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Sample records for treatment study comparing

  1. Comparative study of two treatment planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Caballero, L. J.; Quinones Rodriguez, L. A.; Lupiani Castellanos, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study of the comparison of the clinical dosimetry between planners can deduce that the differences are in the majority of the cases below 3%, and only in cases where the field size is small, we found significant discrepancies, although justifiable. On the one hand it is different calculation algorithm and implementation on the other, the modeling of the accelerator. (Author)

  2. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TERTIARY WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY COMPUTER SIMULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Stefania Iordache; Nicolae Petrescu; Cornel Ianache

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to asses conditions for implementation of a Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) process in theWastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) of Moreni city (Romania). In order to meet the more increased environmentalregulations, the wastewater treatment plant that was studied, must update the actual treatment process and have tomodernize it. A comparative study was undertaken of the quality of effluents that could be obtained by implementationof biological nutrient removal process li...

  3. A prospective, randomized multicenter study comparing APD and CAPD treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, S; Bjorner, J B; Tofte-Jensen, P

    2000-01-01

    , dialysis-related complications, dialysis-related expenses. RESULTS: The quality-of-life studies showed that significantly more time for work, family, and social activities was available to patients on APD compared to those on CAPD (p ...) treatment with respect to quality of life and clinical outcomes in relation to therapy costs. DESIGN: A prospective, randomized multicenter study. SETTING: Three Danish CAPD units. PATIENTS: Thirty-four adequately dialyzed patients with high or high-average peritoneal transport characteristics were included...... were assessed at baseline and after 6 months by the self-administered short-form SF-36 generic health survey questionnaire supplemented with disease- and treatment-specific questions. Therapy costs were compared by evaluating dialysis-related expenses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Quality-of-life parameters...

  4. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TERTIARY WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY COMPUTER SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Iordache

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to asses conditions for implementation of a Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR process in theWastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP of Moreni city (Romania. In order to meet the more increased environmentalregulations, the wastewater treatment plant that was studied, must update the actual treatment process and have tomodernize it. A comparative study was undertaken of the quality of effluents that could be obtained by implementationof biological nutrient removal process like A2/O (Anaerobic/Anoxic/Oxic and VIP (Virginia Plant Initiative aswastewater tertiary treatments. In order to asses the efficiency of the proposed treatment schemata based on the datamonitored at the studied WWTP, it were realized computer models of biological nutrient removal configurations basedon A2/O and VIP process. Computer simulation was realized using a well-known simulator, BioWin by EnviroSimAssociates Ltd. The simulation process allowed to obtain some data that can be used in design of a tertiary treatmentstage at Moreni WWTP, in order to increase the efficiency in operation.

  5. [Comparative study of two treatment methods for acute periodontal abscess].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Dong-mei; Wang, Wei-qian

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this short-term study was to compare the clinical efficacy of 2 different methods to treat acute periodontal abscesses. After patient selection, 100 cases of acute periodontal abscess were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group was treated by supra- and subgingival scaling, while the control group was treated by incision and drainage. A clinical examination was carried out to record the following variables: subjective clinical variables including pain, edema, redness and swelling; objective clinical variables including gingival index(GI), bleeding index(BI), probing depth(PD),suppuration, lymphadenopathy and tooth mobility. The data was analyzed with SPSS 19.0 software package. RESULES: Subjective clinical variables demonstrated statistically significant improvements with both methods from the first day after treatment and lasted for at least 30 days(P0.05), but the experimental group showed more improvement in edema and redness than the control group(Pperiodontal abscesses.

  6. Comparative Study of Pre-Germination Treatments and their Effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    of leaves (10.05) respectively. Pre-germination treatments of seeds soaked in running water (SRW) for 24 hours were found to be more effective in seedlings growth and biomass production. Keywords: Tectona grandis, pre-germination treatment, seed dormancy, seedling growth. Introduction. Tectona grandis is one of the ...

  7. A comparative study of albendazole and levamisole treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The treatment of gastrointestinal nematodes using albendazole and levamisole was monitored in a herd of cattle following a poor state of health and maintenance of high faecal strongyle egg count after repeated therapeutic treatment with albendazole. Thirty-six animals were selected and randomly divided into three ...

  8. Comparative study of the effects of treatment techniques on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the effects of some fibre treatment techniques namely: mercerization, acetylation and semi-carbonisation on the performance of Kenaf fibres. The treated kenaf fibres which are considered biodegradable, cost effective, renewable and user friendly have been used as a possible base friction material for ...

  9. Comparative study of household water treatment in a rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research presents the household treatment of drinking water samples in a rural community in Nigeria by boiling and water guard. The physicochemical parameters of the raw water samples with exception of chloride, BOD and dissolved oxygen were within the permissible limits of the World Health Organization (WHO) ...

  10. Public and Private Management of Wastewater Treatment: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Laurence J., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The costs and performance of contract management of municipal wastewater treatment facilities are considered, using information from a nationwide empirical examination of evidence from individual plants, municipalities, and regulatory agencies. The broad issues arising in the evaluation are outlined as the specifics are discussed. (SLD)

  11. Summary of comparative results integrated nonthermal treatment and integrated thermal treatment systems studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    In July 1994, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), under a contract from U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Environment Management Office of Science and Technology (OST, EM-50) published a report entitled open-quotes Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study - Phase 1 Resultsclose quotes (EGG-MS-11211). This report was the culmination of over a year of analysis involving scientists and engineers within the DOE complex and from private industry. The purpose of that study was open-quotes to conduct a systematic engineering evaluation of a variety of mixed low level waste (MLLW) treatment system alternatives.close quotes The study also open-quotes identified the research and development, demonstrations, and testing and evaluation needed to assure unit operability in the most promising alternative system.close quotes This study evaluated ten primary thermal treatment technologies, organized into complete open-quotes cradle-to-graveclose quotes systems (including complete engineering flow sheets), to treat DOE MLLW and calculated mass balances and 20-year total life cycle costs (TLCC) for all systems. The waste input used was a representative heterogenous mixture of typical DOE MLLW. An additional study was conducted, and then, based on response to these studies, additional work was started to investigate and evaluate non-thermal treatment options on a footing comparable to the effort devoted to thermal options. This report attempts to present a summary overview of the thermal and non-thermal treatment technologies which were examined in detail in the process of the above mentioned reviews

  12. Work-Focused Treatment of Common Mental Disorders and Return to Work: A Comparative Outcome Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerveld, S.E.; Blonk, R.W.B.; Brenninkmeijer, V.; Wijngaards-de Meij, L.; Schaufeli, W.B.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two individual-level psychotherapy interventions: (a) treatment as usual consisting of cognitive– behavioral therapy (CBT) and (b) work-focused CBT (W-CBT) that integrated work aspects early into the treatment. Both interventions were carried

  13. The social experiences of cancer patients under treatment: a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempelaar, R.; de Haes, J. C.; de Ruiter, J. H.; Bakker, D.; van den Heuvel, W. J.; van Nieuwenhuijzen, M. G.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a larger study on the quality of life of cancer patients under treatment, the positive and negative experiences in social interaction have been examined as compared to those of a control group (nonpatients, n = 201). Two patient groups were included: 109 patients who had recently

  14. A comparative study of single-dose treatment of chancroid using thiamphenicol versus Azithromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Walter; Di Chiacchio, Nilton G; Di Chiacchio, Nilton; Romiti, Ricardo; Criado, Paulo R; Velho, Paulo Eduardo N Ferreira

    2009-06-01

    A study was conducted in São Paulo, Brazil, to compare azithromycin with thiamphenicol for the single-dose treatment of chancroid. In all, 54 men with chancroid were tested. The etiology was determined by clinical characterization and direct bacterioscopy with Gram staining. None of the patients had positive serology or dark-field examination indicating active infection with Treponema pallidum. Genital infections due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae and herpes simplex virus were excluded by polymerase chain reaction testing. For 54 patients with chancroid, cure rates with single-dose treatment were 73% with azithromycin and 89% with thiamphenicol. HIV seropositivity was found to be associated with treatment failure (p=0.001). The treatment failed in all HIV positive patients treated with azithromycin (p=0.002) and this drug should be avoided in these co-infected patients. In the view of the authors, thiamphenicol is the most indicated single-dose regimen for chancroid treatment.

  15. A comparative study of single-dose treatment of chancroid using thiamphenicol versus Azithromycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter B. Junior

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in São Paulo, Brazil, to compare azithromycin with thiamphenicol for the single-dose treatment of chancroid. In all, 54 men with chancroid were tested. The etiology was determined by clinical characterization and direct bacterioscopy with Gram staining. None of the patients had positive serology or dark-field examination indicating active infection with Treponema pallidum. Genital infections due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae and herpes simplex virus were excluded by polymerase chain reaction testing. For 54 patients with chancroid, cure rates with single-dose treatment were 73% with azithromycin and 89% with thiamphenicol. HIV seropositivity was found to be associated with treatment failure (p=0.001. The treatment failed in all HIV positive patients treated with azithromycin (p=0.002 and this drug should be avoided in these co-infected patients. In the view of the authors, thiamphenicol is the most indicated single-dose regimen for chancroid treatment.

  16. Treatment of ocular rosacea: comparative study of topical cyclosporine and oral doxycycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arman, Aysegul; Demirseren, Duriye Deniz; Takmaz, Tamer

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of topical cyclosporine A emulsion with that of oral doxycycline for rosacea associated ocular changes and dry eye complaints. One hundred and ten patients with rosacea were screened. Thirty-eight patients having rosacea associated eyelid and ocular surface changes and dry eye complaints were included in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: nineteen patients were given topical cyclosporine twice daily and nineteen patients were given oral doxycycline 100 mg twice daily for the first month and once daily for the following two months. Symptom and sign scores, ocular surface disease index questionnarie and tear function tests were evaluated at baseline and monthly for 3mo. Three months after results were compared with that of baseline. Mean values of symptom, eyelid sign and corneal/conjunctival sign scores of each treatment group at baseline and 3mo after treatments were compared and both drugs were found to be effective on rosacea associated ocular changes (Ptreatment of eyelid signs (P=0.01). There was statistically significant increase in the mean Schirmer score with anesthesia and tear break up time scores in the cyclosporine treatment group compared to the doxycycline treatment group (Ptreatment of rosacea associated ocular complications because it is more effective than doxycycline. In addition ocular rosacea as a chronic disease requires long term treatment and doxycycline has various side effects limiting its long term usage.

  17. Prevention of enamel demineralization during orthodontic treatment: an in vitro comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichu, Yashodhan M; Kamat, Nandini; Chandra, Pavan Kumar; Kapoor, Aditi; Razmus, Thomas; Aravind, N K S

    2013-01-01

    Enamel demineralization is considered to be the most prevalent and significant iatrogenic effect associated with fixed orthodontic treatment and can seriously jeopardize both tooth longevity and dental esthetics. This in vitro study was undertaken to compare the effectiveness of four different commercially available surface treatment medicaments for the inhibition of enamel demineralization. Seventy-five intact maxillary premolars extracted from patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were divided into five equal groups and were subjected to one of the following protocols: no treatment (control group) or treatment with one of the following four medicaments: fluoride varnish (Fluor Protector [FP]), casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (GC Tooth Mousse [TM]), calcium sodium phosphosilicate (SHY-NM), and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate with fluoride (GC Tooth Mousse Plus [TMP]). All the teeth were subjected to ten Cate demineralization solution?for 96 hours and subsequently evaluated under polarized light microscopy to obtain the mean depths of enamel demineralization. One-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni comparison tests were used to obtain statistically significant differences between the five different groups at P < .05. All four surface treatment medicaments provided statistically significant reduction in the depths of enamel demineralization as compared with the control group. FP provided the greatest protection of enamel surface in terms of reduction of lesion depth, followed by TMP, SHY-NM, and TM. The use of these commercially available medicaments could prove to be beneficial for patients undergoing orthodontic treatment and who are at a risk for developing enamel decalcification.

  18. A comparative study of cancer patients with short and long sick-leave after primary treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudbergsson, Saevar Berg; Torp, Steffen; Fløtten, Tone; Fosså, Sophie D; Nielsen, Roy; Dahl, Alv A

    2011-04-01

    Sick-leave after primary cancer treatment has hardly been studied. This study compares Norwegian cancer patients (CPs) with shorter (≤8 months) and longer (≥9 months) sick-leave after primary cancer treatment. Our aim was to characterize factors associated with these two types of sick-leave in order to identify possible factors for interventions by which long-term sick-leaves may be avoided. A mailed questionnaire was completed by a sample of Norwegian CPs 15 to 39 months after primary treatment of the ten most common invasive types of cancer. The groups with shorter (n=359) and longer (n=481) sick-leaves (SSL vs LSL) were compared with each other by self-reported information as to socio-demographic and cancer-related variables, health, quality of life, work ability, work situation and supportive interventions. The LSL consisted of 78% females, and 76% of them had breast or gynaecological cancer. A higher proportion of patients with low level of education, economical problems, treated with chemotherapy, hormones and multimodal treatment belonged to LSL compared to SSL. Significantly more LSL had recurrences of cancer, co-morbidity, regular use of medication, and poorer self-rated health, quality of life and work ability. Compared to SSL, more LSL reported needs for and offers of supportive care such as physiotherapy, physical activities and psychosocial support. A multivariate regression analysis showed that reduced work ability, changes in employment due to cancer, lack of support from supervisors at work, and having had combined treatment were significantly associated with being LSL. Longer sick-leave after primary cancer treatment is associated with combined cancer treatment, lack of support from supervisors and reduced overall work ability. Interventions and counselling related to the work place and reduced work ability could be of value for prevention of long-term sick-leaves.

  19. [Collagen powder dressing in the treatment of pressure ulcer. Multicenter comparative study assessing effectiveness and cost].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou Torra, Joan-Enric; Soldevilla Agreda, J Javier; Martínez Cuervo, Fernando; Rueda López, Justo

    2002-09-01

    Pressure ulcers are lesions that usually occur to people to whom the social and economical repercusions are quite serious. Although present treatments with moisture cure dressings are efficient and have a lot of advantages than traditional cure, they do not solve the problem in a significant group of patients, whose ulcers do not heal or need a much longer treatment. Collagen dressings represent an important improvement, since collagen is a key element for wound scarring. We conducted a prospective, comparative and multicentrical study with Catrix, using as a control the same lesion. We compared pressure ulcers that had been previously treated on an average of 6 months without success with Catrix treatment within 7 weeks. We compared different variables, efficacy, opinion on the use of Catrix and economic cost. We included 104 pressure ulcers that fulfilled the inclusion requirements in the study. Three of them were excluded from the efficiency analysis because of a lack of data since they passed away 7 weeks later. We performed a statistical analysis on all the ulcers (GT) and we also analyzed the pressure ulcer subgroup (SG) included in this study because of a deterioration or a stagnation of the lesion despite previous treatments. Seven weeks after the beginning of the treatment with Catrix the healing or the stage change was observed in 73.3% of lesions of GT group and in 77.8% of lesions of SG group (p cost and nursing cost from all the lesions that scarred within 7 weeks (n = 39) with previous treatment was 17.234, 10 euros and 10.920 euros with Catrix. The average material cost per lesion used in the previous treatments was 441.9 euros and 280 euros with Catrix. These results prove that the treatment with Catrix significantly reduces the treatment length and therefore leads to a reduction of the sanitary cost in this kind of patients. Adding Catrix to the pressure ulcers treatment helps to increase significantly the scarring and improvement percentage of

  20. Treatment of ocular rosacea:comparative study of topical cyclosporine and oral doxycycline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Arman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To compare the effectiveness of topical cyclosporine A emulsion with that of oral doxycycline for rosacea associated ocular changes and dry eye complaints.METHODS:One hundred and ten patients with rosacea were screened. Thirty-eight patients having rosacea associated eyelid and ocular surface changes and dry eye complaints were included in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups:nineteen patients were given topical cyclosporine twice daily and nineteen patients were given oral doxycycline 100 mg twice daily for the first month and once daily for the following two months. Symptom and sign scores, ocular surface disease index questionnarie and tear function tests were evaluated at baseline and monthly for 3mo. Three months after results were compared with that of baseline.RESULTS:Mean values of symptom, eyelid sign and corneal/conjunctival sign scores of each treatment group at baseline and 3mo after treatments were compared and both drugs were found to be effective on rosacea associated ocular changes (P<0.001. Cyclosporine was more effective in symptomatic relief and in the treatment of eyelid signs (P=0.01. There was statistically significant increase in the mean Schirmer score with anesthesia and tear break up time scores in the cyclosporine treatment group compared to the doxycycline treatment group (P<0.05.CONCLUSION:Cyclosporine as a topical drug can be used in the treatment of rosacea associated ocular complications because it is more effective than doxycycline. In addition ocular rosacea as a chronic disease requires long term treatment and doxycycline has various side effects limiting its long term usage.

  1. Assessment of UASB-DHS technology for sewage treatment: a comparative study from a sustainability perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, Namita; Nomoto, Naoki; Tagawa, Tadashi; Okubo, Tsutomu; Uemura, Shigeki; Khalil, Nadeem; Hatamoto, Masashi; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Harada, Hideki

    2018-04-06

    This paper assesses the technical and economic sustainability of a combined system of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) for sewage treatment. Additionally, this study compares UASB-DHS with current technologies in India like trickling filters (TF), sequencing batch reactor (SBR), moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR), and other combinations of UASB with post-treatment systems such as final polishing ponds (FPU) and extended aeration sludge process (EASP). The sustainability of the sewage treatment plants (STPs) was evaluated using a composite indicator, which incorporated environmental, societal, and economic dimensions. In case of the individual sustainability indicator study, the results showed that UASB-FPU was the most economically sustainable system with a score of 0.512 and aeration systems such as MBBR, EASP, and SBR were environmentally sustainable, whereas UASB-DHS system was socially sustainable. However, the overall comparative analysis indicated that the UASB-DHS system scored the highest value of 2.619 on the global sustainability indicator followed by EASP and MBBR with scores of 2.322 and 2.279, respectively. The highlight of this study was that the most environmentally sustainable treatment plants were not economically and socially sustainable. Moreover, sensitivity analysis showed that five out of the seven scenarios tested, the UASB-DHS system showed good results amongst the treatment system.

  2. Percutaneous vertebroplasty and conservative management for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wengui; Lu Jinyu; Sun Jianhua; Liang Ding; Li Zhiwei; Wang Hesheng; Guo Shanfeng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the better therapeutic measures for painful osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCF) through comparing the efficacy of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) with that of conservative management. Methods: Forty-three consecutive patients, encountered from December 2009 to December 2010 in authors' hospital, were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into PVP group (n=22) and conservative group (n=21). Visual analog score (VAS) for pain and Oswestry disability index (ODI) questionnaire scores were assessed before and 1 week, 1, 3, 6, 12 months after the treatment. Patients' activity levels and other information, including complications and new fractures after treatment, were also evaluated. Results: Before the treatment both the VAS and ODI scores showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups. Significant reduction of both VAS and ODI was observed in PVP group at 1 week and at 1 and 3 months after treatment when compared with those in conservative group (P<0.05). Patients' activity levels in PVP group were significantly improved than that in conservative group (P<0.01). One new fracture was observed in the conservative group, while no new fracture was seen in the PVP group. Conclusion: Immediate pain relief and improvement of daily activities after PVP can be achieved in all patients. PVP should be considered as the treatment of first choice for symptomatic osteoporotic vertebral fractures. (authors)

  3. A Comparative Study of Two Techniques of Cryotherapy in the Treatment of Seborrheic Kreatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Tuna

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Seborrheic keratosis is a benign epidermal tumour that is generally pigmented and develop from the proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes. In this study, two different techniques, spray or probe applications used cryotherapy during the treatment of seborrheic keratosis were compared in terms of efficiency and undesired effects. By this way, it is aimed to find the most suitable technique in seborrheic keratosis treatment. Method: Eighty lesions were included in the study with the diagnosis of seborrheic keratosis. These 80 lesions were divided randomly into two groups of 40; to one of which spray cryotherapy to the second cryotherapy with probe were applied. If clinical improvement were seen treatment was accepted as successful. The patiens were evaluated 2 and 4 months after the therapy for the comparison of two treatment. The patients in both groups scored their pain from 1 to 10 during the cryotherapy.Results: In the study, great success was achieved in the treatment of seborrheic keratosis by using different cryotherapy methods. All the patients in both groups were diagnosed with hipopigmentation. They were found to continue hipopigmentation in the second and fourth months. It was found that the intensity of the pain which those in the probe cryotherapy group suffered was significantly greater statistically.Conclusion: It was concluded that spray cryotherapy should be preferred since it was less painful and required less equipment than probe cryotherapy.

  4. Randomized prospective study comparing vancomycin with teicoplanin in the treatment of infections associated with Hickman catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S R; Cheesbrough, J; Spearing, R; Davies, J M

    1989-08-01

    In 72 episodes of suspected or proven Hickman-catheter-associated infection occurring in 59 patients with various hematological disorders, patients were assigned to treatment with either vancomycin or teicoplanin in a randomized nonblinded prospective study. Of 60 episodes evaluable for response, 28 were treated with vancomycin and 32 were treated with teicoplanin. Sixteen infective episodes were microbiologically documented in the vancomycin group, and twenty-one were microbiologically documented in the teicoplanin group. Microbiologically and clinically documented infections treated with vancomycin had an 80% response rate, compared with a 69% response rate for those treated with teicoplanin (P = 0.316). Adverse events occurred in nine (25%) of the episodes in the vancomycin group, compared with three (8%) in the teicoplanin group (P = 0.044). Teicoplanin may provide an effective alternative to vancomycin in the treatment of Hickman-catheter-associated infection in patients with hematological malignancies.

  5. Risperidone, quetiapine, and olanzapine adjunctive treatments in major depression with psychotic features: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A Gabriel Departments of Psychiatry and Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of novel antipsychotics in the treatment of psychotic depression. Method: Consecutive patients who were admitted (n = 51 with a confirmed diagnosis of major depression with psychotic features (delusions or hallucinations or both participated in this open-label, naturalistic study. All patients were treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs and serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs (citalopram or venlafaxine extended release [XR], and atypical antipsychotic agents were added, as tolerated, during the first week of initiating the citalopram or venlafaxine. There were patients (n = 16 who received risperidone, who received quetiapine (n = 20, and who received olanzapine (n = 15, as an adjunctive treatment to either citalopram or venlafaxine for at least 8 weeks. Outcome measures included the Clinical Global Impression-Severity subscale (CGI-S, as the primary outcome measure, as well as the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-21 item (HAM-D21 and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS. Tolerance to treatments and weight changes were monitored over the period of the trial. Results: All patients completed the trial with no drop outs. At 8 weeks, there was a statistically significant (P 0.01 in the olanzapine group. Conclusion: Quetiapine, risperidone, and olanzapine, given as adjunctive treatment with SSRIS or SNRIs can significantly and equally improve depressive and psychotic symptoms, in the short-term treatment of major depression with psychotic features. The author recommends that large controlled trials be conducted to examine the differences in long-term efficacy and tolerance between the atypical antipsychotic agents, in the treatment of major depression with or without psychotic features. Keywords: depression, novels

  6. Comparative study of heat transfer and wetting behaviour of conventional and bioquenchants for industrial heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Peter; Prabhu, K. Narayan [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, P.O. Srinivasnagar 575 025 Mangalore, Karnataka State (India)

    2008-02-15

    An investigation was conducted to study the suitability of vegetable oils as bioquenchants for industrial heat treatment. The study involved the assessment of the severity of quenching and wetting behaviour of conventional and vegetable oil quench media. Quench severities of sunflower, coconut and palm oils were found to be greater than mineral oil. The quench severity of aqueous media is greater than oil media although their wettability is poor as indicated by their higher contact angles. A dimensionless contact angle parameter defined in this work is found to be a better parameter to compare the wetting behaviour with heat transfer. (author)

  7. Withdrawing and withholding medical treatment: a comparative study between the Malaysian, English and Islamic law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Puteri Nemie Jahn; Adeniyi, Omipidan Bashiru

    2010-09-01

    The permissibility and lawfulness of withdrawing and withholding medical treatment has attracted considerable debates and criticisms, as the legal issues are drawn into entering the slippery slope of euthanasia. Proponents of "sanctity of life" views that withdrawing and withholding medical treatment with knowledge that death would result is still within the sphere of euthanasia, whereas proponents of "quality of life" argue that it is not, as death is not intended. Their arguments maintain that for patients who are totally dependant on machines to ensure the work of some bodily functions, living may amount to little more than survival as dying is prolonged. Furthermore, the prolonging of life of the dying patient has profound implications on patients themselves, their relatives, dependants and medical providers. Thus, withdrawing and withholding medical treatment would not only respect a patient's right to self-determination, by allowing them to die in their underlying condition, but will ensure that medical providers are able to concentrate on more worthwhile treatments. This paper discusses the intractable difficulties with the moral distinction between withholding and withdrawing treatment and euthanasia, as well as makes a comparative study between the present state of law in Malaysia and England on this issue. The paper further highlights the differences between civil law and Islamic law in this controversial area.

  8. Laser (755 nm) and cryotherapy as depigmentation treatments for vitiligo: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geel, N; Depaepe, L; Speeckaert, R

    2015-06-01

    Depigmentation therapy can be an option in adults with extensive and refractory vitiligo. Remaining pigmented patches can be removed using depigmentation creams (monobenzyl ether of hydroquinone 20%), laser therapy or cryotherapy. In contrast to cream treatment, laser therapy and cryotherapy are fast and targeted methods, capable of destroying melanocytes selectively on one specific area. Up till now, controlled trials comparing laser and cryotherapy as depigmenting treatment in vitiligo are lacking. We performed a retrospective comparative study in 22 generalized vitiligo patients. Thirty-one pigmented test regions were exposed to cryotherapy and 20 to 755 nm laser therapy. The mean surface area per test region was 3.55 cm2 and number of treatments per test region was limited to one single session in 84.3% and varied up to four sessions (2.0%). Overall no significant difference in the capacity to induce depigmentations was observed between cryotherapy (46.7%) and laser therapy (42.9%) after one treatment. The percentage of induced depigmentation was significantly different according to the body location (P = 0.005) with best results on the trunk, followed by the arms, face, neck and less on the hands. Variables that positively influenced depigmentation results were a younger age of vitiligo onset (P = 0.012), skin type V (P cryotherapy and concerned mainly hyperpigmentation in the face. To our knowledge, this is the first study comparing head-to-head depigmentation strategies intra- and inter-individually. We could demonstrate that in general laser and cryotherapy are equally effective in inducing depigmentations in generalized vitiligo patients. Retreatment of the same area may be required in case of initial failure. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  9. Comparative study of the efficacy of different treatment options in patients with chronic blepharitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrúa, M; Samudio, M; Fariña, N; Cibils, D; Laspina, F; Sanabria, R; Carpinelli, L; Mino de Kaspar, H

    2015-03-01

    To compare the efficacy of 3 treatment options in patients with chronic blepharitis. An experimental, randomized, controlled study was conducted on 45 patients (female 67%; Mean age: 40.5 years) diagnosed with chronic blepharitis, in order to compare the effectiveness of three treatment options. Group 1: eyelid hygiene with neutral shampoo three times/day; group 2: neutral shampoo eyelid hygiene plus topical metronidazole gel 0.75% twice/day; group 3: neutral eyelid hygiene with shampoo plus neomycin 3.5% and polymyxin 10% antibiotic ointment with 0.5% dexamethasone 3 times/day. The symptoms and signs were assessed by assigning scores from 0: no symptoms and/or signs; 1: mild symptoms and/or signs, 2: moderate symptoms and/or signs; and 3: severe symptoms and/or signs. A significant improvement was observed in the signs and symptoms in all 3 treatment groups. While groups 1 and 2 had more improvement in all variables studied (P<.05), Group 3 showed no clinical improvement for itching (P=.16), dry eye (P=.29), eyelashes falling (P=.16), and erythema at the eyelid margin (P=.29). Shampoo eyelid hygiene neutral and neutral shampoo combined with the use of metronidazole gel reported better hygiene results than neutral shampoo lid with antibiotic ointment and neomycin and polymyxin dexamethasone. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative study of wastewater treatment and nutrient recycle via activated sludge, microalgae and combination systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Liu, Jinli; Zhao, Quanyu; Wei, Wei; Sun, Yuhan

    2016-07-01

    Algal-bacterial synergistic cultivation could be an optional wastewater treatment technology in temperate areas. In this study, a locally screened vigorous Chlorella strain was characterized and then it was used in a comparative study of wastewater treatment and nutrient recycle assessment via activated sludge (AS), microalgae and their combination systems. Chlorella sp. cultured with AS in light showed the best performance, in which case the removal efficiencies of COD, NH3-N and TP were 87.3%, 99.2% and 83.9%, respectively, within a short period of 1day. Algal-bacterial combination in light had the best settleability. Chlorella sp. contained biomass, could be processed to feed, fertilizer or fuel due to the improved quality (higher C/H/N) compared with sludge. PCR-DGGE analysis shows that two types of rhizobacteria, namely, Pseudomonas putida and Flavobacterium hauense were enriched in sludge when cultured with algae in light, serving as the basics for artificial consortium construction for improved wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative Study of Professional vs Mass Market Topical Products for Treatment of Facial Photodamage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Hilary; Wallander, Irmina; Schulte, Lacie; Goodier, Molly; Zelickson, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Many over the counter topical products claim to reverse the signs of cutaneous photo-damage. To date, the two most studied ingredients for improving the texture, tone, and pigmentation of the skin are topical retinoids and hydroquinone. This split face study compares a mass market skincare regimen with a prescription skin care regimen for improvement in photo damaged skin. Twenty-seven subjects with moderate photo damaged facial skin were enrolled. Each subject was consented and assigned with the mass market anti-aging system (Treatment A) to one side of the face and the prescription anti-aging system (Treatment B or Treatment C) to the other side of the face. Treatment B contained 13 subjects whom did not use 0.025% Retinol cream. Treatment C contained 14 subjects who used a 0.025% Retinol Cream. Subjects had 4 visits over 12 weeks for digital photography and surveys. Photographs were evaluated by blinded physicians. Physician objective analysis showed all three systems to have a statistically significant clinical improvement in photoaged skin seen in as little as 4 weeks of use. Participant's surveys rated the mass market system higher than both of the professional systems for visible skin changes, ease of use, and likelihood to recommend to a friend. Twelve of twenty-seven subjects preferred the mass market system for overall improvement while twelve thought each system gave the same improvement. This study demonstrates that a mass marketed skin care system can give similar clinical improvements in photo-aged skin as a professionally dispensed prescription system and the majority of participants preferred the mass-marketed system.

  12. The international comparative wood treatment study WOAM Freemantle 1987 - Trondheim 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Botfeldt, Knud Bo; Petersen, Maj Britt

    2016-01-01

    The project The international Comparative Wood Treatment Study was developed and launched under ICOM-WOAM by D. Grattan, Canadian Conservation Institute and F. Schweingruber, The Swiss Federal Forestry Institute. The project started in 1983 and at the Woam Conference in Freemantle in 1987 the many....... This paper evaluates and documents changes in the condition of the wood samples from the WOAM project in 1987, with focus on the PEG/water treated samples. In Trondheim, visual assessment and evaluation of the samples was performed, without removing the wood samples from the climate controlled storage...... PEG in the samples. With the exception of the samples treated with low molecular weight PEG (i.e. PEG 400), there are very few and very small changes in the samples 25 years (1987-2012) after treatment. Low molecular weight PEG has a good bulking effect on well-preserved wood, but has a negative...

  13. Treatment of industrial effluents using electron beam accelerator and adsorption with activated carbon. A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Las Casas, Alexandre

    2004-01-01

    Several methods are used In the pollutant removal from Industrial and domestic wastewater. However when the degradation of toxic organic pollutants, mainly the recalcitrant is objectified, the conventional treatments usually do not meet the desirable performance in the elimination or decrease the impact when the effluent are released to the environment what takes to the research of alternative methods that seek the improvement of the efficiency of the wastewater treatment systems jointly employees or separately. This work presents a study of degradation/removal of pollutants organic compounds comparing two methods using radiation from industrial electron beam and granular activated carbon (GAC). The removal efficiency of the pollutants was evaluated and it was verified that the efficiency of adsorption with activated carbon is similar to the radiation method. The obtained results allowed to evaluated the relative costs of these methods. (author)

  14. Comparative Study Between Intense Pulsed Light IPLAND Pulsed Dye Laser In The Treatment Of Striae Distensae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khalafawy, Gh.M.K.A.

    2013-01-01

    Pulsed dye laser (PDL) and Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) have been used to treat Striae Distensae (SD). Thirty patients with age ranging from 14 - 42 years were included in this study. Twenty patients were treated on one side of their bodies with PDL and on the other side with IPL while seven patients were treated on both sides by IPL and three patients were treated on both sides by PDL for five sessions with four weeks interval between sessions. Skin biopsies were stained with H and E, Masson Trichrome, Orcein, Alcian blue and anti-collagen I Α1. After both PDL and IPL treatments striae width was decreased and the texture was improved in a highly significant manners where P value was 0.001. Collagen expression was increased in a highly significant manner and P values were <0.001 and 0.004 after PDL and IPL treatments respectively. However, PDL induced expression of collagen I in a highly significant manner compared to the treatment with IPL where P values were <0.001 and 0.193 respectively. Striae rubra gave a superior response with either PDL or IPL compared to striae alba which was evaluated clinically by the width, color and texture, although the histological changes could not verify this consequence. Both PDL and IPL can enhance the clinical picture of striae through collagen stimulation therapeutic modalities

  15. Double blind, randomised study of continuous terbinafine compared with intermittent itraconazole in treatment of toenail onychomycosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, E Glyn V; Sigurgeirsson, Bárdur

    1999-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy and safety of continuous terbinafine with intermittent itraconazole in the treatment of toenail onychomycosis. Design Prospective, randomised, double blind, double dummy, multicentre, parallel group study lasting 72 weeks. Setting 35 centres in six European countries. Subjects 496 patients aged 18 to 75 years with a clinical and mycological diagnosis of dermatophyte onychomycosis of the toenail. Interventions Study patients were randomly divided into four parallel groups to receive either terbinafine 250 mg a day for 12 or 16 weeks (groups T12 and T16) or itraconazole 400 mg a day for 1 week in every 4 weeks for 12 or 16 weeks (groups I3 and I4). Main outcome measures Assessment of primary efficacy at week 72 was mycological cure, defined as negative results on microscopy and culture of samples from the target toenail. Results At week 72 the mycological cure rates were 75.7% (81/107) in the T12 group and 80.8% (80/99) in the T16 group compared with 38.3% (41/107) in the I3 group and 49.1 % (53/108) in the I4 group. All comparisons (T12 v I3, T12 v I4, T16 v I3, T16 v I4) showed significantly higher cure rates in the terbinafine groups (all Pterbinafine at week 72. There were no differences in the number or type of adverse events recorded in the terbinafine or itraconazole groups. Conclusion Continuous terbinafine is significantly more effective than intermittent itraconazole in the treatment of patients with toenail onychomycosis. Key messagesGiven a correct diagnosis, fungal nail disease (onychomycosis) is curableTerbinafine is an allylamine antifungal with a primarily fungicidal mode of actionContinuous terbinafine treatment over 12 or 16 weeks achieves higher rates of clinical and mycological cure than intermittent itraconazole given over the same periodsTerbinafine is safe and well tolerated over 12 or 16 weeks of continuous treatmentContinuous terbinafine should be the current treatment of choice for onychomycosis PMID

  16. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EFFICACY AND TOLERABILITY OF TRAMADOL AND ACECLOFENAC IN TREATMENT OF OSTEOARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganga

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is a leading cause of musculoskeletal disability in elderly patients. It is a slow evolving disorder causing degeneration of articular cartilage associated with symptoms of joint tenderness, stiffness and limitation of movement. These symptoms get more worsened with weight bearing and movement. Non-steroidal anti- inflammatory (NSAIDS drugs and often Opioid analgesics offers a symptomatic relief in the management of osteoarthritis. So, the present study is conducted to compare the efficacy and tolerability of Tramadol and Aceclofenac in patients of osteoarthritis. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study is a randomized, single centered, prospective clinical study and was conducted on 140 patients. INCLUSION CRITERIA Patients of sex, aged 40-60 years, suffering with symptoms of OA of knee who are radiologically diagnosed. EXCLUSION CRITERIA  Patients 60 years of age.  Patients with a history of peptic ulcers and hypersensitivity to NSAIDs/Opioids.  Patients with history of bleeding tendencies, cirrhosis and oesophageal varices.  Patients who have previously received Tramadol or Aceclofenac for treatment of osteoarthritis. After initial clinical assessment and baseline investigations, Aceclofenac tablet was given to 70 patients and Tramadol tablet was given orally to another 70 patients for 8 weeks. At the follow up, the results were analysed and compared statistically by paired t- test, unpaired t-test, Fischer’s exact test. RESULTS Aceclofenac has shown significant change than Tramadol in efficacy parameters like Western Ontario Mac Master (WOMAC scores (p<0.0001, joint tenderness (p<0.0001, investigator assessment for disease status (p=0.01 and response to therapy (p=0.038. Incidence of adverse effects is significant with Tramadol (p=0.02. DISCUSSION Aceclofenac was found superior than Tramadol in improving the patient’s clinical condition. Aceclofenac was found to be well tolerated than Tramadol in terms of

  17. A comparative study on 100% tca versus 88% phenol for the treatment of vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Puri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There are various medical and surgical modalities for the treatment of vitiligo. Surgical modalities are used in the patients who fail to respond to medical therapy. We selected thirty patients of stable vitiligo from the department of dermatology for the study. The patients were divided into two groups of 15 patients each. In Group I patients application of 100% TCA was done on the vitiliginous sites and in Group II patients 88% phenol was applied on the affected sites. Comparing the results of repigmentation in both the groups it was seen that marked pigmentation was seen in 66.6% patients in the TCA group and 80% in the Phenol group. Moderate pigmentation was seen in 13.3% patients in both the groups and mild pigmentation was seen in 20% patients in the TCA group and 6.6% in the Phenol group.

  18. Is tuberculosis treatment really free in China? A study comparing two areas with different management models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangsang Qiu

    Full Text Available China has implemented a free-service policy for tuberculosis. However, patients still have to pay a substantial proportion of their annual income for treatment of this disease. This study describes the economic burden on patients with tuberculosis; identifies related factors by comparing two areas with different management models; and provides policy recommendation for tuberculosis control reform in China.There are three tuberculosis management models in China: the tuberculosis dispensary model, specialist model and integrated model. We selected Zhangjiagang (ZJG and Taixing (TX as the study sites, which correspond to areas implementing the integrated model and dispensary model, respectively. Patients diagnosed and treated for tuberculosis since January 2010 were recruited as study subjects. A total of 590 patients (316 patients from ZJG and 274 patients from TX were interviewed with a response rate of 81%. The economic burden attributed to tuberculosis, including direct costs and indirect costs, was estimated and compared between the two study sites. The Mann-Whitney U Test was used to compare the cost differences between the two groups. Potential factors related to the total out-of-pocket costs were analyzed based on a step-by-step multivariate linear regression model after the logarithmic transformation of the costs.The average (median, interquartile range total cost was 18793.33 (9965, 3200-24400 CNY for patients in ZJG, which was significantly higher than for patients in TX (mean: 6598.33, median: 2263, interquartile range: 983-6688 (Z = 10.42, P < 0.001. After excluding expenses covered by health insurance, the average out-of-pocket costs were 14304.4 CNY in ZJG and 5639.2 CNY in TX. Based on the multivariable linear regression analysis, factors related to the total out-of-pocket costs were study site, age, number of clinical visits, residence, diagnosis delay, hospitalization, intake of liver protective drugs and use of the second

  19. A comparative study of pain following endodontic treatment under general anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feizi Ghader

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Postoperativee endodontic pain is an outstanding problem for dental patients. Therefore, a successful management of endodontic pain has become as one of the main dental objectives. The aim of the present study was to compare the postoperative endodontic pain in patients under general anesthesia versus local anesthesia.   Materials and Methods: For conducting this clinical trial study, 50 patients having mandibular molars candidate for root canal therapy were selected. Twenty-five patients treated under general anesthesia because of their fear, anxiety or gag reflex. Other 25 patients treated under local anesthesia. All teeth were prepared using engine-driven rotary system in a crown-down technique and filled using lateral condensation technique. Heft- parker visual analog scale was used to measure the degree of pain at 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours after the treatment. Mann-Whitney, Chi-square, and T-tests were used to compare the intensity of postoperative pain between the groups.   Results: The mean intensity of postoperative pain in local and general anesthesia groups at 6, 12 and 24 hours had statistically significant difference (P<0.05.   Conclusion: Postoperative pain in patients who treated under general anesthesia was significantly less than the patients who treated under local anesthesia.

  20. Treatment of lower ureteric stones by ESWL and ICPL: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M S; Shameem, I A; Alam, A K M K; Kibria, S A M G

    2005-12-01

    This study was carried-out to find-out better and effective treatment option for Lower Ureteric Stones (LUS) by comparing Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) with ureterorenoscopic (URS) Intracorporeal Pneumatic Lithotripsy (ICPL). A total of 60 patients attending the outpatient department of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) with lower ureteric stones were divided into two groups, 30 in group-I (URS + ICPL) and the remaining 30 in group-II (ESWL). In group-I, 60% were male with mean age of 32.76 years and in group-II, 40% were male with mean age of 36.23 years. The ratio of involvement of right to left ureter was 1.7:1. The mean stone size was 10.7 + 2.69 mm (SD) in group-I and 9.9 + 1.97 mm (SD) in group-II. The differences in age, sex and side of involvement of ureter were not significant (p > 0.05) between the two groups. Among the groups 24 (80%) in group-I and 26 (86.61%) of patients in group-II were found stone free. The post procedure loin pain, fever and haematuria were more common in group-I than in group-II. The LUTS and loin pain were significantly more in group-I than in group-II (p ESWL was found effective method than URS + ICPL for the treatment of lower ureteric stones.

  1. COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF EFFICACY OF PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY AND CRYOTHERAPY FOR TREATMENT OF ACTINIC KERATOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Sukhova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of a study on the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy with a photosensitizer fotoditazin and cryotherapy for actinic keratosis are represented in the article. The study included 80 patients with 215 lesions, among them erythematous form of actinic keratosis was diagnosed in 151 (70.2% cases, hyperkeratotic form – in 46 (21.4% cases, a pigmented form – in 12 (5.6% and an atypical variant of the disease – in 6 (2.8% cases. According to histological type the distribution of tumor was as follows: 19 (54.3% cases were diagnosed as hypertrophic type, 6 (17.1% – atrophic, 8 (22.9% – bowenoid and 2 (5.7% – pigmented type. Patients from the study group received one session of photodynamic therapy using laser unit "LAMI" (662 nm after 2 hours of application of fotoditazin 0.5% gel at dose of 0,2-0,3 ml per 1 cm2 of actinic keratosis focus with the following parameters: the energy density of the laser radiation – 200 J/cm2, power density – 0.14–0.48 W/cm2. In the control group patients underwent cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen with an exposure of 30-60 sec. The comparative analysis of the immediate results showed a tendency for the efficacy of photodynamic therapy to increase (the rate of complete regression was 92.5% compared with cryotherapy (85.0% (p>0,05. There were also a tendency for long-term results after photodynamic therapy to improve: three-year recurrence-free survival was 94.6% and 88.2%, respectively. For the photodynamic therapy there were significantly fewer adverse reactions, the epithelization time in lesions was significantly shorter. Compared with cryotherapy the photodynamic therapy provided significantly better cosmetic results (p <0.01, and can be used for out-patient treatment of patients with actinic keratosis.><0.01 and can be used for out-patient treatment of patients with actinic keratosis.

  2. Treatment of hypermyoglobinemia after CRS + HIPEC for patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis: A retrospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Ji, Zhong-He; Yu, Yang; Li, Xin-Bao; Zhang, Yan-Bin; Peng, Kai-Wen; Li, Yan

    2017-11-01

    This retrospective comparative study aims to explore the time courses of serum myoglobin (Mb) changes, and summarize our experience in treating patients with hypermyoglobinemia after cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC).This study covered 60 patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis treated with CRS + HIPEC as the study group, and another 25 cancer patients treated with conventional extensive surgery without HIPEC as the control group from February to October 2016. In the study group, patients with postoperative hypermyoglobinemia were on a comprehensive treatment regimen consisting intravenous injection of sodium bicarbonate solution according to the Mb level. In the control group, patients were recorded and treated with the same regimen except for special sodium bicarbonate solution. The preoperative and postoperative serum Mb, blood urine nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine (Cr) levels were evaluated.There were no significantly difference between the 2 groups in serum Mb, BUN, and Cr levels before surgery. Postoperative serum Mb levels were elevated in both groups and significantly higher on postoperative 0 to 2 days (P sodium bicarbonate could accelerate the reduction in serum Mb levels and reduce the risk for major organ damages.

  3. Risk of Suicidal Events With Atomoxetine Compared to Stimulant Treatment: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Stephan; Bussing, Regina; Kubilis, Paul; Gerhard, Tobias; Segal, Richard; Shuster, Jonathan J; Winterstein, Almut G

    2016-05-01

    Antidepressant effects on increased suicidality in children have raised public concern in recent years. Approved in 2002 for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treatment, the selective noradrenalin-reuptake-inhibitor atomoxetine was initially investigated for the treatment of depression. In post-hoc analyses of clinical trial data, atomoxetine has been associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation in children and adolescents. We analyzed whether the observed increased risk of suicidal ideation in clinical trials translates into an increased risk of suicidal events in pediatric patients treated with atomoxetine compared with stimulants in 26 Medicaid programs. Employing a retrospective cohort design, we used propensity score-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate the risk of suicide and suicide attempt in pediatric patients initiating treatment with atomoxetine compared with stimulants from 2002 to 2006. The first-line treatment cohort included 279 315 patients. During the first year of follow-up, the adjusted hazard ratio for current atomoxetine use compared with current stimulant use was 0.95 (95% CI 0.47-1.92, P = .88). The second-line treatment cohort included 220 215 patients. During the first year of follow-up, the adjusted hazard ratio for current atomoxetine use compared with current stimulant use was 0.71 (95% CI 0.30-1.67, P = .43). First- and second-line treatment of youths age 5 to 18 with atomoxetine compared with stimulants was not significantly associated with an increased risk of suicidal events. The low incidence of suicide and suicide attempt resulted in wide confidence intervals and did not allow stratified analysis of high-risk groups or assessment of suicidal risk associated with long-term use of atomoxetine. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. PSYCHOSEXUAL FUNCTIONING AFTER TREATMENT FOR CANCER OF THE CERVIX - A COMPARATIVE AND LONGITUDINAL-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHULTZ, WCMW; VANDEWIEL, HBM; BOUMA, J

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-six couples participated in a 2-year longitudinal study of sexual functioning before and after treatment for carcinoma of the cervix. Sexual functioning was measured on admission prior to their treatment and at 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up and made operational in terms of current sexual

  5. Comparative Effectiveness of Treatment Choices for Graves' Hyperthyroidism: A Historical Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresh, Vishnu; Brito, Juan P; Thapa, Prabin; Bahn, Rebecca S; Stan, Marius N

    2017-04-01

    The optimum therapy for Graves' disease (GD) is chosen following discussion between physician and patient regarding benefits, drawbacks, potential side effects, and logistics of the various treatment options, and it takes into account patient values and preferences. This cohort study aimed to provide useful information for this discussion regarding the usage, efficacy, and adverse-effect profile of radioactive iodine (RAI), antithyroid drugs (ATDs), and thyroidectomy in a tertiary healthcare facility. The cohort included consecutive adults diagnosed with GD from January 2002 to December 2008, who had complete follow-up after treatment at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Data on treatment modalities, disease relapses, and adverse effects were extracted manually and electronically from the electronic medical records. Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed to evaluate the association of treatments with relapse-free survival. The cohort included 720 patients with a mean age of 49.3 years followed for a mean of 3.3 years. Of these, 76.7% were women and 17.1% were smokers. The initial therapy was RAI in 75.4%, ATDs in 16.4%, and thyroidectomy in 2.6%, while 5.6% opted for observation. For the duration of follow-up, ATDs had an overall failure rate of 48.3% compared with 8% for RAI (hazard ratio = 7.6; p < 0.0001). Surgery had a 100% success rate; 80% of observed patients ultimately required therapy. Adverse effects developed in 43 (17.3%) patients treated with ATDs, most commonly dysgeusia (4.4%), rash (2.8%), nausea/gastric distress (2.4%), pruritus (1.6%), and urticaria (1.2%). Eight patients treated with RAI experienced radiation thyroiditis (1.2%). Thyroidectomy resulted in one (2.9%) hematoma and one (2.85%) superior laryngeal nerve damage, with no permanent hypocalcemia. RAI was the most commonly used modality within the cohort and demonstrated the best efficacy and safety profile. Surgery was also very effective and relatively safe in the hands of

  6. A Clinical Pilot Study Comparing Sweet Bee Venom parallel treatment with only Acupuncture Treatment in patient diagnosed with lumbar spine sprain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Yong-jeen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was carried out to compare the Sweet Bee Venom (referred to as Sweet BV hereafter acupuncture parallel treatment to treatment with acupuncture only for the patient diagnosed with lumbar spine sprain and find a better treatment. Methods: The subjects were patients diagnosed with lumbar spine sprain and hospitalized at Suncheon oriental medical hospital, which was randomly divided into sweet BV parallel treatment group and acupuncture-only group, and other treatment conditions were maintained the same. Then,VAS (Visual Analogue Scale was used to compare the difference in the treatment period between the two groups from VAS 10 to VAS 0, from VAS 10 to VAS 5, and from VAS 5 to VAS 0. Result & Conclusion: Sweet BV parallel treatment group and acupuncture-only treatment group were compared regarding the respective treatment period, and as the result, the treatment period from VAS 10 to VAS 5 was significantly reduced in sweet BV parallel treatment group compared to the acupuncture-only treatment group, but the treatment period from VAS 5 to VAS 0 did not show a significant difference. Therefore, it can be said that sweet BV parallel treatment is effective in shortening the treatment period and controlling early pain compared to acupuncture-only treatment.

  7. Comparative study between cryotherapy and salicylic acid in the treatment of plantar warts in Erbil - Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Naz Hoshyar Muhamad Tahir; Alaa Abdulrahman Sulaiman

    2018-01-01

    Background and objective: Plantar warts are hard, grainy growths that usually appear on the heels or balls of feet. Plantar warts are caused by the human papillomavirus, usually self-limiting, but treatment is generally recommended to lessen symptoms, decrease duration, and reduce transmission. The study aimed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of topical 40% salicylic acid in comparison to cryotherapy in the treatment of plantar wart. Methods: This study was conducted from March 2...

  8. Utilization of two different surgical techniques in gingival recession treatment: A comparative study

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    Bajić Miljan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gingival recession is a displacement of gingival margin apically to cementenamel junction. Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the results achieved with two different surgical procedures used in gingival recession treatment. Methods. Ten patients with bilateral buccal recession on maxillary canines or premolars were included in the study. Professional teeth cleaning was performed before surgery. Recession on the experimental side was treated with connective tissue graft in combination with coronally advanced, split thickness flap (tunnel technique. Control side recession was treated with connective tissue graft in combination with trapezoidal coronally advanced, full thickness flap. Coin toss was used for side decision. The following parameters were evaluated before surgery and 6 months post-op: Vertical Recession Dimension, Clinical Attachment Level, Apico-coronal width of the keratinized tissue, Healing index (Laundry, RES index, and Patient evaluation of esthetic results. Student’s t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results. Six months after surgery, mean root coverage was 91.5±14.1% and 90.1±14.6% on the experimental and on the control side, respectively. RES index, Healing index (Laundry and Patient Subjective evaluation of esthetic results showed significantly better results (p≤0.05. Conclusion. Both surgical procedures produce highly successful clinical results based on evaluated parameters, but this tunnel technique provides significantly better esthetic results. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 41008: Interakcija etiopatogenetskih mehanizama parodontopatije i periimplantitisa sa sistemskim bolestima današnjice

  9. A comparative study of olanzapine versus asenapine in acute treatment of manic episode: A 3-week prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeet Sidana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Treatment of bipolar disorders has evolved over the years from conventional mood stabilizers to second-generation antipsychotics. Among the atypical antipsychotics, few have been approved by Food and Drug Administration as treatment of bipolar disorders. Aim: To study the efficacy and tolerability of olanzapine and asenapine in the acute treatment of bipolar disorder-manic episode in a 3-week randomized prospective study. Materials and Methods: A 3-week randomized, prospective, comparative, flexible doses of olanzapine (5-30 mg/day and asenapine (10-20 mg/day for acute treatment of bipolar disorder-current manic episode with or without psychotic symptoms in hospitalized patients. Results: The end-point reduction in mean score of Young Mania rating scale in the olanzapine group was 15.82 in comparison to 6.88 in the asenapine group. Mean score on clinical global impression for bipolar disorder and positive and negative syndrome scale was significantly less in the olanzapine group at the end of the study. 81.81% patients in olanzapine group and 17.60% patients in asenapine group had clinical response. There was significant average weight gain in the olanzapine group - 1.9 kg in comparison to 0.87 kg in asenapine group. Conclusion: The clinical response with olanzapine is significantly higher than the asenapine in the treatment of bipolar disorder-manic episode with or without psychotic symptoms. However, there is significant weight gain in olanzapine-treated patients.

  10. Comparative study of 2 commissural dorsal flap techniques for the treatment of congenital syndactyly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, Cindy; Ilharreborde, Brice; Jehanno, Pascal; Litzelmann, Estelle; Valenti, Philippe; Mazda, Keyvan; Penneçot, Georges-François; Fitoussi, Franck

    2013-03-01

    Many commissural reconstruction techniques have been described for the treatment of syndactyly. This study is the first to compare long-term results of 2 commissural dorsal flap procedures (T-flap and omega-flap). Fifty-nine web-spaces in 39 patients, operated on between 1991 and 2008, were retrospectively analyzed. Thirty-six T-flap and 23 omega-flap procedures were performed using full-thickness skin graft in every case for digital resurfacing. Factors that could affect the long-term outcome were collected, including development of web-creep, clinodactyly, and flexion contracture. Patients were reviewed with a mean follow-up of 5 years and 8 months. Preoperative complexity of syndactyly influenced the development of clinodactyly and flexion contracture. Among the patients who developed clinodactyly, 96% had surgery for complex syndactyly. No difference was found between the 2 flap methods concerning digital deformation and mobility. However, web-creep occurred more frequently after T-flap than after omega-flap procedures (17% vs. 5%). The combination of either dorsal commissural T-flaps or omega-flaps with full-thickness graft to resurface digits is a reliable technique for the treatment of syndactyly with satisfactory functional and cosmetic results. Long-term results are not influenced by the type of flap. Nevertheless, the omega-flap technique, using 2 triangular lateral-palmar flaps, avoids use of skin graft to cover lateral-palmar aspects of the new commissure, consequently reducing the incidence of web-creep. In cases of syndactyly, the primary prognostic factor is whether the patient has simple or complex syndactyly. In complex syndactyly, the risk of long-term unfavorable results is higher. When complex complicated syndactyly is involved, postoperative complication rates increase. Level III.

  11. Comparative study of 15% TCA peel versus 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Neerja

    2012-05-01

    Chemical peels are the mainstay of a cosmetic practitioner's armamentarium because they can be used to treat some skin disorders and can provide aesthetic benefit. To compare 15% TCA peel and 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma. We selected 30 participants of melasma aged between 20 and 50 years from the dermatology outpatient department and treated equal numbers with 15% TCA and 35% glycolic acid. Subjective response as graded by the patient showed good or very good response in 70% participants in the glycolic acid group and 64% in the TCA group. There was statistically insignificant difference in the efficacy between the two groups for the treatment of melasma.

  12. A comparative study of combined periodontal and orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances and clear aligners in patients with periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose With the increasing prevalence of orthodontic treatment in adults, clear aligner treatments are becoming more popular. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of orthodontic treatment on periodontal tissue and to compare orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances (FA) to clear aligner treatment (CAT) in periodontitis patients. Methods A total of 35 patients who underwent orthodontic treatment in the Department of Periodontology were included in this study. After periodontal treatment with meticulous oral hygiene education, patients underwent treatment with FA or CAT, and this study analyzed patient outcomes depending on the treatment strategy. Clinical parameters were assessed at baseline and after orthodontic treatment, and the duration of treatment was compared between these two groups. Results The overall plaque index, the gingival index, and probing depth improved after orthodontic treatment (Porthodontic treatment, clinical parameters were improved in the FA and CAT groups with meticulous oral hygiene education and plaque control. Regarding plaque index and gingival index, no significant differences were found between these two groups. We suggest that combined periodontal and orthodontic treatment can improve patients’ periodontal health irrespective of orthodontic techniques. PMID:26734489

  13. A treatment planning study comparing helical tomotherapy with intensity-modulated radiotherapy for the treatment of anal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Kurian Jones; Syme, Alasdair; Small, Cormac; Warkentin, Heather; Quon, Harvey; Ghosh, Sunita; Field, Colin; Pervez, Nadeem; Tankel, Keith; Patel, Samir; Usmani, Nawaid; Severin, Diane; Nijjar, Tirath; Fallone, Gino; Pedersen, John

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: A planning study to compare helical tomotherapy (HT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for the treatment of anal canal cancer. Materials and methods: Sixteen (8 males and 8 females) patients with anal cancer previously treated radically were identified. HT and IMRT plans were generated and dosimetric comparisons of the plans were performed. The planning goals were to deliver 54 Gy to the tumor (PTV 54Gy ) and 48 Gy to the nodes at risk (PTV Node ) in 30 fractions. Results: PTVs: HT plans were more homogeneous for both men and women. Male patients: HT vs. IMRT: D max : 55.87 ± 0.58 vs. 59.17 ± 3.24 (p = 0.036); D min : 52.91 ± 0.36 vs. 44.09 ± 6.84 (p = 0.012); female patients: HT vs. IMRT: D max : 56.14 ± 0.71 vs. 59.47 ± 0.81 (p = 0.012); D min : 52.36 ± 0.87 vs. 50.97 ± 1.42 (p = 0.028). OARs: In general, HT plans delivered a lower dose to the peritoneal cavity, external genitalia and the bladder and IMRT plans resulted in greater sparing of the pelvic bones (iliac crest/femur) for both men and women. Iliac crest/femur: the difference was significant only for the mean V10 Gy of iliac crest in women (p ≤ 0.012). External genitalia: HT plans achieved better sparing in women compared to men (p ≤ 0.046). For men, the mean doses were 18.96 ± 3.17 and 15.72 ± 3.21 for the HT and IMRT plan, respectively (p ≤ 0.017). Skin: both techniques achieved comparable sparing of the non-target skin (p = NS). Conclusions: HT and IMRT techniques achieved comparable target dose coverage and organ sparing, whereas HT plans were more homogeneous for both men and women.

  14. Successful treatment of acne keloidalis nuchae with erbium:YAG laser: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamil, Hend D; Khater, Elsayed M; Khattab, Fathia M; Khalil, Mona A

    2018-05-14

    Acne keloidalis nuchae (AKN) is a chronic inflammatory disease involving hair follicles of the neck. It is a form of keloidal scarring alopecia that is often refractory to medical or surgical management. To evaluate the efficacy of Er:YAG laser in the treatment of AKN as compared to long pulsed Nd:YAG laser. This study was conducted on 30 male patients with AKN. Their ages ranged from 19 to 47 years with a mean age of 36.87 ± 7.8 years. Patients were divided randomly into two groups of 15 patients, each receiving six sessions of either Er:YAG or long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser therapy. A statistically significant decrease in the number of papules was detected at the end of therapy in both groups, with a mean of 91.8% improvement in the Er:YAG group versus 88% in the Nd:YAG group. A significant decrease in plaques count was detected only in the Er: YAG group while a significant decrease in plaques size and consistency was recorded in both groups. The Er: YAG laser proved to be a potentially effective and safe modality both in the early and late AKN lesions.

  15. INTRALESIONAL PLATELET RICH PLASMA vs INTRALESIONAL TRIAMCINOLONE IN THE TREATMENT OF ALOPECIA AREATA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumez H, Prasad PVS, Kaviarasan PK, Deepika R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alopecia areata (AA is a chronic non-scarring alopecia that involves the scalp and/or body, and is characterized by patchy areas of hair loss without any signs of clinical inflammation. Various therapies have been proposed for their treatment.But none have been shown to alter the course of the disease. Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP is a volume of autologous plasma that has a high platelet concentration. Growth factors released from platelets may act on stem cells in the bulge area of the follicles, stimulating the development of new follicles and promoting neovascularization. Aim: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of intralesional injection of autologous platelet rich plasma with intralesional injection of triamcinolone acetonide (10mg/ml in the treatment of alopecia areata. Methodology: 74 patients with alopecia areata were allocated into 2 groups and treated with triamcinolone and PRP injections. Treatment outcome was measured by taking into account extent and density of regrowth of hair and was expressed as a percentage of overall growth. Results: Forty eight patients were treated with triamcinolone injections and 26 patients were treated with PRP injections. Patients treated with PRP had an earlier response at the end of 6weeks than patients treated with triamcinolone. However, this difference was statistically insignificant. The overall improvement at the end of 9 weeks was 100% for all patients in both groups. Conclusion: PRP is a safe, simple, biocompatible and effective procedure for the treatment of alopecia areata with efficacy comparable with triamcinolone.

  16. Efficacy of Influenza Vaccination and Tamiflu? Treatment ? Comparative Studies with Eurasian Swine Influenza Viruses in Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Duerrwald, Ralf; Schlegel, Michael; Bauer, Katja; Vissiennon, Th?ophile; Wutzler, Peter; Schmidtke, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological developments demonstrated that gene segments of swine influenza A viruses can account for antigenic changes as well as reduced drug susceptibility of pandemic influenza A viruses. This raises questions about the efficacy of preventive measures against swine influenza A viruses. Here, the protective effect of vaccination was compared with that of prophylactic Tamiflu® treatment against two Eurasian swine influenza A viruses. 11-week-old pigs were infected by aerosol nebu...

  17. Treatment of unicameral bone cyst: a comparative study of selected techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Hsien-Yang; Wu, Karl; Wang, Chen-Ti; Chang, Shun-Min; Lin, Wei-Hsin; Yang, Rong-Sen

    2010-04-01

    There is a variety of treatment modalities for unicameral bone cysts, with variable outcomes reported in the literature. Although good initial outcomes have been reported, the success rate has often changed with longer-term follow-up. We introduce a novel, minimally invasive treatment method and compare its clinical outcomes with those of other methods of treatment of this lesion. From February 1994 to April 2008, forty patients with a unicameral bone cyst were treated with one of four techniques: serial percutaneous steroid and autogenous bone-marrow injection (Group 1, nine patients); open curettage and grafting with a calcium sulfate bone substitute either without instrumentation (Group 2, twelve patients) or with internal instrumentation (Group 3, seven patients); or minimally invasive curettage, ethanol cauterization, disruption of the cystic boundary, insertion of a synthetic calcium sulfate bone-graft substitute, and placement of a cannulated screw to provide drainage (Group 4, twelve patients). Success was defined as radiographic evidence of a healed cyst or of a healed cyst with some defect according to the modified Neer classification, and failure was defined as a persistent or recurrent cyst that needed additional treatment. Patients who sustained a fracture during treatment were also considered to have had a failure. The outcome parameters included the radiographically determined healing rate, the time to solid union, and the total number of procedures needed. The follow-up time ranged from eighteen to eighty-four months. Group-4 patients had the highest radiographically determined healing rate. Healing was seen in eleven of the twelve patients in that group compared with three of the nine in Group 1, eight of the twelve in Group 2, and six of the seven in Group 3. Group-4 patients also had the shortest mean time to union: 3.7 +/- 2.3 months compared with 23.4 +/- 14.9, 12.2 +/- 8.5, and 6.6 +/- 4.3 months in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. This new

  18. Comparative Study of Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate after Aminoglycoside and Aminocyclitol Treatment in Goats (Capra hircus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toncho DINEV

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to follow up the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR in healthy female goats during and after 5-day parenteral treatment with amikacin (10 mg/kg, tobramycin (5 mg/kg, apramycin (20 mg/kg, gentamicin (4 mg/kg, kanamycin (10 mg/kg and spectinomycin (20 mg/kg. Gentamicin and tobramycin caused an initial increase followed by a significant decrease of ESR on the 5th day for gentamicin and the 10th day for tobramycin, respectively, followed by recovery after the treatment. Reversely, amikacin and especially spectinomycin produced an increase of ESR without recovery several days post treatment. Kanamycin caused decrease of ESR on the 5th day without recovery in the subsequent days. Only apramycin did not give rise to increasing of ESR. In conclusion the aminoglycosides, especially tobramycin and gentamicin, caused more severe alterations of ESR than the aminocyclitols.

  19. Single and multiple dose Fluconazole in the treatment of candidia vulvovaginitis: a prospective comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashrafinia M

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available  Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis, the most common type of vaginitis, is usually caused by Candidia albicans. Patients experience a variety of symptoms. There are many types of vulvovaginal candidiasis with various microbial causes, symptoms, host circumstances, recurrence rates, and responses to treatment. The purpose of this study was to find the best method of treatment of complicated vaginitis as determined by its high prevalence, varying symptoms and signs and patient complaints.Methods: In this open clinical trial without placebo control, we studied all patients aged 18 to 65 years, suffering from vaginitis symptoms that presented at the gynecological clinic of Arash Hospital, Tehran, Iran, during the year 2004. After obtaining informed consent, we assessed the response to a treatment of single 150 mg dose of fluconazole in one group, and sequential 150 mg doses of fluconazole in the other. The analysis was performed using SPSS statistical software (version 11.Results: With regard to symptom severity, no significant difference was found between the groups. The rate of excoriation and fissure formation demonstrated significant difference between the two groups (p=0.048. Assessment of clinical and mycological response proved that patients with severe vaginitis treated with sequential doses of fluconazole had a better general status than those in the other group. The difference between the severity of vaginitis and positive response to the treatment in culture was not significant among patients with recurrent vaginitis.Conclusion: Patients with mild to moderate recurrent vaginitis show better response to treatment. The high rate of positive culture on day 35 reconfirms the limitation of fluconazole and other azoles as fungistatic drugs.

  20. A comparative study of combined periodontal and orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances and clear aligners in patients with periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ji-Young

    2015-12-01

    With the increasing prevalence of orthodontic treatment in adults, clear aligner treatments are becoming more popular. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of orthodontic treatment on periodontal tissue and to compare orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances (FA) to clear aligner treatment (CAT) in periodontitis patients. A total of 35 patients who underwent orthodontic treatment in the Department of Periodontology were included in this study. After periodontal treatment with meticulous oral hygiene education, patients underwent treatment with FA or CAT, and this study analyzed patient outcomes depending on the treatment strategy. Clinical parameters were assessed at baseline and after orthodontic treatment, and the duration of treatment was compared between these two groups. The overall plaque index, the gingival index, and probing depth improved after orthodontic treatment (P<0.01). The overall bone level also improved (P=0.045). However, the bone level changes in the FA and CAT groups were not significantly different. Significant differences were found between the FA and CAT groups in probing depth, change in probing depth, and duration of treatment (P<0.05). However, no significant differences were found between the FA and CAT groups regarding the plaque index, changes in the plaque index, the gingival index, changes in the gingival index, or changes in the alveolar bone level. The percentage of females in the CAT group (88%) was significantly greater than in the FA group (37%) (P<0.01). After orthodontic treatment, clinical parameters were improved in the FA and CAT groups with meticulous oral hygiene education and plaque control. Regarding plaque index and gingival index, no significant differences were found between these two groups. We suggest that combined periodontal and orthodontic treatment can improve patients' periodontal health irrespective of orthodontic techniques.

  1. Comparative study of 6 MV and 15 MV treatment plans for large chest wall irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasana Sarathy, N.; Kothanda Raman, S.; Sen, Dibyendu; Pal, Bipasha

    2007-01-01

    Conventionally, opposed tangential fields are used for the treatment of chest wall irradiation. If the chest wall is treated in the linac, 4 or 6 MV photons will be the energy of choice. It is a welI-established rule that for chest wall separations up to 22 cm, one can use mid-energies, with acceptable volume of hot spots. For larger patient sizes (22 cm and above), mid-energy beams produce hot spots over large volumes. The purpose of this work is to compare plans made with 6 and 15 MV photons, for patients with large chest wall separations. The obvious disadvantage in using high-energy photons for chest wall irradiation is inadequate dose to the skin. But this can be compensated by using a bolus of suitable thickness

  2. COMPARATIVE STUDY CONCERNING THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT HERBICIDE TREATMENT IN ONION CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan OROIAN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study was performed concerning the action of three herbicides (Pantera 40 CE, Fusilade Super and Agil 100 EC on onion culture. The Amstrong onion hybrid was used on clay - aluviovertic chernosem, with NPK fertilization (N80P80K80 during the preparation of the germinative bed. The unfavorable climatic conditions infl uence the effi cacy of the post-emergent applied herbicides, but signifi cant differences were recorded between variants treated with different products. When Pantera 40 CE was used, phytotoxicity phenomena materialized by temporary discoloration of the plants were not recorded, compared to the results obtained when the other herbicides were used. The use of Pantera 40 CE led to the most important production gain, with 9.8% compared to Fusilade super and 4.8% with Agil 100 EC.

  3. A comparative study of thoracoscopic sympathicotomy versus local surgical treatment for axillary hyperhidrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Erik; Licht, Peter B

    2013-01-01

    Axillary hyperhidrosis affects approximately 1.4% of the population. Medical management is often frustrating, and the response generally transient. Surgical methods include thoracoscopic sympathectomy or sympathicotomy and local axillary surgery such as suction-curettage or en-bloc skin resection....... Many case series with retrospective follow-up are available in the literature, but no comparative studies between surgical techniques have been published....

  4. Detection of radiation treatment of dry plant extracts by thermoluminescence and pulsed photostimulated luminescence. Comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, K.; Malec-Czechowska, K.; Stachowicz, W.; Guzik, G.

