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Sample records for treatment regimen determines

  1. Determination of efficacy, adverse drug reactions and cost effectiveness of three triple drug regimens for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infected acid peptic disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinaki Ghosh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the clinical outcome and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection status by GLQI and PCR, before and after the triple (CMO, CAO or LTC treatment regimen. Methods: Salivary samples of 225 patients of acid peptic disease were used to determine the infection status and GLQI score before and after treatment regimen. Information regarding direct/indirect costs and side effects were determined using validated questionnaires. Results: Infection status was determined by successful amplification of 16s r RNA and Cag T genes. Positive eradication rate was 72.7% in males and 70% in females in CMO treated, 88.13% in males and 87.5% in females in CAO treated and 84.44% in males and 96.67% in females in LTC treated patients. The highest improvement in the GIQOL score after the treatment regimen was visible in the LTC treated group with a change of 65.39, followed by CAO treated patients with a change of 49.73 and CMO treated patients with an improvement of 32.18. The average cost effectiveness ratio was found to be best in the CAO treatment regimen with a ratio of 9.43 followed by LTC treatment regimen with a ratio of 11.74 and CMO with a ratio of 49.13. Side effects like diarrhea, nausea, bad taste and metallic taste were significantly enhanced in CMO (P< 0.001 when compared to CAO and LTC treatment regimens. Conclusions: The present investigation suggests that LTC is efficacious and bears less side effects, but CAO is most cost effective amongst the three treatment regimens. PCR assay can be scaled up for hospitals or clinics as a cost effective non invasive diagnostic test.

  2. New Treatment Regimen for Latent Tuberculosis Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-15

    In this podcast, Dr. Kenneth Castro, Director of the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, discusses the December 9, 2011 CDC guidelines for the use of a new regimen for the treatment of persons with latent tuberculosis infection.  Created: 3/15/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/15/2012.

  3. Inappropriate Tuberculosis Treatment Regimens in Chinese Tuberculosis Hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xue He, Guang; van den Hof, Susan; van der Werf, Marieke J.; Guo, Hui; Hu, Yuan Lian; Fan, Ji Huan; Zhang, Wei Min; Tostado, Christopher P.; Borgdorff, Martien W.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation of tuberculosis (TB) treatment regimens in 6 TB hospitals in China showed that only 18% of patients with new cases and 9% of patients with retreatment cases were prescribed standard TB treatment regimens. Adherence to treatment guidelines needs to be improved in TB hospitals to

  4. Predictive tools for designing new insulins and treatment regimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klim, Søren

    The thesis deals with the development of "Predictive tools for designing new insulins and treatments regimens" and consists of two parts: A model based approach for bridging properties of new insulin analogues from glucose clamp experiments to meal tolerance tests (MTT) and a second part that des......The thesis deals with the development of "Predictive tools for designing new insulins and treatments regimens" and consists of two parts: A model based approach for bridging properties of new insulin analogues from glucose clamp experiments to meal tolerance tests (MTT) and a second part...... glucose profiles from a MTT with treatments based on the new insulin analogue that previously only has been tested in clamps. The bridge between insulin analogue properties determined in clamp experiments to meal tolerance test outcomes in Phase II trials is not simple and is complicated by shifts...... in experimental setup, time horizon and treatment regimen. A bridging strategy was introduced where an integrated model simulating MTTs was extended with models developed on clamp data that described PK and PD for the new insulin analogue. The bridging strategy was tested by building an integrated model based...

  5. Galeazzi fractures: our modified classification and treatment regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayaz, H C; Jupiter, J B

    2014-02-01

    While diaphyseal fractures of the forearm are a common orthopedic injury, Galeazzi fractures are difficult to treat. The current knowledge on pathobiomechanics and modified therapeutic decisions implicate the need to devise an updated classification and treatment regimen of Galeazzi fractures. We challenge the concept that isolated fractures of the radius should be considered as a Galeazzi fractures as long as stability of the distal radioulnar joint is not proven. Contrary to others we demonstrate that the fracture location alone is not sufficient to determine the stability of the distal radioulnar joint. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Applying optimization algorithms to tuberculosis antibiotic treatment regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchese, Joseph M; Pienaar, Elsje; Kirschner, Denise E; Linderman, Jennifer J

    2017-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), one of the most common infectious diseases, requires treatment with multiple antibiotics taken over at least 6 months. This long treatment often results in poor patient-adherence, which can lead to the emergence of multi-drug resistant TB. New antibiotic treatment strategies are sorely needed. New antibiotics are being developed or repurposed to treat TB, but as there are numerous potential antibiotics, dosing sizes and potential schedules, the regimen design space for new treatments is too large to search exhaustively. Here we propose a method that combines an agent-based multi-scale model capturing TB granuloma formation with algorithms for mathematical optimization to identify optimal TB treatment regimens. We define two different single-antibiotic treatments to compare the efficiency and accuracy in predicting optimal treatment regimens of two optimization algorithms: genetic algorithms (GA) and surrogate-assisted optimization through radial basis function (RBF) networks. We also illustrate the use of RBF networks to optimize double-antibiotic treatments. We found that while GAs can locate optimal treatment regimens more accurately, RBF networks provide a more practical strategy to TB treatment optimization with fewer simulations, and successfully estimated optimal double-antibiotic treatment regimens. Our results indicate surrogate-assisted optimization can locate optimal TB treatment regimens from a larger set of antibiotics, doses and schedules, and could be applied to solve optimization problems in other areas of research using systems biology approaches. Our findings have important implications for the treatment of diseases like TB that have lengthy protocols or for any disease that requires multiple drugs.

  7. Characteristics of HIV antiretroviral regimen and treatment adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia da Silveira

    Full Text Available The relationship between characteristics of HIV antiretroviral regimens and treatment adherence was studied in adolescent and adult patients who underwent antiretroviral therapy from January 1998 to September 2000, at the Service for Specialized Assistance in Pelotas. The patients were interviewed on two occasions, and the use of antiretrovirals during the previous 48 hours was investigated by a self-report. Adherence was defined as use of 95% or more of the prescribed medication. Social-demographic variables were collected through direct questionnaires. The antiretroviral regimen and clinical data were copied from the patients' records. Associations between the independent variables and adherence were analyzed by means of logistic regression. The multivariate analysis included characteristics of the antiretroviral regimens, social-demographic variables, as well as perception of negative effects, negative physiological states, and adverse effects of the treatment. Among the 224 selected patients, 194 participated in our study. Their ages varied from 17 to 67 years; most patients were men, with few years of schooling and a low family income. Only 49% adhered to the treatment. Adherence to treatment regimens was reduced when more daily doses were indicated: three to four doses (odds ratio of adherence to treatment (OR=0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.22-1.01 and five to six (OR=0.24, 95% CI 0.09-0.62; two or more doses taken in a fasting state (OR=0.59, 95% CI 0.11-0.68, and for patients who reported adverse effects to the treatment (OR=0.39, 95% CI 0.19-0.77. Most of the regimens with more than two daily doses of medication included at least one dose apart from mealtimes. The results suggest that, if possible, regimens with a reduced number of doses should be chosen, with no compulsory fasting, and with few adverse effects. Strategies to minimize these effects should be discussed with the patients.

  8. mtct regimen choice, drug resistance and the treatment of hiv

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drug-resistant variants may become selected as long as the drug is administered. There has been some concern that the use of ARV monotherapy for the prevention of MTCT, including ... potential implications for perinatal transmission, the choice of ... transmission rate using this regimen, short-term treatment with dual ...

  9. mtct regimen choice, drug resistance and the treatment of hiv

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perinauzl HW Unit, University ofcJu WilWalmTand. MTCT REGIMEN CHOICE, DRUG. RESISTANCE AND THE TREATMENT OF. HIV-I-INFECTED CHILDREN assessing ARV drug resistance. Genotypic assays detect specific point mutations in the HIV genome that are associated with phenotypic resistance. These are most.

  10. Noncompliance with Medical Regimen in Haemodialysis Treatment: A Case Study

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    Paraskevi Theofilou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients undergoing haemodialysis treatment have a high burden of disease (particularly cardiovascular comorbidities affecting their quality of life and dramatically shortening life expectancy. Effective chronic kidney disease (CKD control requires regular preventive medication and a response to that medication. Poor receptiveness to CKD medication can be related to individual variability in the dose needed to achieve a response, as well as to low-adherent behaviour in relation to the CKD medication regimen. Some patients, though not many, according to studies' findings, abuse the medical regimen as a result of suicidal tendencies. The present case gave us the opportunity to consider the causes and clinical findings and review the specific psychological interventions for patients with CKD.

  11. Accelerated split course regimen in the treatment of brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franchin, G.; Minatel, E.; Roncadin, M.; Trovo, M.G.; De Paoli, A.; Bortolus, R.; Arcicasa, M.; Boz, G.; Gobitti, C.; Grigoletto, E.; Bassignano, G.

    1988-01-01

    63 patients, with brain metastases were treated with an accelerated split course regimen; irradiation was given to the whole brain in 3 daily fractions of 160 cGy each for 5 days a week. The cycle was repeated after 2 weeks to a total dose of 4800 cGy. Male-female ratio was 3:1. Median age was 58 years. The most frequent site of primary tumor was lung (41 patients), breast in 6 patients, melanoma in 3 patients, other sites in 8 patients and unknown cancer in 5 patients. Thirty-five patients had multiple brain metastases localizations. Two patients failed to complete the scheduled treatment: one because of early death and the other by refusal of therapy during treatment. Complete remission was obtained in 4 patients and partial remission in 24 patients. The median survival time was 21 weeks. The overall response rate was 42.5%. Toxicity was not considerable. The treatment results were not influenced by the site of primary tumor or by disease spreading; only the neurologic status before radiotherapy and the response to treatment influenced survival. The results obtained are similar to those reported by others; however, with the accelerated split course regimen the treatment time was reduced and a shorter period of hospitalization was required. 36 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  12. A dosing regimen for immediate N-acetylcysteine treatment for acute paracetamol overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Finna; Coulter, Carolyn V; Isbister, Geoffrey K; Duffull, Stephen B

    2011-08-01

    Current treatment of paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning involves initiating a 3-phase N-acetylcysteine (NAC) infusion after comparing a plasma concentration, taken ≥ 4 h post-overdose, to a nomogram. This may result in dosing errors, a delay in treatment, or possibly more adverse effects - due to the use of a high dose rate for the first infusion when treatment is initiated. Our aim was to investigate a novel dosing regimen for the immediate administration of NAC on admission at a lower infusion rate. We used a published population pharmacokinetic model of NAC to simulate a scenario where a patient presents to the hospital 2 h post-overdose. The conventional regimen is commenced 6 h post-overdose when the 4-h plasma paracetamol concentration is available. We investigated an NAC infusion using a lower dosing rate initiated immediately on presentation. We determined a dosing rate that gave an area under the curve (AUC) of the concentration-time curve that was the same or greater than that from the conventional regimen on 90% of occasions. Lower dosing rates of NAC initiated immediately resulted in a similar exposure to NAC. An infusion of 110 mg/kg over the first 5 h (22 mg/kg/h) followed by the last two phases of the conventional regimen, or 200 mg/kg over 9 h (22.6 mg/kg/h) followed by the last phase of the conventional regimen could be used. The novel dosing regimen allowed immediate treatment of a patient using a lower dosing rate. This greatly simplifies the current dosing regimen and may reduce NAC adverse effects while ensuring the same amount of NAC is delivered.

  13. Impacts of 12-dose regimen for latent tuberculosis infection: Treatment completion rate and cost-effectiveness in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Wen; Yang, Shun-Fa; Yeh, Yen-Po; Tsao, Thomas Chang-Yao; Tsao, Shih-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is essential for eradicating tuberculosis (TB). Moreover, the patient adherence is crucial in determining the effectiveness of TB control. Isoniazid given by DOTS daily for 9 months (9H) is the standard treatment for LTBI in Taiwan. However, the completion rate is low due to the long treatment period and its side effects. The combined regimen using a high dose of rifapentine/isoniazid once weekly for 12 weeks (3HP) has been used as an alternative treatment option for LTBI in the United States. This may result in a higher completion rate. In this pilot study, patient adherence and cost of these 2 treatment regimens were investigated. Thus, we aimed to assess the treatment completion rate and costs of 3HP and compare to those with 9H.Data from 691 cases of LTBI treatments including 590 cases using the conventional regimen and 101 cases with rifapentine/Isoniazid were collected. The cost was the sum of the cost of treatment with Isoniazid for 9 months or with rifapentin/Isoniazid for 3 months of all contacts. The effectiveness was the cost of cases of tuberculosis avoided.In this study, the treatment completion rate for patients prescribed with the 3 months rifapentine/isoniazid regimen (97.03%) was higher than those given the conventional 9-month isoniazid regimen (87.29%) (P tuberculosis and US$ 5225/avoided 1 case of tuberculosis with 3HP. In addition, when compared with the conventional regimen, there were fewer patients discontinued with rifapentine/isoniazid regimen due to undesirable side effects.This was the first study to compare the 2 treatment regimens in Taiwan, and it showed that a short-term high-dosage rifapentine/isoniazid treatment regimen reduced costs and resulted in higher treatment completion than the standard LTBI isoniazid treatment.

  14. The effect of treatment regimens for vaginitis and cervicitis on vaginal colonization by lactobacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, K J; Hillier, S L

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effect of various treatment regimens on vaginal colonization by H2O2-positive and H2O2-negative lactobacilli. The subset of women enrolled in a large longitudinal cohort study who had Chlamydia trachomatis (n = 13), bacterial vaginosis (n = 105), yeast vaginitis (n = 15), or mucopurulent cervicitis (n = 47) were compared with 93 women without genital infection from the same population. The effect of various treatment regimens on lactobacilli was evaluated. Use of doxycycline, azithromycin, clotrimazole, and fluconazole had little effect on vaginal colonization by Lactobacillus. Use of oral or vaginal metronidazole led to an increase in Lactobacillus, which persisted 1 month after therapy. Intravaginal clindamycin use caused a decrease 1 week post-therapy, but at 1 month, levels of lactobacilli were similar to those in the metronidazole treatment group. Women treated with oral ampicillin had a modest increase in Lactobacillus levels. Use of antimicrobial agents for treating vaginitis and cervicitis do not cause a decrease in vaginal colonization by Lactobacillus, which is detectable 1 week to 1 month after treatment.

  15. [Successful treatment with high-dose methotrexate/cytarabine regimen in a patient in SMILE regimen-resistant extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saburi, Masuho; Itani, Kazuhito; Nagamatsu, Kentarou; Miyazaki, Yasuhiko; Otsuka, Eiichi; Urabe, Shogo; Saburi, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    A 28-year-old man complained of pain in the oral mucosa and pharynx in March 2011, and then developed fever and generalized swelling of the cheek. In March 2012, a gum biopsy led to a diagnosis of extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKL). (18)F-FDG-PET revealed significant uptake in the mouth, tonsils, jawbone, shoulder blade, humerus, ilium, femur, and spleen. After two courses of the SMILE (dexamethasone, methotrexate (MTX), ifosfamide, L-asparaginase, etoposide) regimen, the response was stable disease. However, a high-dose MTX/cytarabine (MA) regimen was effective. After three courses of the MA regimen, a partial response was achieved. Then, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from an unrelated donor was performed. At 10 months after transplantation, there was no sign of recurrence. Although the optimal treatment for ENKL refractory to the SMILE regimen has yet to be established, our case suggests the MA regimen to be a potentially effective treatment option.

  16. A cost comparison of biologic treatment regimens for metastatic colorectal cancer in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Iannazzo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionBevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody, which, in association with combination chemotherapy regimens, has been shown to be active in metastatic colorectal cancer. Other biologic agents active in the same setting are cetuximab and panitumumab, both of which are monoclonal antibodies directed against the antiepidermal growth factor receptor. The objective of this study was to compare treatment costs of first-line regimens for metastatic colorectal cancer in Italy.MethodsA set of first-line regimens was considered, according to the Italian Association of Medical Oncology and the European Society for Medical Oncology guidelines. A targeted review of the literature was undertaken to identify clinical study references for treatment regimens. The total cost of a regimen was calculated in the perspective of the Italian healthcare system summing up drugs, administration, and adverse event costs, based on year 2016 prices and tariffs.ResultsBevacizumab 7.5 mg + capecitabine was the least expensive regimen, with a total cost of €16,754 per patient. When we consider regimens based on FOLFOX, bevacizumab 5 mg + FOLFOX4 was the least expensive (€32,709 per patient, compared to panitumumab + FOLFOX4 (€42,815, cetuximab + FOLFOX4 (€42,725, and cetuximab + FOLFOX (€37,995. If we consider combination regimens based on FOLFIRI, the association of FOLFIRI and bevacizumab was less expensive than regimens that included cetuximab (€28,389 for bevacizumab 5 mg + FOLFIRI and €35,310 for cetuximab + FOLFIRI.ConclusionsFrom the perspective of the Italian health care system, bevacizumab appears to be a convenient option among the first-line regimens for metastatic colorectal cancer. Further study, based on real-world evidence, would be necessary to confirm this result.

  17. Interferon free hepatitis C treatment regimens: the beginning of another era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poordad, Fred; Chee, Grace M

    2012-02-01

    Hepatitis C is a virus affecting millions worldwide and is a major health risk. With the potentially severe adverse event profile of the current backbone of therapy, interferon, there is an impetus to discover interferon free treatment regimens. With the development of new oral direct acting antivirals, interferon free regimens may be available in the next few years. This article discusses some of the preliminary data from interferon free studies.

  18. Alternative temozolomide dosing regimens and novel combinations for the treatment of advanced metastatic melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jen Hwu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 30 years, there has been no significant improvement in treatment outcomes for patients with advanced stage IV metastatic melanoma, and prognosis remains poor. Melanoma is known to be responsive to immunomodulatory agents, to be a highly vascular tumor, and to be fairly resistant to standard cytotoxic chemotherapy. Ongoing research is attempting to find novel combinations that may have therapeutic synergy. Alternative dosedense schedules of temozolomide appear promising and are being actively investigated, based on their potential to overcome chemoresistance to alkylating agents and the proven activity of temozolomide in the brain. Outcomes of studies investigating single-agent temozolomide suggest that it has activity similar to single-agent dacarbazine. Other studies combining temozolomide with either interferon- alfa or thalidomide suggest that the addition of these immunomodulatory agents to temozolomide improves response rates and may improve overall survival. The best results have been achieved with the extended, daily, dosedense temozolomide regimen. Further research is needed to determine the optimal temozolomide regimen and best combination approach

  19. Adherence to Chronic Hepatitis C Treatment Regimen: First Report From a Referral Center in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Saeedeh; Nasiri Toosi, Mohsen; Karimzadeh, Iman; Ahadi-Barzoki, Mehdi; Khalili, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Background Various aspects of adherence to HCV treatment such as frequency, risk factors as well as causes of non-adherence, and its real role in clinical and virological outcome of the infected patients have remained largely unknown. Objectives The current study aimed to evaluate patients’ adherence to anti-HCV medications in Iran. Materials and Methods From October 2010 to March 2011, socio-demographic characteristics, features of HCV infection, clinical properties, and habitual history of 190 patients were collected. Adherence of each patient to anti-HCV medications was determined at months 1, 3, and 6 of treatment by self-reporting and pill or empty ampoule counting. Adherence to anti-HCV treatment regimen was determined based on the 80/80/80 rule. Results Adherence rate to interferon, ribavirin, or a combination of them over the first 6 months of therapy in Iranian HCV patients measured by both methods of self-reporting and pill counting were 35.4-65.8%, 46.3-56.8%, and 28.4-51.1%, respectively. Delay in receiving new prescription, financial issues, and adverse drug reactions were the most common causes of non-adherence in the patients. Adherence to ribavirin was identified as an independent predictor of achieving the end of treatment response, or sustained virological response. Conclusions The rate of adherence to interferon and ribavirin varied significantly according to the method of calculation. Over the treatment course, adherence to interferon alpha and ribavirin, each or their combination, diminished significantly. PMID:24032043

  20. Back pain during different sequential treatment regimens of teriparatide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyritis, George; Marin, Fernando; Barker, Clare

    2010-01-01

    To investigate changes in back pain in postmenopausal women with severe osteoporosis who received teriparatide for 24 months or switched at 12 months to raloxifene or no active treatment.......To investigate changes in back pain in postmenopausal women with severe osteoporosis who received teriparatide for 24 months or switched at 12 months to raloxifene or no active treatment....

  1. Efficacy and tolerance of artemisinin in short combination regimens for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bich, N. N.; de Vries, P. J.; van Thien, H.; Phong, T. H.; Hung, L. N.; Eggelte, T. A.; Anh, T. K.; Kager, P. A.

    1996-01-01

    Two oral regimens comprising a single dose of 20 mg/kg of artemisinin followed by three days of quinine, 10 mg/kg three times a day (AQ), or doxycycline, 4 mg/kg once a day (AD), were compared with a standard seven-day course of oral quinine, 10 mg/kg three times a day (Q), in the treatment of

  2. Recent developments in the treatment of obesity with particular reference to semistarvation ketogenic regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistrian, B R

    1978-01-01

    Three new techniques have been developed for the treatment of obesity--behavior modification, semistarvation ketogenic regimens, and surgical therapy. Behavior modification appears to be effective for weight maintenance after weight loss through balanced deficit dieting for patients at less than 130 per cent of desirable body weight and semistarvation ketogenic regimens for patients from 130 to 200 per cent of desirable body weight. When indicated, surgical therapy is more efficacious for patients who are in excess of 200 per cent desirable body weight. All three approaches should be considered experimental until a larger experience is acquired and preliminary results are confirmed.

  3. ACCELERATED REGIMENS OF ADJUVANT RADIOTHERAPY IN THE TREATMENT OF BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Afonin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of breast cancer (BC is a complex multidisciplinary problem. Often, radiation therapy is an obligatory component of treatment of breast cancer patients. Numerous large randomized trials have proved the efficacy of adjuvant radiotherapy in both the standard fractionation regimen in a single focal dose of 2 Gy to a total focal dose of 50 Gy for 25 fractions and in modes of hypofractionation using radiation exposure at a larger daily dose with a reduction in the total treatment time. The presented review summarizes the data of the largest studies on the modes of hypofractionation of postoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer. Most of the studies comparing the standard mode of fractionation of postoperative radiotherapy with the modes of hypofractionation showed comparable results for the main oncological parameters with similar tolerability, frequency of complications and good cosmetic results. It also shows the economic feasibility of applying accelerated regimes in everyday practice. Despite the fact that radiotherapy in the mode of hypofractionation has already become the standard of treatment and is recommended for use by the largest European and American cancer associations, indications for its conduct, the criteria for selection in the studies and the range of recommended single focal doses differ. The obtained results do not give an opportunity to confidently judge the advantage of one or another regime. It is necessary to determine the factors of a favorable and unfavorable prognosis, to clarify the indications for the use of various radiotherapy techniques. Therefore, questions about the optimal mode of hypo-fractionation of adjuvant radiotherapy, the timing of its initiation and the criteria for selecting patients for this type of therapy as part of the comprehensive treatment of breast cancer have not yet been fully resolved. Also open is the choice of optimal single and total doses of radiation, its combination with drug

  4. Association of Hypoglycemic Treatment Regimens With Cardiovascular Outcomes in Overweight and Obese Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghotbi, Adam Ali; Køber, Lars; Finer, Nick

    2013-01-01

    To assess the association of hypoglycemic treatment regimens with cardiovascular adverse events and mortality in a large population of type 2 diabetic patients at increased cardiovascular risk.......To assess the association of hypoglycemic treatment regimens with cardiovascular adverse events and mortality in a large population of type 2 diabetic patients at increased cardiovascular risk....

  5. A standardized treatment regimen for patients with severe haemophilia A undergoing orthopaedic or trauma surgery: a single centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Christina; Heindl, Bernhard; Spannagl, Michael; Lison, Susanne

    2015-06-01

    Recommendations on the administration of clotting factor concentrates in patients with severe haemophilia undergoing surgery are usually determined by monitoring target clotting factor levels. In this retrospective cohort study, we enrolled patients with severe haemophilia A who underwent major orthopaedic or trauma surgery. We wanted to evaluate the feasibility and the safety of a standardized medical treatment procedure. Further on, we wanted to assess whether our standardized treatment regimen enables surgical procedures in certain situations in which measuring clotting factor VIII (FVIII) activity is not available. We created a standardized medical treatment procedure that included a medical protocol and close cooperation with the Haemophilic Treatment Centre. Thirteen surgical procedures in nine patients were examined. The feasibility and safety of this standardized treatment concept were assessed by identifying perioperative complications and by means of a questionnaire. Depending on the surgery, the amount of FVIII administered within the first 10 days ranged between 653 and 1027 units/kg body weight. No allogeneic blood transfusion was required. The measurement of FVIII activity was performed repeatedly in five patients. In all patients activated partial thromboplastin time monitoring was performed during the hospital stays. The surgeons and patients were satisfied with our treatment concept and adhered to the medical regimen protocol. By means of a detailed, standardized medical protocol and by ensuring close cooperation between the patient, the surgeons and the Haemophilic Treatment Centre, we could show that elective and emergency operations can be safely performed even in situations in which FVIII activity could not be monitored.

  6. A phase I multicenter study of antroquinonol in patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer who have received at least two prior systemic treatment regimens, including one platinum-based chemotherapy regimen

    OpenAIRE

    LEE, YU-CHIN; HO, CHING-LIANG; KAO, WOEI-YAU; CHEN, YUH-MIN

    2015-01-01

    Antroquinonol is isolated from Antrodia camphorata, a camphor tree mushroom, and is a valuable traditional Chinese herbal medicine that exhibits pharmacological activities against several diseases, including cancer. This first-in-human phase I study of antroquinonol included patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer who had received at least two prior systemic treatment regimens. An open-label, dose escalation, pharmacokinetic (PK) study was conducted to determine the maximum tolera...

  7. Efficacy of a twice-daily, 3-step, over-the-counter skincare regimen for the treatment of acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodan K

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Katie Rodan, Kathy Fields, Timothy J Falla Rodan + Fields, San Francisco, CA, USA Background: Acne vulgaris (acne is the most common skin disorder producing physical and emotional scars that can persist for years. An estimated 83% of acne sufferers self-treat, but there is lack of studies documenting the effectiveness of over-the-counter (OTC acne treatment products.Objective: This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of an OTC, 3-step, anti-acne skincare regimen in treating acne and improving the appearance of red/inflamed facial skin.Methods: This 6-week, open-label clinical study included both genders aged between 12 and 35 years with mild-to-moderate acne. All subjects were required to have an acne score of 1–3 (Cook’s acne grading scale: 0=clear to 7=very severe and a moderate redness score of ≥2 (0=none and 4=severe. Subjects completed a 3-step facial treatment regimen every morning and evening using an OTC cleanser, toner, and acne treatment. Evaluations for effectiveness and safety were done at baseline and weeks 2, 4, and 6 using digital photographs (Visia-CR® digital imaging system of the face and analyzed using Image-Pro® software for the grading of acne, red/inflamed skin, and the number and type of lesions.Results: Thirty subjects (12 males and 18 females were enrolled (mean age of 19 years; range 12–34 years. This skincare regimen resulted in statistically significant improvements in acne grading scores after 2 weeks of use, with mean scores continuing to improve after 4 and 6 weeks of use (P<0.001. Statistically significant improvements from baseline in red/inflamed skin, open and closed comedones, and papules were detected at all time points and for nodules at week 6, compared to their respective baselines (P<0.05.Conclusion: This clinical study demonstrated the effectiveness of an OTC 3-step, anti-acne skincare regimen in significantly improving acne and the overall appearance of skin in the majority

  8. Comparison of trichostatin A and valproic acid treatment regimens in a mouse model of kidney fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Beneden, Katrien, E-mail: kvbenede@vub.ac.be [Department of Human Anatomy, Liver Cell Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Geers, Caroline [Department of Pathology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Pauwels, Marina [Department of Human Anatomy, Liver Cell Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Mannaerts, Inge [Department of Cell Biology, Liver Cell Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Wissing, Karl M. [Department of Nephrology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Van den Branden, Christiane [Department of Human Anatomy, Liver Cell Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Grunsven, Leo A. van, E-mail: lvgrunsv@vub.ac.be [Department of Cell Biology, Liver Cell Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-09-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are promising new compounds for the therapy of fibrotic diseases. In this study we compared the effect of two HDAC inhibitors, trichostatin A and valproic acid, in an experimental model of kidney fibrosis. In mice, doxorubicin (adriamycin) can cause nephropathy characterized by chronic proteinuria, glomerular damage and interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, as seen in human focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Two treatment regimens were applied, treatment was either started prior to the doxorubicin insult or delayed until a significant degree of proteinuria and fibrosis was present. Pre-treatment of trichostatin A significantly hampered glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, as did the pre-treatment with valproic acid. In contrast, the development of proteinuria was only completely inhibited in the pre-treated valproic acid group, and not in the pre-treated trichostatin A animals. In the postponed treatment with valproic acid, a complete resolution of established doxorubicin-induced proteinuria was achieved within three days, whereas trichostatin A could not correct proteinuria in such a treatment regimen. However, both postponed regimens have comparable efficacy in maintaining the kidney fibrosis to the level reached at the start of the treatments. Moreover, not only the process of fibrosis, but also renal inflammation was attenuated by both HDAC inhibitors. Our data confirm a role for HDACs in renal fibrogenesis and point towards a therapeutic potential for HDAC inhibitors. The effect on renal disease progression and manifestation can however be different for individual HDAC inhibitors. - Highlights: • Valproic acid is a potent antiproteinuric drug, whereas trichostatin A is not. • Trichostatin A and valproic acid reduce kidney fibrosis in doxorubicin nephropathy. • Both valproic acid and trichostatin A attenuate renal inflammation.

  9. A network meta-analysis of eight chemotherapy regimens for treatment of advanced ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xi-Ping; Rui, Xiao-Hui; Guo, Cai-Xia; Huang, Ya-Qing; Li, Qin; Xu, Yun

    2017-03-21

    This study compared the short-term efficacies of different chemotherapy regimens in the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer (AOC) through pair-wise and network meta-analyses (NMA). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) identified in a comprehensive online literature search met our inclusion criteria. Direct and indirect evidence was combined to compare odds ratios (OR) and surfaces under the cumulative ranking curves (SUCRA) across the different treatment regimens. Twelve eligible RCTs were finally included, involving eight regimens (Paclitaxel + Carboplatin [PC], Gemcitabine + Carboplatin [GC], Carboplatin, Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin + Carboplatin [PLD + Carboplatin], Paclitaxel, Paclitaxel + Carboplatin + Topotecan [PC + Topotecan], Paclitaxel + Carboplatin + Epirubicin [PC + Epirubicin] and Docetaxel + Carboplatin [DC]). The NMA results revealed that in terms of overall response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR), PC (ORR: OR=2.59, 95%CI=1.20-6.22; DCR: OR=2.58, 95%CI=1.05-6.82) and GC (ORR: OR=2.08, 95%CI=1.08-4.37; DCR: OR=2.43, 95%CI=1.07-5.80) were more effective against AOC than Carboplatin alone. Similarly, PC (OR=0.21, 95%CI=0.05-0.69), GC (OR=0.31, 95%CI=0.09-0.90) and PLD + Carboplatin (OR=0.22, 95%CI=0.04-0.92) slowed disease progression better than Carboplatin alone. We also found that PC was more efficacious against AOC than Carboplatin or Paclitaxel single-agent chemotherapy. Combination chemotherapy is thus recommended for AOC, and should guide subsequent drug development and treatment strategies.

  10. Single Tablet Regimen Usage and Efficacy in the Treatment of HIV Infection in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Armstrong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Single tablet regimens (STRs for HIV infection improve patient satisfaction, quality of life, medication adherence, and virological suppression compared to multitablet regimens (MTRs. This is the first study assessing STR uptake and durability in Australia. This retrospective audit of all patients receiving an STR (n=299 at a large Sydney HIV clinic (January 2012–December 2013 assessed patient demographics, treatment prior to STR, HIV RNA load and CD4 during MTR and STR dosing, and reasons for STR switch. 206 patients switched from previous antiretroviral treatment to an STR, of which 88% switched from an MTR. Reasons for switching included desire to simplify treatment (57%, reduced side effects or toxicity (18%, and cost-saving for the patient. There was no switching for virological failure. Compared to when on an MTR, patients switching to an STR had significantly lower HIV RNA counts (p<0.001 and significantly higher CD4 counts (p<0.001. The discontinuation rate from STR was very low and all patients who switched to an STR maintained virological suppression throughout the study duration, although the study is limited by the absence of a control group.

  11. Comparison of different regimens of pimecrolimus 1% cream in the treatment of facial seborrheic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Juemin; Sun, Wenjia; Zhang, Chengfeng; Wu, Jiaqiang; Le, Yan; Huang, Chunyun; Liu, Ye; Xiang, Leihong

    2018-02-01

    Pimecrolimus 1% cream has already been proved to be an effective and safe alternative to treat seborrheic dermatitis. However, the treatment periods were inconstant in previous studies. To evaluate the comparative efficacy of pimecrolimus 1% cream with different regimens for the treatment of facial seborrheic dermatitis. Thirty patients with facial seborrheic dermatitis were enrolled and randomly distributed to three groups. Patients of Group 1 were treated with topical pimecrolimus cream 1% twice daily for 2 weeks and then a moisturizer cream twice daily for 2 weeks. Patients of Group 2 were treated with pimecrolimus cream 1% twice daily for 2 weeks and then once daily for another 2 weeks. Patients of Group 3 had a consecutive course of pimecrolimus cream 1% twice daily for 4 weeks. Objective symptoms, subjective symptoms, and dermatology life quality index (DLQI) were measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 6. At week 4, the clinical severity scores of all three regimens significantly decreased (Pseborrheic dermatitis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. NOVP: a novel chemotherapeutic regimen with minimal toxicity for treatment of Hodgkin's disease

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    Hagemeister, F.B.; Cabanillas, F.; Velasquez, W.S.; Meistrich, M.L.; Liang, J.C.; McLaughlin, P.; Redman, J.R.; Romaguera, J.E.; Rodriguez, M.A.; Swan, F. Jr. (Univ. of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Patients with early-staged Hodgkin's disease have had a higher relapse rate following radiotherapy alone if they have B symptoms, large mediastinal masses, hilar involvement, or stage III disease. From June 1988 to December 1989, 27 previously untreated patients with early-staged Hodgkin's disease with adverse features for disease-free survival received combined-modality therapy. Seventeen patients had stage I or II disease, 10 had stage III, 5 had B symptoms, 13 had large mediastinal masses, and 6 had peripheral masses measuring 10 cm or more in diameter. All patients initially received three cycles of a novel chemotherapeutic regimen combining Novantrone (mitoxantrone, American Cyanamid Company), vincristine, vinblastine, and prednisone (NOVP). Twenty-four patients with clinically staged I or II disease with adverse features or stage III disease did not undergo laparotomy; three patients had favorable stage I or II disease and at laparotomy had stage III disease. Radiotherapy-treatment fields depended on the extent of nodal involvement. Twenty-six patients completed all therapy as planned to complete remission (CR) and one of these has had progression; she is in second CR following additional radiotherapy. With a median follow-up of 12 months, all patients are alive. Tolerance to treatment was excellent with only grade 1 or 2 nausea, alopecia and myalgias, and brief myelosuppression. NOVP is an effective adjuvant chemotherapy regimen for inducing responses, with minimal toxicity, prior to definitive radiotherapy for patients with early-staged Hodgkin's disease.

  13. Pediatric-Inspired Treatment Regimens for Adolescents and Young Adults With Philadelphia Chromosome-Negative Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Stuart E; Stock, Wendy; Johnson, Rebecca H; Advani, Anjali; Muffly, Lori; Douer, Dan; Reed, Damon; Lewis, Mark; Freyer, David R; Shah, Bijal; Luger, Selina; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon; Jaboin, Jerry J; Coccia, Peter F; DeAngelo, Daniel J; Seibel, Nita; Bleyer, Archie

    2018-02-15

    The incidence of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL) in adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients (age range, 15-39 years) in the United States is increasing at a greater rate than in younger or older persons. Their optimal treatment has been increasingly debated as pediatric regimens have become more widely used in the age group. This review compares the basic features of pediatric and adult chemotherapy regimens for ALL and LBL, recognizes and describes the challenges of the pediatric regimen, and suggests strategies to facilitate its adoption for AYAs with ALL and LBL. All but 2 of 25 published comparisons of outcomes with pediatric and adult regimens for ALL and LBL in AYAs and 1 meta-analysis favor the pediatric regimen. After more than a half-century of clinical trials of the pediatric regimens, including at least 160 phase 3 trials in the United States, the pediatric regimens have become far more complex than most adult regimens. Asparaginase, a critical component of the pediatric regimens, is more difficult to administer to AYAs (and older patients) but nonetheless has a favorable benefit to toxicity ratio for AYAs. A dramatic reduction in outcome of ALL and LBL during the AYA years (the "survival cliff") is coincident with similar reductions in proportions of AYAs referred to academic centers and enrolled on clinical trials (the "accrual cliff" and "referral cliff"). The accumulating data increasingly support treating AYAs with ALL and LBL with a pediatric-inspired regimen or an approved institutional or national clinical trial tailored for this patient group. A need to develop clinical trials specifically for AYAs and to encourage their participation is paramount, with a goal to improve both the quantity and quality of survival.

  14. Etoposide-Actinomycin as Salvage Regimen for the Treatment of Nonmetastatic and Low-Risk Metastatic Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia: Experience at the Philippine General Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevado-Gammad, Mariel S; Soriano-Estrella, Agnes L

    2016-06-01

    Single-agent chemotherapy has been the standard of treatment for nonmetastatic and metastatic low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). However, it is estimated that approximately 12% to 32% of patients given single-agent therapy will require a change of chemotherapy regimen because of drug resistance and/or intolerable toxicity. The Section of Trophoblastic Diseases of the Philippine General Hospital started using the combination of etoposide-actinomycin (EA) as salvage chemotherapy in the early 2000s. This study was carried out to describe the local experience with this salvage chemotherapy. This is a retrospective descriptive study aimed to analyze the efficacy and safety of the EA regimen as salvage treatment for the management of nonmetastatic and low-risk metastatic GTN. Records of the Section of Trophoblastic Diseases of the Philippine General Hospital from January 1, 2002 to June 30, 2014 were reviewed to identify all patients who had a diagnosis of nonmetastatic and metastatic low-risk GTN. Primary remission rate and toxicity profile of all patients who received the EA regimen as salvage treatment were determined. During the study period, a total of 67 cycles of the EA regimen were administered to 15 patients as salvage chemotherapy. Patients received a median of 4 cycles of EA, attaining normal serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin after 2 to 3 cycles. Thirteen of the 15 patients achieved complete remission with the EA regimen, giving a remission rate of 87%. The major toxicity that the patients experienced was myelosuppression. Grade 1/2 anemia was addressed by blood transfusion. Grade 3 neutropenia/myelosuppression was addressed by the administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Alopecia was seen in all of the patients. One patient experienced dermatitis with accompanying myelosuppression. The EA regimen was efficacious and well tolerated for the treatment of refractory nonmetastatic and low- risk metastatic GTN.

  15. Identification of combinatorial drug regimens for treatment of Huntington's disease using Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Namita; Pallos, Judit; Slepko, Natalia; Apostol, Barbara L.; Bodai, Laszlo; Chang, Ling-Wen; Chiang, Ann-Shyn; Michels Thompson, Leslie; Marsh, J. Lawrence

    2005-03-01

    We explore the hypothesis that pathology of Huntington's disease involves multiple cellular mechanisms whose contributions to disease are incrementally additive or synergistic. We provide evidence that the photoreceptor neuron degeneration seen in flies expressing mutant human huntingtin correlates with widespread degenerative events in the Drosophila CNS. We use a Drosophila Huntington's disease model to establish dose regimens and protocols to assess the effectiveness of drug combinations used at low threshold concentrations. These proof of principle studies identify at least two potential combinatorial treatment options and illustrate a rapid and cost-effective paradigm for testing and optimizing combinatorial drug therapies while reducing side effects for patients with neurodegenerative disease. The potential for using prescreening in Drosophila to inform combinatorial therapies that are most likely to be effective for testing in mammals is discussed. combinatorial treatments | neurodegeneration

  16. Monitoring processed, mature Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 particles immediately following treatment with a protease inhibitor-containing treatment regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuritzkes Daniel R

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Protease inhibitors (PIs block HIV-1 maturation into an infectious virus particle by inhibiting the protease processing of gag and gag-pol precursor proteins. We have used a simple anti-HIV-1 p24 Western blot to monitor the processing of p55gag precursor into the mature p24 capsid immediately following the first dosage of a PI-containing treatment regimen. Evidence of PI activity was observed in plasma virus as early as 72 hours post treatment-initiation and was predictive of plasma viral RNA decrease at 4 weeks.

  17. A comparison of different antibiotic regimens for the treatment of infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Carvajal, Arturo J; Dayer, Mark; Conterno, Lucieni O; Gonzalez Garay, Alejandro G; Martí-Amarista, Cristina Elena; Simancas-Racines, Daniel

    2016-04-19

    Infective endocarditis is a microbial infection of the endocardial surface of the heart. Antibiotics are the cornerstone of treatment, but their use is not standardised, due to the differences in presentation, populations affected and the wide variety of micro-organisms that can be responsible. To assess the existing evidence about the clinical benefits and harms of different antibiotics regimens used to treat people with infective endocarditis. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE Classic and EMBASE, LILACS, CINAHL and the Conference Proceedings Citation Index on 30 April 2015. We also searched three trials registers and handsearched the reference lists of included papers. We applied no language restrictions. We included randomised controlled trials assessing the effects of antibiotic regimens for treating possible infective endocarditis diagnosed according to modified Duke's criteria. We considered all-cause mortality, cure rates and adverse events as the primary outcomes. We excluded people with possible infective endocarditis and pregnant women. Three review authors independently performed study selection, 'Risk of bias' assessment and data extraction in duplicate. We constructed 'Summary of findings' tables and used GRADE methodology to assess the quality of studies. We described the included studies narratively. Four small randomised controlled trials involving 728 allocated/224 analysed participants met our inclusion criteria. These trials had a high risk of bias. Drug companies sponsored two of the trials. We were unable to pool the data due to the heterogeneity in outcome definitions and the different antibiotics used.The included trials compared the following antibiotic schedules. The first trial compared quinolone (levofloxacin) plus standard treatment (anti-staphylococcal penicillin (cloxacillin or dicloxacillin), aminoglycoside (tobramycin or netilmicin) and rifampicin) versus standard treatment

  18. The Effect of Electroacupuncture on Osteosarcoma Tumor Growth and Metastasis: Analysis of Different Treatment Regimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branden A. Smeester

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone tumor found in children and adolescents and is associated with many complications including cancer pain and metastasis. While cancer patients often seek complementary and alternative medicine (CAM approaches to treat cancer pain and fatigue or the side effects of chemotherapy and treatment, there is little known about the effect of acupuncture treatment on tumor growth and metastasis. Here we evaluate the effects of six different electroacupuncture (EA regimens on osteosarcoma tumor growth and metastasis in both male and female mice. The most significant positive effects were observed when EA was applied to the ST-36 acupoint twice weekly (EA-2X/3 beginning at postimplantation day 3 (PID 3. Twice weekly treatment produced robust reductions in tumor growth. Conversely, when EA was applied twice weekly (EA-2X/7, starting at PID 7, there was a significant increase in tumor growth. We further demonstrate that EA-2X/3 treatment elicits significant reductions in tumor lymphatics, vasculature, and innervation. Lastly, EA-2X/3 treatment produced a marked reduction in pulmonary metastasis, thus providing evidence for EA’s potential antimetastatic capabilities. Collectively, EA-2X/3 treatment was found to reduce both bone tumor growth and lung metastasis, which may be mediated in part through reductions in tumor-associated vasculature, lymphatics, and innervation.

  19. High rates of regimen change due to drug toxicity among a cohort of South Indian adults with HIV infection initiated on generic, first-line antiretroviral treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivadasan, Ajith; Abraham, O C; Rupali, Priscilla; Pulimood, Susanne A; Rajan, Joyce; Rajkumar, S; Zachariah, Anand; Kannangai, Rajesh; Kandathil, Abraham Joseph; Sridharan, G; Mathai, Dilip

    2009-05-01

    To determine the rates, reasons and predictors of treatment change of the initial antiretroviral treatment (ART) regimen in HIV-infected south Indian adults. In this prospective cohort study, ART-naive adults initiated on generic, fixed dose combination ART as per the National AIDS Control Organization guidelines were followed up at an academic medical center. Treatment change was defined as any event which necessitated a change in or discontinuation of the initial ART regimen. Two hundred and thirty persons with HIV infection (males 74.8% and median age 37 years) were followed up for median duration of 48 weeks. The majority (98.7%) had acquired HIV infection through the heterosexual route. Most (70.4%) had advanced IV infection (WHO clinical stage 3 or 4) and 78% had CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts below 200 cells/microL. The initial ART regimens used were: Lamivudine (3TC) with Stavudine (d4T) (in 76%) or Azidothymidine (AZT) and Nevirapine (NVP) (in 86%) or Efavirenz (EFV). The cumulative incidence of treatment change was 39.6% (91 patients). Drug toxicity (WHO grade 3 or 4) was the reason for treatment change among 62 (27%) (incidence rate 35.9/100 person-years). The most common toxicities were attributable to the thymidine analogue nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), d4T and AZT [lactic acidosis (8.7%), anemia (7%) and peripheral neuropathy (5.2%)]. The other toxicities were rash (3.9%) and hepatitis (1.3%) due to NVP. The mortality (4.6/100 person-years) and disease progression rates (4.1/100 person-years) were low. The ART regimens used in this study were effective in decreasing disease progression and death. However, they were associated with high rates of drug toxicities, particularly those attributable to thymidine analogue NRTI. As efforts are made to improve access to ART, treatment regimens chosen should not only be potent, but also safe.

  20. Comparison of the efficacies of intermittent and continuous low-dose isotretinoin regimens in the treatment of moderate acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyraz, Nermin; Mustak, Pelin Kocyiğit

    2013-10-01

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease that usually requires systemic treatment for severe forms. Isotretinoin is the most effective drug in the treatment of acne vulgaris. In this study, we aimed to compare the efficacies of intermittent and continuous low-dose isotretinoin regimens in the treatment of moderate acne vulgaris. Sixty patients with moderate acne were included. They were divided into two groups to receive either intermittent or continuous low-dose isotretinoin. All patients were followed up monthly during the treatment period and for at least six months after completion of therapy. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups regarding improvement rates at the end of treatments. However, reduction rates in mean acne scores at post-treatment controls were in favor of the continuous low-dose group. During the post-treatment follow-up period, three patients in the intermittent group relapsed, while no relapses were observed in the low-dose group. No significant side effects were observed in any groups. Both intermittent and continuous low-dose isotretinoin regimens are very well tolerated and effective as classical regimens in the treatment of moderate acne vulgaris. However, a continuous low-dose regimen seems to be slightly superior in terms of patients' compliance to the treatment and lower risk of relapse. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  1. Risedronate once monthly: a potential new regimen for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J Moro-Álvarez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available María J Moro-Álvarez1, Manuel Díaz-Curiel21Hospital Central Cruz Roja, Madrid, 2Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Madrid, Spain, Internal Medicine, Metabolic Bone Disease UnitAbstract: Postmenopausal osteoporosis increases susceptibility to low-trauma fractures due to reduced bone volume and microarchitectural deterioration. Daily nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates have shown antifracture efficacy in many studies and are the most commonly prescribed treatment for women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, optimal efficacy is often not achieved due to poor patient adherence to medication. Current dosing schedules are often inconvenient or impractical for patients. Poor adherence increases risk of fracture, which itself increases morbidity, healthcare costs and, potentially, mortality. Although weekly rather than daily dosing of bisphosphonates has improved adherence, significant problems remain. Efforts to reduce dosing frequency as a possible means for further improving adherence (compliance and persistence, and therefore treatment outcomes, are ongoing. Risedronate, a third-generation bisphosphonate, has been shown in multiple clinical trials to reduce fracture risk and improve bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Risedronate has a specific structure and set of characteristics that enable less frequent dosing. This paper reviews the structure of risedronate, and how this translates into high antiresorptive potency, favorable bone binding, persistence in bone, and good tolerability that permits less frequent dosing. The paper also reviews the clinical evidence for risedronate, demonstrating the viability of less frequent dosing, with its potential benefits for patient convenience and adherence to therapy. Two equivalence or non-inferiority bridging studies have demonstrated the option of novel risedronate dosing regimens. These studies are reviewed to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of two different monthly

  2. Antiretroviral regimen durability and success in treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients by year of treatment initiation, United States, 1996–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Anandi N.; Ofotokun, Ighovwerha; Buchacz, Kate; Armon, Carl; Chmiel, Joan S.; Hart, Rachel L.D.; Baker, Rose; Brooks, John T.; Palella, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although modern combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimens are better tolerated and less complex than earlier treatments, regimen modification or discontinuation remains a concern. Methods We studied HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS) participants who initiated first or second cART regimens during: 1996–1999, 2000–2003, 2004–2007 and 2008–2011. We analyzed regimen durability (time to regimen modification) and success (achieving undetectable plasma HIV RNA) for first and second cART regimens using Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests, and examined factors associated with durability and success of first cART regimen using proportional hazards models. Results Durability of cART was progressively longer for cART regimens initiated in more recent periods: median first cART regimen durations were 1.0, 1.1, 2.1 and 4.6 years in 1996–1999, 2000–2003, 2004–2007 and 2008–2011, and median second cART durations were 0.9, 1.2, 2.8 and 3.9 years, respectively (both p<0.001). Comparing 1996–1999 and 2008–2011, the percentage of patients who achieved an undetectable HIV RNA within 6 months of first cART initiation increased from 65% to 81%, and from 63% to 80% on second cART (both p<0.001). Among patients initiating first cART during 2008–2011, black non-Hispanic/Latino race/ethnicity and ≥twice daily dosing were significantly associated with higher rates of regimen modification (p<0.05), and higher baseline HIV RNA levels were associated with failure to achieve an undetectable HIV RNA (p<0.001). Conclusions Among HIV-infected U.S. adults in routine HIV care, durability of first and second cART regimens and the likelihood of prompt virologic suppression increased during 1996–2011, coincident with the availability of more tolerable, less complex cART options. PMID:26334737

  3. Clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of dolutegravir used as a single tablet regimen for the treatment of HIV-1 infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, Pauline; Reiss, Peter; Schapiro, Jonathan; Burger, David

    2015-01-01

    With the introduction of the coformulated dolutegravir, abacavir and lamivudine , a new single tablet regimen (STR) is made available for the use in treatment-naive and treatment-experienced HIV-infected patients. This drug combination is the fourth STR that will be positioned next to the STRs with

  4. Clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of dolutegravir used as a single tablet regimen for the treatment of HIV-1 infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, P.; Reiss, P.; Schapiro, J.; Burger, D.M.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: With the introduction of the coformulated dolutegravir, abacavir and lamivudine , a new single tablet regimen (STR) is made available for the use in treatment-naive and treatment-experienced HIV-infected patients. This drug combination is the fourth STR that will be positioned next to

  5. A cost comparison of alternative regimens for treatment-refractory partial seizure disorder: an econometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Chan; Hoffmann, Marc S; Arcona, Steve; D'Souza, Joseph; Wang, Qin; Pashos, Chris L

    2005-10-01

    Partial seizure disorder is typically treated by monotherapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). However, when the condition is refractory to the initial treatment regimen, patients may be switched to monotherapy with another AED or to combination therapy with the initial AED plus a second AED. The purpose of this study was to examine the economic costs associated with treatment-refractory partial seizure disorder and to compare the costs of 2 alternative approaches: a switch to oxcarbazepine (OXC) monotherapy or the addition to the regimen of another AED (AED add-on). Adult patients with a diagnosis of partial seizure disorder who received initial AED monotherapy between January 1, 2000, and March 31, 2003, were identified from the PharMetrics Patient-Centric Database, a health plan administrative claims database. The medical and pharmacy history of these patients was analyzed from 6 months before a change to either OXC monotherapy or AED add-on therapy through 12 months after the change in treatment. Total health care resource utilization and the associated costs were compared within each cohort before and after the change, as well as between cohorts, with statistical differences tested using Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Multivariate econometric analyses were performed to examine the impact of age, sex, geographic location, Charlson Comorbidity Index, and the presence of specific comorbidities. Demographic and clinical characteristics 102 were similar between the OXC monotherapy cohort (n = 259) and the AED add-on cohort (n = 795). Annual direct treatment costs increased in both groups in the period after the failure of initial monotherapy, increasing from 10,462 US dollars to 11,360 US dollars in the OXC cohort and from 10,137 US dollars to 12,201 US dollars in the AED add on cohort (P < 0.01). Increased pharmacy costs were the primary driver behind cost increases in both cohorts. Patients in the AED add-on cohort were significantly more likely to have an emergency

  6. Effectiveness of modified hyper-CVAD chemotherapy regimen in the treatment of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a retrospective experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalaeikhoo, Hasan; Rajaeinejad, Mohsen; Keyhani, Manoutchehr; Zokaasadi, Mohammad; Dehghani Firoozabadi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2018-03-01

    Several chemotherapy regimens have been developed for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), but relapse still presents the most common obstacles to attaining long-term survival. The hyper-CVAD (hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and prednisolone)/HD MTX and Ara-C (high-dose methotrexate and cytarabine) chemotherapy regimen was first started in the MD Anderson Cancer Center as an intensive regimen for adult patients with ALL. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a modified hyper-CVAD protocol. We used hyper-CVAD as consolidation/maintenance after remission induction with daunorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (and cyclophosphamide for T-cell ALL only) rather than standard hyper-CVAD in order to reduce treatment complications. This study was conducted as a retrospective review of medical records of ALL patients at 501 army hospital, Tehran, Iran, from 2005 to 2015. Three hundred and one patients underwent modified hyper-CVAD chemotherapy regimen. Complete remission and overall survival (OS) rates were measured as primary endpoints. Two hundred and forty-six (81.7%) reached complete remission (CR) during the first 6 months of treatment, and 55 patients (18.3%) did not reach CR. The 5-year OS rate was 51.8% (95% CI (confidence interval): 45.1-57.8%). Modified hyper-CVAD regimen is an efficient intensive chemotherapy regimen for consolidation/maintenance of adults with newly diagnosed ALL and has an acceptable 5-year overall that is comparable to standard hyper-CVAD regimen. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Patients' Willingness to Take Multiple-Tablet Antiretroviral Therapy Regimens for Treatment of HIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhard, Esther A N; Smit, Colette; Vervoort, Sigrid C J M; Smit, Peter J; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T.; Kroon, Frank P; Reiss, Peter; Brinkman, Kees; Geerlings, Suzanne E.

    BACKGROUND: The costs of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for HIV, consisting of separate, particularly generic, components (multiple-tablet regimens, MTR) are generally much lower than those of single-tablet regimens (STR) comprising the same active ingredients. OBJECTIVES: To assess

  8. Patients' Willingness to Take Multiple-Tablet Antiretroviral Therapy Regimens for Treatment of HIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhard, Esther A. N.; Smit, Colette; Vervoort, Sigrid C. J. M.; Smit, Peter J.; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T.; Kroon, Frank P.; Reiss, Peter; Brinkman, Kees; Geerlings, Suzanne E.

    2016-01-01

    The costs of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for HIV, consisting of separate, particularly generic, components (multiple-tablet regimens, MTR) are generally much lower than those of single-tablet regimens (STR) comprising the same active ingredients. To assess whether patients would be

  9. Selection of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and treatment regimen for sulfur mustard-induced cutaneous lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plahovinsak, Jennifer L; Buccellato, Matthew A; Reid, Frances M; Graham, John S

    2016-09-01

    The inflammatory process plays an important role in sulfur mustard (HD) injury and HD pathogenesis, suggesting that anti-inflammatory treatments applied as soon as possible following HD injury may reduce tissue damage and accelerate healing. This study used the HD dermal weanling swine model to investigate the efficacy of two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, capsaicin and diclofenac, when applied in combination with the steroid, clobetasol. The therapeutic regimen was also investigated with respect to initiation of treatment post-exposure, frequency and duration. Yorkshire-cross pigs were randomly assigned to experimental groups, corresponding to all combinations of treatment (capsaicin with clobetasol or diclofenac with clobetasol), onset time (1, 2 or 4 h post-exposure), treatment duration (1, 3 or 5 days) and frequency of applications (2, 3 or 4 per day). For each animal, two sites on the ventral abdomen were exposed to 400 μL of neat HD for 8 min to achieve superficial dermal (SD) lesions and two sites were exposed to 400 μL neat HD for 30 min to achieve deep dermal (DD) lesions. Each treatment regimen was tested against a SD and a DD injury. Untreated SD and DD lesion sites served as within-animal controls. Assessments, up to one week post-challenge, included digital photographs, clinical assessments (lesion size measurements and modified Draize scoring), transepidermal water loss (TEWL), reflectance colorimetry and histopathologic evaluations that included an estimate for depth of injury and wound healing parameters. Diclofenac plus clobetasol treatment resulted in significant reductions in lesion contracture and modified Draize scores, increased barrier function (decreased TEWL), and increased healing as determined by histopathology for both SD and DD injury when compared with untreated sites and sites treated with capsaicin plus clobetasol. An increased duration of treatment from 1 to 5 days was most commonly associated with decreased

  10. Treatment of Light Chain Deposition Disease Using Bortezomib-Based Regimen Followed by Thalidomide-Based Regimen in a Saudi Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bappa Adamu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Light chain deposition disease (LCDD is a rare illness with, as yet, no clear evidence-based guidelines for its treatment. To the best of our knowledge, LCDD has not been previously reported from Saudi Arabia. We present in this report, a 38-year-old Saudi male who presented with clinical features suggestive of hypertensive nephropathy but kidney biopsy later revealed the diagnosis of LCDD. His serum creatinine at presentation was 297 μmol/L which came down to 194 μmol/L on treatment with Bortezomib, Cyclophosphamide and Dexamethasone. His 24-hour protein excretion at presentation was 6 g/L which also came down to less than 1 g/day. He was later placed on Cyclophosphamide, Thalidomide, and Dexamethasone regimen because of persistent high titres of serum free light chains. He went into remission with undetectable serum free light chains and remained so for three years at the time of writing this report. We conclude that LCDD, though rare, does occur in Saudi population. The treatment of LCDD is challenging but the use of Bortezomib, a proteosome inhibitor, is promising. However, suboptimal response may require further treatment with other therapeutic options such as chemotherapy with alkylating agents or high-dose Melphalan with autologous stem cell transplant.

  11. Pretreatment serum human chorionic gonadotropin cutoff value for medical treatment success with single-dose and multi-dose regimen of methotrexate in tubal ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junhwan; Jung, Young Mi; Lee, Da Yong; Jee, Byung Chul

    2017-01-01

    To investigate individual pretreatment serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) cutoff value for medical treatment success with single-dose and multi-dose regimen of methotrexate in tubal ectopic pregnancy. Eighty-five women who received methotrexate for the treatment of tubal ectopic pregnancy during 2003 to 2015 were selected. Fifty-three women received a single-dose regimen and 32 women received a multi-dose regimen. Medical treatment failure was defined as necessity of surgical treatment. The medical treatment success rate was estimated in both regimens and the pretreatment serum hCG titer to predict the success was assessed by receiver operating characteristics curve analysis. Pretreatment clinical and laboratory parameters were similar between group of single-dose regimen and multi-dose regimen. Treatment success rate was 64.2% in the single-dose regimen group and 71.9% in the multi-dose regimen group ( P >0.05). Pretreatment serum hCG titer was an independent prognostic factor for treatment success in each regimen. Serum hCG cutoff value to predict the treatment success was 3,026 IU/L in single-dose regimen group and 3,711 IU/L in multi-dose regimen group. We recommend use of single-dose regimen when pretreatment serum hCG <3,026 IU/L but multi-dose regimen may be favored when initial serum hCG level between 3,026 and 3,711 IU/L.

  12. Comparing cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens using sequential, multiple assignment, randomized trials: Regression estimation and sample size considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NeCamp, Timothy; Kilbourne, Amy; Almirall, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens can be used to guide sequential treatment decision-making at the cluster level in order to improve outcomes at the individual or patient-level. In a cluster-level dynamic treatment regimen, the treatment is potentially adapted and re-adapted over time based on changes in the cluster that could be impacted by prior intervention, including aggregate measures of the individuals or patients that compose it. Cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trials can be used to answer multiple open questions preventing scientists from developing high-quality cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens. In a cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trial, sequential randomizations occur at the cluster level and outcomes are observed at the individual level. This manuscript makes two contributions to the design and analysis of cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trials. First, a weighted least squares regression approach is proposed for comparing the mean of a patient-level outcome between the cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens embedded in a sequential multiple assignment randomized trial. The regression approach facilitates the use of baseline covariates which is often critical in the analysis of cluster-level trials. Second, sample size calculators are derived for two common cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trial designs for use when the primary aim is a between-dynamic treatment regimen comparison of the mean of a continuous patient-level outcome. The methods are motivated by the Adaptive Implementation of Effective Programs Trial which is, to our knowledge, the first-ever cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trial in psychiatry.

  13. Comparison of the safety and efficacy of a fixed-dose combination regimen and separate formulations for pulmonary tuberculosis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiun-Ting Wu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Fixed-dose combination formulations, which simplify the administration of drugs and prevent the development of drug resistance, have been recommended as a standard anti-tuberculosis treatment regimen. However, the composition and dosage recommendations for fixed-dose combination formulations differ from those for separate formulations. Thus, questions about the effectiveness and side effects of combination formulations remain. The aim of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of these two types of anti-tuberculosis regimens for pulmonary tuberculosis treatment. METHOD: A prospective, randomized controlled study was conducted using the directly observed treatment short-course strategy. Patients were randomly allocated to one of two short-course regimens. One year after completing the treatment, these patients’ outcomes were analyzed. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00979290. RESULTS: A total of 161 patients were enrolled, 142 of whom were evaluable for safety assessment. The two regimens had a similar incidence of adverse effects. In the per-protocol population, serum bilirubin concentrations at the peak level, at week 4, and at week 8 were significantly higher for the fixed-dose combination formulation than for the separate formulations. All patients had negative sputum cultures at the end of the treatment, and no relapse occurred after one year of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In this randomized study, transient higher serum bilirubin levels were noted for the fixed-dose combination regimen compared with the separate formulations during treatment. However, no significant difference in safety or efficacy was found between the groups when the directly observed treatment short-course strategy was used.

  14. The influence of patient beliefs and treatment satisfaction on the discontinuation of current first-line antiretroviral regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, J L; Marín, A; Romero, V; Bañón, S; Moreno, A; Perez-Elías, M J; Moreno, S; Rodriguez-Sagrado, M A

    2016-01-01

    Large cohort studies have shown a high rate of first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimen discontinuation in HIV-infected patients, attributed to characteristics of the cART regimen or toxicity. A cohort study of 274 patients receiving a first-line regimen was carried out. Patients' perceptions and beliefs prior to initiation were assessed using an attitude towards medication scale (0-15 points), and their satisfaction during therapy was assessed using an HIV treatment satisfaction questionnaire (HIVTSQ). Treatment discontinuation was defined as any switch in the cART regimen. During 474.8 person-years of follow-up, 63 (23%) patients changed their cART regimen, mainly because of toxicity/intolerance (42; 67%). The overall rate of change was 13.2 per 100 patient-years [95% confidence interval (CI) 11.1-16.4 per 100 patient-years]. An efavirenz (EFV)-based single tablet regimen showed the highest rate of adverse events (27%), but the lowest rate of change (16%; 7.44 per 100 patient-years). Cox regression revealed a decreased hazard of first regimen termination with better initial attitude towards drugs [hazard ratio (HR) 0.76; 95% CI 0.62-0.93; P satisfaction (HR 0.94; 95% CI 0.89-0.99; P = 0.01), and an increased hazard of termination with the presence of adverse events (HR 7.7; 95% CI 2.4-11.6; P patients (18 of 59; 31%) with mild/moderate adverse events (which were mainly central nervous system symptoms) continued the regimen; these patients, compared with those discontinuing therapy, showed better perception of therapy (mean score 14.4 versus 12.1, respectively; P = 0.05) and greater satisfaction during therapy (mean score 50.6 versus 44.6, respectively; P = 0.04). Patients' beliefs and satisfaction with therapy influence the durability of the first antiretroviral regimen. These patient-related factors modulate the impact of mild adverse events, and could explain differences in the rate of discontinuation. © 2015 British HIV

  15. Treatment strategies and regimens of graduated intensity for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in low-income countries: A proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Stephen P; Sung, Lillian; Howard, Scott C

    2009-05-01

    Cure rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are 80-85% in high-income countries (HICs) in North America and Western Europe. However, cure rates are much lower in many low-income countries (LICs), where most cases of ALL occur. Over the past several decades partnerships ("twinning") between HIC and LIC pediatric oncology programs have led to major improvements in outcome for children with ALL in some LICs, often by developing time and resource intensive relationships that allow LIC centers to treat children with regimens similar or identical to those used in HICs. However, the resources are not available in most LICs to allow immediate introduction of intensive ALL treatment regimens similar to those used in HICs. With these thoughts in mind, we present a proposal for a systematic and graduated approach to ALL diagnosis, risk classification, and treatment in LICs. We have based the strategy and the proposed regimens on those developed by the Children's Cancer Group (CCG) and Children's Oncology Group (COG) over the past several decades, beginning with a first level regimen similar to CCG therapy of the early 1980s and then layering on successive treatment intensifications proven effective in randomized clinical trials. Simple monitoring rules are included to help centers decide when they are ready to add new treatment components. This proposal provides a framework that LIC centers can use to provide effective ALL therapy, particularly in regions of the world where few children are currently being cured. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Stock-outs of antiretroviral drugs and coping strategies used to prevent changes in treatment regimens in Kinondoni District, Tanzania: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Amani Thomas; Owenya, Joyce

    2014-01-01

    Since 2004, the government of Tanzania has been rolling out antiretroviral treatment programs all over the country. However, the capacity of the health system to cope with the rapid scale-up of these programs is a major concern, and problems may result in drug stock-outs that force changes in treatment regimens. This study aims to explore stock-outs of antiretroviral drugs and further determine the coping strategies employed to prevent changes in treatment regimens in HIV/AIDS care and treatment clinics in Kinondoni District, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 20 HIV/AIDS care and treatment clinics. Interviews were conducted with the person in charge and a member of the pharmacy staff from each clinic using a pre-tested semi-structured interview guide. Verbal responses were transcribed, coded and analysed by thematic approach. Quantitative data were analysed using Excel spreadsheet (Microsoft Excel®, Microsoft Corporation). The total number of clients enrolled in the visited clinics was 32,147, of whom 20,831 (64.8%) had already been initiated onto antiretroviral therapies (ART). Stock-out of antiretroviral drugs was reported in 16 out of the 20 clinics, causing 210 patients to change their ART regimens, during the 12 months preceding the survey. Inefficient supply systems, quantification problems and short expiry duration were cited as the main causes of stock-outs. The coping strategies utilised to prevent changes in ART regimens were: shortening of the refill period, borrowing and moving patients to other clinics. Changes in ART regimens due to stock-outs of antiretroviral drugs occurred in a small but significant number of patients. This increases the risk of the emergence of drug-resistant HIV strains. Healthcare workers use various coping strategies to prevent changes in ART regimens but, unfortunately, some of these strategies are likely to increase patient-borne costs, which may discourage them from attending their routine

  17. Comparative effects of combination drug therapy regimens commencing with either losartan potassium, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, or enalapril maleate for the treatment of severe hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, D; Gazdick, L P; Berman, R; Goldberg, A I; Sweet, C S

    1996-02-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of a regimen of losartan potassium (losartan) and a regimen of enalapril maleate (enalapril) in a randomized trial of patients with severe hypertension in which the initial treatments were blinded. Seventy-five patients, 23-74 years of age, with sitting diastolic blood pressure of 115-130mmHg, were enrolled in a 12-site multicenter study. The primary efficacy parameters were the change in trough systolic and diastolic blood pressure, as well as response to treatment in terms of categories of hypertensive response. A gradual reduction in mean sitting diastolic blood pressure was observed in all patients treated from week 1 to 12 (10-29mmHg for the losartan regimen and 14-32 mmHg for the enalapril regimen). At week 4, a substantial number of patients remained on monotherapy at either the initial dose or double the dose of losartan (52%) or enalapril (72%). The blood pressure curves for each treatment were parallel over time. The enalapril-based regimen elicited a statistically significantly greater reduction in blood pressure than the losartan-based regimen, although the mean differences in the blood pressure response between the two treatment groups was small. Based on sitting diastolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg or a reduction in blood pressure of at least 10 mmHg, 98% of the patients assigned to the losartan regimen and 100% of the patients assigned to the enalapril regimen had a satisfactory response with a regimen of one to three antihypertensive drugs. Headache was the most common adverse experience in both treatment groups (occurring in 22% of patients assigned to the losartan regimen and 20% of patients assigned to the enalapril regimen). In this study, the losartan-based regimen effectively lowered blood pressure, was generally well tolerated, and was generally similar to the enalapril-based regimen in the treatment of patients with severe hypertension.

  18. Effects of In Vitro Antibiotic Resistance on Treatment: Bismuth-Containing Regimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Chiba

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth compounds remain useful for Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. These include colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS, bismuth subsalicylate (BSS and, most recently, ranitidine bismuth citrate (RBC. CBS appears to prevent the development of imidazole resistance when coadministered with nitroimidazoles. Traditional triple therapy with bismuth, metronidazole and tetracycline or amoxicillin (BMT/A only partially overcomes metronidazole resistance. However, the addition of a PPI to bismuth triple therapy largely overcomes established metronidazole resistance if treatment is given for at least one week or more. When RBC rather than PPI is used with clarithromycin, this dual regimen appears to be more effective in preventing the development of secondary clarithromycin resistance. The triple combination of RBC, metronidazole and clarithromycin appears to be effective against metronidazole resistant strains of H pylori. Thus, overall, there is some evidence that bismuth compounds may prevent the development of antibiotic resistance and that existing antibiotic resistance may at least be partially overcome in vitro and in vivo. With the growing emergence of H pylori resistance to metronidazole and clarithromycin, further research to clarify the role of bismuth compounds is required.

  19. Lean body mass as an independent determinant of dose-limiting toxicity and neuropathy in patients with colon cancer treated with FOLFOX regimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Raafi; Sawyer, Michael B.; Bianchi, Laurent; Roberts, Sarah; Mollevi, Caroline; Senesse, Pierre; Baracos, Vickie E.; Assenat, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that lean body mass (LBM) may be useful to normalize chemotherapy doses. Data from one prospective and one retrospective study were used to determine if the highest doses of oxaliplatin/kg LBM within FOLFOX regimens would be associated with dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) in colon cancer patients. Toxicity over four cycles was graded according to NCI Common Toxicity Criteria V2 or V3 (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD). Muscle tissue was measured by computerized tomography (CT) and used to evaluate the LBM compartment of the whole body. In prospective randomized clinical trials conducted in France (n = 58), for patients given FOLFOX-based regimens according to body surface area, values of oxaliplatin/kg LBM were highly variable, ranging from 2.55 to 6.6 mg/kg LBM. A cut point of 3.09 mg oxaliplatin/kg LBM for developing toxicity was determined by Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis, below this value 0/17 (0.0%) of patients experienced DLT; in contrast above this value 18/41 (44.0%) of patients were dose reduced or had treatment terminated owing to toxicity (≥Grade 3 or neuropathy ≥Grade 2); for 9/41 the DLT was sensory neuropathy. These findings were validated in an independent cohort of colon cancer patients (n = 80) receiving FOLFOX regimens as part of standard care, in Canada. Low LBM is a significant predictor of toxicity and neuropathy in patients administered FOLFOX-based regimens using conventional body surface area (BSA) dosing

  20. Low-Frequency Drug Resistance in HIV-Infected Ugandans on Antiretroviral Treatment Is Associated with Regimen Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Kyeyune, Fred; Gibson, Richard M.; Nankya, Immaculate; Venner, Colin; Metha, Samar; Akao, Juliet; Ndashimye, Emmanuel; Kityo, Cissy M.; Salata, Robert A.; Mugyenyi, Peter; Arts, Eric J.; Quiñones-Mateu, Miguel E.

    2016-01-01

    Most patients failing antiretroviral treatment in Uganda continue to fail their treatment regimen even if a dominant drug-resistant HIV-1 genotype is not detected. In a recent retrospective study, we observed that approximately 30% of HIV-infected individuals in the Joint Clinical Research Centre (Kampala, Uganda) experienced virologic failure with a susceptible HIV-1 genotype based on standard Sanger sequencing. Selection of minority drug-resistant HIV-1 variants (not detectable by Sanger se...

