WorldWideScience

Sample records for treatment plant pesticide

  1. Pesticides from wastewater treatment plant effluents affect invertebrate communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münze, Ronald; Hannemann, Christin; Orlinskiy, Polina; Gunold, Roman; Paschke, Albrecht; Foit, Kaarina; Becker, Jeremias; Kaske, Oliver; Paulsson, Elin; Peterson, Märit; Jernstedt, Henrik; Kreuger, Jenny; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Liess, Matthias

    2017-12-01

    We quantified pesticide contamination and its ecological impact up- and downstream of seven wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in rural and suburban areas of central Germany. During two sampling campaigns, time-weighted average pesticide concentrations (c TWA ) were obtained using Chemcatcher® passive samplers; pesticide peak concentrations were quantified with event-driven samplers. At downstream sites, receiving waters were additionally grab sampled for five selected pharmaceuticals. Ecological effects on macroinvertebrate structure and ecosystem function were assessed using the biological indicator system SPEAR pesticides (SPEcies At Risk) and leaf litter breakdown rates, respectively. WWTP effluents substantially increased insecticide and fungicide concentrations in receiving waters; in many cases, treated wastewater was the exclusive source for the neonicotinoid insecticides acetamiprid and imidacloprid in the investigated streams. During the ten weeks of the investigation, five out of the seven WWTPs increased in-stream pesticide toxicity by a factor of three. As a consequence, at downstream sites, SPEAR values and leaf litter degradation rates were reduced by 40% and 53%, respectively. The reduced leaf litter breakdown was related to changes in the macroinvertebrate communities described by SPEAR pesticides and not to altered microbial activity. Neonicotinoids showed the highest ecological relevance for the composition of invertebrate communities, occasionally exceeding the Regulatory Acceptable Concentrations (RACs). In general, considerable ecological effects of insecticides were observed above and below regulatory thresholds. Fungicides, herbicides and pharmaceuticals contributed only marginally to acute toxicity. We conclude that pesticide retention of WWTPs needs to be improved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Contribution of waste water treatment plants to pesticide toxicity in agriculture catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Trong Dieu Hien; Scharmüller, Andreas; Kattwinkel, Mira; Kühne, Ralph; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Schäfer, Ralf B

    2017-11-01

    Pesticide residues are frequently found in water bodies and may threaten freshwater ecosystems and biodiversity. In addition to runoff or leaching from treated agricultural fields, pesticides may enter streams via effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). We compared the pesticide toxicity in terms of log maximum Toxic Unit (log mTU) of sampling sites in small agricultural streams of Germany with and without WWTPs in the upstream catchments. We found an approximately half log unit higher pesticide toxicity for sampling sites with WWTPs (p pesticide toxicity in streams with WWTPs. A few compounds (diuron, terbuthylazin, isoproturon, terbutryn and Metazachlor) dominated the herbicide toxicity. Pesticide toxicity was not correlated with upstream distance to WWTP (Spearman's rank correlation, rho = - 0.11, p > 0.05) suggesting that other context variables are more important to explain WWTP-driven pesticide toxicity. Our results suggest that WWTPs contribute to pesticide toxicity in German streams. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Occurrence and behavior of pesticides in wastewater treatment plants and their environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Köck-Schulmeyer, Marianne; Villagrasa, Marta; López de Alda, Miren; Céspedes-Sánchez, Raquel; Ventura, Francesc; Barceló, Damià

    2013-01-01

    Reports on pesticides elimination during wastewater treatment are rare since these substances are typically considered of agricultural rather than of urban origin. In this context, the aim of this work was to evaluate the presence, removal and environmental relevance of 22 selected pesticides in three different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), paying attention not only to their occurrence and elimination but also to the toxicity of each pesticide against three aquatic micro organisms (algae, daphnia and fish) through the calculation of the so-named Environmental Relevance of Pesticides from Wastewater treatment plants Index (ERPWI). For this purpose, an analytical method based on isotope dilution on-line solid phase extraction–liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (SPE–LC–MS/MS) was optimized, allowing the determination of the 22 target pesticides in wastewater with satisfactory sensitivity (limits of detection below 30 ng/L), accuracy and precision. Concerning the results, total pesticide levels were in most instances below 1 μg/L but removal in the WWTPs was variable and often poor, with concentrations in the effluent sometimes higher than in the corresponding influent. Possible explanations for these poor or negative removal rates are, among many others considered (e.g. sampling, sample preservation, method biases, atmospheric deposition), deconjugation of metabolites and/or transformation products of the pesticides, hydrolysis, and desorption from particulate matter during wastewater treatment. The most significant pesticides in terms of concentration and frequency of detection were diazinon and diuron. These two pesticides, followed by atrazine, simazine and malathion, were also the most relevant from the environmental point of view, according to the calculated ERPWI. - Highlights: • Pesticides are poorly removed in WWTPs. • Urban wastewaters are important sources of pesticides to the aquatic environment. • Diazinon and diuron: the

  4. Occurrence and behavior of pesticides in wastewater treatment plants and their environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Köck-Schulmeyer, Marianne [Water and Soil Quality Research Group, Dept. Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Villagrasa, Marta [Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), C/Emili Grahit 101, Edifici H2O, Parc Científic i Tecnològic de la Universitat de Girona, 17003 Girona (Spain); López de Alda, Miren, E-mail: mlaqam@cid.csic.es [Water and Soil Quality Research Group, Dept. Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Céspedes-Sánchez, Raquel; Ventura, Francesc [AGBAR-Aigües de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 211, E-08018 Barcelona (Spain); Barceló, Damià [Water and Soil Quality Research Group, Dept. Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), C/Emili Grahit 101, Edifici H2O, Parc Científic i Tecnològic de la Universitat de Girona, 17003 Girona (Spain)

    2013-08-01

    Reports on pesticides elimination during wastewater treatment are rare since these substances are typically considered of agricultural rather than of urban origin. In this context, the aim of this work was to evaluate the presence, removal and environmental relevance of 22 selected pesticides in three different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), paying attention not only to their occurrence and elimination but also to the toxicity of each pesticide against three aquatic micro organisms (algae, daphnia and fish) through the calculation of the so-named Environmental Relevance of Pesticides from Wastewater treatment plants Index (ERPWI). For this purpose, an analytical method based on isotope dilution on-line solid phase extraction–liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (SPE–LC–MS/MS) was optimized, allowing the determination of the 22 target pesticides in wastewater with satisfactory sensitivity (limits of detection below 30 ng/L), accuracy and precision. Concerning the results, total pesticide levels were in most instances below 1 μg/L but removal in the WWTPs was variable and often poor, with concentrations in the effluent sometimes higher than in the corresponding influent. Possible explanations for these poor or negative removal rates are, among many others considered (e.g. sampling, sample preservation, method biases, atmospheric deposition), deconjugation of metabolites and/or transformation products of the pesticides, hydrolysis, and desorption from particulate matter during wastewater treatment. The most significant pesticides in terms of concentration and frequency of detection were diazinon and diuron. These two pesticides, followed by atrazine, simazine and malathion, were also the most relevant from the environmental point of view, according to the calculated ERPWI. - Highlights: • Pesticides are poorly removed in WWTPs. • Urban wastewaters are important sources of pesticides to the aquatic environment. • Diazinon and diuron: the

  5. Analysis and occurrence of pharmaceuticals, estrogens, progestogens and polar pesticides in sewage treatment plant effluents, river water and drinking water in the Llobregat river basin (Barcelona, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Marina; López de Alda, Maria José; Hernando, Maria Dolores; Petrovic, Mira; Martín-Alonso, Jordi; Barceló, Damià

    2008-08-01

    SummaryThis work investigated the presence of 21 emerging contaminants of various chemical groups (7 estrogens, 3 progestogens, 6 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and 5 acidic pesticides) in the Llobregat river basin (NE Spain). Waters from the outlet of various sewage treatment plants (STP) and waterworks located along the river basin, as well as water samples from the river or its tributaries upstream and downstream of these plants were analysed in two pilot monitoring studies. Chemical analyses were performed by means of on-line or off-line solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry. Methods detection limits (in ng/L) were ⩽0.85 for estrogens, ⩽3.94 for progestogens, ⩽30 for PPCPs, and ⩽0.99 for pesticides. Of the estrogens and progestogens analysed, only estrone-3-sulfate, estrone, estriol and progesterone were found to be present in the low nanogram per liter range in some of the samples investigated. Except for atenolol, all PPCPs studied (ibuprofen, diclofenac, clofibric acid, salicylic acid, and triclosan) could be identified at levels usually lower than 250 ng/L and up to 1200 ng/l (diclofenac). Of the various pesticides investigated (2,4-D, bentazone; MCPA, mecoprop and propanil) MCPA and 2,4-D were the most ubiquitous and abundant and bentazone the only one not detected. Individual concentrations were most often below 100 ng/L and never surpassed the EU limits.

  6. Behavior of pesticides in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan A. Norris

    1974-01-01

    A number of chemicals of diverse characteristics have arbitrarily been classed together on the basis of their use and given the descriptive name "pesticides." An unfortunate aura of mystery has developed about these chemicals. However, there is nothing unique or mysterious about the chemicals we refer to as "pesticides." Like other chemicals, they...

  7. The plant as metaorganism and research on next-generation systemic pesticides - Prospects and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zisis Vryzas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Systemic pesticides (SP are usually recommended for soil treatments and as seed coating agents and are taken up from the soil by involving various plant-mediated processes, physiological and morphological attributes of the root systems. Microscopic insights and next-generation sequencing combined with bioinformatics allow us now to identify new functions and interactions of plant-associated bacteria and perceive plants as meta-organisms. Host symbiotic, rhizo-epiphytic, endophytic microorganisms and their functions on plants have not been studied yet in accordance with uptake, tanslocation and action of pesticides. Root tips exudates mediated by rhizobacteria could modify the uptake of specific pesticides while bacterial ligands and enzymes can affect metabolism and fate of pesticide within plant. Over expression of specific proteins in cell membrane can also modify pesticide influx in roots. Moreover, proteins and other membrane compartments are usually involved in pesticide modes of action and resistance development. In this article it is discussed what is known of the physiological attributes including apoplastic, symplastic and trans-membane transport of systemic pesticides in accordance with the intercommunication dictated by plant-microbe, cell to cell and intracellular signaling. Prospects and challenges for uptake, translocation, storage, exudation, metabolism and action of systemic pesticides are given through the prism of new insights of plant microbiome. Interactions of soil applied pesticides with physiological processes, plant root exudates and plant microbiome are summarized to scrutinize challenges for the next-generation pesticides.

  8. From pesticides to genetically modified plants : history, economics and politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadoks, J.C.; Waibel, H.

    2000-01-01

    Two technologies of crop protection are compared, crop protection by pesticides and by Genetically Modified Plants (GMPs). The history of pesticides provides lessons relevant to the future of GMPs; (1) high pesticide usage is counter-productive, (2) the technology requires intensive regulation and

  9. Pesticides residues in water treatment plant sludge: validation of analytical methodology using liquid chromatography coupled to Tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moracci, Luiz Fernando Soares

    2008-01-01

    The evolving scenario of Brazilian agriculture brings benefits to the population and demands technological advances to this field. Constantly, new pesticides are introduced encouraging scientific studies with the aim of determine and evaluate impacts on the population and on environment. In this work, the evaluated sample was the sludge resulted from water treatment plant located in the Vale do Ribeira, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The technique used was the reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Compounds were previously liquid extracted from the matrix. The development of the methodology demanded data processing in order to be transformed into reliable information. The processes involved concepts of validation of chemical analysis. The evaluated parameters were selectivity, linearity, range, sensitivity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantification and robustness. The obtained qualitative and quantitative results were statistically treated and presented. The developed and validated methodology is simple. As results, even exploring the sensitivity of the analytical technique, the work compounds were not detected in the sludge of the WTP. One can explain that these compounds can be present in a very low concentration, can be degraded under the conditions of the water treatment process or are not completely retained by the WTP. (author)

  10. Oxidative stress and antioxidative mechanisms in tomato (solanum lycopersicum l.) plants sprayed with different pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildiztekin, M.; Kaya, C.

    2015-01-01

    A glasshouse experiment was conducted to appraise the influence of exogenously applied pesticides such as abamectin, thiamethoxam, pyriproxyfen and acetamiprid on oxidative defence system and some key physiological attributes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Each of these pesticides was applied in three doses (recommended dose, twice and three times higher than the recommended dose). Higher doses of pesticides sprayed to the plants resulted in marked increase in leaf free proline content and electrolyte leakage, but in a decrease in shoot dry matter, chl a, chl b and chl a+b in tomato plants as compared to those plants not sprayed with pesticides. These reductions were greater in tomato plants sprayed with highest doses of thiamethoxam (144 mg L-1), whereas the reverse was true for proline content and electrolyte leakage. The foliar application of pesticides at the highest levels caused enhanced accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in most cases, and these being greater in treatment of foliar application of thiamethoxam at the highest level. The highest doses of pesticides promoted the activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in most cases. The results clearly indicate that application of pesticides at higher doses than recommended doses provoked both oxidative and antioxidative systems in tomato plants. (author)

  11. Extraction of Pesticides from Plants using Solid Phase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, pesticide, plant sample, green techniques. 1. Introduction ... been used as pesticides3,4 whilst others are used in industrial processes as well as in the production of a range of goods such as solvents ...

  12. Extraction of Pesticides from Plants using Solid Phase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, pesticide, plant sample, green techniques. 1. Introduction .... column 25 m × 0.25 mm × 0.25 µm (film thickness) manufac- tured by J&W ..... They could be used for quick screen- ing for pesticides in ...

  13. Microbial degradation of pesticides in rapid sand filters for treatment of drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Mathilde Jørgensen; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark drinking water supply is based on groundwater which is treated by aeration followed by filtration in rapid sand filters. Unfortunately pesticide contamination of the groundwater poses a threat to the water supply, since the simple treatment process at the waterworks is not considered...... to remove pesticides from the water phase and pesticides are detected in 24% of the active Danish waterworks wells. This study aimed at investigating the potential of microbial pesticide removal in rapid sand filters for drinking water treatment. Removal of the pesticides MCPP, bentazone, glyphosate...... and the degradation compound p-nitrophenol was investigated in the rapid sand filters at Islevbro and Sjælsø waterworks plant I and II. Microcosms were set up with sand from rapid sand filters, water and an initial pesticide concentration of 0.03-0.38 μg/L. In all the investigated waterworks the concentration...

  14. 40 CFR 180.1127 - Biochemical pesticide plant floral volatile attractant compounds: cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions..., chinese cabbage, cowpeas, cucurbitis (cucumbers, squash, pumpkin), egg plant, endive (escarole...

  15. Estimating Half-Lives for Pesticide Dissipation from Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Gillespie, Brenda W.; Juraske, Ronnie

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide risk and impact assessment models critically rely on and are sensitive to information describing dissipation from plants. Despite recent progress, experimental data are not available for all relevant pesticide−plant combinations, and currently no model predicting plant dissipation...... accounts for the influence of substance properties, plant characteristics, temperature, and study conditions. In this study, we propose models to estimate half-lives for pesticide dissipation from plants and provide recommendations for how to use our results. On the basis of fitting experimental...... under field conditions. Half-lives range from 0.2 days for pyrethrins to 31 days for dalapon. Parameter estimates are provided to correct for specific plant species, temperatures, and study conditions. Finally, we propose a predictive regression model for pesticides without available measured...

  16. Analysing half-lives for pesticide dissipation in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, R.E.; Fantke, Peter; Trapp, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Overall dissipation of pesticides from plants is frequently measured, but the contribution of individual loss processes is largely unknown. We use a pesticide fate model for the quantification of dissipation by processes other than degradation. The model was parameterised using field studies....... Scenarios were established for Copenhagen/Denmark and Shanghai/PR China, and calibrated with measured results. The simulated dissipation rates of 42 pesticides were then compared with measured overall dissipation from field studies using tomato and wheat. The difference between measured overall dissipation...... and scenario. Accordingly, degradation is the most relevant dissipation process for these 42 pesticides, followed by growth dilution. Volatilisation was less relevant, which can be explained by the design of plant protection agents. Uptake of active compound from soil into plants leads to a negative...

  17. Monitoring of estrogens, pesticides and bisphenol A in natural waters and drinking water treatment plants by solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; de Alda, Maria J López; Barceló, Damià

    2004-08-06

    A multi-residue analytical method has been developed for the determination of various classes of selected endocrine disruptors. This method allows the simultaneous extraction and quantification of different estrogens (estradiol, estrone, estriol, estradiol-17-glucuronide, estradiol diacetate, estrone-3-sulfate, ethynyl estradiol and diethylstilbestrol), pesticides (atrazine, simazine, desethylatrazine, isoproturon and diuron), and bisphenol A in natural waters. In the method developed, 500 ml of water are preconcentrated on LiChrolut RP-18 cartridges. Further analysis is carried out by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) in the positive ion mode for determination of pesticides and electrospray in the negative ionisation mode for determination of estrogens and bisphenol A. Recoveries for most compounds were between 90 and 119%, except for bisphenol A (81%) and diethylstilbestrol (70%), with relative standard deviations below 20%. Limits of detection ranged between 2 and 15 ng/l. The method was used to study the occurrence of the selected pollutants in surface and groundwater used for abstraction of drinking water in a waterworks and to evaluate the removal efficiency of the different water treatments applied. Water samples from the river, the aquifer, and after each treatment stage (sand filtration, ozonation, activated carbon filtration and post-chlorination) were taken monthly from February to August of 2002. The presence in river water of atrazine, simazine, diuron and bisphenol A were relatively frequent at concentrations usually below 0.1 microg/l. Lower levels, below 0.02 microg/l, were usual for isoproturon. Estrone-3-sulfate and estrone were detected occasionally in the river. Most of the compounds were completely removed during the water treatment, especially after activated carbon filtration.

  18. Review on the Influences of Bagging Treatment on Pesticide Residue in Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    ZHAO Xiao-yun; XIE De-fang

    2018-01-01

    At present, bagging technology has been widely applicated in fruit cultivation. Impact of bagging treatment on the pesticide residues have different results. On the basis of existing achievements, this paper systematically analyzed the influence of different bagging treatments on pesticide residues:such as different ways of applying pesticide, pesticide concentration, number of applying pesticide; bagging materials, bagged layer; the type of pesticide(systemic pesticide, nonendoscopic pestici...

  19. Variability of Pesticide Dissipation Half-Lives in Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Juraske, Ronnie

    2013-01-01

    on the variability across substances, plant species and harvested plant components and finally discuss different substance, plant and environmental aspects influencing pesticide dissipation. Measured half-lives in harvested plant materials range from around 1 hour for pyrethrins in leaves of tomato and pepper fruit...... to 918 days for pyriproxyfen in pepper fruits under cold storage conditions. Ninety-five percent of all half-lives fall within the range between 0.6 and 29 days. Our results emphasize that future experiments are required to analyze pesticide–plant species combinations that have so far not been covered...

  20. Effect of microalgal treatments on pesticides in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultberg, Malin; Bodin, Hristina; Ardal, Embla; Asp, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris on a wide range of different pesticides in water was studied. Treatments included short-term exposure (1 h) to living and dead microalgal biomass and long-term exposure (4 days) to actively growing microalgae. The initial pesticide concentration was 63.5 ± 3.9 µg L(-1). There was no significant overall reduction of pesticides after short-term exposure. A significant reduction of the total amount of pesticides was achieved after the long-term exposure to growing microalgae (final concentration 29.7 ± 1.0 µg L(-1)) compared with the long-term control (37.0 ± 1.2 µg L(-1)). The concentrations of 10 pesticides out of 38 tested were significantly lowered in the long-term algal treatment. A high impact of abiotic factors such as sunlight and aeration for pesticide reduction was observed when the initial control (63.5 ± 3.9 µg L(-1)) and the long-term control (37.0 ± 1.2 µg L(-1)) were compared. The results suggest that water treatment using microalgae, natural inhabitants of polluted surface waters, could be further explored not only for removal of inorganic nutrients but also for removal of organic pollutants in water.

  1. Diagnosis & Treatment of Poisoning by Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    This report succinctly discusses the steps necessary to diagnose and treat poisoning from pesticides, especially organophosphates, carbamates and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Immediate and continuing steps in the care of poisoning victims are outlined with supportive information on where to locate emergency assistance. (CS)

  2. Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stores. Exposure to pesticides can happen in the workplace, through foods that are eaten, and in the ... or place bait in areas where children or pets have access. DO NOT stock up on pesticides, ...

  3. Searching for the universal reactivator for treatment of pesticide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuca, K.; Musilek, K.; Pohanka, M.; Jun, D.; Karasova, J.; Novotny, L.

    2009-01-01

    According to the present knowledge, none of the currently available oximes (pralidoxime, obidoxime, trimedoxime, MMB-4 or HI-6) originally developed for the treatment of the nerve agent poisonings is able to treat organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Among them, obidoxime seems to be the best candidate, however, its high toxicity disfavors its application in the high quantities. As byproduct of our searching for the new nerve agent reactivators, we found that oxime K027 seems to be very promising in the case of the treatment of organophosphorus pesticide poisonings. Its reactivation potency is similar or better than that of obidoxime, and moreover, its acute toxicity is lower. Thanks to these results, this oxime seems to be the best candidate for future use as universal reactivator for the treatment of poisonings caused by organophosphorus pesticides. This work was supported by the Czech Grant Agency - project No. 305/07/P162.(author)

  4. The Assessment of Pesticides Residues in Some Organic Cultivated and Wild-Collected Medicinal Plants in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    FERDI BRAHUSHI; ENDRIT KULLAJ

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide residues in environment are found in soil, water and plants due to the extensive use of pesticides for agricultural purposes. The residues of pesticides in medicinal plants are of high concern as they are toxic for human life since these plants are used for medicinal purposes. The objective of current study was to estimate the presence of pesticide residues in some organic cultivated and wild-collected medicinal plants in Albania during the years 2010–2013. The determination of pest...

  5. UPTAKE AND PHYTOTRANSFORMATION OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES BY AXENICALLY CULTIVATED AQUATIC PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The uptake and phytotransformation of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides (malathion, demeton-S-methyl, and crufomate) was investigated in vitro using the axenically aquatic cultivated plants parrot feather (Myriophyllum aquaticum), duckweed (Spirodela oligorrhiza L.), and elodea (E...

  6. Levels of organophosphorus pesticides in medicinal plants commonly consumed in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkhail Parisa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The frequent occurrence of pesticide residues in herbal materials was indicated by previous studies. In this study, the concentration of some of the organophosphorus pesticides including parathion, malathion, diazinon and pirimiphos methyl in different kinds of medicinal plants were determined. The samples were collected randomly from ten local markets of different areas of Iran. At the detection limit of 0.5 ng g-1, parathion and pirimiphos methyl were not detected in any of the samples. Some amounts of malathion and diazinon were found in Zataria, Matricaria chamomile, Spearmint and Cumin Seed samples while, the concentrations of target organophosphorus pesticides in Borage samples were below the detection limits of the methods which could be a result of intensive transformation of organophosphorus pesticides by Borage. In addition the organophosphorus pesticides were detected in all of the samples below the maximum residue levels (MRLs proposed by the international organizations.

  7. Targeting of detoxification potential of microorganisms and plants for cleaning environment polluted by organochlorine pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Kurashvili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of presented work is the development phytoremediation method targeted to cleaning environment polluted with organochlorine pesticides, based on joint application of specially selected plants and microorganisms. Initial degradation of pesticides carry out by microorganisms; the forming dehalogenated products easily uptake by the plants and undergo oxidative degradation via plant detoxification enzymes. This approach can complete degradation of toxicants and their mineralization into nontoxic compounds. In the presented work the results of using selected strains from genera Pseudomonas and plants phytoremediators in the model experiments are given. It has been shown that the using developed technological approach effectively decreased degree of pollution in artificially polluted soil samples.

  8. Treatment of pesticide containing solutions by photo catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fares, A. M.

    2009-07-01

    The potential health hazards of pesticides in surface water and underground water are well recognized. These pollutants enter the natural environment, generally, during crops disinfection, during pesticide industry cleaning, miss use of and miss understanding the ecological effects of such pesticides by the farmer. (Author)

  9. Treatment of pesticide containing solutions by photo catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fares, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    The potential health hazards of pesticides in surface water and underground water are well recognized. These pollutants enter the natural environment, generally, during crops disinfection, during pesticide industry cleaning, miss use of and miss understanding the ecological effects of such pesticides by the farmer. (Author)

  10. Effects of Systemic Pesticides Imidacloprid and Metalaxyl on the Phyllosphere of Pepper Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinos Moulas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbes inhabiting the phyllosphere of crops are exposed to pesticides applied either directly onto plant foliage or indirectly through soil. Although, phyllosphere microbiology has been rapidly evolving, little is still known regarding the impact of pesticides on the epiphytic microbial community and especially on fungi. We determined the impact of two systemic pesticides (metalaxyl and imidacloprid, applied either on foliage or through soil, on the epiphytic fungal and bacterial communities via DGGE and cloning. Both pesticides induced mild effects on the fungal and the bacterial communities. The only exception was the foliage application of imidacloprid which showed a more prominent effect on the fungal community. Cloning showed that the fungal community was dominated by putative plant pathogenic ascomycetes (Erysiphaceae and Cladosporium, while a few basidiomycetes were also present. The former ribotypes were not affected by pesticides application, while selected yeasts (Cryptococcus were stimulated by the application of imidacloprid suggesting a potential role in its degradation. A less diverse bacterial community was identified in pepper plants. Metalaxyl stimulated an Enterobacteriaceae clone which is an indication of the involvement of members of this family in fungicide degradation. Further studies will focus on the isolation of epiphytic microbes which appear to be stimulated by pesticides application.

  11. Effects of Teaching Health Care Workers on Diagnosis and Treatment of Pesticide Poisonings in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibani, Claudia; Jessen, Kristian Kjaer; Tekin, Bircan; Nabankema, Victoria; Jørs, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Acute pesticide poisoning in developing countries is a considerable problem, requiring diagnosis and treatment. This study describes how training of health care workers in Uganda affects their ability to diagnose and manage acute pesticide poisoning. A postintervention cross-sectional study was conducted using a standardized questionnaire. A total of 326 health care workers in Uganda were interviewed on knowledge and handling of acute pesticide poisoning. Of those, 173 health care workers had received training, whereas 153 untrained health care workers from neighboring regions served as controls. Trained health care workers scored higher on knowledge of pesticide toxicity and handling of acute pesticide poisoning. Stratification by sex, profession, experience, and health center level did not have any influence on the outcome. Training health care workers can improve their knowledge and treatment of pesticide poisonings. Knowledge of the subject is still insufficient among health care workers and further training is needed.

  12. Adsorption of pesticides onto granular activated carbon in water treatment process

    OpenAIRE

    Kopecká, Ivana

    2010-01-01

    The diploma thesis is aimed at adsorption processes during the removal of pesticides onto granular activated carbon (GAC) in the process of drinking water treatment. Adsorption onto GAC represents an efficient method for pesticides removal. High adsorption efficiency can be significantly reduced due to the occurrence of natural organic matter (NOM) in raw water, which involves AOM (Algal Organic Matter) produced by phytoplankton. Analogous to NOM, AOM probably affects adsorption of pesticides...

  13. Pesticide volatilization from soil and plant surfaces: Measurements at different scales versus model predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolters, A.

    2003-07-01

    Simulation of pesticide volatilization from plant and soil surfaces as an integral component of pesticide fate models is of utmost importance, especially as part of the PEC (predicted environmental concentrations) models used in the registration procedures for pesticides. Experimentally determined volatilization rates at different scales were compared to model predictions to improve recent approaches included in European registration models. To assess the influence of crucial factors affecting volatilization under well-defined conditions, a laboratory chamber was set-up and validated. Aerodynamic conditions were adjusted to fulfill the requirements of the German guideline on assessing pesticide volatilization for registration purposes. At the semi-field scale, volatilization rates were determined in a wind-tunnel study after soil surface application of pesticides to gleyic cambisol. The following descending order of cumulative volatilization was observed: chlorpyrifos > parathion-methyl > terbuthylazine > fenpropimorph. Parameterization of the models PEARL (pesticide emission assessment at regional and local scales) and PELMO (pesticide leaching model) was performed to mirror the experimental boundary conditions. (orig.)

  14. Waste treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesanmi, C.A

    2009-01-01

    Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is designed to provide appropriate systems for processing, immobilization and storage of low and medium radioactive waste arising from the operation of the research facilities of the Nuclear Technology Centre (NTC). It will serve as central collection station processing active waste generated through application of radionuclide in science, medicine and industry in the country. WTP building and structures will house the main waste processing systems and supporting facilities. All facilities will be interconnected. The interim storage building for processed waste drums will be located separately nearby. The separate interim storage building is located near the waste treatment building. Considering the low radiation level of the waste, storage building is large with no solid partitioning walls and with no services or extra facilities other than lighting and smoke alarm sensors. The building will be designed such that drums(200-1)are stacked 3 units high using handling by fork lift truck. To prevent radiation exposure to on-site personnel, the interim storage building will be erected apart from waste treatment plant or other buildings. The interim storage building will also be ready for buffer storage of unconditioned waste waiting for processing or decay and for storage material from the WTP

  15. Processes of microbial pesticide degradation in rapid sand filters for treatment of drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Mathilde Jørgensen; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    Aerobic rapid sand filters for treatment of groundwater at waterworks were investigated for the ability to remove pesticides. The potential, kinetics and mechanisms of microbial pesticide removal was investigated in microcosms consisting of filter sand, treated water and pesticides in initial...... concentrations of 0.04-2.4 μg/L. The pesticides were removed from the water in microcosms with filter sand from all three investigated sand filters. Within the experimental periode of six to 13 days, 65-85% of the bentazone, 86-93% of the glyphosate, 97-99% of the p-nitrophenol was removed from the water phase...

  16. Reducing the pollution risk of pesticide using nano networks induced by irradiation and hydrothermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Liu, Zuojun; Zhang, Guilong; Qiu, Guannan; Zhong, Naiqin; Wu, Lifang; Cai, Dongqing; Wu, Zhengyan

    2015-01-01

    Traditional pesticides (TP) often do not adhere tightly to crop foliage. They can easily enter the surrounding environment through precipitation and volatilization. This can result in the pollution of the surrounding soil, water, and air. To reduce pesticide pollution, we developed a loss-control pesticide (LCP) by adding attapulgite with a nano networks structure fabricated using high energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation and hydrothermal treatment to TP. HEEB irradiation effectively dispersed originally aggregated attapulgite through modified thermal, charge, and physical effects. Hydrothermal treatment further enhanced the dispersion of attapulgite to form nano porous networks via thermal and wet expansion effects, which are beneficial for pesticide binding. An LCP has improved retention on crop leaf surfaces. It has a higher adhesion capacity, reduced leaching and volatilization, and extended residual activity compared with the TP formulation. The treatment increases the residual activity of pesticides on crop foliage and decreases environmental pollution.

  17. Impact of pesticides on plant growth promotion of Vigna radiata and non-target microbes: comparison between chemical- and bio-pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sukriti; Gupta, Rashi; Sharma, Shilpi

    2014-08-01

    To compare the target and non-target effects of two chemical-pesticides (chlorpyrifos and endosulfan) with that of a bio-pesticide (azadirachtin), Vigna radiata (mung bean) was grown in a randomized pot experiment with recommended and higher application rates of pesticides. Colony counts enumerating specific microbial populations, viz. fungi, Pseudomonas, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms, were performed. In addition, several plant growth parameters such as root and shoot lengths were also monitored. It was observed that the pesticides exerted a suppressive effect on different microbial communities under study in the initial 30 days period. The bacterial and fungal populations in chlorpyrifos treated plants increased thereafter. Endosulfan resulted in enhancement of fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, although phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms were suppressed at higher application rates. Azadirachtin, which is gaining popularity owing to its biological origin, did not result in enhancement of any microbial populations; on the other hand, it had a deleterious effect on phosphate-solubilizing bacteria. This study is the first to evaluate the non-target effects of pesticides with a comparison between chemical- and bio-pesticides, and also stresses the importance of critical investigation of bio-pesticides before their wide spread application in agriculture.

  18. Effects of reduced-risk pesticides and plant growth regulators on rove beetle (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echegaray, Erik R; Cloyd, Raymond A

    2012-12-01

    In many regions, pest management of greenhouse crops relies on the use of biological control agents; however, pesticides are also widely used, especially when dealing with multiple arthropod pests and attempting to maintain high esthetic standards. As such, there is interest in using biological control agents in conjunction with chemical control. However, the prospects of combining natural enemies and pesticides are not well known in many systems. The rove beetle, Atheta coriaria (Kraatz), is a biological control agent mainly used against fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.). This study evaluated the effects of reduced-risk pesticides and plant growth regulators on A. coriaria adult survival, development, and prey consumption under laboratory conditions. Rove beetle survival was consistently higher when adults were released 24 h after rather than before applying pesticides. The pesticides acetamiprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, and cyfluthrin were harmful to rove beetle adults, whereas Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, azadirachtin, and organic oils (cinnamon oils, rosemary oil, thyme oil, and clove oil) were nontoxic to A. coriaria adults. Similarly, the plant growth regulators acymidol, paclobutrazol, and uniconazole were not harmful to rove beetle adults. In addition, B. bassiana, azadirachtin, kinoprene, organic oils, and the plant growth regulators did not negatively affect A. coriaria development. However, B. bassiana did negatively affect adult prey consumption. This study demonstrated that A. coriaria may not be used when applying the pesticides, acetamiprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, and cyfluthrin, whereas organic oils, B. bassiana, azadirachtin, and the plant growth regulators evaluated may be used in conjunction with A. coriaria adults. As such, these compounds may be used in combination with A. coriaria in greenhouse production systems.

  19. A review of photochemical approaches for the treatment of a wide range of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, P Venkata Laxma; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2015-03-21

    Pesticides are renowned as some of the most pernicious chemicals known to humankind. Nine out of twelve most hazardous and persistent organic chemicals on planet have been identified as pesticides and their derivatives. Because of their strong recalcitrant nature, it often becomes a difficult task to treat them by conventional approaches. It is well perceived that many factors can interfere with the degradation of pesticides under ambient conditions, e.g., media, light intensity, humic content, and other biological components. However, for the effective treatment of pesticides, photochemical methods are viewed as having clear and perceivable advantages. In this article, we provide a review of the fundamental characteristics of photochemical approaches for pesticide treatment and the factors governing their capacity and potential in such a process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Pesticide Applicator Certification Training, Manual No. 1a: Agricultural Pest Control. a. Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, W. A.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet the minimum standards for certification as an applicator of pesticides in the agricultural plant pest control category. Adapted for the State of Virginia, the text discusses: (1) the basics of insecticides; (2) insect pests; (3) selection and calibration of applicator equipment; and (4) the proper…

  1. Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In southeastern Washington State, Bechtel National, Inc. is designing, constructing and commissioning the world's largest radioactive waste treatment plant for the...

  2. Effects of processing treatment on pesticide residues in fruits and their products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Xuefei; Jiao Bining; Fu Chenmei; Qian Yongzhong; Wang Jing

    2008-01-01

    The influence of processing treatments on pesticide residues in fruits and their products was reviewed. The effects on pesticide residues and relative control treatments for each processing step, including peeling, washing, sterilization, juicing, clarification, filtration, drying and fermentation, were discussed, respectively. Meanwhile we analyzed the future development prospectin of this field, in order to provide some suggestions for commercial fruit industry and consumers' health. (authors)

  3. Role of Some Medicinal Herbs Plants (Anise and Chamomile) in Male Rats Intoxicated with Metacide Pesticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afifi, E.A.A.; Ali, S.E.; Hafez, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    This present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of some medicinal herbs plants such as anise and chamomile (300 mg/kg b.wl) for five weeks on some biochemical changes induced in rats administrated daily oral dose of organophosphorus pesticide metacide at level of 1.4 mg/kg b.wt for live weeks. The data showed that the metacide pesticides caused disturbance in liver and kidney function revealed as significant increased in serum total lipids, triglycerides, total free amino, biliburine, total cholesterol, creatinine, urea and uric acid. Moreover, a significant decreased in total proteins. Also thyroxine hormone (T4) was increased while triiodothyronine (T 3) was decreased. The results also revealed that both anise and chamomile exhibited an improvement and highly affective in attenuation of metacide pesticide caused oxidative damage, disturbance and injury induced in liver, kidney and thyroid hormone function

  4. Treatment of Pesticide Contaminated Wastewater by Soil Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    *S. Jilani; M. A. Khan

    2011-01-01

    Cypermethrin is one of the most widely used pesticides in the country for agriculture crop production. Due to least water solubility and toxicity, its removal need especial attention. Microbial degradation is considered to be an efficient and cost effective method for decontamination of toxic pesticides from the environment. In this study, malathion degrading bacterial isolate, identified as Pseudomonas, was used to assess its biodegradation potential for cypermethrin in aqueous system. The e...

  5. Cell-based metabolomics approach for assessing the impact of wastewater treatment plant effluent on downstream water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are a known source of various types of chemicals including pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), naturally occurring hormones, and pesticides. There is great concern regarding their adverse effects on human and ecological health th...

  6. Safe apples for baby-food production: survey of pesticide treatment regimes leaving minimum residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticha, Jana; Hajslova, Jana; Kovalczuk, Tomas; Jech, Martin; Honzicek, Jiri; Kocourek, Vladimir; Lansky, Miroslav; Kloutvorova, Jana; Falta, Vladan

    2007-06-01

    A total of 19 pesticide preparations were used according to agricultural practice in six trials in apple orchards. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), premature Golden Delicious apples collected 64, 50, 36 days before harvest and mature fruit were examined for residues of active ingredients. No residues of triflumuron, triazamate, chlorpyrifos, etofenprox, fenoxycarb, kresoxim-methyl, cyprodinyl, difenoconazole or thiram were detected in the first sampling. Also, the levels of chlorpyrifos-methyl, penconazole, tebuconazole and tolylfluanid dropped during the pre-harvest interval. Detectable residues of pyridaben, thiacloprid, trifloxystrobin and tetraconazole in harvested fruits were below 0.01 mg kg(-1), which is the maximum concentration of residues acceptable by baby-food producers in any raw material. The only residues exceeding this concentration were captan and teflubenzuron. Based on the data, farmers can choose pesticides for optimal treatment of plants, while enabling growth of a safe crop suitable for baby-food production.

  7. Remediation of soil contaminated with pesticides by treatment with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Janilson Silva

    2009-01-01

    The discharge of empty plastic packaging of pesticides can be an environmental concern mainly by soil contamination. Nowadays, Brazil figures in third place among the leading world pesticide markets. An understanding of the processes that affect the transport and fate of pesticides is crucial to assess their potential for contamination of soil and groundwater, and to develop efficient and cost-effective site management and soil remediation strategies. Due to its impact on soil remediation has made sorption a major topic of research on soil-pesticide interactions. The main objective of this study is the evaluation of the pesticides transferring from contaminated mixture of commercial polymeric packing of high-density polyethylene, HDPE, used in agriculture to soil and their removal by gamma irradiation. Two soil samples of argyles compositions and media composition were exposed to a mixture of commercial polymeric packing contaminated with the pesticides methomyl, dimethoate, carbofuran, methidathion, triazine, thiophos, atrazine, ametryne, endosulfan, chloropyrifos, thriazophos and trifluralin. The pesticides leaching from packaging to soil was homogeneous considering a experimental research. The radiation treatment presented high efficiency on removal pesticides from both soil, but it depends on the physical-chemical characteristics of the contaminated soil. The higher efficiency was obtained in soils with higher organic material and humidity. The higher efficiency was obtained for the medium texture soil, with 20 kGy all present pesticides were removed in all layers. In the case of argyles texture soil, it was necessary a 30 kGy to remove the totality of present pesticides. (author)

  8. Microbial degradation of pesticides in rapid sand filters used for drinking water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Mathilde Jørgensen

    significantly with the maximum methane concentration in the raw water and did not correlate with other water quality parameters, such as the ammonium concentration. Furthermore, the connection between bentazone degradation and methane oxidation in filter sand was demonstrated by inhibition experiments, in which...... sustainable methods to remove pesticides from polluted water sources. Aeration of anaerobic groundwater, followed by biological rapid sand filtration is a widespread technology in drinking water treatment. Even though these systems are not designed for removal of trace contaminants, they have shown potential...... for microbial degradation of pesticides and their degradation products. If pesticides can be removed in rapid sand filters, it is of large commercial interest due to the importance in maintaining a simple, sustainable water treatment. To take advantage of the microbial pesticide degradation and identify...