    2009-01-01

    Results of the examination of the variety of dry plant extracts (Thyme extract, Celery seed extract, Artichoke extract, Citrus aurantium extract and others) by two different detection methods are described. Both PSL and TL methods are presented and discussed. Comparative study based on the analysis of the results obtained by thermoluminescence (TL) and photostimulated luminescence (PSL) measurements delivered the arguments that preselection of detection methods based on model studies is rational to be adapted in analytical laboratories specialized in the detection of irradiated foods. (authors)

  5. Comparative studies on the differently operated trains of the North-Budapest Wastewater Treatment Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobbágy, A; Palkó, Gy; Weinpel, T; Makó, M

    2012-01-01

    In order to reduce the pollution load of the Danube, the North-Budapest Wastewater Treatment Plant has been upgraded to enhanced nitrogen removal by establishing a new activated sludge treatment line and modifying the existing unit for nitrification and denitrification. As both the influent flow rate and the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD(5)) and total suspended solids (TSS) concentration levels remained far below the design values, setting one fourth of the reactor volume out of operation in the Old Line, and operating the nitrification reactor of the New Line with part-time aeration proved to be possible. Analytical data as well as simulation studies supported the advantage of the intermittent-aeration process in efficient N-removal. However, the lengths of the aerated periods have to be increased with decreasing temperature, and thereby effluent total nitrogen (TN) concentration can increase due to decreasing denitrification efficiency. Potential occurrence of low-dissolved oxygen (DO) bulking should be hindered through applying an efficient anoxic selector system.

  6. Cytokine expression in human osteoblasts after antiseptic treatment: a comparative study between polyhexanide and chlorhexidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhner, Eric; Hoff, Paula; Gaber, Timo; Lang, Annemarie; Vörös, Pauline; Buttgereit, Frank; Perka, Carsten; Windisch, Christoph; Matziolis, Georg

    2015-02-01

    Chlorhexidine and polyhexanide are frequently used antiseptics in clinical practice and have a broad antimicrobial range. Both antiseptics are helpful medical agents for septic wound treatment with a high potential for defeating joint infections. Their effect on human osteoblasts has, so far, not been sufficiently evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate the activating potential of polyhexanide and chlorhexidine on inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in human osteoblasts in vitro. Human osteoblasts were isolated and cultivated in vitro and then treated separately with 0.1% and 2% chlorhexidine and 0.04% polyhexanide as commonly applied concentrations in clinical practice. Detection of cell structure and cell morphology was performed by light microscopic inspection. Cytokine and chemokine secretion was determined by using a multiplex suspension array. Cell shrinking, defective cell membrane, and the loss of cell adhesion indicated cell damage of human osteoblasts after treatment with both antiseptics was evaluated by using light microscopy. Polyhexanide, but not chlorhexidine, caused human osteoblasts to secrete various interleukins (1β, 6, and 7), interferon γ, tumor necrosis factor α, vascular endothelial growth factor, eotaxin, fibroblast growth factor basic, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor as quantified by multiplex suspension array. Both antiseptics induced morphological cell damage at an optimum exposure between 1 and 10 min. But only polyhexanide mediated a pronounced secretion of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in human osteoblasts. Therefore, we recommend a preferred usage of chlorhexidine in septic surgery to avoid the induction of an inflammatory reaction.

  7. Comparative study of quantal and semiclassical treatments of charge transfer between O+ and He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L. B.; Joseph, D. C.; Saha, B. C.; Liebermann, H. P.; Funke, P.; Buenker, R. J.

    2009-03-01

    A comparative study for the electron capture process O+(S40,D20,P20)+He→O(P3)+He+ is reported. The cross sections are calculated using fully quantal and semiclassical molecular-orbital close-coupling (MOCC) approaches in the adiabatic representation. Detailed comparison of transition probabilities and cross sections is made from both MOCC approaches and displays close agreement above ˜125eV/u . The remarkable discrepancies between the earlier semiclassical and quantal MOCC approaches may be attributed to the insufficient step-size resolution in their semiclassical calculation [M. Kimura , Phys. Rev. A 50, 4854 (1994)]. Our results have also been compared with experiment and found to be in good agreement.

  8. Comparative feasibility study on retrofitting ballast water treatment system for a bulk carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Jaehoon; Lee, Sangick

    2017-06-30

    Use of ballast water in ships causes harmful effects on marine environment accompanied by economic loss and negative impact on ecosystem and human health. To solve these problems, the international convention on ballast water management will take into force in September 2017. In this study, a comprehensive feasibility of retrofitting the ballast water treatment system for an ocean-going bulk carrier was conducted. The technologies involved, installation and operational aspects of direct flow and side stream electrolysis, UV, and ozone type BWTS are described in detail. The principal concept of each BWTS is explained and probable arrangements of retrofitting in engine room are suggested. The cost analysis is carried out for retrofitting 4 types of BWTS onboard the target ship by examining each processes of installation and operation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative study between biofeedback retraining and botulinum neurotoxin in the treatment of anismus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Mohamed; El Monem, Hisham Abd; Omar, Waleed; El Nakeeb, Ayman; Fikry, Amir; Youssef, Tamer; Yousef, Mohamed; Ghazy, Hosam; Fouda, Elyamani; El Metwally, Teto; Khafagy, Wael; Ahmed, Sabry; El Awady, Salih; Morshed, Mosaad; El Lithy, Ramadan

    2009-01-01

    Anismus is a significant cause of chronic constipation. This study came to revive the results of BFB training and BTX-A injection in the treatment of anismus patients. Forty-eight patients with anismus (33 women; mean age 39.6 +/- 15.9) were included in this study. All patients fulfilled Rome II criteria for functional constipation. All patients underwent anorectal manometry, balloon expulsion test, defecography, and electromyography (EMG) activity of the EAS. All patients had non-relaxing puborectalis muscle. The patients were randomized into two groups. Group I patients received biofeedback therapy, two times per week for about 1 month. Group II patients were injected with BTX-A. Follow-up was conducted weekly in the first month then monthly for about 1 year. In the BFB training group, three patients quit before the end of sessions with no improvement; initial improvement was recorded in 12 patients (50%) while long-term success was recorded in six patients (25%). In the BTX-A group, clinical improvement was recorded in 17 patients (70.83%), but the improvement persisted only in eight patients (33.3%). There is a significant difference between BTX-A group and BFB group regarding the initial success, but this significant difference disappeared at the end of follow-up. Manometric relaxation was achieved significantly post-BFB and post-BTX-A injection with no significant difference between the two groups. Biofeedback training has a limited therapeutic effect on patients suffering from anismus. BTX-A injection seems to be successful for temporary treatment of anismus.

  10. Comparative study of low dose 131I treatment in patients with Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Lan; Shan Menglin; Wang Junqi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the low dose 131 I therapy for Graves' disease we compared the results of 277 patients in our department with the report of Howarth D et al. Methods: 277 patients were classified as 45 Gy group and 77 Gy group according to the dose level. The results of these two groups were compared separately with results of 60 Gy group and 90 Gy group reported by Howarth D et al. Results: The euthyroidism rate and hypothyroidism rate among these four groups had no significant statistical difference after 6 months of 131 I therapy, but there were high significant statistical difference between our study and Howarth D research about euthyroidism rate and hypothyroidism rate 24 months later. Conclusion: The low dose 131 i management refered by Howarth D et al was an effective method for Graves' disease which could reduce or delay the incidence of hypothyroidism. Our study show that subsection on the foundation of this low dose procedure could further reduce the incidence of hypothyroidism and improve the euthyroidism rate. (authors)

  11. A comparative study of five centrally acting drugs on the pharmacological treatment of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suplicy, H; Boguszewski, C L; dos Santos, C M C; do Desterro de Figueiredo, M; Cunha, D R; Radominski, R

    2014-08-01

    No long-term studies have compared centrally acting drugs for treating obesity. To compare the efficacy and safety of diethylpropion (DEP), fenproporex (FEN), mazindol (MZD), fluoxetine (FXT) and sibutramine (SIB) in promoting weight loss. A prospective, randomized, placebo (PCB)-controlled study conducted at a single academic institution. A total of 174 obese premenopausal women. Participants randomly received DEP 75 mg (n=28), FEN 25 mg (n=29), MZD 2 mg (n=29), SIB 15 mg (n=30), FXT 20 mg (n=29) or PCB (n=29) daily over 52 weeks. Diet and physical activity were encouraged. The primary endpoints were changes in body weight and the proportion of women who achieved at least 5% weight loss by week 52 in the intent-to-treat population. Other measurements included anthropometry, safety, metabolic and cardiovascular parameters. Weight loss was greater than PCB (-3.1±4.3 kg) with DEP (-10.0±6.4 kg; Pobese premenopausal women, with a satisfactory benefit-risk profile.

  12. Treatment of Advanced Glaucoma Study: a multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing primary medical treatment with primary trabeculectomy for people with newly diagnosed advanced glaucoma-study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Anthony J; Fernie, Gordon; Azuara-Blanco, Augusto; Burr, Jennifer M; Garway-Heath, Ted; Sparrow, John M; Vale, Luke; Hudson, Jemma; MacLennan, Graeme; McDonald, Alison; Barton, Keith; Norrie, John

    2017-10-26

    Presentation with advanced glaucoma is the major risk factor for lifetime blindness. Effective intervention at diagnosis is expected to minimise risk of further visual loss in this group of patients. To compare clinical and cost-effectiveness of primary medical management compared with primary surgery for people presenting with advanced open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Design : A prospective, pragmatic multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT). Twenty-seven UK hospital eye services. Four hundred and forty patients presenting with advanced OAG, according to the Hodapp-Parish-Anderson classification of visual field loss. Participants will be randomised to medical treatment or augmented trabeculectomy (1:1 allocation minimised by centre and presence of advanced disease in both eyes). The primary outcome is vision-related quality of life measured by the National Eye Institute-Visual Function Questionnaire-25 at 24 months. Secondary outcomes include generic EQ-5D-5L, Health Utility Index-3 and glaucoma-related health status (Glaucoma Utility Index), patient experience, visual field measured by mean deviation value, logarithm of the mean angle of resolution visual acuity, intraocular pressure, adverse events, standards for driving and eligibility for blind certification. Incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) based on EQ-5D-5L and glaucoma profile instrument will be estimated. The study will report the comparative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of medical treatment against augmented trabeculectomy in patients presenting with advanced glaucoma in terms of patient-reported health and visual function, clinical outcomes and incremental cost per QALY at 2 years. Treatment of Advanced Glaucoma Study will be the first RCT reporting outcomes from the perspective of those with advanced glaucoma. ISRCTN56878850, Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial

  13. Effect of inner membrane tearing in the treatment of adult chronic subdural hematoma: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaci, Selim; Kanat, Ayhan; Koksal, Vaner; Ozdemir, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    The postoperative results of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) procedures using catheterization and tearing of inner membrane (CTIM) technique have not previously been discussed in the literature. This article compares the effects of CTIM technique on brain re-expansion and re-accumulation with cases operated on with a burr-hole craniotomy and outer membrane incision (BCOMI) technique. The study involved operations on 144 patients (Group 1) using the CTIM technique and 108 patients (Group 2) using the BCOMI technique. In the operations using the CTIM technique in Group 1, the mean effusion measured in the subdural space (SDS) was 10.0 ± 0.2 mm, and for Group 2, 14.3 ± 0.6 mm in the postoperative period on the first and third days and this difference was found to be significant (p subdural effusion and pneumocephalus, and shorter hospital stays.

  14. A comparative study of renal care in Brazil and Mexico: hemodialysis treatment from the perspective of ESRD sufferers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado-Martinez, Francisco J; da Silva, Denise Guerreiro V; Correa-Mauricio, Mauricio E

    2017-04-01

    Renal replacement therapy is the indicated treatment for individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to survive. However, not all sick people have access to the same treatment. This study compares renal care in two developing countries with different health systems. Specifically, it explores hemodialysis treatment from the perspective of low-income individuals. A qualitative, comparative study was performed in Brazil and Mexico. Using purposive sampling, the research was based on open-ended interviews with nineteen participants with kidney failure undergoing hemodialysis treatment in public hospitals and ten relatives. According to our results, Brazilian participants perceived hemodialysis care as satisfactory because of health personnel courtesy as well as free access to dialysis treatment, prescription drugs, hospitalization and transportation. However, they reported deficiencies in the care they were receiving due to shortages of specialists, prescription drugs, laboratory tests and transportation. Mexican participants, in contrast, highlighted the catastrophic costs of medical care because they had no free access to renal therapy, nor adequate financial resources. Our findings suggest that low-income Brazilian CKD sufferers experience renal care differently, as they are more satisfied and face less obstacles with hemodialysis compared with those of Mexico. More studies on the topic are needed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Clinical and immunohistochemical comparative study of the efficacy of carboxytherapy vs platelet-rich plasma in treatment of stretch marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodeib, Abeer A; Hassan, Ghada F R; Ragab, Marwa N M; Hasby, Eiman A

    2018-01-07

    Striae distensae are dermal scars with a linear atrophic depression. The exact origin of striae distensae remains unrevealed, but low expression of collagen and fibronectin genes in the affected tissue was found. Several treatment modalities have been proposed, yet no consistent modality is available. To evaluate and compare the efficacy and safety of carboxytherapy vs platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in treatment of stretch marks. This study included 20 patients with striae alba. Every patient received treatment in the form of PRP injection in their right side (group A) and carboxytherapy session in their left side (group B) every 3-4 weeks for 4 sessions. Skin biopsies were taken before and after treatment, and they were subjected to fibronectin immunohistochemical stain. There was a significant improvement in striae alba in both groups after than before treatment. There was no significant difference between both groups as regards either percentage of improvement, response (grading scale), or patient satisfaction. The fibronectin-stained area was significantly higher in both groups after than before treatment, and it was significantly higher after treatment in group (B) than group (A). Both methods were safe and effective with minimal side effects. There was no significant difference between both methods of treatments. This was confirmed histopathologically by fibronectin expression which is found to be low in striae and increased significantly after treatment. But fibronectin expression was higher in group (B) than (A). © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A prospective, open, comparative study of 5% potassium hydroxide solution versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Caio Lamunier de Abreu; Belda Junior, Walter; Fagundes, Luiz Jorge; Romiti, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus infection and represent one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. Many infections are transient but the virus may recur, persist, or become latent. To date, there is no effective antiviral treatment to eliminate HPV infection and most therapies are aimed at the destruction of visible lesions. Potassium hydroxide is a strong alkali that has been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of genital warts and molluscum contagiosum. Cryotherapy is considered one of the most established treatments for genital warts. No comparative trials have been reported to date on the use of potassium hydroxide for genital warts. A prospective, open-label, randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare topical potassium hydroxide versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts affecting immunocompetent, sexually active men. Over a period of 10 months, 48 patients were enrolled. They were randomly divided into two groups and selected on an alternative basis for either potassium hydroxide therapy or cryotherapy. While response to therapy did not differ substantially between both treatment modalities, side effects such as local pain and post-treatment hypopigmentation were considerably more prevalent in the groups treated using cryotherapy. In our study, potassium hydroxide therapy proved to be at least as effective as cryotherapy and offered the benefit of a better safety profile. Topical 5% potassium hydroxide presents an effective, safe, and low-cost treatment modality for genital warts in men and should be included in the spectrum of therapies for genital warts.

  17. Comparative study of D2 receptors and content of DA in striatum before and after electro-acupuncture treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yansong; Lin Xiangtong

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the change of D 2 receptors and its relationship with DA content in experimental hemi-parkinsonism rats before and after electron-acupuncture treatment. Methods: 125 I-IBZM D 2 receptor cerebral autoradiographic analysis, HPLC-ECD DA and its metabolites, homovanillic acid (HVA), 3,4-di-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) content detection were used to study in striatum in before treatment, electro-acupuncture treatment and treatment control group. Results: 1) The DA, HVA and DOPAC level in striatum of lesioned side in electro-acupuncture group was increased comparing with the before treatment and treatment control group (P 125 I-IBZM uptake ratio was 8.04 +- 0.71, (29.34 +- 4.83)% more than that of the contralateral side, but no significant difference was observed as compared with that of the pretreatment group [(8.09 +- 0.52), P>0.05]; however it was much lower than that of the treatment control group (8.61 +- 0.63), P 2 receptors' up regulation in rats with experimental hemi-parkinsonism

  18. A randomized comparative study of tamsulosin vs placebo in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N K Mohanty

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The rationale of using α1, blockers in the man-agement of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH is based upon blocking the adrenergic receptors which regulate urinary outflow The prostate adenoma is predominantly stromal, having 40% of smooth muscle innervated by sym-pathetic adrenergic nerves stimulation of which accounts for 50% of outflow obstruction. Tamsulosin is an uroselective α1a/d blocker, controls both the lower urinary irritative and obstructive symptoms. The present study is a placebo controlled study evaluating the efficacy, safety and advantages of tamsulosin in the management of BPH. Methods: A total number of 72 patients between 40-80 years of age were randomized to two groups. One group (38 patients received tamsulosin (0.4 mg daily and the other group (34 patients received placebo for a period of two months with periodic follow up at 2nd , 4 th and 8 th week with IPSS (International Prostate Symptom Score and uroflowmetry and ultrasonography at 8 th week. Results: Our results show tamsulosin to be very effec-tive in the management of BPH cases, not requiring sur-gery, with few side effects and good patient compliance. The improvement was seen both in IPSS (total, obstruc-tive and irritative and in urodynamic parameters. The differences were consistently superior with tamsulosin as compared to placebo in both the IPSS as well as uroflow-metry measurements. Conclusion: Tamsulosin was found to be a very safe, well tolerated drug showing significant improvement in urinary outflow symptoms, reducing post void urine volume and decreasing IPSS with minimal tolerable adverse events.

  19. Comparing Effectiveness of Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder in Communal Mental Health Care: The Oulu BPD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, V; Hakko, H; Sintonen, H; Lindeman, S

    2016-02-01

    The implementation of effective psychotherapies in community mental health care is challenging. This study aimed to create a well-structured and easily applicable treatment model for patients with severe borderline personality disorder (BPD). We integrated a schema therapy based psycho-educational group into an available individual therapy. Two groups were formed: (1) community treatment by experts (CTBE) patients (n = 24) receiving new treatment and (2) treatment as usual (TAU) patients (n = 47). Changes in symptoms were measured by Borderline Personality Disorder Severity Index-IV interview and quality of life by the 15D health-related quality of life questionnaire. After 1 year the CTBE patients showed a significant reduction in a wider range of BPD symptoms and better quality of life than TAU patients. The results of this study are encouraging. A well-structured treatment model was successfully implemented into community mental health care with improved patient adherence to treatment and superior treatment outcomes compared to TAU patients.

  20. Comparative study of clozapine versus risperidone in treatment-naive, first-episode schizophrenia: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhtej Sahni

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The findings of this preliminary study showed clozapine as a better choice than risperidone in terms of efficacy, tolerability and better quality of life in treatment-naive, first-episode schizophrenia. However, further studies need to be done on a larger group of patients to confirm the findings.

  1. Biofeedback, autogenic training, and progressive relaxation in the treatment of Raynaud's disease: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, F J; Surwit, R S; Pilon, R N

    1980-01-01

    Twenty-one female patients suffering from diagnosed idiopathic Raynaud's Disease were trained to raise digital skin temperature using either autogenic training, progressive muscle relaxation, or a combination of autogenic training and skin temperature feedback. Patients were instructed in the treatment procedures in three one-hour group sessions spaced one week apart. All patients were instructed to practice what they had learned twice a day at home. Patients kept records of the frequency of vasospastic attacks occurring over a four-week baseline period, and during the first four weeks and the ninth week of training. In addition, patients underwent four laboratory cold stress tests during which they were instructed to maintain digital temperature as the ambient temperature was slowly dropped from 26 degrees to 17 degrees C. Cold stress tests were given during week 1 of baseline and during weeks 1, 3, and 5 of training. No significant differences between the three behavioral treatment procedures were obtained. In addition, the ability of patients to maintain digital temperature during the cold stress challenge showed significant improvement from the first to the last tests. Symptomatic improvement was maintained by all patients nine weeks after the start of training. The implications of these findings for the behavioral treatment of Raynaud's Disease are discussed. PMID:6988380

  2. A comparative study of propranolol versus silver nitrate cautery in the treatment of recurrent primary epistaxis in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ahmed E; Abo El-Magd, Essam A; Hasan, Gamal M; El-Asheer, Osama M

    2015-01-01

    Background Epistaxis is a common medical problem in pediatric population. Although in most cases it is mild and self-limiting, a proportion of childhood epistaxis is massive, recurrent, or resistant to conventional management. Objective To compare effectiveness of propranolol as a treatment option for childhood epistaxis versus conventional silver nitrate cautery. Study design and methodology This is a prospective interventional comparative study that was carried out during a period of 1 year (January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013) at Qena University Hospital and Assiut University Children’s Hospital. One hundred children aged 6–12 years who presented with epistaxis to Qena University Hospital and Assiut University Children’s Hospital during the study period and fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included in the study. They were randomly assigned into one of two interventional groups, where 50 children were treated with oral propranolol (propranolol treatment group) and another 50 children were treated with conventional silver nitrate cautery (cauterization treatment group) for their epistaxis. Propranolol was given at a dose of 1.5–2 mg/kg/day (divided into three doses). Patients were followed for 6 months after their discharge for recurrence of epistaxis. Results Both groups of patients showed minimal recurrent epistaxis with rates of 14% for propranolol treated group and 12% for cauterization group, with no statistically significant difference between both groups. Local pain was found to be more in patients treated with silver nitrate cauterization. Conclusion Treatment of primary epistaxis with propranolol or silver nitrate cautery showed equal rates of recurrence, and local nasal pain was slightly more among silver nitrate cauterization treated group. Propranolol could be a favorable treatment option for patients with primary epistaxis. Further studies that include multiple centers and larger number of patients are recommended for more clarification

  3. Specialist inpatient treatment for severe motor conversion disorder: a retrospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Ruaidhri; Moriarty, John; Mellers, John D; Shotbolt, Paul; Pastena, Rosa; Landes, Nadine; Goldstein, Laura; Fleminger, Simon; David, Anthony S

    2014-08-01

    Gold standard protocols have yet to be established for the treatment of motor conversion disorder (MCD). There is limited evidence to support inpatient, multidisciplinary intervention in chronic, severe cases. To evaluate the characteristics and outcomes of MCD patients admitted to a specialist neuropsychiatric inpatient unit. All patients admitted to the Lishman Unit (years 2007-2011) with a diagnosis of MCD were included. Data relevant to characteristics and status with regard to mobility, activities of daily living (ADLs) and Modified Rankin Scale (MRS) score at admission and discharge were extracted. Thirty-three cases (78.8% female) were included; the median duration of illness was 48 months. In comparison with brain injury patients admitted to the same unit, more cases had histories of childhood sexual abuse (36.4%, n=12), premorbid non-dissociative mental illness (81.1%, n=27) and employment as a healthcare/social-care worker (45.5%, n=15). Cases showed significant improvements in MRS scores (p<0.001), mobility (p<0.001) and ADL (p=0.002) following inpatient treatment. Patients with severe, long-standing MCD can achieve significant improvements in functioning after admission to a neuropsychiatry unit. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Development of consensus treatment plans for juvenile localized scleroderma: a roadmap toward comparative effectiveness studies in juvenile localized scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suzanne C; Torok, Kathryn S; Pope, Elena; Dedeoglu, Fatma; Hong, Sandy; Jacobe, Heidi T; Rabinovich, C Egla; Laxer, Ronald M; Higgins, Gloria C; Ferguson, Polly J; Lasky, Andrew; Baszis, Kevin; Becker, Mara; Campillo, Sarah; Cartwright, Victoria; Cidon, Michael; Inman, Christi J; Jerath, Rita; O'Neil, Kathleen M; Vora, Sheetal; Zeft, Andrew; Wallace, Carol A; Ilowite, Norman T; Fuhlbrigge, Robert C

    2012-08-01

    Juvenile localized scleroderma (LS) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder associated with substantial morbidity and disability. Although a wide range of therapeutic strategies has been reported in the literature, a lack of agreement on treatment specifics and accepted methods for clinical assessment has made it difficult to compare approaches and identify optimal therapy. Our objective was to develop standardized treatment plans, clinical assessments, and response criteria for active, moderate to high severity juvenile LS. A core group of pediatric rheumatologists, dermatologists, and a lay advisor was engaged by the Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) to develop standardized treatment plans and assessment parameters for juvenile LS using consensus methods/nominal group techniques. Recommendations were validated in 2 face-to-face conferences with a larger group of practitioners with expertise in juvenile LS and with the full membership of CARRA, which encompasses the majority of pediatric rheumatologists in the US and Canada. Consensus was achieved on standardized treatment plans that reflect the prevailing treatment practices of CARRA members. Standardized clinical assessment methods and provisional treatment response criteria were also developed. Greater than 90% of pediatric rheumatologists responding to a survey (66% of CARRA membership) affirmed the final recommendations and agreed to utilize these consensus plans to treat patients with juvenile LS. Using consensus methodology, we have developed standardized treatment plans and assessment methods for juvenile LS. The high level of support among pediatric rheumatologists will support future comparative effectiveness studies and enable the development of evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of juvenile LS. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  5. Homeopathic and conventional treatment for acute respiratory and ear complaints: A comparative study on outcome in the primary care setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidvogl, Max; Riley, David S; Heger, Marianne; Brien, Sara; Jong, Miek; Fischer, Michael; Lewith, George T; Jansen, Gerard; Thurneysen, André E

    2007-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of homeopathy compared to conventional treatment in acute respiratory and ear complaints in a primary care setting. Methods The study was designed as an international, multi-centre, comparative cohort study of non-randomised design. Patients, presenting themselves with at least one chief complaint: acute (≤ 7 days) runny nose, sore throat, ear pain, sinus pain or cough, were recruited at 57 primary care practices in Austria (8), Germany (8), the Netherlands (7), Russia (6), Spain (6), Ukraine (4), United Kingdom (10) and the USA (8) and given either homeopathic or conventional treatment. Therapy outcome was measured by using the response rate, defined as the proportion of patients experiencing 'complete recovery' or 'major improvement' in each treatment group. The primary outcome criterion was the response rate after 14 days of therapy. Results Data of 1,577 patients were evaluated in the full analysis set of which 857 received homeopathic (H) and 720 conventional (C) treatment. The majority of patients in both groups reported their outcome after 14 days of treatment as complete recovery or major improvement (H: 86.9%; C: 86.0%; p = 0.0003 for non-inferiority testing). In the per-protocol set (H: 576 and C: 540 patients) similar results were obtained (H: 87.7%; C: 86.9%; p = 0.0019). Further subgroup analysis of the full analysis set showed no differences of response rates after 14 days in children (H: 88.5%; C: 84.5%) and adults (H: 85.6%; C: 86.6%). The unadjusted odds ratio (OR) of the primary outcome criterion was 1.40 (0.89–2.22) in children and 0.92 (0.63–1.34) in adults. Adjustments for demographic differences at baseline did not significantly alter the OR. The response rates after 7 and 28 days also showed no significant differences between both treatment groups. However, onset of improvement within the first 7 days after treatment was significantly faster upon homeopathic treatment both

  6. Pregnancy outcome after in utero exposure to local anesthetics as part of dental treatment: A prospective comparative cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagai, Aharon; Diav-Citrin, Orna; Shechtman, Svetlana; Ornoy, Asher

    2015-08-01

    Dental treatment and use of local anesthetics during pregnancy generally are considered harmless because of lack of evidence of adverse pregnancy effects. Data on the safety of dental treatment and local anesthetics during pregnancy are scant. Dental care is often a reason for concern both among women and their health care providers. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the rate of major anomalies after exposure to local anesthetics as part of dental care during pregnancy. The authors performed a prospective, comparative observational study at the Israeli Teratology Information Services between 1999 and 2005. The authors followed 210 pregnancies exposed to dental local anesthetics (112 [53%] in the first trimester) and compared them with 794 pregnancies not exposed to teratogens. The rate of major anomalies was not significantly different between the groups (4.8% versus 3.3%, P = .300). There was no difference in the rate of miscarriages, gestational age at delivery, or birth weight. The most common types of dental treatment were endodontic treatment (43%), tooth extraction (31%), and tooth restoration (21%). Most women (63%) were not exposed to additional medications. Approximately one-half (51%) of the women were not exposed to dental radiography, and 44% were exposed to radiation, mostly bite-wing radiography. This study's results suggest that use of dental local anesthetics, as well as dental treatment during pregnancy, do not represent a major teratogenic risk. There seems to be no reason to prevent pregnant women from receiving dental treatment and local anesthetics during pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A comparative study for treatment of white liquor by different applications of Fenton process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Faik Sevimli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the treatability of white liquor by conventional (CFP, modified (MFP and electro-Fenton oxidation processes (EFP was investigated depending on the COD parameter. Based on the experimental results, up to 62.4%, 58.4% and 54.9% COD removals by the CFP, MFP and EFP were achieved, respectively. It was observed that adjustment of initial pH to acidic values is not required in the CFP. The optimal operational conditions were found to be [Fe2+] = 500 mg/L, [H2O2] = 1000 mg/L at pH 7.3 (original pH in the CFP, [Fe0] = 1250 mg/L, [H2O2] = 1000 mg/L at pH 3 in the MFP, and I = 1.0 A, [H2O2] = 1500 mg/L at pH 3 in the EFP, respectively. As a result, the CFP has been determined as a more efficient alternative treatment method.

  8. Efficacy of combined orthodontic-periodontic treatment for patients with periodontitis and its effect on inflammatory cytokines: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Ai-Min; Zhang, Zong-Mei; Jia, Jin-Lin; Sui, Xin-Xin; Yu, Lu-Rui; Liu, Hai-Tao

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the efficacy of combined orthodontic-periodontic treatment in the treatment of patients with periodontitis and its effects on the levels of inflammatory cytokines. A total of 117 patients with periodontitis were randomly assigned to the basic group (receiving basic periodontic treatment, n = 58) and the combined group (receiving combined orthodontic-periodontic treatment, n = 59). In addition, 52 healthy people without periodontal disease were selected as the normal group. Probing depth, tooth mobility, plaque index, clinical attachment level, and sulcus bleeding index were recorded. ELISA was applied to detect gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum levels of inflammatory cytokines. A 2-year clinical follow-up was conducted. Before treatment, the periodontal parameters (probing depth, tooth mobility, plaque index, clinical attachement level, and sulcus bleeding index) and GCF and serum levels of inflammatory cytokines (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-1β, interleukin-5, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, tumor necrosis factor-α, and prostaglandin E2) in the combined and basic groups were higher than those in the normal group. After 6 and 18 months of treatment, the periodontal parameters and GCF and serum levels of inflammatory cytokines decreased in the combined and basic groups. The periodontal parameters and the GCF and serum levels of inflammatory cytokines in the combined group were significantly lower than those in the basic group after 18 months of treatment. The combined group had a lower recurrence rate compared with the basic group. Combined orthodontic-periodontic treatment had good clinical efficacy in the treatment of periodontitis and could effectively decrease the levels of inflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Repeatability of an automated Landolt C test, compared with the early treatment of diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS) chart testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruamviboonsuk, Paisan; Tiensuwan, Montip; Kunawut, Catleya; Masayaanon, Patcharapim

    2003-10-01

    To evaluate the repeatability of visual acuity scores from the automated test and compare them with the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart. Instrument validation study based on a model of repeatability study in two observations. SMETHODS: a prospective, clinic-based, comparative study. A total of 206 participants without ocular diseases and refractive errors in their right eyes were randomly enrolled in the automated group in which 107 participants performed the automated test and the ETDRS group in which 99 participants read the ETDRS chart. All participants were tested with only their right eyes without corrections at 4 meters and came back to have the same tests 1 week later. The automated test used the Landolt rings as optotypes and was conducted by a low-ended personal computer with a 15-inch monitor and a wireless keyboard. The "letter" score calculated by counting every correct response to optotypes, and the "threshold curve" score interpreted from the optotype size at the midpoint of a visual acuity threshold curve. The 95% confidence interval of test-retest of visual acuity scores from the automated test are comparable to the ETDRS chart (.143 compared with.125 for letter scores,.145 compared with.122 for threshold curve scores). The score repeatabilities, calculated from the standard deviations of test-retest, from the automated test are also comparable to the ETDRS chart (.201 compared with.177 for letter scores,.206 compared with.172 for threshold curve scores). All comparisons demonstrated no statistical difference (P >.05). The automated testing system in this study enables practical measuring visual acuity by the Landolt rings. The system's repeatability, which is comparable to the ETDRS chart, supports its role as an alternative tool for measuring outcome in new clinical research. Its ability to practically generate visual acuity threshold curves may also be useful in future clinical research studies.

  10. Percutaneous Vertebroplasty Versus Conservative Treatment and Rehabilitation in Women with Vertebral Fractures due to Osteoporosis: A Prospective Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-Hernández, Salvador Israel; Chávez-Arias, Daniel David; Miranda-Duarte, Antonio; Coronado-Zarco, Roberto; Diez-García, María Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty is commonly used in the management of osteoporosis-related vertebral fractures, although there is controversy on its superiority over conservative treatment. Here we compare pain and function in women with vertebral osteoporotic fractures who underwent percutaneous vertebroplasty versus conservative treatment with a protocolized rehabilitation program. A longitudinal and comparative prospective study was conducted. Women ≥ 60 years of age with a diagnosis of osteoporosis who had at least one vertebral thoracic or lumbar compression fracture were included and divided into two groups, conservative treatment or vertebroplasty. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were used to assess pain and function, respectively, as the outcome measures. We included 31 patients, 13 (42%) treated with percutaneous vertebroplasty and 18 (58%) with conservative treatment. Baseline clinical characteristics, bone densitometry and fracture data were similar in both groups. At baseline, VAS was 73.1 ± 28.36 in the vertebroplasty group and 68.6 ± 36.1 mm in the conservative treatment group (p = 0.632); at three months it was 33.11 ± 10.1 vs. 42 ± 22.21 mm (p = 0.111); and at 12 months, 32.3 ± 11.21 vs. 36.1 ± 12.36 mm (p = 0.821). The ODI at baseline was 83% in the vertebroplasty group vs. 85% for conservative management (p = 0.34); at three months, 36 vs. 39% (p = 0.36); and at 12 months, 29.38 vs. 28.33% (p = 0.66). Treatment with percutaneous vertebroplasty had no advantages over conservative treatment for pain and function in this group of women ≥ 60 years of age with osteoporosis.

  11. A prospective, open, comparative study of 5% potassium hydroxide solution versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts in men*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Caio Lamunier de Abreu; Belda, Walter; Fagundes, Luiz Jorge; Romiti, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus infection and represent one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. Many infections are transient but the virus may recur, persist, or become latent. To date, there is no effective antiviral treatment to eliminate HPV infection and most therapies are aimed at the destruction of visible lesions. Potassium hydroxide is a strong alkali that has been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of genital warts and molluscum contagiosum. Cryotherapy is considered one of the most established treatments for genital warts. No comparative trials have been reported to date on the use of potassium hydroxide for genital warts. OBJECTIVE A prospective, open-label, randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare topical potassium hydroxide versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts affecting immunocompetent, sexually active men. METHODS Over a period of 10 months, 48 patients were enrolled. They were randomly divided into two groups and selected on an alternative basis for either potassium hydroxide therapy or cryotherapy. While response to therapy did not differ substantially between both treatment modalities, side effects such as local pain and post-treatment hypopigmentation were considerably more prevalent in the groups treated using cryotherapy. RESULT In our study, potassium hydroxide therapy proved to be at least as effective as cryotherapy and offered the benefit of a better safety profile. CONCLUSION Topical 5% potassium hydroxide presents an effective, safe, and low-cost treatment modality for genital warts in men and should be included in the spectrum of therapies for genital warts. PMID:24770498

  12. [Comparative study of combined local treatment (sulfadimidine, metronidazole and nystatin) and the standard monotherapy in uncomplicated bacterial vaginosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milánkovits, Márton; Baksay, László; Plachy, János

    2002-12-22

    Comparative, in vivo, human, prospective, single blind, clinical and microbiological diagnoses based and randomised study of the treatment of uncomplicated bacterial vaginosis with two forms of combined (metronidazole + nystatin + sulfadimidin) vaginal suppositories (laminated and mixed containing the same ingredients) and the standard preparations available in the Hungarian market (Dalacin vaginal cream and Klion vaginal suppository). The examinations involved 60 volunteers and were performed in the Gynecological Outpatient Clinic of the Council of Erd, the microbiological samples were examined at Saint Rókus Hospital in Budapest. The combined treatment was better tolerated and resulted in normal vaginal pH significantly more often at the same rate of recovery. The combined treatment is simultaneously effective in cases of the most prevalent coinfections too.

  13. The comparative study of CT guided and ultrasound guided percutaneous ethanol injection in the treatment of intra-abdominal cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Heping; Yang Jianyong; Chen Wei; Zhuang Wenquan; Huang Yulian; Chen Jianye

    2005-01-01

    Objective: An comparative study of the interventional approach of CT guided and ultiasound guided percutaneous ethanol injection(PEI) in the treatment of intra-abdominal cyst. Methods: CT guided PEI was performed in the treatment of intra-abdominal cyst in 38 patients while ultrasound guided PEI was performed in 45 cases. Results: The puncture procedure of CT guided PEI was totally performed 83 times in treating 56 intra-abdominal cysts in 38 patients and CT guided PEI was unsuccessful in 6 patients. The puncture procedure of ultrasound guided PEI were performed 87 times in treating 71 intra-abdominal cysts in 55 patients and ultrasound guided PEI only failed only in 1 patient. Conclusion: Ultrasound guided PEI is superior to CT guided PEI in the treatment of intra-abdominal cyst. (authors)

  14. Comparative study between output factors obtained in a linear accelerator used for radiosurgery treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velázquez Trejo, J.J.; Olive, K.I.; Gutiérrez Castillo, J.G.; Hardy Pérez, A.E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the output factors obtained in a linear accelerator with conical collimators using five models of detectors, through tree different methods: the ratio of detector readings, the “daisy chain” technique (for diodes) and applying the k fclin, fmsr Qclin, Qmsr factors based in the formalism proposed by the IAEA (this one was applied only to tree detectors). Methods: A linear accelerator Varian-iX was employed with BrainLab conical collimators (30 mm to 7.5 mm), the detectors used were: PTW-PinPoint 31016 (×2), PTW-tipo E 60017 (×2), PTW-microLion 31018 (×2), EDGE (Sun-Nuclear), y PTW-Semiflex 31010. For the first three models were analyzed two detectors with different series. The measurements were carried out in water at depth of 1.5 cm and source to surface distance of 98.5 cm. Results: With the readings ratio method, all detectors showed differences from 3.5% to more than 15% in the smallest field sizes, for the diodes the “daisy chain” method did not provide significant corrections. Applying the k fclin, fmsr Qclin, Qmsr Small the detectors PTW60017, PTW31018 and EDGE showed differences of less than 3%. Conclusions: In small fields the readings ratio method could introduce significant errors in the output factor determination. Applying the k fclin, fmsr Qclin, Qmsr proved to be a viable option. [es

  15. Comparative study on the treatment of raw and biologically treated textile effluents through submerged nanofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing; Yang, Ying; Zhou, Mengsi; Liu, Meihong; Yu, Sanchuan; Gao, Congjie

    2015-03-02

    Raw and biologically treated textile effluents were submerged filtrated using lab-fabricated hollow fiber nanofiltration membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of about 650 g/mol. Permeate flux, chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction, color removal, membrane fouling, and cleaning were investigated and compared by varying the trans-membrane pressure (TMP) and volume concentrating factor (VCF). It was found that both raw and biologically treated textile effluents could be efficiently treated through submerged nanofiltration. The increase of TMP resulted in a decline in water permeability, COD reduction, color removal, and flux recovery ratio, while the increase of VCF resulted in both increased COD reduction and color removal. Under the TMP of 0.4 bar and VCF of 5.0, fluxes of 1.96 and 2.59 l/m(2)h, COD reductions of 95.7 and 94.2%, color removals of 99.0, and 97.3% and flux recovery ratios of 91.1 and 92.9% could be obtained in filtration of raw and biologically treated effluents, respectively. After filtration, the COD and color contents of the raw effluent declined sharply from 1780 to 325 mg/l and 1.200 to 0.060 Abs/cm, respectively, while for the biologically treated effluent, they decreased from 780 to 180 mg/l and 0.370 to 0.045 Abs/cm, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative study of two treatment planning systems; Estudio comparativo de dos sistemas de planificacion de tratamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Caballero, L. J.; Quinones Rodriguez, L. A.; Lupiani Castellanos, J.

    2013-07-01

    In this study of the comparison of the clinical dosimetry between planners can deduce that the differences are in the majority of the cases below 3%, and only in cases where the field size is small, we found significant discrepancies, although justifiable. On the one hand it is different calculation algorithm and implementation on the other, the modeling of the accelerator. (Author)

  17. Tonsillectomy efficacy in children with PFAPA syndrome is comparable to the standard medical treatment: a long-term observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigo, Giulia; Martini, Giorgia; Zoppi, Silvia; Vittadello, Fabio; Zulian, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Tonsillectomy has recently been suggested as an effective treatment for PFAPA syndrome but little is known about its long-term efficacy. We compared the clinical features and the long-term outcome of a large cohort of patients with PFAPA syndrome treated with tonsillectomy or with standard medical treatment. We conducted a retrospective study on patients with PFAPA syndrome followed at a tertiary care centre from January 1993 to August 2010. Clinical characteristics and laboratory parameters were evaluated at onset and during the follow-up. Disease outcomes of patients who underwent tonsillectomy and of those treated with medical therapy (NSAIDs, prednisone) were compared. Clinical remission on medication (CRM) was considered the persistence of fever attacks which were well controlled by medical therapy, clinical remission (CR) was defined as the absence of fever attacks, without any treatment, for more than 12 months. 275 patients with PFAPA syndrome, 59.6% males, aged 27.9 months at onset and followed for mean 54.5 months, entered the study. CR was reported in 59.6% of the patients and was significantly less frequent in those with positive family history for PFAPA (46.4% vs. 66.1%, p=0.003). 27/41 patients (65.9%), responded to tonsillectomy and this result was comparable with that observed in those treated with medical therapy (59.1%, p=0.51). Disease duration, age at remission or presence of associated symptoms were not significantly different in both groups. No predictors of tonsillectomy failure were found. In a large cohort of patients with PFAPA syndrome, tonsillectomy efficacy was comparable to the standard medical treatment.

  18. A preliminary comparative treatment planning study for radiotherapy of age-related maculopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazal, A.; Schwartz, L.; Lacroix, F.; Mammar, H.; Delacroix, S.; Ferrand, R.; Nauraye, C.; Desjardins, L.; Schlienger, P.; D'Hermies, F.; Frau, E.; Habrand, J.-L.; Rosenwald, J.-C.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: We present a comparative planning of different approaches for external radiotherapy in age-related maculopathies. Materials and methods: Calculated dose distributions and dose-volume histograms for (a) bilateral irradiation with 6 MV photons, (b) a single lateral-oblique beam using either photons, electrons or protons and (c) an anterior circular proton beam. Results: For lateral photon or electron beams the dose to the lens is usually lower than 10% of the dose to the macula. The entrance doses for bilateral photon beams are about 50% which increase up to 100% at the orbital bone. About 5 mm of optic nerves are irradiated at the maximal dose while the optic chiasma is spared. A single photon beam gives 50% of the dose to the fellow eye. The electron beam spares the fellow eye but gives a rather inhomogeneous dose to the target volume. For a lateral proton beam, 4 mm of optic nerve receives 90% of the dose, the skin dose is at least 70% of the dose to the macula and the lens and the fellow eye are spared. An anterior proton beam gives 90% of the dose to 1 mm of optic nerve and the 50% isodose approaches the periphery of the lens. Conclusion: Doses to the critical structures can be dramatically diminished for all the techniques by reducing the beam size, but only if very precise set-up techniques are used. Proton beams are an attractive solution, but the impact of such a choice on the use of proton facilities and on the national health system should be carefully evaluated, as well as the risk of radio-induced secondary neoplasias. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  19. A randomized controlled study comparing community based with health facility based direct observation of treatment models on patients' satisfaction and TB treatment outcome in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewole, Olanisun O; Oladele, T; Osunkoya, Arinola H; Erhabor, Greg E; Adewole, Temitayo O; Adeola, Oluwaseun; Obembe, Olufemi; Ota, Martin O C

    2015-12-01

    Directly observed treatment short-course (DOTS) strategy is an effective mode of treating TB. We aimed to study the cost effectiveness and patients' satisfaction with home based direct observation of treatment (DOT), an innovative approach to community-based DOT (CBDOT) and hospital based DOT (HBDOT). A randomized controlled trial involving 150 newly diagnosed pulmonary TB patients in four TB clinics in Ile Ife , Nigeria, was done. They were randomly assigned to receive treatment with anti TB drugs for the intensive phase administered at home by a TB worker (CBDOT) or at the hospital (HBDOT). Outcome measures were treatment completion/default rates, cost effectiveness and patients' satisfaction with care using a 13 item patients satisfaction questionnaire (PS-13) at 2 months. This trial was registered with pactr.org: number PACTR 201503001058381. At the end of intensive phase, 15/75 (20%) and 2/75 (3%) of patients in the HBDOT and CBDOT, respectively had defaulted from treatment, p= 0.01. Of those with pretreatment positive sputum smear, 97% (68/70) on CBDOT and 54/67 (81%) on HBDOT were sputum negative for AFB at the end of 2 months of treatment, p=0.01. The CBDOT method was associated with a higher patient satisfaction score compared with HBDOT (OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.25-7.70), p=0.001.The total cost for patients was higher in HBDOT (US$159.38) compared with the CBDOT (US$89.52). The incremental cost effectiveness ratio was US$410 per patient who completed the intensive phase treatment with CBDOT. CBDOT is a cost effective approach associated with better compliance to treatment and better patient satisfaction compared to HBDOT. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Enhancing the functionality of cotton fabric by physical and chemical pre-treatments: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargoubi, Sondes; Tolouei, Ranna; Chevallier, Pascale; Levesque, Lucie; Ladhari, Neji; Boudokhane, Chedly; Mantovani, Diego

    2016-08-20

    Recently, antimicrobial and decontaminating textiles, such as cotton a natural carbohydrate polymer, are generating more attention. Plant materials used for natural dyes are expected to impart biofunctional properties and high added valued functional textiles. In the current study, surface modification of cotton to maximize the dye amount on the surface has been investigated. Physical modification using nitrogen-hydrogen plasma, chemical modification using chitosan and chemical modification using dopamine as biopolymers imparting amino groups were explored. Furthermore, dye exhaustion of curcumin, as a natural functional dye has been studied. Dye stability tests were also performed after fabric washing using hospital washing protocol to predict the durability of the functionalizations. The results demonstrated that cotton surfaces treated with dopamine exhibit a high level of dye uptake (78%) and a good washing fastness. The use of non-toxic and natural additives during cotton finishing process could give the opportunity of cradle to cradle design for antimicrobial textile industries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. ACCOUNTING TREATMENT OF TAXES ON INCOME: A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE CHANGE IN THE BRAZILIAN STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarso Rocha Lula Pereira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The corporate accounting has as one of its sub area the tax area. The Brazilian Securities Commission issued the Deliberation 273/1998 and 599/2009, and the Federal Accounting Council, adopted Resolution 998/2004 and 1189/2009. Moreover, the Accounting Pronouncements Committee approved the statement 32/2009, all those dealing with income taxes, however, only the CPC 32, the Resolution 1189/2009 and the Resolution 599/2009 have been edited based on the International Accounting Standards 12 of the International Accounting Standards Board. All of these standards rule on the same subject, share substantial differences, but do not have the same structure. Thus, the aim of this work is to verify whether the update of accounting rules are consistent with IAS 12. The work is important to confirm how the Brazilian rules can contribute to the objective of the accounting science. It is a qualitative study and descriptive analysis.

  2. Intralesional Mycobacterium w Vaccine Versus Cryotherapy in Treatment of Refractory Extragenital Warts: A Randomized, Open-Label, Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakar, Ashok K; Dogra, Sunil; Vinay, Keshavamurthy; Sarangal, Rishu; Kanwar, Amrinder J; Singh, Mini P

    2016-01-01

    Initial reports of immunotherapy using intralesional Mycobacterium w (Mw) vaccine have documented its useful role in treatment of genital and extragenital warts. To compare the efficacy and safety of intralesional Mw vaccine versus cryotherapy in the treatment of refractory extragenital warts. This was a prospective, randomized, comparative study of 66 patients. The outcome was assessed in terms of complete clearance of warts and change in Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) score. Complete clearance of treated warts was seen in 66.7% (20/30) and 65.5% (19/29) of patients in the Mw and cryotherapy groups, respectively (P = .769). Clearance of distant warts was significantly (P = .004) high in the Mw group. Improvement in DLQI was greater in the Mw group. Both treatment modalities were well tolerated, and no major side effects occurred. Mw vaccine and cryotherapy are equally efficacious in treatment of refractory extragenital warts. Mw vaccine has an added advantage of clearance of distant warts. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LATERAL SPHINCTEROTOMY AND LOCAL APPLICATION OF 2% DILTIAZEM GEL IN TREATMENT OF CHRONIC ANAL FISSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashekar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Anal fissures are commonly encountered in routine colorectal practice. Chronic fissures have traditionally been treated surgically. Developments in the pharmacological understanding of the internal anal sphincter have resulted in more conservative approaches towards treatment. In this study, we compare topical 2% Diltiazem gel and lateral internal sphincterotomy with respect to symptomatic relief, healing and side effects in the treatment of chronic fissure in ano. METHODS 60 patients with chronic fissure in ano were randomly divided into Diltiazem gel and internal sphincterotomy groups. Patients were followed up at weekly intervals for minimum of eight weeks. Data was recorded accordingly. RESULTS Fissure completely healed in 28(93.33% out of 30 patients treated with 2% Diltiazem gel between 4-8 weeks. Healing was 100% with internal sphincterotomy. The mean duration required for healing of fissure was 4.86 weeks in Diltiazem gel group and 3.66 weeks in internal sphincterotomy group. 61.5% patients were free from pain after treatment with Diltiazem gel whereas in internal sphicterotomy group 66.66% patients had pain relief at the end of 4 weeks. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION Comparison between Diltiazem gel application and internal sphincterotomy did not show any significant difference in fissure healing and pain relief. No side effects were seen in Diltiazem gel therapy. Topical Diltiazem should be the initial treatment in chronic fissure in ano. It is better to reserve internal sphincterotomy for patients with relapse or therapeutic failure to prior pharmacological treatment.

  4. A comparative clinical and mycological study of Nd-YAG laser versus topical terbinafine in the treatment of onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tatawy, Rania A; Abd El-Naby, Naeim M; El-Hawary, Esraa E; Talaat, Raghda A Z

    2015-10-01

    Topical treatment of onychomycoses is time consuming, cost-intensive and subject to relatively high failure rates. Light-based devices may be effective treatment modalities. Aim of this work: To compare the clinical and mycological efficacy of Nd-YAG laser versus topical terbinafine in the treatment of onychomycosis. This study included 40 patients with onychomycosis randomized to receive four sessions of Nd-YAG laser (group A) or topical terbinafine twice daily for six months (group B). Follow-up was performed monthly. Mycological examination was done at third and sixth months following the start of treatment. After six months, all patients in group A showed marked improvement, while in group B only 50% of patients showed mild to moderate improvement. In addition, by the end of six months, 80% of the patients in group A showed mycological clearance, while all patients in group B still had positive cultures. Long pulse Nd-YAG laser therapy of onychomycosis is a safe and efficient method for treating onychomycosis. It is especially beneficial in elderly, compromised and hepatopathic patients for whom other alternative treatments could present some risks.

  5. Systemic isotretinoin treatment and pregnancy: A comparative study of two groups of women: A retrospective analysis of 569 women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Brzezinski

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral isotretinoin is the only drug which promotes prolonged remission or cure of severe acne. The aim of our study was to estimate the isotretinoin exposure and to evaluate the effectiveness of the Polish and Romanian pregnancy prevention. This is a comparative study of two groups of women. Methods: A retrospective, comparative study of 569 women with acne vulgaris. The study included two groups of randomly selected women during treatment and follow-up. Group I with rigorous prevention of pregnancy; Group II without this rigor. Results: We did not register any pregnancies. 1.93% used oral contraceptives, 92.79% used a condom during sex, and 7.21% of women abstained from sex. The analysis showed significant differences (p <0.0001 total dose applied depending on the method of treatment. No statistically significant correlations were found between patients' age, duration of disease, location, and type of acne. Average length of therapy was 8.81 months. Isotretinoin therapy was interrupted for 27 patients from group I. Conclusion: The isotretinoin pregnancy prevention in Poland and Romania was very good during our study. Every woman in the fertile phase of life should use contraception while taking isotretinoin. The most important thing is the awareness of the patient.

  6. SU-F-T-27: A Comparative Case Study Among Four Modalities for the Superficial Treatment of Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashenafi, M; Koch, N; Peng, J; Terwillinger, L; Wilder, J; McDonald, D; Mart, C; Jenrette, J; Vanek, K [Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: We performed a comparative planning study among High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy, superficial electrons, Volume Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT), and Helical IMRT (Tomotherapy) for squamous cell carcinoma of the abdominal wall with consideration for the underlining bowel. Methods: A 69-year old female presented with squamous cell carcinoma protruding 8mm beyond the anterior skin surface of the midabdomen was considered for treatment. The patient had a ventral hernia which resulted in the reduction of the abdominal wall thickness and the adjacent small bowel being the dose limiting structure. Four plans were generated using different treatment modalities: a) an enface electron field (eMC, Eclipse v. 11), b) Tomotherapy (HI-Art II v.5.0.5), c) VMAT (Acuros, Eclipse v. 11), and d) HDR using a Freiburg applicator (Oncentra v. 4.3). The following plan objectives were used for all four plans: for the CTV target, V90% ≥90% (61.8Gy2/2).For the small bowel, D0.1cc < 56.2 Gy2/2 was a hard constraint and expressed as a percentage of the prescription for comparison to demonstrate the dose fall-off achieved among the modalities.For HDR, V200% <0.1cc was an additional constraint. Multiple dosimetric parameters, including those listed above, were compared among the four modalities. Results: The HDR plan showed comparable target coverage compared to the Tomotherapy plan and better coverage compared to the electron plan. Small bowel doses (D0.1cc) were lower in HDR plan compared to Tomotherapy, electron, & VMAT plans (88.8%, 89.6%, 90.9%, & 96.6%). Integral dose to the whole body (V5%) was much higher for HDR, VMAT, and Tomotherapy when compared to electron plan by factors of seven, eight, and ten, respectively. After reviewing all treatment modalities, the physician selected HDR owing to better control of the small bowel dose while maintaining adequate target coverage. Conclusion: This case study demonstrated HDR can successfully treat superficial lesions with superior

  7. A comparative study of pulsed dye laser versus long pulsed Nd:YAG laser treatment in recalcitrant viral warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yo Sup; Cho, Eun Byul; Park, Eun Joo; Kim, Kwang Ho; Kim, Kwang Joong

    2017-08-01

    Viral warts are common infectious skin disease induced by human papillomavirus (HPV). But the treatment of recalcitrant warts is still challenging. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of pulsed dye laser (PDL) and long pulsed Nd:YAG (LPNY) laser in the treatment of recalcitrant viral warts. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of patients with recalcitrant warts treated with laser therapy between January 2013 and February 2016. Seventy-two patients with recalcitrant warts were evaluated. Thirty-nine patients were treated with pulsed dye laser and thirty-three patients were treated with LPNY laser. The following parameters were used: PDL (spot size, 7 mm; pulse duration, 1.5 ms; and fluence, 10-14 J/cm 2 ) and LPNY (spot size, 5 mm; pulse duration, 20 ms; and fluence, 240-300 J/cm 2 ). Complete clearance of two patients (5.1%) in PDL group, and three patients (9.1%) in LPNY group were observed without significant side effects. The patients who achieved at least 50% improvement from baseline were 20 (51.3%) in PDL and 22 (66.7%) in LPNY, respectively. This research is meaningful because we compared the effectiveness of the PDL and LPNY in the recalcitrant warts. Both PDL and LPNY laser could be used as a safe and alternative treatment for recalcitrant warts.

  8. Comparative Study of the Use of Trichloroacetic Acid and Phenolic Acid in the Treatment of Atrophic-Type Acne Scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalpizzol, Mariana; Weber, Magda B; Mattiazzi, Anna Paula F; Manzoni, Ana Paula D

    2016-03-01

    Many therapies involving varying degrees of complexity have been used to treat acne scars, but none is considered the gold standard treatment. A comparative evaluation of 88% phenol and 90% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) applied using the chemical reconstruction of skin scars (CROSS) technique. A nonrandomized, single-blinded self-controlled clinical trial was conducted among patients with ice pick-type and boxcar-type atrophic acne scars. Using 88% phenol on the left hemiface and 90% TCA on the right hemiface was adopted as the standard practice of the CROSS technique. The dermatological quality of life index (DLQI) questionnaire, acne scar grading scale Échelle d´Evaluation Clinique des Cicatrices d'Acne (ECCA), and evaluation of improvement were performed pretreatment and post-treatment. Regarding ECCA, significant differences were found in pretreatment and post-treatment (p < .001). Regarding tolerance to pain, it was found that the discomfort felt with 90% TCA was significantly less than that felt with 88% phenol (p = .020). Regarding the quality of life measured with the DLQI, the results showed that the mean score in post-treatment assessment was significantly lower than that in the pretreatment assessment (p < .05). Hypochromia and enlargement scar were only seen after the use of 90% TCA. This study confirmed the efficacy of both TCA and phenol for treating such scars, with less severe complications from the use of phenol.

  9. Comparative studies of utilization of industrial electron accelerators and adsorption with activated carbon for industrial effluent treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampa, Maria Helena de O.; Rela, Paulo R.; Duarte, Celina Lopes; Las Casas, Alexandre; Mori, Manoel Nunes; Omi, Nelson M.

    2005-01-01

    A technical and economical feasibility study was performed comparing the use electron beam and activated charcoal for treatment of industrial wastewater. In this study was used synthetic solutions, prepared in laboratory with organic compounds standards, where the composition was focused on the critical organic contaminants usually presented in wastewater from petrochemical industry. For the sample irradiation was used an industrial electron beam from Radiation Dynamics Inc. 1.5 MeV - 37.5 kW setup in IPEN. The doses ranged from 5 kGy to 100 kGy. A common granulated activated charcoal in a fixed-bed absorber glass column was used to study the pollutants absorption performance. The results show that if the adequate irradiation dose was delivered to the organic pollutant, it is possible to conclude for the studied compounds that the Electron Beam Process is, in aspect of organic removal efficiency, similar to the activated carbon process. (author)

  10. A Comparative Study of Liquid Nitrogen Cryotherapy as Monotherapy versus in Combination with Podophyllin in the Treatment of Condyloma Acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nidhi; Sharma, Sanjeev; Singhal, Chetna

    2017-03-01

    Condyloma Acuminata (CA) is a common viral sexually transmitted disease. Although various treatment modalities are available for treating CA, but none of them can achieve 100% response rate. In a search for better response rate and less recurrence rate, the combination of cytotoxic agent Podophyllin with ablative liquid nitrogen cryotherapy was evaluated over cryotherapy alone. To evaluate the synergistic effect of Podophyllin as a chemotherapeutic adjunct to an ablative therapy of liquid nitrogen cryotherapy versus liquid nitrogen cryotherapy alone in the treatment of CA. Sixty patients with multiple CA were randomly assigned to two groups in the study. Thirty patients in group A received double freeze thaw cycle of 25 seconds of liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Thirty patients in Group B were subjected to liquid nitrogen cryotherapy in a similar manner followed by application of not more than 0.5 ml of 25% Podophyllin solution. All patients were followed up at 1, 4, 8, 12 and 24 weeks after the treatment to monitor the response to therapy and evaluation for any recurrence. When the number of unresponsive lesions were more than 30% of original lesions at 4 weeks follow-up, then the whole procedure was repeated again. The complete response rate and the recurrence rate in the Group B in our study were comparable to Group A as the difference was statistically insignificant. But the differentiating point was that the similar results were obtained in Group B with an average1.2 sessions per patient in comparison to an average of 1.67 sessions per patient in Group A. Cryotherapy represents a simple, safe and effective regimen for the treatment of multiple CA which in combination with Podophyllin is even more effective as a single session procedure; thereby shortening the treatment regimen.

  11. Intralesional tuberculin (PPD) versus measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine in treatment of multiple warts: a comparative clinical and immunological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Maha Adel; Salem, Samar Abdallah M; Fouad, Dina Adel; El-Fatah, Abeer Aly Abd

    2015-01-01

    Intralesional purified protein derivative (PPD) or mumps, measles, rubella (MMR) were not previously compared regarding their efficacy or mechanism of action in treatment of warts. We aimed to compare their efficacy in treatment of multiple warts and investigate their effect on serum interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-12. Thirty patients with multiple warts were included (10 treated with PPD, 10 with MMR, and 10 with normal saline (control)). Injection was done every 3 weeks until clearance or maximum of three treatments. Clinical response of target and distant warts was evaluated. Serum ILs-4 and -12 were assessed before and after treatment. A significantly higher rate of complete response was found in target and distant warts with PPD (60% each) and MMR (80%, 40%, respectively) compared with controls (0%), with no significant difference between both treatments. After treatment, the control group showed the lowest serum IL-12 and IL-4 levels compared with the MMR- and PPD-treated groups with statistically significant difference in between. MMR resulted in a significantly higher serum IL-12 than PPD. With PPD, IL-4 was increased with statistically significant change compared with pretreat-ment level. Intralesional PPD and MMR show comparable efficacy and safety in treatment of multiple warts. Serum ILs-4 and-12 increase following antigen injection. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. SU-F-T-391: Comparative Study of Treatment Planning Between IMRT and IMAT for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the dosimetric differences between intensitymodulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and intensity modulated arc therapy (IMAT) for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) patients with regard to the sparing effect on organs at risk (OARs), plan quality, and delivery efficiency. Methods: Ten MPM patients were recruited in this study. To avoid the inter-operator variability, IMRT and IMAT plans for each patient were performed by one experienced dosimetrist. The treatment planning optimization process was carried out using the Eclipse 13.0 software. For a fair comparison, the planning target volume (PTV) coverage of the two plans was normalized to the same level. The treatment plans were evaluated on the following dosimetric variables: conformity index (CI) and homogeneity index (HI) for PTV, OARs dose, and the delivery efficiency for each plan. Results: All plans satisfied clinical requirements. The IMAT plans gained better CI and HI. The IMRT plans performed better sparing for heart and lung. Less MUs and control points were found in the IMAT plans. IMAT shortened delivery time compared with IMRT. Conclusion: For MPM, IMAT gains better conformity and homogeneity for PTV with IMRT, but increases the irradiation dose for OARs. IMAT shows an advantage in delivery efficiency.

  13. SU-F-T-391: Comparative Study of Treatment Planning Between IMRT and IMAT for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, J [Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Jinan, Shandong province (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the dosimetric differences between intensitymodulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and intensity modulated arc therapy (IMAT) for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) patients with regard to the sparing effect on organs at risk (OARs), plan quality, and delivery efficiency. Methods: Ten MPM patients were recruited in this study. To avoid the inter-operator variability, IMRT and IMAT plans for each patient were performed by one experienced dosimetrist. The treatment planning optimization process was carried out using the Eclipse 13.0 software. For a fair comparison, the planning target volume (PTV) coverage of the two plans was normalized to the same level. The treatment plans were evaluated on the following dosimetric variables: conformity index (CI) and homogeneity index (HI) for PTV, OARs dose, and the delivery efficiency for each plan. Results: All plans satisfied clinical requirements. The IMAT plans gained better CI and HI. The IMRT plans performed better sparing for heart and lung. Less MUs and control points were found in the IMAT plans. IMAT shortened delivery time compared with IMRT. Conclusion: For MPM, IMAT gains better conformity and homogeneity for PTV with IMRT, but increases the irradiation dose for OARs. IMAT shows an advantage in delivery efficiency.

  14. Multicenter Cohort Study Comparing U.S. Management of Inpatient Pediatric Immune Thrombocytopenia to Current Treatment Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witmer, Char M; Lambert, Michele P; O'Brien, Sarah H; Neunert, Cindy

    2016-07-01

    Recent pediatric immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) guidelines have significantly altered and are encouraging an observational approach for patients without significant bleeding regardless of their platelet count. This retrospective multicenter cohort study utilized the Pediatric Health Information Systems (PHIS) administrative database. Subjects were 6 months to 18 years of age, admitted to a PHIS hospital between January 1, 2008 and September 30, 2014, with a primary diagnosis code for ITP. International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification Code (ICD-9-CM) discharge codes identified significant bleeding. Pharmaceutical billing codes identified the use of pharmacologic therapy for ITP. Clinical management during preguideline admissions (January 1, 2008 to August 31, 2011) was compared to postguideline admissions (September 1, 2011 to September 30, 2014). A total of 4,937 subjects met inclusion criteria with a mean age of 6.2 (SD 5) years; 93.4% (4,613/4,937) received pharmacologic treatment for ITP but only 14.2% (699/4,937) had ICD-9-CM codes for significant bleeding; 11.5% (570/4,937) of subjects were readmitted. In comparing pre- versus postguideline time periods, the proportion of subjects receiving ITP pharmacologic treatment did not change (92.9% vs. 94.1%; P = 0.26). A decrease was found in the proportion of bone marrows performed (9.7% vs. 6.4%; P compared to 2008-2010 (12.9 vs. 14.5/10,000 PHIS admissions, P guidelines and evidence that supports a watchful waiting approach for pediatric patients with ITP, a large proportion of inpatients without significant bleeding are still receiving pharmacologic therapy. Continued efforts are needed to address why inpatient U.S. practice patterns are so discrepant from current treatment guidelines. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Comparing cardiovascular risk factors, disease and treatment in participants with rheumatoid arthritis and without arthritis in a population based study

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Driscoll, N

    2017-05-01

    Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is associated with a significant increase in mortality compared to the general population, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) the leading cause of death. The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence and treatment of modifiable CV risk factors and history of CVD in those with RA and those without arthritis in Ireland. Data from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), a population-representative cohort study of people in Ireland aged 50 or over, was used. Participants with RA (n=457) were twice as likely to be obese (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.99 to 2.06) compared to those without arthritis (n=4,063). Participants with RA were also more likely to be physically inactive (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.69 to 1.76) and taking antihypertensive medication than those without arthritis. Exercise can have a beneficial impact on CVD and specific interventions to increase physical activity in those with RA may be warranted

  16. Treatment outcomes of the simple bone cyst: A comparative study of 2 surgical techniques using artificial bone substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Takashi; Yamamoto, Norio; Shirai, Toshiharu; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Takeuchi, Akihiko; Kimura, Hiroaki; Miwa, Shinji; Abe, Kensaku; Taniguchi, Yuta; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2018-05-01

    Simple bone cysts (SBCs) are benign lesions of unknown etiology. Because of its high relapse rate, they occasionally need a long period of treatment and restriction of activities in children and adolescent. Although various treatment modalities with variable differing outcomes have been described in the literature, no consensus has been reached regarding the standard treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of a minimally invasive technique that uses a ceramic hydroxyapatite cannulated pin (HA pin) for the treatment of SBCs.Between 1998 and 2015, we have treated 75 patients with SBCs either with continuous decompression by inserting HA pins after curettage and multiple drilling (group 1, n = 39 patients) or with calcium phosphate cement (CPC) filling after curettage (group 2, n = 36 patients). These patients were retrospectively analyzed for recurrence-free survival (RFS) and factors implicated in SBC recurrence.Seventy-five patients (50 man and 25 females) with a mean age of 17.5 ± 11.6 years and a histopathologically confirmed diagnosis of SBCs were included. The mean follow-up period was 33 ± 25.3 months. RFS were 88% at 1 year and 81% at 5 years. Residual or progressing cysts were observed in 12 patients after the surgery and 10 of them underwent additional surgery. Recurrence rate was significantly higher in patients under the age of 10 years (P = .01), in long bone cysts (P = .01), and in active phase cysts (P = .003) (log-rank test). Multivariate analysis results revealed that age less than 10 years was an independent risk factor of recurrence (P = .04). No significant difference in recurrence rate was observed between groups 1 and 2. However, the mean operating time was significantly shorter in group 1. (62.4 ± 25.6 vs 110.5 ± 48.4 minutes in group 2).Continuous decompression using HA pin is a less invasive surgical technique for the treatment of SBCs compared with CPC filling and has a

  17. Treatment Efficacy of Electromyography versus Fiberscopy-Guided Botulinum Toxin Injection in Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia Patients: A Prospective Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Wook; Park, Jae Hong; Park, Ki Nam; Lee, Seung Won

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. This study prospectively evaluates and compares the treatment efficacy of botulinum toxin injection under electromyography guidance (EMG group) and percutaneous botulinum toxin injection under flexible fiberscopic guidance (fiberscopy group). Methods. Thirty patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD), who had never received treatment, were randomly allocated into EMG- or fiberscopy-guided botulinum toxin injections between March 2008 and February 2010. We assessed acoustic and aerodynamic voice parameters, and the voice handicap index (VHI) before injection and at 1, 3, and 6 months after injection. Results. The mean total dosage of botulinum toxin was similar for both groups: 1.7 ± 0.5 U for the EMG group and 1.8 ± 0.4 U for the fiberscopy group (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences in outcomes between the two groups in either the duration of effectiveness or complications such as breathy voice and aspiration. Conclusion. Botulinum toxin injection under fiberscopic guidance is a viable alternative to EMG-guided botulinum toxin injection for the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia when EMG equipment is unavailable. PMID:25383369

  18. Treatment Efficacy of Electromyography versus Fiberscopy-Guided Botulinum Toxin Injection in Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia Patients: A Prospective Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Wook Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study prospectively evaluates and compares the treatment efficacy of botulinum toxin injection under electromyography guidance (EMG group and percutaneous botulinum toxin injection under flexible fiberscopic guidance (fiberscopy group. Methods. Thirty patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD, who had never received treatment, were randomly allocated into EMG- or fiberscopy-guided botulinum toxin injections between March 2008 and February 2010. We assessed acoustic and aerodynamic voice parameters, and the voice handicap index (VHI before injection and at 1, 3, and 6 months after injection. Results. The mean total dosage of botulinum toxin was similar for both groups: 1.7 ± 0.5 U for the EMG group and 1.8 ± 0.4 U for the fiberscopy group (P>0.05. There were no significant differences in outcomes between the two groups in either the duration of effectiveness or complications such as breathy voice and aspiration. Conclusion. Botulinum toxin injection under fiberscopic guidance is a viable alternative to EMG-guided botulinum toxin injection for the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia when EMG equipment is unavailable.