  1. How to determine bortezomib-based regimen for elderly patients with multiple myeloma: PAD versus CBd, an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin-Tao; Tan, Yan; Zhao, Wei-Hong; Zeng, Qing-Chun; Li, Bing-Sheng; Chen, Rui-Lin

    2014-02-01

    This was an open-label, observational, prospective assessment. We conducted an analysis of the impact of bortezomib-based therapy (PAD: bortezomib, doxorubicin, high-dose dexamethasone vs. CBd: cyclophosphamide bortezomib, low-dose dexamethasone) on the survival rates and adverse events in elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM). Out of 303 patients, 128 received the PAD regimen and the other 175 patients received the CBd induction therapy (age 65-89 years). Baseline patient characteristics between the two cohorts were balanced in age (P = 0.69), international staging system (ISS) prognostic stages (P = 0.90), serum calcium (P = 0.70), and serum creatinine (P = 0.52). Overall response (OS) after the induction chemotherapy was achieved in 214 of 303 patients (70.6 %), with no significant differences observed between the two treatment groups (71.9 vs. 69.7 %, P = 0.68). Patients with ISS stage 2 reached the same 5-year OS advantages compared to patients with ISS stage 1, because they received bortezomib-based PAD or CBd treatments. Patients receiving CBd protocol gained similar satisfactory progression-free survival (PFS) results when compared to the PAD regimen group: PFS at 5 years reached 58.2 versus 58.9 % (P = 0.85). Five-year OS in the CBd arm had significant advantages compared to the PAD group, 79.9 versus 49.9 % (P CBd group (P CBd arm (39.2 vs. 13.1 %, P CBd have superior treatment advantages, with a predictable safety profile, when compared to the PAD regimen.

  2. Single vs. multiple fraction regimens for palliative radiotherapy treatment of multiple myeloma. A prospective randomised study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudzianskiene, Milda; Inciura, Arturas; Gerbutavicius, Rolandas; Rudzianskas, Viktoras; Dambrauskiene, Ruta; Juozaityte, Elona [Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Oncology Institute, Kaunas (Lithuania); Macas, Andrius [Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Anaesthesiology Department, Kaunas (Lithuania); Simoliuniene, Renata [Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Department of Physics, Mathematics and Biophysics, Kaunas (Lithuania); Kiavialaitis, Greta Emilia [University Hospital Zurich, Intitute of Anesthesiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-09-15

    To compare the impact of a single fraction (8 Gy x 1 fraction) and multifraction (3 Gy x 10 fractions) radiotherapy regimens on pain relief, recalcification and the quality of life (QoL) in patients with bone destructions due to multiple myeloma (MM). In all, 101 patients were included in a randomised prospective clinical trial: 58 patients were included in the control arm (3 Gy x 10 fractions) and 43 patients into the experimental arm (8 Gy x 1 fraction). The response rate was defined according to the International Consensus on Palliative Radiotherapy criteria. Recalcification was evaluated with radiographs. QoL questionnaires were completed before and 4 weeks after treatment. Pain relief was obtained in 81/101 patients (80.2%): complete response in 56 (69%) and partial in 25 patients (30.9%). No significant differences were observed in analgesic response between the groups. Significant factors for pain relief were female gender, age under 65, IgG MM type, presence of recalcification at the irradiated site. Recalcification was found in 32/101 patients (33.7%): complete in 17 (53.2%) and partial in 15 (46.2%). No significant differences were observed in recalcification between the groups. Significant factors for recalcification were Karnofsky index ≥ 60%, haemoglobin level ≤ 80 g/dl, MM stage II and analgesic response at the irradiated site. The QoL after radiotherapy was improved in the control group. The same analgesic and recalcification response was observed using two different radiotherapy regimens. Higher doses should be used to achieve a better QoL. (orig.) [German] Vergleich der einzeitigen vs. fraktionierten palliativen Radiotherapie in Bezug auf Schmerzlinderung, Knochenrekalzifizierung und Lebensqualitaet (QoL) bei Patienten mit multiplem Myelom (MM). In die randomisierte, prospektive Studie wurden 101 Patienten eingeschlossen: Die Kontrollgruppe (n = 58) erhielt eine fraktionierte (3 Gy x 10 Fraktionen) und die Experimentgruppe (n = 43) eine

  3. Weekly taxane-anthracycline combination regimen versus tri-weekly anthracycline-based regimen for the treatment of locally advanced breast cancer: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qiu-Wen; Luo, Ting; Zheng, Hong; Tian, Ting-Lun; He, Ping; Chen, Jie; Zeng, He-Lin; Lv, Qing

    2017-03-07

    Extensive studies have confirmed the efficacy of taxanes in combination with anthracycline-based chemotherapy on breast cancer. However, few studies have assessed the efficacy of weekly taxane-anthracycline regimens on locally advanced breast cancer. This study was to compare the efficacy and safety of a weekly taxane-anthracycline regimen with those of tri-weekly anthracycline-based regimen in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. Patients with locally advanced breast cancer were randomized to receive 4-6 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with tri-weekly 5-fluorouracil-epirubicin-cyclophosphamide (FEC) regimen or weekly paclitaxel-epirubicin (PE) regimen. The primary endpoint was the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate. Other endpoints included the clinical tumor response, breast-conserving surgery rate, and adverse events. Between March 2010 and September 2013, 293 patients were randomized to the FEC (n = 151) and PE (n = 142) arms. The overall clinical response rate was significantly higher in the PE arm than in the FEC arm (76.06% vs. 59.95%, P = 0.001). Consistently, the post-chemotherapy pathologic T and N stages were significantly lower in the PE arm than in the FEC arm (P breast-conserving surgery. Most adverse events were comparable in both arms, with more severe neutropenia in the PE arm than in the FEC arm (11.97% vs. 5.96%, P = 0.031). In patients with locally advanced breast cancer, weekly PE was not superior to FEC in terms of pCR. However, weekly PE has a higher response rate and superior down-staging effects. On this account, the PE regimen may be considered an alternative option for locally advanced breast cancer. Long-term follow-up data are needed to confirm the efficacy of this regimen on locally advanced breast cancer. Trial registration Chinese clinical trial registry, ChiCTR-TRC-10001043, September 21, 2014.

  4. Dyslipidemia in an Asian population after treatment for two years with protease inhibitor-containing regimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerr, Stephen J.; Duncombe, Chris; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Boyd, Mark; Sopa, Bunruan; Medtech, B.; Chuenyam, Theshinee; Cooper, David A.; Lange, Joep M. A.; Phanuphak, Praphan; Ruxrungtham, Kiat

    2007-01-01

    There are limited data about dyslipidemia in Asian patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy. To assess the relative association of different protease-inhibitor-containing regimens with the degree of dyslipidemia, fasting lipid levels were compared during 110 weeks in 250

  5. A viral dynamic model for treatment regimens with direct-acting antivirals for chronic hepatitis C infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang S Adiwijaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an integrative, mechanistic model that integrates in vitro virology data, pharmacokinetics, and viral response to a combination regimen of a direct-acting antiviral (telaprevir, an HCV NS3-4A protease inhibitor and peginterferon alfa-2a/ribavirin (PR in patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C (CHC. This model, which was parameterized with on-treatment data from early phase clinical studies in treatment-naïve patients, prospectively predicted sustained virologic response (SVR rates that were comparable to observed rates in subsequent clinical trials of regimens with different treatment durations in treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced populations. The model explains the clinically-observed responses, taking into account the IC50, fitness, and prevalence prior to treatment of viral resistant variants and patient diversity in treatment responses, which result in different eradication times of each variant. The proposed model provides a framework to optimize treatment strategies and to integrate multifaceted mechanistic information and give insight into novel CHC treatments that include direct-acting antiviral agents.

  6. Effectiveness of multi-drug regimen chemotherapy treatment in osteosarcoma patients: a network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojie; Zheng, Hong; Shou, Tao; Tang, Chunming; Miao, Kun; Wang, Ping

    2017-03-29

    Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone tumour. Due to the high metastasis rate and drug resistance of this disease, multi-drug regimens are necessary to control tumour cells at various stages of the cell cycle, eliminate local or distant micrometastases, and reduce the emergence of drug-resistant cells. Many adjuvant chemotherapy protocols have shown different efficacies and controversial results. Therefore, we classified the types of drugs used for adjuvant chemotherapy and evaluated the differences between single- and multi-drug chemotherapy regimens using network meta-analysis. We searched electronic databases, including PubMed (MEDLINE), EmBase, and the Cochrane Library, through November 2016 using the keywords "osteosarcoma", "osteogenic sarcoma", "chemotherapy", and "random*" without language restrictions. The major outcome in the present analysis was progression-free survival (PFS), and the secondary outcome was overall survival (OS). We used a random effect network meta-analysis for mixed multiple treatment comparisons. We included 23 articles assessing a total of 5742 patients in the present systematic review. The analysis of PFS indicated that the T12 protocol (including adriamycin, bleomycin, cyclophosphamide, dactinomycin, methotrexate, cisplatin) plays a more critical role in osteosarcoma treatment (surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA) probability 76.9%), with a better effect on prolonging the PFS of patients when combined with ifosfamide (94.1%) or vincristine (81.9%). For the analysis of OS, we separated the regimens to two groups, reflecting the disconnection. The T12 protocol plus vincristine (94.7%) or the removal of cisplatinum (89.4%) is most likely the best regimen. We concluded that multi-drug regimens have a better effect on prolonging the PFS and OS of osteosarcoma patients, and the T12 protocol has a better effect on prolonging the PFS of osteosarcoma patients, particularly in combination with ifosfamide or vincristine

  7. Behavioral economics as a promising framework for promoting treatment adherence to pediatric regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jack

    2014-01-01

    To summarize previous adult research on behavioral economics (BE) and consider the largely unexplored relevance of BE for promoting adherence to pediatric regimens across a wide variety of illnesses. Literature review. Default bias, loss aversion, overestimation of rare events, and social norms are four BE concepts that have not been fully incorporated in adherence research for pediatric regimens yet offer promising opportunities for novel intervention development. The possible applications of these four strategies are offered in regards to asthma, cystic fibrosis, migraines, and diabetes, respectively.  BE offers pediatric psychology not only low-intensity approaches for promoting adherence but also highly attractive ways of obtaining the attention of health care administrators and policymakers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Analysis of combination drug therapy to develop regimens with shortened duration of treatment for tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George L Drusano

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis remains a worldwide problem, particularly with the advent of multi-drug resistance. Shortening therapy duration for Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major goal, requiring generation of optimal kill rate and resistance-suppression. Combination therapy is required to attain the goal of shorter therapy.Our objective was to identify a method for identifying optimal combination chemotherapy. We developed a mathematical model for attaining this end. This is accomplished by identifying drug effect interaction (synergy, additivity, antagonism for susceptible organisms and subpopulations resistant to each drug in the combination.We studied the combination of linezolid plus rifampin in our hollow fiber infection model. We generated a fully parametric drug effect interaction mathematical model. The results were subjected to Monte Carlo simulation to extend the findings to a population of patients by accounting for between-patient variability in drug pharmacokinetics.All monotherapy allowed emergence of resistance over the first two weeks of the experiment. In combination, the interaction was additive for each population (susceptible and resistant. For a 600 mg/600 mg daily regimen of linezolid plus rifampin, we demonstrated that >50% of simulated subjects had eradicated the susceptible population by day 27 with the remaining organisms resistant to one or the other drug. Only 4% of patients had complete organism eradication by experiment end.These data strongly suggest that in order to achieve the goal of shortening therapy, the original regimen may need to be changed at one month to a regimen of two completely new agents with resistance mechanisms independent of the initial regimen. This hypothesis which arose from the analysis is immediately testable in a clinical trial.

  9. Salvage Regimens Containing Darunavir, Etravirine, Raltegravir, or Enfuvirtide in Highly Treatment-Experienced Perinatally Infected Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shust, Gail F; Jao, Jennifer; Rodriguez-Caprio, Gabriela; Posada, Roberto; Chen, Katherine T; Averitt, Amelia; Sperling, Rhoda S

    2014-09-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy in pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus has dramatically decreased maternal-to-child transmission. Highly treatment-experienced pregnant patients have limited effective treatment options due to past toxicities and viral resistance. We present 8 pregnancies in 7 perinatally infected women successfully treated with salvage regimens containing darunavir, etravirine, raltegravir, or enfuvirtide. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Pan-genotypic treatment regimens for hepatitis C virus: Advantages and disadvantages in high- and low-income regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hézode, C

    2017-02-01

    During the last 5 years, the availability of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents has revolutionized the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Compared with interferon/ribavirin-the previous standard of care-DAA combination regimens offer improved sustained virological response (SVR) rates, shorter treatment durations of 8-24 weeks, convenient once-daily single-tablet formulations and more favourable tolerability profiles. HCV treatment is complex, and the choice of therapy must consider a complex range of factors, including baseline viral load, fibrosis stage, the HCV genotype and subgenotype, and the presence of resistance-associated substitutions at baseline. Globally, HCV genotype 1 predominates, and there are extensive data and various treatment options available for this genotype. Genotypes 2-6 are prevalent and may even predominate in different geographical regions, reflecting diverse factors including human migration patterns and unsafe use of injection drugs and blood products. Such factors are themselves influenced by socio-economic factors, and poor regions often have the greatest unmet need for effective HCV therapies. The latest pan-genotypic DAA combination regimens provide the potential to eradicate HCV around the globe, regardless of genotype, hence minimizing the need for virological testing services, which often are unavailable in poorer regions. Economics inevitably remain a barrier to access, and extensive cooperation will be required between clinical organisations and pharmaceutical manufacturers to agree appropriate pricing policies, especially in poorer economic regions. This review considers key data and treatment guidelines for DAA therapies, including pan-genotypic combination regimens, in the context of regional differences in HCV genotype and socio-economic factors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Efficacy and economic analysis of two treatment regimens using toltrazuril in lambs naturally infected with Eimeria spp. on pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Rodrigues, Fernando; Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; de Menezes, Fernanda Rezer; Sangioni, Luis Antônio; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores; de Avila Botton, Sônia

    2017-11-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy and the economic viability of two anticoccidial treatment regimens tested in lambs naturally exposed to Eimeria spp. re-infections in a grazing system during a 140-day period. Twenty-four suckling lambs were distributed into three groups based on the individual count of oocysts per gram of feces (OPG) and body weight. Animals were treated with toltrazuril 5% (20 mg/kg) at 14- (GI) or 21-day (GII) intervals, and GIII was kept as untreated control. A cost-benefit analysis of each treatment regimen was calculated. Additionally, economic analysis was performed on four hypothetical scenarios, in which lambs could be having 10, 25, 50, or 85% decrease in their expected body weight gain due to clinical. Efficacy of toltrazuril against Eimeria spp. was 96.9-99.9% (GI) and 74.2-99.9% (GII). E. ovinoidalis was most frequently identified, but no clinical signs of coccidiosis were observed in lambs. There were no differences in weight gain among the groups. The cost of treatment per lamb was $13.09 (GI) and $7.83 (GII). The estimation model showed that the cost-benefit ratio favored treatment with toltrazuril when lambs fail to gain weight. In the studied flock, the break-even point for toltrazuril administered at 14-day intervals was reached with 85% decrease in mean weight gain. In conclusion, toltrazuril can be used at 14-day intervals to control Eimeria spp. (re)-infection in lambs raised on pasture. This treatment regimen was not economically feasible for subclinical coccidiosis; however, it may be feasible when used to prevent weight loss caused by clinical coccidiosis.

  12. Reasons and Risk Factors for the Initial Regimen Modification in Chinese Treatment-Naive Patients with HIV Infection: A Retrospective Cohort Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Sun

    Full Text Available To investigate the reasons and risk factors for modification of the first combined antiretroviral therapy (cART currently used for HIV infected patients who were treatment naïve in Shanghai China.Making a retrospective observational research on treatment naïve patients with HIV infection who initiated cART during the period of September 1st 2005---December 1st 2013. The demographic and clinical data were collected from the first visit to the time of the first regimen modification or the last visit in December 1st, 2014. The reasons of treatment modification were recorded. Survival analysis of modification was made by Kaplan-Meier curves analysis and log rank test, and a Cox multiple regression model was constructed to identify related factors of modification.A total number of the eligible participants were 3372 and 871(25.8% patients changed their first cART regimen. The median follow up was 22 months [interquartile range (IQR 14-39]. Among patients who modified the original regimen, drug toxicity occurred in 805(92.4% participants and 44(5.1% experienced treatment failure. In multiple regression analysis regimen modification was associated with patients' age more than 40 years old (aHR 1.224, 95%CI 1.051-1.426, P = 0.010, CD4 less than 200(aHR 1.218, 95%CI 1.044-1.421, P = 0.012 and the initial regimen they received. Compared with the regimen of TDF+3TC+EFV, patients with regimen of d4T+3TC+NVP, d4T+3TC+EFV, AZT+3TC+NVP or AZT+3TC+EFV were 10.4, 8.2, 6.4, 2.5 times more likely to modify their initial regimen, respectively.The main reason for the regimen switch was drug toxicity and main risk factors for regimen modification were age older than 40 years, CD4 cell counts less than 200 at baseline and regimen they received. Among the 2NRTI plus 1NNRTI regimens, the co-formulation of d4T+3TC+NVP had the highest risk for modification while the regimen of TDF+3TC+EFV was the most tolerable treatment regimen in first years' follow up.

  13. The Effectiveness and Safety of Fluoroquinolone-Containing Regimen as a First-Line Treatment for Drug-Sensitive Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Woo; Lee, Jung Kyu; Kim, Eunyoung; Yim, Jae-Joon; Lee, Chang-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Fluoroquinolone is recommended as a pivotal antituberculous agent for treating multi-drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis. However, its effectiveness as first-line treatment remains controversial. The present study was conducted to validate the fluoroquinolone-containing regimen for drug-sensitive pulmonary tuberculosis. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials until June 5, 2015. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared antituberculous regimens containing fluoroquinolone with the standard regimen were included. Eleven RCTs that included 6,334 patients were selected. Fluoroquinolone-containing regimens had a higher rate of sputum culture conversion at 2 months of treatment (M-H fixed odds ratio [OR], 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.54). However, the outcomes were less favorable (M-H fixed OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.59-0.82) and the associated total adverse events were more frequent (M-H fixed OR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.46-2.31) in the fluoroquinolone-containing regimen group, without a significant heterogeneity according to treatment duration. Treatment with the fluoroquinolone-containing regimen for 4 months showed a higher relapse rate. Despite a higher culture conversion rate at 2 months of treatment, the fluoroquinolone-containing regimen had limitations, including less favorable outcomes and more adverse events, as the first-line therapy for drug-sensitive pulmonary tuberculosis.

  14. Clinical information on admission is insufficient to determine the appropriate isolation regimen for acute gastroenteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Florence; Abed, Osama Karim; Backer Mogensen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The number of admissions for acute gastroenteritis (GE) is increasing. The majority of patients pass through a single high-flow emergency department (ED) area which increases the risk of spreading GE. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and aetiology of GE for acutely...

  15. Relapse of Helicobacter pylori infection after different treatment regimens. A 3-month follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanivadekar, S A; Sawant, P D; Patel, H D; Shroff, C P; Popat, U R; Bhatt, P P

    1990-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection of gastric antrum is associated with a majority of cases of peptic ulcer (70-100%). Studies have shown that when this organism is eradicated, the recurrence of ulcer falls to less than one-third of those in whom the infection persists or relapses. Monotherapy with bismuth salts, tinidazone or amoxycillin has been shown to result in early relapse and recurrence of ulcers. However, dual or triple therapy regimens are more effective. We conducted a randomised controlled study using tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate (TDB) (10 patients); amoxycillin (combined with ranitidine for ulcer healing) (9 patients) and dual therapy with both amoxycillin and TDB (10 patients). Our study showed that relapse rates at the end of 3 months was significantly less if dual therapy with TDB and amoxycillin is used as compared to TDB alone (p less than 0.05).

  16. Patients' Willingness to Take Multiple-Tablet Antiretroviral Therapy Regimens for Treatment of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhard, Esther A N; Smit, Colette; Vervoort, Sigrid C J M; Smit, Peter J; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T; Kroon, Frank P; Reiss, Peter; Brinkman, Kees; Geerlings, Suzanne E

    2016-06-01

    The costs of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for HIV, consisting of separate, particularly generic, components (multiple-tablet regimens, MTR) are generally much lower than those of single-tablet regimens (STR) comprising the same active ingredients. To assess whether patients would be willing to take MTR, once-daily, instead of STR, with the goal of reducing general healthcare costs. In addition, we aimed to examine whether willingness was associated with particular patient characteristics. Data from the ATHENA cohort database in The Netherlands of adult HIV-1-infected patients in care and taking cART ≥6 months were used to select 1000 potential participants for an online patient survey on patient preferences and satisfaction. Participants were asked whether they would be willing to take three pills with the equivalent active ingredients simultaneously instead of STR to reduce costs. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between patient characteristics and willingness to take MTR instead of STR. Forty-seven percent ( n  = 152) of the 322 respondents answered 'yes' and 26 % ( n  = 83) answered 'maybe' when asked whether they would be willing to take three pills with the equivalent active ingredients simultaneously to reduce costs. Non-Dutch patients were significantly more likely to answer 'no' (OR: 2.49; 95 % CI: 1.17-5.30) or 'maybe' (OR: 2.63; 95 % CI: 1.24-5.60). Answering 'no' was less common among patients who had been taking cART ≥15 years (OR: 0.23; 95 % CI: 0.09-0.58). Commonly reported concerns included the dosing frequency, efficacy and tolerability of MTR. HIV-infected patients do not necessarily oppose the decision to prescribe MTR instead of STR to reduce healthcare costs. However, the potential trade-off in terms of convenience should be carefully weighed against the projected savings.

  17. The Impact and Cost-Effectiveness of a Four-Month Regimen for First-Line Treatment of Active Tuberculosis in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Gwenan M; Gomez, Gabriela B; Dodd, Peter J; Dowdy, David; Zwerling, Alice; Wells, William A; Cobelens, Frank; Vassall, Anna; White, Richard G

    2015-01-01

    A 4-month first-line treatment regimen for tuberculosis disease (TB) is expected to have a direct impact on patient outcomes and societal costs, as well as an indirect impact on Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission. We aimed to estimate this combined impact in a high TB-burden country: South Africa. An individual based M. tb transmission model was fitted to the TB burden of South Africa using a standard TB natural history framework. We measured the impact on TB burden from 2015-2035 of introduction of a non-inferior 4-month regimen replacing the standard 6-month regimen as first-line therapy. Impact was measured with respect to three separate baselines (Guidelines, Policy and Current), reflecting differences in adherence to TB and HIV treatment guidelines. Further scenario analyses considered the variation in treatment-related parameters and resistance levels. Impact was measured in terms of differences in TB burden and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) averted. We also examined the highest cost at which the new regimen would be cost-effective for several willingness-to-pay thresholds. It was estimated that a 4-month regimen would avert less than 1% of the predicted 6 million person years with TB disease in South Africa between 2015 and 2035. A similarly small impact was seen on deaths and DALYs averted. Despite this small impact, with the health systems and patient cost savings from regimen shortening, the 4-month regimen could be cost-effective at $436 [NA, 5983] (mean [range]) per month at a willingness-to-pay threshold of one GDP per capita ($6,618). The introduction of a non-inferior 4-month first-line TB regimen into South Africa would have little impact on the TB burden. However, under several scenarios, it is likely that the averted societal costs would make such a regimen cost-effective in South Africa.

  18. Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program regimens with and without directly observed treatment, short-course: A comparative study of therapeutic cure rate and adverse reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rengaraj Sivaraj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the therapeutic cure rate and adverse reactions in the regimens of the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP with directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS and without DOTS. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients in the DOTS regimen and 50 patients in the non-DOTS regimen were enrolled in the study. All the participants were asked to come regularly for 3 consecutive days for sputum collection, and the sputum samples were examined for acid-fast bacilli. If tuberculosis (TB was confirmed, the disease status was confirmed through a chest X-ray (PA view. The participants were monitored for adverse events arising from the use of anti-TB drugs for the next 6 months. Results: The TB cure rates for RNTCP with DOTS and RNTCP with non-DOTS were 80% and 66%, respectively. The DOTS therapy had a better cure rate for radiologically positive, sputum-positive cases compared with the non-DOTS regimen group. The non-DOTS treatment regimen had significantly increased numbers of adverse events in the hepatic and hematinic systems. Conclusion: The DOTS regimen has higher cure rates and a lower incidence of adverse reactions compared with the non-DOTS regimen.

  19. Clinical information on admission is insufficient to determine the appropriate isolation regimen for acute gastroenteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Florence; Abed, Osama Karim; Backer Mogensen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    admitted acutely within a one-year study period to a Danish hospital with a catchment population of 231,000 persons. The following items were analysed: information from the referring doctor, diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting and fever history, abdominal pain, prior antibiotics, co-morbidity, drugs, travel...... admitted patients and to analyse their clinical information focusing on risk indicators of contagious aetiology and on the chosen isolation regime to determine if the GE required a contact precaution isolation regime. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study included patients above 16 years of age who were...... history, contagious contacts, general condition, vital values, isolation regime, final diagnosis and results of stool examination. RESULTS: Among 17,531 acute admissions, 1.6% had acute GE and 60% of these had stool examinations performed. Only 35% of the patients with GE had information about possible GE...

  20. A phase I multicenter study of antroquinonol in patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer who have received at least two prior systemic treatment regimens, including one platinum-based chemotherapy regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Chin; Ho, Ching-Liang; Kao, Woei-Yau; Chen, Yuh-Min

    2015-11-01

    Antroquinonol is isolated from Antrodia camphorata , a camphor tree mushroom, and is a valuable traditional Chinese herbal medicine that exhibits pharmacological activities against several diseases, including cancer. This first-in-human phase I study of antroquinonol included patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer who had received at least two prior systemic treatment regimens. An open-label, dose escalation, pharmacokinetic (PK) study was conducted to determine the maximum tolerable dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), and safety/tolerability and preliminary efficacy profiles of antroquinonol. The patients received escalating doses of once-daily antroquinonol in 4-week cycles (up to 3 cycles). The escalated doses were 50-600 mg. PKs were evaluated on day 1 and 28 of cycle 1. Between January, 2011 and October, 2012, 13 patients with metastatic adenocarcinoma were enrolled. No DLTs occurred in any patient at any dose level. T max was observed between 1.00 and 3.70 h under single-dose conditions, and at 1.92-4.05 h under multiple-dose conditions. The mean elimination half-life ranged between 1.30 and 4.33 h, independent of the treatment dose. Antroquinonol at all dose levels had a mild toxicity profile, with no reported treatment-related mortality. The most common treatment-related adverse events were diarrhea, vomiting and nausea. The best tumor response was stable disease in 3 patients. In conclusion, antroquinonol at all dose levels, administered daily for 4 weeks, was generally safe and well tolerated, without DLTs. The recommended dose level for a phase II study is ≥600 mg daily.

  1. Classifying insulin regimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neu, A; Lange, K; Barrett, T

    2015-01-01

    Modern insulin regimens for the treatment of type 1 diabetes are highly individualized. The concept of an individually tailored medicine accounts for a broad variety of different insulin regimens applied. Despite clear recommendations for insulin management in children and adolescents with type 1...... diabetes there is little distinctiveness about concepts and the nomenclature is confusing. Even among experts similar terms are used for different strategies. The aim of our review--based on the experiences of the Hvidoere Study Group (HSG)--is to propose comprehensive definitions for current insulin...... variety of insulin regimens applied in each center, respectively. Furthermore, the understanding of insulin regimens has been persistently different between the centers since more than 20 yr. Not even the terms 'conventional' and 'intensified therapy' were used consistently among all members. Besides...

  2. Standard treatment regimens for nongonococcal urethritis have similar but declining cure rates: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhart, Lisa E; Gillespie, Catherine W; Lowens, M Sylvan; Khosropour, Christine M; Colombara, Danny V; Golden, Matthew R; Hakhu, Navneet R; Thomas, Katherine K; Hughes, James P; Jensen, Nicole L; Totten, Patricia A

    2013-04-01

    Azithromycin or doxycycline is recommended for nongonococcal urethritis (NGU); recent evidence suggests their efficacy has declined. We compared azithromycin and doxycycline in men with NGU, hypothesizing that azithromycin was more effective than doxycycline. From January 2007 to July 2011, English-speaking males ≥16 years, attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic in Seattle, Washington, with NGU (visible urethral discharge or ≥5 polymorphonuclear leukocytes per high-power field [PMNs/HPF]) were eligible for this double-blind, parallel-group superiority trial. Participants received active azithromycin (1 g) + placebo doxycycline or active doxycycline (100 mg twice daily for 7 days) + placebo azithromycin. Urine was tested for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), Ureaplasma urealyticum biovar 2 (UU-2), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) using nucleic acid amplification tests. Clinical cure (urethral symptoms and absence of discharge) and microbiologic cure (negative tests for CT, MG, and/or UU-2) were determined after 3 weeks. Of 606 men, 304 were randomized to azithromycin and 302 to doxycycline; CT, MG, TV, and UU-2 were detected in 24%, 13%, 2%, and 23%, respectively. In modified intent-to-treat analyses, 172 of 216 (80%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 74%-85%) receiving azithromycin and 157 of 206 (76%; 95% CI, 70%-82%) receiving doxycycline experienced clinical cure (P = .40). In pathogen-specific analyses, clinical cure did not differ by arm, nor did microbiologic cure differ for CT (86% vs 90%, P = .56), MG (40% vs 30%, P = .41), or UU-2 (75% vs 70%, P = .50). No unexpected adverse events occurred. Clinical and microbiologic cure rates for NGU were somewhat low and there was no significant difference between azithromycin and doxycycline. Mycoplasma genitalium treatment failure was extremely common. Clinical Trials Registration.NCT00358462.

  3. A comparison of liquid and solid culture for determining relapse and durable cure in phase III TB trials for new regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Patrick P J; Mendel, Carl M; Nunn, Andrew J; McHugh, Timothy D; Crook, Angela M; Hunt, Robert; Bateson, Anna; Gillespie, Stephen H

    2017-11-24

    Tuberculosis kills more people than any other infectious disease, and new regimens are essential. The primary endpoint for confirmatory phase III trials for new regimens is a composite outcome that includes bacteriological treatment failure and relapse. Culture methodology is critical to the primary trial outcome. Patients in clinical trials can have positive cultures after treatment ends that may not necessarily indicate relapse, which was ascribed previously to laboratory cross-contamination or breakdown of old lesions. Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium was the previous standard in clinical trials, but almost all current and future trials will use the Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) system due to its simplicity and consistency of use, which will affect phase III trial results. LJ was used for the definition of the primary endpoint in the REMoxTB trial, but every culture was also inoculated in parallel into the MGIT system. The data from this trial, therefore, provide a unique opportunity to investigate and compare the incidence of false 'isolated positives' in liquid and solid media and their potential impact on the primary efficacy results. All post-treatment positive cultures were reviewed in the REMoxTB clinical trial. Logistic regression models were used to model the incidence of isolated positive cultures on MGIT and LJ. A total of 12,209 sputum samples were available from 1652 patients; cultures were more often positive on MGIT than LJ. In 1322 patients with a favourable trial outcome, 126 (9.5%) had cultures that were positive in MGIT compared to 34 (2.6%) patients with positive cultures on LJ. Among patients with a favourable outcome, the incidence of isolated positives on MGIT differed by study laboratory (p trials, but there are implications for the definition of the primary outcome and patient management in trials in such settings. Most importantly, the methodologies differ in the incidence of isolated positives and in their capacity for

  4. Situational analysis of dietary challenges of the treatment regimen for children and adolescents with phenylketonuria and their primary caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ievers-Landis, Carolyn E; Hoff, Ahna L; Brez, Caitlin; Cancilliere, Mary Kathryn; McConnell, Judy; Kerr, Douglas

    2005-06-01

    A situational analysis was conducted to evaluate challenges with the treatment regimen (a low protein diet and special supplemental formula) for children and adolescents with phenylketonuria (PKU) and their caregivers. A semistructured interview was administered to 19 caregivers and 11 children with PKU to describe formula and dietary problems and their frequency, difficulty, and affective intensity. Information was also gathered on attempted solutions to problems and their perceived effectiveness. Caregivers who rated dietary problems as less frequent, difficult, and emotionally upsetting and strategies as more effective for solving problems had children with significantly lower phenylalanine (Phe) levels, a biological indicator of adherence (i.e., better adherence; all p values authoritarian parenting style to solve dietary problems were significantly more likely to have lower household incomes and older children with higher Phe levels than were those who did not report such strategies (all p values <.05).

  5. A retrospective evaluation of activity of gemcitabine/platinum regimens in the treatment of recurrent ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran N. Le

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While many of these agents have been compared in prospective clinical trials, the gemcitabine/platinumbased regimens have not been compared in a prospective, randomized clinical trial. While bothgemcitabine/carboplatin and gemcitabine/cisplatin have a similar ORR in separate clinical trials, the tworegimens have never been directly been compared. With overlapping dose-limiting toxicity of thrombocytopenia, the gemcitabine/carboplatin regimen has been challenging to employ in the clinical setting in previously treated ovarian cancer patients and is often associated with treatment delays and/or dose reductions. Gemcitabine/cisplatin can also be a challenge due to its dose limiting neuropathy and renal toxicity, especially in previously treated patients. In the absence of any prospective, head to head comparison this retrospective study was embarked upon to compare the response rate and toxicity profiles of gemcitabine/cisplatin verses gemcitabine/carboplatin for the treatment of platinum-sensitive verses platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer. Methods This was a retrospective chart review study that identified patients that had received either gemcitabine/cisplatin or gemcitabine/carboplatin for treatment of recurrent ovarian cancer and compared documented hematological and non-hematological toxicity and response based on RECIST (v1.1. Data was evaluated based upon platinum sensitivity/resistance as well. Results A total of 93 patients were identified that had received a gemcitabine/platinum regimen with 48 with recurrent ovarian cancer that were included in the study. There were 21 patients in the gemcitabine/cisplatin arm and 27 patients identified in the gemcitabine/carboplatin arm. Objective response rate (ORR was greater in platinum-sensitive patients that received gemcitabine/carboplatin compared to gemcitabine/cisplatin (8 (67% vs 2 (25%, p < 0.05. Conversely, ORR was greater in platinum-resistant patients treated

  6. Efficacy and safety of 9 nonoperative regimens for the treatment of spinal cord injury: A network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Da-Nian; Zhang, Xia-Qi; Ying, Jie; Chen, Zhong-Jun; Li, Li-Xin

    2017-11-01

    This network meta-analysis aims to compare the efficacy and safety of 9 nonoperative regimens (placebo, pregabalin, GM-1 ganglioside, venlafaxine extended-release [venlafaxine XR], fampridine, conventional over-ground training [OT], body-weight-supported treadmill training [BWSTT], robotic-assisted gait training [RAGT] + OT and body-weight-supported over-ground training [BWSOT]) in treating spinal cord injury (SCI). Clinical controlled trials of 9 nonoperative regimens for SCI were retrieved in the electronic database. Traditional pairwise and Bayesian network meta-analyses were performed to compare the efficacy and safety of 9 nonoperative regimens for the treatment of SCI. Weighted mean difference (WMD), odds ratios (OR), and surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) were calculated using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo engine Open BUGS (V.3.4.0) and R (V.3.2.1) package gemtc (V.0.6). A total of 9 clinical controlled trials meeting the inclusion criteria were selected in this meta-analysis. On the aspect of efficacy, the results of pairwise meta-analysis indicated that the RAGT + OT and BWSOT might have the best efficacy in SCI patients in terms of a lower extremity motor score (LEMS) compared with conventional OT; the efficacy of RAGT + OT on SCI patients was relatively better than that of conventional OT in terms of walking index for spinal cord injury (WISCI). With the aspect of safety, the constipation rate of placebo on SCI patients was relatively higher than that of venlafaxine XR; however, with respect to headache and urinary tract infection, there was no significant difference in the safety of placebo, pregabalin, GM-1 ganglioside, venlafaxine XR, and fampridine on SCI patients. The results of SUCRA values suggested that BWSOT had the highest SUCRA value (75.25%) of LEMS; RAGT + OT had the highest SUCRA value (88.50%) of WISCI; venlafaxine XR had the highest SUCRA value (94.00%) of constipation; venlafaxine XR had the highest SUCRA

  7. A fixed-dose 24-hour regimen of artesunate plus sulfamethoxypyrazine-pyrimethamine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in eastern Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Ishag; Magzoub, Mamoun; Osman, Maha E

    2006-01-01

    -sulfamethoxypyrazine-pyrimethamine (AS+SMP f) administered at time intervals of 12 hours for a 24-hour therapy was compared with the efficacy of the same drug given as a loose combination (AS+SMP l) with a dose interval of 24 hours for 3 days for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in eastern Sudan. RESULTS...... of the patients. CONCLUSION: both regimens of AS+SMP were effective and safe for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in eastern Sudan. Due to its simplicity, the fixed dose one-day treatment regimen may improve compliance and therefore may be the preferred choice....

  8. Treatment burden, clinical outcomes, and comorbidities in COPD: an examination of the utility of medication regimen complexity index in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negewo NA

    2017-10-01

    .5 compared to those in quadrants A (13.5; P=0.0001 and B (12.5; P<0.0001. Increased complexity of COPD-specific treatments showed significant but weak correlations with lower lung function and 6-minute walk distance, higher St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire and COPD assessment test scores, and higher number of prior year COPD exacerbations and hospitalizations. Comorbid cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, or metabolic diseases individually contributed to higher total MRCI scores and/or medication counts for all medications. Charlson Comorbidity Index and COPD-specific comorbidity test showed the highest degree of correlation with total MRCI score (ρ=0.289 and ρ=0.326; P<0.0001, respectively.Conclusion: In COPD patients, complex medication regimens are associated with disease severity and specific class of comorbidities. Keywords: medication burden, medication counts, complex pharmacotherapy, clinical scores 

  9. Treatment outcomes of rifabutin-containing regimens for rifabutin-sensitive multidrug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether rifabutin can improve treatment outcomes in patients with rifabutin-sensitive MDR-TB. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed on 76 patients with rifabutin-sensitive MDR-TB who were treated with or without rifabutin between 2006 and 2011. Results: Overall, 75% (57/76 of patients achieved favorable outcomes, including cure (53/76, 70% and treatment completion (4/76, 5%. In contrast, 25% (19/76 had unfavorable treatment outcomes, which included treatment failure (6/76, 8%, death (2/76, 3%, loss to follow-up (4/76. 5%, and no evaluation due to transfer to other institutions (7/76, 9%. Rifabutin was given to 52 (68% of the 76 patients with rifabutin-sensitive MDR-TB. Although favorable treatment outcomes were more frequent in patients who received rifabutin [81% (42/52] than in those who did not receive rifabutin [63% (15/24], this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.154. However, in multivariable regression logistic analysis, use of rifabutin was significantly associated with favorable treatment outcomes in patients with rifabutin-sensitive MDR-TB (adjusted odds ratio = 9.80, 95% confidence interval = 1.65–58.37, P = 0.012. Conclusions: These results suggest that the use of rifabutin can improve treatment outcomes in patients with rifabutin-sensitive MDR-TB. Keywords: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, Rifabutin, Treatment outcome

  10. Comparison of antemortem antimicrobial treatment regimens to antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of postmortem lung isolates from feedlot cattle with bronchopneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Catherine G; Love, Brenda C; Krehbiel, Clint R; Johnson, Nicholas J; Step, Douglas L

    2012-03-01

    A retrospective study was performed to compare the treatment regimens in feedlot cattle that died with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) to the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the microorganisms isolated from lungs. Forty-three cattle submitted by the Willard Sparks Beef Research Center (WSBRC) to the Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory for postmortem examination during 2007 had bronchopneumonia (acute = 16, subacute = 5, or chronic = 22). Lungs from cattle were cultured aerobically (40 cattle) and for Mycoplasma spp. (34 cattle). Susceptibility panels were performed. At least 1 BRD pathogen (Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, Mycoplasma bovis, or Arcanobacterium pyogenes) was isolated from 39 cattle, and 77% (30/39) had multiple organisms recovered. Mycoplasmal infections were common (25/34) and a major component of mixed infections (24/25). The majority (60%) of the M. haemolytica, P. multocida, and H. somni isolates were resistant to tetracycline. Most of the H. somni isolates (67%) were susceptible to tilmicosin (Ti), enrofloxacin (En), ceftiofur (Ce), and florfenicol, despite extensive treatment with Ti, En, and Ce (75% of isolates were from cattle that received each antimicrobial once). Most of the M. haemolytica (65%) and P. multocida (79%) isolates were susceptible to En and Ce, despite antemortem treatment of cattle with these antimicrobials. Hence, the current study reports a discrepancy between the antemortem treatment of clinical BRD and the susceptibility patterns of the bacteria isolated from lungs postmortem. Based on these findings, factors other than antimicrobial resistance are playing a role in the death of feedlot cattle with BRD.

  11. A 12-Month Prospective, Observational Study of Treatment Regimen and Quality of Life Associated with ADHD in Central and Eastern Europe and Eastern Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Michal; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Ondrejka, Igor; Akay, Aynur; Herczeg, Ilona; Dobrescu, Iuliana; Kim, Boong Nyun; Jin, Xingming; Riley, Anne W.; Martenyi, Ferenc; Harrison, Gavan; Treuer, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This prospective, observational, non-randomized study aimed to describe the relationship between treatment regimen prescribed and the quality of life (QoL) of ADHD patients in countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Eastern Asia over 12 months. Methods: 977 Male and female patients aged 6-17 years seeking treatment for…

  12. Chronic Hepatitis C and Antiviral Treatment Regimens: Where Can Psychology Contribute?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evon, Donna M.; Golin, Carol E.; Fried, Michael W.; Keefe, Francis J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Our goal was to evaluate the existing literature on psychological, social, and behavioral aspects of chronic hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection and antiviral treatment; provide the state of the behavioral science in areas that presently hinder HCV-related health outcomes; and make recommendations for areas in which clinical psychology…

  13. Virological failure of staggered and simultaneous treatment interruption in HIV patients who began Efavirenz-based regimens after allergic reactions to nevirapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripassorn Krittaecho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The objective of this work was to study the virological outcomes associated with two different types of treatment interruption strategies in patients with allergic reactions to nevirapine (NVP. We compared the virological outcomes of (1 HIV-1-infected patients who discontinued an initial NVP-based regimen because of cutaneous allergic reactions to NVP; different types of interruption strategies were used, and second-line regimen was based on efavirenz (EFV; and (2 HIV-1-infected patients who began an EFV-based regimen as a first-line therapy (controls. Methods This retrospective cohort included patients who began an EFV-based regimen, between January 2002 and December 2008, as either an initial regimen or as a subsequent regimen after resolving a cutaneous allergic reaction against an initial NVP-based regimen. The study ended in March 2010. The primary outcome was virological failure, which was defined as either (a two consecutive plasma HIV-1 RNA levels >400 copies/mL or (b a plasma HIV-1 RNA level >1,000 copies/mL plus any genotypic resistance mutation. Results A total of 559 patients were stratified into three groups: (a Simultaneous Interruption, in which the subjects simultaneously discontinued all the drugs in an NVP-based regimen following an allergic reaction (n=161; (b Staggered Interruption, in which the subjects discontinued NVP treatment while continuing nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI backbone therapy for a median of 7 days (n=82; and (c Control, in which the subjects were naïve to antiretroviral therapy (n=316. The overall median follow-up time was 43 months. Incidence of virological failure in Simultaneous Interruption was 12.9 cases per 1,000 person-years, which trended toward being higher than the incidences in Staggered Interruption (5.4 and Control (6.6. However, differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions Among the patients who had an acute allergic reaction to first

  14. A network meta-analysis for efficacy and safety of seven regimens in the treatment of type II diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Guo; Wang, Hui; Liu, Qin; Hua, Wei-Chang; Li, Chang-Ming

    2017-08-01

    The efficacy and safety of seven regimens based on metformin (placebo plus metformin, dapagliflozin plus metformin, vildagliptin plus metformin, saxagliptin plus metformin, empagliflozin plus metformin, exenatide plus metformin and sitagliptin plus metformin) on type 2 diabetes (T2D) were compared based on network meta-analysis. PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library were applied in the computer-based retrieval process. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which were related with the above seven regimens based on metformin in the treatment of T2D were included in this study. Network meta-analysis merged the direct and indirect comparison evidence for the estimation of the weighted mean difference (WMD), odd ratios (ORs) and surface under the cumulative sequencing ranking curve (SUCRA) values. Eight eligible RCTs were applied in this network meta-analysis. The results demonstrated that: in terms of efficacy, the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels of T2D patients receiving vildagliptin plus metformin were relatively lower when compared with placebo plus metformin (WMD=-1.95, 95%CI=-3.70--0.23); in comparison with exenatide plus metformin, the triglyceride level in T2D patients taking vildagliptin plus metformin remained relatively lower (WMD=-1.36, 95%CI=-2.64--0.01). In terms of safety, the rate of adverse events in patients with T2D who received empagliflozin plus metformin was relatively lower when compared with saxagliptin plus metformin (OR=0.37, 95%CI=0.14-0.98). Furthermore, the SUCRA value of vildagliptin plus metformin was comparatively higher in efficacy, and that the SUCRA value of saxagliptin plus metformin was relatively lower in safety. The efficacy of vildagliptin plus metformin in patients with T2D is relatively better, while the safety of saxagliptin plus metformin in patients with T2D is relatively poorer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Biological activity of interferon betas in patients with multiple sclerosis is affected by treatment regimen and neutralising antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolotto, A; Sala, A; Malucchi, S; Marnetto, F; Caldano, M; Di Sapio, A; Capobianco, M; Gilli, F

    2004-09-01

    MxA gene expression is one of the most appropriate markers of biological activity of exogenous interferon (IFN) beta. We quantified MxA mRNA for five consecutive days in 62 patients treated with IFN beta (16, Avonex; 10, Betaferon; 24, Rebif 22; 12, Rebif 44), by quantitative-competitive polymerase chain reaction. Every three months, IFN beta induced neutralising antibodies (NAbs) were evaluated in sera using a cytopathic effect assay. Two categories of patients were identified: one group (49/62) had a sharp post-injection increase in MxA expression (defined as "IFN beta biological responder"), whereas the other group (13/62) had no MxA induction after IFN beta administrations (defined as "IFN beta biological non-responder"). In 11/13 biological non-responders, the persistent presence of NAbs correlated with abolished biological activity, independently of treatment regimen. The two remaining IFN beta biological non-responders were NAb-. Among the 49 IFN beta biological responders, biological activity was comparable between the four preparations on day 2 and 3 (+12 and +36 hours post-injection), but it was greater in Betaferon and both Rebif preparations on day 1, 4, and 5. In biological responders treated three times a week, only 82% (59/72) of injections were considered effective, compared with 100% (13/13) of Avonex injections. Our results suggest that an optimal IFN beta regimen is not yet available: Avonex, given once a week, shows lower cumulative biological activity. On the other hand, both Betaferon and Rebif, given three times a week, show 18% biologically ineffective injections and higher risk of developing NAbs, which abolish biological activity.

  16. A pulse-dose topical 1% 5-fluorouracil treatment regimen in a young dog with corneal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Taryn L; Allbaugh, Rachel A; Whitley, David; Ben-Shlomo, Gil; Griggs, Angel; Tofflemire, Kyle L; Whitley, Elizabeth M

    2015-07-01

    To describe the use of a pulse-dose topical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment regimen in a Pug dog with corneal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). A 1-year-old, spayed female Pug was evaluated for a corneal perforation of the right eye, which was surgically stabilized with a conjunctival pedicle graft. At the time of medial canthoplasty 7 weeks later, two areas of gray-white discoloration had developed medial and lateral to the graft. Biopsy samples were obtained via superficial keratectomy while under general anesthesia. Definitive diagnosis of corneal SCC was made through histopathological examination of the surgical biopsies. Thoracic radiography and submandibular lymph node cytology revealed no evidence of metastatic neoplasia. Following healing of the corneal biopsy sites, topical 1% 5-FU ointment was applied four times daily for four consecutive days once a month, for six treatment cycles. Twenty-three months after diagnosis, the patient remains visual and comfortable with no evidence of SCC recurrence. Long-term therapy with once daily topical 1% cyclosporine solution was used to manage corneal pigmentation bilaterally. The pulse-therapy 1% 5-FU protocol was a successful, convenient, and cost-effective adjunctive treatment with few adverse effects. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  17. Economic Burden of Illness among Persons with Hemophilia B from HUGS Vb: Examining the Association of Severity and Treatment Regimens with Costs and Annual Bleed Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Christina X; Baker, Judith R; Nichol, Michael B

    2017-09-01

    To determine US societal burden of illness, including direct and indirect costs and annual bleed rate (ABR), for persons with hemophilia B (HB), a rare and debilitating genetic disorder, and to examine associations of hemophilia severity and treatment regimens with costs and ABR. From 2009 to 2014, the Hemophilia Utilization Group Studies Part Vb collected prospective data from 10 US hemophilia treatment centers. Participants with HB completed initial surveys on sociodemographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, and treatment patterns. During the 2-year follow-up, participants reported bleeding episodes, work absenteeism, and caregiver time quarterly. These data were used to calculate ABR and indirect costs. Direct costs were calculated using 1-year clinical chart records and 2-year dispensing records. Of the 148 participants, 112 with complete medical records and one or more follow-up survey were included. Total mean annual per-person costs were $85,852 (median $20,160) for mild/moderate HB, $198,733 (median $147,891) for severe HB, and $140,240 (median $63,617) for all participants without inhibitors (P economic burden, primarily because of clotting factor costs. Nevertheless, prophylaxis treatment leads to clinical benefits and may reduce other nonfactor costs. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Alternative rapamycin treatment regimens mitigate the impact of rapamycin on glucose homeostasis and the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola Apelo, Sebastian I; Neuman, Joshua C; Baar, Emma L; Syed, Faizan A; Cummings, Nicole E; Brar, Harpreet K; Pumper, Cassidy P; Kimple, Michelle E; Lamming, Dudley W

    2016-02-01

    Inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway by the FDA-approved drug rapamycin has been shown to promote lifespan and delay age-related diseases in model organisms including mice. Unfortunately, rapamycin has potentially serious side effects in humans, including glucose intolerance and immunosuppression, which may preclude the long-term prophylactic use of rapamycin as a therapy for age-related diseases. While the beneficial effects of rapamycin are largely mediated by the inhibition of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), which is acutely sensitive to rapamycin, many of the negative side effects are mediated by the inhibition of a second mTOR-containing complex, mTORC2, which is much less sensitive to rapamycin. We hypothesized that different rapamycin dosing schedules or the use of FDA-approved rapamycin analogs with different pharmacokinetics might expand the therapeutic window of rapamycin by more specifically targeting mTORC1. Here, we identified an intermittent rapamycin dosing schedule with minimal effects on glucose tolerance, and we find that this schedule has a reduced impact on pyruvate tolerance, fasting glucose and insulin levels, beta cell function, and the immune system compared to daily rapamycin treatment. Further, we find that the FDA-approved rapamycin analogs everolimus and temsirolimus efficiently inhibit mTORC1 while having a reduced impact on glucose and pyruvate tolerance. Our results suggest that many of the negative side effects of rapamycin treatment can be mitigated through intermittent dosing or the use of rapamycin analogs. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Fundamental principles of an anti-VEGF treatment regimen: optimal application of intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy of macular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzetta, Paolo; Loewenstein, Anat

    2017-07-01

    Intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy is now considered the gold standard for the treatment of various retinal disorders. As therapy has evolved, so too have the treatment regimens employed by physicians in clinical practice; however, visual outcomes observed in the real world have typically not reflected those reported in clinical trials. Possible reasons for this include a lack of consensus on treatment regimens and a lack of clarity about what the aims of treatment should be. The Vision Academy Steering Committee met to discuss the principles of an ideal treatment regimen, using evidence from the literature to substantiate each point. Literature searches were performed using the MEDLINE/PubMed database (cut-off date: March 2016) and restricted to English-language publications. Studies with fewer than ten patients were excluded from this review. The Steering Committee identified the following four key principles for the ideal treatment regimen for anti-VEGF management of retinal diseases: 1. Maximize and maintain visual acuity (VA) benefits for all patients 2. Decide when to treat next, rather than whether to treat now 3. Titrate the treatment intervals to match patients' needs 4. Treat at each monitoring visit. It is proposed that the adoption of a proactive and more personalized approach in the clinic such as a treat-and-extend regimen will lead to benefits for both the patient and the physician, through a reduction in the associated treatment burden and better utilization of clinic resources. Implementation of the four principles should also lead to better VA outcomes for each patient, with a minimized risk of vision loss.

  20. Treatment of Advanced or Recurrent Cervical Cancer with Cisplatin or Cisplatin Containing Regimens: A Cost Effective Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Geisler, Jayanth Swathirajan, Katherine L. Wood, Kelly J. Manahan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trials have demonstrated improvements in survival with adding paclitaxel (P or topotecan (T to cisplatin (C for the treatment of advanced cervical cancer. We sought to evaluate the cost effectiveness of these regimens.Methods: A decision model was developed based on Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG protocols 169 and 179. Arm 1 is 6 cycles of cisplatin. Arm 2 is 6 cycles of CP while arm 3 is 6 cycles of CT. Parameters include overall survival (OS, cost and complications. Sensitivity analyses were performed.Results: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER for C versus CP is $13,654/quality-adjusted life-year (QALY gained. For CT compared to C, the ICER is $152,327/QALY. When compared simultaneously, CT is dominated. At a willingness to pay (WTP threshold of $50,000/QALY, C is the preferred option but CP is acceptable. Sensitivity analyses suggest that CT would become the preferred option if it was to improve OS to 24 months (compared to 9.4 months.Conclusions: In this model, CP is an acceptable alternative to cisplatin for the treatment of these patients with an increase in cost of only $13,654/QALY. The addition of topotecan did not increase survival enough to justify the increased cost.

  1. Skin dose differences between intensity-modulated radiation therapy and volumetric-modulated arc therapy and between boost and integrated treatment regimens for treating head and neck and other cancer sites in patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penoncello, Gregory P.; Ding, George X.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to evaluate dose to skin between volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment techniques for target sites in the head and neck, pelvis, and brain and (2) to determine if the treatment dose and fractionation regimen affect the skin dose between traditional sequential boost and integrated boost regimens for patients with head and neck cancer. A total of 19 patients and 48 plans were evaluated. The Eclipse (v11) treatment planning system was used to plan therapy in 9 patients with head and neck cancer, 5 patients with prostate cancer, and 5 patients with brain cancer with VMAT and static-field IMRT. The mean skin dose and the maximum dose to a contiguous volume of 2 cm 3 for head and neck plans and brain plans and a contiguous volume of 5 cm 3 for pelvis plans were compared for each treatment technique. Of the 9 patients with head and neck cancer, 3 underwent an integrated boost regimen. One integrated boost plan was replanned with IMRT and VMAT using a traditional boost regimen. For target sites located in the head and neck, VMAT reduced the mean dose and contiguous hot spot most noticeably in the shoulder region by 5.6% and 5.4%, respectively. When using an integrated boost regimen, the contiguous hot spot skin dose in the shoulder was larger on average than a traditional boost pattern by 26.5% and the mean skin dose was larger by 1.7%. VMAT techniques largely decrease the contiguous hot spot in the skin in the pelvis by an average of 36% compared with IMRT. For the same target coverage, VMAT can reduce the skin dose in all the regions of the body, but more noticeably in the shoulders in patients with head and neck and pelvis cancer. We also found that using integrated boost regimens in patients with head and neck cancer leads to higher shoulder skin doses compared with traditional boost regimens.

  2. Antiretroviral treatment in HIV-infected children who require a rifamycin-containing regimen for tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabie, Helena; Decloedt, Eric H; Garcia-Prats, Anthony J; Cotton, Mark F; Frigati, Lisa; Lallemant, Marc; Hesseling, Anneke; Schaaf, H Simon

    2017-04-01

    In high prevalence settings, tuberculosis and HIV dual infection and co-treatment is frequent. Rifamycins, especially rifampicin, in combination with isoniazid, ethambutol and pyrazinamide are key components of short-course antituberculosis therapy. Areas covered: We reviewed available data, for which articles were identified by a Pubmed search, on rifamycin-antiretroviral interactions in HIV-infected children. Rifamycins have potent inducing effects on phase I and II drug metabolising enzymes and transporters. Antiretroviral medications are often metabolised by the enzymes induced by rifamycins or may suppress specific enzyme activity leading to drug-drug interactions with rifamycins. These may cause significant alterations in their phamacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, and sometimes that of the rifamycin. Recommended strategies to adapt to these interactions include avoidance and dose adjustment. Expert opinion: Despite the importance and frequency of tuberculosis as an opportunistic disease in HIV-infected children, current data on the management of co-treated children is based on few studies. We need new strategies to rapidly assess the use of rifamycins, new anti-tuberculosis drugs and antiretroviral drugs together as information on safety and dosing of individual drugs becomes available.

  3. Comparison of FOLFOX and DOF regimens as first-line treatment in East Asian patients with advanced gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengyao; Hu, Guofang; Wang, Yuan; Guo, Jun; Liu, Liyan; Han, Xiao; Wang, Zhehai

    2018-01-01

    Our study retrospectively assesses the safety and efficacy of the FOLFOX (oxaliplatin, fluorouracil, and leucovorin) versus DOF (docetaxel, oxaliplatin, and fluorouracil) regimens in untreated locally advanced gastric cancer (AGC). A total of 108 patients underwent DOF (N=58) and FOLFOX (N=50) regimens. The end points were overall response rate (ORR), survival, and toxicity. Kaplan-Meier curve was used to estimate overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) and Cox regression for multivariate analysis. The ORRs were 50% for DOF and 30% for FOLFOX groups ( P DOF group were significantly better than FOLFOX group (8.2 versus 6.4 months, P DOF group (10.3% versus 2%, P DOF also resulted in a superior PFS (8.5 versus 5.9 months; P =0.038) and OS (15.3 versus 9.8 months; P =0.004) compared with FOLFOX. However, DOF regimen was associated with more neutropenia (67% versus 30%; P DOF regimen was more effective than FOLFOX for AGC, both in younger and older patients. The adverse effects of the two regimens were manageable. The combination of docetaxel/oxaliplatin/fluorouracil was active and well tolerated in AGC patients and deserves further evaluation. However, for elderly patients with AGC, the DOF regimen was associated with worse toxicities; therefore, the FOLFOX regimen might be a more suitable option.

  4. The value of cure associated with treating treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis C genotype 1: Are the new all-oral regimens good value to society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younossi, Zobair M; Park, Haesuk; Dieterich, Douglas; Saab, Sammy; Ahmed, Aijaz; Gordon, Stuart C

    2017-05-01

    All-oral regimens are associated with high cure rates in hepatitis C virus-genotype 1 (HCV-GT1) patients. Our aim was to assess the value of cure to the society for treating HCV infection. Markov model for HCV-GT1 projected long-term health outcomes, life years, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. The model compared second-generation triple (sofosbuvir+pegylated interferon+ribavirin [PR] and simeprevir+PR) and all-oral (ledipasvir/sofosbuvir and ombitasvir+paritaprevir/ritonavir+dasabuvir±ribavirin) therapies with no treatment. Sustained virological response rates were based on Phase III RCTs. We assumed that 80% and 95% of HCV-GT1 patients were eligible for second-generation triple and all-oral regimens. Transition probabilities, utility and mortality were based on literature review. The value of cure was calculated by the difference in the savings from the economic gains associated with additional QALYs. Model estimated 1.52 million treatment-naïve HCV-GT1 patients in the US. Treating all eligible HCV-GT1 patients with second-generation triple and all-oral therapies resulted in 3.2 million and 4.8 million additional QALYs gained compared to no treatment respectively. Using $50,000 as value of QALY, these regimens lead to savings of $185 billion and $299 billion; costs of these regimens were $109 billion and $128 billion. The value of cure with second-generation triple and all-oral regimens was $55 billion and $111 billion, when we conservatively assumed only drug costs. Cost savings were greater for HCV-GT1 patient cured with cirrhosis compared to patients without cirrhosis. The recent evolution of regimens for HCV GT1 has increased efficacy and value of cure. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Research into fabrics used in compression therapy and assessment of their impact on treatment regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty-Craver, M; Grant, E; Kravitz, S; Reid, L; Kwon, K; Oxhenham, W

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a definition for interface compression that uses essential principles of engineering science. This definition discusses factors that influence the amount of applied pressure, including the size of the limb, the amount of fabric tension (graduated pressure profile), the number of layers, and the material creep characteristics. Laplace's law has been applied to compression therapy. Tension-extension profiles have been derived for different types of compression fabric to demonstrate the effects of resistance and friction. Force-time profiles have been derived for different types of fabric compression systems to demonstrate the effects of creep (creep is defined generally as the irreversible deformation of a material over time in the presence of a constantly applied load). Here, the fabric compression systems were applied to a test-bed that supplied a constant force to the fabric; creep was taken as the loss of compression (pressure) over time. Laplace's law has been interpreted for compression therapy. The amount of fabric tension is determined by the extent to which it is stretched during application, as well as by changes in the size of the limb. The fabric's relative elasticity, which is quantified by the rigidity index and is related to the slope of the tension-extension profile, dictates the amount that the applied force changes with extension. Compression systems that use multiple layers of fabric are generally more resistive to stretching than single-layer systems. Friction acting between the layers, as well as the added force from each layer, serves to increase the overall compression of these systems. As the applied force rises, the amount of pressure supplied by the fabric increases. However, when the same force (or fabric extension) is used, the applied pressure is less when distributed over a larger surface area. In other words, as the circumference of the limb increases, the pressure decreases. This is the driving

  6. Successful Treatment of Disseminated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Disease in an HIV-Infected Child with a Linezolid-Containing Regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđan Roglić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Upon HIV infection diagnosis, an 8-month-old boy was transferred for evaluation of worsening respiratory distress requiring mechanical ventilation. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP was diagnosed; the boy also had a nonhealing ulcer at the site of vaccination with Statens Serum Institut (Danish strain Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccine and associated axillary lymphadenopathy. PCP treatment resulted in weaning from mechanical ventilation. Antimycobacterial treatment was immediately attempted but was discontinued because of hepatotoxicity. Over several months, he developed splenic lesions and then disseminated skin and cystic bone lesions. M. bovis was repeatedly cultured from both skin and bone lesions despite various multidrug antimycobacterial regimens which included linezolid. Eventually, treatment with a regimen of rifabutin, isoniazid, ethambutol, and linezolid led to definitive cure. Clinicians should consider a linezolid-containing regimen for treatment of severe disseminated BCG infection, especially if other drug regimens have failed. Although drug toxicity is a particular concern for young children, this patient received linezolid for 13 months without serious toxicity. This case also highlights the need for universal screening among pregnant women to prevent vertical transmission of HIV. Finally, routine immunization with BCG vaccine at birth should be questioned in countries with low and declining burden of tuberculosis.

  7. Incident AIDS or Death After Initiation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Treatment Regimens Including Raltegravir or Efavirenz Among Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stephen R; Edwards, Jessie K; Hall, H Irene; Brookhart, M Alan; Mathews, W Christopher; Moore, Richard D; Crane, Heidi M; Kitahata, Mari M; Mugavero, Michael J; Saag, Michael S; Eron, Joseph J

    2017-06-01

    The long-term effectiveness of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatments containing integrase inhibitors is unknown. We use observational data from the Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to estimate 4-year risk of AIDS and all-cause mortality among 415 patients starting a raltegravir regimen compared to 2646 starting an efavirenz regimen (both regimens include emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate). We account for confounding and selection bias as well as generalizability by standardization for measured variables, and present both observational intent-to-treat and per-protocol estimates. At treatment initiation, 12% of patients were female, 36% black, 13% Hispanic; median age was 37 years, CD4 count 321 cells/µL, and viral load 4.5 log10 copies/mL. Two hundred thirty-five patients incurred an AIDS-defining illness or died, and 741 patients left follow-up. After accounting for measured differences, the 4-year risk was similar among those starting both regimens (ie, intent-to treat hazard ratio [HR], 0.96 [95% confidence interval {CI}, .63-1.45]; risk difference, -0.9 [95% CI, -4.5 to 2.7]), as well as among those remaining on regimens (ie, per-protocol HR, 0.95 [95% CI, .59-1.54]; risk difference, -0.5 [95% CI, -3.8 to 2.9]). Raltegravir and efavirenz-based initial antiretroviral therapy have similar 4-year clinical effects. Vigilance regarding longer-term comparative effectiveness of HIV regimens using observational data is needed because large-scale experimental data are not forthcoming. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Tratamento da endometrite puerperal com antibioticoterapia parenteral exclusiva Treatment of puerperal endometritis using a regimen with exclusive parenteral antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Duarte

    2005-08-01

    educational levels. The patients were submitted to a regimen of exclusive parenteral antibiotic, only during the hospitalization period (ATP-EX group. These results were compared with results obtained in a historical cohort in the same hospital (20 cases submitted to a regimen of hospital parenteral antibiotic therapy complemented with ambulatory oral treatment (ATP+VO group. The patients were evaluated clinically on the occasion of periodic return visits in order to identify cases of recurrence and infectious complications. RESULTS: one patient from the ATP+VO group needed to be readmitted to the hospital on the 6th day after her discharge from the hospital with a diagnosis of endometritis recrudescence. No complications were observed among patients from ATP-EX group. CONCLUSION: for the treatment of puerperal endometritis, there was no additional advantage in using supplementary oral antibiotic therapy after patient discharge. The results using exclusive parenteral antibiotic treatment during hospitalization time indicate that it is effective and can be safely used in a population of low socioeconomic level.

  9. Duration of protection against clinical malaria provided by three regimens of intermittent preventive treatment in Tanzanian infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Cairns

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent preventive treatment in infants (IPTi is a new malaria control tool. However, it is uncertain whether IPTi works mainly through chemoprophylaxis or treatment of existing infections. Understanding the mechanism is essential for development of replacements for sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP where it is no longer effective. This study investigated how protection against malaria given by SP, chlorproguanil-dapsone (CD and mefloquine (MQ, varied with time since administration of IPTi.A secondary analysis of data from a randomised, placebo-controlled trial in an area of high antifolate resistance in Tanzania was conducted. IPTi using SP, CD, MQ or placebo was given to 1280 infants at 2, 3 and 9 months of age. Poisson regression with random effects to adjust for potential clustering of malaria episodes within children was used to calculate incidence rate ratios for clinical malaria in defined time strata following IPTi. The short-acting antimalarial CD gave no protection against clinical malaria, whereas long-acting MQ gave two months of substantial protection (protective efficacy (PE 73.1% (95% CI: 23.9, 90.5 and 73.3% (95% CI: 0, 92.9 in the first and second month respectively. SP gave some protection in the first month after treatment (PE 64.5% (95% CI: 10.6, 85.9 although it did not reduce the incidence of malaria up to 12 months of age. There was no evidence of either long-term protection or increased risk of malaria for any of the regimens.Post-treatment chemoprophylaxis appears to be the main mechanism by which IPTi protects children against malaria. Long-acting antimalarials are therefore likely to be the most effective drugs for IPTi, but as monotherapies could be vulnerable to development of drug resistance. Due to concerns about tolerability, the mefloquine formulation used in this study is not suitable for IPTi. Further investigation of combinations of long-acting antimalarials for IPTi is needed.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00158574.

  10. Prevalence of optimal treatment regimens in patients with apparent treatment-resistant hypertension based on office blood pressure in a community-based practice network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Brent M; Zhao, Yumin; Li, Jiexiang; Brzezinski, W Adam; Todoran, Thomas M; Brook, Robert D; Calhoun, David A

    2013-10-01

    Hypertensive patients with clinical blood pressure (BP) uncontrolled on ≥3 antihypertensive medications (ie, apparent treatment-resistant hypertension [aTRH]) comprise ≈28% to 30% of all uncontrolled patients in the United States. However, the proportion receiving these medications in optimal doses is unknown; aTRH is used because treatment adherence and measurement artifacts were not available in electronic record data from our >200 community-based clinics Outpatient Quality Improvement Network. This study sought to define the proportion of uncontrolled hypertensives with aTRH on optimal regimens and clinical factors associated with optimal therapy. During 2007-2010, 468 877 hypertensive patients met inclusion criteria. BP hypertension doses). Among 468 877 hypertensives, 147 635 (31.5%) were uncontrolled; among uncontrolled hypertensives, 44 684 were prescribed ≥3 BP medications (30.3%), of whom 22 189 (15.0%) were prescribed optimal therapy. Clinical factors independently associated with optimal BP therapy included black race (odds ratio, 1.40 [95% confidence interval, 1.32-1.49]), chronic kidney disease (1.31 [1.25-1.38]), diabetes mellitus (1.30 [1.24-1.37]), and coronary heart disease risk equivalent status (1.29 [1.14-1.46]). Clinicians more often prescribe optimal therapy for aTRH when cardiovascular risk is greater and treatment goals lower. Approximately 1 in 7 of all uncontrolled hypertensives and 1 in 2 with uncontrolled aTRH are prescribed ≥3 BP medications in optimal regimens. Prescribing more optimal pharmacotherapy for uncontrolled hypertensives including aTRH, confirmed with out-of-office BP, could improve hypertension control.

  11. Hepatitis C Virus-Infected Patients Receiving Opioid Substitution Therapy Experience Improvement in Patient-Reported Outcomes Following Treatment With Interferon-Free Regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, Maria; Thompson, Alexander; Doyle, Joseph; Younossi, Issah; de Avila, Leyla; Younossi, Zobair M

    2018-03-13

    There is a paucity of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) data for people undergoing hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment who are treated with opioid substitution therapy (OST) for addiction. Patients enrolled in phase 3 clinical trials of sofosbuvir completed 4 PRO instruments-SF-36v2, FACIT-F, CLDQ-HCV, and WPAI-HCV-before, during, and after treatment. A total of 8450 HCV-infected subjects were included; 4.8% (407) were receiving OST. At baseline, OST recipients had significantly (P < .0001) lower PRO scores (by -3.5 to -15.6 on a 0-100 scale). By the end of treatment, subjects receiving pegylated interferon, ribavirin, and sofosbuvir (IFN+RBV+SOF) experienced significant decreases in PROs regardless of OST use. Subjects receiving IFN-free RBV-containing regimens had significant but smaller PRO decreases, again similar in the OST and non-OST groups. Finally, subjects treated with regimens free of both IFN and RBV (IFN/RBV-free) showed improvements in nearly all PROs during treatment, with improvements more pronounced in OST recipients. Achieving a sustained virological response for 12 consecutive weeks after treatment cessation (SVR-12) was associated with improvement of PROs in OST recipients treated with IFN/RBV-free regimens. In contrast, OST recipients who achieved SVR-12 with IFN+RBV+SOF did not have consistent PRO gains after the SVR-12. Receiving IFN-free regimens leads to PRO improvement during treatment and after the SVR-12, regardless of OST status. HCV-infected subjects receiving OST did not experience similar PRO improvements with IFN-containing therapy, suggesting that IFN-based therapy may be less suitable for this vulnerable population.