  9. Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The actual treatment areas for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

  10. Waste Treatment Plant - 12508

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harp, Benton; Olds, Erik [US DOE (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) will immobilize millions of gallons of Hanford's tank waste into solid glass using a proven technology called vitrification. The vitrification process will turn the waste into a stable glass form that is safe for long-term storage. Our discussion of the WTP will include a description of the ongoing design and construction of this large, complex, first-of-a-kind project. The concept for the operation of the WTP is to separate high-level and low-activity waste fractions, and immobilize those fractions in glass using vitrification. The WTP includes four major nuclear facilities and various support facilities. Waste from the Tank Farms is first pumped to the Pretreatment Facility at the WTP through an underground pipe-in-pipe system. When construction is complete, the Pretreatment Facility will be 12 stories high, 540 feet long and 215 feet wide, making it the largest of the four major nuclear facilities that compose the WTP. The total size of this facility will be more than 490,000 square feet. More than 8.2 million craft hours are required to construct this facility. Currently, the Pretreatment Facility is 51 percent complete. At the Pretreatment Facility the waste is pumped to the interior waste feed receipt vessels. Each of these four vessels is 55-feet tall and has a 375,000 gallon capacity, which makes them the largest vessels inside the Pretreatment Facility. These vessels contain a series of internal pulse-jet mixers to keep incoming waste properly mixed. The vessels are inside the black-cell areas, completely enclosed behind thick steel-laced, high strength concrete walls. The black cells are designed to be maintenance free with no moving parts. Once hot operations commence the black-cell area will be inaccessible. Surrounded by black cells, is the 'hot cell canyon'. The hot cell contains all the moving and replaceable components to remove solids and extract liquids. In this area, there is ultrafiltration

  11. Oral acute toxicity study of selected botanical pesticide plants used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    The widely used plants were identified and selected for biosafety assessments namely: Ocimum ... estimated that hardly 0.1% of the agrochemicals used for .... electric motor. ... amounts of the vehicle substances (distilled water for ethanol and.

  12. Effects of chemical and biological pesticides on plant growth parameters and rhizospheric bacterial community structure in Vigna radiata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Sunil; Gupta, Rashi; Sharma, Shilpi, E-mail: shilpi@dbeb.iitd.ac.in

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • Non-target effects of pesticides employing qualitative and quantitative approaches. • Qualitative shifts in resident and active bacterial community structure. • Abundance of 16S rRNA gene and transcripts were reduced significantly. • Effects of biological pesticide similar to chemical pesticides on rhizospheric bacteria. - Abstract: With increasing application of pesticides in agriculture, their non-target effects on soil microbial communities are critical to soil health maintenance. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and a biological pesticide (azadirachtin) on growth parameters and the rhizospheric bacterial community of Vigna radiata. Qualitative and quantitative analysis by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and q-PCR, respectively, of the 16S rRNA gene and transcript were performed to study the impact of these pesticides on the resident and active rhizospheric bacterial community. While plant parameters were not affected significantly by the pesticides, a shift in the bacterial community structure was observed with an adverse effect on the abundance of 16S rRNA gene and transcripts. Chlorpyrifos showed almost complete degradation toward the end of the experiment. These non-target impacts on soil ecosystems and the fact that the effects of the biopesticide mimic those of chemical pesticides raise serious concerns regarding their application in agriculture.

  13. Effects of chemical and biological pesticides on plant growth parameters and rhizospheric bacterial community structure in Vigna radiata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sunil; Gupta, Rashi; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Non-target effects of pesticides employing qualitative and quantitative approaches. • Qualitative shifts in resident and active bacterial community structure. • Abundance of 16S rRNA gene and transcripts were reduced significantly. • Effects of biological pesticide similar to chemical pesticides on rhizospheric bacteria. - Abstract: With increasing application of pesticides in agriculture, their non-target effects on soil microbial communities are critical to soil health maintenance. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and a biological pesticide (azadirachtin) on growth parameters and the rhizospheric bacterial community of Vigna radiata. Qualitative and quantitative analysis by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and q-PCR, respectively, of the 16S rRNA gene and transcript were performed to study the impact of these pesticides on the resident and active rhizospheric bacterial community. While plant parameters were not affected significantly by the pesticides, a shift in the bacterial community structure was observed with an adverse effect on the abundance of 16S rRNA gene and transcripts. Chlorpyrifos showed almost complete degradation toward the end of the experiment. These non-target impacts on soil ecosystems and the fact that the effects of the biopesticide mimic those of chemical pesticides raise serious concerns regarding their application in agriculture

  14. Propagation of the African medicinal and pesticidal plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-04

    Jul 4, 2011 ... March and August 2008 in the Conservation Biotechnology Unit of the Royal .... or in its natural habitat where restoration and conservation is ... survey of toxic plants on the market in the district of Bamako, Mali: traditional ...

  15. Pesticide Exposure in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James R.; Karr, Catherine J.

    2018-01-01

    Pesticides are a collective term for a wide array of chemicals intended to kill unwanted insects, plants, molds, and rodents. Food, water, and treatment in the home, yard, and school are all potential sources of children’s exposure. Exposures to pesticides may be overt or subacute, and effects range from acute to chronic toxicity. In 2008, pesticides were the ninth most common substance reported to poison control centers, and approximately 45% of all reports of pesticide poisoning were for children. Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning are perhaps the most widely known acute poisoning syndromes, can be diagnosed by depressed red blood cell cholinesterase levels, and have available antidotal therapy. However, numerous other pesticides that may cause acute toxicity, such as pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and rodenticides, also have specific toxic effects; recognition of these effects may help identify acute exposures. Evidence is increasingly emerging about chronic health implications from both acute and chronic exposure. A growing body of epidemiological evidence demonstrates associations between parental use of pesticides, particularly insecticides, with acute lymphocytic leukemia and brain tumors. Prenatal, household, and occupational exposures (maternal and paternal) appear to be the largest risks. Prospective cohort studies link early-life exposure to organophosphates and organochlorine pesticides (primarily DDT) with adverse effects on neurodevelopment and behavior. Among the findings associated with increased pesticide levels are poorer mental development by using the Bayley index and increased scores on measures assessing pervasive developmental disorder, inattention, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Related animal toxicology studies provide supportive biological plausibility for these findings. Additional data suggest that there may also be an association between parental pesticide use and adverse birth

  16. Development of methods for screening pesticide residues in plant matrices in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowor, Samuel Tetteh

    1999-12-01

    TLC has been used in combination with micro-extraction and clean-up methods to provide an alternative cost effective analytical procedure for screening pesticide residues in plant matrices. Thirty-five (35) agrochemicals, which are used in priority crops in Ghana, were used in this study. Ethylacetate extraction in the presence of anhydrous sodium sulphate, followed by gel permeation chromatographic clean up and additional purification on silica gel cartridges provided clean extracts enabling the application of 300mg sample equivalent on the TLC plates. Detection method involving the use of O-tolidine was found to be suitable for general screening of residues, having medium sensitivity for several compounds. The method involving the use of silver nitrate was the only one found to be most suitable for detecting the organo chlorine pesticides. Lindane was the most sensitive to this reagent and had a Minimum Detectable Quantity (MDQ) value of 5ng/5 uL. This method was suitable for use on only alumina plates and detection was also possible even under sunlight. The enzyme inhibition methods were very sensitive to the carbamate and phosphoric acid type insecticides with MDQ values between 0.2 and 2000ng. Other detection methods involving p-nitrobenzene, p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde and photosynthesis inhibition were also tried and discussed. The database developed has been successfully used for screening and semiquantitative determination of some ranges of pesticide residue in soil and plant matrices. (au)

  17. Effects of Pesticide Treatments on Nutrient Levels in Worker Honey Bees (Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haley K. Feazel-Orr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Honey bee colony loss continues to be an issue and no factor has been singled out as to the cause. In this study, we sought to determine whether two beekeeper-applied pesticide products, tau-fluvalinate and Fumagilin-B®, and one agrochemical, chlorothalonil, impact the nutrient levels in honey bee workers in a natural colony environment. Treatments were performed in-hive and at three different periods (fall, spring, and summer over the course of one year. Bees were sampled both at pre-treatment and two and four weeks post-treatment, weighed, and their protein and carbohydrate levels were determined using BCA and anthrone based biochemical assays, respectively. We report that, based on the pesticide concentrations tested, no significant negative impact of the pesticide products was observed on wet weight, protein levels, or carbohydrate levels of bees from treated colonies compared with bees from untreated control colonies.

  18. Application of Pesticide Phytoremediation in Irrigated Rice Fields System Using Eceng Gondok (Eichhornia crassipes) Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febriani, Ika Kartika; Hadiyanto

    2018-02-01

    The problem of environmental pollution especially urban water pollution becomes major issue in Indonesia. The cause of water pollution is not only from industrial factory waste disposal but also other causes which become pollution factor. One cause of water pollution is the existence of agricultural activities with the use of the amount of pesticides that exceed the threshold. As regulated in Government Regulation No. 82/2001 on Water Quality Management and Water Pollution Control, it is necessary to manage water quality and control water pollution wisely by taking into account the interests of current and future generations as well as the ecological balance. To overcome the problem of water pollution due to agricultural activities, it is necessary to conduct research on phytoremediation technique by utilizing eceng gondok plant. It is excepted that using this phytoremediation technique can reduce the problem of water pollution due to the use of pesticides on agricultural activities.

  19. Application of Pesticide Phytoremediation in Irrigated Rice Fields System Using Eceng Gondok (Eichhornia crassipes Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika Febriani Ika

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of environmental pollution especially urban water pollution becomes major issue in Indonesia. The cause of water pollution is not only from industrial factory waste disposal but also other causes which become pollution factor. One cause of water pollution is the existence of agricultural activities with the use of the amount of pesticides that exceed the threshold. As regulated in Government Regulation No. 82/2001 on Water Quality Management and Water Pollution Control, it is necessary to manage water quality and control water pollution wisely by taking into account the interests of current and future generations as well as the ecological balance. To overcome the problem of water pollution due to agricultural activities, it is necessary to conduct research on phytoremediation technique by utilizing eceng gondok plant. It is excepted that using this phytoremediation technique can reduce the problem of water pollution due to the use of pesticides on agricultural activities.

  20. Role of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) in mediating heavy metal and pesticide induced oxidative stress in plants: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Babar; Tanveer, Mohsin; Che, Zhao; Rehman, Abdul; Cheema, Sardar Alam; Sharma, Anket; Song, He; Rehman, Shams Ur; Zhaorong, Dong

    2018-01-01

    Industrialization and urbanization have posed serious threats to the environment. Excessive release of heavy metals from industrial effluents and overuse of pesticides in modern agriculture are limiting crop production by polluting environment and deteriorating food quality. Sustaining food quality under heavy metals and pesticide stress is crucial to meet the increasing demands for food. 24-Epibrassinolide (EBL), a ubiquitously occurring plant growth hormone shows great potential to alleviate heavy metals and pesticide stress in plants. This review sums up the potential role of EBL in ameliorating heavy metals and pesticide toxicity in plants extensively. EBL application increases plant's overall growth, biomass accumulation and photosynthetic efficiency by the modulation of numerous biochemical and physiological processes under heavy metals and pesticide stress. In addition, EBL scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS) by triggering the production of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT, POX etc. EBL also induces the production of proline and soluble proteins that helps in maintaining osmotic potential and osmo-protection under both heavy metals and pesticide stress. At the end, future needs of research about the application of 24-epibrassinolide have also been discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effluent from Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jannie Munk; Nierychlo, Marta; Albertsen, Mads

    Incoming microorganisms to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are usually considered to be removed in the treatment process. Analyses of the effluent generally show a very high degree of reduction of pathogens supporting this assumption. However, standard techniques for detecting bacteria......-independent 16SrRNA gene amplicon sequencing was applied for the identification and quantification of the microorganisms. In total 84 effluent samples from 14 full-scale Danish wastewater treatment plants were investigated over a period of 3 months. The microbial community composition was investigated by 16S r...... contain pathogenic species. One of these was Arcobacter (Campylobacteraceae) which was found in up to 16% relative abundance. This indicates that Arcobacter, and perhaps other pathogenic genera, are not being removed efficiently in full-scale plants and may pose a potential health safety problem. Further...

  2. Acute toxicity of chemical pesticides and plant-derived essential oil on the behavior and development of earthworms, Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg) and Eisenia fetida (Savigny).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Chellappandian, Muthiah; Edwin, Edward-Sam; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Hunter, Wayne B; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2018-04-01

    Comparative toxicity of two chemical pesticides (temephos and monocrotophos) versus a plant-derived betel leaf oil Piper betle (L.) to earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg) and redworm Eisenia fetida Savigny, historically: Eisenia foetida (Savigny 1826), was evaluated. Mortality rate was more prominent in temephos at 100 μg concentration to both the earthworms in filter paper test (FPT) as well as 10 mg concentration in artificial soil test (AST). In contrast, P. betle does not display much mortality rate to both the earthworms even at 1000 mg of treatment concentrations. The lethal concentration (LC 50 ) value was observed at 3.89 and 5.26 mg/kg for temephos and monocrotophos against E. eugeniae and 3.81 and 5.25 mg/kg to E. fetida, respectively. Whereas, LC 50 value of betel leaf oil was only observed at 3149 and 4081 mg/kg to E. eugeniae and E. fetida, respectively. Correspondingly, the avoidance or attraction assay also displayed that earthworms were more sensitive to the soil containing chemical pesticides. Whereas, the avoidance percentage was decreased in the P. betle oil. Similarly, sublethal concentration of chemical pesticides (5 and 6.5 mg) significantly reduced the earthworm weight and growth rate. However, P. betle oil did not change the developmental rate in the duration of the assay (2, 7 and 14 days) even at 4000 mg treatment concentration. The enzyme ratio of CAT and SOD was also affected significantly after exposure to the chemical pesticides (6.5 mg/kg). Hence, our study implied the risk assessment associated with the chemical pesticides and also recommends plant-derived harmless P. betle oil against beneficial species as an alternative pest control agent.

  3. Enrichment planting without soil treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagner, Mats

    1998-12-31

    Where enrichment planting had been carried out with either of the two species Picea abies and Pinus contorta, the survival of the planted seedlings was at least as good as after planting in a normal clear cut area treated with soil scarification. This was in spite of the fact that the seedlings were placed shallow in the humus layer without any soil treatment. However, they were sheltered from insects by treatment before planting. Where enrichment planting was carried out with Pinus sylvestris the survival in dense forest was poor, but in open forest the survival was good. The growth of planted seedlings was enhanced by traditional clearing and soil treatment. However, this was for Pinus sylvestris not enough to compensate for the loss of time, 1-2 years, caused by arrangement of soil scarification. The growth of seedlings planted under crown cover was directly related to basal area of retained trees. However, the variation in height growth among individual seedlings was very big, which meant that some seedlings grow well also under a fairly dense forest cover. The pioneer species Pinus sylvestris reacted more strongly to basal area of retained trees than did the shade tolerant species Picea abies. Enrichment planting seems to be a necessary tool for preserving volume productivity, at places where fairly intensive harvest of mature trees has been carried out in stands of ordinary forest type in central Sweden. If double seedlings, with one Picea abies and one Pinus sylvestris, are used, the probability for long term establishment is enhanced 13 refs, 20 figs, 4 tabs

  4. Pesticide residues in nut-planted soils of China and their relationship between nut/soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yongxiang; Mo, Runhong; Yuan, Xinyue; Zhong, Donglian; Tang, Fubin; Ye, Caifen; Liu, Yihua

    2017-08-01

    Twenty-nine pesticide residues in nut-planted soils from China were investigated. One organophosphate (chlorpyrifos) was detected in 5.3% soils, and the residue levels of 7.2 μg/kg to 77.2 μg/kg. The concentrations of six organochlorines (DDT, HCH, endosulfan, quintozene, aldrin and dieldrin) detected in 78.9% soils were 0.6 μg/kg to 90.1 μg/kg. The residue levels of six pyrethroids (bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and deltamethrin) detected in 65.8% soils were 1.5 μg/kg to 884.3 μg/kg. Triadimefon and buprofezin were found in 71.1% and 52.6% samples, respectively, with the corresponding concentrations of 9.8 μg/kg to 193.7 μg/kg and 87.9 μg/kg to 807.4 μg/kg. The multiple residues were found in 76.3% soils. A significant correlation between pesticide residues in nuts and soils was observed, with the correlation coefficient (r) 0.83 (P < 0.001). In addition, the bioconcentration factor (BCF) values for the explanation of pesticides from soils into nuts were ranged from 0.8 to 16.5. The results showed that some pesticides could accumulate in nut by the uptake effect from soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Responses of antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins in drosophila to treatment with a pesticide mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doganlar Oguzhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a mixture of seven pesticides were examined on the expression of antioxidant enzymes, Mn superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione synthetase (GS, and heat shock proteins (HSP 26, 60, 70 and 83 in adult fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster Oregon R. The flies were reared under controlled conditions on artificial diets and treated with a mixture of seven pesticides (molinate, thiobencarb, linuron, phorate, primiphos-methyl, fenvalerate and lambda-cyhalothrin commonly found in water, at concentrations of 0.1, 0.5 and 1 parts per billion (ppb for 1 and 5 days. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR analysis of Mn-SOD, CAT and GS expression revealed that the analyzed markers responded significantly to pesticide-induced oxidative stress, in particular on the 5th day of treatment. On the 1st day of treatment, the relative expression of HSP26 and HSP60 genes increased only after exposure to the highest concentrations of pesticides, whereas HSP70 and HSP83 expression increased after exposure to 0.5 and 1 ppb. After five days of treatment, the expression of all HSP genes was increased after exposure to all pesticide concentrations. A positive correlation was determined between the relative expression levels of some HSPs (except HSP60, and antioxidant genes. The observed changes in antioxidant enzyme and HSP mRNA levels in D. melanogaster suggest that the permissible limits of pesticide concentrations for clean drinking water outlined in the regulations of several countries are potentially cytotoxic. The presented findings lend support for reevaluation of these limits.

  6. Radiation -adsorption treatment of pesticides by using wood pulp and bagasse pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Aal, S.E.; Sokker, S.S.; Dessooki, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Alkaline pulping of pulp wood and bagasse using sodium hydroxide resulted in the reduction of lignin from the wood and bagasse fibers and consequently increase adsorption of the pesticide pollutants to these fibers. Three different types of pesticides were used in this study namely, metalaxyl, dicloran and arelon. which were irradiated at a dose of 4 kGy before adsorption treatment.The results show that moderate adsorption was observed for all pesticides when adsorption was carried out without alkaline pulping and irradiation. This is due to the presence of lignin which retard the adsorption process. Batch sorption experiments at different pH values (3, 7, 9) for the retention of these pesticides by pulp wood and pulp bagasse fibers indicated that sorption is governed by the interaction of the ionized form of these compounds with the polyhydroxyl structure of cellulose. The study shows that alkaline pulping of pulpwood and bagasse improves its ability towards adsorption of the radiation degraded pesticide molecules

  7. Removal of pesticides and ecotoxicological changes during the simultaneous treatment of triazines and chlorpyrifos in biomixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizano-Fallas, Verónica; Masís-Mora, Mario; Espinoza-Villalobos, David; Lizano-Brenes, Michelle; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E

    2017-09-01

    Biopurification systems constitute a biological approach for the treatment of pesticide-containing wastewaters produced in agricultural activities, and contain an active core called biomixture. This work evaluated the performance of a biomixture to remove and detoxify a combination of three triazine herbicides (atrazine/terbuthylazine/terbutryn) and one insecticide (chlorpyrifos), and this efficiency was compared with dissipation in soil alone. The potential enhancement of the process was also assayed by bioaugmentation with the ligninolytic fungi Trametes versicolor. Globally, the non-bioaugmented biomixture exhibited faster pesticide removal than soil, but only in the first stages of the treatment. After 20 d, the largest pesticide removal was achieved in the biomixture, while significant removal was detected only for chlorpyrifos in soil. However, after 60 d the removal values in soil matched those achieved in the biomixture for all the pesticides. The bioaugmentation failed to enhance, and even significantly decreased the biomixture removal capacity. Final removal values were 82.8% (non-bioaugmented biomixture), 43.8% (fungal bioaugmented biomixture), and 84.7% (soil). The ecotoxicological analysis revealed rapid detoxification (from 100 to 170 TU to pesticide removal. On the contrary, despite important herbicide elimination, no clear detoxification patterns were observed in the phytotoxicity towards Lactuca sativa. Findings suggest that the proposed biomixture is useful for fast removal of the target pesticides; even though soil also removes the agrochemicals, longer periods would be required. On the other hand, the use of fungal bioaugmentation is discouraged in this matrix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sorption of estrogens and pesticides from aqueous solution by a humic acid and raw and processed plant materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffredo, Elisabetta; Taskin, Eren

    2016-04-01

    The huge number of organic contaminants released in water as a consequence of anthropogenic activities have detrimental effects to environmental systems and human health. Industrial products and byproducts, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, detergents and so on impose increasing costs for wastewater decontamination. Adsorption techniques can be successfully used for the treatment of wastewaters to remove contaminants of various nature. Humic acids (HA) have well-known adsorptive capacities towards hydrophilic and, especially, hydrophobic compounds. In the recent years, alternative low-cost adsorbents, especially originated from agricultural wastes and food industries residues, such as wood chips, almond and coconut shells, peanut and rice husks, are under investigation. Biochar is also considered a promising and relatively low-cost adsorbent, even if there are still knowledge gaps about the influence of feedstock type, pyrolysis conditions, physical and chemical properties on its potential and safe use. In the present work, a HA from a green compost was used along with three other materials of plant origin to remove two estrogens, 4-tert-octylphenol and 17-β-estradiol, and two pesticides, carbaryl and fenuron, from an aqueous solution. The four molecules were spiked in water each at a concentration of 1 mg L-1. The materials were: a biochar obtained from 100% red spruce pellet pyrolysed at 550 °C, spent coffee grounds and spent tea leaves. Kinetics curves and adsorption isotherms studies were performed using a batch equilibrium method. Adsorption data obtained for each compound were fitted to a linear equation and non-linear Freundlich and Langmuir models. Kinetics data of the four compounds onto all adsorbents showed an initial very rapid adsorption which was completed in few hours when it reached equilibrium. The two estrogens were adsorbed onto all materials more quickly than the two less hydrophobic pesticides. Significant differences among adsorbents and the

  9. Effects of chemical and biological pesticides on plant growth parameters and rhizospheric bacterial community structure in Vigna radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sunil; Gupta, Rashi; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-06-30

    With increasing application of pesticides in agriculture, their non-target effects on soil microbial communities are critical to soil health maintenance. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and a biological pesticide (azadirachtin) on growth parameters and the rhizospheric bacterial community of Vigna radiata. Qualitative and quantitative analysis by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and q-PCR, respectively, of the 16S rRNA gene and transcript were performed to study the impact of these pesticides on the resident and active rhizospheric bacterial community. While plant parameters were not affected significantly by the pesticides, a shift in the bacterial community structure was observed with an adverse effect on the abundance of 16S rRNA gene and transcripts. Chlorpyrifos showed almost complete degradation toward the end of the experiment. These non-target impacts on soil ecosystems and the fact that the effects of the biopesticide mimic those of chemical pesticides raise serious concerns regarding their application in agriculture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Advanced Treatment of Pesticide-Containing Wastewater Using Fenton Reagent Enhanced by Microwave Electrodeless Ultraviolet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The photo-Fenton reaction is a promising method to treat organic contaminants in water. In this paper, a Fenton reagent enhanced by microwave electrodeless ultraviolet (MWEUV/Fenton method was proposed for advanced treatment of nonbiodegradable organic substance in pesticide-containing biotreated wastewater. MWEUV lamp was found to be more effective for chemical oxygen demand (COD removal than commercial mercury lamps in the Fenton process. The pseudo-first order kinetic model can well describe COD removal from pesticide-containing wastewater by MWEUV/Fenton, and the apparent rate constant (k was 0.0125 min−1. The optimal conditions for MWEUV/Fenton process were determined as initial pH of 5, Fe2+ dosage of 0.8 mmol/L, and H2O2 dosage of 100 mmol/L. Under the optimal conditions, the reaction exhibited high mineralization degrees of organics, where COD and dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentration decreased from 183.2 mg/L to 36.9 mg/L and 43.5 mg/L to 27.8 mg/L, respectively. Three main pesticides in the wastewater, as Dimethoate, Triazophos, and Malathion, were completely removed by the MWEUV/Fenton process within 120 min. The high degree of pesticides decomposition and mineralization was proved by the detected inorganic anions.

  11. Establishment of a pilot plant for pesticide formulation, union of myanmar. Technical report: Findings and recommendations (May 1992)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendefy, I

    1992-05-08

    The expert report on establishment of a pilot plant for pesticides formulation in Myanmar covers: (1) project background; (2) laboratory, quality control; (3) use of domestic raw materials kerosene; (4) energy supply (diesel engines); (5) bottling and packaging; (6) transport and telecommunications; (7) industrial safety; and (8) management.

  12. Toxicological data of some antibiotics and pesticides to fish, mosquitoes, cyanobacterial mats and to plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser El-Nahhal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides toxicological data of antibiotics to fish and mosquito (El-Nahhal and El-dahdaouh, 2015 (doi: 10.5132/eec.2015.01.03 [1], to cyanobacteria (El-Nahhal and Alshanti, 2015(dx.doi.org/10.4172/2161-0525.1000274 [2] and pesticides to plants (El-Nahhal and Hamdona, 2015 (doi.10.1186/s40064-015-1148-7 [3]. The data provided herein described the experimental procedure and calculation of the appropriate toxicity parameters, lethal concentrations (LC50 required to kill 50% of tested animal, percentage growth inhibition, relative toxicity (RT and Mixture toxicity index. Moreover, the data enable the readers to perform future experiments and open future discussion with other authors elsewhere and generate future research guidelines which benefit the young scientific community around the globe in the field of mixture toxicity. Keywords: Toxicity-data, Toxicity parameters, Mixture toxicity index, Relative toxicity, LC50

  13. Persistence of Selected Pesticides used in Sugarcane Production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to monitor pesticide levels in soils and runoff water following treatment of a sugarcane field in the Northern Lake Victoria watershed. Soil and water samples were collected over a period of 304 days after planting of the sugarcane and analysed for pesticide residues. In soils, glyphosate levels ...

  14. Effect of picung (Pangium edule plant extracts as a botanical pesticide on mortality of coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    soekadar wiryadiputra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coffee pests known as coffe berry borer (CBB, Hypothenemus hampei were main pests which decreasing the productivity of Indonesian coffee. One of pests controlling was done by insecticides. Generally, plant uses for insecticide show high security level, because the breaking molecule was easy as not dangerous compound. Pangium edule contains of flavanoide, cyanide acid and saponin had potential as an botanical insecticide. The purpose of this research was to prove the potential extract of seed and leaves of picung (Pangium edule as an botanical insecticide for CBB. This research used a complete random design. There were 8 treatments with the concentration of the extract from leaves and seed of picung, one positive control treatment (Carbaril 0,02% formulation and one negative control treatment (aquades. The treatment was repeated four times and carried out observation on every day until six days. The concentrations leaf and seed extracts were 1.0%, 2.5% and 5.0%. The result of the research show that between concentration applied the were no significant different and at observation six days after application the mortality of CBB only around 35 -40% on both extracts (ewater and methanol. The result of the research also show that there were no real differentiation between leaves and seed of picung. LT-50 values were 1.25% and 0.96%, for leaves and seed extract in water for six day observation. From this observation could be concluded that picung tree (Pangium edule is not effective in the controlling CBB in the interval concentration applied and extraction method used. Key words: Botanical pesticide, picung tree, Pangium edule, mortality, Hypothenemus hampei, water extraction, methanol extraction.

  15. Two-dimensional coordination polymer matrix for solid-phase extraction of pesticide residues from plant Cordia salicifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Pedro Henrique Viana; Barreto, Alysson Santos; Rodrigues, Marcelo O; Prata, Vanessa de Menezes; Alves, Péricles Barreto; de Mesquita, Maria Eliane; Alves, Severino; Navickiene, Sandro

    2009-06-01

    The 2D coordination polymer (infinity[Gd(DPA)(HDPA)]) was tested for extraction of acephate, chlorpropham, pirimicarb, bifenthrin, tetradifon, and phosalone from the medicinal plant Cordia salicifolia, whose extracts are commercialized in Brazil as diuretic, appetite suppressant, and weight loss products, using GC/MS, SIM. Considering that there are no Brazilian regulations concerning maximum permissible pesticide residue concentrations in medicinal herbs, recovery experiments were carried out (seven replicates), at two arbitrary fortification levels (0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg), resulting in recoveries in range of 20 to 107.7% and SDRSDs were between 5.6 and 29.1% for infinity[Gd(DPA)(HDPA)] sorbent. Detection and quantification limits for herb ranged from 0.10 to 0.15 mg/kg and from 0.15 to 0.25 mg/kg, respectively, for the different pesticides studied. The developed method is linear over the range assayed, 0.5-10.0 microg/mL, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9975 to 0.9986 for all pesticides. Comparison between infinity[Gd(DPA)(HDPA)] sorbent and conventional sorbent (neutral alumina) showed similar performance of infinity[Gd(DPA)(HDPA)] polymeric sorbent for three (bifenthrin, tetradifon, and phosalone) out of six pesticides tested.

  16. Effect of pre-plant treatments of yam (Dioscorea rotundata setts on the production of healthy seed yam, seed yam storage and consecutive ware tuber production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun Olufunmilayo Claudius-Cole

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous pests and diseases of yams are perpetuated from season to season through the use of infected seed material. Developing a system for generating healthy seed material would disrupt this disease cycle and reduce losses in field and storage. The use of various pre-plant treatments was evaluated in field experiments carried out at three sites in Nigeria. Yam tubers of four preferred local cultivars were cut into 100 g setts and treated with pesticide (fungicide + insecticide mixture, neem extract (1 : 5 w/v, hot water (20 min at 53 °C or wood ash (farmers practice and compared with untreated setts. Pesticide treated setts sprouted better than all other treatments and generally led to lower pest and disease damage of yam tubers. Pesticide treatment increased tuber yields over most treatments, depending on cultivar, but effectively doubled the production as compared to the control. Pesticide and hot water treated setts produced the healthiest seed yams, which had lower storage losses than tubers from other treatments. These pre-treated seed yams produced higher yields corresponding to 700 % potential gain compared to the farmers usual practice. Treatments had no obvious influence on virus incidence, although virus-symptomatic plants yielded significantly less than nonsymptomatic plants. This study demonstrated that pre-plant treatment of setts with pesticide is a simple and effective method that guarantees more, heavier and healthier seed yam tubers.

  17. Removals of pesticides and pesticide transformation products during drinking water treatment processes and their impact on mutagen formation potential after chlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Taku; Morimoto, Ayako; Kuriyama, Taisuke; Matsumoto, Eisuke; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Shirasaki, Nobutaka; Kondo, Takashi; Takanashi, Hirokazu; Kameya, Takashi

    2018-07-01

    Removal efficiencies of 28 pesticide transformation products (TPs) and 15 parent pesticides during steps in drinking water treatment (coagulation-sedimentation, activated carbon adsorption, and ozonation) were estimated via laboratory-scale batch experiments, and the mechanisms underlying the removal at each step were elucidated via regression analyses. The removal via powdered activated carbon (PAC) treatment was correlated positively with the log K ow at pH 7. The adjusted coefficient of determination (r 2 ) increased when the energy level of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) was added as an explanatory variable, the suggestion being that adsorption onto PAC particles was largely governed by hydrophobic interactions. The residual error could be partly explained by π-π electron donor-acceptor interactions between the graphene surface of the PAC particles and the adsorbates. The removal via ozonation correlated positively with the energy level of the HOMO, probably because compounds with relatively high energy level HOMOs could more easily transfer an electron to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of ozone. Overall, the TPs tended to be more difficult to remove via PAC adsorption and ozonation than their parent pesticides. However, the TPs that were difficult to remove via PAC adsorption did not induce strong mutagenicity after chlorination, and the TPs that were associated with strong mutagenicity after chlorination could be removed via PAC adsorption. Therefore, PAC adsorption is hypothesized to be an effective method of treating drinking water to reduce the possibility of post-chlorination mutagenicity associated with both TPs and their parent pesticides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pseudomonas rhizophila S211, a New Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium with Potential in Pesticide-Bioremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa Hassen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of Pseudomonas strains function as inoculants for biocontrol, biofertilization, and phytostimulation, avoiding the use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers. Here, we present a new metabolically versatile plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas rhizophila S211, isolated from a pesticide contaminated artichoke field that shows biofertilization, biocontrol and bioremediation potentialities. The S211 genome was sequenced, annotated and key genomic elements related to plant growth promotion and biosurfactant (BS synthesis were elucidated. S211 genome comprises 5,948,515 bp with 60.4% G+C content, 5306 coding genes and 215 RNA genes. The genome sequence analysis confirmed the presence of genes involved in plant-growth promoting and remediation activities such as the synthesis of ACC deaminase, putative dioxygenases, auxin, pyroverdin, exopolysaccharide levan and rhamnolipid BS. BS production by P. rhizophila S211 grown on olive mill wastewater based media was effectively optimized using a central-composite experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM. The optimum conditions for maximum BS production yield (720.80 ± 55.90 mg/L were: 0.5% (v/v inoculum size, 15% (v/v olive oil mill wastewater (OMWW and 40°C incubation temperature at pH 6.0 for 8 days incubation period. Biochemical and structural characterization of S211 BS by chromatography and spectroscopy studies suggested the glycolipid nature of the BS. P. rhizophila rhamnolipid was stable over a wide range of temperature (40–90°C, pH (6–10, and salt concentration (up to 300 mM NaCl. Due to its low-cost production, emulsification activities and high performance in solubilization enhancement of chemical pesticides, the indigenous BS-producing PGPR S211 could be used as a promising agent for environmental bioremediation of pesticide-contaminated agricultural soils.

  19. Pesticide exposure - Indian scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. India started pesticide production with manufacturing plant for DDT and benzene hexachloride (BHC) (HCH) in the year 1952. In 1958, India was producing over 5000 metric tonnes of pesticides. Currently, there are approximately 145 pesticides registered for use, and production has increased to approximately 85,000 metric tonnes. Rampant use of these chemicals has given rise to several short-term and long-term adverse effects of these chemicals. The first report of poisoning due to pesticides in India came from Kerala in 1958 where, over 100 people died after consuming wheat flour contaminated with parathion. Subsequently several cases of pesticide-poisoning including the Bhopal disaster have been reported. Despite the fact that the consumption of pesticides in India is still very low, about 0.5 kg/ha of pesticides against 6.60 and 12.0 kg/ha in Korea and Japan, respectively, there has been a widespread contamination of food commodities with pesticide residues, basically due to non-judicious use of pesticides. In India, 51% of food commodities are contaminated with pesticide residues and out of these, 20% have pesticides residues above the maximum residue level values on a worldwide basis. It has been observed that their long-term, low-dose exposure are increasingly linked to human health effects such as immune-suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities, and cancer. In this light, problems of pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, use of biotechnology, and biopesticides, and use of pesticides obtained from natural plant sources such as neem extracts are some of the future strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides

  20. Treatment of Wastewater Contaminated with Pesticide (Alachlor by Solar Enhanced Advanced Oxidation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmen Abdulaziz Mustafa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The degradation performance of aqueous solution of pesticide Alachlor has been studied at solar pilot scale plant in two photocatalytic systems: homogeneous photocatalysis by photo-Fenton and heterogeneous photocatalysis with titanium dioxide. The pilot scale system included of compound parabolic collectors specially designed for solar photocatalytic applications, and installed at University of Baghdad, Department of Environmental Engineering back yard. The influence of different concentrations, H2O2 (200-2400 mg/l, Fe+2(5- 30 mg/l and TiO2 (100-500 mg/l and their relationship with the degradation efficiency were studied. The COD removal efficiency for homogeneous photocatalytic system at the best dosage was found to be 73.7%. The parent pollutant concentrations which were monitored using HPLC decreased to reach zero level at early time of the experiment. For heterogeneous photocatalytic system the COD removal efficiency was found to be 72.7%.

  1. Uprading of existing treatment plants in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Stene-Johansen, S.; Paulsrud, B.

    1994-01-01

    During the first Phase, diagnostic studies have been carried out at selected treatment plants in order to identify problems and how to improve treatment efficiency (Report 1 st. Phase). The report in hand (2nd. Phase) gives recommendations for upgrading/rehabilitation and other improvements based on full scale experiments at selected treatment plants. State Pollution Control Authority (SFT) The Royal Norwegian Ministry of Environment (MD)

  2. Detoxification and biodegradability enhancement of aqueous solutions of four commercial pesticides along a Photo-Fenton treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amat, A. M.; Arques, A.; Domenech, A.; Garcia-Ripoll, A.; Vicente, R.

    2009-07-01

    Photo-Fenton treatment has proven to be efficient to remove recalcitrant pollutants as commercial pesticides commonly employed in citric cultivars in the Mediterranean coast of Spain as Laition, Sevnol, Ultracid and Metasystox. However, the photon-Fenton treatment resulted to be less efficient to remove organic matter; nevertheless it could be employed as a pre-treatment to couple with biological processes, widely used in wastewater treatment. (Author)

  3. Detoxification and biodegradability enhancement of aqueous solutions of four commercial pesticides along a Photo-Fenton treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amat, A. M.; Arques, A.; Domenech, A.; Garcia-Ripoll, A.; Vicente, R.

    2009-01-01

    Photo-Fenton treatment has proven to be efficient to remove recalcitrant pollutants as commercial pesticides commonly employed in citric cultivars in the Mediterranean coast of Spain as Laition, Sevnol, Ultracid and Metasystox. However, the photon-Fenton treatment resulted to be less efficient to remove organic matter; nevertheless it could be employed as a pre-treatment to couple with biological processes, widely used in wastewater treatment. (Author)

  4. ORNL process waste treatment plant modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    The ORNL Process Waste Treatment Plant removes low levels of radionuclides (primarily Cs-137 and Sr-90) from process waste water prior to discharge. The previous plant operation used a scavenging precipitaton - ion exchange process which produced a radioactive sludge. In order to eliminate the environmental problems associated with sludge disposal, the plant is being converted to a new ion exchange process without the precipitation process

  5. Partial degradation of five pesticides and an industrial pollutant by ozonation in a pilot-plant scale reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, M.I.; Malato, S.; Perez-Estrada, L.A.; Gernjak, W.; Oller, I.; Domenech, Xavier; Peral, Jose

    2006-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of a mixture of several pesticides (alachlor, atrazine, chlorfenvinphos, diuron and isoproturon), considered PS (priority substances) by the European Commission, and an intermediate product of the pharmaceutical industry (α-methylphenylglycine, MPG) chosen as a model industrial pollutant, have been degraded at pilot-plant scale using ozonation. This study is part of a large research project [CADOX Project, A Coupled Advanced Oxidation-Biological Process for Recycling of Industrial Wastewater Containing Persistent Organic Contaminants, Contract No.: EVK1-CT-2002-00122, European Commission, http://www.psa.es/webeng/projects/cadox/index.html[1

  6. Partial degradation of five pesticides and an industrial pollutant by ozonation in a pilot-plant scale reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado, M.I. [PSA - Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, Crta Senes km 4, Tabernas, Almeria 04200 (Spain); Malato, S. [PSA - Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, Crta Senes km 4, Tabernas, Almeria 04200 (Spain); Perez-Estrada, L.A. [PSA - Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, Crta Senes km 4, Tabernas, Almeria 04200 (Spain); Gernjak, W. [PSA -Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, Crta Senes km 4, Tabernas, Almeria 04200 (Spain); Oller, I. [PSA - Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, Crta Senes km 4, Tabernas, Almeria 04200 (Spain); Domenech, Xavier [Departament de Quimica, Edifici Cn, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Peral, Jose [Departament de Quimica, Edifici Cn, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: jose.peral@uab.es

    2006-11-16

    Aqueous solutions of a mixture of several pesticides (alachlor, atrazine, chlorfenvinphos, diuron and isoproturon), considered PS (priority substances) by the European Commission, and an intermediate product of the pharmaceutical industry ({alpha}-methylphenylglycine, MPG) chosen as a model industrial pollutant, have been degraded at pilot-plant scale using ozonation. This study is part of a large research project [CADOX Project, A Coupled Advanced Oxidation-Biological Process for Recycling of Industrial Wastewater Containing Persistent Organic Contaminants, Contract No.: EVK1-CT-2002-00122, European Commission, http://www.psa.es/webeng/projects/cadox/index.html[1

  7. Medicinal plants in the treatment of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad M. Zlatić

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a review of highly developed medicinal usages of plants in the treatment of cancer. In the last decades, the cancer treatment has been included in this range of plant use, due to plant active substances. Active substances or secondary metabolites are generally known for their widespread application. When it comes to the cancer treatment, these substances affect the uncontrolled cell division. Therefore, the plants which are the source of these substances are proved to be irreplaceable in this field of medicine. This paper deals with some of the most significant plants well known for their multiple aspects of beneficial medicinal influence. The group of the plants described is comprised of the following species: Taxus brevifolia (Taxaceae, Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae, Podophyllum peltatum (Berberidaceae, Camptotheca accuminata (Cornaceae, and Cephalotaxus harringtonia (Cephalotaxaceae. The comprehensive description of the plants in this paper includes the morphological characteristics, the features and the representation of the molecular structures of active substances, the particular influence that these active substances have and the general importance of the substances as seen from the aspect of cancer treatment mostly with reference to the impacts on cell cycle.

  8. Pesticide residues in food of plant origin from Southeast Asia – A Nordic project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skretteberg, L. G.; Lyrån, B.; Holen, B.

    2015-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables from Souteast Asia were analysed for the presence of pesticide residues. A total of 721 samples of 63 different commodities were collected in 2011. The products were imported to Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden from ten countries; about 80% were imported from Thailand....... The reason for the increased control for certain food products from Southeast Asia was that the official control had revealed many products with too high levels of pesticide residues. In 60% of the samples we did not find any residues, while 28% had residues below or at the MRLs. Results above the MRLs were...