  19. Treatment efficacy of electromyography versus fiberscopy-guided botulinum toxin injection in adductor spasmodic dysphonia patients: a prospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Wook; Park, Jae Hong; Park, Ki Nam; Lee, Seung Won

    2014-01-01

    This study prospectively evaluates and compares the treatment efficacy of botulinum toxin injection under electromyography guidance (EMG group) and percutaneous botulinum toxin injection under flexible fiberscopic guidance (fiberscopy group). Thirty patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD), who had never received treatment, were randomly allocated into EMG- or fiberscopy-guided botulinum toxin injections between March 2008 and February 2010. We assessed acoustic and aerodynamic voice parameters, and the voice handicap index (VHI) before injection and at 1, 3, and 6 months after injection. The mean total dosage of botulinum toxin was similar for both groups: 1.7 ± 0.5 U for the EMG group and 1.8 ± 0.4 U for the fiberscopy group (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences in outcomes between the two groups in either the duration of effectiveness or complications such as breathy voice and aspiration. Botulinum toxin injection under fiberscopic guidance is a viable alternative to EMG-guided botulinum toxin injection for the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia when EMG equipment is unavailable.

  20. Amitriptyline and aerobic exercise or amitriptyline alone in the treatment of chronic migraine: a randomized comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Dias Santos Santiago

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To compare the preventive treatment benefits of amitriptyline and aerobic exercise or amitriptyline alone in patients with chronic migraine. Method Sixty patients, both genders, aged between 18 and 50 years, with a diagnosis of chronic migraine, were randomized in groups called amitriptyline and aerobic exercise or amitriptyline alone. The following parameters were evaluated: headache frequency, intensity and duration of headache, days of the analgesic medication use, body mass index (BMI, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI scores. Results In the evaluated parameters, was observed decrease in headache frequency (p=0.001, moderate intensity (p=0.048, in headache duration (p=0.001, the body mass index (p=0.001, Beck Depression Inventory (p=0.001 and Beck Anxiety Inventory scores (p=0.001, when groups were compared in the end of third month. Conclusion In this study, the amitriptyline was an effective treatment for chronic migraine, but its efficacy was increased when combined with aerobic exercise.

  1. Study of external root resorption during orthodontic treatment in root filled teeth compared with their contralateral teeth with vital pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas-Carreras, J M; Amarilla, A; Solano, E; Velasco-Ortega, E; Rodríguez-Varo, L; Segura-Egea, J J

    2010-08-01

    To determine whether root filled teeth and those with vital pulps exhibit a similar degree of external root resorption (ERR) as a consequence of orthodontic treatment. The study sample consisted of 77 patients, with a mean age of 32.7 +/- 10.7 years, who had one root filled tooth before completion of multiband/bracket orthodontic therapy for at least 1 year. For each patient, digital panoramic radiographs taken before and after orthodontic treatment were used to determine the proportion of external root resorption (PRR), defined as the ratio between the root resorption in the root filled tooth and that in its contralateral tooth with a vital pulp. The student's t-test, anova and logistic regression analysis were used to determine statistical significance. The mean PRR was 1.00 +/- 0.13, indicating that, in the total sample, there were no significant differences in root resorption in the root filled teeth and their contralateral teeth with vital pulps. Multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested that PRR was significantly greater in incisors (P = 0.0014; odds ratio = 6.2885, C.I. 95% = 2.0-19.4), compared to other teeth, and in women (P = 0.0255; odds ratio = 4.2, C.I. 95% = 1.2-14.6), compared to men. There was no significant difference in the amount or severity of external root resorption during orthodontic movement between root filled teeth and their contralateral teeth with vital pulps.

  2. A Comparative Study Between Two Sensory Stimulation Strategies After Two Weeks Treatment on Older Patients with Oropharyngeal Dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Omar; Rofes, Laia; Martin, Alberto; Arreola, Viridiana; López, Irene; Clavé, Pere

    2016-10-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is a prevalent geriatric syndrome. Treatment is based on compensatory strategies to avoid complications. New treatments based on sensory stimulation to promote the recovery of the swallowing function have proved effective in acute studies but prolonged treatment needs further research. Our aim was to evaluate and compare the effect of two, longer-term sensory treatment strategies on older patients with OD. 38 older patients (≥70 years) were studied with videofluoroscopy (pre/posttreatment) and randomized into two 10-day treatment groups: Group A-transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) agonist (capsaicin 1 × 10(-5) M) and Group B-transcutaneous sensory electrical stimulation (TSES) (Intelect VitalStim, biphasic pulses, 300 μs, 80 Hz). Patients were analyzed for treatment response. Patients were old (80.47 ± 5.2 years), with comorbidities (3.11 ± 1.59 Charlson Index), polymedication (8.92 ± 3.31 drugs/patient), and mild functional impairment (86.84 ± 17.84 Barthel Index), and 28.9 % were at risk of malnutrition (MNA-sf). Overall, all patients had videofluoroscopic signs of impaired safety of swallow (ISS) with delayed oropharyngeal swallow response (OSR). After sensory stimulation, prevalence of ISS decreased to 68.42 % in both groups (P = 0.019). There were 68.42 % responders in Group A (TRPV1) and 42.11 % in Group B (TSES). Group A responders showed an improvement in the penetration-aspiration scale (PAS, 5.23 ± 2.04 to 3 ± 1.47; P = 0.002), and the same was true for those of Group B (4.63 ± 1.41 to 2.13 ± 0.64; P = 0.007). 10-day sensory stimulation with either therapy improved safety of swallow and OSR in older patients with OD, reducing the severity of OD in a significant subgroup of these patients.

  3. Comparative study of the methods used for treatment and final disposal of sewage sludge in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelessidis, Alexandros; Stasinakis, Athanasios S

    2012-06-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment results to the production of large quantities of sewage sludge, which requires proper and environmentally accepted management before final disposal. In European Union, sludge management remains an open and challenging issue for the Member States as the relative European legislation is fragmentary and quite old, while the published data concerning sludge treatment and disposal in different European countries are often incomplete and inhomogeneous. The main objective of the current study was to outline the current situation and discuss future perspectives for sludge treatment and disposal in EU countries. According to the results, specific sludge production is differentiated significantly between European countries, ranging from 0.1 kg per population equivalent (p.e.) and year (Malta) to 30.8 kg per p.e. and year (Austria). More stringent legislations comparing to European Directive 86/278/EC have been adopted for sludge disposal in soil by several European countries, setting lower limit values for heavy metals as well as limit values for pathogens and organic micropollutants. A great variety of sludge treatment technologies are used in EU countries, while differences are observed between Member States. Anaerobic and aerobic digestion seems to be the most popular stabilization methods, applying in 24 and 20 countries, respectively. Mechanical sludge dewatering is preferred comparing to the use of drying beds, while thermal drying is mainly applied in EU-15 countries (old Member States) and especially in Germany, Italy, France and UK. Regarding sludge final disposal, sludge reuse (including direct agricultural application and composting) seems to be the predominant choice for sludge management in EU-15 (53% of produced sludge), following by incineration (21% of produced sludge). On the other hand, the most common disposal method in EU-12 countries (new Member States that joined EU after 2004) is still landfilling. Due to the obligations

  4. [A comparative study of Da Vinci robot system with video-assisted thoracoscopy in the surgical treatment of mediastinal lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Renquan; Tong, Xiangdong; Xu, Shiguang; Zhang, Dakun; Gao, Xin; Teng, Hong; Qu, Jiaqi; Wang, Shumin

    2014-07-20

    In recent years, Da Vinci robot system applied in the treatment of intrathoracic surgery mediastinal diseases become more mature. The aim of this study is to summarize the clinical data about mediastinal lesions of General Hospital of Shenyang Military Region in the past 4 years, then to analyze the treatment effect and promising applications of da Vinci robot system in the surgical treatment of mediastinal lesions. 203 cases of mediastinal lesions were collected from General Hospital of Shenyang Military Region between 2010 and 2013. These patients were divided into two groups da Vinci and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) according to the selection of the treatments. The time in surgery, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative drainage amount within three days after surgery, the period of bearing drainage tubes, hospital stays and hospitalization expense were then compared. All patients were successfully operated, the postoperative recovery is good and there is no perioperative death. The different of the time in surgery between two groups is Robots group 82 (20-320) min and thoracoscopic group 89 (35-360) min (P>0.05). The intraoperative blood loss between two groups is robot group 10 (1-100) mL and thoracoscopic group 50 (3-1,500) mL. The postoperative drainage amount within three days after surgery between two groups is robot group 215 (0-2,220) mL and thoracoscopic group 350 (50-1,810) mL. The period of bearing drainage tubes after surgery between two groups is robot group 3 (0-10) d and thoracoscopic group: 5 (1-18) d. The difference of hospital stays between two groups is robot group 7 (2-15) d and thoracoscopic group 9 (2-50) d. The hospitalization expense between two groups is robot group (18,983.6±4,461.2) RMB and thoracoscopic group (9,351.9±2,076.3) RMB (All Pda Vinci robot system is safe and efficient in the treatment of mediastinal lesions compared with video-assisted thoracoscopic approach, even though its expense is higher.

  5. Comparative experimental studies on Trypanosoma isolates in mice and response to diminazene aceturate and isometamidium chloride treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muluken Yayeh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study was undertaken from December 2015 to May 2016 with the aim of determining and comparing the pathogenicity and response to diminazene aceturate (DA and isometamidium chloride (ISM treatment in experimentally infected mice with trypanosome isolates from Jawi and Birsheleko areas of northwest Ethiopia. A total of 42 mice were used for the experiment. These mice were randomly assigned in to 7 groups of 6 mice per group. Three of the groups (Group 1, 4 and 5 were inoculated with trypanosome isolated from Jawi and three other groups (Group-2, 6 and 7 were inoculated with trypanosome isolated from Birsheleko and the remaining one group (Group 3 was negative control. Each experimental mice were received 0.3 ml of positive blood at the 105 parasites/ml from donor animals intraperitoneally while negative control group were received 0.3 ml sterile water. The mice were clinically observed daily during the study period. Parameters including level of parasitaemia, body weight, PCV and hemoglobin value were recorded once per week for ten consecutive weeks post infection. Trypanocidal treatment was given on day 21 post infection when peak parasitaemia was detected in groups (Group 4-DA-Jawi, 5-ISM-Jawi, 6-DA-BRSH and 7-ISM-BRSH. The treatment doses for DA was at 28 mg/kg and for ISM at 4 mg/kg. In all experimental groups during study period when the mice showed severe clinical signs and at the end of the experiment they were euthanized with 70% ethanol for gross and histopathological examinations. The parameters measured during the study period revealed markers leading to pathological changes in all infected groups. Parasitaemia were detected early in the Jawi isolate infected groups compared to the Birsheleko groups. All infected mice showed clear clinical manifestation of depression, weight loss, reduction in feed intake and huddled together in the corner of the cage. Significant (P < 0.05 reduction was observed in the mean PCV and

  6. Comparative study of 250 mg/day terbinafine and 100 mg/day itraconazole for the treatment of cutaneous sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesconi, Glaucia; Francesconi do Valle, Antonio Carlos; Passos, Sonia Lambert; de Lima Barros, Mônica Bastos; de Almeida Paes, Rodrigo; Curi, André Luiz Land; Liporage, José; Porto, Cássio Ferreira; Galhardo, Maria Clara Gutierrez

    2011-05-01

    Itraconazole is currently used for the treatment of cutaneous sporotrichosis. Terbinafine at a daily dose of 250 mg has been successfully applied to the treatment of cutaneous sporotrichosis. To compare the efficacy of 250 mg/day terbinafine and 100 mg/day itraconazole for the treatment of cutaneous sporotrichosis. A bidirectional cohort study was conducted on 55 patients receiving 250 mg/day terbinafine and 249 patients receiving 100 mg/day itraconazole. The latter patients were matched for age and clinical form to the terbinafine group at a ratio of 5:1. Sporothrix schenckii was isolated by culture from all patients (age range: 18-70 years), who were submitted to the standard care protocol consisting of clinical and laboratory evaluation and periodic visits. Cure was observed in 51 (92.7%) patients of the terbinafine group and 229 (92%) of the itraconazole group within a similar mean period of time (11.5 and 11.8 weeks, respectively). An increase in the terbinafine dose to 500 mg was necessary in two patients due to the lack of a response, and one patient presented recurrence. In the itraconazole group, two patients required a dose increase and three presented recurrence. Adverse events were equally frequent among patients receiving terbinafine (n = 4, 7.3%) and itraconazole (n = 19, 7.6%) and were generally mild without the need for drug discontinuation, except for two patients of the itraconazole group. Terbinafine administered at a daily dose of 250 mg is an effective and well-tolerated option for the treatment of cutaneous sporotrichosis.

  7. Comparative study to evaluate the efficacy of radiofrequency ablation versus trichloroacetic acid in the treatment of xanthelasma palpebrarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Shanmugam Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Xanthelasma palpebrarum (XP is a metabolic disorder involving the eyelids. Radiofrequency(RF surgery and trichloroacetic acid (TCA applications have been listed among the procedures for XP, but comparative studies are not available. Aim: To compare the efficacy of radiofrequency surgery versus trichloroacetic acid application in the treatment of XP. Settings and Design: 20 consecutive cases of XP attending dermatology, medicine and endocrinology out-patient departments of M.S.Ramaiah teaching hospital were enrolled for the study. It was an open-label clinical trial conducted in our hospital for a duration of 1 year. Materials and Methods: 20 consecutive patients conforming to inclusion criteria were selected for the study. For each patient, lesions were treated with radiofrequency ablation on one side and TCA application on the other side. Results: RF ablation was done for 12 patients over right eye lesions and 8 patients over the left eye lesions. TCA applications were done for 8 patients over right eye lesions and 12 patients over left eye lesions. 70% of lesions treated with RF ablation had a score of improvement of 4 and 70% of lesions treated with TCA application had a score of improvement of 4, at 4 weeks of follow-up. At four weeks of follow-up 40% in RF group and 15% in TCA group had scarring and 45% in RF group and 30% in TCA group had pigmentation. Conclusion: RF ablation as compared to TCA application, required fewer sessions for achieving more than 75% clearance of lesions. However, TCA applications were associated with fewer complications comparatively.

  8. New cleaning strategies based on carbon nanomaterials applied to the deteriorated marble surfaces: A comparative study with enzyme based treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentini, Federica, E-mail: federica.valentini@uniroma2.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Diamanti, Alessia; Carbone, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Bauer, E.M. [Istituto di Struttura della Materia del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (ISM-CNR), RM 1, Via Salaria km 29.3, 00015 Monterotondo (Italy); Palleschi, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2012-06-01

    Pentelic marbles from Basilica Neptuni in Rome-Italy (27-25 B.C.) show the signs of deterioration phenomena, which can be identified as black crust as well as black and grey patina. The present study has the twofold objective of assessing the entity of the deterioration and proposing new cleaning strategies based on nanotechnologies. The former is achieved by performing optical microscopy, differential interference contrast (DIC), stereomicroscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX) and infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis. The second objective of this study, involves different treatments based on a new cleaning strategy with carbon nanomaterials and bio-cleaning (used here for comparison) performed with enzymes, as glucose oxidase (GOD) and lipase. Nanomicelles assembled with functionalised carbon nano-fibres (CNF-COOH) and dispersed in Tween 20 medium show the highest cleaning performances in terms of removal of the black crust, compared with the pristine single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and the enzyme-based cleaning treatments. In particular, in these last two cases, the GOD-based biocleaning is efficient in removing the grey and dark patina, but works slow on the black crust. Finally, the lipase based cleaning approach is efficient in the black patina removal, though at the working temperature of 38 Degree-Sign C.

  9. The effects of ionizing radiation on food, compared to the effects of conventional food treatment: A literature study. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leister, W.; Boegl, K.W.

    1987-08-01

    The extent and quality of changes due to irradiation is described and compared with conventional methods. Effects of radiation treatment on vegetable products as well as pork, beef, any type of fish and poultry product are compared with conventional thermic, micro-wave or smoke treatments, drying processes, ethylene oxide gas treatment, as well as effects from storage, temperature and sealed packaging. In this context the influences of the different treatment methods on various food components and on sensory, physical-chemical or biochemical characteristics were compared. The following tendencies were observed: conventional treatment methods produce partly more pronounced changes than irradiation with standard doses. Heat treatment, for instance, results in a greater weight loss, in altered sugar content, and in higher content of carbonyl and aldehyde releasing compounds. Gas treatment will cut the volatile oil content in half, while it remains nearly constant after irradiation. However, in some cases, an irradiation with standard doses may cause changes which should not be disregarded. In onions, for instance, irradiation is causing a stronger decomposition during storage than only cold storage. (orig./MG) [de

  10. TISU: Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, as first treatment option, compared with direct progression to ureteroscopic treatment, for ureteric stones: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClinton, Samuel; Cameron, Sarah; Starr, Kathryn; Thomas, Ruth; MacLennan, Graeme; McDonald, Alison; Lam, Thomas; N'Dow, James; Kilonzo, Mary; Pickard, Robert; Anson, Ken; Keeley, Frank; Burgess, Neil; Clark, Charles Terry; MacLennan, Sara; Norrie, John

    2018-05-22

    Urinary stone disease is very common with an estimated prevalence among the general population of 2-3%. Ureteric stones are associated with severe pain as they pass through the urinary tract and have significant impact on patients' quality of life due to the detrimental effect on their ability to work and need for hospitalisation. Most ureteric stones can be expected to pass spontaneously with supportive care. However, between one-fifth and one-third of cases require an intervention. The two standard active intervention options are extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) and ureteroscopic stone retrieval. ESWL and ureteroscopy are effective in terms of stone clearance; however, they differ in terms of invasiveness, anaesthetic requirement, treatment setting, complications, patient-reported outcomes (e.g. pain after intervention, time off work) and cost. There is uncertainty around which is the most clinically effective in terms of stone clearance and the true cost to the NHS and to society (in terms of impact on patient-reported health and economic burden). The aim of this trial is to determine whether, in adults with ureteric stones, judged to require active intervention, ESWL is not inferior and is more cost-effective compared to ureteroscopic treatment as the initial management option. The TISU study is a pragmatic multicentre non-inferiority randomised controlled trial of ESWL as the first treatment option compared with direct progression to ureteroscopic treatment for ureteric stones. Patients aged over 16 years with a ureteric stone confirmed by non-contrast computed tomography of the kidney, ureter and bladder (CTKUB) will be randomised to either ESWL or ureteroscopy. The primary clinical outcome is resolution of the stone episode (no further intervention required to facilitate stone clearance) up to six months from randomisation. The primary economic outcome is the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained at six months from

  11. [Comparative Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Caffeine and Aminophylline for the Treatment of Apnea in Preterm Infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasato, Akane; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Kamimura, Hidetoshi

    2018-01-01

     Methylxanthine is widely administered for the treatment of apnea of prematurity in many countries, and previous reports have clearly established that caffeine is effective for the treatment of apnea of prematurity. In Japan, caffeine has been available since December 2014. Thus, we compared the efficacy and safety of caffeine with that of aminophylline in our hospital. There was no significant difference between the caffeine group and aminophylline group regarding the characteristics of the study patients. The mean efficacy rate from day 1 to day 10 was 89.5% in the caffeine group, and 81.9% in the aminophylline group, although the rate of improvement in apnea episodes each day from day 1 to day 10 was not significantly different between the two groups. On the other hand, the adverse event rates in the caffeine group and the aminophylline group were 70.6% and 75.0%, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the adverse event rates between the two groups. Moreover, suspected abdominal distension due to the drug administration was more frequently observed with the aminophylline group. Our findings indicate that caffeine is as effective as aminophylline, while it is superior to aminophylline regarding its overall safety.

  12. Decision making in the treatment of peripheral arterial disease - A single-institution comparative study using information from color doppler and digital subtraction angiogram studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshy, Chiramel G; Chacko, Binita R; Keshava, Shyamkumar N; Stephen, Edwin; Agarwal, Sunil

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have compared the accuracy of color Doppler (CD) with that of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in the diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). However, only a few have looked at the influence of these diagnostic tests on the treatment decision in PAD. This study evaluated the differences in treatment decisions that were based on CD and with those based on DSA findings. Findings from CD and DSA studies obtained in 40 patients were entered on line diagrams by two radiologists working separately. These were randomized and sent to three experienced clinicians – two vascular surgeons and one interventional radiologist. The treatment decisions of the clinicians based on each proforma were collected and analyzed to look for the degree of agreement between Doppler-based and DSA-based decisions. There was fair to moderate agreement between CD-based and DSA-based decisions for all three clinicians, with some improvement in agreement with the addition of clinical data. The vascular surgeons showed better agreement with each other on treatment decisions compared to the interventional radiologist who showed a fair-to-moderate level of agreement with the vascular surgeons, which did not significantly change with the addition of clinical data. There is a fair to moderate agreement between treatment decisions based on CD findings and those based on DSA findings. We conclude that CD along with clinical data is sufficient to make decisions in the treatment of PAD

  13. Treatment of forefoot problems in older people: study protocol for a randomised clinical trial comparing podiatric treatment to standardised shoe advice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeraer Louis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot problems in general and forefoot problems in particular can lead to a decrease in mobility and a higher risk of falling. Forefoot problems increase with age and are more common in women than in men. Around 20% of people over 65 suffer from non-traumatic foot problems and 60% of these problems are localised in the forefoot. Little is known about the best way to treat forefoot problems in older people. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of two common modes of treatment in the Netherlands: shoe advice and podiatric treatment. This paper describes the design of this study. Methods The study is designed as a pragmatic randomised clinical trial (RCT with 2 parallel intervention groups. People aged 50 years and over who have visited their general practitioner (GP with non traumatic pain in the forefoot in the preceding year and those who will visit their GP during the recruitment period with a similar complaint will be recruited for this study. Participants must be able to walk unaided for 7 metres and be able to fill in questionnaires. Exclusion criteria are: rheumatoid arthritis, neuropathy of the foot or pain caused by skin problems (e.g. warts, eczema. Inclusion and exclusion criteria will be assessed by a screening questionnaire and baseline assessment. Those consenting to participation will be randomly assigned to either a group receiving a standardised shoe advice leaflet (n = 100 or a group receiving podiatric treatment (n = 100. Primary outcomes will be the severity of forefoot pain (0-10 on a numerical rating scale and foot function (Foot Function 5-pts Index and Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index. Treatment adherence, social participation and quality of life will be the secondary outcomes. All outcomes will be obtained through self-administered questionnaires at the start of the study and after 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Data will be analysed according to the "intention-to-treat" principle using

  14. An open, nonrandomized, comparative study of imiquimod 5% cream versus 10% potassium hydroxide solution in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metkar, Amol; Pande, Sushil; Khopkar, Uday

    2008-01-01

    There are numerous therapeutic modalities available for treatment of molluscum contagiosum. However, the ablative modalities are painful and not suitable for children. We aimed to evaluate and compare the safety and efficacy of 2 of the painless modalities, viz., 5% imiquimod cream and 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution, in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum. Out of a total of 40 patients of molluscum contagiosum in the study, 18 patients in the imiquimod group and 19 patients in the KOH group completed the study. The given medication was applied by the patient or a parent to mollusca at night, 3 days per week. Imiquimod was continued till clinical cure; and 10% KOH, till lesions showed signs of inflammation. Assessments of response and side effects were performed at the end of week 4, week 8, and week 12. Significance was tested by Student's t test and Mann-Whitney test. The mean lesion count decreased from 22.39 to 10.75 with imiquimod and from 20.79 to 4.31 with KOH at the end of 12 weeks. We found complete clearance of lesions in 8 (44%) patients with imiquimod and in 8 (42.1%) patients with 10% KOH. Minor side effects were seen in 15 (78.9%) patients on KOH and 10 (55.5%) patients on imiquimod. The results of this study suggest that both 5% imiquimod cream and 10% KOH solution are equally effective in molluscum contagiosum though KOH has a faster onset of action. However, KOH solution is associated with a higher incidence of side effects.

  15. General psychopathology, anxiety, depression and self-esteem in couples undergoing infertility treatment: a comparative study between men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kissi, Yousri; Romdhane, Asma Ben; Hidar, Samir; Bannour, Souhail; Ayoubi Idrissi, Khadija; Khairi, Hedi; Ben Hadj Ali, Bechir

    2013-04-01

    To compare measures of psychological distress between men and women undergoing ART in the Unit of Reproductive Medicine "UMR" in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at "Farhat Hached" Hospital in Sousse, Tunisia. We conducted a gender comparative study of psychological profile in infertile couples. Recruitment was done during period from January to May 2009. 100 infertile couples with primary infertility were recruited. Scores of general psychopathology, depression, anxiety and self-esteem were evaluated. We administrated questionnaires on psychological factors among infertile couples before starting a new infertility treatment cycle. Psychological factors included the symptom check-list (SCL-90-R), the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HAD-S) and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSE). Infertile women had higher scores than their spouses in the three global scores of the SCL-90-R and in several items such as somatisation, obsessive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity and phobias. Scores of HADS were higher among women for both depression and anxiety. Scores of self-esteem were lower among women. Women endorsed higher psychological distress than men across multiple symptoms domains: general psychopathology, anxiety, depression and self esteem. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A treatment planning study comparing whole breast radiation therapy against conformal, IMRT and tomotherapy for accelerated partial breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Mike; Chen, Jeff; Wong, Eugene; Van Dyk, Jake; Perera, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    Purpose and background: Conventional early breast cancer treatment consists of a lumpectomy followed by whole breast radiation therapy. Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is an investigational approach to post-lumpectomy radiation for early breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to compare four external beam APBI techniques, including tomotherapy, with conventional whole breast irradiation for their radiation conformity index, dose homogeneity index, and dose to organs at risk. Methods and materials: Small-field tangents, three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy and helical tomotherapy were compared for each of 15 patients (7 right, 8 left). One radiation conformity and two dose homogeneity indices were used to evaluate the dose to the target. The mean dose to organs at risk was also evaluated. Results: All proposed APBI techniques improved the conformity index significantly over whole breast tangents while maintaining dose homogeneity and without a significant increase in dose to organs at risk. Conclusion: The four-field IMRT plan produced the best dosimetric results; however this technique would require appropriate respiratory motion management. An alternative would be to use a four-field conformal technique that is less sensitive to the effects of respiratory motion

  17. Carbon dioxide laser versus erbium:YAG laser in treatment of epidermal verrucous nevus: a comparative randomized clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Mai Abdel Raouf; Kassab, Ahmed Nazmi

    2017-08-01

    A verrucous epidermal nevus (VEN) is a skin disorder that has been treated using different treatment modalities with varying results. Ablative lasers such as carbon dioxide laser (CO 2 ) and erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser have been considered as the gold standard for the treatment of epidermal nevi. To evaluate and compare the efficacy, postoperative wound healing and side effects of pulsed CO 2 laser and Er:YAG laser for the treatment of verrucous epidermal nevi. Twenty patients with localized VEN were randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 was administered CO 2 laser and group 2 underwent Er:YAG laser treatment. A blinded physician evaluated the photographs and dermoscopic photomicrographs for the efficacy and possible side effects. All patients received one treatment session and were followed up over a 6-month period. Both lasers induced noticeable clinical improvement, but there were no significant differences between two lasers in treatment response, patient satisfaction, duration of erythema and side effects. The average time to re-epithelialization was 13.5 days with CO 2 and 7.9 days with Er:YAG laser (plaser group and no lesional recurrence was detected in CO 2 laser group since treatment. Apart from re-epithelialization, both lasers showed equivalent outcomes with respect to treatment response, patient satisfaction, side effects and complications.

  18. A comparative study of pulsed 532-nm potassium titanyl phosphate laser and electrocoagulation in the treatment of spider nevi.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erceg, A.; Greebe, R.J.; Bovenschen, H.J.; Seijger, M.M.B.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical efficacy and safety of potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser treatment and electrocoagulation (EC) for the treatment of spider nevi (SN). METHOD: A randomized single-blind intrapatient comparison study was performed. A blinded observer and patients reported the

  19. A Comparative Prospective Study of Two Different Treatment Sequences i.e. Bottom Up-Inside Out and Topdown-Outside in, in the Treatment of Panfacial Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degala, Saikrishna; Sundar, S Shyam; Mamata, K S

    2015-12-01

    To compare the sequence bottom-up inside-out with top-down outside-in, in the treatment of pan facial fractures and to evaluate the outcome of these approaches. The data from 11 patients with panfacial fracture are prospectively analysed. Five cases are treated with bottom-up approach and six patients with top-down approach. There were 11 male patients (six in top-down approach and five in bottom-up approach), ranging in age from 24 to 50 years. All injuries were result of RTA (n = 11, 100 %). Final treatment outcome was excellent in 3 (50 %), 1 (16 %) good and 2 (32 %) cases were fair in topdown approach, 3 (60 %) excellent and 2 (40 %) fair in bottom up approach with contingency coefficient value (P reconstruction of the remaining. Choice of the bottom-up inside-out or top-down outside-in sequence should be according to the pattern of fractures and preference of the surgeon. However, further controlled clinical trials, comparative studies with a larger sample size would be better to evaluate the final clinical outcome of individual techniques.

  20. Randomised controlled trial comparing hypnotherapy versus gabapentin for the treatment of hot flashes in breast cancer survivors: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaughlan David, Shannon; Salzillo, Sandra; Bowe, Patrick; Scuncio, Sandra; Malit, Bridget; Raker, Christina; Gass, Jennifer S; Granai, C O; Dizon, Don S

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare the efficacy of hypnotherapy versus gabapentin for the treatment of hot flashes in breast cancer survivors, and to evaluate the feasibility of conducting a clinical trial comparing a drug with a complementary or alternative method (CAM). Design Prospective randomised trial. Setting Breast health centre of a tertiary care centre. Participants 15 women with a personal history of breast cancer or an increased risk of breast cancer who reported at least one daily hot flash. Interventions Gabapentin 900 mg daily in three divided doses (control) compared with standardised hypnotherapy. Participation lasted 8 weeks. Outcome measures The primary endpoints were the number of daily hot flashes and hot flash severity score (HFSS). The secondary endpoint was the Hot Flash Related Daily Interference Scale (HFRDIS). Results 27 women were randomised and 15 (56%) were considered evaluable for the primary endpoint (n=8 gabapentin, n=7 hypnotherapy). The median number of daily hot flashes at enrolment was 4.5 in the gabapentin arm and 5 in the hypnotherapy arm. HFSS scores were 7.5 in the gabapentin arm and 10 in the hypnotherapy arm. After 8 weeks, the median number of daily hot flashes was reduced by 33.3% in the gabapentin arm and by 80% in the hypnotherapy arm. The median HFSS was reduced by 33.3% in the gabapentin arm and by 85% in the hypnotherapy arm. HFRDIS scores improved by 51.6% in the gabapentin group and by 55.2% in the hypnotherapy group. There were no statistically significant differences between groups. Conclusions Hypnotherapy and gabapentin demonstrate efficacy in improving hot flashes. A definitive trial evaluating traditional interventions against CAM methods is feasible, but not without challenges. Further studies aimed at defining evidence-based recommendations for CAM are necessary. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00711529). PMID:24022390

  1. Comparative characteristics of the efficiency of different methods of operational treatment for pectus excavatum in children: a multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Yu. Razumovsky

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Congenital malformations of the chest are observed in 1%–4% of the population, and the most common among these is pectus excavatum (90%. Aim. We aimed to conduct a retrospective multicenter study to compare the effectiveness of various methods of operative removal of pectus excavatum in children. Material and methods. We retrospectively analyzed the results of the surgical treatment of funnel-like deformity of the thorax in children conducted in clinics of pediatric surgery in seven regions of Russia (1,226 patients. The ratio of boys to girls in the study population was 2.2:1. The study population was divided as per their age into the following groups: 4–7 years (n = 180, 14.7%, 8–14 years (n = 731, 59.6%, and > 14 years (n = 315, 25.7%. The average age at which most children were operated was 11.83 ± 1.24 years. All children underwent a standard preoperative laboratory examination, including a general blood test, urine tests, a biochemical blood test, a hemostasiogram; radiographic diagnostic methods were used with the calculation of the Gizycka index; functional methods of investigation, such as electrocardiography, spirography, and radioisotope scintigraphy of the lungs were also used. Children with second- or third-degree pectus excavatum underwent surgical treatment almost exclusively. The symmetrical forms of the pectus excavatum were more prevalent. In most cases, the main pathological course was complicated. Results and discussion. The operated patients were divided into the following 3 groups: the first (n = 62: operations with the resection of the curved cartilages and external fixation of the sternum-rib complex (Bairov’s operation, the second (n = 374: thoracoplasty with the resection of warped cartilages using internal metal fixators by Timoshchenko, Ravitch, Paltia, Kondrashin, and the third (n = 790: minimally invasive operations without resection with internal fixation (Nuss operations: original and modified

  2. Treatment effectiveness of alemtuzumab compared with natalizumab, fingolimod, and interferon beta in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalincik, Tomas; Brown, J William L; Robertson, Neil; Willis, Mark; Scolding, Neil; Rice, Claire M; Wilkins, Alastair; Pearson, Owen; Ziemssen, Tjalf; Hutchinson, Michael; McGuigan, Christopher; Jokubaitis, Vilija; Spelman, Tim; Horakova, Dana; Havrdova, Eva; Trojano, Maria; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Prat, Alexandre; Girard, Marc; Duquette, Pierre; Grammond, Pierre; Alroughani, Raed; Pucci, Eugenio; Sola, Patrizia; Hupperts, Raymond; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; Terzi, Murat; Van Pesch, Vincent; Rozsa, Csilla; Grand'Maison, François; Boz, Cavit; Granella, Franco; Slee, Mark; Spitaleri, Daniele; Olascoaga, Javier; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Verheul, Freek; Vucic, Steve; McCombe, Pamela; Hodgkinson, Suzanne; Sanchez-Menoyo, Jose Luis; Ampapa, Radek; Simo, Magdolna; Csepany, Tunde; Ramo, Cristina; Cristiano, Edgardo; Barnett, Michael; Butzkueven, Helmut; Coles, Alasdair

    2017-04-01

    Alemtuzumab, an anti-CD52 antibody, is proven to be more efficacious than interferon beta-1a in the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, but its efficacy relative to more potent immunotherapies is unknown. We compared the effectiveness of alemtuzumab with natalizumab, fingolimod, and interferon beta in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis treated for up to 5 years. In this international cohort study, we used data from propensity-matched patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis from the MSBase and six other cohorts. Longitudinal clinical data were obtained from 71 MSBase centres in 21 countries and from six non-MSBase centres in the UK and Germany between Nov 1, 2015, and June 30, 2016. Key inclusion criteria were a diagnosis of definite relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, exposure to one of the study therapies (alemtuzumab, interferon beta, fingolimod, or natalizumab), age 65 years or younger, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score 6·5 or lower, and no more than 10 years since the first multiple sclerosis symptom. The primary endpoint was annualised relapse rate. The secondary endpoints were cumulative hazards of relapses, disability accumulation, and disability improvement events. We compared relapse rates with negative binomial models, and estimated cumulative hazards with conditional proportional hazards models. Patients were treated between Aug 1, 1994, and June 30, 2016. The cohorts consisted of 189 patients given alemtuzumab, 2155 patients given interferon beta, 828 patients given fingolimod, and 1160 patients given natalizumab. Alemtuzumab was associated with a lower annualised relapse rate than interferon beta (0·19 [95% CI 0·14-0·23] vs 0·53 [0·46-0·61], pmultiple sclerosis. Alemtuzumab seems superior to fingolimod and interferon beta in mitigating relapse activity. Natalizumab seems superior to alemtuzumab in enabling recovery from disability. Both natalizumab and alemtuzumab seem highly

  3. Efficacy of influenza vaccination and tamiflu® treatment--comparative studies with Eurasian Swine influenza viruses in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerrwald, Ralf; Schlegel, Michael; Bauer, Katja; Vissiennon, Théophile; Wutzler, Peter; Schmidtke, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological developments demonstrated that gene segments of swine influenza A viruses can account for antigenic changes as well as reduced drug susceptibility of pandemic influenza A viruses. This raises questions about the efficacy of preventive measures against swine influenza A viruses. Here, the protective effect of vaccination was compared with that of prophylactic Tamiflu® treatment against two Eurasian swine influenza A viruses. 11-week-old pigs were infected by aerosol nebulisation with high doses of influenza virus A/swine/Potsdam/15/1981 (H1N1/1981, heterologous challenge to H1N1 vaccine strain) and A/swine/Bakum/1832/2000 (H1N2/2000, homologous challenge to H1N2 vaccine strain) in two independent trials. In each trial (i) 10 pigs were vaccinated twice with a trivalent vaccine (RESPIPORC® FLU3; 28 and 7 days before infection), (ii) another 10 pigs received 150 mg/day of Tamiflu® for 5 days starting 12 h before infection, and (iii) 12 virus-infected pigs were left unvaccinated and untreated and served as controls. Both viruses replicated efficiently in porcine respiratory organs causing influenza with fever, dyspnoea, and pneumonia. Tamiflu® treatment as well as vaccination prevented clinical signs and significantly reduced virus shedding. Whereas after homologous challenge with H1N2/2000 no infectious virus in lung and hardly any lung inflammation were detected, the virus titre was not and the lung pathology was only partially reduced in H1N1/1981, heterologous challenged pigs. Tamiflu® application did not affect these study parameters. In conclusion, all tested preventive measures provided protection against disease. Vaccination additionally prevented virus replication and histopathological changes in the lung of homologous challenged pigs.

  4. Efficacy of influenza vaccination and tamiflu® treatment--comparative studies with Eurasian Swine influenza viruses in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Duerrwald

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiological developments demonstrated that gene segments of swine influenza A viruses can account for antigenic changes as well as reduced drug susceptibility of pandemic influenza A viruses. This raises questions about the efficacy of preventive measures against swine influenza A viruses. Here, the protective effect of vaccination was compared with that of prophylactic Tamiflu® treatment against two Eurasian swine influenza A viruses. 11-week-old pigs were infected by aerosol nebulisation with high doses of influenza virus A/swine/Potsdam/15/1981 (H1N1/1981, heterologous challenge to H1N1 vaccine strain and A/swine/Bakum/1832/2000 (H1N2/2000, homologous challenge to H1N2 vaccine strain in two independent trials. In each trial (i 10 pigs were vaccinated twice with a trivalent vaccine (RESPIPORC® FLU3; 28 and 7 days before infection, (ii another 10 pigs received 150 mg/day of Tamiflu® for 5 days starting 12 h before infection, and (iii 12 virus-infected pigs were left unvaccinated and untreated and served as controls. Both viruses replicated efficiently in porcine respiratory organs causing influenza with fever, dyspnoea, and pneumonia. Tamiflu® treatment as well as vaccination prevented clinical signs and significantly reduced virus shedding. Whereas after homologous challenge with H1N2/2000 no infectious virus in lung and hardly any lung inflammation were detected, the virus titre was not and the lung pathology was only partially reduced in H1N1/1981, heterologous challenged pigs. Tamiflu® application did not affect these study parameters. In conclusion, all tested preventive measures provided protection against disease. Vaccination additionally prevented virus replication and histopathological changes in the lung of homologous challenged pigs.

  5. Efficacy of Influenza Vaccination and Tamiflu® TreatmentComparative Studies with Eurasian Swine Influenza Viruses in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerrwald, Ralf; Schlegel, Michael; Bauer, Katja; Vissiennon, Théophile; Wutzler, Peter; Schmidtke, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological developments demonstrated that gene segments of swine influenza A viruses can account for antigenic changes as well as reduced drug susceptibility of pandemic influenza A viruses. This raises questions about the efficacy of preventive measures against swine influenza A viruses. Here, the protective effect of vaccination was compared with that of prophylactic Tamiflu® treatment against two Eurasian swine influenza A viruses. 11-week-old pigs were infected by aerosol nebulisation with high doses of influenza virus A/swine/Potsdam/15/1981 (H1N1/1981, heterologous challenge to H1N1 vaccine strain) and A/swine/Bakum/1832/2000 (H1N2/2000, homologous challenge to H1N2 vaccine strain) in two independent trials. In each trial (i) 10 pigs were vaccinated twice with a trivalent vaccine (RESPIPORC® FLU3; 28 and 7 days before infection), (ii) another 10 pigs received 150 mg/day of Tamiflu® for 5 days starting 12 h before infection, and (iii) 12 virus-infected pigs were left unvaccinated and untreated and served as controls. Both viruses replicated efficiently in porcine respiratory organs causing influenza with fever, dyspnoea, and pneumonia. Tamiflu® treatment as well as vaccination prevented clinical signs and significantly reduced virus shedding. Whereas after homologous challenge with H1N2/2000 no infectious virus in lung and hardly any lung inflammation were detected, the virus titre was not and the lung pathology was only partially reduced in H1N1/1981, heterologous challenged pigs. Tamiflu® application did not affect these study parameters. In conclusion, all tested preventive measures provided protection against disease. Vaccination additionally prevented virus replication and histopathological changes in the lung of homologous challenged pigs. PMID:23630601

  6. Hodgkin lymphoma in children, adolescents and young adults - a comparative study of clinical presentation and treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Annika; Glimelius, Ingrid; Rostgaard, Klaus; Smedby, Karin E; Eloranta, Sandra; Molin, Daniel; Kuusk, Thomas; Brown, Peter de Nully; Kamper, Peter; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Ljungman, Gustaf; Hjalgrim, Lisa Lyngsie

    2018-02-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) treatment protocols for children, adolescents and young adults traditionally differ, but the biological and clinical justification for this remains uncertain. We compared age-dependent clinical presentation and treatment and outcome for 1072 classical HL patients 0-24 years diagnosed in Denmark (1990-2010) and Sweden (1992-2009) in pediatric (n = 315, Denmark clinical characteristics was assessed with Pearson's chi 2 -test and Mantel-Haenszel trend test. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analyses. Hazard ratios (HR) were used to compare the different treatment groups and calculated using Cox regression. Children (0-9 years) less often presented with advanced disease than adolescents (10-17 years) and young adults (18-24 years) (stage IIB-IV: children 32% vs. adolescents 50%, and adults 55%; p clinical presentation suggesting a rationale of harmonized treatment for these groups. Both adult and pediatric protocols provided high OS with no significant difference between the departments. The less frequent use of radiotherapy in Danish pediatric patients corresponded to a lower EFS, but comparable OS in all groups confirmed effective rescue strategies for the relapsing patients.

  7. Mental health and developmental outcomes for children born after ART: a comparative prospective study on child gender and treatment type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Tiitinen, Aila; Lindblom, Jallu; Unkila-Kallio, Leila; Flykt, Marjo; Vänskä, Mervi; Poikkeus, Piia; Tulppala, Maija

    2016-01-01

    Do children born after assisted reproductive techniques (ART; IVF/ICSI) display more mental health issues or social and cognitive developmental problems at 7-8 years than naturally conceived (NC) controls, and does child gender play a role? ART children do not differ with regard to mental health or social and cognitive developmental problems when compared with controls, but some gender-specific differences do exist. Systematic reviews have not found any evidence of delays in neurocognitive or sensorimotor development in ART children. However findings on the effect of the type of ART treatment (IVF versus ICSI) on the offspring's physical and mental development have not been uniform. Knowledge of the role of child gender in ART research is scarce. This prospective follow-up study compares mental health and social and cognitive developmental problems between 7-8-year-old ART and NC children, controlling for the father's age, length of the parents' partnership, mother's parity, child's gestational age, and the need of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Further, within the ART group, we analysed whether the treatment type (IVF versus ICSI) and the child's gender are associated with the mental health and developmental outcomes. In this study, 255 singleton ART children (IVF and ICSI) were compared with 278 NC children on parent-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and social (social skills and peer relations) and cognitive development (executive functioning, perception, memory, and language). Within the ART group, 164 IVF and 76 ICSI children were compared on the same outcomes. Statistics included analyses of covariates (ANCOVA) with group main effects, group and gender interaction effects, and Bonferroni post hoc tests. ART and NC children did not differ generally in terms of their internalizing and externalizing symptoms or in the number of social and cognitive developmental problems (Group main effects, P > 0.05), but gender-specific group differences

  8. Efficacy and safety of sorafenib versus apatinib in the treatment of intermediate and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: a comparative retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Y

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Yizhuo Wang,1,2 Qing Gou,1 Rongde Xu,1 Xiaoming Chen,1 Zejian Zhou1 1Department of Interventional Oncology, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China; 2Medical College Shantou University, Shantou, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety profiles of sorafenib and apatinib in patients with intermediate- and advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Methods: This was a single-center, retrospective study where we collected the clinical data of 72 patients, diagnosed with intermediate or advanced HCC from January 2014 to December 2016. Depending on the treatment received, 38 patients were categorized into group S (sorafenib group and 34 into group A (apatinib group. The patients in group A received the initial recommended dose of 750 mg once daily (QD, which was reduced to 250 mg QD in the case of any class 3 or 4 adverse event (AE. Sorafenib was administered orally 400 mg twice daily (BID, and dose was modified to 400 mg or 200 mg QD in the case of grade 3 or 4 AEs. The median overall survival (OS, progression-free survival (PFS, and AEs reported in the two groups were analyzed and compared. Results: Among the 38 patients treated with sorafenib, one patient had complete response (CR, 5 patients had partial response (PR, and 10 patients had stable disease (SD, and among the 34 patients treated with apatinib, 6 patients had PR and 7 patients had SD with no cases of CR. PFS in group S was significantly longer compared with that in group A (7.39 vs 4.79 months, respectively, P=0.031. Similar observations were made for median OS (10.4 months in group S vs 7.18 months in group A, P=0.011. However, there was no significant difference in the objective response rates (ORRs among the study population (15.7 vs 17.6%, P=0.829. Common AEs in group S included hand and foot syndrome (HFS and diarrhea, whereas common AEs in group A

  9. Lymphoid irradiation in intractable rheumatoid arthritis. A double-blind, randomized study comparing 750-rad treatment with 2,000-rad treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanly, J.G.; Hassan, J.; Moriarty, M.; Barry, C.; Molony, J.; Casey, E.; Whelan, A.; Feighery, C.; Bresnihan, B.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis were treated with 750-rad or 2,000-rad lymphoid irradiation in a randomized double-blind comparative study. Over a 12-month followup period, there was a significant improvement in 4 of 7 and 6 of 7 standard parameters of disease activity following treatment with 750 rads and 2,000 rads, respectively. Transient, short-term toxicity was less frequent with the lower dose. In both groups, there was a sustained peripheral blood lymphopenia, a selective depletion of T helper (Leu-3a+) lymphocytes, and reduced in vitro mitogen responses. These changes did not occur, however, in synovial fluid. These results suggest that 750-rad lymphoid irradiation is as effective as, but less toxic than, that with 2,000 rads in the management of patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis

  10. The treatment of patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms in China: a study comparing expectations and treatment satisfaction in psychosomatic medicine, biomedicine, and traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche, Kurt; Xudong, Zhao; Anselm, Kathrin; Kern, Stephanie; Wirsching, Michael; Schaefert, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about treatment for patients with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) in China. This study investigates the treatment expectations and treatment satisfaction of patients with MUS in psychosomatic medicine, biomedicine, and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). In a cross-sectional survey, n = 96 (10.3%) out of 931 participating patients were screened positive for multiple somatoform symptoms. These patients answered questionnaires concerning symptom duration, number of doctor visits, functional impairment, emotional distress, treatment expectations, treatment satisfaction, and empathy in the consultation. The physicians filled in a questionnaire about applied or recommended treatment. Most of the patients from psychosomatic medicine wanted psychotherapy. In TCM, 55% of the patients had already received TCM treatment and most of them wanted to continue TCM treatment. Patients in biomedicine did not express clear expectations; most of them had had no previous treatment. A combination of treatment methods was most prevalent in biomedicine in comparison to psychosomatic medicine and TCM. The outcome from the patients' point of view was significantly better in TCM than in psychosomatic medicine and biomedicine. Psychosomatic medicine's strength was the empathetic physician-patient interaction. From a biopsychosocial perspective, these results suggest that various treatment approaches with various emphases can be effective depending on the patient's complaints, his illness beliefs, and what the physician offers. The results will be verified in a larger multicenter longitudinal study.

  11. Comparative study of four advanced 3d-conformal radiation therapy treatment planning techniques for head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrassi, Mohamed Yassine; Bentayeb, Farida; Malisan, Maria Rosa

    2013-01-01

    For the head-and-neck cancer bilateral irradiation, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is the most reported technique as it enables both target dose coverage and organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing. However, during the last 20 years, three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) techniques have been introduced, which are tailored to improve the classic shrinking field technique, as regards both planning target volume (PTV) dose conformality and sparing of OARs, such as parotid glands and spinal cord. In this study, we tested experimentally in a sample of 13 patients, four of these advanced 3DCRT techniques, all using photon beams only and a unique isocentre, namely Bellinzona, Forward-Planned Multisegments (FPMS), ConPas, and field-in-field (FIF) techniques. Statistical analysis of the main dosimetric parameters of PTV and OARs DVHs as well as of homogeneity and conformity indexes was carried out in order to compare the performance of each technique. The results show that the PTV dose coverage is adequate for all the techniques, with the FPMS techniques providing the highest value for D95%; on the other hand, the best sparing of parotid glands is achieved using the FIF and ConPas techniques, with a mean dose of 26 Gy to parotid glands for a PTV prescription dose of 54 Gy. After taking into account both PTV coverage and parotid sparing, the best global performance was achieved by the FIF technique with results comparable to that of IMRT plans. This technique can be proposed as a valid alternative when IMRT equipment is not available or patient is not suitable for IMRT treatment. (author)

  12. Clinical outcomes of three different types of hardware for the treatment of mandibular angle fractures: a comparative retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, S A; Mohamed, F I; Khalifa, G A

    2015-10-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to compare the clinical outcomes of three different types of hardware that are used in mandibular angle fracture fixation. Thirty patients were selected from the hospital database. The patients were categorized into the following groups: group A, in which a single 2.0-mm locking miniplate was used; group B, in which a single rigid 2.3-mm plate was used; and group C, in which a single lag screw was inserted. All patients were followed for 6 months. With regard to intraoperative variables, significant differences were found among the groups in the duration of surgery and cost. Group C had the shortest surgical time, followed by group A and then group B. Two patients, one in group A and one in group B, suffered an occlusal discrepancy after surgery. Of the group A patients, two exhibited wound dehiscence and one had an infection. One patient in group B had an exposed plate. Sensory nerve involvement was noted in three group C patients and one group B patient. The lag screw was associated with the fewest complications and exhibited all of the advantages of plating systems in the treatment of angle fracture. The lag screw involved the least hardware and a short operating time, however the differences were not significant. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Oral hygiene status, gingival status, periodontal status, and treatment needs among pregnant and nonpregnant women: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Kashetty

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The gingival and periodontal changes during pregnancy are well known. Gingivitis is the most prevalent oral manifestations associated with pregnancy. The hormonal and vascular changes that accompany pregnancy are known to exaggerate the inflammatory response to the local irritants. Hence, a study was designed to assess oral hygiene status, gingival status, periodontal status, and treatment needs (TNs among pregnant and nonpregnant women. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 120 pregnant and 120 nonpregnant women of 18–44 years age attending the Outpatient Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Government Hospital of Belgaum city, Karnataka, India. The study consisted of an interview and oral examination. Type 3 examination was followed. Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S, Gingival Index, and Community Periodontal Index and TNs Index were used to assess “oral hygiene status,” “gingival status,” and “periodontal status and TNs,” respectively. Results: The pregnant women showed poor oral hygiene with the mean OHI-S score as 2.68. Gingivitis was prevalent in almost all the pregnant and nonpregnant women. However, it was found more severe in pregnant women with mean gingival score as 1.25. A definite increase in gingivitis was found from Trimester II to Trimester III. The mean number of sextants showing healthy gingiva was significantly (P < 0.01 lower among pregnant women. Conclusions: Pregnant women showed poor oral hygiene, more gingival inflammation, and more periodontal disease as compared to nonpregnant women. The severity of gingivitis increased in Trimester III. Proper oral hygiene practice can prevent these diseases and further complications.

  14. Study Protocol for a Randomized Double Blind, Treatment Control Trial Comparing the Efficacy of a Micronutrient Formula to a Single Vitamin Supplement in the Treatment of Premenstrual Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retallick-Brown, Hannah; Rucklidge, Julia; Blampied, Neville

    2016-12-07

    Background: The recent addition of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (5th ed.) has highlighted the seriousness of this disorder. Many alternatives to psychoactive medication in the form of vitamins, minerals, and plant extracts have been trialled by women seeking a natural treatment approach. We plan to explore whether a well validated micronutrient formula, EMPowerplus Advanced, can outperform a recognized single nutrient treatment, vitamin B6, for the treatment of Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). Methods: This will be a randomized treatment control study. Eighty women will be recruited and assigned to one of two treatment groups; EMPowerplus Advanced or vitamin B6. Baseline daily data will be collected for an initial two cycles, followed by three months of active treatment. A natural follow up will take place three cycles post treatment. Results: The primary outcome measure will be PMS change scores as based on results from the Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP). The number of treatment responders for each of the two groups will yield a comparison score between the two treatments, with participants deemed as a responder if they show a total PMS score improvement of 50% from their baseline scores on the DRSP. Conclusion: If a micronutrient formula proves more effective for treating PMS, not only does it give women suffering from the condition a viable treatment option, but it may also suggest one cause of PMS; that is insufficient minerals and vitamins.

  15. A comparative study of the bone metabolic response to dried plum supplementation and PTH treatment in adult, osteopenic ovariectomized rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brenda J; Bu, So Young; Wang, Yan; Rendina, Elizabeth; Lim, Yin F; Marlow, Denver; Clarke, Stephen L; Cullen, Diane M; Lucas, Edralin A

    2014-01-01

    Dried plum has been reported to have potent effects on bone in osteopenic animal models, but the mechanisms through which bone metabolism is altered in vivo remain unclear. To address this issue, a study comparing the metabolic response of dried plum to the anabolic agent, parathyroid hormone (PTH), was undertaken. Six month-old female Sprague Dawley rats (n=84) were sham-operated (SHAM) or ovariectomized (OVX) and maintained on a control diet for 6wks until osteopenia was confirmed. Treatments were initiated consisting of a control diet (AIN-93M) supplemented with dried plum (0, 5, 15 or 25%; w/w) or a positive control group receiving PTH. At the end of 6wks of treatment, whole body and femoral bone mineral density (BMD) were restored by the two higher doses of dried plum to the level of the SHAM group. Trabecular bone volume and cortical thickness were also improved with these two doses of dried plum. Dried plum suppressed the OVX-induced increase in bone turnover as indicated by systemic biomarkers of bone metabolism, N-terminal procollagen type 1 (P1NP) and deoxypyridinoline (DPD). Dynamic bone histomorphometric analysis of the tibial metaphysis revealed that dried plum restored the OVX-induced increase in cancellous bone formation rate (BFR) and mineralizing surface (MS/BS) to the SHAM group, but some doses of dried plum increased endocortical mineral apposition rate (MAR). As expected, PTH significantly increased endocortical MAR and BFR, periosteal BFR, and trabecular MAR and BFR beyond that of the OVX and maintained the accelerated rate of bone resorption associated with OVX. Dried plum up-regulated bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1) while down-regulating nuclear factor T cell activator 1 (Nfatc1). These findings demonstrate that in the adult osteopenic OVX animal, the effects of dried plum differ from that of PTH in that dried plum primarily suppressed bone turnover with the exception of the indices of bone

  16. Treatment comfort, time perception, and preference for conventional and digital impression techniques : A comparative study in young patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burhardt, Lukasz; Livas, Christos; Kerdijk, Wouter; van der Meer, Wicher Joerd; Ren, Yijin

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this crossover study was to assess perceptions and preferences for impression techniques in young orthodontic patients receiving alginate and 2 different digital impressions. METHODS: Thirty-eight subjects aged 10 to 17 years requiring impressions for orthodontic treatment

  17. Comparative study between fasciocutaneous and myocutaneous flaps in the surgical treatment of pressure ulcers of the sacral region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Oksman

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Decubitus ulcers of the sacral region are common conditions in bedridden patients. Deep lesions (Stages III and IV often require surgical treatment for closure. Flaps of the region are the first choice for treatment. We present our experience in the treatment of these lesions and compare two different approaches: local fasciocutaneous flap and gluteus maximus myocutaneous flap with V-Y advancement. Method: From March 2009 to May 2014, 32 patients underwent closure of sacral pressure ulcers by flaps, 17 of them with rotational local fasciocutaneous flaps and 15 with myocutaneous flaps of the gluteus maximus muscle with V-Y advancement. Evolution regarding complications and rate of success after two months was compared between the groups. Results: Out of the 32 operated patients we obtained resolution of lesions after two months in 23 (71.8%, 10 patients in the fasciocutaneous flap group (58.8% and 13 cases in the myocutaneous flap group (86.6%. The most common complication was partial dehiscence of sutures in 12 patients (37.5%, 8 patients in the fasciocutaneous flap group (47% and 4 patients in the myocutaneous flap group (26.6%. The group of patients reconstructed with local fasciocutaneous flaps presented 3 cases with seroma, one with hematoma and 6 with partial cutaneous necrosis; these patients also required more drainage time. Conclusions: Both the local rotational fasciocutaneous flap and the myocutaneous flap of the gluteus maximus muscle in V-Y flap can be used in the surgical treatment of sacral ulcers. In our experience, a reduced success rate and more complications were found in the local fasciocutaneous reconstructive method. Keywords: Pressure ulcer, Fasciocutaneous flap, Myocutaneous flap, Gluteus maximus muscle

  18. Comparative study on decontamination treatment of paper-based materials in corona discharge and HF cold plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioanid, E. G.; Dunca, S.; Rusu, D.; Tǎnase, C.

    2012-04-01

    Documents decontamination using dry methods, less invasive than the wet ones implying toxic nocuous substances for cellulose-based materials, has been the object of numerous studies. In recent years mixed researchers teams have been studying the possibility of one-step document decontamination performed by a dry treatment, the risks of repeated wet manipulation thus being reduced. Among physical methods appropriate to this end, high-frequency cold plasma and corona effect can be mentioned. Our studies were carried out on samples taken from ancient books with no cultural heritage value. The decontamination efficiency and the impact on paper of the two types of treatments were determined by: microbiological analysis, scanning electron microscopy, FTIR, chromatic alterations and gloss determination. The above-mentioned procedures eliminate the use of chemical conservation substances, nocuous for the paper support. At the same time the health risk for conservators, restorers, archivists or archive's users is removed.

  19. Comparative study of treatment continuation using second-generation antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azekawa T

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Takaharu Azekawa, Shizuko Ohashi, Akira ItamiShioiri Mental Clinic, Yokosuka-shi, Kanagawa-ken, JapanBackground: Effectiveness of a drug is a key concept dependent on efficacy, safety, and tolerability. Time to discontinuation of treatment is also representative of effectiveness. We investigated differences in treatment discontinuation among newly started second-generation antipsychotics in the clinical setting.Methods: Using a retrospective cohort study design, we screened all outpatients (n = 7936 who visited the Shioiri Mental Clinic between July 1, 2008 and June 30, 2010. We identified a cohort of patients (n = 703 diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and calculated the time to discontinuation of each second-generation antipsychotic.Results: Of the 703 patients, 149 were newly treated with aripiprazole, 67 with blonanserin, 95 with olanzapine, 36 with quetiapine, 74 with perospirone, and 120 with risperidone. The time to discontinuation for all causes was significantly longer for aripiprazole than for blonanserin, olanzapine, and risperidone. In addition, aripiprazole tended to be continued for longer than quetiapine and perospirone, but these differences were not significant.Conclusion: Aripiprazole may be considered the best available option for long-term treatment of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.Keywords: retrospective study, second-generation antipsychotics, effectiveness, treatment continuation, schizophrenia, aripiprazole

  20. Effect of a controlled release device containing minocycline microspheres on the treatment of chronic periodontitis: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, V.; Ramakrishnan, T.; Emmadi, Pamela; Ambalavanan, N.; Mammen, Biju; Vijayalakshmi

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Adjunctive therapy with locally delivered antimicrobials has resulted in improved clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of locally administered minocycline microspheres (Arestin™) in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 sites from 15 patients in the age group of 35-50 years, who had periodontal pockets measuring 5-8 mm and had been diagnosed with chronic periodontitis, were selected for the study. The selected groups were randomly assigned to either the control group (group A) or the treatment/test group (group B). Only scaling and root planing were done at the base line visit for the control sites followed by local application of Arestin™ (1 mg). Clinical parameters such as plaque index, gingival index, and gingival bleeding index were recorded at baseline, day 30, day 90, and day 180 in the selected sites of both the groups. Probing pocket depth also was recorded at baseline, day 90, and day 180 for both the groups. Results: A statistically significant reduction was observed in both groups. Group B showed better results than Group A and these differences were statistically significant. Conclusion: The results of this study clearly indicate that treatment with scaling and root planing plus minocycline microspheres (Arestin™) is more effective and safer than scaling and root planing alone in reducing the signs of chronic periodontitis. PMID:20407655

  1. Effect of a controlled release device containing minocycline microspheres on the treatment of chronic periodontitis: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopinath V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adjunctive therapy with locally delivered antimicrobials has resulted in improved clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of locally administered minocycline microspheres (Arestin TM in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 sites from 15 patients in the age group of 35-50 years, who had periodontal pockets measuring 5-8mm and had been diagnosed with chronic periodontitis, were selected for the study. The selected groups were randomly assigned to either the control group (group A or the treatment/test group (group B. Only scaling and root planing were done at the base line visit for the control sites followed by local application of Arestin™ (1mg. Clinical parameters such as plaque index, gingival index, and gingival bleeding index were recorded at baseline, day 30, day 90, and day 180 in the selected sites of both the groups. Probing pocket depth also was recorded at baseline, day 90, and day 180 for both the groups. Results: A statistically significant reduction was observed in both groups. Group B showed better results than Group A and these differences were statistically significant. Conclusion: The results of this study clearly indicate that treatment with scaling and root planing plus minocycline microspheres (Arestin™ is more effective and safer than scaling and root planing alone in reducing the signs of chronic periodontitis.

  2. Treatment comfort, time perception, and preference for conventional and digital impression techniques: A comparative study in young patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burhardt, Lukasz; Livas, Christos; Kerdijk, Wouter; van der Meer, Wicher Joerd; Ren, Yijin

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this crossover study was to assess perceptions and preferences for impression techniques in young orthodontic patients receiving alginate and 2 different digital impressions. Thirty-eight subjects aged 10 to 17 years requiring impressions for orthodontic treatment were randomly allocated to 3 groups that differed in the order that an alginate impressions and 2 different intraoral scanning procedures were administered. After each procedure, the patients were asked to score their perceptions on a 5-point Likert scale for gag reflex, queasiness, difficulty to breathe, uncomfortable feeling, perception of the scanning time, state of anxiety, and use of a powder, and to select the preferred impression system. Chairside time and maximal mouth opening were also registered. More queasiness (P = 0.00) and discomfort (P = 0.02) during alginate impression taking of the maxilla were perceived compared with the scans with the CEREC Omnicam (Sirona Dental Systems, Bensheim, Germany). There were no significant differences in perceptions between the alginate impressions and the Lava C.O.S. (3M ESPE, St Paul, Minn) and between the 2 scanners. Chairside times for the alginate impressions (9.7 ± 1.8 minutes) and the CEREC Omnicam (10.7 ± 1.8 minutes) were significantly lower (P <0.001) than for the Lava C.O.S. (17.8 ± 4.0 minutes). Digital impressions were favored by 51% of the subjects, whereas 29% chose alginate impressions, and 20% had no preference. Regardless of the significant differences in the registered times among the 3 impression-taking methods, the distributions of the Likert scores of time perception and maximal mouth opening were similar in all 3 groups. Young orthodontic patients preferred the digital impression techniques over the alginate method, although alginate impressions required the shortest chairside time. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A comparative study on EDTA and coronaliy advanced flap technique in the treatment of human gingival recessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshkhoo Nejad AA

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Treatment of gingival recession defect and covering denuded root surfaces is one of the goals in periodontal therapy and several surgical techniques have been suggested in this field."nPurpose: The aim of this study was to perform a comparison on coronaliy repositioned flap procedure with and without the use of ethylenediaminoteraacetic acid (EDTA. 24%, pH=7 in the treatment of"nrecession defects."nMaterial and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial study, 16 patients, aged 17-60 years, with a total of 27 miller class 1 isolated buccal gingival recession type defects of at least 2mm depth, and based"non special criteria were investigated. After initial therapy, surgical recession coverage was performed as coronaliy advanced flap technique and EDTA gel conditioning (test or coronaliy advanced flap alone"n(control. Clinical examination including assessments of oral hygiene, recession depth (RD, recession width (RW, width of keratinized tissue (KT, probing depth (PD and probing attachment level (PAL"nwere performed before and 1, 2, 3 months after surgical treatment."nResults: The mean of initial RD, RW, KT, PT and PAL in the test group was 2.73, 3.17, 3.13, 1.1 and 3.83mm respectively and in the control group was 2.56, 3.03, 3.67, 1.25, 3.92mm respectively. The mean of these parameters 3 months after treatment in the test group were changed to 0.46, 1.97, 2.65, 0.67, 1.1 mm, corresponding figures for control teeth were 0.85, 2.98, 2.75, 1, 1.94, respectively. At 3 months after treatment the mean root coverage amounted to 83% (test and 67% (control which was a statistically significant difference (P=0.0067. Although a significant clinical difference was observed regarinding root coverage level, all other clinical variables were not statistically different, with the exception of probing attachment level (P=0.005."nConclusion: It was suggested that EDTA gel (24%, PLT=7 for 3 minutes as root conditioner and the coronaliy

  4. Proquazone: a treatment for lymphocytic infiltration of the skin. Comparative study with 2 other nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, E A

    1987-01-01

    15 patients with lymphocytic infiltration of the skin (LIS) were treated with the nonsteroid anti-inflammatory (NSAI) drug proquazone [1-isopropyl-4-phenyl-7-methyl-2(IH)]. In contrast to other NSAI drugs proquazone is a nonacidic compound which is known to be a potent prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor. Of the 15 patients 8 were healed completely with proquazone; in half of these patients lesions recurred but healed with reintroduction of the drug. Two patients remained symptom-free with a small maintenance dose. Two patients showed a partial remission. The treatment was discontinued in 3 patients, in 2 of them because of side effects and in 1 because of lack of response. Two other NSAI drugs, both known to be potent prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors, namely indomethacin and ibuprofen, were tried, however without effect. The present study indicates that proquazone should be considered in the treatment of LIS.

  5. Quality of Diagnosis and Treatment Plans After Using the 'Diagnostic Guideline for Anxiety and Challenging Behaviours' in People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Comparative Multiple Case Study Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruijssers, Addy; van Meijel, Berno; Maaskant, Marian; Keeman, Noortje; van Achterberg, Theo

    2016-07-01

    People with intellectual disabilities often have a multitude of concurrent problems due to the combination of cognitive impairments, psychiatric disorders (particularly anxiety) and related challenging behaviours. Diagnoses in people with intellectual disabilities are complicated. This study evaluates the quality of the diagnoses and treatment plans after using a guideline that was developed to support professionals in their diagnostic tasks. A comparative multiple case study with an experimental and control condition, applying deductive analyses of diagnoses and treatment plans. The analyses revealed that the number of diagnostic statements and planned treatment actions in the experimental group was significantly larger and more differentiated than in the control condition. In the control group, consequential harm and protective factors were hardly mentioned in diagnoses and treatment plans. Working with the 'Diagnostic Guideline for Anxiety and CB' leads to improved diagnoses and treatment plans compared with care as usual. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Survivorship care and support following treatment for breast cancer: a multi-ethnic comparative qualitative study of women's experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Charlotte; Scanlon, Karen; Scott, Emma; Ream, Emma; Harding, Seeromanie; Armes, Jo

    2016-08-18

    As the number of breast cancer survivors continues to rise, Western populations become more ethnically and socially diverse and healthcare resources become ever-more stretched, follow-up that focuses on monitoring for recurrence is no longer viable. New models of survivorship care need to ensure they support self-management and are culturally appropriate across diverse populations. This study explored experiences and expectations of a multi-ethnic sample of women with breast cancer regarding post-treatment care, in order to understand potential barriers to receiving care and inform new models of survivorship care. A phenomenological qualitative research design was employed. In-depth interviews were conducted with women from diverse socio-demographic backgrounds in England, who completed treatment for breast cancer in the 12 months prior to the study. Data were analysed using Framework Analysis. Sixty-six women participated and reported expectations and needs were unmet at follow-up. Whilst there were more commonalities in experiences, discernible differences, particularly by ethnicity and age, were identified relating to three key themes: emotional responses on transition to follow-up; challenges communicating with healthcare professionals at follow-up; and challenges finding and accessing information and support services to address unmet needs. There are cultural differences in the way healthcare professionals and women communicate, not necessarily differences in their post-treatment needs. We do not know if new models of care meet survivors' needs, or if they are appropriate for everyone. Further testing and potential cultural and linguistic adaptation of models of care is necessary to ensure their appropriateness and acceptability to survivors from different backgrounds. New ways of providing survivorship care mean survivors will need to be better prepared for the post-treatment period and the role they will have to play in managing their symptoms and care.

  7. Comparative study on shelf life of whole milk processed by high-intensity pulsed electric field or heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odriozola-Serrano, I; Bendicho-Porta, S; Martín-Belloso, O

    2006-03-01

    The effect of high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HI-PEF) processing (35.5 kV/cm for 1,000 or 300 micros with bipolar 7-micros pulses at 111 Hz; the temperature outside the chamber was always milk were investigated and compared with traditional heat pasteurization (75 degrees C for 15 s), and to raw milk during storage at 4 degrees C. A HIPEF treatment of 1,000 micros ensured the microbiological stability of whole milk stored for 5 d under refrigeration. Initial acidity values, pH, and free fatty acid content were not affected by the treatments; and no proteolysis and lipolysis were observed during 1 wk of storage in milk treated by HIPEF for 1,000 micros. The whey proteins (serum albumin, beta-lactoglobulin, and alpha-lactalbumin) in HIPEF-treated milk were retained at 75.5, 79.9, and 60%, respectively, similar to values for milk treated by traditional heat pasteurization.