  12. Economic evaluation of a shortened standardised treatment regimen of antituberculosis drugs for patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (STREAM): study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Elvis; Madan, Jason; Langley, Ivor; Girma, Mamo; Evans, Denise; Rosen, Sydney; Squire, S Bertel

    2016-10-17

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) poses a serious financial challenge to health systems and patients. The current treatment for patients with MDR-TB takes up to 24 months to complete. Evidence for a shorter regimen which differs from the standard WHO recommended MDR-TB regimen and typically lasts between 9 and 12 months has been reported from Bangladesh. This evaluation aims to assess the economic impact of a shortened regimen on patients and health systems. This evaluation is innovative as it combines patient and health system costs, as well as operational modelling in assessing the impact. An economic evaluation nested in a clinical trial with 2 arms will be performed at 4 facilities. The primary outcome measure is incremental cost to the health system of the study regimen compared with the control regimen. Secondary outcome measures are mean incremental costs incurred by patients by treatment outcome; patient costs by category (direct medical costs, transport, food and accommodation costs, and cost of guardians/accompanying persons and lost time); health systems cost by category and drugs; and costs related to serious adverse events. The study has been evaluated and approved by the Ethics Advisory Group of the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease; South African Medical Research Ethics Committee; Wits Health Consortium Protocol Review Committee; University of the Witwatersrand Human Research Ethics Committee; University of Kwazulu-Natal Biomedical Research Ethics Committee; St Peter TB Specialized Hospital Ethical Review Committee; AHRI-ALERT Ethical Review Committee, and all participants will provide written informed consent. The results of the economic evaluation will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. ISRCTN78372190. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Effectiveness of efavirenz-based regimens in young HIV-infected children treated for tuberculosis: a treatment option for resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Janneke H; Sutcliffe, Catherine G; Hamangaba, Francis; Bositis, Christopher; Watson, Douglas C; Moss, William J

    2013-01-01

    Antiretroviral treatment (ART) options for young children co-infected with HIV and tuberculosis are limited in resource-poor settings due to limited data on the use of efavirenz (EFV). Using available pharmacokinetic data, an EFV dosing schedule was developed for young co-infected children and implemented as the standard of care at Macha Hospital in Southern Province, Zambia. Treatment outcomes in children younger than 3 years of age or weighing less than 10 kg receiving either EFV-based ART plus anti-tuberculous treatment or nevirapine-based (NVP) ART were compared. Treatment outcomes were measured in a cohort of HIV-infected children seeking care at Macha Hospital in rural Zambia from 2007 to 2010. Information on the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis was abstracted from medical records. Forty-five children treated for tuberculosis initiated an EFV-based regimen and 69 children initiated a NVP-based regimen, 7 of whom also were treated for tuberculosis. Children receiving both regimens were comparable in age, but children receiving EFV started ART with a lower CD4(+) T-cell percentage and weight-for-age z-score. Children receiving EFV experienced increases in both CD4(+) T-cell percentage and weight-for-age z-score during follow-up, such that levels were comparable to children receiving NVP after two years of ART. Cumulative survival after 12 months of ART did not differ between groups (NVP:87%;EFV:80%;p = 0.25). Eleven children experienced virologic failure during follow-up.The adjusted hazard ratio of virologic failure comparing EFV to NVP was 0.25 (95% CI:0.05,1.24) and 0.13 (95% CI:0.03,0.62) using thresholds of 5000 and 400 copies/mL, respectively.Five children receiving EFV were reported to have had convulsions after ART initiation compared to only one child receiving NVP (p = 0.04). Despite poorer health at ART initiation, children treated for tuberculosis and receiving EFV-based regimens showed significant improvements comparable to children

  14. Effectiveness of efavirenz-based regimens in young HIV-infected children treated for tuberculosis: a treatment option for resource-limited settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janneke H van Dijk

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral treatment (ART options for young children co-infected with HIV and tuberculosis are limited in resource-poor settings due to limited data on the use of efavirenz (EFV. Using available pharmacokinetic data, an EFV dosing schedule was developed for young co-infected children and implemented as the standard of care at Macha Hospital in Southern Province, Zambia. Treatment outcomes in children younger than 3 years of age or weighing less than 10 kg receiving either EFV-based ART plus anti-tuberculous treatment or nevirapine-based (NVP ART were compared.Treatment outcomes were measured in a cohort of HIV-infected children seeking care at Macha Hospital in rural Zambia from 2007 to 2010. Information on the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis was abstracted from medical records.Forty-five children treated for tuberculosis initiated an EFV-based regimen and 69 children initiated a NVP-based regimen, 7 of whom also were treated for tuberculosis. Children receiving both regimens were comparable in age, but children receiving EFV started ART with a lower CD4(+ T-cell percentage and weight-for-age z-score. Children receiving EFV experienced increases in both CD4(+ T-cell percentage and weight-for-age z-score during follow-up, such that levels were comparable to children receiving NVP after two years of ART. Cumulative survival after 12 months of ART did not differ between groups (NVP:87%;EFV:80%;p = 0.25. Eleven children experienced virologic failure during follow-up.The adjusted hazard ratio of virologic failure comparing EFV to NVP was 0.25 (95% CI:0.05,1.24 and 0.13 (95% CI:0.03,0.62 using thresholds of 5000 and 400 copies/mL, respectively.Five children receiving EFV were reported to have had convulsions after ART initiation compared to only one child receiving NVP (p = 0.04.Despite poorer health at ART initiation, children treated for tuberculosis and receiving EFV-based regimens showed significant improvements comparable to children

  15. Papilla preservation technique combined with Emdogain in the treatment of intrabony defects: a novel treatment regimen for chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miliauskaite, Asta; Selimovic, Denis; Hassan, Mohamed; Nagano, Futami; Soell, Martine; Sano, Hidehiko; Puriene, Alina

    2008-01-01

    Regenerative therapy with enamel matrix proteins derivative (EMD) was shown to induce periodontal regeneration in intrabony defects. However, the contribution of papilla preservation technique (PPT), to the clinical outcome of regenerative therapy is still not clarified. Therefore, we conducted the present study to evaluate clinically measurable results of a combined therapy by PPT and EMD in the treatment of isolated intrabony defects. Sixty isolated intrabony defects in 25 patients were surgically assessed with EMD and PPT. The clinical parameters: clinical attachment level (CAL), probing depth (PD) and gingival recession (GR) were evaluated at baseline and at three years. The primary outcome variable was CAL. The sites treated with enamel matrix proteins demonstrated mean CAL change from 6.6+/-1.2 mm to 3.4+/-1.3 mm (p<0.001) and the mean PD was reduced from 5.9+/-1.0 mm to 2.7+/-0.8 mm (p<0.001) after three years. The mean GR decreased from 0.71+/-1.2 mm to 0.64+/-1.1 mm (p<0.821). The results of the present case cohort study indicate that PPT combined with EMD resulted in significant improvement of the clinical parameters in the treatment of intrabony defects in chronic periodontitis.

  16. Prevention of cisplatin-based chemotherapy-induced delayed nausea and vomiting using triple antiemetic regimens: a mixed treatment comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qi; Li, Wen; Li, Hongjia; Le, Qiqi; Liu, Shanshan; Zong, Shaoqi; Zheng, Leizhen; Hou, Fenggang

    2016-04-26

    A variety of triple antiemetic regimens are being used to prevent cisplatin-based chemotherapy induced delayed emesis and nausea in cancer patients. We performed a network meta-analysis to compare the efficacies of the different regimens. Electronic searches of the PubMed, Cochrane Library and MEDLINE databases were performed to identify randomized controlled trials, and data were analyzed using JAGS, Stata 14.0 and R project. The primary outcome was a complete response (CR). The secondary outcomes were no vomiting (NV) and no nausea (NN). Among the 398 studies identified, 10 were eligible and included, providing data on nine regimens. In the CR analysis, the absolute rank of netupitant + palonosetron + dexamethasone (NEPA) was 0.8579. In the NV and NN analyses, NEPA's absolute ranks were 0.8631 and 0.7902, respectively. The compliance of patients treated with rolapitant + granisetron + dexamethasone (RGD) was the best due to a low incidence of adverse events, and good compliance was also observed with NEPA. It was difficult to achieve good compliance with aprepitant + granisetron + dexamethasone (AGD). Overall, NEPA was the best regimen, and aprepitant + ondansetron + dexamethasone (AOD) is also worthy of recommendation because of its low cost and good effect. For patients with severe constipation, hiccups, asthenia and/or delayed nausea, RGD is worthy of consideration.

  17. Clinical profile & complications of neurotoxic snake bite & comparison of two regimens of polyvalent anti-snake venom in its treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Sarin

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: In this preliminary study, it was found that the national ASV protocol was as effective as the conventional regimen for neurotoxic snake bites. However, the findings need to be tested in a larger randomized controlled trial for definitive conclusions.

  18. Comparison of FOLFOX and DOF regimens as first-line treatment in East Asian patients with advanced gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu M

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mengyao Liu,1,2 Guofang Hu,2 Yuan Wang,2 Jun Guo,2 Liyan Liu,2 Xiao Han,2 Zhehai Wang2 1School of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, Shandong, 2Department of Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital, affiliated to Shandong University, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China Background: Our study retrospectively assesses the safety and efficacy of the FOLFOX (oxaliplatin, fluorouracil, and leucovorin versus DOF (docetaxel, oxaliplatin, and fluorouracil regimens in untreated locally advanced gastric cancer (AGC.Patients and methods: A total of 108 patients underwent DOF (N=58 and FOLFOX (N=50 regimens. The end points were overall response rate (ORR, survival, and toxicity. Kaplan–Meier curve was used to estimate overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS and Cox regression for multivariate analysis.Results: The ORRs were 50% for DOF and 30% for FOLFOX groups (P<0.05, and disease control rates were 91.4% and 72%, respectively. The median PFS and OS in DOF group were significantly better than FOLFOX group (8.2 versus 6.4 months, P<0.05; 16.3 versus 11.2 months, P<0.001. Both groups showed acceptable toxicity; all grades and grade 3–4 toxicity had no significant differences (P=0.071; P=0.247. However, the incidence of grade 3–4 peripheral neuropathy was significantly higher in DOF group (10.3% versus 2%, P<0.05. In the subgroup analysis for elderly AGC patients (≥65 years, administration of DOF also resulted in a superior PFS (8.5 versus 5.9 months; P=0.038 and OS (15.3 versus 9.8 months; P=0.004 compared with FOLFOX. However, DOF regimen was associated with more neutropenia (67% versus 30%; P<0.05, thrombocytopenia (61% versus 52%; P<0.05, and peripheral neuropathy (49% versus 22%; P<0.05.Conclusion: DOF regimen was more effective than FOLFOX for AGC, both in younger and older patients. The adverse effects of the two regimens were

  19. Drugs for preventing malaria in pregnant women in endemic areas: any drug regimen versus placebo or no treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radeva-Petrova, Denitsa; Kayentao, Kassoum; ter Kuile, Feiko O; Sinclair, David; Garner, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Pregnancy increases the risk of malaria and this is associated with poor health outcomes for both the mother and the infant, especially during the first or second pregnancy. To reduce these effects, the World Health Organization recommends that pregnant women living in malaria endemic areas sleep under insecticide-treated bednets, are treated for malaria illness and anaemia, and receive chemoprevention with an effective antimalarial drug during the second and third trimesters. Objectives To assess the effects of malaria chemoprevention given to pregnant women living in malaria endemic areas on substantive maternal and infant health outcomes. We also summarised the effects of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) alone, and preventive regimens for Plasmodium vivax. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and reference lists up to 1 June 2014. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of any antimalarial drug regimen for preventing malaria in pregnant women living in malaria-endemic areas compared to placebo or no intervention. In the mother, we sought outcomes that included mortality, severe anaemia, and severe malaria; anaemia, haemoglobin values, and malaria episodes; indicators of malaria infection, and adverse events. In the baby, we sought foetal loss, perinatal, neonatal and infant mortality; preterm birth and birthweight measures; and indicators of malaria infection. We included regimens that were known to be effective against the malaria parasite at the time but may no longer be used because of parasite drug resistance. Data collection and analysis Two review authors applied inclusion criteria, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. Dichotomous outcomes were compared using risk ratios (RR), and continuous outcomes using mean differences (MD); both are presented with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We

  20. Treatment outcomes of fixed-dose combination versus separate tablet regimens in pulmonary tuberculosis patients with or without diabetes in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shaer, Mohammad H; Mansour, Hanine; Elewa, Hazem; Salameh, Pascale; Iqbal, Fatima

    2017-02-02

    Tuberculosis is considered the second most common cause of death due to infectious agent. The currently preferred regimen for treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol, which has been used either as separate tablets (ST) or as fixed-dose combination (FDC). To date, no studies have compared both regimens in Qatar. We aim to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of FDC and ST regimen for treating PTB, in addition to comparing safety and efficacy of FDC and ST regimens in patients with diabetes treated for TB. A retrospective observational study was conducted in two general hospitals in Qatar. Patients diagnosed with PTB received anti-tuberculosis medications (either as FDC or ST) administered by the nurse. Sputum smears were tested weekly. We assessed the time to negative sputum smear and incidence of adverse events among FDC and ST groups. The study included 148 patients. FDC was used in 90 patients (61%). Effectiveness was not different between FDC and ST regimens as shown by mean time to sputum conversion (29.9 ± 18.3 vs. 35.6 ± 23 days, p = 0.12). Similarly, there was no difference in the incidence of adverse events, except for visual one that was higher in ST group. Among the 33 diabetic patients, 19 received the FDC and had faster sputum conversion compared to those who received ST (31 ± 12 vs. 49.4 ± 30.9 days, p = 0.05). Overall, diabetic patients needed longer time for sputum conversion and had more hepatotoxic and gastric adverse events compared to non-diabetics. ST group had higher visual side effects compared to FDC. FDC may be more effective in diabetic patients; however, further studies are required to confirm such finding.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of adding bedaquiline to drug regimens for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in the UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara J Wolfson

    Full Text Available To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of adding bedaquiline to a background regimen (BR of drugs for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB in the United Kingdom (UK.A cohort-based Markov model was developed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of bedaquiline plus BR (BBR versus BR alone (BR in the treatment of MDR-TB, over a 10-year time horizon. A National Health Service (NHS and personal social services perspective was considered. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated in terms of Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs. Data were sourced from a phase II, placebo-controlled trial, NHS reference costs, and the literature; the US list price of bedaquiline was used and converted to pounds (£18,800. Costs and effectiveness were discounted at a rate of 3.5% per annum. Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analysis was conducted.The total discounted cost per patient (pp on BBR was £106,487, compared with £117,922 for BR. The total discounted QALYs pp were 5.16 for BBR and 4.01 for BR. The addition of bedaquiline to a BR resulted in a cost-saving of £11,434 and an additional 1.14 QALYs pp over a 10-year period, and is therefore considered to be the dominant (less costly and more effective strategy over BR. BBR remained dominant in the majority of sensitivity analyses, with a 81% probability of being dominant versus BR in the probabilistic analysis.In the UK, bedaquiline is likely to be cost-effective and cost-saving, compared with the current MDR-TB standard of care under a range of scenarios. Cost-savings over a 10-year period were realized from reductions in length of hospitalization, which offset the bedaquiline drug costs. The cost-benefit conclusions held after several sensitivity analyses, thus validating assumptions made, and suggesting that the results would hold even if the actual price of bedaquiline in the UK were higher than in the US.

  2. Cost-effectiveness and budget impact of interferon-free direct-acting antiviral-based regimens for hepatitis C treatment: the French case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuffic-Burban, S; Obach, D; Canva, V; Pol, S; Roudot-Thoraval, F; Dhumeaux, D; Mathurin, P; Yazdanpanah, Y

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated the cost-effectiveness and the budget impact of new DAA-based regimen use in France. A Markov model simulated chronic hepatitis C (CHC) treatment interventions with IFN-based and IFN-free regimens at stage of fibrosis ≥F3, ≥F2 or regardless of fibrosis stage, and treatment either with the least or the most expensive combination. It estimated quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). It also assessed the budget impact over 5 years of treating all CHC-screened patients, regardless of fibrosis, assuming ≤20 000 patients treated/year and priority to ≥F3. Sensitivity analyses were also conducted. For genotypes (G) 1-4, the initiation of IFN-free regardless of fibrosis was a cost-effective strategy compared to prior standard of care (SOC) initiated at stage F2: €40 400-88 300/QALY gained in G1; similar results were obtained for patients infected with G4. Considering G2-3, the most cost-effective strategy was IFN-based regimens regardless of fibrosis compared to prior SOC initiated at stage F2: €21 300 and €19 400/QALY gained, respectively; the strategy with IFN-free regimens being more effective but not cost-effective at current costs. The budget impact of treating all CHC-screened patients over 5 years would range between 3.5 and 7.2 billion €, depending on whether one considers the least or the most expensive combination of new DAAs and whether one treats G2-3 with IFN-based or IFN-free new DAAs. In France, treatment initiation with new DDAs regardless of fibrosis stage is cost-effective, but would add 3.5-7.2 billion € to an already overburdened medical care system. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. FCR (Fludarabine, Cyclophosphamide, Rituximab regimen followed by 90yttrium ibritumomab tiuxetan consolidation for the treatment of relapsed grades 1 and 2 follicular lymphoma: a report of 9 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assisi Daniela

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This retrospective analysis is focused on the efficacy and safety of radioimmunotherapy (RIT with Zevalin® in nine patients with recurrent follicular lymphoma (FL who were treated in a consolidation setting after having achieved complete remission or partial remission with FCR. Methods The median age was 63 yrs (range 46-77, all patients were relapsed with histologically confirmed CD20-positive (grade 1 or 2 FL, at relapse they received FCR every 28 days: F (25 mg/m2x 3 days, C (1 gr/m2 day 1 and R (375 mg/m2 day 4 for 4 cycles. Who achieved at least a partial remission, with 90Yttrium Ibritumomab Tiuxetan 11.1 or 14.8 MBq/Kg up to a maximum dose 1184 MBq, at 3 months after the completion of FCR. The patients underwent a further restaging at 12 weeks after 90Y-RIT with total body CT scan, FDG-PET/CT and bilateral bone marrow biopsy. Results Nine patients have completed the treatment: FCR followed by 90Y-RIT (6 patients at 14.8 MBq/Kg, 3 patients at 11.1 MBq/Kg. After FCR 7 patients obtained CR and 2 PR; after 90Y-RIT two patients in PR converted to CR 12 weeks later. With median follow up of 34 months (range 13-50 the current analysis has shown that overall survival (OS is 89% at 2 years, 76% at 3 years and 61% at 4 years. The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events were hematologic, one patient developed herpes zoster infection after 8 months following valacyclovir discontinuation; another patient developed fungal infection. Conclusions Our experience indicate feasibility, tolerability and efficacy of FCR regimen followed by 90Y-RIT in patients relapsed with grades 1 and 2 FL with no unexpected toxicities. A longer follow up and a larger number of patients with relapsed grades 1 and 2 FL are required to determine the impact of this regimen on long-term duration of response and PFS.

  4. Choice of first-line antiretroviral therapy regimen and treatment outcomes for HIV in a middle income compared to a high income country: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragovic, Gordana; Smith, Colette J; Jevtovic, Djordje; Dimitrijevic, Bozana; Kusic, Jovana; Youle, Mike; Johnson, Margaret A

    2016-03-03

    The range of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimens available in many middle-income countries differs from those suggested in international HIV treatment guidelines. We compared first-line cART regimens, timing of initiation and treatment outcomes in a middle income setting (HIV Centre, Belgrade, Serbia - HCB) with a high-income country (Royal Free London Hospital, UK - RFH). All antiretroviral-naïve HIV-positive individuals from HCB and RFH starting cART between 2003 and 2012 were included. 12-month viral load and CD4 count responses were compared, considering the first available measurement 12-24 months post-cART. The percentage that had made an antiretroviral switch for any reason, or for toxicity and the percentage that had died by 36 months (the latest time at which sufficient numbers remained under follow-up) were investigated using standard survival methods. 361/597 (61 %) of individuals initiating cART at HCB had a prior AIDS diagnosis, compared to 337/1763 (19 %) at RFH. Median pre-ART CD4 counts were 177 and 238 cells/mm(3) respectively (p HIV disease, resulting in higher mortality rates than in high income countries, supporting improved testing campaigns for early detection of HIV infection and early introduction of newer cART regimens.

  5. Provider knowledge of treatment policy and dosing regimen with artemether-lumefantrine and quinine in malaria-endemic areas of western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watsierah, Carren A; Onyango, Rosebella O; Ombaka, James H; Abong'o, Benard O; Ouma, Collins

    2012-12-29

    Due to widespread anti-malarial drug resistance in many countries, Kenya included, artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) has been adopted as the most effective treatment option against malaria. Artemether-lumefantrine (AL) is the first-line ACT for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Kenya, while quinine is preferred for complicated and severe malaria. Information on the providers' knowledge and practices prior to or during AL and quinine implementation is scanty. The current study evaluated providers' knowledge and practices of treatment policy and dosing regimens with AL and quinine in the public, private and not-for-profit drug outlets. A cross-sectional survey using three-stage sampling of 288 (126 public, 96 private and 66 not-for-profits) providers in drug outlets was conducted in western Kenya in two Plasmodium falciparum-endemic regions with varying malarial risk. Information on provider in-service training, knowledge (qualification, treatment policy, dosing regimen, recently banned anti-malarials) and on practices (request for written prescription, prescription of AL, selling partial packs and advice given to patients after prescription), was collected. Only 15.6% of providers in private outlets had received any in-service training on AL use. All (100%) in public and majority (98.4%) in not-for-profit outlets mentioned AL as first line-treatment drug. Quinine was mentioned as second-line drug by 47.9% in private outlets. A total of 92.0% in public, 57.3% in private and 78.8% in not-for-profit outlets stated correct AL dose for adults. A total of 85.7% of providers in public, 30.2% in private and 41.0% in not-for-profit outlets were aware that SP recommendations changed from treatment for mild malaria to IPTp in high risk areas. In-service training influenced treatment regimen for uncomplicated malaria (P = 0.039 and P = 0.039) and severe malaria (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.002) in children and adults, respectively. Most (82.3%) of private

  6. Provider knowledge of treatment policy and dosing regimen with artemether-lumefantrine and quinine in malaria-endemic areas of western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watsierah Carren A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to widespread anti-malarial drug resistance in many countries, Kenya included, artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT has been adopted as the most effective treatment option against malaria. Artemether-lumefantrine (AL is the first-line ACT for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Kenya, while quinine is preferred for complicated and severe malaria. Information on the providers’ knowledge and practices prior to or during AL and quinine implementation is scanty. The current study evaluated providers’ knowledge and practices of treatment policy and dosing regimens with AL and quinine in the public, private and not-for-profit drug outlets. Methods A cross-sectional survey using three-stage sampling of 288 (126 public, 96 private and 66 not-for-profits providers in drug outlets was conducted in western Kenya in two Plasmodium falciparum-endemic regions with varying malarial risk. Information on provider in-service training, knowledge (qualification, treatment policy, dosing regimen, recently banned anti-malarials and on practices (request for written prescription, prescription of AL, selling partial packs and advice given to patients after prescription, was collected. Results Only 15.6% of providers in private outlets had received any in-service training on AL use. All (100% in public and majority (98.4% in not-for-profit outlets mentioned AL as first line-treatment drug. Quinine was mentioned as second-line drug by 47.9% in private outlets. A total of 92.0% in public, 57.3% in private and 78.8% in not-for-profit outlets stated correct AL dose for adults. A total of 85.7% of providers in public, 30.2% in private and 41.0% in not-for-profit outlets were aware that SP recommendations changed from treatment for mild malaria to IPTp in high risk areas. In-service training influenced treatment regimen for uncomplicated malaria (P = 0.039 and P = 0.039 and severe malaria (P P = 0.002 in children and adults

  7. Effect of Direct-Acting Agents on Fibrosis Regression in Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Patients' Treatment Compared with Interferon-Containing Regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Raziky, Maissa; Khairy, Marwa; Fouad, Ahmed; Salama, Ahmed; Elsharkawy, Aisha; Tantawy, Omnia

    2018-03-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment is aiming to cure and prevent the development, progression of fibrosis, and related complications. Interferon-based therapy was claimed to reduce or even reverse fibrosis. Although direct-acting agents have a better cure rate, we still lack the knowledge of their effect on fibrosis regression. We aim to assess fibrosis regression in direct-acting agents compared with interferon-based treatment regimens in the treatment of chronic HCV patients. The 204 chronic HCV patients were divided into 3 groups; group 1(N = 68) received Peg-IFN and ribavirin, group 2 (N = 69) received sofosbuvir and ribavirin, and group 3 (N = 67) received Peg-IFN, ribavirin, and sofosbuvir. Fibrosis assessment was performed by transient elastography (TE), APRI and FIB 4, in the pretreatment and at least 3 months after end of treatment. Of these, 66.2% of the patients did not show significant fibrosis changes, 6.4% fibrosis progressed, and 27.5% of fibrosis regressed (P < 0.0001) by TE. Similar results were detected in the different treatment regimens with no statistically significant difference between the regimens. Fibrosis regression was detected in 43.3% of cirrhotic patients who achieved sustained virological response (SVR) and only in 27.4% with significant fibrosis. Significant improvement of posttreatment aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and alpha fetoprotein as well as APRI and FIB 4 scores were detected. Fibrosis regression (TE, APRI and FIB 4) was detected with direct-acting agents and interferon-based therapy. Treated patients with significant fibrosis will benefit of fibrosis regression irrespective to their treatment response, whereas fibrosis regression was associated with SVR in cirrhotic patients.

  8. Psoriasis treatment: faster and long-standing results after bathing in geothermal seawater. A randomized trial of three UVB phototherapy regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysteinsdóttir, Jenna Huld; Ólafsson, Jón Hjaltalín; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Lúðvíksson, Björn Rúnar; Sigurgeirsson, Bárður

    2014-02-01

    The combination of seawater baths and narrowband ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) is a known treatment for psoriasis. This study evaluates two treatment regimens that combine bathing in geothermal seawater and NB-UVB therapy in comparison with NB-UVB monotherapy. Sixty-eight psoriasis patients were randomly assigned to outpatient bathing in geothermal seawater combined with NB-UVB therapy three times a week, intensive daily treatment involving bathing in geothermal seawater combined with NB-UVB therapy, or NB-UVB therapy alone three times a week; treatment period was 6 weeks. Disease severity [Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) and Lattice System Physician's Global Assessment scores], quality of life (Dermatology Life Quality Index) and histological changes were evaluated before, during and after treatment. The primary end point was the proportion of patients who achieved PASI 75 at 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, the percentage of patients who achieved PASI 75 and PASI 90 was significantly greater for both regimens, bathing in geothermal seawater three times a week (68.1% and 18.2%, respectively) and intensive treatment with geothermal seawater (73.1% and 42.3%, respectively) than for NB-UVB monotherapy (16.7% and 0%, respectively) (P seawater combined with NB-UVB therapy in psoriasis induces faster clinical and histological improvement, produces longer remission time and permits lower NB-UVB doses than UVB therapy alone. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Determinants of durability of first-line antiretroviral therapy regimen and time from first-line failure to second-line antiretroviral therapy initiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desmonde, Sophie; Eboua, François T; Malateste, Karen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We described reasons for switching to second-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) and time to switch in HIV-infected children failing first-line ART in West Africa. METHODS: We included all children aged 15 years or less, starting ART (at least three drugs) in the paediatric Ie...... post-ART initiation, 188 (7%) had switched to second-line. The most frequent reasons were drug stock outs (20%), toxicity (18%), treatment failure (16%) and poor adherence (8%). Over the 24-month follow-up period, 322 (12%) children failed first-line ART after a median time of 7 months...... rare and switches after an immunological failure were insufficient. These gaps reveal that it is crucial to advocate for both sustainable access to first-line and alternative regimens to provide adequate roll-out of paediatric ART programmes....

  10. HELICOBACTER PYLORI (HP) INFECTION IN OBESE PATIENTS UNDERGOING ROUXEN- Y GASTRIC BYPASS; EFFICACY OF TWO DIFFERENT TREATMENT REGIMENS IN HP ERADICATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta Hernández, Martín; Pérez Peña, Celia; Matía Martín, Pilar; Cabrerizo García, Lucio; Pérez-Ferre, Natalia; Sánchez-Pernaute, Andrés; Torres García, Antonio; Rubio Herrera, Miguel Ángel

    2015-08-01

    the ultimate cause for the increased incidence of gastric ulcer following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) remains unclear. Treatment of HP infection is recommended before surgery in countries with high prevalence such as Spain in other to diminish the risk. However, the current regimens used might not be adequate in view of the high failure rate for HP eradication. we reviewed 243 patients retrospectively undergoing RYGB and found 111 patients (45%) with HP infection. Therefore, we compared the eradication rate between 2 different regimens. 70 patients received OCA(Omeprazole:20 mg/12h, Clarithromycin 500 mg/12h and Amoxicillin 1 gram/12h for 10 days) while 41 patients received OLA (Omeprazole 20 mg/12 hours, Levofloxacin 500 mg/12hours and Amoxicillin 1 gram/12h for 10 days) for HP eradication. In 56/70 (80%) patients receiving OCA therapy HP was eradicated compared to 37/41 (91%) receiving OLA as first line therapy (p = 0.283). When used as second line therapy, in 13/14 (92%) patients receiving OLA HP was eradicated. clarithromycin resistance remains a matter of concern in this population while OLA seems to be a good alternative therapy for HP eradication, especially when OCA regimen fails. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. To choose the proper antibiotic regimen between the old and new antimicrobial agents and to determine the optimum dosage with Bi-Digital O-Ring Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dominic P; Wu, Ping-Shi; Panik, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Bi-Digital O-Ring Test (BDORT) can be used for various purposes for medical and dental diagnosis as well as for treatment purposes by determining the type of medication and the dosage for a patient. In case of infection, BDORT is a fast and non-invasive way to decide what kind of antibiotic and the dosage to be given to patient. If a patient already has been on a certain antibiotic for days, the clinician could use BDORT with diode (with arrow signs of the diode pointing to the patient) to test the same drug. Otherwise without diode, if BDORT result is negative, it could either mean the negative result might be due to resonance phenomenon or it may be because the antibiotic is ineffective. Either way, if O-Ring would be open during testing, the clinician should gradually increase or decrease the dosage of antibiotic to find out if BDORT result begins to become positive. In great majority of cases involving less effective old generation antibiotics, it is usually due to resistant microbia that require increasing dosage of antibiotic to make it become more effective. If increasing dosage would make O-Ring close, then the increased dosage would be effective to the patient. If the result is negative, the clinician should consider switching to another antibiotic regimen that may be tested positive with BDORT. Old generation antibiotics have not necessarily lost usefulness or lack efficacy on those new emerging resistant bacteria. Clinicians may just need to increase the dosage of those older generation antibiotics to make them more effective. In fact, with so many antibiotic-resisting strains of bacteria, clinician often face dilemma whether to switch to newer generation of antibiotics or just to increase the dosage of the older generation of antibiotics that a patient has been taking. When testing antibiotic of penicillin-related medication including amoxicillin, the thymus tablet (bovine source) should also be used for the testing after initially testing without it

  12. A SURVEY ON TREATMENT REGIMENS USED IN THE COMMUNITY AND A TEACHING HOSPITAL FOR OSTEOPOROSIS- A COMBINED STUDY IN NORTHERN KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunhi Kannan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Osteoporosis is a common clinical condition with features of low bone mass and microarchitectural collapse of bone tissue with enhanced bone fragility and increased susceptibility to fracture. Nowadays, it is recognised as a major health problem as it leads to an increased risk of developing spontaneous and traumatic fractures. In India, osteoporotic fractures occur more commonly in both sexes and may occur at a younger age than in the western countries. Though exact prevalence of the disease is not available, nearly 36 million Indians maybe suffering from osteoporosis by 2013. At present, most drugs available in the markets decrease bone loss by inhibiting bone resorption, but the upcoming therapies may increase bone mass by directly increasing bone mass as is the case of parathyroid hormone. The aim of the study is to conduct a clinical survey of treatment regimens used in the community and a tertiary hospital for osteoporosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS The clinical and prescription data of 276 patients were analysed in the northern part of Kerala. The diagnostic criteria used for confirmation of osteoporosis, treatment regimens used, their efficacy and side effects were observed and analysed using standard statistical methods. Patients were divided into 2 groups; group A with 116 patients attending the teaching hospital and 160 groups B patients’ information obtained from physicians in the community. RESULTS Among 276 patients, 197 were females and 79 were males with a male-to-female ratio of 1:2.49. Group A showed 28.4% in the 66 to 70 years age group; group B showed 28.75% in the 66 to 70 years age group. The baseline lab investigations were normal. The DXA results in both groups showed T score <2.5 and more in 199 patients (72.10%. The overall incidence of osteoporotic fractures was observed in 63 patients (22.82%. The frequently used treatment regimen was vitamin D and calcium. CONCLUSION Osteoporosis was noted more commonly in

  13. Inefficacy of triple therapy and comparison of two different bismuth-containing quadruple regimens as a firstline treatment option for helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekilli, Murat; Onal, Ibrahim K; Ocal, Serkan; Dogan, Zeynal; Tanoglu, Alpaslan

    2016-01-01

    Increasing resistance of Helicobacter pylori to antimicrobials necessitated the development of new regimens and the modification of existing regimens. The present study aimed to compare the efficacy of two bismuth-containing quadruple regimens-one including clarithromycin (C) instead of metronidazole (M) and triple therapy. Patients with H. pylori infection given the following regimens were sequentially enrolled in this retrospective study: (1) Triple therapy: Lansoprazole 30 mg b.i.d., clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d., and amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., (2) bismuth group C: Lansoprazole 30 mg b.i.d., clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and bismuth subsalicylate 524 mg b.i.d., and (3) bismuth group M: Lansoprazole 30 mg b.i.d., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., metronidazole 500 mg t.i.d., and bismuth subsalicylate 524 mg b.i.d. for 14 days. Gastroscopy and 14 C-urea breath test were performed before enrollment, and urea breath test was repeated four weeks after the treatment. At per-protocol analysis, the eradication rates were 64.7% (95% confidence interval 60.4-68.7) with the triple therapy (n = 504), 95.4% (95% confidence interval 91.5-99.4) with the bismuth group C (n = 501), and 93.9% (95% confidence interval 89.7-98.7) with the bismuth group M (n = 505). The eradication rates were similar between the two bismuth groups (P > 0.05) but significantly greater than that of the triple therapy (P bismuth-containing quadruple therapies reached high eradication rates, whereas triple therapy was shown to be ineffective. Moreover, clarithromycin may also be a component of bismuth-containing quadruple therapy.

  14. Unlocking the mystery of persistent skin ulcers in a young man and successful treatment with a simple regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongtao; Wang, Sheng; Chen, Xiaomei; Ming, Xinran; Peng, Li; Li, Wei

    2018-04-23

    Despite the high prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis worldwide, extrapulmonary tuberculosis especially cutaneous and osteoarticular tuberculosis occurs rarely, both of which are often difficult to be recognized since their symptoms mimic those of many other cutaneous and osteoarticular diseases. Here, we present a rare case of cutaneous tuberculosis potentially accompanied by osteroarticular tuberculosis in a 36-year-old Chinese man who presented with multiple persistent skin ulcers for one year and were nonresponsive to multiple therapeutic approaches. A single anti-tuberculous regimen with rifampicin resulted in healing of all skin lesions and excellent recovery of the general condition. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Myelosuppression-sparing treatment of central nervous system nocardiosis in a multiple myeloma patient utilizing a tedizolid-based regimen: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, Aasiya; Sharma, Smriti; Mathur, Pankaj; Apewokin, Senu K

    2017-04-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) nocardiosis is a recognised opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. Treatment involves prolonged institution of antibiotics, making oral agents a convenient and desired option. Unfortunately, devising an effective, well-tolerated antimicrobial for the duration required to treat CNS nocardiosis is challenging owing to treatment intolerance and toxicities. This report highlights myelosuppression-sparing treatment with an oral tedizolid-based regimen following a complicated course with standard agents. A 68-year-old female from Florida (USA) with low-risk lambda light chain multiple myeloma complicated by persistently low CD4 counts, absolute neutrophil counts and IgG levels presented 18 months after diagnosis with fever, pneumonia, new-onset atrial fibrillation, right-sided hemiparesis, encephalopathy and slurred speech. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed numerous ring-enhancing lesions, and blood cultures were positive for Nocardia farcinica. The patient failed initial therapy with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT), linezolid and imipenem plus surgical debridement of the frontal lobe abscess. Intraoperative cultures were positive for N. farcinica. The treatment course was also complicated by steadily declining white blood cell and platelet counts despite receiving filgrastim. She was therefore placed on SXT and tedizolid for 6 months. Subsequent brain MRI showed complete resolution of the lesions and thus chemotherapy for multiple myeloma was re-initiated. In conclusion, tedizolid-based regimens may be an option for patients with myelosuppression requiring prolonged antibiotic therapy for CNS nocardiosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of different infliximab dose regimens on treatment response and drug survival in 462 patients with psoriatic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Bente; Gudbjornsson, Bjorn; Krogh, Niels Steen

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe dose regimens, dose escalation and clinical outcomes in TNF-α inhibitor (TNFi)-naive patients with PsA treated with infliximab in routine rheumatology care. METHODS: We conducted an observational cohort study based on the nationwide Danish Rheumato......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe dose regimens, dose escalation and clinical outcomes in TNF-α inhibitor (TNFi)-naive patients with PsA treated with infliximab in routine rheumatology care. METHODS: We conducted an observational cohort study based on the nationwide Danish...... Icelandic patients at baseline [median 3.1 (interquartile range 3.0-3.8) vs 2.3 (2.1-2.9) mg/kg, P drug survival than...... Icelandic patients (1183 vs 483 days). In univariate analyses stratified by country, time until dose escalation, response rates, drug survival and 1-year's disease activity were independent of starting dose. Drug survival was shorter among patients not receiving concomitant MTX. CONCLUSION: In clinical...

  17. Improved treatment satisfaction and medication adherence after readjusting oral medication regimens with the cooperation of health insurance pharmacy in type 2 diabetic patients in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Naoko; Takahara, Mitsuyoshi; Shiraiwa, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Mayumi; Yamamoto, Kaoru; Doi, Masayuki; Yoshida, Yoko; Gotou, Setsuko

    2017-01-01

    Treatment satisfaction and medication adherence can be improved if physicians carefully monitor the situations, check the level of difficulties patients experience when taking medications at specific times, and readjust medication regimens based on this information. However, physicians in Japan encounter difficulties in taking enough time to collect this information in clinical practice. The aim of the current study was to investigate improvements in satisfaction and adherence with the cooperation of a health insurance pharmacy in clinical practice. We retrospectively analyzed 29 type 2 diabetic outpatients who were receiving their prescriptions at a medical clinic and filling prescriptions at a nearby pharmacy. The pharmacy collected information regarding satisfaction, adherence, and preferred time of taking medications, and provided these data to the clinic. The oral medication regimens for these 29 patients were readjusted based on the information obtained. After readjustments, the dosing frequency was decreased from 3.4 ± 1.2 to 1.8 ± 0.5 times/day, and the number of pills was reduced from 5.7 ± 2.0 to 4.5 ± 1.7 (both p  pill counts increased from 75% ± 22% to 91% ± 14% ( n  = 24, p  < 0.001) (5 patients were excluded due to missing data). Treatment satisfaction and medication adherence were improved after readjustments of oral medication regimens with the cooperation of a health insurance pharmacy in clinical practice in Japan.

  18. Meta-analysis of insulin aspart versus regular human insulin used in a basal–bolus regimen for the treatment of diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Simon; Bode, Bruce; Kozlovski, Plamen; Svendsen, Anne Louise

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objective of the current study was to compare the efficacy of two different insulin formulations, insulin aspart (IAsp) and regular human insulin (RHI), for prandial insulin coverage with neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin as basal insulin using a meta-analysis approach. The primary endpoint was change in A1c over time. Secondary endpoints included incidence of hypoglycemia and postprandial glycemic control. Methods Clinical trials (Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes) complying with Good Clinical Practice, and with individual patient data, were included in the meta-analysis. Trials were randomized, consisting of (at least) two treatment arms and had a minimum duration of 12 weeks. Estimates were calculated using fixed-effects and random-effects models. Heterogeneity was assessed for each analysis. The effect of baseline parameters on A1c was analyzed in extended simultaneous models. Results The mean difference in A1c was 0.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] [−0.15; −0.04], P IAsp. Higher accumulated dose of IAsp, higher age and increased rates of hypoglycemia were associated with improved A1c outcome. Fasting plasma glucose was not significantly different between regimens. Postprandial glucose was significantly lower after treatment with IAsp compared with RHI, but the analysis did present a significant level of heterogeneity (P IAsp. Conclusions A basal–bolus regimen with IAsp as bolus insulin provided minimal, but statistically significant, improvement in overall glycemic control with a lower rate of nocturnal hypoglycemic episodes, compared with a corresponding regimen with bolus RHI. PMID:23586846

  19. Meta-analysis of insulin aspart versus regular human insulin used in a basal-bolus regimen for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Simon; Bode, Bruce; Kozlovski, Plamen; Svendsen, Anne Louise

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the current study was to compare the efficacy of two different insulin formulations, insulin aspart (IAsp) and regular human insulin (RHI), for prandial insulin coverage with neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin as basal insulin using a meta-analysis approach. The primary endpoint was change in A1c over time. Secondary endpoints included incidence of hypoglycemia and postprandial glycemic control. Clinical trials (Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes) complying with Good Clinical Practice, and with individual patient data, were included in the meta-analysis. Trials were randomized, consisting of (at least) two treatment arms and had a minimum duration of 12 weeks. Estimates were calculated using fixed-effects and random-effects models. Heterogeneity was assessed for each analysis. The effect of baseline parameters on A1c was analyzed in extended simultaneous models. The mean difference in A1c was 0.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] [-0.15; -0.04], P IAsp. Higher accumulated dose of IAsp, higher age and increased rates of hypoglycemia were associated with improved A1c outcome. Fasting plasma glucose was not significantly different between regimens. Postprandial glucose was significantly lower after treatment with IAsp compared with RHI, but the analysis did present a significant level of heterogeneity (P IAsp. A basal-bolus regimen with IAsp as bolus insulin provided minimal, but statistically significant, improvement in overall glycemic control with a lower rate of nocturnal hypoglycemic episodes, compared with a corresponding regimen with bolus RHI. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes published by Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Evaluation of a vaccination regimen and care in relation to follow-up and treatment of patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto-Furusho, J K; Sarmiento-Aguilar, A; Parra-Holguín, N N; Bozada-Gutiérrez, K E

    2018-03-28

    During the clinical course of inflammatory bowel disease, different causes can compromise kidney, liver, and bone marrow function and increase the risk for osteoporosis, infections, and neoplasias. The aim of the present study was to describe the follow-up of Mexican patients with inflammatory bowel disease in relation to their vaccination regimen, treatment-associated risks, and cancer screening. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted within the time frame of February and June 2017. One hundred patients that had a histopathologic diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease were surveyed about their follow-up vaccination regimen, treatment-associated risks, and cancer screening. SPSS v24 software was employed for the statistical analysis. One hundred patients with inflammatory bowel disease were studied (90% with ulcerative colitis and 10% with Crohn's disease; 60% women, 40% men): 75% stated that they had no vaccination regimen. A total of 71.4% of the women had at least one Pap smear in their lives and 28.6% did not have them done annually. Twenty-four percent of the patients wore sun block daily. A total of 18.2% of the patients with more than a 10-year progression of ulcerative colitis had an annual colonoscopy. Yearly kidney function was registered in 57.1% of the patients, 92.9% had a yearly complete blood count, and 78.6% had yearly liver function tests. A total of 34.8% of patients had no bone densitometry in their case records. These results are a red flag suggesting the need to reinforce the role of the primary healthcare providers in relation to vaccination follow-up and the need to improve the education of the patient in relation to inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2018 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  1. Does less frequent routine monitoring of patients on a stable, fully suppressed cART regimen lead to an increased risk of treatment failure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reekie, Joanne; Mocroft, Amanda; Sambatakou, Helen

    2008-01-01

    SIDA study who maintained a stable and fully suppressed cART regimen for 1 year were included in the analysis. METHODS: Risk of treatment failure, defined by viral rebound, fall in CD4 cell count, development of new AIDS-defining illness, serious opportunistic infection or death, in the 12 months following...... interval (CI) 0.1-0.5], 2.2% (95% CI 1.6-2.8) and 6.0% (95% CI 5.0-7.0) risk of treatment failure, respectively. Patients who spent more than 80% of their time on cART with fully suppressed viraemia prior to baseline had a 38% reduced risk of treatment failure, hazard ratio 0.62 (95% CI 0.42-0.90, P = 0...

  2. Total Skin Electron Beam Therapy in the Treatment of Mycosis Fungoides: A Review of Conventional and Low-Dose Regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Mudit; Chhabra, Arpit M; Kharod, Shivam; Marwaha, Gaurav

    2016-12-01

    Mycosis fungoides (MF) is the most prevalent subtype of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, which is characterized by the proliferation of CD4 + T cells. While often an indolent disease, most patients eventually develop progression from isolated patches to tumors and finally nodal or visceral involvement. Treatment choice is largely based on disease burden, though prognostic factors such as disease stage, patient age, and extracutaneous involvement must be taken into consideration. Radiotherapy represents one of the most effective therapeutic modalities in the treatment of MF. Lymphocytes are exquisitely radiosensitive, and excellent responses are observed even with low doses of radiation. Total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is a special technique that allows for the homogenous irradiation of the entire skin. There are well-documented radiation dose-response relationships for achieving a complete response. As such, TSEBT doses ≥ 30 Gy comprise the current standard of care. Although highly effective, most patients experience recurrent disease even after conventional-dose (≥ 30 Gy) TSEBT. In addition, toxicity is cumulatively dose dependent, and there is reluctance to administer multiple courses of conventional-dose TSEBT. Consequently, there has been renewed interest in determining the utility of TSEBT at lower total (≤ 30 Gy) doses. Advantages of low-total-dose (with standard dose per fraction) TSEBT include a shortened treatment course, the potential to minimize the risk of adverse events, and the opportunity to allow for retreatment in cases of disease recurrence. This comprehensive review compares the impact of different TSEBT dosing schemes on clinical outcomes of MF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Transformation of alkylating regimen of thiotepa into tepa determines the disease progression through GSTP1 gene polymorphism for metastatic breast cancer patients receiving thiotepa containing salvage chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinna; Wang, Xiaoli; Song, Qingkun; Yang, Huabing; Zhu, Xishan; Yu, Jing; Song, Guohong; Di, Lijun; Ren, Jun; Shao, Hong; Lyerly, Herbert Kim

    2015-11-01

    The shifts to second-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer (MBC) were widely required based on pharmaceutical molecular profiles to reach out precision medicine. The emerging precise treatment of cancer requires the implementation of clarified pharmacogenetic profiles which are capable of elucidating the predictive responses to cancer chemotherapy. Therefore we were interested in the analysis of the roles of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of GSTP1 (glutathione S-transferase pi 1 gene) alleles to identify pharmacological links with predictors of clinical responses and toxicities. 93 MBC patients receiving thiotepa plus docetaxel chemotherapy were enrolled in this study. Optimized CYP3A5, CYP2B6, and GSTP1 were predominantly selected as candidate genes and their three SNPs (CYP2B6 G516T, CYP3A5 A6986G, and GSTP1 A313G) were genotyped by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Progression-free survival (PFS), disease control rate, and chemo-related toxicities were recorded. GSTP1 A313G (rs1695) was identified to be related with disease progression. In particular, patients harboring AG/GG genotype demonstrated a statistically longer PFS than those with AA. Multivariate analysis confirmed that AG/GG genotype was associated with both clinical responses and liver-localized metastatic lesions. No correlation was found between these three SNPs and chemotherapy-induced toxicity. These results suggest that the GSTP1 polymorphism is a novel prognostic marker for clinical response to thiotepa-containing chemotherapy regimens. Such evidence could provide insight into the role of pharmacogenetics to deprive of biases in shifting regimens solely by empirical choices.

  4. The novel bladder preservation therapy BOAI-CDDP-radiation (OMC-regimen): a new treatment option for invasive bladder cancer patients with lymph node metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Haruhito; Inamoto, Teruo; Takahara, Kiyoshi; Nomi, Hayahito; Hirano, Hajime; Ibuki, Naokazu; Uehara, Hiroshi; Komura, Kazumasa; Minami, Koichiro; Uchimoto, Taizo; Saito, Kenkichi; Takai, Tomoaki; Tanda, Naoki; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Narumi, Yoshihumi; Kiyama, Satoshi

    2014-06-01

    We have developed a novel bladder preservation therapy for patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer and lymph node metastasis: balloon-occluded arterial infusion (BOAI) of cisplatin/gemcitabine, with concomitant hemodialysis and irradiation [the so-called 'OMC (Osaka Medical College) regimen']. The OMC regimen delivers an extremely high concentration of anticancer agent to the site of the tumor, as well as the pelvic area, without causing any adverse systemic effects. In this study, we investigated the efficiency of the OMC regimen in 34 patients who underwent BOAI with cisplatin (100, 200 or 300 mg) along with 60 Gy of irradiation; patients who failed to achieve CR underwent secondary BOAI with gemcitabine (1,600 mg). The overall clinical response was 73.5% (CR: 35.3%; PR: 17.6%; SD: 20.6%). The 5-year overall and progression-free survival rates were 54.4% and 52.5%, respectively. For treatment failure, N2 stage was selected as a significant risk factor by simple and multiple logistic regression analyses. Cox proportional hazards analyses showed that N2 stage, T4 stage and the presence of hydronephrosis were significant risk factors for overall survival. Indeed, 55.6% of patients with N1 stage achieved a complete response (CR) (vs. 12.5% for N2 patients, p=0.0151), and 90% (9/10) of the CR patients survived without recurrence with an intact bladder after a mean follow-up of 85 (range 7-193) weeks. The 3-year progrssion-free survival rate with an intact bladder was 65.8% (vs. 37.5% for N2, p=0.034), and the 5-year overall survival rate was 71.8% (vs. 30.6% for N2, p=0.004). No patients suffered severe toxicities of Grade II or more; the oldest patient, aged 85 years, successfully completed this therapy. In conclusion, the OMC regimen can be regarded as a new option for patients with macroscopic lymph node involvement, especially those at stage N1. Therapy will improve the feasibility of radical cure even without the need for cystectomy in patients for whom

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF AZATHIOPRINE-BASED TREATMENT REGIMEN FOR PATIENTS WITH STEROID RESISTANT PEMPHIGUS BASED ON ASSESSMENT OF MOLECULAR MECHANISMS AT THE POST-RECEPTOR LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Olisova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autoimmune pemphigus is the most severe skin and mucous membranes disorders with production of IgG autoantibodies to desmogleins 1 and 3. Administration of systemic corticosteroids may help to abrogate active signs of pemphigus. However, some patients do not give an adequate response to systemic glucocorticosteroid monotherapy, as well as to their combination with immune suppressants and cytostatic agents. Aim: To develop an azathioprine-based treatment regimen for patients with autoimmune pemphigus resistant to steroids. Materials and methods: At the first step of development of a treatment regimen for patients with steroid-resistant pemphigus we analyzed retrospectively a clinical database on 23 patients who had been treated from 2000 to 2014 and whose treatment regimen included azathioprine, in addition to systemic glucocorticosteroids. At the second step, from 2013 to 2015, we assessed and treated with the azathioprine-based regimen 24 patients with autoimmune pemphigus, 14  of them being steroid resistant and 10, steroid sensitive (control group. To assess molecular mechanisms of steroid resistance at the post-receptor level (effect of prednisolone on incorporation of ³Н-uridine into lymphocyte mRNA, changes of intracellular levels of nuclear transcription factor NF-κB we used a  real-time polymerase chain reaction, radioisotope method and liquid scintillation radiometry. Results: At the first step, we developed an azathioprine-based treatment regimen for patients with steroid resistant autoimmune pemphigus. Initial dose of azathioprine was 150 mg daily. After achievement of response, the dose was decreased to 100 mg daily. When the dose of systemic glucocorticosteroids was decreased to 20  mg daily, the dose of azathioprine was decreased to 50 mg daily, thereafter steroid resistant patients were taking azathioprine at a dose of 50 mg daily from 3  months to 2.5  years. Investigation of molecular mechanisms

  6. Clinical and microbiological outcomes in treatment of men with non-gonococcal urethritis with a 100-mg twice-daily dose regimen of sitafloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shin; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Seike, Kensaku; Sugawara, Takashi; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Yokoi, Shigeaki; Nakano, Masahiro; Deguchi, Takashi

    2012-06-01

    Several microorganisms cause non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU). Failure to eradicate Mycoplasma genitalium from the urethra could be associated with persistent or recurrent urethritis; thus, the choice of antibiotics with activities potent enough to eradicate M. genitalium is crucial in the treatment of NGU. In in vitro studies, sitafloxacin has been shown to be highly active against Chlamydia trachomatis and M. genitalium. We treated 89 males with NGU, including 15 patients with persistent or recurrent NGU and 1 patient with post-gonococcal urethritis, with a 100-mg twice-daily dose regimen of sitafloxacin to assess its efficacy against NGU. We examined first-void urine samples for the presence of C. trachomatis, M. genitalium, Ureaplasma parvum, and Ureaplasma urealyticum. After treatment, we evaluated 73 patients for clinical outcomes and 44 for microbiological outcomes. Symptoms were alleviated in 62 (84.9%) patients, who were judged clinically cured. Microorganisms detected before treatment were eradicated in 42 (95.5%) patients, who were judged microbiologically cured. Regarding microbiological outcomes of specific microorganisms, eradication rates of C. trachomatis (n = 33), M. genitalium (n = 11), and U. urealyticum (n = 10) were 100%, 100%, and 80.0%, respectively. In all 5 patients with M. genitalium-positive persistent or recurrent NGU who had experienced treatment failures with antibiotics, the mycoplasma was eradicated. These results suggested that the sitafloxacin regimen used, which was effective on both M. genitalium and C. trachomatis infections, could be useful as an appropriate option as first- and second-line treatment of NGU.

  7. Minimally-Myelosuppressive Asparaginase-Containing Induction Regimen for Treatment of a Jehovah’s Witness with mutant IDH1/NPM1/NRAS Acute Myeloid Leukemia

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    Ashkan Emadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML who do not wish to accept blood product transfusion, including Jehovah’s Witnesses, is extremely challenging. The use of conventional chemotherapy for induction of complete remission (CR results in profound anemia and thrombocytopenia requiring frequent transfusions of blood products, without which such treatment will be life-threatening. Finding a well tolerable, minimally myelosuppressive induction regimen for such patients with AML is a clear example of area of unmet medical need. Here, we report a successful treatment of a 52-year-old Jehovah’s Witness with newly diagnosed AML with peg-asparaginase, vincristine and methylprednisolone. The AML was characterized with normal karyotype, and mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1-Arg132Ser, nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1-Trp289Cysfs*12 and neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog (NRAS-G1y12Va1. After one 28-day cycle of treatment, the patient achieved complete remission with incomplete count recovery (CRi and after the second cycle, he achieved CR with full blood count recovery. The patient has never received any blood products. Notwithstanding that myeloperoxidase-induced oxidative degradation of vincristine results in its lack of activity as monotherapy in AML, its combination with corticosteroid and asparaginase has resulted in a robust remission in this patient. Diminished steroid clearance by asparaginase activity as well as reduction in serum glutamine level induced by glutaminase enzymatic activity of asparaginase may have contributed to effective killing of the myeloblasts that carry IDH1/NPM1/NRAS mutations. In conclusion, asparaginase-containing regimens, which are approved for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL but not AML, can be used to treat patients with AML who do not accept blood transfusion.

  8. Efficacy and Safety of Three Antiretroviral Regimens for Initial Treatment of HIV-1: A Randomized Clinical Trial in Diverse Multinational Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Thomas B.; Smeaton, Laura M.; Kumarasamy, N.; Flanigan, Timothy; Klingman, Karin L.; Firnhaber, Cynthia; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Kumwenda, Johnstone; Lalloo, Umesh; Riviere, Cynthia; Sanchez, Jorge; Melo, Marineide; Supparatpinyo, Khuanchai; Tripathy, Srikanth; Martinez, Ana I.; Nair, Apsara; Walawander, Ann; Moran, Laura; Chen, Yun; Snowden, Wendy; Rooney, James F.; Uy, Jonathan; Schooley, Robert T.; De Gruttola, Victor; Hakim, James Gita; Swann, Edith; Barnett, Ronald L.; Brizz, Barbara; Delph, Yvette; Gettinger, Nikki; Mitsuyasu, Ronald T.; Eshleman, Susan; Safren, Steven; Fiscus, Susan A.; Andrade, Adriana; Haas, David W.; Amod, Farida; Berthaud, Vladimir; Bollinger, Robert C.; Bryson, Yvonne; Celentano, David; Chilongozi, David; Cohen, Myron; Collier, Ann C.; Currier, Judith Silverstein; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Eron, Joseph; Flexner, Charles; Gallant, Joel E.; Gulick, Roy M.; Hammer, Scott M.; Hoffman, Irving; Kazembe, Peter; Kumwenda, Newton; Lama, Javier R.; Lawrence, Jody; Maponga, Chiedza; Martinson, Francis; Mayer, Kenneth; Nielsen, Karin; Pendame, Richard B.; Ramratnam, Bharat; Sanne, Ian; Severe, Patrice; Sirisanthana, Thira; Solomon, Suniti; Tabet, Steve; Taha, Taha; van der Horst, Charles; Wanke, Christine; Gormley, Joan; Marcus, Cheryl J.; Putnam, Beverly; Loeliger, Edde; Pappa, Keith A.; Webb, Nancy; Shugarts, David L.; Winters, Mark A.; Descallar, Renard S.; Steele, Joseph; Wulfsohn, Michael; Said, Farideh; Chen, Yue; Martin, John C; Bischofberger, Norbert; Cheng, Andrew; Jaffe, Howard; Sharma, Jabin; Poongulali, S.; Cardoso, Sandra Wagner; Faria, Deise Lucia; Berendes, Sima; Burke, Kelly; Mngqibisa, Rosie; Kanyama, Cecelia; Kayoyo, Virginia; Samaneka, Wadzanai P.; Chisada, Anthony; Faesen, Sharla; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Santos, Breno; Lira, Rita Alves; Joglekar, Anjali A.; Rosa, Alberto La; Infante, Rosa; Jain, Mamta; Petersen, Tianna; Godbole, Sheela; Dhayarkar, Sampada; Feinberg, Judith; Baer, Jenifer; Pollard, Richard B.; Asmuth, David; Gangakhedkar, Raman R; Gaikwad, Asmita; Ray, M. Graham; Basler, Cathi; Para, Michael F.; Watson, Kathy J.; Taiwo, Babafemi; McGregor, Donna; Balfour, Henry H.; Mullan, Beth; Kim, Ge-Youl; Klebert, Michael K.; Cox, Gary Matthew; Silberman, Martha; Mildvan, Donna; Revuelta, Manuel; Tashima, Karen T.; Patterson, Helen; Geiseler, P. Jan; Santos, Bartolo; Daar, Eric S; Lopez, Ruben; Frarey, Laurie; Currin, David; Haas, David H.; Bailey, Vicki L.; Tebas, Pablo; Zifchak, Larisa; Noel-Connor, Jolene; Torres, Madeline; Sha, Beverly E.; Fritsche, Janice M.; Cespedes, Michelle; Forcht, Janet; O'Brien, William A.; Mogridge, Cheryl; Hurley, Christine; Corales, Roberto; Palmer, Maria; Adams, Mary; Luque, Amneris; Lopez-Detres, Luis; Stroberg, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral regimens with simplified dosing and better safety are needed to maximize the efficiency of antiretroviral delivery in resource-limited settings. We investigated the efficacy and safety of antiretroviral regimens with once-daily compared to twice-daily dosing in diverse areas of the world. Methods and Findings 1,571 HIV-1-infected persons (47% women) from nine countries in four continents were assigned with equal probability to open-label antiretroviral therapy with efavirenz plus lamivudine-zidovudine (EFV+3TC-ZDV), atazanavir plus didanosine-EC plus emtricitabine (ATV+DDI+FTC), or efavirenz plus emtricitabine-tenofovir-disoproxil fumarate (DF) (EFV+FTC-TDF). ATV+DDI+FTC and EFV+FTC-TDF were hypothesized to be non-inferior to EFV+3TC-ZDV if the upper one-sided 95% confidence bound for the hazard ratio (HR) was ≤1.35 when 30% of participants had treatment failure. An independent monitoring board recommended stopping study follow-up prior to accumulation of 472 treatment failures. Comparing EFV+FTC-TDF to EFV+3TC-ZDV, during a median 184 wk of follow-up there were 95 treatment failures (18%) among 526 participants versus 98 failures among 519 participants (19%; HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.72–1.27; p = 0.74). Safety endpoints occurred in 243 (46%) participants assigned to EFV+FTC-TDF versus 313 (60%) assigned to EFV+3TC-ZDV (HR 0.64, CI 0.54–0.76; p<0.001) and there was a significant interaction between sex and regimen safety (HR 0.50, CI 0.39–0.64 for women; HR 0.79, CI 0.62–1.00 for men; p = 0.01). Comparing ATV+DDI+FTC to EFV+3TC-ZDV, during a median follow-up of 81 wk there were 108 failures (21%) among 526 participants assigned to ATV+DDI+FTC and 76 (15%) among 519 participants assigned to EFV+3TC-ZDV (HR 1.51, CI 1.12–2.04; p = 0.007). Conclusion EFV+FTC-TDF had similar high efficacy compared to EFV+3TC-ZDV in this trial population, recruited in diverse multinational settings. Superior safety, especially in HIV-1-infected

  9. Efficacy and safety of three antiretroviral regimens for initial treatment of HIV-1: a randomized clinical trial in diverse multinational settings.

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    Thomas B Campbell

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral regimens with simplified dosing and better safety are needed to maximize the efficiency of antiretroviral delivery in resource-limited settings. We investigated the efficacy and safety of antiretroviral regimens with once-daily compared to twice-daily dosing in diverse areas of the world.1,571 HIV-1-infected persons (47% women from nine countries in four continents were assigned with equal probability to open-label antiretroviral therapy with efavirenz plus lamivudine-zidovudine (EFV+3TC-ZDV, atazanavir plus didanosine-EC plus emtricitabine (ATV+DDI+FTC, or efavirenz plus emtricitabine-tenofovir-disoproxil fumarate (DF (EFV+FTC-TDF. ATV+DDI+FTC and EFV+FTC-TDF were hypothesized to be non-inferior to EFV+3TC-ZDV if the upper one-sided 95% confidence bound for the hazard ratio (HR was ≤1.35 when 30% of participants had treatment failure. An independent monitoring board recommended stopping study follow-up prior to accumulation of 472 treatment failures. Comparing EFV+FTC-TDF to EFV+3TC-ZDV, during a median 184 wk of follow-up there were 95 treatment failures (18% among 526 participants versus 98 failures among 519 participants (19%; HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.72-1.27; p = 0.74. Safety endpoints occurred in 243 (46% participants assigned to EFV+FTC-TDF versus 313 (60% assigned to EFV+3TC-ZDV (HR 0.64, CI 0.54-0.76; p<0.001 and there was a significant interaction between sex and regimen safety (HR 0.50, CI 0.39-0.64 for women; HR 0.79, CI 0.62-1.00 for men; p = 0.01. Comparing ATV+DDI+FTC to EFV+3TC-ZDV, during a median follow-up of 81 wk there were 108 failures (21% among 526 participants assigned to ATV+DDI+FTC and 76 (15% among 519 participants assigned to EFV+3TC-ZDV (HR 1.51, CI 1.12-2.04; p = 0.007.EFV+FTC-TDF had similar high efficacy compared to EFV+3TC-ZDV in this trial population, recruited in diverse multinational settings. Superior safety, especially in HIV-1-infected women, and once-daily dosing of EFV+FTC-TDF are

  10. Safety and efficacy of short course combination regimens with AmBisome, miltefosine and paromomycin for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Bangladesh.

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    Rahman, Ridwanur; Goyal, Vishal; Haque, Rashidul; Jamil, Kazi; Faiz, Abul; Samad, Rasheda; Ellis, Sally; Balasegaram, Manica; Boer, Margriet den; Rijal, Suman; Strub-Wourgaft, Nathalie; Alves, Fabiana; Alvar, Jorge; Sharma, Bhawna

    2017-05-01

    AmBisome therapy for VL has an excellent efficacy and safety profile and has been adopted as a first-line regimen in Bangladesh. Second-line treatment options are limited and should preferably be given in short course combinations in order to prevent the development of resistant strains. Combination regimens including AmBisome, paromomycin and miltefosine have proved to be safe and effective in the treatment of VL in India. In the present study, the safety and efficacy of these same combinations were assessed in field conditions in Bangladesh. The safety and efficacy of three combination regimens: a 5 mg/kg single dose of AmBisome + 7 subsequent days of miltefosine (2.5 mg/kg/day), a 5 mg/kg single dose of AmBisome + 10 subsequent days of paromomycin (15 mg/kg/day) and 10 days of paromomycin (15 mg/kg/day) + miltefosine (2.5 mg/kg/day), were compared with a standard regimen of AmBisome 15 mg/kg given in 5 mg/kg doses on days 1, 3 and 5. This was a phase III open label, individually randomized clinical trial. Patients from 5 to 60 years with uncomplicated primary VL were recruited from the Community Based Medical College Bangladesh (CBMC,B) and the Upazila Health Complexes of Trishal, Bhaluka and Fulbaria (all located in Mymensingh district), and randomly assigned to one of the treatments. The objective was to assess safety and definitive cure at 6 months after treatment. 601 patients recruited between July 2010 and September 2013 received either AmBisome monotherapy (n = 158), AmBisome + paromomycin (n = 159), AmBisome + miltefosine (n = 142) or paromomycin + miltefosine (n = 142). At 6 months post- treatment, final cure rates for the intention-to-treat population were 98.1% (95%CI 96.0-100) for AmBisome monotherapy, 99.4% (95%CI 98.2-100) for the AmBisome + paromomycin arm, 94.4% (95%CI 90.6-98.2) for the AmBisome + miltefosine arm, and 97.9% (95%CI 95.5-100) for paromomycin + miltefosine arm. There were 12 serious adverse events in the study in 11 patients that

  11. A short 2 week dose titration regimen reduces the severity of flu-like symptoms with initial interferon gamma-1b treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devane, John G; Martin, Mary L; Matson, Mark A

    2014-06-01

    Flu-like symptoms (FLS) are commonly experienced by patients receiving interferon gamma-1b which may cause discontinuation or disruption of dosing during initial therapy or on re-initiation following a break in therapy. In contrast to Type I interferons, the impact of dose-titration on FLS has not been reported and is not a practice described or included in the approved prescribing information for interferon gamma-1b.The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a 2 week titration regimen on the severity of FLS during the initial 3 weeks of therapy with three times weekly subcutaneous injections of interferon gamma-1b. Healthy men and women were randomized into a double-blind, two-period, crossover study. Each study period was 3 weeks in duration and there was a minimum 15 day washout between treatment periods. Two treatment regimens were compared: No Titration dosing (full 50 mcg/m(2) subcutaneously [s.c.] three times weekly for 3 weeks) and Titration (15 mcg/m(2) s.c. three times weekly during week 1, 30 mcg/m(2) s.c. three times weekly during week 2 followed by the full dose of 50 mcg/m(2) s.c. three times weekly during week 3). Subjects remained in the clinic for at least 12 hours following each injection. FLS was based on a composite score for fever, chills, tiredness and muscle aches assessed at baseline and 4, 8 and 12 hours following each injection. Acetaminophen was allowed at the discretion of the PI. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in FLS severity at 8 hours averaged over the 3 weeks of treatment. Additional endpoints included FLS at 4 and 12 hours, individual flu-like symptoms, rates of discontinuation, incidence of FLS and acetaminophen use. NCT 01929382. Of the 40 subjects randomized, there were 15 (37.5%) discontinuations. Titration resulted in a significant reduction in FLS severity at 8 hours (p = 0.023) averaged over the 3 week treatment period. The difference in 3 week FLS severity reflects differences

  12. Improvement of ALT decay kinetics by all-oral HCV treatment: Role of NS5A inhibitors and differences with IFN-based regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cento, Valeria; Nguyen, Thi Huyen Tram; Di Carlo, Domenico; Biliotti, Elisa; Gianserra, Laura; Lenci, Ilaria; Di Paolo, Daniele; Calvaruso, Vincenza; Teti, Elisabetta; Cerrone, Maddalena; Romagnoli, Dante; Melis, Michela; Danieli, Elena; Menzaghi, Barbara; Polilli, Ennio; Siciliano, Massimo; Nicolini, Laura Ambra; Di Biagio, Antonio; Magni, Carlo Federico; Bolis, Matteo; Antonucci, Francesco Paolo; Di Maio, Velia Chiara; Alfieri, Roberta; Sarmati, Loredana; Casalino, Paolo; Bernardini, Sergio; Micheli, Valeria; Rizzardini, Giuliano; Parruti, Giustino; Quirino, Tiziana; Puoti, Massimo; Babudieri, Sergio; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Andreoni, Massimo; Craxì, Antonio; Angelico, Mario; Pasquazzi, Caterina; Taliani, Gloria; Guedj, Jeremie; Perno, Carlo Federico; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Intracellular HCV-RNA reduction is a proposed mechanism of action of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), alternative to hepatocytes elimination by pegylated-interferon plus ribavirin (PR). We modeled ALT and HCV-RNA kinetics in cirrhotic patients treated with currently-used all-DAA combinations to evaluate their mode of action and cytotoxicity compared with telaprevir (TVR)+PR. Mathematical modeling of ALT and HCV-RNA kinetics was performed in 111 HCV-1 cirrhotic patients, 81 treated with all-DAA regimens and 30 with TVR+PR. Kinetic-models and Cox-analysis were used to assess determinants of ALT-decay and normalization. HCV-RNA kinetics was biphasic, reflecting a mean effectiveness in blocking viral production >99.8%. The first-phase of viral-decline was faster in patients receiving NS5A-inhibitors compared to TVR+PR or sofosbuvir+simeprevir (pALT-normalization, noted λ, was slower in patients receiving TVR+PR or sofosbuvir+simeprevir compared to NS5A-inhibitors (0.17 vs 0.27 d-1, respectively, pALT normalization rate and, for a given level of viral reduction, ALT-normalization was more profound in patients receiving DAA, and NS5A in particular, than TVR+PR. Our data support a process of HCV-clearance by all-DAA regimens potentiated by NS5A-inhibitor, and less relying upon hepatocyte death than IFN-containing regimens. This may underline a process of "cell-cure" by DAAs, leading to a fast improvement of liver homeostasis.

  13. The cost-effectiveness and budgetary impact of a dolutegravir-based regimen as first-line treatment of HIV infection in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Amy; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Huang, Mingshu; Paltiel, A David; Mayer, Kenneth H; Rewari, Bharat B; Walensky, Rochelle P; Freedberg, Kenneth A

    2018-03-01

    Dolutegravir (DTG)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended for first-line HIV treatment in the US and Europe. Efavirenz (EFV)-based regimens remain the standard of care (SOC) in India. We examined the clinical and economic impact of DTG-based first-line ART in the setting of India's recent guidelines change to treating all patients with HIV infection regardless of CD4 count. We used a microsimulation of HIV disease, the Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications (CEPAC)-International model, to project outcomes in ART-naive patients under two strategies: (1) SOC: EFV/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/lamivudine (3TC); and (2) DTG: DTG + TDF/3TC. Regimen-specific inputs, including virologic suppression at 48 weeks (SOC: 82% vs. DTG: 90%) and annual costs ($98 vs. $102), were informed by clinical trial data and other sources and varied widely in sensitivity analysis. We compared incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), measured in $/year of life saved (YLS), to India's per capita gross domestic product ($1600 in 2015). We compared the budget impact and HIV transmission effects of the two strategies for the estimated 444,000 and 916,000 patients likely to initiate ART in India over the next 2 and 5 years. Compared to SOC, DTG improved 5-year survival from 76.7% to 83.0%, increased life expectancy from 22.0 to 24.8 years (14.0 to 15.5 years, discounted), averted 13,000 transmitted HIV infections over 5 years, increased discounted lifetime care costs from $3040 to $3240, and resulted in a lifetime ICER of $130/YLS, less than 10% of India's per capita GDP in 2015. DTG maintained an ICER below 50% of India's per capita GDP as long as the annual three-drug regimen cost was ≤$180/year. Over a 2- or 5-year horizon, total undiscounted outlays for HIV-related care were virtually the same for both strategies. A generic DTG-based regimen is likely to be cost-effective and should be recommended for initial therapy of HIV infection in India.

  14. Outcomes for efavirenz versus nevirapine-containing regimens for treatment of HIV-1 infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Prinitha Pillay

    Full Text Available There is conflicting evidence and practice regarding the use of the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI efavirenz (EFV and nevirapine (NVP in first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART.We systematically reviewed virological outcomes in HIV-1 infected, treatment-naive patients on regimens containing EFV versus NVP from randomised trials and observational cohort studies. Data sources include PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and conference proceedings of the International AIDS Society, Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, between 1996 to May 2013. Relative risks (RR and 95% confidence intervals were synthesized using random-effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I(2 statistic, and subgroup analyses performed to assess the potential influence of study design, duration of follow up, location, and tuberculosis treatment. Sensitivity analyses explored the potential influence of different dosages of NVP and different viral load thresholds.Of 5011 citations retrieved, 38 reports of studies comprising 114 391 patients were included for review. EFV was significantly less likely than NVP to lead to virologic failure in both trials (RR 0.85 [0.73-0.99] I(2 = 0% and observational studies (RR 0.65 [0.59-0.71] I(2 = 54%. EFV was more likely to achieve virologic success than NVP, though marginally significant, in both randomised controlled trials (RR 1.04 [1.00-1.08] I(2 = 0% and observational studies (RR 1.06 [1.00-1.12] I(2 = 68%.EFV-based first line ART is significantly less likely to lead to virologic failure compared to NVP-based ART. This finding supports the use of EFV as the preferred NNRTI in first-line treatment regimen for HIV treatment, particularly in resource limited settings.