  9. Treatment of wastewaters from manufactured gas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocheci, V.; Bogatu, C.; Radovan, C. [Technical University of Timisoara, Timisoara (Romania)

    1995-12-31

    The treatment of wastewaters with high concentrations of organic compounds often represents a difficult problem. In some cases, for the destruction and removal of toxic compounds using processes like biological and chemical oxidation were proposed. Wastewaters from manufactured gas plants contain high concentrations of organic pollutants and ammonia. In this paper a technology for the treatment of these wastewaters is proposed. The experiments were realized with wastewaters from two Romanian manufactured gas plants. The process consists of the following steps: polycondensation-settling-stripping-biological treatment-electrocoagulation-electrochemical oxidation, or chemical oxidation. 6 refs., 4 tabs.

  10. Pesticides: chemicals for survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Pesticides are chemicals used to control pests such as insects, weeds, plant diseases, nematodes, and rodents. The increased use of pesticides since 1945 has greatly aided the increase in crop production, protected livestock from diseases such as trypanosomiasis, protected man from diseases such as malaria and filarisis, decreased losses of stored grain, and has generally improved man's welfare. Despite the enormous benefits derived from pesticides these chemicals are not problem-free. Many pesticides are toxic to living organisms and interfere with specific biochemical systems. To measure the very small quantities of a pesticide radiolabelled chemicals are frequently essential, particularly to measure changes in the chemical structure of the pesticide, movement of the pesticide in soil, plants, or animals, amounts of pesticide going through various steps in food processing, etc. The use of radiolabelled pesticides is shortly shown for metabolism of the pesticide in crop species, metabolism in ruminant, in chickens and eggs, in soil, and possibly leaching and sorption in soil, hydrolysis, bio-concentration, microbial and photodegradation, and toxicity studies

  11. Bound xenobiotic residues in food commodities of plant and animal origin: IUPAC Reports on Pesticides (40)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skidmore, M.W.; Paulson, G.D.; Kuiper, H.A.; Ohlin, B.

    1998-01-01

    In order to assess the dietary risk resulting from the use of pesticides or veterinary drugs the nature of the chemical residues on food commodities needs to be determined. Elucidation of the nature of the chemical residue is carried out using radiolabelled studies where the radiolabelled xenobiotic

  12. Use of toxicity identification evaluations to determine the pesticide mitigation effectiveness of on-farm vegetated treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, John [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Department of Environmental Studies, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Marine Pollution Studies Laboratory, Granite Canyon, 34500 Highway 1, Monterey, CA 93940 (United States)], E-mail: jwhunt@ucdavis.edu; Anderson, Brian [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Marine Pollution Studies Laboratory, Granite Canyon, 34500 Highway 1, Monterey, CA 93940 (United States)], E-mail: anderson@ucdavis.edu; Phillips, Bryn [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Marine Pollution Studies Laboratory, Granite Canyon, 34500 Highway 1, Monterey, CA 93940 (United States)], E-mail: bmphillips@ucdavis.edu; Tjeerdema, Ron [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Marine Pollution Studies Laboratory, Granite Canyon, 34500 Highway 1, Monterey, CA 93940 (United States)], E-mail: rstjeerdema@ucdavis.edu; Largay, Bryan [Largay Hydrologic Sciences, LLC, 160 Farmer Street Felton, CA 95018-9416 (United States)], E-mail: bryan.largay@sbcglobal.net; Beretti, Melanie [Resources Conservation District of Monterey County, 744-A La Guardia Street, Salinas, CA 93905 (United States)], E-mail: beretti.melanie@rcdmonterey.org; Bern, Amanda [California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Central Coast Region, 895 Aerovista Place, Suite 101, San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 (United States)], E-mail: abern@waterboards.ca.gov

    2008-11-15

    Evidence of ecological impacts from pesticide runoff has prompted installation of vegetated treatment systems (VTS) along the central coast of California, USA. During five surveys of two on-farm VTS ponds, 88% of inlet and outlet water samples were toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) indicated water toxicity was caused by diazinon at VTS-1, and chlorpyrifos at VTS-2. Diazinon levels in VTS-1 were variable, but high pulse inflow concentrations were reduced through dilution. At VTS-2, chlorpyrifos concentrations averaged 52% lower at the VTS outlet than at the inlet. Water concentrations of most other pesticides averaged 20-90% lower at VTS outlets. All VTS sediment samples were toxic to amphipods (Hyalella azteca). Sediment TIEs indicated toxicity was caused by cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin at VTS-1, and chlorpyrifos and permethrin at VTS-2. As with water, sediment concentrations were lower at VTS outlets, indicating substantial reductions in farm runoff pesticide concentrations. - Toxicity identification evaluations identified key pesticides in agricultural runoff, and their concentrations were reduced by farmer-installed vegetated treatment systems.

  13. Use of toxicity identification evaluations to determine the pesticide mitigation effectiveness of on-farm vegetated treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, John; Anderson, Brian; Phillips, Bryn; Tjeerdema, Ron; Largay, Bryan; Beretti, Melanie; Bern, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Evidence of ecological impacts from pesticide runoff has prompted installation of vegetated treatment systems (VTS) along the central coast of California, USA. During five surveys of two on-farm VTS ponds, 88% of inlet and outlet water samples were toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) indicated water toxicity was caused by diazinon at VTS-1, and chlorpyrifos at VTS-2. Diazinon levels in VTS-1 were variable, but high pulse inflow concentrations were reduced through dilution. At VTS-2, chlorpyrifos concentrations averaged 52% lower at the VTS outlet than at the inlet. Water concentrations of most other pesticides averaged 20-90% lower at VTS outlets. All VTS sediment samples were toxic to amphipods (Hyalella azteca). Sediment TIEs indicated toxicity was caused by cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin at VTS-1, and chlorpyrifos and permethrin at VTS-2. As with water, sediment concentrations were lower at VTS outlets, indicating substantial reductions in farm runoff pesticide concentrations. - Toxicity identification evaluations identified key pesticides in agricultural runoff, and their concentrations were reduced by farmer-installed vegetated treatment systems

  14. ACUTE EXOGENOUS INTOXICATIONS WITH ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES: DURATION OF THE HOSPITAL TREATMENT AND CLINICAL CRITERIA FOR PROGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petko Marinov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Several criteria have been suggested to estimate the intoxication severity, yet so far no system of clinical criteria has been developed to determine the duration of hospitalisation. The forecast is linked to the influence of the extended corrected QT interval and GCS (Glasgow Coma Scale on the frequency of the developing acute pulmonary insufficiency and lethality. The average duration of hospital treatment is also crucial. First of all, it is determined by the intoxication severity and lasts from 3 to 26 days. The aim of this study is to develop an individual forecast about the duration of hospitalisation for patients suffering from acute exogenous intoxication with organophosphorus pesticides (OPP. Materials/Methods: The subjects are 160 patients. We use statistical regression analysis to study the significance of 5 of the most typical clinical indicators of organophosphorus intoxication on the duration of hospitalisation: type of conscience, presence of spasms, pulmonary oedema, shock and multi-organ insufficiency syndrome (MOIS. To forecast the treatment length, we obtain simplified mathematical expressions in the form of score estimates. Results: The significance of the clinical indicators “MOIS”, “conscience” and “spasm” has been confirmed. A forecast matrix that gives the opportunity to forecast the personal duration of hospital treatment for each patient has been built.

  15. The fate of pharmaceuticals, steroid hormones, phytoestrogens, UV-filters and pesticides during MBR treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijekoon, Kaushalya C; Hai, Faisal I; Kang, Jinguo; Price, William E; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Nghiem, Long D

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the relationship between molecular properties and the fate of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) in the aqueous and solid phases during wastewater treatment by MBR. A set of 29 TrOCs was selected to represent pharmaceuticals, steroid hormones, phytoestrogens, UV-filters and pesticides that occur ubiquitously in municipal wastewater. Both adsorption and biodegradation/transformation were found responsible for the removal of TrOCs by MBR treatment. A connection between biodegradation and molecular structure could be observed while adsorption was the dominant removal mechanism for the hydrophobic (logD>3.2) compounds. Highly hydrophobic (logD>3.2) but readily biodegradable compounds did not accumulate in sludge. In contrast, recalcitrant compounds with a moderate hydrophobicity, such as carbamazepine, accumulated significantly in the solid phase. The results provide a framework to predict the removal and fate of TrOCs by MBR treatment. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Food processing as a means for pesticide residue dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Tijana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are one of the major inputs used for increasing agricultural productivity of crops. However, their inadequate application may produce large quantities of residues in the environment and, once the environment is contaminated with pesticides, they may easily enter into the human food chain through plants, creating a potentially serious health hazard. Nowadays, consumers are becoming more aware of the importance of safe and high quality food products. Thus it is pertinent to explore simple, cost-effective strategies for decontaminating food from pesticides. Various food processing techniques, at industrial and/or domestical level, have been found to significantly reduce the contents of pesticide residues in most food materials. The extent of reduction varies with the nature of pesticides, type of commodity and processing steps. Pesticides, especially those with limited movement and penetration ability, can be removed with reasonable efficiency by washing, and the effectiveness of washing depends on pesticide solubility in water or in different chemical solvents. Peeling of fruit and vegetable skin can dislodge pesticide residues to varying degrees, depending on constitution of a commodity, chemical nature of the pesticide and environmental conditions. Different heat treatments (drying, pasteurization, sterilization, blanching, steaming, boiling, cooking, frying or roasting during various food preparation and preservation processes can cause losses of pesticide residues through evaporation, co-distillation and/or thermal degradation. Product manufactures, from the simplest grain milling, through oil extraction and processing, juicing/pureeing or canning of fruits and vegetables, to complex bakery and dairy production, malting and brewing, wine making and various fermentation processes, play a role in the reduction of pesticide contents, whereby each operation involved during processing usually adds to a cumulative effect of reduction of

  17. Is the efficacy of biological control against plant diseases likely to be more durable than that of chemical pesticides?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc eBardin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The durability of a control method for plant protection is defined as the persistence of its efficacy in space and time. It depends on (i the selection pressure exerted by it on populations of plant pathogens and (ii on the capacity of these pathogens to adapt to the control method. Erosion of effectiveness of conventional plant protection methods has been widely studied in the past. For example, apparition of resistance to chemical pesticides in plant pathogens or pests has been extensively documented. The durability of biological control has often been assumed to be higher than that of chemical control. Results concerning pest management in agricultural systems have shown that this assumption may not always be justified. Resistance of various pests to one or several toxins of Bacillus thuringensis and apparition of resistance of the codling moth Cydia pomonella to the Cydia pomonella granulovirus have, for example, been described. In contrast with the situation for pests, the durability of biological control of plant diseases has hardly been studied and no scientific reports proving the loss of efficiency of biological control agents against plant pathogens in practice has been published so far. Knowledge concerning the possible erosion of effectiveness of biological control is essential to ensure a durable efficacy of biological control agents on target plant pathogens. This knowledge will result in identifying risk factors that can foster the selection of strains of plant pathogens resistant to biological control agents. It will also result in identifying types of biological control agents with lower risk of efficacy loss i.e. modes of action of biological control agents that does not favor the selection of resistant isolates in natural populations of plant pathogens. An analysis of the scientific literature was then conducted to assess the potential for plant pathogens to become resistant to biological control agents.

  18. Comparison of buckwheat, red clover, and purple tansy as potential surrogate plants for use in semi-field pesticide risk assessments with Bombus impatiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela E. Gradish

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bumble bees (Bombus spp. are important wild and managed pollinators. There is increased interest in incorporating data on bumble bees into risk assessments for pesticides, but standardized methods for assessing hazards of pesticides in semi-field and field settings have not yet been established for bumble bees. During semi-field studies, colonies are caged with pesticide-treated flowering surrogate plants, which must be attractive to foragers to ensure colony exposure to the test compound, and must produce an ample nectar and pollen to sustain colonies during testing. However, it is not known which plant(s are suitable for use in semi-field studies with bumble bees. Materials and Methods. We compared B. impatiens foraging activity and colony development on small plots of flowering buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum, var. common, red clover (Trifolium pratense, and purple tansy (Phacelia tanacetifolia under semi-field conditions to assess their suitability as surrogate plants for pesticide risk assessment studies with bumble bees. We also compared the growth characteristics and input requirements of each plant type. Results. All three plant types generally established and grew well. Red clover and purple tansy experienced significant weed pressure and/or insect pest damage. In contrast, pest pressure was extremely low in buckwheat. Overall, B. impatiens foraging activity was significantly greater on buckwheat plots than red clover or purple tansy, but plant type had no effect on number of individuals produced per colony or colony weight. Discussion. Because of the consistently high foraging activity and successful colony development observed on buckwheat plots, combined with its favourable growth characteristics and low maintenance requirements, we recommend buckwheat as a surrogate plant for use in semi-field pesticide toxicity assessments with B. impatiens.

  19. Treatment of some power plant waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konecny, C.; Vanura, P.; Franta, P.; Marhol, M.; Tejnecky, M.; Fidler, J.

    1987-01-01

    Major results are summed up obtained in 1986 in the development of techniques for the treatment of coolant in the fuel transport and storage tank, of reserve coolant in the primary circuit and of waste water from the special nuclear power plant laundries, containing new washing agent Alfa-DES. A service test of the filter filled with Czechoslovak-made cation exchanger Ostion KSN in the boric acid concentrate filter station showed that the filter can be used in some technological circuits of nuclear power plants. New decontamination agents are also listed introduced in production in Czechoslovakia for meeting the needs of nuclear power plants. (author). 6 refs

  20. Optimising Solar Photocatalytic Mineralization of Pesticides at Solar Plant by Adding Inorganic Oxidising Species: Application to the Recycling of Pesticide Containers; Optimizacion de la Mineralizacion Fotocatalitica de Pesticidas en una Planta Solar mediante Adicion de Especies Inorganicas Oxidantes: Aplicacion al Reciclado de Envases de Pesticidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, J.; Malato, S.; Fernandez, P.; Caceres, J.; Campos, A.; Carrion, A. [Ciemat. Plataforma Solar de Almeria. Almeria (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    This paper focuses on optimising the use of additional oxidants in the photocatalytic degradation of a complex mixture of ten commercial pesticides. The CPC solar pilot plant used for the tests has 8.9 m''2 of collector surface and a total volume of 247 L. Same TOC quantities of each pesticide were added to achieve the desired initial TOC concentration in all the experiments (from 5 tp 100 mg of TOC per litre). Experiments were performed with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and S{sub 2}O{sub 8}''-2, but only peroxydisulphate was chosen for optimisation, because better results have been obtained with it. In addition to the consumption of the oxidant under different experiment conditions, the effect of peroxydisulphate and TOC concentrations was also evaluated. The mechanism of peroxydisulphate action is discussed with these results. The effect of reusing water and catalysts has also been studied. The results obtained from these experiments have been used to decide the dimensions and operating conditions of a solar photocatalytic plant, the final objective of which is the treatment of rinsates produced by washing pesticide containers. (Author) 37 refs.

  1. Modification of water treatment plant at Heavy Water Plant (Kota)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajpati, C.R.; Shrivastava, C.S.; Shrivastava, D.C.; Shrivastava, J.; Vithal, G.K.; Bhowmick, A.

    2008-01-01

    Heavy Water Production by GS process viz. H 2 S - H 2 O bi-thermal exchange process requires a huge quantity of demineralized (DM) water as a source of deuterium. Since the deuterium recovery of GS process is only 18-19%, the water treatment plant (WTP) was designed and commissioned at Heavy Water Plant (Kota) to produce demineralized water at the rate of 680 m 3 /hr. The WTP was commissioned in 1980 and till 2005; the plant was producing DM water of required quality. It was having three streams of strong cation resin, atmospheric degasser and strong anion exchange resin with co-current regeneration. In 2001 a new concept of layered bed resin was developed and engineered for water treatment plant. The concept was attractive in terms of saving of chemicals and thus preservation of environment. Being an ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 plant, the modification of WTP was executed in 2005 during major turn around. After modification, a substantial amount of acid and alkali is saved

  2. Wastewater-based epidemiology to assess pan-European pesticide exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousis, Nikolaos I.; Gracia-Lor, Emma; Zuccato, Ettore

    2017-01-01

    human exposure to pesticides in eight cities across Europe. 24 h-composite wastewater samples were collected from the main wastewater treatment plants and analyzed for urinary metabolites of three classes of pesticides, namely triazines, organophosphates and pyrethroids, by liquid chromatography...

  3. Treatment of pesticide wastewater by moving-bed biofilm reactor combined with Fenton-coagulation pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Sheng [School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China)]. E-mail: hitchensheng@126.com; Sun Dezhi [School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Chung, J.-S. [School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-01

    In order to treat pesticide wastewater having high chemical oxygen demand (COD) value and poor biodegradability, Fenton-coagulation process was first used to reduce COD and improve biodegradability and then was followed by biological treatment. Optimal experimental conditions for the Fenton process were determined to be Fe{sup 2+} concentration of 40 mmol/L and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dose of 97 mmol/L at initial pH 3. The interaction mechanism of organophosphorous pesticide and hydroxyl radicals was suggested to be the breakage of the P=S double bond and formation of sulfate ions and various organic intermediates, followed by formation of phosphate and consequent oxidation of intermediates. For the subsequent biological treatment, 3.2 g/L Ca(OH){sub 2} was added to adjust the pH and further coagulate the pollutants. The COD value could be evidently decreased from 33,700 to 9300 mg/L and the ratio of biological oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}) to COD of the wastewater was enhanced to over 0.47 by Fenton oxidation and coagulation. The pre-treated wastewater was then subjected to biological oxidation by using moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) inside which tube chip type bio-carriers were fluidized upon air bubbling. Higher than 85% of COD removal efficiency could be achieved when the bio-carrier volume fraction was kept more than 20% by feeding the pretreated wastewater containing 3000 mg/L of inlet COD at one day of hydraulic retention time (HRT), but a noticeable decrease in the COD removal efficiency when the carrier volume was decreased down to 10%, only 72% was observed. With the improvement of biodegradability by using Fenton pretreatment, also due to the high concentration of biomass and high biofilm activity using the fluidizing bio-carriers, high removal efficiency and stable operation could be achieved in the biological process even at a high COD loading of 37.5 gCOD/(m{sup 2} carrier day)

  4. Treatment of pesticide wastewater by moving-bed biofilm reactor combined with Fenton-coagulation pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Sheng; Sun Dezhi; Chung, J.-S.

    2007-01-01

    In order to treat pesticide wastewater having high chemical oxygen demand (COD) value and poor biodegradability, Fenton-coagulation process was first used to reduce COD and improve biodegradability and then was followed by biological treatment. Optimal experimental conditions for the Fenton process were determined to be Fe 2+ concentration of 40 mmol/L and H 2 O 2 dose of 97 mmol/L at initial pH 3. The interaction mechanism of organophosphorous pesticide and hydroxyl radicals was suggested to be the breakage of the P=S double bond and formation of sulfate ions and various organic intermediates, followed by formation of phosphate and consequent oxidation of intermediates. For the subsequent biological treatment, 3.2 g/L Ca(OH) 2 was added to adjust the pH and further coagulate the pollutants. The COD value could be evidently decreased from 33,700 to 9300 mg/L and the ratio of biological oxygen demand (BOD 5 ) to COD of the wastewater was enhanced to over 0.47 by Fenton oxidation and coagulation. The pre-treated wastewater was then subjected to biological oxidation by using moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) inside which tube chip type bio-carriers were fluidized upon air bubbling. Higher than 85% of COD removal efficiency could be achieved when the bio-carrier volume fraction was kept more than 20% by feeding the pretreated wastewater containing 3000 mg/L of inlet COD at one day of hydraulic retention time (HRT), but a noticeable decrease in the COD removal efficiency when the carrier volume was decreased down to 10%, only 72% was observed. With the improvement of biodegradability by using Fenton pretreatment, also due to the high concentration of biomass and high biofilm activity using the fluidizing bio-carriers, high removal efficiency and stable operation could be achieved in the biological process even at a high COD loading of 37.5 gCOD/(m 2 carrier day)

  5. Association Between Pesticide Residue Intake From Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables and Pregnancy Outcomes Among Women Undergoing Infertility Treatment With Assisted Reproductive Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Han; Williams, Paige L; Gillman, Matthew W; Gaskins, Audrey J; Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Souter, Irene; Toth, Thomas L; Ford, Jennifer B; Hauser, Russ; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2018-01-01

    Animal experiments suggest that ingestion of pesticide mixtures at environmentally relevant concentrations decreases the number of live-born offspring. Whether the same is true in humans is unknown. To examine the association of preconception intake of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables (FVs) with outcomes of infertility treatment with assisted reproductive technologies (ART). This analysis included 325 women who completed a diet assessment and subsequently underwent 541 ART cycles in the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) prospective cohort study (2007-2016) at a fertility center at a teaching hospital. We categorized FVs as having high or low pesticide residues using a validated method based on surveillance data from the US Department of Agriculture. Cluster-weighted generalized estimating equations were used to analyze associations of high- and low-pesticide residue FV intake with ART outcomes. Adjusted probabilities of clinical pregnancy and live birth per treatment cycle. In the 325 participants (mean [SD] age, 35.1 [4.0] y; body mass index, 24.1 [4.3]), mean (SD) intakes of high- and low-pesticide residue FVs were 1.7 (1.0) and 2.8 (1.6) servings/d, respectively. Greater intake of high-pesticide residue FVs was associated with a lower probability of clinical pregnancy and live birth. Compared with women in the lowest quartile of high-pesticide FV intake (<1.0 servings/d), women in the highest quartile (≥2.3 servings/d) had 18% (95% CI, 5%-30%) lower probability of clinical pregnancy and 26% (95% CI, 13%-37%) lower probability of live birth. Intake of low-pesticide residue FVs was not significantly related to ART outcomes. Higher consumption of high-pesticide residue FVs was associated with lower probabilities of pregnancy and live birth following infertility treatment with ART. These data suggest that dietary pesticide exposure within the range of typical human exposure may be associated with adverse reproductive consequences.

  6. Spatial distribution of organic pollutants in industrial construction and demolition waste and their mutual interaction on an abandoned pesticide manufacturing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sheng; Zhao, Xin; Sun, Yanqiu; Ma, Jianli; Gao, Xiaofeng; Xie, Tian; Xu, Dongsheng; Yu, Yi; Zhao, Youcai

    2016-04-01

    A comprehensive field investigation of organic pollutants was examined in industrial construction and demolition waste (ICDW) inside an abandoned pesticide manufacturing plant. Concentrations of eight types of pesticides, a metabolite and two intermediates were studied. The ICDW was under severe and long-term contamination by organophosphorus, intermediates and pyrethroid pesticide with mean concentrations of 23,429, 3538 and 179.4 mg kg(-1), respectively. FT-IR analysis suggested that physical absorption and chemical bonding were their mutual interaction forms. Patterns of total pesticide spatial distribution showed good correlations with manufacturing processes spreading all over the plant both in enclosed workshops and in residues randomly dumped outside, while bricks and coatings were the most vulnerable to pollutants. Ultimately the fate of the OPPs was diversified as the immersion of ICDW in water largely transferred the pollutants into aquatic systems while exposure outside did not largely lead to pesticide degradation. The adoption of centralized collections for the disposal of wastes could only eliminate part of the contaminated ICDW, probably due to lack of knowledge and criteria. Correlation matrix and cluster analysis indicated that regulated disposal and management of polluted ICDW was effective, thus presenting the requirement for its appropriate disposal.

  7. The improvement of removal effects on organic pollutants in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marincas, O; Avram, V; Moldovan, Z; Petrov, P; Ternes, T

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of this study is to improve the efficiency of removal in wastewater treatment plants of some organic pollutants like pharmaceuticals, antioxidants, pesticides (triazines, phenylurea herbicides), personal care products (PCPs) musk fragrances (galaxolide and tonalide) and estrogens using zeolites with excellent absorption capacity. The zeolite selected for all experiments was Szedimentin-MW. The experiment took place in three stages: no zeolite addition, zeolite added at the end of the bioreactor and zeolite added at the start of the bioreactor. The water samples were pre-concentrated with solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure and analyzed with analytical system Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS).

  8. The improvement of removal effects on organic pollutants in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marincas, O; Avram, V; Moldovan, Z [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Petrov, P [Water Treatment Station Siluet B, 21 Pencho Slaveikov Street, Varna 9000 (Bulgaria); Ternes, T, E-mail: olivian.marincas@itim-cj.r [Federal Institute of Hydrology, Am Mainzer Tor 1, 56068 Koblenz (Germany)

    2009-08-01

    Purpose of this study is to improve the efficiency of removal in wastewater treatment plants of some organic pollutants like pharmaceuticals, antioxidants, pesticides (triazines, phenylurea herbicides), personal care products (PCPs) musk fragrances (galaxolide and tonalide) and estrogens using zeolites with excellent absorption capacity. The zeolite selected for all experiments was Szedimentin-MW. The experiment took place in three stages: no zeolite addition, zeolite added at the end of the bioreactor and zeolite added at the start of the bioreactor. The water samples were pre-concentrated with solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure and analyzed with analytical system Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS).

  9. Chemical monitoring strategy for the assessment of advanced water treatment plant performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewes, J E; McDonald, J A; Trinh, T; Storey, M V; Khan, S J

    2011-01-01

    A pilot-scale plant was employed to validate the performance of a proposed full-scale advanced water treatment plant (AWTP) in Sydney, Australia. The primary aim of this study was to develop a chemical monitoring program that can demonstrate proper plant operation resulting in the removal of priority chemical constituents in the product water. The feed water quality to the pilot plant was tertiary-treated effluent from a wastewater treatment plant. The unit processes of the AWTP were comprised of an integrated membrane system (ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis) followed by final chlorination generating a water quality that does not present a source of human or environmental health concern. The chemical monitoring program was undertaken over 6 weeks during pilot plant operation and involved the quantitative analysis of pharmaceuticals and personal care products, steroidal hormones, industrial chemicals, pesticides, N-nitrosamines and halomethanes. The first phase consisted of baseline monitoring of target compounds to quantify influent concentrations in feed waters to the plant. This was followed by a period of validation monitoring utilising indicator chemicals and surrogate measures suitable to assess proper process performance at various stages of the AWTP. This effort was supported by challenge testing experiments to further validate removal of a series of indicator chemicals by reverse osmosis. This pilot-scale study demonstrated a simplified analytical approach that can be employed to assure proper operation of advanced water treatment processes and the absence of trace organic chemicals.

  10. STUDY ON WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana DUMITRU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is more and more used as an alternative source of energy, considering the fact that it is obtained from waste materials and it can be easily used in cities and rural communities for many uses, between which, as a fuel for households. Biogas has many energy utilisations, depending on the nature of the biogas source and the local demand. Generally, biogas can be used for heat production by direct combustion, electricity production by fuel cells or micro-turbines, Combined Hest and Power generation or as vehicle fuel. In this paper we search for another uses of biogas and Anaerobe Digestion substrate, such as: waste water treatment plants and agricultural wastewater treatment, which are very important in urban and rural communities, solid waste treatment plants, industrial biogas plants, landfill gas recovery plants. These uses of biogas are very important, because the gas emissions and leaching to ground water from landfill sites are serious threats for the environment, which increase more and more bigger during the constant growth of some human communities. That is why, in the developed European countries, the sewage sludge is treated by anaerobe digestion, depending on national laws. In Romania, in the last years more efforts were destined to use anaerobe digestion for treating waste waters and management of waste in general. This paper can be placed in this trend of searching new ways of using with maximum efficiency the waste resulted in big communities.

  11. Pesticide Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  12. Antimicrobial Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA regulates pesticides under the statutory authority of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). The registration requirements for antimicrobial pesticides differ somewhat from those of other pesticides. Find out more.

  13. Medicinal Plants for Diabetes Treatment During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, Debora Cristina; Leal-Silva, Thais; Soares, Thaigra Sousa; Moraes-Souza, Rafaianne Queiroz; Volpato, Gustavo Tadeu

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome of great importance that affects an increasing number of people every day. In particular, diabetes is a common and important disease during pregnancy and is marked by complications, both fetal and maternal, that increase the risks of morbidity and mortality for diabetic pregnant women and their offspring. Drugs such as insulin and hypoglycemic drugs are given to treat diabetes, but regular exercise and adequate diet have also been indicated. Furthermore, coadjutant therapies such as medicinal plants are popularly used to reduce diabetes-induced hyperglycemia, either within or outside the context of pregnancy. However, studies examining plant use for diabetes treatment are necessary to confirm its possible effects and its safety for the mother and fetus. The objective of this literature review was to conduct a survey of plant species that are utilized worldwide and their stated therapeutic uses. A literature search was performed using the terms "diabetes and pregnancy", which resulted in the identification of 31,272 articles. Of these studies, only 12 (0.0038%) were related to medicinal plants, demonstrating that there has been little investigation into this issue. Of the papers analyzed in this review, half evaluated plant leaves, indicating that these scientific studies attempted to reproduce the preparations commonly used by various populations, i.e., in the form of tea. Additionally, more than 90% of studies utilized experimental animals to evaluate the maternal-fetal safety of medicinal plant substances that may potentially be dangerous for humans. Thus, once confidence levels for plant-derived substances are established based on toxicological analyses and safety is confirmed, it is possible that plants will be used to complement conventional diabetes therapies. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Effect of pesticides on the uptake and transport of radiophosphorus in horse-bean and cucumber plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanker, I; Taimr, L; Kudelova, A [Vyzkumne Ustavy Rostlinne Vyroby, Prague (Czechoslovakia). Ustav Ochrany Rostlin

    1977-01-01

    During the treatment of the roots of intact bean and cucumber plants with the preparation Pirimor (pirimicarb) and on the second day after application of the insecticides Bi 58 (dimethoate), Pirimor and Lannate (methomyl) to roots diminished /sup 32/P uptake was also noted after treatment of overground parts of bean plants with the preparation Pirimor. On the other hand, on the second day after application of the fungicide Folcidin (cypendazole) to the roots of cucumber plants /sup 32/P uptake was significantly stimulated, radioactivity being accumulated in the overground parts of plants.

  15. Waste Treatment Plant LAW Evaporation: Antifoam Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAICH, MARKA

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the work performed to determine the performance and fate of several commercial antifoams during evaporation of various simulants of Envelope A, B, and C mixed with simulated River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) recycle streams. Chemical and radiation stability of selected antifoams was also investigated.Contributors to this effort include: Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), DOW Corning Analytical, and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC)

  16. Waste Treatment Plant Liquid Effluent Treatability Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUECK, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) provided a forecast of the radioactive, dangerous liquid effluents expected to be generated by the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The forecast represents the liquid effluents generated from the processing of 25 distinct batches of tank waste through the WTP. The WTP liquid effluents will be stored, treated, and disposed of in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) evaluated the treatability of the WTP liquid effluents in the LERFIETF. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the forecast to the LERFIETF treatability envelope, which provides information on the items that determine if a liquid effluent is acceptable for receipt and treatment at the LERFIETF. The WTP liquid effluent forecast is outside the current LERFlETF treatability envelope. There are several concerns that must be addressed before the WTP liquid effluents can be accepted at the LERFIETF

  17. Isotope aided studies of pesticide residues during food processing. Report of a final research co-ordination meeting held in Bangkok, Thailand, 31 January - 4 February 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The use of agrochemicals in general and pesticides in particular has greatly aided crop production, protected man from diseases, decreased losses of stored grains and has generally improved man's welfare. One of the steps in ensuring safety of pesticides is adequate monitoring programmes for residue levels in food products and the agricultural environment. Oil-bearing plants often receive heavy pesticide treatment and known to accumulate high concentration of pesticide residues. Technical documents included in this volume report effect of refining or processing of various oil crops like soybean, olive oil, coconut, rapeseed, sunflower cottonseed corn, peanut oil on 14 C-compound pesticide residues. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Isotope aided studies of pesticide residues during food processing. Report of a final research co-ordination meeting held in Bangkok, Thailand, 31 January - 4 February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The use of agrochemicals in general and pesticides in particular has greatly aided crop production, protected man from diseases, decreased losses of stored grains and has generally improved man`s welfare. One of the steps in ensuring safety of pesticides is adequate monitoring programmes for residue levels in food products and the agricultural environment. Oil-bearing plants often receive heavy pesticide treatment and known to accumulate high concentration of pesticide residues. Technical documents included in this volume report effect of refining or processing of various oil crops like soybean, olive oil, coconut, rapeseed, sunflower cottonseed corn, peanut oil on {sup 14}C-compound pesticide residues.

  19. Effluent treatment plant and decontamination centre, Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, C.P.; Agarwal, K.

    2017-01-01

    The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, has a number of plants and laboratories, which generate Radioactive Liquid Waste and Protective Wears. Two facilities have been established in late 1960s to cater to this requirement. The Centre, on the average generates about 50,000 m"3 of active liquid effluents of varying specific activities. The Effluent Treatment Plant was setup to receive and process radioactive liquids generated by various facilities of BARC in Trombay. It also serves a single-point discharge facility to enable monitoring of radioactive effluents discharged from the Trombay site. About 120-150 Te of protective wears and inactive apparel are generated annually from various radioactive facilities and laboratories of BARC. In addition, contaminated fuel assembly components are generated by DHRUVA and formerly by CIRUS. These components require decontamination before its recycle to the fuel assembly process. The Decontamination Centre, setup in late 1960s, is mandated to carry out the above mentioned decontamination activities

  20. TBP production plant effluent treatment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriniwas, C.; Sugilal, G.; Wattal, P.K.

    2004-06-01

    TBP production facility at Heavy Water Plant, Talcher generates about 2000 litres of effluent per 200 kg batch. The effluent is basically an aqueous solution containing dissolved and dispersed organics such as dibutyl phosphate, butanol etc. The effluent has high salinity, chemical oxygen demand (30-80 g/L) and pungent odour. It requires treatment before discharge. A chemical precipitation process using ferric chloride was developed for quantitative separation of organics from the aqueous part of the effluent. This process facilitates the discharge of the aqueous effluent. Results of the laboratory and bench scale experiments on actual effluent samples are presented in this report. (author)

  1. Water treatment for 500 MWe PHWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasist, Sudheer; Sharma, M.C.; Agarwal, N.K.

    1995-01-01

    Large quantities of treated water is required for power generation. For a typical 500 MWe PHWR inland station with cooling towers, raw water at the rate of 6000 m 3 /hr is required. Impurities in cooling water give rise to the problems of corrosion, scaling, microbiological contamination, fouling, silical deposition etc. These problems lead to increased maintenance cost, reduced heat transfer efficiency, and possible production cut backs or shutdowns. The problems in coastal based power plants are more serious because of the highly corrosive nature of sea water used for cooling. An overview of the cooling water systems and water treatment method is enumerated. (author). 2 refs., 1 fig

  2. SELECTIVITY OF PESTICIDES OVER PREDATORS OF COTTON PLANT PESTS SELETIVIDADE DE INSETICIDAS SOBRE O COMPLEXO DE PREDADORES DAS PRAGAS DO ALGODOEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izidro dos Santos de Lima Júnior

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    The cotton plant hosts a complex of pests that can damage plant structures. Its supported development, in this agroecosystem, demands the implementation of an integrated pest management (IPM system. The goal of this research was to study the selectivity of pesticides over predators of cotton plant pests. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with 9 treatments (84 days after the emergence and 4 replicates. The sampling involved the beat cloth method, with 5 beats per plot, allowing to identify and count the living predators. Clotianidin 500 WP (200 g ha-1, Carbosulfan 400 SC (400 mL ha-1, Benfuracarb 400 EC (450 mL ha-1, Cartap hydrochloride 500 SP (1,000 g ha-1, Thiamethoxam 250 WG (200 g ha-1, and Acetamiprid 200 SP (150 g ha-1 were not selective for the complex of the predators identified, with mortality percentages ranging from moderately toxic to toxic. Etofenprox 300 EC (450 mL ha-1 was the most toxic pesticide, when compared to the others treatments. The Flonicamid 500 WG (150 g ha-1 treatment was selective, with average of predators

  3. Spatially resolved investigation of systemic and contact pesticides in plant material by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbig, Stefanie; Brunn, Hubertus E; Spengler, Bernhard; Schulz, Sabine

    2015-09-01

    Distribution of pesticides both on the surface of leaves and in cross sections of plant stem and leaves was investigated using desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) with a spatial resolution of 50-100 μm. Two commercially available insecticide sprays containing different contact pesticides were applied onto leaves of Cotoneaster horizontalis, and the distributions of all active ingredients were directly analyzed. The first spray contained pyrethrins and rapeseed oil, both known as natural insecticides. Each component showed an inhomogeneous spreading throughout the leaf, based on substance polarity and solubility. The second spray contained the synthetic insecticides imidacloprid and methiocarb. Imidacloprid accumulated on the border of the leaf, while methiocarb was distributed more homogenously. In order to investigate the incorporation of a systemically acting pesticide into Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, a commercially available insecticide tablet containing dimethoate was spiked to the soil of the plant. Cross sections of the stem and leaf were obtained 25 and 60 days after application. Dimethoate was mainly detected in the transport system of the plant after 25 days, while it was found to be homogenously distributed in a leaf section after 60 days.

  4. Electrochemical process for the treatment of water contaminated with organophosphorus pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, Youssef; Agengui, Lamia; Abdelhedi, Ridha

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is the use of electrochemical process for the total mineralization of water contaminated with organophosphorus pesticides like chloropyrifos. This pesticide is widely used both for agricultural pest control and in households as a termiticide. The process was studied under galvanostatic polarization mode using Ta/PbO 2 anodes and graphite carbon bar as cathode. The kinetic of organic matter decay and the mineralization efficiency were evaluated by means of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurement. The influence of the experimental parameters such as the initial concentration of chloropyrifos, temperature, and current density, on the electrochemical process performance was investigated. The experimental results showed that COD removal always follows a pseudo-first-order kinetics. The degradation rate increased drastically with increasing current density and temperature. However, it decreased with the increase of the initial pollutant concentrations. Very high organic matter degradation, approximately 90 pour cent in 10 h experiments, was obtained.

  5. Multiresidue method for pesticide residue analysis in food of animal and plant origin based on GC or LC and MS or MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Eva; Muñoz, Gloria; Pineda, Laura; Serrahima, Eulalia; Centrich, Francesc

    2012-01-01

    A multiresidue method based on GC or LC and MS or MS/MS for the determination of 204 pesticides in diverse food matrixes of animal and plant origin is described. The method can include different stages of cleanup according to the chemical characteristics of each sample. Samples were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction. Those with a high fat content or that contained chlorophyll required further purification by gel permeation chromatography and/or SPE (ENVI-Carb). The methodology developed here was fully validated; the LOQs for the 204 pesticides are presented. The LOQ values lie between 0.01 to 0.02 mg/kg. However, in some cases, mainly in baby food, they were as low as 0.003 mg/kg, thereby meeting European Union requirements on maximum residue levels for pesticides, as outlined in European regulation 396/2005 and the Commission Directive 2003/13/EC. The procedure has been accredited for a wide scope of pesticides and matrixes by the Spanish Accreditation Body (ENAC) following ISO/IEC 17025:2005, as outlined in ENAC technical note NT-19.

  6. Sensitive Detection of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Medicinal Plants Using Ultrasound-Assisted Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Combined with Sweeping Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jin-Chao; Hu, Ji; Cao, Ji-Liang; Wan, Jian-Bo; He, Cheng-Wei; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Hu, Hao; Li, Peng

    2016-02-03

    A simple, rapid, and sensitive method using ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UA-DLLME) combined with sweeping micellar electrokinetic chromatography (sweeping-MEKC) has been developed for the determination of nine organophosphorus pesticides (chlorfenvinphos, parathion, quinalphos, fenitrothion, azinphos-ethyl, parathion-methyl, fensulfothion, methidathion, and paraoxon). The important parameters that affect the UA-DLLME and sweeping efficiency were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed method provided 779.0-6203.5-fold enrichment of the nine pesticides compared to the normal MEKC method. The limits of detection ranged from 0.002 to 0.008 mg kg(-1). The relative standard deviations of the peak area ranged from 1.2 to 6.5%, indicating the good repeatability of the method. Finally, the developed UA-DLLME-sweeping-MEKC method has been successfully applied to the analysis of the investigated pesticides in several medicinal plants, including Lycium chinense, Dioscorea opposite, Codonopsis pilosula, and Panax ginseng, indicating that this method is suitable for the determination of trace pesticide residues in real samples with complex matrices.

  7. Microbial pesticide removal in rapid sand filters for drinking water treatment – Potential and kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Mathilde Jørgensen; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    Filter sand samples, taken from aerobic rapid sand filters used for treating groundwater at three Danish waterworks, were investigated for their pesticide removal potential and to assess the kinetics of the removal process. Microcosms were set up with filter sand, treated water, and the pesticides...... or metabolites mecoprop (MCPP), bentazone, glyphosate and p-nitrophenol were applied in initial concentrations of 0.03–2.4 μg/L. In all the investigated waterworks the concentration of pesticides in the water decreased – MCPP decreased to 42–85%, bentazone to 15–35%, glyphosate to 7–14% and p-nitrophenol 1....../L) increased from 0.21%/g filter sand to 0.75%/g filter sand, when oxygen availability was increased from 0.28 mg O2/g filter sand to 1.09 mg O2/g filter sand. Bentazone was initially cleaved in the removal process. A metabolite, which contained the carbonyl group, was removed rapidly from the water phase...