  8. [Locomotor development in infants with developmental dysplasia of the hip or idiopathic clubfoot undergoing orthopedic treatment. Prospective comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masquijo, J J; Campos, L; Torres-Gómez, A; Allende, V

    2013-10-01

    Several disorders of early childhood, such as developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) and clubfoot, requires orthopedic treatment that limits active mobility of the lower extremities for a period of time. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact on locomotor development of the orthopedic treatment in infants less than one year-old. The study included a prospective cohort of consecutive patients diagnosed with developmental dysplasia of the hip (Group A, 24 patients), and clubfoot (Group B, 32 patients) treated from January 2007 to June 2009. A third group (Group C) of 50 healthy children was used as control. The variables evaluated were: months with a brace, age to sit without support, age at the start of crawling, and age at the beginning of walking. The results obtained were analyzed. Comparisons between the three groups were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test. We chose a value of P<.05 as level of statistical significance. The analysis of independent samples showed that the mean age at which the patients began to sit were similar: 6.12, 6.42 and 6.19 months, respectively (P=.249). The mean age for crawling was similar, although with a slight trend toward statistical significance: 8.84, 9.38 and 9.17 months, respectively (P=.08). The age at which they started walking was different between the three groups: 12.14, 13.21 and 12.41 months, respectively (P<.001). Orthopedic treatment of DDH and clubfoot in children less than one year-old slightly slows down the course of normal locomotor development. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder among people presenting for cosmetic dental treatment: a comparative study of cosmetic dental patients and a general population sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, A.; Aartman, I.H.A.; Parvaneh, H.; Ilik, M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives:  To determine appearance concerns of patients presenting for cosmetic treatment. Methods:  This cross-sectional comparative study included consecutive patients of six different cosmetic clinics (n = 170), and a sample of the general population (n = 878). A study-specific self-report

  10. Tangential vs. defined radiotherapy in early breast cancer treatment without axillary lymph node dissection. A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsche, Mirko [Zentrum fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Bremen (Germany); Universitaet Kiel, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Karl-Lennert-Krebscentrum, Kiel (Germany); Temme, Nils; Foerster, Manuela; Reible, Michael [Zentrum fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Bremen (Germany); Hermann, Robert Michael [Zentrum fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Bremen (Germany); Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Abteilung Strahlentherapie und Spezielle Onkologie, Hannover (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    Recent studies have demonstrated low regional recurrence rates in early-stage breast cancer omitting axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in patients who have positive nodes in sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND). This finding has triggered an active discussion about the effect of radiotherapy within this approach. The purpose of this study was to analyze the dose distribution in the axilla in standard tangential radiotherapy (SRT) for breast cancer and the effects on normal tissue exposure when anatomic level I-III axillary lymph node areas are included in the tangential radiotherapy field configuration. We prospectively analyzed the dosimetric treatment plans from 51 consecutive women with early-stage breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy. We compared and analyzed the SRT and the defined radiotherapy (DRT) methods for each patient. The clinical target volume (CTV) of SRT included the breast tissue without specific contouring of lymph node areas, whereas the CTV of DRT included the level I-III lymph node areas. We evaluated the dose given in SRT covering the axillary lymph node areas of level I-III as contoured in DRT. The mean V{sub D95} {sub %} of the entire level I-III lymph node area in SRT was 50.28 % (range, 37.31-63.24 %), V{sub D45} {sub Gy} was 70.1 % (54.8-85.4 %), and V{sub D40} {sub Gy} was 83.5 % (72.3-94.8 %). A significant difference was observed between lung dose and heart toxicity in SRT vs. DRT. The V{sub 20} {sub Gy} and V{sub 30} {sub Gy} of the right and the left lung in DRT were significantly higher in DRT than in SRT (p < 0.001). The mean heart dose in SRT was significantly lower (3.93 vs. 4.72 Gy, p = 0.005). We demonstrated a relevant dose exposure of the axilla in SRT that should substantially reduce local recurrences. Furthermore, we demonstrated a significant increase in lung and heart exposure when including the axillary lymph nodes regions in the tangential radiotherapy field set-up. (orig.) [German] Aktuelle Studien zeigen

  11. Treatment of reducible unstable fractures of the distal radius: randomized clinical study comparing the locked volar plate and external fixator methods: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raduan Neto, Jorge; de Moraes, Vinicius Ynoe; Gomes Dos Santos, João B; Faloppa, Flávio; Belloti, João Carlos

    2014-03-05

    Various treatments are available for reducible unstable fractures of the distal radius, such as closed reduction combined with fixation by external fixator (EF), and rigid internal fixation using a locked volar plate (VP). Although there are studies comparing these methods, there is no conclusive evidence indicating which treatment is best. The hypothesis of this study is that surgical treatment with a VP is more effective than EF from the standpoint of functional outcome (patient-reported). The study is randomized clinical trial with parallel groups and a blinded evaluator and involves the surgical interventions EF and VP. Patients will be randomly assigned (assignment ratio 1:1) using sealed opaque envelopes. This trial will include consecutive adult patients with an acute (up to 15 days) displaced, unstable fracture of the distal end of the radius of type A2, A3, C1, C2 or C3 by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen-Association for the Study of Internal Fixation classification and type II or type III by the IDEAL32 classification, without previous surgical treatments of the wrist. The surgical intervention assigned will be performed by three surgical specialists familiar with the techniques described. Evaluations will be performed at 2, and 8 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months, with the primary outcomes being measured by the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire and measurement of pain (Visual Analog Pain Scale and digital algometer). Secondary outcomes will include radiographic parameters, objective functional evaluation (goniometry and dynamometry), and the rate of complications and method failure according to the intention-to-treat principle. Final postoperative evaluations (6 and 12 months) will be performed by independent blinded evaluators. For the Student's t-test, a difference of 10 points in the DASH score, with a 95% confidence interval, a statistical power of 80%, and 20% sampling error results in 36 patients per group

  12. Comparative study on the effect of annealing treatments on RTL mechanism in natural quartz from different origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mebhah, D.; Imatoukene, D.; Lounis-Mokrani, Z.; Kechouane, M.

    2009-01-01

    The behaviour of trap centres and luminescence centres has been investigated for fired and unfired natural quartz from bricks and sediments irradiated at 100 Gy and annealed at different temperatures in the range 350-700 deg. C. The annealing treatment affects thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve as various changes were observed. The higher sensitization occurred for an annealing in the region 550-600 deg. C. At this annealing temperature, it has been observed the emergence of two peaks arising at 96 and 180 deg. C. At lower annealing temperatures, these peaks are overlapped by the peaks localized at 90 and 195 deg. C, respectively. Concerning the fired quartz, the higher sensitization occurred for an annealing in the region 500-550 deg. C for peak temperature around 200 deg. C and an unusual desensitization for the peak temperature around 100 deg. C. The behaviour of the two types of quartz is analyzed regarding to their kinetic parameters and luminescence emission and compared to literature data.

  13. Comparative study on the effect of annealing treatments on RTL mechanism in natural quartz from different origins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mebhah, D., E-mail: mebhahd@yahoo.f [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, 2 Bd, Frantz Fanon, BP 399 (Algeria); Imatoukene, D.; Lounis-Mokrani, Z. [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, 2 Bd, Frantz Fanon, BP 399 (Algeria); Kechouane, M. [Faculte de Physique, USTHB, BP 32 El Alia (Algeria)

    2009-12-15

    The behaviour of trap centres and luminescence centres has been investigated for fired and unfired natural quartz from bricks and sediments irradiated at 100 Gy and annealed at different temperatures in the range 350-700 deg. C. The annealing treatment affects thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve as various changes were observed. The higher sensitization occurred for an annealing in the region 550-600 deg. C. At this annealing temperature, it has been observed the emergence of two peaks arising at 96 and 180 deg. C. At lower annealing temperatures, these peaks are overlapped by the peaks localized at 90 and 195 deg. C, respectively. Concerning the fired quartz, the higher sensitization occurred for an annealing in the region 500-550 deg. C for peak temperature around 200 deg. C and an unusual desensitization for the peak temperature around 100 deg. C. The behaviour of the two types of quartz is analyzed regarding to their kinetic parameters and luminescence emission and compared to literature data.

  14. A Comparative Study between Oxcarbazepine and Gabapentin Regarding Therapeutic Efficiency and Tolerability in the Treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakir Mohan Debta

    2010-01-01

    Recently two newer anticonvulsant oxcarbazepine (OXC a ketoderivative of carbamazepine and gabapentin (GBP has been trailed in trigeminal neuralgia in different open clinical trial as monotherapy with encouraging results. These drugs have convenient dosage and surprisingly fewer side effects. These facts that trigeminal neuralgia responds to newer anticonvulsant (oxcarbazepine, gabapentin in a better perspective, enabled me to conduct the present clinical trial on 54 patients (both in newly diagnosed TN patient and refractive patient of trigeminal neuralgia who were made two randomized group for separate monotherapy study for a period of six months. The therapeutic effect of OXC and gabapentin (GBP in relation to reduction in number of attacks of pain and severity of pain were evaluated. All the scoring data showed OXC is more therapeutic efficacious cost-effective and well-tolerated profile than gabapentin and an emerging as a drug for treatment of TN in both new and refractive patients.

  15. Randomized clinical study for comparative evaluation of fourth-generation fluoroquinolones with the combination of fortified antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vinit Mahendra; Tandon, Radhika; Satpathy, Gita; Nayak, Niranjan; Chawla, Bhavna; Agarwal, Tushar; Sharma, Namrata; Titiyal, Jeewan S; Vajpayee, Rasik B

    2010-07-01

    Comparative evaluation of efficacy of monotherapy with moxifloxacin (0.5%) or gatifloxacin (0.3%) with combination therapy of cefazolin (5%) and tobramycin (1.3%) in treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers. Patients diagnosed with bacterial keratitis (ulcer diameter 2-8 mm) were randomized to 1 of the 3 treatment groups (tobramycin 1.3% and cefazolin 5%, gatifloxacin 0.3%, or moxifloxacin 0.5%). After obtaining corneal scrapings, assigned study medication was instilled hourly for 48 hours and tapered as per clinical response. Healing of ulcer, duration to cure, adverse reactions, antibiogram profile, treatment failures, final visual acuity, and corneal opacity size were evaluated. A total of 61 patients were enrolled [cefazolin and tobramycin (n = 20), gatifloxacin (n = 21), and moxifloxacin (n = 20)]. Overall, 57 patients (93%) healed on treatment. On comparison of the mean time taken to heal, no statistically significant difference was found among all the 3 treatment groups (P = 0.98). Positive bacterial culture was obtained in only 38 patients (62%). There was no significant difference in the bacterial isolates in each treatment group. There were 4 (7%) treatment failures (perforation or nonhealing ulcer): 1 (5%) each in moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin group and 2 (10%) in fortified antibiotics group. All regimens were well tolerated. The study failed to find a difference in the efficacy of monotherapy with fourth-generation fluoroquinolones in the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers of 2-8 mm size when compared with combination therapy of fortified antibiotics.

  16. Comparative study between surgical and non-surgical treatment of anismus in patients with symptoms of obstructed defecation: a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faried, Mohamed; El Nakeeb, Ayman; Youssef, Mohamed; Omar, Waleed; El Monem, Hisham Abd

    2010-08-01

    This study came to compare the results of biofeedback retraining biofeedback (BFB), botulinum toxin botulinum type A (BTX-A) injection and partial division of puborectalis (PDPR) in the treatment of anismus patients. Consecutive patients treated for anismus fulfilled Rome II criteria for functional constipation at our institution were evaluated for inclusion. Participants were randomly allocated to receive BFB, BTX-A injection, and PDPR. All patients underwent anorectal manometry, balloon expulsion test, defecography, and electromyography activity of the anal sphincter. Follow up was conducted weekly in the first month then monthly for about 1 year. Study variables included clinical improvement, patient satisfaction, and objective improvement. Sixty patients with anismus were randomized and completed the study. The groups differed significantly regarding clinical improvement at 1 month (50% for BFB, 75%BTX-A injection, and 95% for PDPR, P = 0.006) and differences persisted at 1 year (30% for BFB, 35%BTX-A injection, and 70% for PDPR, P = 0.02). Constipation score of the patients significantly improved postPDPR and BTX-A injection. Manometric relaxation was achieved significantly in the three groups. Biofeedback retraining has a limited therapeutic effect, BTX-A injection seems to be successful for temporary treatment but PDPR is found to be an effective with lower morbidity in contrast to its higher success rate in treating anismus.

  17. Moist wound healing compared with standard care of treatment of primary closed vascular surgical wounds: a prospective randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogt, Katja C; Uhlyarik, M; Schroeder, Torben V

    2007-01-01

    This study was a randomized-controlled trial comparing the standard type of dry dressing, Mepore, with moist wound healing, using a hydrofiber dressing, Aquacel, in primary closed wounds after vascular surgery. The endpoints were patient comfort, cost-effectiveness, infections, wound complications......, and length of hospital stay. One hundred and sixty patients were randomized to receive either Mepore or Aquacel dressing. There was no significant difference in patient comfort between the two groups, but a higher cost in the Aquacel group despite significantly fewer changes of dressings in these patients...

  18. Minimal invasive treatment of ureteropelvic junction obstruction in low volume pelvis: A comparative study of endopyelotomy and laparoscopic nondismembered pyeloplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pratipal; Jain, Paresh; Dharaskar, Anand; Mandhani, Anil; Dubey, Deepak; Kapoor, Rakesh; Kumar, Anant; Srivastava, Aneesh

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of nondismembered laparoscopic pyeloplasty and percutaneous endopyelotomy for ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) with low volume renal pelvis. Material and Methods: Retrospective acquired data of 34 patients of laparoscopic nondismembered pyeloplasty was compared with 26 patients of UPJO with pelvic volume less than 50 ml undergoing antegrade endopyelotomy and analyzed for clinical parameters, operative outcomes and success of procedures. All patients were followed up clinically and with diuretic renogram at regular intervals. Results: Mean age, renal pelvic volume and preoperative glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 25 years, 43.6 ml and 42.5 ml/min, respectively in endopyelotomy group and 21 years, 34.4 ml and 39.9 ml/min, respectively in laparoscopic pyeloplasty group. Mean operative time, postoperative analgesic requirement and mean hospital stay was 100min, 250 mg and 4 days, respectively in endopyelotomy group and 210 min, 300 mg and 4 days, respectively in laparoscopic pyeloplasty group. Only operative time was significantly different between two groups (P < 0.05). Mean follow-up was 36 and 39 months and success rates were 91.2% and 88.8% in laparoscopy and endopyelotomy group, respectively (P < 0.05). No significant complication was seen in endopyelotomy group while two patients had hematuria (one requiring blood transfusion) and three had increased drain output for more than 3 days in laparoscopy group. Conclusion: Percutaneous endopyelotomy is associated with significantly less operative time and postoperative complication rate and provides equivalent success in comparison to nondismembered laparoscopic pyeloplasty in patients with UPJO and low volume pelvis. It can be a preferred minimally invasive treatment modality for such patients. PMID:19468432

  19. Minimal invasive treatment of ureteropelvic junction obstruction in low volume pelvis: A comparative study of endopyelotomy and laparoscopic nondismembered pyeloplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratipal Singh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the role of nondismembered laparoscopic pyeloplasty and percutaneous endopyelotomy for ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO with low volume renal pelvis. Material and Methods: Retrospective acquired data of 34 patients of laparoscopic nondismembered pyeloplasty was compared with 26 patients of UPJO with pelvic volume less than 50 ml undergoing antegrade endopyelotomy and analyzed for clinical parameters, operative outcomes and success of procedures. All patients were followed up clinically and with diuretic renogram at regular intervals. Results: Mean age, renal pelvic volume and preoperative glomerular filtration rate (GFR was 25 years, 43.6 ml and 42.5 ml/min, respectively in endopyelotomy group and 21 years, 34.4 ml and 39.9 ml/min, respectively in laparoscopic pyeloplasty group. Mean operative time, postoperative analgesic requirement and mean hospital stay was 100min, 250 mg and 4 days, respectively in endopyelotomy group and 210 min, 300 mg and 4 days, respectively in laparoscopic pyeloplasty group. Only operative time was significantly different between two groups (P < 0.05. Mean follow-up was 36 and 39 months and success rates were 91.2% and 88.8% in laparoscopy and endopyelotomy group, respectively (P < 0.05. No significant complication was seen in endopyelotomy group while two patients had hematuria (one requiring blood transfusion and three had increased drain output for more than 3 days in laparoscopy group. Conclusion: Percutaneous endopyelotomy is associated with significantly less operative time and postoperative complication rate and provides equivalent success in comparison to nondismembered laparoscopic pyeloplasty in patients with UPJO and low volume pelvis. It can be a preferred minimally invasive treatment modality for such patients.

  20. Adverse events in diabetic foot infections: a case control study comparing early versus delayed medical treatment after home remedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cawich SO

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Shamir O Cawich, Patrick Harnarayan, Shariful Islam, Steve Budhooram, Shivaa Ramsewak, Vijay Naraynsingh Department of Clinical Surgical Sciences, University of the West Indies, St Augustine Campus, Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies Background: The aim of conventional medical therapy in diabetic foot infections is to control infection, thereby reducing amputation rates, infectious morbidity, and death. Any delay incurred during a trial of home remedies could allow an infection to progress unchecked, increasing the risk of these adverse outcomes. This study sought to determine the effects of delayed operative interventions and amputations in these patients. Methods: A questionnaire study targeting all consecutive patients admitted with diabetic foot infection was carried out over 1 year. Two groups were defined, ie, a medical therapy group comprising patients who sought medical attention after detecting their infection and a home remedy group comprising those who voluntarily chose to delay medical therapy in favor of home remedies. The patients were followed throughout their hospital admissions. We recorded the duration of hospitalization and number of operative debridements and amputations performed. Results: There were 695 patients with diabetic foot infections, comprising 382 in the medical therapy group and 313 in the home remedy group. Many were previously hospitalized for foot infections in the medical therapy (78% and home remedy (74.8% groups. The trial of home remedies lasted for a mean duration of 8.9 days. The home remedy group had a longer duration of hospitalization (16.3 versus 8.5 days; P<0.001, more operative debridements (99.7% versus 94.5%; P<0.001, and more debridements per patient (2.85 versus 2.45; P<0.001. Additionally, in the home remedy group, there was an estimated increase in expenditure of US $10,821.72 US per patient and a trend toward more major amputations (9.3% versus 5.2%; P=0.073. Conclusion: There are negative

  1. Stationary Treatment Compared with Individualized Chinese Medicine for Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Microvascular Complications: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Jian; Liu, Li-Sha; Jian, Wen-Yuan; Zeng, Jie-Ping; Duan, Jun-Guo; Lu, Xue-Jing; Yin, Shuo

    2018-06-18

    Microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes (T2DM), including diabatic retinopathy (DR), diabetic kidney disease (DKD), diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) are the leading causes of visual loss, end-stage renal disease or amputation, while the current therapies are still unsatisfactory. Chinese medicine (CM) has been widely used for treating diabetic mellitus. However, most of the previous studies focused on the single complication. The role of CM treatment in T2DM patients with 2 or multiple microvascular complications is not clear. To appraise the curative effect of CM in T2DM patients with 2 or multiple microvascular complications, and to compare the effects of stationary treatment and individualized treatment in T2DM patients with microvascular complications. This trial will be an 8-center, randomized, controlled study with 8 parallel groups. A total of 432 patients will be randomized to 8 groups: DR study group (32 cases) and a corresponding control group (32 cases), DR+DKD study group (64 cases) and a corresponding control group (64 cases), DR+DPN study group (64 cases) and a corresponding control group (64 cases), DR+DKD+DPN study group (56 cases) and a corresponding control group (56 cases). The control group will receive stationary treatment, and the study group will receive individualized treatment based on CM syndrome differentiation in addition to stationary treatment. The study duration will be 50 weeks, comprising a 2-week run-in period, 24 weeks of intervention, and 24 weeks of follow-up. The outcomes will assess efficacy of treatment, improvement in CM symptoms, safety assessments, adherence to the treatment, and adverse events. This study will provide evidence of evidence-based medicine for CM treatment in two or multiple microvascular complications caused by T2DM. (Registration No. ChiCTR-IPR-15007072).

  2. Field evaluation of a rapid point-of-care assay for targeting antibiotic treatment for trachoma control: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Claude-Edouard C; Solomon, Anthony W; Magbanua, Jose P V; Massae, Patrick A; Huang, Ling; Mosha, Jonaice; West, Sheila K; Nadala, Elpidio C B; Bailey, Robin; Wisniewski, Craig; Mabey, David C W; Lee, Helen H

    2006-05-13

    Trachoma results from repeated episodes of conjunctival infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and is the leading infectious cause of blindness. To eliminate trachoma, control programmes use the SAFE strategy (Surgery, Antibiotics, Face cleanliness, and Environmental improvement). The A component is designed to treat C trachomatis infection, and is initiated on the basis of the prevalence of the clinical sign trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF). Unfortunately, TF correlates poorly with C trachomatis infection. We sought to assess a newly developed point-of-care (POC) assay compared with presence of TF for guiding the use of antibiotics for trachoma control. We compared performance outcomes of the POC assay and presence of TF using commercial PCR as a comparator in 664 children aged 1-9 years in remote, trachoma-endemic villages in Tanzania. Signs of trachoma were graded according to the WHO simplified trachoma grading system. Of 664 participants, 128 (19%) were positive for ocular C trachomatis infection by PCR. Presence of TF had a sensitivity of 64.1% (95% CI 55.8-72.4), specificity of 80.2% (76.8-83.6), and positive predictive value of 43.6% (36.5-50.7). By contrast, the POC assay had a sensitivity of 83.6% (77.2-90.0), specificity of 99.4% (98.8-100.0), and positive predictive value of 97.3% (94.2-100.3). Interagreements and intra-agreements between four novice operators were 0.988 (0.973-1.000) and 0.950 (0.894-1.000), respectively. The POC assay is substantially more accurate than TF prevalence in identifying the presence or absence of infection. Additional studies should assess the use of the assay in the planning and monitoring of trachoma control activities.

  3. Treatment of cutting fluid: comparative study of different processes of recycling; Tratamiento de fluidos de corte estudio comparativo de los diferentes procesos de reciclaje

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labarta Carreno, C.E.; Ipinar, E.

    1997-12-31

    The environmental concerning about cutting fluid (commonly known in Spain as taladrines) is deeply analyzed in this paper by the authors. They describe the history of these hazardous effluents what kind there, are their characteristics, and finally they study comparatively the different industrial processes for their treatment. (Author) 7 refs.

  4. Comparative Case Study of Diffusion of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in Two Clinical Settings: Empirically Supported Treatment Status Is Not Enough

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cook, Joan M.; Biyanova, Tatyana; Coyne, James C.

    2009-01-01

    An in-depth comparative case study was conducted of two attempts at diffusion of an empirically supported, but controversial, psychotherapy: eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). One Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) treatment setting in which there was substantial uptake was

  5. Effects of medical and mental status on treatment modalities in patients treated under general anaesthesia at the KTU Faculty of Dentistry in Trabzon, Turkey: A comparative retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baygin, Ozgul; Tuzuner, Tamer; Kusgoz, Adem; Yahyaoglu, Gorkem; Yilmaz, Nagehan; Aksoy, Simge

    2017-02-01

    This study evaluated the differences in dental conditions and treatment modalities between disabled and non-cooperative healthy children under general anaesthesia. The data were collected from paediatric patients between 3 and 15 years of age who received dental treatment under general anaesthesia. Patients with at least one mental/physical disturbance (group 1) and other healthy non-cooperative patients (group 2) were compared with regard to gender, age, weight, and treatment time-type. The statistical analyses were performed using Fisher's exact and Mann-Whitney U tests. No significant differences were observed between the groups with regard to gender, weight and treatment-time (p>0.05). The numbers of treated teeth (pgeneral condition of the patients may alter the type of treatment provided and confirms the necessity of performing preventive procedures.

  6. Combined treatment with oral finasteride and topical minoxidil in male androgenetic alopecia: a randomized and comparative study in Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ruiming; Xu, Feng; Sheng, Youyu; Qi, Sisi; Han, Yumei; Miao, Ying; Rui, Wenlong; Yang, Qinping

    2015-01-01

    Finasteride at 1 mg/day and 5% topical minoxidil are effective in male androgenetic alopecia (MAGA). However, studies describing their effects in Chinese individuals are scarce. 450 Chinese MAGA patients were randomly assigned to receive finasteride (n = 160), minoxidil (n = 130) and combined medication (n = 160) for 12 months. The patients returned to the clinic every 3 months for efficacy evaluation. And efficacy was evaluated in 428 men at treatment end, including 154, 122, and 152 in the finasteride, 5% minoxidil, and combination groups, respectively. All groups showed similar baseline characteristics, including age at enrollment, and duration and severity of alopecia (p > 0.05). At 12 months, 80.5, 59, and 94.1% men treated with finasteride, 5% minoxidil and the combination therapy showed improvement, respectively. Adverse reactions were rare (finasteride, 1.8%; minoxidil, 6.1%), and disappeared right after drug withdrawal. In conclusion, finasteride is superior to 5% minoxidil, while the combined medication showed the best efficacy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Comparing Outcomes and Cost of 3 Surgical Treatments for Sagittal Synostosis: A Retrospective Study Including Procedure-Related Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Sarah T; Karsy, Michael; Kestle, John R W; Siddiqi, Faizi; Spanos, Stephen P; Riva-Cambrin, Jay

    2017-10-01

    Neurosurgical techniques for repair of sagittal synostosis include total cranial vault (TCV) reconstruction, open sagittal strip (OSS) craniectomy, and endoscopic strip (ES) craniectomy. To evaluate outcomes and cost associated with these 3 techniques. Via retrospective chart review with waiver of informed consent, the last consecutive 100 patients with sagittal synostosis who underwent each of the 3 surgical correction techniques before June 30, 2013, were identified. Clinical, operative, and process of care variables and their associated specific charges were analyzed along with overall charge. The study included 300 total patients. ES patients had fewer transfusion requirements (13% vs 83%, P cost savings compared with the TCV reconstruction. The charges were similar to those incurred with OSS craniectomy, but patients had a shorter length of stay and fewer revisions. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  8. Efficacy of chlorhexidine as a final irrigant in one-visit root canal treatment: a prospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miçooğullar Kurt, S; Çalışkan, M K

    2018-03-30

    To evaluate postoperative pain and radiographic evidence of periapical healing in teeth with apical periodontitis treated in one visit with an additional final irrigation using 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) and to compare the results with conventional two-visit root canal treatment (RCT) with an intracanal calcium hydroxide (CH) dressing as a control group. Ninety asymptomatic maxillary anterior teeth with periapical lesions were treated by a single operator. Root canals were prepared using the step-back technique with manual instrumentation with 2.5% NaOCl and 5% EDTA as irrigants. Half of the teeth were randomly assigned to the one-visit (OV) group and received an additional final rinse with 2% CHX before canal filling. The other teeth were treated in two visits (TV) with a CH paste made by mixing CH powder and distilled water as an interappointment dressing. All patients were recalled and investigated clinically and radiographically for 24 months. Postoperative pain at 24-48 h and changes in apical bone density indicating radiographic healing were evaluated statistically using the Mann-Whitney U-test followed by the Friedman and the Wilcoxon tests (α = 0.05). There were no significant differences between two groups regarding the incidence of postoperative pain at 24 h (OV group 50% no pain, 47.6% mild, 2.4% moderate pain/TV group 55% no pain, 42.5% mild, 2.5% moderate pain) and at 48 h (OV group 95% no pain, 5% mild pain/TV group 98% no pain, 2% mild pain). None of the patients reported severe postoperative pain, swelling and/or flare-ups during the follow-up period. There was no significant difference in the radiographic healing rates (OV group 97.6% PAI 1 and/or PAI 2 and 2.4% PAI 3/TV group 95% PAI 1 and/or PAI 2 and 5% PAI 3; P > 0.05). Both groups provided favourable and similar postoperative pain and periapical healing rates at 24 months. Thus, one-visit RCT with a final rinse with 2% CHX is an acceptable alternative to two-visit RCT with CH as

  9. Comparative Studies for What?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Guedes de Carvalho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ISCPES stands for International Society for Comparative Physical Education and Sports and it is going to celebrate its 40th anniversary in 2018. Since the beginning (Israel 1978 the main goals of the Society were established under a worldwide mind set considering five continents and no discrimination of any kind. The founders wanted to compare Physical Education and Sports across the world, searching for the best practices deserving consideration and applied on the purpose of improving citizen quality of life. The mission still stands for “Compare to learn and improve”. As all the organizations lasting for 39 years, ISCPES experienced several vicissitudes, usually correlated with world economic cycles, social and sports changes, which are in ISS journal articles - International Sport Studies. ISS journal is Scopus indexed, aiming to improve its quality (under evaluation to reach more qualified students, experts, professionals and researchers; doing so it will raise its indexation, which we know it is nowadays a more difficult task. First, because there are more journals trying to compete on this academic fierce competitive market; secondly, because the basic requirements are getting more and more hard to gather in the publishing environment around Physical Education and Sports issues. However, we can promise this will be one of our main strategic goals. Another goal I would like to address on this Editorial is the language issue. We have this second strategic goal, which is to reach most of languages spoken in different continents; besides the English language, we will reach Chinese, Spanish and Portuguese speaking countries. For that reason, we already defined that all the abstracts in English will be translated into Chinese, Spanish and Portuguese words so people can find them on any search browser. That will expand the demand for our journal and articles, increasing the number of potential readers. Of course this opportunity, given by

  10. Network meta-analysis incorporating randomized controlled trials and non-randomized comparative cohort studies for assessing the safety and effectiveness of medical treatments: challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Chris; Fireman, Bruce; Hutton, Brian; Clifford, Tammy; Coyle, Doug; Wells, George; Dormuth, Colin R.; Platt, Robert; Toh, Sengwee

    2015-01-01

    Network meta-analysis is increasingly used to allow comparison of multiple treatment alternatives simultaneously, some of which may not have been compared directly in primary research studies. The majority of network meta-analyses published to date have incorporated data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) only; however, inclusion of non-randomized studies may sometimes be considered. Non-randomized studies can complement RCTs or address some of their limitations, such as short follow-up...

  11. A prospective, open, comparative study of 5% potassium hydroxide solution versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts in men *

    OpenAIRE

    Camargo, Caio Lamunier de Abreu; Belda, Walter; Fagundes, Luiz Jorge; Romiti, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus infection and represent one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. Many infections are transient but the virus may recur, persist, or become latent. To date, there is no effective antiviral treatment to eliminate HPV infection and most therapies are aimed at the destruction of visible lesions. Potassium hydroxide is a strong alkali that has been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of genital warts and mollusc...

  12. Direction Modulated Brachytherapy for Treatment of Cervical Cancer. II: Comparative Planning Study With Intracavitary and Intracavitary–Interstitial Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dae Yup [Department of Medical Physics, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Safigholi, Habib; Soliman, Abraam [Department of Medical Physics, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Physical Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ravi, Ananth [Department of Medical Physics, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Leung, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Scanderbeg, Daniel J. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Liu, Zhaowei [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Owrangi, Amir [Department of Medical Physics, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Song, William Y., E-mail: william.song@sunnybrook.ca [Department of Medical Physics, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Physical Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-10-01

    Purpose: To perform a comprehensive comparative planning study evaluating the utility of the proposed direction modulated brachytherapy (DMBT) tandem applicator against standard applicators, in the setting of image guided adaptive brachytherapy of cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: A detailed conceptual article was published in 2014. The proposed DMBT tandem applicator has 6 peripheral grooves of 1.3-mm width, along a 5.4-mm-thick nonmagnetic tungsten alloy rod of density 18.0 g/cm{sup 3}, capable of generating directional dose profiles. We performed a comparative planning study with 45 cervical cancer patients enrolled consecutively in the prospective observational EMBRACE study. In all patients, MRI-based planning was performed while utilizing various tandem-ring (27 patients) and tandem-ring-needles (18 patients) applicators, in accordance with the Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie–European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology recommendations. For unbiased comparisons, all cases were replanned with an in-house–developed inverse optimization code while enforcing a uniform set of constraints that are reflective of the clinical practice. All plans were normalized to the same high-risk clinical target volume D90 values achieved in the original clinical plans. Results: In general, if the standard tandem was replaced with the DMBT tandem while maintaining all other planning conditions the same, there was consistent improvement in the plan quality. For example, among the 18 tandem-ring-needles cases, the average D2cm{sup 3} reductions achieved were −2.48% ± 11.03%, −4.45% ± 5.24%, and −5.66% ± 6.43% for the bladder, rectum, and sigmoid, respectively. An opportunity may also exist in avoiding use of needles altogether for when the total number of needles required is small (approximately 2 to 3 needles or less), if DMBT tandem is used. Conclusions: Integrating the novel DMBT tandem onto both intracavitary and intracavitary

  13. Operations dashboard: comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramly, Noor Nashriq; Ismail, Ahmad Zuhairi; Aziz, Mohd Haris; Ahmad, Nurul Haszeli

    2011-10-01

    In this present days and age, there are increasing needs for companies to monitor application and infrastructure health. Apart from having proactive measures to secure their application and infrastructure, many see monitoring dashboards as crucial investment in disaster preparedness. As companies struggle to find the best solution to cater for their needs and interest for monitoring their application and infrastructure's health, this paper summarizes the studies made on several known off-the-shelf operations dashboard and in-house developed dashboard. A few criteria of good dashboard are collected from previous studies carried out by several researchers and rank them according to importance and business needs. The finalized criteria that will be discussed in later sections are data visualization, performance indicator, dashboard personalization, audit capability and alert/ notification. Comparative studies between several popular dashboards were then carried out to determine whether they met these criteria that we derived from the first exercise. The findings hopefully can be used to educate and provide an overview of selecting the best IT application and infrastructure operations dashboard that suit business needs, thus become the main contribution of this paper.

  14. Prospective comparative study of miniperc and standard PNL for treatment of 1 to 2 cm size renal stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shashikant; Sharma, Rajan; Garg, Chandrapraksh; Kurien, Abraham; Sabnis, Ravindra; Desai, Mahesh

    2011-09-01

    • To evaluate the results of miniperc vis-à-vis standard PNL in the treatment of stones of 1-2 cm in size. Miniperc may represent a reasonable procedure in patients with nonbulky urolithiasis offering a similar outcome as standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) with advantage of reduced morbidity. • 55 procedures including 27 miniperc and 28 standard PNL were performed for renal stones 1-2 cm in size. Pediatric patient, active urinary tract infection, renal malformation, uncorrected coagulopathy and morbid obesity patients were excluded from the study. • The parameters studied were demography, operative time, postoperative analgesic requirement, hemoglobin drop, complications and stone clearance. • Mean tract size was 18.2 ± 2 F (15-20) and 26.8 ± 2 F (24-30), P value PNL, respectively. Holmium LASER and pneumatic lithotripter were the main energy sources used in miniperc and standard PNL, respectively. • Miniperc operative time was longer than that of standard PNL (45.2 ± 12.6 vs 31 ± 16.6 min, P= 0.0008 respectively). • Conversely, there was an advantage of miniperc over standard PNL in terms of a significantly reduced hemoglobin drop (0.8 ± 0.9 vs 1.3 ± 0.4 gram%, P= 0.01), analgesic requirement (55.4 ± 50 vs 70.2 ± 52 mg tramadol, P= 0.29) and hospital stay (3.2 ± 0.8 vs 4.8 ± 0.6 days, P ≤ 0.001), respectively. • Intra- operative conversion of the procedure into a tubeless PNL was significantly more in the miniperc group (P ≤ 0.001). The miniperc and standard PNL group had clearance rates of 96% and 100%, respectively at 1 month follow up. • This study demonstrated significant advantages of the miniperc procedure in terms of reduced bleeding leading to a tubeless procedure and reduced hospital stay. • The stone free rates and the complications were similar in either group. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2011 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  15. Risk of Psoriasis Following Terbinafine or Itraconazole Treatment for Onychomycosis: A Population-Based Case-Control Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hsien-Yi; Chang, Wei-Lun; Tsai, Tsen-Fang; Tsai, Yi-Wen; Shiu, Ming-Neng

    2018-03-01

    Several case studies have reported an association between antifungal drug use and psoriasis risk. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between terbinafine/itraconazole exposure and psoriasis incidence. Among patients with onychomycosis in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 3831 incident psoriasis cases were identified during 2004-2010 and compared with 3831 age- and sex-matched controls with the same look-back period. Multivariate conditional logistic regression was used for the analysis. The psoriasis cases were significantly more likely than matched controls to have used terbinafine or itraconazole (59.85 vs. 42.70%, respectively; p terbinafine/itraconazole use was associated with an increased psoriasis risk (adjusted odds ratio 1.33, 95% confidence interval 1.15-1.54). The association was stronger for more recent drug exposure (adjusted odds ratio 2.96, 95% confidence interval 2.25-3.90 for ≤ 90 days before the sampling date; adjusted odds ratio 1.04, 95% confidence interval 0.89-1.22 for > 360 days). In a comparison of patients receiving terbinafine or itraconazole only, psoriasis risk was higher for itraconazole (adjusted odds ratio 1.21, 95% confidence interval 1.05-1.40). This large population-based case-control analysis showed that exposure to terbinafine or itraconazole is associated with an increased risk of incident psoriasis. The finding of an increased psoriasis risk for antifungal drug users, particularly for itraconazole, deserves attention in clinical practice although further prospective studies are necessary to confirm our findings and clarify the biological mechanisms that underlie these associations.

  16. Evaluation of gingival fiber retention technique on the treatment of patients with chronic periodontitis: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Palwankar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The destructive action of the chronic periodontitis on the periodontal tissues has provided a continuous challenge to the dental profession to develop better methods to achieve repair of the recession regions and even regeneration of post periodontal tissues. Aims: To assess the effect of periodontal muco-periostal flap surgery with gingival fiber retention technique on minimizing the post surgical recession. Materials and Methods: The sample for the study comprised of 20 patients. The criteria for selection included patients with moderate periodontitis, with minimum recession in the anterior teeth, with adequate width of the attached gingiva, and with no traumatic occlusion. Periodontal muco-periosteal flap surgery with gingival fiber retention technique was done in the experimental site with internal bevel incision, and in control site, muco periosteal flap surgery with crevicular incision was done. Thereafter, observation period was of one week, four weeks, and eight weeks were done for both the sites. Statistical Analysis Used: The results were subjected to statistical analysis using student′s t`-test. Results: The result of this study suggests that the periodontal flap surgery with gingival fiber retention technique has a beneficial effect on the anterior teeth, as it maintains the esthetics, recontours the gingiva with minimal recession. The area of recession was more on the control site as compared to experimental site at 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks. Conclusions: Gingival fiber retention technique showed less post-surgical recession and also there was fall in values of plaque index, gingival index, and periodontal index scores, throughout the study.

  17. Management of rectal cancers in relation to treatment guidelines: a population-based study comparing Italian and French patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minicozzi, Pamela; Bouvier, Anne-Marie; Faivre, Jean; Sant, Milena

    2014-07-01

    Few studies have investigated rectal cancer management at the population level. We compared how rectal cancers diagnosed in Italy (2003-2005) and France (2005) were managed, and evaluated the extent to which management adhered to European guidelines. Samples of 3938 Italian and 2287 French colorectal cancer patients were randomly extracted from 8 and 12 cancer registries respectively. Rectal cancer patients (860 Italian, 559 French) were analysed. Logistic regression models estimated odds ratios (ORs) of being treated with curative intent, receiving sphincter-saving surgery, and receiving preoperative radiotherapy. Similar proportions of Italian and French patients were treated with curative intent (70% vs. 67%; OR=0.92 [0.73-1.16]); the respective proportions receiving sphincter-saving surgery were 21% and 33% (OR=1.15 [0.86-1.53]). In about 50% of those treated with curative intent, ≥ 12 lymph nodes were harvested in both countries. The proportion receiving postoperative radiotherapy was higher in Italy than in France (25% vs. 11%, pguidelines. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The efficacy and safety of diphenylcyclopropenone solutions in propylene glycol and isopropanol. A comparative study of two formulas used for the treatment of 100 patients with alopecia areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Borowska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Alopecia areata (AA is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease involving hair follicles characterized by hair loss. 2,3-diphenylcyclopropenone (DCP is a topically administered drug intended for treating AA. The study investigates an efficacy and safety of DCP for the purpose of the treatment of AA. It presents a comparative study of two formulas: DCP in propylene glycol and DCP in isopropanol. While the treatment efficacy in both groups was very simmilar, the tolerance of the DCP in isopropanol was better than DCP in propylene glycol. Authors indicate the potential clinical applications of latter formula.

  19. [Comparative study of the LIFT and the TVT procedure in the surgical treatment of female stress urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukerrou, M; Just, S Bresson; Girard, J-M; Nayama, M; Cosson, M

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare a polyester mesh coated with silicone (LIFT, Cousin) to a polypropylene mesh (TVT, Gynecare), in terms of results, and short and middle term complications. We have performed a retrospective study concerning 140 patients between 2000 and 2002 (71 LIFT and 69 TVT operated for stress incontinence with or without vaginal surgery (prolapse surgery or hysterectomy). We noticed per- and postoperative complications. The patients were contacted by phone to evaluate the middle and long-term results. The mean age of the patients were of 58.8+/-11.3 years in LIFT group and 57.2+/-7.5 years in TVT group. More intraoperative complications arose in the TVT group (six bladder injuries and three haemorrhages versus two in LIFT group, pTVT. 80% of the patients were dry in the LIFT and 75.8% in the TVT group. There was no significant difference concerning the rate of de novo urge incontinence (18.3 versus 17.7%) and voiding difficulties (10 versus 16%). On the other hand, 6.7% of the patients of the group LIFT presented bad healing with prosthesis exposure, in every case a partial resection of the mesh was performed. We did not observe any case of exposure in the TVT group. The LIFT seems as effective as the TVT with a rate of de novo urge incontinence and voiding difficulties similar to the TVT and to the literature's data. However the rate of 6.7% of exposure leads us to prefer polypropylene meshes.

  20. Percutaneous vertebroplasty compared to conservative treatment in patients with painful acute or subacute osteoporotic vertebral fractures.Three months follow up in a clinical randomised study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousing, Rikke

    2008-01-01

    with a few exceptions. We observed 2 adjacent fractures in the PVP group and non in the conservative group. Conclusion. The majority of patients with acute or subacute painful osteoporotic compression fractures in the spine will recover after a few months of conservative treatment. The risk of adjacent......Abstract Study design. Clinical randomised study.    Objective. The aim of this study is to compare PVP to conservative treatment of patients with osteoporotic vertebral fractures in a clinical randomised study with respect to pain, physical and mental outcome, and to asses the risk of adjacent......) were included from January 2001 until January 2008. Patients with acute (treatment. Pain was assessed with a visual analogue scale and physical and mental outcome were...

  1. A comparative study of spray keratinocytes and autologous meshed split-thickness skin graft in the treatment of acute burn injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Rajiv; Roggy, David Edward; Zieger, Madeline Jane; Nazim, Muhammad; Hartman, Brett Colby; Gibbs, Jeff Thomas

    2015-02-01

    ReCell (Avita Medical, Northridge, CA) is an autologous cell harvesting (ACH) device that enables a thin split-thickness skin biopsy to be processed to produce a cell population that includes a mixed population of keratinocytes, melanocytes, Langerhans cells, and papillary dermal fibroblasts for immediate delivery via a spray applicator onto a prepared skin surface. In this Institutional Review Board-approved US Food and Drug Administration phase 2 study, the authors prospectively evaluated the treatment of partial-thickness burns in patients with two 320 cm2 areas, 1 area treated with the ACH device and the other with a meshed split-thickness skin graft (MSTSG) as a control. The authors compared the treatment areas for graft take, pigmentation, and color match to surrounding healthy tissue, scarring, and pain. In this preliminary study, 10 patients were treated with this protocol. Eight patients had 100% take to both treatment areas and 2 patients had significant non-take and graft loss attributable to underexcised wound beds and difficulty with the spray applicator. Pigmentation and color match ratings were identical at week 52 and the Modified Vancouver Scar Scale scores were comparable. One subject rated the autologous cell harvesting site as having a better appearance, while the remaining subjects rated their ACH and MSTSG sites' appearances as being comparable. In early follow-up visits, pain ratings were slightly elevated in the ACH group due to graft healing; however, in visits following week 2, pain ratings at the ACH and MSTSG sites were rated similarly by all patients. This preliminary report describes an early experience with the ACH device and the treatment of partial-thickness burn injuries. In this 10-patient series, patients benefitted from having a decreased donor site size and comparable outcomes with MSTSG treatment. While this preliminary underpowered study has provided positive results, there is a learning curve with choosing the proper wound

  2. Comparative effectiveness of switching paroxetine formulation for treatment of major depressive disorder: an open-label multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otsubo T

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tempei Otsubo,1 Yoshinori Watanabe,2,3 Seiji Hongo,3 Mikichika Inoue,4 Kimiko Akimoto,4 Ken Murakami,5 Ryutaro Takahashi,6 Toshiaki Kikuchi7 1Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Women’s Medical University Medical Center East, Tokyo, Japan; 2Himorogi Psychiatric Institute, Tokyo, Japan; 3Nanko Clinic of Psychiatry, Shirakawa, Japan; 4Ikebukuro Internal Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 5Murakami Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 6Takahashi Clinic, Tokyo, Japan; 7Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Aim: To assess the effectiveness and safety of switching the antidepressant formulation from immediate-release (IR to controlled-release (CR paroxetine in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD. Patients and methods: A total of 113 outpatients with MDD diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, and treated with a stable dose of IR paroxetine for at least 6 months were enrolled. Patients were then switched to CR paroxetine for 8 weeks. Effectiveness was evaluated by scores on the Himorogi Self-Rating Depression/Anxiety Scales (HSDS/HSAS and the Clinical Global Impression – Severity (CGI-S. Safety was evaluated based on the reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs. Medication satisfaction and preference were assessed based on questionnaire responses using Likert-type scales. Results: The overall patient HSDS/HSAS scores significantly improved after switching from IR to CR paroxetine (P<0.001. Furthermore, CR paroxetine was superior to IR paroxetine (P<0.001 according to the results of the CGI-S evaluation. ADRs were experienced by 14 (12.4% patients, including dry mouth, nausea/vomiting, somnolence/drowsiness, and wakefulness/arousal during sleep. Satisfaction and preference for paroxetine improved after switching to the CR formulation (P<0.001; chi-square test. Conclusion: These results suggest that switching the treatment from IR to CR paroxetine could

  3. A comparative study of dentoskeletal changes of herbst appliance treatment among different skeletal maturity groups based on cervical vertebral maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodore K Albaker

    2012-01-01

    exhibited more proclination of the lower incisors than the pre-peak and peak groups (P <0.05. The results suggest that treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion with the Herbst appliance is best during the peak growth spurt corresponding to CVM Stage 3-4.

  4. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE THERAPEUTIC EFFICIENCY OF OXITETRACICLINE, IMIDOCARB AND DIMINAzENE, USED IN THE TREATMENT OF EQUINE THOROUGBREED HEMOPARASITES

    OpenAIRE

    Comerma Steffensen, Simon Gabriel; Arrieta-Mendoza, D.; Morales, A; Viloria, D; Romero, N.; Morales, G.; Kassar, M.

    2012-01-01

    It presents a comparative study of the therapeutic efficacy of oxytetracycline, imidocarb and diminaze- ne, used in the treatment of equine hemoparasitosis Thoroughbreds. We studied a total of 105 horses, Tho- roughbreds, all under 2 years old, during the quarantine period November to December 2011. They practice a clinical examination, blood samples were taken for a complete blood count and blood smear for disposal of taxon. They were then medicated with single dose intramuscular (IM) as fol...

  5. Comparative study of genotoxicity and tissue distribution of nano and micron sized iron oxide in rats after acute oral treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Shailendra Pratap; Rahman, M.F.; Murty, U.S.N.; Mahboob, M.; Grover, Paramjit, E-mail: paramgrover@gmail.com

    2013-01-01

    Though nanomaterials (NMs) are being utilized worldwide, increasing use of NMs have raised concerns over their safety to human health and environment. Iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) NMs have important applications. The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxicity of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-bulk in female Wistar rats. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm was characterized by using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, laser Doppler velocimetry and surface area analysis. The rats were treated orally with the single doses of 500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg bw of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} –bulk. The genotoxicity was evaluated at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h by the comet assay in leucocytes, 48 and 72 h by micronucleus test (MNT) in peripheral blood cells, 18 and 24 h by chromosomal aberration (CA) assay and 24 and 48 h by MNT in bone marrow cells. The biodistribution of iron (Fe) was carried out at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment in liver, spleen, kidney, heart, brain, bone marrow, urine and feces by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The % tail DNA, frequencies of micronuclei and CAs were statistically insignificant (p > 0.05) at all doses. These results suggest that Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-bulk was not genotoxic at the doses tested. Bioavailability of Fe was size and dose dependent in all the tissues from the groups exposed to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NMs were able to enter in the organs and the rats are biocompatible with much higher concentration of Fe. However, the accumulated Fe did not cause significant genotoxicity. This study provides additional knowledge about the toxicology of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NMs. -- Highlights: ► Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-bulk were orally administered to rats with single doses. ► The nano and bulk Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} showed insignificant results with MNT, comet and CA assays. ► The bulk was excreted via feces whereas the NMs

  6. Comparative clinical study of the effect of LLLT in the immediate and late treatments of hypoesthesia due to surgical procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladalardo, Thereza C.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.; Castanho Garrini, Ana E.; Bologna, Elisangela D.; Takamoto, Marcia; Siqueira, Jose T.; Dias, Pedro; Campos, Roberto A. d. C.

    2002-06-01

    We evaluated the effect of LLLT in 68 patients who presented hypoesthesia due to odontological surgery procedures: dental implant surgeries (N=51); extraction of impacted lower third molars (N=10); endodontics in lower first molars (N=7). Lesions treated within 30 days after the nerve injury had occurred were part of the immediate group, and lesions with more than 30 days from the occurrence of the injury were part of the late group. Treatments were carried out with an infrared diode laser of 40 mW-830nm, continuous wave emission, spot size 3 mm2, and a total dosage of 18 joules per session in a contact mode of application, 20 sessions altogether. The efficacy of laser therapy in peripheral nerve regeneration is also related to the degree of the peripheral nerve lesion, and not only to the lesion duration. LLLT resulted in neurosensory functional improvement in both immediate and late treatments of hypoesthesia.

  7. Comparative Studies of Oleaginous Fungal Strains (Mucor circinelloides and Trichoderma reesei) for Effective Wastewater Treatment and Bio-Oil Production

    OpenAIRE

    Bhanja, Anshuman; Minde, Gauri; Magdum, Sandip; Kalyanraman, V.

    2014-01-01

    Biological wastewater treatment typically requires the use of bacteria for degradation of carbonaceous and nitrogenous compounds present in wastewater. The high lipid containing biomass can be used to extract oil and the contents can be termed as bio-oil (or biodiesel or myco-diesel after transesterification). The separate experiments were conducted on actual wastewater samples with 5% v/v inoculum of Mucor circinelloides MTCC1297 and Trichoderma reesei NCIM992 strains. The observed reduction...

  8. Comparative waste forms study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wald, J.W.; Lokken, R.O.; Shade, J.W.; Rusin, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    A number of alternative process and waste form options exist for the immobilization of nuclear wastes. Although data exists on the characterization of these alternative waste forms, a straightforward comparison of product properties is difficult, due to the lack of standardized testing procedures. The characterization study described in this report involved the application of the same volatility, mechanical strength and leach tests to ten alternative waste forms, to assess product durability. Bulk property, phase analysis and microstructural examination of the simulated products, whose waste loading varied from 5% to 100% was also conducted. The specific waste forms investigated were as follows: Cold Pressed and Sintered PW-9 Calcine; Hot Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Hot Isostatic Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Cold Pressed and Sintered SPC-5B Supercalcine; Hot Isostatic pressed SPC-5B Supercalcine; Sintered PW-9 and 50% Glass Frit; Glass 76-68; Celsian Glass Ceramic; Type II Portland Cement and 10% PW-9 Calcine; and Type II Portland Cement and 10% SPC-5B Supercalcine. Bulk property data were used to calculate and compare the relative quantities of waste form volume produced at a spent fuel processing rate of 5 metric ton uranium/day. This quantity ranged from 3173 L/day (5280 Kg/day) for 10% SPC-5B supercalcine in cement to 83 L/day (294 Kg/day) for 100% calcine. Mechanical strength, volatility, and leach resistance tests provide data related to waste form durability. Glass, glass-ceramic and supercalcine ranked high in waste form durability where as the 100% PW-9 calcine ranked low. All other materials ranked between these two groupings

  9. A comparative evaluation of porous hydroxyapatite bone graft with and without platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of periodontal intrabony osseous defects: A clinico-Radiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouri Bhatia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, regenerative attempts for treatment of periodontal disease focus on the introduction of a filler material into the defect in hope of inducing bone regeneration. The purpose of this study was to clinically and radiographically evaluate the use of porous hydroxyapatite bone graft with and without platelet-rich plasma (PRP in the treatment of intrabony defects. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in ten patients between 18 and 60 years. Patients with pocket depth ≥5 mm and radiographic evidence of vertical bone loss in the affected site were randomly assigned to treatment with a combination of PRP + Hydroxyapatite (HA (test sites or HA alone (control sites. The parameters were compared at baseline and 6 months postoperatively. Results: There was a statistically significant reduction in probing depth and gain in clinical attachment in both the groups individually (more in experimental group; however, on comparing the two groups, the net reduction was not significant. Radiographic assessment showed a decrease in the defect size in both the groups. Conclusion: PRP in addition to a bone graft in the treatment of intrabony defects is safe and shows improved defect fill as compared to the use of bone graft alone.

  10. A comparative study of 10% KOH solution and 5% imiquimod cream for the treatment of Molluscum contagiosum in the pediatric age group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chathra, Namitha; Sukumar, D; Bhat, Ramesh M; Kishore, B Nanda; Martis, Jacintha; Kamath, Ganesh; Srinath, M K; Monteiro, Rochelle

    2015-01-01

    Although Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a self-limiting condition, active therapy could prevent further spread and improve cosmesis. Most of the available treatment modalities traumatize the lesions and have to be undertaken in the hospital, therefore evoking panic in children. In the quest for an alternative therapy, this study comparing 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution and 5% imiquimod cream was taken up. To compare the efficacy and tolerability of 10% KOH and 5% imiquimod in the treatment of MC. This comparative study was conducted over a period of 18 months from October 2011 to March 2013, 40 patients between the age group of 1-18 years with clinically diagnosed MC were divided into two groups (lottery method), 20 patients were treated with 5% imiquimod cream (Group A) and the other 20 were treated with 10% KOH solution (Group B). Patients were followed up on the 4(th), 8(th) and 12(th) week of treatment. At the end of 12 weeks, out of 20 patients who received 10% KOH, 17 patients showed complete disappearance, whereas out of 20 patients who received 5% imiquimod, only 10 patients showed total clearance of the lesions. Adverse events were more frequent with 10% KOH, pigmentary disturbances being the most common. With only minor adverse effects, 10% KOH is an inexpensive and efficient modality for the treatment of MC in the pediatric age group. Although 5% imiquimod was effective in clearing the lesions with minimal adverse effects, the longer duration required for its efficacy may deter its wider use.

  11. Comparative microstructure study of oil palm fruit bunch fibre, mesocarp and kernels after microwave pre-treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jessie S. L.; Chan, Y. S.; Law, M. C.; Leo, C. P.

    2017-07-01

    The implementation of microwave technology in palm oil processing offers numerous advantages; besides elimination of polluted palm oil mill effluent, it also reduces energy consumption, processing time and space. However, microwave exposure could damage a material’s microstructure which affected the quality of fruit that can be related to its physical structure including the texture and appearance. In this work, empty fruit bunches, mesocarp and kernel was microwave dried and their respective microstructures were examined. The microwave pretreatments were conducted at 100W and 200W and the microstructure investigation of both treated and untreated samples were evaluated using scanning electron microscope. The micrographs demonstrated that microwave does not significantly influence kernel and mesocarp but noticeable change was found on the empty fruit bunches where the sizes of the granular starch were reduced and a small portion of the silica bodies were disrupted. From the experimental data, the microwave irradiation was shown to be efficiently applied on empty fruit bunches followed by mesocarp and kernel as significant weight loss and size reduction was observed after the microwave treatments. The current work showed that microwave treatment did not change the physical surfaces of samples but sample shrinkage is observed.

  12. Intra-arterial infusion of MTX for the treatment of cesarean scar pregnancy: a comparative study between different doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Weijin; Wang Haiyun; Wan Jun; Zhang Lei; Wang Ying; Wang Wei; Ji Fang; Ji Lihua

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effective dose of methotrexate (MTX) via intra-arterial infusion for the treatment of cesarean scar pregnancy. Methods: Thirty-six cases of incisional scar pregnancy at the gestational age of 5-9 weeks received bilateral uterine arterial infusion of MTX. According to the dose of MTX used, the patients were randomly and equally divided into four groups with MTX dose of 60, 100, 150 and 200 mg respectively. After the perfusion was completed the embolization of both uterine arteries with Gelfoam was carried out until the uterine arteries were no longer visualized on DSA. Uterine curettage was conducted within 1-7 days after the treatment. Results: In one week after the procedure, the difference in the decreasing rate of serum β-HCG and progesterone between group 60 mg and group 200 mg was of statistical significance (P 0.05). The hospitalization days of group 60 mg was the longest, while that of group 200 mg was the shortest. Conclusion: The recommended dose of MTX used via intra-arterial infusion in treating cesarean scar pregnancy is 200 mg. The interventional procedure can kill the embryo tissue and quickly lower the serum β-HCG and progesterone levels,it can also shorten the patient's hospitalization time. (authors)

  13. Minimal invasive treatment of ureteropelvic junction obstruction in low volume pelvis: A comparative study of endopyelotomy and laparoscopic nondismembered pyeloplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Pratipal; Jain, Paresh; Dharaskar, Anand; Mandhani, Anil; Dubey, Deepak; Kapoor, Rakesh; Kumar, Anant; Srivastava, Aneesh

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of nondismembered laparoscopic pyeloplasty and percutaneous endopyelotomy for ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) with low volume renal pelvis. Material and Methods: Retrospective acquired data of 34 patients of laparoscopic nondismembered pyeloplasty was compared with 26 patients of UPJO with pelvic volume less than 50 ml undergoing antegrade endopyelotomy and analyzed for clinical parameters, operative outcomes and success of procedures. All patient...

  14. Tryptanthrin content in Isatis tinctoria leaves--a comparative study of selected strains and post-harvest treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberthür, Christine; Hamburger, Matthias

    2004-07-01

    Tryptanthrin is a pharmacologically active compound in the anti-inflammatory herb Isatis tinctoria, with potent inhibitory activity on prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis and on inducible NO synthase. The tryptanthrin content of five defined woad strains was analyzed in dependence of the time of harvest and post-harvest treatment. Tryptanthrin was determined by a validated ESI-LC-MS isotope dilution assay with d(8)-tryptanthrin as internal standard. The tryptanthrin concentration in freeze-dried leaf samples was low. Drying at ambient temperature led to a significant increase of tryptanthrin concentration, but the highest concentrations were found when leaves were dried at 40 degrees C. Tryptanthrin content in fermented woad leaves was below the limit of quantification. Tryptanthrin appears thus to be a product of post-harvest processes, but details of its formation remain to be elucidated.

  15. Treatment of periorbital dark circles: Comparative study of chemical peeling with a combination of trichloroacetic acid and lactic acid versus carboxytherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Arwa Mohammad Hassan; Ghada Fawzy Hassan; Hedaya Yousef Aldalies; Gamal Mohammad El Maghraby

    2016-01-01

    Periorbital dark circles (PODC) are a common worldwide cosmetic problem. It is difficult to treat due to complications in its pathogenesis and aetiology. Available lines of treatment for PODC include whitening creams, topical retinoid acid, chemical peeling, laser therapy, carboxytherapy, autologous fat transplantation, injectable fillers and surgery (blepharoplasty).The aim of this study isto evaluate and compare the efficacy of chemical peels using trichloroacetic acid (3.75%) and lactic ac...

  16. Retrospective Study to Compare Selective Decongestive Devascularization and Gastrosplenic Shunt versus Splenectomy with Pericardial Devascularization for the Treatment of Patients with Esophagogastric Varices Due to Cirrhotic Portal Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Haili; He, Qikuan; Dai, Ninggao; Ye, Ruifan; Zhang, Qiyu

    2017-06-08

    BACKGROUND For patients with esophagogastric varices secondary to portal hypertension due to liver cirrhosis, portosystemic shunts and devascularization have become the most commonly used treatment methods. We have developed a novel surgical approach for the treatment of patients with cirrhotic portal hypertension, selective decongestive devascularization, and shunt of the gastrosplenic region (SDDS-GSR). This aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of SDDS-GSR with splenectomy with pericardial devascularization (SPD). MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective study was undertaken between 2006 and 2013 and included 110 patients with cirrhotic portal hypertension, 34 of whom underwent SDDS-GSR; 76 patients underwent SPD. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to evaluate clinical outcomes, mortality, the incidence of re-bleeding, encephalopathy, and portal venous system thrombosis (PVST). RESULTS Postoperatively portal venous pressure decreased by 20% in both groups. The long-term incidence of re-bleeding and PVST was significantly lower in the SDDS-GSR group compared with the SPD group (P=0.018 and P=0.039, respectively). CONCLUSIONS This preliminary retrospective study has shown that SDDS-GSR was an effective treatment for patients with esophagogastric varices secondary to portal hypertension that may be used as a first-line treatment to prevent variceal bleeding and lower the incidence of PVST.

  17. Comparative study of the prognosis of an extracorporeal reduction and a closed treatment in mandibular condyle head and/or neck fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Min; Jang, Yong-Wook; Kim, Seong-Gon; Park, Young-Wook; Rotaru, Horatiu; Baciut, Grigore; Hurubeanu, Lucia

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was a comparison of the prognosis between an extracorporeal reduction technique and closed treatment of a mandibular condyle fracture. The relationship between condylar resorption and several clinical variables was also studied. Seventy-one patients who had a mandibular condyle fracture took part in this study. Thirty-five patients (female: 7, male: 28, age: 30.46 ± 14.27 years) were treated by extracorporeal reduction, and 36 patients (male: 24, female: 12, age: 24.28 ± 9.99 years) were treated using a closed treatment. The presence of complications such as condylar resorption, malocclusion, nerve disorder, and disc displacement was evaluated with panoramic radiographs and clinical examinations 12 months after treatment. The relationships between the complications and other clinical variables were evaluated statistically. The anatomic site and fracture type were closely related to condyle resorption in the bivariate analysis. Condylar head fractures showed significantly higher condyle resorption than condylar neck fractures (P = .023). A complex or compound fracture showed significantly higher condyle resorption compared with a simple fracture (P = .006). Patients who had a complex/compound fracture were 34.366 times more likely to have condyle resorption compared with those who had a simple fracture (P = .002). The patient's age and treatment method were also significant predictors for condyle resorption. Fracture type was the strongest predictor of condylar resorption. Because treatment method and patient age were also related to the prognosis, the optimal treatment for mandibular condylar head and/or neck fractures should be individualized according to the patient's condition. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative study of 131I with 131I plus lithium carbonate in the treatment of Graves' hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Yuguo; Kuang Anren; Guan Changtian

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of lithium carbonate on serum TSH, FT 3 , FT 4 and thyroid mass volume in patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism treated with 131 I. Methods: Thirty patients with newly diagnosed, untreated Graves' disease (GD) and nonsevere or absent Graves' ophthalmopathy, were randomly assigned to group 1 and group 2. The 1st group was treated with 131 I therapy only, the 2nd group with 131 I plus lithium carbonate. All subjects were evaluated for changes in serum TSH, FT 3 and FT 4 as well as thyroid mass volume at the 7, 14, 30 d after 131 I therapy. Differences between the two groups in thyroid mass volume, serum FT 4 , FT 3 , and TSH levels at each interval were evaluated by ANCOVA. Results: Serum FT 4 and FT 3 levels increased shortly after 131 I therapy only in group 1, and decreased in group 2. The differences of serum FT 3 and FT 4 levels between the two groups were significant. Conclusion: It is important for GD patients to accept lithium carbonate treatment and 131 I therapy simultaneously in order to decrease the serum FT 3 and FT 4 levels caused by 131 I therapy

  19. Percutaneous Vertebroplasty Compared to Conservative Treatment in Patients With Painful Acute or Subacute Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures: Three-Months Follow-up in a Clinical Randomized Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousing, Rikke; Andersen, Mikkel Østerheden; Jespersen, Stig M.

    2009-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Clinical randomized study. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to compare percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) to conservative treatment of patients with osteoporotic vertebral fractures in a clinical randomized study with respect to pain, physical and mental outcome, and to asses...... patients (41 females) were included from January 2001 until January 2008. Patients with acute (treatment. Pain was assessed with a visual analogue scale and physical and mental...... within both groups and between the groups after 3 months with a few exceptions. We observed 2 adjacent fractures in the PVP group and non in the conservative group. CONCLUSION: The majority of patients with acute or subacute painful osteoporotic compression fractures in the spine will recover after a few...

  20. Additive Complex Ayurvedic Treatment in Patients with Fibromyalgia Syndrome Compared to Conventional Standard Care Alone: A Nonrandomized Controlled Clinical Pilot Study (KAFA Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian S. Kessler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fibromyalgia (FMS is a challenging condition for health care systems worldwide. Only limited trial data is available for FMS for outcomes of complex treatment interventions of complementary and integrative (CIM approaches. Methods. We conducted a controlled, nonrandomized feasibility study that compared outcomes in 21 patients treated with Ayurveda with those of 11 patients treated with a conventional approach at the end of a two-week inpatient hospital stay. Primary outcome was the impact of fibromyalgia on patients as assessed by the FIQ. Secondary outcomes included scores of pain intensity, pain perception, depression, anxiety, and quality of sleep. Follow-up assessments were done after 6 months. Results. At 2 weeks, there were comparable and significant improvements in the FIQ and for most of secondary outcomes in both groups with no significant in-between-group differences. The beneficial effects for both treatment groups were partly maintained for the main outcome and a number of secondary outcomes at the 6-month followup, again with no significant in-between-group differences. Discussion. The findings of this feasibility study suggest that Ayurvedic therapy is noninferior to conventional treatment in patients with severe FMS. Since Ayurveda was only used as add-on treatment, RCTs on Ayurveda alone are warranted to increase model validity. This trial is registered with NCT01389336.

  1. A randomized, double-blind study comparing the efficacy of selenium sulfide shampoo 1% and ciclopirox shampoo 1% as adjunctive treatments for tinea capitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Catherine; Koch, Laine H; Dice, James E; Dempsey, Kimberly K; Moskowitz, Alan B; Barnes-Eley, Myra L; Hubbard, Thomas W; Williams, Judith V

    2010-01-01

    Our objective was to compare the efficacy of selenium sulfide shampoo 1% and ciclopirox shampoo 1% as adjunctive treatments for tinea capitis in children. Forty children aged 1-11 years with clinically diagnosed tinea capitis were randomized to receive selenium sulfide shampoo 1% or ciclopirox shampoo 1% twice a week as adjuncts to an 8-week course of ultramicronized griseofulvin dosed at 10-12 mg/kg/day. At weeks 2, 4, and 8, subjects returned to the clinic for evaluation and scalp cultures. Subjects then returned for follow-up visits 4 weeks after completing treatment. Overall, by 8 weeks, 30 of 33 (90.9%) treated children demonstrated mycological cure. Selenium sulfide shampoo 1% and ciclopirox shampoo 1% were equally effective as adjunctive treatments for tinea capitis in children in our study. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. An open, comparative study of 10% potassium hydroxide solution versus salicylic and lactic acid combination in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köse, Osman; Özmen, İbrahim; Arca, Ercan

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate and compare the safety and efficacy of 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution and salicylic and lactic acid (SAL + LAC) combination in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum (MC). 26 patients with MC randomized into two treatment groups. 12 patients treated with 10% KOH solution and 14 patients treated with SAL + LAC combination for 6 weeks. Parents of patients were instructed to apply medication once daily only to lesions at study onset. Assessment of response of the treated lesions and side effects was performed at 2, 4 and 6 weeks of the treatment. Newly acquired lesions were not included in the study. At the end of therapy, 83.3% (n = 10) of KOH group demonstrated complete remission and 16.7% (n = 2) of them showed partial remission; four patients (33%) developed new lesions during the study. All the patients in the SAL + LAC combination group (100%) demonstrated complete remission of study entry lesions at the end of 6 weeks with five patients (35%) acquiring new lesions during the study. Minor side effects were observed in two groups. 10% KOH solution and SAL + LAC combination were found to be equally effective in the treatment of MC in children.

  3. Comparative study on nitridation and oxidation plasma interface treatment for AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMTs with AlN gate dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie-Jie; Ma, Xiao-Hua; Hou, Bin; Chen, Li-Xiang; Zhu, Qing; Hao, Yue

    2017-02-01

    This paper demonstrated the comparative study on interface engineering of AlN/AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors (MIS-HEMTs) by using plasma interface pre-treatment in various ambient gases. The 15 nm AlN gate dielectric grown by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition significantly suppressed the gate leakage current by about two orders of magnitude and increased the peak field-effect mobility by more than 50%. NH3/N2 nitridation plasma treatment (NPT) was used to remove the 3 nm poor-quality interfacial oxide layer and N2O/N2 oxidation plasma treatment (OPT) to improve the quality of interfacial layer, both resulting in improved dielectric/barrier interface quality, positive threshold voltage (V th) shift larger than 0.9 V, and negligible dispersion. In comparison, however, NPT led to further decrease in interface charges by 3.38 × 1012 cm-2 and an extra positive V th shift of 1.3 V. Analysis with fat field-effect transistors showed that NPT resulted in better sub-threshold characteristics and transconductance linearity for MIS-HEMTs compared with OPT. The comparative study suggested that direct removing the poor interfacial oxide layer by nitridation plasma was superior to improving the quality of interfacial layer by oxidation plasma for the interface engineering of GaN-based MIS-HEMTs.