  15. Differential effects of a post-anthesis fertilizer regimen on the wheat flour proteome determined by quantitative 2-DE

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    Altenbach Susan B

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mineral nutrition during wheat grain development has large effects on wheat flour protein content and composition, which in turn affect flour quality and immunogenic potential for a commodity of great economic value. However, it has been difficult to define the precise effects of mineral nutrition on protein composition because of the complexity of the wheat flour proteome. Recent improvements in the identification of flour proteins by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS and the availability of a comprehensive proteome map of flour from the US wheat Butte 86 now make it possible to document changes in the proportions of individual flour proteins that result from the application of mineral nutrition. Results Plants of Triticum aestivum 'Butte 86' were grown with or without post-anthesis fertilization (PAF and quantitative 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE was used to analyze protein composition of the resulting flour. Significant changes in the proportions of 54 unique proteins were observed as a result of the treatment. Most omega-gliadins, high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS and serpins as well as some alpha-gliadins increased in proportion with PAF. In contrast, alpha-amylase/protease inhibitors, farinins, purinins and puroindolines decreased in proportion. Decreases were also observed in several low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS, globulins, defense proteins and enzymes. The ratio of HMW-GS to LMW-GS in the flour increased from 0.61 to 0.95 and the ratio of gliadins to glutenins increased from 1.02 to 1.30 with PAF. Because flour protein content doubled with PAF from 7 to 14%, most protein types actually increased in absolute amount (μg/mg flour protein. Data further suggest that flour proteins change with PAF according to their content of sulfur-containing amino acids Cys + Met. Conclusions A 2-DE approach revealed changes in the wheat flour proteome due to PAF that are important for flour

  16. Efeitos adversos causados pelo novo esquema de tratamento da tuberculose preconizado pelo Ministério da Saúde do Brasil Adverse effects of the new tuberculosis treatment regimen recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health

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    Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar os principais efeitos adversos causados pelo esquema de tratamento da tuberculose preconizado pelo Ministério da Saúde. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo e prospectivo envolvendo 79 pacientes com tuberculose tratados no Centro de Pesquisa Clínica do Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio Moraes, no município de Vitória, ES, entre 2003 e 2006. O regime de tratamento consistiu em isoniazida, rifampicina, pirazinamida e etambutol por quatro meses, seguido de rifampicina e isoniazida por dois meses. Durante o tratamento, os pacientes foram clinicamente avaliados todas as semanas e tinham uma visita médica mensal. RESULTADOS: A incidência geral de efeitos adversos foi de 83,54%. O envolvimento articular/ósseo/muscular e o envolvimento cutâneo foram mais frequentes (24,94% e 22,09%, respectivamente. Os eventos adversos foram mais comuns no segundo mês de tratamento (41,59%. Não houve necessidade de modificação do esquema de tratamento. Apenas 1 paciente necessitou de medicação para amenizar os efeitos adversos. A taxa de cura foi de 100%. CONCLUSÕES: Apesar de alta, a incidência de efeitos adversos com o novo esquema de tratamento preconizado pelo Ministério da Saúde não exigiu a modificação do esquema de tratamento, que foi eficaz.OBJECTIVE: To determine the principal adverse effects of the tuberculosis treatment regimen recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. METHODS: A prospective descriptive study involving 79 tuberculosis patients treated at the Clinical Research Center of the Cassiano Antonio Moraes University Hospital, in the city of Vitória, Brazil, between 2003 and 2006. The treatment regimen consisted of isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol for four months, followed by rifampicin and isoniazid for two months. During the treatment period, the patients were clinically evaluated every week and had a monthly medical visit. RESULTS: The overall incidence of adverse effects was 83

  17. Metronomic chemotherapy regimens in oncology

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    M. Yu. Fedyanin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metronomic chemotherapy implies the regular use of cytotoxic agents in doses much smaller than the maximum tolerable doses for a long time. Preclinical experiments show that this treatment option has a many-sided (antiangiogenic, immunostimulating, and direct cytotoxic effect on tumor. Moreover, this approach has gained the widest acceptance in treating patients with metastatic breast cancer in clinical practice. By taking into account the high activity of angiogenesis in colon cancer progression, it is interesting to study the impact of metronomic chemotherapy regimens for this nosological entity as well. This literature review considers not only the history of metronomic chemotherapy, the mechanisms of action, and a range of drugs having an antitumor effect in the metronomic regimens, but also analyzes clinical trials of metronomic chemotherapy regimens in patients with metastatic colon cancer.

  18. A study of an effective sunitinib–chemotherapeutic combination regimen for bladder cancer treatment using a mouse model

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    Dah-Shyong Yu

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Combination of the tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor sunitinib with gemcitabine chemotherapy synergistically enhances tumor cytotoxicity and may provide a new treatment modality for advanced bladder cancer.

  19. Safety of lornoxicam in the treatment of postoperative pain: a post-marketing study of analgesic regimens containing lornoxicam compared with standard analgesic treatment in 3752 day-case surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Narinder; Krøner, Karsten; Simin-Geertsen, Marija; Hejl, Charlotte; Likar, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Post-marketing surveillance studies can provide supplemental data on the safety of medications in the general population. This study aimed to evaluate the safety of analgesic regimens including the NSAID lornoxicam in the short-term treatment of postoperative pain in a clinically relevant population. Randomized, open-label, multicentre, multinational, observational cohort study of 4 days' duration. In-hospital postoperative setting, with discharge to home treatment within 24 hours of surgery. Adults aged > or =18 years expected to be in need of analgesic treatment after day-case surgery. Analgesic regimens containing lornoxicam were compared with a standard analgesic treatment, which was defined as the treatment that the patient would normally receive at the centre. Following day-case surgery, patients were provided with appropriate analgesic medication, and adverse events (AEs; defined as all recorded events with symptoms) were recorded by the investigator during the in-hospital stay and by the patient for the next 3 days using entries recorded morning and evening in a patient diary. Statistical analyses tested for between-treatment differences in AEs, adverse drug reactions (ADRs; defined as events probably, possibly or unlikely to be related to treatment) and gastrointestinal AEs (GI-AEs). A total of 4152 patients were randomized to treatment. Since 400 patients did not take any analgesic, the safety population consisted of 1838 patients for lornoxicam and 1914 patients for standard analgesic treatment. Demographic and disease characteristics were similar between the two treatment groups, as were the type of surgery and the anaesthesia used in surgery. In the safety population, 16.9% of patients received no analgesic in hospital, and when analgesics were provided they were often administered in combination. Similarly, approximately 17% of patients did not take any analgesics at home. AEs were reported in 27.1% and 29.4% of patients in the lornoxicam and standard

  20. Cost-effectiveness of adding novel or group 5 interventions to a background regimen for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Daniel; Dass, Ramesh; Hettle, Robert

    2017-03-08

    Treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is complex, lengthy, and involves a minimum of four drugs termed a background regimen (BR), that have not previously been prescribed or that have proven susceptible to patient sputum culture isolates. In recent years, promising new treatment options have emerged as add-on therapies to a BR. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term costs and effectiveness of adding the novel or group 5 interventions bedaquiline, delamanid, and linezolid to a background regimen (BR) of drugs for the treatment of adult patients with pulmonary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), within their marketing authorisations, from a German healthcare cost-effectiveness perspective. A cohort-based Markov model was developed to simulate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of bedaquiline plus BR, delamanid plus BR, or linezolid plus BR versus BR alone in the treatment of MDR-TB, over a 10-year time horizon. Effectiveness of treatment was evaluated in Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALYs) and Life-Years Gained (LYG), using inputs from clinical trials for bedaquiline and delamanid and from a German observational study for linezolid. Cost data were obtained from German Drug Directory costs (€/2015), published literature, and expert opinion. A 3% yearly discount rate was applied. Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses were conducted. The total discounted costs per-patient were €85,575 for bedaquiline plus BR, €81,079 for delamanid plus BR, and €80,460 for linezolid plus BR, compared with a cost of €60,962 for BR alone. The total discounted QALYs per-patient were 5.95 for bedaquiline plus BR, 5.36 for delamanid plus BR, and 3.91 for linezolid plus BR, compared with 3.68 for BR alone. All interventions were therefore associated with higher QALYs and higher costs than BR alone, with incremental costs per QALY gained of €22,238 for bedaquiline, €38,703 for delamanid, and €87,484 for linezolid, versus

  1. Standard PK/PD concepts can be applied to determine a dosage regimen for a macrolide: the case of tulathromycin in the calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutain, P-L; Potter, T; Pelligand, L; Lacroix, M; Illambas, J; Lees, P

    2017-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of tulathromycin, administered to calves subcutaneously at the dosage of 2.5 mg/kg, was established in serum, inflamed (exudate), and noninflamed (transudate) fluids in a tissue cage model. The PK profile of tulathromycin was also established in pneumonic calves. For Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida, tulathromycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were approximately 50 times lower in calf serum than in Mueller-Hinton broth. The breakpoint value of the PK/pharmacodynamic (PD) index (AUC (0-24 h) /MIC) to achieve a bactericidal effect was estimated from in vitro time-kill studies to be approximately 24 h for M. haemolytica and P. multocida. A population model was developed from healthy and pneumonic calves and, using Monte Carlo simulations, PK/PD cutoffs required for the development of antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) were determined. The population distributions of tulathromycin doses were established by Monte Carlo computation (MCC). The computation predicted a target attainment rate (TAR) for a tulathromycin dosage of 2.5 mg/kg of 66% for M. haemolytica and 87% for P. multocida. The findings indicate that free tulathromycin concentrations in serum suffice to explain the efficacy of single-dose tulathromycin in clinical use, and that a dosage regimen can be computed for tulathromycin using classical PK/PD concepts. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Intravesical treatment of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis: from the conventional regimens to the novel botulinum toxin injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellis, Athanasios; Papatsoris, Athanasios G

    2014-06-01

    Bladder pain syndrome (BPS) includes interstitial cystitis (IC) and is often used as a synonym of it (i.e., BPS/IC). It is associated with lower urinary tract symptoms as well as with negative cognitive, behavioral, sexual and/or emotional consequences. Unfortunately, none of the numerous existing oral and intravesical treatments have been effective for all of the BPS subtypes and therefore relevant research is ongoing. In this review, the authors analyze the existing literature for the intravesical treatment of BPS/IC with focus on the novel administration of botulinum toxin (BTX). Several intravesical drugs have been studied in the past, including lidocaine, heparin, pentosan polysulfate sodium, dimethyl sulfoxide, chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronic acid as well as investigational drugs such as GM-0111. Recently, intravesical submucosal injections of BTX have been studied in patients with BPS/IC. Most of the recent studies use BTX-A with no serious adverse effects and with satisfactory results in patients who do not respond to oral or standard intravesical therapy. Nevertheless, there is no consensus regarding the best dosage scheme of BTX, the injection sites and the treatment intervals. BTX intravesical administration in patients with BPS/IC is a safe and efficient treatment option; yet the level of evidence of the initial studies is not high. There is still the need for large randomized controlled studies so that a consensus can be reached for the ideal BTX dosage, injection sites and intervals between treatments.

  3. Rifabutin-based high-dose proton-pump inhibitor and amoxicillin triple regimen as the rescue treatment for Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyun Chul; Lee, Yong Jae; An, Byoungrak; Lee, Seung Woo; Lee, Yong Chan; Moon, Byung Soo

    2014-12-01

    Rifabutin has been known to be effective in multidrug-resistant Helicobacter pylori-harboring patients undergoing treatment failure for H. pylori infection. To evaluate the efficacy of 7-day treatment regimen consisting rifabutin daily but increasing the dose of amoxicillin and lansoprazole in patients who have failed first and second eradication and to assess the side effect profiles in South Korea. From December 2007 to May 2013, 59 H. pylori-infected patients with two previous eradication failures were enrolled for this study prospectively. The eligible patients were randomly assigned to either group A or B. Group A received lansoprazole 30 mg bid, amoxicillin 1.0 g tid and rifabutin 150 mg bid during 7 days, whereas group B received lansoprazole 60 mg bid, amoxicillin 1.0 g tid and rifabutin 150 mg bid during 7 days. In group A, H. pylori eradication was achieved in 25 (78.1%) of the 32 patients in the ITT analysis and in 25 (80.6%) of the 31 patients in the PP analysis. In group B, H. pylori eradication was achieved in 26 (96.3%) of the 27 patients in the ITT analysis and in 27 (100%) of the 26 patients in the PP analysis. There was statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of the eradication rates in PP analysis (p = .047), whereas a marginally statistical significance was found in terms of the eradication rates in ITT analysis (p = .051). Reported side effects were mild, and treatment was well tolerated. No major changes in physical examination or in standard laboratory parameters were observed after treatment. Rifabutin-based high-dose proton-pump inhibitor (PPI)-combined therapy as empirical rescue treatment is more effective than standard dose PPI-combined rifabutin-based therapy, safe and best tolerable in third-line therapy in the Korean population. The key to successful rescue therapy with rifabutin-amoxicillin-PPI regimen may be to increase doses of PPI. © 2014 The Authors. Helicobacter Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. determining treatment levels of comorbid psychiatric conditions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SITWALA COMPUTERS

    ABSTRACT. Background: Psychiatric co-morbidities occur more frequently in patients with epilepsy but are usually under- treated. Treatment of these disorders is key to reducing mortality via suicide and other causes. This study determined the levels of treatment of psychiatric co- morbidities at clinics in Lusaka, Zambia.

  5. Comparison of two pre-exposure treatment regimens in acute organophosphate (paraoxon) poisoning in rats: Tiapride vs. pyridostigmine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroianu, G.A.; Hasan, M.Y.; Nurulain, S.M.; Arafat, K.; Sheen, R.; Nagelkerke, N.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the FDA approved the medical use of oral pyridostigmine as prophylactic treatment of possible nerve agent exposure: the concept is to block the cholinesterase transitorily using the carbamate (pyridostigmine) in order to deny access to the active site of the enzyme to the irreversible inhibitor (nerve agent) on subsequent exposure. We have shown previously that tiapride is in vitro a weak inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and that in rats administration of tiapride before the organophosphate paraoxon significantly decreases mortality. The purpose of the present study was to compare tiapride- and pyridostigmine-based pretreatment strategies, either alone or in combination with pralidoxime reactivation, by using a prospective, non-blinded study in a rat model of acute high-dose paraoxon exposure. Groups 1-6 received 1 μMol paraoxon (∼ LD 75 ) groups 2-6 received in addition: G 2 50 μMol tiapride 30 min before paraoxon; G 3 50 μMol tiapride 30 min before paraoxon and 50 μMol pralidoxime 1 min after paraoxon; G 4 1 μMol pyridostigmine 30 min before paraoxon; G 5 1 μMol pyridostigmine 30 min before paraoxon and 50 μMol pralidoxime 1 min after paraoxon; G 6 50 μMol pralidoxime 1 min after paraoxon; Mortality data were compared using Kaplan-Meier plots and logrank tests. Mortality is statistically significantly influenced by all treatment strategies. Tiapride pretreatment followed by pralidoxime treatment (G 3 ) is aux par with pyridostigmine pretreatment followed by pralidoxime treatment (G 5 ). Tiapride pretreatment only (G 2 ) is inferior to pyridostigmine pretreatment only (G 4 ). The best results are achieved with pyridostigmine pretreatment only or pralidoxime treatment only (G 4 and G 6 )

  6. Long-term prognosis of diabetic patients with myocardial infarction: relation to antidiabetic treatment regimen. The TRACE Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, I; Hildebrandt, P; Seibaek, M

    2000-01-01

    a higher prevalence of known cardiovascular disease. Even though the diabetic patients had the same frequency of ST-segment elevation on the electrocardiogram and the same admission delay, treatment with thrombolysis and aspirin was less frequently prescribed to the diabetic patients than to patients......AIMS: The present study was performed to evaluate pre-admission history, presentation, initial treatment and long-term mortality in patients with myocardial infarction and diabetes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between 1990 and 1992, 6676 patients with acute myocardial infarction were screened for entry...... into the Trandolapril Cardiac Evaluation (TRACE) study. In this cohort 719 (11%) of the patients had a history of diabetes. Among the diabetic patients 19% were treated with insulin, 52% with oral hypoglycaemic agents and 29% with diet only. The diabetic patients were slightly older, more likely to be female and had...

  7. Nonnucleoside Reverse-transcriptase Inhibitor- vs Ritonavir-boosted Protease Inhibitor-based Regimens for Initial Treatment of HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H; Lundh, Andreas; Tendal, Britta

    2016-01-01

    searched databases to identify randomized trials that compared NNRTI- vs PI/r-based initial therapy. A metaanalysis calculated risk ratios (RRs) or mean differences (MDs), as appropriate. Primary outcome was death or progression to AIDS. Secondary outcomes were death, progression to AIDS, and treatment...... trials; n = 3825), death in 205 participants in the NNRTI arm vs 198 in the PI/r arm (1.04; 0.86-1.25; 22 trials; n = 8311), and progression to AIDS in 140 participants in the NNRTI arm vs 144 in the PI/r arm (1.00; 0.80-1.25; 13 trials; n = 4740). Overall treatment discontinuation (1.12; 0.93-1.35; 24...

  8. Effects of different regimens of PGF2α treatment during postpartum on reproductive performance in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Narenji Sani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of early postpartum PGF2α treatment on reproductive performance in dairy cows synchronized with targeted breeding and natural mating after voluntary waiting period. In this experiment, 120 cows were assigned to three groups irrespective of presence or absence of luteal tissue. Cows in PG-14 group were treated with PGF2α from day 14 postpartum, cows in PG-28 group were treated with PGF2α from day 28 postpartum and cows in PG-42 group were not treated with PGF2α until the end of voluntary waiting period (d 42. After day 42 postpartum, cows in three groups were treated with PGF2α within 14-day intervals until natural mating after voluntary waiting period. Recorded reproductive parameters included days to first heat, days to first mating, days open, service per conception, conception rate, percentage of repeat breeder animals and pregnancy loss. Early PGF2α treatment from day 14 postpartum significantly decreased days to first estrus (34.9 ± 0.74, P < 0.003, days to first mating (62.35 ± 1.53, P < 0.04, days open (117.23 ± 3.1, P < 0.001 and service per conception (1.9 ± 0.09, P < 0.02; and PG-14 group presented increased conception rate (52.5%, P < 0.05. The proportion of repeat breeder syndrome tended to be affected by treatment with PGF2α from day 14 postpartum. In conclusion, treatment of cows with PGF2α from day 14 postpartum improved reproductive performance.

  9. Mathematical model of 5-[125I]iodo-2'-deoxyuridine treatment: continuous infusion regimens for hepatic metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sgouros, George; O'Donoghue, Joseph A.; Larson, Steven M.; Macapinlac, Homer; Larson, Justine J.; Kemeny, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Due to the cytotoxicity of DNA-bound iodine-125, 5-[ 125 I]Iodo-2'-deoxyuridine ([ 125 I]IUdR), an analog of thymidine, has long been recognized as possessing therapeutic potential. In this work, the feasibility and potential effectiveness of hepatic artery infusion of [ 125 I]IUdR is examined. Methods: A mathematical model has been developed that simulates tumor growth and response to [ 125 I]IUdR treatment. The model is used to examine the efficacy and potential toxicity of prolonged infusion therapy. Treatment of kinetically homogeneous tumors with potential doubling times of either 4, 5, or 6 days is simulated. Assuming uniformly distributed activity, absorbed dose estimates to the red marrow, liver and whole-body are calculated to assess the potential toxicity of treatment. Results: Nine to 10 logs of tumor-cell kill over a 7- to 20-day period are predicted by the various simulations examined. The most slowly proliferating tumor was also the most difficult to eradicate. During the infusion time, tumor-cell loss consisted of two components: A plateau phase, beginning at the start of infusion and ending once the infusion time exceeded the potential doubling time of the tumor; and a rapid cell-reduction phase that was close to log-linear. Beyond the plateau phase, treatment efficacy was highly sensitive to tumor activity concentration. Conclusions: Model predictions suggest that [ 125 I]IUdR will be highly dependent upon the potential doubling time of the tumor. Significant tumor cell kill will require infusion durations that exceed the longest potential doubling time in the tumor-cell population

  10. Non-response to fluconazole maintenance treatment (ReCiDiF regimen) for recurrent vulvovaginal candidosis is not related to impaired glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinceviciene, Svitrigaile; Bellen, Gert; Ruban, Kateryna; Donders, Gilbert

    2017-08-01

    Is non-response to maintenance treatment for recurrent vulvovaginal candidosis (RCVV) related to the impaired glucose metabolism? In the ReCiDiF trial, women with RCVV were given a degressive regimen with fluconazole according to their clinical, microscopic and mycologic response. Data obtained from optimal, suboptimal and non-reponding patients were used for secondary analysis of medical history, physical status and family history for potential glucose impairment. Results were presented in means and percentages. Pearson chi-square, Fisher exact, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis and Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated. Pglucose concentration, nor after 30 min, 60 min or 120 min during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (P=.6). Area under the OGTT curve did not differ within groups (P=.8), nor was the deviation from the normal cut-off value any different (P=.8). Glucose concentration in vaginal rinsing fluid showed no correlation with responsiveness to treatment (P=.7). Glucose metabolism, BMI, personal or family history of diabetes are not related to non-response to maintenance treatment with fluconazole for patients with RVVC. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Impacto da terapia antirretroviral conforme diferentes consensos de tratamento da Aids no Brasil Impact of antiretroviral therapy under different treatment regimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Maria Gomes de Rossi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar as características dos pacientes com Aids e os resultados dos tratamentos na vigência de três diferentes consensos de terapia antirretroviral preconizados pelo Ministério da Saúde do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Foram construídas coortes retrospectivas de pacientes com sobrevida de até 5 anos após diagnóstico. Os dados foram obtidos de prontuários, formulários de dispensação de medicamentos e declarações de óbitos dos pacientes residentes no município de Curitiba (PR, Brasil. Foram elegíveis 600 pacientes referentes aos 6 primeiros meses dos anos seguintes à implantação dos consensos (1992,1997 e 2002. RESULTADOS: A razão de masculinidade passou de 6,5:1 em 1992 para 1,4:1 em 2002. Ocorreu um aumento proporcional na população com mais de 50 anos, que passou de 1,4% em 1992 para 9,9% em 2002. A letalidade diminuiu de 81,9% para 33,9% no período estudado. A análise dos que sobreviveram até pelo menos 5 anos após diagnóstico mostrou que a frequência de pacientes tratados aumentou, sendo 46,2, 94,0 e 91,7%, respectivamente, para os anos de 1992,1997 e 2002. A análise multivariada mostrou associação positiva e estatisticamente significante entre sobrevida até 5 anos após o diagnóstico de Aids e anos de estudo, faixa etária, ano de diagnóstico, tipo de terapia antirretroviral e adesão ao tratamento (todos com P OBJECTIVE: Compare the characteristics of AIDS patients and treatment outcomes under three different antiretroviral treatment regimens advocated by the Ministry of Health of Brazil. METHODS: Retrospective cohorts of patients who had survived up to five years after diagnosis were constructed. The data were obtained from medical records, medication dispensing forms, and death certificates of patients in Curitiba, in the Brazilian state of Paraná. Six hundred patients were selected from the first six months following the adoption of each of the treatment regimens (1992, 1997, and 2002. RESULTS: The

  12. Fracture risk in patients with type 2 diabetes under different antidiabetic treatment regimens: a retrospective database analysis in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pscherer S

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available S Pscherer,1 K Kostev,2 FW Dippel,3 W Rathmann4 1Department of Diabetology, Klinikum Traunstein, Kliniken Südostbayern AG, Traunstein, 2Epidemiology Department, IMS Health, Frankfurt, 3Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbH, Berlin, 4German Diabetes Center, Institute for Biometrics and Epidemiology, Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research at Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany Aim: Type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased risk of fractures. There are a few studies on the effects of diabetes treatment on fracture risk. The aim was to investigate the fracture risk related to various types of insulin therapy in primary care practices. Methods: Data from 105,960 type 2 diabetes patients from 1,072 general and internal medicine practices in Germany were retrospectively analyzed (Disease Analyzer database; 01/2000–12/2013. Fracture risk of the following therapies was compared using multivariate logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, diabetes care, comorbidity, and glycemic control (HbAlc: 1 incident insulin therapy versus oral antidiabetic drugs, 2 basal-supported oral therapy versus supplementary insulin therapy versus conventional insulin therapy, and 3 insulin glargine versus insulin detemir versus NPH insulin. Results: There was a lower odds of having incident fractures in the oral antidiabetic drug group compared to incident insulin users, although not significant (odds ratio [OR]; 95% confidence interval: 0.87; 0.72–1.06. There were increased odds for conventional insulin therapy (OR: 1.59; 95% CI [confidence interval] 0.89–2.84 and supplementary insulin therapy (OR: 1.20; 0.63–2.27 compared to basal-supported oral therapy, which was not significant as well. Overall, there was no significant difference in fracture risk for basal insulins (glargine, detemir, NPH insulin. After a treatment duration ≥2 years, insulin glargine showed a lower odds of having ≥1 fracture compared to NPH users (OR: 0.78; 0.65–0

  13. Gonzalez Regimen (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the Gonzalez regimen as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  14. Biotransformation enzymes for xenobiotics and personalization of treatment regimens for tuberculosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Mozhokina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of the literature on specific metabolism of anti-tuberculosis drugs depending on polymorphism of genes controlling synthesis and action of biotransformation enzymes, in particular cytochrome P-450 isozymes and enzymes of the IInd phase of biotransformation (N-acetyltransferase, glutathione S-transferase respective adverse reactions development, first of  all hepatotoxic ones. The  possibility of pharmacogenetic studies with the evaluation of genetic predisposition to developing adverse reactions to medications has been discussed in respect of personalized approach to effective and safe treatment of tuberculosis patients.

  15. Treatment planning and delivery of involved field radiotherapy in advanced Hodgkin's disease: results from a questionnaire-based audit for the UK Stanford V regimen vs ABVD clinical trial quality assurance programme (ISRCTN 64141244).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, P; Hoskin, P J; Aird, E G A

    2007-10-01

    This questionnaire forms the basis of the quality assurance (QA) programme for the UK randomized Phase III study of the Stanford V regimen versus ABVD for treatment of advanced Hodgkin's disease to assess differences between participating centres in treatment planning and delivery of involved-field radiotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma The questionnaire, which was circulated amongst 42 participating centres, consisted of seven sections: target volume definition and dose prescription; critical structures; patient positioning and irradiation techniques; planning; dose calculation; verification; and future developments The results are based on 25 responses. One-third plan using CT alone, one-third use solely the simulator and the rest individualize, depending on disease site. Eleven centres determine a dose distribution for each patient. Technique depends on disease site and whether CT or simulator planning is employed. Most departments apply isocentric techniques and use immobilization and customized shielding. In vivo dosimetry is performed in 7 centres and treatment verification occurs in 24 hospitals. In conclusion, the planning and delivery of treatment for lymphoma patients varies across the country. Conventional planning is still widespread but most centres are moving to CT-based planning and virtual simulation with extended use of immobilization, customized shielding and compensation.

  16. The response to ACTH is determined early in the treatment of infantile spasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytinger, John R; Weber, Amanda; Heyer, Geoffrey L

    2015-03-01

    Although adrenocorticotropic hormone is the most commonly used treatment for infantile spasms in the United States, the optimal regimen for this indication is not known. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the optimal adrenocorticotropic hormone treatment duration. We conducted a retrospective chart review of response to adrenocorticotropic hormone among all patients with infantile spasms managed at our institution from January 2009 to September 2013. Treatment response was defined as clinical remission for greater than or equal to 28 days starting at any point within the adrenocorticotropic hormone course and remission of hypsarrhythmia (or definite EEG improvement if hypsarrhythmia was absent at baseline). For responders, the diagnostic and post-treatment EEG tracings were reviewed. Electroclinical remission was achieved in 21 of 39 patients (54%) receiving adrenocorticotropic hormone, including 11/25 (44%) receiving a long course (typically 12 weeks) and 10/14 (71%) receiving a short course (typically four weeks). The mean time to clinical remission was 5.8 days (median: 5 days; range: 1-20 days). Only one patient responded beyond two weeks of treatment. This study provides Class IV evidence that among patients with infantile spasms, the response to adrenocorticotropic hormone is most often determined early in the treatment course. Given the importance of rapid remission, clinicians should consider adding or changing treatment if infantile spasms do not resolve within two weeks of adrenocorticotropic hormone initiation. Further study is needed to determine the optimal adrenocorticotropic hormone regimen for infantile spasms.

  17. DIOS - database of formalized chemotherapeutic regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimes, Daniel; Smid, Roman; Kubasek, Miroslav; Vyzula, Rostislav; Dušek, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic regimens (CHR) and their administration are routine practice in contemporary oncology. The development of a structured, electronic database of standard CHR can help the faster propagation of information about new CHR and at the same time enable assessment of their adherence in clinical practice. The goal was to develop a standardized way to describe a regimen using XML, fill the database with currently available regimens and develop tools to assess the adherence of the treatment to chosen regimen, compare the dose-intensity and recognize the regimen from existing data on drug administration. The data are being inserted in cooperation with expert oncologists and the database currently contains about 260 CHRs. Such system can be used to enhance decision support systems and interoperability of HIS. The database and tools are available online on the internet.

  18. Systemic Chemotherapy using FLOT - Regimen Combined with Cytoreductive Surgery plus HIPEC for Treatment of Peritoneal Metastasized Gastric Cancer. .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, H; Hotopp, Th; Tofeili, A; Wutke, K

    2014-05-01

    The aim was to evaluate the feasibility and the effectiveness of neoadjuvant systemic chemotherapy using FLOT - protocol followed by cytoreductive surgery (CRS), hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) followed by systemic chemotherapyand in patients with peritoneal carciriomatosis (PC) from gastric cancer. Twenty six (median age 53 years, range 39 - 71) were scheduled for three cycles of neoadjuvant systemic chemotherapy using bi-weekly FLOT - protocol followed by CRS + HIPEC. Thereafter 3 additional cycles of FLOT were given. During HIPEC in Colliseum technique Oxaliplatin was given in a dosage of 200 mg/m2 and Docetaxel in a dosage of 80 mg/m2. All patients underwent cytoreductive surgery plus HIPEC. Peritoneal Cancer index was > 15 in 3 cases only. Complete resection could be carried out in all cases (CC-O 18, CC-18). Postoperative complication rate was 23% with no mortality within 30 days. Anastomotic leakage rate was 3.2%. Overall survival was 19.0 months with a 2-year survival rate 38%. Regression analysis demonstrated a Peritoneal Cancer Index PCI > 12 as negative factor for survival. Neoadju- vant chemotherapy using FLOT - protocol followed by CRS + HIPEC seems to be associated with prolonged OS in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis from gastric cancer. This treatment is not recommended for patients with extensive peritoneal involvement and PCI > 12.

  19. Comparison of Effects and Side Effects of Two Naloxone-Based Regimens in Treatment of Methadone Overdose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Yazdanbakhsh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute opioid overdose is a common cause of admission in emergency department. In spite of the fact that naloxone is the main therapy for decades, there are controversies about the proper way of its use. This study aimed to compare two most recommended administration modes for naloxone. Methods: In this single-blind clinical trial, 80 patients with methadone overdose syndrome were randomly divided into two equal groups. The patients in infusion group received a constant infusion of naloxone preparation; while in the patients in PRN group, naloxone was administered only if needed clinically. Severity of withdrawal syndrome was evaluated after 30 min, 3 h, and 12 h of the treatments in both groups. Results: Eighty patients completed the study (10 women and 70 men. Both groups were similar in terms of mean age, sex ratio, and the severity of intoxication. The severity of withdrawal symptom was significantly lower in the PRN group (P<0.001. Conclusion: Naloxone administration as PRN mode lowers the rate and severity of withdrawal syndrome. It is recommended as the preferred mode of naloxone administration.

  20. Economic evaluation of artesunate and three quinine regimens in the treatment of severe malaria in children at the Ebolowa Regional Hospital-Cameroon: a cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maka, Daniel Ethe; Chiabi, Andreas; Obadeyi, Bolaji; Mah, Evelyn; Nguefack, Séraphin; Nana, Pamela; Mbacham, Wilfred; Mbonda, Elie

    2016-12-07

    Severe malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in under-fives in sub-Saharan Africa. Recently quinine has been replaced by artesunate as the first-line drug in the treatment of severe malaria in Cameroon. Artesunate has been shown to be cost-effective in African children, but whether these findings are transferable to Cameroonian children remains to be explored. To conduct a cost-analysis of four different regimens used in the treatment from the perspective of the healthcare payer. An economic evaluation alongside a randomized comparative study was conducted in children aged 3 months to 15 years, admitted at the Ebolowa Regional Hospital with severe malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum. Patients were randomized to receive one of the four treatment alternatives. Group 1 (ARTES) received parenteral artesunate at 2.4 mg/kg at H 0 , H 12 , H 24 and then once daily; Group 2 (QLD) received a loading dose of quinine base at 16.6 mg/kg followed 8 h later by an 8-hourly maintenance dose of 8.3 mg/kg quinine base; Group 3 (QNLD3) received 8.3 mg/kg quinine base every 8 h, and Group 4 (QNLD2) received 12.5 mg/kg quinine base every 12 h. The main outcome measure for effectiveness of treatment was the parasite reduction rate. Based on a healthcare perspective, an evaluation of direct medical costs was done, including costs of anti-malarials, nursing care materials, adjuvant treatment, laboratory investigations, hospitalisation and professional fees. Guided by a cost minimalization approach, the relative costs of these treatment alternatives was compared and reported. Overall cost was higher for ARTES group at $65.14 (95% CI $57.68-72.60) than for quinine groups ($52.49-$62.40), but the difference was not statistically significant. Cost of the anti-malarial drug was significantly higher for artesunate-treated patients than for quinine-treated patients, whereas cost of hospitalization was significantly lower for artesunate-treated patients than for quinine

  1. Is Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Essential for Flexible Treatment Regimens with Ranibizumab for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Ozkaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the ability of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography to detect subtle amounts of retinal fluid when the choroidal neovascularization is detected as inactive via time-domain optical coherence tomography and clinical examination in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD patients. Methods. Forty-nine eyes of 49 patients with nAMD after ranibizumab treatment were included in this cross-sectional, prospective study. All patients were imaged with TD-OCT and SD-OCT at the same visit one month after a ranibizumab injection. The presence of subretinal, intraretinal, and subretinal pigment epithelium fluid (subRPE in SD-OCT was evaluated; also mean central retinal thickness (CRT and the rate of vitreoretinal surface disorders detected via the two devices were evaluated. Results. The mean CRT via TD-OCT and SD-OCT was 218.1±51.3 and 325.7±78.8 microns. Sixteen patients (32.6% showed any kind of retinal fluid via SD-OCT. In detail, 8 patients (16.3% showed subretinal fluid, 10 patients (20.4% showed intraretinal fluid, and 3 patients (6.1% showed SubRPE fluid. The ability of detecting vitreoretinal surface disorders was comparable between the two devices, except vitreomacular traction. Conclusion. SD-OCT is essential for the nAMD patients who are on an as-needed treatment regimen with ranibizumab. Only TD-OCT and clinical examination may cause insufficient treatment in this group of patients.

  2. Biochemical changes and drug residues in ascidian Halocynthia roretzi after formalin–hydrogen peroxide treatment regimen designed against soft tunic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hoon Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Soft tunic syndrome (STS is a protozoal disease caused by Azumiobodo hoyamushi in the edible ascidian Halocynthia roretzi. Previous studies have proven that combined formalin–hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 bath is effective in reducing STS progress and mortality. To secure target animal safety for field applications, toxicity of the treatment needs to be evaluated. Healthy ascidians were bathed for 1 week, 1 h a day at various bathing concentrations. Bathing with 5- and 10-fold optimum concentration caused 100% mortality of ascidians, whereas mortality by 0.5- to 2.0-fold solutions was not different from that of control. Of the oxidative damage parameters, MDA levels did not change after 0.5- and 1.0-fold bathing. However, free radical scavenging ability and reducing power were significantly decreased even with the lower-than-optimal 0.5-fold concentration. Glycogen content tended to increase with 1-fold bathing without statistical significance. All changes induced by the 2-fold bathing were completely or partially restored to control levels 48 h post-bathing. Free amino acid analysis revealed a concentration-dependent decline in aspartic acid and cysteine levels. In contrast, alanine and valine levels increased after the 2-fold bath treatment. These data indicate that the currently established effective disinfectant regimen against the parasitic pathogen is generally safe, and the biochemical changes observed are transient, lasting approximately 48 h at most. Low levels of formalin and H2O2 were detectable 1 h post-bathing; however, the compounds were completely undetectable after 48 h of bathing. Formalin–H2O2 bathing is effective against STS; however, reasonable care is required in the treatment to avoid unwanted toxicity. Drug residues do not present a concern for consumer safety.

  3. Once-daily dose regimen of ribavirin is interchangeable with a twice-daily dose regimen: randomized open clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balk JM

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Jiska M Balk,1 Guido RMM Haenen,1 Özgür M Koc,2 Ron Peters,3 Aalt Bast,1 Wim JF van der Vijgh,1 Ger H Koek,4 1Department of Toxicology, NUTRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, 2Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, 3DSM Resolve, Geleen, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, the Netherlands Background: The combination of ribavirin (RBV and pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN is effective in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection. Reducing the frequency of RBV intake from twice to once a day will improve compliance and opens up the opportunity to combine RBV with new and more specific direct-acting agents in one pill. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profile of RBV in a once-daily to twice-daily regimen. The secondary aim was to determine tolerability as well as the severity and differences in side effects of both treatment regimens. Methods: In this randomized open-label crossover study, twelve patients with chronic type 1 hepatitis C infection and weighing more than 75 kg were treated with 180 µg of PEG-IFN weekly and 1,200 mg RBV daily for 24 weeks. The patients received RBV dosed as 1,200 mg once-daily for 12 weeks followed by RBV dosed as 600 mg twice-daily for 12 weeks, or vice versa. In addition to the pharmacokinetic profile, the hematological profile and side effects were recorded. The RBV concentrations in plasma were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Eight of twelve patients completed the study. Neither the time taken for RBV to reach peak plasma concentration nor the AUC0-last (adjusted for difference in dose was significantly different between the two groups (P>0.05. Furthermore, the once-daily regimen did not give more side effects than the twice-daily regimen (P>0

  4. Prophylactic antibiotic regimens in tumour surgery (PARITY)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Mørk; Hettwer, Werner H; Grum-Schwensen, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    (44 men and 16 women) across 21 sites from four countries over 24 months (mean 2.13 participants per site per year, standard deviation 2.14). One participant was lost to follow-up and one withdrew consent. Complete data were obtained for 98% of eligible patients at two weeks, 83% at six months, and 73......OBJECTIVE: Clinical studies of patients with bone sarcomas have been challenged by insufficient numbers at individual centres to draw valid conclusions. Our objective was to assess the feasibility of conducting a definitive multi-centre randomised controlled trial (RCT) to determine whether a five...... to conceal treatment allocation and sham antibiotics to blind participants, surgeons, and data collectors. We determined feasibility by measuring patient enrolment, completeness of follow-up, and protocol deviations for the antibiotic regimens. RESULTS: We screened 96 patients and enrolled 60 participants...

  5. Determining true difference between treatment groups

    OpenAIRE

    Cardinal, Lucien J.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews the P value and how it is used to determine true difference of outcome in treatment groups. P value, standard deviation, standard error of the mean, bias, and confidence interval are discussed in common language, with a minimum of jargon and with clinical examples.Keywords: P value; standard error of the mean; central limits theorem; standard deviation; normal distribution; statistics; parametric statistics; bias; randomization(Published: 17 February 2016)C...

  6. A randomized trial of the efficacy of artesunate and three quinine regimens in the treatment of severe malaria in children at the Ebolowa Regional Hospital, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maka, Daniel Ethe; Chiabi, Andreas; Ndikum, Valentine; Achu, Dorothy; Mah, Evelyn; Nguefack, Séraphin; Nana, Pamela; Njoumemi, Zakariaou; Mbacham, Wilfred; Mbonda, Elie

    2015-10-31

    Severe malaria is a medical emergency with high mortality in children below 5 years of age especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Recently, quinine has been replaced by artesunate as the first-line drug in the treatment of severe malaria in Cameroon. No local data are yet available on the efficacy of artesunate with respect to the different quinine regimens used in this setting. This study was undertaken at the Ebolowa Regional Hospital (ERH), which is located in a region of perennial transmission of malaria. This was a randomized, open-label trial in children aged 3 months to 15 years, admitted in the hospital with severe malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum confirmed on microscopy after informed parental consent. Patients were randomized into four groups. Group 1 (ARTES) received parenteral artesunate at 2.4 mg/kg at H0, H12, H24 and then once daily; Group 2 (QLD) received a loading dose of quinine base at 16.6 mg/kg followed 8 hours later by an eight-hourly maintenance dose of 8.3 mg/kg quinine base; Group 3 (QNLD3) received 8.3 mg/kg quinine base every 8 hours; and, Group 4 (QNLD2) received 12.5 mg/kg quinine base every 12 h. All patients invariably received a minimum of 24 h parenteral treatment, then, oral drugs were prescribed. The endpoints were fever clearance time, time to sit unsupported, time to eat, parasite clearance time, and parasitaemia reduction rate at H24. Survival analysis was used to compare the outcomes. One-hundred and sixteen patients completed the study: 29 in ARTES arm, 28 in QLD arm, 30 in QNLD3 arm, and 29 in QNLD2 arm. There was no major differences in baseline characteristics in the treatment groups. On analysis of endpoints, fever clearance time and parasite clearance time were significantly shorter for artesunate-treated patients than for quinine-treated patients. Parasitaemia reduction rate at H24 was also significantly higher for artesunate. Time to sit unsupported and time to eat were shorter with artesunate, but the difference was

  7. Comparing Neoadjuvant Nab-paclitaxel vs Paclitaxel Both Followed by Anthracycline Regimens in Women With ERBB2/HER2-Negative Breast Cancer-The Evaluating Treatment With Neoadjuvant Abraxane (ETNA) Trial: A Randomized Phase 3 Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianni, Luca; Mansutti, Mauro; Anton, Antonio; Calvo, Lourdes; Bisagni, Giancarlo; Bermejo, Begoña; Semiglazov, Vladimir; Thill, Marc; Chacon, Jose Ignacio; Chan, Arlene; Morales, Serafin; Alvarez, Isabel; Plazaola, Arrate; Zambetti, Milvia; Redfern, Andrew D; Dittrich, Christian; Dent, Rebecca Alexandra; Magazzù, Domenico; De Fato, Raffaella; Valagussa, Pinuccia; Tusquets, Ignacio

    2018-03-01

    Studies of neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimens using anthracyclines followed by taxanes have reported a doubling of pathological complete remission (pCR) rates compared with anthracycline-based regimens alone. A reverse sequence did not reduce activity. Nab-paclitaxel is an albumin-bound nanoparticle of paclitaxel that allows for safe infusion without premedication, and its use led to a significantly higher rate of pCR in the GeparSepto trial. To determine whether nab-paclitaxel improves the outcomes of early and locally advanced human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ERBB2/HER2)-negative breast cancer compared with paclitaxel when delivered in a neoadjuvant setting. In this multicenter, open-label study, in collaboration with Grupo Español de Investigación en Cáncer de Mama (GEICAM) and Breast Cancer Research Center-Western Australia (BCRC-WA), patients with newly diagnosed and centrally confirmed ERBB2/HER2-negative breast cancer were recruited. Participants were randomly allocated to paclitaxel, 90 mg/m2 (349 patients), or nab-paclitaxel, 125 mg/m2 (346 patients). The 2 drugs were given on weeks 1, 2, and 3 followed by 1 week of rest for 4 cycles before 4 cycles of an anthracycline regimen per investigator choice. The primary end point was the rate of pCR, defined as absence of invasive cells in the breast and axillary nodes (ie, ypT0/is ypN0) at the time of surgery. A secondary end point was to assess tolerability and safety of the 2 regimens. From May 2013 to March 2015, 814 patients were registered to the study; 695 patients met central confirmation eligibility and were randomly allocated to receive either paclitaxel (349), or nab-paclitaxel (346) (median age, 50 years; range, 25-79 years). The intention-to-treat analysis of the primary end point pCR revealed that the improved pCR rate after nab-paclitaxel (22.5%) was not statistically significant compared with paclitaxel (18.6%; odds ratio [OR], 0.77; 95% CI, 0.52-1.13; P = .19). Overall, 38 of 335

  8. An evidence-based review of treatment-related determinants of patients' nonadherence to HIV medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Mark J; Petrozzino, Jeffrey J

    2009-11-01

    Patients' adherence to antiretroviral medications is a primary determinant of both the effectiveness of treatment and the clinical course of HIV/AIDS. This empirical review is intended to compare the relative importance of patient and treatment characteristics on nonadherence behavior and the impact of nonadherence on treatment failure. Articles cited in PubMed and published between 2006 and June 2008 (n = 200) were reviewed to select those that address patient or treatment characteristics associated with nonadherence. Twenty-two articles were selected that provided odds ratio or hazard ratio statistics that quantified predictors of patients' level of nonadherence (e.g., 95%). Results were summarized using random effects meta-analytic models. Predictors of nonadherence were divided into four predictive clusters (clinical predictors, comorbid predictors, treatment competence predictors, and dosing predictors). The summary odds ratios (ORs) of nonadherence for each cluster (in order of strength) were treatment competence 2.0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.6-2.6), clinical predictors 1.6 (95% CI: 1.4-1.8), comorbid predictors 1.6 (95% CI: 1.4-1.8), and dosing predictors 1.5 (95% CI: 1.3-1.7). The effect of nonadherence on treatment failure supported the findings of two prior empirical reviews (OR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.6-2.5). Within dosing predictors, a pill burden of more versus less than 10 pills per day was associated with a much higher odds of nonadherence than twice versus once daily dosing or small differences in the number of types of antiretroviral treatments in a regimen. These results provide insight into the relative importance of various determinants of patient nonadherence that may inform the design of patient educational initiatives and initiatives to simplify treatment regimens.

  9. Priority-Setting for Novel Drug Regimens to Treat Tuberculosis: An Epidemiologic Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A Kendall

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel drug regimens are needed for tuberculosis (TB treatment. New regimens aim to improve on characteristics such as duration, efficacy, and safety profile, but no single regimen is likely to be ideal in all respects. By linking these regimen characteristics to a novel regimen's ability to reduce TB incidence and mortality, we sought to prioritize regimen characteristics from a population-level perspective.We developed a dynamic transmission model of multi-strain TB epidemics in hypothetical populations reflective of the epidemiological situations in India (primary analysis, South Africa, the Philippines, and Brazil. We modeled the introduction of various novel rifampicin-susceptible (RS or rifampicin-resistant (RR TB regimens that differed on six characteristics, identified in consultation with a team of global experts: (1 efficacy, (2 duration, (3 ease of adherence, (4 medical contraindications, (5 barrier to resistance, and (6 baseline prevalence of resistance to the novel regimen. We compared scale-up of these regimens to a baseline reflective of continued standard of care. For our primary analysis situated in India, our model generated baseline TB incidence and mortality of 157 (95% uncertainty range [UR]: 113-187 and 16 (95% UR: 9-23 per 100,000 per year at the time of novel regimen introduction and RR TB incidence and mortality of 6 (95% UR: 4-10 and 0.6 (95% UR: 0.3-1.1 per 100,000 per year. An optimal RS TB regimen was projected to reduce 10-y TB incidence and mortality in the India-like scenario by 12% (95% UR: 6%-20% and 11% (95% UR: 6%-20%, respectively, compared to current-care projections. An optimal RR TB regimen reduced RR TB incidence by an estimated 32% (95% UR: 18%-46% and RR TB mortality by 30% (95% UR: 18%-44%. Efficacy was the greatest determinant of impact; compared to a novel regimen meeting all minimal targets only, increasing RS TB treatment efficacy from 94% to 99% reduced TB mortality by 6% (95% UR: 1%-13%, half the

  10. Priority-Setting for Novel Drug Regimens to Treat Tuberculosis: An Epidemiologic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Emily A; Shrestha, Sourya; Cohen, Ted; Nuermberger, Eric; Dooley, Kelly E; Gonzalez-Angulo, Lice; Churchyard, Gavin J; Nahid, Payam; Rich, Michael L; Bansbach, Cathy; Forissier, Thomas; Lienhardt, Christian; Dowdy, David W

    2017-01-01

    Novel drug regimens are needed for tuberculosis (TB) treatment. New regimens aim to improve on characteristics such as duration, efficacy, and safety profile, but no single regimen is likely to be ideal in all respects. By linking these regimen characteristics to a novel regimen's ability to reduce TB incidence and mortality, we sought to prioritize regimen characteristics from a population-level perspective. We developed a dynamic transmission model of multi-strain TB epidemics in hypothetical populations reflective of the epidemiological situations in India (primary analysis), South Africa, the Philippines, and Brazil. We modeled the introduction of various novel rifampicin-susceptible (RS) or rifampicin-resistant (RR) TB regimens that differed on six characteristics, identified in consultation with a team of global experts: (1) efficacy, (2) duration, (3) ease of adherence, (4) medical contraindications, (5) barrier to resistance, and (6) baseline prevalence of resistance to the novel regimen. We compared scale-up of these regimens to a baseline reflective of continued standard of care. For our primary analysis situated in India, our model generated baseline TB incidence and mortality of 157 (95% uncertainty range [UR]: 113-187) and 16 (95% UR: 9-23) per 100,000 per year at the time of novel regimen introduction and RR TB incidence and mortality of 6 (95% UR: 4-10) and 0.6 (95% UR: 0.3-1.1) per 100,000 per year. An optimal RS TB regimen was projected to reduce 10-y TB incidence and mortality in the India-like scenario by 12% (95% UR: 6%-20%) and 11% (95% UR: 6%-20%), respectively, compared to current-care projections. An optimal RR TB regimen reduced RR TB incidence by an estimated 32% (95% UR: 18%-46%) and RR TB mortality by 30% (95% UR: 18%-44%). Efficacy was the greatest determinant of impact; compared to a novel regimen meeting all minimal targets only, increasing RS TB treatment efficacy from 94% to 99% reduced TB mortality by 6% (95% UR: 1%-13%, half the

  11. Gag drug resistance mutations in HIV-1 subtype C patients, failing a protease inhibitor inclusive treatment regimen, with detectable lopinavir levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Sameshnee Kelly; Singh, Urisha; Singh, Avashna; Gordon, Michelle; Ndungu, Thumbi

    2014-01-01

    The development of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs and their use in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has led to the effective control of HIV replication in infected patients. However the emergence of resistant HIV-1 strains still remains a problem. Literature has shown that mutations may accumulate in the protease (PR) and gag regions of HIV-1 patients who fail therapy with protease inhibitor (PI) drugs (1, 2). Gag mutations have also been found to play an important role in the evolution of PI resistance (2). Despite this, the standard genotypic drug-resistance test examines mutations in the reverse transcriptase (RT) and PR region of HIV-1 and not gag (3). This study investigated the frequency of gag drug resistance mutations in the absence of major PI mutations in HIV-1 subtype C patients, failing a PI inclusive treatment regimen. Sixty-eight samples were retrieved from patients that were classified as second line treatment failures as they had a viral load greater than 1000 copies\\mL, as well as detectable lopinavir (LPV) levels. The gag and protease region of these patients were genotyped. Mutations in the gag and protease region were assessed using the REga Db sequencing tool and the CPR programme on the Stanford University HIV drug resistance database. The mean LPV level of these samples was 11.66 µg/mL. 69.11% (n=46) of the patients have no major PI mutations in protease. The following mutations that are associated with PI exposure were present in the data set: G62R (n=6), H219Q (n=11), S737T (n=8), I389T (n=8) and Q474L (n=7). Predictably, mutations that are associated with PI resistance were found, which are generally located in the p7/p1 and p1/p6 cleavage site. These mutations are K436R (n=4), I437V (n=1), L449P (n=5), R452K (n=4) and P453L\\T (n=9). These results contribute to the knowledge of resistance mutations in gag and their impact on PI resistance.

  12. Low body weight and type of protease inhibitor predict discontinuation and treatment-limiting adverse drug reactions among HIV-infected patients starting a protease inhibitor regimen: consistent results from a randomized trial and an observational cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, O; Gerstoft, J; Pedersen, C

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess predictors for discontinuation and treatment-limiting adverse drug reactions (TLADR) among patients starting their first protease inhibitor (PI). METHODS: Data on patients starting a PI regimen (indinavir, ritonavir, ritonavir/saquinavir and saquinavir hard gel...... therapy within less than 2 years. In both populations TLADR were the most common reason for discontinuation. The incidence of TLADR in RAS was: 8.5 (indinavir), 66.0 (ritonavir), 15.6 (saquinavir hard gel) per 100 person-years of follow-up (P ... was associated with a three- to sixfold higher risk of TLADR relative to other PI regimens. Very similar results were documented in RAS [RH for body weight was 1.18 (1.07-1.29)]. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly half of the patients stopped treatment with the initial PI, most commonly as a result of adverse drug reactions...

  13. Low body weight and type of protease inhibitor predict discontinuation and treatment-limiting adverse drug reactions among HIV-infected patients starting a protease inhibitor regimen: consistent results from a randomized trial and an observational cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, O; Gerstoft, J; Pedersen, C

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess predictors for discontinuation and treatment-limiting adverse drug reactions (TLADR) among patients starting their first protease inhibitor (PI). METHODS: Data on patients starting a PI regimen (indinavir, ritonavir, ritonavir/saquinavir and saquinavir hard gel...... was associated with a three- to sixfold higher risk of TLADR relative to other PI regimens. Very similar results were documented in RAS [RH for body weight was 1.18 (1.07-1.29)]. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly half of the patients stopped treatment with the initial PI, most commonly as a result of adverse drug reactions......) in a randomized trial (RAS, n = 318) and an observational cohort (OBC, n = 505) were used to document reasons for discontinuation and TLADR. Risk factors for discontinuation of the initial PI/developing TLADR were assessed in Cox models. RESULTS: A total of 43 (RAS) and 48% (OBC) discontinued the initial PI...

  14. Efficacy and safety of meropenem-clavulanate added to linezolid-containing regimens in the treatment of MDR-/XDR-TB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lorenzo, Saverio; Alffenaar, Jan Wilem; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Centis, Rosella; D'Ambrosio, Lia; Tiberi, Simon; Bolhuis, Mathieu S.; van Altena, Richard; Viggiani, Piero; Plana, Andrea; SpanevelloJ, Antonio; Migliori, Giovanni Battista

    Clinical experience on meropenem-clavulanate to treat tuberculosis (TB) is anecdotal (according to case reports on 10 patients). The aim of our case-control study was to evaluate the contribution of meropenem-clavulanate when added to linezolid-containing regimens in terms of efficacy and

  15. Pilot study of a pediatric metronomic 4-drug regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Nicolas; Abed, Sylvie; Orbach, Daniel; Alla, Corinne Armari; Padovani, Laetitia; Pasquier, Eddy; Gentet, Jean Claude; Verschuur, Arnauld

    2011-12-01

    Metronomic chemotherapy (MC) is defined as the frequent administration of chemotherapy at doses below the maximal tolerated dose and with no prolonged drug-free break. MC is gaining interest as an alternative strategy to fight resistant cancer. to assess the safety of 4 drug MC regimen in paediatric patients with refractory or relapsing various tumour types. From November 2008 to December 2010, in three academic paediatric oncology centers, 16 children (median age 12 years old; range 5.5-20) were included in this pilot study. This treatment was proposed to children with refractory disease for whom no further effective treatments were available. Most frequent diagnosis were medulloblastoma/cerebral PNET (5) osteosarcoma (5), and one case each of nephroblastoma, high grade glioma, Hodgkin lymphoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, neuroblastoma and kidney rhabdoid tumour. The MC regimen consisted in cycles of 56 days (8 weeks) with weekly vinblastine 3 mg/m2 (week 1-7), daily cyclophosphamide 30 mg/m2 (days 1-21), and twice weekly methotrexate 10 mg/m² (days 21-42), and daily celecoxib 100 mg to 400 mg twice daily (days 1-56) followed by a 2-weeks chemotherapy break. Adverse events were determined through laboratory analysis and investigator observations. One objective response was observed in a patient with Hodgkin lymphoma, and 4 patients experienced disease stabilization and continued their treatment for 3 cycles (24 weeks) or more. At last follow-up, 7 patients (43%) are alive including 1 still undergoing treatment. During the overall 36 cycles of treatments received by patients, 4 grade IV toxicities and 24 grade III toxicities were observed in 11 cycles in only 10 different patients. The metronomic regimen we report here was well tolerated and associated with disease stabilization. This regimen is currently being evaluated in a national multicenter phase II study.

  16. Determination of doripenem penetration into human prostate tissue and assessment of dosing regimens for prostatitis based on site-specific pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kogenta; Ikawa, Kazuro; Yamada, Yoshiaki; Arakawa, Maki; Zennami, Kenji; Nishikawa, Genya; Ikeda, Kayo; Morikawa, Norifumi; Honda, Nobuaki

    2012-02-01

    Prostatic hypertrophy patients prophylactically received a 0.5-hour infusion of doripenem (250 or 500 mg) before transurethral resection of the prostate. Doripenem concentrations in plasma and prostate tissue were measured chromatographically, and analysed pharmacokinetically using a three-compartment model. The approved doripenem regimens were assessed based on the time above the minimum inhibitory concentration for bacteria (T>MIC, % of 24 hours), an indicator for antibacterial effects, at the prostate. The prostate tissue/plasma ratios were 17.3% for the maximum drug concentration and 18.7% for the area under the drug concentration-time curve, and they were irrespective of the dose. Against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species isolates, 500 mg once daily achieved a >90% probability of attaining the bacteriostatic target (20% T>MIC) in prostate tissue, and 500 mg twice daily achieved a >90% probability of attaining the bactericidal target (40% T>MIC) in prostate tissue.

  17. 5-Fluorouracil combined with the [6S]-stereoisomer of folinic acid in high doses for treatment of patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma. A phase I-II study of two consecutive regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machover, D; Grison, X; Goldschmidt, E; Zittoun, J; Metzger, G; Richaud, J; Lotz, J P; André, T; Hannoun, L; Marquet, J

    1993-01-01

    Potentiation of the antitumor activity of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) by folinic acid has been demonstrated in patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma. Modulation is due to the interaction of thymidylate synthase (TS), fluorodeoxyuridylate (FdUMP), and methylene tetrahydrofolate (5,10-CH2-FH4), which leads to the formation of a stable ternary complex with concomitant enzyme inactivation. Folinic acid consists of a mixture of equal parts of two stereoisomers differing in chirality at the C6 carbon of the pteridine ring. Only the levorotatory [6S]-folinic acid is transformed into active folate cofactors. However, the [6R]-stereoisomer is not inert; it was shown to interfere with the [6S] form at the cellular level. The possibility of a deleterious effect of the unnatural stereoisomer on the modulation of 5-FU led us to carry out 2 consecutive phase I-II studies of 5-FU combined with the [6S]-stereoisomer of folinic acid given in high doses for treatment of patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma. Treatment comprised 5-FU by i.v. infusion for 2 hours (the initial dose was 350 mg/m2/d; it was incremented by 25 mg/m2/d until a maximal dose of 550 mg/m2/d) and [6S]-folinic acid (100 mg/m2/d by rapid i.v. injection in Regimen 1, and 100 mg/m2 by rapid i.v. injection followed by a 2-hour infusion of 250 mg/m2 in Regimen 2) for 5 days, every 21 days. Twenty-five pts and 27 pts were assessed in Regimen 1 and in Regimen 2, respectively. They had had no prior chemotherapy. The median follow-up time was 9 months and 15.5 months for patients treated with Regimen 1 and Regimen 2, respectively. For pts treated with Regimen 1, the response rate was 52% (CR, 12%; PR, 40%). The median time to disease progression was 9.2 months. The probability of survival at 12 months was 73%. For pts treated with Regimen 2, the response rate was 37% (CR, 7%; PR, 30%). The median time to disease progression was 8.9 months. The probability of survival at 12 months was 67%. Improvement in quality of life

  18. Comparison of rofecoxib and a multidose oxycodone/ acetaminophen regimen for the treatment of acute pain following oral surgery: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, David J; Desjardins, Paul J; Bird, Steven R; Black, Peter; Chen, Erluo; Petruschke, Richard A; Geba, Gregory P

    2004-06-01

    To compare the efficacy of a single dose of rofecoxib 50 mg with a single dose of oxycodone/acetaminophen 10/650 mg over 6 h as well as with a multidose regimen of oxycodone/acetaminophen 10/650 mg followed by oxycodone/acetaminophen 5/325 mg over 24 h. In this double-blind, randomized, two-phase study, patients with moderate to severe pain after surgical extraction of >or= 2 third molars, including one mandibular impaction, were treated with rofecoxib 50 mg, oxycodone/acetaminophen 10/650 mg (singledose phase) followed by 5/325 mg every 6h as needed (multidose phase), or placebo. Patients rated their pain relief and intensity at 18 time points over 24 h. Efficacy was measured over 6 and 24 h by total pain relief (TOPAR), sum of pain intensity difference (SPID), and patient global assessment of response to therapy (PGART). Primary endpoint for the single dose comparison was TOPAR over 6 h; SPID was the key 24-h endpoint. Onset of analgesic effect, peak analgesic single dose of oxycodone/acetaminophen. effect, and duration of analgesic effect were also evaluated. Adverse experiences were recorded. 271 patients were randomized to treatment with rofecoxib (n = 121), oxycodone/acetaminophen (n = 120), or placebo (n = 30). For the single dose comparison, rofecoxib-treated patients achieved pain relief at least as effective as oxycodone/acetaminophentreated patients as assessed by TOPAR6 (12.9 vs 11.3, 95% CI on difference = [-0.1, 3.2], p = 0.059). Patients also rated a single dose of rofecoxib as at least as effective as multidose oxycodone/acetaminophen over 24 h on SPID24 (21.9 vs 18.1, 95% CI on difference = [-1.0, 8.8], p = 0.122). Patients treated with oxycodone/ acetaminophen had a shorter time to onset of analgesia than patients treated with rofecoxib (24 vs 35 min, p < 0.05). Patients in the active treatment groups achieved similar peak effects during the single-dose phase. Individuals treated with rofecoxib demonstrated a longer duration of analgesic effect

  19. Evolution of drug resistance in HIV infected patients remaining on a virologically failing cART regimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cozzi-Lepri, A; Phillips, AN; Ruiz, L

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the extent of drug resistance accumulation in patients kept on a virologically failing regimen and its determinants in the clinical setting. DESIGN: The study focused on 110 patients of EuroSIDA on an unchanged regimen who had two genotypic tests performed at two time points...... to the failing regimen were still receiving benefit from treatment. An overall 6-monthly increase of 1.96 (SD, 2.23) International Aids Society-mutations and an average loss of 1.25 (SD, 1.81) active drugs were estimated. In comparison with patients with GSS_f-t0 = 0, the number of active drugs lost was -1...

  20. Therapeutic strategy for pandrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae severe infections: short-course treatment with colistin increases the in vivo and in vitro activity of double carbapenem regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Oliva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Infections due to carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae represent an emerging threat due to the high mortality rate and lack of valid antimicrobial combinations, especially when the strain is colistin-resistant. We report a case of bloodstream infection due to pandrug-resistant K. pneumoniae treated successfully with an innovative regimen comprising a combination of colistin plus double carbapenem, along with an in vitro analysis showing the synergistic and bactericidal effect.

  1. Treatment Outcomes in Infections Caused by "SPICE" (Serratia, Pseudomonas, Indole-positive Proteus, Citrobacter, and Enterobacter) Organisms: Carbapenem versus Noncarbapenem Regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Stanley; Sharma, Roopali

    2017-01-01

    Techniques used to identify AmpC β-lactamases in SPICE (Serratia, Pseudomonas, indole-positive Proteus, Citrobacter, and Enterobacter) organisms are not yet optimized for the clinical laboratory and are not routinely used. Clinicians are often left with an uncertainty on the choice of antibiotic when a SPICE organism is isolated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of carbapenem versus noncarbapenem regimens in treating bacteremia or urinary tract infection from a SPICE organism in clinical practice. This single-center, retrospective, cohort study analyzed data from adult patients who had clinical infection with a SPICE organism isolated from blood or urine cultures. Patients were assigned to a carbapenem- or noncarbapenem-treated group. The primary end point was clinical response, defined as a resolution of signs and symptoms of infection at the end of therapy. A total of 332 patients were assessed, and 145 patients met the inclusion criteria for the study. There were 20 patients who received a carbapenem, while 125 received a noncarbapenem regimen. The percentage of patients who were bacteremic was 46.2%. Clinical response overall was achieved in 80% of patients on a carbapenem versus 90.3% of patients on a noncarbapenem regimen (P = 0.24). The rate of microbiologic cure was 90% in patients on a carbapenem versus 91.2% in patients on a noncarbapenem regimen (P = 1). In this study in patients treated for infection with a SPICE organism in clinical practice, the rates of clinical response did not differ significantly between the carbapenem and noncarbapenem groups. Current CLSI breakpoints set for SPICE organisms may still be reliable and may not require additional testing for AmpC β-lactamases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Urachal Carcinoma with Choroidal, Lung, Lymph Node, Adrenal, Mammary, and Bone Metastases and Peritoneal Carcinomatosis Showing Partial Response after Chemotherapy Treatment with a Modified Docetaxel, Cisplatin and 5-Fluorouracil Regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Dekeister

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Urachal carcinoma (UC is a rare tumor mainly affecting middle-aged males. Metastases occur most frequently in lymph nodes and the lungs. There are no standard adjuvant and metastatic treatments. We report the case of a 36-year-old female with UC treated with partial cystectomy who relapsed 3 years after surgery with left choroidal, lung, mediastinal lymph node, right adrenal, mammary, and bone metastases as well as peritoneal carcinomatosis. She obtained a partial response after 10 cycles of chemotherapy with a modified docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (mTPF regimen. This is the first report on the use of the mTPF regimen in UC and on the existence of choroidal, adrenal, and mammary metastases.

  3. Efficacy and safety of a lindane 1% treatment regimen for scabies, confirmed by dermoscopy-guided skin scraping with microscopic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S E; Her, Y; Kim, S S; Kim, C W

    2015-08-01

    This is the first study investigating scabies treatment since 1992 to involve examination of patients with microscopically confirmed scabies. To assess the efficacy of 1% lindane cream in treating microscopically confirmed scabies, and to determine the utility of dermoscopy-guided skin scraping with microscopic examination (DSGSS-ME) in evaluating the efficacy of scabies treatment. This retrospective study analysed patients treated for scabies between January 2012 and December 2013. From the hospital database, 287 cases of scabies were identified and 50 were enrolled in the study. Patients were treated with 1% lindane cream twice weekly (days 0 and 1) and were evaluated with DSGSS-ME on day 7. Treatment and evaluations were repeated once weekly until a negative DSGSS-ME result was obtained. The cumulative efficacy of lindane 1% cream was 40% (20/50) after 1 week, 88% (44/50) after 2 weeks and 98% (49/50) after 3 weeks of treatment. There was a statistically significant difference between the 1- and 2-week (P = 0.03), and 1- and 3-week (P = 0.02) treatments. A total of 90 post-treatment DSGSS-MEs were performed, with a sensitivity of 97.3% (95% CI 85.8-99.9) and a negative predictive value of 98.2% (95% CI 90.1-100). Specificity and positive predictive value were 100%, as this procedure cannot yield false-positive results, because it relies on finding mites, eggs or faeces. We suggest that a twice-weekly schedule (on consecutive days) of 1% lindane treatment lasting at least 2 weeks is required to clear scabies. DSGSS-ME appears to be a good method to evaluate the efficacy of scabies treatment. This study introduces a safe and effective method to treat scabies, and to accurately monitor infestation status in patients. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  4. Use of Treated Municipal Wastewater as Power Plant Cooling System Makeup Water: Tertiary Treatment versus Expanded Chemical Regimen for Recirculating Water Quality Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Dzombak; Radisav Vidic; Amy Landis

    2012-06-30

    Treated municipal wastewater is a common, widely available alternative source of cooling water for thermoelectric power plants across the U.S. However, the biodegradable organic matter, ammonia-nitrogen, carbonate and phosphates in the treated wastewater pose challenges with respect to enhanced biofouling, corrosion, and scaling, respectively. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits and life cycle costs of implementing tertiary treatment of secondary treated municipal wastewater prior to use in recirculating cooling systems. The study comprised bench- and pilot-scale experimental studies with three different tertiary treated municipal wastewaters, and life cycle costing and environmental analyses of various tertiary treatment schemes. Sustainability factors and metrics for reuse of treated wastewater in power plant cooling systems were also evaluated. The three tertiary treated wastewaters studied were: secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to acid addition for pH control (MWW_pH); secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to nitrification and sand filtration (MWW_NF); and secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected nitrification, sand filtration, and GAC adsorption (MWW_NFG). Tertiary treatment was determined to be essential to achieve appropriate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control for use of secondary treated municipal wastewater in power plant cooling systems. The ability to control scaling, in particular, was found to be significantly enhanced with tertiary treated wastewater compared to secondary treated wastewater. MWW_pH treated water (adjustment to pH 7.8) was effective in reducing scale formation, but increased corrosion and the amount of biocide required to achieve appropriate biofouling control. Corrosion could be adequately controlled with tolytriazole addition (4-5 ppm TTA), however, which was the case for all of the tertiary treated waters. For MWW_NF treated water, the removal of ammonia by

  5. The 'Harmonizing Optimal Strategy for Treatment of coronary artery stenosis - sAfety & effectiveneSS of drug-elUting stents & antiplatelet REgimen' (HOST-ASSURE trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Kyung

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Second-generation drug-eluting stents (DES have raised the bar of clinical performance. These stents are mostly made from cobalt chromium alloy. A newer generation DES has been developed from platinum chromium alloy, but clinical data regarding the efficacy and safety of the platinum chromium-based everolimus-eluting stent (PtCr-EES is limited, with no comparison data against the cobalt chromium-based zotarolimus-eluting stent (CoCr-ZES. In addition, an antiplatelet regimen is an integral component of medical therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. A 1-week duration of doubling the dose of clopidogrel (double-dose antiplatelet therapy (DDAT was shown to improve outcome at 1 month compared with conventional dose in acute coronary syndrome (ACS patients undergoing PCI. However in Asia, including Korea, the addition of cilostazol (triplet antiplatelet therapy (TAT is used more commonly than doubling the dose of clopidogrel in high-risk patients. Methods In the 'Harmonizing Optimal Strategy for Treatment of coronary artery stenosis - sAfety & effectiveneSS of drug-elUting stents & antiplatelet REgimen' (HOST-ASSURE trial, approximately 3,750 patients are being prospectively and randomly assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial design according to the type of stent (PtCr-EES vs CoCr-ZES and antiplatelet regimen (TAT vs DDAT. The first primary endpoint is target lesion failure at 1 year for the stent comparison, and the second primary endpoint is net clinical outcome at 1 month for comparison of antiplatelet therapy regimen. Discussion The HOST-ASSURE trial is the largest study yet performed to directly compare the efficacy and safety of the PtCr-EES versus CoCr-ZES in an 'all-comers' population. In addition, this study will also compare the clinical outcome of TAT versus DDAT for 1-month post PCI. Trial registration ClincalTrials.gov number NCT01267734.

  6. Estimated rates of recurrence, cure, and treatment abandonment in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis treated with a -four-drug fixed-dose combination regimen at a tertiary health care facility in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Vangie Dias da; Mello, Fernanda Carvalho de Queiroz; Figueiredo, Sonia Catarina de Abreu

    2017-01-01

    To estimate the rates of recurrence, cure, and treatment abandonment in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis treated with a four-drug fixed-dose combination (FDC) regimen, as well as to evaluate possible associated factors. This was a retrospective observational study involving 208 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis enrolled in the Hospital Tuberculosis Control Program at the Institute for Thoracic Diseases, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Between January of 2007 and October of 2010, the patients were treated with the rifampin-isoniazid-pyrazinamide (RHZ) regimen, whereas, between November of 2010 and June of 2013, the patients were treated with the rifampin-isoniazid-pyrazinamide-ethambutol FDC (RHZE/FDC) regimen. Data regarding tuberculosis recurrence and mortality in the patients studied were retrieved from the Brazilian Case Registry Database and the Brazilian Mortality Database, respectively. The follow-up period comprised two years after treatment completion. The rates of cure, treatment abandonment, and death were 90.4%, 4.8%, and 4.8%, respectively. There were 7 cases of recurrence during the follow-up period. No significant differences in the recurrence rate were found between the RHZ and RHZE/FDC regimen groups (p = 0.13). We identified no factors associated with the occurrence of recurrence; nor were there any statistically significant differences between the treatment groups regarding adverse effects or rates of cure, treatment abandonment, or death. The adoption of the RHZE/FDC regimen produced no statistically significant differences in the rates of recurrence, cure, or treatment abandonment; nor did it have any effect on the occurrence of adverse effects, in comparison with the use of the RHZ regimen. Estimar as taxas de recidiva, cura e abandono de tratamento em pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar tratados com o esquema de dose fixa combinada (DFC) de quatro drogas e avaliar possíveis fatores associados

  7. Endometrial carcinoma in vitro chemosensitivity testing of single and combination chemotherapy regimens using the novel microculture kinetic apoptosis assay: implications for endometrial cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Karen S; Homesley, Howard D; Hodson, Charles; Presant, Cary A; Rutledge, James; Hallquist, Allan; Perree, Mathieu

    2010-03-01

    The in vitro microculture kinetic (MiCK) apoptosis assay has been used to predict single or combination chemotherapy response in leukemia patients. This feasibility study addressed MiCK in endometrial cancer specimens. Endometrial cancer specimens from total abdominal hysterectomies were processed at a central laboratory. Single cell suspensions of viable endometrial cancer cells were plated in individual wells. Single and combination regimens were tested: combinations of doxorubicin, cisplatin, and paclitaxel and carboplatin and paclitaxel (Gynecologic Oncology Group [GOG] 209 endometrial cancer phase III trial arms) as well as single agent testing with paclitaxel, carboplatin, doxorubicin, cisplatin, ifosfamide, and vincristine (active agents in GOG trials). Apoptosis was measured continuously over 48 hours. Fifteen of nineteen patients had successful assays. The highest mean chemo sensitivity was noted in the combination of cisplatin, doxorubicin, and paclitaxel with lower mean chemosensitivity for carboplatin and paclitaxel. Combination chemotherapy had higher chemosensitivity than single drug chemotherapy. However, in 25% of patients a single drug had higher chemosensitivity than combination chemotherapy. As single agents, ifosfamide, cisplatin, and paclitaxel had the highest kinetic unit values. Using a panel of agents simulating clinical dose regimens, the MiCK assay was feasible in evaluating in vitro chemosensitivity of endometrial cancer. MiCK assay results correlated with GOG clinical trial results. However, 25% of patients might be best treated with single agent chemotherapy selected by MiCK. Ifosfamide, cisplatin, and paclitaxel appear to have high activity as single agents. MiCK may be useful in future new drug testing and individualizing endometrial cancer patient's chemotherapy management.