  8. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus velezensis S3-1, a potential biological pesticide with plant pathogen inhibiting and plant promoting capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qing; Jiang, Qiuyue; Zhao, Lei; Su, Cuizhu; Li, Songshuo; Si, Fangyi; Li, Shanshan; Zhou, Chenhao; Mu, Yonglin; Xiao, Ming

    2017-10-10

    Antagonistic soil microorganisms, which are non-toxic, harmless non-pollutants, can effectively reduce the density of pathogenic species by some ways. Bacillus velezensis strain S3-1 was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of cucumber, and was shown to inhibit plant pathogens, promote plant growth and efficiently colonize rhizosphere soils. The strain produced 13 kinds of lipopeptide antibiotics, belonging to the surfactin, iturin and fengycin families. Here, we presented the complete genome sequence of S3-1. The genome consists of one chromosome without plasmids and also contains the biosynthetic gene cluster that encodes difficidin, macrolactin, surfactin and fengycin. The genome contains 86 tRNA genes, 27 rRNA genes and 57 antibiotic-related genes. The complete genome sequence of B. velezensis S3-1 provides useful information to further detect the molecular mechanisms behind antifungal actions, and will facilitate its potential as a biological pesticide in the agricultural industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of an alternative method for wastewater treatment containing pesticides using solar photocatalytic oxidation and constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberidou, Chrysanthi; Kitsiou, Vasiliki; Lambropoulou, Dimitra A; Antoniadis, Αpostolos; Ntonou, Eleftheria; Zalidis, George C; Poulios, Ioannis

    2017-06-15

    The present study proposes an integrated system based on the synergetic action of solar photocatalytic oxidation with surface flow constructed wetlands for the purification of wastewater contaminated with pesticides. Experiments were conducted at pilot scale using simulated wastewater containing the herbicide clopyralid. Three photocatalytic methods under solar light were investigated: the photo-Fenton and the ferrioxalate reagent as well as the combination of photo-Fenton with TiO 2 P25, which all led to similar mineralization rates. The subsequent treatment in constructed wetlands resulted in further decrease of DOC and inorganic ions concentrations, especially of NO 3 - . Clopyralid was absent in the outlet of the wetlands, while the concentration of the detected intermediates was remarkably low. These findings are in good agreement with the results of phytotoxicity of the wastewater, after treatment with the ferrioxalate/wetlands process, which was significantly reduced. Thus, this integrated system based on solar photocatalysis and constructed wetlands has the potential to effectively detoxify wastewater containing pesticides, producing a purified effluent which could be exploited for reuse applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ecotoxicological bioassays of sediment leachates in a river bed flanked by decommissioned pesticide plants in Nantong City, East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Wang, Fenghe; Wan, Jinzhong; He, Jian; Li, Qun; Qiang Chen; Gao, Jay; Lin, Yusuo; Zhang, Shengtian

    2017-03-01

    Traditionally, the toxicity of river contaminants is analyzed chemically or physically through river bed sediments. The biotoxicity of polluted sediment leachates has not caught our attention. This study aims to overcome this deficiency through a battery of biotests which were conducted to monitor comprehensive toxicity of sediment leachates for the Yaogang River in East Jiangsu Province of China, which is in close proximity to former pesticide plants. The general physical and chemical parameters of major pollutants were analyzed from river bed sediments collected at five strategic locations. The ecotoxicity analyses undertaken include overall fish (adult zebrafish) acute toxicity, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri) bioassay, and zebrafish embryo toxicity assay. Compared with the control group, sediment leachates increased the lethality, inhibited the embryos hatching and induced development abnormalities of zebrafish embryos, and inhibited the luminescence of V. fischeri. The results show that sediment leachates may assume various toxic effects, depending on the test organism. This diverse toxicity to aquatic organisms reflects their different sensitivity to sediment leachates. It is found clearly that V. fischeri was the organism which was characterized by the highest sensitivity to the sediment leachates. The complicated toxicity of leachates was not caused by one single factor but by multiple pollutants together. This indicates the need of estimations of sediment leachate not only taking into account chemical detection but also of applying the biotests to the problem. Thus, multigroup bioassays are necessary to realistically evaluate river ecological risks imposed by leachates.

  11. Les déséquilibres biologiques provoqués par les traitements pesticides de la plante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. CHABOUSSOU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available L'influence qu'exercent les pesticides sur la physiologie et la biochimie des végétaux peut se répercuter sur les déprédateurs vivant aux dépens de ceux-ci. La présente étude est consacrée aux effets opérés dans ce sens par le DDT, le parathion et le carbaryl à l'égard de l'araignée rouge (Panonychus ulmi Koch, d'Eotetranychus carpini f. vitis Dosse et de Tetranychus urticae Koch sur vigne. Les trois insecticides favorisent le développement de ces acariens à la suite de modifications biochimiques de la plante qui sont analysées. Les fongicides zinèbe, manèbe et propinèbe exercent également une action sur le végétal qui devient alors plus sensible aux attaques de l'oïdium de la vigne. L'auteur souligne toute l'importance qu'il y a à tenir compte de ces phénomènes lors de la mise en œuvre de programmes de lutte intégrée.

  12. Identification of Potential Plants Producing Tannin-protein Complex for a-amylase as Botanical Pesticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asriyah Firdausi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Research  on  the  development  of  botanical  pesticides  should  be developed  through  new  methods,  such  as  by  inhibiting the  activity  of  digestive enzymes  by  secondary  metabolites.  The  aim  of  this  study  was  to  identify some  of  potential  plants  as  a  source  of  tannin-protein  complexes  to  inhibitthe  activity  of  - amylase.  The  study  of  identification  of  potential  plants producing  the  active  ingredient  tannin-protein  complex  was  divided  into  three stages,  1  identification  of  potential  plants  producing  tannin,  2  isolation  of tannin-protein  complexes,  and  3  in  vitro  test  of  tannin-protein  complexes effect  of  the  -amylase activity.  Some  of  the observed  plants  were  sidaguri  leaf (Sida rhombifolia, melinjo leaf (Gnetum gnemon, gamal leaf (Gliricidia sepium,lamtoro  leaf  (Leucaena  leucocephala ,  betel  nut  (Areca  catechu ,  and  crude gambier  (Uncaria  gambir a s  a  source of  tannins  and  melinjo  seed was  used  asprotein  source.  Betel  nut  and  melinjo  seed  were  the  best  source  of  tannin-protein  complex,  tannin  content  1.77  mg  TAE/mL  with  antioxidant  activity  of  90%,the  ability  to  inhibit  the  activity  of  -amylase by  95%  with  IC 50  values  of 10 mg/mL.Key words: Tannin, protein, -amylase, botanical pesticides,Areca catechu, Gnetum gnemon.

  13. An Update on Modifications to Water Treatment Plant Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water treatment plant (WTP) model is an EPA tool for informing regulatory options. WTP has a few versions: 1). WTP2.2 can help in regulatory analysis. An updated version (WTP3.0) will allow plant-specific analysis (WTP-ccam) and thus help meet plant-specific treatment objectives...

  14. Dynamics of pesticide uptake into plants: From system functioning to parsimonious modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Wieland, Peter; Wannaz, Cedric

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic plant uptake models are suitable for assessing environmental fate and behavior of toxic chemicals in food crops. However, existing tools mostly lack in-depth analysis of system dynamics. Furthermore, no existing model is available as parameterized version that is easily applicable for use...

  15. Aqueous Waste Treatment Plant at Aldermaston

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keene, D.; Fowler, J.; Frier, S.

    2006-01-01

    For over half a century the Pangbourne Pipeline formed part of AWE's liquid waste management system. Since 1952 the 11.5 mile pipeline carried pre-treated wastewater from the Aldermaston site for safe dispersal in the River Thames. Such discharges were in strict compliance with the exacting conditions demanded by all regulatory authorities, latterly, those of the Environment Agency. In March 2005 AWE plc closed the Pangbourne Pipeline and ceased discharges of treated active aqueous waste to the River Thames via this route. The ability to effectively eliminate active liquid discharges to the environment is thanks to an extensive programme of waste minimization on the Aldermaston site, together with the construction of a new Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). Waste minimization measures have reduced the effluent arisings by over 70% in less than four years. The new WTP has been built using best available technology (evaporation followed by reverse osmosis) to remove trace levels of radioactivity from wastewater to exceptionally stringent standards. Active operation has confirmed early pilot scale trials, with the plant meeting throughput and decontamination performance targets, and final discharges being at or below limits of detection. The performance of the plant allows the treated waste to be discharged safely as normal industrial effluent from the AWE site. Although the project has had a challenging schedule, the project was completed on programme, to budget and with an exemplary safety record (over 280,000 hours in construction with no lost time events) largely due to a pro-active partnering approach between AWE plc and RWE NUKEM and its sub-contractors. (authors)

  16. Agricultural use of municipal wastewater treatment plant ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural use of municipal wastewater treatment plant sewage sludge as a source of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) contamination in the environment The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in support of EPA mission to protect human health and the environment. HEASD research program supports Goal 1 (Clean Air) and Goal 4 (Healthy People) of EPA strategic plan. More specifically, our division conducts research to characterize the movement of pollutants from the source to contact with humans. Our multidisciplinary research program produces Methods, Measurements, and Models to identify relationships between and characterize processes that link source emissions, environmental concentrations, human exposures, and target-tissue dose. The impact of these tools is improved regulatory programs and policies for EPA.

  17. An automation model of Effluent Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alberto Oliveira Lima Roque

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and intensification of industrial activities have increased the deterioration of natural resources. Industrial, hospital and residential wastes are dumped directly into landfills without processing, polluting soils. This action will have consequences later, because the liquid substance resulting from the putrefaction of organic material plows into the soil to reach water bodies. Cities arise without planning, industrial and household wastes are discharged into rivers, lakes and oceans without proper treatment, affecting water resources. It is well known that in the next century there will be fierce competition for fresh water on the planet, probably due to the scarcity of it. Demographic expansion has occurred without proper health planning, degrading oceans, lakes and rivers. Thus, a large percentage of world population suffers from diseases related to water pollution. Accordingly, it can be concluded that sewage treatment is essential to human survival, to preserve rivers, lakes and oceans. An Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP treats wastewater to reduce its pollution to acceptable levels before sending them to the oceans or rivers. To automate the operation of an ETP, motors, sensors and logic blocks, timers and counters are needed. These functions are achieved with programmable logic controllers (PLC and Supervisory Systems. The Ladder language is used to program controllers and is a pillar of the Automation and Control Engineering. The supervisory systems allow process information to be monitored, while the PLC are responsible for control and data acquisition. In the age we live in, process automation is used in an increasing scale in order to provide higher quality, raise productivity and improve the proposed activities. Therefore, an automatic ETP will improve performance and efficiency to handle large volumes of sewage. Considering the growing importance of environmental awareness with special emphasis

  18. Polymeric Nanoparticles as a Metolachlor Carrier: Water-Based Formulation for Hydrophobic Pesticides and Absorption by Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yujia; Wu, Yan; Zhao, Caiyan; Xu, Yong; Lu, Jianqing; Xiang, Sheng; Zong, Fulin; Wu, Xuemin

    2017-08-30

    Pesticide formulation is highly desirable for effective utilization of pesticide and environmental pollution reduction. Studies of pesticide delivery system such as microcapsules are developing prosperously. In this work, we chose polymeric nanoparticles as a pesticide delivery system and metolachlor was used as a hydrophobic pesticide model to study water-based mPEG-PLGA nanoparticle formulation. Preparation, characterization results showed that the resulting nanoparticles enhanced "water solubility" of hydrophobic metolachlor and contained no organic solvent or surfactant, which represent one of the most important sources of pesticide pollution. After the release study, absorption of Cy5-labeled nanoparticles into rice roots suggested a possible transmitting pathway of this metolachlor formulation and increased utilization of metolachlor. Furthermore, the bioassay test demonstrated that this nanoparticle showed higher effect than non-nano forms under relatively low concentrations on Oryza sativa, Digitaria sanguinalis. In addition, a simple cytotoxicity test involving metolachlor and metolachlor-loaded nanoparticles was performed, indicating toxicity reduction of the latter to the preosteoblast cell line. All of these results showed that those polymeric nanoparticles could serve as a pesticide carrier with lower environmental impact, comparable effect, and effective delivery.

  19. Cytochrome P450s from the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda): responses to plant allelochemicals and pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudo, M; Hilliou, F; Fricaux, T; Audant, P; Feyereisen, R; Le Goff, G

    2015-02-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda is a polyphagous lepidopteran pest that encounters a wide range of toxic plant metabolites in its diet. The ability of this insect to adapt to its chemical environment might be explained by the action of major detoxification enzymes such as cytochrome P450s (or CYP). Forty-two sequences coding for P450s were identified and most of the transcripts were found to be expressed in the midgut, Malpighian tubules and fat body of S. frugiperda larvae. Relatively few P450s were expressed in the established cell line Sf9. In order to gain information on how these genes respond to different chemical compounds, larvae and Sf9 cells were exposed to plant secondary metabolites (indole, indole-3-carbinol, quercetin, 2-tridecanone and xanthotoxin), insecticides (deltamethrin, fipronil, methoprene, methoxyfenozide) or model inducers (clofibrate and phenobarbital). Several genes were induced by plant chemicals such as P450s from the 6B, 321A and 9A subfamilies. Only a few genes responded to insecticides, belonging principally to the CYP9A family. There was little overlap between the response in vivo measured in the midgut and the response in vitro in Sf9 cells. In addition, regulatory elements were detected in the promoter region of these genes. In conclusion, several P450s were identified that could potentially be involved in the adaptation of S. frugiperda to its chemical environment. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  20. Applications of phytochemical and in vitro techniques for reducing over-harvesting of medicinal and pesticidal plants and generating income for the rural poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarasan, Viswambharan; Kite, Geoffrey C; Sileshi, Gudeta W; Stevenson, Philip C

    2011-07-01

    Plants provide medicine and pest control resources for millions of poor people world-wide. Widespread harvesting of medicinal and pesticidal plants puts pressure on natural populations, thus severely compromising their contribution to the income and well-being of traders and consumers. The development of in vitro propagation techniques appropriate for developing countries will provide a robust platform for effective propagation and cultivation of endangered plants. This review focuses on advances in the application of phytochemical and in vitro tools to identify and rapidly propagate medicinal and pesticidal plants. Problems of over-harvesting can be alleviated and ex situ cultivation in agroforestry systems can be facilitated through improving seed germination, in vitro cloning and the use of mycorrhizal fungi. We also present a case for effective use of phytochemical analyses for the accurate identification of elite materials from wild stands and validation of the desired quality in order to counter loss of efficacy in the long run through selection, propagation or ex situ management in agroforestry systems. Future prospects are discussed in the context of medicinal activity screening, sustainable propagation, on-farm planting, management and utilization.

  1. Radiotracer Applications in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Wastewater containing pollutants resulting from municipal and industrial activities are normally collected in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for processing before discharge to the environment. The WWTPs are the last barrier against contamination of downstream surface waters such as rivers, lakes and sea. Treated wastewater is reused for irrigation, particularly in arid and semi-arid countries. Therefore, it is very important to maintain optimal operating conditions of WWTPs to eliminate or reduce environmental pollution. Wastewater treatment plants are complicated systems, where the processes of mixing, separation, aeration, biological and chemical reactions occur. A WWTP is basically a multiphase system, and the efficiency of an installation strongly depends on liquid, solid and gas phase flow structures and their residence time distributions (RTDs). However, the fluid dynamic properties of such systems are not yet completely understood, rendering difficult the theoretical prediction of important process parameters such as flow rates, phase distributions, mixing and sediment characteristics. Tracer techniques are very useful tools to investigate the efficiency of purification in WWTPs, aiding both their design and performance optimization. There are many kinds of tracers. Radioactive tracers are the most sensitive and are largely used for on-line diagnosis of various operations in WWTPs. The success of radiotracer applications rests upon their extremely high detection sensitivity, and the strong resistance against severe process conditions. During the last few decades, many radiotracer studies have been conducted worldwide for investigation of various installations for wastewater treatment, such as mixer, aeration tank, clarifiers, digester, filter, wetland and oxidation units. Various radiotracer methods and techniques have been developed by individual tracer groups. However, the information necessary for the preservation of knowledge and transfer of

  2. Pesticide use and application: An Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abhilash, P.C.; Singh, Nandita

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural development continues to remain the most important objective of Indian planning and policy. In the process of development of agriculture, pesticides have become an important tool as a plant protection agent for boosting food production. Further, pesticides play a significant role by keeping many dreadful diseases. However, exposure to pesticides both occupationally and environmentally causes a range of human health problems. It has been observed that the pesticides exposures are increasingly linked to immune suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities and cancer. Currently, India is the largest producer of pesticides in Asia and ranks twelfth in the world for the use of pesticides. A vast majority of the population in India is engaged in agriculture and is therefore exposed to the pesticides used in agriculture. Although Indian average consumption of pesticide is far lower than many other developed economies, the problem of pesticide residue is very high in India. Pesticide residue in several crops has also affected the export of agricultural commodities in the last few years. In this context, pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, proper application technologies, and integrated pest management are some of the key strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides. There is a dearth of studies related to these issues in India. Therefore, the thrust of this paper was to review the technology of application of pesticides in India and recommend future strategies for the rational use of pesticides and minimizing the problems related to health and environment.

  3. Focus on 14 sewage treatment plants in the Mpumalanga Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to identify the treatment methods used in different sewage treatment plants (STPs) in the Mpumalanga Province and to determine the efficiency of wastewater treatment by these plants, municipal STPs were surveyed, and raw and treated wastewater samples collected. A total of 14 STPs were visited and the ...

  4. Brewer, Maine Wastewater Treatment Plant Recognized for Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brewer Water Pollution Control Facility was recently honored with a 2015 Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Excellence Award by the US Environmental Protection Agency's New England regional office.

  5. Towards energy positive wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gikas, Petros

    2017-12-01

    Energy requirement for wastewater treatment is of major concern, lately. This is not only due to the increasing cost of electrical energy, but also due to the effects to the carbon footprint of the treatment process. Conventional activated sludge process for municipal wastewater treatment may consume up to 60% of the total plant power requirements for the aeration of the biological tank. One way to deal with high energy demand is by eliminating aeration needs, as possible. The proposed process is based on enhanced primary solids removal, based on advanced microsieving and filtration processes, by using a proprietary rotating fabric belt MicroScreen (pore size: 100-300 μm) followed by a proprietary Continuous Backwash Upflow Media Filter or cloth media filter. About 80-90% reduction in TSS and 60-70% reduction in BOD5 has been achieved by treating raw municipal wastewater with the above process. Then the partially treated wastewater is fed to a combination low height trickling filters, combined with encapsulated denitrification, for the removal of the remaining BOD and nitrogen. The biosolids produced by the microsieve and the filtration backwash concentrate are fed to an auger press and are dewatered to about 55% solids. The biosolids are then partially thermally dried (to about 80% solids) and conveyed to a gasifier, for the co-production of thermal (which is partly used for biosolids drying) and electrical energy, through syngas combustion in a co-generation engine. Alternatively, biosolids may undergo anaerobic digestion for the production of biogas and then electric energy. The energy requirements for complete wastewater treatment, per volume of inlet raw wastewater, have been calculated to 0.057 kWh/m 3 , (or 0.087 kWh/m 3 , if UV disinfection has been selected), which is about 85% below the electric energy needs of conventional activated sludge process. The potential for net electric energy production through gasification/co-generation, per volume of

  6. Pesticide tolerant and phosphorus solubilizing Pseudomonas sp. strain SGRAJ09 isolated from pesticides treated Achillea clavennae rhizosphere soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasankar, R; Manju Gayathry, G; Sathiavelu, A; Ramalingam, C; Saravanan, V S

    2013-05-01

    In this study, an attempt was made to identify an effective phosphate solubilizing bacteria from pesticide polluted field soil. Based on the formation of solubilization halo on Pikovskaya's agar, six isolates were selected and screened for pesticide tolerance and phosphate (P) solubilization ability through liquid assay. The results showed that only one strain (SGRAJ09) obtained from Achillea clavennae was found to tolerate maximum level of the pesticides tested and it was phylogenetically identified as Pseudomonas sp. It possessed a wide range of pesticide tolerance, ranging from 117 μg mL(-1) for alphamethrin to 2,600 μg mL(-1) for endosulfan. The available P concentrations increased with the maximum and double the maximum dose of monocrotophos and imidacloprid, respectively. On subjected to FT-IR and HPLC analysis, the presence of organic acids functional group in the culture broth and the production of gluconic acid as dominant acid aiding the P solubilization were identified. On comparison with control broth, monocrotophos and imidacloprid added culture broth showed quantitatively high organic acids production. In addition to gluconic acid production, citric and acetic acids were also observed in the pesticide amended broth. Furthermore, the Pseudomonas sp. strain SGRAJ09 possessed all the plant growth promoting traits tested. In presence of monocrotophos and imidacloprid, its plant growth promoting activities were lower than that of the pesticides unamended treatment.

  7. Anaerobic bacteria in wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyprowski, Marcin; Stobnicka-Kupiec, Agata; Ławniczek-Wałczyk, Anna; Bakal-Kijek, Aleksandra; Gołofit-Szymczak, Małgorzata; Górny, Rafał L

    2018-03-28

    The objective of this study was to assess exposure to anaerobic bacteria released into air from sewage and sludge at workplaces from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Samples of both sewage and sludge were collected at six sampling points and bioaerosol samples were additionally collected (with the use of a 6-stage Andersen impactor) at ten workplaces covering different stages of the technological process. Qualitative identification of all isolated strains was performed using the biochemical API 20A test. Additionally, the determination of Clostridium pathogens was carried out using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The average concentration of anaerobic bacteria in the sewage samples was 5.49 × 10 4 CFU/mL (GSD = 85.4) and in sludge-1.42 × 10 6 CFU/g (GSD = 5.1). In turn, the average airborne bacterial concentration was at the level of 50 CFU/m 3 (GSD = 5.83) and the highest bacterial contamination (4.06 × 10 3  CFU/m 3 ) was found in winter at the bar screens. In total, 16 bacterial species were determined, from which the predominant strains belonged to Actinomyces, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, Propionibacterium and Peptostreptococcus genera. The analysis revealed that mechanical treatment processes were responsible for a substantial emission of anaerobic bacteria into the air. In both the sewage and air samples, Clostridium perfringens pathogen was identified. Anaerobic bacteria were widely present both in the sewage and in the air at workplaces from the WWTP, especially when the technological process was performed in closed spaces. Anaerobic bacteria formed small aggregates with both wastewater droplets and dust particles of sewage sludge origin and as such may be responsible for adverse health outcomes in exposed workers.

  8. DETERMINATION OF ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN DRINKING WATERS SAMPLED FROM CLUJ AND HUNEDOARA COUNTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA-ELISABETA LOVÁSZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of organochlorine pesticides in drinking waterssampled from Cluj and Hunedoara counties. Pesticides are found scattered indifferent environmental factors (water, air, soil wherefrom they are drawn off byvegetal and animal organisms. Water pollution by pesticides results from the plantprotection products industry and also from massive application of these resourcesin agriculture and other branches of economy. Pesticides can reach surface wateralong with dripping waters and by infiltration may reach the groundwater layers,organochlorine pesticides are most often found in the water sources (dieldrin,endrin, DDT, aldrin, lindane, heptachlor, etc. due to their increased persistence inthe external environment. This study followed up the determination oforganochlorine pesticides in 14 drinking water samples collected from the outputof water treatment plants in Cluj and Hunedoara counties that process surfacewater and deep-water sources. For identification of organochlorine pesticides, thegas chromatographic method after liquid-liquid extraction was used, by a gascromatograph Shimadzu GC 2010 with detector ECD (Electron CaptureDetection. There were not detected higher values than the method detection limit(0.01 μg/l in the drinking water samples collected and analyzed for both totalorganochlorine pesticides and components, which were well below the maximumconcentration admitted by Law 452/2002 regarding drinking water quality. Resultsare correlated with the sanitary protection areas for water sources and with the useof agricultural lands in the area. The solution to reduce risk of pesticides use isecological agriculture , which gains increasingly more ground in Romania too.

  9. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Wastewater Treatment Plant Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billing, Justin M.

    2016-10-16

    Feedstock cost is the greatest barrier to the commercial production of biofuels. The merits of any thermochemical or biological conversion process are constrained by their applicability to the lowest cost feedstocks. At PNNL, a recent resource assessment of wet waste feedstocks led to the identification of waste water treatment plant (WWTP) solids as a cost-negative source of biomass. WWTP solids disposal is a growing environmental concern [1, 2] and can account for up to half of WWTP operating costs. The high moisture content is well-suited for hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), avoiding the costs and parasitic energy losses associated with drying the feedstock for incineration. The yield and quality of biocrude and upgraded biocrude from WWTP solids is comparable to that obtained from algae feedstocks but the feedstock cost is $500-1200 less per dry ton. A collaborative project was initiated and directed by the Water Environment & Reuse Foundation (WERF) and included feedstock identification, dewatering, shipping to PNNL, conversion to biocrude by HTL, and catalytic hydrothermal gasification of the aqueous byproduct. Additional testing at PNNL included biocrude upgrading by catalytic hydrotreatment, characterization of the hydrotreated product, and a preliminary techno-economic analysis (TEA) based on empirical results. This short article will cover HTL conversion and biocrude upgrading. The WERF project report with complete HTL results is now available through the WERF website [3]. The preliminary TEA is available as a PNNL report [4].

  10. Performance of wastewater treatment plants in Jordan and suitability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... and NH4; therefore it is classified as a strong waste. ... Key words: Wastewater, treatment plants, water reuse, wastewater characteristics, wastewater treatment,. Jordan. ..... MSc. thesis, university of Jordan. Bataineh F, Najjar ...

  11. NPDES Permit for Crow Nation Water Treatment Plants in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit MT-0030538, the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs is authorized to discharge from the Crow Agency water treatment plants via the wastewater treatment facility located in Bighorn County, Montana to the Little Bighorn River.

  12. Medicinal plants used for the treatment of jaundice and hepatitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study deals with socio-economic documentation of medicinal plant species against jaundice and hepatitis. A total of 30 plant species belonging to 24 families were reported by local practitioners for the treatment of jaundice and hepatitis. The most important plant species are Adiantum capillus, Boerhaavia ...

  13. Extracts from Field Margin Weeds Provide Economically Viable and Environmentally Benign Pest Control Compared to Synthetic Pesticides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prisila Mkenda

    Full Text Available Plants with pesticidal properties have been investigated for decades as alternatives to synthetics, but most progress has been shown in the laboratory. Consequently, research on pesticidal plants is failing to address gaps in our knowledge that constrain their uptake. Some of these gaps are their evaluation of their efficacy under field conditions, their economic viability and impact on beneficial organisms. Extracts made from four abundant weed species found in northern Tanzania, Tithonia diversifolia, Tephrosia vogelii, Vernonia amygdalina and Lippia javanica offered effective control of key pest species on common bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris that was comparable to the pyrethroid synthetic, Karate. The plant pesticide treatments had significantly lower effects on natural enemies (lady beetles and spiders. Plant pesticide treatments were more cost effective to use than the synthetic pesticide where the marginal rate of return for the synthetic was no different from the untreated control, around 4USD/ha, compared to a rate of return of around 5.50USD/ha for plant pesticide treatments. Chemical analysis confirmed the presence of known insecticidal compounds in water extracts of T. vogelii (the rotenoid deguelin and T. diversifolia (the sesquiterpene lactone tagitinin A. Sesquiterpene lactones and the saponin vernonioside C were also identified in organic extracts of V. amygdalina but only the saponin was recorded in water extracts which are similar to those used in the field trial. Pesticidal plants were better able to facilitate ecosystem services whilst effectively managing pests. The labour costs of collecting and processing abundant plants near farm land were less than the cost of purchasing synthetic pesticides.

  14. Capacity of Albit® Plant Growth Stimulator for Mitigating Side-effects of Pesticides on Soil Microbial Respiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia N. Karpun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms give an early and integrated measure of soil functioning. In particular, soil microbial respiration is recommended for monitoring soil quality. The present study aims to determine the capacity of Albit® (poly-β-hydroxybutyrate, PHB to reduce the detrimental effects of pesticides on soil microbial respiration. The effects of three conventional pesticides (deltamethrin, dithianon, and difenoconazole on basal respiration (BR and substrate-induced respiration (SIR were assessed in the presence and absence of Albit®. The studied pesticides caused negative impacts on soil functioning, reducing BR and SIR. Applications of Albit® increased BR and SIR, and both BR and SIR were kept similar to the control when pesticides were applied with Albit®. PHB, an active ingredient of Albit®, is known to increase beneficial microflora in the rhizosphere due to its regulatory activity on indigenous microorganisms. Thus, more studies should be carried out under different edaphoclimatic conditions to study the benefits of Albit® applications along with pesticides in order to mitigate their side effects on soil microbial functioning.

  15. Medicinal plants indications from herbal healers for wound treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Willianne Alves do Nascimento; Regina Célia Sales Santos Veríssimo; Maria Lysete de Assis Bastos; Thaís Honório Lins Bernardo

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to identify medicinal plants indicated by commercial herbal healers for wound treatment, in street markets. A descriptive study conducted in a capital city in the northeast of Brazil, through interviews. The results indicate that plant commerce by healers of both genders, aged between 37 to 52 years, from those 69.3% learned about their function with family members. Forty-eight plant species were cited for wound treatment, between those, all participants cited Barbatimão and...

  16. Pesticide bioconcentration modelling for fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraíba, Lourival Costa

    2007-01-01

    The model presented allows simulating the pesticide concentration evolution in fruit trees and estimating the pesticide bioconcentration factor in fruits. Pesticides are non-ionic organic compounds that are degraded in soils cropped with woody species, fruit trees and other perennials. The model allows estimating the pesticide uptake by plants through the water transpiration stream and also the time in which maximum pesticide concentration occur in the fruits. The equation proposed presents the relationships between bioconcentration factor (BCF) and the following variables: plant water transpiration volume (Q), pesticide transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF), pesticide stem-water partition coefficient (K(Wood,W)), stem dry biomass (M) and pesticide dissipation rate in the soil-plant system (k(EGS)). The modeling started and was developed from a previous model "Fruit Tree Model" (FTM), reported by Trapp and collaborators in 2003, to which was added the hypothesis that the pesticide degradation in the soil follows a first order kinetic equation. The FTM model for pesticides (FTM-p) was applied to a hypothetic mango plant cropping (Mangifera indica) treated with paclobutrazol (growth regulator) added to the soil. The model fitness was evaluated through the sensitivity analysis of the pesticide BCF values in fruits with respect to the model entry data variability.

  17. Multistep bioassay to predict recolonization potential of emerging parasitoids after a pesticide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desneux, Nicolas; Ramirez-Romero, Ricardo; Kaiser, Laure

    2006-10-01

    Neurotoxic pyrethroid insecticides are widely used for crop protection, and lethal and sublethal perturbations can be expected in beneficial insects. Under laboratory conditions, the lethal and sublethal effects of deltamethrin on the aphid parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae M'Intosh (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were studied at the mummy stage and in emerging adults. Following a multistep bioassay, analyses were aimed at evaluating the effects of deltamethrin at various crucial steps in the recolonization process following a deltamethrin treatment: Parasitoid pupal development (emergence from the mummies), adult survival, and host-searching capacity. A four-armed olfactometer was used to investigate the effect of deltamethrin on host-searching behavior (a range of concentrations causing 0.4-79.4% mortality was tested), and a Potter tower was used to test the deltamethrin effect with a realistic application method (four concentrations were tested: 0.5, 5.0, 6.25, and 50 g active ingredient [a.i.]/ha). Deltamethrin reduced the percentage of emergence from mummies, but only when exposed to the 50 g a.i./ha concentration. However, for all concentrations tested, the insecticide induced a decrease in longevity after emergence from sprayed mummies and significant adult mortality when parasitoids walked on fresh residues on leaves. Indices were defined and predicted a high mortality and, thus, reduction of recolonization capacities. However, deltamethrin had no effect on orientation behavior toward aphid-infested plants for adults that survived a residual exposure to the insecticide. The impact of deltamethrin on recolonization via pupal emergence and interest in the methodology used are discussed.

  18. Citizen's Guide to Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    This guide provides suggestions on pest control and safety rules for pesticide use at home. Pest prevention may be possible by modification of pest habitat: removal of food and water sources, removal or destruction of pest shelter and breeding sites, and good horticultural practices that reduce plant stress. Nonchemical alternatives to pesticides…

  19. Tracer work in pesticide research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, B.P.

    1989-01-01

    Innumerable studies on the large number of pesticides being used throughout the world led to some adverse findings on the properties and behavior of these chemicals and their degradation products in revelation to potential toxicity and environmental pollution. However, it is also a fact (difficult to accept as it may) that the use of pesticides as an indirect means of increasing food production cannot yet be dispensed with despite the potential dangers attributed to it. What can be done is to insure its judicious application which means minimizing its effectiveness in controlling pest infestations. To be able to do this it is necessary to know not only what pesticide is to be used against a given pest but also the fate of pesticide after application to a particular environment under prevailing conditions. Knowledge of the distribution and persistence of the parent compounds under metabolites will also help either, to confirm or to dispel the alleged dangers posed by them. Radiotracer methodology is particularly effective for this type of work because it permits highly sensitive analysis with minimum clean-up and permits one to determine even the bound residues which defies ordinary extraction procedures. Some studies made are studies on fate of pesticides in plant after foliar application to plant needs, uptake and translocation of systemic pesticides, fate of pesticides in soil, bioaccumulation of pesticide by aquatic organisms, etc. This particular study is on distribution of pesticide among the components of a rice/fish ecosystem. This project aims to generate data from experiments conducted in a model ecosystem using radiolabelled lindane and carbo-furan. In both cases, results show a decline in extractable species from the recommended dosage of pesticide application although they tend to imbibe a considerable amount of pesticide. It is hoped that depuration in additional experiments will bring useful results. (Auth.)

  20. Systematic study of the contamination of wastewater treatment plant effluents by organic priority compounds in Almeria province (SE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barco-Bonilla, Nieves; Romero-González, Roberto; Plaza-Bolaños, Patricia; Martínez Vidal, José L; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2013-03-01

    The occurrence of priority organic pollutants in wastewater (WW) effluents was evaluated in a semi-arid area, characterized by a high agricultural and tourism activity, as Almeria province (Southeastern Spain). Twelve wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were sampled in three campaigns during 2011, obtaining a total of 33 WW samples, monitoring 226 compounds, including pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenolic compounds and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Certain banned organochlorine pesticides such as aldrin, pentachlorobenzene, o,p'-DDD and endosulfan lactone were found, and the most frequently detected pesticides were herbicides (diuron, triazines). PAHs and VOCs were also detected, noting that some of these pollutants were ubiquitous. Regarding phenolic compounds, 4-tertoctylphenol was found in all the WW samples at high concentration levels (up to 89.7 μg/L). Furthermore, it was observed that WW effluent samples were less contaminated in the second and third sampling periods, which corresponded to dry season. This evaluation revealed that despite the WW was treated in the WWTP, organic contaminants are still being detected in WW effluents and therefore they are released into the environment. Finally the risk of environmental threat due to the presence of some compounds in WWTP effluents, especially concerning 4-tertoctylphenol must be indicated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Pesticide Occurrence and Distribution in the Lower Clackamas River Basin, Oregon, 2000-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kurt D.; Sobieszczyk, Steven; Arnsberg, Andrew J.; Rinella, Frank A.

    2008-01-01

    Pesticide occurrence and distribution in the lower Clackamas River basin was evaluated in 2000?2005, when 119 water samples were analyzed for a suite of 86?198 dissolved pesticides. Sampling included the lower-basin tributaries and the Clackamas River mainstem, along with paired samples of pre- and post-treatment drinking water (source and finished water) from one of four drinking water-treatment plants that draw water from the lower river. Most of the sampling in the tributaries occurred during storms, whereas most of the source and finished water samples from the study drinking-water treatment plant were obtained at regular intervals, and targeted one storm event in 2005. In all, 63 pesticide compounds were detected, including 33 herbicides, 15 insecticides, 6 fungicides, and 9 pesticide degradation products. Atrazine and simazine were detected in about half of samples, and atrazine and one of its degradates (deethylatrazine) were detected together in 30 percent of samples. Other high-use herbicides such as glyphosate, triclopyr, 2,4-D, and metolachlor also were frequently detected, particularly in the lower-basin tributaries. Pesticides were detected in all eight of the lower-basin tributaries sampled, and were also frequently detected in the lower Clackamas River. Although pesticides were detected in all of the lower basin tributaries, the highest pesticide loads (amounts) were found in Deep and Rock Creeks. These medium-sized streams drain a mix of agricultural land (row crops and nurseries), pastureland, and rural residential areas. The highest pesticide loads were found in Rock Creek at 172nd Avenue and in two Deep Creek tributaries, North Fork Deep and Noyer Creeks, where 15?18 pesticides were detected. Pesticide yields (loads per unit area) were highest in Cow and Carli Creeks, two small streams that drain the highly urban and industrial northwestern part of the lower basin. Other sites having relatively high pesticide yields included middle Rock Creek and

  2. Degradation of non-biodegradable pesticides in water by coupling photo catalysis and bio treatment; Eliminacion de plaguicidas no biodegrabables en aguas mediante acoplamiento de fotocatalisis solar y oxidacion biologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros Martin, M. M.; Sanchez Perez, J. A.; Malato Rodriguez, S.

    2008-07-01

    The influence of pesticide concentration, expressed as dissolved organic carbon (DOC), on combined solar photo-Fenton and biological oxidation treatment was studied using wastewater containing different pure and commercial pesticides (dimethoate, oxydemeton-methyl, carbaryl, oxamyl, methomyl, imidacloprid, dimethoate and pyrimethanil). Different initial concentrations were assayed. Variation in biodegradability with photo catalytic treatment intensity was tested using Pseudomonas putida. Biodegradation efficiencies after the photoreaction were found to be lower for the pesticide solution with the higher concentration, showing that to achieve sufficient biodegradability, the photo-Fenton treatment time must be increased with pesticide concentration. Bio treatment was carried out in different reactor including sequencing batch reactor (SBR) mode. As revealed by the biodegradation kinetics, intermediates generated at the higher pesticide concentration caused lower carbon removal rates in spite of the longer photo-Fenton treatment time applied. One strategy for treating water with high concentrations of pesticides and overcoming the low biodegradability of photo-Fenton intermediates is to mix it with a biodegradable carbon source (wastewater containing an easily biodegradable substrate, such as urban wastewater) before biological oxidation. This combination of photo-Fenton and acclimatized activated sludge in several SBR cycles led to complete biodegradation of a pesticide solutions up to of 500 mg/L of DOC. (Author)

  3. Simultaneous determination of three pesticide adjuvant residues in plant-derived agro-products using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Jiang, Zejun; Cao, Xiaolin; Su, Hang; Shao, Hua; Jin, Fen; Abd El-Aty, A M; Wang, Jing

    2017-12-15

    Herein, an accurate and reliable isotope-labelled internal standard method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of three polar pesticide adjuvants, namely 2-pyrrolidone, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, and N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone in plant-derived agro-products. Matrices, including apple, cabbage, tomato, cucumber, rice, and wheat were extracted with a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe "QuEChERS" method and purified with a new clean-up sorbent (Z-Sep). A hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column (HILIC), exhibiting a lipophilic-hydrophilic character, was used to separate the three analytes over 10min using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Matrix effects in various matrices were evaluated and an isotope-labelled internal standard method was employed to compensate for ion enhancement/suppression effects. At three fortification levels (2.0, 5.0, and 20.0μg/kg), the mean recoveries ranged from 78.5 to 112.1% with relative standard deviations (RSDs)determination of the three tested pesticide adjuvant residues in agro-products of plant origin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. OPERATION OF THE HOUSEHOLD SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelina Pryszcz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In many rural communities the building of sewage collection and treatment system is still current and important problem of water and wastewater management. Besides the collection of sewage in the septic tank, the solution for wastewater treatment from individual buildings without access to sewerage system is the construction of household sewage treatment plants. Construction of household sewage treatment plant poses a number of challenges for municipalities and potential investors. The existing plants should be analyzed, so that in the future the selected systems would be characterized by high performance, simple operation and reliable exploitation. In the paper, the assessment of selection criteria of adopted technical solution and the functioning of household sewage treatment plants is carried out.

  5. Microbial Communities in Danish Wastewater Treatment Plants with Nutrient Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielczarek, Artur Tomasz

    Activated sludge treatment plants are the most used wastewater treatment systems worldwide for biological nutrient removal from wastewater. Nevertheless, the treatment systems have been for many years operated as so called “black-box”, where specific process parameters were adjusted without...... that plants with return sludge Side-Stream Hydrolysis (SSH) instead of the normal anaerobic process tank tended to have significantly fewer unwanted GAOs in contrast to many plants with traditional mainstream anaerobic tank and thus it was proposed that this system might be an effective strategy of control...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1581 - Does the subpart distinguish between different types of POTW treatment plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... different types of POTW treatment plants? 63.1581 Section 63.1581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... treatment plants? Yes, POTW treatment plants are divided into two subcategories. A POTW treatment plant which does not meet the characteristics of an industrial POTW treatment plant belongs in the non...

  7. Contaminant removal by wastewater treatment plants in the Stillaguamish River Basin, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbash, Jack E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Wagner, Richard J.; Wolanek, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Human activities in most areas of the developed world typically release nutrients, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, pesticides, and other contaminants into the environment, many of which reach freshwater ecosystems. In urbanized areas, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are critical facilities for collecting and reducing the amounts of wastewater contaminants (WWCs) that ultimately discharge to rivers, coastal areas, and groundwater. Most WWTPs use multiple methods to remove contaminants from wastewater. These include physical methods to remove solid materials (primary treatment), biological and chemical methods to remove most organic matter (secondary treatment), advanced methods to reduce the concentrations of various contaminants such as nitrogen, phosphorus and (or) synthetic organic compounds (tertiary treatment), and disinfection prior to discharge (Metcalf and Eddy, Inc., 1979). This study examined the extent to which 114 organic WWCs were removed by each of three WWTPs, prior to discharge to freshwater and marine ecosystems, in a rapidly developing area in northwestern Washington State. Removal percentages for each WWC were estimated by comparing the concentrations measured in the WWTP influents with those measured in the effluents. The investigation was carried out in the 700-mi2Stillaguamish River Basin, the fifth largest watershed that discharges to Puget Sound (fig. 1).