  4. Should in the treatment of osteochondritis dissecans biodegradable or metallic fixation devices be used? A comparative study in goat knees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Diederick B.; Bos, Rudolf R. M.; van Horn, Jim R.; van Luyn, Marja J. A.

    Most of the metallic devices have to be removed, treating osteochondritis dissecans lesions. This animal study describes the biological and mechanical behavior of screws and pins, made of commercially available PGA/PLA and PLA96 and metallic screws and pins, used for fragment fixation. A sham

  5. Randomized clinical study comparing Compeed (R) cold sore patch to acyclovir cream 5% in the treatment of herpes simplex labialis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsmark, T.; Goodman, J.J.; Drouault, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Background Hydrocolloid technology has been proven effective in treating dermal wounds. A previous study showed that a newly developed thin hydrocolloid patch [Compeed (R) cold sore patch (CSP)] provided multiple wound-healing benefits across all stages of a herpes simplex labialis (HSL) outbreak...

  6. Cellular versus acellular matrix devices in treatment of diabetic foot ulcers: study protocol for a comparative efficacy randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev-Tov Hadar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs represent a significant source of morbidity and an enormous financial burden. Standard care for DFUs involves systemic glucose control, ensuring adequate perfusion, debridement of nonviable tissue, off-loading, control of infection, local wound care and patient education, all administered by a multidisciplinary team. Unfortunately, even with the best standard of care (SOC available, only 24% or 30% of DFUs will heal at weeks 12 or 20, respectively. The extracellular matrix (ECM in DFUs is abnormal and its impairment has been proposed as a key target for new therapeutic devices. These devices intend to replace the aberrant ECM by implanting a matrix, either devoid of cells or enhanced with fibroblasts, keratinocytes or both as well as various growth factors. These new bioengineered skin substitutes are proposed to encourage angiogenesis and in-growth of new tissue, and to utilize living cells to generate cytokines needed for wound repair. To date, the efficacy of bioengineered ECM containing live cellular elements for improving healing above that of a SOC control group has not been compared with the efficacy of an ECM devoid of cells relative to the same SOC. Our hypothesis is that there is no difference in the improved healing effected by either of these two product types relative to SOC. Methods/Design To test this hypothesis we propose a randomized, single-blind, clinical trial with three arms: SOC, SOC plus Dermagraft® (bioengineered ECM containing living fibroblasts and SOC plus Oasis® (ECM devoid of living cells in patients with nonhealing DFUs. The primary outcome is the percentage of subjects that achieved complete wound closure by week 12. Discussion If our hypothesis is correct, then immense cost savings could be realized by using the orders-of-magnitude less expensive acellular ECM device without compromising patient health outcomes. The article describes the protocol proposed to test

  7. Mobile OS Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Jyothy; K, Shinto Kurian

    2013-01-01

    In the fast growing mobile revolutionary era, many operating systems are playing vital role in present market. This study is intending to identify the apt and secure mobile based on mobile operating systems capability and user requirements.

  8. Comparative study of the radiobiological effects induced on adherent vs suspended cells by BNCT, neutrons and gamma rays treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cansolino, L.; Clerici, A.M.; Zonta, C.; Dionigi, P.; Mazzini, G.; Di Liberto, R.; Altieri, S.; Ballarini, F.; Bortolussi, S.; Carante, M.P.; Ferrari, M.; González, S.J.; Postuma, I.; Protti, N.; Santa Cruz, G.A.; Ferrari, C.

    2015-01-01

    The present work is part of a preclinical in vitro study to assess the efficacy of BNCT applied to liver or lung coloncarcinoma metastases and to limb osteosarcoma. Adherent growing cell lines can be irradiated as adherent to the culture flasks or as cell suspensions, differences in radio-sensitivity of the two modalities of radiation exposure have been investigated. Dose related cell survival and cell cycle perturbation results evidenced that the radiosensitivity of adherent cells is higher than that of the suspended ones.

  9. Comparative study of the radical and standard lymphadenectomy in the surgical treatment of adenocarcinoma of the ampula of Vater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albagli, Rafael Oliveira; Carvalho, Gustavo Santos Stoduto de; Mali Junior, Jorge; Eulálio, José Marcos Raso; de Melo, Eduardo Linhares Rielo

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate the morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing surgical pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) in standard and radical lymphadenectomy for adenocarcinoma of papilla, analyzing the prognostic factors related to overall and disease-free survival. Were analyzed retrospectively from 1999 to 2007, in the Department of Abdominal and Pelvic Surgery (INCa-RJ), 50 cases of PD for adenocarcinoma of the duodenal papilla divided into two groups according to lymphadenectomy (group A: standard lymphadenectomy and group B: radical lymphadenectomy). The median age was similar in both groups, as well as the distribution between the sex. In the comparison between the lymphadenectomies, only the number of lymph nodes resected (group A: 12.3 and group B: 26.5) and operative time (group A: 421 and group B: 474) were significantly different. There were no statistically significant differences in the two groups with respect to morbidity and mortality rate and length of hospitalization. The disease-free survival (group A: 35 months and group B: 51 months) and overall survival (group A: 38 months and group B: 53 months) was higher in the group of radical lymphadenectomy, but were not statistically significant. In this study there were no cases of metastatic lymph nodes to other groups without nodal involvement of the pancreatic-duodenal lymph node chains (13, 17), suggesting a pattern of lymph node spread. Despite the radical lymphadenectomy present rates of disease-free survival and overall survival largest such data were not statistically significant. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate the real role of radical lymphadenectomy in adenocarcinoma of the duodenal papilla.

  10. Comparative study between lateral decubitus and traction table for treatment of pertrochanteric fractures with cephalomedullary nails ☆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Fernando de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To perform a retrospective radiographic assessment of the reduction and implant position in the femoral head in patients with pertrochanteric fractures treated with cephalomedullary nailing in the lateral position versus traction table. METHODS: Radiographs of patients with pertrochanteric fracture of the femur treated with cephalomedullary nailing in the lateral position and traction table were retrospectively evaluated. For the evaluation we used the anteroposterior radiographic view of the pelvis and the lateral view of the affected side. The cervicodiaphyseal angle, the tip-apex distance (TAD, and the spatial position of the cephalic component in the head were measured. Two patient groups were created, one group operated on the traction table and another group operated in the lateral position. RESULTS: Regarding the cervicodiaphyseal angle observed in the traction table group, the results of 11 patients (61.1% were outside the acceptable parameters proposed in the present study. Both groups were equivalent regarding TAD and the position of the cephalic component in the head. CONCLUSION: A difference in the cervicodiaphyseal angle was observed; the group operated on the traction table had 11 patients (61.1% whose measurements were outside the acceptable parameters.

  11. Depressive symptoms during adverse economic and political circumstances: A comparative study on Greek female breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelekasis, P; Kampoli, K; Ntavatzikos, A; Charoni, A; Tsionou, C; Koumarianou, A

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to search for an effect of the adverse economic and political events that took place in 2015 in Greece (threat of bankruptcy, referendum, capital controls) on depressive symptoms of breast cancer patients on chemotherapy. The clinician-rated version of the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-C30) and a form documenting sociodemographic, medical and social network characteristics were administrated in two groups of patients: one in 2010 and one in the aftermath of the July 2015 events. No differences were found between medical, demographic and social characteristics. The IDS-C30 median value of patients treated in 2010 was 28.07 (CI, 25.91-31.60), while that of the 2015's group was 18.00 (CI, 16.92-20.60), indicating less depressive symptoms for the second group. The analysis revealed that the differences between the two groups were statistically significant (p = <.001), denoting a strong effect size (r = .53). Lower depressive symptoms after the July 2015 events could be explained by different personal and social factors- most possibly an increase of social support to the most vulnerable-yet to be proven. Future research on the effect of striking economic and political events on mental health of a larger cohort of breast cancer patients is warranted. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A Randomized, Parallel, Comparative Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Nafarelin Versus Danazol in the Treatment of Endometriosis in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Huei Cheng

    2005-07-01

    Conclusion: Nafarelin and danazol demonstrated similar clinical efficacy, but nafarelin was associated with fewer laboratory changes and a stable lipid profile, relative to danazol. Moreover, intranasally administered nafarelin is noninvasive, and may be a more comfortable and safer alternative to slow-release injectable GnRH agonists. Based on this study, we suggest that nafarelin, like other GnRH analogues, may be a treatment of choice for Taiwanese women with endometriosis. However, direct comparative studies of nafarelin with slow-release injectable GnRH agonists are now required.

  13. Comparative Packaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Oziomek, Thomas V.

    2009-01-01

    Future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit will require the food system to remain safe, acceptable and nutritious. Development of high barrier food packaging will enable this requirement by preventing the ingress and egress of gases and moisture. New high barrier food packaging materials have been identified through a trade study. Practical application of this packaging material within a shelf life test will allow for better determination of whether this material will allow the food system to meet given requirements after the package has undergone processing. The reason to conduct shelf life testing, using a variety of packaging materials, stems from the need to preserve food used for mission durations of several years. Chemical reactions that take place during longer durations may decrease food quality to a point where crew physical or psychological well-being is compromised. This can result in a reduction or loss of mission success. The rate of chemical reactions, including oxidative rancidity and staling, can be controlled by limiting the reactants, reducing the amount of energy available to drive the reaction, and minimizing the amount of water available. Water not only acts as a media for microbial growth, but also as a reactant and means by which two reactants may come into contact with each other. The objective of this study is to evaluate three packaging materials for potential use in long duration space exploration missions.

  14. In vivo comparative study of ocular vasodilation, a relative indicator of hyperemia, in guinea pigs following treatment with bimatoprost ophthalmic solutions 0.01% and 0.03%

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abayomi B Ogundele

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abayomi B Ogundele, David Earnest, Marsha A McLaughlinAlcon Research, Limited, Fort Worth, TX, USAObjective: The objective of this in vivo study was to compare the incidence of vasodilation in guinea pigs following topical administration of bimatoprost ophthalmic solutions 0.01% and 0.03%.Methods: The study comprised 20 guinea pigs assigned to 2 treatment groups (10 per treatment group to receive either bimatoprost 0.01% or bimatoprost 0.03%. Animals were hand-held under 2.75 × magnification to score ocular vasodilation (a measure of hyperemia, using a scoring system developed at Alcon Research, Ltd. Following baseline ocular scoring, each animal received a 30 μL dose to the left eye of either bimatoprost 0.01% (3 μg or bimatoprost 0.03% (9 μg. Vasodilation was again scored at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 hours after dosing. Incidence of vasodilation was calculated as the percent of total eyes in each 2-hour time interval with scores ≥2.Results: The incidence of vasodilation was higher in the bimatoprost 0.01% treatment group (range, 45.0% to 60.0% than the bimatoprost 0.03% treatment group (range, 30.0% to 52.2% at all post-dosing time points.Conclusion: The 2 bimatoprost formulations elicited ocular vasodilation of long duration (>6 hours in the guinea pig model, with the bimatoprost 0.01% treatment group showing a higher incidence of ocular vasodilation than the bimatoprost 0.03% treatment group. Further clinical studies would be needed to determine whether the higher incidence of vasodilation may also be attributed to the increased BAK concentration in the bimatoprost 0.01% formulation.Keywords: bitamoprost, ocular vasodilation, hyperemia

  15. Phenobarbital compared to benzodiazepines in alcohol withdrawal treatment: A register-based cohort study of subsequent benzodiazepine use, alcohol recidivism and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askgaard, Gro; Hallas, Jesper; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Molander, Anna Camilla; Madsen, Kenneth Grønkjær; Pottegård, Anton

    2016-04-01

    Long-acting benzodiazepines such as chlordiazepoxide are recommended as first-line treatment for alcohol withdrawal. These drugs are known for their abuse liability and might increase alcohol consumption among problem drinkers. Phenobarbital could be an alternative treatment option, possibly with the drawback of a more pronounced acute toxicity. We evaluated if phenobarbital compared to chlordiazepoxide decreased the risk of subsequent use of benzodiazepines, alcohol recidivism and mortality. The study was a register-based cohort study of patients admitted for alcohol withdrawal 1998-2013 and treated with either phenobarbital or chlordiazepoxide. Patients were followed for one year. We calculated hazard ratios (HR) for benzodiazepine use, alcohol recidivism and mortality associated with alcohol withdrawal treatment, while adjusting for confounders. A total of 1063 patients treated with chlordiazepoxide and 1365 patients treated with phenobarbital were included. After one year, the outcome rates per 100 person-years in the phenobarbital versus the chlordiazepoxide cohort were 9.20 vs. 5.13 for use of benzodiazepine, 37.9 vs. 37.9 for alcohol recidivism and 29 vs. 59 for mortality. Comparing phenobarbital to chlordiazepoxide treated, the HR of subsequent use of benzodiazepines was 1.56 (95%CI 1.05-2.30). Similarly, the HR for alcohol recidivism was 0.99 (95%CI 0.84-1.16). Lastly, the HR for 30-days and 1 year mortality was 0.25 (95%CI 0.08-0.78) and 0.51 (95%CI 0.31-0.86). There was no decreased risk of subsequent benzodiazepine use or alcohol recidivism in patients treated with phenobarbital compared to chlordiazepoxide. Phenobarbital treatment was associated with decreased mortality, which might be confounded by somatic comorbidity among patients receiving chlordiazepoxide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Insight and Treatment Outcomes in Schizophrenia: Post-hoc Analysis of a Long-term, Double-blind Study Comparing Lurasidone and Quetiapine XR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Philip D; Siu, Cynthia O; Loebel, Antony D

    2017-12-01

    Objective: The objective of this post-hoc analysis was to evaluate the effect of lurasidone and quetiapine extended-release (XR) on insight and judgment and assess the longitudinal relationships between improvement in insight and cognitive performance, functional capacity, quality of well-being, and depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Design: Clinically unstable patients with schizophrenia (N=488) were randomized to once-daily, fixed-dose treatment with lurasidone 80mg, lurasidone 160mg, quetiapine XR 600mg, or placebo, followed by a long-term, double-blind, flexible-dose continuation study involving these agents. Results: Significantly greater improvement in insight and judgment (assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale G12 item) for the lurasidone and quetiapine XR groups, compared to the placebo group, was observed at Week 6. Over a subsequent six-month continuation period, the flexible dose lurasidone group showed significantly greater improvement in insight from acute phase baseline compared to the flexible-dose quetiapine XR group (QXR-QXR) (p=0.032). Improvement in insight was significantly correlated with improvement in cognition ( p =0.014), functional capacity (p=0.006, UPSA-B), quality of well-being ( p =0.033, QWB), and depressive symptoms ( p =0.05, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS] score) across treatment groups and study periods. Conclusion: In this post-hoc analysis, flexibly dosed lurasidone 40 to 160mg/d was found to be associated with significantly greater improvement in insight compared to flexibly dosed quetiapine XR 200 to 800mg/d over long-term treatment in patients with schizophrenia. Across treatment groups, improvement in insight and judgment was significantly associated with improvement in cognition, functional capacity, quality of well-being, and depressive symptoms over time.

  17. A Comparative Study on the Static Recrystallization Behavior of Cold-Rolled Mg-3Al-1Zn Alloy Stimulated by Electropulse Treatment and Conventional Heat Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaopei; Li, Xiaohui; Kure-Chu, Song-Zhu; Tang, Guoyi

    2018-02-01

    Cold-rolled AZ31 Mg alloy strips, with a reduction of 33 pct, were subjected to electropulse treatment (EPT) and conventional heat treatment (HT) to evaluate the respective influences of electropulses and temperature on the recrystallization behavior of AZ31. The highest measured temperature during the EPT (543 K) was used in HT. The electron backscattered diffraction results demonstrated that the EPT-stimulated recrystallization was completed within 8 seconds, whereas for HT, recrystallization was still far from completion even after 240 seconds. It was found that both the nucleation and grain growth of these two processes were totally different. In the EPT samples, nucleation tended to occur preferentially near extension twin boundaries and grain boundaries by continuous recrystallization, whereas in the HT samples, nucleation occurred mainly by grain boundaries bulging via discontinuous recrystallization. As grain growth proceeded, the texture intensities of the EPT samples decreased gradually and finally evolved into an obvious transverse-direction-split texture. This is likely attributable to the impact of electropulses on the boundary energy and the contribution of nonbasal dislocations; however, the basal-type textures of the HT samples were notably strengthened, which is associated with a 30 deg〈0001〉 orientation with respect to the deformed texture.

  18. COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN TITANIUM ELASTIC NAILING (TENS AND DYNAMIC COMPRESSION PLATING (DCP IN THE TREATMENT OF FEMORAL DIAPHYSEAL FRACTURES IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramasubba Reddy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Orthopaedic surgeons have long maintained that all children who have sustained a diaphyseal fracture of femur recover with c onservative treatment, given the excellent remodeling ability of immature bone in children. Angulations, shortenings and malrotations are not always corrected by conservative treatment. Of many surgical options, titanium elastic nailing has been the newer implant which is being used regularly. Although good results have been reported with elastic intramedullary nails, plate fixation continues to be a viable alternative in surgical treatment of femoral shaft fractures. However there are not many studies comp aring the efficiency of titanium elastic nailing and plating for femoral diaphyseal fractures in pediatric age group. AIM : The present study aims to compare the surgical management of diaphyseal fractures of femur in children with Dynamic Compression Plati ng versus Titanium Elastic Nailing. DESIGN : This is a prospective study . MATERIALS AND METHODS : This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary hospital. Patients who presented to the out - patient department and casualty of the hospital with femoral diap hyseal fractures during April 2012 to June 2014 were considered for the study. Subjects fulfilling the predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. STATISTICAL METHODS : Fisher Exact test, Chi - Square Test, Student t test (Two t ailed, independent . RESULTS : Patients in the age group of 6 - 14 years were considered for the study, Patients were divided into two groups and treated with DCP/TENS. The duration of surgery, hospital stay, and, amount of blood loss was minimal in TENS grou p. Callus was seen early in TENS group. Radiological union was early in TENS group by 2 - 3 weeks. Outcome was better in patients treated with TENS (Excellent - 70%; Satisfactory – 30%; Poor - 0% in comparison to DCP (Excellent - 70%; Satisfactory - 25%; Poor - 5%. CO NCLUSION : TENS

  19. A comparative study on the effect of conventional thermal pasteurisation, microwave and ultrasound treatments on the antioxidant activity of five fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Sangeeta; Mahnot, Nikhil Kumar; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2016-06-01

    A comparative study on the effect of conventional thermal pasteurisation, microwave and ultrasound treatments on the phytochemical and antioxidant activities of juices from carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.), black jamun (Syzygium cumuni L.Skeels.), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var lanatus), pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr) and litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) was carried out. Depending on the type of fruit sample and treatment, increase or decrease in phytochemical values was observed. Overall, sonication had a positive effect on the total flavonoid content in all the juice samples followed by microwave treatment with exceptions in some cases. High-performance liquid chromatography study showed the presence of different phenolic acids depending on the sample type. The phenolic acids in some processed carambola juice samples showed decrease or complete destruction, while in some cases, an increase or appearance of newer phenolic acid originally not detected in the fresh juice was observed as seen in conventional thermal pasteurisation, microwaved at 600 W and sonicated juices. Both microwaved and sonicated samples were found to have positive effect on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity with exceptions in some cases. Therefore, microwave and sonication treatment could be used in place of thermal pasteurisation depending on the sample requirements. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. A Comparative Study of Potassium Hydroxide versus CO2 Laser Vaporization in The Treatment of Female Genital Warts: A Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Nasrin; Hemmati, Ensie; Namazi, Golnaz; Jahromi, Mahnaz Pakniat; Sarraf, Zahra; Pazyar, Nader; Salehi, Alireza

    2016-07-01

    Genital warts are the most common viral sexually transmitted disease affecting 1% of the population. A prospective, open-label controlled trial was performed to compare topical 5% potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution with CO2 laser in the treatment of female genital warts. Seventy patients were enrolled in the study after convenience sampling. Right-sided lesions of the patients were treated by CO2 laser every 3 weeks. The left-sided lesions of the same patients were treated by topical 5% KOH solution twice a day using a toothpick with cotton wrap on the tip. The patients were visited at 3, 6, and 9 weeks after initiation of the treatment and followed up for 6 months after the last visit. Out of seventy patients, sixty three completed the study and were analyzed. A total of 56 KOH treated-patients (88.9%) showed complete response. On the other hand, 56 laser-treated patients (88.9%) presented complete clearing of the lesion. There was not any difference in response to both modalities of treatment. Complications of KOH solution and CO2 laser were 24% and 19% respectively (P>0.05), but serious adverse events were not observed. The patients under KOH treatment displayed a recurrence rate of 11.1% (7 cases), while the same patients with CO2 laser therapy demonstrated a recurrence rate of 7.9% (5 cases) (P=0.54). Topical 5% KOH solution was as effective as CO2 laser in the treatment of female genital warts. There was not any serious complication in the application of KOH solution. This could be used as a new treatment for genital warts. IRCT201412207848N1.

  1. The selective beta 1-blocking agent metoprolol compared with antithyroid drug and thyroxine as preoperative treatment of patients with hyperthyroidism. Results from a prospective, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlerberth, A; Stenström, G; Hasselgren, P O

    1987-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of beta-blocking agents alone as preoperative treatment of patients with hyperthyroidism, there are no controlled clinical studies in which this regimen has been compared with a more conventional preoperative treatment. Thirty patients with newly diagnosed and untreated hyperthyroidism were randomized to preoperative treatment with methimazole in combination with thyroxine (Group I) or the beta 1-blocking agent metoprolol (Group II). Metoprolol was used since it has been demonstrated that the beneficial effect of beta-blockade in hyperthyroidism is mainly due to beta 1-blockade. The preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative courses in the two groups were compared, and patients were followed up for 1 year after thyroidectomy. At the time of diagnosis, serum concentration of triiodothyronine (T3) was 6.1 +/- 0.59 nmol/L in Group I and 5.7 +/- 0.66 nmol/L in Group II (reference interval 1.5-3.0 nmol/L). Clinical improvement during preoperative treatment was similar in the two groups of patients, but serum T3 was normalized only in Group I. The median length of preoperative treatment was 12 weeks in Group I and 5 weeks in Group II (p less than 0.01). There were no serious adverse effects of the drugs during preoperative preparation in either treatment group. Operating time, consistency and vascularity of the thyroid gland, and intraoperative blood loss were similar in the two groups. No anesthesiologic or cardiovascular complications occurred during operation in either group. One patient in Group I (7%) and three patients in Group II (20%) had clinical signs of hyperthyroid function during the first postoperative day. These symptoms were abolished by the administration of small doses of metoprolol, and no case of thyroid storm occurred. Postoperative hypocalcemia or recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis did not occur in either group. During the first postoperative year, hypothyroidism developed in two patients in Group I (13%) and in six

  2. Supercritical fluid-mediated liposomes containing cyclosporin A for the treatment of dry eye syndrome in a rabbit model: comparative study with the conventional cyclosporin A emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karn, Pankaj Ranjan; Kim, Hyun Do; Kang, Han; Sun, Bo Kyung; Jin, Su-Eon; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of cyclosporin (CsA)-encapsulated liposomes with the commercially available CsA emulsion (Restasis) for the treatment of dry eye syndrome in rabbits. Liposomes containing CsA were prepared by the supercritical fluid (SCF) method consisted of phosphatidylcholine from soybean (SCF-S100) and egg lecithins (SCF-EPCS). An in vitro permeation study was carried out using artificial cellulose membrane in Franz diffusion cells. Dry eye syndrome was induced in male albino rabbits and further subdivided into untreated, Restasis-treated, EPCS, and S100-treated groups. Tear formation in the dry-eye-induced rabbits was evaluated using the Schirmer tear test. All formulations were also evaluated by ocular irritation tests using the Draize eye and winking methods with the determination of CsA concentration in rabbit tears. After the treatment, the Schirmer tear test value significantly improved in EPCS-treated (P=0.005) and S100-treated (P=0.018) groups compared to the Restasis-treated group. The AUC₀₋₂₄ h for rabbit's tear film after the administration of SCF-S100 was 32.75±9.21 μg·h/mg which was significantly higher than that of 24.59±8.69 μg·h/mg reported with Restasis. Liposomal CsA formulations used in this study showed lower irritation in rabbit eyes compared with Restasis. These results demonstrate that the novel SCF-mediated liposomal CsA promises a significant improvement in overcoming the challenges associated with the treatment of dry eyes.

  3. Evaluation of chemical and/or mechanical treatments of the smear layer as revealed by scanning electron microscopy - a blind comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUZ Maria Aparecida Alves de Cerqueira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A blind comparative study of chemical and/or mechanical treatments of the smear layer, according to scanning electron microscopy images, was carried out. The effect of the treatments was analyzed on the smear layer of mesio-occlusodistal cavity walls prepared in vitro in human third molars. The agents used were air/water spray, 37% phosphoric acid, 5% tannic acid, biologic detergent, 0.5% sodium hypochlorite, and enamel hatchet alone or in association with the previous agents. Electron micrographs were evaluated by three professionals according to the degree of visualization of underlying dentin or enamel. Phosphoric acid received the highest scores due to the complete removal of the smear layer. However, statistical analyses revealed diverse performances of non or slightly demineralizing agents, according to the cavity walls in dentin, while there was equivalent effect on the enamel of gingival walls.

  4. A comparative study of survival rates after treatment with induction chemotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy in locoregionally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraga, Yukihiro; Kou, Junichi

    2012-01-01

    Since 1989 our treatment approach for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has involved comprehensive treatment with chemotherapy, radiation followed by surgery, if needed. Between 1989 and 2005 chemotherapy using fluorouracil and carboplatin div was administered as induction chemotherapy (ICT), and concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) was administered more recently between 2006 and 2011. In this study we compared the statistical difference in 3-year survival rates between the ICT group and CCRT group. The number of target patients was 137, all of which were previously untreated and suffered from locoregionally advanced HNSCC: 52 with Stage III, 78 with Stage IVA, 7 with Stage IVB. In the ICT and CCRT groups, 3-year cause-specific survival rates were 68.2% and 76.3% respectively, both of which were statistically not recessive compared to those in the other issues. Furthermore, the rate between the two groups was identified as significant for Stage III and not significant for Stage IV. In conclusion, the addition of new modalities for the treatment of far-advanced HNSCC should be mandatory. (author)

  5. A randomized cross over study comparing the efficacy of two mandibular advancement appliances in the treatment of mild-moderate obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dharrab, Ayman

    2017-11-01

    To compare efficacy, side effects, patient compliance, and preference between two types of custom-made mandibular advancement appliances (MAAs) in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This prospective, randomized, crossover study of 12 patients with mild to moderate OSA compared a titratable and a non-titratable MAA. Each patient was fitted with both appliances in a random order with a washout period of two weeks. Efficacy, side effects, compliance, and preference were evaluated by a questionnaire. All patients underwent overnight home sleep recordings prior to and after the use of each appliance in order to objectively assess sleep quality in terms of the apnea and hypopnea index (AHI), snoring frequency and oxygen desaturation index. Treatment successes (relief of symptoms and/or reduction of AHI to appliances. No compliance failure was reported, and in most patients, the side effects were mild, and improved with time. Both types of oral appliances were effective treatments for patients with mild to moderate OSA, with fewer side effects and higher patient satisfaction.

  6. Superior Effects of Antiretroviral Treatment among Men Who have Sex with Men Compared to Other HIV At-Risk Populations in a Large Cohort Study in Hunan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Su

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses association between CD4 level at initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART on subsequent treatment outcomes and mortality among people infected with HIV via various routes in Hunan province, China. Over a period of 10 years, a total of 7333 HIV-positive patients, including 553 (7.5% MSM, 5484 (74.8% heterosexuals, 1164 (15.9% injection drug users (IDU and 132 (1.8% former plasma donors (FPD, were recruited. MSM substantially demonstrated higher initial CD4 cell level (242, IQR 167–298 than other populations (Heterosexuals: 144 IQR 40–242, IDU: 134 IQR 38–224, FPD: 86 IQR 36–181. During subsequent long-term follow up, the median CD4 level in all participants increased significantly from 151 cells/mm3 (IQR 43–246 to 265 cells/mm3 (IQR 162–380, whereas CD4 level in MSM remained at a high level between 242 and 361 cells/mm3. Consistently, both cumulative immunological and virological failure rates (10.4% and 26.4% in 48 months, respectively were the lowest in MSM compared with other population groups. Survival analysis indicated that initial CD4 counts ≤200 cells/mm3 (AHR = 3.14; CI, 2.43–4.06 significantly contributed to HIV-related mortality during treatment. Timely diagnosis and treatment of HIV patients are vital for improving CD4 level and health outcomes.

  7. Treatment of periorbital dark circles: Comparative study of chemical peeling with a combination of trichloroacetic acid and lactic acid versus carboxytherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arwa Mohammad Hassan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Periorbital dark circles (PODC are a common worldwide cosmetic problem. It is difficult to treat due to complications in its pathogenesis and aetiology. Available lines of treatment for PODC include whitening creams, topical retinoid acid, chemical peeling, laser therapy, carboxytherapy, autologous fat transplantation, injectable fillers and surgery (blepharoplasty.The aim of this study isto evaluate and compare the efficacy of chemical peels using trichloroacetic acid (3.75% and lactic acid (15% in a gel formula with that of carboxytherapy, in the treatment of periorbital hyperpigmentation.Two groups of patients with PODC were included in the study, named Group A and B in which each group consisted of 15 patients. Group A was assigned for patients who received treatment with chemical peeling with a combination of trichloroacetic acid (3.75% and lactic acid (15% in a gel formula, once a week for four weeks. Group B was assigned for patients who received carboxytherapy that was performed by subcutaneous and intradermal injection of CO2 once a week for four weeks. All patients were assessed by digital photographs, before and after treatment, by observing the improvement in the grade of PODC. Reports of patient satisfaction and global tolerance were evaluated by three medical observers. There was a significant improvement in the grade of PODC in both groups. The degree of improvement of PODC in group A was excellent, with good grade in 93.4% of the treated patients while fair grade in 6.6% of them. There was a statistically significant improvement in the pigmented type. The degree of improvement of PODC in group B was excellent, with good grade in 86.7% of the treated patients while fair grade in 13.3% of them. However, no statistically significant difference between the two groups was observed. Minimal and transient side effects were noticed; however, it did not require further treatment. In conclusion, the two methods of treatment were effective

  8. A randomised comparative study of the short term clinical and biological effects of intravenous pulse methylprednisolone and infliximab in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis despite methotrexate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durez, P; Nzeusseu Toukap, A; Lauwerys, B R; Manicourt, D H; Verschueren, P; Westhovens, R; Devogelaer, J-P; Houssiau, F A

    2004-09-01

    To compare the short term clinical and biological effects of intravenous (i.v.) pulse methylprednisolone (MP) and infliximab (IFX) in patients with severe active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) despite methotrexate (MTX) treatment. Patients with active RA despite MTX treatment were randomly allocated to receive a single i.v. infusion of MP (1 g) or three i.v. infusions of IFX (3 mg/kg) on weeks 0, 2, and 6. Patients were "blindly" evaluated for disease activity measures. Quality of life (QoL) was evaluated through the SF-36 health survey. Serum matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) titres were measured at baseline, weeks 2 and 6. Compared with baseline, significant improvement was noted in all activity measures, including serum C reactive protein (CRP) titres, in the IFX group only. At week 14, 6/9 (67%) and 4/9 (44%) IFX patients met the ACR20 and 50 response criteria, while this was the case in only 1/12 (8%) and 0/12 (0%) MP patients, respectively (ptreatment, whereas some did so in the IFX group. Serum MMP-3 titres significantly decreased (41% drop) at week 6 in the IFX group, while no changes were seen in patients given MP. This short term randomised comparative study demonstrates that TNF blockade is better than MP pulse therapy in a subset of patients with severe refractory RA, with improvement in not only clinical parameters of disease activity but also biological inflammatory indices, such as serum CRP and MMP-3 titres.

  9. Treatment influencing down-staging in EORTC Melanoma Group sentinel node histological protocol compared with complete step-sectioning: a national multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riber-Hansen, Rikke; Hastrup, Nina; Clemmensen, Ole; Behrendt, Nille; Klausen, Siri; Ramsing, Mette; Spaun, Eva; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen Jacques; Steiniche, Torben

    2012-02-01

    Metastasis size in melanoma sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) is an emerging prognostic factor. Two European melanoma treatment trials include SLN metastasis diameters as inclusion criteria. Whilst diameter estimates are sensitive to the number of sections examined, the level of this bias is largely unknown. We performed a prospective multicentre study to compare the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) recommended protocol with a protocol of complete step-sectioning. One hundred and thirty-three consecutive SLNs from seven SLN centres were analysed by five central sections 50μm apart (EORTC Protocol) followed by complete 250μm step-sectioning. Overall, 29 patients (21.8%) were SLN-positive. The EORTC Protocol missed eight of these metastases (28%), one metastasis measuring less than 0.1mm in diameter, seven measuring between 0.1 and 1mm. Complete step-sectioning at 250μm intervals (Extensive Protocol) missed one metastasis (3%) that measured less than 0.1mm. Thirteen treatment courses (34%) performed if inclusion was based on the Combined Protocol would not be performed if assessed by the EORTC Protocol. Thus, 10 patients would be without completion lymph node dissection (EORTC MINITUB study), whilst three patients would not be eligible for anti-CTLA4 trial (EORTC protocol 18071). The corresponding number with the Extensive Protocol would be three; one patient for the MINITUB registration study and two patients for the anti-CTLA4 study. Examining SLNs by close central sectioning alone (EORTC Protocol) misses a substantial number of metastases and underestimates the maximum metastasis diameter, leading to important changes in patient eligibility for various treatment protocols. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dr Michaels® product family (also branded as Soratinex®) versus Methylprednisolone aceponate - a comparative study of the effectiveness for the treatment of plaque psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercogovấ, J; Fioranelli, M; Gianfaldoni, S; Chokoeva, A A; Tchernev, G; Wollina, U; Tirant, M; Novotny, F; Roccia, M G; Maximov, G K; França, K; Lotti, T

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most common dermatologic chronic-recurrent disease, variable therapeutic options are available today for management of psoriasis. Although topical high potency corticosteroids, alone or in association with salicylic acid or vitamin D analogues, are still considered the best treatment, they do not seem to possess the capability for a long-term control of the disease or prevent recurrences, as their side effects are major contraindications for continuative use. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Dr. Michaels® product family is comparable to methylprednisolone aceponate (MPA) as a viable alternative treatment option for the treatment and management of stable chronic plaque psoriasis. Thirty adults (13 male, 17 female, mean age 40 years) with mild to severe stable chronic plaque psoriasis, were included in the study. Patients were advised to treat the lesions of the two sides of their body (left and right) with two different unknown modalities for 8 weeks; the pack of Dr. Michaels® products on the left side (consisting of a cleansing gel, an ointment and a skin conditioner) and a placebo pack on the right side, consisting of a cleansing gel, methylprednisolone ointment and a placebo conditioner. Assessment was done using the Psoriasis Activity Severity Index (PASI) scores before treatment and after 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks. The results achieved with the Dr. Michaels® (Soratinex®) product family for the treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis were better than the results achieved with methylprednisolone aceponate (MPA), even though quicker resolution was achieved with the steroid with 45% of patients achieving resolution within 8-10 days in comparison to 5-6 weeks in the Dr. Michaels® (Soratinex®) group. Before therapy, the mean PASI score of the LHS in Dr. Michaels® (Soratinex®) group was 13.8±4.1 SD and 14.2±4.2 SD in the RHS methylprednisolone aceponate (MPA) group. After 8 weeks of treatment 62% of the Dr. Michaels® (Soratinex

  11. Comparative study of ageing, heat treatment and accelerated carbonation for stabilization of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in view of reducing regulated heavy metal/metalloid leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Rafael M; Mertens, Gilles; Salman, Muhammad; Cizer, Özlem; Van Gerven, Tom

    2013-10-15

    This study compared the performance of four different approaches for stabilization of regulated heavy metal and metalloid leaching from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWI-BA): (i) short term (three months) heap ageing, (ii) heat treatment, (iii) accelerated moist carbonation, and (iv) accelerated pressurized slurry carbonation. Two distinct types of MSWI-BA were tested in this study: one originating from a moving-grate furnace incineration operation treating exclusively household refuse (sample B), and another originating from a fluid-bed furnace incineration operation that treats a mixture of household and light industrial wastes (sample F). The most abundant elements in the ashes were Si (20-27 wt.%) and Ca (16-19 wt.%), followed by significant quantities of Fe, Al, Na, S, K, Mg, Ti, and Cl. The main crystalline substances present in the fresh ashes were Quartz, Calcite, Apatite, Anhydrite and Gehlenite, while the amorphous fraction ranged from 56 to 73 wt.%. The leaching values of all samples were compared to the Flemish (NEN 7343) and the Walloon (DIN 38414) regulations from Belgium. Batch leaching of the fresh ashes at natural pH showed that seven elements exceeded at least one regulatory limit (Ba, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb, Se and Zn), and that both ashes had excess basicity (pH > 12). Accelerated carbonation achieved significant reduction in ash basicity (9.3-9.9); lower than ageing (10.5-12.2) and heat treatment (11.1-12.1). For sample B, there was little distinction between the leaching results of ageing and accelerated carbonation with respect to regulatory limits; however carbonation achieved comparatively lower leaching levels. Heat treatment was especially detrimental to the leaching of Cr. For sample F, ageing was ineffective and heat treatment had marginally better results, while accelerated carbonation delivered the most effective performance, with slurry carbonation meeting all DIN limits. Slurry carbonation was deemed the most

  12. Portable treatment systems study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherick, M.J.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.; Cole, L.T.

    1997-03-01

    In developing their Site Treatment Plans (STPs), many of the Department of Energy installations identified some form of portable treatment, to facilitate compliant disposition of select mixed low-level wastestreams. The Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology requested that a systems study be performed to better define the potential role of portable treatment with respect to mixed low-level waste, highlight obstacles to implementation, and identify opportunities for future research and development emphasis. The study was performed by first establishing a representative set of mixed waste, then formulating portable treatment system concepts to meet the required processing needs for these wastes. The portable systems that were conceptualized were evaluated and compared to a fixed centralized treatment alternative. The system evaluations include a life-cycle cost analysis and an assessment of regulatory, institutional, and technical issues associated with the potential use of portable systems. The results of this study show that when all costs are included, there are no significant cost differences between portable systems and fixed systems. However, it is also emphasized that many uncertainties exist that could impact the cost of implementing portable treatment systems. Portable treatment could be made more attractive through private sector implementation, although there is little economic incentive for a commercial vendor to develop small, specialized treatment capabilities with limited applicability. Alternatively, there may also be valid reasons why fixed units cannot be used for some problematic wastestreams. In any event, there are some site-specific problems that still need to be addressed, and there may be some opportunity for research and development to make a positive impact in these areas.

  13. Portable treatment systems study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherick, M.J.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.; Cole, L.T.

    1997-03-01

    In developing their Site Treatment Plans (STPs), many of the Department of Energy installations identified some form of portable treatment, to facilitate compliant disposition of select mixed low-level wastestreams. The Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology requested that a systems study be performed to better define the potential role of portable treatment with respect to mixed low-level waste, highlight obstacles to implementation, and identify opportunities for future research and development emphasis. The study was performed by first establishing a representative set of mixed waste, then formulating portable treatment system concepts to meet the required processing needs for these wastes. The portable systems that were conceptualized were evaluated and compared to a fixed centralized treatment alternative. The system evaluations include a life-cycle cost analysis and an assessment of regulatory, institutional, and technical issues associated with the potential use of portable systems. The results of this study show that when all costs are included, there are no significant cost differences between portable systems and fixed systems. However, it is also emphasized that many uncertainties exist that could impact the cost of implementing portable treatment systems. Portable treatment could be made more attractive through private sector implementation, although there is little economic incentive for a commercial vendor to develop small, specialized treatment capabilities with limited applicability. Alternatively, there may also be valid reasons why fixed units cannot be used for some problematic wastestreams. In any event, there are some site-specific problems that still need to be addressed, and there may be some opportunity for research and development to make a positive impact in these areas

  14. A comparative study on the efficacy of praziquantel and albendazole in the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis in Adim, Cross River State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, S A; Useh, M F

    2017-09-01

    Praziquantel (PZQ) is the current drug of choice for the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis in endemic areas. It is very efficacious, although the potential for the development of resistance has been reported in some endemic areas among human subjects and in animal studies. Its' limitation include high cost and administration of multiple numbers of tablets. Albendazole (ALB) is used in the treatment of intestinal helminths infection. It is a broad-spectrum single-dose antihelminthic with an excellent cure rate and safety criteria. Currently, it is not routinely used for the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis. Urine samples collected from 596 pupils aged between 2 and 16 years were processed and examined for the presence of ova of Schistosoma haematobium using a standard filtration technique. A total of 100 infected subjects were treated with a standard dose of PZQ (40 mg/kg body weight), while another group of 96 infected subjects were treated with ALB (400 mg for individuals above 3 years). A post-treatment study was conducted 1 month after treatment to assess their cure rate. The prevalence of S. haematobium infection in the study area was 32.8% (196/596). More males were infected (44.2%) (122/276) than females (23.1%) (74/320). The difference in the prevalence rate of infection by gender was statistically significant (X2=15.7>3.841, p0.05). PZQ gave a higher cure rate of 78.0% (78/100) compared with ALB (68.7%) (66/96). There was no statistically significant difference in the cure rate obtained with both drugs (X2=0.355>0.282, p>0.05). The intensity of egg excretion was greatly reduced in subjects who were not cured by the two drugs. The findings of this study suggest the use of ALB for the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis. We recommend further assessment of the efficacy of the drug in an area with higher morbidity of urinary schistosomiasis than the present study area. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society

  15. Are scabies and impetigo "normalised"? A cross-sectional comparative study of hospitalised children in northern Australia assessing clinical recognition and treatment of skin infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel K Yeoh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Complications of scabies and impetigo such as glomerulonephritis and invasive bacterial infection in Australian Aboriginal children remain significant problems and the overall global burden of disease attributable to these skin infections remains high despite the availability of effective treatment. We hypothesised that one factor contributing to this high burden is that skin infection is under-recognised and hence under-treated, in settings where prevalence is high.We conducted a prospective, cross-sectional study to assess the burden of scabies, impetigo, tinea and pediculosis in children admitted to two regional Australian hospitals from October 2015 to January 2016. A retrospective chart review of patients admitted in November 2014 (mid-point of the prospective data collection in the preceding year was performed. Prevalence of documented skin infection was compared in the prospective and retrospective population to assess clinician recognition and treatment of skin infections.158 patients with median age 3.6 years, 74% Aboriginal, were prospectively recruited. 77 patient records were retrospectively reviewed. Scabies (8.2% vs 0.0%, OR N/A, p = 0.006 and impetigo (49.4% vs 19.5%, OR 4.0 (95% confidence interval [CI 2.1-7.7 were more prevalent in the prospective analysis. Skin examination was only documented in 45.5% of cases in the retrospective review. Patients in the prospective analysis were more likely to be prescribed specific treatment for skin infection compared with those in the retrospective review (31.6% vs 5.2%, OR 8.5 (95% CI 2.9-24.4.Scabies and impetigo infections are under-recognised and hence under-treated by clinicians. Improving the recognition and treatment of skin infections by clinicians is a priority to reduce the high burden of skin infection and subsequent sequelae in paediatric populations where scabies and impetigo are endemic.

  16. Are scabies and impetigo "normalised"? A cross-sectional comparative study of hospitalised children in northern Australia assessing clinical recognition and treatment of skin infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoh, Daniel K; Anderson, Aleisha; Cleland, Gavin; Bowen, Asha C

    2017-07-01

    Complications of scabies and impetigo such as glomerulonephritis and invasive bacterial infection in Australian Aboriginal children remain significant problems and the overall global burden of disease attributable to these skin infections remains high despite the availability of effective treatment. We hypothesised that one factor contributing to this high burden is that skin infection is under-recognised and hence under-treated, in settings where prevalence is high. We conducted a prospective, cross-sectional study to assess the burden of scabies, impetigo, tinea and pediculosis in children admitted to two regional Australian hospitals from October 2015 to January 2016. A retrospective chart review of patients admitted in November 2014 (mid-point of the prospective data collection in the preceding year) was performed. Prevalence of documented skin infection was compared in the prospective and retrospective population to assess clinician recognition and treatment of skin infections. 158 patients with median age 3.6 years, 74% Aboriginal, were prospectively recruited. 77 patient records were retrospectively reviewed. Scabies (8.2% vs 0.0%, OR N/A, p = 0.006) and impetigo (49.4% vs 19.5%, OR 4.0 (95% confidence interval [CI 2.1-7.7) were more prevalent in the prospective analysis. Skin examination was only documented in 45.5% of cases in the retrospective review. Patients in the prospective analysis were more likely to be prescribed specific treatment for skin infection compared with those in the retrospective review (31.6% vs 5.2%, OR 8.5 (95% CI 2.9-24.4). Scabies and impetigo infections are under-recognised and hence under-treated by clinicians. Improving the recognition and treatment of skin infections by clinicians is a priority to reduce the high burden of skin infection and subsequent sequelae in paediatric populations where scabies and impetigo are endemic.

  17. A comparative study of shear bond strength between metal and ceramic brackets and artificially aged composite restorations using different surface treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamian, Ladan; Borzabadi-Farahani, Ali; Mousavi, Nasim; Ghasemi, Amir

    2012-10-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the shear bond strength (SBS) between ceramic brackets (CBs) and resin composite restorations (RCRs) prepared using different surface treatments. The findings were also compared with a similar study that used stainless steel brackets (SSBs). Forty-five premolars were restored with a nano-hybrid composite resin (Tetric EvoCeram) and randomly assigned to three surface treatment groups: group 1, 5 per cent hydrofluoric acid (HF); group 2, air abrasion (50 μm alumina particles); and group 3, diamond bur. Specimens were bonded with CBs (Fascination) and exposed to thermo-cycling (500 cycles). The shear force at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute was transmitted to brackets. The adhesive remnant index (ARIs) scores were recorded after bracket failure. The analysis of SBS variance (P 0.05) and bond failure occurred mainly in adhesive-bracket base and resin-adhesive interfaces. The diamond bur surface treatment is recommended as a safe and cost-effective method of bonding CBs to RCRs.

  18. A study comparing chemical peeling using modified jessner′s solution and 15% trichloroacetic acid versus 15% trichloroacetic acid in the treatment of melasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safoury Omar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Melasma is a symmetric progressive hyperpigmentation of the facial skin that occurs in all races but has a predilection for darker skin phenotypes. Depigmenting agents, laser and chemical peeling as classic Jessner′s solution, modified Jessner′s solution and trichloroacetic acid have been used alone and in combination in the treatment of melasma. Objectives: The aim of the study was to compare the therapeutic effect of combined 15% Trichloroacetic acid (TCA and modified Jessner′s solution with 15% TCA on melasma. Materials and Methods: Twenty married females with melasma (epidermal type, with a mean age of 38.25 years, were included in this study. All were of skin type III or IV. Fifteen percent TCA was applied to the whole face, with the exception of the left malar area to which combined TCA 15% and modified Jessner′s solution was applied. Results: Our results revealed statistically highly significant difference between MASI Score (Melasma Area and Severity Index between the right malar area and the left malar area. Conclusion: Modified Jessner′s solution proved to be useful as an adjuvant treatment with TCA in the treatment of melasma, improving the results and minimizing postinflammatory hyperpigmentation.

  19. Treatment planning study comparing proton therapy, RapidArc and intensity modulated radiation therapy for a synchronous bilateral lung cancer case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Rana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to perform a treatment planning study on a synchronous bilateral non-small cell lung cancer case using three treatment modalities: uniform scanning proton therapy, RapidArc, and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT. Methods: The maximum intensity projection (MIP images obtained from the 4 dimensional-computed tomography (4DCT scans were used for delineation of tumor volumes in the left and right lungs. The average 4D-CT was used for the treatment planning among all three modalities with identical patient contouring and treatment planning goal. A proton therapy plan was generated in XiO treatment planning system (TPS using 2 fields for each target. For a comparative purpose, IMRT and RapidArc plans were generated in Eclipse TPS. Treatment plans were generated for a total dose of 74 CGE or Gy prescribed to each planning target volume (PTV (left and right with 2 CGE or Gy per fraction. In IMRT and RapidArc plans, normalization was done based on PTV coverage values in proton plans. Results: The mean PTV dose deviation from the prescription dose was lower in proton plan (within 3.4%, but higher in IMRT (6.5% to 11.3% and RapidArc (3.8% to 11.5% plans. Proton therapy produced lower mean dose to the total lung, heart, and esophagus when compared to IMRT and RapidArc. The relative volume of the total lung receiving 20, 10, and 5 CGE or Gy (V20, V10, and V5, respectively were lower using proton therapy than using IMRT, with absolute differences of 9.71%, 22.88%, and 39.04%, respectively. The absolute differences in the V20, V10, and V5 between proton and RapidArc plans were 4.84%, 19.16%, and 36.8%, respectively, with proton therapy producing lower dosimetric values. Conclusion: Based on the results presented in this case study, uniform scanning proton therapy has a dosimetric advantage over both IMRT and RapidArc for a synchronous bi-lateral NSCLC, especially for the normal lung tissue, heart, and

  20. Comparative Study of Diode Laser Versus Neodymium-Yttrium Aluminum: Garnet Laser Versus Intense Pulsed Light for the Treatment of Hirsutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Neerja

    2015-01-01

    Lasers are widely used for the treatment of hirsutism. But the choice of the right laser for the right skin type is very important. Before starting with laser therapy, it is important to assess the skin type, the fluence, the pulse duration and the type of laser to be used. To compare the efficacy and side effects of Diode laser, Neodymium-yttrium aluminum - garnet (Nd: YAG) laser and intense pulsed light (IPL) on 30 female patients of hirsutism. Thirty female patients with hirsutism were selected for a randomised controlled study. The patients were divided into three groups of 10 patients each. In group I patients diode laser was used, in group II patients long pulsed Nd: YAG laser was used and in group III, IPL was used. The patients were evaluated and result graded according to a 4-point scale as excellent, >75% reduction; good, 50-75% reduction; fair; 25-50% reduction; and poor, diode laser group, followed by 35% hair reduction in the Nd: Yag laser group and 10% hair reduction in the IPL group. The percentage of hair reduction after four sessions of treatment was maximum (64%) in the diode laser group, followed by 62% hair reduction in the Nd: Yag laser group and 48% hair reduction in the IPL group. The percentage of hair reduction after eight sessions of treatment was maximum (92%) in the diode laser group, followed by 90% hair reduction in the Nd: YAG group and 70% hair reduction in the IPL group. To conclude for the Indian skin with dark hairs, the diode laser still stands the test of time. But, since the diode laser has a narrow margin of safety, proper pre and post-procedure cooling is recommended. Although, the side effects of Nd: YAG laser are less as compared to the diode laser, it is less efficacious as compared to the diode laser.

  1. Plasmodium falciparum clearance in clinical studies of artesunate-amodiaquine and comparator treatments in sub-Saharan Africa, 1999–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is the recommended first-line therapy for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria worldwide but decreased artemisinin susceptibility, phenotypically characterized as slow parasite clearance time (PCT), has now been reported in Southeast Asia. This makes it all too important to measure the dynamics of parasite clearance in African patients treated with ACT over time, to understand trends and detect changes early enough to intervene Methods Individual patient data from 27 clinical trials of artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) vs comparators conducted between 1999 and 2009 were analysed for parasite clearance on modified intent-to-treat (ITT) basis. Results Overall 15,017 patients treated for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria at 44 sites in 20 sub-Saharan African countries were included in the analysis; 51% (n=7,660) vs 49% (n=7,357) were treated with ASAQ and comparator treatments, respectively. Seventy-seven per cent (77%) were children under six years of age. The proportion of the patients treated with ASAQ with persistent parasitaemia on Day 2 was 8.6%, and 1.5% on Day 3. Risk factor for not clearing parasites on Day 2 and Day 3 calculated by multivariate logistic regression with random effect on site and controlling for treatment were: high parasitaemia before treatment was (adjusted risk ratios (AOR) 2.12, 95% CI 1.91-2.35, AOR 2.43, 95% CI 1.98-3.00, respectively); non-ACT treatment (p=0.001, for all comparisons). Anaemia (p=0.001) was an additional factor for Day 2 and young age (p=0.005) for Day 3. In patients treated with ASAQ in studies who had complete parasitaemia data every 24 hours up to Day 3 and additionally Day 7, the parasite reduction ratio was 93.9% by Day 1 and 99.9% by Day 2. Using the median parasitaemia before treatment (p0=27,125 μL) and a fitted model, the predicted PCT (pPCT = 3.614*ln (p0) – 6.135, r² = 0.94) in ASAQ recipients was 31 hours. Conclusion Within the period covered by

  2. A randomized controlled trial comparing Circle of Security Intervention and treatment as usual as interventions to increase attachment security in infants of mentally ill mothers: Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsauer, Brigitte; Lotzin, Annett; Mühlhan, Christine; Romer, Georg; Nolte, Tobias; Fonagy, Peter; Powell, Bert

    2014-01-30

    Psychopathology in women after childbirth represents a significant risk factor for parenting and infant mental health. Regarding child development, these infants are at increased risk for developing unfavorable attachment strategies to their mothers and for subsequent behavioral, emotional and cognitive impairments throughout childhood. To date, the specific efficacy of an early attachment-based parenting group intervention under standard clinical outpatient conditions, and the moderators and mediators that promote attachment security in infants of mentally ill mothers, have been poorly evaluated. This randomized controlled clinical trial tests whether promoting attachment security in infancy with the Circle of Security (COS) Intervention will result in a higher rate of securely attached children compared to treatment as usual (TAU). Furthermore, we will determine whether the distributions of securely attached children are moderated or mediated by variations in maternal sensitivity, mentalizing, attachment representations, and psychopathology obtained at baseline and at follow-up. We plan to recruit 80 mother-infant dyads when infants are aged 4-9 months with 40 dyads being randomized to each treatment arm. Infants and mothers will be reassessed when the children are 16-18 months of age. Methodological aspects of the study are systematic recruitment and randomization, explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria, research assessors and coders blinded to treatment allocation, advanced statistical analysis, manualized treatment protocols and assessments of treatment adherence and integrity. The aim of this clinical trial is to determine whether there are specific effects of an attachment-based intervention that promotes attachment security in infants. Additionally, we anticipate being able to utilize data on maternal and child outcome measures to obtain preliminary indications about potential moderators of the intervention and inform hypotheses about which intervention

  3. Safety of lornoxicam in the treatment of postoperative pain: a post-marketing study of analgesic regimens containing lornoxicam compared with standard analgesic treatment in 3752 day-case surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Narinder; Krøner, Karsten; Simin-Geertsen, Marija; Hejl, Charlotte; Likar, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Post-marketing surveillance studies can provide supplemental data on the safety of medications in the general population. This study aimed to evaluate the safety of analgesic regimens including the NSAID lornoxicam in the short-term treatment of postoperative pain in a clinically relevant population. Randomized, open-label, multicentre, multinational, observational cohort study of 4 days' duration. In-hospital postoperative setting, with discharge to home treatment within 24 hours of surgery. Adults aged > or =18 years expected to be in need of analgesic treatment after day-case surgery. Analgesic regimens containing lornoxicam were compared with a standard analgesic treatment, which was defined as the treatment that the patient would normally receive at the centre. Following day-case surgery, patients were provided with appropriate analgesic medication, and adverse events (AEs; defined as all recorded events with symptoms) were recorded by the investigator during the in-hospital stay and by the patient for the next 3 days using entries recorded morning and evening in a patient diary. Statistical analyses tested for between-treatment differences in AEs, adverse drug reactions (ADRs; defined as events probably, possibly or unlikely to be related to treatment) and gastrointestinal AEs (GI-AEs). A total of 4152 patients were randomized to treatment. Since 400 patients did not take any analgesic, the safety population consisted of 1838 patients for lornoxicam and 1914 patients for standard analgesic treatment. Demographic and disease characteristics were similar between the two treatment groups, as were the type of surgery and the anaesthesia used in surgery. In the safety population, 16.9% of patients received no analgesic in hospital, and when analgesics were provided they were often administered in combination. Similarly, approximately 17% of patients did not take any analgesics at home. AEs were reported in 27.1% and 29.4% of patients in the lornoxicam and standard

  4. Treatment of biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease: Open comparative study between the combination of biotin plus thiamine versus thiamine alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarki, Brahim; Alfadhel, Majid; AlShahwan, Saad; Hundallah, Khaled; AlShafi, Shatha; AlHashem, Amel

    2015-09-01

    To compare the combination of biotin plus thiamine to thiamine alone in treating patients with biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease in an open-label prospective, comparative study. twenty patients with genetically proven biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease were enrolled, and received for at least 30 months a combination of biotin plus thiamine or thiamine alone. The outcome measures included duration of the crisis, number of recurrence/admissions, the last neurological examination, the severity of dystonia using the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS), and the brain MRI findings during the crisis and after 30 months of follow-up. Ten children with a mean age of 6 years(1/2) were recruited in the biotin plus thiamine group (group 1) and ten children (6 females and 4 males) with a mean age of 6 years and 2 months were recruited in the thiamine group (group 2). After 2 years of follow-up treatment, 6 of 20 children achieved complete remission, 10 had minimal sequelae in the form of mild dystonia and dysarthria (improvement of the BFMDRS, mean: 80%), and 4 had severe neurologic sequelae. All these 4 patients had delayed diagnosis and management. Regarding outcome measures, both groups have a similar outcome regarding the number of recurrences, the neurologic sequelae (mean BFMDS score between the groups, p = 0.84), and the brain MRI findings. The only difference was the duration of the acute crisis: group 1 had faster recovery (2 days), versus 3 days in group 2 (p = 0.005). Our study suggests that over 30 months of treatment, the combination of biotin plus thiamine is not superior to thiamine alone in the treatment of biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Quality of life in children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease: a comparative study between different disease stages and treatment modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kul, Müslüm; Cengel Kültür, Ebru; Senses Dinç, Gülser; Bilginer, Yelda; Uluç, Sait; Baykan, Hayriye

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the quality of life of children and adolescents in various stages of their chronic kidney disease (CKD) who were managed with different treatment modalities to that of children and adolescents without any chronic disease. The study included 18 renal transplant and 21 dialysis patients (8 on hemodialysis, 13 on peritoneal dialysis) and 16 patients who did not yet require renal replacement therapy. The control group consisted of 37 children without any chronic disease. Psychosocial Health Summary scores, Physical Health Summary scores, and Total Scale scores of Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory scores were estimated for the groups. CKD patients had lower scores in all scales of Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory than the control group. There were no differences in self-reported scores on the Pediatric Quality of Life scale scores between treatment groups; however, parents of the transplant patients had reported higher (more favorable) Physical Health Summary scores than those of the dialysis patients. Reports of parents and their children differed only in Physical Health Summary scores in the dialysis group; self-reports of the children were more favorable. These findings show that children and adolescents with CKD experience impaired quality of life on the physical and psychosocial functioning domains in comparison with healthy controls. The study findings implicate the need for further studies to investigate the quality of life in CKD patients at different stages as well as the perceptional differences between pediatric and adolescent CKD patients and caregiver proxy-reports about their quality of life.

  6. Comparative study on the ACE inhibitors Quinapril and Captopril for the (Angiotensin converting enzyme) treatment of the decompensated cardiac insufficiency in dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisse, B.; Kersten, U.

    1994-01-01

    In a randomized study of 52 dogs the efficacy and safety of captopril and quinapril in the treatment of canine heart failure is studied. The drugs were found to be comparably effective. The recommended dosage schedule for the short acting captopril is three times daily 0.5 mg/kg body weight. Quinapril belongs to a newer generation of ACE inhibitors with a longer half life than captopril and the treatment was started with a single dose of 0.5 mg/kg body weight. This dosage schedule was sufficient for the successful therapy of most of the dogs with heart failure phase II (12 of 13), but in 4 of 7 dogs with heart failure phase III and in all of the patients with phase IV the single dose had to be increased and/or the dosing interval of quinapril had to be shortened, because they still showed complaints due to heart failure. We recommend to adjust the dosage schedule of quinapril individually to the severity of heart failure. Therapy should be started once daily with an application of 0,5 mg/kg body weight and the dog should be controlled about one week later. If there are still symptoms of decompensated heart failure, the dosage may be increased gradually until a maximum dosage of 0.5 mg/kg three times daily. Especially for patients with severe heart failure we recommend at least when treatment is started a concomitant diuretic therapy. Echocardiographic evaluation of cardiac function shows if there is an indication for positive inotropic support witha digitalis glycoside. Quinapril, a novel inhibitor of the angiotensin-converting enzyme can ease the management of canine heart failure, because at least in dogs with mild to moderate heart failure dosing interval is longer compared with captopril. Moreover, quinapril is available as 5 mg tablets whereas the smallest captopril tablets contain 12.5 mg agent. It has to be mentioned that expenses for a treatment with ACE inhibitors are significantly higher than for a therapy with digitalis, so frequently above all the

  7. The ACCESS study a Zelen randomised controlled trial of a treatment package including problem solving therapy compared to treatment as usual in people who present to hospital after self-harm: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag Varsha

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People who present to hospital after intentionally harming themselves pose a common and important problem. Previous reviews of interventions have been inconclusive as existing trials have been under powered and done on unrepresentative populations. These reviews have however indicated that problem solving therapy and regular written communications after the self-harm attempt may be an effective treatment. This protocol describes a large pragmatic trial of a package of measures which include problem solving therapy, regular written communication, patient support, cultural assessment, improved access to primary care and a risk management strategy in people who present to hospital after self-harm using a novel design. Methods We propose to use a double consent Zelen design where participants are randomised prior to giving consent to enrol a large representative cohort of patients. The main outcome will be hospital attendance following repetition of self-harm, in the 12 months after recruitment with secondary outcomes of self reported self-harm, hopelessness, anxiety, depression, quality of life, social function and hospital use at three months and one year. Discussion A strength of the study is that it is a pragmatic trial which aims to recruit large numbers and does not exclude people if English is not their first language. A potential limitation is the analysis of the results which is complex and may underestimate any effect if a large number of people refuse their consent in the group randomised to problem solving therapy as they will effectively cross over to the treatment as usual group. However the primary analysis is a true intention to treat analysis of everyone randomised which includes both those who consent and do not consent to participate in the study. This provides information about how the intervention will work in practice in a representative population which is a major advance in this study compared to what has

  8. Treatment of mature landfill leachate by internal micro-electrolysis integrated with coagulation: a comparative study on a novel sequencing batch reactor based on zero valent iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Diwen; Peng, Juan; Xu, Xinyan; Li, Kan; Wang, Yalin; Jia, Jinping

    2012-08-30

    A comparative study of treating mature landfill leachate with various treatment processes was conducted to investigate whether the method of combined processes of internal micro-electrolysis (IME) without aeration and IME with full aeration in one reactor was an efficient treatment for mature landfill leachate. A specifically designed novel sequencing batch internal micro-electrolysis reactor (SIME) with the latest automation technology was employed in the experiment. Experimental data showed that combined processes obtained a high COD removal efficiency of 73.7 ± 1.3%, which was 15.2% and 24.8% higher than that of the IME with and without aeration, respectively. The SIME reactor also exhibited a COD removal efficiency of 86.1 ± 3.8% to mature landfill leachate in the continuous operation, which is much higher (p<0.05) than that of conventional treatments of electrolysis (22.8-47.0%), coagulation-sedimentation (18.5-22.2%), and the Fenton process (19.9-40.2%), respectively. The innovative concept behind this excellent performance is a combination effect of reductive and oxidative processes of the IME, and the integration electro-coagulation. Optimal operating parameters, including the initial pH, Fe/C mass ratio, air flow rate, and addition of H(2)O(2), were optimized. All results show that the SIME reactor is a promising and efficient technology in treating mature landfill leachate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative study of analgesic effect of the infrared low-intensity laser and 33% sodium fluoride paste in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Glen Anderson Maia de

    2003-01-01

    Different desensitizing agents have been used in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity, however, some presented treatments are still frustrating. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of the low-intensity GaAlAs laser (λ= 830 nm) in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity after mechanical and thermal stimuli, and compared it with the 33% sodium fluoride paste. Thirty two teeth with dentinal hypersensitivity were selected and randomly divided into two groups. For the laser group, each tooth was irradiated by a dose of 6 J/cm 2 during two minutes and half on the buccal side. The paste group was treated with a NaF/kaolin/glycerin (33:33:33) paste by burnishing the sensitive surface during four minutes. The sensitivity degree was measured before the beginning of the experiment, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 120 h, 15 days and 30 days after the first application. The results indicate that the dentinal hypersensitivity significantly diminished for the paste group after dental explorer. Regarding to air-blast, no significant differences were observed between the groups. Both of them were effective in reducing pain of the dentine hypersensitive after 120 h. (author)

  10. Treatment of mature landfill leachate by internal micro-electrolysis integrated with coagulation: A comparative study on a novel sequencing batch reactor based on zero valent iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, Diwen; Peng, Juan; Xu, Xinyan; Li, Kan; Wang, Yalin; Jia, Jinping

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Specifically-designed SIME reactor for treatment of mature landfill leachate. ► Excellent removal efficiencies of COD (86.1%), color (95.3%), and HA (81.8%). ► Combination effect of IME without aeration and IME with aeration. ► Optimal pH of 5, Fe/C of 1:1, gas flow rate of 80 L h −1 , and H 2 O 2 of 100 mg L −1 . - Abstract: A comparative study of treating mature landfill leachate with various treatment processes was conducted to investigate whether the method of combined processes of internal micro-electrolysis (IME) without aeration and IME with full aeration in one reactor was an efficient treatment for mature landfill leachate. A specifically designed novel sequencing batch internal micro-electrolysis reactor (SIME) with the latest automation technology was employed in the experiment. Experimental data showed that combined processes obtained a high COD removal efficiency of 73.7 ± 1.3%, which was 15.2% and 24.8% higher than that of the IME with and without aeration, respectively. The SIME reactor also exhibited a COD removal efficiency of 86.1 ± 3.8% to mature landfill leachate in the continuous operation, which is much higher (p 2 O 2 , were optimized. All results show that the SIME reactor is a promising and efficient technology in treating mature landfill leachate.

  11. Comparative study on the effect of boiling, autoclaving and irradiation treatments of artichoke by-product on growth perfor mance and digestibility of broiler chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekkawy, S.H.; Zakaria, S.M.; El-Faramawy, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Sixty broiler chicks (21 days old) were assigned into six equal groups. artichoke by-product (ABP) was subjected to different treatments (Boiling, autoclaving and gamma irradiation at 75 and 100 kGy). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of using ABP with different treatments on growth performance and their nutrient digestibility. Results revealed that, chicks fed diets containing raw ABP or irradiated with 100 kGy showed the highest values of live body weight, body weight gain, feed intake and dressing percentages compared with those fed a control diet. The lowest values of those parameters resulted by the chicks fed the diets of boiling or autoclaving ABP. Digestibility coefficients of crude protein, nitrogen free extract, crude fiber and organic matter increased by increased by increasing dose level of gamma irradiation. It could be recommended to use ABP in raw state up to 10% replacement of yellow corn without any adverse effects on chick performance. The use of irradiation treatment of ABP at 100 kGy improved remarkable feed utilization and growth performance

  12. Direct injection of {sup 188}Re-microspheres in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Compared with traditional percutaneous ethanol injection: an animal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y.C.; Lee, J.C.; Huang, Y.S. [Dept. of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung-Hsing Univ., Taichung (Taiwan); Dept. of Nuclear Medicine (Taiwan); Tsai, S.C. [Show Chwan Memorial Hospital (Taiwan); Hung, G.U. [Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua (Taiwan); Lin, W.Y. [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan)

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the therapeutic efficacies of direct intratumoural injection of {sup 188}Re microspheres (DIRM) and direct intratumoural injection of ethanol (DIE) in rabbits bearing liver tumours. Materials and methods: Fifteen rabbits bearing liver tumours were divided into three groups: group 1 received DIE, group 2 received DIRM, and group 3 (control) received saline. Tumour size was measured by liver sonography before injection, as well as 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after injection. Survival time was calculated from the day of treatment to three months after treatment by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Results: The mean survival time was 68{+-}9.8 days for the rabbits in the DIRM group, 55.8{+-}11.8 days for the DIE group, and 38.8{+-}6.2 days for the control group. Conclusion: The rabbits survived longer in the DIRM group than in the DIE group although there is no statistical significance. We believe the DIRM method has a good potential to be an alternative to DIE for the treatment of liver tumours. (orig.)

  13. Comparative evaluation of efficacy of three treatment modalities – tetracycline fibers, scaling and root planing, and combination therapy: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aashima Bajaj Dang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tetracycline is one of the primary antibiotics prescribed for antimicrobial therapy in periodontics. It has a broad spectrum of activity being effective against most bacteria as well as spirochetes. Due to limitations of systemic drug therapy, recent formulations of the drug for local administration in the subgingival area have been introduced, including collagen fibers impregnated with tetracycline. Aims and Objective: To compare the effectiveness of tetracycline fibers alone or in combination with scaling and root planing (SRP on clinical parameters in chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: A total of twenty patients comprising of both sexes in the age group of 35-60 years with chronic periodontitis were selected. Split-mouth design was used, and three teeth from each patient with periodontal pocket measuring > 5 mm were selected which were treated with different treatment modality. They were randomly divided into site A (SRP, site B (tetracycline fibers only, and site C (combination therapy. Clinical parameters of plaque index (PI, gingival index (GI, pocket probing depth, and clinical attachment level (CAL were recorded at 0, 30, and 45 days. The data obtained was compiled and put to statistical analysis. Results: All the three groups showed improvement in PI, GI, probing pocket depth, and CAL. Results of the study showed greater improvements in clinical parameters in Group C compared to Group A and Group B. Conclusion: The results indicate that the adjunctive use of tetracycline fibers with SRP is a clinically effective and simple nonsurgical treatment method to improve periodontal health.