  8. Change in Vitamin D Levels Occurs Early after Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation and Depends on Treatment Regimen in Resource-Limited Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havers, Fiona P.; Detrick, Barbara; Cardoso, Sandra W.; Berendes, Sima; Lama, Javier R.; Sugandhavesa, Patcharaphan; Mwelase, Noluthando H.; Campbell, Thomas B.; Gupta, Amita

    2014-01-01

    Study Background Vitamin D has wide-ranging effects on the immune system, and studies suggest that low serum vitamin D levels are associated with worse clinical outcomes in HIV. Recent studies have identified an interaction between antiretrovirals used to treat HIV and reduced serum vitamin D levels, but these studies have been done in North American and European populations. Methods Using a prospective cohort study design nested in a multinational clinical trial, we examined the effect of three combination antiretroviral (cART) regimens on serum vitamin D levels in 270 cART-naïve, HIV-infected adults in nine diverse countries, (Brazil, Haiti, Peru, Thailand, India, Malawi, South Africa, Zimbabwe and the United States). We evaluated the change between baseline serum vitamin D levels and vitamin D levels 24 and 48 weeks after cART initiation. Results Serum vitamin D levels decreased significantly from baseline to 24 weeks among those randomized to efavirenz/lamivudine/zidovudine (mean change: −7.94 [95% Confidence Interval (CI) −10.42, −5.54] ng/ml) and efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir-DF (mean change: −6.66 [95% CI −9.40, −3.92] ng/ml) when compared to those randomized to atazanavir/emtricitabine/didanosine-EC (mean change: −2.29 [95% CI –4.83, 0.25] ng/ml). Vitamin D levels did not change significantly between week 24 and 48. Other factors that significantly affected serum vitamin D change included country (p<0.001), season (p<0.001) and baseline vitamin D level (p<0.001). Conclusion Efavirenz-containing cART regimens adversely affected vitamin D levels in patients from economically, geographically and racially diverse resource-limited settings. This effect was most pronounced early after cART initiation. Research is needed to define the role of Vitamin D supplementation in HIV care. PMID:24752177

  9. Utilization and evaluation of noncore chemotherapy regimens within an academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared, Jason R; Mably, Mary S; Makielski, Rory; Reed, Michael P; Fallon, Michael J; Liu, Glenn; Mulkerin, Daniel; Callander, Natalie S

    2017-10-01

    Uniformity of evidence-based chemotherapy prescribing using approved, standard, or "core" regimens provides systems-based safety. Noncore chemotherapy regimens are non-standard-of-care regimens requested by physicians on a patient-by-patient basis. Chemotherapy Council, a Pharmacy & Therapeutics subcommittee, assesses all requests and determines approval status based upon submitted evidence and patient-specific factors. This study's purpose is to describe noncore chemotherapy regimens utilization, efficacy, and clinical outcomes in patients receiving noncore chemotherapy regimens. This retrospective chart review includes a two-stage utilization and outcomes evaluation of patients receiving noncore chemotherapy regimens. Stage I, a demographics and utilization assessment of patients receiving noncore chemotherapy regimens, has data collection including patient age, sex, performance score, malignancy, and noncore chemotherapy regimen use justification. Stage II assesses noncore chemotherapy regimen-related, patient-specific outcomes of breast cancer noncore chemotherapy regimen patients. Breast cancer patients were evaluated on regimen and clinical outcomes including disease stage, regimen duration, discontinuation reason, subsequent chemotherapy, survival, and time from noncore chemotherapy regimen until death. Within stage I, 307 patient-specific noncore chemotherapy regimen requests were submitted. The most commonly submitted rationale was modification of a core regimen (33%), followed by patient-specific factors (29%) and salvage therapy (22%). For stage II, 29 breast cancer patients received a noncore chemotherapy regimen and most (54%) received a modified core regimen. The vast majority of noncore chemotherapy regimen discontinuation was due to either regimen completion (42%) or disease progression (42%). Nonelective hospitalizations (35%) and mortality (30%) were found during the median 13.3 months of follow up. Noncore chemotherapy regimen use provides

  10. Determinants of non-adherence to subsidized anti-retroviral treatment in southeast Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzochukwu, B S C; Onwujekwe, O E; Onoka, A C; Okoli, C; Uguru, N P; Chukwuogo, O I

    2009-05-01

    The anti-retroviral (ARV) treatment programme in Nigeria is delivered through selected teaching and mission hospitals at a free/subsidized rate. The government aims to scale up ARV treatment in the country. However, non-adherence to ARV medication can lead to viral resistance, treatment failure, toxicities and waste of financial resources. This study examined the factors responsible for non-adherence to free/subsidized ARV treatment in south-east Nigeria. The study was cross-sectional and descriptive. Information was collected from 174 patients selected by simple random sampling from the register of all patients who had been on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) for at least 12 months at the beginning of the study period. Patients were identified during their clinic visits. Information on their socio-demographic profile, ARV treatment and determinants of non-adherence to ARV treatment was obtained from those who gave consent, using pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaires. All patients clearly understood the need to take ARV drugs throughout their lives, and what the costs entailed. They understood the need for periodic testing, the probability that complications would develop, cost of transportation to treatment site and the daily treatment regimen. Seventy-five per cent of respondents were not adhering fully to their drug regimen; the mean number of days that respondents had been off drugs was 3.57 days the preceding month. Reasons for non-adherence included: physical discomfort (side effects); non-availability of drugs at treatment site; forgetting to carry drugs during the day; fear of social rejection; treatment being a reminder of HIV status; and selling of own drugs to those unable to enrol in the projects. Being female, under 35 years, single, and having higher educational status were significantly associated with non-adherence. It is important that policy makers and programme managers address the factors responsible for non-adherence when scaling up

  11. Chemotherapy for pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas : Does the regimen matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Jules L.; van Suylen, Robert Jan; Thunnissen, Erik; den Bakker, Michael A.; Groen, Harry J.; Smit, Egbert F.; Damhuis, Ronald A.; van den Broek, Esther C.; Speel, Ernst-Jan M.; Dingemans, Anne-Marie C.

    Pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is rare. Chemotherapy for metastatic LCNEC ranges from small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) regimens to nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) chemotherapy regimens. We analysed outcomes of chemotherapy treatments for LCNEC. The Netherlands Cancer

  12. Association of a probiotic to a Helicobacter pylori eradication regimen does not increase efficacy or decreases the adverse effects of the treatment: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Rodriguez, Tomás; Silva, Fernando Marcuz; Barbuti, Ricardo Correa; Mattar, Rejane; Moraes-Filho, Joaquim Prado; de Oliveira, Maricê Nogueira; Bogsan, Cristina S; Chinzon, Décio; Eisig, Jaime Natan

    2013-03-26

    The treatment for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is complex; full effectiveness is rarely achieved and it has many adverse effects. In developing countries, increased resistance to antibiotics and its cost make eradication more difficult. Probiotics can reduce adverse effects and improve the infection treatment efficacy.If the first-line therapy fails a second-line treatment using tetracycline, furazolidone and proton-pump inhibitors has been effective and low cost in Brazil; however it implies in a lot of adverse effects. The aim of this study was to minimize the adverse effects and increase the eradication rate applying the association of a probiotic compound to second-line therapy regimen. Patients with peptic ulcer or functional dyspepsia infected by H. pylori were randomized to treatment with the furazolidone, tetracycline and lansoprazole regimen, twice a day for 7 days. In a double-blind study, patients received placebo or a probiotic compound (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Streptococcus faecium) in capsules, twice a day for 30 days. A symptom questionnaire was administered in day zero, after completion of antibiotic therapy, after the probiotic use and eight weeks after the end of the treatment. Upper digestive endoscopy, histological assessment, rapid urease test and breath test were performed before and eight weeks after eradication treatment. One hundred and seven patients were enrolled: 21 men with active probiotic and 19 with placebo plus 34 women with active probiotic and 33 with placebo comprising a total of 55 patients with active probiotic and 52 with placebo. Fifty-one patients had peptic ulcer and 56 were diagnosed as functional dyspepsia. The per-protocol eradication rate with active probiotic was 89.8% and with placebo, 85.1% (p=0.49); per intention to treat, 81.8% and 79.6%, respectively (p=0.53). The rate of adverse effects at 7 days with the active probiotic was 59.3% and

  13. Impact of interferon-free regimens on the glomerular filtration rate during treatment of chronic hepatitis C in a real-life cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Ossorio, M J; Sarmento E Castro, R; Granados, R; Macías, J; Morano-Amado, L E; Ríos, M J; Merino, D; Álvarez, E N; Collado, A; Pérez-Pérez, M; Téllez, F; Martín, J M; Méndez, J; Pineda, J A; Neukam, K

    2018-01-28

    Little data are available on renal toxicity exerted by direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) in real life. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of direct-acting antivirals against hepatitis C virus infection currently used in Spain and Portugal on the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in clinical practise. From an international, prospective multicohort study, patients treated with DAAs for at least 12 weeks and with eGFR ≥30 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 at baseline were selected. eGFR was determined using the CKD-EPI formula. A total of 1131 patients were included; 658 (58%) were HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. Among the 901 patients treated for 12 weeks, median (interquartile range) eGFR was 100 (87-107) at baseline vs 97 (85-105) mL/min per 1.73 m 2 at week 12 of follow-up (FU12) post-treatment (P 60 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 at baseline, 22 (2%) had eGFR <60 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 at FU12, but none presented with eGFR <30 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 . In conclusion, eGFR slightly declines during therapy with all-oral DAAs and this effect persists up to 12 weeks after stopping treatment in subjects with normal to moderately impaired renal function, regardless of HIV status. Concomitant use of tenofovir plus PI/r does not seem to have an impact on eGFR. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The potential biomarkers in predicting pathologic response of breast cancer to three different chemotherapy regimens: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chaoyang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preoperative chemotherapy (PCT has become the standard of care in locally advanced breast cancer. The identification of patient-specific tumor characteristics that can improve the ability to predict response to therapy would help optimize treatment, improve treatment outcomes, and avoid unnecessary exposure to potential toxicities. This study is to determine whether selected biomarkers could predict pathologic response (PR of breast tumors to three different PCT regimens, and to identify a subset of patients who would benefit from a given type of treatment. Methods 118 patients with primary breast tumor were identified and three PCT regimens including DEC (docetaxel+epirubicin+cyclophosphamide, VFC (vinorelbine/vincristine+5-fluorouracil+cyclophosphamide and EFC (epirubicin+5-fluorouracil+cyclophosphamide were investigated. Expression of steroid receptors, HER2, P-gp, MRP, GST-pi and Topo-II was evaluated by immunohistochemical scoring on tumor tissues obtained before and after PCT. The PR of breast carcinoma was graded according to Sataloff's classification. Chi square test, logistic regression and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel assay were performed to determine the association between biomarkers and PR, as well as the effectiveness of each regimen on induction of PR. Results There was a clear-cut correlation between the expression of ER and decreased PR to PCT in all three different regimens (p p Conclusion ER is an independent predictive factor for PR to PCT regimens including DEC, VFC and EFC in primary breast tumors, while HER2 is only predictive for DEC regimen. Expression of PgR, Topo-II, P-gp, MRP and GST-pi are not predictive for PR to any PCT regimens investigated. Results obtained in this clinical study may be helpful for the selection of appropriate treatments for breast cancer patients.

  15. Clinical observation and therapeutic evaluation of Rh-endostatin combined with DP regimen in treating patients with advanced esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wen-Ying; Song, Tao; Li, Ning; Luo, Su-Xia; Li, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    To observe the curative effects of rh-endostatin combined with DP regimen in treating patients with advanced esophageal cancer and analyze the correlation of CT perfusion (CTP) parameters and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Twenty patients with esophageal cancer confirmed pathologically were randomly divided into combined treatment (rh-endostatin+DP regimen) group and single chemotherapy group, 10 patients in each group, respectively. All patients were given conventional CT examination and CTP imaging for primary tumor. The level of VEGF, the size of tumor and CTP parameters (BF, BV, PS and MTT) before treatment and after 2 cycles of treatment were determined for the comparison and the correlation between CTP parameters and VEGF expression was analyzed. the therapeutic effect of rh-endostatin+DP regimen group was superior to single chemotherapy group. VEGF level after treatment in rh- endostatin +DP regimen group was obviously lower than single chemotherapy group (Prh-endostatin +DP regimen group, BF, BV and PS decreased while MTT increased after treatment (P0.05). Rh-endostatin can down-regulate the expression of VEGF in esophageal cancer, change the state of hypertransfusion and high permeability of tumor vessels and had the better curative effect and slighter adverse reactions when combined with chemotherapy.

  16. Resultados de dois esquemas de tratamento da pielonefrite durante a gravidez e correlação com o desfecho da gestação Results of two treatment regimens for pyelonephritis during pregnancy and correlation with pregnancy outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saron Souza Calegari

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar o perfil epidemiológico das gestantes internadas por infecção do trato urinário, bem como verificar os agentes mais prevalentes e a resposta à antibioticoterapia. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo, que incluiu 106 gestantes internadas para tratamento de infecção do trato urinário no período entre janeiro de 2007 a dezembro de 2010. A avaliação constituiu-se de análise de prontuários dessas gestantes, observando-se informações sobre a internação e a gestação, bem como seu desfecho. Foi realizada a análise estatística por meio do programa Statistical Package for the Social Science, versão 15.0. Foram utilizados, para análise dos dados, o teste bilateral exato de Fisher e o teste t de Student, bem como métodos de estatística descritiva. RESULTADOS: Uroculturas positivas foram encontradas em 60,5% das gestantes internadas por infecção do trato urinário. O agente infeccioso mais frequente foi Escherichia coli e não houve diferença quanto à resistência, à recorrência ou a complicações entre os agentes etiológicos mais frequentes. Gestantes com infecção do trato urinário prévia tiveram maior risco de recorrência (OR=10,8; pPURPOSE: To determine the epidemiological profile of women admitted for urinary tract infection as well as to verify the most prevalent agents and response to antibiotic therapy. METHODS: A retrospective study of 106 pregnant women admitted to a university hospital for urinary tract infection treatment during the period between January 2007 to December 2010. The evaluation was based on analysis of the medical records of these pregnant women, with the observation of hospitalization and pregnancy data, as well as its outcome. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Science, version 15.0. The bilateral Fisher exact test and Student's t test were used for data analysis, as well as descriptive statistical methods. RESULTS: Positive urine

  17. Determinants of Treatment Outcome of Public-Private Mix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Determinants for non-compliance to antituberculosis treatment range from a poor correlation between patient and programme needs and priorities among other socio-economic factors. Objectives: This is to assess determinants of treatment outcome of public private mix tuberculosis control programme in ...

  18. Simplified antibiotic regimens for treatment of clinical severe infection in the outpatient setting when referral is not possible for young infants in Pakistan (Simplified Antibiotic Therapy Trial [SATT]): a randomised, open-label, equivalence trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Fatima; Nisar, Imran; Tikmani, Shiyam S; Baloch, Benazir; Shakoor, Sadia; Jehan, Fyezah; Ahmed, Imran; Cousens, Simon; Zaidi, Anita K M

    2017-02-01

    Parenteral antibiotic therapy for young infants (aged 0-59 days) with suspected sepsis is sometimes not available or feasible in countries with high neonatal mortality. Outpatient treatment could save lives in such settings. We aimed to assess the equivalence of two simplified antibiotic regimens, comprising fewer injections and oral rather than parenteral administration, compared with a reference treatment for young infants with clinical severe infection. We undertook the Simplified Antibiotic Therapy Trial (SATT), a three-arm, randomised, open-label, equivalence trial in five communities in Karachi, Pakistan. We enrolled young infants (aged 0-59 days) who either presented at a primary health-care clinic or were identified by a community health worker with signs of clinical severe infection. We included infants who were not critically ill and whose family refused admission. We randomly assigned infants to either intramuscular procaine benzylpenicillin and gentamicin once a day for 7 days (reference); oral amoxicillin twice daily and intramuscular gentamicin once a day for 7 days; or intramuscular procaine benzylpenicillin and gentamicin once a day for 2 days followed by oral amoxicillin twice daily for 5 days. The primary outcome was treatment failure within 7 days of enrolment and the primary analysis was per protocol. We judged experimental treatments as efficacious as the reference if the upper bound of the 95% CI for the difference in treatment failure was less than 5·0. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01027429. Between Jan 1, 2010, and Dec 26, 2013, 2780 infants were deemed eligible for the trial, of whom 2453 (88%) were enrolled. Because of inadequate clinical follow-up or treatment adherence, 2251 infants were included in the per-protocol analysis. 820 infants (747 per protocol) were assigned the reference treatment of procaine benzylpenicillin and gentamicin, 816 (751 per protocol) were allocated amoxicillin and gentamicin, and

  19. High-dose chemotherapy in high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome: covariate-adjusted comparison of five regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, M; Shen, Y; Kantarjian, H; O'Brien, S; Koller, C A; Giles, F J; Cortes, J; Thomas, D A; Faderl, S; Despa, S; Estey, E H

    2001-10-15

    Antileukemic chemotherapy has been used for two decades to treat high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (refractory anemia with excess of blasts [RAEB] and RAEB in transformation into acute leukemia [RAEB-t]) patients. Because the results of standard regimens have been disappointing, high-dose chemotherapeutic regimens were investigated recently. In the absence of randomized trials, the relative merits of various treatment regimens are unknown. The authors analyzed the outcome for 394 newly diagnosed patients treated between 1991 and 1999 with five regimens consisting of intermediate- or high-dose cytosine arabinoside (A) in combination with idarubicin (I), and introduced cyclophosphamide (C) and the new agents fludarabine (F) and topotecan (T) into new combinations with A. In addition to defining the role of high-intensity chemotherapy in the overall outcome for patients with RAEB-t and RAEB, the authors determined the relative merits of the five regimens (IA, FA, FAI, TA, and CAT), accounting for the nonrandom distribution of the prognostic covariates. The overall complete response (CR) rate of 58% was significantly associated with karyotype, performance status (PS), treatment in the laminar air flow room, duration of antecedent hematologic disorder and age, but not French-American-British or International Prognostic Scoring System risk categories. Multivariate analysis did not identify statistically significant differences in CR rates obtained with each regimen. Induction death rates increased with age with all but the TA regimen; they were lowest with TA (5.4%) and highest with FAI (20.7%), and these differences were significant in patients older than 65 years. The trend for time to death was the same as for time to recurrence in all groups. Multivariate analysis of time to death identified treatment regimen (FA, FAI, and CAT), cytogenetic status (-5/-7), increasing age, and PS greater than 2 as significant independent unfavorable prognostic factors. After

  20. Effect of Preventive and Curative Fingolimod Treatment Regimens on Microglia Activation and Disease Progression in a Rat Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vállez García, David; Doorduin, Janine; de Paula Faria, Daniele; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; de Vries, Erik F J

    Fingolimod was the first oral drug approved for multiple sclerosis treatment. Its principal mechanism of action is blocking of lymphocyte trafficking. In addition, recent studies have shown its capability to diminish microglia activation. The effect of preventive and curative fingolimod treatment on

  1. Failure to maintain high-dose treatment regimens during long-term use of zidovudine in patients with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, R.; van den Hurk, P. J.; Jöbsis, G. J.; van der Wouw, P. A.; Reiss, P.; Eeftinck Schattenkerk, J. K.; Danner, S. A.; Lange, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Long-term tolerance of zidovudine treatment was retrospectively analysed in 97 patients with AIDS or AIDS-related complex. After one year of treatment 68% and after two years 87% of the patients had had at least one dose adjustment during their course of therapy. Myelotoxicity was the most common

  2. Do retreatment tuberculosis patients need special treatment response follow-up beyond the standard regimen? Finding of five-year retrospective study in pastoralist setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getnet, Fentabil; Sileshi, Henok; Seifu, Wubareg; Yirga, Selam; Alemu, Abere Shiferaw

    2017-12-12

    Treatment outcomes serve as proxy measures of the quality of tuberculosis treatment provided by the health care system, and it is essential to evaluate the effectiveness of Directly Observed Therapy-Short course program in controlling the disease, and reducing treatment failure, default and death. Hence, we evaluated tuberculosis treatment success rate, its trends and predictors of unsuccessful treatment outcome in Ethiopian Somali region where 85% of its population is pastoralist. A retrospective review of 5 years data (September 2009 to August 2014) was conducted to evaluate the treatment outcome of 1378 randomly selected tuberculosis patients treated in Kharamara, Dege-habour and Gode hospitals. We extracted data on socio-demographics, HIV Sero-status, tuberculosis type, treatment outcome and year using clinical chart abstraction sheet. Tuberculosis treatment outcomes were categorized into successful (cured and/or completed) and unsuccessful (died/failed/default) according to the national tuberculosis guideline. Data was entered using EpiData 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS 20. Chi-square (χ 2 ) test and logistic regression model were used to reveal the predictors of unsuccessful treatment outcome at P ≤ 0.05 significance level. The majority of participants was male (59.1%), pulmonary smear negative (49.2%) and new cases (90.6%). The median age was 26 years [IQR: 18-40] and HIV co-infection rate was 4.6%. The overall treatment success rate was 86.8% [95%CI: 84.9% - 88.5%]; however, 4.8%, 7.6% and 0.7% of patients died, defaulted and failed to cure respectively. It fluctuated across the years and ranged from 76.9% to 94% [p tuberculosis types and HIV status (P > 0.05). This study revealed that the overall tuberculosis treatment success rate has realized the global target for 2011-2015. However, it does not guarantee its continuity as adverse treatment outcomes might unpredictably occur anytime and anywhere. Therefore, continual effort to effectively

  3. A 14-day regimen of esomeprazole 20 mg/day for frequent heartburn: durability of effects, symptomatic rebound, and treatment satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peura, David; Le Moigne, Anne; Pollack, Charles; Nagy, Peter; Lind, Tore

    2016-08-01

    Esomeprazole 20 mg once daily has been shown to be effective for treating frequent heartburn over 14 days in subjects who are likely to self-treat with over-the-counter medications. These analyses were conducted to assess durability of effects and symptomatic rebound after cessation of treatment, treatment satisfaction, and rescue antacid use with esomeprazole 20 mg once daily for 14 days. Adults with frequent heartburn (≥ two days/week in the past four weeks) were randomly assigned to 14 days of double-blind treatment with esomeprazole 20 mg or placebo in two identical multicenter studies. All subjects entered a 1-week single-blind placebo follow-up period after treatment. The results of the primary efficacy endpoints were reported previously. The percentage of heartburn-free days during the 1-week follow-up, use of rescue antacids, and treatment satisfaction, measured with the Global Assessment Questions instrument, are described. The percentage of heartburn-free days was maintained during the 1-week follow-up period; the proportion was 43% among esomeprazole subjects in these studies, suggesting no evidence of symptomatic rebound. Rescue antacid use generally decreased compared with the run-in period in the 14-day treatment and 1-week follow-up periods. Significantly more subjects taking esomeprazole were "very satisfied" or "satisfied" with treatment versus placebo (Study 1: 78% vs. 63%, respectively, P = 0.0038; Study 2: 81% vs. 60%, respectively, P = 0.0002). Subjects who are likely to self-treat their frequent heartburn with over-the-counter medications reported satisfaction with esomeprazole 20 mg. Esomeprazole's treatment effect was maintained for ≥ one week after treatment ended, with no sign of symptomatic rebound. These trials were registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01370525; NCT01370538.

  4. [ADOC regimen for unresectable advanced thymic cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, T; Takabayashi, Y; Yamagishi, S; Tsushima, K; Takamizawa, A; Takashi, S; Tsukadaira, A; Masubuchi, T; Yamamoto, H; Kaneki, T; Yamaguchi, S; Hachiya, T; Hayasaka, M; Fujimoto, K; Kubo, K

    1999-12-01

    Between 1996 and 1998, we treated 6 patients with unresectable and advanced thymic cancer (stages IVa and IVb). All received 50 mg/m2 of cisplatin and 40 mg/m2 of doxorubicin intravenously (i.v.) on day 1,0.6 mg/m2 of vincristine i.v. on day 3, and 700 mg/m2 of cyclophosphamide i.v. on day 4; ADOC regimen, respectively at 3-4 week intervals. Four patients obtained a partial response (PR) after ADOC chemotherapy and the overall clinical response rate was 67%. No life-threatening side effects were noted. In 2 patients, cisplatin plus VP-16 chemotherapy failed to demonstrate any benefits prior to the ADOC regimen. Radiotherapy was initiated after the achievement of PR in the other 2 patients. ADOC chemotherapy appears to be an effective treatment for thymic cancer.

  5. Microbiological efficacy and tolerability of a single-dose regimen of 1 g of ceftriaxone in men with gonococcal urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shin; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Hatazaki, Kyoko; Mizutani, Kosuke; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Yokoi, Shigeaki; Nakano, Masahiro; Deguchi, Takashi

    2016-09-01

    We treated men with gonococcal urethritis with a single-dose regimen of 1 g of ceftriaxone, which is recommended as the first-line treatment for gonorrhoea in Japan, to determine its microbiological outcomes and tolerability. We enrolled 255 men with gonococcal urethritis and treated them with a single-dose regimen of 1 g of ceftriaxone. We evaluated its microbiological outcomes and tolerability. We also determined ceftriaxone MICs for pretreatment isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae collected from the patients. The microbiological efficacy of the ceftriaxone regimen, which was determined between 5 and 9 days after treatment in 111 men based on the Japanese guideline for clinical research on antimicrobial agents in urogenital infections, was 100%. In the 194 men who returned to the clinic between 2 and 41 days after treatment, 191 (98.5%; 95% CI 96.8%-100%) were negative for N. gonorrhoeae after treatment. Ceftriaxone MICs determined for 136 pretreatment isolates obtained from these 194 men ranged from 0.001 to 0.25 mg/L. One isolate persisting after treatment exhibited a ceftriaxone MIC of 0.008 mg/L. For two isolates persisting after treatment, ceftriaxone MICs were not determined. Seven adverse events were observed in 7 (3.2%) of the 220 men treated with the ceftriaxone regimen. Four men had diarrhoea classified as grade 1. Three had urticaria during ceftriaxone administration, with one event classified as grade 1 and two events classified as grade 3. A single-dose regimen of 1 g of ceftriaxone was microbiologically effective against gonococcal urethritis and was safe and tolerable. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Antibioticoterapia profilática em obstetrícia: comparação entre esquemas Prophylactic antibiotic treatment in obstetrics: comparison of regimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heraldo Francisco Costa

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: avaliar a eficiência de vários esquemas de antibioterapia profilática no parto na prevenção da infecção puerperal. Métodos: segundo a via de parto (vaginal ou abdominal e conforme a presença ou não de um ou mais fatores de risco para infecção puerperal, as pacientes foram distribuídas entre os grupos de baixo, médio e alto risco para a infecção puerperal. Foram incluídas 2.263 pacientes no período de março de 1994 a junho de 1997. Resultados: a incidência de infecção puerperal variou entre os grupos. Foi de 3,1% no grupo de baixo risco, em que nenhum antibiótico foi administrado e de 8, 5% no grupo de alto risco, no qual todas as pacientes receberam cefalotina 1 g EV em três doses, com intervalo de seis horas entre as doses. No grupo de médio risco a taxa de infecção puerperal foi de 5,3 % entre as pacientes que receberam cefoxitina 1 g EV em três doses; 5,0% entre as usuárias de cefalotina 1 g EV em três doses; 4,0% quando se utilizou a cefoxitina em dose única e 3,4% quando utilizou-se cefalotina em dose única. Conclusões: no grupo de baixo risco é desnecessária a antibioticoterapia profilática. A cefalosporina de 2ªgeração (cefoxitina teve eficácia semelhante a de 1ªgeração (cefalotina na prevenção a infecção puerperal, independente da posologia utilizada. A cefalotina parece ser eficaz na prevenção da infecção puerperal no grupo de alto risco.Purpose: to evaluate the efficacy of four antibiotic regimens in puerperal infection prophylaxis. Patients and Methods: According to vaginal or abdominal delivery and risk the presence or not of factors for puerperal infection, the patients were allocated to groups of low, medium and high risk for its development. Between March 1994 and June 1997 2,263 patients were evaluated. Results: the incidence of puerperal infection was different in each group. It was 3.1% in the low risk group, where no antibiotic was given, and 8.5% in the high risk

  7. Multidrug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis treatment regimens and patient outcomes: an individual patient data meta-analysis of 9,153 patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shama D Ahuja

    Full Text Available Treatment of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB is lengthy, toxic, expensive, and has generally poor outcomes. We undertook an individual patient data meta-analysis to assess the impact on outcomes of the type, number, and duration of drugs used to treat MDR-TB.Three recent systematic reviews were used to identify studies reporting treatment outcomes of microbiologically confirmed MDR-TB. Study authors were contacted to solicit individual patient data including clinical characteristics, treatment given, and outcomes. Random effects multivariable logistic meta-regression was used to estimate adjusted odds of treatment success. Adequate treatment and outcome data were provided for 9,153 patients with MDR-TB from 32 observational studies. Treatment success, compared to failure/relapse, was associated with use of: later generation quinolones, (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.5 [95% CI 1.1-6.0], ofloxacin (aOR: 2.5 [1.6-3.9], ethionamide or prothionamide (aOR: 1.7 [1.3-2.3], use of four or more likely effective drugs in the initial intensive phase (aOR: 2.3 [1.3-3.9], and three or more likely effective drugs in the continuation phase (aOR: 2.7 [1.7-4.1]. Similar results were seen for the association of treatment success compared to failure/relapse or death: later generation quinolones, (aOR: 2.7 [1.7-4.3], ofloxacin (aOR: 2.3 [1.3-3.8], ethionamide or prothionamide (aOR: 1.7 [1.4-2.1], use of four or more likely effective drugs in the initial intensive phase (aOR: 2.7 [1.9-3.9], and three or more likely effective drugs in the continuation phase (aOR: 4.5 [3.4-6.0].In this individual patient data meta-analysis of observational data, improved MDR-TB treatment success and survival were associated with use of certain fluoroquinolones, ethionamide, or prothionamide, and greater total number of effective drugs. However, randomized trials are urgently needed to optimize MDR-TB treatment. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  8. Response-guided therapy of regimens based on PEG-interferon for chronic hepatitis B using on-treatment hepatitis B surface antigen quantification: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hong; Wei, Fang; Liu, Jun-Ying; Hu, Huai-Dong; Ren, Hong; Hu, Peng

    2015-10-01

    The efficacy of on-treatment hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) levels in guiding pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) therapy for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infections is still controversial. The aim of this study is to quantitatively evaluate the efficacy of on-treatment HBsAg levels as a response-guided therapy strategy to guide PEG-IFN-based therapies for CHB. We searched PUBMED, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (1997-2013) for clinical research involving HBsAg quantification, and the response to PEG-IFN-based therapy. Pooled effect of HBsAg levels on guiding PEG-IFN-based therapies for CHB was evaluated using fixed-effects or random-effects model. From 13 studies (n = 1493 patients), patients with optimal on-treatment HBsAg levels were found to have a greater chance of attaining a response (RR 5.17, 95 % CI 3.75-7.11, p response rate was 54 % (95 % CI 44-63 %). At week 12, patients without optimal on-treatment HBsAg levels had hardly achieved a response (the early non-response rate: 99 %, 95 % CI 98-100 %). At 24 weeks, the response rate increased to 79 % in HBeAg-negative patients. This meta-analysis suggested that on-treatment HBsAg quantification is effective in guiding the therapy of PEG-IFN in CHB infections, especially in HBeAg-negative patients.

  9. Efficacy of intra-articular hyaluronic acid injections and exercise-based rehabilitation programme, administered as isolated or integrated therapeutic regimens for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccomanno, Maristella F; Donati, Fabrizio; Careri, Silvia; Bartoli, Matteo; Severini, Gabriele; Milano, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    To assess the efficacy of intra-articular hyaluronic acid (HA) injections and exercise-based rehabilitation (EBR) programme, administered as isolated or integrated for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. One hundred sixty-five patients affected by moderate degrees of knee OA were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (HA) underwent three HA injections (one every 2 weeks); group 2 (EBR) underwent 20 treatment sessions in a month of an individualized programme; and group 3 (HA + EBR) received both treatments simultaneously. Primary outcome was the Italian version of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index; secondary outcome was the evaluation of active range of movement (AROM). All patients were evaluated before and 1, 3 and 6 months after treatment. Significance was set at p injections and individualized rehabilitation programmes administered in isolation or in combination are effective in improving knee function and pain relief. The combined treatment showed the greatest pain relief at 1-month follow-up compared to either in isolation. Compared to the previous studies, this is the first study, which proposed an EBR programme tailored to the compartment of the knee joint most involved in the degenerative process. I.

  10. A 3-day regimen with azithromycin 1.5% eyedrops for the treatment of purulent bacterial conjunctivitis in children: efficacy on clinical signs and impact on the burden of illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bremond-Gignac D

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dominique Bremond-Gignac,1,2 Riadh Messaoud,3 Sihem Lazreg,4 Claude Speeg-Schatz,5 Didier Renault,6 Frédéric Chiambaretta7,8 On behalf of the Azithromycin Pediatric Study Group 1Ophthalmology Department, Centre St Victor, University Hospital of Amiens, Picardie Jules Verne University, Amiens, France; 2CNRS FR3636, Paris V University, France; 3Ophthalmology Department, Tahar Sfar University Hospital, Mahdia, Tunisia; 4Dar El Beida, Blida, Algeria; 5Ophthalmology Department, University Hospital of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France; 6Laboratoires THÉA, Clermont-Ferrand, France; 7Ophthalmology Department, University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand, Gabriel Montpied Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand, France; 8EA 7281 R2D2, Auvergne University, Clermont-Ferrand, France Purpose: To compare the efficacy of azithromycin 1.5% versus tobramycin 0.3% eyedrops on clinical ocular signs and symptoms of bacterial conjunctivitis in children and to assess the parents’ satisfaction regarding the dosing regimen.Patients and methods: An international, multicenter, randomized, investigator-masked, controlled clinical trial conducted in children (1 day to 18 years old with bulbar conjunctival hyperemia and purulent discharge. Azithromycin 1.5% was administered as 1 drop twice daily for 3 days, and tobramycin 0.3% as 1 drop every 2 hours for 2 days, then 4 times daily for 5 days.Results: A total of 286 patients (mean age: 3.2 years were enrolled. In children with bacteriologically positive cultures (N=203, azithromycin produced a significantly greater improvement in conjunctival discharge (P<0.01 and a trend (P=0.054 toward improvement in conjunctival hyperemia at day 7 than did tobramycin. Complete resolution of conjunctival discharge was significantly more frequent at day 3 on azithromycin than tobramycin (P=0.005. More parents found azithromycin easier to use (in terms of treatment duration, total number of instillations, instilling drops during the day, and difficulty in

  11. Improved darunavir genotypic mutation score predicting treatment response for patients infected with HIV-1 subtype B and non-subtype B receiving a salvage regimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Luca, Andrea; Flandre, Philippe; Dunn, David

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to improve the prediction of the impact of HIV-1 protease mutations in different viral subtypes on virological response to darunavir. METHODS: Darunavir-containing treatment change episodes (TCEs) in patients previously failing PIs were selected from la...

  12. A SURVEY OF PREVENTION AND TREATMENT REGIMENS FOR ORAL SEQUELAE RESULTING FROM HEAD AND NECK RADIOTHERAPY USED IN DUTCH RADIOTHERAPY INSTITUTES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JANSMA, J; VISSINK, A; BOUMA, J; VERMEY, A; PANDERS, AK; SGRAVENMADE, EJ

    1992-01-01

    Radiation treatment plays an important role in the management of head and neck cancer. Unfortunately several radiation-induced side effects may occur including mucositis, hyposalivation, radiation caries, trismus and osteoradionecrosis. It is generally accepted that most side effects can be

  13. Effectiveness of Efavirenz-Based Regimens in Young HIV-Infected Children Treated for Tuberculosis: A Treatment Option for Resource-Limited Settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. van Dijk (Janneke); C.G. Sutcliffe (Catherine); F. Hamangaba (Francis); C. Bositis (Christopher); D.C. Watson (Douglas); W.J. Moss (William)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Antiretroviral treatment (ART) options for young children co-infected with HIV and tuberculosis are limited in resource-poor settings due to limited data on the use of efavirenz (EFV). Using available pharmacokinetic data, an EFV dosing schedule was developed for young

  14. A real-world impact of cost-effectiveness of pegylated interferon/ribavarin regimens on treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis C patients in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Chien; Liu, Ta-Wei; Hsieh, Meng-Hsuan; Yeh, Ming-Lun; Liang, Po-Cheng; Lin, Yi-Hung; Huang, Ching-I; Huang, Chung-Feng; Hsieh, Ming-Yen; Hou, Nai-Jen; Lin, Zu-Yau; Chen, Shinn-Cherng; Huang, Jee-Fu; Dai, Chia-Yen; Chuang, Wan-Long; Yu, Ming-Lung

    2017-01-01

    Treatments with pegylated interferon/ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV) has been standard-of-care in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) (CHC) infection and reimbursed in Taiwan. However, the actual cost-effectiveness remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate a real-world cost-effectiveness for CHC patients treated with PEG-IFN/RBV by using a clinical cohort with linkage to the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. The total and itemized medical-care expenses of outpatient visits of 117 treatment-naïve CHC patients with linkage to the two million sampling of the National Health Insurance Research Database were collected. Four components of costs were assessed, including antiviral agents, nonantiviral agents, laboratory testing and consultation costs. The cost per sustained virological response (SVR) achieved was calculated to evaluate the cost-effectiveness. The average cost per treatment in 117 naïve Taiwanese CHC patients was $4620. With an overall SVR rate of 78.6%, the average cost per SVR was $5878. The average medical-care cost per treatment for 52 Genotype 1 (G1) patients was $5133, including $4420 for antivirals, $380 for nonantivirals, $302 for laboratory, and $78 for consultation, compared to $4209, $3635, $317, $233, and $56 for 65 Genotype 2 (G2) patients. With an SVR rate at 67.3% for G1 and 87.7% for G2 patients, the cost per SVR achieved was significantly higher in G1 patients than those in G2 patients ($7627 vs. $4799, p = 0.001). In the current study, we provided the real-world cost-effectiveness of PEG-IFN/RBV for treatment-naïve CHC patients. The genotype-specific cost-effectiveness could enhance decision-making for policy-makers in the coming era of directly acting antiviral therapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  15. Short-Term Treatment of Bothersome Bleeding for Etonogestrel Implant Users Using a 14-Day Oral Contraceptive Pill Regimen: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiahi, Maryam; McBride, Madeline; Sheeder, Jeanelle; Teal, Stephanie

    2015-09-01

    To understand whether using oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) results in temporary interruption of bleeding for etonogestrel contraceptive implant users during a 14-day course. In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned etonogestrel implant users reporting 7 consecutive days or more of bothersome bleeding to receive 14 pills of study drug (150 microgram levonorgestrel and 30 microgram ethinyl estradiol combined OCPs) or an identical-appearing placebo. The primary outcome was the proportion of women in each group who stopped bleeding during therapy and continued to report no bleeding at the end of therapy. Prespecified secondary outcomes were number of days until temporary interruption of bleeding occurred, number of days without bleeding during therapy, and number of days to recurrence of bleeding after discontinuation of therapy. We hypothesized that temporary interruption of bleeding would occur in 80% of the treatment group compared with 20% in the control group; using 80% power, we needed a sample size of 26 women. We performed intent-to-treat analysis. From November 2013 through December 2014, 66 women were screened and 32 were randomized: OCPs (n=16) or placebo (n=16). The majority was young, Caucasian women with reported bleeding as extremely or very annoying; groups had similar baseline characteristics. Participants randomized OCPs were more likely (14 of 16 [87.5%±16.2%] compared with six of 16 [37.5%±23.7%]) to have a temporary interruption of bleeding during the study drug period (odds ratio 11.7, 95% confidence interval 1.9-70.2). Of women in the OCP arm who had a temporary interruption, 85.7% had bleeding recurrence within 10 days after treatment. Bothersome bleeding in etonogestrel contraceptive implant users will usually stop with 14-day OCP treatment, but bleeding most often resumes within days of treatment cessation. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01968135. I.

  16. Intrapatient viral diversity and treatment outcome in patients with genotype 3a hepatitis C virus infection on sofosbuvir-containing regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, N; Ragonnet-Cronin, M; Murrell, B; Chodavarapu, K; Martin, R; Chang, S; Miller, M D; Feld, J J; Sulkowski, M; Mangia, A; Wertheim, J O; Osinusi, A; McNally, J; Brainard, D; Mo, H; Svarovskaia, E S

    2018-04-01

    Treatment with the direct-acting antiviral agent (DAA) sofosbuvir (SOF), an NS5B inhibitor, and velpatasvir (VEL), an NS5A inhibitor, demonstrates viral cure rates of ≥95% in hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes (GT) 1-6. Here, we investigated intrapatient HCV diversity in NS5A and NS5B using Shannon entropy to examine the relationship between viral diversity and treatment outcome. At baseline, HCV diversity was lowest in patients infected with HCV GT3 as compared to the other GTs, and viral diversity was greater in NS5A than NS5B (P diversity. However, among persons treated with SOF/VEL, a decrease in diversity from baseline was observed at relapse in the majority virologic failures, consistent with a viral bottleneck event at relapse. In contrast, an increase in diversity was observed in 27% of SOF+RBV virologic failures. We investigated whether the increase in diversity was due to an increase in the transition rate, one mode of potential RBV-mediated mutagenesis; however, we found no evidence of this mechanism. Overall, we did not observe that viral diversity at baseline influenced treatment outcome, but the diversity changes observed at relapse can improve our understanding of RBV viral suppression in vivo. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Determining treatment levels of comorbid psychiatric conditions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Psychiatric co-morbidities occur more frequently in patients with epilepsy but are usually undertreated. Treatment of these disorders is key to reducing mortality via suicide and other causes. This study determined the levels of treatment of psychiatric comorbidities at clinics in Lusaka, Zambia. Methodology: This ...

  18. Determining what works in the treatment of PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampold, Bruce E; Imel, Zac E; Laska, Kevin M; Benish, Steven; Miller, Scott D; Flückiger, Christoph; Del Re, Aaron C; Baardseth, Timothy P; Budge, Stephanie

    2010-12-01

    Many researchers accept that trauma-focused treatments are superior to non-trauma focused treatments for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). However, Benish, Imel, and Wampold (2008) recently published a meta-analysis of clinical trials directly comparing 'bona fide' PTSD treatments that failed to reject the null hypothesis that PTSD treatments are similarly effective. They concluded that the results of previous meta-analysis may have been influenced by several confounds, including the use of control treatments, to make conclusions about the relative efficacy of specific PTSD treatments. Ehlers et al. (2010) claim that the selection procedures of the Benish et al. meta-analysis were biased and cite results from individual studies and previous meta-analyses that suggest trauma-focused psychological treatments are superior to non-trauma focused treatments. We first offer a review and justification of the coding criteria and procedure used in Benish et al. In addition, we discuss the appropriateness of utilizing treatments designed to control for non-specifics or common factors such as 'supportive therapy' for determining the relative efficacy of specific PTSD treatments. Finally, we note several additional confounds, such as therapist effects, allegiance, and alteration of legitimate protocols, in PTSD research and describe conceptual problems involved in the classification scheme used to determine the "trauma focus" of interventions, which lead to inappropriate conclusions about what works in the treatment of PTSD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The impact on coagulation of an intravenous loading dose in addition to a subcutaneous regimen of low-molecular-weight heparin in the initial treatment of acute coronary syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijsterveld, Nick R.; Moons, Arno H.; Meijers, Joost C. M.; Levi, Marcel; Büller, Harry R.; Peters, Ron J. G.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We sought to quantify the impact of adding an intravenous loading dose to a subcutaneous regimen of enoxaparin in patients with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). BACKGROUND It is unclear whether an intravenous (M loading dose of enoxaparin should be added to a subcutaneous (SQ) regimen in

  20. A randomized, controlled comparative study of the wrinkle reduction benefits of a cosmetic niacinamide/peptide/retinyl propionate product regimen vs. a prescription 0·02% tretinoin product regimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, JJJ; Hillebrand, GG; Raleigh, P; Li, J; Marmor, MJ; Bertucci, V; Grimes, PE; Mandy, SH; Perez, MI; Weinkle, SH; Kaczvinsky, JR

    2010-01-01

    Background Tretinoin is considered the benchmark prescription topical therapy for improving fine facial wrinkles, but skin tolerance issues can affect patient compliance. In contrast, cosmetic antiwrinkle products are well tolerated but are generally presumed to be less efficacious than tretinoin. Objectives To compare the efficacy of a cosmetic moisturizer regimen vs. a prescription regimen with 0·02% tretinoin for improving the appearance of facial wrinkles. Methods An 8-week, randomized, parallel-group study was conducted in 196 women with moderate to moderately severe periorbital wrinkles. Following 2 weeks washout, subjects on the cosmetic regimen (n=99) used a sun protection factor (SPF) 30 moisturizing lotion containing 5% niacinamide, peptides and antioxidants, a moisturizing cream containing niacinamide and peptides, and a targeted wrinkle product containing niacinamide, peptides and 0·3% retinyl propionate. Subjects on the prescription regimen (n=97) used 0·02% tretinoin plus moisturizing SPF 30 sunscreen. Subject cohorts (n=25) continued treatment for an additional 16 weeks. Changes in facial wrinkling were assessed by both expert grading and image analysis of digital images of subjects’ faces and by self-assessment questionnaire. Product tolerance was assessed via clinical erythema and dryness grading, subject self-assessment, and determinations of skin barrier integrity (transepidermal water loss) and stratum corneum protein changes. Results The cosmetic regimen significantly improved wrinkle appearance after 8 weeks relative to tretinoin, with comparable benefits after 24 weeks. The cosmetic regimen was significantly better tolerated than tretinoin through 8 weeks by all measures. Conclusions An appropriately designed cosmetic regimen can improve facial wrinkle appearance comparably with the benchmark prescription treatment, with improved tolerability. PMID:20374604

  1. A randomized, controlled comparative study of the wrinkle reduction benefits of a cosmetic niacinamide/peptide/retinyl propionate product regimen vs. a prescription 0.02% tretinoin product regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, J J J; Hillebrand, G G; Raleigh, P; Li, J; Marmor, M J; Bertucci, V; Grimes, P E; Mandy, S H; Perez, M I; Weinkle, S H; Kaczvinsky, J R

    2010-03-01

    Tretinoin is considered the benchmark prescription topical therapy for improving fine facial wrinkles, but skin tolerance issues can affect patient compliance. In contrast, cosmetic antiwrinkle products are well tolerated but are generally presumed to be less efficacious than tretinoin. To compare the efficacy of a cosmetic moisturizer regimen vs. a prescription regimen with 0.02% tretinoin for improving the appearance of facial wrinkles. An 8-week, randomized, parallel-group study was conducted in 196 women with moderate to moderately severe periorbital wrinkles. Following 2 weeks washout, subjects on the cosmetic regimen (n = 99) used a sun protection factor (SPF) 30 moisturizing lotion containing 5% niacinamide, peptides and antioxidants, a moisturizing cream containing niacinamide and peptides, and a targeted wrinkle product containing niacinamide, peptides and 0.3% retinyl propionate. Subjects on the prescription regimen (n = 97) used 0.02% tretinoin plus moisturizing SPF 30 sunscreen. Subject cohorts (n = 25) continued treatment for an additional 16 weeks. Changes in facial wrinkling were assessed by both expert grading and image analysis of digital images of subjects' faces and by self-assessment questionnaire. Product tolerance was assessed via clinical erythema and dryness grading, subject self-assessment, and determinations of skin barrier integrity (transepidermal water loss) and stratum corneum protein changes. The cosmetic regimen significantly improved wrinkle appearance after 8 weeks relative to tretinoin, with comparable benefits after 24 weeks. The cosmetic regimen was significantly better tolerated than tretinoin through 8 weeks by all measures. An appropriately designed cosmetic regimen can improve facial wrinkle appearance comparably with the benchmark prescription treatment, with improved tolerability.

  2. Impact of body weight on virological and immunological responses to efavirenz-containing regimens in HIV-infected, treatment-naive adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marzolini, Catia; Sabin, Caroline; Raffi, François

    2015-01-01

    in heavy compared to normal-weight HIV-infected patients. DESIGN: Observational European cohort collaboration study. METHODS: Eligible patients were antiretroviral-naïve with documented weight prior to EFV start and follow-up viral loads after treatment initiation. Cox regression analyses evaluated...... the association between weight and time to first undetectable viral load (50 copies/ml) after initial suppression over 5 years of follow-up. Recovery of CD4 cell count was evaluated 6 and 12 months after EFV...... initiation. Analyses were stratified by weight (kg) group (I - 55, 80, 85, 90, 95). RESULTS: The study included 19,968 patients, of whom 9.1, 68.3, 9.1, 5.8, 3.5, and 4.3% were in weight groups I-VI, respectively. Overall, 81.1% patients...

  3. Recombinant human growth hormone treatment, using two dose regimens in children with chronic renal failure--a report on linear growth and adverse effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Niels Thomas; Holmberg, Christer; Rönnholm, Kai A R

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the efficiency and the adverse effects of 2 or 4 IU/m2/day of growth hormone (GH) in the first year and 4 IU/m2/day in the second. Of 29 growth-retarded children with chronic renal failure (CRF) (aged 3.4-15.1 years), 23 completed the first year of therapy, and 16...... the first year (p bone age did not advance inappropriately. The integrated insulin levels (AUC) increased significantly after 1 year of therapy in both groups. HbA1c, levels did not change. The number of adverse events was highest in the low-dose group, in which one patient developed...... overt insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. In conclusion, glucose metabolism should be monitored in children with CRF during rhGH-treatment. GH therapy in our patients resulted in a significant increase in height velocity with no inappropriate bone age progression and few serious adverse effects, all...

  4. Neglected Tropical Diseases: Treatment of Dermatological Manifestation of Filariasis with Combination Regimen of Albendazole, Ivermectin, and Loratadine: A Case Report from a Suburban Community in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osede Ignis Iribhogbe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Threadlike filarial nematodes have been identified as the causative agent of filariasis. Cutaneous filariasis is caused primarily by Loa loa, Onchocerca volvulus, and Mansonella streptocerca. These parasites occupy the subcutaneous layer of the skin. However, other filarial parasites are usually associated with varying degrees of dermatological manifestations. In the present discourse, two cases of cutaneous filariasis were diagnosed in two female patients (21 and 40 years old, respectively in Remitch Clinic and Maternity located in a nonriverine community in Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria. In this report, patients with body mass index (BMI of 18.97 and 23.45 kg/m2, respectively, presented on two different occasions at least 6 months apart with hyperpigmented skin lesions in the upper and lower limbs, respectively. There was associated intense pruritus with no evidence of lymphadenopathy and lymphoedema. Following laboratory confirmation of filariasis, the patients were placed on a single oral dose combination of albendazole (400 mg + ivermectin (200 mcg/kg, while oral doses of loratadine 10 mg were administered daily for 5 days. Patients were carefully followed up for 6 weeks during which recession of the lesion and untoward reactions were monitored. It was observed that within 6 weeks of treatment, there was a dramatic recession of skin lesion. Adverse effect reported from use of the combination was mild. This case report revealed that cutaneous filariasis is not an uncommon presentation of filariasis infestation in Nigeria. The report also validates the safety and efficacy of the combination in the management of cutaneous manifestation of the disease.

  5. Review of key knowledge gaps in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency detection with regard to the safe clinical deployment of 8-aminoquinoline treatment regimens: a workshop report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis and management of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a crucial aspect in the current phases of malaria control and elimination, which will require the wider use of 8-aminoquinolines for both reducing Plasmodium falciparum transmission and achieving the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax. 8-aminoquinolines, such as primaquine, can induce severe haemolysis in G6PD-deficient individuals, potentially creating significant morbidity and undermining confidence in 8-aminoquinoline prescription. On the other hand, erring on the side of safety and excluding large numbers of people with unconfirmed G6PD deficiency from treatment with 8-aminoquinolines will diminish the impact of these drugs. Estimating the remaining G6PD enzyme activity is the most direct, accessible, and reliable assessment of the phenotype and remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of patients who could be harmed by the administration of primaquine. Genotyping seems an unambiguous technique, but its use is limited by cost and the large range of recognized G6PD genotypes. A number of enzyme activity assays diagnose G6PD deficiency, but they require a cold chain, specialized equipment, and laboratory skills. These assays are impractical for care delivery where most patients with malaria live. Improvements to the diagnosis of G6PD deficiency are required for the broader and safer use of 8-aminoquinolines to kill hypnozoites, while lower doses of primaquine may be safely used to kill gametocytes without testing. The discussions and conclusions of a workshop conducted in Incheon, Korea in May 2012 to review key knowledge gaps in G6PD deficiency are reported here. PMID:23537118

  6. Review of key knowledge gaps in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency detection with regard to the safe clinical deployment of 8-aminoquinoline treatment regimens: a workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Seidlein, Lorenz; Auburn, Sarah; Espino, Fe; Shanks, Dennis; Cheng, Qin; McCarthy, James; Baird, Kevin; Moyes, Catherine; Howes, Rosalind; Ménard, Didier; Bancone, Germana; Winasti-Satyahraha, Ari; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Green, Justin; Domingo, Gonzalo; Yeung, Shunmay; Price, Ric

    2013-03-27

    The diagnosis and management of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a crucial aspect in the current phases of malaria control and elimination, which will require the wider use of 8-aminoquinolines for both reducing Plasmodium falciparum transmission and achieving the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax. 8-aminoquinolines, such as primaquine, can induce severe haemolysis in G6PD-deficient individuals, potentially creating significant morbidity and undermining confidence in 8-aminoquinoline prescription. On the other hand, erring on the side of safety and excluding large numbers of people with unconfirmed G6PD deficiency from treatment with 8-aminoquinolines will diminish the impact of these drugs. Estimating the remaining G6PD enzyme activity is the most direct, accessible, and reliable assessment of the phenotype and remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of patients who could be harmed by the administration of primaquine. Genotyping seems an unambiguous technique, but its use is limited by cost and the large range of recognized G6PD genotypes. A number of enzyme activity assays diagnose G6PD deficiency, but they require a cold chain, specialized equipment, and laboratory skills. These assays are impractical for care delivery where most patients with malaria live. Improvements to the diagnosis of G6PD deficiency are required for the broader and safer use of 8-aminoquinolines to kill hypnozoites, while lower doses of primaquine may be safely used to kill gametocytes without testing. The discussions and conclusions of a workshop conducted in Incheon, Korea in May 2012 to review key knowledge gaps in G6PD deficiency are reported here.

  7. Continuous aerobic treatment of dairy waste waters. Supported reactor; Depuracion aerobia de aguas residuales de industrias lacteas en regimen continuo. Reactor con soporte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carta, F.; Romeero, F.; Pereda, J.; Alvarez, P. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    1998-12-31

    Experiences in continuous flow been carried out to achieve effluents with low COD and a minimum ammonium nitrogen concentration. A 80 liter reactor with rectangular cross-section (width 25 cm and depth 30 cm) and length 150 cm was used thermostated. The system was aerated by air injection the air passed through perforated tubes settled at the bottom and covered by a plastic mesh. The liquor (water and milk) temperature was near 30 degree centigree Mixtures of milk and water, with pH of 11 and containing 3500 mg COD/1 (as sewage from Dairy Center`s) were fed into the reactor. A mixed cultive constituted of cultives isolated from Dairy Center`s effluent adapted to 30 degree centigree for 19 days, and mixed with sludge from a domestic wastewater treatment plant was used as inoculum. The influent flow rates were 81/d, 101/d and 12,6 L/d. The experiences went on up to stationary-state. In all the experience, the pH values become stabilized over 8,5 and the nitrite and nitrate nitrogen concentrations were insignificant. It was observed that when flow rate rises, the average COD values and the ammonium nitrogen concentrations (achieved at the end of experiences) decreased in a parallel way up to a certain flow rate value at which they are almost constant with the increase of the flow rate. The sludge analysis showed a composition of 5,4 gN and 2,4 gP in 100 g biomass. (Author) 16 refs.

  8. Cost minimization analysis of two treatment regimens for low-risk rhabdomyosarcoma in children: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Heidi; Swint, J Michael; Lal, Lincy; Meza, Jane; Walterhouse, David; Hawkins, Douglas S; Okcu, M Fatih

    2014-06-01

    Recent Children's Oncology Group trials for low-risk rhabdomyosarcoma attempted to reduce therapy while maintaining excellent outcomes. D9602 delivered 45 weeks of outpatient vincristine and dactinomycin (VA) for patients in Subgroup A. ARST0331 reduced the duration of therapy to 22 weeks but added four doses of cyclophosphamide to VA for patients in Subset 1. Failure-free survival was similar. We undertook a cost minimization comparison to help guide future decision-making. Addressing the costs of treatment from the healthcare perspective we modeled a simple decision-analytic model from aggregate clinical trial data. Medical care inputs and probabilities were estimated from trial reports and focused chart review. Costs of radiation, surgery and off-therapy surveillance were excluded. Unit costs were obtained from literature and national reimbursement and inpatient utilization databases and converted to 2012 US dollars. Model uncertainty was assessed with first-order sensitivity analysis. Direct medical costs were $46,393 for D9602 and $43,261 for ARST0331 respectively, making ARST0331 the less costly strategy. Dactinomycin contributed the most to D9602 total costs but varied with age (42-69%). Chemotherapy administration costs accounted for the largest proportion of ARST0331 total costs (39-57%). ARST0331 incurred fewer costs than D9602 under most alternative distributive models and alternative clinical practice assumptions. Cost analysis suggests that ARST0331 may incur fewer costs than D9602 from the healthcare system's perspective. Attention to the services driving the costs provides directions for future efficiency improvements. Future studies should prospectively consider the patient and family's perspective. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Revisiting Dosing Regimen Using Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Mathematical Modeling: Densification and Intensification of Combination Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meille, Christophe; Barbolosi, Dominique; Ciccolini, Joseph; Freyer, Gilles; Iliadis, Athanassios

    2016-08-01

    Controlling effects of drugs administered in combination is particularly challenging with a densified regimen because of life-threatening hematological toxicities. We have developed a mathematical model to optimize drug dosing regimens and to redesign the dose intensification-dose escalation process, using densified cycles of combined anticancer drugs. A generic mathematical model was developed to describe the main components of the real process, including pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy pharmacodynamics, and non-hematological toxicity risk. This model allowed for computing the distribution of the total drug amount of each drug in combination, for each escalation dose level, in order to minimize the average tumor mass for each cycle. This was achieved while complying with absolute neutrophil count clinical constraints and without exceeding a fixed risk of non-hematological dose-limiting toxicity. The innovative part of this work was the development of densifying and intensifying designs in a unified procedure. This model enabled us to determine the appropriate regimen in a pilot phase I/II study in metastatic breast patients for a 2-week-cycle treatment of docetaxel plus epirubicin doublet, and to propose a new dose-ranging process. In addition to the present application, this method can be further used to achieve optimization of any combination therapy, thus improving the efficacy versus toxicity balance of such a regimen.

  10. Outcomes after chemotherapy with WHO category II regimen in a population with high prevalence of drug resistant tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Matthys

    Full Text Available Standard short course chemotherapy is recommended by the World Health Organization to control tuberculosis worldwide. However, in settings with high drug resistance, first line standard regimens are linked with high treatment failure. We evaluated treatment outcomes after standardized chemotherapy with the WHO recommended category II retreatment regimen in a prison with a high prevalence of drug resistant tuberculosis (TB. A cohort of 233 culture positive TB patients was followed through smear microscopy, culture, drug susceptibility testing and DNA fingerprinting at baseline, after 3 months and at the end of treatment. Overall 172 patients (74% became culture negative, while 43 (18% remained positive at the end of treatment. Among those 43 cases, 58% of failures were determined to be due to treatment with an inadequate drug regimen and 42% to either an initial mixed infection or re-infection while under treatment. Overall, drug resistance amplification during treatment occurred in 3.4% of the patient cohort. This study demonstrates that treatment failure is linked to initial drug resistance, that amplification of drug resistance occurs, and that mixed infection and re-infection during standard treatment contribute to treatment failure in confined settings with high prevalence of drug resistance.

  11. Visceral leishmaniasis treatment outcome and its determinants in northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welay, Getachew Mebrahtu; Alene, Kefyalew Addis; Dachew, Berihun Assefa

    2016-01-01

    Poor treatment outcomes of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are responsible for the high mortality rate of this condition in resource-limited settings such as Ethiopia. This study aimed to identify the proportion of poor VL treatment outcomes in northwest Ethiopia and to evaluate the determinants associated with poor outcomes. A hospital-based retrospective study was conducted among 595 VL patients who were admitted to Kahsay Abera Hospital in northwest Ethiopia from October 2010 to April 2013. Data were entered into Epi Info version 7.0 and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to identify the determinants of VL treatment outcomes. Adjusted odds ratio (aORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used, and p -values <0.05 were considered to indicate statistical significance. The proportion of poor treatment outcomes was 23.7%. Late diagnosis (≥29 days) (aOR, 4.34; 95% CI, 2.22 to 8.46), severe illness at admission (inability to walk) (aOR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.06 to 2.40) and coinfection with VL and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (aOR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.40 to 5.20) were found to be determinants of poor VL treatment outcomes. Poor treatment outcomes, such as death, treatment failure, and non-adherence, were found to be common. Special attention must be paid to severely ill and VL/HIV-coinfected patients. To improve VL treatment outcomes, the early diagnosis and treatment of VL patients is recommended.

  12. [Combined treatment: regimens, indications and safety profile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñiz Grijalvo, Ovidio; Villar Ortiz, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Statins are the current basis of lipid-lowering therapy, despite which may have limitations on efficacy and safety. In high risk patients who do not achieve current lipid goals, in those intolerant to statins or those with atherogenic dyslipidemia, it is possible combine two or more lipid lowering drugs, including statins, ezetimibe, bile acid sequestrants, fibrates, niacin and prescription omega-3 fatty acids. However, for most of these combination therapies pivotal data on clinical outcomes are still lacking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEA. All rights reserved.

  13. Determinants of patient delay in seeking treatment among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lmboera

    This study investigates the pattern and determinants of patients delay in seeking treatment among pulmonary tuberculosis cases attending a Government Chest Clinic in Ibadan, Nigeria. A descriptive cross sectional study was employed. A face to face interview of 102 newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients at the clinic was ...

  14. Determinants of patient delay in seeking treatment among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients delay in seeking care increases the transmission of pulmonary tuberculosis and hence the burden of the disease. This study investigates the pattern and determinants of patients delay in seeking treatment among pulmonary tuberculosis cases attending a Government Chest Clinic in Ibadan, Nigeria. A descriptive ...

  15. Determinants of patient delay in seeking treatment among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lmboera

    Abstract: Patients delay in seeking care increases the transmission of pulmonary tuberculosis and hence the burden of the disease. This study investigates the pattern and determinants of patients delay in seeking treatment among pulmonary tuberculosis cases attending a Government Chest Clinic in Ibadan, Nigeria.

  16. Odontogenic maxillofacial infections, evaluation of determinants and treatment modalities

    OpenAIRE

    Rastenienė, Rūta

    2016-01-01

    Despite advancements in medicine odontogenic maxillofacial infections are still prevalent in Lithuania. This pathology can be life threatening, and challenging in treatment. There have been no previous national Lithuanian studies about odontogenic maxillofacial infections. The present work evaluated different aspects related to management of Lithuanian patients with acute odontogenic maxillofacial infections (AOMI). This clinical study examined different AOMI-related determinants (social, cli...

  17. Radical curative efficacy of tafenoquine combination regimens in Plasmodium cynomolgi-infected Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenworthy David

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tafenoquine is an 8-aminoquinoline being developed for radical cure (blood and liver stage elimination of Plasmodium vivax. During monotherapy treatment, the compound exhibits slow parasite and fever clearance times, and toxicity in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is a concern. Combination with other antimalarials may mitigate these concerns. Methods In 2005, the radical curative efficacy of tafenoquine combinations was investigated in Plasmodium cynomolgi-infected naïve Indian-origin Rhesus monkeys. In the first cohort, groups of two monkeys were treated with a three-day regimen of tafenoquine at different doses alone and in combination with a three-day chloroquine regimen to determine the minimum curative dose (MCD. In the second cohort, the radical curative efficacy of a single-day regimen of tafenoquine-mefloquine was compared to that of two three-day regimens comprising tafenoquine at its MCD with chloroquine or artemether-lumefantrine in groups of six monkeys. In a final cohort, the efficacy of the MCD of tafenoquine against hypnozoites alone and in combination with chloroquine was investigated in groups of six monkeys after quinine pre-treatment to eliminate asexual parasites. Plasma tafenoquine, chloroquine and desethylchloroquine concentrations were determined by LC-MS in order to compare doses of the drugs to those used clinically in humans. Results The total MCD of tafenoquine required in combination regimens for radical cure was ten-fold lower (1.8 mg/kg versus 18 mg/kg than for monotherapy. This regimen (1.8 mg/kg was equally efficacious as monotherapy or in combination with chloroquine after quinine pre-treatment to eliminate asexual stages. The same dose of (1.8 mg/kg was radically curative in combination with artemether-lumefantrine. Tafenoquine was also radically curative when combined with mefloquine. The MCD of tafenoquine monotherapy for radical cure (18 mg/kg appears to be biologically

  18. Intravenous and intramuscular magnesium sulphate regimens in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-09-03

    Sep 3, 1993 ... parenterally, usually according to one of two popular regimens: the intramuscular (IM) regimen introduced by. Pritchard' and a continuous intravenous (IV) infusion described by Zuspan! Sibai et a/.3 have reported that lower serum magnesium values are achieved with Zuspan's regimen (maintenance dose ...

  19. [Choice of initial regimen for antiretroviral-naïve HIV patients: Analysis of motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouveix, E; Mortier, E; Beauchet, A; Dupont, C; Gerbe, J; Daneluzzi, V; Brazille, P; Berthe, H; Zucman, D; Genet, P; Simonpoli, A-M; de Truchis, P

    2016-12-01

    Several therapeutic combination antiretroviral therapy regimen are available for initial treatment in naïve HIV infected patients. The choice of a particular regimen remains often subjective. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with the choice of molecules in initial ARV prescriptions. From 01/01 to 30/10/2014, every initial cART prescription was analyzed regarding patients and physicians characteristics. Then, prescriptions were evaluated by an independent committee of ART prescribers. One hundred and thirty two consecutive initial prescriptions by 34 physicians of 11 medical centers were included: 71 M, migrants: 57 %, MSM: 21 %, CD4100 000 cp/mL (33 %). cART regimen were: NRTI/PI (43 %), NRTI/NNRTI (29.5 %), NRTI/integrase inhibitor (23 %). 75 % of initial cART regimen were consistent with expert guidelines recommendations. The choice of initial cART was not influenced by the type of HIV contamination risk group, patient's geographic origin, CD4 levels. In contrast, working or not (P=0.007), pregnancy wish (P=0.07), pregnancy (P=0.001), HIV RNA levels (P=0.02) and HIV primary infection (P=0.049) influenced the initial choice. Neither physician's age, nor physician's experience influenced this choice. The prescription's non accordance to 2013 French guidelines was mainly related to integrase inhibitor utilisation (P= 0.0001). Overall, cART initial choice is mostly consistent with guidelines. Primary HIV infection, procreation features and high viral load are the main factors influencing this choice. New regimen with better tolerability is prescribed even if it is not yet included in the guidelines. Copyright © 2016 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Premixed vs basal-bolus insulin regimen in Type 2 diabetes: comparison of clinical outcomes from randomized controlled trials and real-world data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwagu, U; Mamza, J; Gordon, J; Donnelly, R; Idris, I

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the concordance between data derived from randomized controlled trial (RCT) and real-world estimates of HbA 1c and weight change after 24 weeks of initiation of a basal-bolus compared with a premixed insulin regimen in people with Type 2 diabetes. Data eight RCTs were pooled after a systematic review of studies examining basal-bolus (n = 1893) or premixed (n = 1517) regimens. Real-world data were extracted from the UK primary care dataset for people on basal-bolus (n = 7483) or premixed insulin regimens (n=10 744). The mean differences between HbA 1c and weight from baseline were calculated using t-tests, while analysis of variance was used to compare the two treatment regimens. Linear regression analyses were used to determine the predictors of this change. Both insulin regimens were associated with HbA 1c reductions (real-world data -0.28%; RCT data, -1.4%) and weight gain (real-world data, +0.27 kg; RCT data, +2.96 kg) but there were no significant differences between basal-bolus and premixed insulin. Discordances in the pattern of treatment response were observed, however, between real-world and RCT data for both insulin regimens. For any given baseline HbA 1c concentration, the change in HbA 1c in the RCTs was greater than in real-world conditions and for those with baseline weight above ~60 kg, RCT data showed overall weight gain in contrast to slight weight loss in the real-world population. Lastly, for both randomized controlled trial and real-world populations, while greater baseline weight was associated with reduced response to treatment, the association was much steeper in the RCT than in the real-world population. In addition, greater baseline weight was associated with greater weight reductions in both premixed insulin and basal-bolus insulin regimens, although to a lesser extent with the latter. These results highlight specific discrepancies in the HbA 1c reduction and weight change in insulin regimen between real world versus RCT

  1. Thermoluminescent determination of prehistoric heat treatment of chert artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melcher, C.L.; Zimmerman, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    In recent years archeologists have become interested in the extent to which prehistoric peoples heat-treated chert prior to shaping it into tools. Thermoluminescent determination of the radiation dose accumulated by an artifact since it was formed or last heated provides a simple, reliable test for such heat treatment. This test can be applied to single artifacts without the need for raw source material for comparison. Results on 25 artifacts from four sites indicate that, for many chert sources, color and luster are not useful indicators of heat treatment by prehistoric peoples

  2. The effect of meal frequency in a reduced-energy regimen on the gastrointestinal and appetite hormones in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomised crossover study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Belinova

    Full Text Available Appetite and gastrointestinal hormones (GIHs participate in energy homeostasis, feeding behavior and regulation of body weight. We demonstrated previously the superior effect of a hypocaloric diet regimen with lower meal frequency (B2 on body weight, hepatic fat content, insulin sensitivity and feelings of hunger compared to the same diet divided into six smaller meals a day (A6. Studies with isoenergetic diet regimens indicate that lower meal frequency should also have an effect on fasting and postprandial responses of GIHs. The aim of this secondary analysis was to explore the effect of two hypocaloric diet regimens on fasting levels of appetite and GIHs and on their postprandial responses after a standard meal. It was hypothesized that lower meal frequency in a reduced-energy regimen leading to greater body weight reduction and reduced hunger would be associated with decreased plasma concentrations of GIHs: gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP, glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1, peptide YY(PYY, pancreatic polypeptide (PP and leptin and increased plasma concentration of ghrelin. The postprandial response of satiety hormones (GLP-1, PYY and PP and postprandial suppression of ghrelin will be improved.In a randomized crossover study, 54 patients suffering from type 2 diabetes (T2D underwent both regimens. The concentrations of GLP-1, GIP, PP, PYY, amylin, leptin and ghrelin were determined using multiplex immunoanalyses.Fasting leptin and GIP decreased in response to both regimens with no difference between the treatments (p = 0.37 and p = 0.83, respectively. Fasting ghrelin decreased in A6 and increased in B2 (with difference between regimens p = 0.023. Fasting PP increased in B2with no significant difference between regimens (p = 0.17. Neither GLP-1 nor PYY did change in either regimen. The decrease in body weight correlated negatively with changes in fasting ghrelin (r = -0.4, p<0.043 and the postprandial reduction of ghrelin correlated positively with

  3. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis to evaluate ceftaroline fosamil dosing regimens for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and complicated skin and skin-structure infections in patients with normal and impaired renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canut, A; Isla, A; Rodríguez-Gascón, A

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the probability of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic target attainment (PTA) of ceftaroline against clinical isolates causing community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) and complicated skin and skin-structure infection (cSSSI) in Europe was evaluated. Three dosing regimens were assessed: 600 mg every 12 h (q12 h) as a 1-h infusion (standard dose) or 600 mg every 8 h (q8 h) as a 2-h infusion in virtual patients with normal renal function; and 400 mg q12 h as a 1-h infusion in patients with moderate renal impairment. Pharmacokinetic and microbiological data were obtained from the literature. The PTA and the cumulative fraction of response (CFR) were calculated by Monte Carlo simulation. In patients with normal renal function, the ceftaroline standard dose (600 mg q12 h as a 1-h infusion) can be sufficient to treat CABP due to ceftazidime-susceptible (CAZ-S) Escherichia coli, CAZ-S Klebsiella pneumoniae, meticillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis (CFR>90%). However, against meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), the CFR was 72%. In cSSSI, the CFR was also ceftaroline 600 mg q8 h as a 2-h infusion or 400 mg q12 h as a 1-h infusion in patients with moderate renal insufficiency provided a high probability of treatment success (CFR ca. 100%) for most micro-organisms causing CABP and cSSSI, including MRSA and penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae. These results suggest that in patients with normal renal function, ceftaroline 600 mg q8 h as a 2-h infusion may be a better option than the standard dose, especially if the MRSA rate is high. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  4. Determinants of tuberculosis transmission and treatment abandonment in Fortaleza, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harling, Guy; Lima Neto, Antonio S; Sousa, Geziel S; Machado, Marcia M T; Castro, Marcia C

    2017-05-25

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a public health problem, despite recent achievements in reducing incidence and mortality rates. In Brazil, these achievements were above the worldwide average, but marked by large regional heterogeneities. In Fortaleza (5th largest city in Brazil), the tuberculosis cure rate has been declining and treatment abandonment has been increasing in the past decade, despite a reduction in incidence and an increase in directly observed therapy (DOT). These trends put efforts to eliminate tuberculosis at risk. We therefore sought to determine social and programmatic determinants of tuberculosis incidence and treatment abandonment in Fortaleza. We analyzed sociodemographic and clinical data for all new tuberculosis cases notified in the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN) from Fortaleza between 2007 and 2014. We calculated incidence rates for 117 neighborhoods in Fortaleza, assessed their spatial clustering, and used spatial regression models to quantify associations between neighborhood-level covariates and incidence rates. We used hierarchical logistic regression models to evaluate how individual- and neighborhood-level covariates predicted tuberculosis treatment abandonment. There were 12,338 new cases reported during the study period. Case rates across neighborhoods were significantly positively clustered in two low-income areas close to the city center. In an adjusted model, tuberculosis rates were significantly higher in neighborhoods with lower literacy, higher sewerage access and homicide rates, and a greater proportion of self-reported black residents. Treatment was abandoned in 1901 cases (15.4%), a rate that rose by 71% between 2007 and 2014. Abandonment was significantly associated with many individual sociodemographic and clinical factors. Notably, being recommended for DOT was protective for those who completed DOT, but associated with abandonment for those who did not. Low socioeconomic status areas have higher tuberculosis

  5. Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) with yttrium-90 resin microspheres plus standard systemic chemotherapy regimen of FOLFOX versus FOLFOX alone as first-line treatment of non-resectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer: the SIRFLOX study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Peter; Gebski, Val; Van Buskirk, Mark; Thurston, Kenneth; Cade, David N; Van Hazel, Guy A

    2014-12-01

    In colorectal cancer (CRC), unresectable liver metastases are linked to poor prognosis. Systemic chemotherapy with regimens such as FOLFOX (combination of infusional 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin and oxaliplatin) is the standard first-line treatment. The SIRFLOX trial was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of combining FOLFOX-based chemotherapy with Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT or radioembolisation) using yttrium-90 resin microspheres (SIR-SpheresR; Sirtex Medical Limited, North Sydney, Australia). SIRFLOX is a randomised, multicentre trial of mFOLFOX6 chemotherapy+/-SIRT as first-line treatment of patients with liver-only or liver-predominant metastatic CRC (mCRC). The trial aims to recruit adult chemotherapy-naive patients with proven liver metastases with or without limited extra-hepatic disease, a life expectancy of >=3 months and a WHO performance status of 0-1. Patients will be randomised to receive either mFOLFOX6 or SIRT+mFOLFOX6 (with a reduced dose of oxaliplatin in cycles 1-3 following SIRT). Patients in both arms can receive bevacizumab at investigator discretion. Protocol chemotherapy will continue until there is unacceptable toxicity, evidence of tumour progression, complete surgical resection or ablation of cancerous lesions, or the patient requests an end to treatment. The primary endpoint of the SIRFLOX trial is progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints include: PFS in the liver; tumour response rate (liver and any site); site of tumour progression; health-related quality of life; toxicity and safety; liver resection rate; and overall survival. Assuming an increase in the median PFS from 9.4 months to 12.5 months with the addition of SIRT to mFOLFOX6, recruiting >=450 patients will be sufficient for 80% power and 95% confidence. The SIRFLOX trial will establish the potential role of SIRT+standard systemic chemotherapy in the first-line management of mCRC with non-resectable liver metastases. SIRFLOX Clinical

  6. Hypofractionation Regimens for Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Large Brain Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Jiankui; Wang, Jian Z.; Lo, Simon; Grecula, John C.; Ammirati, Mario; Montebello, Joseph F.; Zhang Hualin; Gupta, Nilendu; Yuh, William T.C.; Mayr, Nina A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate equivalent regimens for hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HSRT) for brain tumor treatment and to provide dose-escalation guidance to maximize the tumor control within the normal brain tolerance. Methods and Materials: The linear-quadratic model, including the effect of nonuniform dose distributions, was used to evaluate the HSRT regimens. The α/β ratio was estimated using the Gammaknife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS) and whole-brain radiotherapy experience for large brain tumors. The HSRT regimens were derived using two methods: (1) an equivalent tumor control approach, which matches the whole-brain radiotherapy experience for many fractions and merges it with the GKSRS data for few fractions; and (2) a normal-tissue tolerance approach, which takes advantages of the dose conformity and fractionation of HSRT to approach the maximal dose tolerance of the normal brain. Results: A plausible α/β ratio of 12 Gy for brain tumor and a volume parameter n of 0.23 for normal brain were derived from the GKSRS and whole-brain radiotherapy data. The HSRT prescription regimens for the isoeffect of tumor irradiation were calculated. The normal-brain equivalent uniform dose decreased as the number of fractions increased, because of the advantage of fractionation. The regimens for potential dose escalation of HSRT within the limits of normal-brain tolerance were derived. Conclusions: The designed hypofractionated regimens could be used as a preliminary guide for HSRT dose prescription for large brain tumors to mimic the GKSRS experience and for dose escalation trials. Clinical studies are necessary to further tune the model parameters and validate these regimens

  7. Assessment of non-standard HIV antiretroviral therapy regimens at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-06

    Mar 6, 2016 ... Aim. Lighthouse Trust in Lilongwe, Malawi serves approximately 25,000 patients with HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens standardized according to national treatment guidelines. However, as a referral centre for complex cases, Lighthouse Trust occasionally treats patients with non-standard ART.