  8. A systematic methodology for controller tuning in wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Jørgensen, S.B.; Sin, G.

    2012-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plants are typically subject to continuous disturbances caused by influent variations which exhibits diurnal patterns as well as stochastic changes due to rain and storm water events. In order to achieve an efficient operation, the control system of the plant should be able t...

  9. Benchmarking of Control Strategies for Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wastewater treatment plants are large non-linear systems subject to large perturbations in wastewater flow rate, load and composition. Nevertheless these plants have to be operated continuously, meeting stricter and stricter regulations. Many control strategies have been proposed in the literature...

  10. Use of robotics in a Radwaste treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeks, C.W.E.

    1991-01-01

    A 762 Unimate Puma, clean room standard Robot has been installed and commissioned in the Radwaste Treatment Plant at the Winfrith Technology Centre. The robot interacts with a variety of purpose designed tools and proprietary welding equipment. It performs 13 dedicated tasks in the final closure and health physics operations, before the 500 litre waste drum is despatched from the plant. (author)

  11. Radioactive waste treatment technology at Czech nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulovany, J.

    2001-01-01

    This presentation describes the main technologies for the treatment and conditioning of radioactive wastes at Czech nuclear power plants. The main technologies are bituminisation for liquid radioactive wastes and supercompaction for solid radioactive wastes. (author)

  12. Performance of wastewater treatment plants in Jordan and suitability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... while the available sources of water are limited and de-. *Corresponding author. ... 186223 m3/d inflow to Asamra wastewater treatment plant. (ASTP) (Bataineh et al., ..... MSc. thesis, university of Jordan. Bataineh F, Najjar M, ...

  13. Ethnobiological survey of plants and animals used for the treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethnobiological survey of plants and animals used for the treatment of acute respiratory ... African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines ... Methods: It is a descriptive exploratory study with a quantitative approach, ...

  14. Wastewater Treatment Plants, North America, 2010, Dun and Bradstreet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — D&B 20101220 Wastewater Treatment Plants Points for the United States, including Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands, Canada, and Mexico, Released Quarterly...

  15. Assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluent effects on fish reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are known contributors of chemical mixtures into the environment. Of particular concern are endocrine-disrupting compounds that can affect hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in exposed organisms. The present study examined t...

  16. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains data on wastewater treatment plants, based on EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS), EPA's Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS)...

  17. Integration of sand and membrane filtration systems for iron and pesticide removal without chemical addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalski, Krysztof; Madsen, Henrik Tækker; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2013-01-01

    the content of key foulants, the techniques can be used as a pre-treatment for nanofiltration and low pressure reverse osmosis that has proved to be capable of removing pesticides. It was found that a lower fouling potential could be obtained by using the membranes, but that sand filter was better at removing......Pilot plant investigations of sand and membrane filtration (MF/UF/NF/LPRO) have been performed to treat groundwater polluted with pesticides. The results show that simple treatment, with use of aeration and sand filtration or MF/UF membranes, does not remove pesticides. However, by reducing...... manganese and dissolved organic matter. The results indicate that combining aeration; sand filtration and membrane techniques might be a good option for pesticide removal without any addition of chemicals and minimized membrane maintenance....

  18. Degradation of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Water during UV/H2O2 Treatment: Role of Sulphate and Bicarbonate Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Am Fadaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The photodegradation of two organophosphorus pesticides, malathian and diazinon, by sulfate radicals and bicarbonate radicals in aqueous solution were studied. The effect of the operational parameters such as pH, salt concentration, water type, H2O2 concentration and initial concentration of pesticides was studied. Gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC–MS was used for analyses of pesticides. When salt effect was studied, it was found that sodium bicarbonate was the most powerful inhibitor used, while sodium sulfate was the weakest one. The highest degradation in UV/H2O2 process for malathion was found in alkaline condition and for diazinon in acidic condition. The photodegradation in all waters used in this work exhibited first order kinetics. Photodegradation rate in distilled water was higher than real water. The degradation of pesticides increased with increasing of H2O2 concentration.

  19. Ecological investigation of application of pesticides in rice fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouri, J.; Arjomandi, R.; Bayat, H.

    2000-01-01

    Among several pests of rice as one of the main agricultural products in Iran, rice borer, C hilo sarsaparilla is one of the most important pests of this crop. Use of pesticides coincided with the occurrence of this pest in the northern region of Iran in 1972. At present in order to control this pest, more than 12000 tones of pesticides granules are used annually. Ecological effects of pesticides application and the use of Trichograma sp. as a natural enemy, for assessing the impacts of pesticides in environments, especially on different living organisms on the plant, in irrigation water, and in 5 cm depth of surface soil, were investigated in two regions of Amol, named Osk. Mahalleh and Capik Field of Tashbandan. Results indicated that the two treatments were not different on crop loss. One the contrary, in the pesticide treatment, there was a considerable dec tease in the population of living organisms, particularly, no organism was observed in 5 cm depth of surface soil. It is recommended that in order to maintain the balance of environment, the use of chemicals for controlling rice borer must be with extreme care, only in the inevitable was with the use of principles of Integrated Pest Management

  20. Potential accumulation of estrogenic substances in biofilms and aquatic plants collected in sewage treatment plant (STP) and receiving water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultis, T.; Kuch, B.; Kern, A.; Metzger, J.W. [Inst. for Sanitary Engineering, Water Quality and Solid Waste Management ISWA, Stuttgart Univ. (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    During the past years the estrogenic potency of natural (e.g. estrone and 17{beta}-estradiol E2) and synthetic hormones (e.g. ethinylestradiol EE2) and xenoestrogens (e.g. pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dioxins (PCDDs) and furans (PCDFs), alkylphenolic compounds or bisphenol A (BPA)) has attracted increasing scientific attention. Especially the occurrence and behaviour of these substances in waste water of sewage treatment plants (STPs) were often investigated. Andersen et al. found steroid estrogen concentrations in the effluent of a municipal STP always below the limit of quantification of 1 ng/l. However, Aerni et al. detected E2 and EE2 concentrations up to 6 ng/l and 2 ng/l, and alkylphenols, alkylphenolmonoand diethoxylates even at {mu}g/l concentrations in the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant with a significant industrial impact3. In activated and digested sewage sludge concentrations of estrone and E2 up to 37 ng/g and 49 ng/g, of the synthetic EE2 up to 17 ng/g were observed4. In river sediments the concentrations detected were lower with up to 2 ng/g estrone and 0,9 ng/g EE24. In the meantime many studies exist about raw and treated water in STPs, but there is little knowledge about the influence of estrogenic active substances on aquatic plants so far. In this study we investigated therefore the potency of estrogenic substances to accumulate in the duckweed Lemna minor from STP in comparison to the estrogenicity of duckweed from a natural pond, biofilms in drain and microsieve of the STP by the in vitro E-Screen- and LYES-assay (yeast estrogen screen-assay assisted by enzymatic digestion with lyticase). In addition, we tested the estrogenic activity of moss-like aquatic plants collected at different sites of the receiving water and analyzed the concentrations of four phenolic xenoestrogens in the effluent by GC/MS.

  1. Pesticide Reevaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the process for periodically evaluating registered pesticides to ensure they meet current science standards for risk assessment, as required by the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act.

  2. Enhancement of micropollutant degradation at the outlet of small wastewater treatment plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Rossi

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate low-cost and easy-to-operate engineering solutions that can be added as a polishing step to small wastewater treatment plants to reduce the micropollutant load to water bodies. The proposed design combines a sand filter/constructed wetland with additional and more advanced treatment technologies (UV degradation, enhanced adsorption to the solid phase, e.g., an engineered substrate to increase the elimination of recalcitrant compounds. The removal of five micropollutants with different physico-chemical characteristics (three pharmaceuticals: diclofenac, carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, one pesticide: mecoprop, and one corrosion inhibitor: benzotriazole was studied to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed system. Separate batch experiments were conducted to assess the removal efficiency of UV degradation and adsorption. The efficiency of each individual process was substance-specific. No process was effective on all the compounds tested, although elimination rates over 80% using light expanded clay aggregate (an engineered material were observed. A laboratory-scale flow-through setup was used to evaluate interactions when removal processes were combined. Four of the studied compounds were partially eliminated, with poor removal of the fifth (benzotriazole. The energy requirements for a field-scale installation were estimated to be the same order of magnitude as those of ozonation and powdered activated carbon treatments.

  3. Sludge quantification at water treatment plant and its management scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tarique; Ahmad, Kafeel; Alam, Mehtab

    2017-08-15

    Large volume of sludge is generated at the water treatment plants during the purification of surface water for potable supplies. Handling and disposal of sludge require careful attention from civic bodies, plant operators, and environmentalists. Quantification of the sludge produced at the treatment plants is important to develop suitable management strategies for its economical and environment friendly disposal. Present study deals with the quantification of sludge using empirical relation between turbidity, suspended solids, and coagulant dosing. Seasonal variation has significant effect on the raw water quality received at the water treatment plants so forth sludge generation also varies. Yearly production of the sludge in a water treatment plant at Ghaziabad, India, is estimated to be 29,700 ton. Sustainable disposal of such a quantity of sludge is a challenging task under stringent environmental legislation. Several beneficial reuses of sludge in civil engineering and constructional work have been identified globally such as raw material in manufacturing cement, bricks, and artificial aggregates, as cementitious material, and sand substitute in preparing concrete and mortar. About 54 to 60% sand, 24 to 28% silt, and 16% clay constitute the sludge generated at the water treatment plant under investigation. Characteristics of the sludge are found suitable for its potential utilization as locally available construction material for safe disposal. An overview of the sustainable management scenario involving beneficial reuses of the sludge has also been presented.

  4. Stimulation treatments of large-seed leguminous plants Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Istvan; Borbely, Ferenc; Nagy, Janos; Dezsi, Zoltan

    1983-01-01

    The effect of low dose X-ray irradiation on the sprouting and initial growth of some leguminous plants was studied. After having the seeds of peas, beans, lupines and horse beans irradiated, the sprouting rate, the amount of sprouting plants, the length of the roots, the sprouts and the sprouting plants, the electrolyte conductivity and the water uptake were determined. The height and the amount of the plants were measured after a period of 6 weeks. According to the sprout-length values, an increased variation in the plant features can be observed as a result of irradiation treatment: both stimulation and inhibition of plant growth occured, depending on the variety of the leguminosae. The indices of sprouting and initial growth agree well with each other. (V.N.)

  5. influence of treatment of seed potato tubers with plant crude

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    essential oil extracts, on the growth and yield of the potato crop. Treatments consisted of .... Seed potato tuber treatment with plant crude essential oil extracts. 297 were pipetted on to ..... and clove essential oils on sprout suppression in potato ...

  6. Conceptual project of waste treatment plant of CDTN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, J.L.; Astolfi, D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the conceptual project of the waste treatment plant of CDTN. Several areas, such as: process area, material entrance and exit area are studied. The treatment processes are: evaporation, filtration, cementation, cutting and processing of solid wastes. (C.M.)

  7. Adaptive model based control for wastewater treatment plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Niet, Arie; van de Vrugt, Noëlle Maria; Korving, Hans; Boucherie, Richardus J.; Savic, D.A.; Kapelan, Z.; Butler, D.

    2011-01-01

    In biological wastewater treatment, nitrogen and phosphorous are removed by activated sludge. The process requires oxygen input via aeration of the activated sludge tank. Aeration is responsible for about 60% of the energy consumption of a treatment plant. Hence optimization of aeration can

  8. Hydraulic modelling of drinking water treatment plant operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, G.I.M.; Mesman, G.A.M.; Van Schagen, K.M.; Borger, K.J.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2009-01-01

    The flow through a unit of a drinking water treatment plant is one of the most important parameters in terms of a unit's effectiveness. In the present paper, a new EPAnet library is presented with the typical hydraulic elements for drinking water treatment processes well abstraction, rapid sand

  9. Electron beam treatment plant for textile dyeing wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y.; Choi, J.; Ahn, S.; Makarov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    A pilot plant for treating 1,000 m 3 of textile dyeing wastewater per day with electron beam has constructed and operated continuously in Daegu, Korea since 1998. This plant is combined with biological treatment system and it shows the reduction of chemical reagent consumption, and also the reduction in retention time with the increase in removal efficiencies of COD Cr and BOD 5 up to 30∼40%. Increase in biodegradability after radiation treatment of aqueous-organic systems is due to radiolytical conversions of non-biodegradable compounds. On the basis of data obtained from pilot plant operation, construction of actual industrial scale plant has started in 2003, and will be finished by 2005. This plant is located on the area of existing wastewater treatment facility (Daegu Dyeing Industrial Complex) and to have treatment capacity 10,000 m 3 of wastewater per day using one 1 MeV, 400 kW accelerator, and combined with existing bio- treatment facility. The overall construction cost and the operation cost in the radiation processing, when compared to other conventional and advanced oxidation techniques, are more cost-effective and convenient for wastewater treatment. This project is supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Korean Government. (author)

  10. EU-wide monitoring survey on emerging polar organic contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Robert; Carvalho, Raquel; António, Diana C; Comero, Sara; Locoro, Giovanni; Tavazzi, Simona; Paracchini, Bruno; Ghiani, Michela; Lettieri, Teresa; Blaha, Ludek; Jarosova, Barbora; Voorspoels, Stefan; Servaes, Kelly; Haglund, Peter; Fick, Jerker; Lindberg, Richard H; Schwesig, David; Gawlik, Bernd M

    2013-11-01

    In the year 2010, effluents from 90 European wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were analyzed for 156 polar organic chemical contaminants. The analyses were complemented by effect-based monitoring approaches aiming at estrogenicity and dioxin-like toxicity analyzed by in vitro reporter gene bioassays, and yeast and diatom culture acute toxicity optical bioassays. Analyses of organic substances were performed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) or liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) or gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). Target microcontaminants were pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), veterinary (antibiotic) drugs, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), organophosphate ester flame retardants, pesticides (and some metabolites), industrial chemicals such as benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), iodinated x-ray contrast agents, and gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging agents; in addition biological endpoints were measured. The obtained results show the presence of 125 substances (80% of the target compounds) in European wastewater effluents, in concentrations ranging from low nanograms to milligrams per liter. These results allow for an estimation to be made of a European median level for the chemicals investigated in WWTP effluents. The most relevant compounds in the effluent waters with the highest median concentration levels were the artificial sweeteners acesulfame and sucralose, benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), several organophosphate ester flame retardants and plasticizers (e.g. tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate; TCPP), pharmaceutical compounds such as carbamazepine, tramadol, telmisartan, venlafaxine, irbesartan, fluconazole, oxazepam, fexofenadine, diclofenac, citalopram, codeine, bisoprolol, eprosartan, the antibiotics trimethoprim, ciprofloxacine, sulfamethoxazole, and clindamycine, the insect repellent N,N'-diethyltoluamide (DEET), the pesticides

  11. Wastewater sludge treatment at selected wastewater treatment plants of the region Banska Bystrica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samesova, D.; Mitterpach, J.; Martinkova, A.

    2014-01-01

    The management of sewage sludges in water treatment plants of Banska Bystrica region. The paper deals with the problems of sewage sludge in wastewater treatment plants, its origin and possibilities how to use it in accordance with the current legislation of the Slovak Republic. We described radioactive pollution of sewage sludges. The paper consists of review of sludge production and its usage in the Slovak Republic and in selected states of the European Union. The paper deals with the sludge treatment in selected wastewater treatment plants in Banska Bystrica region in the context of biogas production and its usage by the help of the electricity and heat production. (authors)

  12. Waste water treatment plant city of Kraljevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinović Dragan D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In all countries, in the fight for the preservation of environmental protection, water pollution, waste water is one of the very serious and complex environmental problems. Waste waters pollute rivers, lakes, sea and ground water and promote the development of micro-organisms that consume oxygen, which leads to the death of fish and the occurrence of pathogenic microbes. Water pollution and determination of its numerous microbiological contamination, physical agents and various chemical substances, is becoming an increasing health and general social problem. Purification of industrial and municipal waste water before discharge into waterways is of great importance for the contamination of the water ecosystems and the protection of human health. To present the results of purification of industrial and municipal wastewater in the city center Kraljevo system for wastewater treatment. The investigated physical and chemical parameters were performed before and after the city's system for wastewater treatment. The results indicate that the effect of purification present the physical and chemical parameters in waste water ranges from 0 - 19%.

  13. Rapid Determination of Thiabendazole Pesticides in Rape by Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lei; Dong, Tao; Nie, Pengcheng; Qu, Fangfang; He, Yong; Chu, Bingquan; Xiao, Shupei

    2018-04-04

    Thiabendazole is widely used in sclerotium blight, downy mildew and black rot prevention and treatment in rape. Accurate monitoring of thiabendazole pesticides in plants will prevent potential adverse effects to the Environment and human health. Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is a highly sensitive fingerprint with the advantages of simple operation, convenient portability and high detection efficiency. In this paper, a rapid determination method of thiabendazole pesticides in rape was conducted combining SERS with chemometric methods. The original SERS were pretreated and the partial least squares (PLS) was applied to establish the prediction model between SERS and thiabendazole pesticides in rape. As a result, the SERS enhancing effect based on silver Nano-substrate was better than that of gold Nano-substrate, where the detection limit of thiabendazole pesticides in rape could reach 0.1 mg/L. Moreover, 782, 1007 and 1576 cm −1 could be determined as thiabendazole pesticides Raman characteristic peaks in rape. The prediction effect of thiabendazole pesticides in rape was the best ( R p 2 = 0.94, RMSEP = 3.17 mg/L) after the original spectra preprocessed with 1st-Derivative, and the linear relevance between thiabendazole pesticides concentration and Raman peak intensity at 782 cm −1 was the highest ( R² = 0.91). Furthermore, five rape samples with unknown thiabendazole pesticides concentration were used to verify the accuracy and reliability of this method. It was showed that prediction relative standard deviation was 0.70–9.85%, recovery rate was 94.71–118.92% and t value was −1.489. In conclusion, the thiabendazole pesticides in rape could be rapidly and accurately detected by SERS, which was beneficial to provide a rapid, accurate and reliable scheme for the detection of pesticides residues in agriculture products.

  14. Rapid Determination of Thiabendazole Pesticides in Rape by Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Lin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Thiabendazole is widely used in sclerotium blight, downy mildew and black rot prevention and treatment in rape. Accurate monitoring of thiabendazole pesticides in plants will prevent potential adverse effects to the Environment and human health. Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS is a highly sensitive fingerprint with the advantages of simple operation, convenient portability and high detection efficiency. In this paper, a rapid determination method of thiabendazole pesticides in rape was conducted combining SERS with chemometric methods. The original SERS were pretreated and the partial least squares (PLS was applied to establish the prediction model between SERS and thiabendazole pesticides in rape. As a result, the SERS enhancing effect based on silver Nano-substrate was better than that of gold Nano-substrate, where the detection limit of thiabendazole pesticides in rape could reach 0.1 mg/L. Moreover, 782, 1007 and 1576 cm−1 could be determined as thiabendazole pesticides Raman characteristic peaks in rape. The prediction effect of thiabendazole pesticides in rape was the best ( R p 2 = 0.94, RMSEP = 3.17 mg/L after the original spectra preprocessed with 1st-Derivative, and the linear relevance between thiabendazole pesticides concentration and Raman peak intensity at 782 cm−1 was the highest (R2 = 0.91. Furthermore, five rape samples with unknown thiabendazole pesticides concentration were used to verify the accuracy and reliability of this method. It was showed that prediction relative standard deviation was 0.70–9.85%, recovery rate was 94.71–118.92% and t value was −1.489. In conclusion, the thiabendazole pesticides in rape could be rapidly and accurately detected by SERS, which was beneficial to provide a rapid, accurate and reliable scheme for the detection of pesticides residues in agriculture products.

  15. Determination of Pesticide Residues in Cannabis Smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Sullivan; Sytze Elzinga; Jeffrey C. Raber

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted in order to quantify to what extent cannabis consumers may be exposed to pesticide and other chemical residues through inhaled mainstream cannabis smoke. Three different smoking devices were evaluated in order to provide a generalized data set representative of pesticide exposures possible for medical cannabis users. Three different pesticides, bifenthrin, diazinon, and permethrin, along with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, which are readily available...

  16. Region 9 NPDES Facilities 2012- Waste Water Treatment Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates direct discharges from facilities that discharge treated waste water into waters of the US. Facilities are issued NPDES permits regulating their discharge as required by the Clean Water Act. A facility may have one or more outfalls (dischargers). The location represents the facility or operating plant.

  17. Region 9 NPDES Facilities - Waste Water Treatment Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates direct discharges from facilities that discharge treated waste water into waters of the US. Facilities are issued NPDES permits regulating their discharge as required by the Clean Water Act. A facility may have one or more outfalls (dischargers). The location represents the facility or operating plant.

  18. Method for treatment of wastewater of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kazutoshi; Suzuki, Katsumi; Suzuki, Mamoru; Minato, Akira.

    1984-01-01

    A method for treatment of wastewater of nuclear power plants is characterized by the fact that concentration and volume reduction are performed after Ca and Mg as components for the formation of an adhering scale is converted to an 8-oxyquinoline complex, which is hardly soluble in water, and does not precipitate out as an adhering scale, by the addition of 8-oxyquinoline into nuclear power plant wastewater

  19. Plant-integrated measurement of greenhouse gas emissions from a municipal wastewater treatment plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Hiroko; Mønster, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    experiencing operational problems, such as during foaming events in anaerobic digesters and during sub-optimal operation of biological nitrogen removal in the secondary treatment of wastewater. Methane emissions detected during measurement campaigns corresponded to 2.07-32.7% of the methane generated......Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contribute to anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Due to its spatial and temporal variation in emissions, whole plant characterization of GHG emissions from WWTPs face a number of obstacles. In this study, a tracer dispersion method was applied...... in the plant. As high as 4.27% of nitrogen entering the WWTP was emitted as nitrous oxide under the sub-optimal operation of biological treatment processes. The study shows that the unit process configuration, as well as the operation of the WWTP, determines the rate of GHG emission. The applied plant...

  20. Hydraulic modelling of drinking water treatment plant operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Rietveld

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The flow through a unit of a drinking water treatment plant is one of the most important parameters in terms of a unit's effectiveness. In the present paper, a new EPAnet library is presented with the typical hydraulic elements for drinking water treatment processes well abstraction, rapid sand filtration and cascade and tower aeration. Using this treatment step library, a hydraulic model was set up, calibrated and validated for the drinking water treatment plant Harderbroek. With the actual valve position and pump speeds, the flows were calculated through the several treatment steps. A case shows the use of the model to calculate the new setpoints for the current frequency converters of the effluent pumps during a filter backwash.

  1. Medicinal plants indications from herbal healers for wound treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Willianne Alves do Nascimento

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to identify medicinal plants indicated by commercial herbal healers for wound treatment, in street markets. A descriptive study conducted in a capital city in the northeast of Brazil, through interviews. The results indicate that plant commerce by healers of both genders, aged between 37 to 52 years, from those 69.3% learned about their function with family members. Forty-eight plant species were cited for wound treatment, between those, all participants cited Barbatimão and Mastic. From the plants Sambacaitá, Open Nettle, Yellow Uchi, Corona, Xiquexique, Senna and Pindaíba no properties to prove their indication was found for wound treatment. The stem bark was the most indicated part (96.15%, 81.03% of participants informed that plants should be kept dry for conservation. Studies to clarify the biological activities and collateral effects of medicinal plants are needed, beyond training for healers about indications, prepare, storage/conservation, and expiration date.

  2. Nuclear power plant laundry drain treatment using membrane bio reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Masaaki; Kohanawa, Osamu; Kinugasa, Atsushi; Ogawa, Naoki; Murogaki, Kenta

    2012-01-01

    In nuclear power plant, the radioactive effluent generated by washing the clothes worn in controlled area and the hand and shower water used at the controlled area are treated in laundry drain treatment system. Although various systems which treat such liquid waste preexist, the traditional treatment system has disadvantages such as high running cost and a large amount of secondary waste generation. To solve these matters, we have considered application of an activated sludge system, membrane bio reactor, which has been practically used in general industry. For nuclear power plant, the activated sludge system has been developed, tested in its adaptability and the adequacy has been proved. Some preexisting treatment systems have been replaced with this activated sludge system for the first time in a domestic nuclear power plant, and the renewal system is now in operation. The result is reported. (author)

  3. Optimal design of regional wastewater pipelines and treatment plant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Noam; Ostfeld, Avi

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript describes the application of a genetic algorithm model for the optimal design of regional wastewater systems comprised of transmission gravitational and pumping sewer pipelines, decentralized treatment plants, and end users of reclaimed wastewater. The algorithm seeks the diameter size of the designed pipelines and their flow distribution simultaneously, the number of treatment plants and their size and location, the pump power, and the required excavation work. The model capabilities are demonstrated through a simplified example application using base runs and sensitivity analyses. Scaling of the proposed methodology to real life wastewater collection and treatment plants design problems needs further testing and developments. The model is coded in MATLAB using the GATOOL toolbox and is available from the authors.

  4. Saudi medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman; Manthiri, Rajamohamed Abbas; Abdo, Nasreddien; Al-Duaiji, Fawzi Abdullah; Khan, Haseeb Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Scorpion sting envenoming poses major public health problems. The treatment modalities include antivenoms, chemical antidotes and phytotherapy, with varying degrees of effectiveness and side effects. In this investigation, we reviewed the use of Saudi medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting patients. The relevant literature was collected using the online search engines including Science Direct, Google and PubMed with the help of specific keywords. We also used the printed and online resources at our institutional library to gather the relevant information on the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting patients. A descriptive statistics was used for data compilation and presentation. The results of this survey showed the use of at least 92 medicinal plants with beneficial effects for treating victims of stings of different scorpion species. These commonly used herbs spanned to 37 families whilst different parts of these plants were employed therapeutically for alleviation of envenomation symptoms. The application of leaves (41%) was preferred followed by roots (19%), whole plant (14%) and seeds (9%). The use of latex (4%), stem (3%), flowers (3%) and bark (3%) was also reported. In some cases, tannin (2%), rhizome (1%) and shoot (1%) were also used. In conclusion, herbal medicines are effectively used for the treatment of patients with scorpion envenomation. This type of medication is free from side effects as observed with chemical antidotes or antivenom therapy. It is important to identify the active ingredients of herbal drugs for improving their therapeutic potential in traditional medicine.

  5. Condensate treatment and oxygen control in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Toshiaki; Iida, Kei; Ohashi, Shinichi.

    1997-01-01

    In thermal and nuclear power stations, the steam that operated turbines is cooled and condensed with condensers. The condensate is heated again with boilers, nuclear reactors or steam generators, but if corrosion products or impurities are contained in the condensate, corrosion and scale formation occur in boilers and others. The filtration facility and the desalting facility for condensate are installed to remove impurities, but water quality control is different in thermal, BWR and PWR plants, therefore, the treatment facilities corresponding to respective condensates have been adopted. In order to reduce the amount of clud generation, the treatment of injecting a small quantity of oxygen into condensate has been adopted. In thermal power plants, all volatile treatment is carried out, in which corrosion is prevented by the addition of ammonia and hydrazine to boiler feedwater. The condensate filters of various types and the NH 4 type condensate desalter for thermal power plants are described. In BWR power plants, steam is generated in nuclear reactors, therefore, the addition of chemicals into water is never carried out, and high purity neutral water is used. In PWR power plants, the addition of chemicals to water is done in the primary system, and AVT is adopted in the secondary system. Also the condensate treatment facilities are different for both reactors. (K.I.)

  6. Optimization of sol-gel medium for entrapment of acetylcholinesterase enzyme in biosensor for pesticide detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayanti, S. D.; Rahayu, F. S.; Widyaningsih, T. D.

    2018-03-01

    Pesticides are chemical substances used to kill and control pests or diseases that can damage crops. The use of pesticides should be done precisely because the accumulation of chemicals contained in pesticides can cause various health effects. Therefore, detection of pesticide residues on plants is important to reduce the risk of poisoning due to pesticide residues. Some of the conventional methods that have been done to detect pesticide residues have weaknesses among expensive tools, takes a long time, and are generally performed by trained laboratory technicians. Biosensors are analytical devices that can measure the quantitative or semi-quantitative targets of analyte by utilizing a bioreceptor such as enzyme. Several studies have shown that enzyme-based acetylcholinesterase-based biosensors can be used to detect pesticide residues in vegetable samples. The objective of this research was to get a proper silica based sol-gel formulation with molar ratio of H2O:TEOS and NaOH concentration as immobilization medium of acetylcholinesterase enzyme for biosensor application. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used in order to determine the interaction between the parameters studied and resulting responses which were amount and activity of acetylcholinesterase enzyme. Based on the research, the best result for immobilized enzyme activity was shown by molar ratio (H2O: TEOS) 1: 8 and 4 mM NaOH treatment.

  7. Modification of Wastewater Treatment Technology at Cottonseed Oil Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alshabab Mary Shick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewaters from cottonseed oil producing plant in Syria were studied in laboratory experiments. Aim of the study was to suggest modification of wastewater treatment technology in order to increase its efficiency. Concentration of pollutants in wastewaters was controlled by measurement of COD. According to the results of experiments it was suggested to decrease significantly (8-20 times dosages of reagents (acidifier, coagulant, flocculant in several actual stages of treatment (acidification, separation, coagulation and sedimentation and add stage of dispersed air flotation before coagulation treatment. The modified wastewater treatment technology would reduce COD to the values allowed for irrigation waters by Syrian National Standard.

  8. 40 CFR 63.1585 - How does an industrial POTW treatment plant demonstrate compliance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Works Industrial Potw Treatment Plant Description and Requirements § 63.1585 How does an industrial POTW treatment plant demonstrate compliance? (a) An existing industrial POTW treatment plant demonstrates... §§ 63.1586 through 63.1590. Non-industrial POTW Treatment Plant Requirements ...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1582 - What are the characteristics of an industrial POTW treatment plant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... industrial POTW treatment plant? 63.1582 Section 63.1582 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Works Industrial Potw Treatment Plant Description and Requirements § 63.1582 What are the characteristics of an industrial POTW treatment plant? (a) Your POTW is an industrial POTW treatment plant if an...

  10. Planning of emergency medical treatment in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Tomoko

    1989-01-01

    Medical staffs and health physicists have shown deep concerning at the emergency plans of nuclear power plants after the TMI nuclear accident. The most important and basic countermeasure for accidents was preparing appropriate and concrete organization and plans for treatment. We have planed emergency medical treatment for radiation workers in a nuclear power plant institute. The emergency medical treatment at institute consisted of two stages, that is on-site emergency treatment at facility medical service. In first step of planning in each stage, we selected and treatment at facility medical service. In first step of planning in each stage, we selected and analyzed all possible accidents in the institute and discussed on practical treatments for some possible accidents. The manuals of concrete procedure of emergency treatment for some accidents were prepared following discussion and facilities and equipment for medical treatment and decontamination were provided. All workers in the institute had periodical training and drilling of on-site emergency treatment and mastered technique of first aid. Decontamination and operation rooms were provided in the facillity medical service. The main functions at the facility medical service have been carried out by industrial nurses. Industrial nurses have been in close co-operation with radiation safety officers and medical doctors in regional hospital. (author)

  11. Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Hypertrophic Scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Ye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic scar is a complication of wound healing and has a high recurrence rate which can lead to significant abnormity in aesthetics and functions. To date, no ideal treatment method has been established. Meanwhile, the underlying mechanism of hypertrophic scarring has not been clearly defined. Although a large amount of scientific research has been reported on the use of medicinal plants as a natural source of treatment for hypertrophic scarring, it is currently scattered across a wide range of publications. Therefore, a systematic summary and knowledge for future prospects are necessary to facilitate further medicinal plant research for their potential use as antihypertrophic scar agents. A bibliographic investigation was accomplished by focusing on medicinal plants which have been scientifically tested in vitro and/or in vivo and proved as potential agents for the treatment of hypertrophic scars. Although the chemical components and mechanisms of action of medicinal plants with antihypertrophic scarring potential have been investigated, many others remain unknown. More investigations and clinical trials are necessary to make use of these medical plants reasonably and phytotherapy is a promising therapeutic approach against hypertrophic scars.

  12. Life Cycle Assessment of Daugavgriva Waste Water Treatment Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Romagnoli, F; Fraga Sampaio, F; Blumberga, D

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the assessment of the environmental impacts caused by the treatment of Riga’s waste water in the Daugavgriva plant with biogas energy cogeneration through the life cycle assessment (LCA). The LCA seems to be a good tool to assess and evaluate the most serious environmental impacts of a facility The results showed clearly that the impact category contributing the most to the total impact –eutrophicationcomes from the wastewater treatment stage. Cl...

  13. Effluent treatment plant for pharmaceutical unit at Bahipheru - case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayat, A.

    1997-01-01

    This project has been awarded to environ (Pvt) Ltd., on turnkey basis, and is an integrated waste treatment facility for pharmaceuticals companies, manufacturing paracetamole, aspirin and various pharmaceuticals intermediates, from phenol as basic raw material. A highly toxic waste water, containing high concentrations of phenolics and sulfate ions is generated at this plant and has to be treatment before final disposal into an irrigation channel. (author)

  14. Aquatic Macrophyte Risk Assessment for Pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maltby, L.; Arnold, D.; Arts, G.H.P.; Davies, J.; Heimbach, F.; Pickl, C.; Poulsen, V.

    2009-01-01

    Given the essential role that primary producers play in aquatic ecosystems, it is imperative that the potential risk of pesticides to the structure and functioning of aquatic plants is adequately assessed. This book discusses the assessment of the risk of pesticides with herbicidal activity to

  15. Types of pesticides and determination of their residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    The pesticide is any material or component used to protect from pests. Its toxic effect is related to the chemical structure, which can be divided into 3 types : 1- Metal pesticides : Sulphur, cupper, zinc, mercury; 2- Vegetal pesticides : advanced and less toxic to the general health; 3- Synthetic organo pesticides : organo chlorine, organophosphorous, carbamate and pyrethroids. Pesticides in the soil undergo biological dissociation according to their concentration and chemical structure. High concentration of the pesticides in the soil may lead to fertility decrease due to destruction of micro-organisms by the pesticides. Many methods are used to analyze the residues of pesticides in plant or soil : 1- Chromatographic methods : Gas chromatography, gas liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography; 2- Spectroscopy methods : spectrophotometer and mass spectrometer; 3- Isotopic methods : based on tracers technique which is the most sensitive and accurate method and can estimate minor amounts of the pesticides. (author)

  16. [Effects of pesticides and plant bio-stimulants on the germination of chlamydospores and in vitro development of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceiro, Wilson G; Arévalo, Jersys; Hidalgo-Díaz, Leopoldo

    2015-01-01

    The effects of pesticides and plant bio-stimulants used in protected vegetable production systems on the fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia are unknown. The effectiveness of P. chlamydosporia against Meloidogyne spp. could be affected by products used in protected vegetable production systems. Two in vitro assays were carried out to evaluate any potential effect that pesticides and bio-stimulants often used in these systems could have on the fungus. The effect on chlamydospore germination was evaluated in a first assay, and mycelia growth and sporulation in a second. With these results, the compatibility of each product with the fungus was determined. Chlamydospores germination was over 50% with the control, FitoMas E, Biobras-16 and Amidor. Lower results were observed with other products, with some of them even inhibiting germination completely. Fungal growth was potentiated by Biobras-16 to 106.23%, promoted up to 50-100% by the control, FitoMas E and Cuproflow, and was below 50% with the rest of the products.Cipermetrina, Benomilo, Zineb, Mitigan, Karate, FitoMas E and Amidor promoted fungal sporulation, which was below 50% with Cuproflow and completely inhibited by the other products. Fifty-four percent of the products evaluated were compatible with P. chlamydosporia, while 8% were toxic and 38%, very toxic. Cipermetrina, Karate, Amidor, Benomilo, Zineb, Mitigan and FitoMas E were compatible with P. chlamydosporia. If it is necessary to use any of the other products for integrated pest management in protected vegetable production systems, it is recommended to avoid direct contact with P. chlamydosporia. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Cost effective water treatment program in Heavy Water Plant (Manuguru)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, C.; Prasada Rao, G.

    2002-01-01

    Water treatment technology is in a state of continuous evolution. The increasing urgency to conserve water and reduce pollution has in recent years produced an enormous demand for new chemical treatment programs and technologies. Heavy water plant (Manuguru) uses water as raw material (about 3000 m 3 /hr) and its treatment and management has benefited the plant in a significant way. It is a fact that if the water treatment is not proper, it can result in deposit formation and corrosion of metals, which can finally leads to production losses. Therefore, before selecting treatment program, complying w.r.t. quality requirements, safety and pollution aspects cost effectiveness shall be examined. The areas where significant benefits are derived, are raw water treatment using polyelectrolyte instead of inorganic coagulant (alum), change over of regenerant of cation exchangers from hydrochloric acid to sulfuric acid and in-house development of cooling water treatment formulation. The advantages and cost effectiveness of these treatments are discussed in detail. Further these treatments has helped the plant in achieving zero discharge and indirectly increased cost reduction of final product (heavy water); the dosage of 3 ppm of polyelectrolyte can replace 90 ppm alum at turbidity level of 300 NTU of raw water which has resulted in cost saving of Rs. 15-20 lakhs in a year beside other advantages; the change over of regenerant from HCl to H 2 SO 4 will result in cost saving of at least Rs.1.4 crore a year besides other advantages; the change over to proprietary formulation to in-house formulation in cooling water treatment has resulted in a saving about Rs.11 lakhs a year. To achieve the above objectives in a sustainable way the performance results are being monitored. (author)

  18. Industrial plant for electron beam flue gas treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Iller, E.; Tyminnski, B.; Zimek, Z; Ostapczuk, A.; Licki, J.

    2001-01-01

    The electron beam flue gas treatment technology was invented many years ago. Research on the process has been carried out in Japan, USA, Germany and Poland. However, the recent fidings, based on the experiments performed at pilot plant at Electric Power Station Kaweczyn, led to developments which made process mature just at the dawn of the XXI century. The process is being implemented in the full industrial scale at Electric Power Station Pomorzany (Dolna Odra EPS Group). Other developments are reported in Japan and after Nagoya's pilot plant experiments, an industrial plant has been built in China and another one is constructed in Japan. There are remarkable differences in technological and design solutions applied in all these installations. Developments achieved at EPS Kaweczyn pilot plant and INCT laboratory unit were the basis for the project realized at EPS Pomorzan

  19. Basic user guide for the radwaste treatment plant computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, A.

    1990-07-01

    This guide has been produced as an aid to using the Radwaste Treatment Plant computer system. It is designed to help new users to use the database menu system. Some of the forms can be used in ways different from those explained and more complex queries can be performed. (UK)

  20. Conflicts concerning sites for waste treatment and waste disposal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werbeck, N.

    1993-01-01

    The erection of waste treatment and waste disposal flants increasingly meets with the disapproval of local residents. This is due to three factors: Firstly, the erection and operation of waste treatment plants is assumed to necessarily entail harmful effects and risks, which may be true or may not. Secondly, these disadvantages are in part considered to be non-compensable. Thirdly, waste treatment plants have a large catchment area, which means that more people enjoy their benefits than have to suffer their disadvantages. If residents in the vicinity of such plants are not compensated for damage sustained or harmed in ways that cannot be compensated for it becomes a rational stance for them, while not objecting to waste treatment and waste disposal plants in principle to object to their being in their own neighbourhood. The book comprehensively describes the subject area from an economic angle. The causes are analysed in detail and an action strategy is pointed, out, which can help to reduce acceptance problems. The individual chapters deal with emissions, risk potentials, optimization calculus considering individual firms or persons and groups of two or more firms or persons, private-economy approaches for the solving of site selection conflicts, collective decision-making. (orig./HSCH) [de

  1. Modeling of water treatment plant using timed continuous Petri nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurul Fuady Adhalia, H.; Subiono, Adzkiya, Dieky

    2017-08-01

    Petri nets represent graphically certain conditions and rules. In this paper, we construct a model of the Water Treatment Plant (WTP) using timed continuous Petri nets. Specifically, we consider that (1) the water pump always active and (2) the water source is always available. After obtaining the model, the flow through the transitions and token conservation laws are calculated.

