series of uniquely designed deep-ocean tests to improve the instrument performance and maximize reliability during their deployment under the ultra-high pressure conditions. The OBS deployment and recovery followed a unified standard operation procedure and aided by an instrumental checklist, which were specifically designed and strictly enforced for operation during the expeditions. Furthermore, an advanced ship-based radio positioning system was developed to rapidly and accurately locate the OBS instruments when they reached the sea surface; the system proved its effectiveness even under extreme weather conditions. Through the development and application of the novel methods for operation in deep oceans, we overcame the rough sea and other unfavorable factors during the first two

  18. Comparison of short-circuit characteristics of trench gate and planar gate U-shaped channel SOI-LIGBTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Long; Zhu, Jing; Sun, Weifeng; Zhao, Minna; Huang, Xuequan; Chen, Jiajun; Shi, Longxing; Chen, Jian; Ding, Desheng

    2017-09-01

    Comparison of short-circuit (SC) characteristics of 500 V rated trench gate U-shaped channel (TGU) SOI-LIGBT and planar gate U-shaped channel (PGU) SOI-LIGBT is made for the first time in this paper. The on-state carrier profile of the TGU structure is reshaped by the dual trenches (a gate trench G1 and a hole barrier trench G2), which leads to a different conduction behavior from that of the PGU structure. The TGU structure exhibits a higher latchup immunity but a severer self-heating effect. At current density (JC) trade-off at JC > 640 A/cm2. Comparison of layouts and fabrication processes are also made between the two types of devices.

  19. Corrective action decision document for the Roller Coaster Lagoons and North Disposal Trench (Corrective Action Unit Number 404)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The North Disposal Trench, located north of the eastern most lagoon, was installed in 1963 to receive solid waste and construction debris from the Operation Roller Coaster man camp. Subsequent to Operation Roller Coaster, the trench continued to receive construction debris and range cleanup debris (including ordnance) from Sandia National Laboratories and other operators. A small hydrocarbon spill occurred during Voluntary Corrective Action (VCA) activities (VCA Spill Area) at an area associated with the North Disposal Trench Corrective Action Site (CAS). Remediation activities at this site were conducted in 1995. A corrective action investigation was conducted in September of 1996 following the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP); the detailed results of that investigation are presented in Appendix A. The Roller Coaster Lagoons and North Disposal Trench are located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), a part of the Nellis Air Force Range, which is approximately 225 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air

  20. Assessing the Open Trenches in Screening Railway Ground-Borne Vibrations by Means of Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Di Mino

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the study of the effect, in terms of reduction of vertical and horizontal displacements and velocities, of the open trenches. 2D FEM simulations have been performed and several open trench configurations have been analysed varying the main geometric features such as width and depth, distance from the rail, thickness of the soil layer over the rigid bedrock, type of the ground, ratio between the depth of the trench, and the thickness of the soil layer. For quantifying the influence of the above specified parameters in reducing ground-borne vibrations an analysis using artificial neural networks (ANNs has been carried out. Results show that among the geometric parameters the role of the depth of the trench is very significant; however the influence of the depth must be also evaluated in relation to the thickness of the soil layer.

  1. A high-performance trench capacitor integrated in a passive integration technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiselbrechtinger, Angelika; Büyüktas, Kevni; Allers, Karl-Heinz; Hartung, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    The requirements for the electrical characteristics of passive on-chip devices become more and more important. The electrical performance of RF circuits is predominantly restricted by the passives. New technologies and new device concepts are necessary to meet the demands. In this work, a trench capacitor developed for RF applications is presented for the first time. This so-called SilCap (silicon capacitor) device features very high capacitance density, extreme low-voltage dependence, excellent temperature stability, good RF performance and a high breakthrough voltage. First, the device function and the technological concept are introduced. The concept is realized without implementing cost-intensive high-k materials. This trench capacitor is integrated in the front end of line of a passive integration technology. The achieved specific capacitance density is compared to a standard planar capacitor. Performance of the SilCap in terms of quality factor and breakthrough voltage is shown. Finally, reliability data of this trench capacitor are presented with special focus on extrinsic and dielectric lifetime

  2. Tunable copper microstructures in blanket films and trenches using pulsed electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marro, James

    Copper interconnects in microelectronics have long been plagued with thermo-mechanical reliability issues. Control over the copper deposition process and resulting microstructure can dictate its material properties and reduce stresses as well as defects that form in the copper. In this thesis, pulse electrodeposition processing parameters were evaluated for their impact on the copper microstructure (grain size, texture, and twin density and stress state) through electron backscattering diffraction and wafer curvature measurements. Varying levels of constraint were also investigated for their effect on the copper microstructure to better understand the microstructures of more complex three-dimensional interconnects. Highly texture blanket copper films were deposited with various pulse frequencies and duty cycle, which was found to control grain size, orientation, and twin density. Higher twin densities were also observed in the films with lower residual stress. The findings from blanket film studies were carried over to trench deposited samples, where the influence of organic additives, typically used in the electrolytic bath to produce defect-free filling of advanced geometries, on the copper microstructure was studied. With the addition of organic additives, depositions produced finer grained structures with an increased contribution from the microstructure of the trench sidewall seed layer, especially with increasing trench aspect ratio. In addition, the increased constraint of the copper, resulted in larger stresses within the features and higher twin densities. The core of this dissertation demonstrated the ability to alter the resulting Cu microstructure through variations in pulse electrodeposition parameters.

  3. Understanding the evolution of trench profiles in the via-first dual damascene integration scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropewnicki, Tom; Doan, Kenny; Tang, Betty; Bjoerkman, Claes

    2001-01-01

    The introduction of copper interconnects into integrated circuits has increased the use of dual damascene dielectric etch applications because copper films are difficult to plasma etch. Fencing and faceting around the via hole during the trench etch of the via-first dual damascene integration scheme are particularly detrimental and can lead to problems during copper metallization and ultimately to device failure. Therefore, it is imperative that the evolution of these features be understood so that they can be avoided. In this article we will begin with an overview of the via-first dual damascene integration scheme. Experimental results will then be presented that indicate the evolution of these features is heavily dependent upon the existing via profile and whether bottom antireflection coating and/or photoresist is in the via hole prior to starting the trench etch. An empirical model for fence formation was then confirmed by a simple profile simulator written in Visual Basic. Finally, several options for avoiding the evolution of fencing and faceting during the trench etch will be proposed

  4. Performance Analysis of Trench Power MOSFETs in High-Frequency Synchronous Buck Converter Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Xiong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the performance perspectives and theoretical limitations of trench power MOSFETs in synchronous rectifier buck converters operating in the MHz frequency range. Several trench MOSFET technologies are studied using a mixed-mode device/circuit modeling approach. Individual power loss contributions from the control and synchronous MOSFETs, and their dependence on switching frequency between 500 kHz and 5 MHz are discussed in detail. It is observed that the conduction loss contribution decreases from 40% to 4% while the switching loss contribution increases from 60% to 96% as the switching frequency increases from 500 KHz to 5 MHz. Beyond 1 MHz frequency there is no obvious benefit to increase the die size of either SyncFET or CtrlFET. The RDS(ON×QG figure of merit (FOM still correlates well to the overall converter efficiency in the MHz frequency range. The efficiency of the hard switching buck topology is limited to 80% at 2 MHz and 65% at 5 MHz even with the most advanced trench MOSFET technologies.

  5. Evidence for trench-parallel mantle flow in the northern Cascade Arc from basalt geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Emily K.; Weis, Dominique

    2015-03-01

    Geochemical data for basalts from the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt (northern segment of the Cascade Arc) define arc-parallel gradients in trace elements and isotope ratios that extend at least 150 km into the arc from the northern margin of the subducting Juan de Fuca plate. Southerly increases in Zr/Nb, Ba/Nb, Th/La, Pb/Ce, 208Pb/204Pb and 176Hf/177Hf indicate greater mantle depletion and higher slab-derived contributions with distance from the slab edge. Temperatures and pressures of mantle melt segregation also decrease to the south. The gradients are most plausibly explained as a consequence of slab rollback-induced toroidal flow at the northern slab edge (Nootka fault zone), whereby enriched (OIB-type) NE Pacific asthenospheric mantle from beneath the slab is drawn into the mantle wedge in a trench-parallel southerly flow pattern. Melts of the enriched asthenosphere are progressively diluted to the south by melts of the slab-modified, depleted mantle wedge. Arc-parallel changes in slab thermal conditions cannot account for these gradients. Trench parallel geochemical gradients in the northern Cascade Arc are consistent with shear wave splitting data, numerical modeling, and experimental studies showing that trench-parallel mantle flow may be a common phenomenon near slab edges and slab gaps.

  6. A New In Situ Sensor For Trench Depth Measurements: The TDM 200

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teboul, Eric; Amary, Pascal; Cattelan, Denis; Gaston, Jean Paul; Kaplan, Bernard

    2004-03-01

    Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) is a rapidly growing field driven by micro machine devices and components for automotive, medical and industrial system application. To meet the challenge of manufacturing this generation of devices, precise and novel control techniques are required. A new in situ sensor, the TDM 200 for trench depth measurements in micromachining applications is presented. The TDM 200 technology is based on a polarimetric differential measurement between 2 laser beams: one located onto a reference point such as the mask and one located on the trench. This arrangement gives the benefit of the extreme accuracy of non contact ellipsometric measurement at normal incidence and eliminates the need for sophisticated vertical substrate positioning. The integrated CCD camera allows laser beam spots positioning onto the substrate. The simple software interface gives an immediate reading of etch or deposition rates and thickness. Usable for deep silicon etch, this new sensor allows monitoring in real time, both etch rate and depth at Angstroms level accuracy. Due to this absolute measurements, Bosch process for MEMS applications can be easily monitor with no external trigger necessary with other interferometry technique due to the alternate succession of etch and deposition steps. Results have been performed for different silicon etch process such as Bosch process with Oxide or Resist mask. Etch rate variations during the process have been noticed when the trench is etched up to 500 micron.

  7. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Waste Disposal in Engineered Trenches 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hamm, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Flach, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-12-12

    Revision 0 of this UDQE addressed the proposal to place Engineered Trench #3 (ET#3) in the footprint designated for Slit Trench #12 (ST#12) and operate using ST#12 disposal limits. Similarly, Revision 1 evaluates whether ET#4 can be located in and operated to Slit Trench #13 (ST#13) disposal limits. Both evaluations conclude that the proposed operations result in an acceptably small risk of exceeding a SOF of 1.0 and approve these actions from a performance assessment (PA) perspective. Because ET#3 will be placed in the location previously designated for ST#12, Solid Waste Management (SWM) requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) determine if the ST#12 limits could be employed as surrogate disposal limits for ET#3 operations. SRNL documented in this Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation (UDQE) that the use of ST#12 limits as surrogates for the new ET#3 disposal unit will provide reasonable assurance that Department of Energy (DOE) 435.1 performance objectives and measures (USDOE, 1999) will be protected. Therefore, new ET#3 inventory limits as determined by a Special Analysis (SA) are not required.

  8. Designing 4H-SiC P-shielding trench gate MOSFET to optimize on-off electrical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyoung, Sinsu; Hong, Young-sung; Lee, Myung-hwan; Nam, Tae-jin

    2018-02-01

    In order to enhance specific on-resistance (Ron,sp), the trench gate structure was also introduced into 4H-SiC MOSFET as Si MOSFET. But the 4H-SiC trench gate has worse off-state characteristics than the Si trench gate due to the incomplete gate oxidation process (Šimonka et al., 2017). In order to overcome this problem, P-shielding trench gate MOSFET (TMOS) was proposed and researched in previous studies. But P-shielding has to be designed with minimum design rule in order to protect gate oxide effectively. P-shielding TMOS also has the drawback of on-state characteristics degradation corresponding to off state improvement for minimum design rule. Therefore optimized design is needed to satisfy both on and off characteristics. In this paper, the design parameters were analyzed and optimized so that the 4H-SiC P-shielding TMOS satisfies both on and off characteristics. Design limitations were proposed such that P-shielding is able to defend the gate oxide. The P-shielding layer should have the proper junction depth and concentration to defend the electric field to gate oxide during the off-state. However, overmuch P-shielding junction depth disturbs the on-state current flow, a problem which can be solved by increasing the trench depth. As trench depth increases, however, the breakdown voltage decreases. Therefore, trench depth should be designed with due consideration for on-off characteristics. For this, design conditions and modeling were proposed which allow P-shielding to operate without degradation of on-state characteristics. Based on this proposed model, the 1200 V 4H-SiC P-shielding trench gate MOSFET was designed and optimized.

  9. Soil prokaryotic communities in Chernobyl waste disposal trench T22 are modulated by organic matter and radionuclide contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas; Février, Laureline; Barakat, Mohamed; Ortet, Philippe; Christen, Richard; Piette, Laurie; Levchuk, Sviatoslav; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Sergeant, Claire; Berthomieu, Catherine; Chapon, Virginie

    2017-08-01

    After the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986, contaminated soils, vegetation from the Red Forest and other radioactive debris were buried within trenches. In this area, trench T22 has long been a pilot site for the study of radionuclide migration in soil. Here, we used 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes to obtain a comprehensive view of the bacterial and archaeal diversity in soils collected inside and in the vicinity of the trench T22 and to investigate the impact of radioactive waste disposal on prokaryotic communities. A remarkably high abundance of Chloroflexi and AD3 was detected in all soil samples from this area. Our statistical analysis revealed profound changes in community composition at the phylum and OTUs levels and higher diversity in the trench soils as compared to the outside. Our results demonstrate that the total absorbed dose rate by cell and, to a lesser extent the organic matter content of the trench, are the principal variables influencing prokaryotic assemblages. We identified specific phylotypes affiliated to the phyla Crenarchaeota, Acidobacteria, AD3, Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and WPS-2, which were unique for the trench soils. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Determining RUSLE P-factors for stonebunds and trenches in rangeland and cropland, Northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taye, Gebeyehu; Poesen, Jean; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Van Wesemael, Bas; Tesfay, Samuel; Teka, Daniel; Nyssen, Jan; Deckers, Jozef; Haregeweyn, Nigussie

    2017-04-01

    The implementation of soil and water conservation (SWC) measures in the Ethiopian highlands is a top priority to reduce soil erosion rates and to enhance the sustainability of agroecosystem. Nonetheless, the effectiveness of many of these measures for different hillslope and land use conditions remains currently poorly understood. As a result, the overall effects of these measures at regional or catchment scale remain hard to quantify. This study addresses this knowledge gap by determining the cover-management (C) and support practice (P) factors of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), for commonly used SWC measures in semi-arid environments (i.e. stone bunds, trenches and a combination of both). Calculations were based on soil loss data collected with runoff plots in Tigray, northern Ethiopia (i.e. 21 runoff plots of 600 to 1000 m2, monitored during 2010, 2011 and 2012). The runoff plots were installed in rangeland and cropland sites corresponding to a gentle (5%), medium (12%) and steep (16%) slope gradients. The C and P factors of the RUSLE were calculated following the recommended standard procedures. Results show that the C-factor for rangeland ranges from 0.31 to 0.98 and from 0.06 to 0.39 for cropland. For rangeland, this large variability is due to variations in vegetation cover caused by grazing. In cropland, C-factors vary with tillage practices and crop types. The calculated P-factors ranged from 0.32 to 0.74 for stone bunds, from 0.07 to 0.65 for trenches and from 0.03 to 0.22 for a combination of both stone bunds and trenches. This variability is partly due to variations in the density of the implemented measures in relation to land use (cropland vs rangeland) and slope angles. However, also annual variations in P factor values are highly significant. Especially trenches showed a very significant decline of effectiveness over time, which is attributable to their reduced static storage capacity as a result of sediment deposition (e.g. for

  11. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PHASE II VADOSE ZONE CHARACTERIZATION AND MONITORING AT THE E-AREA DISPOSAL SLIT TRENCHES AND MEGA-TRENCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, R.; Looney, B.; Flach, G.; Rossabi, J.

    2000-02-01

    A Radiological Performance Assessment Maintenance Plan (SDW, 1997) was prepared in response to Recommendation 94-2 made by the Defense Nuclear Facility Board (DNFSB) and establishes a requirement for preparing and implementing the E-Area Monitoring Program (EMOP). Based on the results of a statistical analysis of the existing groundwater monitoring network at the Burial Ground and a review of alternative monitoring strategies, a vadose zone monitoring system (YZMS) was selected for the EMOP. The EMOP (SWD, 1998) was prepared in 1998 and describes a phased approach for implementation. The YZMS was designed to detect contamination before it reached the water table and includes collection of pore water samples from sediments above the water table and monitoring pore water pressure and water content of the unsaturated sediments that comprise the vadose zone. This information is then used to calculate the flux of contaminants for comparison with the requirements specified in the E-Area Performance Assessment. In 1999, Phase I of the EMOP was implemented by installation of advanced tensiometers, water content sensors, and vertical and angled lysimeters. In addition several cone penetrometer logs of resistivity and stress ratio were collected and shelby tube samples were collected for measurement of hydraulic properties. Results from Phase I of the EMOP show that the general strategy and techniques selected are adequate for monitoring moisture conditions and contaminant migration. Data from Phase I of the EMOP was used to prepare a numerical model of moisture flow beneath a typical disposal trench. The moisture contents, pore pressure, and flow patterns predicted by the model were compared with field data and used to improve the components of Phase II of the EMOP. Based on these data and the numerical analysis of moisture movement at a typical disposal trench, the objectives of the Phase II EMOP characterization and monitoring are: (1) Collect additional data on moisture

  12. Chemical constituents of Aristolochia constricta: antispasmodic effects of its constituents in guinea-pig ileum and isolation of a diterpeno-lignan hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Shimokawa, Satoko; Mochizuki, Matsuri; Kumamoto, Takuya; Nakanishi, Waka; Watanabe, Toshiko; Ishikawa, Tsutomu; Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Tashima, Kimihito; Horie, Syunji; Higuchi, Yoshihiro; Dominguez, Oswaldo Pesantes

    2008-07-01

    Twenty constituents were isolated from the n-hexane and chloroform extracts of Aristolochia constricta, a plant whose aerial parts have been used empirically in folk medicine for various purposes. The inhibitory effects of these constituents on smooth muscle contraction in isolated guinea-pig ileum were studied in order to observe their antispasmodic effects. 3,4-Dibenzyldihydrofuran-type lignans [(-)-cubebin, (-)-hinokinin, and (-)-pluviatolide] and a kaurene-type diterpene [(-)-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid] were isolated as active principals. They inhibited electrically induced and acetylcholine-induced contraction in the isolated guinea-pig ileum. In addition, 9- O-[(-)-kaur-15-en-17-oxyl]cubebin was isolated as a new diterpeno-lignan hybrid, although this constituent did not exhibit antispasmodic activity.

  13. Biodiversity of nematode assemblages from deep-sea sediments of the Atacama Slope and Trench (South Pacific Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambi, C.; Vanreusel, A.; Danovaro, R.

    2003-01-01

    Nematode assemblages were investigated (in terms of size spectra, sex ratio, Shannon diversity, trophic structure and diversity, rarefaction statistics, maturity index, taxonomic diversity and taxonomic distinctness) at bathyal and hadal depths (from 1050 to 7800 m) in the deepest trench of the South Pacific Ocean: the Trench of Atacama. This area, characterised by very high concentrations of nutritionally-rich organic matter also at 7800-m depth, displayed characteristics typical of eutrophic systems and revealed high nematode densities (>6000 ind. 10 cm -2). Nematode assemblages from the Atacama Trench displayed a different composition than at bathyal depths. At bathyal depths 95 genera and 119 species were found (Comesomatidae, Cyatholaimidae, Microlaimidae, Desmodoridae and Xyalidae being dominant), whereas in the Atacama Trench only 29 genera and 37 species were encountered (dominated by Monhysteridae, Chromadoridae, Microlaimidae, Oxystominidae and Xyalidae). The genus Monhystera (24.4%) strongly dominated at hadal depths and Neochromadora, and Trileptium were observed only in the Atacama Trench, but not at bathyal depths. A reduction of the mean nematode size (by ca. 67%) was observed between bathyal and hadal depths. Since food availability was not a limiting factor in the Atacama Trench sediments, other causes are likely to be responsible for the reduction of nematode species richness and body size. The presence of a restricted number of families and genera in the Atacama Trench might indicate that hadal sediments limited nematode colonisation. Most of the genera reaching very high densities in Trench sediments (e.g., Monhystera) are opportunistic and were responsible for the significant decrease of the maturity index. The dominance of opportunists, which are known to be characterised by small sizes, might have contributed to the reduced nematode size at hadal depths. Shannon diversity and species richness decreased in hadal water depth and this pattern

  14. Report of exploratory trenching for the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresen, M.D.; Weiss, R.B.

    1985-12-01

    Three exploratory trenches, totaling about 1,300 ft in length were excavated and logged across the site of a proposed Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF), to assess whether or not active Greenville fault zone, located about 4100 ft to the northeast, pass through or within 200 ft of the site. The layout of the trenches (12-16 ft deep) was designed to provide continuous coverage across the DWTF site and an area within 200 ft northeast and southwest of the site. Deposits exposed in the trench walls are primarily of clay, and are typical of weakly cemented silty sand to sandy silt with the alluvial deposits in the area. Several stream channels were encountered that appear to have an approximated east-west orintation. The channel deposits consist of well-sorted, medium to coarse-grained sand and gravel. A well-developed surface soil is laterally continuous across all three trenches. The soil reportedly formed during late Pleistocene time (about 35,000 to 40,000 yr before present) based on soil stratigraphic analyses. A moderately to well-developed buried soil is laterally continuous in all three trenches, except locally where it has been removed by channelling. This buried soil apparently formed about 100,000 yr before present. At least one older, discontinuous soil is present below the 100,000-yr-old soil in some locations. The age of the older soil is unknown. At several locations, two discontinuous buried soils were observed between the surface soil and the 100,000-yr-old soil. Various overlapping stratigraphic units could be traced across the trenches providing a continuous datum of at least 100,000 yr to assess the presence or absence of faulting. The continuity of stratigraphic units in all the trenches demonstrated that no active faults pass through or within 200 ft of the proposed DWTF site

  15. Corrrective action decision document for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (Corrective Action Unit No. 426). Revision No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 426) has been prepared for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project. This CADD has been developed to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996, stated in Appendix VI, {open_quotes}Corrective Action Strategy{close_quotes} (FFACO, 1996). The Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Site (CAS) No. RG-08-001-RG-CS is included in CAU No. 426 (also referred to as the {open_quotes}trenches{close_quotes}); it has been identified as one of three potential locations for buried, radioactively contaminated materials from the Double Tracks Test. The trenches are located on the east flank of the Cactus Range in the eastern portion of the Cactus Spring Ranch at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nye County, Nevada, on the northern portion of Nellis Air Force Range. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air and approximately 56 km (35 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada, by road. The trenches were dug for the purpose of receiving waste generated during Operation Roller Coaster, primarily the Double Tracks Test. This test, conducted in 1963, involved the use of live animals to assess the biological hazards associated with non-nuclear detonation of plutonium-bearing devices (i.e., inhalation uptake of plutonium aerosol). The CAS consists of four trenches that received solid waste and had an overall impacted area of approximately 36 meters (m) (120 feet [ft]) long x 24 m (80 ft) wide x 3 to 4.5 m (10 to 15 ft) deep. The average depressions at the trenches are approximately 0.3 m (1 ft) below land surface.