  14. A new approach in the first-line treatment of bacterial and mycotic vulvovaginitis with topical lipohydroperoxides and glycyrrhetic acid: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainini, G; Rotondi, M; Scaffa, C

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE OF INVESTIGATIONS: The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate efficacy and tolerability of a new association of lipohydroperoxides and glycyrrhetic acid on topical treatment of bacterial and mycotic vulvovaginitis. One hundred consecutive patients with bacterial or mycotic vulvovaginitis were randomly assigned to a study group treated with vaginal lipohydroperoxides and a derivative of glycyrrhetic acid for three days (n = 50), and a control group using vaginal antibacterial metronidazole (500 mg) or antimycotic econazole (150 mg) for six days (n = 50). A clinical and microbiological response was achieved in 80.4% and 88.9% in investigational and control group, respectively (p > 0.05). Compared to traditional antimicrobial drugs, the effect appears to be faster and safer, even if not significantly. The 6-month recurrence rate was 7.7% and 5.6% in the investigational and control group, respectively. Topical medication based on lipohydroperoxides and glycyrrhetic acid showed a clinical and microbiological efficacy in the first-line treatment of bacterial and mycotic vulvovaginitis, comparable to conventional drugs.

  15. Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of a specialist and a generic parenting programme for the treatment of preschool ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Donna C; Thompson, Margaret; Daley, David; Barton, Joanne; Laver-Bradbury, Cathy; Hutchings, Judy; Coghill, David; Stanton, Louise; Maishman, Tom; Dixon, Liz; Caddy, Josh; Chorozoglou, Maria; Raftery, James; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2014-04-25

    The New Forest Parenting Programme (NFPP) is a home-delivered, evidence-based parenting programme to target symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in preschool children. It has been adapted for use with 'hard-to-reach' or 'difficult-to-treat' children. This trial will compare the adapted-NFPP with a generic parenting group-based programme, Incredible Years (IY), which has been recommended for children with preschool-type ADHD symptoms. This multicentre randomized controlled trial comprises three arms: adapted-NFPP, IY and treatment as usual (TAU). A sample of 329 parents of preschool-aged children with a research diagnosis of ADHD enriched for hard-to-reach and potentially treatment-resistant children will be allocated to the arms in the ratio 3:3:1. Participants in the adapted-NFPP and IY arms receive an induction visit followed by 12 weekly parenting sessions of 1½ hours (adapted-NFPP) or 2½ hours (IY) over 2.5 years. Adapted-NFPP will be delivered as a one-to-one home-based intervention; IY, as a group-based intervention. TAU participants are offered a parenting programme at the end of the study. The primary objective is to test whether the adapted-NFPP produces beneficial effects in terms of core ADHD symptoms. Secondary objectives include examination of the treatment impact on secondary outcomes, a study of cost-effectiveness and examination of the mediating role of treatment-induced changes in parenting behaviour and neuropsychological function. The primary outcome is change in ADHD symptoms, as measured by the parent-completed version of the SNAP-IV questionnaire, adjusted for pretreatment SNAP-IV score. Secondary outcome measures are: a validated index of behaviour during child's solo play; teacher-reported SNAP-IV (ADHD scale); teacher and parent SNAP-IV (ODD) Scale; Eyberg Child Behaviour Inventory - Oppositional Defiant Disorder scale; Revised Client Service Receipt Inventory - Health Economics Costs measure and EuroQol (EQ5D

  16. Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of a specialist and a generic parenting programme for the treatment of preschool ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The New Forest Parenting Programme (NFPP) is a home-delivered, evidence-based parenting programme to target symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in preschool children. It has been adapted for use with ‘hard-to-reach’ or ‘difficult-to-treat’ children. This trial will compare the adapted-NFPP with a generic parenting group-based programme, Incredible Years (IY), which has been recommended for children with preschool-type ADHD symptoms. Methods/design This multicentre randomized controlled trial comprises three arms: adapted-NFPP, IY and treatment as usual (TAU). A sample of 329 parents of preschool-aged children with a research diagnosis of ADHD enriched for hard-to-reach and potentially treatment-resistant children will be allocated to the arms in the ratio 3:3:1. Participants in the adapted-NFPP and IY arms receive an induction visit followed by 12 weekly parenting sessions of 1½ hours (adapted-NFPP) or 2½ hours (IY) over 2.5 years. Adapted-NFPP will be delivered as a one-to-one home-based intervention; IY, as a group-based intervention. TAU participants are offered a parenting programme at the end of the study. The primary objective is to test whether the adapted-NFPP produces beneficial effects in terms of core ADHD symptoms. Secondary objectives include examination of the treatment impact on secondary outcomes, a study of cost-effectiveness and examination of the mediating role of treatment-induced changes in parenting behaviour and neuropsychological function. The primary outcome is change in ADHD symptoms, as measured by the parent-completed version of the SNAP-IV questionnaire, adjusted for pretreatment SNAP-IV score. Secondary outcome measures are: a validated index of behaviour during child’s solo play; teacher-reported SNAP-IV (ADHD scale); teacher and parent SNAP-IV (ODD) Scale; Eyberg Child Behaviour Inventory - Oppositional Defiant Disorder scale; Revised Client Service Receipt Inventory - Health

  17. Bayesian comparative effectiveness study of four consensus treatment plans for initial management of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis: FiRst-Line Options for Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis Treatment (FROST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigrovic, Peter A; Beukelman, Timothy; Tomlinson, George; Feldman, Brian M; Schanberg, Laura E; Kimura, Yukiko

    2018-03-01

    Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a rare febrile arthritis of childhood characterized by a potentially severe course, including prolonged glucocorticoid exposure, growth failure, destructive arthritis, and life-threatening macrophage activation syndrome. Early cytokine-blocking biologic therapy may improve long-term outcomes, although some systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients respond well to non-biologic treatment, leaving optimal management undefined. Consequently, treatment of new-onset systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis by expert clinicians varies widely. To describe a pragmatic, observational comparative effectiveness study that takes advantage of diversity in the management of a rare disease: FiRst-Line Options for Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis Treatment (FROST), comparing non-biologic and biologic consensus treatment plans for new-onset systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis within the 60-center Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance Registry (CARRA). FiRst-Line Options for Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis Treatment (FROST) is a multicenter, prospective, non-randomized study that compares four Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) consensus treatment plans for new-onset systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis: (1) glucocorticoids alone, (2) methotrexate, (3) interleukin-1 blockade, and (4) interleukin-6 blockade. Patients consenting to participation in the Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) Registry are started on one of four Consensus Treatment Plans at the discretion of the treating physician. The outcome of primary interest is clinically inactive disease off glucocorticoids at 9 months, comparing non-biologic (Consensus Treatment Plans 1 + 2) versus biologic (Consensus Treatment Plans 3 + 4) strategies. Bayesian analytic methods will be employed to evaluate response rates, using propensity scoring to balance treatment groups for potential

  18. A Comparative Analysis of Master Casts Obtained using Different Surface Treatments on Impression Copings for Single Tooth Implant Replacement -An In vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrol, Surbhi; Nagpal, Archana; Kaur, Rupandeep; Verma, Ramit; Katna, Vishal; Gupt, Parikshit

    2017-08-01

    Minor rotation of impression coping secured in the impression is an avoidable error that needs to be minimized to ensure precise positioning of implant analog in master cast. The aim of the study was to compare the precision in obtaining master casts by improving the stability of impression copings in the impression with the use of tray adhesive along various surface treatments to increase surface area and by mechanical locking. A total of 60 samples were made (15 samples for each group). A total of 15 samples for Group I were prepared with untreated impression copings, 15 samples for Group II with impression copings treated and modified by application of tray adhesive only. Group III includes 15 samples which were fabricated with impression copings modified by making four vertical grooves on surface of impression coping and coated with adhesive. Group IV had 15 samples which were fabricated with impression copings sandblasted with 50 μm aluminum oxide powder and coated with adhesive. Profile projector was used to evaluate the rotational accuracy of the implant analogs by comparing Molar Implant Angle (MIA) and Premolar Implant Angle (PIA) of test samples with reference model. One-way ANOVA and Student t-test were used to analyze the data. One-way ANOVA didn't show any significant differences for both MIA and PIA between the Groups I, II, III and IV. Student's unpaired t-test revealed no significant difference in the mean MIA and mean PIA. Conclusion: Though results were statistically non-significant, all types of surface treatments of the impression copings showed more accurate transfer than those with no treatment. Sandblasted and adhesive coated impression copings showed minimum amount of rotation followed by those with vertical slots and adhesive coated impression copings.

  19. Split lesion randomized comparative study between long pulsed Nd:YAG laser 532 and 1,064 nm in treatment of facial port-wine stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dhalimi, Muhsin A; Al-Janabi, Murtadha H

    2016-11-01

    Lasers have been the treatment of choice for Port-wine stain (PWS). However, only one type of laser is not a panacea for all PWS malformations. This is may be due to the great heterogeneity of phenotypic presentation of this congenital anomaly as color, depth, and the site of the lesion. For the treatment of PWS, flash lamp-pumped pulsed dye laser, carbon dioxide, argon, krypton, copper bromide, frequency-doubled neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG), and also intense pulsed light sources can be used. To assess and compare the effectiveness of wavelength 532 and 1,064 nanometers (nm) long pulse Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of facial port-wine stain. This was a comparative therapeutic study for the treatment of facial port-wine stain. We divided the lesion into two halves, medial and lateral, and then each half was treated by 532 or 1,064 nm Nd:YAG. The sessions were done every 4 weeks for six sessions and follow-up after 3 months, then assess the response before and after the sessions and at the end follow-up period objectively (degree of improvement, Photo comparison) and subjectively (Patient satisfaction). Fourteen out of nineteen patients completed all sessions of the treatment, and the other five patients were defaulted from the study due to different causes, including marriage, poor compliance for treatment, and for unknown causes. They were 13 (92.85%) females and 1 (7.15%) male. The mean age of patients was 22.07 ± 9.003 years (range 8-44 years). Three patients (21.4%) were Fitzpatrick's skin type III and four patients (78.6%) were typed IV. There was no hypertrophy in any of the lesions. All facial PWSs lie along the distribution of the trigeminal nerve. Four patients (28.6%) have V1 (ophthalmic), 12 patients (85.7%) have V2 (maxillary), and 9 (64.3%) have V3 (mandibular). The color of PWSs was pink-red in eight patients (57.1%), dark-red in four patients (28.6%), and purple-dark two patients (14.3%). The improvement score for the halves of

  20. Evaluation of Bone Atrophy After Treatment of Forearm Fracture Using Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis: A Comparative Study of Locking Plates and Conventional Plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Yusuke; Rokkaku, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Takane; Thoreson, Andrew Ryan; An, Kai-Nan; Kuniyoshi, Kazuki

    2017-08-01

    Forearm diaphysis fractures are usually managed by open reduction internal fixation. Recently, locking plates have been used for treatment. In the long-term period after surgery, some patients present with bone atrophy adjacent to the plate. However, a comparison of locking and conventional plates as a cause of atrophy has not been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate long-term bone atrophy associated with use of locking and conventional plates for forearm fracture treatment. In this study we included 15 patients with forearm fracture managed by either locking or conventional plates and with more than 5 years of follow-up. Computed tomographic imaging of both forearms was performed to assess bone thickness and local bone mineral density and to predict bone strength without plate reinforcement based on finite element analysis. Mean patient age at surgery was 48.0 years. Eight patients underwent reduction with fixed locking plates and were followed up for a mean of 79.5 months; the remaining 7 patients were treated with conventional plates and were followed up for a mean of 105.0 months. Compared with the conventional plate group, the locking plate group had the same fractured limb-contralateral limb ratio of cortex bone thickness, but had significantly lower ratios of mineral density adjacent to the plate and adjusted bone strength. This study demonstrated bone atrophy after locking plate fixation for forearm fractures. Treatment plans for forearm fracture should take into consideration the impact of bone atrophy long after plate fixation. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of Obesity on Surgical Treatment for Endometrial Cancer: A Multicenter Study Comparing Laparoscopy vs Open Surgery, with Propensity-Matched Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uccella, Stefano; Bonzini, Matteo; Palomba, Stefano; Fanfani, Francesco; Ceccaroni, Marcello; Seracchioli, Renato; Vizza, Enrico; Ferrero, Annamaria; Roviglione, Giovanni; Casadio, Paolo; Corrado, Giacomo; Scambia, Giovanni; Ghezzi, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of obesity on the outcomes of surgical treatment for endometrial cancer in general and also comparing laparoscopic and open abdominal approach. Retrospective case-control study (Canadian Task Force classification II-1). Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, University of Insubria, Varese, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, International School of Surgical Anatomy, Sacred Heart Hospital, Negrar, and Sant'Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy. Data of consecutive patients who underwent surgery for endometrial cancer in 4 centers were reviewed. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed. Adjustment for potential selection bias in surgical approach was made using propensity score (PS) matching. Laparoscopic or open surgical treatment for endometrial cancer. A total of 1266 patients were included, including 764 in the laparoscopy group and 502 in the open surgery group. A total of 391 patients (30.9%) were obese, including 238 (18.8%) with class I obesity, 89 (7%) with class II obesity, and 64 (5.1%) with class III obesity. The total number of complications, risk of wound complications, and venous thromboembolic events were higher in obese women compared with nonobese women. Blood transfusions, incidence/severity of postoperative complications, and postoperative hospital stay were significantly higher in the open surgery group compared with the laparoscopy group, irrespective of obesity. These differences remained significant in both multivariable analysis and PS-matched analysis. The percentage of patients who received lymphadenectomy declined significantly in patients with BMI ≥40 in both the laparoscopy and open surgery groups. Conversions from the initially intended minimally invasive approach to open surgery were 1.1% to 2.2% for women with BMI obese women in the laparoscopic group. Laparoscopy for endometrial cancer retains its advantages over open surgery, even in obese patients. However, operating on obese

  2. A COMPARATIVE STUDY TO FIND OUT THE EFFECTIVENESS BETWEEN CORE STABILIZATION VS MCKENZIE EXERCISES IN THE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH MECHANICAL LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Dutta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mechanical Low back pain is a leading cause of disability. It occurs in similar proportions in all cultures, interferes with quality of life and work performance. Both male and female populations are affected; however, there is a tendency towards a higher incidence in male patients. Mechanical low back pain is associated with pain and clinical instability in lumbar motion segments. Exercises play an important part in the rehabilitation of low back pain. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness between Core stabilization vs McKenzie exercises in the treatment of patients with mechanical low back pain. Methods: 30 patients were selected between the age groups of 20 yrs to 50 yrs and having a past history of low back pain for one month. 15 patients were allotted to each group of experiment. Group I was given Core stabilization exercises and Group II with McKenzie exercises. Interferential therapy was a common treatment for both the groups. Evaluations of the subjects were done using the Revised Oswestry Disability Index and Dynamic Endurance tests. Results: Data analysis revealed statistically significant difference between both the groups (p<0.05 and proved that Core stabilization exercises is more effective than McKenzie exercises in mechanical low back pain. Conclusion: This study shows that core stabilization exercises possess a greater potential over McKenzie exercises in treating Mechanical Low back pain patients.

  3. A novel combined method of osteosynthesis in treatment of tibial fractures: a comparative study on sheep with application of rod-through-plate fixator and bone plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tralman, G; Andrianov, V; Arend, A; Männik, P; Kibur, R T; Nõupuu, K; Uksov, D; Aunapuu, M

    2013-04-01

    The study compares the efficiency of a new bone fixator combining periostal and intramedullary osteosynthesis to bone plating in treatment of tibial fractures in sheep. Experimental osteotomies were performed in the middle third of the left tibia. Animals were divided into two groups: in one group (four animals) combined osteosynthesis (rod-through-plate fixator, RTP fixator) was applied, and in the other group (three animals) bone plating was used. The experiments lasted for 10 weeks during which fracture union was followed by radiography, and the healing process was studied by blood serum markers reflecting bone turnover and by histological and immunohistochemical investigations. In the RTP fixator group, animals started to load body weight on the operated limbs the next day after the surgery, while in the bone plating group, this happened only on the seventh day. In the RTP fixator group, consolidation of fractures was also faster, as demonstrated by radiographical, histological, and immunohistochemical investigations and in part by blood serum markers for bone formation. It can be concluded that application of RTP fixation is more efficient than plate fixation in the treatment of experimental osteotomies of long bones in sheep. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Comparative study Beamnrc VS Pinnacle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno Reyes, J. C.; Macias Jaen, J.; Jimenez Ortega, E.

    2013-01-01

    Has been developed in JAVA a software application called JJGAMMA, capable of manipulating the environment BEAMNRC and Pinnacle output formats 3 , comfortable, fast and accurately. As particular application you can use to compare dose distributions (plans for treatments, checking fields for modeling and clinical accelerators Commissioner) using, as objective criteria, function or Gamma index. (Author)

  5. Comparative study on the treatment of Rockwood type III acute acromioclavicular dislocation: Clinical results from the TightRope® technique vs. K-wire fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, K; Garving, C; Thometzki, T; Lichte, P; Knobe, M; Dienstknecht, T; Hofman, M; Pape, H-C

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to address the inconsistency regarding the operative treatment of Rockwood type III acromioclavicular joint separation. We compared results after single- and double TightRope ® reduction with results after acromioclavicular transfixation via K-wires only and additional ligament augmentation in acute acromioclavicular (AC) joint separations graded Rockwood type III, and hypothesized that the TightRope ® technique leads to better clinical and radiological results. We conducted a retrospective clinical cohort study and included 42 consecutive patients (mean age 43 years [24-66]) diagnosed and operatively treated between 2004 and 2012 (mean follow-up was 54.6 months [15-118]). Specific shoulder scores as well as scores reflecting the patients' overall mental and physical health status were used. Radiological evaluation was also performed. The SF12 test revealed comparability between all subgroups. Specific shoulder tests and a visual analogue scale demonstrated comparable results. Radiographic measurements showed a significant reduction in the AC distance and CC distance after surgery in all subgroups. The early complication rate was 9.5% for all patients, while late complications occurred in 14.3% of all cases. Compared to the established methods, the operative TightRope ® procedures represent a safe alternative in Rockwood III injuries. All investigated techniques predominantly led to good and excellent clinical results in acute Rockwood type III AC joint instabilities. Avoidance of material removal and shorter hospital stays appear to speak in favour for the TightRope ® technique. IV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Comprehensive comparing percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy with posterior lumbar internal fixation for treatment of adjacent segment lumbar disc prolapse with stable retrolisthesis: A retrospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yapeng; Zhang, Wei; Qie, Suhui; Zhang, Nan; Ding, Wenyuan; Shen, Yong

    2017-07-01

    The study was to comprehensively compare the postoperative outcome and imaging parameter characters in a short/middle period between the percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) and the internal fixation of bone graft fusion (the most common form is posterior lumbar interbody fusion [PLIF]) for the treatment of adjacent segment lumbar disc prolapse with stable retrolisthesis after a previous lumbar internal fixation surgery.In this retrospective case-control study, we collected the medical records from 11 patients who received PELD operation (defined as PELD group) for and from 13 patients who received the internal fixation of bone graft fusion of lumbar posterior vertebral lamina decompression (defined as control group) for the treatment of the lumbar disc prolapse combined with stable retrolisthesis at Department of Spine Surgery, the Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University (Shijiazhuang, China) from May 2010 to December 2015. The operation time, the bleeding volume of perioperation, and the rehabilitation days of postoperation were compared between 2 groups. Before and after surgery at different time points, ODI, VAS index, and imaging parameters (including Taillard index, inter-vertebral height, sagittal dislocation, and forward bending angle of lumbar vertebrae) were compared.The average operation time, the blooding volume, and the rehabilitation days of postoperation were significantly less in PELD than in control group. The ODI and VAS index in PELD group showed a significantly immediate improving on the same day after the surgery. However, Taillard index, intervertebral height, sagittal dislocation in control group showed an immediate improving after surgery, but no changes in PELD group till 12-month after surgery. The forward bending angle of lumbar vertebrae was significantly increased and decreased in PELD and in control group, respectively.PELD operation was superior in terms of operation time, bleeding volume, recovery period, and financial

  7. A randomised comparative study of the short term clinical and biological effects of intravenous pulse methylprednisolone and infliximab in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis despite methotrexate treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Durez, P; Nzeusseu, T; Lauwerys, B; Manicourt, D; Verschueren, P; Westhovens, R; Devogelaer, J; Houssiau, F

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the short term clinical and biological effects of intravenous (i.v.) pulse methylprednisolone (MP) and infliximab (IFX) in patients with severe active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) despite methotrexate (MTX) treatment. METHODS: Patients with active RA despite MTX treatment were randomly allocated to receive a single i.v. infusion of MP (1 g) or three i.v. infusions of IFX (3 mg/kg) on weeks 0, 2, and 6. Patients were "blindly" evaluated for disease activity measures. Qualit...

  8. Comparative effectiveness of a complex Ayurvedic treatment and conventional standard care in osteoarthritis of the knee – study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional Indian Ayurvedic medicine uses complex treatment approaches, including manual therapies, lifestyle and nutritional advice, dietary supplements, medication, yoga, and purification techniques. Ayurvedic strategies are often used to treat osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee; however, no systematic data are available on their effectiveness in comparison with standard care. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of complex Ayurvedic treatment in comparison with conventional methods of treating OA symptoms in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods and design In a prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial, 150 patients between 40 and 70 years, diagnosed with osteoarthritis of the knee, following American College of Rheumatology criteria and an average pain intensity of ≥40 mm on a 100 mm visual analog scale in the affected knee at baseline will be randomized into two groups. In the Ayurveda group, treatment will include tailored combinations of manual treatments, massages, dietary and lifestyle advice, consideration of selected foods, nutritional supplements, yoga posture advice, and knee massage. Patients in the conventional group will receive self-care advice, pain medication, weight-loss advice (if overweight), and physiotherapy following current international guidelines. Both groups will receive 15 treatment sessions over 12 weeks. Outcomes will be evaluated after 6 and 12 weeks and 6 and 12 months. The primary endpoint is a change in the score on the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) after 12 weeks. Secondary outcome measurements will use WOMAC subscales, a pain disability index, a visual analog scale for pain and sleep quality, a pain experience scale, a quality-of-life index, a profile of mood states, and Likert scales for patient satisfaction, patient diaries, and safety. Using an adapted PRECIS scale, the trial was identified as lying mainly in the middle of the efficacy

  9. University clinic and private practice treatment outcomes in Class I extraction and nonextraction patients: A comparative study with the American Board of Orthodontics Objective Grading System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mislik, Barbara; Konstantonis, Dimitrios; Katsadouris, Alexios; Eliades, Theodore

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare treatment outcomes in university vs private practice settings with Class I patients using the American Board of Orthodontics Objective Grading System. A parent sample of 580 Class I patients treated with and without extractions of 4 first premolars was subjected to discriminant analysis to identify a borderline spectrum of 66 patients regarding the extraction modality. Of these patients, 34 were treated in private orthodontic practices, and 32 were treated in a university graduate orthodontic clinic. The treatment outcomes were evaluated using the 8 variables of the American Board of Orthodontics Objective Grading System. The total scores ranged from 10 to 47 (mean, 25.44; SD, 9.8) for the university group and from 14 to 45 (mean, 25.94; SD, 7.7) for the private practice group. The university group achieved better scores for the variables of buccolingual inclination (mean difference, 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59, 3.98; P = 0.01) and marginal ridges (mean difference, 1.32; 95% CI, 0.28, 2.36; P = 0.01), and the private practice group achieved a better score for the variable of root angulation (mean difference, -0.65; 95% CI, -1.26, -0.03; P = 0.04). However, no statistically intergroup differences were found between the total American Board of Orthodontics Objective Grading System scores (mean difference, -0.5; 95% CI, -3.82, 4.82; P = 0.82). Patients can receive similar quality of orthodontic treatment in a private practice and a university clinic. The orthodontists in the private practices were more successful in angulating the roots properly, whereas the orthodontic residents accomplished better torque control of the posterior segments and better marginal ridges. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Surgeon-tailored polypropylene mesh as a needleless single-incision sling versus TVT-O for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElSheemy, Mohammed S; Fathy, Hesham; Hussein, Hussein A; Hussein, Eman A; Hassan, Sarah Mohamed

    2015-06-01

    To compare safety and efficacy of surgeon-tailored polypropylene mesh through needleless single-incision technique (STM) versus tension-free vaginal tape-obturator (TVT-O) aiming to decrease cost of treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). This is important in developing countries due to limited healthcare resources. A retrospective cohort study was done at Urology and Gynecology Departments (dual-center), Cairo University, from January 2011 to August 2013. STM was inserted in 72 females, while TVT-O was inserted in 48 females. Females evaluated by cough stress test, stress and urge incontinence quality of life questionnaire (SUIQQ), Q max and abdominal leak point pressure (ALPP) were included. Different factors were compared between both groups using paired t, Wilcoxon's signed rank, McNemar, Chi-square, Fisher's exact, independent t or Mann-Whitney tests. Age, parity, previous surgeries, ALPP, intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD), associated prolapse and associated prolapse repair were comparable in both groups. No significant difference was found between both groups in postoperative complications (except groin pain), cure, SUIQQ indices improvement and Q max decline. In total, 65 (90 %) cured, 6 (8 %) improved while failure was detected in one (1 %) patient in STM group, while 42 (87 %) cured, 4 (8 %) improved and failure was detected in two (4 %) patients in TVT-O group. Presence of ISD (p = 0.565), urgency (p = 0.496), UUI (p = 0.531), previous surgeries (p = 0.345), associated urogenital prolapse (p = 0.218) or associated prolapse repair (p = 0.592) did not lead to any significant difference in outcome between both groups. Cost of mesh decreased from US$500 (TVT-O) to US$10 (STM). Outcome of STM is comparable to TVT-O. Furthermore, STM is more economic.

  11. A comparative study on the efficacy of 10% hypertonic saline and equal volume of 20% mannitol in the treatment of experimentally induced cerebral edema in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Ming

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertonic saline and mannitol are commonly used in the treatment of cerebral edema and elevated intracranial pressure (ICP at present. In this connection, 10% hypertonic saline (HS alleviates cerebral edema more effectively than the equal volume of 20% mannitol. However, the exact underlying mechanism for this remains obscure. This study aimed to explore the possible mechanism whereby 10% hypertonic saline can ameliorate cerebral edema more effectively than mannitol. Results Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were subjected to permanent right-sided middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO and treated with a continuous intravenous infusion of 10% HS, 20% mannitol or D-[1-3H(N]-mannitol. Brain water content (BWC as analyzed by wet-to-dry ratios in the ischemic hemisphere of SD rats decreased more significantly after 10% HS treatment compared with 20% mannitol. Concentration of serum Na+ and plasma crystal osmotic pressure of the 10% HS group at 2, 6, 12 and 18 h following permanent MCAO increased significantly when compared with 20% mannitol treated group. Moreover, there was negative correlation between the BWC of the ipsilateral ischemic hemisphere and concentration of serum Na+, plasma crystal osmotic pressure and difference value of concentration of serum Na+ and concentration of brain Na+ in ipsilateral ischemic hemisphere in the 10% HS group at the various time points after MCAO. A remarkable finding was the progressive accumulation of mannitol in the ischemic brain tissue. Conclusions We conclude that 10% HS is more effective in alleviating cerebral edema than the equal volume of 20% mannitol. This is because 10% HS contributes to establish a higher osmotic gradient across BBB and, furthermore, the progressive accumulation of mannitol in the ischemic brain tissue counteracts its therapeutic efficacy on cerebral edema.

  12. A comparative study of DA-9601 and misoprostol for prevention of NSAID-associated gastroduodenal injury in patients undergoing chronic NSAID treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Oh Young; Kang, Dae-Hwan; Lee, Dong Ho; Chung, Il-Kwun; Jang, Jae Young; Jang, Jae-Young; Kim, Jin-Il; Cho, Jin-Woong; Rew, Jong-Sun; Lee, Kang-Moon; Kim, Kyoung Oh; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Lee, Sang-Woo; Lee, Soo-Teik; Kim, Tae-Oh; Shin, Yong-Woon; Seol, Sang-Yong

    2014-10-01

    Misoprostol is reported to prevent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-associated gastroduodenal complications. There is, however, limited information regarding the efficacy of DA-9601 in this context. We performed a comparative study on the relative efficacy of DA-9601 and misoprostol for prevention of NSAID-associated complications. In this multicenter, double-blinded, active-controlled, stratified randomized, parallel group, non-inferiority trial, 520 patients who were to be treated with an NSAID (aceclofenac, 100 mg, twice daily) over a 4-week period were randomly assigned to groups for coincidental treatment with DA-9601 (60 mg, thrice daily) (236 patients for full analysis) or misoprostol (200 μg, thrice daily) (242 patients for full analysis). [corrected]. The primary endpoint was the gastric protection rate, and secondary endpoints were the duodenal protection rate and ulcer incidence rate. Endpoints were assessed by endoscopy after the 4-week treatment period. Drug-related adverse effects, including gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, were also compared. At week 4, the gastric protection rates with DA-9601 and misoprostol were 81.4 % (192/236) and 89.3 % (216/242), respectively. The difference between the groups was -14.2 %, indicating non-inferiority of DA-9601 to misoprostol. Adverse event rates were not different between the two groups; however, the total scores for GI symptoms before and after administration were significantly lower in the DA-9601 group than in the misoprostol group (-0.2 ± 2.8 vs 1.2 ± 3.2; p DA-9601 is as effective as misoprostol in preventing NSAID-associated gastroduodenal complications, and has a superior adverse GI effect profile.

  13. Evaluation of bioactive glass and demineralized freeze dried bone allograft in the treatment of periodontal intraosseous defects: A comparative clinico-radiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Kumar Katuri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of demineralized freeze dried bone allograft (DFDBA and bioactive glass by clinically and radiographically in periodontal intrabony defects for a period of 12 months. Materials and Methods: Ten systemically healthy patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis, with radiographic evidence of at least a pair of contralateral vertical osseous defects were included in this study. Defect on one-side is treated with DFDBA and the other side with bioactive glass. Clinical and radiographic measurements were made at baseline 6 month and 12 month after the surgery. Results: Compared to baseline, the 12 month results indicated that both treatment modalities resulted in significant changes in all clinical parameters (gingival index, probing depth, clinical attachment level (CAL and radiographic parameters (bone fill; P < 0.001FNx01. However, sites treated with DFDBA exhibited statistically significantly more changes compared to the bioactive glass in probing depth reduction (2.5 ± 0.1 mm vs. 1.8 ± 0.1 mm CAL gain 2.4 ± 0.1 mm versus 1.7 ± 0.2 mm; ( P < 0.001FNx01. At 12 months, sites treated with bioactive glass exhibited 56.99% bone fill and 64.76% bone fill for DFDBA sites, which is statistically significant ( P < 0.05FNx01. Conclusion: After 12 months, there was a significant difference between the two materials with sites grafted with DFDBA showing better reduction in probing pocket depth, gain in CAL and a greater percentage of bone fill when compared to that of bioactive glass.

  14. Effectiveness of a controlled release chlorhexidine chip (PerioColTM‑CG as an adjunctive to scaling and root planing when compared to scaling and root planing alone in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kameswari Kondreddy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a controlled-release chlorhexidine chip as an adjunctive therapy to scaling and root planing when compared with scaling and root planing alone in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: 20 patients with a total number of 40 posterior sites were selected. These sites were divided into two groups in a split mouth design,: Group A (control site had 20 sites treated with scaling and root planing alone and Group B (test site had 20 sites treated with scaling and root planing and PerioCol TM -CG. The clinical parameters (Plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level were recorded at baseline, 90 th and 180 th day for both the groups. Results: When both groups were compared the change in Plaque index was significantly higher in Group B when compared to Group A on the 90 th day and 180 th day. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the mean percentage of gingival bleeding sites between the two groups on the 90 th day, though Group B showed a statistically higher reduction in the mean percentage of gingival bleeding sites at the end of 180 th day. There was no statistically significant difference in probing pocket depth between the two groups on both 90 th and 180 th day. Gain in clinical attachment level was significantly higher in Group B when compared to Group A on the 90 th and 180 th day. Conclusion: From the results observed in this study, it can be concluded that the adjunctive use of PerioCol TM -CG was safe and provided significant improvement in both Plaque index and gingival bleeding index. It was also more favorable than scaling and root planing alone for gain in clinical attachment level.

  15. A study protocol of the effectiveness of PEGASUS: a multi-centred study comparing an intervention to promote shared decision making about breast reconstruction with treatment as usual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt, Diana; Paraskeva, Nicole; White, Paul; Powell, Jane; Clarke, Alex

    2017-10-02

    Increasingly, women elect breast reconstruction after mastectomy. However, their expectations of surgery are often not met, and dissatisfaction with outcome and ongoing psychosocial concerns and distress are common. We developed a patient-centered intervention, PEGASUS:(Patients' Expectations and Goals: Assisting Shared Understanding of Surgery) which supports shared decision making by helping women clarify their own, individual goals about reconstruction so that they can discuss these with their surgeon. Our acceptability/feasibility work has shown it is well received by patients and health professionals alike. We now need to establish whether PEGASUS improves patients' experiences of breast reconstruction decision making and outcomes. The purpose of this study is, therefore, to examine the effectiveness of PEGASUS, an intervention designed to support shared decision making about breast reconstruction. A multi-centered sequential study will compare the impact of PEGASUS with usual care, in terms of patient reported outcomes (self-reported satisfaction with the outcome of surgery, involvement in decision making and in the consultation) and health economics. Initially we will collect data from our comparison (usual care) group (90 women) who will complete standardized measures (Breast-Q, EQ5D -5 L and ICECAP- A) at the time of decision making, 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery. Health professionals will then be trained to use PEGASUS, which will be delivered to the intervention group (another 90 women completing the same measures at the time of decision making, and 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery). Health professionals and a purposefully selected sample of participants will be interviewed about whether their expectations of reconstruction were met, and their experiences of PEGASUS (if appropriate). PEGASUS may have the potential to provide health professionals with an easily accessible tool aiming to support shared decision making and improve patients

  16. Treatment of mature landfill leachate by internal micro-electrolysis integrated with coagulation: A comparative study on a novel sequencing batch reactor based on zero valent iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, Diwen [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Peng, Juan [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Xu, Xinyan; Li, Kan; Wang, Yalin [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Jia, Jinping, E-mail: jpjia@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240 (China)

    2012-08-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Specifically-designed SIME reactor for treatment of mature landfill leachate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Excellent removal efficiencies of COD (86.1%), color (95.3%), and HA (81.8%). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination effect of IME without aeration and IME with aeration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimal pH of 5, Fe/C of 1:1, gas flow rate of 80 L h{sup -1}, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} of 100 mg L{sup -1}. - Abstract: A comparative study of treating mature landfill leachate with various treatment processes was conducted to investigate whether the method of combined processes of internal micro-electrolysis (IME) without aeration and IME with full aeration in one reactor was an efficient treatment for mature landfill leachate. A specifically designed novel sequencing batch internal micro-electrolysis reactor (SIME) with the latest automation technology was employed in the experiment. Experimental data showed that combined processes obtained a high COD removal efficiency of 73.7 {+-} 1.3%, which was 15.2% and 24.8% higher than that of the IME with and without aeration, respectively. The SIME reactor also exhibited a COD removal efficiency of 86.1 {+-} 3.8% to mature landfill leachate in the continuous operation, which is much higher (p < 0.05) than that of conventional treatments of electrolysis (22.8-47.0%), coagulation-sedimentation (18.5-22.2%), and the Fenton process (19.9-40.2%), respectively. The innovative concept behind this excellent performance is a combination effect of reductive and oxidative processes of the IME, and the integration electro-coagulation. Optimal operating parameters, including the initial pH, Fe/C mass ratio, air flow rate, and addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, were optimized. All results show that the SIME reactor is a promising and efficient technology in treating mature landfill leachate.

  17. Randomized study comparing the efficacy and tolerance of a lipohydroxy acid shampoo to a ciclopiroxolamine shampoo in the treatment of scalp seborrheic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seite, Sophie; Rougier, André; Talarico, Sergio

    2009-12-01

    The success of a dandruff treatment depends not only on the ability of a shampoo to control dandruff, but also on patient compliance, which is closely linked to the cosmetic attributes of the product. The aim of this study was to compare efficacy, tolerance, and cosmetic properties of a LHA Shampoo [containing 0.1% lipohydroxy acid (LHA) and 1.3% salicylic acid] to a CPO shampoo [containing 1.5% ciclopiroxolamine (CPO), 3% salicylic acid, and 0.5% menthol] in subjects with seborrheic dermatitis (SD) of the scalp. One hundred subjects with mild to moderate scalp SD were randomized to receive either the LHA shampoo or the CPO shampoo every 2 days for 4 weeks. Efficacy and tolerance were evaluated at days 0, 14, and 28. The LHA and the CPO shampoo both decreased symptoms of scale, erythema, itching, cutaneous discomfort, and dryness from baseline to day 28. A higher percentage of patients showed improvement in the group treated with the LHA formulation than in the group treated with the CPO formulation, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. At day 28, the tolerance and the global efficacy of the LHA shampoo were significantly better (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively) than those of the CPO shampoo. Furthermore, the cosmetic acceptability was better or significantly better for all the endpoints evaluated for the LHA shampoo (P = 0.02 for cleaning, P = 0.04 for lathering). In conclusion, these results demonstrated that the lipohydroxy acid shampoo evaluated in this study is a more convenient, efficient, safe, and well-tolerated cosmetic treatment for mild-to-moderate seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp than a ciclopiroxolamine shampoo.

  18. Fracture diagnostics, unnecessary travel and treatment: a comparative study before and after the introduction of teleradiology in a remote general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jac J W M; Jacobs, Jan P A M; van Sonderen, Eric; van der Molen, Thys; Sanderman, Robbert

    2015-05-06

    Teleradiology entails attainment of x-rays in one location, transfer over some distance and assessment at another location for diagnosis or consultation. This study documents fracture diagnostics, unnecessary trips to the hospital, treatment and number of x-rays for the years 2006 and 2009, before and after the introduction of teleradiology in a general practice on the island of Ameland in the north of the Netherlands. In a retrospective, descriptive, observational before and after study of the introduction of x-ray facilities in an island-based general practice, we compared the number of accurately diagnosed fractures, unnecessary trips, treatments and number of x-rays taken in 2006 when only a hospital x-ray facility was available 5 hours away with those in 2009 after an x-ray facility became available at a local general practice. All patients visiting a general practice on the island of Ameland in 2006 and 2009 with trauma and clinical suspicion of a fracture, dislocation or sprain were included in the study. The initial clinical diagnoses, including those based on the outcomes of x-rays, were compared for the two years and also whether the patients were treated at home or in hospital. A total of 316 and 490 patients with trauma visited a general practice in 2006 and 2009, respectively. Of these patients, 66 and 116 were found to have fractures or dislocations in the two years, respectively. In 2006, 83 x-rays were ordered; in 2009, this was 284. In 2006, 9 fractures were missed; in 2009, this was only 2. In 2006, 15 patients with fractures or dislocations were treated at the general practice; in 2009, this had increased to 77. Since the introduction of teleradiology the number of missed fractures in patients visiting the general practice with trauma and the number of the unnecessary trips to a hospital are reduced. In addition more patients with fractures and dislocations can be treated in the general practice as opposed to the hospital.

  19. Sick leave and disability pension in Hodgkin lymphoma survivors by stage, treatment, and follow-up time--a population-based comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glimelius, I; Ekberg, S; Linderoth, J; Jerkeman, M; Chang, E T; Neovius, M; Smedby, K E

    2015-12-01

    This study seeks to investigate the long-term public health burden of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) in terms of work loss following contemporary treatment protocols and associations with established treatment complications and lymphoma relapse. We identified 1,989 Swedish HL patients (1,082 with clinical information) aged 18-60 (median 33) years at diagnosis 1992-2009, and matched 1:4 to population comparators. Sick leave, disability pension (work loss), and comorbidity were retrieved through September 2013. Relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Poisson regression, and mean lost work days were estimated yearly during follow-up. The risk of annual work loss was elevated in HL survivors versus comparators up to the 15th year post-diagnosis (RR(5th year) 1.64, 95% CI 1.46-1.84; RR(10th year) 1.33, 95% CI 1.15-1.34; and RR(15th year) 1.30, 95% CI 1.04-1.62). The risk remained elevated up to the 10th year after adjustment for secondary malignancies and cardiovascular disease (RR(10th year) 1.31, 95% CI 1.13-1.52). Advanced-stage patients had more lost days than comparators (mean number(5th year) 66 versus 33, mean difference 34, 95% CI 20-48) as did patients receiving 6-8 chemotherapy courses (62 versus 33, mean difference(5th year) 30, 95 % CI 17-43). Among patients in the first complete remission, a difference was still observed for advanced-stage (51 versus 33, mean difference(5th year) 19, 95% CI 5-34) but not early-stage disease. Advanced-stage HL survivors treated with full-dose chemotherapy were at increased risk of work loss, not only explained by relapse, secondary malignancies, or cardiovascular disease. The results call for increased awareness and evaluation of reasons for long-term work disability following intensive chemotherapy among young HL survivors.

  20. Stress and stability of plate-screw fixation and screw fixation in the treatment of Schatzker type IV medial tibial plateau fracture: a comparative finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaowei; Zhi, Zhongzheng; Yu, Baoqing; Chen, Fancheng

    2015-11-25

    The purpose of this study is to compare the stress and stability of plate-screw fixation and screw fixation in the treatment of Schatzker type IV medial tibial plateau fracture. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model of the medial tibial plateau fracture (Schatzker type IV fracture) was created. An axial force of 2500 N with a distribution of 60% to the medial compartment was applied to simulate the axial compressive load on an adult knee during single-limb stance. The equivalent von Mises stress, displacement of the model relative to the distal tibia, and displacement of the implants were used as the output measures. The mean stress value of the plate-screw fixation system was 18.78 MPa, which was significantly (P stress value of the triangular fragment in the plate-screw fixation system model was 42.04 MPa, which was higher than that in the screw fixation model (24.18 MPa). But the mean stress of the triangular fractured fragment in the screw fixation model was significantly higher in terms of equivalent von Mises stress (EVMS), x-axis, and z-axis (P < 0.001). This study demonstrated that the load transmission mechanism between plate-screw fixation system and screw fixation system was different and the stability provided by the plate-screw fixation system was superior to the screw fixation system.

  1. Exploring and comparing the experience and coping behaviour of men and women with colorectal cancer after chemotherapy treatment: a qualitative longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughan, Eilis; Prue, Gillian; Parahoo, Kader; McIlfatrick, Sonja; McKenna, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    Men have higher incidence and mortality rates for nearly all cancers. They are less likely than women to utilise cancer information services and other social support services. The aim of this study was to explore and compare the experience and coping behaviour of men and women after treatment for colorectal cancer (CRC). A longitudinal qualitative study was conducted involving 38 individuals (24 men and 14 women) with CRC. Data were generated using semi-structured interviews at four time points over an 18-month period, post-diagnosis. Interviews focused on participant's experience of CRC and on how gender affected their coping. This paper reports the findings of interviews 3 and 4 which examined the participant's experience after chemotherapy. Three themes emerged from the interviews ('new normal', living with uncertainty and support needs). Many men and women reacted similarly; however, there was some variation evident between and within sexes. The main difference was with regard to the long-term physical side effects of the illness. Many women admitted to still experiencing side effects, whereas many men indicated that they had no problems. These men engaged in practices that aligned with their gender identity and view of masculinity. It must be noted that some men and women were still experiencing an impact. Recovery from the physical and psychological effects of CRC does not occur simultaneously. Healthcare professionals should be aware that not all men (or women) conform to the social stereotypes of masculinity (or femininity). Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Comparing Auditory Noise Treatment with Stimulant Medication on Cognitive Task Performance in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Results from a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderlund, Göran B W; Björk, Christer; Gustafsson, Peik

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown that acoustic white noise (80 dB) can improve task performance in people with attention deficits and/or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This is attributed to the phenomenon of stochastic resonance in which a certain amount of noise can improve performance in a brain that is not working at its optimum. We compare here the effect of noise exposure with the effect of stimulant medication on cognitive task performance in ADHD. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of auditory noise exposure with stimulant medication for ADHD children on a cognitive test battery. A group of typically developed children (TDC) took the same tests as a comparison. Twenty children with ADHD of combined or inattentive subtypes and twenty TDC matched for age and gender performed three different tests (word recall, spanboard and n-back task) during exposure to white noise (80 dB) and in a silent condition. The ADHD children were tested with and without central stimulant medication. In the spanboard- and the word recall tasks, but not in the 2-back task, white noise exposure led to significant improvements for both non-medicated and medicated ADHD children. No significant effects of medication were found on any of the three tasks. This pilot study shows that exposure to white noise resulted in a task improvement that was larger than the one with stimulant medication thus opening up the possibility of using auditory noise as an alternative, non-pharmacological treatment of cognitive ADHD symptoms.

  3. Comparing Auditory Noise Treatment with Stimulant Medication on Cognitive Task Performance in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Results from a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göran B W Söderlund

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent research has shown that acoustic white noise (80 dB can improve task performance in people with attention deficits and/or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. This is attributed to the phenomenon of stochastic resonance in which a certain amount of noise can improve performance in a brain that is not working at its optimum. We compare here the effect of noise exposure with the effect of stimulant medication on cognitive task performance in ADHD. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of auditory noise exposure with stimulant medication for ADHD children on a cognitive test battery. A group of typically developed children (TDC took the same tests as a comparison.Methods: Twenty children with ADHD of combined or inattentive subtypes and twenty typically developed children matched for age and gender performed three different tests (word recall, spanboard and n-back task during exposure to white noise (80 dB and in a silent condition. The ADHD children were tested with and without central stimulant medication.Results: In the spanboard- and the word recall tasks, but not in the 2-back task, white noise exposure led to significant improvements for both non-medicated and medicated ADHD children. No significant effects of medication were found on any of the three tasks.Conclusion: This pilot study shows that exposure to white noise resulted in a task improvement that was larger than the one with stimulant medication thus opening up the possibility of using auditory noise as an alternative, non-pharmacological treatment of cognitive ADHD symptoms.

  4. Minimally Manipulated Bone Marrow Concentrate Compared with Microfracture Treatment of Full-Thickness Chondral Defects: A One-Year Study in an Equine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Constance R; Fortier, Lisa A; Williams, Ashley; Payne, Karin A; McCarrel, Taralyn M; Bowers, Megan E; Jaramillo, Diego

    2018-01-17

    Microfracture is commonly performed for cartilage repair but usually results in fibrocartilage. Microfracture augmented by autologous bone marrow concentrate (BMC) was previously shown to yield structurally superior cartilage repairs in an equine model compared with microfracture alone. The current study was performed to test the hypothesis that autologous BMC without concomitant microfracture improves cartilage repair compared with microfracture alone. Autologous sternal bone marrow aspirate (BMA) was concentrated using a commercial system. Cells from BMC were evaluated for chondrogenic potential in vitro and in vivo. Bilateral full-thickness chondral defects (15-mm diameter) were created on the midlateral trochlear ridge in 8 horses. Paired defects were randomly assigned to treatment with BMC without concomitant microfracture, or to microfracture alone. The repairs were evaluated at 1 year by in vitro assessment, arthroscopy, morphological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), quantitative T2-weighted and ultrashort echo time enhanced T2* (UTE-T2*) MRI mapping, and histological assessment. Culture-expanded but not freshly isolated cells from BMA and BMC underwent cartilage differentiation in vitro. In vivo, cartilage repairs in both groups were fibrous to fibrocartilaginous at 1 year of follow-up, with no differences observed between BMC and microfracture by arthroscopy, T2 and UTE-T2* MRI values, and histological assessment (p > 0.05). Morphological MRI showed subchondral bone changes not observed by arthroscopy and improved overall outcomes for the BMC repairs (p = 0.03). Differences in repair tissue UTE-T2* texture features were observed between the treatment groups (p BMC was applied directly to critical-sized, full-thickness chondral defects in an equine model, the cartilage repair results were similar to those of microfracture. Our data suggest that, given the few mesenchymal stem cells in minimally manipulated BMC, other mechanisms such as paracrine, anti

  5. [Comparative study of less invasive stabilization system (LISS) and the condylar support plates for the treatment of AO type C distal femoral fractures in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-tao; Yang, Jiang-wei; Hou, Hai-bin; Wang, Chun-sheng; Wang, Kun-zheng

    2015-02-01

    To summarize the complications and the early clinical effect of less invasive stabilization system and the femoral condylar support plates in the treatment of AO type C distal femoral fractures. From September 2007 to February 2012, 46 patients with AO type C distal femoral fractures were retrospectively studied. Of all patients 25 were treated with less invasive stabilization system including 14 males and 11 females with a mean age of (56.3±4.2) years old; according to AO classification, there were 14 cases of C1, 8 cases of C2 and 3 cases of C3 with a mean hospital stay of (15.6±1.7) days. While 21 cases were treated with femoral condylar support plates fixation including 12 males and 9 females with a mean age of (53.8±5.1) years old;there were 13 cases of C1, 6 cases of C2 and 2 cases of C3 with a mean hospital stay of (17.8±2.2) days. Comparative analysis was performed from the operation related index,postoperative complications and Evanich score of the knee joint function between the two groups at follow-up. All 46 patients were followed up from 13 to 38 months with a mean time of 19.6 months after surgery. Complications included 1 case with infection,3 cases with internal fixation failure, 1 case with nonunion and 1 case with activity limitation of the affected knee. The differences in the incision length, blood loss, fracture healing time were significant between two groups (P0.05). The statistical significance was also found in the Evanich score at last follow-up between two groups (Pfracture healing time and better functional recovery. Less invasive stabilization system had became one of the ideal internal fixations in the treatment of AO type C distal femoral fractures.

  6. Radiation-Related New Primary Solid Cancers in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: Comparative Radiation Dose Response and Modification of Treatment Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inskip, Peter D.; Sigurdson, Alice J.; Veiga, Lene; Bhatti, Parveen; Ronckers, Cécile; Rajaraman, Preetha; Boukheris, Houda; Stovall, Marilyn; Smith, Susan; Hammond, Sue; Henderson, Tara O.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The majority of childhood cancer patients now achieve long-term survival, but the treatments that cured their malignancy often put them at risk of adverse health outcomes years later. New cancers are among the most serious of these late effects. The aims of this review are to compare and contrast radiation dose–response relationships for new solid cancers in a large cohort of childhood cancer survivors and to discuss interactions among treatment and host factors. Methods: This review is based on previously published site-specific analyses for subsequent primary cancers of the brain, breast, thyroid gland, bone and soft tissue, salivary glands, and skin among 12,268 5-year childhood cancer survivors in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Analyses included tumor site–specific, individual radiation dose reconstruction based on radiation therapy records. Radiation-related second cancer risks were estimated using conditional logistic or Poisson regression models for excess relative risk (ERR). Results: Linear dose–response relationships over a wide range of radiation dose (0-50 Gy) were seen for all cancer sites except the thyroid gland. The steepest slopes occurred for sarcoma, meningioma, and nonmelanoma skin cancer (ERR/Gy > 1.00), with glioma and cancers of the breast and salivary glands forming a second group (ERR/Gy = 0.27-0.36). The relative risk for thyroid cancer increased up to 15-20 Gy and then decreased with increasing dose. The risk of thyroid cancer also was positively associated with chemotherapy, but the chemotherapy effect was not seen among those who also received very high doses of radiation to the thyroid. The excess risk of radiation-related breast cancer was sharply reduced among women who received 5 Gy or more to the ovaries. Conclusions: The results suggest that the effect of high-dose irradiation is consistent with a linear dose–response for most organs, but they also reveal important organ-specific and host

  7. Radiation-Related New Primary Solid Cancers in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: Comparative Radiation Dose Response and Modification of Treatment Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inskip, Peter D., E-mail: inskippeter@gmail.com [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Sigurdson, Alice J.; Veiga, Lene [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Bhatti, Parveen [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Ronckers, Cécile [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rajaraman, Preetha [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Boukheris, Houda [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); The University of Oran School of Medicine (Algeria); Stovall, Marilyn; Smith, Susan [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hammond, Sue [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Children' s Hospital and Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Henderson, Tara O. [University of Chicago Department of Pediatrics, Section of Hematology, Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation, Chicago, Illinois (United States); and others

    2016-03-15

    Objectives: The majority of childhood cancer patients now achieve long-term survival, but the treatments that cured their malignancy often put them at risk of adverse health outcomes years later. New cancers are among the most serious of these late effects. The aims of this review are to compare and contrast radiation dose–response relationships for new solid cancers in a large cohort of childhood cancer survivors and to discuss interactions among treatment and host factors. Methods: This review is based on previously published site-specific analyses for subsequent primary cancers of the brain, breast, thyroid gland, bone and soft tissue, salivary glands, and skin among 12,268 5-year childhood cancer survivors in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Analyses included tumor site–specific, individual radiation dose reconstruction based on radiation therapy records. Radiation-related second cancer risks were estimated using conditional logistic or Poisson regression models for excess relative risk (ERR). Results: Linear dose–response relationships over a wide range of radiation dose (0-50 Gy) were seen for all cancer sites except the thyroid gland. The steepest slopes occurred for sarcoma, meningioma, and nonmelanoma skin cancer (ERR/Gy > 1.00), with glioma and cancers of the breast and salivary glands forming a second group (ERR/Gy = 0.27-0.36). The relative risk for thyroid cancer increased up to 15-20 Gy and then decreased with increasing dose. The risk of thyroid cancer also was positively associated with chemotherapy, but the chemotherapy effect was not seen among those who also received very high doses of radiation to the thyroid. The excess risk of radiation-related breast cancer was sharply reduced among women who received 5 Gy or more to the ovaries. Conclusions: The results suggest that the effect of high-dose irradiation is consistent with a linear dose–response for most organs, but they also reveal important organ-specific and host

  8. A comparative study of high-viscosity cement percutaneous vertebroplasty vs. low-viscosity cement percutaneous kyphoplasty for treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Liu, Yang; Peng, Hao; Tan, Jun-Feng; Zhang, Mi; Zheng, Xian-Nian; Chen, Fang-Zhou; Li, Ming-Hui

    2016-06-01

    The clinical effects of two different methods-high-viscosity cement percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and low-viscosity cement percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs) were investigated. From June 2010 to August 2013, 98 cases of OVCFs were included in our study. Forty-six patients underwent high-viscosity PVP and 52 patients underwent low-viscosity PKP. The occurrence of cement leakage was observed. Pain relief and functional activity were evaluated using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), respectively. Restoration of the vertebral body height and angle of kyphosis were assessed by comparing preoperative and postoperative measurements of the anterior heights, middle heights and the kyphotic angle of the fractured vertebra. Nine out of the 54 vertebra bodies and 11 out of the 60 vertebra bodies were observed to have cement leakage in the high-viscosity PVP and low-viscosity PKP groups, respectively. The rate of cement leakage, correction of anterior vertebral height and kyphotic angles showed no significant differences between the two groups (P>0.05). Low-viscosity PKP had significant advantage in terms of the restoration of middle vertebral height as compared with the high-viscosity PVP (Pviscosity PVP and low-viscosity PKP have similar clinical effects in terms of the rate of cement leakage, restoration of the anterior vertebral body height, changes of kyphotic angles, functional activity, and pain relief. Low-viscosity PKP is better than high-viscosity PVP in restoring the height of the middle vertebra.

  9. Improvement of the Dynamic Responses of Heart Rate Variability Patterns after Needle and Laser Acupuncture Treatment in Patients with Burnout Syndrome: A Transcontinental Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Litscher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated manual needle and laser needle acupuncture as a complementary therapy for patients with burnout syndrome. Twenty patients with a mean age ± SD of 38.7 ± 8.4 years were assigned to two groups, each consisting of ten patients. One group was treated with manual needle acupuncture and the other with laser needle acupuncture. Heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV, and a new score called dynamic acupuncture treatment score (DATS served as evaluation parameters. The study documented significant effects on heart rate after needle acupuncture treatment and significant effects on HRV caused by both needle and laser needle acupuncture. Based on new neurovegetative acupuncture treatment evaluation scores, it can be stated that both noninvasive laser needle acupuncture and manual needle acupuncture have the potential to be a powerful approach for evidence-based complementary treatment of patients with burnout syndrome. Further transcontinental studies to verify or refute the preliminary findings are in progress.

  10. Comparative evaluation of zinc oxide eugenol versus gelatin sponge soaked in plasma rich in growth factor in the treatment of dry socket: An initial study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, U. S.; Singh, Balendra Pratap; Verma, Vikas

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to report a comparison between the zinc oxide eugenol dressing and plasma rich in growth factor (PRGF) with gelatin sponge in the treatment of dry socket. Materials and Methods: This study comprised of 45 patients of dry socket in the span of one year. The patients were randomly divided into three groups on the basis of treatments: Group A (PRGF with gelatin sponge), group B (zinc oxide eugenol group), and group C (irrigation with sterile saline only). The clinical progress was noted at 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 7th, and 15th day after the treatment. Results: Patient's healing was better in group A than in group B but symptomatic pain relief was faster in group B. Group C fared worst in both aspects. Conclusion: We conclude that PRGF with gelatin sponge might be a treatment of choice in the management of dry socket. PMID:23853450

  11. Comparative evaluation of zinc oxide eugenol versus gelatin sponge soaked in plasma rich in growth factor in the treatment of dry socket: An initial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U S Pal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to report a comparison between the zinc oxide eugenol dressing and plasma rich in growth factor (PRGF with gelatin sponge in the treatment of dry socket. Materials and Methods: This study comprised of 45 patients of dry socket in the span of one year. The patients were randomly divided into three groups on the basis of treatments: Group A (PRGF with gelatin sponge, group B (zinc oxide eugenol group, and group C (irrigation with sterile saline only. The clinical progress was noted at 1 st , 2 nd , 3 rd , 7 th , and 15 th day after the treatment. Results: Patient′s healing was better in group A than in group B but symptomatic pain relief was faster in group B. Group C fared worst in both aspects. Conclusion: We conclude that PRGF with gelatin sponge might be a treatment of choice in the management of dry socket.

  12. Structural modeling and docking studies of ribose 5-phosphate isomerase from Leishmania major and Homo sapiens: a comparative analysis for Leishmaniasis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriles, Priscila V S Z; Baptista, Luiz Phillippe R; Guedes, Isabella A; Guimarães, Ana Carolina R; Custódio, Fabio L; Alves-Ferreira, Marcelo; Dardenne, Laurent E

    2015-02-01

    Leishmaniases are caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania and are considered the second-highest cause of death worldwide by parasitic infection. The drugs available for treatment in humans are becoming ineffective mainly due to parasite resistance; therefore, it is extremely important to develop a new chemotherapy against these parasites. A crucial aspect of drug design development is the identification and characterization of novel molecular targets. In this work, through an in silico comparative analysis between the genomes of Leishmania major and Homo sapiens, the enzyme ribose 5-phosphate isomerase (R5PI) was indicated as a promising molecular target. R5PI is an important enzyme that acts in the pentose phosphate pathway and catalyzes the interconversion of d-ribose-5-phosphate (R5P) and d-ribulose-5-phosphate (5RP). R5PI activity is found in two analogous groups of enzymes called RpiA (found in H. sapiens) and RpiB (found in L. major). Here, we present the first report of the three-dimensional (3D) structures and active sites of RpiB from L. major (LmRpiB) and RpiA from H. sapiens (HsRpiA). Three-dimensional models were constructed by applying a hybrid methodology that combines comparative and ab initio modeling techniques, and the active site was characterized based on docking studies of the substrates R5P (furanose and ring-opened forms) and 5RP. Our comparative analyses show that these proteins are structural analogs and that distinct residues participate in the interconversion of R5P and 5RP. We propose two distinct reaction mechanisms for the reversible isomerization of R5P to 5RP, which is catalyzed by LmRpiB and HsRpiA. We expect that the present results will be important in guiding future molecular modeling studies to develop new drugs that are specially designed to inhibit the parasitic form of the enzyme without significant effects on the human analog. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Implications and applications of systematic reviews for evidence-based dentistry and comparative effectiveness research: A sample study on antibiotics for oro-facial cellulitis treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Quyen Bach; Vandan Kasar; Francesco Chiappelli

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Comparative effectiveness and efficacy research for analysis and practice (CEERAP) was performed to assess the effects of penicillin-based versus erythromycin-based antibiotic treatments in patients with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) including cellulitis, impetigo, and erysipelas. Because SSTIs, especially orofacial cellulitis, are volatile infectious diseases of a life-threatening nature, research on the most efficacious remedies is necessary. Methods: The stringent b...

  14. Mental distress in treatment seeking young adults (18-25 years) with severe obesity compared with population controls of different body mass index levels: cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreber, H; Reynisdottir, S; Angelin, B; Tynelius, P; Rasmussen, F; Hemmingsson, E

    2017-02-01

    Young adults (18-25) with severe obesity constitute a challenging patient group, and there is limited evidence about their mental health status compared to population controls. Mental distress in treatment seeking young adults with severe obesity (n = 121, mean body mass index [BMI] = 39.8 kg m -2 ) was compared with matched (1:3 for age, gender and socioeconomic status) population controls of normal weight (n = 363, mean BMI = 22.4 kg m -2 ), as well as unmatched population controls with class I obesity (n = 105, mean BMI = 32.1 kg m -2 ) or severe obesity (n = 41, mean BMI = 39.7 kg m -2 ). Mental distress was measured by the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), and we quantified physician-diagnosed depression, present anxiety and suicide attempts. Poisson regression and linear regression analysis were used for analysing differences in mental distress between groups. Treatment seekers experienced more mental distress than normal weight controls as measured by continuous (adjusted mean: 3.9 vs. 2.2 points, P obesity (adjusted mean: 2.3 points) or severe obesity (adjusted mean: 2.1; both, P Young adult treatment seekers with severe obesity constitute a risk group for mental distress compared to population controls of different BMI levels. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  15. A comparative clinico-radiographic study of guided tissue regeneration with bioresorbable membrane and a composite synthetic bone graft for the treatment of periodontal osseous defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumedha Srivastava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to evaluate the bonefill in periodontal osseous defects with the help of guided tissue regeneration, bioresorbable membrane (PerioCol + bone graft (Grabio Glascera in combination and with bonegraft (Grabio Glascera alone. Materials and Methods: The study involved total 30 sites in systemically healthy 19 patients. The parameters for evaluation includes plaque index sulcus bleeding index with one or more periodontal osseous defects having (i probing depth (PD of ≥ 5 mm (ii clinical attachment loss (CAL of ≥ 5 mm and (iii ≥3 mm of radiographic periodontal osseous defect (iv bonefill (v crestal bone loss (vi defect resolution. The study involved the three wall and two wall defects which should be either located interproximally or involving the furcation area. The statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences, the Wilcoxon signed rank statistic W + for Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: The net gain in PD and CAL after 6 months for Group I ([PerioCol] + [Grabio Glascera] and Group II (Grabio Glascera was 3.94 ± 1.81 mm, 3.57 ± 2.21 mm and 3.94 ± 1.81, 3.57 ± 2.21 mm, respectively. The results of the study for Group I and Group II with regards to mean net bonefill, was 3.25 ± 2.32 (58% mm and 5.14 ± 3.84 (40.26 ± 19.14% mm, crestal bone loss − 0.25 ± 0.68 mm and − 0.79 ± 1.19 mm. Defect resolution 3.50 ± 2.34 mm and 5.93 ± 4.01 mm, respectively. Conclusion: On comparing both the groups together after 6 months of therapy, the results were equally effective for combination of graft and membrane versus bone graft alone since no statistical significant difference was seen between above parameters for both the groups. Thus, both the treatment modalities are comparable and equally effective.

  16. Culturally adapted CBT (CA-CBT) for Latino women with treatment-resistant PTSD: a pilot study comparing CA-CBT to applied muscle relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Devon E; Hofmann, Stefan G; Rivera, Edwin; Otto, Michael W; Pollack, Mark H

    2011-04-01

    We examined the therapeutic efficacy of a culturally adapted form of CBT (CA-CBT) for PTSD as compared to applied muscle relaxation (AMR) for female Latino patients with treatment-resistant PTSD. Participants were randomized to receive either CA-CBT (n = 12) or AMR (n = 12), and were assessed before treatment, after treatment, and at a 12-week follow-up. The treatments were manualized and delivered in the form of group therapy across 14 weekly sessions. Assessments included a measure of PTSD, anxiety, culturally relevant idioms of distress (nervios and ataque de nervios), and emotion regulation ability. Patients receiving CA-CBT improved significantly more than in the AMR condition. Effect size estimates showed very large reductions in PTSD symptoms from pretreatment to posttreatment in the CA-CBT group (Cohen's d = 2.6) but only modest improvements in the AMR group (0.8). These results suggest that CA-CBT can be beneficial for previously treatment-resistant PTSD in Latino women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quality of Life and Neutropenia in Patients with Early Stage Breast Cancer: A Randomized Pilot Study Comparing Additional Treatment with Mistletoe Extract to Chemotherapy Alone

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    Wilfried Tröger

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemotherapy for breast cancer often deteriorates quality of life, augments fatigue, and induces neutropenia. Mistletoe preparations are frequently used by cancer patients in Central Europe. Physicians have reported better quality of life in breast cancer patients additionally treated with mistletoe preparations during chemotherapy. Mistletoe preparations also have immunostimulant properties and might therefore have protective effects against chemotherapy-induced neutropenia.Patients and Methods: We conducted a prospective randomized open label pilot study with 95 patients randomized into three groups. Two groups received Iscador® M special (IMS or a different mistletoe preparation, respectively, additionally to chemotherapy with six cycles of cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, and 5-fluoro-uracil (CAF. A control group received CAF with no additional therapy. Here we report the comparison IMS (n = 30 vs. control (n = 31. Quality of life including fatigue was assessed with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ-C30. Neutropenia was defined as neutrophil counts <1,000/µl and assessed at baseline and one day before each CAF cycle.Results: In the descriptive analysis all 15 scores of the EORTC-QLQ-C30 showed better quality of life in the IMS group compared to the control group. In 12 scores the differences were significant (p < 0.02 and nine scores showed a clinically relevant and significant difference of at least 5 points. Neutropenia occurred in 3/30 IMS patients and in 8/31 control patients (p = 0.182.Conclusions: This pilot study showed an improvement of quality of life by treating breast cancer patients with IMS additionally to CAF. CAF-induced neutropenia showed a trend to lower frequency in the IMS group.

  18. A retrospective case-cohort study comparing treatment outcomes in abacavir versus stavudine containing first line antiretroviral treatment regimens in children <3yrs old, at a paediatric programme based in Soweto, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otwombe, Kennedy; Lazarus, Erica; Liberty, Afaaf; Gray, Glenda E.; Greeff, Oppel B. W.; Violari, Avy

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The current World Health Organization guideline for first line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected children recommends the use of abacavir and lamivudine as nucleoside backbones and no longer includes stavudine. We compared treatment outcomes with abacavir (ABC) versus stavudine (d4T) in a cohort of HIV-1 infected children 6 and 12 months after antiretroviral therapy was initiated. Methods This was a retrospective case-cohort study, using programmatic data from children enrolled in the Paediatric Wellness Programme at the Perinatal HIV Research Unit in Soweto, South Africa between 2005 and 2013. Children on abacavir/stavudine who had initiated ART at age 90% for ABC and d4T were similar too (95% in ABC vs. 86% in d4T, p = 0.10). The proportion of children who died over 12 months was 3.5% in the ABC and 7.9% in the d4T group (p = 0.27). Similarly, the anthropometric measures were comparable. Conclusions It is reassuring that in the short term, in this group of patients, the treatment outcomes were similar. PMID:28686654

  19. Patient directed self management of pain (PaDSMaP compared to treatment as usual following total knee replacement: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donell Simon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2009, 665 patients underwent total knee replacements (TKRs at the Norfolk and Norwich University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (NNUH, representing nearly 1% of the national total. Pain control following the operation can be poor, and this can cause poor mobilization and potential long-term adverse events. Although high levels of pain are not associated with patient dissatisfaction, brief periods of pain may lead to neuronal remodeling and sensitization. Patient controlled oral analgesia (PCOA may improve pain relief; however, the evidence to date has been inconclusive. Patient directed self management of pain (PaDSMaP is a single center randomized controlled trial, which aims to establish if patient self-medication improves, or is equivalent to, treatment as usual and to create an educational package to allow implementation elsewhere. Methods/design Patients eligible for a TKR will be recruited and randomized in the outpatient clinic. All patients will undergo their operations according to normal clinical practice but will be randomized into two groups. Once oral medication has commenced, one group will have pain relief administered by nursing staff in the usual way (treatment as usual; TAU, whilst the second group will self manage their pain medication (patient directed self management of pain; PaDSMaP. Those recruited for self-medication will undergo a training program to teach the use of oral analgesics according to the World Health Organization (WHO pain cascade and how to complete the study documentation. The primary endpoint of the trial is the visual analogue scale (VAS pain score at 3 days or discharge, whichever is sooner. The follow-up time is 6 weeks with a planned trial period of 3 years. The secondary objectives are satisfaction with the management of patient pain post-operatively whilst an inpatient after primary TKR; overall pain levels and pain on mobilization; satisfaction with pain management information

  20. A Comparative Study on the Effects of Millisecond- and Microsecond-Pulsed Electric Field Treatments on the Permeabilization and Extraction of Pigments from Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo, Elisa; Martínez, Juan Manuel; Coustets, Mathilde; Álvarez, Ignacio; Teissié, Justin; Rols, Marie-Pierre; Raso, Javier

    2015-10-01

    The interdependencies of the two main processing parameters affecting "electroporation" (electric field strength and pulse duration) while using pulse duration in the range of milliseconds and microseconds on the permeabilization, inactivation, and extraction of pigments from Chlorella vulgaris was compared. While irreversible "electroporation" was observed above 4 kV/cm in the millisecond range, electric field strengths of ≥10 kV/cm were required in the microseconds range. However, to cause the electroporation of most of the 90 % of the population of C. vulgaris in the millisecond (5 kV/cm, 20 pulses) or microsecond (15 kV/cm, 25 pulses) range, the specific energy that was delivered was lower for microsecond treatments (16.87 kJ/L) than in millisecond treatments (150 kJ/L). In terms of the specific energy required to cause microalgae inactivation, treatments in the microsecond range also resulted in greater energy efficiency. The comparison of extraction yields in the range of milliseconds (5 kV, 20 ms) and microseconds (20, 25 pulses) under the conditions in which the maximum extraction was observed revealed that the improvement in the carotenoid extraction was similar and chlorophyll a and b extraction was slightly higher for treatments in the microsecond range. The specific energy that was required for the treatment in the millisecond range (150 kJ/L) was much higher than those required in the microsecond range (30 kJ/L). The comparison of the efficacy of both types of pulses on the extraction enhancement just after the treatment and after a post-pulse incubation period seemed to indicate that PEF in the millisecond range created irreversible alterations while, in the microsecond range, the defects were a dynamic structure along the post-pulse time that caused a subsequent increment in the extraction yield.