  2. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants, Manual of Practice No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Orrie E.; And Others

    This book is intended to be a reference or textbook on the operation of wastewater treatment plants. The book contains thirty-one chapters and three appendices and includes the description, requirements, and latest techniques of conventional unit process operation, as well as the symptoms and corrective measures regarding process problems. Process…

  3. Treatment of anxiety and depression: medicinal plants in retrospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajemiroye, James O; da Silva, Dayane M; de Oliveira, Danillo R; Costa, Elson A

    2016-06-01

    Anxiety and depression are complex heterogeneous psychiatric disorders and leading causes of disability worldwide. This review summarizes reports on the fundamentals, prevalence, diagnosis, neurobiology, advancement in treatment of these diseases and preclinical assessment of botanicals. This review was conducted through bibliographic investigation of scientific journals, books, electronic sources, unpublished theses and electronic medium such as ScienceDirect and PubMed. A number of the first-line drugs (benzodiazepine, azapirone, antidepressant tricyclics, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors, noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, etc.) for the treatment of these psychiatric disorders are products of serendipitous discoveries. Inspite of the numerous classes of drugs that are available for the treatment of anxiety and depression, full remission has remained elusive. The emerging clinical cases have shown increasing interests among health practitioners and patients in phytomedicine. The development of anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs of plant origin takes advantage of multidisciplinary approach including but not limited to ethnopharmacological survey (careful investigation of folkloric application of medicinal plant), phytochemical and pharmacological studies. The selection of a suitable plant for a pharmacological study is a basic and very important step. Relevant clues to achieving this step include traditional use, chemical composition, toxicity, randomized selection or a combination of several criteria. Medicinal plants have been and continue to be a rich source of biomolecule with therapeutic values for the treatment of anxiety and depression. © 2016 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  4. Guidelines to Career Development for Wastewater Treatment Plant Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Education and Manpower Planning.

    The guidelines were written to promote job growth and improvement in the personnel who manage, operate, and maintain wastewater treatment plants. Trained operators and technicians are the key components in any water pollution control facility. The approach is to move from employment to training through specific modules for 21 standard job…

  5. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Home Study Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    This manual was prepared by experienced wastewater treatment plant operators to provide a home study course to develop new qualified workers and expand the abilities of existing workers. The objective of this manual is to provide the knowledge and skills necessary for certification. Participants learn the basic operational aspects of treatment…

  6. Benchmarking Biological Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Gernaey, Krist; Jeppsson, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of different model assumptions when describing biological nutrient removal (BNR) by the activated sludge models (ASM) 1, 2d & 3. The performance of a nitrogen removal (WWTP1) and a combined nitrogen and phosphorus removal (WWTP2) benchmark wastewater treatment plant...

  7. Plant-wide Control Strategy for Improving Produced Water Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on investigation and development of an innovative Produced Water Treatment (PWT) technology for offshore oil & gas production by employing the model-based plant-wide control strategy. The key contributions lie in two folds: (i) the advanced anti-slug analysis and control...

  8. Performance of wastewater treatment plants in Jordan and suitability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an increasing trend to require more efficient use of water resources, both in urban and rural environments. In Jordan, the increase in water demand, in addition to water shortage has led to growing interest in wastewater reuse. In this work, characteristics of wastewater for four wastewater treatment plants were ...

  9. Methodology for Plantwide Design and Optimization of Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maria Dragan, Johanna; Zubov, Alexandr; Sin, Gürkan

    2017-01-01

    Design of Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) is a complex engineering task which requires integration of knowledge and experience from environmental biotechnology, process engineering, process synthesis and design as well as mathematical programming. A methodology has been formulated and applied...... for the systematic analysis and development of plantwide design of WWTPs using mathematical optimization and statistical methods such as sensitivity and uncertainty analyses....

  10. Ethnobotanical survey of plants used for the treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constipation is the commonest gastrointestinal complaint in most developed and poor countries including South Africa. An ethnobotanical survey of plants used by herbalists, traditional healers and rural dwellers for the treatment of constipation was conducted in the Nkonkobe Municipality, Eastern Cape Province of South ...

  11. Distribution and removal of organochlorine pesticides in waste clay bricks from an abandoned manufacturing plant using low-temperature thermal desorption technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xin; Li, Fasheng; Kelly, Ryan M; Xue, Nandong

    2018-04-01

    The distribution of pollutants in waste clay bricks from an organochlorine pesticide-contaminated site was investigated, and removal of the pollutants using a thermal desorption technology was studied. The results showed that the contents of HCHs in both the surface and the inner layer of the bricks were slightly higher than those of DDTs. The total pore volume of the bricks was 37.7 to 41.6% with an increase from external to internal surfaces. The removal efficiency by thermal treatment was within 62 to 83% for HCHs and DDTs in bricks when the temperature was raised from 200 to 250 °C after 1 h. HCHs were more easily removed than DDTs with a higher temperature. Either intraparticle or surface diffusion controls the desorption processes of pollutants in bricks. It was feasible to use the polluted bricks after removal of the pollutants by low-temperature thermal desorption technology.

  12. Infrequent use of medicinal plants from India in snakebite treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manali Sughosh Upasani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Snakes have fascinated humankind for millennia. Snakebites are a serious medical, social, and economic problem that are experienced worldwide; however, they are most serious in tropical and subtropical countries. The reasons for this are 1 the presence of more species of the most dangerous snakes, 2 the inaccessibility of immediate medical treatment, and 3 poor health care. The goal of this study was to collect information concerning rare, less utilized, and less studied medicinal plants. More than 100 plants were found to have potential to be utilized as anti-snake venom across India. Data accumulated from a variety of literature sources revealed useful plant families, the parts of plants used, and how to utilize them. In India, there are over 520 plant species, belonging to approximately 122 families, which could be useful in the management of snakebites. This study was conducted to encourage researchers to create herbal antidotes, which will counteract snake venom. These may prove to be an inexpensive and easily assessable alternative, which would be of immense importance to society. Plants from families such as Acanthaceae, Arecaceae, Apocynaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Asteraceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, Rubiaceae, and Zingiberaceae are the most useful. In India, experts of folklore are using herbs either single or in combination with others. Keywords: Appraise traditional medicinal plants, Ethnomedicine, India, Snake antivenom

  13. Water Treatment Pilot Plant Design Manual: Low Flow Conventional/Direct Filtration Water Treatment Plant for Drinking Water Treatment Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manual highlights the project constraints and concerns, and includes detailed design calculations and system schematics. The plant is based on engineering design principles and practices, previous pilot plant design experiences, and professional experiences and may serve as ...

  14. Economics of wastewater treatment in GTL plant using spray technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enyi, G.C.; Nasr, G.G.; Burby, M. [University of Salford, Manchester, M5 4WT (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    In a Gas-to-liquid (GTL) plant, significant quantities of CO2 and reaction water are produced and various chemicals are used as intermediate treatment chemicals. The reaction water is contaminated by these chemicals which impair the pH and the related properties of the water. The pH has to be controlled in the effluent treatment unit before the water is re-used or released to the environment. The overall aim of this investigation is to create a novel technique to address the problem of waste water treatment in GTL plants which will assist in the reduction of greenhouse gas (CO2) emissions into the atmosphere. A laboratory-scale effluent neutralisation unit for pH control utilising gas injectors was designed and built. The unit used the CO2 produced as a by-product of GTL process as wastewater treatment chemical instead of the conventional Sulphuric acid. The quality of wastewater after treatment with CO2 met the standards set by the state regulatory agency. The economics of the new process shows a better payout period of 3.6 years for capital investment of $1,645 Million compared to 4.7 years for an existing plant layout with capital investment of $1,900 Million. The effects of increase in plant capacity showed a lower payback back of 2.8 years for plant capacity of 140,000 barrels/day (22258 m3/day), 3.6 years for 34,000 barrels/day and 6.0 years for 12,500 barrels/day (1987 m3/day) plant capacity. The sensitivity analysis using crystal ball simulator with 'Microsoft Excel' shows that the annual revenue has the greatest effects on the NPV of the plant than the CAPEX and inflation rate. Apart from the environmental benefits the process generates by reducing CO2 emissions into the atmosphere, the study also concludes that the replacement of conventional Sulphuric acid (H2SO4) unit with CO2 improves the economics of the plant.

  15. Using Spatial Structure Analysis of Hyperspectral Imaging Data and Fourier Transformed Infrared Analysis to Determine Bioactivity of Surface Pesticide Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Nansen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Many food products are subjected to quality control analyses for detection of surface residue/contaminants, and there is a trend of requiring more and more documentation and reporting by farmers regarding their use of pesticides. Recent outbreaks of food borne illnesses have been a major contributor to this trend. With a growing need for food safety measures and “smart applications” of insecticides, it is important to develop methods for rapid and accurate assessments of surface residues on food and feed items. As a model system, we investigated detection of a miticide applied to maize leaves and its miticidal bioactivity over time, and we compared two types of reflectance data: fourier transformed infrared (FTIR data and hyperspectral imaging (HI data. The miticide (bifenazate was applied at a commercial field rate to maize leaves in the field, with or without application of a surfactant, and with or without application of a simulated “rain event”. In addition, we collected FTIR and HI from untreated control leaves (total of five treatments. Maize leaf data were collected at seven time intervals from 0 to 48 hours after application. FTIR data were analyzed using conventional analysis of variance of miticide-specific vibration peaks. Two unique FTIR vibration peaks were associated with miticide application (1,700 cm−1 and 763 cm−1. The integrated intensities of these two peaks, miticide application, surfactant, rain event, time between miticide application, and rain event were used as explanatory variables in a linear multi-regression fit to spider mite mortality. The same linear multi-regression approach was applied to variogram parameters derived from HI data in five selected spectral bands (664, 683, 706, 740, and 747 nm. For each spectral band, we conducted a spatial structure analysis, and the three standard variogram parameters (“sill”, “range”, and “nugget” were examined as possible “indicators” of miticide

  16. Application of waterworks sludge in wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Anitha Kumari; Thornberg, D.; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    The potential for reuse of iron-rich sludge from waterworks as a replacement for commercial iron salts in wastewater treatment was investigated using acidic and anaerobic dissolution. The acidic dissolution of waterworks sludge both in sulphuric acid and acidic products such as flue gas washing...... for removal of phosphate in the wastewater treatment was limited, because the dissolved iron in the digester liquid was limited by siderite (FeCO3) precipitation. It is concluded that both acidic and anaerobic dissolution of iron-rich waterworks sludge can be achieved at the wastewater treatment plant...

  17. Spent solvent treatment process at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Akihiro; Saka, Munenori; Araya, Toshiyuki; Kitamura, Tomohiro; Wakamatsu, Toshiyuki

    2005-01-01

    In order to dispose of spent organic solvent and diluent produced by the PUREX method, it is desirable that it should be in stable form for easy handling. For this reason, spent solvent is reduced to powder form and further molded so that it becomes easier to handle for temporary storage at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP). In this paper, the treatment unit for reducing spent solvent to powder form and the treatment unit for modeling the powder are introduced as well as their treatment results during Chemical Test. (author)

  18. RESPONSE OF TOMATO PLANTS EXPOSED TO TREATMENT WITH NANOPARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Giordani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work the response of Tomato plants cv. Micro-Tom to nanoparticles (NPs treatment was investigated. Tomato seedlings were grown in hydroponic condition and NPs treatments were carried out by adding Fe3O4 or TiO2 NPs to nutrient solution. At the end of treatments, NPs root uptake and tissue deposition were investigated using Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope, equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy for chemical identification. At morphological level, one week after the beginning of NP treatment, seedlings grown with high concentration of TiO2 NPs showed an abnormal proliferation of root hairs, as compared to the control seedlings and to the seedlings exposed to Fe3O4 NPs, Shoot morphology did not differ in tomato seedlings grown under different conditions and no symptoms of toxicity were observed in NP-treated plants. In order to analyse genetic effects of NPs treatments, RNA transcription was studied in roots of NP-exposed and control plants by Illumina RNA sequencing, evidencing the induction of transposable elements.

  19. Life Cycle Assessment to Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J. s.; Herrera, I.; Rodriguez, A.

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation was done at a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (MWTP), through the application of the methodology of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) performed by using a commercial tool called SIMAPRO. The objective of this study was to apply Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in two systems: municipal wastewater effluent without treatment and Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) that is operating in poor condition and has a direct discharge to a natural body, which is a threat to the environment. A LCA was done using SIMAPRO 7, in order to determine the environmental impact in each scenery was assessed, a comparison of the impacts and propose improvements to decrease, following the steps this methodology and according to the respective standardized normative (ISO 14040/ ISO 14044). In this study, most of used data have been reported by the plant from early 2010 and some data from literature. We identified the environmental impacts generated by the treatment, making emphasis on those related to the subsequent use of the water body receiving the discharge, such as eutrophication (near to 15% reduction). Likewise, a comparative analysis between the impacts in the two systems, with and without treatment by analyzing the variation in the impact categories studied. Finally within this work, alternatives of improvements, in order to reduce the identified and quantified impacts are proposed. (Author) 33 refs.

  20. Integration of energy and environmental systems in wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Suzanna [Department of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering, 600 W, 14th Street, 215 EMGT Building, Rolla, MO-65401, 573-341-7621 (United States); Cudney, Elizabeth [Department of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering, 600 W, 14th Street, 217 EMGT Building, Rolla, MO-65401, 573-341-7931 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Most wastewater treatment facilities were built when energy costs were not a concern; however, increasing energy demand, changing climatic conditions, and constrained energy supplies have resulted in the need to apply more energy-conscious choices in the maintenance or upgrade of existing wastewater treatment facilities. This research develops an integrated energy and environmental management systems model that creates a holistic view of both approaches and maps linkages capable of meeting high-performing energy management while meeting environmental standards. The model has been validated through a case study on the Rolla, Missouri Southeast Wastewater Treatment Plant. Results from plant performance data provide guidance to improve operational techniques. The significant factors contributing to both energy and environmental systems are identified and balanced against considerations of cost.

  1. Performance evaluation of effluent treatment plant for automobile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Farid [Department of Applied Science and Humanities, PDM College of Engineering, Bahadurgarh (Haryana) (India); Pandey, Yashwant K. [School of Energy and Environmental Studies, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (India); Kumar, P.; Pandey, Priyanka [Department of Environmental Science, Post Graduate College Ghazipur (IN

    2013-07-01

    The automobile industry’s wastewater not only contains high levels of suspended and total solids such as oil, grease, dyestuff, chromium, phosphate in washing products, and coloring, at various stages of manufacturing but also, a significant amount of dissolved organics, resulting in high BOD or COD loads. The study reveals the performance, evaluation and operational aspects of effluent treatment plant and its treatability, rather than the contamination status of the real property. The Results revealed that the treated effluent shows most of the parameters are within permissible limits of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India and based on the site visits, discussion with operation peoples, evaluation of process design, treatment system, existing effluent discharge, results of sample analyzed and found that effluent treatment plant of automobile industry are under performance satisfactory.

  2. Radiation induced microbial pesticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Sang Jae

    2000-01-01

    To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

  3. TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS ASSESSMENT OF THE DRINKING WATER TREATMENT AT TARGU-MURES WATER TREATMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORNELIA DIANA HERTIA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to assess the technological process of obtaining drinking water at Targu-Mures water treatment plant. The assessment was performed before changing the technological process and four months were chosen to be analized during 2008: January, April, July and October for its efficiency analysis on treatment steps. Mures River is the water source for the water treatment plant, being characterized by unsteady flow and quality parameters with possible important variability in a very short period of time. The treatment technological process is the classic one, represented by coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection, but also prechlorination was constantly applied as additional treatment during 2008. Results showed that for the measured parameters, raw water at the water treatment plant fits into class A3 for surface waters, framing dictated by the bacterial load. The treatment processes efficiency is based on the performance calculation for sedimentation, filtration, global and for disinfection, a better conformation degree of technological steps standing out in January in comparison to the other three analyzed months. A variable non-compliance of turbidity and residual chlorine levels in the disinfected water was observed constantly. Previous treatment steps managed to maintain a low level of oxidisability, chlorine consumption and residual chlorine levels being also low. 12% samples were found inconsistent with the national legislation in terms of bacteriological quality. Measures for the water treatment plant retechnologization are taken primarily for hyperchlorination elimination, which currently constitutes a discomfort factor (taste, smell, and a generating factor of chlorination by-products.

  4. Pesticides and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ; Environment Human Health Animal Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety Environment Air Water Soil Wildlife Home Page Pesticides and the Environment Related Topics: What Happens to Pesticides Released into the Environment? Pesticide Storage Pesticide Disposal Pesticide Products Integrated Pest Management (IPM) How Safe

  5. Construction of Industrial Electron Beam Plant for Wastewater Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y.; Kim, S.; Lee, M.; Choi, J.; Ahn, S.; Makarov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    A pilot plant for treating 1,000 m3/day of dyeing wastewater with e-beam has been constructed and operated since 1998 in Daegu, Korea together with the biological treatment facility. The wastewater from various stages of the existing purification process has been treated with electron beam in this plant, and it gave rise to elaborate the optimal technology of the electron beam treatment of wastewater with increased reliability at instant changes in the composition of wastewater. Installation of the e-beam pilot plant resulted in decolorizing and destructive oxidation of organic impurities in wastewater, appreciable to reduction of chemical reagent consumption, in reduction of the treatment time, and in increase in flow rate limit of existing facilities by 30-40%. Industrial plant for treating 10,000 m3/day, based upon the pilot experimental result, is under construction and will be finished by 2005. This project is supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Korean Government

  6. Energy supply waste water treatment plant West Brabant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poldervaart, A; Schouten, G J

    1983-09-01

    For the energy supply for the waste water treatment plant (rwzi-Bath) of the Hoogheemraadschap West-Brabant three energy sources are used: biogas of the digesters, natural gas and electricity delivered by the PZEM. For a good balance between heat/power demand and production a heat/power plant is installed. By using this system a high efficiency for the use of energy will be obtained. To save energy the oxygen concentration in the aerationtanks is automatically controlled by means of regulating the position of the air supply control valves and the capacity and number of the turbocompressors. For the oxygen controlsystem a Siemens PLC is used.

  7. Plant consumption by grizzly bears reduces biomagnification of salmon-derived polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and organochlorine pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jennie R; Yunker, Mark B; MacDuffee, Misty; Ross, Peter S

    2013-04-01

    The present study characterizes the uptake and loss of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) by sampling and analyzing their terrestrial and marine foods and fecal material from a remote coastal watershed in British Columbia, Canada. The authors estimate that grizzly bears consume 341 to 1,120 µg of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 3.9 to 33 µg of polybrominated diphenyl ethers daily in the fall when they have access to an abundant supply of returning salmon. The authors also estimate that POP elimination by grizzly bears through defecation is very low following salmon consumption (typically 100% for PCBs and organochlorine pesticides). Excretion of individual POPs is largely driven by a combination of fugacity (differences between bear and food concentrations) and the digestibility of the food. The results of the present study are substantiated by a principal components analysis, which also demonstrates a strong role for log KOW in governing the excretion of different POPs in grizzly bears. Collectively, the present study's results reveal that grizzly bears experience a vegetation-associated drawdown of POPs previously acquired through the consumption of salmon, to such an extent that net biomagnification is reduced. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  8. Assessing human health risks from pesticide use in conventional and innovative cropping systems with the BROWSE model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammoglia, Sabine-Karen; Kennedy, Marc C; Barriuso, Enrique; Alletto, Lionel; Justes, Eric; Munier-Jolain, Nicolas; Mamy, Laure

    2017-08-01

    Reducing the risks and impacts of pesticide use on human health and on the environment is one of the objectives of the European Commission Directive 2009/128/EC in the quest for a sustainable use of pesticides. This Directive, developed through European national plans such as Ecophyto plan in France, promotes the introduction of innovative cropping systems relying, for example, on integrated pest management. Risk assessment for human health of the overall pesticide use in these innovative systems is required before the introduction of those systems to avoid that an innovation becomes a new problem. The objectives of this work were to assess and to compare (1) the human exposure to pesticides used in conventional and innovative cropping systems designed to reduce pesticide needs, and (2) the corresponding risks for human health. Humans (operator and residents) exposure to pesticides and risks for human health were assessed for each pesticide with the BROWSE model. Then, a method was proposed to represent the overall risk due to all pesticides used in one system. This study considers 3 conventional and 9 associated innovative cropping systems, and 116 plant protection products containing 89 different active substances (i.e. pesticides). The modelling results obtained with BROWSE showed that innovative cropping systems such as low input or no herbicide systems would reduce the risk for human health in comparison to the corresponding conventional cropping systems. On the contrary, BROWSE showed that conservation tillage system would lead to unacceptable risks in the conditions of our study, because of a high number of pesticide applications, and especially of some herbicides. For residents, the dermal absorption was the main exposure route while ingestion was found to be negligible. For operators, inhalation was also a predominant route of exposure. In general, human exposure to pesticides and human health risks were found to be correlated to the treatment frequency

  9. Productivity of sugarcane plants of ratooning with fertilizing treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHADIONO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Latief AS, Syarief R, Pramudya B, Muhadiono. 2010. Productivity of sugarcane plants of ratooning with various fertilizing treatments. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 43-47. This research aims to determine the sugarcane plants of ratooning productivity with low external input of fertilization treatment towards farmers can increase profits. The method used is the Completely Randomized Block Design (CRBD with four treatments and three repetitions (4x3. Sugarcane varieties R 579 planted in each patch experiment 5x5 m2. Dosage of fertilizer: P0 = 3.6 kg/year plot experiment was 100% dosage usage of chemical fertilizers used by farmers. Further dosages were P1 (75% = 2.7 kg/plot, P2 (50% = 1.8 kg/plot and P3 (0.25% = 0.9 kg/plot, each supplemented with fertilizer 5 mL of liquid organic/patch a year. Sugarcane crops with a variety of treatment showed no significant difference. The highest productivity was achieved at dosages of P2 (50% chemical fertilizers plus organic fertilizer is 21.67 kg per square meter. Chemical fertilizers can be saved 7 quintals per hectare a year or Rp 997,500 per year. Additional costs of liquid organic fertilizer Rp. 100,000 per hectare year and labor Rp 100,000 per hectare, so the additional advantage of saving farmers fertilizer Rp. 797,500 per year.

  10. Investigation on the Fate of Some Pesticides and Their Effects on the Microbial Environment in Cultivation of Green gram (Vigna radiata), Mustard green (Brassica rapa) and Kale (Brassica oleracea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theingi Nwe; Khin Maung Saing

    2010-12-01

    The main aim of the present work was to find out the persistence of some pesticide residues in some vegetable crops and to investigate the effect of pesticide on soil count. Edible parts of green gram, Mustard green and Kale were extracted and analyzed for the presence and degradation of applied pesticide residuse in relation to time. The pesticide residue concentration in plant samples were analyzed by UV spectrometry. According to UV result data, Acephate pesticide in stored green gram seeds was rapidly declined from 2.91mg/kg (two weeks after application) to 0.96mg/kg (three weeks after application). But, four weeks after application, Acephate residues were not detected in the seeds of green gram. In the seeds of green gram, Dimethoate pesticide residues were detected from 1.26mg/kg (one week after application) to 0.89mg/kg (four weeks after treatment). In Mustard green and Kale, Malathion pesticide residues were detected at day seven after application. But Chlorpyrifos pesticide residues were detected in both mustard green and kale at day three after application. Beyond day three, chlorpyrifos pesticide residues were not detected. The respective chemical residues have been partially identified by IR Spectrometry. These can be confirmed with IR absorption peaks that the residues are the utilized chemicals. According to IR data, it can be predicted whether pesticide residues remained or not in the samples.

  11. Study of pesticides removal by processes used in Spain to produce drinking water; Eliminacion de plaguicidas mediante procesos utilizados en Espana para la produccion de agua potable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormand, M. P.; Claver, A.; Miguel, N.; Ovelleiro, J. L.

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this research work is study the effectiveness of treatments habitually used in drinking water plants in plants to remove 44 pesticides detected systematically in Ebro river basin Applied techniques are: pre oxidation by chlorine or ozone, chemical precipitation with aluminium sulphate and activated carbon adsorption. The intensive treatment (preoxidation, coagulation.flocculation and activated carbon adsorption) is a few less effective with chlorine than with ozone although both treatments achieve average removal yields of studied pesticides high, about 90%. (Author) 35 refs.

  12. Safe Disposal of Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toxics Environmental Information by Location Greener Living Health Land, Waste, and Cleanup Lead Mold Pesticides Radon Science ... or www.earth911.com . Think before disposing of extra pesticides and containers: Never reuse empty pesticide containers. ...

  13. Endangered Species: Pesticide Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our goal is to protect threatened and endangered species and their habitats, without placing unnecessary burden on agriculture and pesticide users. Pesticide limitations are developed to ensure safe use of pesticides in order to meet this goal.

  14. Phytoremediation of organochlorine and pyrethroid pesticides by aquatic macrophytes and algae in freshwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Ghazala; Tabinda, Amtul Bari; Iqbal, Shakir; Yasar, Abdullah; Abbas, Mateen; Khan, Abdul Muqeet; Mahfooz, Yusra; Baqar, Mujtaba

    2017-10-03

    Extensive use of Pesticides in agriculture and its surface runoff in river water is a major environmental concern. The present study evaluated the phytoremediation potential of Eichornia crassipes, Pistia strateotes and algae (Chaetomorpha sutoria, Sirogonium sticticum and Zygnema sp.) for organochlorine and pyrethroid pesticides. Water and plant samples were extracted by liquid phase and solid phase extraction respectively and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Eleven treatments (T1-T11) with and without plants were used for phytoremediation of organochlorine and pyrethroid pesticides. During the experiment, P. strateotes, E. crassipes and algae (C. sutoria, S. sticticum and Zygnema sp.) showed the highest removal efficiency with 62 (71% root, 29% shoot), 60 (67% root, 33% shoot), and 58% respectively for organochlorine and 76 (76% root, 24% shoot), 68 (69% root, 31% shoot), and 70% respectively for pyrethroids for the respective aquatic plants. Dissipation rate constant of treatments with plants (T2, T3, T5, T6, T8, and T9) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) as compared to that of treatments without plants (T10 and T11, control) for both organochlorine and pyrethroid. The bioconcentration factor of pyrethroid treatments (T3, T6, and T9) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) as compared to that of organochlorine treatments (T2, T5 and T8). The removal efficiency of E. crassipes, P. strateotes and algae (C. sutoria, S. sticticum and Zygnema sp.) for pyrethroids was significantly higher (p < 0.01) as compared to that of organochlorine.

  15. Lagrangian sampling of wastewater treatment plant effluent in Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile Creek, Iowa, during the summer of 2003 and spring of 2005--Hydrological and chemical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Flynn, Jennifer L.; Brown, Gregory K.; Furlong, Edward T.; Glassmeyer, Susan T.; Gray, James L.; Meyer, Michael T.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Taylor, Howard E.; Zaugg, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents methods and data for a Lagrangian sampling investigation into chemical loading and in-stream attenuation of inorganic and organic contaminants in two wastewater treatment-plant effluent-dominated streams: Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile Creek, Iowa. Water-quality sampling was timed to coincide with low-flow conditions when dilution of the wastewater treatment-plant effluent by stream water was at a minimum. Sample-collection times corresponded to estimated travel times (based on tracer tests) to allow the same "parcel" of water to reach downstream sampling locations. The water-quality data are linked directly to stream discharge using flow- and depth-integrated composite sampling protocols. A range of chemical analyses was made for nutrients, carbon, major elements, trace elements, biological components, acidic and neutral organic wastewater compounds, antibiotic compounds, pharmaceutical compounds, steroid and steroidal-hormone compounds, and pesticide compounds. Physical measurements were made for field conditions, stream discharge, and time-of-travel studies. Two Lagrangian water samplings were conducted in each stream, one in the summer of 2003 and the other in the spring of 2005. Water samples were collected from five sites in Boulder Creek: upstream from the wastewater treatment plant, the treatment-plant effluent, and three downstream sites. Fourmile Creek had seven sampling sites: upstream from the wastewater treatment plant, the treatment-plant effluent, four downstream sites, and a tributary. At each site, stream discharge was measured, and equal width-integrated composite water samples were collected and split for subsequent chemical, physical, and biological analyses. During the summer of 2003 sampling, Boulder Creek downstream from the wastewater treatment plant consisted of 36 percent effluent, and Fourmile Creek downstream from the respective wastewater treatment plant was 81 percent effluent. During the spring of 2005

  16. Limited dissemination of the wastewater treatment plant core resistome

    OpenAIRE

    Munck, Christian; Albertsen, Mads; Telke, Amar; Ellabaan, Mostafa M Hashim; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Sommer, Morten Otto Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer is a major contributor to the evolution of bacterial genomes and can facilitate the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes between environmental reservoirs and potential pathogens. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are believed to play a central role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. However, the contribution of the dominant members of the WWTP resistome to resistance in human pathogens remains poorly understood. Here we use a combination of...

  17. Health effects on nearby residents of a wood treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlgren, James; Warshaw, Raphael; Thornton, John; Anderson-Mahoney, P.M.; Takhar, Harpreet

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the health status of nearby residents of a wood treatment plant who had sustained prolonged low-level environmental exposure to wood processing waste chemicals. Methods: A population of 1269 exposed residents who were plaintiffs or potential plaintiffs in a lawsuit against the wood treatment plant were evaluated by questionnaire for a health history and symptoms. A representative sample of 214 exposed subjects was included in the analysis. One hundred thirty-nine controls were selected from 479 unexposed volunteers and matched to the exposed subjects as closely as possible by gender and age. Subjects and controls completed additional questionnaires and were evaluated by a physician for medical history and physical examination, blood and urine testing, neurophysiological and neuropsychological studies, and respiratory testing. Environmental sampling for wood processing waste chemicals was carried out on soil and drainage ditch sediment in the exposed neighborhood. Results: The exposed subjects had significantly more cancer, respiratory, skin, and neurological health problems than the controls. The subjective responses on questionnaires and by physician histories revealed that the residents had a significantly greater prevalence of mucous membrane irritation, and skin and neurological symptoms, as well as cancer. (Exposed versus unexposed, cancer 10.0% versus 2.08%, bronchitis 17.8% versus 5.8%, and asthma by history 40.5% versus 11.0%) There were significantly more neurophysiologic abnormalities in adults of reaction time, trails A and B, and visual field defects. Conclusions: Adverse health effects were significantly more prevalent in long-term residents near a wood treatment plant than in controls. The results of this study suggest that plant emissions from wood treatment facilities should be reduced

  18. Treatment of pond sludge at the Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienand, J.; Tyler, R.; Baldwin, C.

    1992-01-01

    The treatment of low-level radioactive/hazardous materials sludges from five inactive solar evaporation settling ponds at the Rocky Flats Plant is discussed. The paper presents information on the following topics: history of the ponds; previous pond cleanout activities; current approach to the problem with respect to water management, sludge management, regulatory actions, and disposal; and future processing technology needs in the areas of polymer solidification, microwave solidification, joule-heated glass melters, and advanced technology incineration

  19. A multipurpose irradiation plant for simultaneous treatment of different foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carassiti, F.; Tata, A.

    1982-01-01

    An industrial multipurpose irradiation plant with a particularly high effectiveness of radiation utilization is presented. The originality of this conceptual design consists of the simultaneous treatment of two products, which are separately irradiated to either high or low absorbed doses. A pneumatical transport system into appropriate channels with air mixing during irradiation has been proposed for the radappertization of granular animal feed, meanwhile a conventional truck-conveyor system has been suggested for the sprout inhibition treatment of potatoes. Moreover, potatoes pass through the irradiation cell twice at high and low level respectively. (author)

  20. Complete physico-chemical treatment for coke plant effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, M K

    2002-03-01

    Naturally found coal is converted to coke which is suitable for metallurgical industries. Large quantities of liquid effluents produced contain a large amount of suspended solids, high COD, BOD, phenols, ammonia and other toxic substances which are causing serious pollution problem in the receiving water to which they are discharged. There are a large number of coke plants in the vicinity of Jharia Coal Field (JCF). Characteristics of the effluents have been evaluated. The present effluent treatment systems were found to be inadequate. Physico-chemical treatment has been considered as a suitable option for the treatment of coke plant effluents. Ammonia removal by synthetic zeolite, activated carbon for the removal of bacteria, viruses, refractory organics, etc. were utilized and the results are discussed. A scheme has been proposed for the complete physico-chemical treatment, which can be suitably adopted for the recycling, reuse and safe disposal of the treated effluent. Various unit process and unit operations involved in the treatment system have been discussed. The process may be useful on industrial scale at various sites.

  1. Membrane bio-reactor for textile wastewater treatment plant upgrading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubello, C; Gori, R

    2005-01-01

    Textile industries carry out several fiber treatments using variable quantities of water, from five to forty times the fiber weight, and consequently generate large volumes of wastewater to be disposed of. Membrane Bio-reactors (MBRs) combine membrane technology with biological reactors for the treatment of wastewater: micro or ultrafiltration membranes are used for solid-liquid separation replacing the secondary settling of the traditional activated sludge system. This paper deals with the possibility of realizing a new section of one existing WWTP (activated sludge + clariflocculation + ozonation) for the treatment of treating textile wastewater to be recycled, equipped with an MBR (76 l/s as design capacity) and running in parallel with the existing one. During a 4-month experimental period, a pilot-scale MBR proved to be very effective for wastewater reclamation. On average, removal efficiency of the pilot plant (93% for COD, and over 99% for total suspended solids) was higher than the WWTP ones. Color was removed as in the WWTP. Anionic surfactants removal of pilot plant was lower than that of the WWTP (90.5 and 93.2% respectively), while the BiAS removal was higher in the pilot plant (98.2 vs. 97.1). At the end cost analysis of the proposed upgrade is reported.

  2. Study of wastewater treatment plants efficiency using radiotracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawi, W. D. A.

    2010-11-01

    This study was performed to investigate and diagnose hydrodynamic behavior of the Military Hospital wastewater treatment plant. The plant comprises two units of treatment, each of them has a separate system. The investigation was carried out using ''1''3''1I as a radiotracer. The concept of residence time distribution (RTD) was used to investigate the efficiency of the aeration tanks, secondary clarifiers and chlorine tanks. Preliminary treatment and modeling of the trace data was performed using two software package applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) namely 4621 counter version 1.0.0 and RTD software. Plug flow pattern (parallel flow) was detected in the aeration tank and secondary clarifier of system 1 in one unit, while no homogeneous mixing was observed in the chlorine tank. Short - circuiting (by - passing) was evident in the aeration tank of system 2 in the other unit, which significantly reduced the operating efficiency. The percentage of dead volumes clearly suggests that the aeration tank and secondary clarifier were well utilized in the whole plant. (Author)

  3. Microbial contamination of the air at the wastewater treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Vítězová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs primarily serve to protect the environment. Their task is to clean waste water from the agglomerations. On the other hand wastewater treatment plants can also negatively affect the environment in their neighbourhood. These include emissions of odour and microorganisms. This article discusses the microbial contamination of the air, called bioaerosols in selected wastewater treatment plant for 18 000 p.e. From results of the work is evident that the largest group of microorganisms in the monitored air were psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria and microscopic fungi. The number of psychrophilic bacteria ranged from 14 to 12 000 CFU/m3 (colony forming units in 1 m3, the number of mesophilic bacteria varied in the range from 20 to 18 500 CFU/m3 and the fungi from 25 to 32 000 CFU/m3 in the air. The amount of actinomycetes ranged from 1 to 1 030 CFU/m3 and faecal coliform bacteria from 0 to 2 500 CFU/m3. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the highest air contamination was around the activation tank, area for dewatered sludge and around the building of mechanical cleaning, depending on the season. The density of studied microorganisms correlated with air temperature.

  4. Multivariate analysis of nutritional information of foodstuff of plant origin for the selection of representative matrices for the analysis of pesticide residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves Bettencourt da Silva, Ricardo Jorge; Gomes Ferreira Crujo Camoes, Maria Filomena

    2010-01-01

    Testing safety of foodstuffs of plant origin involves the analysis of hundreds of pesticide residues. This control is only cost-effective through the use of methods validated for the analysis of many thousands of analyte/matrix combinations. Several documents propose representative matrices of groups of matrices from which the validity of the analytical method can be extrapolated to the represented matrices after summarised experimental check of within group method performance homogeneity. Those groups are based on an evolved expert consensus based on the empirical knowledge on the current analytical procedures; they are not exhaustive, they are not objectively defined and they propose a large list of representative matrices which makes their application difficult. This work proposes grouping 240 matrices, based on the nutritional composition pattern equivalence of the analytical portion right after hydration and before solvent extraction, aiming at defining groups that observe method performance homogeneity. This grouping was based on the combined outcome of three multivariate tools, namely: Principal Component Analysis, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and K-Mean Cluster Analysis. These tools allowed the selection of eight groups for which representative matrices with average characteristics and objective criteria to test inclusion of new matrices were established. The proposed matrices groups are homogeneous to nutritional data not considered in their definition but correlated with the studied multivariate nutritional pattern. The developed grouping that must be checked with experimental test before use was tested against small deviations in food composition and for the integration of new matrices.

  5. Robust Instrumentation[Water treatment for power plant]; Robust Instrumentering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wik, Anders [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-08-01

    Cementa Slite Power Station is a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) with moderate steam data; 3.0 MPa and 420 deg C. The heat is recovered from Cementa, a cement industry, without any usage of auxiliary fuel. The Power station commenced operation in 2001. The layout of the plant is unusual, there are no similar in Sweden and very few world-wide, so the operational experiences are limited. In connection with the commissioning of the power plant a R and D project was identified with the objective to minimise the manpower needed for chemistry management of the plant. The lean chemistry management is based on robust instrumentation and chemical-free water treatment plant. The concept with robust instrumentation consists of the following components; choice of on-line instrumentation with a minimum of O and M and a chemical-free water treatment. The parameters are specific conductivity, cation conductivity, oxygen and pH. In addition to that, two fairly new on-line instruments were included; corrosion monitors and differential pH calculated from specific and cation conductivity. The chemical-free water treatment plant consists of softening, reverse osmosis and electro-deionisation. The operational experience shows that the cycle chemistry is not within the guidelines due to major problems with the operation of the power plant. These problems have made it impossible to reach steady state and thereby not viable to fully verify and validate the concept with robust instrumentation. From readings on the panel of the online analysers some conclusions may be drawn, e.g. the differential pH measurements have fulfilled the expectations. The other on-line analysers have been working satisfactorily apart from contamination with turbine oil, which has been noticed at least twice. The corrosion monitors seem to be working but the lack of trend curves from the mainframe computer system makes it hard to draw any clear conclusions. The chemical-free water treatment has met all

  6. Research on the sewage treatment in high altitude region based on Lhasa Sewage Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Li, Shuwen

    2017-12-01

    Sewage treatment is of great significance to enhance environmental quality, consolidate pollution prevention and ecological protection, and ensure sustainable economic and social development in high altitude region. However, there are numerous difficulties in sewage treatment due to the alpine climate, the relatively low economic development level, and the backward operation and management styles, etc. In this study, the characteristics of influent quality in the sewage treatment plant in Lhasa are investigated by analysing the influent BOD5/COD and BOD5/TN, comparing key indexes recorded from 2014 to 2016 with the hinterland. Results show that the concentration of influent COD, BOD5, NH3-N and SS in the Lhasa sewage treatment plant, in which the sewage belongs to low-concentration urban sewage, is smaller than that in the domestic sewage treatment plants in the mainland. The concentration ratio of BOD5/COD and BOD5/TN is below 0.4 and 4, which indicates that the biodegradation is poor and the carbon sources are in bad demand. The consequences obtained play a vital role in the design, operation and management of sewage treatment plants in high altitude region.

  7. Pesticide-contaminated feeds in integrated grass carp aquaculture: toxicology and bioaccumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucher, J; Gut, T; Mayrhofer, R; El-Matbouli, M; Viet, P H; Ngoc, N T; Lamers, M; Streck, T; Focken, U

    2014-02-19

    Effects of dissolved pesticides on fish are widely described, but little is known about effects of pesticide-contaminated feeds taken up orally by fish. In integrated farms, pesticides used on crops may affect grass carp that feed on plants from these fields. In northern Vietnam, grass carp suffer seasonal mass mortalities which may be caused by pesticide-contaminated plants. To test effects of pesticide-contaminated feeds on health and bioaccumulation in grass carp, a net-cage trial was conducted with 5 differently contaminated grasses. Grass was spiked with 2 levels of trichlorfon/fenitrothion and fenobucarb. Unspiked grass was used as a control. Fish were fed at a daily rate of 20% of body mass for 10 d. The concentrations of fenitrothion and fenobucarb in pond water increased over time. Effects on fish mortality were not found. Fenobucarb in feed showed the strongest effects on fish by lowering feed uptake, deforming the liver, increasing blood glucose and reducing cholinesterase activity in blood serum, depending on feed uptake. Fenobucarb showed increased levels in flesh in all treatments, suggesting bio-concentration. Trichlorfon and fenitrothion did not significantly affect feed uptake but showed concentration-dependent reduction of cholinesterase activity and liver changes. Fenitrothion showed bioaccumulation in flesh which was dependant on feed uptake, whereas trichlorfon was only detected in very low concentrations in all treatments. Pesticide levels were all detected below the maximum residue levels in food. The pesticide-contaminated feeds tested did not cause mortality in grass carp but were associated with negative physiological responses and may increase susceptibility to diseases.

  8. Development of an improved compact package plant for small community waste-water treatment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hulsman, A

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenges facing the design and operation of small community wastewater treatment plants are discussed. The package plant concept is considered and the consequent development of a compact intermittently aerated activated sludge package plant...

  9. Sludge Reduction by Lumbriculus Variegatus in Ahvaz Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Hendrickx

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sludge production is an avoidable problem arising from the treatment of wastewater. The sludge remained after municipal wastewater treatment contains considerable amounts of various contaminants and if is not properly handled and disposed, it may produce extensivehealth hazards. Application of aquatic worm is an approach to decrease the amount of biological waste sludge produced in wastewater treatment plants. In the present research reduction of the amount of waste sludge from Ahvaz wastewater treatment plant was studied with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus in a reactor concept. The sludge reduction in the reactor with worm was compared to sludge reduction in a blank reactor (without worm.The effects of changes in dissolved oxygen (DO concentration up to 3 mg/L (run 1 and up to 6 mg/L (run 2 were studied in the worm and blank reactors. No meaningful relationship was found between DO concentration and the rate of total suspended solids reduction. Theaverage sludge reductions were obtained as 33% (run 2 and 32% (run 1 in worm reactor,and 16% (run 1 and 12% (run 2 in the blank reactor. These results showed that the worm reactors may reduce the waste sludge between 2 and 2.75 times higher than in the blankconditions. The obtained results showed that the worm reactor has a high potential for use in large-scale sludge processing.