  16. Isolation and characterization of bacterial strains with the ability to utilize high concentrations of levulinic acid, a platform chemical from inedible biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habe, Hiroshi; Sato, Shun; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kirimura, Kohtaro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2015-01-01

    Nineteen levulinic acid (LA)-utilizing bacteria were isolated from environmental samples. Following examination of the use of 80 g/L LA by some isolated strains, Brevibacterium epidermidis LA39-2 consumed 62.6 g/L LA following 8 days incubation. The strain also utilized both 90 and 100 g/L LA, with consumption ratio of 84.3 and 53.3%, respectively, after 10 days incubation.

  17. Annual report, RCRA post-closure monitoring and inspections for the mercury landfill hazardous waste trenches for the period October 1995--October 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emer, D.F.; Smith, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches were closed in-place in September 1993. Post-closure monitoring of the Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches began in October 1993. The post-closure monitoring program is used to verify that the Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trench covers are performing properly, and that there is no water infiltrating into the waste trenches. The performance of the Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches is currently monitored using 30 neutron access tubes positioned on and along the margins of the covers. Soil moisture measurements are obtained in the soils directly beneath the trenches and compared to baseline conditions from the first year of post-closure operation. This report documents the post-closure activities between October 1995 and October 1996

  18. Annual report, RCRA post-closure monitoring and inspections for the mercury landfill hazardous waste trenches for the period October 1995--October 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emer, D.F.; Smith, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches were closed in-place in September 1993. Post-closure monitoring of the Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches began in October 1993. The post-closure monitoring program is used to verify that the Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trench covers are performing properly, and that there is no water infiltrating into the waste trenches. The performance of the Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches is currently monitored using 30 neutron access tubes positioned on and along the margins of the covers. Soil moisture measurements are obtained in the soils directly beneath the trenches and compared to baseline conditions from the first year of post-closure operation. This report documents the post-closure activities between October 1995 and October 1996.

  19. Flow and transport at the Las Cruces trench site: Experiment IIb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinson, J.; Hills, R.G. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Wierenga, P.J.; Young, M.H. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Soil and Water Science

    1997-07-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has been directed by Congress in the Low Level Waste Policy Act of 1980 to develop regulatory guidance and assist the individual states and compacts in siting and assessing future low level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. Three water flow and solute transport experiments were performed as part of a comprehensive field trench study near Las Cruces, New Mexico to test deterministic and stochastic models of vadose zone flow and transport. This report presents partial results from the third experiment (experiment IIb). Experiments IIa and b were conducted on the North side of the trench, on a plot 1.22 m wide by 12 m long, perpendicular to the trench. The area was drip irrigated during two time periods with water containing a variety of tracers. The advance of the water front during the two irrigation episodes was measured with tensiometers and neutron probes. Solute front positions were determined from soil solution sampling through suction samplers and from disturbed sampling. The results from experiment IIb show predominantly downward water movement through the layered unsaturated soil, as evidenced from neutron probe data and gravimetric sampling. Tritium plumes were only half as deep and half as wide as the water plumes at 310 days after the beginning of experiment IIb. Chromium, applied as Cr(VI), moved a readily as, and similar to tritium, but there was a loss of mass due to reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Chloride and nitrate, initially present at high concentrations in the soil solution, were displaced by the low concentration irrigation water, resulting in chloride and nitrate concentration distributions that looked like negative images of the tritium distributions. The extensive data presented should serve well as a data base for model testing.

  20. THE BC CRIBS & TRENCHES GEOPHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION PROJECT ONE STEP FORWARD IN HANFORDS CLEANUP PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENECKE, MN.W.

    2006-02-22

    A geophysical characterization project was conducted at the BC Cribs and Trenches Area, located south of 200 East at the Hanford Site. The area consists of 26 waste disposal trenches and cribs, which received approximately 30 million gallons of liquid waste from the uranium recovery process and the ferrocyanide processes associated with wastes generated by reprocessing nuclear fuel. Waste discharges to BC Cribs contributed perhaps the largest liquid fraction of contaminants to the ground in the 200 Areas. The site also includes possibly the largest inventory of Tc-99 ever disposed to the soil at Hanford with an estimated quantity of 400 Ci. Other waste constituents included high volumes of nitrate and U-238. The geophysical characterization at the 50 acre site primarily included high resolution resistivity (HRR). The resistivity technique is a non-invasive method by which electrical resistivity data are collected along linear transects, and data are presented as continuous profiles of subsurface electrical properties. The transects ranged in size from about 400-700 meters and provided information down to depths of 60 meters. The site was characterized by a network of 51 HRR lines with a total of approximately 19.7 line kilometers of data collected parallel and perpendicular to the trenches and cribs. The data were compiled to form a three-dimensional representation of low resistivity values. Low resistivity, or high conductivity, is indicative of high ionic strength soil and porewater resulting from the migration of nitrate and other inorganic constituents through the vadose zone. High spatial density soil data from a single borehole, that included coincident nitrate concentrations, electrical conductivity, and Tc-99, were used to transform the electrical resistivity data into a nitrate plume. The plume was shown to extend laterally beyond the original boundaries of the waste site and, in one area, to depths that exceeded the characterization strategy. It is

  1. THE BC CRIBS & TRENCHES GEOPHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION PROJECT ONE STEP FORWARD IN HANFORDS CLEANUP PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2005-11-17

    A geophysical characterization project was conducted at the BC Cribs and Trenches Area, located south of 200 East at the Hanford Site. The area consists of 26 waste disposal trenches and cribs, which received approximately 30 million gallons of liquid waste from the uranium recovery process and the ferrocyanide processes associated with wastes generated by reprocessing nuclear fuel. Waste discharges to BC Cribs contributed perhaps the largest liquid fraction of contaminants to the ground in the 200 Areas. The site also includes possibly the largest inventory of Tc-99 ever disposed to the soil at Hanford with an estimated quantity of 400 Ci. Other waste constituents included high volumes of nitrate and U-238. The geophysical characterization at the 50-acre site primarily included high resolution resistivity (HRR). The resistivity technique is a non-invasive method by which electrical resistivity data are collected along linear transects, and data are presented as continuous profiles of subsurface electrical properties. The transects ranged in size from about 400-700 meters and provided information down to depths of 60 meters. The site was characterized by a network of 51 HRR lines with a total of approximately 19.7 line kilometers of data collected parallel and perpendicular to the trenches and cribs. The data were compiled to form a three-dimensional representation of low resistivity values. Low resistivity, or high conductivity, is indicative of high ionic strength soil and porewater resulting from the migration of nitrate and other inorganic constituents through the vadose zone. High spatial density soil data from a single borehole, that included coincident nitrate concentrations, electrical conductivity. and Tc-99, were used to transform the electrical resistivity data into a nitrate plume. The plume was shown to extend laterally beyond the original boundaries of the waste site and, in one area, to depths that exceeded the characterization strategy.

  2. THE BC CRIBS AND TRENCHES GEOPHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION PROJECT: ONE STEP FORWARD IN HANFORD'S CLEANUP PROCESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BENECKE, MN.W.

    2006-01-01

    A geophysical characterization project was conducted at the BC Cribs and Trenches Area, located south of 200 East at the Hanford Site. The area consists of 26 waste disposal trenches and cribs, which received approximately 30 million gallons of liquid waste from the uranium recovery process and the ferrocyanide processes associated with wastes generated by reprocessing nuclear fuel. Waste discharges to BC Cribs contributed perhaps the largest liquid fraction of contaminants to the ground in the 200 Areas. The site also includes possibly the largest inventory of Tc-99 ever disposed to the soil at Hanford with an estimated quantity of 400 Ci. Other waste constituents included high volumes of nitrate and U-238. The geophysical characterization at the 50 acre site primarily included high resolution resistivity (HRR). The resistivity technique is a non-invasive method by which electrical resistivity data are collected along linear transects, and data are presented as continuous profiles of subsurface electrical properties. The transects ranged in size from about 400-700 meters and provided information down to depths of 60 meters. The site was characterized by a network of 51 HRR lines with a total of approximately 19.7 line kilometers of data collected parallel and perpendicular to the trenches and cribs. The data were compiled to form a three-dimensional representation of low resistivity values. Low resistivity, or high conductivity, is indicative of high ionic strength soil and porewater resulting from the migration of nitrate and other inorganic constituents through the vadose zone. High spatial density soil data from a single borehole, that included coincident nitrate concentrations, electrical conductivity, and Tc-99, were used to transform the electrical resistivity data into a nitrate plume. The plume was shown to extend laterally beyond the original boundaries of the waste site and, in one area, to depths that exceeded the characterization strategy. It is

  3. Tectonics and Non-isostatic Topography of the Mariana Trench and Adjacent Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongyu, L.; Lin, J.; Zhou, Z.; Zhang, F.

    2017-12-01

    Multi-types of geophysical data including multibeam bathymetry, sediment thickness, gravity anomaly, and crustal magnetic age were analyzed to investigate tectonic processes of the Mariana Trench and the surrounding plates. We calculated non-Airy-isostatic topography by removing from the observed bathymetry the effects of sediment loading, thermal subsidence, and Airy local isostatically-compensated topography. The Mariana Trench was found to be associated with a clearly defined zone of negative non-isostatic topography, which was caused by flexural bending of the subducting Pacific plate and with the maximum depth anomaly and flexural bending near the Challenger Deep. In contrast, the Caroline Ridge and Caroline Islands Chain have much more subdued non-isostatic topography, indicating their higher topography is largely compensated by thicker crust. Along the Mariana Trough, the northern and central segments appear to be associated with relatively low magma supply as indicated by the relatively low topography and thin crust. In contrast, the southern Mariana Trough is associated with relatively high magma supply as indicated by the relatively high and smoother topography, an axial high spreading center, and relatively thick crust. The southern end of the Mariana Trough was also found to be associated with positive non-isostatic topographic anomaly, which might be caused by the complex tectonic deformation of the overriding Mariana and Philippine Sea plates and their interaction with the subducting Pacific plate. Analysis further revealed that the southern Mariana Arc, located between the Mariana Trench and Mariana Trough, is associated with positive non-isostatic topographic anomalies, which may be explained by the late stage magmatic loading on the older and thus stronger lithospheric plate of the Mariana volcanic arc.

  4. Flow and transport at the Las Cruces trench site: Experiment IIb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinson, J.; Hills, R.G.; Wierenga, P.J.; Young, M.H.

    1997-07-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has been directed by Congress in the Low Level Waste Policy Act of 1980 to develop regulatory guidance and assist the individual states and compacts in siting and assessing future low level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. Three water flow and solute transport experiments were performed as part of a comprehensive field trench study near Las Cruces, New Mexico to test deterministic and stochastic models of vadose zone flow and transport. This report presents partial results from the third experiment (experiment IIb). Experiments IIa and b were conducted on the North side of the trench, on a plot 1.22 m wide by 12 m long, perpendicular to the trench. The area was drip irrigated during two time periods with water containing a variety of tracers. The advance of the water front during the two irrigation episodes was measured with tensiometers and neutron probes. Solute front positions were determined from soil solution sampling through suction samplers and from disturbed sampling. The results from experiment IIb show predominantly downward water movement through the layered unsaturated soil, as evidenced from neutron probe data and gravimetric sampling. Tritium plumes were only half as deep and half as wide as the water plumes at 310 days after the beginning of experiment IIb. Chromium, applied as Cr(VI), moved a readily as, and similar to tritium, but there was a loss of mass due to reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Chloride and nitrate, initially present at high concentrations in the soil solution, were displaced by the low concentration irrigation water, resulting in chloride and nitrate concentration distributions that looked like negative images of the tritium distributions. The extensive data presented should serve well as a data base for model testing

  5. Anaerobic methanotrophic community of a 5346-m-deep vesicomyid clam colony in the Japan Trench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felden, J; Ruff, S E; Ertefai, T; Inagaki, F; Hinrichs, K-U; Wenzhöfer, F

    2014-05-01

    Vesicomyidae clams harbor sulfide-oxidizing endosymbionts and are typical members of cold seep communities where active venting of fluids and gases takes place. We investigated the central biogeochemical processes that supported a vesicomyid clam colony as part of a locally restricted seep community in the Japan Trench at 5346 m water depth, one of the deepest seep settings studied to date. An integrated approach of biogeochemical and molecular ecological techniques was used combining in situ and ex situ measurements. In sediment of the clam colony, low sulfate reduction rates (maximum 128 nmol mL(-1) day(-1)) were coupled to the anaerobic oxidation of methane. They were observed over a depth range of 15 cm, caused by active transport of sulfate due to bioturbation of the vesicomyid clams. A distinct separation between the seep and the surrounding seafloor was shown by steep horizontal geochemical gradients and pronounced microbial community shifts. The sediment below the clam colony was dominated by anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME-2c) and sulfate-reducing Desulfobulbaceae (SEEP-SRB-3, SEEP-SRB-4). Aerobic methanotrophic bacteria were not detected in the sediment, and the oxidation of sulfide seemed to be carried out chemolithoautotrophically by Sulfurovum species. Thus, major redox processes were mediated by distinct subgroups of seep-related microorganisms that might have been selected by this specific abyssal seep environment. Fluid flow and microbial activity were low but sufficient to support the clam community over decades and to build up high biomasses. Hence, the clams and their microbial communities adapted successfully to a low-energy regime and may represent widespread chemosynthetic communities in the Japan Trench. In this regard, they contributed to the restricted deep-sea trench biodiversity as well as to the organic carbon availability, also for non-seep organisms, in such oligotrophic benthic environment of the dark deep ocean. © 2014 The

  6. Using fuzzy logic analysis for siting decisions of infiltration trenches for highway runoff control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Seo Jin; Ray, Chittaranjan

    2014-09-15

    Determining optimal locations for best management practices (BMPs), including their field considerations and limitations, plays an important role for effective stormwater management. However, these issues have been often overlooked in modeling studies that focused on downstream water quality benefits. This study illustrates the methodology of locating infiltration trenches at suitable locations from spatial overlay analyses which combine multiple layers that address different aspects of field application into a composite map. Using seven thematic layers for each analysis, fuzzy logic was employed to develop a site suitability map for infiltration trenches, whereas the DRASTIC method was used to produce a groundwater vulnerability map on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, USA. In addition, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), one of the most popular overlay analyses, was used for comparison to fuzzy logic. The results showed that the AHP and fuzzy logic methods developed significantly different index maps in terms of best locations and suitability scores. Specifically, the AHP method provided a maximum level of site suitability due to its inherent aggregation approach of all input layers in a linear equation. The most eligible areas in locating infiltration trenches were determined from the superposition of the site suitability and groundwater vulnerability maps using the fuzzy AND operator. The resulting map successfully balanced qualification criteria for a low risk of groundwater contamination and the best BMP site selection. The results of the sensitivity analysis showed that the suitability scores were strongly affected by the algorithms embedded in fuzzy logic; therefore, caution is recommended with their use in overlay analysis. Accordingly, this study demonstrates that the fuzzy logic analysis can not only be used to improve spatial decision quality along with other overlay approaches, but also is combined with general water quality models for initial and refined

  7. Trench process and structure for backside contact solar cells with polysilicon doped regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ceuster, Denis; Cousins, Peter John; Smith, David D.

    2010-12-14

    A solar cell includes polysilicon P-type and N-type doped regions on a backside of a substrate, such as a silicon wafer. An interrupted trench structure separates the P-type doped region from the N-type doped region in some locations but allows the P-type doped region and the N-type doped region to touch in other locations. Each of the P-type and N-type doped regions may be formed over a thin dielectric layer. Among other advantages, the resulting solar cell structure allows for increased efficiency while having a relatively low reverse breakdown voltage.

  8. A Re-Os Study of Depleted Trench Peridotites from Northern Mariana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, T.; Snow, J. E.; Heri, A. R.; Brandon, A. D.; Ishizuka, O.

    2017-12-01

    Trench peridotites provide information about the influence of subduction initiation on the extent of mantle wedge melting. They preserve melting records throughout subduction history, and as a result, likely experience multiple melt extraction events leading to successive depletion of melt/fluid mobile major and trace elements. To track melting histories of trench peridotites, Re-Os and PGEs can be used as reliable tracers to constrain early melt extraction or re-fertilization events. The Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc, being the largest intra-oceanic subduction system, provides an excellent area to study the formation of supra-subduction zone mantle and crust. Residual peridotite (harzburgite and dunite) samples were collected by dredging from the landward slope of the northern Mariana Trench. The samples are serpentinized to various extents (typical of abyssal peridotites), leaving behind relict grains of spinel, enstatite and olivine embedded within a serpentine matrix along with occasional interstitial diopside. Major element analyses of primary minerals reveal a wide range of variations in Cr# of spinels from 0.31-0.85 indicating 16-20% of melt fraction with dunites apparently experiencing the highest amount of partial melting. For Re-Os and PGE geochemistry, samples with high amounts of spinel (>4 vol %) and variable Cr# were chosen. Initial results show that bulk rock 187Os/188Os ratios range from 0.1113 to 0.1272. All of the samples are sub-chondritic, but in some cases, they are more radiogenic than average abyssal peridotites. Os abundances vary from 1-9 ppb. Sub-chondritic values can be attributed to the samples having evolved from a Re-depleted mantle source indicating a previous melt-extraction event. The cpx-harzburgites, having lower Cr# ( 0.4) are more radiogenic than ultra depleted dunites (Cr# 0.8), which might indicate preferential removal of Os during an apparent higher degree of partial melting experienced by dunites. The higher 187Os/188Os ratios of

  9. Trench process and structure for backside contact solar cells with polysilicon doped regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ceuster, Denis; Cousins, Peter John; Smith, David D

    2013-05-28

    A solar cell includes polysilicon P-type and N-type doped regions on a backside of a substrate, such as a silicon wafer. An interrupted trench structure separates the P-type doped region from the N-type doped region in some locations but allows the P-type doped region and the N-type doped region to touch in other locations. Each of the P-type and N-type doped regions may be formed over a thin dielectric layer. Among other advantages, the resulting solar cell structure allows for increased efficiency while having a relatively low reverse breakdown voltage.

  10. Mantle Serpentinization near the Central Mariana Trench Constrained by Ocean Bottom Surface Wave Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, C.; Wiens, D. A.; Lizarralde, D.; Eimer, M. O.; Shen, W.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the crustal and uppermost mantle seismic structure across the Mariana trench by jointly inverting Rayleigh wave phase and group velocities from ambient noise and longer period phase velocities from Helmholtz tomography of teleseismic waveforms. We use data from a temporary deployment in 2012-2013, consisting of 7 island-based stations and 20 broadband ocean bottom seismographs, as well as data from the USGS Northern Mariana Islands Seismograph Network. To avoid any potential bias from the starting model, we use a Bayesian Monte-Carlo algorithm to invert for the azimuthally-averaged SV-wave velocity at each node. This method also allows us to apply prior constraints on crustal thickness and other parameters in a systematic way, and to derive formal estimates of velocity uncertainty. The results show the development of a low velocity zone within the incoming plate beginning about 80 km seaward of the trench axis, consistent with the onset of bending faults from bathymetry and earthquake locations. The maximum depth of the velocity anomaly increases towards the trench, and extends to about 30 km below the seafloor. The low velocities persist after the plate is subducted, as a 20-30 km thick low velocity layer with a somewhat smaller velocity reduction is imaged along the top of the slab beneath the forearc. An extremely low velocity zone is observed beneath the serpentine seamounts in the outer forearc, consistent with 40% serpentinization in the forearc mantle wedge. Azimuthal anisotropy results show trench parallel fast axis within the incoming plate at uppermost mantle depth (2%-4% anisotropy). All these observations suggest the velocity reduction in the incoming plate prior to subduction results from both serpentinized normal faults and water-filled cracks. Water is expelled from the cracks early in subduction, causing a modest increase in the velocity of the subducting mantle, and moves upward and causes serpentinization of the outer forearc

  11. Shooting from the Trenches: On the Impossibility and Inability to think about the War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris van der Heijden

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this essay Chris van der Heijden (Dat nooit meer [Never Again] answers his critics. He accepts in general what Bob Moore says, although his criticism is rather abstract. He does agree partly with Koes Aerts, but not on some crucial points – for example the method. Van der Heijden doesn’t agree at all with Wielenga, not so much because of arguments but exactly because of the lack of it. In the debate with Wielenga, he contends, the trench warfare, which is going on since almost ten years, simply goes on. According to Van der Heijden it leads to nothing.

  12. Special Analysis: Updated Analysis of the Effect of Wood Products on Trench Disposal Limits at the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.

    2001-02-20

    This Special Analysis (SA) develops revised radionuclide inventory limits for trench disposal of low-level radioactive waste in the presence of wood products in the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility. These limits should be used to modify the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for trench disposal. Because the work on which this SA is based employed data from tests using 100 percent wood products, the 40 percent limitation on wood products for trench (i.e., slit or engineered trench) disposal is not needed in the modified WAC.

  13. Special Analysis: Updated Analysis of the Effect of Wood Products on Trench Disposal Limits at the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    This Special Analysis (SA) develops revised radionuclide inventory limits for trench disposal of low-level radioactive waste in the presence of wood products in the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility. These limits should be used to modify the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for trench disposal. Because the work on which this SA is based employed data from tests using 100 percent wood products, the 40 percent limitation on wood products for trench (i.e., slit or engineered trench) disposal is not needed in the modified WAC

  14. Corrective action plan for CAU No. 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 404. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range. CAU 404 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CAS): the Roller Coaster Lagoons (CAS No TA-03-001-TA-RC) and the North Disposal Trench (CAS No TA-21-001-TA-RC). A site map of the lagoons and trench is provided. The Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons are comprised of two unlined lagoons that received liquid sanitary waste in 1963 from the Operation Roller Coaster Man Camp and debris from subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. The North Disposal Trench was excavated in approximately 1963 and received solid waste and debris from the man camp and subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. A small hydrocarbon spill occurred during the 1995 Voluntary Corrective Action (VCA) activities in an area associated with the North Disposal Trench CAS.

  15. Changes in soil hydraulic properties caused by construction of a simulated waste trench at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakofsky, S.

    1995-03-01

    In order to assess the effect of filled waste disposal trenches on transport-governing soil properties, comparisons were made between profiles of undisturbed soil and disturbed soil in a simulated waste trench. The changes in soil properties induced by the construction of a simulated waste trench were measured near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in the semiarid southeast region of Idaho. The soil samples were collected, using a hydraulically-driven sampler to minimize sample disruption, from both a simulated waste trench and an undisturbed area nearby. Results show that the undisturbed profile has distinct layers whose properties differ significantly, whereas the soil profile in the simulated waste trench is, by comparison, homogeneous. Porosity was increased in the disturbed cores, and, correspondingly, saturated hydraulic conductivities were on average three times higher. With higher soil-moisture contents (greater than 0.32), unsaturated hydraulic conductivities for the undisturbed cores were typically greater than those for the disturbed cores. With lower moisture contents, most of the disturbed cores had greater hydraulic conductivities. The observed differences in hydraulic conductivities are interpreted and discussed as changes in the soil pore geometry

  16. Corrective action plan for CAU No. 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 404. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range. CAU 404 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CAS): the Roller Coaster Lagoons (CAS No TA-03-001-TA-RC) and the North Disposal Trench (CAS No TA-21-001-TA-RC). A site map of the lagoons and trench is provided. The Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons are comprised of two unlined lagoons that received liquid sanitary waste in 1963 from the Operation Roller Coaster Man Camp and debris from subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. The North Disposal Trench was excavated in approximately 1963 and received solid waste and debris from the man camp and subsequent construction and range cleanup activities. A small hydrocarbon spill occurred during the 1995 Voluntary Corrective Action (VCA) activities in an area associated with the North Disposal Trench CAS

  17. Secondary Structural Models (16S rRNA of Polyhydroxyalkanoates Producing Bacillus Species Isolated from Different Rhizospheric Soil: Phylogenetics and Chemical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Mohapatra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs producing bacterial isolates are gaining more importance over the world due to the synthesis of a biodegradable polymer which is extremely desirable to substitute synthetic plastics. PHAs are produced by various microorganisms under certain stress conditions. In this study, sixteen bacterial isolates characterized previously by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing (NCBI Accession No. KF626466 to KF626481 were again stained by Nile red after three years of preservation in order to confirm their ability to accumulate PHAs. Also, phylogenetic analysis carried out in the present investigation evidenced that the bacterial species belonging to genus Bacillus are the dominant flora of the rhizospheric region, with a potentiality of biodegradable polymer (PHAs production. Again, RNA secondary structure prediction hypothesized that there is no direct correlation between RNA folding pattern stability with a rate of PHAs production among the selected isolates of genus Bacillus.