  8. Effects of different penning conditions, feeding regimens and season ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pigs were randomly allocated to three feeding regimens, a controlled single feeding, ad libitum single feeding and ad libitum group feeding, with six animals per ad libitum group. This resulted in 96 pigs in six treatments with six replicates. The diets were high (HF) and low (LF) nutrient dense feeds, where the LF was ...

  9. Comparison of different insulin regimens in elderly patients with NIDDM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolffenbuttel, B H; Sels, J P; Rondas-Colbers, G J; Menheere, P P; Nieuwenhuijzen Kruseman, A C

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the metabolic effects of three different frequently used regimens of insulin administration on blood glucose control and serum lipids, and the costs associated with this treatment, in subjects with NIDDM, who were poorly controlled with oral antihyperglycemic agents. RESEARCH

  10. Efficacy of Some Combination Regimens of Oral Hypoglycaemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To examine the efficacy of selected oral hypoglycaemic agent (OHA) regimens in a small group of patients receiving such treatment. Methods: This was a retrospective, observational study that involved patients who had been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus and undergoing routine follow-up at a teaching ...

  11. Assessment of non-standard HIV antiretroviral therapy regimens at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-06

    Mar 6, 2016 ... guidelines for children and not adults. Discussion. Less than 1% of the 17,000 patients receiving ART for treatment of HIV at Lighthouse Trust in 2012 were being treated with NS-ART, signifying a strong adherence to standardized regimens by clinicians. Assessing the reasons for use of NS-ART is essential ...

  12. Psychological determinants of life satisfaction in women undergoing infertility treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Anna Dembińska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Infertility treatment is a long-term process, spread out over months, or even years, and carries no guarantee of success. It generates an incessant state of uncertainty which becomes a chronic state of psychological discomfort. Each stage of treatment may become a source of more trouble. Women deciding to undergo infertility treatment are exposed to many negative feelings concerning different aspects of their life. Participants and procedure The present study was an attempt to understand psychological determinants of life satisfaction in women undergoing infertility treatment. The study group included 470 women treated for infertility. Results Patients perceiving more social support in general, as well as more of the support types used in the study, i.e. emotional, instrumental, informational and institutional support, and support from family and friends, have better self-esteem, higher acceptance of their infertility, higher satisfaction with life, higher hope as an emotional state, and lower levels of anxiety and depression. Three negative emotional states, i.e. anxiety, depression and irritation, are predictors influencing (lowering life satisfaction of women struggling with infertility. The strongest of these predictors is depression, which is also a factor lowering the acceptance of one’s own infertility. The conducted analyses revealed that predictors influencing the life satisfaction of patients treated for infertility are self-esteem and acceptance of one’s own infertility (apart from the aforementioned emotional state – anxiety, depression, irritation. It was found that the higher the self-esteem and acceptance of one’s own infertility, the higher was the satisfaction with life. Conclusions Knowledge of these determinants is extremely valuable for medical personnel conducting treatments, because, according to many studies, the psychological state of women suffering from procreation problems is connected not only with

  13. Abstractive Summarization of Drug Dosage Regimens for Supporting Drug Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugon, Adrien; Berthelot, Hélène; Venot, Alain; Favre, Madeleine; Duclos, Catherine; Lamy, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-01-01

    Complicated dosage regimens often reduce adherence to drug treatments. The ease-of-administration must thus be taken into account when prescribing. Given one drug, there exists often several dosage regimens. Hence, comparison to similar drugs is difficult. Simplifying and summarizing them appears to be a required task for supporting General Practitioners to find the drug with the simplest regimen for the patient. We propose a summarization in two steps: first prunes out all low-importance information, and second proceed to fusion of remaining information. Rules for pruning and fusion strategies were designed by an expert in drug models. Evaluation was conducted on a dataset of 169 drugs. The agreement rate was 27.2%. We demonstrate that applying rules leads to a result that is correct by a computational point of view, but the result is often meaningless for the GP. We conclude with recommendations for further work.

  14. Aggressive regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis decrease all-cause mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole D Mitnick

    Full Text Available A better understanding of the composition of optimal treatment regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB is essential for expanding universal access to effective treatment and for developing new therapies for MDR-TB. Analysis of observational data may inform the definition of an optimized regimen.This study assessed the impact of an aggressive regimen-one containing at least five likely effective drugs, including a fluoroquinolone and injectable-on treatment outcomes in a large MDR-TB patient cohort.This was a retrospective cohort study of patients treated in a national outpatient program in Peru between 1999 and 2002. We examined the association between receiving an aggressive regimen and the rate of death.In total, 669 patients were treated with individualized regimens for laboratory-confirmed MDR-TB. Isolates were resistant to a mean of 5.4 (SD 1.7 drugs. Cure or completion was achieved in 66.1% (442 of patients; death occurred in 20.8% (139. Patients who received an aggressive regimen were less likely to die (crude hazard ratio [HR]: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.44,0.89, compared to those who did not receive such a regimen. This association held in analyses adjusted for comorbidities and indicators of severity (adjusted HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.43,0.93.The aggressive regimen is a robust predictor of MDR-TB treatment outcome. TB policy makers and program directors should consider this standard as they design and implement regimens for patients with drug-resistant disease. Furthermore, the aggressive regimen should be considered the standard background regimen when designing randomized trials of treatment for drug-resistant TB.

  15. Determination of uranium and thorium during chemical treatment of monazite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nadi, Y.A.; Daoud, J.A.; Aly, H.F.; Kregsamer, P.

    2000-01-01

    Total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is a very useful technique for both qualitative and quantitative analysis because of its high detection power and its needed to small sample volumes (less than 100 μl are sufficient). In this work TXRF was used to determine the initial concentrations of the elements included in monazite sand and following up the chemical steps for treatment of monazite with special attention to uranium and thorium concentration as well as lanthanides. The results were compared to those obtained from EDXRF and ICP-MS techniques. (author)

  16. Determinants of tuberculosis transmission and treatment abandonment in Fortaleza, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Harling

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB remains a public health problem, despite recent achievements in reducing incidence and mortality rates. In Brazil, these achievements were above the worldwide average, but marked by large regional heterogeneities. In Fortaleza (5th largest city in Brazil, the tuberculosis cure rate has been declining and treatment abandonment has been increasing in the past decade, despite a reduction in incidence and an increase in directly observed therapy (DOT. These trends put efforts to eliminate tuberculosis at risk. We therefore sought to determine social and programmatic determinants of tuberculosis incidence and treatment abandonment in Fortaleza. Methods We analyzed sociodemographic and clinical data for all new tuberculosis cases notified in the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN from Fortaleza between 2007 and 2014. We calculated incidence rates for 117 neighborhoods in Fortaleza, assessed their spatial clustering, and used spatial regression models to quantify associations between neighborhood-level covariates and incidence rates. We used hierarchical logistic regression models to evaluate how individual- and neighborhood-level covariates predicted tuberculosis treatment abandonment. Results There were 12,338 new cases reported during the study period. Case rates across neighborhoods were significantly positively clustered in two low-income areas close to the city center. In an adjusted model, tuberculosis rates were significantly higher in neighborhoods with lower literacy, higher sewerage access and homicide rates, and a greater proportion of self-reported black residents. Treatment was abandoned in 1901 cases (15.4%, a rate that rose by 71% between 2007 and 2014. Abandonment was significantly associated with many individual sociodemographic and clinical factors. Notably, being recommended for DOT was protective for those who completed DOT, but associated with abandonment for those who did not

  17. HIV drug resistance in infants increases with changing prevention of mother-to-child transmission regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Lisa K; Chunda-Liyoka, Catherine; Kwon, Eun H; Gondwe, Clement; West, John T; Kankasa, Chipepo; Ndongmo, Clement B; Wood, Charles

    2017-08-24

    The objectives of this study were to determine HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) prevalence in Zambian infants upon diagnosis, and to determine how changing prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) drug regimens affect drug resistance. Dried blood spot (DBS) samples from infants in the Lusaka District of Zambia, obtained during routine diagnostic screening, were collected during four different years representing three different PMTCT drug treatment regimens. DNA extracted from dried blood spot samples was used to sequence a 1493 bp region of the reverse transcriptase gene. Sequences were analyzed via the Stanford HIVDRdatabase (http://hivdb.standford.edu) to screen for resistance mutations. HIVDR in infants increased from 21.5 in 2007/2009 to 40.2% in 2014. Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance increased steadily over the sampling period, whereas nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance and dual class resistance both increased more than threefold in 2014. Analysis of drug resistance scores in each group revealed increasing strength of resistance over time. In 2014, children with reported PMTCT exposure, defined as infant prophylaxis and/or maternal treatment, showed a higher prevalence and strength of resistance compared to those with no reported exposure. HIVDR is on the rise in Zambia and presents a serious problem for the successful lifelong treatment of HIV-infected children. PMTCT affects both the prevalence and strength of resistance and further research is needed to determine how to mitigate its role leading to resistance.

  18. The effect of an education programme (MEDIAS 2 BSC) of non-intensive insulin treatment regimens for people with Type 2 diabetes: a randomized, multi-centre trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanns, N; Ehrmann, D; Schall, S; Maier, B; Haak, T; Kulzer, B

    2017-08-01

    A self-management oriented education programme (MEDIAS 2 BSC) for people with Type 2 diabetes who are on a non-intensive insulin treatment regimen was developed. In a randomized, multi-centre trial, the effect of MEDIAS 2 BSC was compared with an established education programme that acted as a control group. The primary outcome was the impact of MEDIAS 2 BSC on glycaemic control. Secondary outcomes included the incidence of severe hypoglycaemia, hypoglycaemia unawareness, diabetes-related distress, diabetes knowledge, quality of life and self-care behaviour. In total, 182 participants were randomized to the control group or MEDIAS 2 BSC [median age 64.0 (interquartile range 58.0-68.5) vs. 63.5 (57.0-70.0) years; HbA 1c 62.8 ± 12.7 mmol/mol vs. 63.7 ± 14.0 mmol/mol; 7.9% ± 1.2% vs. 8.0% ± 1.3%]. After a 6-month follow-up, there was a mean decrease in HbA 1c of 3.5 mmol/mol (0.32%) in the control group and 6.7 mmol/mol (0.61%) in MEDIAS 2 BSC. After adjusting for baseline differences and study centre, the mean difference between the groups was -3.3 mmol/mol [95% confidence interval (CI) -0.54 to -5.90 mmol/mol] [-0.30% (95% CI -0.05 to -0.54)] in favour of MEDIAS 2 BSC (P = 0.018). There were no increases in severe hypoglycaemia or hypoglycaemia unawareness. The education programmes had no significant effects on psychosocial outcome variables. MEDIAS 2 BSC was more effective in lowering HbA 1c than the control condition. MEDIAS 2 BSC is a safe educational tool that improves glycaemic control without increasing the risk for hypoglycaemia. (Clinical Trials Registry No; NCT 02748239). © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  19. Determinants of Unintentional Leaks During CPAP Treatment in OSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebret, Marius; Arnol, Nathalie; Martinot, Jean-Benoît; Lambert, Loïc; Tamisier, Renaud; Pepin, Jean-Louis; Borel, Jean-Christian

    2018-04-01

    Unintentional leakage from the mouth or around the mask may lead to cessation of CPAP treatment; however, the causes of unintentional leaks are poorly understood. The objectives of this study were (1) to identify determining factors of unintentional leakage and (2) to determine the effect of the type of mask (nasal/oronasal) used on unintentional leakage. Seventy-four polysomnograms from patients with OSA syndrome treated with auto-CPAP were analyzed (23 women; 56 ± 13 years; BMI, 32.9 kg/m 2 (range, 29.0-38.0 kg/m 2 ). Polysomnographic recordings were obtained under auto-CPAP, and mandibular behavior was measured with a magnetic sensor. After sleep and respiratory scoring, polysomnographic signals were computed as mean values over nonoverlapping 10-s intervals. The presence/absence of unintentional leakage was dichotomized for each 10-s interval (yes/no). Univariate and multivariate conditional regression models estimated the risk of unintentional leaks during an interval "T" based on the explanatory variables from the previous interval "T-1." A sensitivity analysis for the type of mask was then conducted. The univariate analysis showed that mandibular lowering (mouth opening), a high level of CPAP, body position (other than supine), and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep increased the risk of unintentional leaks and microarousal decreased it. In the multivariate analysis, the same variables remained independently associated with an increased risk of unintentional leakage. The sensitivity analysis showed that oronasal masks reduced the risk of unintentional leaks in cases of mouth opening and REM sleep. Mouth opening, CPAP level, sleep position, and REM sleep independently contribute to unintentional leakage. These results provide a strong rationale for the definition of phenotypes and the individual management of leaks during CPAP treatment. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A double-blind comparative study of the effects of a 23-day oral contraceptive regimen with 20 microg ethinyl estradiol and 75 microg gestodene and a 21-day regimen with 30 microg ethinyl estradiol and 75 microg gestodene on hemostatic variables, lipids, and carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrikat, J; Klipping, C; Gerlinger, C; Ruebig, A; Schmidt, W; Holler, T; Düsterberg, B

    2001-10-01

    In this double-blind study we compared the influence of two oral contraceptives, a 23-day regimen with 20 microg ethinyl estradiol and 75 microg gestodene (23-day 20/75) and a 21-day regimen with 30 microg ethinyl estradiol and 75 microg gestodene (21-day 30/75), on hemostatic variables, lipids, and carbohydrate metabolism. The volunteers received the preparations daily for six 28-day cycles. Hemostatic variables and lipids were measured at baseline and after six treatment cycles. Carbohydrate metabolism was assessed by determination of the area under the curve (AUC) of carbohydrate parameters after oral glucose tolerance tests performed at baseline and after three treatment cycles. Data from 33 volunteers in each group were obtained. No significant differences between the effects of both treatments on the hemostatic system were detected. Neither the overall change of all hemostatic variables from baseline to treatment Cycle 6 [defined as primary target variable in the study] nor the change of any of the individual hemostatic parameters differed significantly between the treatment groups. Likewise, no significant nor clinically relevant differences in the effects of both treatments on the volunteers' lipid profiles were detected. The data on carbohydrate variables suggested a slightly more favorable influence of the 23-day 20/75 regimen. The increase of the glucose AUCs after three cycles tended to be stronger with the 21-day 30/75 regimen than with the 23-day 20/75 regimen. In addition, the AUCs for insulin and C-peptide were slightly reduced after three cycles with the 23-day 20/75 regimen but slightly increased with the 21-day 30/75 regimen. Both study treatments were safe and well tolerated by the volunteers as shown by the nature and frequency of adverse events, the routine laboratory examinations, and the physical and gynecological examinations. Both preparations provided adequate contraceptive reliability. The only pregnancy during treatment was attributable

  1. Influence of ventilation regimen on micro-environment and on ewe welfare and milk yield in summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Caroprese

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ventilation regimen on air quality, and on the welfare and production performance of thirty-six Comisanaewes were assessed in a 6-week trial conducted during the summer of 2002. Animals were divided into three groups of12, and subjected to the following treatments: low ventilation regimen providing a mean ventilation rate (VR of 35 m3/hper ewe, split in 30 min ventilation cycles at an air speed of 2 m/s (LOV-30; moderate ventilation regimen (VR = 70m3/h per ewe split in 30 min ventilation cycles at an air speed of 4 m/s (MOV-30; moderate ventilation regimen (VR =70 m3/h per ewe split in 60 min ventilation cycles at an air speed of 2 m/s (MOV-60. Air concentrations of microorganisms,dust, and gaseous pollutants were measured twice weekly. Respiration rate (RR and rectal temperature (RTwere monitored throughout the trial at 0830 and at 1400. Behavioral traits of ewes were recorded twice per week from0900 to 1200 and from 1500 to 1800. Cell-mediated immune response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA and humoralimmune response to chicken egg albumin were determined. At d 37 ewes were injected with porcine ACTH, and subjectedto blood sampling for evaluation of cortisol concentrations immediately before and 1, 2 and 4 h after ACTH injection.Milk yield was recorded daily. Individual milk samples were analyzed for composition, renneting parameters, somaticcell count (SCC, and bacteriological characteristics. Averages of maximum THI were about 3 points higher in the LOV-30 and the MOV-30 than in the MOV-60 room, whereas no differences emerged in the air concentrations of dust, gaseouspollutants and microorganisms. Significant interactions of treatment x time (P and for the time the ewes spent lying, idling and eating in the afternoon during weeks 2 and 3 of the study period.Significant effects of ventilation regimen x time (P the LOV-30 ewes giving smaller volumes of milk with a deteriorated coagulating behavior than those of the MOV-60 group

  2. 26 CFR 301.6221-1 - Tax treatment determined at partnership level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax treatment determined at partnership level... treatment determined at partnership level. (a) In general. A partner's treatment of partnership items on the... treatment of the item on the partnership return, the IRS generally cannot adjust the treatment of that item...

  3. Sterilizing Activity of Fully Oral Intermittent Regimens against Mycobacterium Ulcerans Infection in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Chauffour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of Buruli ulcer (BU that is caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, is currently based on a daily administration of rifampin and streptomycin (RIF-STR. A fully oral intermittent regimen would greatly simplify its treatment on the field.The objective of this study was to assess the bactericidal and sterilizing activities of intermittent oral regimens in a murine model of established M. ulcerans infection. Regimens combining rifapentine (RFP 20 mg/kg with either moxifloxacin (MXF 200 mg/kg, clarithromycin (CLR 100 mg/kg or bedaquiline (BDQ 25 mg/kg were administrated twice (2/7 or three (only for RFP-CLR 3/7 times weekly during 8 weeks. The bactericidal but also the sterilizing activities of these four intermittent oral regimens were at least as good as those obtained with control weekdays regimens, i.e. RFP-CLR 5/7 or RIF-STR 5/7. A single mouse from the RFP-MFX 2/7 group had culture-positive relapse at the end of the 28 weeks following treatment completion among the 157 mice treated with one of the four intermittent regimens (40 RFP-CLR 2/7, 39 RFP-CLR 3/7, 39 RFP-MXF 2/7, 39 RFP-BDQ 2/7.These results open the door for a fully intermittent oral drug regimen for BU treatment avoiding intramuscular injections and facilitating supervision by health care workers.

  4. Sterilizing Activity of Fully Oral Intermittent Regimens against Mycobacterium Ulcerans Infection in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauffour, Aurélie; Robert, Jérôme; Veziris, Nicolas; Aubry, Alexandra; Jarlier, Vincent

    2016-10-01

    The treatment of Buruli ulcer (BU) that is caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, is currently based on a daily administration of rifampin and streptomycin (RIF-STR). A fully oral intermittent regimen would greatly simplify its treatment on the field. The objective of this study was to assess the bactericidal and sterilizing activities of intermittent oral regimens in a murine model of established M. ulcerans infection. Regimens combining rifapentine (RFP 20 mg/kg) with either moxifloxacin (MXF 200 mg/kg), clarithromycin (CLR 100 mg/kg) or bedaquiline (BDQ 25 mg/kg) were administrated twice (2/7) or three (only for RFP-CLR 3/7) times weekly during 8 weeks. The bactericidal but also the sterilizing activities of these four intermittent oral regimens were at least as good as those obtained with control weekdays regimens, i.e. RFP-CLR 5/7 or RIF-STR 5/7. A single mouse from the RFP-MFX 2/7 group had culture-positive relapse at the end of the 28 weeks following treatment completion among the 157 mice treated with one of the four intermittent regimens (40 RFP-CLR 2/7, 39 RFP-CLR 3/7, 39 RFP-MXF 2/7, 39 RFP-BDQ 2/7). These results open the door for a fully intermittent oral drug regimen for BU treatment avoiding intramuscular injections and facilitating supervision by health care workers.

  5. The effect of meal frequency in a reduced-energy regimen on the gastrointestinal and appetite hormones in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomised crossover study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinova, Lenka; Kahleova, Hana; Oliyarnyk, Olena; Kazdova, Ludmila; Hill, Martin; Pelikanova, Terezie

    2017-01-01

    Background Appetite and gastrointestinal hormones (GIHs) participate in energy homeostasis, feeding behavior and regulation of body weight. We demonstrated previously the superior effect of a hypocaloric diet regimen with lower meal frequency (B2) on body weight, hepatic fat content, insulin sensitivity and feelings of hunger compared to the same diet divided into six smaller meals a day (A6). Studies with isoenergetic diet regimens indicate that lower meal frequency should also have an effect on fasting and postprandial responses of GIHs. The aim of this secondary analysis was to explore the effect of two hypocaloric diet regimens on fasting levels of appetite and GIHs and on their postprandial responses after a standard meal. It was hypothesized that lower meal frequency in a reduced-energy regimen leading to greater body weight reduction and reduced hunger would be associated with decreased plasma concentrations of GIHs: gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1), peptide YY(PYY), pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and leptin and increased plasma concentration of ghrelin. The postprandial response of satiety hormones (GLP-1, PYY and PP) and postprandial suppression of ghrelin will be improved. Methods In a randomized crossover study, 54 patients suffering from type 2 diabetes (T2D) underwent both regimens. The concentrations of GLP-1, GIP, PP, PYY, amylin, leptin and ghrelin were determined using multiplex immunoanalyses. Results Fasting leptin and GIP decreased in response to both regimens with no difference between the treatments (p = 0.37 and p = 0.83, respectively). Fasting ghrelin decreased in A6 and increased in B2 (with difference between regimens p = 0.023). Fasting PP increased in B2with no significant difference between regimens (p = 0.17). Neither GLP-1 nor PYY did change in either regimen. The decrease in body weight correlated negatively with changes in fasting ghrelin (r = -0.4, pfasting level (r = 0.9, pfasting leptin and GIP and

  6. [Influence of dose regimen on gentamycin nephrotoxicity in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, V C; Tejos, C R; Hosaka, E M; Andrade, S C; Araújo, M; Vattimo, M F

    2001-06-01

    The acute renal failure (ARF), that still presents a right mortality rate (50%) can be defined as an abrupt decline of the glomerular filtration, resultant of ischemic or toxicity event. The drugs nephrotoxicity is one of the most frequent cause (27%) of ARF and it is suggested that the interval of administration of the drug can interfere in this side effect, however the best administration regimen is not very well established. This study evaluated the renal function of rats that received gentamicin (100 mg/kg) in one dose or in two doses (2 x 50 mg/kg), by intraperitoneal infusion. The results obtained in this research, indicated that the single infusion of gentamicin determined smaller nephrotoxicity by the reduction of serum concentration of this drug in 24 hours, decreasing the intracellular accumulation of this gentamicin, which is one of the main cellular mechanisms of this renal injury. The single dose treatment regime, otherwise, shows advantages not only related to the nephrotoxicity effect, but also it is relevant to the cost and safety, which can be rationable factors in the administration of this drug.

  7. Medical Management of Ectopic Pregnancy: A Comparison of Regimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Emelia Argyropoulos; Barnhart, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Medical management has become increasingly popular in the treatment of ectopic pregnancy. Given its convenience, for many it is used as a first line treatment, but this is not always the optimal choice for the patient. It is important to understand the options for medical treatment and when it is appropriate to treat a particular patient with medical management, or when one should opt for surgical management. This review outlines the different regimens for methotrexate administration and the associated risks and benefits to medical management. PMID:22510626

  8. Experiência da adesão ao tratamento entre mulheres com Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/ Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida Experiencia de la adhesión al tratamiento de mujeres con VIH/SIDA HIV/AIDS Treatment Regimens Adherence in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Aparecida Marques da Costa

    2009-10-01

    ífica de sus vidas a fin de enseñar el camino a aquellos que desean salir de las sombras de un diagnóstico estigmatizante.OBJECTIVE: To understand HIV/AIDS treatment regimens adherence experience in women. METHODS: An ethnographic study, based on the interpretative anthropology framework, was conducted with women who were participating in an "Adherence Group" at a public hospital. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and participant observations from January to December 2007. RESULTS: Four categories emerged: (1 confronting the values regarding the experience in participating in treatment regimens adherence, (2 the singular experience to the treatment regimens adherence, (3 customs and practices regarding the experience in participating in the treatment regimens adherence, and (4 caring in the interpersonal relationships. CONCLUSION: The HIV/AIDS regimens adherence experience was unique to each participant; however, women speeches suggest directions for effective HIV/AIDS treatment regimens adherence. Each women unique experience may show others ways to come out of the shadows of a stigmatizing diagnosis.

  9. [Efficacy of NO regimen and NP regimen on advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a prospective randomized trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian-Fei; Zhang, Xin-Hua; Wang, Jun; Rao, Zhi-Guo; Zhu, Yu-Ze; Ou, Wu-Ling; Zhang, Bi-Cheng; Du, Guang-Zu

    2005-08-01

    Oxaliplatin (LOHP) is an effective drug in treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with mild toxicities to gastrointestinal tract, kidney, and bone marrow. Cisplatin (DDP) plus vinorelbine (NVB) constitute the first-line regimen (NP regimen) for NSCLC. This study was to compare the short-term response, long-term outcome, and adverse events between advanced NSCLC patients received NO regimen (LOHP plus NVB) and NP regimen. A total of 90 patients with advanced NSCLC were randomized into NO group (58 patients, 25 mg/m(2) of NVB, day 1 and day 8; 130 mg/m(2) of LOHP, day 1) and NP group (32 patients, 25 mg/m(2) of NVB, day 1 and day 8; 50 mg/m(2) of DDP, day 2 and day 3). The short-term response, long-term outcome, adverse events, and survival status of the 2 groups were observed. The response rates were 33.33% in NO group, and 35.48% in NP group, but no significant difference was detected between the 2 groups (P > 0.05). The clinical benefit response rate was significantly higher in NO group than in NP group (80.70% vs. 64.52%, P NP group; the median time of remission was 21 weeks in NO group, and 19 weeks in NP group; the median survival time was 39 weeks in NO group, and 37 weeks in NP group; the 1-year survival rate was 37.93% in NO group, and 31.25% in NP group. No significant differences were detected between the 2 groups. The incidence rates of phlebitis and grade I-II peripheral neuritis were significantly higher in NO group than in NP group (77.59% vs. 50.00%, Pvs. 15.63%, PNP group than in NO group (31.25% vs. 3.45%, PNP regimen, but the clinical benefit response rate is higher in NO group than in NP group. In short, NO regimen may be recommended as the first-line chemotherapy regimen for advanced NSCLC.

  10. Psychological determinants of life satisfaction in women undergoing infertility treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Anna Dembińska

    2016-01-01

    Background Infertility treatment is a long-term process, spread out over months, or even years, and carries no guarantee of success. It generates an incessant state of uncertainty which becomes a chronic state of psychological discomfort. Each stage of treatment may become a source of more trouble. Women deciding to undergo infertility treatment are exposed to many negative feelings concerning different aspects of their life. Participants and procedure The present study wa...

  11. Impact of amoxicillin resistance on the efficacy of amoxicillin-containing regimens for Helicobacter pylori eradication: analysis of five randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Jyh; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Chen, Chien-Chuan; Chen, Chieh-Chang; Fang, Yu-Jen; Bair, Ming-Jong; Chang, Chi-Yang; Lee, Ji-Yuh; Hsu, Wen-Feng; Luo, Jiing-Chyuan; Lin, Jaw-Town; Liou, Jyh-Ming

    2017-12-01

    The impact of amoxicillin resistance on the efficacy of regimens containing amoxicillin for Helicobacter pylori eradication remains unknown. To investigate whether the efficacy of an amoxicillin-containing regimen is affected by amoxicillin resistance and to identify the optimal breakpoint for amoxicillin resistance. This was a pooled analysis of five randomized trials conducted in Taiwan from 2007 to 2016. Patients who received amoxicillin-containing regimens were recruited. MICs were determined by agar dilution testing. Meta-analysis was performed to assess the risk ratio of eradication failure in amoxicillin-resistant strains compared with susceptible strains of seven different regimens. We performed further the pooled analysis and logistic regression in patients treated with clarithromycin triple therapy to identify the optimal breakpoint for amoxicillin resistance. A total of 2339 patients with available amoxicillin MICs were enrolled. Meta-analysis showed that the presence of amoxicillin resistance was consistently associated with increased risk of treatment failure of amoxicillin-containing regimens at different breakpoints (risk ratio: 1.41, 95% CI 1.12-1.78, P = 0.004 when the cut-off was 0.5 mg/L). The heterogeneity was low (I2 = 0%, P = 0.615). Pooled analysis also showed that amoxicillin resistance was an independent risk factor for treatment failure of clarithromycin triple therapy at different breakpoints. The best correlation was observed when the breakpoint of amoxicillin resistance was ≥0.125 mg/L (kappa coefficient 0.298), at which the resistance rate was 11.1% (110 of 990). The efficacies of amoxicillin-containing regimens are affected by amoxicillin resistance and the optimal breakpoint MIC is ≥ 0.125 mg/L. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Renal function, body surface area, and age are associated with risk of early-onset fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity in patients treated with capecitabine-based anticancer regimens in daily clinical care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulendijks, Didier; van Hasselt, J G Coen; Huitema, Alwin D R; van Tinteren, Harm; Deenen, Maarten J; Beijnen, Jos H; Cats, Annemieke; Schellens, Jan H M

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this analysis was to determine the factors associated with early onset treatment-related toxicity in patients treated with capecitabine-based anticancer regimens in daily clinical care. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 1463 patients previously included in a prospective

  13. The Hemotoxicity of Chemotherapeutic Regimens in Sudanese Children with Retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathelrahman Mahdi Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been a rapid increase in cancer among Sudanese citizens from 1999 until this year. At least 80% of all patients who undergo chemotherapy will develop anemia as a complication. This inpatient analytical comparative study aims to examine the possible association between hemotoxicity and various chemotherapy regimens in Sudanese children diagnosed with retinoblastoma.Methods: This study enrolled 30 patients diagnosed with childhood retinoblastoma who were admitted from June 2006 to September 2008 to the Radiation and Isotope Center Khartoum. We collected 90 blood samples to examine for a possible association between anemia and the chemotherapeutic regimen. All patients (n=30 were included in each arm of the chemotherapy regimen.Results: Prior to the onset of chemotherapy, 50% of patients had normal hemoglobin levels, 43.3% had mild anemia, and 6.7% had moderate anemia. Post-cycle I treatment, there were only 6.7% who had normal hemoglobin levels. Mild anemia was observed in 60%, followed by 30% for moderate anemia and 3.3% of patients had severe anemia. Post-cycle II there were no patients with normal hemoglobin levels, however 26.7% had mild anemia and the majority of patients (approximately 73.3% had moderate anemia.Conclusion: A correlation existed between hemoglobin values after completion of therapy to the overall treatment. We observed a decline of 1 to 2 g/dl in hemoglobin levels.

  14. EXPERIMENTAL CONFIRMATION FOR SELECTION OF IRRADIATION REGIMENS FOR INTRAPERITONEAL PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY WITH PORPHYRIN AND PHTHALOCYANINE PHOTOSENSITIZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Pankratov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimized irradiation regimens for intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy with porphyrin and phthalocyanine photosensitizers are determined in in vitro and in vivo studies.The experimental  study on НЕр2 cell line showed that reduce of power density for constant  light dose increased significantly the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (the reduce of power density from 20-80 mW/cm2 to 10 mW/cm2 had the same results (90% cell death for half as much concentration of the photosensitizer.The obtained results were confirmed in vivo in mice with grafted tumor S-37. For light dose of 90 J/cm2  and power density of 25 mW/cm2 none of animals in the experimental  group had total resorption of the tumor. For the same light dose and decrease  of power density to 12 mW/cm2  total tumor resorption was achieved in 34% of animals, 66% of animals died from phototoxic  shock. For twofold decrease  of light dose – to 45 J/cm2  with the same low-intensity power density (12 mW/cm2 we managed total tumor resorption in 100% of animals.In the following studies of optimized irradiation regimen for intrapleural photodynamic therapy the reaction of intact peritoneum of rats on photodynamic exposure was assessed and optimized parameters of laser irradiation, which did not cause necrosis and intense inflammatory reaction of peritoneum, were determined – light dose of 10 J/cm2  with power density of mW/cm2.Thus, the reasonability for use of low-intensity regimens of irradiation for intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy was confirmed experimentally with possibility of high efficacy of treatment without inflammatory reactions of peritoneum.

  15. Treatment of poor-prognosis extensive disease small-cell lung cancer with an all-oral regimen of etoposide and cyclophosphamide - a Southwest Oncology Group clinical and pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunberg, S M; Crowley, J; Hande, K R; Giroux, D; Munshi, N; Lau, D H; Schroder, L E; Zangmeister, M H; Balcerzak, S P; Hynes, H E; Gandara, D R

    1999-01-01

    An all-oral regimen of etoposide and cyclophosphamide was developed for use in poor-prognosis extensive disease small-cell lung cancer. Limited pharmacokinetic sampling was used to derive a pharmacodynamic model predictive of myelosuppression early in the course of therapy. Eligible patients were chemotherapy-naive and had extensive disease small-cell lung cancer with either SWOG performance status 2 or serum albumin /=1.49 microg/ml. Oral etoposide and oral cyclophosphamide given days 1-14 every 28 days is well tolerated and results in an acceptable response rate and median survival in poor-prognosis (poor performance status or low serum albumin) extensive disease small-cell lung cancer. A trough etoposide level obtained within 24 h of starting therapy can predict severe granulocytopenia.

  16. BCG-mediated bladder cancer immunotherapy: identifying determinants of treatment response using a calibrated mathematical model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrill A Rentsch

    Full Text Available Intravesical Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG immunotherapy is considered the standard of care for treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer; however the treatment parameters were established empirically. In order to evaluate potential optimization of clinical parameters of BCG induction therapy, we constructed and queried a new mathematical model. Specifically, we assessed the impact of (1 duration between resection and the first instillation; (2 BCG dose; (3 indwelling time; and (4 treatment interval of induction therapy - using cure rate as the primary endpoint. Based on available clinical and in vitro experimental data, we constructed and parameterized a stochastic mathematical model describing the interactions between BCG, the immune system, the bladder mucosa and tumor cells. The primary endpoint of the model was the probability of tumor extinction following BCG induction therapy in patients with high risk for tumor recurrence. We theoretically demonstrate that extending the duration between the resection and the first BCG instillation negatively influences treatment outcome. Simulations of higher BCG doses and longer indwelling times both improved the probability of tumor extinction. A remarkable finding was that an inter-instillation interval two times longer than the seven-day interval used in the current standard of care would substantially improve treatment outcome. We provide insight into relevant clinical questions using a novel mathematical model of BCG immunotherapy. Our model predicts an altered regimen that may decrease side effects of treatment while improving response to therapy.

  17. Evaluation of treatment outcomes for patients on first-line regimens in US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) clinics in Uganda: predictors of virological and immunological response from RV288 analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, K W; Wakabi, S; Magala, F; Kibuuka, H; Liu, M; Hamm, T E

    2015-02-01

    Viral load (VL) monitoring is recommended, but seldom performed, in resource-constrained countries. RV288 is a US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) basic programme evaluation to determine the proportion of patients on treatment who are virologically suppressed and to identify predictors of virological suppression and recovery of CD4 cell count. Analyses from Uganda are presented here. In this cross-sectional, observational study, patients on first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) (efavirenz or nevirapine+zidovudine/lamivudine) from Kayunga District Hospital and Kagulamira Health Center were randomly selected for a study visit that included determination of viral load (HIV-1 RNA), CD4 cell count and clinical chemistry tests. Subjects were recruited by time on treatment: 6-12, 13-24 or >24 months. Logistic regression modelling identified predictors of virological suppression. Linear regression modelling identified predictors of CD4 cell count recovery on ART. We found that 85.2% of 325 subjects were virologically suppressed (viral loadclinic visits (OR 0.815; 95% CI 0.66-1.00; P=0.05), improvement in CD4 percentage (OR 1.06; 95% CI 1.014-1.107; P=0.009), and care at Kayunga vs. Kangulamira (OR 0.47; 95% CI 0.23-0.92; P=0.035). In a multivariate linear regression model of covariates associated with CD4 count recovery, time on highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) (Pclinic. CD4 cell reconstitution was positively associated with CD4 count at study visit, time on ART, satisfaction with care at clinic, haemoglobin concentration and total lymphocyte count and negatively associated with age. © 2014 British HIV Association.

  18. Influence of oak maturation regimen on composition, sensory properties, quality, and consumer acceptability of cabernet sauvignon wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Anna M; Johnson, Trent E; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Bastian, Susan E P

    2015-02-11

    Oak barrels have long been the preferred method for oak maturation of wine, but barrels contribute significantly to production costs, so alternate oak maturation regimens have been introduced, particularly for wines at lower price points. To date, few studies have investigated consumers' acceptance of wines made using non-traditional oak treatments. In this study, two Cabernet Sauvignon wines were aged using traditional (i.e., barrel) and/or alternative (i.e., stainless steel or plastic tanks and vats, with oak wood added) maturation regimens. Chemical and sensory analyses were subsequently performed to determine the influence on wine composition and sensory properties, that is, the presence of key oak-derived volatile compounds and perceptible oak aromas and flavor. The quality of a subset of wines was rated by a panel of 10 wine experts using a 20-point scoring system, with all wines considered technically sound. Consumer acceptance of wines was also determined. Hedonic ratings ranged from 5.7 to 5.9 (on a 9-point scale), indicating there was no significant difference in consumers' overall liking of each wine. However, segmentation based on individual liking scores identified three distinct clusters comprising consumers with considerably different wine preferences. These results justify wine producers' use of alternative oak maturation regimens to achieve wine styles that appeal to different segments of their target market.

  19. The effect of meal frequency in a reduced-energy regimen on the gastrointestinal and appetite hormones in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomised crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinova, Lenka; Kahleova, Hana; Malinska, Hana; Topolcan, Ondrej; Windrichova, Jindra; Oliyarnyk, Olena; Kazdova, Ludmila; Hill, Martin; Pelikanova, Terezie

    2017-01-01

    Appetite and gastrointestinal hormones (GIHs) participate in energy homeostasis, feeding behavior and regulation of body weight. We demonstrated previously the superior effect of a hypocaloric diet regimen with lower meal frequency (B2) on body weight, hepatic fat content, insulin sensitivity and feelings of hunger compared to the same diet divided into six smaller meals a day (A6). Studies with isoenergetic diet regimens indicate that lower meal frequency should also have an effect on fasting and postprandial responses of GIHs. The aim of this secondary analysis was to explore the effect of two hypocaloric diet regimens on fasting levels of appetite and GIHs and on their postprandial responses after a standard meal. It was hypothesized that lower meal frequency in a reduced-energy regimen leading to greater body weight reduction and reduced hunger would be associated with decreased plasma concentrations of GIHs: gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1), peptide YY(PYY), pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and leptin and increased plasma concentration of ghrelin. The postprandial response of satiety hormones (GLP-1, PYY and PP) and postprandial suppression of ghrelin will be improved. In a randomized crossover study, 54 patients suffering from type 2 diabetes (T2D) underwent both regimens. The concentrations of GLP-1, GIP, PP, PYY, amylin, leptin and ghrelin were determined using multiplex immunoanalyses. Fasting leptin and GIP decreased in response to both regimens with no difference between the treatments (p = 0.37 and p = 0.83, respectively). Fasting ghrelin decreased in A6 and increased in B2 (with difference between regimens p = 0.023). Fasting PP increased in B2with no significant difference between regimens (p = 0.17). Neither GLP-1 nor PYY did change in either regimen. The decrease in body weight correlated negatively with changes in fasting ghrelin (r = -0.4, pmeals. The changes in fasting ghrelin correlated negatively with the decrease in

  20. [Analysis of costs and cost-effectiveness of preferred GESIDA/National AIDS Plan regimens for initial antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus infected adult patients in 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Antonio Javier; Llibre, Josep M; Arribas, José Ramón; Boix, Vicente; Clotet, Bonaventura; Domingo, Pere; González-García, Juan; Knobel, Hernando; López, Juan Carlos; Lozano, Fernando; Miró, José M; Podzamczer, Daniel; Santamaría, Juan Miguel; Tuset, Montserrat; Zamora, Laura; Lázaro, Pablo; Gatell, Josep M

    2013-11-01

    The GESIDA and National AIDS Plan panel of experts have proposed "preferred regimens" of antiretroviral treatment (ART) as initial therapy in HIV infected patients for 2013. The objective of this study is to evaluate the costs and effectiveness of initiating treatment with these "preferred regimens". An economic assessment of costs and effectiveness (cost/effectiveness) was performed using decision tree analysis models. Effectiveness was defined as the probability of having viral load <50copies/mL at week48, in an intention-to-treat analysis. Cost of initiating treatment with an ART regime was defined as the costs of ART and its consequences (adverse effects, changes of ART regime and drug resistance analyses) during the first 48weeks. The perspective of the analysis is that of the National Health System was applied, only taking into account differential direct costs: ART (official prices), management of adverse effects, resistance studies, and determination of HLA B*5701. The setting is Spain and the costs are those of 2013. A sensitivity deterministic analysis was performed, constructing three scenarios for each regimen: baseline, most favourable, and most unfavourable cases. In the baseline case scenario, the cost of initiating treatment ranges from 6,747euros for TDF/FTC+NVP to 12,059euros for TDF/FTC+RAL. The effectiveness ranges between 0.66 for ABC/3TC+LPV/r and ABC/3TC+ATV/r, and 0.87 for TDF/FTC+RAL and ABC/3TC+RAL. Effectiveness, in terms of cost/effectiveness, varies between 8,396euros and 13,930euros per responder at 48weeks, for TDF/FTC/RPV and TDF/FTC+RAL, respectively. Taking ART at official prices, the most effective regimen was TDF/FTC/RPV, followed by the rest of non-nucleoside containing regimens. The sensitivity analysis confirms the robustness of these findings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical determinants of mental disorders occurring during the infertility treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holka-Pokorska, Justyna; Jarema, Marek; Wichniak, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Today, infertility is an increasingly common medical and social problem. Treatment of infertility has been revolutionised by the introduction and continuous improvement of assisted reproductive technology (ART). In most countries an increase in the frequency of performing of such procedures is observed. Infertility, mental disorders and infertility treatment are related in a very complex way. Most research indicates that the presence of psychiatric disorders (including depressive disorders which is the most common among them) in patients treated for infertility, can affect the efficacy of gynaecological therapy. According to other studies an ineffective treatment for infertility could be an independent risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders (particularly psychotic disorders and addiction ). Despite the increasing prevalence of assisted reproduction technologies (ART), there are no uniform standards for psychological and psychiatric procedures in the case of mental health complications of the diagnosis and treatment of infertility. The aim of this paper was the analysis of the studies concerning the mental health aspects in the course of the infertility treatment. The studies were analysed in terms of their relevance to clinical practice in the field of psychiatric and psychological support for patients treated for infertility.

  2. Factors determining esthetic outcome after breast cancer conservative treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso, Maria J; Cardoso, Jaime; Santos, Ana C

    2007-01-01

    , data were collected retrospectively regarding patient characteristics, tumor, and treatment factors. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to evaluate the correlation between these factors and overall cosmetic results. On univariate analysis, younger and thinner patients as well as patients...... with lower body mass index (BMI) and premenopausal status obtained better cosmetic results. In the group of tumor- and treatment-related factors, larger removed specimens, clearly visible scars, the use of chemotherapy and longer follow-up period were associated with less satisfactory results....... On multivariate analysis, only BMI and scar visibility maintained a significant association with cosmesis. BMI and scar visibility are the only factors significantly associated with cosmetic results of breast cancer conservative treatment, as evaluated by an international consensus panel...

  3. Repeated Courses of Rituximab in Chronic ITP: Three Different Regimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Aisha; Michel, Marc; Patel, Vivek; Stasi, Roberto; Cunningham-Rundles, Susanna; Leonard, John; Bussel, James

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated responses to re-treatment with rituximab in chronic ITP patients. Treatment with rituximab in chronic ITP patients induces long-lasting responses in approximately 30% of patients but even these patients may relapse. Twenty patients who had achieved a response to rituximab and relapsed were re-treated with rituximab (375 mg/m2 × 4); this data was analyzed retrospectively. Subsequently, 16 patients were prospectively randomized to receive rituximab with CVP (R-CVP) or double dose rituximab (DDR). Re- treatment with standard dose rituximab demonstrated responses similar to initial rituximab treatment in 15 of 20 patients. Neither of the 2 more intensive regimens (R-CVP, DDR) induced responses in any patient who had previously failed to respond to rituximab nor induced substantially longer-lasting responses among previous responders. No additional toxicity was noted with the DDR regimen, whereas R-CVP was not well tolerated. These results suggest that re-treatment with standard dose rituximab induces similar responses in 75% of previously responding patients and is well tolerated. Neither combining rituximab with CVP nor doubling the dose of rituximab increased the response rate. PMID:19731307

  4. Determinants of Adherence to Antiretroviral Treatment among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated factors of adherence to Antiretroviral Treatment (ART), factors or variables that can discriminate between adherent and non-adherent patients on ART were selected. Simple structured questionnaire was employed. The study sample consisted of 145 HIV patients who received ART in the Shashemene ...

  5. Femoral neck fractures - Can physiologic status determine treatment choice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heetveld, Martin J.; Raaymakers, Ernst L. F. B.; Luitse, Jan S. K.; Nijhof, Marc; Gouma, Dirk J.

    2007-01-01

    In patients with displaced femoral neck fractures, metaanalysis data show revision rates of 35% after internal fixation and 16% after hemiarthroplasty. A published physiologic status score management protocol, which selects for either treatment, suggests lower revision rates can be achieved but it

  6. Different oral corticosteroid regimens for acute asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normansell, Rebecca; Kew, Kayleigh M; Mansour, George

    2016-05-13

    Asthma is a common long-term breathing condition that affects approximately 300 million people worldwide. People with asthma may experience short-term worsening of their asthma symptoms; these episodes are often known as 'exacerbations', 'flare-ups', 'attacks' or 'acute asthma'. Oral steroids, which have a potent anti-inflammatory effect, are recommended for all but the most mild asthma exacerbations; they should be initiated promptly. The most often prescribed oral steroids are prednisolone and dexamethasone, but current guidelines on dosing vary between countries, and often among different guideline producers within the same country. Despite their proven efficacy, use of steroids needs to be balanced against their potential to cause important adverse events. Evidence is somewhat limited regarding optimal dosing of oral steroids for asthma exacerbations to maximise recovery while minimising potential side effects, which is the topic of this review. To assess the efficacy and safety of any dose or duration of oral steroids versus any other dose or duration of oral steroids for adults and children with an asthma exacerbation. We identified trials from the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register (CAGR), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.ClinicalTrials.gov), the World Health Organization (WHO) trials portal (www.who.int/ictrp/en/) and reference lists of all primary studies and review articles. This search was up to date as of April 2016. We included parallel randomised controlled trials (RCTs), irrespective of blinding or duration, that evaluated one dose or duration of oral steroid versus any other dose or duration, for management of asthma exacerbations. We included studies involving both adults and children with asthma of any severity, in which investigators analysed adults and children separately. We allowed any other co-intervention in the management of an asthma exacerbation, provided it was not part of the randomised treatment. We included studies reported as full

  7. Cardiovascular effects of Phaleria macrocarpa extracts combined with mainstay FAC regimen for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggadiredja, Kusnandar; Tjandrawinata, Raymond R

    2015-01-01

    DLBS1425 is a bioactive compound extracted from Phaleria macrocarpa, with anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic properties against cancer cells. The present study was aimed to assess cardiotoxicity of DLBS1425, compared to the mainstay regimen for breast cancer, 5-fluorouracil:doxorubicin:cyclophosphamide (FAC, given at 500/50/500 mg/m(2)). Treatment with FAC regimen at standard dose resulted in very severe toxicity, so mice had no chance to survive for more than 7 days following initial drug treatment. Furthermore, histological examination on the heart revealed severe muscular damage when mice were given the FAC regimen alone (severe toxicity). FAC as chemotherapeutic regimen exerted high toxicity profile to the cardiovascular cells in this experiment. Meanwhile, treatment with DLBS1425 alone up to a dose equivalent to as high as 300 mg three times daily in human had no hazardous consequences on the heart, hematological feature, as well as general safety. In the cardiovascular cells, DLBS1425 in the presence of FAC regimen (one-eight of the initial dose) gave protection to the cardiac muscle cells as well as other hematological features. Taken together, results of the present study suggest that DLBS1425 is safe when used as adjuvant therapy for breast cancer and may be even protective against cardiac cellular damage produced by chemotherapeutic regimen.

  8. A rare phenomenon of atypical lipodystrophy in a patient on HAART in the absence of a protease inhibitor regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mitha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Lipodystrophy is a complication of patients on antiretroviral (ARV medication; however, it is commonest in patients on long-term treatment and those on protease inhibitor (PI regimens.1,2 We present a rare case of atypical lipodystrophy, presenting as multiple subcutaneous lipomas, in a patient who had been on a non-PI ART regimen for 6 weeks.

  9. Transfusion regimens in thalassemia intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Karakas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia intermedia (TI is a heterogeneous disease, in terms of both clinical manifestations and underlying molecular defects. Some TI patients are asymptomatic until adult life, whereas others are symptomatic from early childhood. In contrast with patients with Thalassemia major (TM, the severity of anemia is less and the patients do not require transfusions during at least the first few years of life. Many patients with TI, especially older ones, have been exposed to the multiple long-term effects of chronic anemia and tissue hypoxia and their compensatory reactions, including enhanced erythropoiesis and increased iron absorption. Bone marrow expansion and extramedullary hematopoiesis lead to bone deformities and liver and spleen enlargement. Therapeutic strategies in TI are not clear and different criteria are used to decide the initiation of transfusion and chelation therapy, modulation of fetal hemoglobin production, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation on an individual basis. The clinical picture of well-treated TM patients with regular transfusionchelation therapy is better from TI patients who have not received adequate transfusion therapy. There is a significant role of early blood transfusion to prevent and treat complications commonly associated with TI, such as extramedullary erythropoiesis and bone deformities, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, leg ulcers, gallstones, pseudoxantoma elasticum, hyperuricosuria, gout and pulmonary hypertension, which are rarely seen in thalassemia major. Nowadays, indications of transfusion in patients with TI are chronic anemia (Hb < 7 g/dL, bone deformities, growth failure, extramedullary erythropoiesis, heart failure, pregnancy and preparation for surgical procedures. Conclusion: Adequate (regular or tailored transfusion therapy is an important treatment modality for increasing the quality of life in patients with thalassemia intermedia during childhood. 就临床表象和潜在的分子缺

  10. Determinants of Last-line Treatment in Metastatic Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinausero, Marika; Gerratana, Lorenzo; De Carlo, Elisa; Iacono, Donatella; Bonotto, Marta; Fanotto, Valentina; Buoro, Vanessa; Basile, Debora; Vitale, Maria Grazia; Rihawi, Karim; Fasola, Gianpiero; Puglisi, Fabio

    2017-07-14

    In metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients, the identification of factors helping clinicians in the choice between active therapy versus best supportive care is needed clinically. The aim of the present study was to identify the clinicopathologic factors that could improve the prognostic valuation of MBC patients and clinical decision-making at the end of life. The present study analyzed data from a retrospective series of 522 MBC patients treated at the oncology department (University Hospital of Udine) from January 2004 to June 2014. The association between clinicopathologic features and death within 30 or 90 days since last-line treatment prescription was explored. Differences between lightly (≤ 3 lines) and heavily (> 3 lines) pretreated patients and the factors affecting treatment choice were investigated. The event "death" occurred in 410 patients. The median last-line survival was 100 days. The median number of therapeutic lines was 3. On multivariate analysis, worse Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was significantly associated with death within 90 and 30 days since last-line treatment prescription. Among the heavily pretreated patients, liver function impairment and evaluation by a breast cancer specialist were significantly associated with a greater and lower risk of death within 30 days, respectively. Among the lightly pretreated patients with luminal disease, age < 70 years, luminal B-like disease, and number of previous lines were associated with a greater chance of receiving chemotherapy. In the present study, the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was the most robust independent factor driving the last-line therapeutic choice for MBC patients. In addition, the molecular subtype and oncologist subspecialization also influenced the decision-making process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Using the reference curve of a water supply system for determining the optimal operation schedule; Utilizacion de la curva de consgina de un abastecimiento de agua para determinar el regimen de explotacion mas eficiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias Rey, P. L.; Martinez Solano, F. J.; Fuertes Miquel, V. S.; Lopez Patino, G.

    2007-07-01

    A new water inlet point in the network can modify the water supply schedule so that the distribution of flow to supply from the different points would be a problem to determine in each case. To present work uses the reference curve concept of a water supply system to propose a method that determines the appropriate distribution of water supplied using simulation models. The methodology is based on looking for the grater power efficiency in the system, assuming equal production costs in the different sources. The obtained conclusions allows to know some parameters that influence in the location of the optimal production system. At the same time, the analysis of two examples shows the reach of the propose methodology. (Author) 6 refs.

  12. Characterization of HIV-1 from patients with virological failure to a boosted protease inhibitor regimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillemark, Marie Rathcke; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels

    2011-01-01

    The use of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) regimens with unboosted protease inhibitors (PIs) has resulted in a high level of virological failure primarily due to the development of resistant virus. Current boosted PI regimens combine successfully low-dose ritonavir (r) with a second...... PI. The aim of the study was to estimate the proportion of patients, in a population based setting, who develop virological failure on a PI/r regimen. Through The Danish HIV Cohort Study 1,007 patients who received PI/r based treatment between 1995 and 2008 were identified. Twenty-three (2.......3%) experienced virological failure, of whom 19 (83%) started PI/r treatment before 2001. Patients from Copenhagen (n=19) were selected to study the development of protease (PR) and gag cleavage site (CS) mutations during PI/r treatment and PI plasma levels at the time of virological failure. Three patients (16...

  13. Evolution of drug resistance in HIV infected patients remaining on a virologically failing cART regimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cozzi-Lepri, A; Phillips, AN; Ruiz, L

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the extent of drug resistance accumulation in patients kept on a virologically failing regimen and its determinants in the clinical setting. DESIGN: The study focused on 110 patients of EuroSIDA on an unchanged regimen who had two genotypic tests performed at two time points...

  14. Evolution of drug resistance in HIV-infected patients remaining on a virologically failing combination antiretroviral therapy regimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Phillips, Andrew N; Ruiz, Lidia

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the extent of drug resistance accumulation in patients kept on a virologically failing regimen and its determinants in the clinical setting. DESIGN: The study focused on 110 patients of EuroSIDA on an unchanged regimen who had two genotypic tests performed at two time points...

  15. Determinants of Compliance among Pediatric Amblyopia Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Hans; Juhasz, Anne McCreary

    Given the recent focus on patient responsibility for health status and improvement, it is important to understand the dynamics involved in patient compliance to treatment regimens. The determinants of patching compliance among 30 pediatric amblyopia patients and their parents were investigated by means of parent, patient, and physician…

  16. Switching from pro re nata to treat-and-extend regimen improves visual acuity in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvannli, Line; Krohn, Jørgen

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the visual outcome after transitioning from a pro re nata (PRN) intravitreal injection regimen to a treat-and-extend (TAE) regimen for patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A retrospective review of patients who were switched from a PRN regimen with intravitreal injections of bevacizumab, ranibizumab or aflibercept to a TAE regimen. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central retinal thickness (CRT) and type of medication used at baseline, at the time of changing treatment regimen and at the end of the study were analysed. Twenty-one eyes of 21 patients met the inclusion criteria. Prior to the switch, the patients received a mean of 13.8 injections (median, 10; range, 3-39 injections) with the PRN regimen for 44 months (range, 3-100 months), which improved the visual acuity in five patients (24%). After a mean of 6.1 injections (median, 5; range, 3-14 injections) with the TAE regimen over 8 months (range, 2-16 months), the visual acuity improved in 12 patients (57%). The improvement in visual acuity during treatment with the TAE regimen was statistically significant (p = 0.005). The proportion of patients with a visual acuity of 0.2 or better was significantly higher after treatment with the TAE regimen than after treatment with the PRN regimen (p = 0.048). No significant differences in CRT were found between the two treatment regimens. Even after prolonged treatment and a high number of intravitreal injections, switching AMD patients from a PRN regimen to a strict TAE regimen significantly improves visual acuity. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Comparison of different glucocorticoid regimens in the management of classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajish, T P; Praveen, V P; Nisha, B; Kumar, Harish

    2014-11-01

    There are recommendations regarding the total dose of hydrocortisone to be administered in the treatment of classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) to achieve the twin objectives of glucocorticoid replacement and control of hyperandrogenism. However, there is evidence gap regarding the breakup, timing and type of the steroid regimen. Efficacy of three different glucocorticoid regimens having the same total dose of steroid, differing in either the timing or type of evening steroid administered, in achieving biochemical control of the disease was assessed. The study was done in 13 prepubertal children with classical CAH over a 6-month period with 2 months devoted to each regimen. We used a prospective cross-over design using 10-15 mg/m(2) total dose of hydrocortisone. Two-fifths of the total dose of hydrocortisone was administered in the morning and one-fifth of the total dose was administered at noon in all the regimens. The regimens differed in the timing of the evening dose of hydrocortisone, 06.00-07.00 pm in regimen 1 and 09.00-10.00 pm in regimen 2. The third regimen had the evening dose of hydrocortisone replaced by an equivalent dose of prednisolone suspension which was administered at 10.00 pm. Serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone and testosterone levels were compared to assess the efficacy of treatment regimens. The three different regimens were found to be similar in their ability to control 17-hydroxyprogesterone and testosterone levels. The percentage of patients with predefined criteria for biochemically controlled disease was similar in all the three regimens. However, there was a trend toward better control of 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels in patients receiving evening dose of prednisolone. There is no significant advantage in administering the hydrocortisone dose late at night in patients with classical CAH.

  18. Efficacy of 7-Day and 14-Day Triple Therapy Regimens for the Eradication of Helicobacter pylori: A Comparative Study in a Cohort of Romanian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Sorin Arama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study compared the eradication rates of of Helicobacter pylori (HP infection by a 7-day and 14-day anti-HP regimen. Materials and Methods. An open, randomized, prospective study was performed to evaluate the response to anti-HP treatment in adult HP-positive patients following a 7-day course (Regimen A of a proton pump inhibitor in association with clarithromycin and amoxicillin compared to a 14-day course (Regimen B. Gastric biopsies were performed at baseline and two months after anti-HP treatment. Results. Seventy-eight patients aged 18–64 years (28 males, 50 females diagnosed with HP infection were included. Fifty-two (66.7% patients received Regimen B and 26 (33.3% Regimen A. The overall eradication rate was 70.5%. Better treatment response (p<0.01 was seen in Regimen B (44/52, 84.2% versus 11/26, 42.3%. Significant improvement in histological features was seen in regimen B. There has been significant overall reduction in endoscopic aspects of gastric and duodenal lesions in both regimens. Younger patients ≤35 years had a better response to Regimen B. Better treatment response was seen in women, urban residents, and those with tertiary level of education in both groups. Conclusion. 14-day anti-HP regimen offered a significant better overall eradication of HP in study population.

  19. Abacavir-based triple nucleoside regimens for maintenance therapy in patients with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciani, Mario; Mengoli, Carlo; Serpelloni, Giovanni; Parisi, Saverio G; Malena, Marina; Bosco, Oliviero

    2013-06-05

    Regimen simplification can be defined as a change in established effective therapy to reduce pill burden and dosing frequency, to enhance tolerability, or to decrease specific food and fluid requirements. Many patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy may be considered candidates for a simplification strategy and, among them, those who have achieved virologic suppression. Several clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy of triple nucleoside combination as a simplification therapy in patients who achieved virologic suppression The aim of this review is to combine randomised, controlled trials to examine whether in patients with undetectable viraemia on a Protease inhibitor (PI) based regimen simplification treatment with abacavir (ABC)-based triple-nucleoside combinations has similar rates of efficacy and tolerability compared with a PI regimen or simplification with a NNRTIs (efavirenz-EFV- or nevirapine-NVP) containing regimen. Studies were included if they had at least two of the three interventions, including one 3NRTI arm. Electronic databases and conference proceedings were searched (1996-2012) with relevant search terms without limits to language. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) only are included in this review. Patients population is represented by HIV-infected adult patients treated with a PI-containing regimen (PI or boosted PI),  with undetectable viral load. Patients on a PI-containing regimen had three possibilities: continue the PI regimen or switch to a simplification maintenance regimen, including switch to a NNRTI (EFV or NVP) containing regimen, or switch to a triple-NRTI regimen (ABC-zidovudine-lamivudine) The primary outcomes were: proportion of patients discontinuing or switching antiretroviral therapy due to virologic failure or to adverse events; death (all cause) and AIDS defining illness; occurrence of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular disease. Secondary outcomes  were: proportion of patients maintaining an undetectable

  20. The relationship between self-concept and adherence to therapeutic regimens in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Abbas; Ahrari, Shahnaz; Vaghee, Saeed

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the primary cause of death in Iran, and currently, heart failure (HF) has a prevalence of 3500 in 100,000 people. Despite advances in medical treatment for HF, nonadherence to prescribed therapeutic regimen remains as a problem among HF patients. A better understanding of the factors that influence patient adherence to therapeutic regimen may help nurses enhance quality of care in HF patients. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-concept cognitive perception (threat and challenge) and adherence to therapeutic regimens in patients with HF in an Iranian population. Using a descriptive correlational design, a convenience sample of 108 HF patients were selected from 2 major medical and academic centers, affiliated with Mashhad University of Medical Sciences in Iran. Two validated and reliable questionnaires including Cognitive Perception of Cardiovascular Healthy Lifestyles and Adherence questionnaires were completed by each patient. A direct relationship between challenge to self-concept and adherence to prescribed regimen was noted (P self-concept had an inverse relationship to adherence (P self-concept adhered more to the prescribed therapeutic regimen. Through education and counseling, nurses can empower their patients to perceive HF as a challenge to better adhere to the prescribed therapeutic regimen.

  1. Variability in Antibiotic Regimens for Surgical Necrotizing Enterocolitis Highlights the Need for New Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, Brian P; Hunter, Catherine J; Grabowski, Julia

    Necrotizing enterocolitis or NEC is the most common gastrointestinal emergency in the newborn. The etiology of NEC remains unknown, and treatment consists of antibiotic therapy and supportive care with the addition of surgical intervention as necessary. Unlike most surgical diseases, clear guidelines for the type and duration of peri-operative antibiotic therapy have not been established. Our aim was to review the antibiotic regimen(s) applied to surgical patients with NEC within a single neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and to evaluate outcomes and help develop guidelines for antibiotic administration in this patient population. A single-center retrospective review was performed of all patients who underwent surgical intervention for NEC from August 1, 2005 through August 1, 2015. Relevant data were extracted including gestational age, age at diagnosis, gender, pre-operative antibiotic treatment, post-operative antibiotic treatment, development of stricture, and mortality. Patients were excluded if there was incomplete data documentation. A total of 90 patients were identified who met inclusion criteria. There were 56 male patients and 34 female patients. The average gestational age was 30 5/7 wks and average age of diagnosis 16.7 d. A total of 22 different pre-operative antibiotic regimens were identified with an average duration of 10.6 d. The most common pre-operative regimen was ampicillin, gentamicin, and metronidazole for 14 d. A total of 15 different post-operative antibiotic regimens were identified with an average duration of 6.6 d. The most common post-operative regimen was ampicillin, gentamicin, and metronidazole for two days. There were 26 strictures and 15 deaths. No regimen or duration proved superior. We found that there is a high degree of variability in the antibiotic regimen for the treatment of NEC, even within a single NICU, with no regimen appearing superior over another. As data emerge that demonstrate the adverse effects of

  2. Progress toward tuberculosis control and determinants of treatment outcomes--Kazakhstan, 2000-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumburidi, Ekaterina; Ajeilat, S; Dadu, A; Aitmagambetova, I; Ershova, J; Fagan, R; Favorov, M O

    2006-04-28

    all adults with PTB were below targeted goals. This might, in part, be explained by the 1998 adoption of DOTS. Improving program indicators requires evaluation of detection efforts, laboratory diagnostic capabilities, and adherence to treatment regimens, especially in provinces in which rates are high and among persons at high risk for unfavorable treatment outcomes.

  3. In vitro activity of ertapenem versus ceftriaxone against Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with highly diverse ceftriaxone MIC values and effects of ceftriaxone resistance determinants: ertapenem for treatment of gonorrhea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unemo, Magnus; Golparian, Daniel; Limnios, Athena; Whiley, David; Ohnishi, Makoto; Lahra, Monica M; Tapsall, John W

    2012-07-01

    Clinical resistance to the currently recommended extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs), the last remaining treatment options for gonorrhea, is being reported. Gonorrhea may become untreatable, and new treatment options are crucial. We investigated the in vitro activity of ertapenem, relative to ceftriaxone, against N. gonorrhoeae isolates and the effects of ESC resistance determinants on ertapenem. MICs were determined using agar dilution technique or Etest for international reference strains (n = 17) and clinical N. gonorrhoeae isolates (n = 257), which included the two extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains H041 and F89 and additional isolates with high ESC MICs, clinical ESC resistance, and other types of clinical high-level and multidrug resistance (MDR). Genetic resistance determinants for ESCs (penA, mtrR, and penB) were sequenced. In general, the MICs of ertapenem (MIC(50) = 0.032 μg/ml; MIC(90) = 0.064 μg/ml) paralleled those of ceftriaxone (MIC(50) = 0.032 μg/ml; MIC(90) = 0.125 μg/ml). The ESC resistance determinants mainly increased the ertapenem MIC and ceftriaxone MIC at similar levels. However, the MIC ranges for ertapenem (0.002 to 0.125 μg/ml) and ceftriaxone (gonorrhea, particularly for the currently identified ESC-resistant cases and possibly in a dual antimicrobial therapy regimen. However, further knowledge regarding the genetic determinants (and their evolution) conferring resistance to both antimicrobials, and clear correlates between genetic and phenotypic laboratory parameters and clinical treatment outcomes, is essential.