  10. Evaluation of alternative environmentally friendly matrix solid phase dispersion solid supports for the simultaneous extraction of 15 pesticides of different chemical classes from drinking water treatment sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Karina Lotz; Cerqueira, Maristela Barnes Rodrigues; Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2017-09-01

    This study describes the development, optimization and validation of a method for the extraction of 15 pesticides of different chemical classes in drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) by vortex-assisted Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion (MSPD) with determination by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. It focused on the application of alternative and different solid supports to the extraction step of the MSPD. The main parameters that influenced the extraction were studied in order to obtain better recovery responses. Recoveries ranged from 70 to 120% with RSD below 20% for all analytes. Limits of quantification (LOQ) of the method ranged from 5 to 500 μg kg -1 whereas the analytical curves showed correlation coefficients above 0.997. The method under investigation used low volume of solvent (5 mL), low sample mass (1.5 g) and low mass of chitin (0.5 g), an environmentally friendly support. It has advantages, such as speed, simplicity and low cost material, over other methods. When the method was applied, 4 out of 15 pesticides were detected in the DWTS samples in concentrations below the LOQ. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Innovative waste treatment and conditioning technologies at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this publication is to provide Member States with information on the most innovative technologies and strategies used in waste treatment and conditioning. At present, some of those technologies and strategies might not be widely implemented at nuclear power plants (NPP), but they have an important potential for their use as part of the long range NPP, utility, or national strategy. Thus, the target audience is those decision makers at the national and organizational level responsible for selecting waste processing technologies and strategies over a period of three to ten years. Countries and individual nuclear plants have limited financial resources which can be applied toward radioactive waste processing (treatment and conditioning). They are challenged to determine which of the many available technologies and strategies are best suited to meet national or local needs. This publication reduces the selection of processes for wastes generated by nuclear power plants to those technologies and strategies which are considered innovative. The report further identifies the key benefits which may derive from the adoption of those technologies, the different waste streams to which each technology is relevant, and the limitations of the technologies. The technologies and strategies identified have been evaluated to differentiate between (1) predominant technologies (those that are widely practiced in multiple countries or a large number of nuclear plants), and (2) innovative technologies (those which are not so widely used but are considered to offer benefits which make them suitable for broader application across the industry). Those which fall into the second category are the primary focus of this report. Many IAEA publications address the technical aspects of treatment and conditioning for radioactive wastes, covering research, technological advances, and safety issues. These studies and reports primarily target the research and technical staff of a

  12. Potential Positive Effects of Pesticides Application on (Walker (Lepidoptera: Insecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Qing Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In China, the pink stem borer (PSB Sesamia inferens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae has become a rice pest in some rice-producing regions. The cause of this shift from secondary to major pest is unknown. The major purpose of this study was to examine the effect of five commonly used pesticides in rice fields on reproduction of PSB and on biochemical substances of rice plants. The results showed that the weight of pupae developed from 1st instar larvae treated with 2 mg/L triazophos and the number of eggs laid by emerged females from the treatment were significantly greater than those of the control, increasing by 26.2% and 47%, respectively. In addition, a nontarget insecticide, pymetrozine 100 mg/L, and a target insecticide, chlorantraniliprole 2 mg/L, stimulated reproduction of PSB. Biochemical measurement showed that foliar sprays of these pesticides resulted in significant reductions of contents of resistant substances, flavonoids and phenolic acids, in rice plants. For example, flavonoids and phenolic acids of rice plants treated with triazophos reduced by 48.5% and 22.4%, respectively, compared to the control. Therefore, we predicted that the application of some pesticides, eg triazophos and chlorantraniliprole, may be the cause of the increase in the population numbers of PSB in rice fields.

  13. Practical tracer investigations of pesticide residues in agricultural ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuehr, F.

    1984-01-01

    According to the FAO's latest estimates, the world food supply can only be guaranteed if the 1982 agricultural production is increased by approx. 50% by the year 2000. 2/3 of this production increase must be achieved on areas already under cultivation. This means that in addition to balanced mineral fertilization the use of pesticides will have to be intensively continued in order to fully exploit the improved yield potential of the cultivated plants achieved by breeding. The primary research objective is therefore to extend our knowledge of the uptake and effects of pesticides in the plant as well as their persistence in agricultural ecosystems in order to be able to apply them both more efficiently and more safely. The Institute of Radioagronomy at the Kernforschungsanlage Juelich GmbH (Juelich Nuclear Research Centre) is carrying out practical experiments into these problems using 14 C-labelled pesticides under field conditions. In this way statements will become possible on the uptake and residue situation in plants, translocation and metabolism in the soil, the balance in the year of application as well as on the uptake of untreated cultures in the crop rotation. Parallel to this, uptake after leaf spraying or after seed grain treatment is being studied under standardized conditions, as well as for example the mineralization, sorption and fixation of active substances and metabolites in the soil. Results from the past 12 years are being utilized as a basis for an evaluation of the state of knowledge. (orig.)

  14. Raffinate treatment at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acox, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    Raffinate solutions, which contain uranium, technetium, nitrates, and lesser amounts of heavy metals, are produced in the decontamination and uranium recovery operations at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. These solutions are presently being placed in temporary storage until three treatment facilities are constructed which will produce an environmentally acceptable effluent from the raffinate. These facilities are: (1) The Heavy Metals Precipitation Facility; (2) The Technetium Ion Exchange Facility; and (3) The Biodenitrification Pilot Plant. When the facilities are completed, the raffinate will be treated in 500 gallon batches. The first treatment is the heavy metals precipitation by caustic addition and filtering. The effluent proceeds to the ion exchange columns where the technetium is removed by adsorption onto a strongly basic, anion exchange resin which has been converted to the hydroxyl form. Following ion exchange, the solution is transported to the biodenitrification pilot plant. The biodenitrification column is a fluidized-bed using bacteria-laden coal particles as the denitrifying media. The resulting effluent should meet the limits established by the US EPA for all metals and nitrate. Technetium will be 98+% removed and the uranium concentration will be less than one milligram per liter. 13 references

  15. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in wastewater treatment plants and drinking water treatment plants: Removal efficiency and exposure risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chang-Gui; Liu, You-Sheng; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2016-12-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of chemicals with wide industrial and commercial applications, and have been received great attentions due to their persistence in the environment. The information about their presence in urban water cycle is still limited. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and removal efficiency of eighteen PFASs in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and drinking water plants (DWTPs) with different treatment processes. The results showed that both perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were the predominant compounds in the water phase of WWTPs and DWTPs, while PFOS was dominant in dewatered sludge of WWTPs. The average total PFASs concentrations in the three selected WWTPs were 19.6-232 ng/L in influents, 15.5-234 ng/L in effluents, and 31.5-49.1 ng/g dry weight in sludge. The distribution pattern of PFASs differed between the wastewater and sludge samples, indicating strong partition of PFASs with long carbon chains to sludge. In the WWTPs, most PFASs were not eliminated efficiently in conventional activated sludge treatment, while the membrane bio-reactor (MBR) and Unitank removed approximately 50% of long chain (C ≥ 8) perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs). The daily mass loads of total PFASs in WWTPs were in the range of 1956-24773 mg in influent and 1548-25085 mg in effluent. PFASs were found at higher concentrations in the wastewater from plant A with some industrial wastewater input than from the other two plants (plant B and plant C) with mainly domestic wastewater sources. Meanwhile, the average total PFASs concentrations in the two selected DWTPs were detected at 4.74-14.3 ng/L in the influent and 3.34-13.9 ng/L in the effluent. In DWTPs, only granular activated carbon (GAC) and powder activated carbon (PAC) showed significant removal of PFASs. The PFASs detected in the tap water would not pose immediate health risks in the short term exposure. The findings from this

  16. B Plant treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) units inspection plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam, T.G.

    1996-01-01

    This inspection plan is written to meet the requirements of WAC 173-303 for operations of a TSD facility. Owners/operators of TSD facilities are required to inspection their facility and active waste management units to prevent and/or detect malfunctions, discharges and other conditions potentially hazardous to human health and the environment. A written plan detailing these inspection efforts must be maintained at the facility in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC), Chapter 173-303, ''Dangerous Waste Regulations'' (WAC 173-303), a written inspection plan is required for the operation of a treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) facility and individual TSD units. B Plant is a permitted TSD facility currently operating under interim status with an approved Part A Permit. Various operational systems and locations within or under the control of B Plant have been permitted for waste management activities. Included are the following TSD units: Cell 4 Container Storage Area; B Plant Containment Building; Low Level Waste Tank System; Organic Waste Tank System; Neutralized Current Acid Waste (NCAW) Tank System; Low Level Waste Concentrator Tank System. This inspection plan complies with the requirements of WAC 173-303. It addresses both general TSD facility and TSD unit-specific inspection requirements. Sections on each of the TSD units provide a brief description of the system configuration and the permitted waste management activity, a summary of the inspection requirements, and details on the activities B Plant uses to maintain compliance with those requirements

  17. Seabrook, N.H. Wastewater Treatment Plant Chief Operator Recognized for Outstanding Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin Price, a resident of Berwick Maine and the Chief Operator of the Seabrook, N.H. Wastewater Treatment Plant, was honored by EPA with a 2016 Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator of the Year Excellence Award.

  18. Bioimpact of application of pesticides with plant growth hormone (gibberellic acid on target and non-target microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdullah Al Abboud

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to determine the impacts of fungicide, insecticide, plant growth hormone (gibberellic acid on soil microbiota, and the growth characteristics of Aspergillus flavus. In the fungicide or insecticide mixed with plant growth hormone treated soil sample, the total viable number of soil microbiota was found to be higher than that of the soil treated with fungicide or insecticide alone. Moderate effect of insecticide used on the total number of fungi was observed. On the other hand the effect of insecticide on soil bacteria was more than effect of fungicide, and the negative effect of fungicide on soil bacteria was observed particularly at latent periods (15 and 20 days of application. A great sensitivity to fungicide and insecticide was observed in the case of nitrogen fixing bacteria. At 15 days after fungicide and insecticide application the adverse effect was found. Morphological deformations were clear in A. flavus cultivated on medium containing fungicide, the fungus failed to form conidiospores, conidiophores and vesicles. Intermediate and terminal outgrowths like blisters and terminal vesicle originate from hyphae. The addition of plant growth hormone reduced the effect of fungicide on fungus.

  19. Process waste treatment system upgrades: Clarifier startup at the nonradiological wastewater treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero, A.J.; McTaggart, D.R.; Van Essen, D.C.; Kent, T.E.; West, G.D.; Taylor, P.A.

    1998-07-01

    The Waste Management Operations Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory recently modified the design of a reactor/clarifier at the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant, which is now referred to as the Process Waste Treatment Complex--Building 3608, to replace the sludge-blanket softener/clarifier at the Process Waste Treatment Plant, now referred to as the Process Waste Treatment Complex-Building 3544 (PWTC-3544). This work was conducted because periodic hydraulic overloads caused poor water-softening performance in the PWTC-3544 softener, which was detrimental to the performance and operating costs of downstream ion-exchange operations. Over a 2-month time frame, the modified reactor/clarifier was tested with nonradiological wastewater and then with radioactive wastewater to optimize softening performance. Based on performance to date, the new system has operated more effectively than the former one, with reduced employee radiological exposure, less downtime, lower costs, and improved effluent quality

  20. Treatment Of Wastewater For Reuse With Mobile Electron Beam Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, Y.R.; Zommer, N.

    2012-01-01

    The use of alternative disinfectants to chlorine for the wastewater treatment has received increasing attention in recent years to treat either liquid or solids streams within wastewater treatment plants for pathogens and trace organics (TOrCs). Although several technologies have come to the forefront as an alternative to chlorine (e.g., ultraviolet [UV] and hydrogen peroxide), the majority of these technologies are chemically based, with the exception of UV. An attractive physical disinfection approach is by electron beam (EB) irradiation. EB treatment of wastewater leads to their purification from various pollutants. It is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from water radiolysis: hydrated electron, OH free radical and H atom [Pikaev (1986)]. Sometimes methods such as EB with biological treatment, adsorption and others improve the effect of EB treatment of the wastewater purification. In the process of EB treatment of wastewater there are utilized chemical transformations of pollutants induced by ionizing radiation. At sufficiently high absorbed doses these transformations can result in complete decomposition (removal) of the substance. Under real conditions, i.e., at rather high content of pollutants in a wastewater and economically acceptable doses, partial decomposition of pollutant takes place as well as transformations of pollutant molecules that result in improving subsequent purification stages, efficiency of the process being notably influenced by irradiation conditions and wastewater composition [Woods and Pikaev (1994)]. (author)

  1. Treatment Of Wastewater For Reuse With Mobile Electron Beam Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, B.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, Y. R. [EB TECH Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Zommer, N. [Pele Inc., Milpitas Californaa (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The use of alternative disinfectants to chlorine for the wastewater treatment has received increasing attention in recent years to treat either liquid or solids streams within wastewater treatment plants for pathogens and trace organics (TOrCs). Although several technologies have come to the forefront as an alternative to chlorine (e.g., ultraviolet [UV] and hydrogen peroxide), the majority of these technologies are chemically based, with the exception of UV. An attractive physical disinfection approach is by electron beam (EB) irradiation. EB treatment of wastewater leads to their purification from various pollutants. It is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from water radiolysis: hydrated electron, OH free radical and H atom [Pikaev (1986)]. Sometimes methods such as EB with biological treatment, adsorption and others improve the effect of EB treatment of the wastewater purification. In the process of EB treatment of wastewater there are utilized chemical transformations of pollutants induced by ionizing radiation. At sufficiently high absorbed doses these transformations can result in complete decomposition (removal) of the substance. Under real conditions, i.e., at rather high content of pollutants in a wastewater and economically acceptable doses, partial decomposition of pollutant takes place as well as transformations of pollutant molecules that result in improving subsequent purification stages, efficiency of the process being notably influenced by irradiation conditions and wastewater composition [Woods and Pikaev (1994)]. (author)

  2. Anammox biofilm in activated sludge swine wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Ryu; Ishimoto, Chikako; Chikyu, Mikio; Aihara, Yoshito; Matsumoto, Toshimi; Uenishi, Hirohide; Yasuda, Tomoko; Fukumoto, Yasuyuki; Waki, Miyoko

    2017-01-01

    We investigated anammox with a focus on biofilm in 10 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that use activated sludge treatment of swine wastewater. In three plants, we found red biofilms in aeration tanks or final sedimentation tanks. The biofilm had higher anammox 16S rRNA gene copy numbers (up to 1.35 × 10 12 copies/g-VSS) and higher anammox activity (up to 295 μmoL/g-ignition loss/h) than suspended solids in the same tank. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Planctomycetes accounted for up to 17.7% of total reads in the biofilm. Most of them were related to Candidatus Brocadia or Ca. Jettenia. The highest copy number and the highest proportion of Planctomycetes were comparable to those of enriched anammox sludge. Thus, swine WWTPs that use activated sludge treatment can fortuitously acquire anammox biofilm. Thus, concentrated anammox can be detected by focusing on red biofilm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Water and Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ; Environment Human Health Animal Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety Environment Air Water Soil Wildlife Home Page Pesticides and the Environment Water and Pesticides Related Topics: What Happens to Pesticides Released into the Environment? Water Solubility Drinking Water and Pesticides Fact Sheet

  4. Soil and Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ; Environment Human Health Animal Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety Environment Air Water Soil Wildlife Home Page Pesticides and the Environment Soil and Pesticides Related Topics: What Happens to Pesticides español Soil and Pesticides Soil can be degraded and the community of organisms living in the soil can

  5. Characterization of NORM material produced in a water treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suursoo, S.; Kiisk, M.; Jantsikene, A.; Koch, R.; Isakar, K.; Realo, E. [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics (Estonia); Lumiste, L. [Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia)

    2014-07-01

    In February 2012 a water treatment plant was opened in Viimsi, Estonia. The plant is designed for removal of iron, manganese, and radium from groundwater. The first 2 years of operation have shown that the purification process generates significant amounts of materials with elevated radium levels. The treatment plant is fed by nine wells, which open to radium-rich aquifers. Purification is achieved by aeration and filtration processes. Aerated water is led through two successive filter columns, first of them is filled with MnO{sub 2} coated material FMH and filtration sand, the second one with zeolite. The plant has five parallel treatment lines with a total of 95 tons of FMH + filtration sand, and 45 tons of zeolite. The average capacity of the facility has been 2400 m{sup 3}/day. Yearly input of radium to the plant is estimated to be 325 MBq for Ra-226, and 420 MBq for Ra-228. Most of the radium (about 90%) accumulates in the filter columns. Some 8-9% of it is removed by backwash water during regular filter backwash cycles. To characterize radium accumulation and its removal by backwash in detail, treatment line no. 5 is sampled monthly for filter materials and backwash water. A steady growth of radium activity concentrations is apparent in both filter materials. In the top layer of the first stage filter (FMH+sand), Ra-226 and Ra-228 activity concentrations (per unit dry weight) reached (1540 ± 60) Bq/kg and (2510 ± 50) Bq/kg (k=2), respectively, by April 2013. At the same time, radium content in the top layer of the second stage filter (zeolite) was an order of magnitude higher: (19 600 ± 130) Bq/kg for Ra-226, and (22 260 ± 170) Bq/kg for Ra-228 (k=2). Radium is not evenly distributed throughout the filter columns. A rough estimate can be given that after 1.25 years of operation (by April 2013) the accumulated activities in treatment line no. 5 reached 1000 MBq for Ra-226 and 1200 MBq for Ra-228. Although filters are the most important type of NORM

  6. Use of labelled pesticides in pesticide research studies and problems in the interpretation of the data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sree Ramulu, U.S.; Krishnamoorthy, K.K.

    1980-01-01

    The introduction of labelled pesticides has helped to solve number of problems connected with the formation and degradation of pesticides, factors influencing the above, location of the metabolites in the plants etc. However in most of the studies, the active ingredient has been labelled and diluted and applied at the recommended doses. But the efficacy of the pesticide is modified by the method of formulation, nature of fillers, emulsifiers, solvents, size of droplets etc. Hence the utility as well as the limitations in the use of labelled pesticides in the formulations are discussed. Also due to the variations in the half life of the radioisotopes used for labelling, the use of labelled pesticides for long as well as short duration crops has also been indicated. Autoradiography has become an useful tool in studying the movement of pesticide in the plant, and insects and also locating the regions of high concentration of pesticides and their residues. Though useful, the production of artefacts caused by exudation of cell sap, and other exudates, thickness of samples, increasing time of contact in the case of low energy radioisotope labelled compounds etc. have prevented the use of this technique on a wide scale. The problems in the preparation of autoradiographs of the plant specimens treated with labelled pesticides are also discussed. (author)

  7. Strategies to Combat Antibiotic Resistance in the Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Barancheshme

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this manuscript is to review different treatment strategies and mechanisms for combating the antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB and antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs in the wastewater environment. The high amount of antibiotics is released into the wastewater that may promote selection of ARB and ARGs which find their way into natural environments. Emerging microbial pathogens and increasing antibiotic resistance among them is a global public health issue. The propagation and spread of ARB and ARGs in the environment may result in an increase of antibiotic resistant microbial pathogens which is a worldwide environmental and public health concern. A proper treatment of wastewater is essential before its discharge into rivers, lake, or sewage system to prevent the spread of ARB and ARGs into the environment. This review discusses various treatment options applied for combating the spread of ARB and ARGs in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. It was reported that low-energy anaerobic–aerobic treatment reactors, constructed wetlands, and disinfection processes have shown good removal efficiencies. Nanomaterials and biochar combined with other treatment methods and coagulation process are very recent strategies regarding ARB and ARGs removal and need more investigation and research. Based on current studies a wide-ranging removal efficiency of ARGs can be achieved depending on the type of genes present and treatment processes used, still, there are gaps that need to be further investigated. In order to find solutions to control dissemination of antibiotic resistance in the environment, it is important to (1 study innovative strategies in large scale and over a long time to reach an actual evaluation, (2 develop risk assessment studies to precisely understand occurrence and abundance of ARB/ARGs so that their potential risks to human health can be determined, and (3 consider operating and environmental factors that affect the

  8. Analysis and assessment of water treatment plant reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szpak Dawid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the publication is the analysis and assessment of the reliability of the surface water treatment plant (WTP. In the study the one parameter method of reliability assessment was used. Based on the flow sheet derived from the water company the reliability scheme of the analysed WTP was prepared. On the basis of the daily WTP work report the availability index Kg for the individual elements included in the WTP, was determined. Then, based on the developed reliability scheme showing the interrelationships between elements, the availability index Kg for the whole WTP was determined. The obtained value of the availability index Kg was compared with the criteria values.

  9. Limited dissemination of the wastewater treatment plant core resistome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munck, Christian; Albertsen, Mads; Telke, Amar; Ellabaan, Mostafa; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Sommer, Morten O A

    2015-09-30

    Horizontal gene transfer is a major contributor to the evolution of bacterial genomes and can facilitate the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes between environmental reservoirs and potential pathogens. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are believed to play a central role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. However, the contribution of the dominant members of the WWTP resistome to resistance in human pathogens remains poorly understood. Here we use a combination of metagenomic functional selections and comprehensive metagenomic sequencing to uncover the dominant genes of the WWTP resistome. We find that this core resistome is unique to the WWTP environment, with resistome is comparable to that of the soil resistome.

  10. Chemical treatment of ammonium fluoride solution in uranium reconversion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Frajndlich, E.U. de.

    1992-01-01

    A chemical procedure is described for the treatment of the filtrate, produced from the transformation of uranium hexafluoride (U F 6 ) into ammonium uranyl carbonate (AUC). This filtrate is an intermediate product in the U F 6 to uranium dioxide (U O 2 ) reconversion process. The described procedure recovers uranium as ammonium peroxide fluoro uranate (APOFU) by precipitation with hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), and as later step, its calcium fluoride (CaF 2 ) co-precipitation. The recovered uranium is recycled to the AUC production plant. (author)

  11. New Pesticidal Diterpenoids from Vellozia gigantea (Velloziaceae, an Endemic Neotropical Plant Living in the Endangered Brazilian Biome Rupestrian Grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana C. Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vellozia gigantea is a rare, ancient, and endemic neotropical plant present in the Brazilian Rupestrian grasslands. The dichloromethane extract of V. gigantea adventitious roots was phytotoxic against Lactuca sativa, Agrostis stolonifera, and Lemna paucicostata, and showed larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. Phytotoxicity bioassay-directed fractionation of the extract revealed one new isopimaradiene, 8(9,15-isopimaradien-1,3,7,11-tetraone, and three new cleistanthane diterpenoids, 7-oxo-8,11,13-cleistanthatrien-3-ol, 3,20-epoxy-7-oxo-8,11,13-cleistanthatrien-3-ol, and 20-nor-3,7-dioxo-1,8,11,13-cleistanthatetraen-10-ol. These new structures are proposed based on interpretation of 1H, 13C, COSY, NOESY, HSQC, and HMBC NMR data. 8(9,15-isopimaradien-1,3,7,11-tetraone was especially phytotoxic with an IC50 value (30 μM comparable to those of commercial herbicides clomazone, EPTC, and naptalam. In addition, 7-oxo-8,11,13-cleistanthatrien-3-ol provided 100% mortality at a concentration of 125 ppm against one-day-old Ae. aegypti larvae. Our results show that ancient and unique plants, like the endangered narrowly endemic neotropical species V. gigantea present in the Rupestrian grasslands, should also be protected because they can be sources of new bioactive compounds.

  12. Characterization and possible uses of ashes from wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merino, Ignacio; Arevalo, Luis F.; Romero, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    This work, on the ashes from the wastewater treatment plant of Galindo (Vizcaya, Spain), has been outlined with the purpose of finding their physico-chemical properties and suggesting possible applications. Ashes contain important quantities of iron, calcium, silica, alumina and phosphates. X-Ray diffraction data make it possible to estimate the mineralogical compositions of the original ashes and also, after thermal treatment at 1200 and 1300 deg. C, the main reactions occurring in thermal treatment. Particle size analysis makes it possible to classify ashes as a very fine powdered material. The thermal treatment leads to a densification of the material and provokes losses of weight mainly due to the elimination of water, carbon dioxide and sulphur trioxide. Application tests show that ashes are not suitable for landfill and similar applications, because of their plastic properties. Testing for pozzolanic character, after the ashes had been heated at 1200 deg. C, did not lead to a strong material probably due to low contents in silica and alumina or to requiring a higher heating temperature. Thermal treatment leads to densification of the material with a considerable increase of compressive strength of the probes. The use of additives (clays and powdered glass) to improve ceramic properties of ashes will be the aim of a future work

  13. Local desalination treatment plant wastewater reuse and evaluation potential absorption of salts by the halophyte plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Kalantari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of arid and semi-arid areas and consequently water scarcity are affected by climate change. This can influence on availability and quality of water while demands on food and water are increasing. As pressure on freshwater is increasing, utilization of saline water in a sustainable approach is inevitable. Therefore, bioremediation using salt tolerant plants that is consistent with sustainable development objectives might be an alternative and effective approach. In this study, saline wastewater from a local desalination treatment plant was utilized to irrigate four halophyte plants, including Aloevera, Tamarix aphylla, Rosmarinus officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla. A field experiment was designed and conducted in Zarrindasht, south of Iran in years 2012-2013 accordingly. Two irrigation treatments consisting of freshwater with salinity of 2.04 dS.m-1 and desalination wastewater with salinity of 5.77dSm-1 were applied. The experiment was designed as a split plot in the form of randomized complete block design (RCB with three replications. The results of variance analysis, ANOVA, on salt concentration in Aloevera showed that there was no significant difference between the effects of two irrigation water qualities except for Na. In Rosmarinus officinalis, only the ratio of K/Na showed a significant difference. None of the examined salt elements showed a significant difference in Tamarix aphylla irrigated with both water qualities. In Matricaria chamomilla, only Mg and K/Na ratio showed a significant difference (Duncan 5%. As a result, no significant difference was observed in salt absorption by the examined plants in treatments which were irrigated by desalination wastewater and freshwater. This could be a good result that encourages the use of similar wastewater to save freshwater in a sustainable system.

  14. Design aspects of reverse osmosis plants for rad waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar, S.; Panicker, S.T.; Misra, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    The potential of reverse osmosis process has been well established in the nuclear waste treatment. The nuclear wastes are characterised by chemically insignificant levels of radioactive nuclides and small amounts (a few hundred ppm) of inactive ionic species. The basic design objectives in these systems aim at higher volume reduction factors, i.e. corresponding to recovery factor of more than 0.9 and a decontamination factor of at least 10, i.e. corresponding to a solute rejection of more than 90%. In this paper, the salient aspects of the design of a reverse osmosis system for radioactive waste treatment is discussed in the light of the operating experience of an experimental plant based on plate module configuration and utilizing cellulose acetate membranes prepared in our laboratory. (author). 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Surface treatments for material protection in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, P.K.; Gadiyar, H.S.

    1987-01-01

    The paper highlights some of the surface treatment methods used in nuclear power plants to improve their performance. The corrosion resistance of zirconium alloys results from the formation of an adherent and protective film of ZrO 2 . Graphite coating of zircaloy-2 cladding minimizes the susceptibility to environmental induced cracking. Magnetite formation during the hot conditioning operation improves the corrosion resistance of carbon steel as well as controls the spread of radioactivity. It has been illustrated how the surface treatment is helpful for redistributing residual stress to facilitate conversion of tensile stress to compressive stress to mitigate failures due to stress corrosion and fatigue corrosion. Inhibitors and passivators can modify the surface conditions (in situ) of condenser tubes and cooling water systems. These aspects have been dealt in the text of the paper. (author). 8 refs., 3 figures

  16. Perspectives on modelling micropollutants in wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clouzot, Ludiwine; Cloutier, Frédéric; Vanrolleghem, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Models for predicting the fate of micropollutants (MPs) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been developed to provide engineers and decision-makers with tools that they can use to improve their understanding of, and evaluate how to optimize, the removal of MPs and determine their impact......) addressing advancements in WWTP treatment technologies, (iii) making use of common approaches to data acquisition for model calibration and (iv) integrating ecotoxicological effects of MPs in receiving waters....... on the receiving waters. This paper provides an overview of such models, and discusses the impact of regulation, engineering practice and research on model development. A review of the current status of MP models reveals that a single model cannot represent the wide range of MPs that are present in wastewaters...

  17. 78 FR 38328 - Registration Review; Pesticide Dockets Opened for Review and Comment; Announcement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    .... Environmental justice. EPA seeks to achieve environmental justice, the fair treatment and meaningful involvement... high and adverse human health impacts or environmental effects from exposure to the pesticide(s... registrations of pesticides are to be reviewed every 15 years. Under FIFRA, a pesticide product may be...

  18. Impact of botanical pesticides derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica plants on the emission of volatiles that attract parasitoids of the diamondback moth to cabbage plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Gols, R.; Hordijk, C.A.; Kfir, R.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2006-01-01

    Herbivorous and carnivorous arthropods use chemical information from plants during foraging. Aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree Melia azedarach and commercial formulations from the neem tree Azadirachta indica, Neemix 4.5®, were investigated for their impact on the flight response of two

  19. The Waste Treatment Plant, a Work in Progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, W. F. Jr.; Duncan, G. M.

    2006-01-01

    There are many challenges in the design and construction of Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford site. The plant is being built to process some 55 million gallons of radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. Engineering and construction are progressing on this largest project in the DOE complex. This paper describes some of WTP's principal recent challenges and opportunities and how they are being addressed to minimize impact on the project, enhance the capabilities of the facilities, and reduce risk. A significant new development in 2005 was the need to account for higher seismic accelerations than originally specified for the facility structures and equipment. Efforts have centered on continuing design and construction with minimal risk, while the final seismic design spectra was developed. Other challenges include development of an alternative cesium ion exchange resin to minimize the risk from reliance on a single product, implementing advanced analytical techniques to improve laboratory performance, adopting a thinner walled high level waste (HLW) canister to reduce waste volume and mission duration, and commissioning a comprehensive external flowsheet review of the design, along with its underpinning technologies, and projected plant operability. These challenges make it clear that WTP is a work in progress, but the challenges are being successfully resolved as the design and construction move on to completion. (authors)

  20. Multi-residue analysis of pesticides, plant hormones, veterinary drugs and mycotoxins using HILIC chromatography - MS/MS in various food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danezis, G P; Anagnostopoulos, C J; Liapis, K; Koupparis, M A

    2016-10-26

    One of the recent trends in Analytical Chemistry is the development of economic, quick and easy hyphenated methods to be used in a field that includes analytes of different classes and physicochemical properties. In this work a multi-residue method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 28 xenobiotics (polar and hydrophilic) using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography technique (HILIC) coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technology. The scope of the method includes plant growth regulators (chlormequat, daminozide, diquat, maleic hydrazide, mepiquat, paraquat), pesticides (cyromazine, the metabolite of the fungicide propineb PTU (propylenethiourea), amitrole), various multiclass antibiotics (tetracyclines, sulfonamides quinolones, kasugamycin and mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, B2, fumonisin B1 and ochratoxin A). Isolation of the analytes from the matrix was achieved with a fast and effective technique. The validation of the multi-residue method was performed at the levels: 10 μg/kg and 100 μg/kg in the following representative substrates: fruits-vegetables (apples, apricots, lettuce and onions), cereals and pulses (flour and chickpeas), animal products (milk and meat) and cereal based baby foods. The method was validated taking into consideration EU guidelines and showed acceptable linearity (r ≥ 0.99), accuracy with recoveries between 70 and 120% and precision with RSD ≤ 20% for the majority of the analytes studied. For the analytes that presented accuracy and precision values outside the acceptable limits the method still is able to serve as a semi-quantitative method. The matrix effect, the limits of detection and quantification were also estimated and compared with the current EU MRLs (Maximum Residue Levels) and FAO/WHO MLs (Maximum Levels) or CXLs (Codex Maximum Residue Limits). The combined and expanded uncertainty of the method for each analyte per substrate, was also estimated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  1. Growth promotion of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) plants by single and mixed cultures of efficient phosphate solubilizing bacteria that are tolerant to abiotic stress and pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzuay, María Soledad; Ciancio, María Gabriela Ruiz; Ludueña, Liliana Mercedes; Angelini, Jorge Guillermo; Barros, Germán; Pastor, Nicolás; Taurian, Tania

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were, to analyze in vitro phosphate solubilization activity of six native peanut bacteria and to determine the effect of single and mixed inoculation of these bacteria on peanut and maize plants. Ability to produce organic acids and cofactor PQQ, to solubilize FePO 4 and AlPO 4 and phosphatase activity were analyzed. Also, the ability to solubilize phosphate under abiotic stress and in the presence of pesticides of the selected bacteria was determined. The effect of single and mixed bacterial inocula was analyzed on seed germination, maize plant growth and in a crop rotation plant assay with peanut and maize. The six strains produced gluconic acid and five released cofactor PQQ into the medium. All bacteria showed ability to solubilize phosphate from FePO 4 and AlPO 4 and phosphatase activity. The ability of the bacteria to solubilize tricalcium phosphate under abiotic stress and in presence of pesticides indicated encouraging results. Bacterial inoculation on peanut and maize increased seed germination, plant́s growth and P content. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria used in this study showed efficient phosphate mineralizing and solubilization ability and would be potential P-biofertilizers for peanut and maize. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Engineering study radioactive liquid waste treatment plant refurbishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suazo, I.L.

    1994-01-01

    This feasibility study will investigate the opportunities, restrictions and cost impact to refurbish the existing Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Plant (RLWTP) while utilizing the same basic criteria that was used in the development of the new Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). The objective of this study is to perform a more in-depth analysis of refurbishing the existing than has been done in the past so as to provide a basis for comparison between refurbishing the existing or constructing a new. The existing plant is located at Technical Area 50 (TA-50) within the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The initial structure was built in 1963. Over the ensuing years, the building has been modified and several additions have been constructed. In 1966, laboratories, ion exchange and pretreatment functions were added. The decontamination and decommissioning activities and ventilation equipment were added in 1984. The following assumptions are the basic parameters considered in the development of a design concept to refurbish the RLWTP: (1) Allow continued operation of the during retrofit construction. (2) Design the necessary expansion within the site constraints. (3) Satisfy National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) permit conditions and other environmental regulations. (4) Comply with present DOE Orders and building code requirements. The refurbishment concept is a phased demolition and construction process

  3. Health hazards related to Soba sewage treatment plant, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Osman Abdelwahab Abdelmoneim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the health hazards acquired by the residents nearby Soba sewage treatment plant. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in Soba locality, Khartoum, Sudan. An interviewer-administrated questionnaire was assigned to 462 residents of the area living in four geographically distributed squares around the sewage plant. The data was analyzed in SPSS; Cronbach’s alpha reliability scale of measurement was used to check the internal validity of six variables related to the quality of life. A logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between the health hazards and the quality of life. Among the 462 residents, difficulty in breathing (37.9% and nausea (37.2 were the principal health hazards. Moreover, the residents had a satisfactory level of awareness (88.7% about the health hazards. The utmost impact on the quality of life was psychological (97.2%. It was statistically correlated with the reported factors, which impacted the quality of life in the district as revealed by the Cronbach’s alpha reliability test with absenteeism (P=0.026, disability (P=0.014, socialization (P=0.032 and death (P=0.016. A logistic regression analysis revealed chemical hazards had a statistically significant association (P<0.05 with quality of life of the residents of Soba district. The study strongly entails the fact that sewage treatment plants crave exceptional consideration from the concerned responsible authorities, together with the fact that the evolved health threats should be confronted with immense responsibility as soon as possible.

  4. Exposure assessment of residents living near a wood treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlgren, James; Warshaw, Raphael; Horsak, Randy D.; Parker, Frank M. III; Takhar, Harpreet

    2003-01-01

    We report the results of environmental sampling and modeling in a neighborhood adjacent to a wood processing plant. This plant used creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) to treat wood for over 70 years. Between 1999 and 2001, environmental samples were obtained to quantify the level of environmental contamination from the wood processing plant. Blood from 10 residents was measured for chlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans. Soil sediment samples from drainage ditches and attic/dust samples from nearby residents' homes were tested for polychlorinated dioxins, furans, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The dioxin congeners analysis of the 10 residents revealed elevated valued for octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin compatible with PCP as the source. The levels of carcinogenic PAHs were higher than background levels and were similar to soil contamination on wood preserving sites. Wipe sampling in the kitchens of 11 homes revealed that 20 of the 33 samples were positive for octachlorinated dioxins with a mean value of 10.27 ng/m 2 . The soil, ditch samples, and positive wipe samples from the homes indicate a possible ongoing route of exposure to the contaminants in the homes of these residents. Modeled air exposure estimated for the wood processing waste chemicals indicate some air exposure to combustion products. The estimated air levels for benzo(a)pyrene and tetrachlorodibenzodiozin in this neighborhood exceeded the recommended levels for these compounds in some states. The quantitative data presented suggest a significant contamination of a neighborhood by wood processing waste chemicals. These findings suggest the need for more stringent regulations on waste discharges from wood treatment plants

  5. MOBIL CONTAINER UNIT FOR SEWAGE SLUDGE UTILIZATION FROM SMALL AND MEDIUM WASTWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Stanisław Ledakowicz; Paweł Stolarek; A. Malinowski

    2016-01-01

    The most wastewater treatment plants in Poland are small and medium plants of flow capacity below 1000 m3/d. These plants are not able to build sludge incineration plants and the transportation costs to the nearest plants increase the total costs of wastewater treatment. Polish company Metal Expert together with the French company ETIA and Lodz University of Technology proposed mobile unit for integrated drying and pyrolysis of sewage sludge in a pilot bench scale with capacity of 100 kg/h ...

  6. Efficiency of domestic wastewater treatment plant for agricultural reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinei Fonseca Souza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for water has made the treatment and reuse of wastewater a topic of global importance. This work aims to monitor and evaluate the efficiency of a wastewater treatment plant’s (WWTP physical and biological treatment of wastewater by measuring the reduction of organic matter content of the effluent during the treatment and the disposal of nutrients in the treated residue. The WWTP has been designed to treat 2500 liters of wastewater per day in four compartments: a septic tank, a microalgae tank, an upflow anaerobic filter and wetlands with cultivation of Zantedeschia aethiopica L. A plant efficiency of 90% of organic matter removal was obtained, resulting in a suitable effluent for fertigation, including Na and Ca elements that showed high levels due to the accumulation of organic matter in the upflow anaerobic filter and wetlands. The WWTP removes nitrogen and phosphorus by the action of microalgae and macrophytes used in the process. The final effluent includes important agricultural elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium and potassium and, together with the load of organic matter and salts, meets the determination of NBR 13,969/1997 (Standard of the Brazilian Technical Standards Association for reuse in agriculture, but periodic monitoring of soil salinity is necessary.

  7. Behavior of natural radionuclides in wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho, A.; Montaña, M.; Vallés, I.; Devesa, R.; Céspedes-Sánchez, R.; Serrano, I.; Blázquez, S.; Barjola, V.

    2012-01-01

    56 samples, including influent, primary effluent, secondary effluent and final effluent wastewater from two Spanish municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), were analyzed to assess both the occurrence and behavior of natural radioactivity during 12 sampling campaigns carried out over the period 2007–2010. Influent and final effluent wastewaters were sampled by taking into account the hydraulic residence time within the WWTP. A wide range of gross alpha activities (15–129 mBq/L) and gross beta activities (477–983 mBq/L) in liquid samples were obtained. A correlation analysis between radioactivity in liquid samples and the performance characteristics of the WWTPs was performed. The results in liquid samples showed that gross beta activities were not influenced by treatment in the studied WWTPs. However, gross alpha activities behave differently and an increase was detected in the effluent values compared with influent wastewater. This behavior was due to the increase in the total dissolved uranium produced during secondary treatment. The results indicate that the radiological characteristics of the effluents do not present a significant radiological risk and make them suitable for future applications. - Highlights: ► Liquids from WWTPs were analyzed to know the behavior of natural radionuclides. ► Gross beta activities were not influenced by treatment in the studied WWTPs. ► Increase in gross alpha activity was observed due to uranium desorption/solubilisation. ► Correlation between gross alpha activity and the chemical oxygen demand was found

  8. Demasculinization of male fish by wastewater treatment plant effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, A.M.; Barber, L.B.; Gray, J.L.; Lopez, E.M.; Bolden, A.M.; Schoenfuss, H.L.; Norris, D.O.