  18. Rapid isolation of biomarkers for compound specific radiocarbon dating using high-performance liquid chromatography and flow injection analysis-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smittenberg, Rienk H; Hopmans, Ellen C; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S

    2002-11-29

    Repeated semi-preparative normal-phase HPLC was performed to isolate selected biomarkers from sediment extracts for radiocarbon analysis. Flow injection analysis-mass spectrometry was used for rapid analysis of collected fractions to evaluate the separation procedure, taking only 1 min per fraction. In this way 100-1000 microg of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers, sterol fractions and chlorophyll-derived phytol were isolated from typically 100 g of marine sediment, i.e., in sufficient quantities for radiocarbon analysis, without significant carbon isotopic fractionation or contamination.

  19. Atomic force microscopy deep trench and sidewall imaging with an optical fiber probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Hui; Hussain, Danish; Yang, Feng; Sun, Lining

    2014-01-01

    We report a method to measure critical dimensions of micro- and nanostructures using the atomic force microscope (AFM) with an optical fiber probe (OFP). This method is capable of scanning narrow and deep trenches due to the long and thin OFP tip, as well as imaging of steep sidewalls with unique profiling possibilities by laterally tilting the OFP without any modifications of the optical lever. A switch control scheme is developed to measure the sidewall angle by flexibly transferring feedback control between the Z- and Y-axis, for a serial scan of the horizontal surface (raster scan on XY-plane) and sidewall (raster scan on the YZ-plane), respectively. In experiments, a deep trench with tapered walls (243.5 μm deep) and a microhole (about 14.9 μm deep) have been imaged with the orthogonally aligned OFP, as well as a silicon sidewall (fabricated by deep reactive ion etching) has been characterized with the tilted OFP. Moreover, the sidewall angle of TGZ3 (AFM calibration grating) was accurately measured using the switchable scan method

  20. INTRAVAL Phase 2: Modeling testing at the Las Cruces Trench Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hills, R.G.; Rockhold, M.; Xiang, J.; Scanlon, B.; Wittmeyer, G.

    1994-01-01

    Several field experiments have been performed by scientists from the University of Arizona and New Mexico State University at the Las Cruces Trench Site to provide data tc test deterministic and stochastic models for water flow and solute transport. These experiments were performed in collaboration with INTRAVAL, an international effort toward validation of geosphere models for the transport of radionuclides. During Phase I of INTRAVAL, qualitative comparisons between experimental data and model predictions were made using contour plots of water contents and solute concentrations. Detailed quantitative comparisons were not made. To provide data for more rigorous model testing, a third Las Cruces Trench experiment was designed by scientists from the University of Arizona and New Mexico State University. Modelers from the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analysis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, New Mexico State University, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and the University of Texas provided predictions of water flow and tritium transport to New Mexico State University for analysis. The corresponding models assumed soil characterizations ranging from uniform to deterministically heterogeneous to stochastic. This report presents detailed quantitative comparisons to field data

  1. Development of ecologically safe method for main oil and gas pipeline trenching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmedov Asvar Mikdadovich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Constructive, technical and technological reliability of major pipeline ensures ecological safety on different stages of life circle - beginning with project preparation activities up to the end of major pipeline operation. Even in the process of transition into new life circle stage, no matter if the pipeline needs major repairs or reconstruction, such technical and technological solutions should be found, which would preserve ecological stability of nature-anthropogenic system. Development of ecology protection technologies of construction, reconstruction and major repairs of main pipelines is of great importance not only for a region, but ensures ecological safety across the globe. The article presents a new way of trenching the main oil and gas pipeline, preservation and increase of ecological safety during its service. The updated technological plan is given in the paper for overhaul of the main oil and gas pipeline using the new technology of pipeline trenching. The suggested technical solution contributes to environment preservation with the help of deteriorating shells - the shells’ material decomposes into environment-friendly components: carbon dioxide, water and humus. The quantity of polluting agents in the atmosphere decreases with the decrease of construction term and quantity of technical equipment.

  2. Development of a high energy pulsed plasma simulator for the study of liquid lithium trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, S., E-mail: jung73@illinois.edu [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana 61801 (United States); Christenson, M.; Curreli, D. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana 61801 (United States); Bryniarski, C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana 61801 (United States); Andruczyk, D.; Ruzic, D.N. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana 61801 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • A pulse device for a liquid lithium trench study is developed. • It consists of a coaxial plasma gun, a theta pinch, and guiding magnets. • A large energy enhancement is observed with the use of the plasma gun. • A further increase in energy and velocity is observed with the theta pinch. - Abstract: To simulate detrimental events in a tokamak and provide a test-stand for a liquid-lithium infused trench (LiMIT) device [1], a pulsed plasma source utilizing a theta pinch in conjunction with a coaxial plasma accelerator has been developed. The plasma is characterized using a triple Langmuir probe, optical methods, and a calorimeter. Clear advantages have been observed with the application of a coaxial plasma accelerator as a pre-ionization source. The experimental results of the plasma gun in conjunction with the existing theta pinch show a significant improvement from the previous energy deposition by a factor of 14 or higher, resulting in a maximum energy and heat flux of 0.065 ± 0.002 MJ/m{sup 2} and 0.43 ± 0.01 GW/m{sup 2}. A few ways to further increase the plasma heat flux for LiMIT experiments are discussed.

  3. Surface radiological investigation of Trench 5 in Waste Area Grouping 7 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, D.D.

    1991-08-01

    A surface radiological investigation of areas encompassing Trench 5 on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was conducted from May 1990 through November 1990. This survey was led by the author, assisted by various members of the Measurement Applications and Development (MAD) group of the Health and Safety Research Division (HASRD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the presence, nature, and extent of surface radiological contamination at Trench 5, the Homogeneous Reactor Experiment fuel wells, and surrounding areas. Based on the data obtained in the field, interim corrective measures were recommended to limit human exposure to radioactivity and to minimize insult to the environment. It should be stressed that this project was not intended to be a complete site characterization but rather to be a preliminary investigation into the potential contamination problem that might exist as a result of past operations at Trench 5

  4. Surface radiological investigation of Trench 5 in Waste Area Grouping 7 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, D.D.

    1991-08-01

    A surface radiological investigation of areas encompassing Trench 5 on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was conducted from May 1990 through November 1990. This survey was led by the author, assisted by various members of the Measurement Applications and Development (MAD) group of the Health and Safety Research Division (HASRD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the presence, nature, and extent of surface radiological contamination at Trench 5, the Homogeneous Reactor Experiment fuel wells, and surrounding areas. Based on the data obtained in the field, interim corrective measures were recommended to limit human exposure to radioactivity and to minimize insult to the environment. It should be stressed that this project was not intended to be a complete site characterization but rather to be a preliminary investigation into the potential contamination problem that might exist as a result of past operations at Trench 5.

  5. Determining sources of deep-sea mud by organic matter signatures in the Sunda trench and Aceh basin off Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Akiko; Ikehara, Ken; Arai, Kohsaku; Udrekh

    2017-12-01

    The content, optically determined properties, and stable isotope composition of organic carbon in fine-grained sediment cores were analyzed to investigate the origins of deep-sea sediments deposited in the Aceh forearc basin and on the Sunda trench floor off Sumatra from the late Pleistocene to the Holocene. In the Aceh basin, the depositional frequency of turbidite mud decreased as sea level rose during the deglaciation. The terrigenous organic carbon content was high at the end of the last glacial period, whereas during the deglaciation most of the organic carbon was of marine origin. In the Sunda trench, the Holocene turbidites consisted of remobilized slope sediments from two different sources: sediments derived from the old Bengal/Nicobar fan included thermally matured organic fragments, whereas those derived from the trench slope contained little terrigenous organic carbon.

  6. Silicon Drift Detectors with the Drift Field Induced by PureB-Coated Trenches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir Knežević

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Junction formation in deep trenches is proposed as a new means of creating a built-in drift field in silicon drift detectors (SDDs. The potential performance of this trenched drift detector (TDD was investigated analytically and through simulations, and compared to simulations of conventional bulk-silicon drift detector (BSDD configurations. Although the device was not experimentally realized, the manufacturability of the TDDs is estimated to be good on the basis of previously demonstrated photodiodes and detectors fabricated in PureB technology. The pure boron deposition of this technology allows good trench coverage and is known to provide nm-shallow low-noise p+n diodes that can be used as radiation-hard light-entrance windows. With this type of diode, the TDDs would be suitable for X-ray radiation detection down to 100 eV and up to tens of keV energy levels. In the TDD, the drift region is formed by varying the geometry and position of the trenches while the reverse biasing of all diodes is kept at the same constant voltage. For a given wafer doping, the drift field is lower for the TDD than for a BSDD and it demands a much higher voltage between the anode and cathode, but also has several advantages: it eliminates the possibility of punch-through and no current flows from the inner to outer perimeter of the cathode because a voltage divider is not needed to set the drift field. In addition, the loss of sensitive area at the outer perimeter of the cathode is much smaller. For example, the simulations predict that an optimized TDD geometry with an active-region radius of 3100 µm could have a drift field of 370 V/cm and a photo-sensitive radius that is 500-µm larger than that of a comparable BSDD structure. The PureB diodes on the front and back of the TDD are continuous, which means low dark currents and high stability with respect to leakage currents that otherwise could be caused by radiation damage. The dark current of the 3100-µm TDD

  7. Chemical analyses of potash-bearing horizons from 21 exploratory holes drilled at a tentative site for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Eddy County, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griswold, G.B.

    1977-09-01

    Sandia Laboratories drilled 21 potash drill holes over an 18,960-acre site in east-central Eddy County, New Mexico, to evaluate potash resources as part of their Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project. This report furnishes assay information on samples obtained from the drilling program

  8. Chemical composition of pea fibre isolates and their effect on the endogenous amino acid flow at the ileum of the pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leterme, P.; Théwis, A.; Leeuwen, P. van; Monmart, T.; Huisman, J.

    1996-01-01

    Pea starch, hulls and cotyledon inner fibres, isolated from pea seeds, were incorporated in N-free diets, on a NDF-content basis, in order to study their effect on the ileal endogenous amino acid (AA) excretion in the growing pig. Maize starch and wood cellulose were selected as references. The

  9. Rapid isolation of biomarkers for compound specific radiocarbon dating using high-performance liquid chromatography and flow injection analysis-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Smittenberg, R.H.; Hopmans, E.C.; Schouten, S.

    2002-01-01

    Repeated semi-preparative normal-phase HPLC was performed to isolate selected biomarkers from sediment extracts for radiocarbon analysis. Flow injection analysis mass spectrometry was used for rapid analysis of collected fractions to evaluate the separation procedure, taking only 1 min per fraction.

  10. Changes in physical, chemical and functional properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) and sugar beet pectin (SBP) conjugates formed by controlled dry-heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Maillard type reaction in the dry state was utilized to create conjugates between whey protein isolate (WPI) and sugar beet pectin (SBP) to achieve improved functional properties including solubility, colloidal stability and oil-in-water emulsion stability. To optimize the reaction conditions, mi...

  11. Hydrologic behaviour of stormwater infiltration trenches in a central urban area during 2 3/4 years of operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnaars, E.; Larsen, A.V.; Jacobsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    overflow. Analyses of falling water tables after rain indicated slight clogging, but this effect is less important than the general lack of knowledge about soil permeability for normal design situations. The results indicate that the stormwater infiltration in central urban areas with compressed soils......Two infiltration trenches were constructed in a densely built-up area in central Copenhagen and equipped with on-line sensors measuring rain, runoff flow from the connected surfaces and water level in the trenches. The paper describes the field site, the measuring system and the results from...

  12. Bathymetric Terrain Model of the Puerto Rico Trench and the Northeastern Caribbean Region for Marine Geological Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Brian D.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Danforth, William W.; Chaytor, Jason D.; Granja-Bruna, J; Carbo-Gorosabel, A

    2014-01-01

    Multibeam bathymetry data collected in the Puerto Rico Trench and Northeast Caribbean region are compiled into a seamless bathymetric terrain model for broad-scale geological investigations of the trench system. These data, collected during eight separate surveys between 2002 and 2013, covering almost 180,000 square kilometers are published here in large format map sheet and digital spatial data. This report describes the common multibeam data collection, and processing methods used to produce the bathymetric terrain model and corresponding data source polygon. Details documenting the complete provenance of the data are also provided in the metadata in the Data Catalog section.

  13. Isolation, fractionation and identification of chemical constituents from the leaves crude extracts of Mentha piperita L grown in Sultanate of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amzad Hossain

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: According to the results of the present study, the plant crude extracts could be used as medicine for the treatment of different diseases. The analysis and identification of the chemical compounds in the plant crude extracts by using GC-MS was the first time.

  14. Thermoluminescence of quartz collected from Nojima Fault Trench excavated in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasebe, N.; Miura, K.; Ganzawa, Y.; Tagami, T.; Lin, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Southern Hyogo prefecture earthquake occurred in 1995, which is known as Kobe Earthquake or Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake, was caused by the activity of the Nojima fault. The research project on the Nojima fault is currently going on and new trench was excavated in 2015. We investigate the effect of fault activity on surrounding rocks by thermoluminescence (TL) dating method. First, quartz were extracted from samples collected from the trench wall with different distance from the fault. A block of nearby basement rock is also collected and analyzed. Next, the luminescence sites and their emission temperatures were determined by T-Tmax method (McKeever, 1980) perfomed by 10 ° C interval for selected samples (the basement rock collected from Rokko granite, the granite sample collected about 5 m away from the fault in the trench, and the gouge sample adjacent to the fault). As a result, the peak emission temperatures were 200-220 ° C, 270 ° C and 320-350 ° C for granite quartz. These values were concordant for UV-TL and Blue TL. The activation energy and frequency factors were determined for signals emitted at different temperatures by peak shift methods (Aitken, 1985). On the other hand, the TL emission curves for the sample adjacent to the fault do not show discrete luminescence sites, different from granite samples. Natural TL emission show variety of TL profile. The accumulated doses of each sample were estimated for identified signal peaks after peak separation. Signals from different peak temperatures show different dose values in all the samples. The dose estimated by signals at 200 ° showed the minimum value for all samples. The same sample show different accumulated dose for Blue TL and UV-TL. The variety of accumulated doses in a sample may be reflective of complex thermal history of samples, and/or partly caused by the ineffective peak separation. Even the host rock collected away from the fault show a low accumulated dose in 200°C singnal, far

  15. Dynamic effects of plate-buoyancy subduction at Manila Trench, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, L.; Zhan, W.; Sun, J.; Li, J.

    2015-12-01

    Bathymetric map of SCS plate shows two subducting buoyancies, the fossil ridge and the oceanic plateau, which are supposed to impact slab segmentation into the north from Taiwan to 18°N, and the south from 17°N to Mindoro. Hypocenter distribution show that slab dip angle turns lower southwards from 45° to 30° in the north segment, and relatively equals ~45° in the south segment at the depth of 100km. Moreover, volcano distribution can be segmented into Miocene WVC, Quaternary EVC in the north and combined SVC in the south (Fig. A). We found that WVC and SVC mostly locate in a parallel belt ~50km apart to Manila trench, however EVC turn father southwards from 50km to 100km (Fig. B). Above characters congruously indicate that SCS plate kept equal dip angle in Miocene; then the north segment shallowed at 18°N and developed northwards in Quaternary, resulting in lower dip angle than the invariant south segment. To check the transformation of slab dip angle from 45° to 30° between 17~18°N, focal mechanism solution nearby 17°N are found 90° in rake and dip angle, strike parallel to the fossil ridge, indicating a slab tear located coincident with the ridge, where is a weak zone of higher heat flow and lower plate coupling ratio than the adjacent zones and slab can be easily tore as an interface for SCS plate segmentation. Subduction of the two buoyancies within SCS plate is supposed as influential dynamic factor: It caused the trench retreat rate reduced, forming a cusp and a flat convex of Manila trench shape; Moreover, the buoyancies resisted subduction, resulting in shear stress heterogeneity of SCS plate, in consequence the fossil ridge as a fragile belt potentially became stress concentration zone that easily tore; Then the buoyant oceanic plateau might lead to shallowing of the northern SCS plate. To examine the hypothesis, dynamic effects of the two subducting buoyancies are being respectively investigated based on numerical models. (Grt. 41376063, 2013

  16. Lithospheric bending and faulting: Application to trenches and mid-ocean ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supak, S. K.; Supak, S. K.; Buck, W. R.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.

    2001-12-01

    Some aspects of faulting at fast spreading ridges, such as the East Pacific Rise (EPR), are not consistent with the normal faulting traditionally attributed to lithosphere stretching (Buck 2001). After Roger Buck's analytic model predicted faulting from bending at fast spreading ridges and Del Bohnenstiehl's analysis of displacement- length (D to L) ratios showed that fast spreading ridges have substantially smaller D to L than slow spreading ridges (Bohnenstiehl & Kleinrock 2000), lithospheric unbending became a possible explanation for this inconsistency. The mechanics of lithospheric bending have been examined for many years, but analysis has yet to be done on the relationship between bending and the strain required for faulting. Strain is a measure of material deformation, such as compression when an object is squeezed, or elongation when an object is stretched. When a plate such as lithosphere is bent, the concave side is put in compression while the convex side must be put in tension. If the faults occur as a result of bending, it is important to know what strain is large enough to produce the observed fault offsets. The ability to independently estimate strain, without using the fault itself, could be very helpful in understanding fault generation. There are two reasons for trying to understand the generation of faults. First, there is curiosity to explain observed geologic structures. Second, there is the possibility that insight gained in the mechanics of fault generation may help us better understand the earthquake cycle. Due to the controversial nature of bending of lithosphere at fast spreading ridges, it was important to concentrate on an area where bending is widely accepted. Oceanic subduction zones offered the perfect environment in which to evaluate strain at the onset of faulting. The Aleutian Trench was chosen as our first place of interest because the side scan sonar data was readily available from the GLORIA survey of America's Exclusive

  17. Subducted bathymetric features linked to variations in earthquake apparent stress along the northern Japan Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, P. A.; Bilek, S. L.; Phillips, W. S.

    2010-12-01

    Ocean floor bathymetric features such as seamounts and ridges are thought to influence the earthquake rupture process when they enter the subduction zone by causing changes in frictional conditions along the megathrust contact between the subducting and overriding plates. Once subducted, these features have been described as localized areas of heterogeneous plate coupling, with some controversy over whether these features cause an increase or decrease in interplate coupling. Along the northern Japan Trench, a number of bathymetric features, such as horst and graben structures and seamounts, enter the subduction zone where they may vary earthquake behavior. Using seismic coda waves, scattered energy following the direct wave arrivals, we compute apparent stress (a measure of stress drop proportional to radiated seismic energy that has been tied to the strength of the fault interface contact) for 329 intermediate magnitude (3.2 earthquake spectra for path and site effects and compute apparent stress using the seismic moment and corner frequency determined from the spectra. Preliminary results indicate apparent stress values between 0.3 - 22.6 MPa for events over a depth range of 2 - 55 km, similar to those found in other studies of the region although within a different depth range, with variations both along-strike and downdip. Off the Sanriku Coast, horst and graben structures enter the Japan Trench in an area where a large number of earthquakes occur at shallow (< 30 km) depth. These shallow events have a mean apparent stress of 1.2 MPa (range 0.3 - 3.8 MPa) which is approximately 2 times lower then the mean apparent stress for other events along the northern portion of this margin in the same shallow depth range. The relatively low apparent stress for events related to subducting horst and graben structures suggests weak interplate coupling between the subducting and overriding plates due to small, irregular contact zones with these features at depth. This is in

  18. Effectiveness of a ground-surface polymer membrane covering as a method for limiting infiltration into burial trenches at Maxey Flats, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyverse, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Maxey Flats Disposal Site (MFDS) was operated as a shallow land burial site for low-level radioactive wastes for a period of 14 years (1963-1977). In 1977, radionuclides were found to be migrating from a closed disposal trench into an adjacent newly constructed trench. This discovery prompted closure of the site. Over time, deterioration of the shale and clay cover on the trenches had resulted from subsidence due to the collapse of buried metallic containers and the decomposition of various organic wastes within the trenches. This subsidence increased infiltration of water into the trenches as surface water was retained over the waste in potholes and small ponds. Although infiltration rates to the waste increased, seepage rates of leachate out of the bottom and sides of the trenches were very slow due to the low permeability of surrounding native shale soils (average hydraulic conductivity 4 x 10 -3 ft/day). In 1981, a program was implemented to correct deficiencies and stabilize the site. This paper describes the effectiveness of one design method where a low permeable (hydraulic conductivity -9 ft/sec) polyvinylchloride membrane cover (PVC) 0.015 to 0.020 inches thick was placed over the burial trenches. The covers were installed over trenches beginning in the fall of 1981. Each trench is equipped with several sumps for the collection and removal of leachate. Water-level data were collected on sumps from five trenches during the study period May 1978 to October 1984, which spanned a period prior to and after installation of the PVC cover. 3 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  19. Predictive isotopic biogeochemistry of lipids from the Black Sea and Cariaco Trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, K.H.; Hayes, J.M.; Wakeham, S.G.

    1991-01-01

    Carbon isotopic compositions of autotrophic organisms can be predicted based on recently established relationships between [CO 2 (aq)] and var-epsilon p , the isotopic fractionation accompanying carbon fixation. In both the Black Sea and the Cariaco Trench, where [CO 2 (aq)] values are known and δ values for hydrocarbons were recently determined, predicted biomass δ values can be compared to those of biomarkers extracted from POM and sediment samples. The agreement is good, although a 5 per-thousand range in δ values is observed for the lipids, which may be due to ecological factors or to contributions from organisms that assimilate HCO 3 -. Lycopane and pentamethyleicosane apparently derive from planktonic organisms. Diploptene in the Black Sea apparently is derived from chemoautotrophic bacteria living at the oxic/anoxic interface. Some odd-C, long-chain n-alkanes have planktonic δ values, and the authors suggest they are not strict terrestrial indicators

  20. Shallow megathrust earthquake ruptures betrayed by their outer-trench aftershocks signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladen, Anthony; Trevisan, Jenny

    2018-02-01

    For some megathrust earthquakes, the rupture extends to the solid Earth's surface, at the ocean floor. This unexpected behaviour holds strong implications for the tsunami potential of subduction zones and for the physical conditions governing earthquakes, but such ruptures occur in underwater areas which are hard to observe, even with current instrumentation and imaging techniques. Here, we evidence that aftershocks occurring ocean-ward from the trench are conditioned by near-surface rupture of the megathrust fault. Comparison to well constrained earthquake slip models further reveals that for each event the number of aftershocks is proportional to the amount of shallow slip, a link likely related to static stress transfer. Hence, the spatial distribution of these specific aftershock sequences could provide independent constrains on the coseismic shallow slip of future events. It also offers the prospect to be able to reassess the rupture of many large subduction earthquakes back to the beginning of the instrumental era.