  4. In Vitro Activity of Ertapenem versus Ceftriaxone against Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates with Highly Diverse Ceftriaxone MIC Values and Effects of Ceftriaxone Resistance Determinants: Ertapenem for Treatment of Gonorrhea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golparian, Daniel; Limnios, Athena; Whiley, David; Ohnishi, Makoto; Lahra, Monica M.; Tapsall, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical resistance to the currently recommended extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs), the last remaining treatment options for gonorrhea, is being reported. Gonorrhea may become untreatable, and new treatment options are crucial. We investigated the in vitro activity of ertapenem, relative to ceftriaxone, against N. gonorrhoeae isolates and the effects of ESC resistance determinants on ertapenem. MICs were determined using agar dilution technique or Etest for international reference strains (n = 17) and clinical N. gonorrhoeae isolates (n = 257), which included the two extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains H041 and F89 and additional isolates with high ESC MICs, clinical ESC resistance, and other types of clinical high-level and multidrug resistance (MDR). Genetic resistance determinants for ESCs (penA, mtrR, and penB) were sequenced. In general, the MICs of ertapenem (MIC50 = 0.032 μg/ml; MIC90 = 0.064 μg/ml) paralleled those of ceftriaxone (MIC50 = 0.032 μg/ml; MIC90 = 0.125 μg/ml). The ESC resistance determinants mainly increased the ertapenem MIC and ceftriaxone MIC at similar levels. However, the MIC ranges for ertapenem (0.002 to 0.125 μg/ml) and ceftriaxone (gonorrhea, particularly for the currently identified ESC-resistant cases and possibly in a dual antimicrobial therapy regimen. However, further knowledge regarding the genetic determinants (and their evolution) conferring resistance to both antimicrobials, and clear correlates between genetic and phenotypic laboratory parameters and clinical treatment outcomes, is essential. PMID:22547617

  5. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, R M; Mares, J; Novotna, A; Vachova, M; Novakova, I; Notcutt, W; Ratcliffe, S

    2013-04-01

    Central neuropathic pain (CNP) occurs in many multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The provision of adequate pain relief to these patients can very difficult. Here we report the first phase III placebo-controlled study of the efficacy of the endocannabinoid system modulator delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray (USAN name, nabiximols; Sativex, GW Pharmaceuticals, Salisbury, Wiltshire, UK), to alleviate CNP. Patients who had failed to gain adequate analgesia from existing medication were treated with THC/CBD spray or placebo as an add-on treatment, in a double-blind manner, for 14 weeks to investigate the efficacy of the medication in MS-induced neuropathic pain. This parallel-group phase of the study was then followed by an 18-week randomized-withdrawal study (14-week open-label treatment period plus a double-blind 4-week randomized-withdrawal phase) to investigate time to treatment failure and show maintenance of efficacy. A total of 339 patients were randomized to phase A (167 received THC/CBD spray and 172 received placebo). Of those who completed phase A, 58 entered the randomized-withdrawal phase. The primary endpoint of responder analysis at the 30 % level at week 14 of phase A of the study was not met, with 50 % of patients on THC/CBD spray classed as responders at the 30 % level compared to 45 % of patients on placebo (p = 0.234). However, an interim analysis at week 10 showed a statistically significant treatment difference in favor of THC/CBD spray at this time point (p = 0.046). During the randomized-withdrawal phase, the primary endpoint of time to treatment failure was statistically significant in favor of THC/CBD spray, with 57 % of patients receiving placebo failing treatment versus 24 % of patients from the THC/CBD spray group (p = 0.04). The mean change from baseline in Pain Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) (p = 0.028) and sleep quality NRS (p = 0.015) scores, both secondary endpoints in phase B, were also statistically

  6. Esomeprazole regimens for reflux symptoms in Chinese patients with chronic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Yuan, Yao-Zong; Hou, Xiao-Hua; Zou, Duo-Wu; Lu, Bin; Chen, Min-Hu; Liu, Fei; Wu, Kai-Chun; Zou, Xiao-Ping; Li, Yan-Qing; Zhou, Li-Ya

    2015-06-14

    To compare symptom control with esomeprazole regimens for non-erosive reflux disease and chronic gastritis in patients with a negative endoscopy. This randomized, open-label study was designed in line with clinical practice in China. Patients with typical reflux symptoms for ≥ 3 mo and a negative endoscopy who had a Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Questionnaire score ≥ 8 were randomized to initial treatment with esomeprazole 20 mg once daily either for 8 wk or for 2 wk. Patients with symptom relief could enter another 24 wk of maintenance/on-demand treatment, where further courses of esomeprazole 20 mg once daily were given if symptoms recurred. The primary endpoint was the symptom control rate at week 24 of the maintenance/on-demand treatment period. Secondary endpoints were symptom relief rate, success rate (defined as patients who had symptom relief after initial treatment and after 24 wk of maintenance treatment), time-to-first-relapse and satisfaction rate. Based on the data collected in the modified intention-to-treat population (MITT; patients in the ITT population with symptom relief after initial esomeprazole treatment, n = 262), the symptom control rate showed a small but statistically significant difference in favor of the 8-wk regimen (94.9% vs 87.3%, P = 0.0473). Among the secondary endpoints, based on the data collected in the ITT population (n = 305), the 8-wk group presented marginally better results in symptom relief after initial esomeprazole treatment (88.3% vs 83.4%, P = 0.2513) and success rate over the whole study (83.8% vs 72.8%, P = 0.0258). The 8-wk regimen was found to provide a 46% reduction in risk of relapse vs the 2-wk regimen (HR = 0.543; 95%CI: 0.388-0.761). In addition, fewer unscheduled visits and higher patient satisfaction supported the therapeutic benefits of the 8-wk regimen over the 2-wk regimen. Safety was comparable between the two groups, with both regimens being well tolerated. Chinese patients diagnosed with chronic

  7. Atypical Amniotic Fluid Embolism Managed with a Novel Therapeutic Regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Rezai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE is the second leading cause of maternal mortality in the USA with an incidence of 1 : 15,200 births. The case fatality rate and perinatal mortality associated with AFE are 13–30% and 9–44%, respectively. This rare but devastating complication can be difficult to diagnose as many of the early signs and symptoms are nonspecific. Compounding this diagnostic challenge is a lack of effective treatment regimens which to date are mostly supportive. We present the case of a 26-year-old woman who suffered from suspected AFE and was successfully treated with the novel regimen of Atropine, Ondansetron, and Ketorolac (A-OK. The authors acknowledge that this case does not meet the new criteria proposed, by Clark in 2016, but feel that it is important to share this case report, due to dramatic patient response to the provided supportive therapy presented in this case report. We hope this case report will prompt further research into this novel approach to treating AFE with Atropine, Ondansetron, and Ketorolac.

  8. Late effects of various dose-fractionation regimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turesson, I.; Notter, G.

    1983-01-01

    These clinical investigations of various dose-fractionation regimens on human skin show that: The late reactions cannot be predicted from the early reactions; The dose-response curves for late reactions are much steeper than for early reactions; Equivalent doses for various fractionation schedules concerning late effects can be calculated by means of a corrected CRE (NSD) formula; the correction must be considered preliminary because further follow-up is needed. A clinical fractionation study of this type requires: Extremely careful dosimetry; Study of the same anatomical region; Very long follow-up; Studies at different effect levels; Skin reaction is the only end point we have studied systematically for different fractionation regimens. Experience with the CRE formula as a model for calculating isoeffect doses for different fractionation schedules in routine clinical use can be summarized as follows: The CRE formula has been used prospectively since 1972 in all patients; CRE-equivalent weekly doses to 5 x 2.0 Gy per week has been used. (Although the fractionation schedule is changed, the overall treatment time is still the same); The CRE range was 18 to 21 for curative radiotherapy on carcinomas; No irradiation was applied during pronounced acute reactions. No unexpected complications have been observed under these conditions

  9. Dealing with large-scale supply lines when introducing new regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malati, Christine; Rosenfeld, Joshua; Mowafy, Sherif; Rittmiller, Trevor; Kuritsky, Joel; Crowley, John

    2017-07-01

    As programs plan the introduction of a new antiretroviral as part of a regimen for HIV treatment, supply chain considerations need to be taken into account. The key to success is balancing the introduction of a new regimen with the phasing out of an old regimen in a manner that does not result in either a shortage or an excess supply of either product while ensuring that patients continue receiving their medications. This necessitates that country programs, donors, and procurement entities possess an appreciation of the global antiretroviral market and understand the dynamics that the manufacturing of new antiretrovirals will have on the transition. Supply, demand, and financial considerations affect the capacity of the supply chain to facilitate a successful antiretroviral transition. Although this commentary draws on United States Agency for International Development experiences under the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief from earlier antiretroviral treatment shifts, the approaches are applicable to other institutions and to future transitions. Three approaches were employed: ensuring the engagement of all key stakeholders in transition planning and execution, including clinicians, advocacy groups, supply chain professionals, ministry, and donors; conducting and updating regularly the national quantification and supply plans for all regimens; and introducing antiretroviral products into programs from regional warehouses based on firm orders. Extensive planning and accounting for supply chain factors is essential to ensuring a smooth transition to a new regimen and to enable the global antiretroviral market to respond adequately.

  10. A Systematic Review of Recall Regimen and Maintenance Regimen of Patients with Dental Restorations. Part 2: Implant-Borne Restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidra, Avinash S; Daubert, Diane M; Garcia, Lily T; Gauthier, Marissa F; Kosinski, Timothy F; Nenn, Conrad A; Olsen, John A; Platt, Jeffrey A; Wingrove, Susan S; Chandler, Nancy Deal; Curtis, Donald A

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the current scientific evidence on patient recall and maintenance of implant-supported restorations, to standardize patient care regimens and improve maintenance of oral health. An additional purpose was to examine areas of deficiency in the current scientific literature and provide recommendations for future studies. An electronic search for articles in the English language literature from the past 10 years was performed independently by multiple investigators using a systematic search process. After application of predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria, the final list of articles was reviewed to meet the objectives of this review. The initial electronic search resulted in 2816 titles. The systematic application of inclusion and exclusion criteria resulted in 14 articles that satisfied the study objectives. An additional 6 articles were added through a supplemental search process for a total of 20 studies. Of these, 11 were randomized controlled clinical trials, and 9 were observational studies. The majority of the studies (15 out of 20) were conducted in the past 5 years and most studies were conducted in Europe (15), followed by Asia (2), South America (1), the United States (1), and the Middle East (1). Results from the qualitative data on a combined 1088 patients indicated that outcome improvements in recall and maintenance regimen were related to (1) patient/treatment characteristic (type of prosthesis, type of prosthetic components, and type of restorative materials); (2) specific oral topical agents or oral hygiene aids (electric toothbrush, interdental brush, chlorhexidine, triclosan, water flossers) and (3) professional intervention (oral hygiene maintenance, and maintenance of the prosthesis). There is minimal evidence related to recall regimens in patients with implant-borne removable and fixed restorations; however, a considerable body of evidence indicates that patients with implant-borne removable and fixed restorations require

  11. Estimation of the optimal dosing regimen of escitalopram in dogs: A dose occupancy study with [11C]DASB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Olivia; Van Laeken, Nick; Polis, Ingeborgh; Dockx, Robrecht; Vlerick, Lise; Dobbeleir, Andre; Goethals, Ingeborg; Saunders, Jimmy; Sadones, Nele; Baeken, Chris; De Vos, Filip; Peremans, Kathelijne

    2017-01-01

    Although the favourable characteristics of escitalopram as being the most selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and having an increased therapeutic efficacy via binding on an additional allosteric binding site of the serotonin transporter, its dosing regimen has not yet been optimized for its use in dogs. This study aimed to estimate the optimal dosing frequency and the required dose for achieving 80% occupancy of the serotonin transporters in the basal ganglia. The dosing frequency was investigated by determining the elimination half-life after a four day oral pre-treatment period with 0.83 mg/kg escitalopram (3 administrations/day) and a subsequent i.v. injection 0.83 mg/kg. Blood samples were taken up to 12 hours after i.v. injection and the concentration of escitalopram in plasma was analysed via LC-MSMS. The dose-occupancy relationship was then determined by performing two PET scans in five adult beagles: a baseline PET scan and a second scan after steady state conditions were achieved following oral treatment with a specific dose of escitalopram ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 mg/kg/day. As the elimination half-life was determined to be 6.7 hours a dosing frequency of three administrations a day was proposed for the second part of the study. Further it was opted for a treatment period of four days, which well exceeded the minimum period to achieve steady state conditions. The optimal dosing regimen to achieve 80% occupancy in the basal ganglia and elicit a therapeutic effect, was calculated to be 1.85 mg/kg/day, divided over three administrations. Under several circumstances, such as insufficient response to other SSRIs, concurrent drug intake or in research studies focused on SERT, the use of escitalopram can be preferred over the use of the already for veterinary use registered fluoxetine, however, in case of long-term treatment with escitalopram, regularly cardiac screening is recommended.

  12. Effect of traditional and integrative regimens on quality of life and early renal impairment in elderly patients with isolated systolic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Liu, Long-tao; Zhao, Wen-ming; Liu, Jian-gang; Yao, Ming-jiang; Han, Yong-xiang; Shen, Yan-peng; Liu, Xing-dong; Liu, Li; Wang, Xue-mei; Cai, Lin-lin; Guan, Jie

    2010-06-01

    To observe the effect of Chinese medical regimen and integrative medical regimen on quality of life and early renal impairment in elderly patients with isolated systolic hypertension (EISH). A multi-center, randomized, double-blinded controlled trail was adopted. A total of 270 cases of EISH were randomly divided into 3 groups: Chinese medicine group (CM), combination group and Western medicine group (WM). The course of treatment was 4 weeks. The clinical blood pressure, integral of quality of life (SF-36 scale), immunoglubin G (IgG), microalbumin (mALB), beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)-MG), transferrin (TRF) and N-acetyl-beta'-D-glucosa-minidase (NAG) in urine were determined before and after the treatment. After treatment, systolic blood pressure depressed significantly in each group (P<0.05), and the combination group was superior to CM or WM group in depressing SBP (P<0.05); in each group, integral of quality of life improved in different degree, and combination group was superior to WM group in all 8 dimensions (P<0.05). The level of mALB and beta(2)-MG in urine decreased in all groups (P<0.05), and the combination group was superior to CM group or WM group in decreasing mALB (P<0.05). Chinese medical regimen has affirmative effect in treating EISH patients, and could lower the systolic blood pressure, improve quality of life and early renal impairment of the patients, and integrative medical regimen has superiority on account of cooperation, and deserves further study.

  13. Asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi as a component of a multi-agent chemotherapeutic regimen for the treatment of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who have developed hypersensitivity to E. coli-derived asparaginase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Lisa; Cole, Peter D; Drachtman, Richard A

    2016-03-01

    Asparaginase has been a mainstay of therapy in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia since the 1970s. There are two major preparations available and FDA approved in the United States today, one derived from Escherichia coli and the other from Erwinia chrysanthemi. Erwinia asparaginase is antigenically distinct from and has a considerably shorter biological half-life than E coli asparaginase. Erwinia asparaginase has been used in cases of hypersensitivity to E. coli-derived asparaginases, which has been reported in up to 30% of patients. While PEG asparaginase is increasingly used in front-line therapy for ALL, hypersensitivity still occurs with this preparation, and a change to a non-cross-reactive preparation may be necessary.

  14. 47 CFR 65.102 - Petitions for exclusion from unitary treatment and for individual treatment in determining...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... granted for a period of two years if the cost of capital for interstate exchange service is so low as to... required rate of return for interstate exchange access services. (b) A petition for exclusion from unitary... and for individual treatment in determining authorized return for interstate exchange access service...

  15. Real-world cost analysis of chemotherapy for colorectal cancer in Japan: detailed costs of various regimens during the entire course of chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Shuichi; Shimizu, Hisanori; Sakamaki, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Shunya; Ikegami, Naoki; Murayama, Jun-Ichiro

    2016-01-04

    Various chemotherapy regimens for advanced colorectal cancer have been introduced to clinical practice in Japan over the past decade. The cost profiles of these regimens, however, remain unclear in Japan. To explore the detailed costs of different regimens used to treat advanced colorectal cancer during the entire course of chemotherapy in patients treated in a practical setting, we conducted a so-called "real-world" cost analysis. A detailed cost analysis was performed retrospectively. Patients with advanced colorectal cancer who had received chemotherapy in a practical healthcare setting from July 2004 through October 2010 were extracted from the ordering system database of Showa University Hospital. Direct medical costs of chemotherapy regimens were calculated from the hospital billing data of the patients. The analysis was conducted from a payer's perspective. A total of 30 patients with advanced colorectal cancer were identified. Twenty patients received up to second-line treatment, and 8 received up to third-line treatment. The regimens identified from among all courses of treatment in all patients were 13 oxaliplatin-based regimens, 31 irinotecan-based regimens, and 11 regimens including molecular targeted agents. The average (95% confidence interval [95% CI]) monthly cost during the overall period from the beginning of treatment to the end of treatment was 308,363 (258,792 to 357,933) Japanese yen (JPY). According to the type of regimen, the average monthly cost was 418,463 (357,413 to 479,513) JPY for oxaliplatin-based regimens, 215,499 (188,359 to 242,639) JPY for irinotecan-based regimens, and 705,460 (586,733 to 824,187) JPY for regimens including molecular targeted agents. Anticancer drug costs and hospital fees accounted for 50 to 77% and 11 to 25% of the overall costs of chemotherapy, respectively. The costs of irinotecan-based regimens were lower than those of oxaliplatin-based regimens and regimens including molecular targeted agents in Japan

  16. Are Treatment Outcomes Determined by Type of Gambling? A UK Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzitti, Silvia; Soldini, Emiliano; Smith, Neil; Bayston, Andrew; Clerici, Massimo; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta

    2018-01-30

    One of the main difficulties faced in treating gambling disorder is compliance with psychological treatment. Gambling takes many forms and can differ greatly in its features such as speed of play and skill requirements. The type of gambling a pathological gambler opts for may play a key role in treatment compliance. The aim of the present study was to determine whether within treatment seeking sample of gambling disorder clients, gambling activity has any correlation with their resultant treatment outcomes. The study incorporated 524 treatment-seeking individuals who are clients of the National Problem Gambling Clinic in London. All of the clients were assessed prior to treatment and fulfilled the Problem Gambling Severity Index criteria for problem gambling. Data concerning clients' gambling behavior over the previous year was gathered using self-reports. Subsequently, the data was fitted to a multinomial logistic regression model, with the treatment outcome (i.e. pre-treatment dropouts, during treatment dropouts, and completed treatment) as the dependent variable and gambling behavior as the independent variable, whilst controlling for socio-demographic factors. The use of gaming machines was a significant predictor of dropping out pre-treatment (p gambling activities. Further research into the salient features of these gambling activities may help to further explain pre-treatment and during treatment dropouts within this population.

  17. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with conditioning regimens containing melphalan in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, Takaharu; Kato, Koji [Nagoya First Red Cross Hospital (Japan). Children' s Medical Center; Hanada, Ryoji [Saitama Children' s Medical Center, Iwatsuki (Japan)] [and others

    2002-07-01

    A multicenter comparative study was carried out to investigate the efficacy and safety of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with conditioning regimens containing melphalan in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. One hundred twenty three patients at a variety of remission stages were eligible for study participation. Eighty-nine were transplanted with allogeneic grafts and 34 patients with autologous grafts (23 cases with bone marrow and 11 cases with peripheral blood stem cells). Conditioning regimens used were as follows: melphalan and busulfan for 40 patients, melphalan, busulfan and TBI for 44 patients, other regimens for 39 patients. To accelerate engraftment G-CSF (lenograstim) was administered as a 1-hour or 24-hour drip infusion daily at 5 {mu}g/kg from day 5 until hematological recovery. The five year disease free survival (DFS) was 63% for 42 patients at CR1, 41% for 41 patients at CR2 and 33% for 40 patients at other stages. There was no significant difference in the DFS between allogeneic-transplantation and autologous-transplantation in all disease stages. In patients at remission stage for CR1 and CR2, the 5-year DFS by conditioning regimen was 63% for regimen with melphalan and busulfan, 54% for regimen with melphalan, busulfan and TBI and 54% for regimens with melphalan and TBI. There was no significant difference in the DFS between the groups. Serious complications such as renal failure were observed in 11%, veno-occlusive disease in 9%, and interstitial pneumonia in 9%. The most dominating cause of death was relapse in the disease (48% of deaths) which was most commonly observed in autologous transplantation. Contrary to that, treatment related toxic death was the most frequent cause of deaths in allogeneic-transplantation. (author)

  18. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with conditioning regimens containing melphalan in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Takaharu; Kato, Koji

    2002-01-01

    A multicenter comparative study was carried out to investigate the efficacy and safety of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with conditioning regimens containing melphalan in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. One hundred twenty three patients at a variety of remission stages were eligible for study participation. Eighty-nine were transplanted with allogeneic grafts and 34 patients with autologous grafts (23 cases with bone marrow and 11 cases with peripheral blood stem cells). Conditioning regimens used were as follows: melphalan and busulfan for 40 patients, melphalan, busulfan and TBI for 44 patients, other regimens for 39 patients. To accelerate engraftment G-CSF (lenograstim) was administered as a 1-hour or 24-hour drip infusion daily at 5 μg/kg from day 5 until hematological recovery. The five year disease free survival (DFS) was 63% for 42 patients at CR1, 41% for 41 patients at CR2 and 33% for 40 patients at other stages. There was no significant difference in the DFS between allogeneic-transplantation and autologous-transplantation in all disease stages. In patients at remission stage for CR1 and CR2, the 5-year DFS by conditioning regimen was 63% for regimen with melphalan and busulfan, 54% for regimen with melphalan, busulfan and TBI and 54% for regimens with melphalan and TBI. There was no significant difference in the DFS between the groups. Serious complications such as renal failure were observed in 11%, veno-occlusive disease in 9%, and interstitial pneumonia in 9%. The most dominating cause of death was relapse in the disease (48% of deaths) which was most commonly observed in autologous transplantation. Contrary to that, treatment related toxic death was the most frequent cause of deaths in allogeneic-transplantation. (author)

  19. Ambulatory blood pressure parameters after canrenone addition to existing treatment regimens with maximum tolerated dose of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers plus hydrochlorothiazide in uncontrolled hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guasti L

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Luigina Guasti,1,* Giovanni Gaudio,2,* Alessandro Lupi,3 Marinella D’Avino,4 Carla Sala,5,6 Amedeo Mugellini,7 Vito Vulpis,8 Salvatore Felis,9 Riccardo Sarzani,10,11 Massimo Vanasia,12 Pamela Maffioli,7 Giuseppe Derosa7 1Research Center on Dyslipidemia, Internal Medicine 1, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy; 2Internal Medicine Division, Ospedale Angelo Bellini, ASST Valle Olona Somma, Varese, Italy; 3Cardiology Unit, ASL VCO Verbania-Domodossola, Verbania, Italy; 4Unit for the Treatment of Arterial Hypertension, Ospedale Cardarelli, Napoli, Italy; 5Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Milano, Italy; 6Cardiovascular Unit, Fondazione IRCCSS Policlinico, Milano, Italy; 7Department of Internal Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 8Unit for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Arterial Hypertension, Department of Internal Medicine, Policlinico di Bari, Bari, Italy; 9Cardiology Unit, Ospedale Garibaldi, Catania, Italy; 10ESH Center of Hypertension, Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, University Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy; 11IRCCS-INRCA, Ancona, Italy; 12THERABEL GiEnne Pharma, Milano, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Blockade of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system is a cornerstone in cardiovascular disease prevention and hypertension treatment. The relevance of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM has been widely confirmed for both increasing the accuracy of blood pressure (BP measurements, particularly in pharmacological trials, and focusing on 24 h BP prognostic parameters. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of canrenone addition on ambulatory BP in uncontrolled hypertensive patients already treated with the highest tolerated dose of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R antagonists plus hydrochlorothiazide (HCT. Methods: ABPM was performed at baseline and after 3

  20. 75 FR 42079 - Treatment of Letters Stating That the USPTO's Patent Term Adjustment Determination Is Greater...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... Letters Stating That the USPTO's Patent Term Adjustment Determination Is Greater Than What the Applicant... treatment of letters submitted by applicants and patentees stating that the USPTO's patent term adjustment determination indicated on a notice of allowance, issue notification, or patent, is greater than what the...

  1. Determining patient preferences for improved chemotoxicity during treatment for advanced bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aristides, M.; Maase, Hans von der; Roberts, T.

    2005-01-01

    Determining patient preferences for improved chemotoxicity during treatment for advanced bladder cancer Conventional treatment for advanced bladder cancer is methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin plus cisplatin (MVAC), with a median survival of 1 year but significant toxicity. The newer...... combination of gemcitabine plus cisplatin (GC) has demonstrated comparable survival and an improved toxicity profile (Von der Maase et al. 2000). At present, the importance to patients of the toxicity of chemotherapy has not been widely studied. An earlier study in bladder cancer indicated that toxicity...... was an important determinant of treatment preference (Davey et al. 2000). A study of preferences for advanced bladder cancer therapy in the UK was proposed....

  2. Calcipotriol cream in the morning and ointment in the evening: a novel regimen to improve compliance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Franssen, M.; Brassinne, M. de la; Kuipers, M.V.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcipotriol ointment and calcipotriol cream have both been shown to be effective in the treatment of psoriasis. AIM: To find out the patient compliance, efficacy and tolerance to a regimen of a calcipotriol cream application in the morning and a calcipotriol ointment application in the

  3. Impact of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with azithromycin-containing regimens on maternal nasopharyngeal carriage and antibiotic sensitivity of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus: a cross-sectional survey at delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Holger W; Aho, Celestine; Ome-Kaius, Maria; Wangnapi, Regina A; Umbers, Alexandra J; Jack, Wanda; Lafana, Alice; Michael, Audrey; Hanieh, Sarah; Siba, Peter; Mueller, Ivo; Greenhill, Andrew R; Rogerson, Stephen J

    2015-04-01

    Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) plus azithromycin (AZ) (SPAZ) has the potential for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp), but its use could increase circulation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria associated with severe pediatric infections. We evaluated the effect of monthly SPAZ-IPTp compared to a single course of SP plus chloroquine (SPCQ) on maternal nasopharyngeal carriage and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus at delivery among 854 women participating in a randomized controlled trial in Papua New Guinea. Serotyping was performed, and antibiotic susceptibility was evaluated by disk diffusion and Etest. Potential risk factors for carriage were examined. Nasopharyngeal carriage at delivery of S. pneumoniae (SPAZ, 7.2% [30/418], versus SPCQ, 19.3% [84/436]; P<0.001) and H. influenzae (2.9% [12/418] versus 6.0% [26/436], P=0.028), but not S. aureus, was significantly reduced among women who had received SPAZ-IPTp. The number of macrolide-resistant pneumococcal isolates was small but increased in the SPAZ group (13.3% [4/30], versus SPCQ, 2.2% [2/91]; P=0.033). The proportions of isolates with serotypes covered by the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine were similar (SPAZ, 10.3% [3/29], versus SPCQ, 17.6% [16/91]; P=0.352). Although macrolide-resistant isolates were rare, they were more commonly detected in women who had received SPAZ-IPTp, despite the significant reduction of maternal carriage of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae observed in this group. Future studies on SPAZ-IPTp should evaluate carriage and persistence of macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae and other pathogenic bacteria in both mothers and infants and assess the clinical significance of their circulation. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Community-based short-course treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis in a developing nation. Initial report of an eight-month, largely intermittent regimen in a population with a high prevalence of drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manalo, F; Tan, F; Sbarbaro, J A; Iseman, M D

    1990-12-01

    A community-based tuberculosis case-finding and short-course chemotherapy program was conducted in a suburb of Manila and featured 1 month of daily isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF), ethambutol (EMB), and pyrazinamide (PZA) followed by 7 months of twice-weekly, high dose, directly observed INH + EMB + PZA. Church-affiliated lay workers obtained 1,990 sputum specimens from subjects who complained of chronic cough or wasting symptoms; 207 of the specimens were positive on Ziehl-Neelsen smears. On culture, 176 yielded a significant growth of M. tuberculosis. Of these 176 patients, 144 were selected to enter the study; 10 were lost because of withdrawal or death and four (2.7%) because of drug toxicity. This left 130 patients who were followed long-term. Remarkably, 80% (104) were initially shedding drug-resistant organisms; 26% (34) were resistant to one drug, 30% (40) were resistant to two drugs, and 24% (30) were resistant to three or more drugs. Responses to therapy corresponded closely to the extent of drug resistance: 80% (48 of 60) of patients with drug-susceptible or single resistance had a favorable outcome; 43% (28 of 65) were resistant to two or three drugs, and 0% (0 of 5) of those were resistant to four or more drugs. Notable findings of this study were the success of a community-based program in conducting prolonged, directly observed treatment, the unexpectedly high prevalence of multiple-drug-resistant organisms in this population, and the inadequacy of INH + PZA + EMB during the continuation phase of therapy in this setting.

  5. Socio-cultural determinants of timely and delayed treatment of Buruli ulcer: Implications for disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackumey, Mercy M; Gyapong, Margaret; Pappoe, Matilda; Maclean, Cynthia Kwakye; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2012-10-25

    Public health programmes recommend timely medical treatment for Buruli ulcer (BU) infection to prevent pre-ulcer conditions from progressing to ulcers, to minimise surgery, disabilities and the socio-economic impact of BU. Clarifying the role of socio-cultural determinants of timely medical treatment may assist in guiding public health programmes to improve treatment outcomes. This study clarified the role of socio-cultural determinants and health system factors affecting timely medical treatment for BU in an endemic area in Ghana. A semi-structured explanatory model interview based on the explanatory model interview catalogue (EMIC) was administered to 178 BU-affected persons. Based on research evidence, respondents were classified as timely treatment (use of medical treatment 3 months from awareness of disease) and delayed treatment (medical treatment 3 months after onset of disease and failure to use medical treatment). The outcome variable, timely treatment was analysed with cultural epidemiological variables for categories of distress, perceived causes of BU, outside-help and reasons for medical treatment in logistic regression models. The median time for the onset of symptoms to treatment was computed in days. Qualitative phenomenological analysis of respondents' narratives clarified the meaning, context and dynamic features of the relationship of explanatory variables with timely medical treatment. The median time for initiating treatment was 25 days for pre-ulcers, and 204 days for ulcers. Income loss and use of herbalists showed significantly negative associations with timely treatment. Respondents' use of herbalists was often motivated by the desire for quick recovery in order to continue with work and because herbalists were relatives and easily accessible. However, drinking unclean water was significantly associated with timely treatment and access to health services encouraged timely treatment (OR 8.5, p = 0.012). Findings show that health system

  6. Determination of the priority indexes for the oil refinery wastewater treatment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnokova, M. G.; Myshlyavtsev, A. V.; Kriga, A. S.; Shaporenko, A. P.; Markelov, V. V.

    2017-08-01

    The wastewater biological treatment intensity and effectiveness are influenced by many factors: temperature, pH, presence and concentration of toxic substances, the biomass concentration et al. Regulation of them allows controlling the biological treatment process. Using the Bayesian theorem the link between changes was determined and the wastewater indexes normative limits exceeding influence for activated sludge characteristics alteration probability was evaluated. The estimation of total, or aposterioric, priority index presence probability, which characterizes the wastewater treatment level, is an important way to use the Bayesian theorem in activated sludge swelling prediction at the oil refinery biological treatment unit.

  7. Gemcitabine and Vinorelbine (GemVin) Regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Elizabeth Y; Solimando, Dominic A; Waddell, J Aubrey

    2014-06-01

    The complexity of cancer chemotherapy requires pharmacists be familiar with the complicated regimens and highly toxic agents used. This column reviews various issues related to preparation, dispensing, and administration of antineoplastic therapy, and the agents, both commercially available and investigational, used to treat malignant diseases. Questions or suggestions for topics should be addressed to Dominic A. Solimando, Jr, President, Oncology Pharmacy Services, Inc., 4201 Wilson Blvd #110-545, Arlington, VA 22203, e-mail: OncRxSvc@comcast.net; or J. Aubrey Waddell, Professor, University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy; Oncology Pharmacist, Pharmacy Department, Blount Memorial Hospital, 907 E. Lamar Alexander Parkway, Maryville, TN 37804, e-mail: waddfour@charter.net.

  8. Efficacy assessment of two antibiotic prophylaxis regimens in oral and maxillofacial trauma surgery: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Giordano BP; Lucena, Eudes ES; da Silva, José Sandro P; Gomes, Petrus P; Germano, Adriano R

    2015-01-01

    The study set out to evaluate the efficacy of two antibiotic prophylaxis regimens in patients with facial fractures admitted to the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Traumatology services of the Onofre Lopes University Hospital attached to the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte in the period from December 2011 to December 2012. The sample consisted of 74 patients divided into two groups, GI with forty-three patients and GII with 32. Both groups received 2 g of cefazolin, 20 minutes before surgery. The postoperative protocol for each group was randomly determined; group I (single dose) received no antibiotics after surgery but group II (24 h dosage) received 1 g of cefazolin every 6 hours for 24 hours. Postoperative infection incidence was 9.3% (seven patients), six patients in Group I and one in Group II. 85% of the infections were in mandibular fractures. Results were presented qualitatively and quantitatively and the Chi square test (taking the value for p to be < 0.05) showed no statistically significant differences in the efficacies of the two regimens in the comparisons made between the cases of fractures in the upper and middle thirds of the face with those in the lower third (mandibular fractures). Considering mandibular fractures alone, Group II proved to be more efficacious with a p value of 0.02. However, to confirm the tendency shown in the mandibular fracture treatments whereby prolonging antibiotic administration for 24 hours appeared to be beneficial, research needs to be done with much larger sample groups. PMID:25932244

  9. Apparent recovery of C18 polyunsaturated fatty acids from feed in cow milk: a meta-analysis of the importance of dietary fatty acids and feeding regimens in diets without fat supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiaosa-Ard, R; Kreuzer, M; Leiber, F

    2015-09-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted using the results of 82 experiments (78 publications, 266 treatments) to investigate the importance of dietary C18 fatty acids (FA) and feeding regimen for milk C18 FA profile and apparent recovery of selected FA relative to intake of these FA or their precursors. Feeding treatments based on lipid-supplemented diets were excluded. Feeding regimens were defined as grazing [including partial and full-time grazing, at dietary concentrate proportions from 0 to 44% dry matter (DM)], forage-based indoor feeding [>65% forage of total DM intake (DMI)], and concentrate-based indoor feeding (forage DMI ≤65% of DMI). Linoleic acid (LLA), α-linolenic acid (ALA), and total C18 FA proportions in milk fat increased linearly with the respective dietary FA content in all feeding regimens tested. This effect was highest in the forage-based indoor feeding. Slopes were lowest for the grazing regimens, especially regarding ALA and the sum of all C18 FA, whereas the intercepts of the prediction equations of milk ALA and total C18 FA proportions were highest for grazing regimens. This indicates that, in grazing cows, factors other than dietary FA contents determine the C18 FA composition of the milk fat. At equal dietary LLA contents, the type of feeding regimen showed no significant effect on LLA proportion in milk fat. Milk fat proportions of rumenic acid and vaccenic acid were positively related to the sum of dietary ALA and LLA contents. Grazing regimens led to the strongest enrichment of rumenic acid and vaccenic acid in milk fat. The apparent recovery of ALA, LLA, and total C18 FA (secreted, % of intake), an estimate for transfer efficiency, decreased with increasing dietary content. This relationship followed a nonlinear decay function. When the dietary content of these FA exceeded a certain threshold (about 0.2, 0.8, and 2.8% of DM for ALA, LLA, and total C18 FA, respectively) the recovery in milk remained constant at about 5, 10, and 82% of the

  10. Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) in Yaoundé-Cameroon: Association with Opportunistic Infections, Depression, ART Regimen and Side Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonsah, Julius Y; Njamnshi, Alfred K; Kouanfack, Charles; Qiu, Fang; Njamnshi, Dora M; Tagny, Claude T; Nchindap, Emilienne; Kenmogne, Léopoldine; Mbanya, Dora; Heaton, Robert; Kanmogne, Georgette D

    2017-01-01

    Following global efforts to increase antiretroviral therapy (ART) access in Sub-Saharan Africa, ART coverage among HIV-infected Cameroonians increased from 0% in 2003 to 22% in 2014. However, the success of current HIV treatment programs depends not only on access to ART, but also on retention in care and good treatment adherence. This is necessary to achieve viral suppression, prevent virologic failure, and reduce viral transmission and HIV/AIDS-related deaths. Previous studies in Cameroon showed poor adherence, treatment interruption, and loss to follow-up among HIV+ subjects on ART, but the factors that influence ART adherence are not well known. In the current cross-sectional study, patient/self-reported questionnaires and pharmacy medication refill data were used to quantify ART adherence and determine the factors associated with increased risk of non-adherence among HIV-infected Cameroonians. We demonstrated that drug side-effects, low CD4 cell counts and higher viral loads are associated with increased risk of non-adherence, and compared to females, males were more likely to forego ART because of side effects (pART regimen, age, gender, and education showed that subjects with opportunistic infections had 3.1-times higher odds of having been non-adherent (p40 years) were less likely to be non-adherent (pART during antibiotic treatment (r = 0.53, p = 0.04), and was associated with lower CD4 cell counts (p = 0.04) and longer non-adherent periods (p = 0.04). Change in ART regimen was significantly associated with increased likelihood of non-adherence and increased duration of the non-adherence period. Addressing these underlying risk factors could improve ART adherence, retention in care and treatment outcomes for HIV/AIDS patients in Cameroon.

  11. Adherence and side effects of three ferrous sulfate treatment regimens on anemic pregnant women in clinical trials Adesão e efeitos colaterais em ensaio clínico comparando três esquemas de tratamento com sulfato ferroso em gestantes anêmicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariani Impieri de Souza

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze adherence and side effects of three iron supplement regimens (ferrous sulfate on anemic pregnant women. The clinical trial involved 150 women between the 16th and 20th gestational weeks, at low obstetric risk and with hemoglobin concentration of between 8.0 and 11.0g/dL. Treatment was provided by ferrous sulfate with 60mg of elemental iron during 16 (± 1 weeks, in three regimens: single tablet a week (n = 48; single tablet twice a week (n = 53 or single tablet a day (n = 49. The outcomes were adherence, assessed through interviews and by counting tablets, and side effects, according to patient information. The adherence showed a declining trend (92%, 83% and 71%; p = 0.010 and the side effects revealed a growing trend (40%, 45% and 71%; p = 0.002 as the dosage increased. Diarrhea and epigastric pain were significantly associated with the dose administered (p = 0.002. These results suggest that in anemic pregnant women, complaints are directly proportional and the compliance is inversely proportional to the amount of medicinal iron.O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a adesão e os efeitos colaterais de três esquemas de suplementação com sulfato ferroso em gestantes anêmicas. O ensaio clínico incluiu 150 mulheres entre a 16ª e 20ª semanas de gestação, de baixo risco obstétrico e com concentração de hemoglobina entre 8,0 e 11,0g/dL. A intervenção foi realizada com 60mg de ferro elementar, durante 16 (±1 semanas, em três esquemas: uma drágea semanal (n = 48; uma drágea duas vezes por semana (n = 53 ou uma drágea diariamente (n = 49. Os desfechos foram adesão, verificada por entrevista e contagem das drágeas, e efeitos colaterais auto-relatados pelas pacientes. A adesão apresentou tendência declinante (92%, 83% e 71%; p = 0,010 e os efeitos colaterais, ascendente (40%, 45% e 71%; p = 0,002 com o aumento da dose prescrita. Diarréia e dor epigástrica estiveram significativamente

  12. Salvage treatment with irinotecan/cisplatin versus pemetrexed/cisplatin in patients with non-small cell lung cancer pre-treated with a non-platinum-based regimen in the first-line setting: a randomized phase II study of the Hellenic Oncology Research Group (HORG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentepozidis, N; Economopoulou, P; Christofyllakis, Ch; Chelis, L; Polyzos, A; Vardakis, N; Koinis, F; Vamvakas, L; Katsaounis, P; Kalbakis, K; Nikolaou, Ch; Georgoulias, V; Kotsakis, A

    2017-03-01

    Platinum-based chemotherapy is the standard front-line treatment for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, non-platinum combinations of third-generation chemotherapeutic agents are considered an alternative therapeutic option for patients who cannot tolerate the toxic effects of platinum compounds. In this study, the efficacy and toxicity of the combination of irinotecan plus cisplatin (IC) was compared to pemetrexed plus cisplatin (PC) regimen, in platinum-naïve patients with advanced NSCLC, who had been previously treated with the combination of a taxane plus gemcitabine. A total of 124 patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC were randomly assigned to either irinotecan 110 mg/m 2 on day 1 and 100 mg/m 2 on day 8 plus cisplatin 80 mg/m 2 on day 8 every 3 weeks (IC arm) or pemetrexed 500 mg/m 2 plus cisplatin 80 mg/m 2 on day 1 every 3 weeks (PC arm). The primary endpoint of the study was the overall response rate (ORR). The ORR and median progression-free survival (PFS) in the IC arm were 18 % and 3.3 months, respectively, while in the PC arm were 19 % and 4.2 months (p = ns). Median overall survival (OS) was significantly higher in patients with PC (6.9 vs. 10.9; p = 0.013). PC regimen had a better toxicity profile compared to IC, with a statistically significant lower incidence of grade 3/4 neutropenia (3 vs. 31 %; p = 0.0001) and diarrhea (1.6 vs. 14.7 %, p = 0.018). In patients with advanced NSCLC pretreated with docetaxel/gemcitabine, the combination of pemetrexed/cisplatin is associated with increased OS and is better tolerated than the combination of irinotecan/cisplatin and should be considered as a valid therapeutic option for platinum-naive, previously treated patients. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT00614965.

  13. Determinants of antimicrobial treatment for udder health in Danish dairy cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gussmann, Maya Katrin; Græsbøll, Kaare; Toft, Nils

    2017-01-01

    Societal pressure to limit the use of antibiotics in livestock production systems, including dairy cattle systems, is consistently increasing. To motivate farmers to reduce antibiotic usage, it is important to understand the factors that determine whether a cow will be treated with antibiotics...... on these factors. The resulting regression coefficients of 422 herds were further analyzed by principal component analysis and clustering to determine the driving predictors for treatment in different groups of farms. The results showed that determinants that were most important for predicting antibiotic...... treatments vary from one farm to another. Health indicators such as PCR or somatic cell count were most indicative for treatment on some farms, whereas other groups seemed to depend more on production factors (milk yield) or later culling of the cows. This shows that farmers behave differently...

  14. Some Finite Sample Properties and Assumptions of Methods for Determining Treatment Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovski, Erik

    2016-01-01

    of this paper, three popular methods for determining treatment effects were chosen: ordinary least squares regression, propensity score matching, and inverse probability weighting. The assumptions and properties tested across these methods are: unconfoundedness, differences in average treatment effects......There is a growing interest in determining the exact effects of policies, programs, and other social interventions within the social sciences. In order to do so, researchers have a variety of econometric techniques at their disposal. However, the choice between them may be obscure. In this paper, I...... will compare assumptions and properties of select methods for determining treatment effects with Monte Carlo simulation. The comparison will highlight the pros and cons of using one method over another and the assumptions that researchers need to make for the method they choose. To limit the scope...

  15. Desfechos clínicos do tratamento de tuberculose utilizando o esquema básico recomendado pelo Ministério da Saúde do Brasil com comprimidos em dose fixa combinada na região metropolitana de Goiânia Clinical treatment outcomes of tuberculosis treated with the basic regimen recommended by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health using fixed-dose combination tablets in the greater metropolitan area of Goiânia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carolina Galvão Ferreira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as taxas de cura, falência e abandono do tratamento da tuberculose com o esquema básico preconizado pelo Ministério da Saúde (tratamento com rifampicina, isoniazida, pirazinamida e etambutol por dois meses seguido de isoniazida e rifampicina por quatro meses utilizando comprimidos em dose fixa combinada em regime autoadministrado e descrever os eventos adversos e seus possíveis impactos nos desfechos do tratamento. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo utilizando dados coletados prospectivamente dos prontuários médicos de pacientes com tuberculose (idade > 18 anos tratados com o esquema básico em duas unidades básicas de saúde da região metropolitana de Goiânia, GO. RESULTADOS: A amostra foi composta por 40 pacientes com tuberculose. A taxa de cura foi de 67,5%, a taxa de abandono foi de 17,5%, e não ocorreram casos de falência. Nessa amostra, 19 pacientes (47% relataram reações adversas aos medicamentos. Essas foram leves e moderadas, respectivamente, em 87% e 13% dos casos. Em nenhum caso houve necessidade de mudança do esquema ou suspensão do tratamento. CONCLUSÕES: A taxa de cura do esquema básico com o uso de comprimidos em dose fixa combinada sob regime autoadministrado foi semelhante às taxas históricas do esquema anterior. A taxa de abandono, na amostra estudada, foi muito acima da taxa preconizada como adequada (até 5%.OBJECTIVE: To describe the rates of cure, treatment failure, and treatment abandonment obtained with the basic regimen recommended by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health (rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol for two months, followed by isoniazid and rifampin for four months involving the use of fixed-dose combination tablets (self-administered treatment, as well as to describe adverse events and their potential impact on treatment outcomes. METHODS: This was a descriptive study based on prospective data obtained from the medical records of tuberculosis patients (> 18

  16. Influence of patient training on persistence, compliance, and tolerability of different dosing frequency regimens of bisphosphonate therapy: An observational study in Turkish patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis

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    Ülkü Akarırmak

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: Our findings revealed remarkably high rates for persistence and compliance with bisphosphonate treatment in postmenopausal osteoporosis, with no impact of training on compliance and persistence rates. Longer persistence and better compliance rates were achieved with the monthly bisphosphonate regimen when compared to the weekly regimen.

  17. Ovulation following gonadotrophin treatment and determination of serum estradiol and progesterone by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesper, B.; Lisse, K.; Ittrich, G.

    1979-01-01

    The use of gonadotrophins to release ovulation is indicated in women with urgent desire for children and with negative response to clomiphene therapy. 69 patients treated with 100 therapeutic gonadotrophin series were examined. Estrogens and progesterone were determined by radioimmunoassay. The treatment resulted in ovulation in 54 women, 12 patients developed an ovarian reaction with an increase of estrogen, and in 34 cases no ovarian response was detectable. 6 women became pregnant during gonadotrophin therapy and further 2 after treatment

  18. Effectiveness of current and future regimens for treating genotype 3 hepatitis C virus infection: a large-scale systematic review

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    Hosnieh Fathi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Six distinct genetic variants (genotypes 1 − 6 of hepatitis C virus (HCV exist globally. Certain genotypes are more prevalent in particular countries or regions than in others but, globally, genotype 3 (GT3 is the second most common. Patients infected with HCV GT1, 2, 4, 5 or 6 recover to a greater extent, as measured by sustained virological response (SVR, following treatment with regimens based on direct-acting antivirals (DAAs than after treatment with older regimens based on pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN. GT3, however, is regarded as being more difficult to treat as it is a relatively aggressive genotype, associated with greater liver damage and cancer risk; some subgroups of patients with GT3 infection are less responsive to current licensed DAA treatments. Newer DAAs have become available or are in development. Methods According to PRISMA guidance, we conducted a systematic review (and descriptive statistical analysis of data in the public domain from relevant clinical trial or observational (real-world study publications within a 5-year period (February 2011 to May 2016 identified by PubMed, Medline In-Process, and Embase searches. This was supplemented with a search of five non-indexed literature sources, comprising annual conferences of the AASLD, APASL, CROI, EASL, and WHO, restricted to a 1-year period (April 2015 to May 2016. Results Of the all-oral regimens, the efficacy (SVR12 ≥ 90% of sofosbuvir plus daclatasvir- and velpatasvir-based regimens in clinical trials supports and reinforces their recommendation by guidelines. Other promising regimens comprise grazoprevir + elbasvir + sofosbuvir, and ombitasvir + paritaprevir/ribavirin + sofosbuvir. Newer regimens incorporating pibrentasvir + glecaprevir or grazoprevir + ruzasvir + MK-3682 (uprifosbuvir, offer all-oral, ribavirin-free SVR12 rates consistently greater than 95%. Observational studies report slightly lower overall SVR rates but reflect

  19. Alternation of antiretroviral drug regimens for HIV infection. Efficacy, safety and tolerability at week 96 of the Swatch Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negredo, Eugenia; Paredes, Roger; Peraire, Joaquim; Pedrol, Enric; Côté, Helene; Gel, Silvia; Fumoz, Carmina R; Ruiz, Lidia; Abril, Vicente; Rodriguez de Castro, Eduardo; Ochoa, Claudia; Martinez-Picado, Javier; Montaner, Julio; Rey-Joly, Celestino; Clotet, Bonaventura

    2004-12-01

    Alternation of antiretroviral drug regimens has been proposed as a novel treatment strategy for HIV infection. However, some concerns persist regarding antiviral efficacy, adherence, toxicity and resistance evolution in the long term. A total of 161 antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected patients were randomized to receive stavudine/didanosine/efavirenz (group A) or zidovudine/lamivudine/ nelfinavir (group B) or to alternate between the two regimens every 3 months starting with regimen A (group C). Antiviral efficacy, adherence, safety and tolerability were analysed every 12 weeks. After 96 weeks, time to virological failure was significantly delayed in the alternating regimen compared with the standards of care regimens. Virological suppression was seen in 46%, 48% and 58% of patients in groups A, B and C, respectively, in the intention-to-treat analysis and in 75%, 76% and 97% in the on-treatment analysis (A vs C: P=0.014; B vs C: P=0.016; A vs B: P=0.849). At the end of the study, 94% of patients in group A and 92% in groups B and C reported an adherence greater than 95%. Alternating therapy was associated with a similar impact on CD4+ counts in comparison with the standards of care regimens, as well as a lower mitochondrial DNA/nuclear DNA (mtDNA/nDNA) ratio decrease in the mitochondrial substudy performed on 37 patients. The frequency and intensity of adverse events in the alternating group decreased during subsequent cycles. Our results favour the hypothesis that proactive therapy switching may delay the accumulation of resistance mutations. Moreover, the alternating regimen was well tolerated and adherence remained comparably high in all treatment groups. The lower mtDNA/nDNA ratio decrease observed in this group may imply a lower impact on mitochondrial toxicity than in standard regimens.

  20. Virologic failures on initial boosted-PI regimen infrequently possess low-level variants with major PI resistance mutations by ultra-deep sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Lataillade

    Full Text Available It is unknown whether HIV-positive patients experiencing virologic failure (VF on boosted-PI (PI/r regimens without drug resistant mutations (DRM by standard genotyping harbor low-level PI resistant variants. CASTLE compared the efficacy of atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r with lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r, each in combination with TVD in ARV-naïve subjects.To determine if VF on an initial PI/r-based regimen possess low-level resistant variants that may affect a subsequent PI-containing regimen.Patients experiencing VF on a Tenofovir/Emtricitabine+PI/r regimen were evaluated by ultra deep sequencing (UDS for mutations classified/weighted by Stanford HIVdb. Samples were evaluated for variants to 0.4% levels. 36 VF subjects were evaluated by UDS; 24 had UDS for PI and RT DRMs. Of these 24, 19 (79.2% had any DRM by UDS. The most common UDS-detected DRM were NRTI in 18 subjects: M184V/I (11, TAMs(7 & K65R(4; PI DRMs were detected in 9 subjects: M46I/V(5, F53L(2, I50V(1, D30N(1, and N88S(1. The remaining 12 subjects, all with VLs12 for ATV or LPV: N88S (at 0.43% level-mutational load 1,828 in 1 subject on ATV; I50V (0.44%-mutational load 110 and L76V (0.52%-mutational load 20 in 1 subject each, both on LPV. All VF samples remained phenotypically susceptible to the treatment PI/r.Among persons experiencing VF without PI DRMs with standard genotyping on an initial PI/r regimen, low-level variants possessing major PI DRMs were present in a minority of cases, occurred in isolation, and did not result in phenotypic resistance. NRTI DRMs were detected in a high proportion of subjects. These data suggest that PIs may remain effective in subjects experiencing VF on a PI/r-based regimen when PI DRMs are not detected by standard or UDS genotyping.

  1. Assessment of non-standard HIV antiretroviral therapy regimens at Lighthouse Trust in Lilongwe, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, B S; Chaweza, T; Tweya, H; Ngambi, W; Phiri, S; Hosseinipour, M C

    2016-03-01

    Lighthouse Trust in Lilongwe, Malawi serves approximately 25,000 patients with HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens standardized according to national treatment guidelines. However, as a referral centre for complex cases, Lighthouse Trust occasionally treats patients with non-standard ART regimens (NS-ART) that deviate from the treatment guidelines. We evaluated factors contributing to the use of NS-ART and whether patients could transition to standard regimens. This was a cross-sectional study of all adult patients at Lighthouse Trust being treated with NS-ART as of February 2012. Patients were identified using the electronic data system. Medical charts were reviewed and descriptive statistics were obtained. One hundred six patients were initially found being treated with NS-ART, and 92 adult patients were confirmed to be on NS-ART after review. Mean patient age was 42.4 ± 10.3 years, and 52 (57%) were female. Mean duration of treatment with the NS-ART being used at the time of data collection was 2.1 ± 1.5 years. Eight patients (9%) were on modified first-line NS-ART and 84 (91%) were on modified second-line NS-ART, with 90 patients (98%) having multiple factors contributing to NS-ART use. Severe toxicity from one medication contributed in 28 cases (30%) and toxicity from multiple medications contributed in 46 cases (50%), while 22 patients (24%) were transitioned to NS-ART following a stockout of their original medication. Following clinical review, 84 patients (91%) were transitioned to standard regimens, and eight (9%) were maintained on NS-ART because of incompatibility of their clinical features with the latest national guidelines. Primary factors contributing to NS-ART use were medication toxicities and medication stockouts. Most patients were transitioned to standard regimens, although the need for NS-ART remains.

  2. Chemical dispersants and pre-treatments to determine clay in soils with different mineralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Rodrigues

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the soil physical properties, including the clay content, is of utmost importance for agriculture. The behavior of apparently similar soils can differ in intrinsic characteristics determined by different formation processes and nature of the parent material. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of separate or combined pre-treatments, dispersion methods and chemical dispersant agents to determine clay in some soil classes, selected according to their mineralogy. Two Brazilian Oxisols, two Alfisols and one Mollisol with contrasting mineralogy were selected. Different treatments were applied: chemical substances as dispersants (lithium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, and hexametaphosphate; pre-treatment with dithionite, ammonium oxalate, and hydrogen peroxide to eliminate organic matter; and coarse sand as abrasive and ultrasound, to test their mechanical action. The conclusion was drawn that different treatments must be applied to determine clay, in view of the soil mineralogy. Lithium hydroxide was not efficient to disperse low-CEC electropositive soils and very efficient in dispersing high-CEC electronegative soils. The use of coarse sand as an abrasive increased the clay content of all soils and in all treatments in which dispersion occurred, with or without the use of chemical dispersants. The efficiency of coarse sand is not the same for all soil classes.

  3. The Sex Res Non Naturales and the Regimen of Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Frank Juul

    The paper discusses the ethical and social soundness of the classical idea of diaita/regimen vis-à-vis the contemporary focus on healthy lifestyle......The paper discusses the ethical and social soundness of the classical idea of diaita/regimen vis-à-vis the contemporary focus on healthy lifestyle...

  4. Loading regimen required to rapidly achieve therapeutic trough plasma concentration of teicoplanin and evaluation of clinical features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seki M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Masafumi Seki,1,* Kaori Yabuno,1,2,* Koji Miyawaki,1,2 Yoshihiro Miwa,2 Kazunori Tomono11Division of Infection Control and Prevention, 2Department of Pharmacy, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka, Japan*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: A trough concentration of >20 mg/L is considered the optimal dosage of teicoplanin required to ensure early therapeutic effects against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infections including those in patients who develop febrile neutropenia after chemotherapy. This study determines appropriate initial doses during the first 2 days of administration and evaluates the therapeutic target teicoplanin trough concentration.Method: A 2-day regimen was evaluated in patients treated with 600 mg and 1200 mg or 1200 mg and 600 mg (total 1800 mg, Group 1, 800 mg and 800 mg (total 1600 mg, Group 2, and 800 mg and 400 mg (total 1200 mg, Group 3 of teicoplanin on Days 1 and 2, respectively. We also compared the efficiency and adverse effects at trough concentrations of 15–20 mg/L (Group A, n = 28 with >20 mg/L (Group B, n = 27 of teicoplanin, and also compared them with those on the similar concentrations of vancomycin (Groups C and D, n = 50 and 34, respectively.Results: The mean trough concentrations of teicoplanin on Days 4 or 5 were 22.2, 17.5, and 16.2 mg/L in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The clinical efficiency was 85.7%, 81.5%, 92.0%, and 91.5%, in Groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. The rates of adverse effects were not high in teicoplanin (nephrotoxicity, 7.1% and 3.7%, and hepatotoxicity, 14.3% and 11.1% in Groups A and B, respectively. However, more adverse effects tended to arise in patients who received vancomycin in nephrotoxicity (14.0% and 11.8%, in Groups C and D, respectively.Conclusion: These results suggest that the 2-day regimens with total 1800 mg achieved the most effective therapeutic trough plasma concentration of teicoplanin (20 mg/L. However, 15–20

  5. Early prediction for the requirement of second or third dose methotrexate in women with ectopic pregnancy, treated with single-dose regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Aysegul; Cırık, Derya Akdağ; Altay, Metin; Gelisen, Orhan

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the predictive factors for the requirement of additional doses of methotrexate in women with ectopic pregnancy treated with single-dose methotrexate regimen. This retrospective cohort study was conducted on women treated with single-dose methotrexate regimen for ectopic pregnancy at a tertiary referral center. Control group included the patients who were treated only with a single dose of methotrexate (n = 131) and study group included the patients who need a second dose or third dose methotrexate (n = 76). The sonographic variables such as size of the ectopic mass, the endometrial thickness and biochemical variables were analyzed via Chi square and student t test. Logistic regression analysis used to determine independent predictors of the additional dose requirement. The size of the ectopic mass and the endometrial thickness were similar in both groups. However, all human chorionic gonadotropin values on day 1, 4 and 7 were significantly higher in study group than the control group (p = 0.0001). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the human chorionic gonadotropin changes between day 1 and 4 is a predictive factor for requirement of additional doses of methotrexate (area under curve: 0.763, p 22% reduction from day 1 to 4. Less than 22% reduction in human chorionic gonadotropin levels from day 1 to 4 can be used as a predictive factor for the requirement of an additional dose of methotrexate in single-dose regimen. This cutoff value can be used for patients to inform about the probable longer resolution time and refer to alternative treatment modalities such as two-dose, multiple-dose regimens or surgery.

  6. Revisiting dosing regimen using PK/PD modeling: the MODEL1 phase I/II trial of docetaxel plus epirubicin in metastatic breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénin, Emilie; Meille, Christophe; Barbolosi, Dominique; You, Benoit; Guitton, Jérôme; Iliadis, Athanassios; Freyer, Gilles

    2016-04-01

    The MODEL1 trial is the first model-driven phase I/II dose-escalation study of densified docetaxel plus epirubicin administration in metastatic breast cancer patients, a regimen previously known to induce unacceptable life-threatening toxicities. The primary objective was to determine the maximum tolerated dose of this densified regimen. Study of the efficacy was a secondary objective. Her2-negative, hormone-resistant metastatic breast cancer patients were treated with escalating doses of docetaxel plus epirubicin every 2 weeks for six cycles with granulocyte colony stimulating factor support. A total of 16 patients were treated with total doses ranging from 85 to 110 mg of docetaxel plus epirubicin per cycle. Dose escalation was controlled by a non-hematological toxicity model. Dose densification was guided by a model of neutrophil kinetics, able to optimize docetaxel plus epirubicin dosing with respect to pre-defined acceptable levels of hematological toxicity while ensuring maximal efficacy. The densified treatment was safe since hematological toxicity was much lower compared to previous findings, and other adverse events were consistent with those observed with this regimen. The maximal tolerated dose was 100 mg given every 2 weeks. The response rate was 45 %; median progression-free survival was 10.4 months, whereas 54.6 months of median overall survival was achieved. The optimized docetaxel plus epirubicin dosing regimen led to fewer toxicities associated with higher efficacy as compared with standard or empirical densified dosing. This study suggests that model-driven dosage adjustment can lead to improved efficacy-toxicity balance in patients with cancer when several anticancer drugs are combined.

  7. [Determining asthma treatment in children by monitoring fractional exhaled nitric oxide, sputum eosinophils and leukotriene B₄].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizmanos-Lamotte, G; Cruz, M J; Gómez-Ollés, S; Muñoz, X; de Mir Messa, I; Moreno-Galdó, A

    2015-01-01

    Sputum eosinophils and exhaled fractional nitric oxide (FENO) are markers of airway inflammation in asthma. Cytokines, cysteinyl-leukotrienes and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) are responsible for this inflammation. The aim of this study is to determine the usefulness of these markers in monitoring asthma treatment in children. FENO, sputum eosinophils, and LTB4 in induced sputum were performed in 10 children (9-15 years old). These determinations were repeated four months later, after the beginning or an increase in the treatment. FENO values tended to decrease (P=.15), pulmonary function tended to improve (P=.10), and sputum eosinophils decreased (P=.003) compared to the first determination. There were no differences in LTB4 concentrations (P=.88). Sputum eosinophils seem to be more precise than FENO in the monitoring of inflammation in asthmatic children. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Medication regimen complexity in ambulatory older adults with heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cobretti MR

    2017-04-01

    counts were significantly higher in patients with ISCM versus NISCM (pMRCI score 34.5±15.2 versus 28.8±12.7, P=0.009; medication count 14.1±4.9 versus 12.2±4.5, P=0.008, which was largely driven by other prescription medications.Conclusion: Medication regimen complexity is high in older adults with heart failure, and differs based on heart failure etiology. Additional work is needed to address polypharmacy and to determine if medication regimen complexity influences adherence and clinical outcomes in this population. Keywords: medication complexity, heart failure, elderly, geriatric, aged

  9. Monitoring of Circulating Tumor Cells and Their Expression of EGFR/Phospho-EGFR During Combined Radiotherapy Regimens in Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinhofer, Ingeborg, E-mail: ingeborg.tinhofer@charite.de [Translational Radiooncology Laboratory, Department of Radiooncology and Radiotherapy, Charite Campus Mitte, Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Hristozova, Tsvetana; Stromberger, Carmen [Translational Radiooncology Laboratory, Department of Radiooncology and Radiotherapy, Charite Campus Mitte, Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); KeilhoIz, Ulrich [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Budach, Volker [Translational Radiooncology Laboratory, Department of Radiooncology and Radiotherapy, Charite Campus Mitte, Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: The numbers of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and their expression/activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) during the course of combined chemo- or bioradiotherapy regimens as potential biomarkers of treatment efficacy in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) were determined. Methods and Materials: Peripheral blood samples from SCCHN patients with locally advanced stage IVA/B disease who were treated with concurrent radiochemotherapy or induction chemotherapy followed by bioradiation with cetuximab were included in this study. Using flow cytometry, the absolute number of CTCs per defined blood volume as well as their expression of EGFR and its phosphorylated form (pEGFR) during the course of treatment were assessed. Results: Before treatment, we detected {>=}1 CTC per 3.75 mL blood in 9 of 31 patients (29%). Basal expression of EGFR was detected in 100% and pEGFR in 55% of the CTC+ cases. The frequency of CTC detection was not influenced by induction chemotherapy. However, the number of CTC+ samples significantly increased after radiotherapy. This radiation-induced increase in CTC numbers was less pronounced when radiotherapy was combined with cetuximab compared to its combination with cisplatin/5-fluorouracil. The former treatment regimen was also more effective in reducing pEGFR expression in CTCs. Conclusions: Definitive radiotherapy regimens of locally advanced SCCHN can increase the number of CTCs and might thus contribute to a systemic spread of tumor cells. Further studies are needed to evaluate the predictive value of the radiation-induced increase in CTC numbers and the persistent activation of the EGFR signalling pathway in individual CTC+ cases.

  10. Socio-cultural determinants of treatment delay for childhood malaria in southern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahorlu, Collins K; Koram, Kwadwo A; Ahorlu, Cynthia; de Savigny, Don; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2006-07-01

    We studied socio-cultural determinants of timely appropriate treatment seeking for children under 5 years suspected of having a perceived malaria-related illness. Caretakers of children with suspected malaria were interviewed about illness-related experiences, meanings and behaviour in two endemic villages in southern Ghana. Only 11% of children suspected of having a perceived malaria-related illness received timely appropriate treatment consistent with the Abuja target of treating malaria within 24 h of illness onset; 33% of children received appropriate treatment within 48 h. Reported perceived causes of phlegm predicted timely, appropriate treatment within 24 h of illness onset (P = 0.04) in a multivariate logistic regression model; playing on the ground (P health seeking of illness-related experience and meaning are complex, and explaining their role may strengthen interventions for childhood malaria.

  11. Dreams as an aid in determining diagnosis, prognosis, and attitude towards treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabini, M

    1981-01-01

    The are certain types of dreams, in both psychosomatic and general medical patients, that address themselves directly - in undisguised form - to illness. From a collection of 60 such dreams, examples are presented which illustrate the objective value dreams can have in determining diagnosis, prognosis, and patient's attitude towards treatment. These dreams bring to light crucial factors that could affect treatment, such as the unconscious need for symptoms, the purposive function of symptoms, and unconscious resistances to treatment. Dreams may also reveal an unconscious knowledge of impending death in terminal patients. Although it is usually the patient who has dreams relevant to an existing illness, family members or the physician or therapist may also have them. This study makes a link with ancient Greek medical tradition in which dreams had a central role in both diagnosis and treatment. The possibility of revitalizing this tradition is noted, and the need for systematic research into dreams associated with illness is emphasized.

  12. The mortality and response rate after FLANG regimen in patients with refractory/relapsed acute leukemia

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    Vali A Mehrzad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oncologists today are greatly concerned about the treatment of relapsed/refractory acute leukemia. FLANG regimen, combination of novantron, cytarabine, fludarabine, and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, has been used in treatment of refractory/relapsed acute leukemia since 1990s. The present study has evaluated mortality and response rate of this regimen. Materials and Methods: In this study, 25 patients with refractory/relapsed acute leukemia aged 15-55 years underwent FLANG regimen at Seyed-Al-Shohada Hospital, Isfahan, Iran during 2008-2009. One month later, bone marrow samples were taken to evaluate the responsiveness to treatment. Participants were followed for a year. The data was analyzed by student-t and chi-square tests, logistic, and Cox regression analysis, and Kaplan-Meier curves in SPSS 19. Results: Out of the 25 patients, 8 patients (32% had acute lymphoblastic leukemia (5 refractory and 3 relapsed cases and 17 subjects had acute myeloid leukemia (7 refractory and 10 relapsed cases. According to the bone marrow biopsies taken one month after FLANG regimen, 10 patients (40% had responded to treatment. Five patients of the 10 responders underwent successful bone marrow transplantation (BMT. On the other hand, 13 patients (52%, who had not entered the CR period, died during the follow-up. Logistic regression analysis did not reveal any significant associations between disease type and responsiveness to treatment. Conclusion: This study indicated higher rates of unresponsiveness to treatment while its mortality rate was comparable with other studies. Overall, according to limitations for BMT (as the only chance for cure in Iran, it seems that FLANG therapy is an acceptable choice for these patients.

  13. Double-blind, multicenter comparison of efficacy, cycle control, and tolerability of a 23-day versus a 21-day low-dose oral contraceptive regimen containing 20 microg ethinyl estradiol and 75 microg gestodene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrikat, J; Cronin, M; Gerlinger, C; Ruebig, A; Schmidt, W; Düsterberg, B

    2001-08-01

    This prospective, double-blind, randomized study was conducted to compare the contraceptive reliability, cycle control, and tolerability of a 23-day versus a 21-day oral contraceptive regimen containing 20 microg ethinyl estradiol and 75 microg gestodene. Participants took trial medication daily for 28 days, either 23 tablets with active substances plus 5 placebo tablets or 21 tablets with active substances plus 7 placebo tablets. Contraceptive efficacy, cycle control, and tolerability were evaluated over a period of seven cycles. Efficacy data gathered from 4,878 treatment cycles (23-day regimen: 2,362 cycles; 21-day regimen: 2,516 cycles) were obtained from 703 participants (23-day regimen, n = 342; 21-day regimen, n = 361). Both preparations proved to be effective contraceptives and provided good cycle control. One pregnancy because of method failure was recorded in each treatment group. This resulted in a study Pearl Index of 0.5 for each treatment. For the 23-day regimen, 36.0% of participants reported at least one intracyclic bleeding episode during Cycles 2-4 (primary target) compared to 37.1% in the 21-day regimen. In the 23-day regimen group, intracyclic bleeding episodes were reported by 42.4% of the participants in Cycle 1 but only in 14% in Cycle 7 and in the 21-day regimen group by 44.6% in Cycle 1 and only 17.3% in Cycle 7. Overall, intracyclic bleeding was reported in 21.9% of the 23-day regimen cycles and in 22.7% of the 21-day regimen cycles.A greater number of 23-day regimen participants had shorter withdrawal bleeding periods than with the 21-day regimen. In significantly (p <0.0001) more cycles in the 23-day regimen group, participants reported withdrawal bleeding periods that lasted only 1-4 days compared to the 21-day regimen group. For the majority of the treatment cycles, the median number of bleeding days in the 23-day regimen group was 4 days and in the 21-day regimen group 5 days. Both preparations were well tolerated and showed a similar

  14. Possible impact of the standardized Category IV regimen on multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients in Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udwadia, Zarir F; Mullerpattan, Jai Bharat; Shah, Kushal D; Rodrigues, Camilla S

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in the Programmatic Management of Drug-resistant TB program involves a standard regimen with a 6-month intensive phase and an 18-month continuation phase. However, the local drug resistance patterns in high MDR regions such as Mumbai may not be adequately reflected in the design of the regimen for that particular area. The study was carried out at a private Tertiary Level Hospital in Mumbai in a mycobacteriology laboratory equipped to perform the second-line drug susceptibility testing (DST). We attempted to analyze the impact of prescribing the standardized Category IV regimen to all patients receiving a DST at our mycobacteriology laboratory. All samples confirmed to be MDR-TB and tested for the second-line drugs at Hinduja Hospital's Mycobacteriology Laboratory in the year 2012 were analyzed. A total of 1539 samples were analyzed. Of these, 464 (30.14%) were MDR-TB, 867 (56.33%) were MDR with fluoroquinolone resistance, and 198 (12.8%) were extensively drug-resistant TB. The average number of susceptible drugs per sample was 3.07 ± 1.29 (assuming 100% cycloserine susceptibility). Taking 4 effective drugs to be the cut or an effective regimen, the number of patients receiving 4 or more effective drugs from the standardized directly observed treatment, short-course plus regimen would be 516 (33.5%) while 66.5% of cases would receive 3 or less effective drugs. Our study shows that a high proportion of patients will have resistance to a number of the first- and second-line drugs. Local epidemiology must be factored in to avoid amplification of resistance.

  15. Quality of life of older patients undergoing renal transplantation: finding the right immunosuppressive treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Rachel L; Rao, Panduranga S

    2014-02-01

    Kidney transplantation is currently the best treatment for end-stage renal disease, both in terms of mortality benefit and quality of life (QOL). Elderly patients are a rapidly growing subset of the kidney transplant waiting list. While it is clear that elderly individuals have a mortality benefit from kidney transplant, it is less clear how to make sure these individuals benefit from optimal QOL following transplant. Several studies demonstrate superiority of some immunosuppressive regimens over others in the QOL domain. Tacrolimus has been shown to be associated with better QOL than cyclosporine (ciclosporin), as has corticosteroid-free immunosuppressive regimens. Similarly, patients on drug regimens, which tend to lessen the side effects, report better QOL. However, these studies are observational or cross-sectional and not focused exclusively on the elderly patient. More studies are needed to determine optimal immunosuppression regimens for elderly individuals. Additionally, further studies on determinants of QOL in elderly kidney transplant recipients are also needed.

  16. Determination of human pharmaceuticals in pre- and post-sewage treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahrim, Nurfaizah Abu; Abdullah, Md. Pauzi; Aziz, Yang Farina Abdul

    2013-11-01

    In this present work, an analytical method based on solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS) in positive electrospray ionisation mode was successfully applied to real samples for the determination of human pharmaceuticals in pre- and post-sewage treatment samples. The ten target compounds selected in this study include acetaminophen, theophylline, caffeine, metoprolol, sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, prednisolone, ketoprofen, norgestrel and simvastatin. Acetaminophen, theophylline and caffeine were present at all five raw sewage samples. In addition, this work provides the first report on the investigation and detection of theophylline in sewage treatment plant (STP) samples in Malaysia.

  17. Effect of a novel bladder preservation therapy, BOAI-CDDP-radiation (OMC-regimen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Haruhito; Inamoto, Teruo; Takahara, Kiyoshi; Nomi, Hayahito; Uehara, Hiroshi; Komura, Kazumasa; Minami, Koichiro; Kouno, Junko; Kotake, Yatsugu; Abe, Hirokazu; Takagi, Shizuko; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Narumi, Yoshihumi; Kiyama, Satoshi

    2013-07-01

    We have developed a novel form of bladder preservation therapy [OMC (Osaka Medical College)-regimen] involving balloon-occluded-arterial-infusion (BOAI) of an anticancer agent (cisplatin/gemcitabine), used concomitantly with hemodialysis, which delivers an extremely high concentration of anticancer agent to the site of a tumor without systemic adverse effects, along with concurrent radiation. We previously reported that the OMC-regimen elicited a complete response (CR) in >90% of patients with organ confined tumors, while LN(+), T4 tumors and a non-UC histological type were statistically significant risk factors for treatment failure and patient survival. In this study, we investigated the effects of the OMC-regimen in patients with organ confined urothelial cancer tumors and the outcomes were compared to those with total cystectomy. Three hundred and one patients were assigned to receive either the OMC-regimen (n=162) or total cystectomy (n=139). Patients in the OMC-regimen group who failed to achieve CR underwent cystectomy, or secondary BOAI with an increased amount of CDDP or gemcitabine (1600 mg). The OMC-regimen yielded 98.1% of clinical response; CR in 93.8% (152/162) of patients; PR in 4.3% (7/162). More than 96% of the CR patients (146/152) were alive with no evidence of recurrence after a mean follow-up of 166 (range 23-960) weeks. No patients suffered grade III toxicity; all patients successfully completed this therapy. The patient survival was significantly better compared to the cystectomy group; the overall 5-, 10- and 15-year survival rates were 87.3, 79.6 and 59.7%, respectively. Moreover, the 5-, 10- and 15-year bladder intact survival rates, the most important issue for bladder preservation therapy, were 85.7, 78.4 and 58.8%, respectively. In conclusion, the OMC-regimen is a useful bladder-preservation strategy, not only in those for whom cystectomy is indicated, but also in patients whose condition is not amenable to curative treatment and for

  18. Suramin Treatment for Onchocerciasis: Cost Analysis of a Kinetically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To conduct an economic analysis of two different suramin regimens (the new kinetically optimized 4-dose regimen, KOR and the standard WHO 6-dose regimen) for the treatment of onchocerciasis. Methods: Ten patients were treated with each regimen in a hospital-based clinical study, with follow-up visits for up to one ...