  1. Liquid nitrogen or phenolization for giant cell tumor of bone?: a comparative cohort study of various standard treatments at two tertiary referral centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, Lizz; van der Geest, Ingrid C M; Schreuder, H W Bart; van de Sande, Michiel A J; Dijkstra, P D Sander

    2014-03-05

    The rate of recurrence of giant cell tumor of bone is decreased by use of adjuvant treatments such as phenol, liquid nitrogen, or polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) during curettage. We assessed recurrence and complication rates and functional outcome after curettage with use of phenol and PMMA, liquid nitrogen and PMMA, and liquid nitrogen and bone grafts. We retrospectively compared the relative effectiveness of treatment of giant cell tumors of bone at two tertiary centers with a regional function from 1990 to 2010. The 132 (of 201) patients who met the inclusion criteria had a mean age of thirty-three years (range, eleven to sixty-nine years). Treatment assignment depended purely on the center, with primary treatment consisting of curettage with use of phenol and PMMA (n = 82) at one center and with use of either liquid nitrogen and PMMA (n = 26) or liquid nitrogen and bone grafts (n = 24) at the other center. Recurrence and complication rates were determined, and functional outcome was assessed on the basis of the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) score. The mean duration of follow-up was eight years (range, two to twenty-two years). Recurrence rates were comparable among the groups (28% for phenol and PMMA, 31% for liquid nitrogen and PMMA, and 38% for liquid nitrogen and bone grafts; p = 0.52). Soft-tissue extension increased the recurrence risk (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1 to 4.0, p = 0.024). The complication rate was 33% after use of liquid nitrogen and bone grafts, 27% after liquid nitrogen and PMMA, and 11% after phenol and PMMA (p = 0.019); complications included osteoarthritis, infection, postoperative fracture, nonunion, transient nerve palsy, and PMMA leakage. The complication risk was increased by the presence of a pathologic fracture (HR = 4.1, 95% CI = 1.7 to 9.5, p = 0.001) and use of liquid nitrogen (HR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.5 to 10, p = 0.006 for liquid nitrogen and bone grafts; HR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.1 to 8.6, p = 0

  2. An open, randomized, comparative clinical and histological study of imiquimod 5% cream versus 10% potassium hydroxide solution in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Sang-Hee; Chin, Hyun-Woo; Jeong, Dong-Wook; Sung, Hyun-Woo

    2010-05-01

    Although molluscum contagiosum (MC) resolves spontaneously, there are several reasons to treat this dermatological disorder. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of 5% imiquimod cream versus 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution in treating MC, and to propose the mechanism of cure by observing the histological findings. Imiquimod or KOH were applied by the patient or a parent 3 days per week until all lesions cleared. The number of MC lesions was counted and side effects were evaluated at 5 points during the treatment (the initial visit, week 2, week 4, week 8, and week 12). Histological changes were compared between 2 patients of each group, before and after the 2 weeks of application. In both group, the mean lesion counts decreased all through to week 12, and the reduction in number of lesions were statistically significant in both groups (p <0.005). Over 40% of each group developed local side effects, and no systemic side effects were noted in either group. Before treatment, histological findings showed little or no dermal infiltrates. After treatment, specimens showed dense lymphocytic infiltrates, especially T cells, around the lesions which had resolved. Both 10% KOH solution and 5% imiquimod cream are effective and safe treatment of MC.

  3. Comparative study of Contour Transtar and STARR procedure for the treatment of obstructed defecation syndrome (ODS)--feasibility, morbidity and early functional results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbert, C; Reibetanz, J; Jayne, D G; Kim, M; Germer, C-T; Boenicke, L

    2010-09-01

    Stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR) is a promising new treatment for obstructed defecation syndrome (ODS). It may be performed using either a double-stapling technique (PPH-STARR) or with the new Contour Transtar (CT) device. The aim of this study was to evaluate the two techniques with respect to morbidity and functional outcomes. Patients presenting with ODS were evaluated using standardized clinical and radiological investigations and prospectively entered into a database. A total of 150 Patients were treated with either PPH-STARR (n = 68) or CT (n = 82) and further evaluated at 12 month postoperatively. The mean size of the resected specimen was 27 cm(2) (SD +/-4.86 cm(2)) in the PPH-STARR group and 46 cm(2) (SD +/-10.6 cm(2)) in the CT group [P < 0.001]. Morbidity was 7.3% (n = 5) in the PPH-STARR group and 7.5% (n = 6) in the CT group. The most common complication was minor postoperative bleeding in both groups (PPH-STARR: n = 2, 2.9%; CT: n = 2, 2.4%) Overall there were no septic complications and no surgical re-interventions. There was a tendency for more postoperative pain following CT (n = 3, 3.6%) as compared with PPH-STARR (n = 1, 1.4%). Constipation Scores (CCS) were 15.50 +/- 5.71 in the PPH-STARR group and 15.70 +/- 5.84 in the CT group preoperatively and decreased significantly to 8.25 (SD +/-1.45) and 8.01 (SD +/-2.31) 12-months after surgery. Values did not differ significantly between the two groups. Contour Transtar is as safe and effective as PPH-STARR and provides a true circumferential resection of rectal intussusception. This may benefit selected patients and result in improved long-term durability of the technique.

  4. A comparative evaluation of freeze dried bone allograft and decalcified freeze dried bone allograft in the treatment of intrabony defects: A clinical and radiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat Gothi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ideal graft material for regenerative procedures is autogenous bone graft but the major disadvantage with this graft is the need for a secondary surgical site to procure donor material and the frequent lack of intraoral donor site to obtain sufficient quantities of autogenous bone for multiple or deep osseous defects. Hence, to overcome these disadvantages, bone allografts were developed as an alternative source of graft material. Materials and Methods: In 10 patients with chronic periodontitis, 20 bilateral infrabony defects were treated with freeze dried bone allograft (FDBA-Group A and decalcified freeze dried bone allograft (DFDBA-Group B. Clinical and radiographic parameters were assessed preoperatively and at 3 months and 6 months postoperatively. Data thus obtained was subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Significant improvement in the reduction in probing depth and relative attachment level (RAL from the baseline to 3 months to baseline to 6 months in group A and group B, which was statistically significant but no statistically significant reduction was seen between 3 months and 6 months. On inter-group comparison, no significant differences were observed at all-time points. In adjunct to the probing depth and RAL, the radiographic area of the defect showed a similar trend in intra-group comparison and no significant difference was seen on inter-group comparison at all-time points. Conclusions: Within the limitations of the current study, it can be concluded that DFDBA did not show any improvement in the clinical and radiographic parameters in the treatment of the intrabony defects as compared to FDBA.

  5. Comparative study on usefulness of gentamycin-containing collagen implants in the treatment of patients with osteitis and osteomyelitis of the craniofacial skeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł J. Zawadzki

    2017-05-01

    The results of this comparative study advocate the use of GCCI in osteomyelitis of various origin in oral and maxillofacial surgery, as they seemed to reduce the incidence of local complications, shorten antibiotic administration time and hospital stay.

  6. Outcome of Breast Cancer in Moroccan Young Women Correlated to Clinic-Pathological Features, Risk Factors and Treatment: A Comparative Study of 716 Cases in a Single Institution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriem Slaoui

    Full Text Available Breast cancer in young women is quite uncommon and shows more aggressive characteristics with major disparities between worldwide populations. Prognosis and outcome of breast cancer in young patients are widely studied, but still no consensus is available.We retrospectively included 716 cases of breast cancer women diagnosed in 2009 at the National Institute of Oncology of Rabat. Patients were divided into two groups according to their age: women aged ≤40 years (Group 1 and women aged >40 years (Group 2. Data were recorded from patients' medical files and analyzed using SPSS 13.0 software (IBM.Young patients represent 24.9% of all patients with breast cancer. The comparison between the two groups displayed significant differences regarding nulliparity (p = 0.001 and progesterone receptor negativity (p = 0.01. Moreover, more progression (Metastases/Relapse was registered in young women as compared to older women with breast cancer (p = 0.03. The estimated median follow-up period was 31 months. The 5-years Event-Free Survival (EFS of patients with local disease was 64.6% in young women and 71.5% in older women with breast cancer (p = 0.04. Multivariate analysis in young women showed that nulliparity (HR: 7.2; 95%CI: 1.16-44.54; p = 0.03, T3 tumors (HR: 17.39; 95%CI: 1.74-173.34; p = 0.01 and negative PgR status (HR: 19.85; 95%CI: 1.07-366.54; p = 0.04 can be considered as risk factors for poorer event free survival while hormone therapy was associated with better EFS (HR: 0.11; 95%CI: 0.00-0.75; p = 0.03. In Group 2, multivariate analysis showed that patients with inflammatory breast cancer, N+ status, absence of radiotherapy, absence of chemotherapy, and absence of hormone therapy are at increased risk of recurrence.In Morocco, breast cancer is more frequent in young women as compared to western countries. Breast cancer in young women is more aggressive and is diagnosed late, leading to an intensive treatment. Moreover, the main factors

  7. Choice of first-line antiretroviral therapy regimen and treatment outcomes for HIV in a middle income compared to a high income country: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragovic, Gordana; Smith, Colette J; Jevtovic, Djordje; Dimitrijevic, Bozana; Kusic, Jovana; Youle, Mike; Johnson, Margaret A

    2016-03-03

    The range of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimens available in many middle-income countries differs from those suggested in international HIV treatment guidelines. We compared first-line cART regimens, timing of initiation and treatment outcomes in a middle income setting (HIV Centre, Belgrade, Serbia - HCB) with a high-income country (Royal Free London Hospital, UK - RFH). All antiretroviral-naïve HIV-positive individuals from HCB and RFH starting cART between 2003 and 2012 were included. 12-month viral load and CD4 count responses were compared, considering the first available measurement 12-24 months post-cART. The percentage that had made an antiretroviral switch for any reason, or for toxicity and the percentage that had died by 36 months (the latest time at which sufficient numbers remained under follow-up) were investigated using standard survival methods. 361/597 (61 %) of individuals initiating cART at HCB had a prior AIDS diagnosis, compared to 337/1763 (19 %) at RFH. Median pre-ART CD4 counts were 177 and 238 cells/mm(3) respectively (p HIV disease, resulting in higher mortality rates than in high income countries, supporting improved testing campaigns for early detection of HIV infection and early introduction of newer cART regimens.

  8. Carvedilol Compared With Metoprolol Succinate in the Treatment and Prognosis of Patients With Stable Chronic Heart Failure: Carvedilol or Metoprolol Evaluation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Hanna; Zhao, Jingting; Täger, Tobias; Cebola, Rita; Schellberg, Dieter; Katus, Hugo A; Grundtvig, Morten; Hole, Torstein; Atar, Dan; Agewall, Stefan; Frankenstein, Lutz

    2015-09-01

    β-Blockers exert a prognostic benefit in the treatment of chronic heart failure. Their pharmacological properties vary. The only substantial comparative trial to date-the Carvedilol or Metoprolol European Trial-has compared carvedilol with short-acting metoprolol tartrate at different dose equivalents. We therefore addressed the relative efficacy of equal doses of carvedilol and metoprolol succinate on survival in multicenter hospital outpatients with chronic heart failure. Four thousand sixteen patients with stable systolic chronic heart failure who were using either carvedilol or metoprolol succinate were identified in the Norwegian Heart Failure Registry and The Heart Failure Registry of the University of Heidelberg, Germany. Patients were individually matched on both the dose equivalents and the respective propensity scores for β-blocker treatment. During a follow-up for 17 672 patient-years, it was found that 304 (27.2%) patients died in the carvedilol group and 1066 (36.8%) in the metoprolol group. In a univariable analysis of the general sample, metoprolol therapy was associated with higher mortality compared with carvedilol therapy (hazard ratio, 1.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.31-1.69; P<0.001). This difference was not seen after multivariable adjustment (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.57-1.50; P=0.75) and adjustment for propensity score and dose equivalents (hazard ratio, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 0.94-1.20; P=0.36) or in the propensity and dose equivalent-matched sample (hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-1.23; P=0.99). These results were essentially unchanged for all prespecified subgroups. In outpatients with chronic heart failure, no conclusive association between all-cause mortality and treatment with carvedilol or metoprolol succinate was observed after either multivariable adjustment or multilevel propensity score matching. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Study comparing the double kissing (DK) crush with classical crush for the treatment of coronary bifurcation lesions: the DKCRUSH-1 Bifurcation Study with drug-eluting stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S L; Zhang, J J; Ye, F; Chen, Y D; Patel, T; Kawajiri, K; Lee, M; Kwan, T W; Mintz, G; Tan, H C

    2008-06-01

    Classical crush has a lower rate of final kissing balloon inflation (FKBI) immediately after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The double kissing (DK) crush technique has the potential to increase the FKBI rate, and no prospective studies on the comparison of classical with DK crush techniques have been reported. Three hundred and eleven patients with true bifurcation lesions were randomly divided into classical (n = 156) and DK crush (n = 155) groups. Clinical and angiographic details at follow-up at 8 months were indexed. The primary end point was major adverse cardiac events (MACE) including myocardial infarction, cardiac death and target lesion revascularization (TLR) at 8 months. FKBI was 76% in the classical crush group and 100% in the DK group (P DK crush group. Cumulative 8 month MACE was 24.4% in the classical crush group and 11.4% in the DK crush group (P = 0.02). The TLR-free survival rate was 75.4% in the classical crush group and 89.5% in the DK crush group (P = 0.002). DK crush technique has the potential of increasing FKBI rate and reducing stent thrombosis, with a further reduction of TLR and cumulative MACE rate at 8 months.

  10. Comparative study of different Al_2O_3:C dosimeters using OSL technique for dosimetry on Volumetric Modulated Arc Radiotherapy Treatment (VMAT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villani, Daniel; Campos, LetIcia L.; Mancini, Anselmo; Haddad, Cecilia M.K.

    2016-01-01

    In modern radiotherapy, the VMAT technique has become a successful treatment alternative. Due to its complexity, a quality assurance program must be established by evaluating, among other items, the dosimetric factors. This paper aims to compare the performance between the OSL aluminum oxide (Al_2O_3:C) nanoDot™ dosimeters (Inlight™ system) manufactured by Landauer Inc. and TLD-500 Al_2O_3:C dosimeters manufactured by Rexon™ for VMAT dosimetry using an anthropomorphic phantom. The results showed that both type of Al_2O_3:C dosimeters presented good repeatability and agreement between the doses measured and calculated by planning system. However, the need of sophisticated readers to OSL analysis of the TLD-500, turns it less practical for routine usage, comparing to Inlight™ system. (author)

  11. A comparative study of microbiological and physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of water distributed from two water treatment plants in Rwanda. ... Thus, as recommendation to WASAC authority, there is a need for improvement in the water management strategy for better water quality especially along the distribution network.

  12. Phenobarbital compared to benzodiazepines in alcohol withdrawal treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, Gro; Hallas, Jesper; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-acting benzodiazepines such as chlordiazepoxide are recommended as first-line treatment for alcohol withdrawal. These drugs are known for their abuse liability and might increase alcohol consumption among problem drinkers. Phenobarbital could be an alternative treatment option......, possibly with the drawback of a more pronounced acute toxicity. We evaluated if phenobarbital compared to chlordiazepoxide decreased the risk of subsequent use of benzodiazepines, alcohol recidivism and mortality. METHODS: The study was a register-based cohort study of patients admitted for alcohol...... withdrawal 1998-2013 and treated with either phenobarbital or chlordiazepoxide. Patients were followed for one year. We calculated hazard ratios (HR) for benzodiazepine use, alcohol recidivism and mortality associated with alcohol withdrawal treatment, while adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: A total...

  13. Clinical comparative study between the use of lasers and conventional methods of diagnosis and treatment in deciduous teeth with presence of carious lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulga, Fabiane Galvao

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of deciduous tooth cavity preparation by the Er:YAG laser in comparison with the conventional burr rotary instrument. Besides, we have used the laser fluorescence technique (DIAGNOdent equipment) for diagnosis and compared it to the usual tactile and visual examination as well as X-ray diagnosis. For this purpose, 20 chronic occlusal carious deciduous molar teeth from children with the ages between 5 to 10 years old were selected. Selection was ma de according to visual inspection, X-ray periapical image and measures of the DIAGNOdent. For treatment the teeth were divided in two groups, 10 to be treated by the Er:YAG laser and 10 with conventional burr. For enamel, the laser energy used was in the interval from 200 to 300 mJ; for the dentine the range was from 100 mJ to 200 mJ. In both cases, the laser frequency was in the range from 2 to 4 Hz. The results have shown that the laser treatment was more accepted by the children than the conventional burro Clinical evaluation of the cavity preparation indicates that the Er:YAG laser treatment is recommend. The DIAGNOdent evaluation method was very effective for diagnosis of carious tissue for initial detection. After successful removal of the carious tissue, confirmed by visual inspection, the DIAGNOdent evaluation method was only effective for the treatment with conventional burro For evaluation of the tooth after cavity preparation with the Er:YAG laser, the measurements oscillate covering the full range of the equipment. Therefore, the use of the DIAGNOdent equipment is indicated only for initial caries diagnosis. (author)

  14. Functional Treatment Comparing with Immobilization after Acute Ankle Sprain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Mohammadi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ankle injuries are among the most prevalent injuries with which a physician may encounter. In this study, the efficiency of the functional treatment was compared with the immobilization treatment in healing the acute ankle sprain. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial study was carried out on 100 male patients whose ankle sprain had been diagnosed by Yasuj Shahid Beheshti Hospital. Using block allocation randomization method and regardless of damage degree, patients were divided into two groups, functional method (1st group or immobilization with plaster (2nd group, for treatment. Several variables such as range of motion, pain intensity, inflammation, joint tenderness and returning to work after 2, 6 and 12 weeks were examined. Results: After two weeks, the average pain intensity in the first group (33.2±3.2 has been decreased compared to the second group (55±1.2, which showed a significant difference between the two groups (p<0.05. The average ankle range of motion in the first and second groups was 29.08±1.2 degrees and 20.4±2.2 degrees, respectively which had been increased significantly in the first group compared to the second group (p<0.03. Similarly, a considerable difference was observed in decreased inflammation and tenderness in the first group compared to the second one. Conclusion: In acute ankle sprains, the functional treatment is better than the immobilization treatment in alleviating pain, inflammation and improving the range of joint motion.

  15. Comparative Study on Performance and Organic Fouling of ZrO2 Ceramic Membranes in Ultrafiltration of Synthetic Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Cen

    2011-07-01

    Adsorption of organic matter on ceramic membrane can lead to hydraulic-irreversible fouling, which decreases the permeate flux and the cost-efficiency of membrane devices. In order to optimize the filtration process, detailed information is necessary about the organic fouling mechanisms on ceramic membranes. In this study, dead-end filtration experiments of both synthetic water and secondary effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were conducted on a ZrO2 ceramic membrane. The experiment results of synthetic water showed that humic acid (HA) was able to be adsorbed by the ZrO2 membrane and cause permeate flux decline; and that HA-tryptophan mixture, at the same DOC level, promoted the filtration flux decline; DOC removal in the case of HA-tryptophan was lower than that of HA alone. It seems that hydrophilic organic matter with low molecular weight have some specific contribution to the organic fouling of the ZrO2 membrane. The results also suggest that tryptophan molecules were preferentially adsorbed on the membrane at the beginning, exposing their hydrophobic sides which might further adsorb HA from the feed water. During the filtration of WWTP effluent, protein-like substances (mainly tryptophan-like) were also preferentially adsorbed on the membrane compared with humic-like ones in the initial few cycles of filtration. More humic-like substances were adsorbed in the following filtration cycles due to the increase of membrane hydrophobicity. A significant rise in hydraulic-irreversible flux decline was obtained by decreasing pH from near pHpzc to below pHpzc of the membrane. It suggests that a positively charged surface is preferred for HA adsorption. Ionic strength increase did not affect the filtration of HA, but it lessened the hydraulic-irreversible flux decline of HA-tryptophan filtration. The adsorption of HA-tryptophan can be attributed to outersphere interaction while HA adsorption is mainly caused by inner-sphere interaction. The results of

  16. Tratamento do abortamento incompleto por aspiração manual ou curetagem Comparative study of manual vacuum aspiration and uterine curettage for treatment of abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Pereira

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Comparar aspiração manual intra-uterina (AMIU com curetagem uterina (D&C em abortamentos no primeiro trimestre no que se refere a eficiência para eliminar restos ovulares do método de aspiração manual intra-uterina com a dilatação e curetagem, ocorrência de complicações (perfuração uterina, laceração cervical, hemorragia pós-tratamento, tempo duração dos procedimentos e tempo de internação das pacientes. MÉTODOS: Cinqüenta pacientes no grupo AMIU e 50 pacientes no grupo D&C foram incluídas prospectivamente de maneira aleatória. Critérios de inclusão: abortamento espontâneo, idade gestacional de até 13 semanas, colo pérvio, espessura endometrial maior que 15 mm, estado afebril, hemoglobina superior a 10 g/dl. Amostras sangüíneas foram colhidas antes e após os procedimentos cirúrgicos para controle dos níveis de hemoglobina; anestesia foi realizada em todos os casos. O tempo para realização de cada procedimento cirúrgico foi cronometrado. RESULTADOS: Os grupos eram semelhantes quanto à idade gestacional (9,93±2,40; 9,73±2,58, p 0,71, espessura endometrial antes da cirurgia (22,14±4,80; 22,68±5,68, p 0,65. Não foram observadas complicações cirúrgicas ou anestésicas em nenhum grupo. Os tempos de realização do procedimento e internação foram significativamente menores nas pacientes do grupo AMIU (3,71; 10,18 min, p OBJECTIVES: To compare manual vacuum aspiration (MVA and uterine curettage (D&C for first trimester abortions, in terms of the efficiency of eliminating ovular remnants, frequency of complications, duration of the procedure, and duration of patients' hospitalization. METHODS: In a prospective study, 50 patients in the MVA group and 50 in the D&C group were randomly included. Inclusion criteria were: spontaneous abortion, gestational age less than 13 weeks, patent cervix, endometrial thickness >15 mm, afebrile state, and hemoglobin >10 g/dl. Blood samples were collected before

  17. Impact of early childhood caries and its treatment under general anesthesia on orofacial function and quality of life : A prospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, V; Pichot, H; Delfosse, C; Eschevins, C; Nicolas, E; Hennequin, M

    2017-05-01

    Early Childhood Caries (ECC) has become a major public health concern worldwide, mostly affecting children from disadvantaged families in increasingly severe forms. This condition has been frequently reported to alter children's nutrition, growth and general development. It negatively impacts their quality of life, through painful episodes and severe eating difficulties. While this period is crucial for oral praxes development, the impact of dental state on oro-facial functions is poorly documented. This study evaluated the impact of ECC and its treatment under general anesthesia on oro-facial functions and quality of life in pre-school children. The dysfunction and quality of life scores from 25 children with ECC were evaluated before treatment (T0), one month (T1) and three months after treatment (T2), using the Nordic Orofacial Test-Screening (NOT-S) and the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS), respectively, in comparison with 16 caries-free children. The number and extent of inter-arch dental contacts were also observed. The pre-operative higher NOT-S score observed in children with ECC decreased to reach the control level at T2. The mastication item was the most affected in the ECC group throughout the study. Their mean ECOHIS score also significantly decreased post-operatively and differences remaining between both groups were no longer clinically relevant. In addition, in children with ECC, values of functional inter-arch surfaces tended to increase over the follow-up period. Oro-facial functions and quality of life, altered by ECC, could be restored through a conservative treatment approach. Relations between dental state, orofacial functions and particularly chewing, and nutrition should be investigated further.

  18. [Comparative studies of face recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2012-07-01

    Every human being is proficient in face recognition. However, the reason for and the manner in which humans have attained such an ability remain unknown. These questions can be best answered-through comparative studies of face recognition in non-human animals. Studies in both primates and non-primates show that not only primates, but also non-primates possess the ability to extract information from their conspecifics and from human experimenters. Neural specialization for face recognition is shared with mammals in distant taxa, suggesting that face recognition evolved earlier than the emergence of mammals. A recent study indicated that a social insect, the golden paper wasp, can distinguish their conspecific faces, whereas a closely related species, which has a less complex social lifestyle with just one queen ruling a nest of underlings, did not show strong face recognition for their conspecifics. Social complexity and the need to differentiate between one another likely led humans to evolve their face recognition abilities.

  19. Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial of meniscal surgery compared with exercise and patient education for treatment of meniscal tears in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Soren Thorgaard; Lind, Martin; Holmich, Per

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Arthroscopic surgery is a very common orthopaedic procedure. While several trials have investigated the effect of knee arthroscopy for middle-aged and older patients with meniscal tears, there is a paucity of trials comparing meniscal surgery with non-surgical treatment for younger...... adults. The aim of this randomised controlled trial (RCT) is to investigate if early arthroscopic surgery is superior to exercise therapy and education, with the option of later surgery if needed, in improving pain, function and quality of life in younger adults with meniscal tears. METHODS AND ANALYSIS......: This is a protocol for a multicentre, parallel-group RCT conducted at six hospitals across all five healthcare regions in Denmark. 140 patients aged 18-40 years with a clinical history and symptoms consistent with a meniscal tear, verified on MRI, found eligible for meniscal surgery by an orthopaedic surgeon...

  20. Implications and applications of systematic reviews for evidence-based dentistry and comparative effectiveness research: A sample study on antibiotics for oro-facial cellulitis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quyen Bach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Comparative effectiveness and efficacy research for analysis and practice (CEERAP was performed to assess the effects of penicillin-based versus erythromycin-based antibiotic treatments in patients with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs including cellulitis, impetigo, and erysipelas. Because SSTIs, especially orofacial cellulitis, are volatile infectious diseases of a life-threatening nature, research on the most efficacious remedies is necessary. Methods: The stringent bibliome yielded three systematic reviews, which were examined for quality of research synthesis protocol and clinical relevance. Results: The sample size of three, rendered the statistical analyses and cumulative meta-analysis problematic. Conclusion: The systematic review outlined here should aid in increasing clinical awareness, improving patient health literacy, and promoting consensus of the best evidence base (BEB to mitigate the threat of sepsis and potential death caused by cellulitis infections.

  1. Comparing case-control study for treatment of proximal tibia fractures with a complete metaphyseal component in two centers with different distinct strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berven, Haakon; Brix, Michael; Izadpanah, Kaywan

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare two methods of stabilization for proximal tibia fractures (AO 41) with a complete metaphyseal component, external fixation with the Ilizarov wire frame, and internal fixation with locking plates. METHODS: Patients from two level 1 trauma centers...

  2. A prospective randomised study to compare the utility and outcomes of subdural and subperiosteal drains for the treatment of chronic subdural haematoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran

    2012-11-01

    The usage of a drain following evacuation of a chronic subdural haematoma (CSDH) is known to reduce recurrence. In this study we aim to compare the clinical outcomes and recurrence rate of utilising two different types of drains (subperiosteal and subdural drain) following drainage of a CSDH.

  3. Knowledge and perceptions of prescribers regarding adherence to standard treatment guidelines for malaria: a comparative cross-sectional study from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, M; Hassali, M A A; Shafie, A A; Hussain, A

    2014-05-01

    Despite the availability of standard treatment guidelines for malaria in Pakistan adherence to protocols by prescribers is poor. This descriptive, cross-sectional study aimed to explore the perceptions and knowledge of prescribers in Islamabad and Rawalpindi cities towards adherence to standard treatment guidelines for malaria. A questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of 360 prescribers; 64.7% were satisfied with the available antimalarial drugs and 41.3% agreed that antimalarial drugs should only be prescribed after diagnostic testing. Only half the prescribers had the guidelines available in their health facility. Almost all the prescribers (97.7%) agreed that there was a need for more educational programmes about the guidelines. Most prescribers were unaware of the correct standard treatment regimen for Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria. There were no differences in knowledge between males and females, but prescribers having more experience, practising as general practitioners and working in private health-care facilities possessed significantly better knowledge than their counterparts.

  4. Comparative effectiveness of enalapril, lisinopril, and ramipril in the treatment of patients with chronic heart failure: a propensity score-matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Hanna; Henning, Felix; Täger, Tobias; Schellberg, Dieter; Grundtvig, Morten; Goode, Kevin; Corletto, Anna; Kazmi, Syed; Hole, Torstein; Katus, Hugo A; Atar, Dan; Cleland, John G F; Agewall, Stefan; Frankenstein, Lutz; Clark, Andrew L

    2018-04-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) are recommended as first-line therapy in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). The comparative effectiveness of different ACEIs is not known. A total of 4723 outpatients with stable HFrEF prescribed enalapril, lisinopril, or ramipril were identified from three registries in Norway, England, and Germany. In three separate matching procedures, patients were individually matched with respect to both dose equivalents and their respective propensity scores for ACEI treatment. During a follow-up of 21 939 patient-years, 360 (49.5%), 337 (52.4%), and 1119 (33.4%) patients died among those prescribed enalapril, lisinopril, and ramipril, respectively. In univariable analysis of the general sample, enalapril and lisinopril were both associated with higher mortality when compared with ramipril treatment [hazard ratio (HR) 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30-1.65, P < 0.001 and HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.22-1.56, P < 0.001, respectively). Patients prescribed enalapril or lisinopril had similar mortality (HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.92-1.24, P = 0.41). However, there was no significant association between ACEI choice and all-cause mortality in any of the matched samples (HR 1.07, 95% CI 0.91-1.25, P = 0.40; HR 1.12, 95% CI 0.96-1.32, P = 0.16; and HR 1.10, 95% CI 0.93-1.31, P = 0.25 for enalapril vs. ramipril, lisinopril vs. ramipril, and enalapril vs. lisinopril, respectively). Results were confirmed in subgroup analyses with respect to age, sex, left ventricular ejection fraction, New York Class Association functional class, cause of HFrEF, rhythm, and systolic blood pressure. Our results suggest that enalapril, lisinopril, and ramipril are equally effective in the treatment of patients with HFrEF when given at equivalent doses.

  5. The clinical efficacy of methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil in the interventional treatment of uterine incisional pregnancy after cesarean section: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Gu Weijin; Wan Jun; Ji Lihua; Wang Haiyun; Wang Ying; Ji Fang; Chen Qing

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the interventional therapeutic efficacy of methotrexate (MTX) with that of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in treating uterine incisional pregnancy after cesarean section. Methods: A total of 92 patients with uterine incisional pregnancy after cesarean section, who were admitted to the hospital during the period from 2007 to 2010, were randomly divided into two groups: group MTX and group 5-FU. Patients in group MTX (n=46) received intra-arterial infusion of MTX (60-200) mg, which was followed by arterial embolization. Patients in group 5-FU (n=46) received intra-arterial infusion of 5-FU (1000-1250) mg, which was followed by arterial embolization. After the treatment the serum β-HCG and progesterone levels were determined daily for three succeeding days. The patients were followed up for three months. The clinical results were compared between the two groups. Results: The cure rates in group MTX and group 5-FU were 97.2% and 100%, respectively. No significant difference in cure rate existed between the two groups (P>0.05). A rapid fall in the serum β-HCG and progesterone levels within 1-3 days after the treatment were detected in 40 cases of group MTX and 38 cases of group 5-FU, and the decreasing extent was over 50%-80%, but the difference between the two groups was not significant (P>0.05). At the operation day, all patients of both groups had abdominal pain, and three patients in group MTX and 2 patients in 5-FU group had nausea and vomiting, but the difference between the two groups was not significant (P>0.05). During the follow-up period, no significant difference in the recovery time of the mental cycle and the hormone levels were found between the two groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: For the interventional treatment of uterine incisional pregnancy after cesarean section, the use of MTX has the same clinical efficacy as the use of 5-FU does. (authors)

  6. [The comparative assessment of the wound-healing effects of the treatment with the use of Bioptron, Minitag, Orion+ apparatuses and hollow cathode lamps (experimental study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharipova, M M; Voronova, S N; Rukin, E M; Vasilenko, A M

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present experimental study was the comparative assessment of the wound-healing effects of radiation emitted from Bioptron, Minitag, Orion+ apparatuses and hollow cathode lamps (HCL). The emitters of any type were shown to be equally efficacious in that they accelerated wound epithelization by 30% on the average compared with control. Based on the difference between spectral and power characteristics of different sources of radiation and dynamics of their wound-healing efficacy (including that of two types of HCL), the authors arrived at the conclusion that the further development of the proposed approach to wound healing is a promising line of research in the field of spectral phototherapy.

  7. A comparative study of coagulation, granular- and powdered-activated carbon for the removal of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate in drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Pramanik, Sagor Kumar; Suja, Fatihah

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are persistent organic pollutants in the environment and their occurrence causes toxicological effects on humans. We examined different conventional coagulant treatments such as alum, ferric chloride and polyaluminium chloride in removing these compounds. These were then compared with a natural coagulant (Moringa oleifera). We also investigated the powdered-activated carbon (PAC) and granular-activated carbon (GAC) for removing these compounds. At an initial dose of 5 mg/L, polyaluminium chloride led to a higher reduction of PFOS/PFOA compared with alum which in turn was higher than ferric. The removal efficiency increased with the increase in coagulant dose and decrease in pH. M. oleifera was very effective in reducing PFOS and PFOA than conventional coagulants, with a reduction efficiencies of 65% and 72%, respectively, at a dose of 30 mg/L. Both PAC and GAC were very effective in reducing these compounds than coagulations. PAC led to a higher reduction in PFOS and PFOA than GAC due to its greater surface area and shorter internal diffusion distances. The addition of PAC (10 min contact time) with coagulation (at 5 mg/L dosage) significantly increased the removal efficiency, and the maximum removal efficiency was for M. oleifera with 98% and 94% for PFOS and PFOA, respectively. The reduction efficiency of PFOS/PFOA was reduced with the increase in dissolved organic concentration due to the adsorption competition between organic molecules and PFOS/PFOA.

  8. Comparative Effectiveness of the Deqi Sensation and Non-Deqi by Moxibustion Stimulation: A Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study in the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rixin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Substantial evidence has supported that moxibustion stimulates a unique phenomenon of Deqi, heat-sensitive moxibustion sensation. This study consisted of a multicenter, prospective cohort study with two parallel arms (A: heat-sensitive moxibustion sensation group; B: nonheat-sensitive moxibustion sensation group. All forms of moxibustion were applied unilaterally on the right leg with a triangle shape of three acupuncture points simultaneously (bilateral Xi Yan (EX-LE5 and He Ding (EX-LE2. After one month the primary outcome parameter GPCRND-KOA showed significant differences between groups: trial group 5.23 ± 2.65 (adjusted mean ± SE 95% CI [4.44~6.01] versus control group 7.43 ± 2.80 [6.59~8.26], P=0.0001. Significant differences were manifested in total M-JOA score during the follow-up period (P=0.0006. Mean knee circumference indicated significant difference between the groups (P=0.03; P=0.007. Overall, this evidence suggested that the effectiveness of the Deqi sensation group might be more superior than the non-Deqi sensation one in the treatment of KOA. This study was aimed at providing scientific evidence on the Deqi sensation of moxibustion and at showing that heat-sensitive moxibustion sensation is essential to achieve the preferable treatment effects of KOA.

  9. Treatment of adolescent patients with class II division 1 malocclusion using Eruption guidance appliance: A comparative study with Twin-block and Activator-Headgear appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Jenny Jiayan Luo; Shu, Xiaochen; Magnusson, Britt Hedenberg; Burt, Idil Alatli

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the compliance and short-term effects of eruption guidance appliance (EGA) in adolescents with class II division 1 malocclusion in comparison with twin-block appliance (TBA) and activator-headgear appliance (A-HG). Dental records of 1886 patients were viewed in this retrospective study 129 patients treated with one of these three functional appliances were identified. 123 fulfilled the inclusion criteria and data were extracted from the dental records. Gender, age, compliance, overjet change at every visit, number of appliance breakages and number of emergency visits apart from appliance breakage were studied. The data were analyzed with Chi-square test, General Linear Model and Fisher scoring test. Results showed that 47 patients were treated with EGA, 38 patients with TBA and 38 patients with A-HG. Mean ages starting the treatment were slightly lower with EGA (11.5 years) than with TBA (12.3 years) and A-HG (11.8 years). Non-compliance was higher in the EGA group (31.9%) than TBA group (26.3%) and A-HG group (23.7%). Mean overjet reduction per month was 0.6 mm for EGA which was lower than TBA group (0.7 mm) and A-HG groups (0.7 mm).The number of emergency visits and appliance breakage were lower in EGA group. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the 3 groups regarding ages,compliance, mean overjet reduction, emergency visits and appliance breakage aspects. In conclusion, this study indicates that EGA is an alternative choice in the treatment of adolescent patients with class II division 1 malocclusion. However, long-term follow-up and cephalometric prospective study should be performed to continue our understanding more about the mechanisms of EGA and more definite conclusions can be made.

  10. [The costs of new drugs compared to current standard treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujeyl, Mariam; Schlegel, Claudia; Gundert-Remy, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Until AMNOG came into effect Germany had free pricing of new drugs. Our exemplary work investigates the costs of new drugs that were licensed in the two years prior to AMNOG, and compares them to the costs of standard treatment that has been used in pivotal trials. Also, the important components of pharmaceutical prices will be illustrated. We retrospectively analysed the European Public Assessment Reports of proprietary medicinal products that the European Medicinal Agency initially approved in 2009 and 2010 and that were tested against an active control in at least one pivotal trial. If the standard treatment was a generic, the average pharmacy retail price of new drugs was 7.4 times (median 7.1) higher than that of standard treatment. If the standard treatment was an originator drug the average price was 1.4 times (median 1.2) higher than that of the new drug. There was no clear correlation of an increase in costs for new drugs and their "grade of innovation" as rated according to the criteria of Fricke. Our study shows that prices of new drugs must be linked to the evidence of comparative benefit; since German drug pricing is complex, cost saving effects obtained thereby will depend on a range of other rules and decisions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  11. The content of indigo precursors in Isatis tinctoria leaves--a comparative study of selected accessions and post-harvest treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberthür, Christine; Graf, Heidemarie; Hamburger, Matthias

    2004-12-01

    We recently clarified the nature of indigo precursors in woad (Isatis tinctoria L.), by identifying the major indoxyl glycoside as isatan A (indoxyl-3-O-(6'-O-malonyl-beta-D-ribohexo-3-ulopyranoside)), and by correcting the structure of the related isatan B (indoxyl-3-O-beta-D-ribohexo-3-ulopyranoside). A quantitative densitometric assay for isatans A and B, and indican, was established and validated. HPTLC separation on silica gel was followed by densitometric analysis of indigoid pigments formed after treatment with dilute acid or base. The seasonal variation of indoxyl glycosides in woad leaves was investigated with first-year plants (rosette stage) of five defined I. tinctoria L. and one I. indigotica L. accessions. Isatan A content reached up to 7.6% of dry weight in I. tinctoria, and up to 21.8% in I. indigotica. The influence of various post-harvest treatments was studied. High concentrations of isatans A and B were found in freeze-dried leaf samples, whereas the content of indican was lowest. Conventional drying at ambient or 40 degrees C led to complete disappearance of isatans A and B. The concentration of indican, in contrast, was 3- to 5-fold higher in leaf samples submitted to drying at ambient and 40 degrees C, respectively.

  12. Internet-based treatment for panic disorder: A three-arm randomized controlled trial comparing guided (via real-time video sessions) with unguided self-help treatment and a waitlist control. PAXPD study results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuca, Amalia M; Berger, Thomas; Crişan, Liviu G; Miclea, Mircea

    2018-05-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that Internet-based cognitive behavioral treatments (ICBT) are effective to treat anxiety disorders. However, the effect of therapist guidance in ICBT is still under debate and guided ICBT offered in a real-time audio-video communication format has not yet been systematically investigated. This three-arm RCT compared the efficacy of guided with unguided ICBT (12 weeks intervention) and a waitlist (WL). A total of 111 individuals meeting the diagnostic criteria for panic disorder (PD) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions. Primary outcomes were the severity of self-report panic symptoms and diagnostic status. Secondary outcomes were symptoms of depression, functional impairment, catastrophic cognitions, fear of sensations and body vigilance. At post-treatment, both active conditions showed superior outcomes regarding PD and associated symptoms (guided ICBT vs. WL: d = 1.04-1.36; unguided ICBT vs. WL: d = 0.70-1.06). At post-treatment, the two active conditions did not differ significantly in self-reported symptom reduction (d = 0.21-0.54, all ps > 0.05), but the guided treatment was superior to the unguided treatment in terms of diagnostic status (χ 2 (1) = 13.15, p < 0.01). Treatment gains were maintained at successive follow-ups and the guided treatment became superior to the unguided treatment at 6 months follow-up (d = 0.72-1.05, all ps < 0.05). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantitative Assessment of the T2 Relaxation Time of the Gluteus Muscles in Children with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: a Comparative Study Before and After Steroid Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Laor, Tal; Wong, Brenda; Horn, Paul S.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the feasibility of using T2 mapping as a quantitative method to longitudinally follow the disease activity in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) who are treated with steroids. Eleven boys with DMD (age range: 5-14 years) underwent evaluation with the clinical functional score (CFS), and conventional pelvic MRI and T2 mapping before and during steroid therapy. The gluteus muscle inflammation and fatty infiltration were evaluated on conventional MRI. The histograms and mean T2 relaxation times were obtained from the T2 maps. The CFS, the conventional MRI findings and the T2 values were compared before and during steroid therapy. None of the patients showed interval change of their CFSs. On conventional MRI, none of the images showed muscle inflammation. During steroid treatment, two boys showed increased fatty infiltration on conventional MRI, and both had an increase of the mean T2 relaxation time (p < 0.05). The remaining nine boys had no increase in fatty infiltration. Of these, three showed an increased mean T2 relaxation time (p < 0.05), two showed no change and four showed a decreased mean T2 relaxation time (p < 0.05). T2 mapping is a feasible technique to evaluate the longitudinal muscle changes in those children who receive steroid therapy for DMD. The differences of the mean T2 relaxation time may reflect alterations in disease activity, and even when the conventional MRI and CFS remain stable

  14. Quantitative Assessment of the T2 Relaxation Time of the Gluteus Muscles in Children with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: a Comparative Study Before and After Steroid Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Laor, Tal; Wong, Brenda [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati (United States); Horn, Paul S. [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati (United States)

    2010-06-15

    To determine the feasibility of using T2 mapping as a quantitative method to longitudinally follow the disease activity in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) who are treated with steroids. Eleven boys with DMD (age range: 5-14 years) underwent evaluation with the clinical functional score (CFS), and conventional pelvic MRI and T2 mapping before and during steroid therapy. The gluteus muscle inflammation and fatty infiltration were evaluated on conventional MRI. The histograms and mean T2 relaxation times were obtained from the T2 maps. The CFS, the conventional MRI findings and the T2 values were compared before and during steroid therapy. None of the patients showed interval change of their CFSs. On conventional MRI, none of the images showed muscle inflammation. During steroid treatment, two boys showed increased fatty infiltration on conventional MRI, and both had an increase of the mean T2 relaxation time (p < 0.05). The remaining nine boys had no increase in fatty infiltration. Of these, three showed an increased mean T2 relaxation time (p < 0.05), two showed no change and four showed a decreased mean T2 relaxation time (p < 0.05). T2 mapping is a feasible technique to evaluate the longitudinal muscle changes in those children who receive steroid therapy for DMD. The differences of the mean T2 relaxation time may reflect alterations in disease activity, and even when the conventional MRI and CFS remain stable.

  15. Quantitative assessment of the T2 relaxation time of the gluteus muscles in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a comparative study before and after steroid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Laor, Tal; Horn, Paul S; Wong, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    To determine the feasibility of using T2 mapping as a quantitative method to longitudinally follow the disease activity in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) who are treated with steroids. ELEVEN BOYS WITH DMD (AGE RANGE: 5-14 years) underwent evaluation with the clinical functional score (CFS), and conventional pelvic MRI and T2 mapping before and during steroid therapy. The gluteus muscle inflammation and fatty infiltration were evaluated on conventional MRI. The histograms and mean T2 relaxation times were obtained from the T2 maps. The CFS, the conventional MRI findings and the T2 values were compared before and during steroid therapy. None of the patients showed interval change of their CFSs. On conventional MRI, none of the images showed muscle inflammation. During steroid treatment, two boys showed increased fatty infiltration on conventional MRI, and both had an increase of the mean T2 relaxation time (p muscle changes in those children who receive steroid therapy for DMD. The differences of the mean T2 relaxation time may reflect alterations in disease activity, and even when the conventional MRI and CFS remain stable.

  16. Sex work: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Bill; Benoit, Cecilia; Jansson, Mikael

    2014-10-01

    Explanations of adult involvement in sex work typically adopt one of two approaches. One perspective highlights a variety of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence, including physical and sexual abuse, family instability, poverty, associations with "pimps" and other exploiters, homelessness, and drug use. An alternative account recognizes that some of these factors may be involved, but underscores the contribution of more immediate circumstances, such as current economic needs, human capital, and employment opportunities. Prior research offers a limited assessment of these contrasting claims: most studies have focused exclusively on people working in the sex industry and they have not assessed the independent effects of life course variables central to these two perspectives. We add to this literature with an analysis that drew on insights from life course and life-span development theories and considered the contributions of factors from childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Our comparative approach examined predictors of employment in sex work relative to two other low-income service or care work occupations: food and beverage serving and barbering and hairstyling. Using data from a study of almost 600 workers from two cities, one in Canada and the other in the United States, we found that both immediate circumstances and negative experiences from early life are related to current sex work involvement: childhood poverty, abuse, and family instability were independently associated with adult sex work, as were limited education and employment experience, adult drug use, and marital status.

  17. Cell-based regenerative strategies for treatment of diabetic skin wounds, a comparative study between human umbilical cord blood-mononuclear cells and calves' blood haemodialysate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala O El-Mesallamy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetes-related foot problems are bound to increase. However, medical therapies for wound care are limited; therefore, the need for development of new treatment modalities to improve wound healing in diabetic patients is essential and constitutes an emerging field of investigation. METHODS: Animals were randomly divided into 8 groups (I-VIII (32 rats/group, all were streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetics except groups III and VIII were non-diabetic controls. The study comprised two experiments; the first included 3 groups. Group I injected with mononuclear cells (MNCs derived from human umbilical cord blood (HUCB, group II a diabetic control group (PBS i.v. The second experiment included 5 groups, groups IV, V, and VI received topical HUCB-haemodialysate (HD, calves' blood HD, and solcoseryl, respectively. Group VII was the diabetic control group (topical saline. Standard circular wounds were created on the back of rats. A sample of each type of HD was analyzed using the high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS system. Wound area measurement and photography were carried out every 4 days. Plasma glucose, catalase (CAT, malondialdehyde (MDA, nitric oxide (NO and platelets count were assessed. Wound samples were excised for hydroxyproline (HP and histopathological study. RESULTS: Treatment with HUCB MNCs or HUCB-HD resulted in wound contraction, increased CAT, NO, platelets count, body weights, and HP content, and decreased MDA and glucose. CONCLUSION: Systemic administration of HUCB MNCs and topical application of the newly prepared HUCB-HD or calves' blood HD significantly accelerated the rate of diabetic wound healing and would open the possibility of their future use in regenerative medicine.

  18. Comparative evaluation of a bioabsorbable collagen membrane and connective tissue graft in the treatment of localized gingival recession: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsha Mysore Babu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gingival recession (GR can result in root sensitivity, esthetic concern to the patient, and predilection to root caries. The purpose of this randomized clinical study was to evaluate (1 the effect of guided tissue regeneration (GTR procedure using a bioabsorbable collagen membrane, in comparison to autogenous subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG for root coverage in localized gingival recession defects; and (2 the change in width of keratinized gingiva following these two procedures. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 cases, showing at least two localized Miller′s Class I or Class II gingival recession, participated in this study. In a split mouth design, the pairs of defects were randomly assigned for treatment with either SCTG (SCTG Group or GTR-based collagen membrane (GTRC Group. Both the grafts were covered with coronally advanced flap. Recession depth (RD, recession width (RW, width of keratinized gingiva (KG, probing depth (PD, relative attachment level (RAL, plaque index (PI, and gingival index (GI were recorded at baseline, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Results: Six months following root coverage procedures, the mean root coverage was found to be 84.84% ± 16.81% and 84.0% ± 15.19% in SCTG Group and GTRC Group, respectively. The mean keratinized gingival width increase was 1.50 ± 0.70 mm and 2.30 ± 0.67 mm in the SCTG and GTRC group, respectively, which was not statistically significant. Conclusion: It may be concluded that resorbable collagen membrane can be a reliable alternative to autogenous connective tissue graft in the treatment of gingival recession.

  19. Comparative Study on the Cytoprotective Effects of Activated Protein C Treatment in Nonsteatotic and Steatotic Livers under Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akitoshi Matsuda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated protein C (APC has cytoprotective effects on liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI. However, it is unclear whether APC is beneficial in steatotic liver IRI. We compared the cytoprotective effects of APC in nonsteatotic and steatotic liver IRI. Methods. Mice fed either normal diets (ND mice or high fat diets (HF mice, were treated with APC or saline (control and were performed 60 min partial IRI. Moreover, primary steatotic hepatocytes were either untreated or treated with APC and then incubated with H2O2. Results. APC significantly reduced serum transaminase levels and the inflammatory cells infiltration compared with control at 4 h in ND mice and at 24 h in HF mice. APC inhibited sinusoidal endothelial injury in ND mice, but not in HF mice. In contrast, APC activated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation in HF mice, but not in ND mice. In the in vitro study, APC significantly increased AMPK phosphorylation, ATP concentration, and survival rates of hepatocytes compared with control. Conclusion. During IRI in normal liver, APC attenuated initial damage by inhibiting inflammatory cell infiltration and sinusoidal endothelial injury, but not in steatotic liver. However, in steatotic liver, APC might attenuate late damage via activation of AMPK.

  20. Assessment of early treatment response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer using non-mono-exponential diffusion models: a feasibility study comparing the baseline and mid-treatment MRI examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedair, Reem; Manavaki, Roido; Gill, Andrew B.; Abeyakoon, Oshaani; Gilbert, Fiona J. [University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Priest, Andrew N.; Patterson, Andrew J. [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); McLean, Mary A. [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); University of Cambridge, Li Ka Shing Centre, Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Graves, Martin J. [University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Griffiths, John R. [University of Cambridge, Li Ka Shing Centre, Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2017-07-15

    To assess the feasibility of the mono-exponential, bi-exponential and stretched-exponential models in evaluating response of breast tumours to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) at 3 T. Thirty-six female patients (median age 53, range 32-75 years) with invasive breast cancer undergoing NACT were enrolled for diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) prior to the start of treatment. For assessment of early response, changes in parameters were evaluated on mid-treatment MRI in 22 patients. DW-MRI was performed using eight b values (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 300, 600, 900 s/mm{sup 2}). Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), tissue diffusion coefficient (D{sub t}), vascular fraction (Florin), distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC) and alpha (α) parameters were derived. Then t tests compared the baseline and changes in parameters between response groups. Repeatability was assessed at inter- and intraobserver levels. All patients underwent baseline MRI whereas 22 lesions were available at mid-treatment. At pretreatment, mean diffusion coefficients demonstrated significant differences between groups (p < 0.05). At mid-treatment, percentage increase in ADC and DDC showed significant differences between responders (49 % and 43 %) and non-responders (21 % and 32 %) (p = 0.03, p = 0.04). Overall, stretched-exponential parameters showed excellent repeatability. DW-MRI is sensitive to baseline and early treatment changes in breast cancer using non-mono-exponential models, and the stretched-exponential model can potentially monitor such changes. (orig.)

  1. Assessment of early treatment response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer using non-mono-exponential diffusion models: a feasibility study comparing the baseline and mid-treatment MRI examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedair, Reem; Manavaki, Roido; Gill, Andrew B.; Abeyakoon, Oshaani; Gilbert, Fiona J.; Priest, Andrew N.; Patterson, Andrew J.; McLean, Mary A.; Graves, Martin J.; Griffiths, John R.

    2017-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of the mono-exponential, bi-exponential and stretched-exponential models in evaluating response of breast tumours to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) at 3 T. Thirty-six female patients (median age 53, range 32-75 years) with invasive breast cancer undergoing NACT were enrolled for diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) prior to the start of treatment. For assessment of early response, changes in parameters were evaluated on mid-treatment MRI in 22 patients. DW-MRI was performed using eight b values (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 300, 600, 900 s/mm"2). Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), tissue diffusion coefficient (D_t), vascular fraction (Florin), distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC) and alpha (α) parameters were derived. Then t tests compared the baseline and changes in parameters between response groups. Repeatability was assessed at inter- and intraobserver levels. All patients underwent baseline MRI whereas 22 lesions were available at mid-treatment. At pretreatment, mean diffusion coefficients demonstrated significant differences between groups (p < 0.05). At mid-treatment, percentage increase in ADC and DDC showed significant differences between responders (49 % and 43 %) and non-responders (21 % and 32 %) (p = 0.03, p = 0.04). Overall, stretched-exponential parameters showed excellent repeatability. DW-MRI is sensitive to baseline and early treatment changes in breast cancer using non-mono-exponential models, and the stretched-exponential model can potentially monitor such changes. (orig.)

  2. Comparative effectiveness of echinocandins versus fluconazole therapy for the treatment of adult candidaemia due to Candida parapsilosis: a retrospective observational cohort study of the Mycoses Study Group (MSG-12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiotos, Kathleen; Vendetti, Neika; Zaoutis, Theoklis E; Baddley, John; Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis; Pappas, Peter; Fisher, Brian T

    2016-12-01

    A polymorphism in the gene encoding β-1,3-glucan synthase, the target of the echinocandin class of antifungals, results in increased in vitro MICs of the echinocandins. This has resulted in controversy surrounding use of the echinocandins for treatment of Candida parapsilosis candidaemia. We aimed to compare 30 day mortality in adults with C. parapsilosis candidaemia treated with echinocandins versus fluconazole. This is a retrospective observational cohort study. We used the Premier Perspective Database to identify adult patients with C. parapsilosis candidaemia treated with only fluconazole or only an echinocandin as definitive therapy. The primary outcome was 30 day mortality. Propensity scores were derived to estimate the probability the patient would have received either an echinocandin or fluconazole. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) was used in a weighted logistic regression to calculate odds of 30 day mortality. There were 307 unique patients with C. parapsilosis candidaemia. One hundred and twenty-six (41%) received fluconazole and 181 (59%) received an echinocandin. Age, gender, race, year of admission, need for ICU resources in the week prior to candidaemia onset, and receipt of vasopressors on the day of candidaemia onset were included in the propensity score model used to calculate inverse probability of treatment weights. Weighted logistic regression demonstrated no difference in 30 day mortality between patients receiving an echinocandin as compared with fluconazole (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.33-2.07). Our result supports the 2016 IDSA invasive candidiasis guidelines, which no longer clearly favour treatment with fluconazole over an echinocandin for C. parapsilosis candidaemia. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Lateral cephalometric analysis for treatment planning in orthodontics based on MRI compared with radiographs: A feasibility study in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Alexander; Lazo Gonzalez, Eduardo; Hilgenfeld, Tim; Kickingereder, Philipp; Bendszus, Martin; Heiland, Sabine; Ozga, Ann-Kathrin; Sommer, Andreas; Lux, Christopher J; Zingler, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is equivalent to lateral cephalometric radiographs (LCR, "gold standard") in cephalometric analysis. The applied MRI technique was optimized for short scanning time, high resolution, high contrast and geometric accuracy. Prior to orthodontic treatment, 20 patients (mean age ± SD, 13.95 years ± 5.34) received MRI and LCR. MRI datasets were postprocessed into lateral cephalograms. Cephalometric analysis was performed twice by two independent observers for both modalities with an interval of 4 weeks. Eight bilateral and 10 midsagittal landmarks were identified, and 24 widely used measurements (14 angles, 10 distances) were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed by using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Bland-Altman analysis and two one-sided tests (TOST) within the predefined equivalence margin of ± 2°/mm. Geometric accuracy of the MRI technique was confirmed by phantom measurements. Mean intraobserver ICC were 0.977/0.975 for MRI and 0.975/0.961 for LCR. Average interobserver ICC were 0.980 for MRI and 0.929 for LCR. Bland-Altman analysis showed high levels of agreement between the two modalities, bias range (mean ± SD) was -0.66 to 0.61 mm (0.06 ± 0.44) for distances and -1.33 to 1.14° (0.06 ± 0.71) for angles. Except for the interincisal angle (p = 0.17) all measurements were statistically equivalent (p feasibility of orthodontic treatment planning without radiation exposure based on MRI. High-resolution isotropic MRI datasets can be transformed into lateral cephalograms allowing reliable measurements as applied in orthodontic routine with high concordance to the corresponding measurements on LCR.

  4. Comparative dosimetric study of three-dimensional conformal, dynamic conformal arc, and intensity-modulated radiotherapy for brain tumor treatment using Novalis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Meisong; Newman, Francis M.S.; Kavanagh, Brian D.; Stuhr, Kelly M.S.; Johnson, Tim K.; Gaspar, Laurie E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric differences among three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), dynamic conformal arc therapy (DCAT), and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for brain tumor treatment. Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients treated with Novalis were selected. We performed 3D-CRT, DCAT, and IMRT plans for all patients. The margin for the planning target volume (PTV) was 1 mm, and the specific prescription dose was 90% for all plans. The target coverage at the prescription dose, conformity index (CI), and heterogeneity index were analyzed for all plans. Results: For small tumors (PTV ≤2 cm 3 ), the three dosimetric parameters had approximate values for both 3D-CRT and DCAT plans. The CI for the IMRT plans was high. For medium tumors (PTV >2 to ≤100 cm 3 ), the three plans were competitive with each other. The IMRT plans had a greater CI, better target coverage at the prescription dose, and a better heterogeneity index. For large tumors (PTV >100 cm 3 ), the IMRT plan had good target coverage at the prescription dose and heterogeneity index and approximate CI values as those in the 3D-CRT and DCAT plans. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that DCAT is suitable for most cases in the treatment of brain tumors. For a small target, 3D-CRT is useful, and IMRT is not recommended. For larger tumors, IMRT is superior to 3D-CRT and very competitive in sparing critical structures, especially for big tumors

  5. Evaluation the efficacy of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) 33% in treatment of oral retinoid-induced cheilitis compared with placebo (Vaseline): a randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Parvin; Azizian, Zahra; Hejazi, Somayeh; Chalangari, Reza; Chalangari, Katalin Martits

    2018-03-06

    Oral Isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid) is a gold standardtreatment for severe forms of acne with cheilitis as a most frequent complication. We designed this novel study to investigate the therapeutic effect of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) 33% as compared with placebo to treat cheilitis. In this pilot study, 90 acne vulgaris patients between 18 and 50 years, who referred dermatologic clinic with cheilitis, were assigned to either case (TCA) or control (Vaseline) group using permuted-block randomization from 2013 to 2015 with data analysis in 2016. Patients had follow-up visits after 2 and 6 weeks, at which their lesions were photographed. Two blinded expert dermatologists recorded physician International global score for each image. Ninety eligible patients were randomly allocated into two groups. This included 45 patients in each group. At the end of follow-up, 44 patients in the intervention group and 37 patients in control group completed the final assessment. Compared to the control group, the TCA group had a greater reduction in the mean ICGS value from baseline to Week 6 (mean difference 2.59 points, p TCA can be considered as a good strategy in improvement of cheilitis to isotretinoin therapy.

  6. Abandono del tratamiento de la tuberculosis en Nicaragua: resultados de un estudio comparativo Dropout from tuberculosis treatment in Nicaragua: the results of a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma I. Soza Pineda

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar factores relacionados con el abandono (deserción del tratamiento de la tuberculosis en centros de salud de los departamentos de Managua y Matagalpa, en Nicaragua. MÉTODOS: Se diseñó un estudio de casos y testigos pareados por edad y por municipio de tratamiento. Se seleccionaron como casos 251 pacientes mayores de 15 años que abandonaron el tratamiento antituberculoso y como testigos pacientes que concluyeron la farmacoterapia (razón 1:1 durante el periodo de enero de 1998 a diciembre de 2001. Se obtuvieron datos de aspectos demográficos y socioeconómicos, hábitos de vida y características de la atención. Las variables se seleccionaron y agruparon utilizando un modelo teórico jerarquizado. Por medio de un análisis de regresión logística condicional, se estimó la razón de posibilidades (odds ratio, OR, con un intervalo de confianza de 95% (IC95%. RESULTADOS: Son factores de riesgo de abandono de la farmacoterapia antituberculosa: sexo masculino (OR: 2,51; IC 95%: 1,63 a 3,94, residencia inestable o en la calle (OR: 3,08; IC95%: 1,57 a 6,49, cambio de domicilio durante el tratamiento (OR: 4,22; IC95%: 2,06 a 9,93, consumo de bebidas alcohólicas (OR: 5,25; IC95%: 2,43 a 12,94, uso de drogas ilícitas (OR: 5,25; IC95%: 2,43 a 12,94, dificultad de acceso a los servicios de salud (OR: 2,64; IC95%: 1,39 a 5,29 y un concepto negativo de la atención recibida (OR: 5,33; IC95%: 1,52 a 28,56. CONCLUSIÓN: Es indispensable establecer en los servicios de salud medidas que contribuyan a abatir el riesgo de abandono. Es importante recuperar la participación social del sector de la salud mediante acciones comunitarias.OBJECTIVE: To identify factors related to dropping out from tuberculosis treatment in health centers in the departments of Managua and Matagalpa, in Nicaragua. METHODS: This study matched cases and controls (1:1 ratio by age and by municipality of treatment. The 251 cases were patients over 15 years of age

  7. Comparative study of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection due to genotypes 1 and 3 referred for treatment in southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçales Fernando L

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The progression of liver disease in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is influenced by host and viral factors. Distinct clinical outcomes in patients infected with different HCV genotypes have been described in the literatute. However, the association between specific HCV genotype and clinical outcome remains unclear. We set out to study the natural history of HCV genotype 1 and 3 infections in Campinas, São Paulo state, Brazil, focusing on epidemiological, clinical, biochemical, and histological characteristics. Methods Patients with HCV infection referred for treatment between January 2003 and December 2006 were included in this study. We collected epidemiological, clinical, and laboratorial data using standard forms. Results A total of 283 patients were included; genotype 1 was idenfied in 163 (57.6% patients, genotype 3 in 112 (39.6%, genotype 2 in 7 (2.5%, and genotype 4 in 1 (0.35%. Patients with genotype 2 and 4 were excluded from analysis. Multivariate analysis showed that intravenous energetic drug, positive cryoglobulin, and cirrhosis were independently and significantly associated with HCV genotype 3 (p Conclusion Genotype 3 currently seems to be associated with intravenous energetic drug, high frequency of cryoglobulinemia, and advanced liver disease in our region. Understanding the distribution of the different HCV genotypes can elucidate transmission of HCV and support optimal prevention strategies.

  8. Comparative Study of 5-Day and 10-Day Cefditoren Pivoxil Treatments for Recurrent Group A β-Hemolytic Streptococcus pharyngitis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Kikuta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of short-course therapy with cephalosporins for treatment of group A β-hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS pharyngitis is still controversial. Subjects were 226 children with a history of at least one episode of GABHS pharyngitis. Recurrence within the follow-up period (3 weeks after initiation of therapy occurred in 7 of the 77 children in the 5-day treatment group and in 1 of the 149 children in the 10-day treatment group; the incidence of recurrence being significantly higher in the 5-day treatment group. Bacteriologic treatment failure (GABHS isolation without overt pharyngitis at follow-up culture was observed in 7 of the 77 children in the 5-day treatment group and 17 of the 149 children in the 10-day treatment group. There was no statistical difference between the two groups. A 5-day course of oral cephalosporins is not always recommended for treatment of GABHS pharyngitis in children who have repeated episodes of pharyngitis.

  9. Atraumatic Restorative Treatment compared to the Hall Technique for occluso-proximal cavities in primary molars : study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesse, D.; Pinheiro de Araujo, M.; Olegário, I.C.; Innes, N.; Prócida Raggio, D.; Calil Bonifácio, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In many parts of the world, school-age children have high dental treatment needs; however, there is often low, or no, dental care provision. Although Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) was developed to address this, its survival rate in occluso-proximal lesions is low. An

  10. Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) vs laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM) for the treatment of Type III achalasia in 75 patients: a multicenter comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhari, Vivek; Tieu, Alan H; Onimaru, Manabu; El Zein, Mohammad H; Teitelbaum, Ezra N; Ujiki, Michael B; Gitelis, Matthew E; Modayil, Rani J; Hungness, Eric S; Stavropoulos, Stavros N; Shiwaku, Hiro; Kunda, Rastislav; Chiu, Philip; Saxena, Payal; Messallam, Ahmed A; Inoue, Haruhiro; Khashab, Mouen A

    2015-06-01

    Type III achalasia is characterized by rapidly propagating pressurization attributable to spastic contractions. Although laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM) is the current gold standard management for type III achalasia, peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is conceivably superior because it allows for a longer myotomy. Our aims were to compare the efficacy and safety of POEM with LHM for type III achalasia patients. A retrospective study of 49 patients who underwent POEM for type III achalasia across eight centers were compared to 26 patients who underwent LHM at a single institution. Procedural data were abstracted and pre- and post-procedural symptoms were recorded. Clinical response was defined by improvement of symptoms and decrease in Eckardt stage to ≤ 1. Secondary outcomes included length of myotomy, procedure duration, length of hospital stay, and rate of adverse events. Clinical response was significantly more frequent in the POEM cohort (98.0 % vs 80.8 %; P = 0.01). POEM patients had significantly shorter mean procedure time than LHM patients (102 min vs 264 min; P myotomy (16 cm vs 8 cm; P myotomy than LHM, which may result in improved clinical outcomes. POEM appears to be an effective and safe alternative to LHM in patients with type III achalasia.

  11. Do immigrants from Turkey, Pakistan and Yugoslavia receive adequate medical treatment with beta-blockers and statins after acute myocardial infarction compared with Danish-born residents? A register-based follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempler, Nana Folmann; Diderichsen, Finn; Larsen, Finn Breinholt

    2010-01-01

    We undertook a study investigating whether immigrants from Turkey, Pakistan and Yugoslavia received adequate medical treatment with beta-blockers and statins after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) when compared with Danish-born residents and explored whether associations between patient origin...

  12. Anti-bacterial activity of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy: comparative in vitro study of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, mefloquine, and azithromycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mombo-Ngoma Ghyslain

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP is recommended for the prevention of malaria in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa. Increasing drug resistance necessitates the urgent evaluation of alternative drugs. Currently, the most promising candidates in clinical development are mefloquine and azithromycin. Besides the anti-malarial activity, SP is also a potent antibiotic and incurs significant anti-microbial activity when given as IPTp - though systematic clinical evaluation of this action is still lacking. Methods In this study, the intrinsic anti-bacterial activity of mefloquine and azithromycin was assessed in comparison to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine against bacterial pathogens with clinical importance in pregnancy in a standard microdilution assay. Results SP was highly active against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. All tested Gram-positive bacteria, except Enterococcus faecalis, were sensitive to azithromycin. Additionally, azithromycin was active against Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Mefloquine showed good activity against pneumococci but lower in vitro action against all other tested pathogens. Conclusion These data indicate important differences in the spectrum of anti-bacterial activity for the evaluated anti-malarial drugs. Given the large scale use of IPTp in Africa, the need for prospective clinical trials evaluating the impact of antibiotic activity of anti-malarials on maternal and foetal health and on the risk of promoting specific drug resistance of bacterial pathogens is discussed.

  13. La modified TiO{sub 2} photoanode and its effect on DSSC performance: A comparative study of doping and surface treatment on deep and surface charge trapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ako, Rajour Tanyi [Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, BE1410, Negara Brunei Darussalam (Brunei Darussalam); Ekanayake, Piyasiri, E-mail: piyasiri.ekanayake@ubd.edu.bn [Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, BE1410, Negara Brunei Darussalam (Brunei Darussalam); Centre for Advanced Material and Energy Sciences (CAMES), Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, BE1410, Negara Brunei Darussalam (Brunei Darussalam); Tan, Ai Ling [Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, BE1410, Negara Brunei Darussalam (Brunei Darussalam); Young, David James [Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, BE1410, Negara Brunei Darussalam (Brunei Darussalam); Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore DC, Queensland, 4558 (Australia); Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE), Agency for Science, Technology and Research - A*STAR, #08-03, 2 Fusionopolis Way, Innovis, 138634 (Singapore)

    2016-04-01

    The effect of Lanthanum ions (La{sup 3+}) on charge trapping in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) photoanodes has been investigated with doped and surface-treated TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. Doped nanoparticles consisting of 0.5 mol.% Mg and La co-doped TiO{sub 2}, 0.5 mol.% Mg doped TiO{sub 2} and pure TiO{sub 2} were synthesized by the sol gel method. Surface-treated nanoparticles of Mg doped TiO{sub 2} and pure TiO{sub 2} were prepared by ball milling in 0.05 M aqueous La{sup 3+} solution. All materials were analyzed by XRD, XPS and UV–Vis DRS. Cell performance, surface free energy state changes and electron injection efficiency of DSSCs based on these nanoparticles were evaluated using current –voltage measurements, EIS and Incident photon to current conversion efficiency. Doped materials had La and Mg ions incorporated into the TiO{sub 2} lattice, while no lattice changes were observed for the surface-treated materials. Less visible light was absorbed by treated oxides compared with doped oxide samples. The overall power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of DSSC photoanodes based on doped materials were twice those of photoanodes fabricated from treated nanoparticles. Doping establishes deep traps that reduce the recombination of electron–hole (e–h) pairs. Conversely, the presence of absorbed oxygen in treated materials enhances e–h recombination with electrolyte at surface trap sites. - Highlights: • DSSC performance is investigated using photoanodes of doped and La{sup 3+} surface treated TiO{sub 2}. • TiO{sub 2} and Mg–TiO{sub 2} treated with La{sup 3+} absorbed less visible light. • A high concentration of absorbed oxygen on surface treated oxides reduced band bending. • Increased surface free energy in the modified DSSC anodes is caused more by Mg{sup 2+} at Ti{sup 4+} than by La{sup 3+} at the surfaces. • Near surface charge traps due to La{sup 3+} treatment promotes e–h recombination.