  1. Evaluation of two stormwater infiltration trenches in central Copenhagen after 15 years of operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Maria Kerstin; Hedegaard, Mathilde Jørgensen; Petersen, Mette Fjendbo

    2011-01-01

    Two stormwater infiltration trenches were installed in 1993 in an area in central Copenhagen. The system was monitored continuously for almost three years after establishment, and a small reduction in performance over that time, possibly due to clogging, was noted. A new study was conducted in 2009...... sequences from the first 3 years of operation shows that the infiltration has decreased since the establishment of the system 15 years ago. The decrease is statistically significant (p ... that the system will discharge around 10 times more annual overflow to the sewers after 100 years of operation compared to the initial volumes, if clogging continues at current rates. This corresponds to 60% of the total runoff from the area. The results show that clogging and proper maintenance are important...

  2. Impact of a Central Scaffold on the Binding Affinity of Fragment Pairs Isolated from DNA-Encoded Self-Assembling Chemical Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigatti, Martina; Dal Corso, Alberto; Vanetti, Sara; Cazzamalli, Samuele; Rieder, Ulrike; Scheuermann, Jörg; Neri, Dario; Sladojevich, Filippo

    2017-11-08

    The screening of encoded self-assembling chemical libraries allows the identification of fragment pairs that bind to adjacent pockets on target proteins of interest. For practical applications, it is necessary to link these ligand pairs into discrete organic molecules, devoid of any nucleic acid component. Here we describe the discovery of a synergistic binding pair for acid alpha-1 glycoprotein and a chemical strategy for the identification of optimal linkers, connecting the two fragments. The procedure yielded a set of small organic ligands, the best of which exhibited a dissociation constant of 9.9 nm, as measured in solution by fluorescence polarization. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. A subduction zone reference frame based on slab geometry and subduction partitioning of plate motion and trench migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W. P.

    2011-01-01

    The geometry of subducted slabs that interact with the transition zone depends critically on the partitioning of the subduction velocity (v S⊥) at the surface into its subducting plate motion component (vSP⊥) and trench migration component (vT⊥). Geodynamic models of progressive subduction

  4. Trench Town Rock”: Reggae Music, Landscape Inscription, and the Making of Place in Kingston, Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevon Rhiney

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines place inscriptions in Trench Town, Jamaica, and explores the ways these are used to reinforce, shape, or challenge dominant images of this inner-city community. On one hand, Trench Town is like many of its neighbouring communities, characterised by high levels of poverty, unemployment, political and gang violence, derelict buildings, and overcrowded homes. On the other hand, Trench Town is iconic and unique as it is recognised worldwide for being the birth place of reggae music and home to a number of well-known reggae artists including reggae superstar Bob Marley. Today, Trench Town’s landscape is filled with inscriptions reminiscent of its rich cultural past. Linked to this is a conscious effort by its residents to identify themselves with reggae music and to recapture and sustain the positive legacies that have made the community popular. This is manifested in the numerous murals, statues, and graffiti seen throughout the community evoking past images of reggae music icons such as Marley and Tosh alongside renowned black leaders such as Marcus Garvey. These inscriptions are conceived as texts and are seen as part of a broader discourse on issues relating to urban spatial identity, commoditisation, exclusion, struggle, resistance, and change.

  5. Flexural modeling of the elastic lithosphere at an ocean trench: A parameter sensitivity analysis using analytical solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Reyes, Eduardo; Garay, Jeremías

    2018-01-01

    The outer rise is a topographic bulge seaward of the trench at a subduction zone that is caused by bending and flexure of the oceanic lithosphere as subduction commences. The classic model of the flexure of oceanic lithosphere w (x) is a hydrostatic restoring force acting upon an elastic plate at the trench axis. The governing parameters are elastic thickness Te, shear force V0, and bending moment M0. V0 and M0 are unknown variables that are typically replaced by other quantities such as the height of the fore-bulge, wb, and the half-width of the fore-bulge, (xb - xo). However, this method is difficult to implement with the presence of excessive topographic noise around the bulge of the outer rise. Here, we present an alternative method to the classic model, in which lithospheric flexure w (x) is a function of the flexure at the trench axis w0, the initial dip angle of subduction β0, and the elastic thickness Te. In this investigation, we apply a sensitivity analysis to both methods in order to determine the impact of the differing parameters on the solution, w (x). The parametric sensitivity analysis suggests that stable solutions for the alternative approach requires relatively low β0 values (rise bulge. The alternative method is a more suitable approach, assuming that accurate geometric information at the trench axis (i.e., w0 and β0) is available.

  6. Subsurface moisture regimes and tracer movement under two types of trench-cap designs for shallow land burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, B.A.; Cokal, E.J.

    1986-03-01

    The Los Alamos work has focused on proper design of shallow land burial (SLB) sites in arid and semiarid regions and on applying corrective measures to existing sites. One of the most important design features affecting the probability of movement of radionuclides in SLB sites is the type of trench cap placed over the waste. The cap influences such interdependent parameters as erosion, water infiltration and percolation, and biointrusion. To obtain experimental data for arid and semiarid sites, two different designs of trench caps, one with topsoil underlain with a cobble/gravel biobarrier and one with topsoil underlain with crushed tuff, were compared with respect to (1) seasonal changes in volumetric soil water content, and (2) downward migration of tracers emplaced directly below each type of trench cap. The causes for the large differences in concentrations found in this experiment need to be investigated further. Problems in environmental modeling and monitoring of arid and semiarid SLB sites because of heterogeneities in the soil profiles and their implications for SLB waste management need to be better understood. More work in trench-cap design and its influence on the many pathways available for mobilization is needed

  7. Fish larvae at fronts: Horizontal and vertical distributions of gadoid fish larvae across a frontal zone at the Norwegian Trench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter

    2014-01-01

    horizontal and vertical variability in hydrography and abundances of potential copepod prey The investigation was carried out at a frontal zone along the Norwegian Trench in the northern North Sea, and was based on a series of cross-bathymetric sampling transects. Tows with a large ring net and an opening...

  8. A New and Simple Method for Crosstalk Estimation in Homogeneous Trench-Assisted Multi-Core Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Feihong; Tu, Jiajing; Saitoh, Kunimasa

    2014-01-01

    A new and simple method for inter-core crosstalk estimation in homogeneous trench-assisted multi-core fibers is presented. The crosstalk calculated by this method agrees well with experimental measurement data for two kinds of fabricated 12-core fibers....

  9. Fire hazard analysis for the Westinghouse Hanford Company managed low-level mixed waste Trench 31 and 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.

    1995-01-01

    This analysis is to assess comprehensively the risks from fire within the new lined landfills, provided by W-025 and designated Trench 31 and 34 of Burial Ground 218-W-5; they are located in the 200 West area of the Hanford Site, and are designed to receive low-level mixed waste

  10. High Resolution Seismic Imaging of the Trench Canyon Fault Zone, Mono Lake, Northeastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, M. W.; Jayko, A. S.; Roeske, S.; McClain, J. S.; Hart, P. E.; Boyle, M.

    2009-12-01

    High resolution seismic imaging of Mono Lake, located in northeastern California, has revealed an approximately northwest striking fault in the area to the west of aerially exposed Negit Volcano. This fault, henceforth referred to as the Trench Canyon Fault (TCF), has also been mapped onshore along a correlating strike as far north as Cedar Hill Volcano, located to the northeast of the lake on the California/Nevada border. Onshore, the TCF was mapped for approximately 10 kilometers using air photos, DEM images, and standard geologic pace and compass mapping techniques. The TCF post- dates the last glacial maximum, evidenced by the cutting of wave cut benches along Cedar Hill Volcano. Relict, non-historic shorelines, left by the steady evaporation of Mono Lake beginning approximately 13k, are also repeatedly cut by the fault. Additional evidence of fault presence includes sag ponds, pressure ridges, tectonically fractured rocks, and normal fault scarps found along strike. Offshore, DEM images show a northeast striking structure to the northwest of Negit Volcano, which is co-linear with the onshore TCF. High resolution seismic imaging of the structure, using an applied acoustic/SIG mini-sparker system, reveals steeply dipping Holocene sediments, as well as volcanic deposits from active vents which have erupted in the last 1000 years, offset by the fault. Detailed structural analysis of the previously unstudied Trench Canyon Fault (TFC) and faults in the Cedar Hill region of northern California, along with seismic studies of sediments beneath Mono Lake not only allow for a better comprehension of this minor fault system, but provide greater understanding of the larger and more complex Walker Lane Shear Zone. Fault analyses, combined and correlated with those from CHV, give a better understanding of how slip is transferred into the complicated Mina defection to the east, from the dextral and normal faults along the Sierra Nevada Range front.

  11. Origin of oroclines in Paleozoic Australia: the role of inherited plate boundary irregularities and trench retreat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, G.; Shaanan, U.; Hoy, D.; Abdullah, R.

    2015-12-01

    Paleozoic Australia is made of a series of orogenic belts that include the Delamerian, Lachlan and New England orogens, as well as the poorly defined Thomson Orogen. The origin of these belts has been attributed to subduction and accretionary processes along the ~N-S-striking (present coordinates) plate boundary of Gondwana. However, recent studies show that orogenic segments are strongly contorted, thus raising questions about the geodynamic origin of eastern Australia and Paleozoic plate tectonics in general. Results from the New England Orogen revealed that oroclinal bending has occurred simultaneously with basin formation and trench retreat. Geochronological provenance studies of detrital zircon show that these basins were situated in a back-arc position, indicating that back-arc extension may have played a crucial role in oroclinal bending. In addition, geochronological data of detrital zircon show that terranes that were once considered to be exotic were actually derived from local sources. The collective geological evidence suggests that deformation and oroclinal bending were driven by subduction-related processes possibly acting on inherited irregularities in the orientation of the plate boundary. The irregular geometries were further accentuated by trench migration (retreat and advance) that led to subduction segmentation, oroclinal bending, and alternating episodes of contraction and (back-arc) extension. In search of inherited plate boundary irregularities in Paleozoic Australia, we have studied the ~E-W boundary between the Lachlan and Thomson orogens. This lithospheric-scale boundary may reflect the original geometry of the plate boundary, which might have accommodated hundreds of km of dextral offset. This boundary may be part a much larger orogenic curvature, hitherto not recognised, and the development of which may have played a fundamental role in the formation of the smaller-scale oroclines in the Lachlan and New England orogens.

  12. Heterogeneous distribution of pelagic sediments incoming the Japan Trench possibly controlling slip propagation on shallow plate boundary fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, A.; Nakamura, Y.; Fukuchi, R.; Kurano, H.; Ikehara, K.; Kanamatsu, T.; Arai, K.; Usami, K.; Ashi, J.

    2017-12-01

    Catastrophic tsunami of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake was triggered by large coseismic slip reached to the Japan Trench axis (e.g. Fujiwara et al., 2011, Science; Kodaira et al., 2012, Nature Geoscience). Results of the IODP Expedition 343 (JFAST) suggest that small friction of smectite-rich pelagic clay caused slip propagation on shallow plate boundary fault (Ujiie et al., 2013, Science; Kameda et al., 2015, Geology; Moore et al., 2015, Geosphere). On the other hand, JAMSTEC high-resolution seismic profiles show that incoming sediments have large heterogeneities in thicknesses, and two areas of extremely thin sediments on the Pacific Plate (thickness less than 100 m) were found at around 39°N (Nakamura et al., AGU 2017, this session). To reconcile whether the smectite-rich pelagic clay even exists in these areas, we sampled surface sediments during the R/V Shinsei Maru KS-15-3 cruise. Seven piston cores were retrieved from seaward trench slope, horst, graben, and graben edge. Core lithologies are mainly diatomaceous ooze/clay including tephra layers, not resemble to pelagic clays discovered in JFAST. Ages of tephra layers were estimated by correlating mineral assemblages and refractive indices of volcanic glasses to Japanese widespread tephras. Averaged sedimentation rates of seaward trench slope, horst, graben, and graben edge are estimated to be 25-30, 6.5-20, 45, 0.9 cm/kyr, respectively. These sedimentation rates imply that sediments on seaward trench slope and horst have been deposited in the last 160-500 kyr, suggesting that entire pelagic sediments, including smectite-rich pelagic clay, have been removed by some reasons in the last 0.5 million years. Possible reason for such modification of sediment is near-trench igneous activity known as petit-spot volcanism (Hirano et al., 2006, Science). The lack of smectite-rich pelagic clay near 39°N of the Japan Trench is consistent with results of tsunami inversions proposing shallow large coseismic slip propagated

  13. Chemical munitions dumped at sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Margo; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2016-06-01

    Modern chemical warfare is a byproduct of the industrial revolution, which created factories capable of rapidly producing artillery shells that could be filled with toxic chemicals such as chlorine, phosgene and mustard agent. The trench warfare of World War I inaugurated extensive deployments of modern chemical weapons in 1915. Concomitantly, the need arose to dispose of damaged, captured or excess chemical munitions and their constituents. Whereas today chemical warfare agents (CWA) are destroyed via chemical neutralization processes or high-temperature incineration in tandem with environmental monitoring, in the early to middle 20th century the options for CWA disposal were limited to open-air burning, burial and disposal at sea. The latter option was identified as the least likely of the three to impact mankind, and sea dumping of chemical munitions commenced. Eventually, the potential impacts of sea dumping human waste were recognized, and in 1972 an international treaty, the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, was developed to protect the marine environment from pollution caused by the dumping of wastes and other matter into the ocean. By the time this treaty, referred to as the London Convention, was signed by a majority of nations, millions of tons of munitions were known to have been disposed throughout the world's oceans.

  14. Evidence of chemical reactions between di- and poly-glycidyl ether resins and tannins isolated from Pinus radiata D. Don bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Roy; Freer, Juanita; Baeza, Jaime

    2005-01-01

    This work evaluates the feasibility of reacting tannins isolated from Pinus radiata D. Don bark with epoxide resins of the diglycidyl and polyglycidyl ether type. To this end, gel times of aqueous tannin dispersions (40% w/w) with every one of nine selected resins (5% w/w), at previously established pH values (initial equal to 3.3, 4, 7 and 10), have been determined. Products of these reactions were analyzed by FT-IR spectroscopy, and the results were compared with those obtained from tannin-p-formaldehyde and (+)-catechin-p-formaldehyde systems, at the same pH values. Their mechanical properties were evaluated, by dynamic mechanical analysis, at two pH values (3.3 and 10). In general, it was concluded that tannin-epoxide resin systems behave similarly to tannin-paraformaldehyde systems, especially at basic pH values.

  15. Physical and chemical quality, biodiversity, and thermodynamic prediction of adhesion of bacterial isolates from a water purification system: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Barbosa Teodoro Alves

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of water purification system and identify the bacteria this system, predict bacterial adherence according to the hydrophobicity of these microorganisms and of the polypropylene distribution loop for purified water. The assessment of drinking water that supplies the purification system allowed good-quality physical, chemical, and microbiological specifications. The physicochemical specifications of the distributed purified water were approved, but the heterotrophic bacteria count was higher than allowed (>2 log CFU mL-1.The sanitation of the storage tank with chlorine decreased the number of bacteria adhered to the surface (4.34 cycles log. By sequencing of the 16SrDNA genes, six species of bacteria were identified. The contact angle was determined and polypropylene surface and all bacteria were considered to be hydrophilic, and adhesion was thermodynamically unfavorable. This case study showed the importance of monitoring the water quality in the purified water systems and the importance of sanitization with chemical agents. The count of heterotrophic bacteria on the polypropylene surface was consistent with the predicted thermodynamics results because the number of adhered cells reached approximate values of 5 log CFU cm-2.

  16. Sustainable sanitary landfills for neglected small cities in developing countries: the semi-mechanized trench method from Villanueva, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Stewart M; Jimenez, Ramón

    2012-12-01

    Open dumping is the most common practice for the disposal of urban solid wastes in the least developed regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Sanitary landfill design and operation has traditionally focused on large cities, but cities with fewer than 50,000 in population can comprise from 6% to 45% of a given country's total population. These thousands of small cities cannot afford to operate a sanitary landfill in the way it is proposed for large cities, where heavy equipment is used to spread and compact the waste in daily cells, and then to excavate, transport and apply daily cover, and leachate is managed with collection and treatment systems. This paper presents an alternative approach for small cities, known as the semi-mechanized trench method, which was developed in Villanueva, Honduras. In the semi-mechanized trench method a hydraulic excavator is used for 1-3 days to dig a trench that will last at least a month before it is filled with waste. Trucks can easily unload their wastes into the trench, and the wastes compact naturally due to semi-aerobic biodegradation, after which the trenches are refilled and covered. The exposed surface area is minimal since only the top surface of the wastes is exposed, the remainder being covered by the sides and bottom of the trench. The surplus material from trench excavation can be valorized for use as engineering fill onsite or off. The landfill in Villanueva has operated for 15 years, using a total land area of approximately 11 ha for a population that grew from 23,000 to 48,000, with a land requirement of 0.2m(2)/person year, a cover to waste ratio of 0.2, and an estimated soil surplus of 298,000 m(3) that is valorized and used onsite. The landfill has been operated solely by the municipality with an operational cost in 2010 estimated at US$4.60 per ton. A modified water balance analysis at Villanueva shows negligible leachate generation from covered trenches and 700 m(3)/yr (60 m(3)/ha yr) from the two open

  17. Sustainable sanitary landfills for neglected small cities in developing countries: The semi-mechanized trench method from Villanueva, Honduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakley, Stewart M., E-mail: soakley@csuchico.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, Chico State University, California State University, Chico, CA 95929 (United States); Jimenez, Ramon, E-mail: rjimenez1958@yahoo.com [Public Works, Municipality of Villanueva, Cortes (Honduras)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Open dumping is the most common form of waste disposal in neglected small cities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Semi-mechanized landfills can be a sustainable option for small cities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present the theory of design and operation of semi-mechanized landfills. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Villanueva, Honduras has operated its semi-mechanized landfill for 15 years. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cost of operation is US$4.60/ton with a land requirement of 0.2m{sup 2}/person-year. - Abstract: Open dumping is the most common practice for the disposal of urban solid wastes in the least developed regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Sanitary landfill design and operation has traditionally focused on large cities, but cities with fewer than 50,000 in population can comprise from 6% to 45% of a given country's total population. These thousands of small cities cannot afford to operate a sanitary landfill in the way it is proposed for large cities, where heavy equipment is used to spread and compact the waste in daily cells, and then to excavate, transport and apply daily cover, and leachate is managed with collection and treatment systems. This paper presents an alternative approach for small cities, known as the semi-mechanized trench method, which was developed in Villanueva, Honduras. In the semi-mechanized trench method a hydraulic excavator is used for 1-3 days to dig a trench that will last at least a month before it is filled with waste. Trucks can easily unload their wastes into the trench, and the wastes compact naturally due to semi-aerobic biodegradation, after which the trenches are refilled and covered. The exposed surface area is minimal since only the top surface of the wastes is exposed, the remainder being covered by the sides and bottom of the trench. The surplus material from trench excavation can be valorized for use as engineering fill onsite or off. The landfill in

  18. Sustainable sanitary landfills for neglected small cities in developing countries: The semi-mechanized trench method from Villanueva, Honduras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakley, Stewart M.; Jimenez, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Open dumping is the most common form of waste disposal in neglected small cities. ► Semi-mechanized landfills can be a sustainable option for small cities. ► We present the theory of design and operation of semi-mechanized landfills. ► Villanueva, Honduras has operated its semi-mechanized landfill for 15 years. ► The cost of operation is US$4.60/ton with a land requirement of 0.2m 2 /person-year. - Abstract: Open dumping is the most common practice for the disposal of urban solid wastes in the least developed regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Sanitary landfill design and operation has traditionally focused on large cities, but cities with fewer than 50,000 in population can comprise from 6% to 45% of a given country’s total population. These thousands of small cities cannot afford to operate a sanitary landfill in the way it is proposed for large cities, where heavy equipment is used to spread and compact the waste in daily cells, and then to excavate, transport and apply daily cover, and leachate is managed with collection and treatment systems. This paper presents an alternative approach for small cities, known as the semi-mechanized trench method, which was developed in Villanueva, Honduras. In the semi-mechanized trench method a hydraulic excavator is used for 1–3 days to dig a trench that will last at least a month before it is filled with waste. Trucks can easily unload their wastes into the trench, and the wastes compact naturally due to semi-aerobic biodegradation, after which the trenches are refilled and covered. The exposed surface area is minimal since only the top surface of the wastes is exposed, the remainder being covered by the sides and bottom of the trench. The surplus material from trench excavation can be valorized for use as engineering fill onsite or off. The landfill in Villanueva has operated for 15 years, using a total land area of approximately 11 ha for a population that grew from 23,000 to 48

  19. Geologic evidence for a tsunami source along the trench northeast of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, B. F.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Feuillet, N.; Fuentes, Z.; Robert, H.; Tuttle, M. P.; Wei, Y.; jennifer, W.

    2012-12-01

    Coral boulders of medieval age at Anegada, British Virgin Islands, calibrated to local geologic effects of far-field tsunamis and hurricanes, provide tangible evidence for the generation of a tsunami by faulting along the eastern Puerto Rico Trench. SETTING: Anegada is 120 km south of the Puerto Rico Trench and 200 km east-northeast of San Juan. It is fringed on the north and east by a coral reef 100-1200 m offshore; founded on Pleistocene carbonate with a cemented cap; rimmed on much of its perimeter by sandy Holocene beach ridges; and bermed with coral-rubble on a rocky stretch of its north shore. CORAL BOULDERS: Scores of coral heads up to 2 m in diameter were moved across the north shore in medieval time. Some crossed the line of the modern storm berm, continued over a limestone rise 4 m above sea level, and came to rest on lower ground hundreds of meters farther south. Others traversed beach ridges, and two of these boulders are now 1.5 km from the fringing reef. Most of the boulders are Diploria strigosa, an endemic of reef flanks. Some retain enough of their originally rounded, dimpled shape to have been deposited live. The likely time of emplacement of freshly dislodged, still-living heads is AD 1200-1450. This range is based on radiocarbon dating of outer growth bands of 18 heads from 5 separate areas. The youngest of the ages is 890±25 14C yr BP, and the ΔR assumed is 0 to -200 14C yr. CALIBRATION TO A FAR-FIELD TSUNAMI: Deposits dated to 1650-1800 at Anegada represent either the largest known far-field tsunami in the Caribbean (1755 Lisbon) or some other tsunami or unusual storm that surpassed the Lisbon tsunami in its local geologic effects. The water cut or freshened breaches in north-shore beach ridges and poured into a marine pond, where it moved limestone boulders and laid down a sheet of sand and shell that extends as much as 1.5 km inland [refs 1-4]. Many of the limestone boulders were probably inherited from the higher, earlier overwash that

  20. Electrodeposition of Gold to Conformally Fill High Aspect Ratio Nanometric Silicon Grating Trenches: A Comparison of Pulsed and Direct Current Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znati, Sami A.; Chedid, Nicholas; Miao, Houxun; Chen, Lei; Bennett, Eric E.; Wen, Han

    2016-01-01

    Filling high-aspect-ratio trenches with gold is a frequent requirement in the fabrication of x-ray optics as well as micro-electronic components and other fabrication processes. Conformal electrodeposition of gold in sub-micron-width silicon trenches with an aspect ratio greater than 35 over a grating area of several square centimeters is challenging and has not been described in the literature previously. A comparison of pulsed plating and constant current plating led to a gold electroplating protocol that reliably filled trenches for such structures. PMID:27042384

  1. Crustal transect of the Kuril arc-trench system -Results from the onshore-offshore wide-angle seismic study-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, A.; Kurashimo, E.; Miura, S.; Obana, K.; Kodaira, S.; Tsuru, T.; Park, J.; Takahashi, N.; Kaneda, Y.; Hirata, N.; Iwasaki, T.