  19. Determinants for acceptance of preventive treatment against heart disease - a web-based population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Nielsen Jesper; Ejg, Jarbøl Dorte; Dorte, Gyrd-Hansen; Lind, Barfoed Benedicte Marie; Veldt, Larsen Pia

    2014-08-02

    Patients' perception of risk and their lifestyle choices are of major importance in the treatment of common chronic diseases. This study reveals determinants for and knowledge about why people accept or reject preventive medical interventions against heart disease. A representative sample of 40-60-year-old Danish inhabitants was invited to participate in a web-based survey. The respondents were presented with a hypothetical scenario and asked to imagine that they were at an increased risk of heart disease, and subsequently presented with an offer of a preventive medical intervention. The aim was to elicit preference structures when potential patients are presented with different treatment conditions. About one third of the respondents were willing to accept preventive medical treatment. Respondents with personal experience with heart disease were more likely to accept treatment than respondents with family members with heart disease or no prior experience with heart disease. The willingness to accept treatment was similar for both genders, and when adjusting for experience with heart disease, age was not associated with willingness to accept treatment. Socioeconomic status in terms of lower education was positively associated with acceptance. The price of treatment reduced willingness to accept for the lower income groups, whereas it had no effect in the highest income group. Some 57% of respondents who were willing to accept treatment changed their decision following information on potential side effects. In accordance with our pre-study hypothesis, individuals with low income were more sensitive to price than individuals with high income. Thus, if the price of preventive medication increases above certain limits, a substantial proportion of the population may refrain from treatment. More than half of the respondents who were initially willing to accept treatment changed their decision when informed about the presence of potential side effects. This is an

  20. Management of interstitial ectopic pregnancy with intravenous methotrexate: An extended study of a standardised regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Keisuke; Baartz, David; Khoo, Soot Keat

    2015-04-01

    Interstitial ectopic pregnancy is a rare but potentially life threatening condition. Of the three management options for this condition (expectant, medical and surgical treatment) methotrexate therapy in several regimens has been reported to be effective and beneficial. To assess the safety and efficacy of intravenous bolus and infusion of methotrexate with folinic acid rescue for the treatment of interstitial ectopic pregnancy. A retrospective cohort study of women with interstitial ectopic pregnancy treated with methotrexate at the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital from April 2000 to December 2012. The treatment regimen comprised of a bolus dose of methotrexate 100 mg followed by 200 mg of methotrexate infusion over 12 h. Four doses of 15 mg oral folinic acid rescue were given post-treatment. Success of methotrexate therapy was confirmed by either a negative serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) level or subsequent uneventful pregnancy. Of 33 women with interstitial ectopic pregnancy who were treated with this regimen, 31 (93.9%) were treated successfully, including women with a high β-hCG level up to 106 634 IU/L and the presence of fetal cardiac activity. Minor side effects were documented in three cases. Intravenous methotrexate therapy with folinic acid rescue is well tolerated and highly effective. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  1. Olanzapine-Based Triple Regimens Versus Neurokinin-1 Receptor Antagonist-Based Triple Regimens in Preventing Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting Associated with Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy: A Network Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonghan; Zhang, Yaxiong; Chen, Gang; Hong, Shaodong; Yang, Yunpeng; Fang, Wenfeng; Luo, Fan; Chen, Xi; Ma, Yuxiang; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Zhan, Jianhua; Xue, Cong; Hou, Xue; Zhou, Ting; Ma, Shuxiang; Gao, Fangfang; Huang, Yan; Chen, Likun; Zhou, Ningning; Zhao, Hongyun; Zhang, Li

    2018-01-12

    The current antiemetic prophylaxis for patients treated with highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) included the olanzapine-based triplet and neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists (NK-1RAs)-based triplet. However, which one shows better antiemetic effect remained unclear. We systematically reviewed 43 trials, involving 16,609 patients with HEC, which compared the following antiemetics at therapeutic dose range for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: olanzapine, aprepitant, casopitant, fosaprepitant, netupitant, and rolapitant. The main outcomes were the proportion of patients who achieved no nausea, complete response (CR), and drug-related adverse events. A Bayesian network meta-analysis was performed. Olanzapine-based triple regimens showed significantly better no-nausea rate in overall phase and delayed phase than aprepitant-based triplet (odds ratios 3.18, 3.00, respectively), casopitant-based triplet (3.78, 4.12, respectively), fosaprepitant-based triplet (3.08, 4.10, respectively), rolapitant-based triplet (3.45, 3.20, respectively), and conventional duplex regimens (4.66, 4.38, respectively). CRs of olanzapine-based triplet were roughly equal to different NK-1RAs-based triplet but better than the conventional duplet. Moreover, no significant drug-related adverse events were observed in olanzapine-based triple regimens when compared with NK-1RAs-based triple regimens and duplex regimens. Additionally, the costs of olanzapine-based regimens were obviously much lower than the NK-1RA-based regimens. Olanzapine-based triplet stood out in terms of nausea control and drug price but represented no significant difference of CRs in comparison with NK-1RAs-based triplet. Olanzapine-based triple regimens should be an optional antiemetic choice for patients with HEC, especially those suffering from delayed phase nausea. According to the results of this study, olanzapine-based triple antiemetic regimens were superior in both overall and delayed

  2. Social determinants of pulmonary tuberculosis treatment non-adherence in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Elvira Maria Godinho de Seixas; Amancio, Juliana de Souza; Castro, Daniel Barros de; Braga, José Ueleres

    2018-01-01

    Success in tuberculosis control depends on the implementation of steps that reduce social inequities, allowing the diagnosis and effective treatment of the disease. Little is known about the conditions affecting antituberculosis treatment non-adherence in areas of great social and economic heterogeneity, such as the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. This study aimed to describe and identify the social determinants of antituberculosis treatment non-adherence in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro between 2008 and 2012. An ecological study was conducted with the districts of Rio de Janeiro as the units of analysis. Analyzes using Poisson regression models allowed us to identify the association between dropout from antituberculosis treatment and the human development index and social development index. The final model showed that economic conditions, infrastructure, and the tuberculosis control quality of surveillance were associated with treatment non-adherence. This study demonstrated that the scenarios of socio-environmental precariousness found in the districts of Rio de Janeiro were able to identify populations with an increased risk of default treatment from antituberculosis.

  3. Social determinants of pulmonary tuberculosis treatment non-adherence in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Success in tuberculosis control depends on the implementation of steps that reduce social inequities, allowing the diagnosis and effective treatment of the disease. Little is known about the conditions affecting antituberculosis treatment non-adherence in areas of great social and economic heterogeneity, such as the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. This study aimed to describe and identify the social determinants of antituberculosis treatment non-adherence in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro between 2008 and 2012. An ecological study was conducted with the districts of Rio de Janeiro as the units of analysis. Analyzes using Poisson regression models allowed us to identify the association between dropout from antituberculosis treatment and the human development index and social development index. The final model showed that economic conditions, infrastructure, and the tuberculosis control quality of surveillance were associated with treatment non-adherence. This study demonstrated that the scenarios of socio-environmental precariousness found in the districts of Rio de Janeiro were able to identify populations with an increased risk of default treatment from antituberculosis. PMID:29304100

  4. An accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy regimen in patients after organ-sparing surgery for stages I–IIA breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Gladilina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the results of accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy and to comparatively analyze it with the standard radiotherapy in patients with stages I–IIA breast cancer (BC after organ-sparing surgery.Materials and methods. A total of 203 patients with stages I–IIA BC underwent radiotherapy after organ-sparing surgery. A control group of 91 patients received the standard radiotherapy (the single focal dose (SFD was 2 Gy 5 times a week, 25 fractions; the total focal dose (TFD was 50 Gy for 5 weeks. A study group of 112 patients had accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy (SFD 3 Gy 5 times a week, 13 fractions; TFD 39 Gy for 2.3 weeks.Results. Local recurrences were not detected in any patient after the hypofractionated radiotherapy regimen and were diagnosed in 3.3 % of the patients after the standard regimen. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in 5-year overall and relapsefree survival rates. Further observation revealed a statistically significant difference in 6-year overall survival rates in the study and control groups: 99.1 and 70.4 %, respectively (p ≤ 0.046. The 6-year relapse-free survival rates in patients who had received the accelerated hypo-fractionated radiotherapy regimen were also significantly higher than in those who had the standard radiotherapy regimen: 97.9 and 71.3 %, respectively (p ≤ 0.043. The rate of post-radiation normal tissue damages after the hypofractionated radiotherapy regimen was significantly lower (15.2 % than that after the standard regimen (27.5 %. Good and excellent cosmetic results of treatment were achieved in most (95.1 % patients and did not differ in their frequency after different radiotherapy regimens.Conclusion. The accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy regimen showed a high efficiency and a favorable toxicity profile in patients with stages I–IIA BC.

  5. Twice-Daily versus Once-Daily Pramipexole Extended Release Dosage Regimens in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Young Yun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This open-label study aimed to compare once-daily and twice-daily pramipexole extended release (PER treatment in Parkinson’s disease (PD. PD patients on dopamine agonist therapy, but with unsatisfactory control, were enrolled. Existing agonist doses were switched into equivalent PER doses. Subjects were consecutively enrolled into either once-daily-first or twice-daily-first groups and received the prescribed amount in one or two, respectively, daily doses for 8 weeks. For the second period, subjects switched regimens in a crossover manner. The forty-four patients completed a questionnaire requesting preference during their last visit. We measured the UPDRS-III, Hoehn and Yahr stages (H&Y in medication-on state, Parkinson’s disease sleep scale (PDSS, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Eighteen patients preferred a twice-daily regimen, 12 preferred a once-daily regimen, and 14 had no preference. After the trial, 14 subjects wanted to be on a once-daily regimen, 25 chose a twice-daily regimen, and 5 wanted to maintain the prestudy regimen. Main reasons for choosing the twice-daily regimen were decreased off-duration, more tolerable off-symptoms, and psychological stability. The mean UPDRS-III, H&Y, and PDSS were not different. Daytime sleepiness was significantly high in the once-daily regimen, whereas nocturnal hallucinations were more common in the twice-daily. Multiple dosing should be considered if once-daily dosing is unsatisfactory. This study is registered as NCT01515774 at ClinicalTrials.gov.

  6. Factors determining when to start levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone treatment in Spanish patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martín, P; Hernández, B; Ricart, J

    2014-04-01

    Several therapeutic options are available for the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD).There is no reliable information about which factors are involved in the choice of treatment. To identify factors contributing to the decision to start treatment with levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone (LCE) in patients with PD. We completed a descriptive cross-sectional retrospective multicentre study of patients with idiopathic PD receiving LCE. Clinical data were collected with special attention to factors that could potentially determine when to initiate treatment with LCE in normal clinical practice. We studied 1050 patients with a mean age of 71.3±8.7 years (58.2% men). Average time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis was 13.8±12.9 months, with a latency time of 74.5±53.6 months before starting LCE treatment. The most common initial symptoms were tremor (70.6%), reduced dexterity (43.2%) and slowness of movement (41.5%). At the start of LCE treatment, most patients were in Hoehn and Yahr stage 2 (57.5%), with an average rating of 73.4% on the Schwab & England scale. Eight hundred twenty two patients (78.3%) received treatment with other drugs before starting LCE (mean time between starting any PD treatment and starting LCE was 40.5±47.2 months). Clinical factors with a moderate, marked, or crucial effect on the decision to start LCE treatment were bradykinesia (84.7%), daytime rigidity (72.2%), general decline (72.2%), difficulty walking (66.4%), tremor (62.7%), nocturnal rigidity (56.1%), and postural instability (53%). Difficulty performing activities of daily living was the only psychosocial factor identified as having an influence on the decision (84.3%). The decision to start patients with idiopathic PD on LCE treatment is mainly determined by motor deficits and disabilities associated with disease progression. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Dissolved oxygen regimen (PO2 may affect osmorespiratory compromise in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genciana Terova

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentally, in land based mediterranean aquaculture, two techniques are applied to supply water with oxygen: paddling water aeration and application of pure oxygen. The two oxygenation techniques result in quite different PO2 regimens and, consequently, different fish growth performance and gill morphology. Data exist showing a reduction in total respiratory surface (RSA and increasing gas diffusion distance (GDD in gills of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L. farmed under elevated PO2 regimens. That such a modification might have an effect on the ion regulation has been defined elsewhere as osmorespiratory compromise. In this study, European sea bass previously acclimatized to two PO2 regimens, mild hypoxia and mild hyperoxia (70-80% and 130-140% of the saturation value, respectively, were challenged for 1 hour with hypo-osmotic plus manipulation stress in two separate trials. During the first trial, when only Na+ loss was determined, the ion efflux during the first 5 min resulted in a rate of 163.72±31 and 112.23±87 nmol g-1min-1 from hypoxia and hyperoxia sea bass groups, respectively, and, if sustained, would approach 15.3 and 11.2% per hour of the total body Na+, respectively. During the second trial, in which both Na+ and Cl- loss were determined, after 60 min the Na+ loss was shown to be 76.86±12 and 179.28±32 nmol g-1 min-1 for the fish previously acclimatized to hyperoxia and hypoxia regimens, respectively, whereas for Cl- this loss was 62.02±11 and 157.28±28 nmol g-1min-1, respectively. Our data are compatible with the hypothesis of an osmotic advantage of sea bass exposed to an elevated PO2 regimen, achievable with application of pure oxygen, instead of simple water aeration.

  8. Effects of pill burden on discontinuation of the initial HAART regimen in minority female patients prescribed 1 pill/day versus any other pill burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Seth; Kavookjian, Jan; Qian, Jingjing; Chung, Allison; Vandewaa, John

    2014-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is a mainstay of treatment for patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Since second line HAART therapies can be costlier and less effective, it is essential to understand the duration of initial HAART therapies. The overall aim of this study was to estimate the effects of daily pill burden on the time to discontinuation of the initial HAART regimen. Patients were initially identified through the clinic's CAREWARE database. A chart review was conducted for data collection, where only adult, female, HIV-positive patients initiating therapy at the study clinic between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2011 were included. All study subjects were followed up from the initiation of HAART to treatment discontinuation. A Kaplan-Meier curve was generated to describe time to discontinuation by regimens, and a Cox proportional hazards model was developed to assess the impact of different regimen and patient demographic characteristics on the hazard of discontinuation of the initial regimen. A total of 498 charts were initially reviewed. After assessment of these patients for inclusion criteria, a cohort of 115 adult female patients who initiated HAART at the study clinic was included. Patients treated with 1 pill/day regimen had a significantly longer time to discontinuation than regimens of >1 pills/day (mean duration of initial therapy was 1062.56 days vs. 631.70 days, respectively, p = 0.003). Compared to 1 pill/day regimens, >1 pills/day regimens were associated with a higher hazard of discontinuation (hazard ratio (HR) =3.44 with 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.25, 9.48). A higher viral load and patients without insurance were also found to be significantly associated with increased hazards of discontinuation. Overall, female HIV patients initiating therapy with the 1 pill/day HAART regimen were less likely to discontinue their treatment compared to patients initiating with >1 pills/day HAART regimen.

  9. Etoposide-containing conditioning regimen reduces the occurrence of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis after SCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, R; Tanaka, J; Hashino, S; Ota, S; Torimoto, Y; Kakinoki, Y; Yamamoto, S; Kurosawa, M; Hatakeyama, N; Haseyama, Y; Sakai, H; Sato, K; Fukuhara, T

    2014-02-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare life-threatening disease of severe hyperinflammation caused by uncontrolled proliferation of activated lymphocytes and macrophages that secrete high amounts of inflammatory cytokines. HLH occurring after SCT is difficult to diagnose. It is characterized by severe clinical manifestations and high mortality. Despite current therapeutic approaches, outcomes remain poor. We analyzed the incidence and risk factors of HLH after SCT and the response to treatment and prognosis of 554 patients with HLH after SCT. The cumulative incidence of HLH after SCT was 4.3% (24/554). Use of etoposide in the conditioning regimen was only factor that reduced HLH after SCT (P=0.027). All patients who received autologous transplantation were successfully treated. Patients with liver dysfunction (for example, high total bilirubin level, prolonged prothrombin time and high level of fibrinogen degradation products) had a poor response to treatment for HLH. Physicians should be cautious of HLH, while not using etoposide for conditioning regimen.

  10. An analysis of vascular surgery in elderly patients to determine whether age affects treatment strategy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, G

    2012-03-01

    The incidence of arterial disease increases with age. Increasing life expectancy in the western world will intensify demands on vascular surgeons with regard to increasing caseload, expanding patient selection criteria, and more complex and minimally-invasive treatment options. We analysed our arterial cases over the past 31 years (n = 6,144) and compared our methods of intervention and complication rates in the elderly population (>75) with the younger cohort, in order to determine whether age should influence our management strategies.

  11. Declining in efficacy of a three-day combination regimen of mefloquine-artesunate in a multi-drug resistance area along the Thai-Myanmar border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruengweerayut Kulaya

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Declining in clinical efficacy of artesunate-mefloquine combination has been documented in areas along the eastern border (Thai-Cambodian of Thailand. In the present study, the clinical efficacy of the three-day combination regimen of artesunate-mefloquine as first-line treatment for acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Thailand was monitored in an area along the western border (Thai-Myanmar of the country. Methods A total of 150 Burmese patients (85 males and 65 females aged between 16 and 50 years who were attending the Mae Tao clinic, Mae-Sot, Tak Province, and presenting with symptomatic acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria were included into the study. Patients were treated initially (day 0 with 4 mg/kg body weight artesunate and 15 mg/kg body weight mefloquine. The dose regimen on day 2 was 4 mg/kg body weight artesunate and 10 mg/kg body weight mefloquine. On day 3, artesunate at the dose of 4 mg/kg body weight was given with 0.6 mg/kg body weight primaquine. Whole blood mefloquine and plasma artesunate and dihydroartemisinin (active plasma metabolite of artesunate concentrations following treatment were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS, respectively. Results Thirty-four cases had recrudescence during days 7 and 42. Five and 5 cases, respectively had reinfection with P. falciparum and reappearance of Plasmodium vivax in their peripheral blood during follow-up. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the 42-and 28-day efficacy rates of this combination regimen were 72.58% (95% CI: 63.20-79.07% and 83.06 (95% CI 76.14-94.40%, respectively. Parasite clearance time (PCT and fever clearance time (FCT were significantly prolonged in patients with treatment failure compared with those with sensitive response [median (95% CI values for PCT 32.0 (20.0-48.0 vs 24.0 (14.0-32.0 hr and FCT 30.0 (22.0-42.0 vs 26.0 (18.0-36.0 hr; p vs 525 (452-599 ng

  12. PROPOSAL OF ANTI-TUBERCULOSIS REGIMENS BASED ON SUSCEPTIBILITY TO ISONIAZID AND RIFAMPICIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Ticona, Alberto; Moore, David AJ; Alarcón, Valentina; Samalvides, Frine; Seas, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Objective To elaborate optimal anti-tuberculosis regimens following drug susceptibility testing (DST) to isoniazid (H) and rifampicin (R). Design 12 311 M. tuberculosis strains (National Health Institute of Peru 2007-2009) were classified in four groups according H and R resistance. In each group the sensitivity to ethambutol (E), pirazinamide (Z), streptomycin (S), kanamycin (Km), capreomycin (Cm), ciprofloxacin (Cfx), ethionamide (Eto), cicloserine (Cs) and p-amino salicilic acid (PAS) was determined. Based on resistance profiles, domestic costs, and following WHO guidelines, we elaborated and selected optimal putative regimens for each group. The potential efficacy (PE) variable was defined as the proportion of strains sensitive to at least three or four drugs for each regimen evaluated. Results Selected regimes with the lowest cost, and highest PE of containing 3 and 4 effective drugs for TB sensitive to H and R were: HRZ (99,5%) and HREZ (99,1%), respectively; RZECfx (PE=98,9%) and RZECfxKm (PE=97,7%) for TB resistant to H; HZECfx (96,8%) and HZECfxKm (95,4%) for TB resistant to R; and EZCfxKmEtoCs (82.9%) for MDR-TB. Conclusion Based on resistance to H and R it was possible to select anti-tuberculosis regimens with high probability of success. This proposal is a feasible alternative to tackle tuberculosis in Peru where the access to rapid DST to H and R is improving progressively. PMID:23949502

  13. Voriconazole versus a regimen of amphotericin B followed by fluconazole for candidaemia in non-neutropenic patients: a randomised non-inferiority trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kullberg, B.J.; Sobel, J.D.; Ruhnke, M.; Pappas, P.; Viscoli, C.; Rex, J.H.; Cleary, J.D.; Rubinstein, E.; Church, L.W.; Brown, J.M.; Schlamm, H.T.; Oborska, I.T.; Hilton, F.; Hodges, M.R.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voriconazole has proven efficacy against invasive aspergillosis and oesophageal candidiasis. This multicentre, randomised, non-inferiority study compared voriconazole with a regimen of amphotericin B followed by fluconazole for the treatment of candidaemia in non-neutropenic patients.

  14. Comparison of clinical efficacy between decitabine combined with half the amount of CAG regimen with CAG regimen alone in patients with inermediate to high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zhenwei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the efficacy and safety of decitabine combined with half the amount of CAG and CAG regimen alone. Methods: Comparison the effectiveness, overall survival and incidence of adverse reactions of 42 cases of MDS used decitabine combined with half the amount of CAG regimen (decitabine 20mg/m2, once a day, d1-3, Accra neomycin 7mg/m2,intravenous injection, once a day, d4-7, cytarabine 10mg/m2, every 12 hours, d4-10, granulocyte colony stimulating factor 300μg, once a day, d4-10, white blood cell count>20×109/L when deactivated for four courses and 48 patients in MDS were treated with chemotherapy alone CAG (Accra neomycin 14mg/m2,once a day, d1-3, cytarabine 10mg/m2, every 12 hours, d1-14, granulocyte colony stimulating factor 300μg, once a day, d1-14, white blood cell count>20×109/L when deactivated. Results: Compared with pure CAG, clinical efficacy of decitabine combined with half the amount of CAG regimen is better, the treatment does not increase the risk.

  15. Application of Mathematical Models for Determination of Microorganisms Growth Rate Kinetic Coefficients for Wastewater Treatment Plant Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Delnavaz

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Evaluation of Y, kd, k0 and Ks parameters in operation of Ekbatan wastewater treatment plant showed that ASM1 model could well determine the coefficients and therefore the conditions of biological treatment is appropriate.

  16. Determinants of Adherence to Treatment in Hypertensive Patients of African Descent and the Role of Culturally Appropriate Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinema, Jennita G.; van Dijk, Nynke; Beune, Erik J. A. J.; Jaarsma, Debbie A. D. C.; van Weert, Henk C. P. M.; Haafkens, Joke A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In Western countries, better knowledge about patient-related determinants of treatment adherence (medication and lifestyle) is needed to improve treatment adherence and outcomes among hypertensive ethnic minority patients of African descent. Objective To identify patient-related

  17. Social determinants of nonadherence to tuberculosis treatment in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Belen Herrero

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the individual and environmental determinants of nonadherence to tuberculosis (TB treatment in selected districts in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area, in Argentina. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a hierarchical model. Using primary and secondary data, logistic regression was performed to analyze two types of determinants. The likelihood of nonadherence to treatment was greatest among male patients. The following factors led to a greater likelihood of nonadherence to treatment: patients living in a home without running water; head of household without medical insurance; need to use more than one means of transport to reach the health center; place of residence in an area with a high proportion of households connected to the natural gas network; place of residence in an area where a large proportion of families fall below the minimum threshold of subsistence capacity; place of residence in an area where a high proportion of households do not have flushing toilets and basic sanitation. Our results show that social and economic factors – related to both individual and environmental characteristics – influence adherence to TB treatment.

  18. Determinants for acceptance of preventive treatment against heart disease - a web-based population survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients' perception of risk and their lifestyle choices are of major importance in the treatment of common chronic diseases. This study reveals determinants for and knowledge about why people accept or reject preventive medical interventions against heart disease. Methods: A represen......Background: Patients' perception of risk and their lifestyle choices are of major importance in the treatment of common chronic diseases. This study reveals determinants for and knowledge about why people accept or reject preventive medical interventions against heart disease. Methods....... Socioeconomic status in terms of lower education was positively associated with acceptance. The price of treatment reduced willingness to accept for the lower income groups, whereas it had no effect in the highest income group. Some 57% of respondents who were willing to accept treatment changed their decision...... following information on potential side effects. Conclusions: In accordance with our pre-study hypothesis, individuals with low income were more sensitive to price than individuals with high income. Thus, if the price of preventive medication increases above certain limits, a substantial proportion...

  19. Quality of life and its determinants in adult cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Chagani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Likewise, in Pakistan, it is a major health problem, with an approximate increase each year. Cancer treatment, particularly chemotherapy, produces a detrimental effect on individuals' well-being. Since the past few years, quality of life (QOL is considered as the primary goal of cancer treatment in patients' survival. This study aimed to assess the QOL and its determinants in adult cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional design was employed to achieve the study objectives, utilizing consecutive sampling technique. A total of 150 adult (>19 years cancer patients were recruited from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. The data were collected using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General, a QOL questionnaire. Multiple linear regression was run to determine the effect of predictor variables, with a mean QOL score. Results: The overall mean score of QOL as 57.37. The domains of physical and emotional well-being were mainly affected by the chemotherapy treatment. Variables such as no previous hospitalization and no significant changes in life events were positively associated with the QOL. On the other hand, being female, unemployed, chemotherapy side effects (>1 week, impaired socialization, and discrimination by family/relatives were negatively associated with the QOL. Conclusions: The study findings suggested an overall low QOL among adult cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment. It is recognized as a stressful treatment, which adversely affects the QOL of cancer patients. Interventions should focus on both the physical and psychological issues and need to be addressed to improve the QOL of adult cancer patients.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of ceftriaxone in the treatment of community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effectiveness of four intravenous antibiotic treatment regimens in the treatment of severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults in a private hospital setting. The study compared some third-generation cephalosporin regimens with a ...

  1. Polypathology, polypharmacy, medication regimen complexity and drug therapy appropriateness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Aguirre, N; Caudevilla Martínez, A; Bellostas Muñoz, L; Crespo Avellana, M; Velilla Marco, J; Díez-Manglano, J

    Polypathological patients are usually elderly and take numerous drugs. Polypharmacy affects 85% of these individuals and is not associated with greater survival. On the contrary, polypharmacy exposes these individuals to more adverse effects, such as weight loss, falls, functional and cognitive impairment and hospitalisations. The complexity of a drug regimen covers more aspects than the simple number of drugs consumed. The galenic form, the dosage and the method for preparing the drug can impede the understanding of and compliance with prescriptions. Both polypharmacy and therapeutic complexity are associated with poorer adherence by patients. To prevent polypharmacy, reduce complexity and improve adherence, the appropriate use of drugs is needed. Proper prescribing consists of selecting drugs that have clear evidence for their use in the indication, which are appropriate for the patient's circumstances, are well tolerated and cost-effective and whose benefits outweigh the risks. To improve the drug prescription, periodic reviews of the drugs need to be conducted, especially when the patient changes doctor and during healthcare transitions. The Beers and STOPP/START (Screening Tool of Older Person's potentially inappropriate Prescriptions/Screening Tool to Alert doctors to the Right Treatment) criteria are effective tools for this improvement. Deprescription for polymedicated polypathological patients that considers their clinical circumstances, prognosis and preferences can contribute to a more appropriate use of drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  2. A novel ceftazidime/avibactam, rifabutin, tedizolid and moxifloxacin (CARTM) regimen for pulmonary Mycobacterium avium disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Devyani; Srivastava, Shashikant; Pasipanodya, Jotam G; Lee, Pooi S; Gumbo, Tawanda

    2017-09-01

    To compare the efficacy of ceftazidime/avibactam plus tedizolid-based combination regimens with the standard therapy of azithromycin, ethambutol and rifabutin for the treatment of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease. We mimicked the human pulmonary concentration-time profiles of ceftazidime/avibactam and tedizolid in combination, ceftazidime/avibactam, rifabutin, tedizolid and moxifloxacin (CARTM), and the standard regimen and examined microbial kill in triplicate hollow-fibre system model of intracellular pulmonary MAC (HFS-MAC) units. The tedizolid and moxifloxacin doses used were non-optimized; the tedizolid dose was that associated with bacteriostasis. Drugs were administered daily for 28 days. Each HFS-MAC was sampled in the central and peripheral compartment to ascertain that the intended drug exposures had been achieved. The peripheral compartments were sampled at regular intervals over the 28 days to quantify the burden of MAC. MAC-infected macrophages in the HFS-MAC achieved multi-fold higher intracellular versus extracellular concentrations of rifabutin, moxifloxacin, ceftazidime/avibactam. The non-optimized ceftazidime/avibactam plus tedizolid dual therapy held the bacterial burden at the same level as day 0 (stasis) throughout the 28 days. The standard therapy reduced the bacterial load 2 log10 cfu/mL below stasis on day 14 but started failing after that. The CARTM regimen achieved 3.2 log10 cfu/mL kill below stasis on day 21, but had started to fail by day 28. The CARTM regimen promises to have kill rates better than standard therapy. Experiments to identify exposures of each of the four drugs associated with optimal effect in the CARTM combination are needed in order to design a short-course chemotherapy regimen. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. HIV Treatment and Prevention: A Simple Model to Determine Optimal Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juusola, Jessie L; Brandeau, Margaret L

    2016-04-01

    To create a simple model to help public health decision makers determine how to best invest limited resources in HIV treatment scale-up and prevention. A linear model was developed for determining the optimal mix of investment in HIV treatment and prevention, given a fixed budget. The model incorporates estimates of secondary health benefits accruing from HIV treatment and prevention and allows for diseconomies of scale in program costs and subadditive benefits from concurrent program implementation. Data sources were published literature. The target population was individuals infected with HIV or at risk of acquiring it. Illustrative examples of interventions include preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), community-based education (CBE), and antiretroviral therapy (ART) for men who have sex with men (MSM) in the US. Outcome measures were incremental cost, quality-adjusted life-years gained, and HIV infections averted. Base case analysis indicated that it is optimal to invest in ART before PrEP and to invest in CBE before scaling up ART. Diseconomies of scale reduced the optimal investment level. Subadditivity of benefits did not affect the optimal allocation for relatively low implementation levels. The sensitivity analysis indicated that investment in ART before PrEP was optimal in all scenarios tested. Investment in ART before CBE became optimal when CBE reduced risky behavior by 4% or less. Limitations of the study are that dynamic effects are approximated with a static model. Our model provides a simple yet accurate means of determining optimal investment in HIV prevention and treatment. For MSM in the US, HIV control funds should be prioritized on inexpensive, effective programs like CBE, then on ART scale-up, with only minimal investment in PrEP. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Genital lesions: An indication for changing ART regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Arun; Kumar, N; Kumarasamy, N

    2011-01-01

    Genital lesions are common in HIV positive patients and aetiology for these are mainly due to HSV, HPV or bacterial. They usually respond to HAART, antiviral or antimicrobials. We are presenting a young patient on HAART with non-healing genital ulcer lesions for sixteen months. He responded well to a change in ART regimen within a period of 15 days. This happened after a change to a more potent ART regimen.

  5. Confirmation of factors that influence antiretroviral regimen change and the subsequent patient outcomes at a Regional Hospital in rural KwaZulu-Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vereesha Soorju

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment failure (TF and adverse drug reactions (ADRs are the main indications for antiretroviral therapy (ART regimen change. Identification of factors influencing regimen change and subsequent health outcomes of patients after regimen change is essential in providing a sustainable and effective antiretroviral roll-out campaign.Aim: To confirm the factors that influence antiretroviral regimen change and to evaluate patient outcomes post regimen change.Methods: A retrospective chart analysis of 269 HIV-infected non-pregnant patients (age >18 years, who underwent an antiretroviral (ARV regimen change and were followed up for approximately one year since initiation, was undertaken at a Provincial Hospital ARV Clinic in KwaZulu-Natal, from January 2008 to December 2012.Results: Of the 269 patients, there were 200 females (75%. Most patients were between the ages 30 and 44 (57.6%. Only five patients had coexisting tuberculosis (TB infection (2%. The most common first-line ART regimen to be changed was stavudine (D4T/lamivudine(3TC/ efavirenz(EFV n = 111(41%. The most common regimen patients were changed to was tenofovir (TDF/3TC/EFV n = 89(33%. Stavudine was the most commonly substituted drug (35.5%. Lipodystrophy was the most common ADR (56.8%. ADR was the indication for ART regimen change in 175 patients (65%, whilst TF accounted for ART regimen change in 94 patients (35%. Immunological success (CD4 counts was shown after regimen change (374.21 ± 243.16 vs. 456.09 ± 250.07, CI: 0.95, p < 0.001. Undetectable viral loads were measured in 172/205 (83.9% patients post regimen change.Conclusion: ADRs were the main cause for antiretroviral regimen change. Stavudine was the most substituted drug with lipodystrophy being the most common side effect. Coexisting TB infection did not influence regimen change. Immunological and virological success was shown after regimen modification.

  6. Single dose antibiotic therapy is not as effective as conventional regimens for management of acute urinary tract infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, G; Odio, C M; Mohs, E; Guevara, J; McCracken, G H

    1988-05-01

    One hundred thirty-two children with acute urinary tract infection were randomly assigned to receive trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in one dose, two doses daily for 3 days or two doses daily for 7 days. The patient characteristics, etiologic agents and frequency of roentgenologic abnormalities were similar for the three treatment groups. There was no significant difference in bacteriologic cure rates for the single dose regimen (93%) and multidose regimens (96%). The difference in rates of recurrent urinary tract infection between the single dose (20.5%) and 3-day (5.6%) and 7-day (8%) regimens was statistically significant (P = 0.033). A single dose of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is inadequate treatment for infants and children with acute urinary tract infection.

  7. Estimation of the optimal dosing regimen of escitalopram in dogs: A dose occupancy study with [11C]DASB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Taylor

    Full Text Available Although the favourable characteristics of escitalopram as being the most selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and having an increased therapeutic efficacy via binding on an additional allosteric binding site of the serotonin transporter, its dosing regimen has not yet been optimized for its use in dogs. This study aimed to estimate the optimal dosing frequency and the required dose for achieving 80% occupancy of the serotonin transporters in the basal ganglia. The dosing frequency was investigated by determining the elimination half-life after a four day oral pre-treatment period with 0.83 mg/kg escitalopram (3 administrations/day and a subsequent i.v. injection 0.83 mg/kg. Blood samples were taken up to 12 hours after i.v. injection and the concentration of escitalopram in plasma was analysed via LC-MSMS. The dose-occupancy relationship was then determined by performing two PET scans in five adult beagles: a baseline PET scan and a second scan after steady state conditions were achieved following oral treatment with a specific dose of escitalopram ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 mg/kg/day. As the elimination half-life was determined to be 6.7 hours a dosing frequency of three administrations a day was proposed for the second part of the study. Further it was opted for a treatment period of four days, which well exceeded the minimum period to achieve steady state conditions. The optimal dosing regimen to achieve 80% occupancy in the basal ganglia and elicit a therapeutic effect, was calculated to be 1.85 mg/kg/day, divided over three administrations. Under several circumstances, such as insufficient response to other SSRIs, concurrent drug intake or in research studies focused on SERT, the use of escitalopram can be preferred over the use of the already for veterinary use registered fluoxetine, however, in case of long-term treatment with escitalopram, regularly cardiac screening is recommended.

  8. Determining treatment needs at different spatial scales using geostatistical model-based risk estimates of schistosomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Schur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: After many years of neglect, schistosomiasis control is going to scale. The strategy of choice is preventive chemotherapy, that is the repeated large-scale administration of praziquantel (a safe and highly efficacious drug to at-risk populations. The frequency of praziquantel administration is based on endemicity, which usually is defined by prevalence data summarized at an arbitrarily chosen administrative level. METHODOLOGY: For an ensemble of 29 West and East African countries, we determined the annualized praziquantel treatment needs for the school-aged population, adhering to World Health Organization guidelines. Different administrative levels of prevalence aggregation were considered; country, province, district, and pixel level. Previously published results on spatially explicit schistosomiasis risk in the selected countries were employed to classify each area into distinct endemicity classes that govern the frequency of praziquantel administration. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Estimates of infection prevalence adjusted for the school-aged population in 2010 revealed that most countries are classified as moderately endemic for schistosomiasis (prevalence 10-50%, while four countries (i.e., Ghana, Liberia, Mozambique, and Sierra Leone are highly endemic (>50%. Overall, 72.7 million annualized praziquantel treatments (50% confidence interval (CI: 68.8-100.7 million are required for the school-aged population if country-level schistosomiasis prevalence estimates are considered, and 81.5 million treatments (50% CI: 67.3-107.5 million if estimation is based on a more refined spatial scale at the provincial level. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Praziquantel treatment needs may be over- or underestimated depending on the level of spatial aggregation. The distribution of schistosomiasis in Ethiopia, Liberia, Mauritania, Uganda, and Zambia is rather uniform, and hence country-level risk estimates are sufficient to calculate treatment needs. On the

  9. Treatment of sexually transmitted chlamydial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, L L; Harrison, H R; Washington, A E

    1986-04-04

    Tetracycline hydrochloride, 500 mg orally four times a day for seven days, remains the treatment of choice for C trachomatis infections in men and nonpregnant women. Either erythromycin, 500 mg orally four times daily for seven days, or an equivalent dosage of another erythromycin product is an alternative treatment for patients who cannot tolerate tetracycline and for pregnant women. These two treatment regimens can be generalized to include nongonococcal urethritis and mucopurulent cervicitis. However, other treatment regimens that are effective against C trachomatis may not be effective for treating nongonococcal urethritis or mucopurulent cervicitis not caused by C trachomatis. The optimal treatment for pregnant women with C trachomatis infections and women with acute PID has not been established. Additional treatment trials with both groups of patients are needed to determine the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents in addition to those currently used, to establish the appropriate dose of each antimicrobial agent, and to clarify the appropriate duration of treatment. All individuals who are sexual partners of patients with nongonococcal urethritis, mucopurulent cervicitis, and acute PID (within the 30 days prior to onset of their symptoms or time of positive clinical evaluation findings) should be examined for sexually transmitted disease and treated promptly with a regimen effective against uncomplicated gonorrhea and chlamydial infections. Prompt treatment of sexual partners reduces the rate of treatment failure due to reinfection, reduces the transmission of infection, and reduces the frequency of occurrence of adverse sequelae of infection.

  10. Acoustically accessible window determination for ultrasound mediated treatment of glycogen storage disease type Ia patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shutao; Raju, Balasundar I.; Leyvi, Evgeniy; Weinstein, David A.; Seip, Ralf

    2012-10-01

    Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSDIa) is caused by an inherited single-gene defect resulting in an impaired glycogen to glucose conversion pathway. Targeted ultrasound mediated delivery (USMD) of plasmid DNA (pDNA) to liver in conjunction with microbubbles may provide a potential treatment for GSDIa patients. As the success of USMD treatments is largely dependent on the accessibility of the targeted tissue by the focused ultrasound beam, this study presents a quantitative approach to determine the acoustically accessible liver volume in GSDIa patients. Models of focused ultrasound beam profiles for transducers of varying aperture and focal lengths were applied to abdomen models reconstructed from suitable CT and MRI images. Transducer manipulations (simulating USMD treatment procedures) were implemented via transducer translations and rotations with the intent of targeting and exposing the entire liver to ultrasound. Results indicate that acoustically accessible liver volumes can be as large as 50% of the entire liver volume for GSDIa patients and on average 3 times larger compared to a healthy adult group due to GSDIa patients' increased liver size. Detailed descriptions of the evaluation algorithm, transducer-and abdomen models are presented, together with implications for USMD treatments of GSDIa patients and transducer designs for USMD applications.

  11. Determination of alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates in sewage sludge: effect of sample pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Sanjuan, María; Rigol, Anna; Sahuquillo, Angels; Rodríguez-Cruz, Sonia; Lacorte, Silvia

    2009-07-01

    A complete characterization of sewage sludge collected from five biological waste water treatment plants was done to determine physico-chemical parameters, heavy metals and alkylphenols, making special emphasis on sampling, homogenization, and sample pre-treatment. Ultrasonic extraction followed by gas chromatrography coupled with mass spectrometry was used to evaluate the effect of sample pre-treatment (untreated sample, freeze-drying, drying at 40 degrees C or drying at 100 degrees C) on the concentration of octylphenol (OP), nonylphenol (NP) and nonylphenol ethoxylates (NP1EO, NP2EO). Untreated samples and samples dried at 100 degrees C gave concentration levels up to 62% and 89% lower, respectively, than freeze-dried samples. In 50% of cases, freeze-dried samples led to significantly higher concentrations than those obtained by drying at 40 degrees C. Thus, freeze-drying is the recommended sample pre-treatment to prevent possible losses of OP, NP, and NP1EO. Using this methodology, concentrations detected were from 3.2 to 199 mg kg(-1) being NP followed by NP1EO found in highest concentration. The total concentration of NP and NP1EO exceeded the limit of 50 mg kg(-1) proposed by the draft European directive on sewage sludge in three out of five samples studied. Contrarily, heavy metals were below the legislated values.

  12. Determination of alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates in sewage sludge: effect of sample pre-treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Sanjuan, Maria; Rigol, Anna; Sahuquillo, Angels [University of Barcelona, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Barcelona (Spain); Rodriguez-Cruz, Sonia [University of Barcelona, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Barcelona (Spain); IRNASA-CSIC, Department of Environmental Chemistry and Geochemistry, Salamanca (Spain); Lacorte, Silvia [IDAEA-CSIC, Department of Environmental Chemistry, Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-07-15

    A complete characterization of sewage sludge collected from five biological waste water treatment plants was done to determine physico-chemical parameters, heavy metals and alkylphenols, making special emphasis on sampling, homogenization, and sample pre-treatment. Ultrasonic extraction followed by gas chromatrography coupled with mass spectrometry was used to evaluate the effect of sample pre-treatment (untreated sample, freeze-drying, drying at 40 C or drying at 100 C) on the concentration of octylphenol (OP), nonylphenol (NP) and nonylphenol ethoxylates (NP{sub 1}EO, NP{sub 2}EO). Untreated samples and samples dried at 100 C gave concentration levels up to 62% and 89% lower, respectively, than freeze-dried samples. In 50% of cases, freeze-dried samples led to significantly higher concentrations than those obtained by drying at 40 C. Thus, freeze-drying is the recommended sample pre-treatment to prevent possible losses of OP, NP, and NP{sub 1}EO. Using this methodology, concentrations detected were from 3.2 to 199 mg kg{sup -1} being NP followed by NP{sub 1}EO found in highest concentration. The total concentration of NP and NP{sub 1}EO exceeded the limit of 50 mg kg{sup -1} proposed by the draft European directive on sewage sludge in three out of five samples studied. Contrarily, heavy metals were below the legislated values. (orig.)

  13. A method for optimizing dosage regimens in oncology by visualizing the safety and efficacy response surface: analysis of inotuzumab ozogamicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Kenneth T; Boni, Joseph

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this investigation was to develop a quantitative method to optimize inotuzumab ozogamicin (InO) dosage regimen in patients with indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) by simultaneously balancing safety and efficacy. Pharmacokinetics (PK), safety and efficacy data were obtained from a phase 2 trial of InO administered intravenously to patients (n = 81) with indolent NHL. The PK was described by a two-compartment model which was linked to: (1) an exponential tumor growth model to describe tumor size time course (efficacy determinant expressed as objective response rate) and (2) a precursor-dependent platelet inhibition model to describe platelet time course (safety determinant expressed as thrombocytopenia grade). The model was used to simulate virtual trials to construct safety and efficacy response surfaces. Using the simulated safety and efficacy contours, a clinical utility index (CUI) contour was then constructed, from which optimal InO regimens were then selected. The model-simulated efficacy response surface indicated near-optimal efficacy of InO at the dosage regimen used in the trial (1.8 mg/m(2) every 4 weeks). The model-simulated safety response surface indicated that modifying the dosage regimen resulted in modest improvements in safety with little compromise in efficacy. The CUI contour identified 2 mg/m(2) every 10, 11, or 12 weeks as the "sweet spot" for optimal InO dosage regimen in patients with indolent NHL. An approach to dosage regimen optimization was developed for simultaneously balancing safety and efficacy. This approach allows objective identification of optimal dosage regimens from early trial information and thus has broad utility across oncology trials.

  14. Determination of Glucose Levels during Dialysis Treatment: Different Sensors and Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Sbrignadello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of glycemia in subjects with renal failure, thus treated with hemodialysis, or peritoneal dialysis, is clinically relevant, since glucose levels may influence the determination of other solutes, such as creatinine, as well as some ions, such as sodium, whose degree of removal during dialysis sessions should be controlled carefully. Also, glucose levels should be controlled to avoid possible events of hypoglycemia during the treatment, especially in diabetic subjects. Indeed, even cases of hypoglycemic coma are documented. The glucose measurement during the dialysis treatment can be performed with different sensors and technologies: for instance, with traditional glucose meters, with instruments for continuous glucose monitoring, or with optical sensors. The aim of this review study was to analyze these different approaches and briefly discuss possible advantages and limitations.

  15. Determinants of Treatment Abandonment in Childhood Cancer: Results from a Global Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Friedrich

    Full Text Available Understanding and addressing treatment abandonment (TxA is crucial for bridging the pediatric cancer survival gap between high-income (HIC and low-and middle-income countries (LMC. In childhood cancer, TxA is defined as failure to start or complete curative cancer therapy and known to be a complex phenomenon. With rising interest on causes and consequences of TxA in LMC, this study aimed to establish the lay-of-the-land regarding determinants of TxA globally, perform and promote comparative research, and raise awareness on this subject.Physicians (medical oncologists, surgeons, and radiation therapists, nurses, social workers, and psychologists involved in care of children with cancer were approached through an online survey February-May 2012. Queries addressed social, economic, and treatment-related determinants of TxA. Free-text comments were collected. Descriptive and qualitative analyses were performed. Appraisal of overall frequency, burden, and predictors of TxA has been reported separately.581 responses from 101 countries were obtained (contact rate = 26%, cooperation rate = 70%. Most respondents were physicians (86%, practicing pediatric hematology/oncology (86% for >10 years (54%. Providers from LMC considered social/economic factors (families' low socioeconomic status, low education, and long travel time, as most influential in increasing risk of TxA. Treatment-related considerations such as preference for complementary and alternative medicine and concerns about treatment adverse effects and toxicity, were perceived to play an important role in both LMC and HIC. Perceived prognosis seemed to mediate the role of other determinants such as diagnosis and treatment phase on TxA risk. For example, high-risk of TxA was most frequently reported when prognosis clearly worsened (i.e. lack of response to therapy, relapse, or conversely when the patient appeared improved (i.e. induction completed, mass removed, as well as before aggressive

  16. Determinants of adherence to treatment in hypertensive patients of African descent and the role of culturally appropriate education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinema, Jennita G.; van Dijk, Nynke; Beune, Erik J. A. J.; Jaarsma, Debbie A. D. C.; van Weert, Henk C. P. M.; Haafkens, Joke A.

    2015-01-01

    In Western countries, better knowledge about patient-related determinants of treatment adherence (medication and lifestyle) is needed to improve treatment adherence and outcomes among hypertensive ethnic minority patients of African descent. To identify patient-related determinants of adherence to

  17. Measures of motivation for psychiatric treatment based on self-determination theory : Psychometric properties in Dutch psychiatric outpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jochems, Eline C.; Mulder, Cornelis L.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M.; van Dam, Arno

    2014-01-01

    Self-determination theory is potentially useful for understanding reasons why individuals with mental illness do or do not engage in psychiatric treatment. The current study examined the psychometric properties of three questionnaires based on self-determination theory—The Treatment Entry

  18. A comparison of traditional versus contemporary immunosuppressive regimens in pediatric heart recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Clement D; Richmond, Marc E; Singh, Rakesh K; Gilmore, Lisa; Beddows, Kim; Chen, Jonathan M; Addonizio, Linda J

    2013-07-01

    To assess the differences in rejection and infection complications between the most common contemporary immunosuppression regimen in pediatric heart transplantation (cytolytic induction, tacrolimus based) and classic triple-therapy (cyclosporine based without induction). We performed a retrospective, historical-control, observational study comparing outcomes in patients who underwent traditional immunosuppression (control group, n = 64) with those for whom the contemporary protocol was used (n = 39). Episodes of rejection, viremia (cytomegalovirus or Epstein-Barr virus), serious bacterial or fungal infections, anemia or neutropenia requiring treatment in the first year after heart transplantation, and 1-year survival were compared between traditional and contemporary immunosuppression groups. The 2 groups were similar with respect to baseline demographics. There were no differences in risk of cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, or bacterial or fungal infections in the first year post-transplantation. Patients in the contemporary group were more likely to need therapy for anemia (51% vs 14%, P contemporary protocol patients were rejection-free in the first year post-transplantation (63% vs 41%, P = .03). Overall graft survival was similar between groups (P = .15). A contemporary immunosuppression regimen using tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and induction was associated with less rejection in the first year, with no difference in the risk of infection but greater risk of anemia and neutropenia requiring treatment. Long-term follow-up on these patients will evaluate the impact of the immunosuppression regimen on survival. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Delayed rhabdomyolysis with paclitaxel, ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide regimen: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Alexandra; Chan, Onyee; Ullah, Waqas; Hamdani, Auon Abbas; Anwer, Faiz

    2017-04-11

    High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue is commonly used for the treatment of relapsed germ cell tumors. We report the first case of delayed rhabdomyolysis with paclitaxel, ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide regimen. We report a case of a 21-year-old African-American man diagnosed with relapsed non-seminomatous germ cell tumor who received high-dose chemotherapy with carboplatin and etoposide following TIGER trial arm B off-protocol. His course was complicated by muscle pain and rhabdomyolysis after cycle 4 on day +12 after infusion of autologous stem cells. To the best of our knowledge, this complication has not been reported with this regimen. A differential diagnosis of sepsis and neutropenic fever along with side effects of high-dose chemotherapy were considered, but based on the timing of events, it was concluded that the etiology of rhabdomyolysis is high-dose chemotherapy. Rhabdomyolysis was successfully treated with hydration and did not recur during subsequent cycle 5. Delayed rhabdomyolysis after high-dose chemotherapy with paclitaxel, ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide regimen has not been previously reported and needs to be considered for preventive strategy and prompt diagnosis and treatment to avoid renal complications. Physicians should have a low threshold to check creatine kinase enzymes in patients with unexplained muscle pain or renal insufficiency after high-dose chemotherapy.

  20. Development of a methodology for cost determination of wastewater treatment based on functional diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamas, Wendell Q.; Silveira, Jose L.; Giacaglia, Giorgio E.O.; Reis, Luiz O.M.

    2009-01-01

    This work describes a methodology developed for determination of costs associated to products generated in a small wastewater treatment station for sanitary wastewater from a university campus. This methodology begins with plant component units identification, relating their fluid and thermodynamics features for each point marked in its process diagram. Following, its functional diagram is developed and its formulation is elaborated, in exergetic base, describing all equations for these points, which are the constraints for exergetic production cost problem and are used in equations to determine the costs associated to products generated in SWTS. This methodology was applied to a hypothetical system based on SWTS former parts and presented consistent results when compared to expected values based on previous exergetic expertise.

  1. Oral antidiabetic therapy in a large Italian sample: drug supply and compliance for different therapeutic regimens

    CERN Document Server

    Vittorino Gaddi, A; Capello, F; Di Pietro, C; Cinconze, E; Rossi, E; De Sando, V; Cevenini, M; D'Alò, G

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To define the main features of patients treated with oral antidiabetics, evaluating monotherapy (MT), loose-dose combination therapy (LDCT) and fixed-dose combination therapy (FDCT); to describe medication adherence to the different therapies; and to evaluate the differences in compliance with the prescribed therapy regimen among prevalent and incident patient cohorts. Study design: This study was a retrospective cohort analysis based on the ARNO database, a national record that tracks reimbursable prescription claims submitted from selected pharmacies to the Italian national health system. In total, 169,375 subjects, from an overall population of 4,040,624 were included in this study. The patients represented 12 different local health units. Each patient had at least one oral antidiabetic prescription claim (A10B ATC code). Methods: Patients were divided into four groups according to their treatment regimen during the recruitment period (1 January 2008-31 December 2008): MT, FDCT, LDCT and swi...

  2. Determinants of High Blood Pressure and Barriers to Diagnosis and Treatment in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZACK, Rachel M.; IREMA, Kahema; KAZONDA, Patrick; LEYNA, Germana H.; LIU, Enju; SPIEGELMAN, Donna; FAWZI, Wafaie; NJELEKELA, Marina; KILLEWO, Japhet; DANAEI, Goodarz

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We assessed prevalence and determinants of high blood pressure, and barriers to diagnosis and treatment, in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods We surveyed and screened 2,174 community-dwelling adults aged ≥40 years in 2014 and conducted a follow-up after one year. Results Median blood pressure was 131/81 mmHg and hypertension prevalence was 37%. Mean adjusted difference in SBP was 4.0 mmHg for overweight, 6.3 mmHg for obese class I, and 10.5 mmHg for obese class II/III compared with normal weight participants. Those who were physically inactive had 4.8 mmHg higher SBP compared to those with more than 24 hours of moderate or vigorous activity per week. Drinkers of at least 10 grams of alcohol per day had 4.5 mmHg higher SBP than did non-drinkers. Among hypertensives, 48% were diagnosed, 22% were treated, and 10% were controlled. Hypertensives without health insurance were 12% less likely to be diagnosed than insured hypertensives. Of referred participants, 68% sought care, but only 27% were on treatment and 8% had controlled blood pressure at follow-up. Reasons for not seeking care included lack of symptoms, cost of visit, and lack of time. Reasons for not being on treatment included lack of symptoms, not being prescribed treatment, and having finished one course of treatment. Conclusions Major risk factors for hypertension in Dar es Salaam are overweight, obesity, inadequate physical activity, and limited access to quality medical care. Increased insurance coverage and community-based screening, along with quality medical care and patient education, may help control this burgeoning epidemic. PMID:27648720

  3. Modeling of velocity regimens for anaerobic and aerobic power exercises in high-performance swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issurin, V B; Kaufman, L E; Tenenbaum, G

    2001-12-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the validity and eligibility of a modeling method to determine velocity regimes of highly intensive swimming exercises. The model postulates that swimming velocity regimens, which correspond to the three biomotor components, i.e.: Maximal Anaerobic Power, Anaerobic Capacity, and Aerobic Power, can be predicted by special equations using a 50 m all out swim velocity, and the equation coefficient, which determine swimmer's classification. The swimmers are classified into 12 categories according to pre-determined race distance records, and swimmer's capability level. Comparative field study was used to contrast predicted velocity regimens with observed velocity regimes. National swimming center at the Wingate Institute for Physical Education. 22 highly trained swimmers (14 male and 8 female) participated in this study and were examined 1-4 times within a period of two years in totally 162 sessions. The 50 m all-out trial was performed and three basic velocity regimens were predicted according to the modeling procedure. Three different interval sets were carried out by all the swimmers for validation procedures. The blood lactate (BLA) samples were taken after test completion. The correlations between the observed and predicted velocities within each of the three tests were very strong. The RM-ANOVA with respect to lactic acid concentration revealed that across the three measures (different tests) BLA concentration was significantly higher in male swimmers than in female swimmers, and highest in butterfly followed by breaststroke, backstroke, and freestyle stroke. The modeling method allows to predict desirable velocity regimes in order to develop the main biomotor components of the swimmers. This procedure is recommended for practice as a non-invasive method for designing desired training regimens.

  4. Perspectives on adherence and simplicity for HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy: self-report of the relative importance of multiple attributes of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens in predicting adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Valerie E; Jordan, Jamie; Tolson, Jerry; Miller, Robert; Pilon, Tom

    2004-07-01

    Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) of 95% or greater seems to be required for successful treatment of HIV/AIDS. Efforts to simplify regimens to improve adherence are ongoing, including the advent of once-daily (QD) dosing regimens, which are presumed to be beneficial, although data regarding their overall impact on adherence are not yet available. To assess patient perceptions of the impact on adherence of 10 attributes of HAART, including QD dosing, and to compare 7 actual regimens based on patients' perceptions of their likelihood to promote adherence. Two hundred ninety-nine highly treatment-experienced patients with HIV/AIDS completed a questionnaire that evaluated perceptions of the impact on adherence of 10 HAART regimen attributes using a modified adaptive conjoint analysis. Patients' perceptions of the likelihood that they would adhere to 7 actual HAART regimens were scored on Likert scales. : Pill count, dosing frequency, and adverse events had the greatest impact on patients' perceived ability to adhere to antiretroviral medication regimens. QD was the preferred dosing frequency, but QD dosing regimens did not score better than other regimens. Among actual regimens, predicted adherence was highest for a twice-daily (BID) regimen with 2 pills daily, no dietary restrictions, and 1 prescription and copayment and lowest for a BID regimen with 13 pills daily, food requirements, and 3 prescriptions and copayments. All HAART regimen attributes studied were perceived to have an impact on adherence, but pill count, dosing frequency, and adverse events had the greatest perceived impact. These data are of potential importance to clinicians as they seek to structure HAART regimens to which their patients are most likely to adhere.

  5. Nasopharyngeal carcinomas: analysis of patient, tumor and treatment characteristics determining outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkal, Haldun S.; Serin, Meltem; Cakmak, Ahmet

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The present study reviews the experience in treatment of 447 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinomas, analyzing patient, tumor and treatment characteristics determining outcome. Materials and methods: There were 322 males and 125 females, their ages ranging from 7 to 85 years (median, 45 years). Two-hundred and seventy-two patients had World Health Organization (WHO) type 3 carcinomas, 123 patients had T4 tumors and 320 patients had metastatic cervical lymph nodes. Three-hundred and eight patients were treated with radiation therapy alone and 139 patients with chemotherapy in combination with radiation therapy. Cumulative radiation dose to primary tumor ranged from 50 to 76 Gy (median, 70 Gy) and radiation dose to metastatic cervical lymph nodes ranged from 46 to 74 Gy (median, 66 Gy). Results: Follow-up ranged from 0.1 to 19.5 years (mean, 7.6 years). Local complete response was achieved in 357 patients. In multivariate analysis, T-classification, cumulative radiation dose to primary tumor and treatment with chemotherapy in combination with radiation therapy predicted local response. Nodal complete response was achieved in 272 patients. In multivariate analysis, N-classification and radiation dose to metastatic cervical lymph nodes predicted nodal response. Local failure was observed in 70 patients, nodal failure in 35 patients and systemic failure in 114 patients. Overall survival, disease-free survival and disease-specific survival were 33, 32 and 37%, respectively, at 10 years. In multivariate analysis, age, T-classification, N-classification, radiation dose and treatment with chemotherapy in combination with radiation therapy predicted overall survival whereas T-classification, N-classification, radiation dose and treatment with chemotherapy in combination with radiation therapy predicted both disease-free survival and disease-specific survival. Conclusions: Radiation therapy alone appears to be an adequate and viable treatment for patients with early

  6. The Significance of Ultrasound in Determining Whether SHPT Patients Are Sensitive to Calcitriol Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-xin Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to explore the significance of ultrasound in determining whether the patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT are sensitive to calcitriol treatment. According to the decrease value of parathyroid hormone (PTH, 42 SHPT patients were divided into two groups: drug susceptible group and drug insusceptible group. These 42 SHPT patients’ ultrasound images were retrospectively analyzed. The morphology, size, number, blood flow, elastic modulus, and perfusion of the parathyroid glands were correlated with drug therapeutic outcome (oral calcitriol. Most SHPT patients with drug susceptible showed volume <438.50 mm3 and number ≤2, with 0-1 structural and vascular patterns, associated with Relative Maximum Intensity (RIMAX <1.59 and elastic modulus <18.8 kPa, whereas most SHPT patients with drug insusceptible showed volume ≥438.50 mm3 and number ≥3, with 2-3 structural and vascular patterns, associated with Relative Maximum Intensity (RIMAX ≥1.59 and elastic modulus ≥18.8 kPa. Therefore, ultrasonography in SHPT allows an accurate definition of the morphology, size, number, blood flow, elastic modulus, and perfusion of the parathyroid glands and is useful in determining whether SHPT patients are sensitive to calcitriol treatment.

  7. Successful and well-tolerated bi-weekly immunoadsorption regimen in pemphigus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Jenny; Hohenstein, Bernd; Tselmin, Sergey; Julius, Ulrich; Bornstein, Stefan R; Beissert, Stefan; Günther, Claudia

    2017-11-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by blisters and erosions forming in the mucous membranes and the skin. Many patients are severely impaired by pain, weight loss and increased risk of infections. The disease is mediated by specific autoantibodies directed against desmogleins that contribute to connect keratinocytes in the epidermis. Autoantibody deposition in the skin causes inflammation and intraepidermal akantholysis. The concentration of autoantibodies in serum correlates with disease activity. Therefore, the removal of autoantibodies by immunoadsorption is a targeted therapeutic intervention for patients with pemphigus vulgaris. A total of 9 patients with pemphigus vulgaris resistant to the standard treatment regimen were treated by immunoadsorption using the TheraSorb™-Ig adsorber system and analyzed retrospectively. Patients received immunoadsorption on two or four consecutive days. Cycles were repeated every two or four weeks, respectively. Treatment was performed for a mean period of 17.5 months (range 6-26). Outcome was measured as improvement in clinical disease analyzed by the investigators global assessment and the reduction of autoantibodies in serum measured by indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA. Tolerability of treatment by patients was evaluated using a visual analog scale. Retrospective analysis of 9 patients consecutively treated by immunoadsorption revealed an 80% reduction of the autoantibody concentration in serum after 6 months of treatment, led to a clinical improvement of disease in combination with classical immunosuppression. Steroid consumption could be reduced by 50% after 30 and 75% after 90 days. Therapy resulted in a total response rate of 89%, with 56% of patients reaching partial and 33% complete remission. The bi-weekly treatment regimen resulted in effective improvement of disease and was in favor to the 4-weekly regimen by the subjective judgment of tolerability by the patients

  8. Impact of carbon dioxide level, water velocity, and feeding regimen on growth and fillet attributes of cultured rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazik, Patricia M.; Mazik, P.M.; Kenney, P.B.; Silverstein, J.T

    2016-01-01

    Production and management variables such as carbon dioxide (CO2) level, water velocity, and feeding frequency influence the growth and fillet attributes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), as well as cost of production. More information is needed to determine the contributions of these variables to growth and fillet attributes to find the right balance between input costs and fish performance. Two studies, of 84 and 90 days duration, were conducted to determine the effects of CO2 level, water velocity, and feed frequency on rainbow trout growth, fillet yield, and fillet quality. In the first study, two CO2levels (30 and 49 mg/L) and two velocity levels (0.5 and 2.0 body lengths/s) were tested. In the second study two CO2 levels (30 and 49 mg/L) and two feeding regimens (fed once daily to satiation or three times daily to satiation) were tested. In the first study, after 84 days, fillet weight from high CO2 tanks was 13.5% lower than the fillet weights of fish from low CO2 tanks. Percent fat of fillets was higher in low CO2 fish (P = 0.05) after 84 days and, fish from the low CO2 treatment were larger (P effect of strain and velocity were minimal over the range we tested in comparison to the effects of CO2 and feeding regimen.

  9. Skin compatibility and efficacy of a cosmetic skin care regimen with licochalcone A and 4-t-butylcyclohexanol in patients with rosacea subtype I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoelermann, A M; Weber, T M; Arrowitz, C; Rizer, R L; Qian, K; Babcock, M

    2016-02-01

    Patients with rosacea often show facial sensitivity to cosmetics or skin care products that can influence the severity of symptoms and exacerbate erythema and inflammation. Nevertheless, special skin care is necessary to address cosmetic concerns and reduce the potential side-effects of topical or oral treatment of the disease. Appropriate skin care should comprise gentle cleansing, effective moisturization, soothing actives, UV protection and concealing pigments to help neutralize the appearance of redness. To determine the compatibility and efficacy of a skin care regimen (consisting of a cleanser, a day care with SPF25 and a night care) containing licochalcone A (Lic A), an anti-irritant from the licorice plant Glycyrrhiza inflata, and 4-t-butylcyclohexanol (SymSitive(®) ), a substance which acts as a sensitivity regulator, in female subjects with clinically determined subtype I rosacea. Thirty-two test subjects with mild to moderate rosacea used the skin care regimen daily for 8 weeks. Clinical assessment of erythema, subjective irritation and clinical photography were performed at baseline and after 4 and 8 weeks. Additionally, a quality-of-life questionnaire was filled out by the test subjects at baseline and week 8. The subjects completed a self-assessment questionnaire on product properties after 4 and 8 weeks of product use. Clinical assessments and subject response confirmed very good tolerability of the regimen, a statistically significant improvement in clinical grading for erythema and tactile roughness at weeks 4 and 8 and on telangiectasia at week 8 when compared to baseline scores. A statistically significant improvement in facial redness (a*) values, based on the L*a*b* colorimetric system, was determined at week 4 and 8 in comparison to baseline. No difference in corneometric measurement was detected at week 4 and 8 compared to baseline. The skin care regimen was found to be highly compatible with the sensitive facial skin of patients with

  10. Effect of different cleaning regimens on the adhesion of resin to saliva-contaminated ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladağ, Akın; Elter, Bahar; Çömlekoğlu, Erhan; Kanat, Burcu; Sonugelen, Mehmet; Kesercioğlu, Atilla; Özcan, Mutlu

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different cleaning regimens on the microshear bond strength (μSBS) of three different all-ceramic surfaces after saliva contamination. Cubic ceramic specimens (3 × 3 × 3 mm(3) ) were prepared from three types of ceramics: zirconium dioxide (Z), leucite-reinforced glass ceramic (E), lithium disilicate glass ceramic (EX; n = 12/subgroup). A total of 144 composite resin cylinders (diameter: 1 mm, height: 3 mm) were prepared. Three human-saliva-contaminated surfaces of ceramic specimens were cleaned with either water spray (WS), with 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution (HC), or with a cleaning paste (CP). Control surface (C) was not contaminated or cleaned. Composite cylinders were bonded to each surface with a resin luting cement. All specimens were stored at 37°C in deionized water until fracture testing. μSBS tests were performed in a universal testing machine (0.5 mm/min), and the results (MPa ± SD) were statistically analyzed (two-way ANOVA, Bonferroni a = 0.05). Fractured surfaces were analyzed to identify the failure types using an optical microscope at 50× magnification. Two representative specimens from all groups were examined with scanning electron microscopy. μSBS test results were significantly affected by the saliva cleaning regimens (p = 0.01) and the ceramic types (p = 0.03). The interaction terms between the ceramic type and saliva cleaning regimen were also significant (p 0.05). In the EX group, C resulted in significantly higher μSBS values (32.6 ± 7.4) than CP (17.4 ± 8.9), WS (15.6 ± 7.3), and HC (14.3 ± 4.5) (p resin were observed in the E and EX groups, whereas only adhesive failures were seen in zirconia groups for all surface treatments. Different ceramic surface cleaning regimens after saliva contamination of the zirconium dioxide revealed μSBS similar to the control group, whereas all surface cleaning regimens tested significantly decreased the bond strength values in the

  11. Determining the optimal dose of 1940-nm thulium fiber laser for assisting the endodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarp, Ayse Sena Kabas; Gulsoy, Murat

    2017-09-01

    Insufficient cleaning, the complex anatomy of the root canal system, inaccessible accessory canals, and inadequate penetration of irrigants through dentinal tubules minimizes the success of the conventional endodontic treatment. Laser-assisted endodontic treatment enhances the quality of conventional treatment, but each laser wavelength has its own its own limitations. The optimal parameters for the antibacterial efficiency of a new wavelength, 1940-nm Thulium Fiber Laser, were firstly investigated in this study. This paper comprises of two preliminary analyses and one main experimental study, presents data about thermal effects of 1940-nm laser application on root canal tissue, effective sterilization parameters for bacteria, Enterococcus faecalis, and finally the antibacterial effectiveness of this 1940-nm Thulium Fiber Laser irradiation in single root canal. Based on these results, the optimal parameter range for safe laser-assisted root canal treatment was investigated in the main experiments. Comparing the antibacterial effects of four laser powers on an E. faecalis bacteria culture in vitro in 96-well plates showed that the most effective group was the one irradiated with 1 W of laser power (antibacterial effect corresponding to a log kill of 3). After the optimal laser power was determined, varying irradiation durations (15, 30, and 60 s) were compared in disinfecting E. faecalis. Laser application caused significant reduction in colony-forming unit values (CFU) compared with control samples in the 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) group. The results of bacteria counts showed that 1 W with 30 s of irradiation with a 1940-nm thulium fiber laser was the optimal dose for safely achieving maximal bactericidal effect.

  12. The impact of the new antiviral regimens on patient reported outcomes and health economics of patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younossi, Zobair; Henry, Linda

    2014-12-15

    Hepatitis C is an important cause of chronic liver disease worldwide with an estimated 170 million people infected. Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients are physically and mentally impacted by fatigue, depression and anxiety causing an impairment of health related quality of life (HRQOL), lower worker productivity and other patient reported outcomes (PROs). Although anti-HCV regimens containing first generation direct acting antiviral agents (DAAs) were associated with significant side effects, the second generation DAAs, sofosbuvir (SOF) and simeprevir (SMV), are associated with fewer side effects, better tolerability and high cure rates. Despite these advantages, key stakeholders are currently trying to find ways to best integrate these new therapeutic regimens into the management of patients with chronic hepatitis C for the benefit of all. The purpose of this article is to offer insight into the other key and equally important outcomes (PRO's, HRQOL and cost) which should be considered when assessing the applicability of these new regimens for the care of patients infected with HCV. Our review provides evidence that the new treatment regimens for HCV not only have high efficacy rates but are also associated with better patient reported outcomes and cost per case of HCV cured. Additionally, compared to other medical interventions, these new regimens are cost-effective from a societal perspective. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. A phase II study of V-BEAM as conditioning regimen before second auto-SCT for multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T-F; Fiala, M A; Cashen, A F; Uy, G L; Abboud, C N; Fletcher, T; Wu, N; Westervelt, P; DiPersio, J F; Stockerl-Goldstein, K E; Vij, R

    2014-11-01

    High-dose melphalan has been the standard conditioning regimen for auto-SCT in multiple myeloma (MM) for decades. A more effective conditioning regimen may induce deeper responses and longer remission duration. It is especially needed in the setting of second auto-SCT, which rarely achieves comparable results with the first auto-SCT using the same conditioning regimen. Here we conducted a phase II study to investigate the efficacy and safety of a conditioning regimen V-BEAM (bortezomib-BEAM) before second auto-SCT for multiple myeloma. Ten patients were enrolled from September 2012 to May 2013. The CR rate at day +100 after auto-SCT was 75%; all except for one patient remained in remission after a median follow-up of 6 months. Three patients developed Clostridium difficile infection. Two patients died within the first 30 days of auto-SCT from neutropenic colitis and overwhelming sepsis, respectively. Due to the high rate of morbidity and mortality, the study was terminated after 10 patients. In summary, although the conditioning regimen V-BEAM before second auto-SCT for MM provided promising responses, it was associated with unexpected treatment-related toxicity and should not be investigated further without modifications.

  14. Treatment Readiness as a Determinant of Treatment Participation in a Prison-Based Rehabilitation Program: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, Anouk Q; Kunst, Maarten J J; Dirkzwager, Anja J E; Nieuwbeerta, Paul

    2017-06-01

    The current study had three aims. First, it measured treatment readiness among offenders who entered the Prevention of Recidivism program. This is a prison-based rehabilitation program in the Netherlands that aims to lower re-offending rates among offenders with a prison sentence of at least for months and that is carried out during the final months of incarceration. Second, the study evaluated whether treatment readiness was associated with treatment participation. Third, the study examined whether treatment readiness measured with a validated instrument predicted treatment participation above and beyond a clinical assessment of treatment readiness, currently used as a criterion to include offenders in rehabilitation programs. To address these aims, data were used from the fourth wave of a research project studying the effects of imprisonment on the life of detainees in the Netherlands. Results indicated that treatment readiness as measured with a validated instrument was a significant predictor of treatment participation. Also, the current study showed that treatment readiness measured with a validated instrument improved the prediction of treatment participation above and beyond a clinical assessment of treatment readiness. Outcomes were discussed in light of study limitations and implications.

  15. Hybrid Therapy as First-Line Regimen for Helicobacter pylori Eradication in Populations with High Antibiotic Resistance Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Liya; Zhang, Jianzhong; He, Lihua; Bai, Peng; Xue, Yan

    2016-10-01

    Hybrid therapy has recently attracted widespread attention. However, many issues require further exploration. For example, research in regions with high antibiotic resistance rates is limited, and the correlation between eradication efficacy and antibiotic resistance remains uncl