  14. [Nonprocess autism in children: comparative etiopathogenetic study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, V E

    1979-01-01

    Etiopathogenesis of the childhood autism syndrome of a non-process nature is discussed on the basis of a comparative study of 156 children aged from 3 to 16 years. In the etiological complex there is a prevalence of early exogenous-organic noxious factors, which is reflected in disturbances of mental divelopment, maturation of the system of hemispheric pair work. The data of follow-up studies and treatment confirm a conclusion about a residual-organic basis in the syndrome of childhood autism.

  15. Salicylic acid peeling combined with vitamin C mesotherapy versus salicylic acid peeling alone in the treatment of mixed type melasma: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balevi, Ali; Ustuner, Pelin; Özdemir, Mustafa

    2017-10-01

    Melasma is a distressing condition for both dermatologists and patients. We evaluated the effectiveness of salicylic acid (SA) peel and vitamin C mesotherapy in the treatment of melasma. Fifty female patients were divided into two groups. All patients were treated with 30% SA peel every two weeks for two months. In addition, after SA peeling Group A was intradermally administered 10 vitamin C on the melasma lesion at 1-cm intervals. All patients were followed up for 6 months, during which the recurrence rates were evaluated. Digital photographs of the melasma site were taken and patients' Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI) scores were assessed. After the treatment, the patients were asked to complete the melasma quality of life questionnaire (MelasQoL) to evaluate their satisfaction with the treatment. All the adverse effects were noted. The MelasQoL and MASI scores of patients in both groups significantly decreased after the treatment. Apart from a burning sensation, no adverse event was observed and all patients tolerated the treatment well. SA peel combined with vitamin C mesotherapy is a safe and effective alternative for the treatment of melasma with no significant side effects and minimal downtime.

  16. Paracetamol suppositories: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, S; Kenny, D; Ward, O C; Sabra, K

    1989-01-01

    Paracetamol suppositories in two different bases were given to children who had fever after operations. Plasma concentrations and the effect on temperature were compared. There was a significant correlation between peak plasma concentrations and maximum drop in temperature. A lipophilic base produced better results than a hydrophilic base. PMID:2817936

  17. Paracetamol suppositories: a comparative study.

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, S; Kenny, D; Ward, O C; Sabra, K

    1989-01-01

    Paracetamol suppositories in two different bases were given to children who had fever after operations. Plasma concentrations and the effect on temperature were compared. There was a significant correlation between peak plasma concentrations and maximum drop in temperature. A lipophilic base produced better results than a hydrophilic base.

  18. A mathematical theory of shape and neuro-fuzzy methodology-based diagnostic analysis: a comparative study on early detection and treatment planning of brain cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Subrata; Majumder, D Dutta

    2017-08-01

    hidden layer of 10 neurons and 2 output neurons. Of the 16-sample database, 10 datasets for training, 3 datasets for validation, and 3 datasets for testing were used in the ANN classification system. From the SSM (µ) confusion matrix, the number of output datasets of true positive, false positive, true negative and false negative was 6, 0, 10, and 0, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were each equal to 100%. The method of diagnosing brain cancer presented in this study is a successful model to assist doctors in the screening and treatment of brain cancer patients. The presented FES successfully identified the presence of brain cancer in CT and MR images using the extracted shape-based features and the use of NFS for the identification of brain cancer in the early stages. From the analysis and diagnosis of the disease, the doctors can decide the stage of cancer and take the necessary steps for more accurate treatment. Here, we have presented an investigation and comparison study of the shape-based feature extraction method with the use of NFS for classifying brain tumors as showing normal or abnormal patterns. The results have proved that the shape-based features with the use of NFS can achieve a satisfactory performance with 100% accuracy. We intend to extend this methodology for the early detection of cancer in other regions such as the prostate region and human cervix.

  19. A comparative study of itraconazole in various dose schedules in the treatment of pulmonary aspergilloma in treated patients of pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prahlad Rai Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The optimal dose, duration, and efficacy of itraconazole in Indian patients of pulmonary aspergilloma (PA are not clearly defined. Therefore, a study was carried out, to resolve these issues in diagnosed cases of PA complicating old treated patients of pulmonary tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: The study patients randomly received itraconazole either in a fixed dose schedule of 200 mg (group I, 200 mg twice daily (group II or a variable dose schedule (group III, for 12 months. All the patients were followed up for the entire duration of the study for clinical, radiological, and immunological response. The side effects were recorded as and when reported by the patients and managed symptomatically. Results: A total of 60 patients were enrolled, 20, in each group. There were no intergroup differences with regard to age, sex, body weight, smoking status, alcohol intake, symptoms, Potassium hydroxide (KOH mount, fungal culture, pattern of radiological lesions or anti-aspergillus antibodies (anti-Asp-Ab titers. The radiological response was poor in group I patients, as compared to the other groups, at two months (P < 0.05. The dose of itraconazole was increased in five of the patients in group I due to poor response. A higher number of group II patients suffered side effects and the dose of itraconazole had to be decreased in three of these patients, but none of the patients on a variable dose schedule required a change in dose schedule. Conclusion: Thus, a weight-based variable dose schedule of itraconazole was found to be a more effective and safer modality in the management of PA than a fixed dose schedule.

  20. Comparing open and minimally invasive surgical procedures for oesophagectomy in the treatment of cancer: the ROMIO (Randomised Oesophagectomy: Minimally Invasive or Open) feasibility study and pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Chris; Avery, Kerry; Berrisford, Richard; Barham, Paul; Noble, Sian M; Fernandez, Aida Moure; Hanna, George; Goldin, Robert; Elliott, Jackie; Wheatley, Timothy; Sanders, Grant; Hollowood, Andrew; Falk, Stephen; Titcomb, Dan; Streets, Christopher; Donovan, Jenny L; Blazeby, Jane M

    2016-06-01

    Localised oesophageal cancer can be curatively treated with surgery (oesophagectomy) but the procedure is complex with a risk of complications, negative effects on quality of life and a recovery period of 6-9 months. Minimal-access surgery may accelerate recovery. The ROMIO (Randomised Oesophagectomy: Minimally Invasive or Open) study aimed to establish the feasibility of, and methodology for, a definitive trial comparing minimally invasive and open surgery for oesophagectomy. Objectives were to quantify the number of eligible patients in a pilot trial; develop surgical manuals as the basis for quality assurance; standardise pathological processing; establish a method to blind patients to their allocation in the first week post surgery; identify measures of postsurgical outcome of importance to patients and clinicians; and establish the main cost differences between the surgical approaches. Pilot parallel three-arm randomised controlled trial nested within feasibility work. Two UK NHS departments of upper gastrointestinal surgery. Patients aged ≥ 18 years with histopathological evidence of oesophageal or oesophagogastric junctional adenocarcinoma, squamous cell cancer or high-grade dysplasia, referred for oesophagectomy or oesophagectomy following neoadjuvant chemo(radio)therapy. Oesophagectomy, with patients randomised to open surgery, a hybrid open chest and minimally invasive abdomen or totally minimally invasive access. The primary outcome measure for the pilot trial was the number of patients recruited per month, with the main trial considered feasible if at least 2.5 patients per month were recruited. During 21 months of recruitment, 263 patients were assessed for eligibility; of these, 135 (51%) were found to be eligible and 104 (77%) agreed to participate, an average of five patients per month. In total, 41 patients were allocated to open surgery, 43 to the hybrid procedure and 20 to totally minimally invasive surgery. Recruitment is continuing

  1. Arthroscopic release using F and C method versus conventional open release method in the treatment of gluteal muscle contracture: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Saroj; Jin, Shengyang; Meng, Chunqing; Chaudhary, Nabin; Tamang, Nira; Wang, Xiaohong; Liu, Xianzhe; Wang, Hong; Yang, Shuhua

    2017-03-16

    Gluteal muscle contracture (GMC), a debilitating disease, usually starts in early childhood after variable dose of injections around the buttock, if left untreated it worsens gradually and persists throughout the life. Because the disease mostly affects adolescents and adults, there is always an aesthetic concerns. Purposeof the study was to introduce the arthroscopic F and C method of GMC release, and to compare its clinical efficiency with conventional open surgery in terms of clinical outcome, rate of complications, patient's satisfactions, and recurrence. Between Jan 2013 and July 2015, 75 patients received an arthroscopic release with F and C release method and 71 patients received conventional open release of GMC. Primary surgeries in 16 years or older patients were included in the study. Two groups were compared clinically using Hip Outcome Scores - Activities of Daily Living Subscale (HOS-ADL), Hip Outcome Scores - Sports Subscale (HOS-Sports), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and Ye et al. evaluation criteria. No statistically significant differences were observed in Hip Outcome Scores - Activities of Daily Living Subscale (HOS-ADL) (P = 0.078), Hip Outcome Scores - Sports Subscale (HOS-Sports) (P = 0.340), and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) (P = 0.524) between the two groups. 74 (98.7%) patients in the arthroscopic surgery group had good to excellent results, whereas 69 (97.1%) patients in the conventional open surgery group had good to excellent results (P = 0.727). No statistically significant difference was observed in recurrence rate (P = 0.612). Statistically significant differences were observed in incision length, use of post-operative analgesia, post-operative off-bed activity, and hospital stay. Complications were significantly higher in the conventional open surgery group (n = 21) than in the arthroscopic surgery group (n = 10) (P = 0.016). More importantly, cosmetic satisfaction was 100% in arthroscopic release group

  2. [Comparative study of proximal femoral shortening after the third generation of Gamma nail versus proximal femoral nail anti-rotation in treatment of intertrochanteric fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yu; Yao, Qi; Zhang, Gen'ai; Ding, Lixiang

    2018-03-01

    To explore the difference of the proximal femoral shortening (PFS) between the third generation of Gamma nail (TGN) and the proximal femoral nail anti-rotation (PFNA) in treating intertrochanteric fracture of femur. The clinical data of 158 patients with intertrochanteric fracture of femur who were treated with TGN internal fixation or PFNA internal fixation between January 2014 and December 2015 were retrospectively analysed. The patients were divided into TGN group (69 cases) and PFNA group (89 cases) according to surgical operation. There was no significant difference in gender, age, bone mineral density, causes of injury, AO/Association for the Study of Internal Fixation (AO/ASIF) classification, accompanied disease, and the time from injury to operation between 2 groups ( P >0.05). The result of fracture reduction was divided into 3 types: positive medial cortex support, neutral position cortex support, and negative medial cortex support according to the method of Chang et al . At 18 months postoperatively, bilateral hip anteroposterior X-ray films were taken to measure horizontal PFS values (marked as X), vertical PFS values (marked as Y), and calculate the total PFS values (marked as Z). The PFS values were divided into 4 grades according to the criteria (≤1.0 mm, 1.0-4.9 mm, 5.0-9.9 mm, and ≥10.0 mm), and the constituent ratio was calculated and compared between 2 groups. The X, Y, and Z values and the collodiaphyseal angles of 2 groups at 18 months postoperatively were compared. The X, Y, and Z values of 2 groups of patients with failed fixation and normal healing within 18 months after operation were recorded and compared. The X, Y, and Z values of 2 groups of the patients with different cortex support types were also compared. There were 34 cases of positive medial cortex support, 30 cases of neutral position cortex support, and 5 cases of negative medial cortex support in TGN group, and there were 45, 33, and 11 cases in PFNA group respectively

  3. [Comparative study on Chinese medical syndrome typing and treatment combined different surgical methods for treating clomiphene-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lei; Zeng, Cheng; Tao, Li-Li

    2012-11-01

    To observe the therapeutic efficacy of Chinese medical syndrome typing and treatment combined cold needle puncture drainage operation or unipolar electrocoagulation drilling technique under laparoscope for treating clomiphene-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Forty infertility patients with clomiphene-resistant PCOS were assigned to two groups using stratified random sampling method according to age, infertility time, and body mass index, 20 in each group. Patients in Group A were treated with Chinese medical syndrome typing and treatment combined cold needle puncture drainage operation, while those in Group B were treated with Chinese medical syndrome typing and treatment combined unipolar electrocoagulation drilling technique. After operation Chinese herbal treatment was administered to all patients according to syndrome typing. The serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), androgen (T), estradiol (E2), and prolactin (PRL) were determined before and after operation. The ovulation was monitored. The pregnancy rate and the pregnancy outcomes were recorded after operation. There was no statistical difference in the 3-month spontaneous ovulation rate or the 1-year pregnancy rate (P > 0.05). The levels of LH, T, and PRL were significantly lower after operation than before operation in the two groups (P typing and treatment combined cold needle puncture drainage operation or unipolar electrocoagulation drilling technique could effectively promote the ovulation. The two methods showed similar therapeutic effects.

  4. A comparative study of the therapeutic effect between long and short intramedullary nails in the treatment of intertrochanteric femur fractures in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Ke-Ming; Fu, Hong-Bo; Cao, Wen; Dong, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    To compare the clinical effects of long vs. short intramedullary nails in the treatment of intertrochanteric fractures in old patients more than 65 years old. A retrospective analysis of 178 cases of intertrochanteric fractures of the femur (AO type A1 and A2) in the elderly was conducted from January 2008 to December 2013. There were 85 males (47.8%) and 93 females (52.2%) with the age of 65e89 (70.2±10.8) years. The patients were treated by closed reduction and long or short intramedullary nail (Gamma 3) fixation. The length of short nail was 180 mm and that for long nail was 320e360 mm. The general data of patients, operation time, intraoperative blood loss, length of hospital stay, preoperative hemoglobin level, blood transfusion rate, postoperative periprosthetic fractures, infections, complications, etc were carefully recorded. There were 76 cases (42.7%) in the long intramedullary nail group and 102 cases (57.3%) in the short nail group. All the cases were followed up for 12e48 (21.3±6.8) months, during which there were 21 deaths (11.8%), mean (13.8±6.9) months after operation. The intraoperative blood loss was (90.7±50.6) ml in short nail group, greatly less than that in long nail group (127.8±85.9) ml (p=0.004). The short nail group also had a significantly shorter operation time (43.5 min±12.3 min vs. 58.5 min±20.3 min, p=0.002) and lower rate of postoperative transfusion (42.3% vs. 56.7%, p=0.041). But the length of hospital stay showed no big differences. After operation, in each group there was 1 case of periprosthetic fracture with a total incidence of 1.1%, 1.3% in long nail group and 0.9% in short nail group. At the end of the follow-up, all patients achieved bony union. The average healing time of the long nail group was (6.5±3.1) months, and the short nail group was (6.8±3.7) months, revealing no significant differences (p=0.09). Postoperative complications showed no great differences either. Both the intramedullary long and short nail

  5. Drug treatment of bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms after ureteric JJ-stent insertion: A contemporary, comparative, prospective, randomised placebo-controlled study, single-centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekal, Ihab A

    2016-12-01

    To provide a guide for medication to alleviate bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients after JJ ureteric stenting. Between June 2011 and June 2015, a prospective randomised placebo-controlled study was conducted on 200 consecutive cases of ureteric stones that required JJ stents. All patients had signed informed consent and JJ-stent placement confirmed by X-ray. The patients were randomised into five groups: A, solifenacin 5 mg; B, trospium chloride 20 mg; C, antispasmodic; and E, α-blocker; and a placebo group (D). A standard model was created to lessen patient selection bias. Eligible patients were enrolled and assessed for side-effects and bothersome LUTS using the validated Ureteric Stent Symptoms Questionnaire. Appropriate statistical analysis was carried out. In all, 150 male patients in the five groups were compared. LUTS were less in groups A and B ( P  JJ-stent insertion, anti-muscarinic medication, namely solifenacin 5 mg or trospium chloride 20 mg, was the best. The advantage of trospium over solifenacin is in the control of frequency rather than the other symptoms. Addition of an α-blocker (alfuzosin 10 mg) is valuable when nocturia is the predominant symptom.

  6. Comparative study of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) as a treatment for retinal dystrophies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Marina; Fontrodona, Laura; Albert, Silvia; Ramirez, Diana Mora; Seriola, Anna; Salas, Anna; Muñoz, Yolanda; Ramos, David; Villegas-Perez, Maria Paz; Zapata, Miguel Angel; Raya, Angel; Ruberte, Jesus; Veiga, Anna; Garcia-Arumi, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Retinal dystrophies (RD) are major causes of familial blindness and are characterized by progressive dysfunction of photoreceptor and/or retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. In this study, we aimed to evaluate and compare the therapeutic effects of two pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-based therapies. We differentiated RPE from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and transplanted them into the subretinal space of the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat. Once differentiated, cells from either source of PSC resembled mature RPE in their morphology and gene expression profile. Following transplantation, both hESC- and hiPSC-derived cells maintained the expression of specific RPE markers, lost their proliferative capacity, established tight junctions, and were able to perform phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments. Remarkably, grafted areas showed increased numbers of photoreceptor nuclei and outer segment disk membranes. Regardless of the cell source, human transplants protected retina from cell apoptosis, glial stress and accumulation of autofluorescence, and responded better to light stimuli. Altogether, our results show that hESC- and hiPSC-derived cells survived, migrated, integrated, and functioned as RPE in the RCS rat retina, providing preclinical evidence that either PSC source could be of potential benefit for treating RD. PMID:27006969

  7. Comparative study of human embryonic stem cells (hESC and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC as a treatment for retinal dystrophies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Riera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal dystrophies (RD are major causes of familial blindness and are characterized by progressive dysfunction of photoreceptor and/or retinal pigment epithelium (RPE cells. In this study, we aimed to evaluate and compare the therapeutic effects of two pluripotent stem cell (PSC-based therapies. We differentiated RPE from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs or human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs and transplanted them into the subretinal space of the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS rat. Once differentiated, cells from either source of PSC resembled mature RPE in their morphology and gene expression profile. Following transplantation, both hESC- and hiPSC-derived cells maintained the expression of specific RPE markers, lost their proliferative capacity, established tight junctions, and were able to perform phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments. Remarkably, grafted areas showed increased numbers of photoreceptor nuclei and outer segment disk membranes. Regardless of the cell source, human transplants protected retina from cell apoptosis, glial stress and accumulation of autofluorescence, and responded better to light stimuli. Altogether, our results show that hESC- and hiPSC-derived cells survived, migrated, integrated, and functioned as RPE in the RCS rat retina, providing preclinical evidence that either PSC source could be of potential benefit for treating RD.

  8. Use of refractory-metal alloys in the Next European Torus divertor design, and comparative study of mechanical properties after disruptive heat loads or brazing and ageing treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moons, Frans; Falbriard, Patricia; Nicolas, Guy; Faron, Robert

    1990-01-01

    A limited comparative study of ten refractory metals and alloys has been made to evaluate materials for use in the divertor element of the Next European Torus (NET). Tensile tests up to 800 0 C were performed on sintered molybdenum, wrought molybdenum, Z6 (Mo-ZrO 2 ), Mo-5Re, Mo-41Re, sintered tungsten, wrought tungsten, W-5Re, and W-26Re, in delivery state and after ageing for 10 days at 600 0 C; the 10 days of ageing simulated the integrated divertor lifetime. Slow bend tests were done from room temperature to 800 0 C and 600 0 C respectively on samples of refractory metal previously brazed to graphite or to copper; the brazing process was representative of part of the manufacturing process. Finally, impact tests up to 800 0 C were carried out on samples disposed to high-energy flux deposition of 3 or 15 MJ m -2 by laser; this was to simulate the energy deposition that might occur on the material during a plasma disruption. The resulting ranking of materials is of course criteria-dependent, but generally speaking Mo-41Re scored the best as 'engineering' material, followed by TZM. (author)

  9. [A comparative study between two procedures of TVT retropubic mid-urethral sling placement for treatment of female stress urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergent, F; Gay-Crosier, G; Resch, B; Pons, J-C; Marpeau, L

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate complications and functional outcomes at 1 year and more of a modified Tension-free Vaginal Tape (TVT) technique from that of classic TVT. Retrospective study comparing the two techniques. For the modified TVT technique, a peri-urethrovesical hydrodissection was performed. An 18-gauge hollow needle, in which a thread was introduced, was used as an ancillary for the placement of the sling. The sling was secured to the thread and then positioned with it. Bladder filling objectified perforations. An absorbable suture around the sling allowed its descent if necessary. One hundred and eighteen procedures were performed (54 classic TVT and 64 modified TVT). For the standard TVT and the modified TVT, the vesico-urethral perforation rates were respectively 7.4% and 1.5% (PTVT versus 88.2% and 90% for the modified TVT (NS). The dissatisfaction rate was lower for the modified TVT (PTVT, it is possible to reduce its complications while maintaining its efficacy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. The treatment of an unstable slipped capital femoral epiphysis by either intracapsular cuneiform osteotomy or pinning in situ: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, R D M; Martin, E; Wright, D; Garg, N K; Perry, D; Bass, A; Bruce, C

    2015-03-01

    We undertook a retrospective comparative study of all patients with an unstable slipped capital femoral epiphysis presenting to a single centre between 1998 and 2011. There were 45 patients (46 hips; mean age 12.6 years; 9 to 14); 16 hips underwent intracapsular cuneiform osteotomy and 30 underwent pinning in situ, with varying degrees of serendipitous reduction. No patient in the osteotomy group was lost to follow-up, which was undertaken at a mean of 28 months (11 to 48); four patients in the pinning in situ group were lost to follow-up, which occurred at a mean of 30 months (10 to 50). Avascular necrosis (AVN) occurred in four hips (25%) following osteotomy and in 11 (42%) following pinning in situ. AVN was not seen in five hips for which osteotomy was undertaken > 13 days after presentation. AVN occurred in four of ten (40%) hips undergoing emergency pinning in situ, compared with four of 15 (47%) undergoing non-emergency pinning. The rate of AVN was 67% (four of six) in those undergoing pinning on the second or third day after presentation. Pinning in situ following complete reduction led to AVN in four out of five cases (80%). In comparison, pinning in situ following incomplete reduction led to AVN in 7 of 21 cases (33%). The rate of development of AVN was significantly higher following pinning in situ with complete reduction than following intracapsular osteotomy (p = 0.048). Complete reduction was more frequent in those treated by emergency pinning and was strongly associated with AVN (p = 0.005). Non-emergency intracapsular osteotomy may have a protective effect on the epiphyseal vasculature and should be undertaken with a delay of at least two weeks. The place of emergency pinning in situ in these patients needs to be re-evaluated, possibly in favour of an emergency open procedure or delayed intracapsular osteotomy. Non-emergency pinning in situ should be undertaken after a delay of at least five days, with the greatest risk at two and three days after

  11. Comparing high altitude treatment with current best care in Dutch children with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (and asthma): study protocol for a pragmatic randomized controlled trial (DAVOS trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieten, Karin B; Zijlstra, Wieneke T; van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; Meijer, Yolanda; Venema, Monica Uniken; Rijssenbeek-Nouwens, Lous; l'Hoir, Monique P; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla A; Pasmans, Suzanne G M A

    2014-03-26

    About 10 to 20% of children in West European countries have atopic dermatitis (AD), often as part of the atopic syndrome. The full atopic syndrome also consists of allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis and food allergy. Treatment approaches for atopic dermatitis and asthma include intermittent anti-inflammatory therapy with corticosteroids, health education and self-management training. However, symptoms persist in a subgroup of patients. Several observational studies have shown significant improvement in clinical symptoms in children and adults with atopic dermatitis or asthma after treatment at high altitude, but evidence on the efficacy when compared to treatment at sea level is still lacking. This study is a pragmatic randomized controlled trial for children with moderate to severe AD within the atopic syndrome. Patients are eligible for enrolment in the study if they are: diagnosed with moderate to severe AD within the atopic syndrome, aged between 8 and 18 years, fluent in the Dutch language, have internet access at home, able to use the digital patient system Digital Eczema Center Utrecht (DECU), willing and able to stay in Davos for a six week treatment period. All data are collected at the Wilhelmina Children's Hospital and DECU. Patients are randomized over two groups. The first group receives multidisciplinary inpatient treatment during six weeks at the Dutch Asthma Center in Davos, Switzerland. The second group receives multidisciplinary treatment during six weeks at the outpatient clinic of the Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, Utrecht, the Netherlands. The trial is not conducted as a blind trial. The trial is designed with three components: psychosocial, clinical and translational. Primary outcomes are coping with itch, quality of life and disease activity. Secondary outcomes include asthma control, medication use, parental quality of life, social and emotional wellbeing of the child and translational parameters. The results of this trial will provide

  12. Liquid nitrogen or phenolization for giant cell tumor of bone?: a comparative cohort study of various standard treatments at two tertiary referral centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, L. van der; Geest, I.C.M. van der; Schreuder, H.W.B.; Sande, M.A.B. van der; Dijkstra, P.D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The rate of recurrence of giant cell tumor of bone is decreased by use of adjuvant treatments such as phenol, liquid nitrogen, or polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) during curettage. We assessed recurrence and complication rates and functional outcome after curettage with use of phenol and

  13. A Retrospective Study Comparing Tension-free Vaginal Tape and Transobturator Suburethral Tape for Surgical Treatment of Female Stress Urinary Incontinence — A Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hwa Yang

    2007-12-01

    Conclusion: There appears to be equal efficacy between TVT and TVT-O for the surgical treatment of female SUI, but operative time was significantly shorter in the TVT-O group because intraoperative cystoscopic check-up is not required.

  14. A 15-Year Comparative Prospective Study of Surgical and Prosthetic Care and Aftercare of Overdenture Treatment in the Atrophied Mandible : Augmentation Versus Nonaugmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Anita; Stellingsma, Cornelis; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Meijer, Henny J. A.; Vissink, Arjan

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundDifferent treatment strategies for the atrophied mandible are described in literature. The need for long term care and aftercare for these strategies is sparsely described, however. PurposeTo prospectively assess the need for prosthetic and surgical care and aftercare of two implant

  15. A Randomized, Open-Label, Non-Inferiority Study of Intravenous Iron Isomaltoside 1,000 (Monofer) Compared With Oral Iron for Treatment of Anemia in IBD (PROCEED)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinisch, Walter; Staun, Michael; Tandon, Rakesh K

    2013-01-01

    In the largest head-to-head comparison between an oral and an intravenous (IV) iron compound in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) so far, we strived to determine whether IV iron isomaltoside 1,000 is non-inferior to oral iron sulfate in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia (IDA)....

  16. Is interpersonal counselling (IPC) sufficient treatment for depression in primary care patients? A pilot study comparing IPC and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontunen, Jarmo; Timonen, Markku; Muotka, Joona; Liukkonen, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Psychotherapeutic treatment is underused in primary care, where even short-term psychotherapy can be perceived as too lengthy and labour-intensive. We tested here for the first time the preliminary efficacy of seven sessions of interpersonal counselling (IPC) by comparison with sixteen sessions of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) in regular clinical settings. Patients seeking treatment for the first time who met the DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD, mild/moderate) were randomized to either IPC (n=20) or IPT (n=20). The efficacy of the treatments was assessed using the 34-item Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation (CORE-OM) scale and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scale. 90% of the patients completed all the treatment sessions. IPC delivered by psychiatric nurses in primary care proved equally as effective as IPT delivered by psychotherapists/psychologists in secondary care. The pre-treatment to 12-month follow-up within-group effect sizes were large: 1.52 (CORE-OM) and 1.41 (BDI) in the IPC group and 1.58 (CORE-OM) and 1.40 (BDI) in the IPT group. At the 12-month follow-up 59% of the patients in the IPC group and 63% in the IPT group were classified as recovered on the CORE-OM scale, with corresponding remission rates of 61% for both groups on the BDI scale. The small sample size limited the power to detect differences between the groups and the naturalistic settings may have confounded the results. This clinical trial suggests that IPC is an appropriate and even sufficient first-phase intervention for handling previously untreated mild to moderate depression in primary health care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative study between trabeculectomy with photodynamic therapy (BCECF-AM and trabeculectomy with antimetabolite (MMC in the treatment of primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed AM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed M SaeedOphthalmology Department, Benha University, Benha, EgyptBackground: Various methods have been investigated to avoid postoperative scarring of the filtering bleb in modern glaucoma surgery. Most deal with the application of antimetabolic drugs such as mitomycin C (MMC. 2’,7’-bis-(2-carboxyethyl-5-(and-6-carboxyfluorescein, acetoxymethyl ester (BCECF-AM is a locally acting intracellular photosensitizer which could control and decrease postoperative fibrosis at the trabeculectomy site.Purpose: To compare the effect of photodynamic therapy in combination with trabeculectomy to the effect of MMC combined with the same procedure in controlling postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP in patients with medically uncontrolled primary open angle glaucoma (1ry OAG.Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 76 eyes of 76 patients divided into three groups undergoing trabeculectomy, trabeculectomy with BCECF-AM (group A, trabeculectomy with MMC (group B, and trabeculectomy only as a control group (group C. Patients were reviewed postoperatively for clinical evaluation and photo documentation of the blebs with a fundus camera and ultrasonic biomicroscopy (UBM. The desirable effect of the adjunctive material was evaluated according to the clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety by comparison with the control group.Setting: Benha University Hospital, Benha, Egypt.Results: After a mean follow-up of 24 months, all procedures succeeded in lowering IOP. The cumulative probability of complete success at the 24 month follow-up was 91% for group B, compared to 82% and 81.5% for group A and group C, respectively. The percentage of complete success was highest for group B, second highest for group A, and lowest for group C over the follow-up period; however, these differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05. Regarding the bleb morphology and UBM reflectivity, the differences were not statistically significant (P > 0

  18. INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE PEELING VERSUS INVERTED FLAP TECHNIQUE FOR TREATMENT OF FULL-THICKNESS MACULAR HOLES: A COMPARATIVE STUDY IN A LARGE SERIES OF PATIENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Stanislao; Tartaro, Ruggero; Barca, Francesco; Caporossi, Tomaso; Bacherini, Daniela; Giansanti, Fabrizio

    2017-12-08

    The inverted flap (IF) technique has recently been introduced in macular hole (MH) surgery. The IF technique has shown an increase of the success rate in the case of large MHs and in MHs associated with high myopia. This study reports the anatomical and functional results in a large series of patients affected by MH treated using pars plana vitrectomy and gas tamponade combined with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling or IF. This is a retrospective, consecutive, nonrandomized comparative study of patients affected by idiopathic or myopic MH treated using small-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (25- or 23-gauge) between January 2011 and May 2016. The patients were divided into two groups according to the ILM removal technique (complete removal vs. IF). A subgroup analysis was performed according to the MH diameter (MH peeling and 320 patients underwent pars plana vitrectomy and IF. Overall, 84.94% of the patients had complete anatomical success characterized by MH closure after the operation. In particular, among the patients who underwent only ILM peeling the closure rate was 78.75%; among the patients who underwent the IF technique, it was 91.93% (P = 0.001); and among the patients affected by full-thickness MH ≥400 µm, success was achieved in 95.6% of the cases in the IF group and in 78.6% in the ILM peeling group (P = 0.001); among the patients with an axial length ≥26 mm, success was achieved in 88.4% of the cases in the IF group and in 38.9% in the ILM peeling group (P = 0.001). Average preoperative best-corrected visual acuity was 0.77 (SD = 0.32) logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (20/118 Snellen) in the peeling group and 0.74 (SD = 0.33) logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (20/110 Snellen) in the IF group (P = 0.31). Mean postoperative best-corrected visual acuity was 0.52 (SD = 0.42) logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (20/66 Snellen) in the peeling group and 0.43 (SD = 0.31) logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (20

  19. KAST Study: The Kiva System As a Vertebral Augmentation Treatment-A Safety and Effectiveness Trial: A Randomized, Noninferiority Trial Comparing the Kiva System With Balloon Kyphoplasty in Treatment of Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, Sean M; Pflugmacher, Robert; Davidian, Mark; Beall, Douglas P; Facchini, Francis R; Garfin, Steven R

    2015-06-15

    The KAST (Kiva Safety and Effectiveness Trial) study was a pivotal, multicenter, randomized control trial for evaluation of safety and effectiveness in the treatment of patients with painful, osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). The objective was to demonstrate noninferiority of the Kiva system to balloon kyphoplasty (BK) with respect to the composite primary endpoint. Annual incidence of osteoporotic VCFs is prevalent. Optimal treatment of VCFs should address pain, function, and deformity. Kiva is a novel implant for vertebral augmentation in the treatment of VCFs. A total of 300 subjects with 1 or 2 painful osteoporotic VCFs were randomized to blindly receive Kiva (n = 153) or BK (n = 147). Subjects were followed through 12 months. The primary endpoint was a composite at 12 months defined as a reduction in fracture pain by at least 15 mm on the visual analogue scale, maintenance or improvement in function on the Oswestry Disability Index, and absence of device-related serious adverse events. Secondary endpoints included cement usage, extravasation, and adjacent level fracture. A mean improvement of 70.8 and 71.8 points in the visual analogue scale score and 38.1 and 42.2 points in the Oswestry Disability Index was noted in Kiva and BK, respectively. No device-related serious adverse events occurred. Despite significant differences in risk factors favoring the control group at baseline, the primary endpoint demonstrated noninferiority of Kiva to BK. Analysis of secondary endpoints revealed superiority with respect to cement use and site-reported extravasation and a positive trend in adjacent level fracture warranting further study. The KAST study successfully established that the Kiva system is noninferior to BK based on a composite primary endpoint assessment incorporating pain-, function-, and device-related serious adverse events for the treatment of VCFs due to osteoporosis. Kiva was shown to be noninferior to BK and revealed a positive trend

  20. Benchmarked Library Websites Comparative Study

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.; Tyhurst, Janis

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an analysis of services provided by the benchmarked library websites. The exploratory study includes comparison of these websites against a list of criterion and presents a list of services that are most commonly deployed by the selected websites. In addition to that, the investigators proposed a list of services that could be provided via the KAUST library website.

  1. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrea Corina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance is a key element of today’s economic reality being more and more present in many countries around the world. This paper has two main objectives. The first one is to offer more insight into the concept of corporate governance by a thorough literature review and by presenting and analyzing a framework of corporate governance. The second objective of this paper is to investigate the corporate governance situation in three developing economies (Romania, Bulgaria and Hungary. The World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development published a series of reports on corporate governance. The present study uses data from these reports in order to illustrate how these developing economies are dealing with corporate governance. Based on ROSC Reports a corporate governance score was calculated. As this score shows, there is room for improvement for all three developing economies. This study is important because it shows the differences in corporate governance among developing economies and the need to study these nations at the individual country level. Corporate governance has many benefits for developing economies. It helps developing economies to register sustainable growth rates, to increases investors’ confidence in the national economy, and to increase the ability of capital markets to mobilize savings.

  2. Comparative study of Butterfly valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galmes Belmonte, F.B.

    1998-01-01

    This work tries to justify the hydrodynamic butterfly valves performance, using the EPRI tests, results carried out in laboratory and in situ. This justification will be possible if: - The valves to study are similar - Their performance is calculated using EPRI's methodology Looking for this objective, the elements of the present work are: 1. Brief EPRI butterfly valve description it wild provide the factors which are necessary to define the butterfly valves similarity. 2. EPRI tests description and range of validation against test data definition. 3. Description of the spanish butterfly analyzed valves, and comparison with the EPRI performance results, to prove that this valves are similar to the EPRI test valves. In this way, it will not be necessary to carry out particular dynamic tests on the spanish valves to describe their hydrodynamic performance. (Author)

  3. Comparative treatment planning study on sequential vs. simultaneous integrated boost in head and neck cancer patients. Differences in dose distributions and potential implications for clinical practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stromberger, Carmen; Ghadjar, Pirus; Marnitz, Simone; Thieme, Alexander Henry; Jahn, Ulrich; Karaj-Rossbacher, Evis; Budach, Volker [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiation Oncology and Radiotherapy, Berlin (Germany); Raguse, Jan D. [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Clinic for Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Berlin (Germany); Boettcher, Arne [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Otorhinolaryngology, Berlin (Germany); Jamil, Basil [Communal Hospital Frankfurt Oder, Department of Radiation Oncology, Frankfurt/Oder (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    The purpose of this work was to compare sequential (SeqB) versus simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) radiotherapy plans delivered with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for patients with locally advanced squamous cell cancer of the head and neck (HNSCC). SeqB and SIB plans using VMAT for 10 HNSCC patients given definitive chemoradiation were generated and analysed for differences in dose distribution, coverage, conformity and homogeneity to the planning target volumes (PTV) 1-3 and sparing of organs at risk (OAR). The mean delineated volumes ± standard deviations were 137.7 ± 44.8, 351.3 ± 83.9 and 895.6 ± 120.5 cm{sup 3} for PTV1-3. The mean volumes encompassed by the corresponding 95 % isodoses were 281 (+ 110 %) ± 73.4, 712.2 (+ 115 %) ± 146.4 and 1381.1 (+ 54 %) ± 217.3 cm{sup 3} with SeqB and 138.2 (+ 7 %) ± 40.1, 380.4 (+ 11 %) ± 91.9 and 1057.3 (+ 21 %) ± 161.4 cm{sup 3} with SIB for PTV1-3, respectively. Both strategies achieved excellent PTV coverage. SeqB provided significantly better coverage of PTV1 and 3, worse conformity for PTV1-3 and a higher mean dose than prescribed (111-115 %) to PTV2 and 3 (p ≤ 0.007). Both strategies provided satisfactory OAR sparing. This study showed significant dosimetric differences with potential clinical relevance between two VMAT boost strategies regarding coverage, conformity and dose to the PTVs. SIB might cause less toxicity. A clinical phase III/IV trial endorsed by the German Head and Neck Clinical Trials Group (IAG-KHT) will evaluate differences in acute/late toxicity as well as in locoregional recurrences between the two boost techniques. (orig.) [German] Vergleich von sequentiellem (SeqB) und simultan-integriertem Boost (SIB) mit moderner volumetrischer Arc-Therapie (VMAT) fuer Patienten mit Plattenepithelkarzinomen der Kopf-Hals-Region. Fuer 10 Patienten mit Plattenepithelkarzinomen der Kopf-Hals-Region und definitiver Radiochemotherapie erfolgte eine VMAT-Planung als SeqB und SIB fuer die

  4. Early antibiotic treatment (prophylaxis) of septic complications in severe acute necrotizing pancreatitis: a prospective, randomized, multicenter study comparing two regimens with imipenem-cilastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraví-Poma, Enrique; Gener, Joan; Alvarez-Lerma, Francisco; Olaechea, Pedro; Blanco, Armando; Domínguez-Muñoz, J Enrique

    2003-11-01

    We compared two imipenem regimens for prevention of septic complications in patients with severe acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP). Prospective, randomized open clinical trial involving intensive care units of 14 Spanish Hospitals. 92 patients with ANP. Imipenem/cilastatin was administered at 500 mg four times daily starting at the time of diagnosis of ANP, within the first 96 h from the onset of symptoms. Patients were randomized to receive antibiotic prophylaxis either for 14 days (group 1) or at least for 14 days and as long as major systemic complications of the disease persisted (group 2). Antibiotic was maintained in group 2 for 19.7+/-10.9 days. The incidence of infected pancreatic necrosis, pancreatic abscess, and extrapancreatic infections was 11%, 17%, and 28% in group 1 and 17.4%, 13%, and 35% in group 2 (n.s.). Pancreatic or extrapancreatic infection by Candida albicans occurred in 7% and 22% of patients. Global mortality was 18.5% (10.9% secondary to septic complications), without differences between groups. In patients with persisting systemic complications at day 14 mortality was almost always secondary to septic complications and decreased from 25% (group 1) to 8.8% (group 2) by maintaining antibiotic prophylaxis. Compared to a 14-day imipenem prophylaxis, a longer antibiotic administration in patients with ANP is not associated with a reduction in the incidence of septic complications of the disease. However, prolonged imipenem administration in patients with persisting systemic complications tends to reduce mortality in ANP compared to a 14-days regimen.

  5. Effect of urea treatment on the nutritive value of local sorghum and millet straw: a comparative study on growing performance of Djallonke rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Kanwe

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Two tons of and chopped millet and sorghum straws have been treated with an urea solution at 5% (100 kg of straw, sprinkled with 50 lt. of solution. Treated straws were used as basic diet (900 g day associated to 100 g of cotton cake for 24 growing Djallonke rams in comparison to non treated straws. Four groups of animals were fed for 98 days with: urea treated sorghum (UTSS, not treated sorghum straw (NTSS, treated millet (UTMS, non treated millet straw (NTMS. Treated straws presented an increase of NDF of about 9%, of total nitrogen from 2 to 3 times while digestibility of dry matter increased respectively by 8,8% and 23,0% respectively in treated sorghum and millet. Also dry matter intake increased by 4,5% and 15,5% for treated sorghum and millet respectively compared to non treated. Mean weekly weight gain were significantly higher (P<0.05 for UTSS e UTMS compared to NTSS e NTMS. While the weekly weight gain, did not differed between UTSS vs. UTMS and NTSS vs. NTMS. At the end of the trial the UTSS and UTMS group presented a weight gain of about 40% and 38.7%, of their initial weight; while the gain for both NTSS and NTMS was respectively of 31.1% and 29.5%.

  6. Intravenous versus intramuscular cobinamide compared to intravenous saline (control) in the treatment of acute, survivable, mitochondrial toxins in swine (Sus Scrofa): a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-10

    336-4407 59th Medical Wing Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) 59 Clinical Research Division/SGVUS 1100 Wilford Hall Loop , Bldg... administratively closed on 15 Sept 2017. A final report will be requested of the PI. FOLLOW- UP: OPEN 14 Nov 17: The PI submitted a final report and...study was funded by the AF SGR. We had no budget deviations and all funds have been allocated for. 12. Reason for Closure: Our study is closing

  7. Standardised Chinese herbal treatment delivered by GPs compared with individualised treatment administered by practitioners of Chinese herbal medicine for women with recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Andrew; Harman, Kim; Lewith, George; Moore, Michael; Bishop, Felicity L; Stuart, Beth; Lampert, Nicholas

    2016-07-27

    In the UK, urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infection presented by women in primary care. Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTIs) are defined as three episodes of UTI in the last 12 months, or two episodes in the last 6 months. Between 20 and 30 % of women who have had one episode of UTI will have an RUTI, and approximately 25 % of these will develop subsequent recurrent episodes. RUTIs can have a significant negative effect on the quality of life, and have a high impact on health care costs as a result of outpatient visits, diagnostic tests and prescriptions. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has a recorded history of treatments for the symptoms of UTIs for more than 2000 years. More recent clinical research in China has provided some preliminary evidence that CHM can alleviate the symptoms of UTIs and reduce the rate of recurrence, but more rigorous investigation is required. The RUTI trial is a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, feasibility trial. A total of 80 women will be randomised to 'individualised' herbs prescribed by a Chinese herbal practitioner or to 'standardised' herbs provided by primary care clinicians. Both arms will have herbs for prevention of UTIs and treatment of acute episodes. Treatment duration is for 16 weeks. The primary outcomes are the number of episodes of recurrent UTIs during the trial period and in the 6 months of follow-up, and the number of days of symptoms rated moderately bad or worse based on patient diaries. Secondary outcomes will assess participant expectations and beliefs, adherence to the treatment, adverse events and health economics and provide quantitative and qualitative assessments of the impact of recurrent infections on the lives of women. The RUTI trial is the first instance of CHM delivered as a clinical trial of an investigatory medicinal product in the UK. This study provides important information regarding the feasibility and acceptability of researching and using

  8. A randomized, double-blind, multicenter Phase II study comparing the efficacy and safety of oral nemonoxacin with oral levofloxacin in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yingyuan; Wu, Jufang; Zhu, Demei; Sun, Shenghua; Zhao, Li; Wang, Xuefeng; Liu, Hua; Ren, Zhenyi; Wang, Changzheng; Xiu, Qingyu; Xiao, Zuke; Cao, Zhaolong; Cui, Shehuai; Yang, Heping; Liang, Yongjie; Chen, Ping; Lv, Yuan; Hu, Chengping; Lv, Xiaoju; Liu, Shuang; Kuang, Jiulong; Li, Jianguo; Wang, Dexi; Chang, Liwen

    2017-12-01

    To compare the clinical efficacy and safety of nemonoxacin with levofloxacin in treating community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in a Phase II clinical trial. One hundred ninety-two patients with CAP were randomized to receive oral nemonoxacin (500 mg or 750 mg) or levofloxacin (500 mg) once daily for 7-10 days. Clinical and bacteriological responses were determined at the test of cure (TOC) visit in the full analysis set (FAS). The clinical cure rate of nemonoxacin (500 mg), nemonoxacin (750 mg), and levofloxacin (500 mg) was 93.3%, 87.3%, and 88.5%, respectively, in the FAS (n = 168), and 93.0%, 93.9%, and 88.9%, respectively in the per protocol set (n = 152). At the TOC visit, nemonoxacin at 500 mg and 750 mg was proven to be noninferior to levofloxacin at 500 mg in the FAS in terms of clinical efficacy. The overall bacteriological success rate was 83.3% in both nemonoxacin groups and 80.0% in the levofloxacin 500 mg group in the bacteriological FAS. The comprehensive efficacy rate was comparable among the three groups (87.5% for the nemonoxacin 500 mg group, 93.8% for the nemonoxacin 750 mg group, and 81.3% for the levofloxacin 500 mg group). Most drug-related adverse events were mild and transient, mainly gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea and vomiting, transient neutropenia, and elevated liver enzymes. No drug-related serious adverse events occurred. Either 500 mg or 750 mg of oral nemonoxacin taken once daily for 7-10 days demonstrated high clinical and bacteriological success rates in Chinese adult patients with CAP. Nemonoxacin at 500 mg once daily for 7-10 days is recommended for future Phase III clinical trials. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01537250. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Design and Rationale of a Comparative Effectiveness Study to Evaluate Two Acupuncture Methods for the Treatment of Headaches Associated with Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    origins (4) Drug/opioid desensitization (with abuse potential) (5) Somatic (sleep, appetite, sexual, and energy) dys- function. Problems with Current Care...participants who learn about the study through institutional review board (IRB)–approved advertisements or who are referred from the TBI clinic are screened

  10. A randomized trial comparing treatments for varicose veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittenden, Julie; Cotton, Seonaidh C; Elders, Andrew; Ramsay, Craig R; Norrie, John; Burr, Jennifer; Campbell, Bruce; Bachoo, Paul; Chetter, Ian; Gough, Michael; Earnshaw, Jonothan; Lees, Tim; Scott, Julian; Baker, Sara A; Francis, Jill; Tassie, Emma; Scotland, Graham; Wileman, Samantha; Campbell, Marion K

    2014-09-25

    Ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy and endovenous laser ablation are widely used alternatives to surgery for the treatment of varicose veins, but their comparative effectiveness and safety remain uncertain. In a randomized trial involving 798 participants with primary varicose veins at 11 centers in the United Kingdom, we compared the outcomes of foam, laser, and surgical treatments. Primary outcomes at 6 months were disease-specific quality of life and generic quality of life, as measured on several scales. Secondary outcomes included complications and measures of clinical success. After adjustment for baseline scores and other covariates, the mean disease-specific quality of life was slightly worse after treatment with foam than after surgery (P=0.006) but was similar in the laser and surgery groups. There were no significant differences between the surgery group and the foam or the laser group in measures of generic quality of life. The frequency of procedural complications was similar in the foam group (6%) and the surgery group (7%) but was lower in the laser group (1%) than in the surgery group (Pdisease-specific quality of life in the foam group than in the surgery group. All treatments had similar clinical efficacy, but complications were less frequent after laser treatment and ablation rates were lower after foam treatment. (Funded by the Health Technology Assessment Programme of the National Institute for Health Research; Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN51995477.).

  11. Effects of heat treatment by immersion in household conditions on olive oil as compared to other culinary oils: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Nogueira-de-Almeida

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were to evaluate the properties of refined (ROO and extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO in their natural state (fresh and after heating, while comparing them with each other and with refined soybean (SBO and refined sunflower seed oil (SFO. The methodology was designed to simulate, in controlled laboratory conditions, the home-frying process, while evaluating fatty acid profile (fatty acid methyl esters were separated by gas chromatography, concentration of phenolic compounds (Gallic acid dosage, antioxidant activity (DPPH, and production of polar compounds (thin layer chromatography before and after heating to 200 oC for six minutes. It was observed that, before and after heating, SBO and SFO are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA and ROO and EVOO are rich in monounsaturated FA. Fresh or heated, ROO and EVOO do not have trans FA, which are present in SBO and SFO, and increase in SBO after heating (+ 32.8%. The concentrations of phenolic compounds are always higher in olive oils, despite the decrease that occurs after heating (-7.5% in the ROO and -24.6% in EVOO. Antioxidant activity is greater when olive oils are fresh and remains present in EVOO after heating. The concentration of polar compounds was similar for all oils after heating. In conclusion, ROO and EVOO are the richest in monounsaturated FA even after heating, with no production of saturated or trans FA. Despite losing some antioxidant activity, heated EVOO remains richer in monounsaturated FA than ROO, SBO and SFO in the fresh version. All oils suffer similar rates of degradation.

  12. Long-term results of treatment of patients with metronidazole and protracted radiotherapy: a base for comparative randomized studies with hypoxic radiosensitizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, A.B.M.F.; Njo, K.H.

    1982-01-01

    From 1974 to 1978, a pilot study was undertaken in the Academic Hospital of the Free University of Amsterdam to evaluate the use of hypoxic radiosensitizer metronidazole given with conventional protracted radiotherapy. All patients had advanced malignancies, 70 head and neck cancers being available for long-term evaluation. Only four showed evidence of (reversible) neuropathy, including one patient with two attacks of reversible psychosis. With a minimum follow-up period of 30 months, the local control rates of some of these tumors appear to be encouraging and higher (54%) than usually obtained, without evidence of any long-term enhanced late effect of radiation or carcinogenesis. Clinical benefit has been persistently reported from metronidazole from a number of centers. Reports on other hypoxic radiosensitizers are not always clearly encouraging to date. In view of these facts, three-armed studies appear desirable and are being pursued

  13. A comparative study of shear bond strength of orthodontic bracket after acid-etched and Er:YAG treatment on enamel surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Juliana C.; Mota, Cláudia C. B. O.; Cassimiro-silva, Patricia F.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of teeth prepared for orthodontic bracket bonding with 37% phosphoric acid and Er:YAG laser. Forty bovine incisors were divided into two groups. In Group I, the teeth were conditioned with 37% phosphoric acid and brackets were bonded with Transbond XT; in Group II, the teeth were irradiated with Er:YAG and bonding with Transbond XT. After SBS test, the adhesive remnant index was determined. Adhesion to dental hard tissues after Er:YAG laser etching was inferior to that obtained after acid etching but exceeded what is believed to be clinically sufficient strength, and therefore can be used in patients.

  14. Cognitive behavioural therapy and mindfulness for stress and burnout: a waiting list controlled pilot study comparing treatments for parents of children with chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anclair, Malin; Lappalainen, Raimo; Muotka, Joona; Hiltunen, Arto J

    2018-03-01

    Parents of children with chronic conditions often experience a crisis with serious mental health problems for themselves as a consequence. The healthcare focus is on the children; however, the parents often worry about their children's health and future but are seldom offered any counselling or guidance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of two group-based behavioural interventions on stress and burnout among parents of children with chronic conditions. After a waiting list control period (n = 28), parents were offered either a cognitive behavioural (CBT, n = 10) or a mindfulness program (MF, n = 9). Both interventions decreased significantly stress and burnout. The within-group effect sizes were large in both interventions (CBT, g = 1.28-1.64; MF, g = 1.25-2.20). Hence, the results of this pilot study show that treating a group using either CBT or mindfulness can be an efficient intervention for reducing stress levels and burnout in parents of children with chronic conditions. © 2017 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic College of Caring Science.

  15. A comparative study to determine the effectiveness of three surgical techniques used in the treatment of severe congenital idiopathic club foot using the dimiglio scoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar, U.Z.; Saeed, A.; Sami, A.; Awais, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Club foot, or congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV), is a congenital deformity with an incidence of 1 in 1000 live births. The deformity is 3-dimensional with 4 components including cavus, forefoot adduction, heel varus and equinus (CAVE). Severity of the CTEV is determined by Dimiglio scoring system. Benign and moderate forms can be treated conservatively but severe and very severe forms require extensive posteromedial soft tissue release for its correction. The posteromedial soft tissue release can be done through medial Turco incision, Cincinnati incision, and Cincinnati incision with medial rotational fasciocutaneous flap. Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of three types of surgical techniques (Medial Turco, Cincinnati and Cincinnati with medial rotational fasciocutaneous flap), used in the posteromedial release of severe CTEV. Methodology: This Interventional Longitudinal study was conducted at Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology Mayo Hospital Lahore for a period of one year. A total of 45 patients were diagnosed as severe CTEV and 15 cases were randomly divided in three groups each. Patients were operated and followed-up in OPD by Dimiglio scoring and wound healing at 0, 4th and 18th week postoperatively to determine the amount of correction. Data was analyzed using SPSS 16. Results: Patients in Group-A were treated with Cincinnati with medial rotational fasciocutaneous flap, in group B with Cincinnati Technique and in group-C with Medial Turco Technique. In group A, 7 (46.7%) cases had excellent outcome while 8 (53.3%) cases had good outcome. In group B, 2 (13.3%) cases had excellent outcome, 10 (66.7%) cases had good outcome and 3 (20%) cases had fair outcome. In group C, none of the case had excellent outcome while 9 (60%) cases had good outcome and 6 (40%) cases had fair outcome depending upon Dimiglio scoring. There was significant difference among all groups for final outcome of the incision type

  16. Osseointegration of titanium implants functionalised with phosphoserine-tethered poly(epsilon-lysine) dendrons: a comparative study with traditional surface treatments in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stübinger, Stefan; Nuss, Katja; Bürki, Alexander; Mosch, Isabel; le Sidler, Miché; Meikle, Steve T; von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Santin, Matteo

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the osseointegrative potential of phosphoserine-tethered dendrons when applied as surface functionalisation molecules on titanium implants in a sheep model after 2 and 8 weeks of implantation. Uncoated and dendron-coated implants were implanted in six sheep. Sandblasted and etched (SE) or porous additive manufactured (AM) implants with and without additional dendron functionalisation (SE-PSD; AM-PSD) were placed in the pelvic bone. Three implants per group were examined histologically and six implants were tested biomechanically. After 2 and 8 weeks the bone-to-implant contact (BIC) total values of SE implants (43.7±12.2; 53.3±9.0%) and SE-PSD (46.7±4.5; 61.7±4.9%) as well as AM implants (20.49±5.1; 43.9±9.7%) and AM-PSD implants (19.7±3.5; 48.3±15.6%) showed no statistically significant differences. For SE-PSD and AM-PSD a separate analysis of only the cancellous BIC demonstrated a statistically significant difference after 2 and 8 weeks. Biomechanical findings proved the overall increased stability of the porous implants after 8 weeks. Overall, the great effect of implant macro design on osseointegration was further supported by additional phosphoserine-tethered dendrons for SE and AM implants.

  17. [Multicenter study comparing the efficacy and tolerance of topical ciprofloxacin (0.3%) versus topical gentamicin (0.3%) in the treatment of simple, non-cholesteatomaous chronic otitis media in the suppurative phase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, J; Sabater, F; Maristany, M; Jiménez, R; Menem, J; Viñas, J; Quesada, P; Traserra, J; Dicenta, M; Abelló, P

    1995-01-01

    A multicentre double-blind randomized study was carried out to compare topical ciprofloxacin and topical gentamicin in the treatment of simple non-cholesteatomatous purulent chronic otitis media. Three hundred and eight patients were included in the study, 159 treated with ciprofloxacin and 149 treated with gentamicin. The percentage of clinical success (elimination of otorrhoea) was 95% with ciprofloxacin and 94% with gentamicin (ns). Likewise, the percentage of bacteriological erradication was 96% with ciprofloxacin and 93% with gentamicin. Both drugs were well tolerated, without changes in the audiometric values. In these patients, topical ciprofloxacin shows the same efficacy as topical gentamicin without any potential ototoxic effect.

  18. Two randomized controlled studies comparing the nutritional benefits of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) granules and a BCAA-enriched nutrient mixture for patients with esophageal varices after endoscopic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yoshiyuki; Iwata, Yoshinori; Enomoto, Hirayuki; Saito, Masaki; Yoh, Kazunori; Ishii, Akio; Takashima, Tomoyuki; Aizawa, Nobuhiro; Ikeda, Naoto; Tanaka, Hironori; Iijima, Hiroko; Nishiguchi, Shuhei

    2015-01-01

    The usefulness of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) granules and BCAA-enriched nutrient mixtures for patients with liver cirrhosis is often reported. However, no randomized controlled studies have investigated the usefulness of these supplements in the nutritional intervention of cirrhotic patients receiving endoscopic treatment for esophageal varices. Patients without BCAA before endoscopic treatment were divided into study 1, and those who received BCAA were divided into study 2. In study 1, 44 eligible patients were divided into a control group (n = 13), a general liquid nutrient (snack) group (n = 15), and a BCAA-enriched nutrient mixture (BCAA-EN) group (n = 16). In study 2, 48 eligible patients were divided into a BCAA group (n = 24) and a BCAA-EN group (n = 24). The nutritional status including non-protein respiratory quotient (NPRQ) levels, weight gain, and albumin were evaluated on days 0, 7, and 50. In study 1, the BCAA-EN group showed significant improvement in NPRQ levels on day 7 as compared with the snack group. In study 2, the BCAA-EN group showed significant improvement in NPRQ levels on day 7 and in weight levels on day 50 relative to the BCAA group, while the BCAA group showed improved serum albumin levels on day 7 compared to the BCAA-EN group. The BCAA-enriched nutrient mixture maintained NPRQ and weight in cirrhotic patients. Our findings suggest that supplements including both BCAA and a nutritional energy supplement would be beneficial for cirrhotic patients undergoing endoscopic treatment for esophageal varices.

  19. Methods of a large prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded end-point study comparing morning versus evening dosing in hypertensive patients: the Treatment In Morning versus Evening (TIME) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorie, David A; Rogers, Amy; Mackenzie, Isla S; Ford, Ian; Webb, David J; Willams, Bryan; Brown, Morris; Poulter, Neil; Findlay, Evelyn; Saywood, Wendy; MacDonald, Thomas M

    2016-02-09

    Nocturnal blood pressure (BP) appears to be a better predictor of cardiovascular outcome than daytime BP. The BP lowering effects of most antihypertensive therapies are often greater in the first 12 h compared to the next 12 h. The Treatment In Morning versus Evening (TIME) study aims to establish whether evening dosing is more cardioprotective than morning dosing. The TIME study uses the prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded end-point (PROBE) design. TIME recruits participants by advertising in the community, from primary and secondary care, and from databases of consented patients in the UK. Participants must be aged over 18 years, prescribed at least one antihypertensive drug taken once a day, and have a valid email address. After the participants have self-enrolled and consented on the secure TIME website (http://www.timestudy.co.uk) they are randomised to take their antihypertensive medication in the morning or the evening. Participant follow-ups are conducted after 1 month and then every 3 months by automated email. The trial is expected to run for 5 years, randomising 10,269 participants, with average participant follow-up being 4 years. The primary end point is hospitalisation for the composite end point of non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), non-fatal stroke (cerebrovascular accident; CVA) or any vascular death determined by record-linkage. Secondary end points are: each component of the primary end point, hospitalisation for non-fatal stroke, hospitalisation for non-fatal MI, cardiovascular death, all-cause mortality, hospitalisation or death from congestive heart failure. The primary outcome will be a comparison of time to first event comparing morning versus evening dosing using an intention-to-treat analysis. The sample size is calculated for a two-sided test to detect 20% superiority at 80% power. TIME has ethical approval in the UK, and results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. UKCRN17071; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ

  20. A Comparative Electrochemical-Ozone Treatment for Removal of Phenolphthalein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. García-Orozco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The degradation of aqueous solutions containing phenolphthalein was carried out using ozone and electrochemical processes; the two different treatments were performed for 60 min at pH 3, pH 7, and pH 9. The electrochemical oxidation using boron-doped diamond electrodes processes was carried out using three current density values: 3.11 mA·cm−2, 6.22 mA·cm−2, and 9.33 mA·cm−2, whereas the ozone dose was constantly supplied at 5±0.5 mgL−1. An optimal degradation condition for the ozonation treatment is at alkaline pH, while the electrochemical treatment works better at acidic pH. The electrochemical process is twice better compared with ozonation.

  1. Volumetric modulated arc therapy versus step-and-shoot intensity modulated radiation therapy in the treatment of large nerve perineural spread to the skull base: a comparative dosimetric planning study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorayski, Peter; Fitzgerald, Rhys; Barry, Tamara [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, Queensland (Australia); Burmeister, Elizabeth [Nursing Practice Development Unit, Princess Alexandra Hospital and Research Centre for Clinical and Community Practice Innovation, Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Foote, Matthew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, Queensland (Australia); Diamantina Institute, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

    2014-06-15

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma with large nerve perineural (LNPN) infiltration of the base of skull is a radiotherapeutic challenge given the complex target volumes to nearby organs at risk (OAR). A comparative planning study was undertaken to evaluate dosimetric differences between volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) versus intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the treatment of LNPN. Five consecutive patients previously treated with IMRT for LNPN were selected. VMAT plans were generated for each case using the same planning target volumes (PTV), dose prescriptions and OAR constraints as IMRT. Comparative parameters used to assess target volume coverage, conformity and homogeneity included V95 of the PTV (volume encompassed by the 95% isodose), conformity index (CI) and homogeneity index (HI). In addition, OAR maximum point doses, V20, V30, non-target tissue (NTT) point max doses, NTT volume above reference dose, monitor units (MU) were compared. IMRT and VMAT plans generated were comparable for CI (P = 0.12) and HI (P = 0.89). VMAT plans achieved better V95 (P = < 0.001) and reduced V20 and V30 by 652 cubic centimetres (cc) (28.5%) and 425.7 cc (29.1%), respectively. VMAT increased MU delivered by 18% without a corresponding increase in NTT dose. Compared with IMRT plans for LNPN, VMAT achieved comparable HI and CI.

  2. Comparing Active Pediatric Obesity Treatments Using Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Allyson; Cassano, Michael; Shepherd, Elizabeth J.; Higgins, Diana; Hecker, Jeffrey E.; Nangle, Douglas W.

    2008-01-01

    The current meta-analysis reviews research on the treatment of pediatric obesity focusing on studies that have been published since 1994. Eleven studies (22 comparisons, 115 effect sizes, N = 447) were included in the present meta-analysis. Results indicated that comprehensive behavioral interventions may be improved in at least two ways:…

  3. Comparative efficacy of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for the acute treatment of adult outpatients with anorexia nervosa: study protocol for the systematic review and network meta-analysis of individual data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Tracey D; Treasure, Janet; Schmidt, Ulrike; Fairburn, Christopher G; Byrne, Susan; Zipfel, Stephan; Cipriani, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Outpatient treatment studies of anorexia nervosa (AN) are notoriously hard to conduct given the ambivalence of the patient group and high drop-out rates. It is therefore not surprising that previous meta-analyses of pharmacological and psychological treatments for outpatient treatment of adult AN have proved to be inconclusive. Network meta-analysis (NMA) has the potential to overcome the limitations of pairwise meta-analysis, as this approach can compare multiple treatments using both direct comparisons of interventions within randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and indirect comparisons across trials based on a common comparator. To date there is no published example of this approach with eating disorders and the current study provides a protocol which will use NMA to advance knowledge about what outpatient therapy works best for which patients with AN by conducting both direct and indirect comparisons of different treatments and the moderating variables. Searches of electronic data bases will be supplemented with manual searches for published, unpublished and ongoing RCTs in international registries, and clinical trials registries of regulatory agencies and pharmaceutical companies. Two reviewers will independently extract the data and where possible we will access individual data in order to examine moderators of treatment. Two primary outcomes will be selected: changes to body mass index and changes to global eating disorder psychopathology. The secondary outcome is the total number of patients who, at 12-month post-randomization, attained over the previous 28 day period: (i) BMI > 18.5, and (ii) global eating disorder psychopathology to within 1 SD of community norms. We will also provide a statistical evaluation of consistency, the agreement between direct and indirect evidence. Descriptive statistics across all eligible trials will be provided along with a network diagram, where the size of the nodes will reflect the amount of evidence accumulated for

  4. Efficacy and safety of fidaxomicin compared with oral vancomycin for the treatment of adults with Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: data from the OPT-80-003 and OPT-80-004 studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luke F; Anderson, Deverick J

    2012-06-01

    Clostridium difficile is emerging as one of the most important and devastating pathogens affecting hospitalized populations around the world. The incidence of C. difficile infection is increasing and disease severity is worsening. Thus, an effective alternative to metronidazole and oral vancomycin is urgently needed. Two Phase III trials, OPT-80-003 and OPT-80-004, showed that oral fidaxomicin for 10 days was noninferior compared with treatment with oral vancomycin among adult patients with toxin-positive C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD). Furthermore, fidaxomicin was associated with a lower rate of recurrence of CDAD within 4 weeks of completion of therapy. The safety and tolerability of fidaxomicin was consistent with earlier studies and established that fidaxomicin is an efficacious and well-tolerated treatment option for CDAD. Despite these potential advantages, the cost-effectiveness of this expensive agent remains poorly understood.

  5. Treatment of industrial effluents using electron beam accelerator and adsorption with activated carbon. A comparative study; Tratamento de efluentes industriais utilizando a radiacao ionizante de acelerador industrial de eletrons e por adsorcao com carvao ativado. Estudo comparativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Las Casas, Alexandre

    2004-07-01

    Several methods are used In the pollutant removal from Industrial and domestic wastewater. However when the degradation of toxic organic pollutants, mainly the recalcitrant is objectified, the conventional treatments usually do not meet the desirable performance in the elimination or decrease the impact when the effluent are released to the environment what takes to the research of alternative methods that seek the improvement of the efficiency of the wastewater treatment systems jointly employees or separately. This work presents a study of degradation/removal of pollutants organic compounds comparing two methods using radiation from industrial electron beam and granular activated carbon (GAC). The removal efficiency of the pollutants was evaluated and it was verified that the efficiency of adsorption with activated carbon is similar to the radiation method. The obtained results allowed to evaluated the relative costs of these methods. (author)

  6. Physics studies in Europe; a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenstrup, S; dalle Rose, LFD; Jones, WG; Tugulea, L; van Steenwijk, FJ

    What are the differences and similarities between physics studies at different universities across Europe (here the definition of Europe is broad)? How much does a student have to work to obtain a degree in physics? Questions like those prompted EUPEN (European Physics Education Network) to make a

  7. [Comparative effectiveness of different treatment methods of liver failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutepov, D E; Vershinina, M G; Pasechnik, I N; Sal'nikov, P S

    2014-01-01

    It was analyzed the results of treatment of 217 patients (139 men, 78 women) with chronic liver failure in case of liver cirrhosis of various etiology for study of degree of hepatic encephalopathyregression. All patients were divided into 3 groups. In the first group the drug therapy was used. In the second group additionallyplasma exchange was performed, in the third group - alsomolecular absorbent recirculating system was used (effectiveness of MARS-therapy).The results showed that the use of extracorporeal treatment techniques can effectively reduce the severity of hepatic encephalopathy in patients with liver cirrhosis. MARS-therapy improved the neurological status of patientsmore significantly in this case. It is considered that the inclusion of MARS-therapy in the combined treatment of patients leads to a significant reduction of hepatic encephalopathyseverity (1-2 points), in comparison with other methods of treatment.

  8. A randomized, double-blind, multicenter, parallel group study to compare relative efficacies of the topical gels 3% erythromycin/5% benzoyl peroxide and 0.025% tretinoin/erythromycin 4% in the treatment of moderate acne vulgaris of the face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aditya K; Lynde, Charles W; Kunynetz, Rod A W; Amin, Smita; Choi, Ken; Goldstein, Eric

    2003-01-01

    Combination treatments for acne vulgaris, such as Benzamycin (3% erythromycin/5% benzoyl peroxide) and Stievamycin (0.025% tretinoin/erythromycin 4%), reduce bacterial growth, which contributes to the inflammatory lesions typical of adolescent acne, and also decrease the epidermal cell compaction which may form the characteristic noninflammatory comedone. Both agents contain erythromycin to reduce the growth of Propionibacterium acnes in skin. Benzoyl peroxide has antibiotic activity as well as anticomedogenic properties. Tretinoin may increase the turnover of epidermal cells and loosen the cells compacted to form comedones. A combination preparation containing the two antibiotics may reduce the development of resistance; the combination preparation containing tretinoin and erythromycin will have an antibiotic effect as well as acting on differentiation. This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study compared the effectiveness of 3% erythromycin/5% benzoyl peroxide and 0.025% tretinoin/erythromycin 4%, each applied twice daily in patients with moderate acne vulgaris. Overall physician and patient ratings of severity of acne symptoms were performed at baseline and at weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12. At baseline the two treatment groups had similar disease severity. The number of papules, pustules, and comedones was reduced in both treatment groups at week 12, and the reductions were not significantly different between the two comparators. Global physician rating of improvement was significantly higher in the 3% erythromycin/5% benzoyl peroxide group compared with the 0.025% tretinoin/erythromycin 4% group; however, there was no significant difference in global patient ratings between the two treatment groups. An aggregate score was produced, for both physician rating and patient rating, by adding up individual symptom severity ratings. Compared with 0.025% tretinoin/erythromycin 4%, 3% erythromycin/5% benzoyl peroxide provided significantly greater reduction

  9. Counseling in Costa Rica: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    With one of the world's most comprehensive universal healthcare systems, medical tourism in Costa Rica has increased significantly over the past few decades. American tourists save up to 80% of comparative costs for procedures, from heart surgery to root canal treatment. Although many Costa Rican healthcare professionals receive training in North…

  10. Calcaneal fracture classification: a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Tim; van Lieshout, Esther M. M.; Ginai, Abida Z.; Mulder, Paul G. H.; Heetveld, Martin J.; Patka, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Comparing different types of calcaneal fractures, associated treatment options, and outcome data is currently hampered by the lack of consensus regarding fracture classification. A systematic search for articles dealing with calcaneal fracture was performed, and the prevalence of use of each

  11. Internet-based treatment for Romanian adults with panic disorder: protocol of a randomized controlled trial comparing a Skype-guided with an unguided self-help intervention (the PAXPD study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuca, Amalia Maria; Berger, Thomas; Crişan, Liviu George; Miclea, Mircea

    2016-01-14