    2001-12-01

    The Kuril Trench is the oblique convergent boundary located in the northwestern margin of the Pacific plate. The Kuril arc collides with the northeastern Japan Island arc northwest of the Kuril Trench. Historic great earthquakes were generated repeatedly along the trench. These events are attributed to the subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the overriding North American plate. However, little is known about the deep crustal structure down to the Kuril subduction seismogenic zone. To obtain a complete image of the seismogenic zone, an onshore-offshore wide-angle seismic survey was performed from the Kuril Trench to the sea of Okhotsk through the northeastern Hokkaido (the Kuril arc). In June-August of 2000, JAMSTEC and Univ. of Tokyo performed a seismic survey across the Kuril arc-trench system using R/V KAIYO and KAIREI of JAMSTEC. Forty-six ocean bottom seismographs (OBS) (3.6km interval in the Pacific ocean; 12km interval in the sea of Okhotsk) and seventy-four land stations (1.5-2km interval) were deployed along a 500 km long profile. The multi-channel seismic (MCS) reflection data were acquired using a 156-channel hydrophone streamer (ca. 4000m long). We used a 200 liter airgun array as controlled source. They were shot every 50m for the MCS survey and 150 m for the wide-angle survey. Four explosives (300kg x 2, 100kg x 2) were blasted on land. From the OBS data of the Pacific Ocean, the crustal structure down to the depth of about 25km shows the subducting oceanic crust, the sedimentary wedge and the Kuril island arc crust. This profile was selected to across the presumed coseismic rupture zone of the 1973 Nemuro-oki earthquake (M7.4). Comparing the rupture zone with the crustal model, it is obvious that the coseismic rupture had occurred deeper than the island arc upper crust. Moreover, the thickness of the crust beneath the sea of Okhotsk can be estimated to be about 20 km. A problem to be solved hereafter is to reveal the structural image of the

  2. On the evolution of Subduction-Transform Edge Propagators (STEPs): application to the Pliny-Strabo 'trenches'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijholt, Nicolai; Govers, Rob

    2015-04-01

    At the eastern side of the Aegean slab, tomographic evidence shows that a slab edge is present. The subducting African plate needs to tear to permit continued subduction and rollback of the Hellenic trench. This vertical tear is named a Subduction-Transform Edge Propagator (STEP) and is defined as the region of active tearing. At the eastern side of the Hellenic trench, the active STEP is probably located along the Ptolemy 'trench'. The surface expression (deformation zone) of this propagating STEP is observed in bathymetry and seismology, where the Pliny-Strabo 'trenches' are referred to as the STEP fault zone, i.e. the deformation zone in the wake of the active STEP. Due to its immaturity, the plate boundary is a relatively wide zone as strain has not localized yet. A key question is the propagation direction of an active STEP. It is suspected that passive margins may play a critical role in steering a STEP as they represents first order strength contrasts between oceanic and continental lithosphere. Here, we seek to identify the preferred propagation direction for a STEP and also investigate the effect of passive margins on STEP propagation (direction) through mechanical, finite element models. Our model results show that propagation of a STEP along a passive margin-ocean interface is likely for a range of models which show a passive margin-trench orientation within 15 degrees from a perpendicular setup. Passive margins are rarely straight features and with the inclusion of a change in strike of the passive margin ahead of the active STEP, model results show that propagation will occur along the passive margin-ocean interface if this change is less than 25 degrees from a perpendicular setup. Surprisingly, the subduction history and magnitude of the strength(/effective viscosity) contrast across the passive margin are less relevant. The STEP system seems relatively insensitive to small scale details, e.g. so that small, gradual changes in passive margin

  3. Quality of black beans as a function of long-term storage and moldy development: Chemical and functional properties of flour and isolated protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Cristiano Dietrich; Ziegler, Valmor; Lindemann, Igor da Silva; Hoffmann, Jessica Fernanda; Vanier, Nathan Levien; Oliveira, Maurício de

    2018-04-25

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of moisture content and storage temperature on the percentage of moldy and fermented beans, mycotoxins levels, phenolic acids content, pasting properties of whole flour, as well as functional and thermal properties of protein isolates from black beans stored for 12 months. Beans stored under 14%/32 °C exhibited 16% of fermented grains, while at 17%/25 °C (42.3%) and 17%/32 °C (93.5%) of moldy plus fermented grains, named drastic conditions (DC). Mycotoxins were not present in grains from all storage conditions. Reduction of gallic, caffeic, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid contents, and increase of sinapic acid were observed in DC. Reduction of peak, final, and setback viscosities of bean flours in DC indicate the application in refrigerated and frozen products. The increase in foaming and reduction in foam degradation of the proteins highlights their use in beverages where the foam is an important factor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Making an outreach movie -The Puerto Rico Trench: Exploring the deepest place in the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brink, J.; ten Brink, U. S.

    2004-12-01

    A new movie will be screened that describes the exploration of the Puerto Rico trench with a multibeam echosounder and its significance to scientific research and tsunami hazard assessment. The movie audience is the general public including high school students. It aims to stimulate interest in Oceanography and to demonstrate scientific processes as they are applied in Geological Oceanography. The extensive use of 3-D visualization fly-bys over the dramatic ocean floor of the Puerto Rico trench should be particularly appealing to a generation growing up on video games and 3-D visualizations. The film is the product of close cooperation between a film maker and a scientist through all stages of its production and post production. This level of close cooperation is necessary because scientists' and film makers' approaches to presentation of information can differ greatly. In making an educational or outreach movie, the scientist must be responsible for the contents of the message, but the film maker has to design an effective delivery method. The creation of this movie was the result of following stages: (1) live action filming during a short research cruise; (2) generating 3-D fly-by using Fledermausr software; (3) rendering the fly-by sequences to a high-definition film; (4) collecting still photos and other supporting material; (5) generating graphs illustrating crucial scientific information and concepts; (6) preparing the script for voiceover narration; (7) working with a professional actor in order to ensure accurate delivery of the information. The biggest challenge in making the movie was the editing stage when the different elements of the movie were put together, incorporating music and voiceover into an aesthetically pleasing, interesting, and above all, scientifically accurate and coherent movie. Post-editing steps included replication of the master copy, package design, and distribution. The movie was completed in several weeks on a modest budget, thanks

  5. Steepest-entropy-ascent quantum thermodynamic modeling of the relaxation process of isolated chemically reactive systems using density of states and the concept of hypoequilibrium state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guanchen; von Spakovsky, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the nonequilibrium relaxation process of chemically reactive systems using steepest-entropy-ascent quantum thermodynamics (SEAQT). The trajectory of the chemical reaction, i.e., the accessible intermediate states, is predicted and discussed. The prediction is made using a thermodynamic-ensemble approach, which does not require detailed information about the particle mechanics involved (e.g., the collision of particles). Instead, modeling the kinetics and dynamics of the relaxation process is based on the principle of steepest-entropy ascent (SEA) or maximum-entropy production, which suggests a constrained gradient dynamics in state space. The SEAQT framework is based on general definitions for energy and entropy and at least theoretically enables the prediction of the nonequilibrium relaxation of system state at all temporal and spatial scales. However, to make this not just theoretically but computationally possible, the concept of density of states is introduced to simplify the application of the relaxation model, which in effect extends the application of the SEAQT framework even to infinite energy eigenlevel systems. The energy eigenstructure of the reactive system considered here consists of an extremely large number of such levels (on the order of 10^{130}) and yields to the quasicontinuous assumption. The principle of SEA results in a unique trajectory of system thermodynamic state evolution in Hilbert space in the nonequilibrium realm, even far from equilibrium. To describe this trajectory, the concepts of subsystem hypoequilibrium state and temperature are introduced and used to characterize each system-level, nonequilibrium state. This definition of temperature is fundamental rather than phenomenological and is a generalization of the temperature defined at stable equilibrium. In addition, to deal with the large number of energy eigenlevels, the equation of motion is formulated on the basis of the density of states and a set

  6. Effect of ultrasound treatment on the wet heating Maillard reaction between mung bean [Vigna radiate (L.)] protein isolates and glucose and on structural and physico-chemical properties of conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongjiang; Han, Feifei; Sui, Xiaonan; Qi, Baokun; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Rui; Li, Yang; Jiang, Lianzhou

    2016-03-30

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ultrasound treatment on the wet heating Maillard reaction between mung bean protein isolates (MBPIs) and glucose, and on structural and physico-chemical properties of the conjugates. The degree of glycosylation of MBPI-glucose conjugates treated by ultrasound treatment and wet heating (MBPI-GUH) was higher than that of MBPI-glucose conjugates only treated by wet heating (MBPI-GH). Solubility, emulsification activity, emulsification stability and surface hydrophobicity of MBPI-GUH were higher than that of MBPI-GH. Grafted MBPIs had a lower content of α-helix and unordered coil, but a higher content of β-sheet and β-turn structure than MBPIs. No significant structural changes were observed in β-turn and random coil structure of MBPI-GUH, while α-helix content increased with ultrasonic time, and decreased at 300 W ultrasonic power with the increase of β-sheet. MBPI-GUH had a less compact tertiary structure compared to MBPI-GH and MBPI. Grafting MBPIs with glucose formed conjugates of higher molecular weight, while no significant changes were observed in electrophoresis profiles of MBPI-GUH. Ultrasound-assisted wet heating Maillard reaction between MBPIs and glucose could be a promising way to improve functional properties of MBPIs. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Application of supercritical fluid extraction coupled with counter-current chromatography for extraction and online isolation of unstable chemical components from Rosa damascena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sainan; Guo, Liping; Liu, Chunming; Zhang, Yuchi

    2013-07-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) coupled with high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully used for the extraction and online isolation of the unstable compounds from Rosa damascene in a single extraction and separation operation in two stages. The solvent systems of SFE/HSCCC were optimized with the help of multiexponential function model. At the first stage, the upper phase of the solvent system of n-butanol-tert-butyl methyl ether-acetonitrile-0.1% aqueous TFA (1.7:1.0:0.8:4.0, v/v/v/v) was used as both the SFE entrainer and the HSCCC stationary phase, and the target compounds were eluted with the corresponding lower phase to separate the hydrophobic compounds. At the second stage, the upper phase of the solvent system of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (3.2:1.0:2.8:2.6, v/v/v/v) was used as both the SFE entrainer and the HSCCC stationary phase, followed by elution with the corresponding lower phase to separate the moderate hydrophobic compounds. Six compounds including formononetin, delphinidin, cyaniding, 5,6,4'-trihydroxy-7,8-dimethoxy flavone, 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,8-dimethoxy flavone, and 5-hydroxy-6,7,8,3',4'-pentamethoxy flavone were successfully separated in one extraction-separation operation within 300 min. The targeted compounds were identified by MS and NMR spectroscopy. This research has opened up great prospects for industrial application of SFE/HSCCC to the extraction and separation of unstable compounds. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Chemical characterization of Citrus sinensis grafted on C. limonia and the effect of some isolated compounds on the growth of Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Alan Bezerra; Abdelnur, Patrícia Verardi; Garcia, Cleverson Fernando; Belini, Adriana; Severino, Vanessa G Pasqualotto; da Silva, M Fátima das G F; Fernandes, João B; Vieira, Paulo C; de Carvalho, Sérgio A; de Souza, Alessandra A; Machado, Marcos A

    2008-09-10

    Citrus sinensis grafted on C. limonia produces a considerable number of compounds that are not common in both plants developed from germination of seeds. The chemical profile of scion and rootstock differ notably for absence in the form of flavonoids and coumarins containing C5 prenyl groups attached to the carbon atoms of aromatic and heterocyclic systems or to oxygen. Only linear pyranocoumarins xanthyletin and xanthoxyletin were found in scion. This observation indicates that the prenylated compounds once biosynthesized in the roots could have been translocated to other organs. Xylella fastidiosa colonizes the xylem of plants causing diseases on several economically important crops such as citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC). A number of flavonoids, coumarins, alkaloids, dihydrocinnamic acid derivative, anacardic acid, triterpenes, and limonoids were tested for in vitro activity on the growth of Xylella fastidiosa. Azadirachtin A was the most active. Hesperidin, which occurs in great amounts in cells of the mesophyll of the affected leaves with CVC, showed a moderate activity suggesting that it can act as a good barrier for small-size colonies from X. fastidiosa.

  9. Matrix isolation ESR spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations on 5-methylhexa-1,2,4-triene-1,3-diyl, a highly delocalized triplet "hybrid" carbene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misochko, Eugenii Ya; Akimov, Alexander V; Korchagin, Denis V; Masitov, Artem A; Shavrin, Konstantin N

    2012-02-14

    The ESR spectrum of 5-methylhexa-1,2,4-triene-1,3-diyl (1) was recorded in an argon matrix at 15 K. The derived zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameters (D = 0.5054 ± 0.0006 cm(-1) and E = 0.0045 ± 0.0002 cm(-1)) fall between those determined previously for propargylene (2) and vinylcarbene (3). DFT and ab initio (CAS and MRCI) quantum-chemical calculations of the ZFS parameters of 1, 2, and 3 were performed. These calculations indicate that multireference methods are needed to successfully predict ZFS parameters of delocalized carbenes/biradicals such as 1-3. The calculated singly occupied MOs and spin density distributions show that the spin is more delocalized in 1 than in 2 and 3, indicating that 1 is a "hybrid" of the constituent ethynyl- and vinylcarbenes, 2 and 3, respectively. The dominant contribution to the D-value in 1 and 2 is found to result from spin-spin interactions on the C atoms of the propylidene moiety, which is strongly affected by spin polarization. Accurate values for the D-parameter are also predicted for other types of delocalized triplet carbenes such as HC(5)H and HCCN.

  10. Uranium favorability of tertiary sedimentary rocks of the Pend Oreille River valley, Washington. [Measurement and sampling of surface sections, collection of samples from isolated outcrops, chemical and mineralogical analyses of samples, and examination of available water logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marjaniemi, D.K.; Robins, J.W.

    1975-08-01

    Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the Pend Oreille River valley were investigated in a regional study to determine the favorability for potential uranium resources of northeastern Washington. This project involved measurement and sampling of surface sections, collection of samples from isolated outcrops, chemical and mineralogical analyses of samples, and examination of available water well logs. The Box Canyon Dam area north of Ione is judged to have very high favorability. Thick-bedded conglomerates interbedded with sandstones and silty sandstones compose the Tiger Formation in this area, and high radioactivity levels are found near the base of the formation. Uranophane is found along fracture surfaces or in veins. Carbonaceous material is present throughout the Tiger Formation in the area. Part of the broad Pend Oreille valley surrounding Cusick, Washington, is an area of high favorability. Potential host rocks in the Tiger Formation, consisting of arkosic sandstones interbedded with radioactive shales, probably extend throughout the subsurface part of this area. Carbonaceous material is present and some samples contain high concentrations of uranium. In addition, several other possible chemical indicators were found. The Tiger-Lost Creek area is rated as having medium favorability. The Tiger Formation contains very hard, poorly sorted granite conglomerate with some beds of arkosic sandstone and silty sandstone. The granite conglomerate was apparently derived from source rocks having relatively high uranium content. The lower part of the formation is more favorable than the upper part because of the presence of carbonaceous material, anomalously high concentrations of uranium, and other possible chemical indicators. The area west of Ione is judged to have low favorability, because of the very low permeability of the rocks and the very low uranium content. (auth)

  11. AMS measurement of {sup 10}Be concentrations in marine sediments from Chile Trench at the TANDAR laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, D., E-mail: darodrig@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Departamento de Física Experimental, Laboratorio TANDAR, GIyA, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martín (Argentina); CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Buenos Aires (Argentina); Arazi, A. [Departamento de Física Experimental, Laboratorio TANDAR, GIyA, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martín (Argentina); CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fernández Niello, J.O. [Departamento de Física Experimental, Laboratorio TANDAR, GIyA, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martín (Argentina); CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Investigación e Ingeniería Ambiental, Universidad Nacional de San Martín, 25 de Mayo y Francia, B1650BWA San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Martí, G.V. [Departamento de Física Experimental, Laboratorio TANDAR, GIyA, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martín (Argentina); and others

    2017-03-15

    The {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratios in marine sediments samples from the Southern Chile Trench have been measured using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The samples were measured at the TANDAR accelerator, where the discrimination of the {sup 10}Be radionuclides was achieved by means of a passive absorber in front of an ionization chamber. This setup along with the high voltage available, provided a complete suppression of the {sup 10}B isobar interference. The obtained values for the {sup 10}Be concentrations, of the order of 10{sup 9} atoms/g, are the first {sup 10}Be measurements from the Southern Chile Trench and offer an excellent tracer to quantitatively study the recycling of sediments in Andean magmas.

  12. Evaluation and use of geosphere flow and migration computer programs for near surface trench type disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paige, R.W.; Stephens, J.L.; Broyd, T.W.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes calculations of groundwater flow and radionuclide migration for near surface trench type radioactive waste disposal facilities. Aspects covered are verification of computer programs, detailed groundwater flow calculations for the Elstow site, radionuclide migration for the Elstow site and the effects of using non-linear sorption models. The Elstow groundwater flows are for both the current situation and for projected developments to the site. The Elstow migration calculations serve to demonstrate a methodology for predicting radionuclide transport from near surface trench type disposal facilities. The majority of the work was carried out at the request of and in close collaboration with ANS, the coordinators for the preliminary assessment of a proposed radioactive waste disposal site at Elstow. Hence a large part of the report contains results which were generated for ANS to use in their assessment. (author)

  13. Toxicity assessments of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in isolated mitochondria, rat hepatocytes, and zebrafish show good concordance across chemical classes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadanaciva, Sashi [Compound Safety Prediction, Worldwide Medicinal Chemistry, Pfizer, Inc., Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Aleo, Michael D. [Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Inc., Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Strock, Christopher J. [Cyprotex US, Watertown, MA 02472 (United States); Stedman, Donald B. [Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Inc., Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Wang, Huijun [Computational Sciences, Pfizer Inc., Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Will, Yvonne, E-mail: yvonne.will@pfizer.com [Compound Safety Prediction, Worldwide Medicinal Chemistry, Pfizer, Inc., Groton, CT 06340 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    To reduce costly late-stage compound attrition, there has been an increased focus on assessing compounds in in vitro assays that predict attributes of human safety liabilities, before preclinical in vivo studies are done. Relevant questions when choosing a panel of assays for predicting toxicity are (a) whether there is general concordance in the data among the assays, and (b) whether, in a retrospective analysis, the rank order of toxicity of compounds in the assays correlates with the known safety profile of the drugs in humans. The aim of our study was to answer these questions using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as a test set since NSAIDs are generally associated with gastrointestinal injury, hepatotoxicity, and/or cardiovascular risk, with mitochondrial impairment and endoplasmic reticulum stress being possible contributing factors. Eleven NSAIDs, flufenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, mefenamic acid, diclofenac, meloxicam, sudoxicam, piroxicam, diflunisal, acetylsalicylic acid, nimesulide, and sulindac (and its two metabolites, sulindac sulfide and sulindac sulfone), were tested for their effects on (a) the respiration of rat liver mitochondria, (b) a panel of mechanistic endpoints in rat hepatocytes, and (c) the viability and organ morphology of zebrafish. We show good concordance for distinguishing among/between NSAID chemical classes in the observations among the three approaches. Furthermore, the assays were complementary and able to correctly identify “toxic” and “non-toxic” drugs in accordance with their human safety profile, with emphasis on hepatic and gastrointestinal safety. We recommend implementing our multi-assay approach in the drug discovery process to reduce compound attrition. - Highlights: • NSAIDS cause liver and GI toxicity. • Mitochondrial uncoupling contributes to NSAID liver toxicity. • ER stress is a mechanism that contributes to liver toxicity. • Zebrafish and cell based assays are complimentary.

  14. Toxicity assessments of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in isolated mitochondria, rat hepatocytes, and zebrafish show good concordance across chemical classes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadanaciva, Sashi; Aleo, Michael D.; Strock, Christopher J.; Stedman, Donald B.; Wang, Huijun; Will, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    To reduce costly late-stage compound attrition, there has been an increased focus on assessing compounds in in vitro assays that predict attributes of human safety liabilities, before preclinical in vivo studies are done. Relevant questions when choosing a panel of assays for predicting toxicity are (a) whether there is general concordance in the data among the assays, and (b) whether, in a retrospective analysis, the rank order of toxicity of compounds in the assays correlates with the known safety profile of the drugs in humans. The aim of our study was to answer these questions using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as a test set since NSAIDs are generally associated with gastrointestinal injury, hepatotoxicity, and/or cardiovascular risk, with mitochondrial impairment and endoplasmic reticulum stress being possible contributing factors. Eleven NSAIDs, flufenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, mefenamic acid, diclofenac, meloxicam, sudoxicam, piroxicam, diflunisal, acetylsalicylic acid, nimesulide, and sulindac (and its two metabolites, sulindac sulfide and sulindac sulfone), were tested for their effects on (a) the respiration of rat liver mitochondria, (b) a panel of mechanistic endpoints in rat hepatocytes, and (c) the viability and organ morphology of zebrafish. We show good concordance for distinguishing among/between NSAID chemical classes in the observations among the three approaches. Furthermore, the assays were complementary and able to correctly identify “toxic” and “non-toxic” drugs in accordance with their human safety profile, with emphasis on hepatic and gastrointestinal safety. We recommend implementing our multi-assay approach in the drug discovery process to reduce compound attrition. - Highlights: • NSAIDS cause liver and GI toxicity. • Mitochondrial uncoupling contributes to NSAID liver toxicity. • ER stress is a mechanism that contributes to liver toxicity. • Zebrafish and cell based assays are complimentary

  15. A Novel Approach to Inspect Abnormalities on the Deep Trench Capacitors in DRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H. W.; Cheng, E.; Lin, Y. M.; Fan, S.; Pan, K.; Lue, J. L.

    2005-09-01

    A novel method has been developed using Focused Ion Beam (FIB) system to create the likely three-dimensional (3D) image of a deep trench (DT) capacitor in a DRAM cell for process evaluation and failure analysis. The abnormalities in the structures of DT capacitors, especially "DT striation" and "DT-DT short", result in the functional failures or retention problems detected in the electrical test, which are very common failures in a DT capacitor DRAM cell. The common method to examine failed DTs is to use FIB milling with its slice-and-view capability for both planar and cross-sectional observations. However, the areas containing the defects in the specific DTs are probably milled away during FIB milling, so that the failure causes could not be found. The new method uses XeF2 etching gas to reveal the likely 3D appearance of the desired DTs, instead of the traditional FIB slice-and-view method. The abnormalities on the structures of the specific DTs can then be inspected using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The innovation of this technique not only provides more information on the desired DTs, but also provides a quick way to identify the possible causes for the failures. In summary, this method will provide an effective way to improve the success rate and turnaround time for the inspection of failed DTs.

  16. INORGANIC PLUME DELINEATION USING SURFACE HIGH RESOLUTION ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY AT THE BC CRIBS & TRENCHES SITE HANFORD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2007-05-29

    A surface resistivity survey was conducted on the Hanford Site over a waste disposal trench that received a large volume of liquid inorganic waste. The objective of the survey was to map the extent of the plume that resulted from the disposal activities approximately 50 years earlier. The survey included six resistivity transects of at least 200m, where each transect provided two-dimensional profile information of subsurface electrical properties. The results of the survey indicated that a low resistivity plume resides at a depth of approximately 25-44 m below ground surface. The target depth was calibrated with borehole data of pore-water electrical conductivity. Due to the high correlation of the pore-water electrical conductivity to nitrate concentration and the high correlation of measured apparent resistivity to pore-water electrical conductivity, inferences were made that proposed the spatial distribution of the apparent resistivity was due to the distribution of nitrate. Therefore, apparent resistivities were related to nitrate, which was subsequently rendered in three dimensions to show that the nitrate likely did not reach the water table and the bounds of the highest concentrations are directly beneath the collection of waste sites.

  17. Sport in the trenches: the new deal for masculinity in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waquet, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    During the First World War, the life of a soldier was not just reduced to the trenches. In daily military life behind the lines, soldiers had recreational activities, some of which were seen as a test of virility, such as visiting brothels, and also, as we want to show in this paper, sport practices. For most of the French citizen-soldiers, who were working class and mainly from the countryside, the contact with allied soldiers has to be understood as a significant step in the social construction of gender. Educated in gymnastics, shooting and military exercises, French infantrymen (Poilus) and civilians saw allied sports and soldier-sportsmen as models of a modern masculinity. In a descriptive study of the development of football in the French army, our article tries to demonstrate firstly, that football learnt in the army by workers and the French rural society extended the influence of sport and its part in the construction of masculinity in France. Secondly, we show that the official recognition of sport in 1917 by the French army led to the definition of a modern French masculinity and to the recognition of the sportsmen-soldier as the model of hegemonic masculinity.

  18. The Asia-Pacific effects of a megatsunami along the Tonga Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Andreas; Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2015-04-01

    A megatsunami (M>9.0) along the Tonga Trench has far-reaching consequences for 4 major continents of the world, and exposure ranging from the cities of Sydney and Brisbane, the coastlines of Japan, Canada, USA, and along South America not to mention the Pacific Islands. Using the TSUDAT software of Geoscience Australia, relevant scenarios are selected for the location. Fault mechanics and the possible regime are also then examined to create the scenario. In this study, the effects of a megatsunami scenario are investigated including the run-up heights in coastal regions on these four continents in addition to other hazard effects. Global level DEM and bathymetry data is used to provide a first estimate of the exposed population, built infrastructure (capital stock) and GDP in the tsunami inundation area. The uncertainties of such a study are taken into account by adjusting the scenario via source mechanism, magnitude range and directivity effects. This is combined with basic vulnerability functions from historical tsunamis in order to give an exposed and estimated loss and cost of reconstruction across the Pacific rim. Notes as to the warning times, country preparation and evacuation plans for tsunamis are also made given long lead times in some cases.

  19. Deformation patterns in the southwestern part of the Mediterranean Ridge (South Matapan Trench, Western Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronikidis, Nikolaos; Kokinou, Eleni; Vafidis, Antonios; Kamberis, Evangelos; Manoutsoglou, Emmanouil

    2017-12-01

    Seismic reflection data and bathymetry analyses, together with geological information, are combined in the present work to identify seabed structural deformation and crustal structure in the Western Mediterranean Ridge (the backstop and the South Matapan Trench). As a first step, we apply bathymetric data and state of art methods of pattern recognition to automatically detect seabed lineaments, which are possibly related to the presence of tectonic structures (faults). The resulting pattern is tied to seismic reflection data, further assisting in the construction of a stratigraphic and structural model for this part of the Mediterranean Ridge. Structural elements and stratigraphic units in the final model are estimated based on: (a) the detected lineaments on the seabed, (b) the distribution of the interval velocities and the presence of velocity inversions, (c) the continuity and the amplitudes of the seismic reflections, the seismic structure of the units and (d) well and stratigraphic data as well as the main tectonic structures from the nearest onshore areas. Seabed morphology in the study area is probably related with the past and recent tectonics movements that result from African and European plates' convergence. Backthrusts and reverse faults, flower structures and deep normal faults are among the most important extensional/compressional structures interpreted in the study area.

  20. Optimization of submicron deep trench profiles with the STiGer cryoetching process: reduction of defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillocher, T.; Kafrouni, W.; Ladroue, J.; Lefaucheux, P.; Boufnichel, M.; Ranson, P.; Dussart, R.

    2011-08-01

    The STiGer process is a time-multiplexed cryogenic etching method designed to achieve high aspect ratio structures on silicon. SF6 or SF6/O2 plasmas are used as etch cycles and SiF4/O2 plasmas are used as passivation cycles. Trenches with a critical dimension of 0.8 µm have been etched to a depth of 38 µm with an average etch rate of 1.8 µm min-1. These features exhibit both undercut and a defect which is called extended scalloping. We describe this defect specific to the STiGer process and we discuss its origin: the extended scalloping is composed of anisotropic cavities developed on the sidewalls of the feature top (typically in the first 2-3 µm below the mask). It originates from ions scattered at the feature entrance that hit the top profile and remove the passivation layer where it is weakest. Then, we propose two methods to reduce this extended scalloping. The first consists in adding a low oxygen flow in the etching cycle. It favors a low additional passivation which reduces scalloping. The second technique consists in gradually increasing the SF6 flow from a low value to the nominal value. Consequently, the process starts with a low etch rate and an efficient passivation.

  1. Single-event burnout hardening of planar power MOSFET with partially widened trench source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiang; Liu, Hainan; Cai, Xiaowu; Luo, Jiajun; Li, Bo; Li, Binhong; Wang, Lixin; Han, Zhengsheng

    2018-03-01

    We present a single-event burnout (SEB) hardened planar power MOSFET with partially widened trench sources by three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulation. The advantage of the proposed structure is that the work of the parasitic bipolar transistor inherited in the power MOSFET is suppressed effectively due to the elimination of the most sensitive region (P-well region below the N+ source). The simulation result shows that the proposed structure can enhance the SEB survivability significantly. The critical value of linear energy transfer (LET), which indicates the maximum deposited energy on the device without SEB behavior, increases from 0.06 to 0.7 pC/μm. The SEB threshold voltage increases to 120 V, which is 80% of the rated breakdown voltage. Meanwhile, the main parameter characteristics of the proposed structure remain similar with those of the conventional planar structure. Therefore, this structure offers a potential optimization path to planar power MOSFET with high SEB survivability for space and atmospheric applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61404161, 61404068, 61404169).

  2. The Oceanic Temperature Variance near the Bottom of the Southern Mariana Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y. Z.; Cen, X. R.; Guo, S. X.; Zhou, S. Q.; Han, G. H.; Lin, J.

    2017-12-01

    In December 2016, an ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) array was deployed across the southern Mariana Trench. The observation stations were aligned in the SE-NW direction from 140º 55'E, 10º 43' N to 142º 43'E, 12º 42'N, passing the Challenger Deep. At each station, one or two high-sensitivity temperature loggers were attached upon OBS to record the temperature at about 0.5 m above the sea floor with sampling rate from 1 to 16 Hz. Within the station depth range from 1,665 to 7,520 m, it was found that the bottom temperature decreases with increasing depth until at depth around 4,800 m. At stations of greater depth, the temperature was then found to increase with a rate of 11.95 mK/MPa, which is consistent with the estimated adiabatic pressure derivative of temperature in abyssal ocean. Moreover, the temperature fluctuation (root mean square) decreases from 4.5 × 10-2 to 7.6 × 10-4 ºC with increasing depth. In the temperature spectrum analysis, the diurnal and semidiurnal tides were well identified in all stations, and their relationship with depth is being investigated.

  3. Reality check on Ontario electricity price procurement: a report from the trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodger, J.M.; Wegiel, H.; Ferns, T.; Bystrin, A.

    2003-01-01

    The approaches taken to manage energy price risks from three different perspectives were presented. The first perspective presented was that of a law firm specializing in assisting a wide variety of clients constituting retailers and large industrial, institutional, and commercial users. The second perspective presented was that of Dofasco, the largest industrial electricity consumer in Ontario, followed by the perspective offered by Oakville Hydro, representing one of few municipally owned electricity retailers in Ontario. The first order of business, from the lawyer's viewpoint, is to identify relevant considerations for consumers and retailers, such as how do you intend to participate in the new market, what are the desired outcomes, the appetite for risk. The formulation of an approach should take the following into consideration: historical context versus new market reality, experience with electricity suppliers, and dilemma for consumers and retailers on how to level the playing field. The chosen approach was that of a request for proposals process for electricity price procurement. In the case of Dofasco, the introduction of the deregulated electricity market meant business risks, which it chose to address using an integrated risk management approach. Oakville Hydro explained its reasons for jumping into a trench: earn financial rewards and prevent brand equity erosion. Retail business must be kept simple through identifying, understanding and limiting the risks; and moving carefully but expeditiously. To mitigate the risks, it advocated getting the best legal and economics advice possible, looking for experienced partners, and not betting the shop.tabs., figs

  4. Field Trials of the Nereus Hybrid Underwater Robotic Vehicle in the Challenger Deep of the Mariana Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    currents and below the most energetic and biologi - cally active part of the water column. The vehicle package contains the optical-fiber dispenser, brake...mineral samples and over 13 species of organisms from these dives (Figure 8 and 9). Sampling at the hydrothermal vents on the Toto Seamount on Dive 15...Field Trials of the Nereus Hybrid Underwater Robotic Vehicle in the Challenger Deep of the Mariana Trench Andrew D. Bowen, Dana R. Yoerger, Chris

  5. Reprocessing and Interpretation of Vintage Seismic Reflection Data: Evidence for the Tectonic History of the Rocky Mountain Trench, Northwest Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, M.; Speece, M. A.; Rutherford, B. S.; Constenius, K. N.

    2014-12-01

    In 1983 Techno, Inc. collected five seismic reflection profiles in the region between Whitefish, Montana and the United States-Canada border. The poulter method was used to gather four of these profiles and one profile was collected using a vibroseis source. We are currently reprocessing these data in order to construct a regional geological interpretation. The profiles cover a key position in the hinterland of the Cordillera in the lee of the Lewis thrust salient where the east-northeast verging Lewis thrust fault system translated (horizontal displacement >100 km) and inverted a thick, strong slab of primarily Belt-Purcell rocks out of a deep Precambrian depositional basin onto a cratonic platform. In this event, Belt-Purcell rocks were thrust over complexly imbricated Phanerozoic strata in the foreland. Late Mesozoic compressional deformation was followed by Cenozoic extensional collapse of the over-thickened Cordillera and subsequent basin and range style deformation that produced an array of northwest trending grabens. Three of the seismic profiles cross the Rocky Mountain Trench; the Trench is a linear structure of regional dimension that is an expression of the extensional fragmentation of the Cordillera. Strong reflections, interpreted as sills encased within Lower Belt rocks (encountered in the Arco-Marathon 1 Paul Gibbs borehole), outline the complexly folded and faulted structure of the eastern limb of the Purcell anticlinorium. East of the Rocky Mountain Trench stratified reflections within Belt rocks clearly outline the Wigwam Thrust. Beneath the Whitefish Range, an apparent inflection in the strongly reflective basal Cambrian veneer marks the westerly increase in dip of the Rocky Mountain Basal Detachment. The dip contrast between the foreland and hinterland might be a manifestation of the tectonic loading of the Belt basin margin and the loading might have localized extension across the Rocky Mountain Trench.

  6. Programs of recovery of radioactive wastes from the trenches and land decontamination of the radioactive waste storage center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez D, J.; Reyes L, J.

    1999-06-01

    In this report there are the decontamination program of the land of the Radioactive Waste Storage Center, the Program of Recovery of the radioactive waste of the trenches, the recovery of polluted bar with cobalt 60, the recovery of minerals and tailings of uranium and of earth with minerals and tailings of uranium, the recovery of worn out sealed sources and the waste recovery with the accustomed corresponding actions are presented. (Author)

  7. Chemical systems, chemical contiguity and the emergence of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kee, Terrence P.; Monnard, Pierre Alain

    2017-01-01

    to complex chemical systems over specific isolated functional apparatuses. We will summarize the recent advances in system chemistry and show that chemical systems in the geochemical context imply a form of chemical contiguity in the syntheses of the various molecules that precede modern biomolecules....

  8. Evaluation of Proposed New LLW Disposal Activity Disposal of Compacted Job Control Waste, Non-compactible, Non-incinerable Waste, And Other Wasteforms In Slit Trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WILHITE, ELMER L.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of trench disposal of low-level wasteforms that were not analyzed in the original performance assessment for the E-Area low-level waste facility, but were analyzed in the revised performance assessment is evaluated. This evaluation was conducted to provide a bridge from the current waste acceptance criteria, which are based on the original performance assessment, to those that will be developed from the revised performance assessment. The conclusion of the evaluation is that any waste except for materials that would retain radionuclides more strongly than soil that meets the radionuclide concentration of package limits for trench burial based on the revised performance assessment, and presented in Table 1 of this document, is suitable for trench disposal; provided that, for cellulosic material the current 40 percent restriction is retained. Table 2 of this document lists materials acceptable for trench disposal

  9. Installation and instrumentation of a test-trench facility in the unsaturated zone at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, B.D.

    1984-01-01

    Two simulated waste trenches have been constructed just north of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Sections of culvert occupy part of these trenches and are accessible through vertical caissons. These structures therefore allow personnel access for installing instrumentation, maintenance, and observation. Instrumented simulated waste containers will occupy the remainder of the trenches, in order that soil-moisture migration may be observed in relation to waste container forms. The installation will be used to determine, under actual and simulated conditions at a shallow land-burial site in an arid environment, typical soil-moisture content, unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, matric potential, soil-moisture flux, and soil-moisture velocity. The information will be collected using instrumentation located in disturbed and undisturbed soils, simulated waste containers, and the underlying basalt layer. Therefore, data collected from the facility will (a) help characterize the hydrogeologic and geochemical properties of the surficial sediments, (b) contribute to understanding the hydrogeologic phenomena associated with buried waste (including leachate formation and radionuclide migration), (c) provide information on water and solute movement at the sediment/basalt interface, and (d) be used in a radionuclide migration model

  10. Project clean city: joint trenching for urban facilities; Projeto cidade limpa: vala tecnica para instalacoes urbanas - sistema infavias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Aloisio Pereira da [Companhia de Gas de Santa Catarina (SCGAS), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This study aims to propose a join trench for urban facilities, using concepts related to planning and urban cadastre, sustainability of resource use, and mainly focus on safety during construction, operation and maintenance. The model proposes the replacement of individual construction of facilities of natural gas, potable water, telephone, data transmission and electricity (low and medium voltage) by a system that encompasses all of these facilities in a trench, the deployment may also occur in the same period or if necessary, or at different times, creating flexibility in the system. The security of facilities due to the operational interface between the concessionaires and clients will be ensured by the protected by reinforced concrete structure, designed using the concept of 'fail-safing', derived from the Toyota Production System. The joint trench model was designed from the perspective of sustainability and technological innovation for your future use of the new design of power supply, through the concept of 'Smart Grid' with the use of bidirectional power system transmission and distribution, in decentralized model for generating electricity through cogeneration systems with natural gas. (author)

  11. Long term performance of a slurry trench cut-off wall at Butnau Dam, Kettle Generating Station, Manitoba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halim, R.; Smith, N.J.; Gupta, R.C.; Osiowy, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    A 185 m long, 1.8 m wide slurry trench cut-off wall was constructed in 1971 through a portion of Manitoba Hydro's Butnau Dam located on the Nelson River in northern Manitoba. The performance of the dam has since been monitored as part of the maintenance and operation of the Kettle Generating Station. Piezometers, thermocouples, settlement gauges, marker pins and automated weir flow measurement systems were installed to monitor and ensure the safety of the dam, but none of the monitoring was related to the slurry trench cut-off wall which is now 26 years old. Recently, a review of the performance of the wall was conducted because of the severe climate in northern Manitoba and because of the lack of well documented performance histories for structures of this type. The review included contacts and discussions with experts and companies dealing with the construction of slurry trench cut-off walls in North America, and a literature search on the performance of similar walls. It was concluded that neither the review of the literature nor the instrumented and visual observations of the dam in the vicinity of the of the cut-off wall revealed any unusual readings or conditions that would warrant concern for the safety and performance of the dam. 7 refs., 4 figs

  12. Normal faulting of the Daiichi-Kashima Seamount in the Japan Trench revealed by the Kaiko I cruise, Leg 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, K.; Cadet, J.-P.; Aubouin, J.; Boulegue, J.; Dubois, J.; von Huene, Roland E.; Jolivet, L.; Kanazawa, T.; Kasahara, J.; Koizumi, K.-i.; Lallemand, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Pautot, G.; Suyehiro, K.; Tani, S.; Tokuyama, H.; Yamazaki, T.

    1987-01-01

    A detailed topographic and geophysical survey of the Daiichi-Kashima Seamount area in the southern Japan Trench, northwestern Pacific margin, clearly defines a high-angle normal fault which splits the seamount into two halves. A fan-shaped zone was investigated along 2-4 km spaced, 100 km long subparallel tracks using narrow multi-beam (Seabeam) echo-sounder with simultaneous measurements of gravity, magnetic total field and single-channel seismic reflection records. Vertical displacement of the inboard half was clearly mapped and its normal fault origin was supported. The northern and southern extensions of the normal fault beyond the flank of the seamount were delineated. Materials on the landward trench slope are displaced upward and to sideways away from the colliding seamount. Canyons observed in the upper landward slope terminate at the mid-slope terrace which has been uplifted since start of subduction of the seamount. Most of the landward slope except for the landward walls aside the seamount comprises only a landslide topography in a manner similar to the northern Japan Trench wall. This survey was conducted on R/V "Jean Charcot" as a part of the Kaiko I cruise, Leg 3, in July-August 1984 under the auspices of the French-Japanese scientific cooperative program. ?? 1987.

  13. Cefalotórax de camarão-rosa: II. Isolamento e caracterização químico-nutricional de sua proteína On the cephalothorax of the pink shrimp: II. Isolation and chemical nutritional characterization of the protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Tenuta Filho

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of protein of pink shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis and Penaeus paulistas cephalotorax was accomplished through the adequation of a method which involved two successive alkali extractions with posterior isoelectric precipitation and the nutritional characterization of the isolated protein was carried out through the chemical score of the essential aminoaoids. The isolated protein of pvnk shrimp céphalothorax showed a mean nutritional quality of 84% in relation to the FAO/OMS "reference protein", primarily limited in sulfurated amino acids.

  14. Isolated galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, Maret

    1990-01-01

    To test for the possible presence of really isolated galaxies, which form a randomly distributed population in voids, we compare the distribution of most isolated galaxies in an observed sample with distributions of the same number of random points using the nearest neighbour test. The results show that the random population of really isolated galaxies does not exist - even the most isolated galaxies are connected with systems of galaxies, forming their outlying parts. (author)

  15. An array of field-effect nanoplate SOI capacitors for (bio-)chemical sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouzar, M H; Poghossian, A; Pedraza, A M; Gandhi, D; Ingebrandt, S; Moritz, W; Schöning, M J

    2011-02-15

    An array of individually addressable nanoplate field-effect capacitive (bio-)chemical sensors based on an SOI (silicon-on-insulator) structure has been developed. The isolation of the individual capacitors was achieved by forming a trench in the top Si layer with a thickness of 350 nm. The realized sensor array allows addressable biasing and electrical readout of multiple nanoplate EISOI (electrolyte-insulator-silicon-on-insulator) capacitive biosensors on the same SOI chip as well as differential-mode measurements. The feasibility of the proposed approach has been demonstrated by realizing sensors for the pH and penicillin concentration detection as well as for the label-free electrical monitoring of polyelectrolyte multilayers formation and DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)-hybridization event. A potential change of ∼ 120 mV has been registered after the DNA hybridization for the sensor immobilized with perfectly matched single-strand DNA, while practically no signal changes have been observed for a sensor with fully mismatched DNA. The realized examples demonstrate the potential of the nanoplate SOI capacitors as a new basic structural element for the development of different types of field-effect biosensors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The unusual Samoan hotspot: A "hotspot highway" juxtaposed with a trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M. G.; Konter, J. G.; Koppers, A. A.

    2011-12-01

    mantle 1) signature that is not present in Samoan shield lavas (and thus not in the Samoan plume), but the EM1 signature is present in the most recent Cook-Austral hotspot (Rarotonga) to have contributed volcanism to the region of the Pacific plate occupied by Samoa. We suggest that the lithosphere beneath Samoa was underplated with (or impregnated by) material from the Rarotonga plume at ~10 Ma. The shield stage of Samoan volcanism does not sample melts of the lithosphere. However, the region of EM1-impregnated Pacific lithosphere once occupied by the Rarotonga hotspot (which has since been rafted into the Samoan region) is now located just ~100 km from the northern terminus of the Tonga trench. We suggest that plate flexure resulting from the tectonic regime near the trench has resulted in decompression melting of the metasomatized lithosphere, which yields the EM1-flavored melts observed in Samoan rejuvenated lavas.

  17. Vadose Zone Contaminant Fate and Transport Analysis for the 216-B-26 Trench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Andy L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Zhang, Z. F.; Keller, Jason M.

    2004-10-14

    The BC Cribs and Trenches, part of the 200 TW 1 OU waste sites, received about 30 Mgal of scavenged tank waste, with possibly the largest inventory of 99Tc ever disposed to the soil at Hanford and site remediation is being accelerated. The purpose of this work was to develop a conceptual model for contaminant fate and transport at the 216-B-26 Trench site to support identification and development and evaluation of remediation alternatives. Large concentrations of 99Tc high above the water table implicated stratigraphy in the control of the downward migration. The current conceptual model accounts for small-scale stratigraphy; site-specific changes soil properties; tilted layers; and lateral spreading. It assumes the layers are spatially continuous causing water and solutes to move laterally across the boundary if conditions permit. Water influx at the surface is assumed to be steady. Model parameters were generated with pedotransfer functions; these were coupled high resolution neutron moisture logs that provided information on the underlying heterogeneity on a scale of 3 inches. Two approaches were used to evaluate the impact of remedial options on transport. In the first, a 1-D convolution solution to the convective-dispersive equation was used, assuming steady flow. This model was used to predict future movement of the existing plume using the mean and depth dependent moisture content. In the second approach, the STOMP model was used to first predict the current plume distribution followed by its future migration. Redistribution of the 99Tc plume was simulated for the no-action alternative and on-site capping. Hypothetical caps limiting recharge to 1.0, 0.5, and 0.1 mm yr-1 were considered and assumed not to degrade in the long term. Results show that arrival time of the MCLs, the peak arrival time, and the arrival time of the center of mass increased with decreasing recharge rate. The 1-D convolution model is easy to apply and can easily accommodate initial

  18. Kinematic and Dynamic Source Rupture Scenario for Potential Megathrust Event along the Southernmost Ryukyu Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. C.; Hu, F.; Chen, X.; Lee, S. J.; Hung, S. H.

    2017-12-01

    Kinematic source model is widely used for the simulation of an earthquake, because of its simplicity and ease of application. On the other hand, dynamic source model is a more complex but important tool that can help us to understand the physics of earthquake initiation, propagation, and healing. In this study, we focus on the southernmost Ryukyu Trench which is extremely close to northern Taiwan. Interseismic GPS data in northeast Taiwan shows a pattern of strain accumulation, which suggests the maximum magnitude of a potential future earthquake in this area is probably about magnitude 8.7. We develop dynamic rupture models for the hazard estimation of the potential megathrust event based on the kinematic rupture scenarios which are inverted using the interseismic GPS data. Besides, several kinematic source rupture scenarios with different characterized slip patterns are also considered to constrain the dynamic rupture process better. The initial stresses and friction properties are tested using the trial-and-error method, together with the plate coupling and tectonic features. An analysis of the dynamic stress field associated with the slip prescribed in the kinematic models can indicate possible inconsistencies with physics of faulting. Furthermore, the dynamic and kinematic rupture models are considered to simulate the ground shaking from based on 3-D spectral-element method. We analyze ShakeMap and ShakeMovie from the simulation results to evaluate the influence over the island between different source models. A dispersive tsunami-propagation simulation is also carried out to evaluate the maximum tsunami wave height along the coastal areas of Taiwan due to coseismic seafloor deformation of different source models. The results of this numerical simulation study can provide a physically-based information of megathrust earthquake scenario for the emergency response agency to take the appropriate action before the really big one happens.

  19. Mineralogical study on quaternary soils of the Olkiluoto investigation trench OL-TK19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukkari, S.; Marmo, J. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2014-07-15

    Six till samples representing three vertical profiles in a research trench OL TK19 from Olkiluoto were studied for their mineralogy. The client, Posiva Oy, was interested especially in carbonates and sulphides. The study is based on size and density classified subsamples. Mineral distributions were determined by a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), using the INCA FEATURE phase detection and classification software. Lithologies within the cobble fraction are also measured. The study revealed unhomogeneity in the sample material. Sample TK 19/2 POH is rich in calcareous sedimentary rocks and older till compared to the other samples. Three main carbonate-bearing sedimentary rock types are: limestone, carbonate cemented quartz feldspar rock, and quartz graywacke, containing clasts of the carbonate cemented quartz feldspar rock. The contents of heavy minerals (0.1-1.2%) and semi heavy minerals (1.3-3.3%) are low in every sample. Carbonate concentrates of the semi heavy mineral separates are low (0.04-0.57 %). Sulfide is predominately pyrite (1.3-8.6%). Pyrite grains have commonly goethite crusts, which are ubiquitous in the surface samples. Both sulphide and carbonate occurs as liberated grains and as fine grained matrix, enveloping other mineral grains. Phosphorites and phosphorous rock fragments are also common in the till samples. The mode of occurrence of phosphate resembles that of carbonate and sulphides that makes the quantification of these buffer minerals impossible. Sedimentary rocks are interpreted to have been derived from the sedimentary rock pile preserved under the Gulf of Bothnia. (orig.)

  20. New species of Thelonema, Metasphaerolaimus, and Monhystrella (Nematoda, Monhysterida from Kermadec Trench, Southwest Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Leduc

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of the order Monhysterida are described based on specimens obtained at depths of 8081 and 9177 m in the Kermadec Trench. Thelonema clarki sp. nov. is characterised by a large body size (3230–4461 µm, short cylindrical buccal cavity, gubernaculum without apophyses, and long conico-cylindrical tail. This is the first record of the genus since its original description over two decades ago from the Peru Basin. Metasphaerolaimus constrictus sp. nov. is characterised by a relatively long body (1232–1623 µm, slightly arcuate spicules without gubernaculum, and conico-cylindrical tail with inner cuticle conspicuously thickened immediately anterior to cylindrical portion. Monhystrella kermadecensis sp. nov. is characterised by a circle of papillose outer labial sensillae slightly anterior to the four short cephalic setae, gubernaculum with caudal apophyses, the presence of distinct cuticularised piece along anterior vaginal wall, and a relatively short conical (males or conico-cylindrical tail (females with conical, ventrally-curved spinneret. M. kermadecensis sp. nov. can be differentiated from all other species of the genus, and, indeed, the entire family, based on the variable position of the anterior gonad relative to the intestine. The new species is classified within the Monhysteridae, and not the closely-related Xyalidae, based on the small body size, a smooth cuticle, and the presence of six outer labial papillae and only one testis. Further work is required to clarify the placement of M. kermadecensis sp. nov. relative to other monhysterid genera. A tabular key to all ten valid Metasphaerolaimus species is presented.

  1. SPECIAL ANALYSIS FOR SLIT TRENCH DISPOSAL OF THE REACTOR PROCESS HEAT EXCHANGERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L.; Collard, L.; Aleman, S.; Gorensek, M.; Butcher, T.

    2012-06-18

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), in response to a request from Solid Waste Management (SWM), conducted a Special Analysis (SA) to evaluate the performance of nineteen heat exchangers that are to be disposed in the E-Area low level waste facility Slit Trench 9 (ST 9). Although these nineteen heat exchangers were never decontaminated, the majority of the radionuclides in the heat exchanger inventory list were determined to be acceptable for burial because they are less than the 'generic' waste form inventory limits given in the 2008 Performance Assessment (PA) (WSRC, 2008). However, as generic waste, the H-3 and C-14 inventories resulted in unacceptable sum-of-fractions (SOFs). Initial scoping analyses performed by SRNL indicated that if alterations were made to certain external nozzles to mitigate various potential leak paths, acceptable SOFs could be achieved through the use of a 'Special' waste form. This SA provides the technical basis for this new 'Special' waste form and provides the inventory limits for H-3 and C-14 for these nineteen heat exchangers such that the nineteen heat exchangers can be disposed in ST 9. This 'Special' waste form is limited to these nineteen heat exchangers in ST 9 and applies for H-3 and C-14, which are designated as H-3X and C-14X, respectively. The SA follows the same methodology used in the 2008 PA and the 2008 SA except for the modeling enhancements noted below. Infiltration rates above the heat exchangers are identical to those used in the 2008 PA; however, flow through the heat exchangers is unique. Because it is unknown exactly how sealed heat exchanger openings will perform and how surface and embedded contaminants will be released, multiple base cases or scenarios were established to investigate a set of performances. Each scenario consists of flow options (based on the performance of sealed openings) and a near-field release of contaminants (based on corrosion and

  2. Chemical constituents of Asparagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, J. S.; Singh, P.; Joshi, G. P.; Rawat, M. S.; Bisht, V. K.

    2010-01-01

    Asparagus species (family Liliaceae) are medicinal plants of temperate Himalayas. They possess a variety of biological properties, such as being antioxidants, immunostimulants, anti-inflammatory, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antioxytocic, and reproductive agents. The article briefly reviews the isolated chemical constituents and the biological activities of the plant species. The structural formula of isolated compounds and their distribution in the species studied are also given. PMID:22228964

  3. Low-Level Burial Grounds dangerous waste permit application: Request for exemption from lined trench requirements and from land disposal restrictions for residual liquid at 218-E-12B Burial Ground Trench 94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This document has been prepared and is being submitted to the respective agencies to satisfy three objectives of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Field Office (DOE-RL) concerning Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground. The 218-E-12B Burial Ground is located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Facility. Figure 1-1 shows the general location of the Hanford Site. The 218-E-12B Burial Ground is one of eight burial grounds included in the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG), a treatment, storage and/or disposal (TSD) unit. Decommissioned, defueled naval submarine reactor compartments (SRCs) contain radioactivity caused by exposure of structural components to neutrons during normal operation of the submarines. After all the alternatives were evaluated in the US Department of the Navy 1984 environmental impact statement (EIS) (USN 1984), land burial of the SRCs was selected as the preferred disposal option. The SRCs currently are sent to Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground. In addition to radioactivity, the SRCs disposed in. The DOE-RL's three objectives in preparing and submitting this document are as follows. Request from Ecology an exemption from dangerous waste landfill liner and leachate collection and removal system (hereinafter referred to as liner/leachate system) requirements for Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground. Petition Ecology to exempt residual liquid in the SRCs from land disposal restrictions. Obtain EPA Region 10 review and comment on the request to Ecology for exemption from liner/leachate system requirements

  4. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  5. Isolation, identification and chemical characterization of antifungal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four species of actinomycetes, 4 species of bacteria, 3 species of yeasts and 3 species of fungi were selected for their highest inhibitory and antagonistic activity and it was found that Streptomyces aurantiacus and Hansenula arabitolgenes were the most inhibitory followed by S. purpureus. It was also found that ...

  6. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 410: Waste Disposal Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision No.:0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 410 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 410 is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), which is included in the Nevada Test and Training Range (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range) approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of five Corrective Action Sites (CASs): TA-19-002-TAB2, Debris Mound; TA-21-003-TANL, Disposal Trench; TA-21-002-TAAL, Disposal Trench; 09-21-001-TA09, Disposal Trenches; 03-19-001, Waste Disposal Site. This CAU is being investigated because contaminants may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and/or the environment, and waste may have been disposed of with out appropriate controls. Four out of five of these CASs are the result of weapons testing and disposal activities at the TTR, and they are grouped together for site closure based on the similarity of the sites (waste disposal sites and trenches). The fifth CAS, CAS 03-19-001, is a hydrocarbon spill related to activities in the area. This site is grouped with this CAU because of the location (TTR). Based on historical documentation and process know-ledge, vertical and lateral migration routes are possible for all CASs. Migration of contaminants may have occurred through transport by infiltration of precipitation through surface soil which serves as a driving force for downward migration of contaminants. Land-use scenarios limit future use of these CASs to industrial activities. The suspected contaminants of potential concern which have been identified are volatile organic compounds; semivolatile organic compounds; high explosives; radiological constituents including depleted uranium

  7. SiC JFET Cascode Loss Dependency on the MOSFET Output Capacitance and Performance Comparison with Trench IGBTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    In power electronics there is a general trend to increase converters efficiencies and power densities; for this reason new power semiconductors based on materials such as Silicon Carbide (SiC) and Gallium Nitride (GaN) are becoming more popular. This is especially valid for renewable energies...... output capacitance on the switching performance of the SiC Cascode connection in terms of switching energy loss, dV/dt and dI/dt stresses. The Cascode connection switching performances are compared with the switching performance latest Trench IGBTs. The analysis is based on a set of several laboratory...

  8. Seismicity in the source areas of the 1896 and 1933 Sanriku earthquakes and implications for large near-trench earthquake faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obana, Koichiro; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Fujie, Gou; Kodaira, Shuichi; Kaiho, Yuka; Yamamoto, Yojiro; Miura, Seiichi

    2018-03-01

    In the northern part of the Japan Trench, the 1933 Showa-Sanriku earthquake (Mw 8.4), an outer-trench, normal-faulting earthquake, occurred 37 yr after the 1896 Meiji-Sanriku tsunami earthquake (Mw 8.0), a shallow, near-trench, plate-interface rupture. Tsunamis generated by both earthquakes caused severe damage along the Sanriku coast. Precise locations of earthquakes in the source areas of the 1896 and 1933 earthquakes have not previously been obtained because they occurred at considerable distances from the coast in deep water beyond the maximum operational depth of conventional ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs). In 2015, we incorporated OBSs designed for operation in deep water (ultradeep OBSs) in an OBS array during two months of seismic observations in the source areas of the 1896 and 1933 Sanriku earthquakes to investigate the relationship of seismicity there to outer-rise normal-faulting earthquakes and near-trench tsunami earthquakes. Our analysis showed that seismicity during our observation period occurred along three roughly linear trench-parallel trends in the outer-trench region. Seismic activity along these trends likely corresponds to aftershocks of the 1933 Showa-Sanriku earthquake and the Mw 7.4 normal-faulting earthquake that occurred 40 min after the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Furthermore, changes of the clarity of reflections from the oceanic Moho on seismic reflection profiles and low-velocity anomalies within the oceanic mantle were observed near the linear trends of the seismicity. The focal mechanisms we determined indicate that an extensional stress regime extends to about 40 km depth, below which the stress regime is compressional. These observations suggest that rupture during the 1933 Showa-Sanriku earthquake did not extend to the base of the oceanic lithosphere and that compound rupture of multiple or segmented faults is a more plausible explanation for that earthquake. The source area of the 1896 Meiji-Sanriku tsunami earthquake is

  9. Special Analysis: Disposal of ETF Activated Carbon Vessels in Slit Trenches at the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collard, L.B.

    2003-08-25

    This Special Analysis (SA) addresses two contaminants of concern, H-3 and I-129, in three Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) Activated Carbon Vessels awaiting disposal as solid waste. The Unreviewed Disposal Question (UDQ) evaluation listed two options for disposal of this waste, disposal as Components-in-Grout (CIG) or disposal in Slit Trenches with sealed openings to restrict release of H-3 form the vessels. Consumption of the CIG inventory limit and consumption of CIG facility volume are shown for the ETF vessels to allow easy comparison with the consumption of Slit Trench inventory limit and consumption of the Slit Trench facility volume . The inventory projections are based on doubling the inventory of the three ETF vessels in the E-Area to account for the unknown inventory of three ETF vessels in the ETF. When the grout ultimately is assumed to degrade hydraulically, the water movement is not impeded as much as the release is accelerated by the presence of the grout. Under these conditions for the CIG trenches relative to the Slit Trenches, the well concentrations are higher, the inventory limit is lower and for a given inventory the inventory limit consumption is higher.

  10. The impact of etched trenches geometry and dielectric material on the electrical behaviour of silicon-on-insulator self-switching diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhi, G; Charlebois, S A [Departement de genie electrique et genie informatique, et Institut interdisciplinaire d' innovation technologique (3IT), Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500, Boulevard de l' Universite, J1K 2R1, Sherbrooke, QC (Canada); Morris, D [Departement de physique et Institut interdisciplinaire d' innovation technologique (3IT), Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500, Boulevard de l' Universite, J1K 2R1, Sherbrooke, QC (Canada); Raskin, J-P, E-mail: ghania.farhi@usherbrooke.ca [Institute of Information and Communication Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Universite catholique de Louvain, Place du Levant, 3, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2011-10-28

    Hole electrical transport in a p-doped nanochannel defined between two L-shape etched trenches made on a silicon-on-insulator substrate is investigated using a TCAD-Medici simulator. We study the impact of the etched trenches' geometry and dielectric filling materials on the current-voltage characteristics of the device. Carrier accumulation on frontiers defined by the trenches causes a modulation of the hole density inside the conduction channel as the bias voltage varies and this gives rise to a diode-like characteristic. For a 1.2 {mu}m-long channel, plots of the electric field distribution show that a nonlinear transport regime is reached at a moderate reverse and forward bias of {+-} 2 V. Plots of the carrier velocity along the conduction channel show that holes remain hot for a few hundreds of nm outside the nanometre-wide channel, at a bias of {+-} 10 V. Filling the etched trenches with a high-{kappa} dielectric material gives rise to a lower threshold voltage, V{sub th}. A similar decrease of V{sub th} is also achieved by reducing the longitudinal and/or the transverse trench width. Our simulation results provide useful design guidelines for future integrated self-switching-diode-based circuits.

  11. Task plan to evaluate the effectiveness of in situ grouting of an ORNL waste burial trench with a cement-based grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, C.W.

    1991-11-01

    This task will demonstrate the feasibility of using an in situ grouting technique with a particulate-grout formulation as a closure action to stabilize waste trenches in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6. It also supports technology development for closure of other SWSAs. A particulate grout will be formulated using cement-bentonite and fly ash from a coal-fired power plant. The grout solids will be dry-blended, mixed with water, and injected (using {similar to}5 to 10 lb/in.{sup 2} pressure) into five injection wells per trench. After 28 days for setting, soil penetration resistance and hydraulic conductivity measurements will be repeated for comparison to pregrouting measurements. The primary objective of this task is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the in situ injection of a particulate grout into waste burial trenches. Effectiveness is defined here as increased trenched stability (characterized by trench penetration resistance tests) and decreased potential for leachate migration (characterized by hydraulic conductivity tests).

  12. Task plan to evaluate the effectiveness of in situ grouting of an ORNL waste burial trench with a cement-based grout. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, C.W.

    1991-11-01

    This task will demonstrate the feasibility of using an in situ grouting technique with a particulate-grout formulation as a closure action to stabilize waste trenches in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6. It also supports technology development for closure of other SWSAs. A particulate grout will be formulated using cement-bentonite and fly ash from a coal-fired power plant. The grout solids will be dry-blended, mixed with water, and injected (using {similar_to}5 to 10 lb/in.{sup 2} pressure) into five injection wells per trench. After 28 days for setting, soil penetration resistance and hydraulic conductivity measurements will be repeated for comparison to pregrouting measurements. The primary objective of this task is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the in situ injection of a particulate grout into waste burial trenches. Effectiveness is defined here as increased trenched stability (characterized by trench penetration resistance tests) and decreased potential for leachate migration (characterized by hydraulic conductivity tests).

  13. On-site infiltration of road runoff using pervious pavements with subjacent infiltration trenches as source control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fach, S; Dierkes, C

    2011-01-01

    The focus in this work was on subsoil infiltration of stormwater from parking lots. With regard to operation, reduced infiltration performance due to clogging and pollutants in seepage, which may contribute to contaminate groundwater, are of interest. The experimental investigation covered a pervious pavement with a subjacent infiltration trench draining an impervious area of 2 ha. In order to consider seasonal effects on the infiltration performance, the hydraulic conductivity was measured tri-monthly during monitoring with a mobile sprinkling unit. To assess natural deposits jointing, road bed, gravel of infiltration trenches and subsoil were analysed prior to commencement of monitoring for heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic and mineral oil type hydrocarbons. Furthermore, from 22 storm events, water samples of rainfall, surface runoff, seepage and ground water were analysed with regard to the above mentioned pollutants. The study showed that the material used for the joints had a major impact on the initial as well as the final infiltration rates. Due to its poor hydraulic conductivity, limestone gravel should not be used as jointing. Furthermore, it is recommended that materials for the infiltration facilities are ensured free of any contaminants prior to construction. Polycyclic aromatic and mineral oil type hydrocarbons were, with the exception of surface runoff, below detection limits. Heavy metal concentrations of groundwater were with the exception of lead (because of high background concentrations), below the permissible limits.

  14. Three new species and one new genus of abyssal Cumacea (Crustacea, Malacostraca, Peracarida) from the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrenteva, Anna V.; Mühlenhardt-Siegel, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Only two species of crustacean Cumacea have been reported in publications for the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench area after nine expeditions on board of the RV "Vityaz". During the KuramBio expedition 2012 to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and the adjacent abyssal plain at depths 4830-5780 m no less than 72 species of cumaceans from 23 genera and 6 families were sampled. Five genera were recorded for the first time in the studied region: the genera Pseudoleptostyloides and Platycuma were detected for the first time for the Pacific Ocean; Cyclaspoides, Bathylamprops and Styloptocuma were firstly sampled in North Pacific. About 90% of the sampled species appear to be new to science. Three new deep-sea cumacean species and one new genus from the Kurile Kamchatka area are described in the present paper: Abyssoleucon tzarevae gen. n., sp. n. belonging to the family Leuconidae, Cyclaspoides borisovetsi sp. n. and Bathycuma sonne sp. n. of the family Bodotriidae. A distribution map for the species of the genus Cyclaspoides is provided.

  15. Surface radiological investigation of Trench 5 in Waste Area Grouping 7 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, D.D.

    1991-08-01

    A surface radiological investigation of areas encompassing Trench 5 on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was conducted from May 1990 through November 1990. This survey was led by the author, assisted by various members of the Measurement Applications and Development (MAD) group of the Health and Safety Research Division (HASRD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the presence, nature, and extent of surface radiological contamination at Trench 5, the Homogeneous Reactor Experiment fuel wells, and surrounding areas. Based on the data obtained in the field, interim corrective measures were recommended to limit human exposure to radioactivity and to minimize insult to the environment. It should be stressed that this project was not intended to be a complete site characterization but rather to be a preliminary investigation into the potential contamination problem that might exist as a result of past operations at Trench 5.

  16. Environmental assessment model for shallow land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes: interim report. [PRESTO (Prediction of Radiation Effects from Shallow Trench Operations)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, C.A.; Fields, D.E.; Emerson, C.J.; Hiromoto, G.

    1981-09-01

    PRESTO (Prediction of Radiation Effects from Shallow Trench Operations) is a computer code developed under US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funding to evaluate possible health effects from shallow land burial trenches. The model is intended to be generic and to assess radionuclide transport, ensuing exposure, and health impact to a static local population for a 1000-y period following the end of burial operations. Human exposure scenarios considered by the model include normal releases (including leaching and operational spillage), human intrusion, and site farming or reclamation. Pathways and processes of transit from the trench to an individual or population include: groundwater transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, resuspension, atmospheric transport, deposition, inhalation, and ingestion of contaminated beef, milk, crops, and water. Both population doses and individual doses are calculated as well as doses to the intruder and farmer.

  17. Analysis of OFF-state and ON-state performance in a silicon-on-insulator power MOSFET with a low-k dielectric trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhigang; Zhang Bo; Li Zhaoji

    2013-01-01

    A novel silicon-on-insulator (SOI) MOSFET with a variable low-k dielectric trench (LDT MOSFET) is proposed and its performance and characteristics are investigated. The trench in the drift region between drain and source is filled with low-k dielectric to extend the effective drift region. At OFF state, the low-k dielectric trench (LDT) can sustain high voltage and enhance the dielectric field due to the accumulation of ionized charges. At the same time, the vertical dielectric field in the buried oxide can also be enhanced by these ionized charges. Additionally, ON-state analysis of LDT MOSFET demonstrates excellent forward characteristics, such as low gate-to-drain charge density ( 2 ) and a robust safe operating area (0–84 V). (semiconductor devices)

  18. Effect of the method of estimation of soil saturated hydraulic conductivity with regards to the design of stormwater infiltration trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva coutinho, Artur; Predelus, Dieuseul; Lassabatere, Laurent; Ben Slimene, Erij; Celso Dantas Antonino, Antonio; Winiarski, Thierry; Joaquim da Silva Pereira Cabral, Jaime; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael

    2014-05-01

    Best management practices are based on the infiltration of stormwater (e.g. infiltration into basins or trenches) to reduce the risk of flooding of urban areas. Proper estimations of saturated hydraulic conductivity of the vadose zone are required to avoid inappropriate design of infiltration devices. This article aims at assessing (i) the method-dependency of the estimation of soils saturated hydraulic conductivity and (ii) the consequences of such dependency on the design of infiltration trenches. This is illustrated for the specific case of an infiltration trench to be constructed to receive stormwater from a specific parking surface, 250 m2 in area, in Recife (Brazil). Water infiltration experiments were conducted according to the Beerkan Method, i.e. application of a zero water pressure head through a disc source (D=15 cm) and measures of the amount of infiltrated water with time. Saturated hydraulic conductivity estimates are derived from the analysis of these infiltration tests using several different conceptual approaches: one-dimensional models of Horton(1933) and Philip(1957), three-dimensional methods recently developed (Lassabatere et al., 2006, Wu et al., 1999, and Bagarello et al., 2013) and direct 3-dimensional numerical inversion. The estimations for saturated hydraulic conductivity ranged between 65.5 mm/h and 94 mm/h for one-dimensional methods, whereas using three-dimensional methods saturated hydraulic conductivity ranged between 15.6 mm/h and 50 mm/h. These results shows the need for accounting for 3D geometry, and more generally, the physics of water infiltration in soils, if a proper characterization of soil saturated hydraulic conductivity is targeted. In a second step, each estimate of the saturated hydraulic conductivity was used to calculate the stormwater to be stored in the studied trench for several rainfall events of recurrence intervals of 2 to 25 years. The calculation of these volumes showed a great sensitivity with regards to the

  19. Development of high energy pulsed plasma simulator for plasma-lithium trench experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Soonwook

    To simulate detrimental events in a tokamak and provide a test-stand for a liquid lithium infused trench (LiMIT) device, a pulsed plasma source utilizing a theta pinch in conjunction with a coaxial plasma accelerator has been developed. An overall objective of the project is to develop a compact device that can produce 100 MW/m2 to 1 GW/m2 of plasma heat flux (a typical heat flux level in a major fusion device) in ~ 100 mus (≤ 0.1 MJ/m2) for a liquid lithium plasma facing component research. The existing theta pinch device, DEVeX, was built and operated for study on lithium vapor shielding effect. However, a typical plasma energy of 3 - 4 kJ/m2 is too low to study an interaction of plasma and plasma facing components in fusion devices. No or little preionized plasma, ringing of magnetic field, collisions of high energy particles with background gas have been reported as the main issues. Therefore, DEVeX is reconfigured to mitigate these issues. The new device is mainly composed of a plasma gun for a preionization source, a theta pinch for heating, and guiding magnets for a better plasma transportation. Each component will be driven by capacitor banks and controlled by high voltage / current switches. Several diagnostics including triple Langmuir probe, calorimeter, optical emission measurement, Rogowski coil, flux loop, and fast ionization gauge are used to characterize the new device. A coaxial plasma gun is manufactured and installed in the previous theta pinch chamber. The plasma gun is equipped with 500 uF capacitor and a gas puff valve. The increase of the plasma velocity with the plasma gun capacitor voltage is consistent with the theoretical predictions and the velocity is located between the snowplow model and the weak - coupling limit. Plasma energies measured with the calorimeter ranges from 0.02 - 0.065 MJ/m2 and increases with the voltage at the capacitor bank. A cross-check between the plasma energy measured with the calorimeter and the triple probe

  20. Waveform complexity caused by near trench structure and its impact on earthquake source study: application to the 2015 Illapel earthquake sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Y.; Wei, S.; Wu, W.; Ni, S.

    2017-12-01

    Among various types of 3D heterogeneity in the Earth, trench might be the most complex systems, which includes rapidly varying bathymetry and usually thick sediment below water layer. These structure complexities can cause substantial waveform complexities on seismograms, but their corresponding impact on the earthquake source studies has not yet been well understood. Here we explore those effects via studies of two moderate aftershocks (one near the coast while the other close to the Peru-Chile trench axis) in the 2015 Illapel earthquake sequence. The horizontal locations and depths of these two events are poorly constrained and the reported results of various agencies display substantial variations. Thus, we first relocated the epicenters using the P-wave first arrivals and determined other parameters by waveform fitting. In a jackknifing way, we found that the trench event has large differences between regional and teleseismic solutions, in particular for depth, while the coastal event shows consistent results. The teleseismic P/Pdiff waves between these two events also display distinctly different features. More specifically, the trench event has more complex P/Pdiff waves and stronger coda waves, in terms of amplitude and duration (longer than 100s). The coda waves are coherent across stations at different distances and azimuths, indicating a more likely origin of scattering waves due to 3D heterogeneity near trench. To quantitatively model those 3D effects, we adopted a hybrid waveform simulation approach that computes the 3D wavefield in the source region by the Spectral Element Method (SEM) and then propagates the wavefield to teleseismic and shadow zone distances through the Direct Solution Method (DSM). We incorporated the GEBCO bathymetry and water layer into the SEM simulations and assumed the IASP91 1D model for DSM computation. Comparing with the poor 1D synthetics fitting to the data, we do obtain dramatic improvement in 3D waveform fittings across a

  1. Corrosion of AA2024-T3 Part I: Localised corrosion of isolated IM particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boag, A.; Hughes, A.E.; Glenn, A.M.; Muster, T.H.; McCulloch, D.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Corrosion of AA2024-T3 in 0.1 M NaCl was examined after various immersion times up to 120 min. → It was found that localised corrosion at isolated intermetallic (IM) particles proceeded through a hierarchy of attack. → Attack began at around 2.5 min on S-phase particles which underwent dealloying and by 15 min had developed trenches around their peripheries. The morphology of the corrosion product changed considerably during this period. → Attack on cathodic particles appeared to initiate after corrosion had finished at S-phase particles and proceeded to AlCuFeMn IM particles where the attack was complete by 30 min. Corrosion then became active around the (Al,Cu) x (Fe,Mn) y Si. IM particles and was complete by 120 min immersion. - Abstract: Polished specimens of AA2024-T3 were immersed for various times up to 120 min in 0.1 M NaCl. The development of corrosion around isolated intermetallic particles was monitored using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS). The earliest stages of attack started with localised corrosion of the S-phase particles resulting in dealloying which was followed by trenching around these particles. Subsequently, trenching was observed around cathodic particles where trenching started with AlCuFeMn particles with Cu/Fe ratios typically around 2.5 and then progressed to AlCuFeMnSi particles. This latter category of particles had a much lower Cu/Fe ratio, typically 0.5.

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Pollulan Produced by a Local Isolate of Aureobasidium Pullulans

    OpenAIRE

    Kassim, Mohammad Bashir Ismail [محمد بشيراسماعيل قاسم

    2000-01-01

    A local isolate of Aureobasidium pullulans was obtained from fig leaves surface. The isolate was identified as A. pullulans on the basis of appearance of polymorphism in the colonies, melanin pigment and pullulan production in shake flask cultures. Pullulan production by the local isolate of A pullulans was two thirds of that produced by ATCC 42023. The studies of physico — chemical properties, chemical analysis, sugar composition periodate oxidation and smith degradation showed that the pull...

  3. [Chemical constituents of Tamarix chinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Peng, Xue-jing; Xia, Peng-fei; Duan, Wen-da

    2014-01-01

    To study the chemical consistuents of Tamarix chinensis. The compounds were isolated and purified by column chromatography and their structures were elucidated through spectroscopic analysis. Nine compounds were isolated and identified as isotamarixen(1), matairesinol(2), tetepathine(3), kaempferol(4), 4'-methylkaempferol(5),4',7-dimethylkaempferol (6), hexacosyl-3-caffeate(7), ferulic acid(8) and 3-methoxyl methyl gallate(9). Compounds 1-3,7 and 8 are isolated from this plant for the first time, compounds 1-3,7 are isolated from Tamarix genus for the first time.

  4. Environmental assessment for Trench 33 widening in 218-W-5 Low-Level Burial Ground, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared to assess potential environmental impacts associated with the US Department of Energy''s proposed action: to widen and operated the unused Trench 33 in the 218-W-5 Low-Level Burial Ground. Information contained herein will be used by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office Manager, to determine if the Proposed Action is a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. If the Proposed Action is determined to be major and significant, an environmental impact statement will be prepared. If the Proposed Action is determined not to be major and significant, a Finding of No significant Impact will be issued and the action may proceed

  5. Novel failure mechanism and improvement for split-gate trench MOSFET with large current under unclamped inductive switch stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Yang, Zhuo; Xu, Zhiyuan; Liu, Siyang; Sun, Weifeng; Shi, Longxing; Zhu, Yuanzheng; Ye, Peng; Zhou, Jincheng

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a novel failure mechanism under unclamped inductive switch (UIS) for Split-Gate Trench Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) with large current is investigated. The device sample is tested and analyzed in detail. The simulation results demonstrate that the nonuniform potential distribution of the source poly should be responsible for the failure. Three structures are proposed and verified available to improve the device UIS ruggedness by TCAD simulation. The best one of the structures the device with source metal inserting into source poly through contacts in the field oxide is carried out and measured. The results demonstrate that the optimized structure can balance the trade-off between the UIS ruggedness and the static characteristics.

  6. Environmental assessment for Trench 33 widening in 218-W-5 Low-Level Burial Ground, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared to assess potential environmental impacts associated with the US Department of Energy`s proposed action: to widen and operated the unused Trench 33 in the 218-W-5 Low-Level Burial Ground. Information contained herein will be used by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office Manager, to determine if the Proposed Action is a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. If the Proposed Action is determined to be major and significant, an environmental impact statement will be prepared. If the Proposed Action is determined not to be major and significant, a Finding of No significant Impact will be issued and the action may proceed.

  7. Earthquake occurrence along the Java trench in front of the onset of the Wadati-Benioff zone: Beginning of a new subduction cycle?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špičák, Aleš; Hanuš, Václav; Vaněk, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 1 (2007), TC1005/1-TC1005/16 ISSN 0278-7407 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3012303 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : Wadati-Benioff zone * earthquake occurrence * Java trench Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.398, year: 2007

  8. Paleoseismology of the Nephi Segment of the Wasatch Fault Zone, Juab County, Utah - Preliminary Results From Two Large Exploratory Trenches at Willow Creek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machette, Michael N.; Crone, Anthony J.; Personius, Stephen F.; Mahan, Shannon; Dart, Richard L.; Lidke, David J.; Olig, Susan S.

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, we identified a small parcel of U.S. Forest Service land at the mouth of Willow Creek (about 5 km west of Mona, Utah) that was suitable for trenching. At the Willow Creek site, which is near the middle of the southern strand of the Nephi segment, the WFZ has vertically displaced alluvial-fan deposits >6-7 m, forming large, steep, multiple-event scarps. In May 2005, we dug two 4- to 5-m-deep backhoe trenches at the Willow Creek site, identified three colluvial wedges in each trench, and collected samples of charcoal and A-horizon organic material for AMS (acceleration mass spectrometry) radiocarbon dating, and sampled fine-grained eolian and colluvial sediment for luminescence dating. The trenches yielded a stratigraphic assemblage composed of moderately coarse-grained fluvial and debris-flow deposits and discrete colluvial wedges associated with three faulting events (P1, P2, and P3). About one-half of the net vertical displacement is accommodated by monoclinal tilting of fan deposits on the hanging-wall block, possibly related to massive ductile landslide deposits that are present beneath the Willow Creek fan. The timing of the three surface-faulting events is bracketed by radiocarbon dates and results in a much different fault chronology and higher slip rates than previously considered for this segment of the Wasatch fault zone.

  9. Microstructural analysis in the depth direction of a heteroepitaxial AlN thick film grown on a trench-patterned template by nanobeam X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shida, K.; Takeuchi, S.; Tohei, T.; Miyake, H.; Hiramatsu, K.; Sumitani, K.; Imai, Y.; Kimura, S.; Sakai, A.

    2018-04-01

    This work quantitatively assessed the three-dimensional distribution of crystal lattice distortions in an epitaxial AlN thick film grown on a trench-patterned template, using nanobeam X-ray diffraction. Position-dependent ω-2θ-φ mapping clearly demonstrated local tilting, spacing and twisting of lattice planes as well as fluctuations in these phenomena on a sub-micrometer scale comparable to the pitch of the trench-and-terrace patterning. Analysis of the crystal lattice distortion in the depth direction was performed using a newly developed method in which the X-ray nanobeam diffracted from the sample surface to specific depths can be selectively detected by employing a Pt wire profiler. This technique generated depth-resolved ω-2θ-φ maps confirming that fluctuations in lattice plane tilting and spacing greatly depend on the dislocation distribution and the history of the AlN epitaxial growth on the trench-patterned structure. It was also found that both fluctuations were reduced on approaching the AlN surface and, in particular, were sharply reduced at specific depths in the terrace regions. These sharp reductions are attributed to the formation of sacrificial zones with degraded crystal quality around the trenches and possibly lead to raising the crystal quality near the surface of the AlN film.

  10. Effect of external turbulence on the efficiency of film cooling with coolant injection into a transverse trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalatov, A. A.; Panchenko, N. A.; Severin, S. D.

    2017-09-01

    Film cooling is among the basic methods used for thermal protection of blades in modern high-temperature gas turbines. Results of computer simulation of film cooling with coolant injection via a row of conventional inclined holes or a row of holes in a trench are presented in this paper. The ANSYS CFX 14 commercial software package was used for CFD-modeling. The effect is studied of the mainstream turbulence on the film cooling efficiency for the blowing ratio range between 0.6 and 2.3 and three different turbulence intensities of 1, 5, and 10%. The mainstream velocity was 150 and 400 m/s, while the temperatures of the mainstream and the injected coolant were 1100 and 500°C, respectively. It is demonstrated that, for the coolant injection via one row of trenched holes, an increase in the mainstream turbulence intensity reduces the film cooling efficiency in the entire investigated range of blowing ratios. It was revealed that freestream turbulence had varied effects on the film cooling efficiency depending on the blowing ratio and mainstream velocity in a blade channel. Thus, an increase in the mainstream turbulence intensity from 1 to 10% decreases the surface-averaged film cooling efficiency by 3-10% at a high mainstream velocity (400 m/s) in the blade channel and by 12-23% at a moderate velocity (of 150 m/s). Here, lower film cooling efficiencies correspond to higher blowing ratios. The effect of mainstream turbulence intensity on the film cooling efficiency decreases with increasing the mainstream velocity in the modeled channel for both investigated configurations.

  11. Geochemical anomaly in ancient subduction boundary fault: Trench-parallel heterogeneity in slip behavior caused by variation of mineral composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macente, A.; Vanorio, T.; Miller, K. J.; Fusseis, F.; Ogawa, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Kaneki, S.; Hirono, T.

    2017-12-01

    To understand slip behavior of large earthquakes along subduction zone, investigation of trench-parallel heterogeneity in slip parameters produced by variation of mineral compositions and physical properties is important. Here we targeted an ancient megasplay fault, developed in the Kii Peninsula, Japan, and studied the geological setting and mineralogical and geochemical characteristic by performing Raman spectroscopic analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis, and geochemical analyses of major- and trace-element concentrations of the fault rocks and its surrounding rocks. The localized slip zone was composed of cataclasite and ultracataclasite, and showed granulation of mineral grains and intense shear foliation. On the basis of the results of paleo-temperature gap, estimated by Raman spectra, the burial depth of 3­­­­­-4 km and the cumulative displacement of ­­­­­ 4 km along the slip zone were estimated. Geochemical analyses revealed an anomaly of trace-element compositions in the slip zone. Although previous studies assumed fluid/rock mass ratio (R) of 7, we considered the repetition of slip events and assumed R = 0.1 referred from in situ porosity of the Nankai trough of 0.1­­­­­-0.2. Our numerical calculation of fluid­­­­­-rock interaction revealed that the ultracataclasite has experienced approximate 200 times seismic events accompanying with frictional heat of ≥350 °C. In contract, the western ancient megasplay fault, developed in the Shikoku Island, Japan, was reported to has experienced approximate 30 times seismic events together with high temperature of ≥350 °C. This inconsistency might cause from the mineral composition: our studied slip zone contained larger amount of plagioclase and lower amount of illite, probably leading to higher fault strength and subsequent higher frictional heat. Therefore, for assessment of slip distribution along the trench and of tsunamigenic potential, further study of mineral and geochemical

  12. Investigation of the Double Benioff Zone in the Hikurangi trench, New Zealand based on high-precision earthquake relocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz Zanjani, F.; Lin, G.

    2017-12-01

    The origin and nature of the Double Benioff Zones (DBZ) for intermediate-depth (70 to 300 km) earthquakes is a matter of debate. While some people consider DBZs a prevalent feature worldwide, others suspect them confined to only some of the subduction zones as a result of specific conditions in the descending slab. Different mechanisms have been proposed to explain the stress conditions in the DBZs, such as the thermoelastic stress, the unbending of the slab, and the sagging of the plate. Existence of the DBZs has been suggested for the Hikurangi trench in New Zealand. In this study, we use high-precision earthquake relocation to investigate the presence and characteristics of DBZs in different cross-sections of the Hikurangi trench. We obtain seismic data between 2007 and July 2017 recorded by local and regional seismic stations and process over 170,000 events with magnitudes between 2 and 5. We first relocate all the earthquakes by applying a modified source-specific station term method using different types of phases, e.g., first arrivals, depth phases and converted phases, and taking advantage of an existing three dimensional seismic velocity model. A differential-time relocation method based on waveform cross-correlation data is then used to improve relative location accuracy. The improved spatial resolution of relocated earthquakes helps to resolve the place of occurrence and thickness of layer separation for the DBZs in the region. We apply a percentile method and a multi-Gaussian fitting method to estimate the layer separation and examine the correlation of the separation with slab properties (e.g., slab age, thermal parameter and convergence rate). Our study is essential for the understanding of the seismogenic processes responsible for intermediate-depth earthquakes.

  13. RESULTS OF GROUNDWATER MONITORING FOR THE 183-H SOLAR EVAPORATION BASINS AND 300 AREA PROCESS TRENCHES JANUARY - JUNE 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    This is one of a series of reports on Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) monitoring at the 183-H solar evaporation basins and the 300 Area process trenches. It fulfills the requirement of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-645(11)(g), 'Release from Regulated Units', to report twice each year on the effectiveness of the corrective action program. This report covers the period from January through June 2008. The current objective of corrective action monitoring the 183-H basins is simply to track trends. Although there is short-term variability in contaminant concentrations, trends over the past 10 years are downward. The current Hanford Facility RCRA Permit (Dangerous Waste Portion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Dangerous Waste (Permit No. WA 7890008967)) and monitoring plan remain adequate for the objective of tracking trends. The objective of groundwater monitoring at the 300 Area process trenches is to demonstrate the effectiveness of the corrective action program by examining the trend of the constituents of interest to confirm that they are attenuating naturally. The overall concentration of uranium in network wells remained above the 30 (micro)g/L drinking water standard in the three downgradient wells screened at the water table. Fluctuations of uranium concentration are caused by changes in river stage. The concentration of cis-1,2-dichloroethene remained above the 70 (micro)g/L drinking water standard in one well (399-1-16B). Concentrations are relatively steady at this well and are not affected by river stage. Trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene concentrations were below detection limits in all wells during the reporting period

  14. Optimized design method for trench-assisted grade-index ring-core fiber with low DMD and large Aeff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xihui; Tu, Jiajing; Long, Keping

    2017-02-01

    We propose a kind of trench-assisted graded-index ring-core fiber (TA-GI-RCF) with a low refractive index rod deployed in the center of the core, which supports three LP modes (LP01, LP11 and LP21) transmission. There are two difficulties about designing TA-GI-RCF, one is to depart LP21 mode from LP02 mode because their effective indices are too close which makes it difficult to realize only three LP modes transmission; the other one is how to make sure these three LP modes reach the receiver end with low differential mode delay (DMD), so that the computation complexity of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) digital signal process (DSP) can be reduced. At first, we realize the separation of LP21 mode and LP02 mode in TA-GI-RCF by enlarging the size of low refractive index rod. We next investigate the influence of the TA-GI-RCF structural parameters on DMD and DMD slope, and find that a graded-index core and a low refractive index rod can flexibly tune the DMD, and a trench can flexibly control the DMD slope. Through optimizing the core parameters, we find that the design region of α is 1.01 2.23 and that of Δ1 is 0.28% 0.46% at r1=30 μm, where α is the profile exponent and Δ1 is the relative refractive index difference between core and cladding. Simulation results show that TA-GI-RCF can achieve the effective area (Aeff) of LP01 mode over 2000 μm2 and the |DMD| between LP01 mode and LP11 mode is DMD over whole C+L band and large Aeff.

  15. Small-scale spatial variation in near-surface turbidites around the JFAST site near the Japan Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Shuro; Kanamatsu, Toshiya; Kasaya, Takafumi

    2016-03-01

    This paper aims to improve our understanding of the depositional processes associated with turbidites related to recent earthquake events. A series of short sediment cores (ca. 20-30 cm long) were recovered from the landward slope of the Japan Trench around JFAST (Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project) site C0019 by a remotely operated vehicle, KAIKO 7000 II, and the sample sites were accurately located using an LBL (long base line) acoustic navigation system. The properties of the cores were analyzed using visual observations, soft X-ray radiographs, smear slides, measurement of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility, and analysis of radioactive elements (134Cs, 137Cs, and excess 210Pb). For the first time, small-scale (ca. 200-1000 m) spatial variations in recent earthquake-triggered deep-sea turbidites, the formation of which was probably linked to the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, are described. We also examine the submarine landslide that probably generated the sediment unit below the turbidites, which is thought to be an important process in the study area. The spatial distribution and characteristics of the near-surface seismoturbidite obtained immediately after the earthquake, presented here, will enable precise calibration of offshore evidence of recent earthquakes, and thus facilitate the use of the sedimentary archive for paleoseismic interpretations. Furthermore, although sampling for turbidite seismology on steep slopes has not been widely performed previously, our results suggest that the recent event deposits may be continuously tracked from the slope to the basin using a combination of the present sampling method and conventional large-scale investigation techniques.

  16. Novel BCD Process Platform with Integrated Self-Extracted JTE Trench Technology for EL Drivers ICs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A low cost silicon BCD technology in place of high cost SOI BCD technology for monolithic integrated EL driver ICs application is put forward. Several key technologies are presented. An advanced SEJTET termination technology was designed instead of the conventional PIOS isolation to obtain smaller chip area and protect HVICs from the occurrence of di/dt effect under PWM operation. Novel VDMOS/Resurf LDPMOS devices were developed compatibly to obtain the lowest Ron,sp, improve silicon utilization, and simplify key process steps.

  17. Collection, Isolation and Culture of Marine Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Daniel E.

    1984-01-01

    Methods of collecting, isolating, and culturing microscopic and macroscopic marine algae are described. Three different culture media list of chemicals needed and procedures for preparing Erdschreiber's and Provasoli's E. S. media. (BC)

  18. Equatorial Kelvin waves generated in the western tropical Pacific Ocean trigger mass and heat transport within the Middle America Trench off Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Richard E.; Davis, Earl E.

    2017-07-01

    Sequences of correlated seafloor temperature, current velocity, and acoustic backscatter events recorded at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) sites at 4300 m depth in the Middle America Trench have been inferred to result from tidally induced turbidity currents generated in the vicinity of the 3300 m deep sill at the southern end of the trench. New data from the borehole observatories extend the temperature records to 11 years (November 2002 to December 2013) and confirm the highly episodic nature of the events. We present satellite altimetry data and ocean circulation model results to show that event timing is correlated with intraseasonal Kelvin wave motions in the equatorial Pacific. The observed temperature events had a mean (±1 standard deviation) occurrence interval of 61 (±24) days, which spans the periods of the first two baroclinic modes. Lag times between peak bottom water temperatures at the ODP sites and the passage of eastward-propagating Kelvin wave crests at locations in the eastern equatorial Pacific are consistent with the time for mode-1 waves to propagate to the southern end of the trench at a mean phase speed of 2.0 m s-1. Findings indicate that Kelvin wave currents augment tidal motions in the vicinity of the sill, triggering turbidity currents that travel northwestward along the trench axis at mean speeds of ˜0.1 m s-1. We conclude that mode-1 (or, possibly, mixed mode-1 and mode-2) baroclinic Kelvin waves generated by large-scale atmospheric processes in the western tropical Pacific lead to heat and mass transport deep within Middle America Trench in the eastern tropical Pacific.

  19. Annual Report RCRA Post-Closure Monitoring and Inspections for CAU 112: Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, for the period October 2000-July 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobiason, D. S.

    2002-01-01

    This annual Neutron Soil Moisture Monitoring report provides an analysis and summary for site inspections, meteorological information, and neutron soil moisture monitoring data obtained at the Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) unit, located in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, during the October 2000--July 2001 monitoring period. Inspections of the Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches RCRA unit are conducted to determine and document the physical condition of the covers, facilities, and any unusual conditions that could impact the proper operation of the waste unit closure. Physical inspections of the closure were completed quarterly and indicated that the site is in good condition with no significant findings noted. An annual subsidence survey of the elevation markers was conducted in July 2001. There has been no subsidence at any of the markers since monitoring began eight years ago. Precipitation for the period October 2000 through July 2001 was 9.42 centimeters (cm) (3.71 inches [in]) (U.S. National Weather Service, 2001). The prior year annual rainfall (January 2000 through December 2000) was 10.44 cm (4.1 1 in.). The recorded average annual rainfall for this site from 1972 to January 2000 is 14.91 cm (5.87 in.). The objective of the neutron logging program is to monitor the soil moisture conditions along 30 neutron access tubes and detect changes that may be indicative of moisture movement at a point located directly beneath each trench. All monitored access tubes are within the compliance criteria of less than 5 percent residual volumetric moisture content at the compliance point directly beneath each respective trench. Soil conditions remain dry and stable underneath the trenches

  20. Steroids isolated from Millettia versicolor Baker (Fabaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steroids isolated from Millettia versicolor Baker (Fabaceae) ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... The objective of this investigation was to isolate and determine the chemical constituents of the leaves of Millettia versicolor Baker, a medicinal plant used in the traditional pharmacopoeias of Central Africa, essentially for its ...