    2011-01-01

    Adult male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to effluent from the City of Boulder, Colorado wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) under controlled conditions in the field to determine if the effluent induced reproductive disruption in fish. Gonadal intersex and other evidence of reproductive disruption were previously identified in white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) in Boulder Creek downstream from this WWTP effluent outfall. Fish were exposed within a mobile flow-through exposure laboratory in July 2005 and August 2006 to WWTP effluent (EFF), Boulder Creek water (REF), or mixtures of EFF and REF for up to 28 days. Primary (sperm abundance) and secondary (nuptial tubercles and dorsal fat pads) sex characteristics were demasculinized within 14 days of exposure to 50% and 100% EFF. Vitellogenin was maximally elevated in both 50% and 100% EFF treatments within 7 days and significantly elevated by 25% EFF within 14 days. The steroidal estrogens 17??-estradiol, estrone, estriol, and 17??-ethynylestradiol, as well as estrogenic alkylphenols and bisphenol A were identified within the EFF treatments and not in the REF treatment. These results support the hypothesis that the reproductive disruption observed in this watershed is due to endocrine-active chemicals in the WWTP effluent. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Non-persistent pesticides removal in constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yue; Jiang, Lei; Li, Haixiang

    2018-03-01

    The heavy use of non-persistent pesticides, resulting in the accumulation of environment and destroy the aquatic environment. This paper presents the research status of using CWs to treat non-persistent pesticides in water. The removal mechanisms are mainly physical deposition, chemical hydrolysis and plant absorption. Analysis of the factors that affect the removal effect are mainly the nature of pesticides, HRT, plants. Some scholars have proposed that secondary products of non-persistent pesticides may be more harmful to the environment, However, the relevant reports are scarce.

  10. Occurrence and removal of estrogens in Brazilian wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessoa, Germana P.; Souza, Neyliane C. de; Vidal, Carla B.; Alves, Joana A.C.; Firmino, Paulo Igor M.; Nascimento, Ronaldo F.; Santos, André B. dos

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluated the occurrence and removal efficiency of four estrogenic hormones in five biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), located in the State of Ceará, Brazil. The five WWTPs comprised: two systems consisted of one facultative pond followed by two maturation ponds, one facultative pond, one activated sludge (AS) system followed by a chlorination step, and one upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by a chlorination step. Estrogen occurrence showed a wide variation among the analyzed influent and effluent samples. Estrone (E1) showed the highest occurrence in the influent (76%), whereas both 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) presented a 52% occurrence, and the compound 17β-estradiol 17-acetate (E2-17A), a 32% one. The occurrence in the effluent samples was 48% for E1, 28% for E2, 12% for E2-17A, and 40% for EE2. The highest concentrations of E1 and EE2 hormones in the influent were 3050 and 3180 ng L −1 , respectively, whereas E2 and E2-17A had maximum concentrations of 776 and 2300 ng L −1 , respectively. The lowest efficiencies for the removal of estrogenic hormones were found in WWTP consisted of waste stabilization ponds, ranging from 54 to 79.9%. The high-rate systems (AS and UASB), which have chlorination as post-treatment, presented removal efficiencies of approximately 95%. - Highlights: • The occurrence of four endocrine disrupting chemicals was evaluated. • The removal efficiency of four hormones in low-cost plants was examined. • Estrogen occurrence showed a wide variation in influent and effluent samples. • Estrone showed the highest occurrence in the influent and the effluent samples. • WSP treatment was observed to be less effective for removing estrogens

  11. Occurrence and removal of estrogens in Brazilian wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Germana P. [Department of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Ceará, Rua do Contorno, S/N Campus do Pici, Bl. 713, CEP: 60455-900, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Souza, Neyliane C. de [Department Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, State University of Paraíba, Rua Juvêncio Arruda, S/N, Campus Universitário, Bodocongó, CEP: 58109-790, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Vidal, Carla B.; Alves, Joana A.C.; Firmino, Paulo Igor M. [Department of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Ceará, Rua do Contorno, S/N Campus do Pici, Bl. 713, CEP: 60455-900, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Nascimento, Ronaldo F. [Department of Analytical Chemistry and Physical Chemistry, Federal University of Ceará, Rua do Contorno, S/N Campus do Pici, Bl. 940, CEP: 60451-970, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Santos, André B. dos, E-mail: andre23@ufc.br [Department of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Ceará, Rua do Contorno, S/N Campus do Pici, Bl. 713, CEP: 60455-900, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    This paper evaluated the occurrence and removal efficiency of four estrogenic hormones in five biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), located in the State of Ceará, Brazil. The five WWTPs comprised: two systems consisted of one facultative pond followed by two maturation ponds, one facultative pond, one activated sludge (AS) system followed by a chlorination step, and one upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by a chlorination step. Estrogen occurrence showed a wide variation among the analyzed influent and effluent samples. Estrone (E1) showed the highest occurrence in the influent (76%), whereas both 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) presented a 52% occurrence, and the compound 17β-estradiol 17-acetate (E2-17A), a 32% one. The occurrence in the effluent samples was 48% for E1, 28% for E2, 12% for E2-17A, and 40% for EE2. The highest concentrations of E1 and EE2 hormones in the influent were 3050 and 3180 ng L{sup −1}, respectively, whereas E2 and E2-17A had maximum concentrations of 776 and 2300 ng L{sup −1}, respectively. The lowest efficiencies for the removal of estrogenic hormones were found in WWTP consisted of waste stabilization ponds, ranging from 54 to 79.9%. The high-rate systems (AS and UASB), which have chlorination as post-treatment, presented removal efficiencies of approximately 95%. - Highlights: • The occurrence of four endocrine disrupting chemicals was evaluated. • The removal efficiency of four hormones in low-cost plants was examined. • Estrogen occurrence showed a wide variation in influent and effluent samples. • Estrone showed the highest occurrence in the influent and the effluent samples. • WSP treatment was observed to be less effective for removing estrogens.

  12. Several Pesticides Influence the Nutritional Content of Sweet Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutulle, Matthew A; Armel, Gregory R; Kopsell, Dean A; Wilson, Henry P; Brosnan, James T; Vargas, Jose J; Hines, Thomas E; Koepke-Hill, Rebecca M

    2018-03-28

    Herbicides are pesticides used to eradicate unwanted plants in both crop and non-crop environments. These chemistries are toxic to weeds due to inhibition of key enzymes or disruption of essential biochemical processes required for weedy plants to survive. Crops can survive systemic herbicidal applications through various forms of detoxification, including metabolism that can be enhanced by safeners. Field studies were conducted near Louisville, Tennessee and Painter, Virginia to determine how the herbicides mesotrione, topramezone, nicosulfuron, and atrazine applied with or without the safener isoxadifen-ethyl would impact the nutritional quality of "Incredible" sweet corn ( Zea mays L. var. rugosa). Several herbicide treatments increased the uptake of the mineral elements phosphorus, magnesium, and manganese by 8-75%. All herbicide treatments increased protein content by 4-12%. Applied alone, nicosulfuron produced similar levels of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids when compared to the nontreated check, but when applied with isoxadifen-ethyl, fatty acids increased 8 to 44% relative to the check or control. Nicosulfuron plus isoxadifen-ethyl or topramezone or the combination of all three actives increased the concentrations of fructose and glucose (40-68%), whereas reducing levels of maltose or sucrose when compared to the nontreated check (-15 to -21%). Disruptions in biochemical pathways in plants due to the application of herbicides, safeners, or other pesticides have the potential to alter the nutrient quality, taste, and overall plant health associated with edible crops.

  13. Pesticide contamination of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbraken, Michael; Spranghers, Thomas; De Clercq, Patrick; Cooreman-Algoed, Margot; Couchement, Tasmien; De Clercq, Griet; Verbeke, Sarah; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2016-06-15

    The use of pesticides contributes to the productivity and the quality of the cultivated crop. A large portion of the agricultural produce is not consumed as it is not an edible part or the quality of the product is too low. This waste of agricultural produce can be valorised as a substrate for the production of certain insects for human consumption. However, pesticides applied on the plants might accumulate during the life cycle of the insects fed on the waste materials and may cause a health risk to humans consuming the insects. Pesticide residues in larvae of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, were investigated. We monitored the accumulation of pesticides in the larvae upon consumption of contaminated fresh produce. An increased uptake rate by the insects was found for pesticides with higher Kow-values. Excretion of pesticides by the insect was inversely related to the log(Kow) values of the pesticides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program (PESP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PESP is an EPA partnership program that works with the nation's pesticide-user community to promote IPM practices. Pesticide users can reduce the risks from pests and pesticides. Members include organizations and companies in the pesticide-user community.

  15. WASTE TREATMENT PLANT (WTP) LIQUID EFFLUENT TREATABILITY EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUECK, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    A forecast of the radioactive, dangerous liquid effluents expected to be produced by the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) was provided by Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI 2004). The forecast represents the liquid effluents generated from the processing of Tank Farm waste through the end-of-mission for the WTP. The WTP forecast is provided in the Appendices. The WTP liquid effluents will be stored, treated, and disposed of in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Both facilities are located in the 200 East Area and are operated by Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) for the US. Department of Energy (DOE). The treatability of the WTP liquid effluents in the LERF/ETF was evaluated. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the forecast to the LERF/ETF treatability envelope (Aromi 1997), which provides information on the items which determine if a liquid effluent is acceptable for receipt and treatment at the LERF/ETF. The format of the evaluation corresponds directly to the outline of the treatability envelope document. Except where noted, the maximum annual average concentrations over the range of the 27 year forecast was evaluated against the treatability envelope. This is an acceptable approach because the volume capacity in the LERF Basin will equalize the minimum and maximum peaks. Background information on the LERF/ETF design basis is provided in the treatability envelope document

  16. Evaluation of wastewater treatment plant at Khartoum refinery company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alnour, Y. A. M.

    2010-03-01

    A wastewater treatment plant has been established in Khartoum Refinery Company in order to treat 1800 meters cubic per day, and to meet the increase in the number of employees and the continued expansion of the company. The study aims to evaluate the performance of the station after a three years period of work, and calculate the efficiency of the station through the following variables: average removal of the biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids and oils, by taking water samples before and after treatment, every week for two month, analysis of samples were conducted in the central laboratory at KRC. The determination of the station efficiency revealed that the station is working well. Treated water characteristics are in conformity with the specifications set by the world Organization Health. It is also proved to be suitable for use in irrigation the amount of water entering to treatment is very large (1500 cubic meters), which lead to dilution of the BOD, COD, SS and oils concentrations. The reason being misuse of water by employees in addition to the large number of damage in the water pipes. The station must be re-evaluated after a certain (5 years) period to determine the impact of future increases of employees, and it is effect on the efficiency of the station. It is recommended to improve the behaviour of employees regarding the use of water, so as to reduce the dilution. (Author)

  17. Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damalas, Christos A.; Eleftherohorinos, Ilias G.

    2011-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms), many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence), and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization of the already

  18. Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Damalas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms, many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence, and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization

  19. Appendix F: Supplemental Risk Management Program Guidance for Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detail for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), including publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) and other industrial treatment systems, on complying with part 68 with respect to chlorine, ammonia (anhydrous and aqueous), sulfur dioxide, and digester gas.

  20. Physical-chemical pretreatment as an option for increased sustainability of municipal wastewater treatment plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mels, A.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : municipal wastewater treatment, physical-chemical pretreatment, chemically enhanced primary treatment, organic polymers, environmental sustainability

    Most of the currently applied municipal wastewater treatment plants in The Netherlands are

  1. Organic amendments for risk mitigation of organochlorine pesticide residues in old orchard soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centofanti, Tiziana; McConnell, Laura L.; Chaney, Rufus L.; Beyer, W. Nelson; Andrade, Natasha A.; Hapeman, Cathleen J.; Torrents, Alba; Nguyen, Anh; Anderson, Marya O.; Novak, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Performance of compost and biochar amendments for in situ risk mitigation of aged DDT, DDE and dieldrin residues in an old orchard soil was examined. The change in bioavailability of pesticide residues to Lumbricus terrestris L. relative to the unamended control soil was assessed using 4-L soil microcosms with and without plant cover in a 48-day experiment. The use of aged dairy manure compost and biosolids compost was found to be effective, especially in the planted treatments, at lowering the bioavailability factor (BAF) by 18–39%; however, BAF results for DDT in the unplanted soil treatments were unaffected or increased. The pine chip biochar utilized in this experiment was ineffective at lower the BAF of pesticides in the soil. The US EPA Soil Screening Level approach was used with our measured values. Addition of 10% of the aged dairy manure compost reduced the average hazard quotient values to below 1.0 for DDT + DDE and dieldrin. Results indicate this sustainable approach is appropriate to minimize risks to wildlife in areas of marginal organochlorine pesticide contamination. Application of this remediation approach has potential for use internationally in areas where historical pesticide contamination of soils remains a threat to wildlife populations. - Highlights: • Historical applications of organochlorine pesticides are a risk to local ecosystems. • Low cost and sustainable mitigation measures are needed to reduce risks. • Organic matter rich amendments were added to contaminated soil. • Earthworms microcosms were used to measure bioaccumulation factors. • Aged composts were most effective at mitigating risks to ecosystems. - Incorporation of aged dairy manure and biosolids compost amendments is an effective, low cost approach to mitigate risks to terrestrial wildlife from organochlorine pesticides in soils.

  2. In-Plant Corrosion Study of Steels in Distillery Effluent Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Chhotu; Sharma, Chhaya; Singh, A. K.

    2015-05-01

    The present study deals with corrosion and performance of steels observed in an effluent treatment plant (ETP) of a distillery. For this purpose, the metal coupons were exposed in primary (untreated effluent) and secondary tank (anaerobic treatment effluent) of the ETP. The extent of attack has been correlated with the composition of the effluent with the help of laboratory immersion and electrochemical tests. Untreated distillery effluent found to be more corrosive than the anaerobic-treated effluents and is assigned due to chloride, phosphate, calcium, nitrate, and nitrite ions, which enhances corrosivity at acidic pH. Mild steel showed highest uniform and localized corrosion followed by stainless steels 304L and 316L and lowest in case of duplex 2205.

  3. The comparison of greenhouse gas emissions in sewage treatment plants with different treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Shuhei; Sano, Itsumi; Hojo, Toshimasa; Li, Yu-You; Nishimura, Osamu

    2018-02-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from different sewage treatment plants: oxidation ditch process, double-circulated anoxic-oxic process and anoxic-oxic process were evaluated based on the survey. The methane and nitrous oxide characteristics were discussed based on the gaseous and dissolved gas profiles. As a result, it was found that methane was produced in the sewer pipes and the primary sedimentation tank. Additionally, a ventilation system would promote the gasification of dissolved methane in the first treatment units. Nitrous oxide was produced and emitted in oxic tanks with nitrite accumulation inside the sewage treatment plant. A certain amount of nitrous oxide was also discharged as dissolved gas through the effluent water. If the amount of dissolved nitrous oxide discharge is not included, 7-14% of total nitrous oxide emission would be overlooked. Based on the greenhouse gas calculation, electrical consumption and the N 2 O emission from incineration process were major sources in all the plants. For greenhouse gas reduction, oxidation ditch process has an advantage over the other advanced systems due to lower energy consumption, sludge production, and nitrogen removal without gas stripping. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The latest make-up water treatment plant for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokomizo, Yuichi

    1997-01-01

    As the change of the outside environment surrounding power stations, the strengthening of the environmental standard of water quality and the upgrading of required water quality standard are described. The reduction of colloidal silica in thermal power plant water and the reduction of iron and organic chlorine in PWR water are necessary. Recently it became difficult to secure water for power stations, and in dry season, the water for power stations is sometimes cut for securing livelihood and agricultural water. For the means of securing stable water source, the installation of seawater desalting plants increased. The types, the constitution of the plants and the operation performance are reported. Recently the water treatment technology using MF, UF and RO membranes has become to be adopted. The relation of the substances to be removed to the range of filtration of respective membranes is shown. The conventional method is the combination of coagulative sedimentation, filtration and ion exchange resin, but the membrane technology uses UF and RO membranes. The technical features of UF (ultrafiltration) and RO (reverse osmosis) membrane facilities and deaerating membrane are explained. (K.I.)

  5. Liquid waste treatment plant with e-beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Bumsoo; Kim, Jinkyu; Kim, Yuri

    2003-01-01

    Global withdrawals of water to satisfy human demands have grown dramatically in this century. Between 1900 and 1995, water consumption increased by over six times, more than double the rate of population growth. This rapid growth in water demand is due to the increasing reliance on irrigation to achieve food security, the growth of industrial uses, and the increasing use per capita for domestic purposes. Given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the water-efficient technologies including economical treatment methods of wastewater and polluted water. In the laboratory of EB-TECH Co., many industrial wastewater including leachate from landfill area, wastewater from papermill, dyeing complex, petrochemical processes, etc. are under investigation with electron beam irradiation. For the study of treating dyeing wastewater combined with conventional facilities, an electron beam pilot plant for treating 1,000 m 3 /day of wastewater from 80,000 m 3 /day of total dyeing wastewater has constructed and operated in Taegu Dyeing Industrial Complex. A commercial plant for re-circulation of wastewater from Papermill Company is also designed for Pan Asia Paper Co. Cheongwon Mill, and after the successful installation, up to 80% of wastewater could be re-used in paper producing process. The method for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater and other technologies are developed with the joint works with Institute of Physical Chemistry (IPC) of Russian Academy of Sciences. (author)

  6. Plant-derived therapeutics for the treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Brittany L; Raskin, Ilya; Cefalu, William T; Ribnicky, David M

    2010-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome is defined as a set of coexisting metabolic disorders that increase an individual's likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Medicinal plants, some of which have been used for thousands of years, serve as an excellent source of bioactive compounds for the treatment of metabolic syndrome because they contain a wide range of phytochemicals with diverse metabolic effects. In order for botanicals to be effectively used against metabolic syndrome, however, botanical preparations must be characterized and standardized through the identification of their active compounds and respective modes of action, followed by validation in controlled clinical trials with clearly defined endpoints. This review assesses examples of commonly known and partially characterized botanicals to describe specific considerations for the phytochemical, preclinical and clinical characterization of botanicals associated with metabolic syndrome.

  7. The wild flora biodiversity in pesticide free bufferzones along old hedgerows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Louise C.; Nothlev, J.; Kristensen, K.

    2012-01-01

    The natural field margin ecotone from the field border and into a cropped field hosts a diversity of plant species. In conventional cropped fields, biodiversity suffers from fertilizer and pesticide application. In our study at Danish conventional spring-barley fields, we laid out bufferzones...... with no pesticide application spraying after sowing, with the widths: 24, 12, 6 and 4 m (and control) to the field edge hedgerow. Through one season: plant species number, biodiversity and evenness for each bufferzone at the distances: 18, 9, 5, 2 and 0 m from the hedgerow were significantly affected by distance...... the bufferzone widths provided smaller biodiversity and larger evenness of plants at distances larger than the buffer width: the distance at which diversity (Shannons) was reduced by half the difference between hedge- and field diversity was 1.2, 3.1, 6.7, 10.8 and 10.9 m in bufferwidth treatments of 0, 4, 6, 12...

  8. Organochlorine Pesticides in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1968-01-01

    Each year for nearly 20 years, thousands of pounds of persistent organochlorine pesticides have been applied to outdoor areas in many countries. These compounds may last for a very long time in the environment, and be carried by wind, water, and animals to places far distant from where they are used. As a result, most living organisms now contain organochlorine residues. This paper constitutes a selective review of the literature concerning the occurrence, distribution, and effects of organochlorines in the environment. Highest concentrations generally occur in carnivorous species. Thus predatory and fish-eating birds ordinarily have higher residues than do herbivores; quantities are similar in birds of similar habits in different countries. Any segment of the ecosystem - marshland, pond, forest, or field - receives various amounts and kinds of pesticides at irregular intervals. The different animals absorb, detoxify, store, and excrete pesticides at different rates. Different degrees of magnification of pesticide residues by living organisms in an environment are the practical result of many interactions that are far more complex than implied by the statement of magnification up the food chain. These magnifications may be millions of times from water to mud or only a few times from food to first consumer. Direct mortality of wild animals as an aftermath of recommended pesticide treatments has been recorded in the literature of numerous countries. However, accidents and carelessness also accompany pesticide use on a percentage basis and are a part of the problem. More subtle effects on the size and species composition of populations are more difficult to perceive in time to effect remedies. The possibility of ecological effects being mediated through changes in physiology and behavior has received some attention and has resulted in some disquieting findings. These include discovery of the activity of organochlorines in stimulating the breakdown of hormones or in

  9. Élimination des micropolluants par les stations d’épuration domestiques Removal of micropollutants by wastewater treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHOUBERT, Jean-Marc ; POMIES, Maxime ; MARTIN-RUEL, Samuel ; BUDZINSKI, Hélène ; MIEGE, Cécile ; WISNIEWSKI, Christelle ; COQUERY, Marina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Produits industriels, détergents, hydrocarbures, pesticides, médicaments : les stations d'épuration domestiques sont-elles efficaces pour éliminer toutes les substances chimiques issues des activités humaines retrouvées dans les milieux aquatiques? Cet article présente les principales connaissances récemment acquises relatives au comportement et au devenir des micropolluants dans les différentes filières de traitement des eaux ainsi que les perspectives d'amélioration des procédés.Domestic wastewater treatment plants were not designed for micropollutants removal. They perform substantial removal of several micropollutants, mainly by sorption process onto biological sludge and by biodegradation from the liquid phase for some substances. This article presents the main recent advances on the fate of micropollutants through primary, secondary and tertiary treatment processes. It also addresses research in progress for the optimization of micropollutants removal.

  10. Treatment efficiency in wastewater treatment plant of Hat Yai Municipality by quantitative removal of microbial indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangporn Kantachote

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of treatment in a wastewater treatment plant of Hat Yai Municipality through stabilization ponds and constructed wetlands was monitored by using the bacterial indicators, total coliforms (TC, fecal coliforms (FC, Escherichia coli and fecal streptococci (FS, and photosynthetic microbes. The sequence of water flow in the wastewater treatment plant is as follows: primary or anaerobic pond (P, facultative pond (F, maturation pond (M, constructed wetlands (W1, W2 and W3, and an effluent storage pond (S for the treated wastewater. The wastewater treatment plant has an approximate area of 3,264,000 m2 (2,040 rai and its dry weather flow was running at only 40,000 m3/ day. There were 10 sampling times used for all the 7 ponds during July-October, 2006.Statistical analysis using a Two-Factorial Design model, indicated that pond types significantly affected temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO, and pH (p<0.05, whereas the time of sampling during the day had a significant effect (p<0.05 only on the temperature and light intensity available to the ponds. There were also significant different removal efficiencies of the different bacterial indicator groups tested (p<0.05. The overall performance of the wastewater treatment plant effectively removed TC, FC, E. coli, and FS as follows, 99.8%, 99.8%, 75.8% and 98.8%, respectively. The amounts of bacterial indicators, except for E. coli, showed a negative correlation with levels of light intensity and DO, whereas there was no correlation between the pH and the different indicator bacteria. There was a positive middle level correlation between pHand chlorophyll a.There were five different divisions of photosynthetic organisms detected throughout the plant as follows, Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyta, Euglenophyta, and Pyrrhophyta. The least diversity was found in the anaerobic pond (P as there were only 15 genera. Euglena, an indicator of dirty water, was detected only in this pond. The

  11. Organic amendments for risk mitigation of organochlorine pesticide residues in old orchard soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centofantia, Tiziana; McConnell, Laura L.; Chaney, Rufus L.; Beyer, W. Nelson; Andradea, Natasha A.; Hapeman, Cathleen J.; Torrents, Alba; Nguyen, Anh; Anderson, Marya O.; Novak, J. M.; Jackson, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Performance of compost and biochar amendments for in situ risk mitigation of aged DDT, DDE and dieldrin residues in an old orchard soil was examined. The change in bioavailability of pesticide residues to Lumbricus terrestris L. relative to the unamended control soil was assessed using 4-L soil microcosms with and without plant cover in a 48-day experiment. The use of aged dairy manure compost and biosolids compost was found to be effective, especially in the planted treatments, at lowering the bioavailability factor (BAF) by 18–39%; however, BAF results for DDT in the unplanted soil treatments were unaffected or increased. The pine chip biochar utilized in this experiment was ineffective at lower the BAF of pesticides in the soil. The US EPA Soil Screening Level approach was used with our measured values. Addition of 10% of the aged dairy manure compost reduced the average hazard quotient values to below 1.0 for DDT + DDE and dieldrin. Results indicate this sustainable approach is appropriate to minimize risks to wildlife in areas of marginal organochlorine pesticide contamination. Application of this remediation approach has potential for use internationally in areas where historical pesticide contamination of soils remains a threat to wildlife populations.

  12. Pesticides poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.

    1999-01-01

    Pesticides are chemical toxicants which are used to kill by their toxic actions, the pest organisms, known to incur significant economic losses or threaten human life, his health and that of his domesticated animals. These toxicants are seldom species-specific. The presence of these or their metabolites may scientific be vouched not only in the environment they are used, but in the entire ecosystem, in the subsoil, in the underwater reservoirs and in the food chain of all non-target species including man, his friends i.e. predator and parasite organisms which be uses against the pests, and in his cherished domesticated animals. In the present paper a survey is made of different groups of toxic chemicals generally used to manage pests, in the ecosystem, food chain and tissues and body parts of non-target species including man and the ones dear to him. Toxicology and biochemistry of these toxic materials and their important metabolites are also briefly discussed with special reference to ways and means through which these poison the above non-target species. (author)

  13. Greenhouse gas emission quantification from wastewater treatment plants, using a tracer gas dispersion method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delre, Antonio; Mønster, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Plant-integrated methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission quantifications were performed at five Scandinavian wastewater treatment plants, using a ground-based remote sensing approach that combines a controlled release of tracer gas from the plant with downwind concentration measurements. CH4...... emission factors were between 1 and 21% of CH4 production, and between 0.2 and 3.2% of COD influent. The main CH4 emitting sources at the five plants were sludge treatment and energy production units. The lowest CH4 emission factors were obtained at plants with enclosed sludge treatment and storage units...... in international guidelines. This study showed that measured CH4 and N2O emission rates from wastewater treatment plants were plant-specific and that emission rates estimated using models in current guidelines, mainly meant for reporting emissions on the country scale, were unsuitable for Scandinavian plant...

  14. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  15. Pesticide Instrumental Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samir, E.; Fonseca, E.; Baldyga, N.; Acosta, A.; Gonzalez, F.; Felicita, F.; Tomasso, M.; Esquivel, D.; Parada, A.; Enriquez, P.; Amilibia, M.

    2012-01-01

    This workshop was the evaluation of the pesticides impact on the vegetable matrix with the purpose to determine the analysis by GC / M S. The working material were lettuce matrix, chard and a mix of green leaves and pesticides.

  16. Evaluation of energy consumption during aerobic sewage sludge treatment in dairy wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, Wojciech; Żyłka, Radosław; Malinowski, Paweł

    2017-02-01

    The subject of the research conducted in an operating dairy wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was to examine electric energy consumption during sewage sludge treatment. The excess sewage sludge was aerobically stabilized and dewatered with a screw press. Organic matter varied from 48% to 56% in sludge after stabilization and dewatering. It proves that sludge was properly stabilized and it was possible to apply it as a fertilizer. Measurement factors for electric energy consumption for mechanically dewatered sewage sludge were determined, which ranged between 0.94 and 1.5 kWhm -3 with the average value at 1.17 kWhm -3 . The shares of devices used for sludge dewatering and aerobic stabilization in the total energy consumption of the plant were also established, which were 3% and 25% respectively. A model of energy consumption during sewage sludge treatment was estimated according to experimental data. Two models were applied: linear regression for dewatering process and segmented linear regression for aerobic stabilization. The segmented linear regression model was also applied to total energy consumption during sewage sludge treatment in the examined dairy WWTP. The research constitutes an introduction for further studies on defining a mathematical model used to optimize electric energy consumption by dairy WWTPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of Water Treatment Problems: Case Study of Maiduguri Water Treatment Plant (MWTP and Maiduguri Environs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Idris

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Water remains the most useful universal solvent to human being and other animals, because of its derivative importance. However, effort to improve on raw water treatment would continue to be a subject of concern, because the process procedures are been violated or not properly upheld. This study was carried out in order to identify peculiar problems associate with water treatment at the Maiduguri Water Treatment Plant (MWTP. This research study was based on prompt time-schedules and plant site-visits, interviewed questions were made and accessing the technology adopted in the process stages. Analytical data were obtained through the use of sampling bottles, camera, record sheets and other necessary laboratory equipment. The analysis showed that treated water contained excess chlorine and aluminum with 1.10mg/l and 0.68mg/l respectively. From this study, the following are the root causes: poor facility lay out, poor organizational and functional structures, wear of pump impellers and surface deterioration in the transmission line, lack of calibration test, constant head system not operation properly, lack of jar test conduction, improper maintenance of filter system, and the use of chemical coagulant. Inferences were made at the end of the research to enhance process efficiency, healthier and more economical treatment MWTP.

  18. Demonstration plant of smoke treatment by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Keita

    1989-01-01

    The acid rain caused by sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides has become the large social problem as it damages forests, lakes and agricultural crops and also buildings in Europe and America. In such circumstances, concern has been expressed in various countries on the smoke treatment technology, EBA process, which removes the sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides contained in smoke simultaneously by irradiating electron beam on the smoke which is exhausted from power station boilers and industrial boilers and mainly causes acid rain. The research and development of this technology were begun in 1971 based on the original idea of Ebara Corp., and from 1972, those were advanced as the joint research with Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Thereafter, by the joint research with the technical research association on prevention of nitrogen oxides in iron and steel industry, by ammonia addition and irradiation process, the desulfurization and denitration performance was heightened, and the byproduct was successfully captured as powder, in this way, the continuous dry treatment process was established. The demonstration test plant was constructed in a coal-firing power station in Indiana, USA, and the trial operation was carried out from 1985 for two years. (K.I.)

  19. Diversity of microbiota found in coffee processing wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Josiane Ferreira; Cardoso, Larissa de Souza; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Silva, Cristina Ferreira

    2017-11-13

    Cultivable microbiota presents in a coffee semi-dry processing wastewater treatment plant (WTP) was identified. Thirty-two operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected, these being 16 bacteria, 11 yeasts and 4 filamentous fungi. Bacteria dominated the microbial population (11.61 log CFU mL - 1 ), and presented the highest total diversity index when observed in the WTP aerobic stage (Shannon = 1.94 and Simpson = 0.81). The most frequent bacterial species were Enterobacter asburiae, Sphingobacterium griseoflavum, Chryseobacterium bovis, Serratia marcescens, Corynebacterium flavescens, Acetobacter orientalis and Acetobacter indonesiensis; these showed the largest total bacteria populations in the WTP, with approximately 10 log CFU mL - 1 . Yeasts were present at 7 log CFU mL - 1 of viable cells, with Hanseniaspora uvarum, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Saturnispora gosingensis, and Kazachstania gamospora being the prevalent species. Filamentous fungi were found at 6 log CFU mL - 1 , with Fusarium oxysporum the most populous species. The identified species have the potential to act as a biological treatment in the WTP, and the application of them for this purpose must be better studied.

  20. Treatment of radioactive contaminated water in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    This rule is to be applied to the design, construction, and operation of facilities for treatment of water contaminated with radioactive material in stationary nuclear power plants with LWRs and HTRs. According to the requirements of the rule these facilities are to be designed, constructed, and operated in such a way that a) uncontrolled discharge of water contaminated with radioactive material is avoided, b) the activity discharged with water is as low as possible, c) water contaminated with radioactive material will not reach the ground, d) the radiation exposure as a consequence of direct radiation, contamination, and inhalation of the persons occupied in the facilities is as low as possible and as a maximum corresponds to the values laid down in the radiation protection regulation or to the values of the operating license. This rule is not to be applied to facilities for coolant and storage pit clean-up as well as facilities for the treatment of concentrates produced during the contamination of the water. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Pesticides in Brazilian freshwaters: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, A F; Ribeiro, J S; Kummrow, F; Nogueira, A J A; Montagner, C C; Umbuzeiro, G A

    2016-07-13

    The widespread use of pesticides in agriculture can lead to water contamination and cause adverse effects on non-target organisms. Brazil has been the world's top pesticide market consumer since 2008, with 381 approved pesticides for crop use. This study provides a comprehensive literature review on the occurrence of pesticide residues in Brazilian freshwaters. We searched for information in official agency records and peer-reviewed scientific literature. Risk quotients were calculated to assess the potential risk posed to aquatic life by the individual pesticides based on their levels of water contamination. Studies about the occurrence of pesticides in freshwaters in Brazil are scarce and concentrated in few sampling sites in 5 of the 27 states. Herbicides (21) accounted for the majority of the substances investigated, followed by fungicides (11), insecticides (10) and plant growth regulators (1). Insecticides are the class of major concern. Brazil would benefit from the implementation of a nationwide pesticide freshwater monitoring program to support preventive, remediation and enforcement actions.

  2. 40 CFR 63.1592 - Which General Provisions apply to my POTW treatment plant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POTW treatment plant? 63.1592 Section 63.1592 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Publicly Owned Treatment Works General Requirements § 63.1592 Which General Provisions apply to my POTW treatment plant? (a) Table 1 to this subpart...

  3. Treatment of landfill leachate by irrigation of willow coppice - Plant response and treatment efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronsson, Paer; Dahlin, Torleif; Dimitriou, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    Landfill leachates usually need to be treated before discharged, and using soil-plant systems for this has gained substantial interest in Sweden and in the UK. A three-year field study was conducted in central Sweden to quantify plant response, treatment efficiency and impact on groundwater quality of landfill leachate irrigation of short-rotation willow coppice (Salix). Two willow varieties were tested and four irrigation regimes in sixteen 400-m 2 plots. The willow plants did not react negatively, despite very high annual loads of nitrogen (≤2160 kg N/ha), chloride (≤8600 kg Cl/ha) and other elements. Mean annual growth was 1.5, 9.8 and 12.6 tonnes DM/ha during years 1-3. For one of two willow varieties tested, relative leaf length accurately predicted growth rate. Irrigation resulted in elevated groundwater concentrations of all elements applied. Treatment efficiency varied considerably for different elements, but was adequate when moderate loads were applied. - Short-rotation willow coppice was successfully used for treating a strong landfill leachate in central Sweden over three years.

  4. Beyond the conventional life cycle inventory in wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo-Toja, Yago, E-mail: yago.lorenzo@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Alfonsín, Carolina [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Amores, María José; Aldea, Xavier; Marin, Desirée [Cetaqua, Water Technology Centre, 08940 Cornellà de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Moreira, María Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    The conventional approach for the environmental assessment of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is typically based on the removal efficiency of organic load and nutrients as well as the quantification of energy and chemicals consumption. Current wastewater treatment research entails the monitoring of direct emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and emerging pollutants such as pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), which have been rarely considered in the environmental assessment of a wastewater treatment facility by life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. As a result of that, the real environmental impacts of a WWTP may be underestimated. In this study, two WWTPs located in different climatic regions (Atlantic and Mediterranean) of Spain were evaluated in extensive sampling campaigns that included not only conventional water quality parameters but also direct GHG emissions and PPCPs in water and sludge lines. Regarding the GHG monitoring campaign, on-site measurements of methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) were performed and emission factors were calculated for both WWTPs. GHG direct emissions accounted for 62% of the total global warming potential (GWP), much more relevant than indirect CO{sub 2} emissions associated with electricity use. Regarding PPCPs, 19 compounds were measured in the main streams: influent, effluent and sludge, to perform the evaluation of the toxicity impact categories. Although the presence of heavy metals in the effluent and the sludge as well as the toxicity linked to the electricity production may shade the toxicity impacts linked to PPCPs in some impact categories, the latter showed a notable influence on freshwater ecotoxicity potential (FETP). For this impact category, the removal of PPCPs within the wastewater treatment was remarkably important and arose as an environmental benefit in comparison with the non-treatment scenario. - Highlights: • The influence of LCI quality on the environmental assessment

  5. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, D. S

    2001-01-01

    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants.

  6. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants

  7. Control of pesticides 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    . 3) Insecticides containing cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, methoprene and cyromazine. 4) Plant growth regulators containing 1-napthylacetic acid. All products were examined for the content of the respective active ingredients and for the content of OPEO and NPEO. All samples but one...... containing methoprene complied with the accepted tolerance limits with respect to the content of the active ingredient as specified in Danish Statutory Order on pesticides. None of the 44 examined samples contained OPEO, but 5 of the samples contained NPEO. Three of these five samples were produced before...... the agreement. On three products, the content of active ingredient was declared only in g/L, but not in % (w/w). One product was declared as the ester and not as the acid...

  8. A survey of warning colours of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierauf, Annette; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Auwärter, Volker; Vennemann, Benedikt; Bohnert, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Pesticides are used to protect plants all over the world. Their increasing specificity has been due to utilization of differences in biochemical processes, and has been accompanied by lower human toxicity. Nevertheless cases of poisoning are still observed. While certain toxic substances are provided with characteristic dyes or pigments to facilitate easy identification, no overview of pesticide colors exists. The lack of available product information prompted us to explore the colors and dyes of pesticides registered in Germany, most of which are commercially available worldwide. A compilation of the colors and odors of 207 pesticide products is presented. While some of the substances can be identified by their physical characteristics, in other cases, the range of possibilities can be narrowed by their nature and color.

  9. Determination of Pesticide Residues in Cannabis Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in order to quantify to what extent cannabis consumers may be exposed to pesticide and other chemical residues through inhaled mainstream cannabis smoke. Three different smoking devices were evaluated in order to provide a generalized data set representative of pesticide exposures possible for medical cannabis users. Three different pesticides, bifenthrin, diazinon, and permethrin, along with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, which are readily available to cultivators in commercial products, were investigated in the experiment. Smoke generated from the smoking devices was condensed in tandem chilled gas traps and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Recoveries of residues were as high as 69.5% depending on the device used and the component investigated, suggesting that the potential of pesticide and chemical residue exposures to cannabis users is substantial and may pose a significant toxicological threat in the absence of adequate regulatory frameworks.

  10. Application of subsurface vertical flow constructed wetlands to reject water treatment in dairy wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, Wojciech; Karolinczak, Beata; Gajewska, Magdalena; Wojciechowska, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the effects of applying subsurface vertical flow constructed wetlands (SS VF) for the treatment of reject water generated in the process of aerobic sewage sludge stabilization in the biggest dairy wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Poland. Two SS VF beds were built: bed (A) with 0.65 m depth and bed (B) with 1.0 m depth, planted with reeds. Beds were fed with reject water with hydraulic load of 0.1 m d -1 in order to establish the differences in treatment efficiency. During an eight-months research period, a high removal efficiency of predominant pollutants was shown: BOD 5 88.1% (A) and 90.5% (B); COD 84.5% (A) and 87.5% (B); TSS 87.6% (A) and 91.9% (B); TKN 82.4% (A) and 76.5% (B); N-NH 4 + 89.2% (A) and 85.7% (B); TP 30.2% (A) and 40.6% (B). There were not statistically significant differences in the removal efficiencies between bed (B) with 1.0 m depth and bed (A) with 0.65 m depth. The research indicated that SS VF beds could be successfully applied to reject water treatment in dairy WWTPs. The study proved that the use of SS VF beds in full scale in dairy WWTPs would result in a significant decrease in pollutants' load in reject water. In the analyzed case, decreasing the load of ammonia nitrogen was of greatest importance, as it constituted 58% of the total load treated in dairy WWTP and posed a hazard to the stability of the treatment process.

  11. Pesticide Application and Safety Training. Sale Publication 4070.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimmann, M. W.

    This guide is intended for use by those preparing to take the California certification examination for commercial pesticide applicators. The first chapter gives brief descriptions and illustrations of types of insect, vertebrate, plant, and microorganism pests. The other chapters cover pesticide classifications and formulations, labels and…

  12. Assessment of pesticide use and application practices in tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pesticides are of great benefit to agriculture in Kenya by decreasing crop losses due to insects, weeds, plant diseases, rodents and other pests. They also save lives through control of disease carrying insects and increase the quality and quantity of agricultural produce. However, pesticides are poisons and can affect ...

  13. Population models for time-varying pesticide exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager T; Jong FMW de; Traas TP; LER; SEC

    2007-01-01

    A model has recently been developed at RIVM to predict the effects of variable exposure to pesticides of plant and animal populations in surface water. Before a pesticide is placed on the market, the environmental risk of the substance has to be assessed. This risk is estimated by comparing

  14. Water quality, pesticide occurrence, and effects of irrigation with reclaimed water at golf courses in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swancar, Amy

    1996-01-01

    ground water on seven of nine golf courses studied and in 52 percent of ground-water samples. Concentrations of pesticides in ground water at golf courses were generally low relative to gegulatory guidelines, with 45 percent of all occurrences at trace levels and 92 percent under the maximum contaminant level or guidance concentration. Two of the nine golf courses had not pesticides detectedc in ground water, and a third had only two occurrences, which were at trace levels. Theere were six occurrences of concentrations of arsenic, bentazon, or acephate in ground water above the maximum contaminant level or guidance concentration. Additionally, the following pesticides were detected in ground water from at least one site; atrazine, bromacil, diazinon, diuron, fenamiphos, metalaxyl, oxydiazon, and simazine. The fenamiphos metabolites, fenamiphos sulfoxide and fenamiphos sulfone, also were detected in ground water. Samples from wastewater treatment plants contained trace levels of atrazine, bromacil, and gamma-BHC (Lindane). Concentrations of pesticides in golf course ponds were generally low, with 60 percent of all occurrences at trace levels. All but one of the pond samples collected during the study contained at least one pesticide. The most commonly occurring pesticides in golf course ponds were: atrazine, fenamiphos and fenamiphos sulfoxide, and diuron.

  15. THE MUNICIPAL SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT EFFLUENT POLISHING IN ULTRAFILTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Dudziak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effluent from the municipal sewage treatment plant was comparatively treated in the ultrafiltration process using ceramic and polymer membranes. Filtration was carried out in the cross-flow system under the conditions of the transmembrane process pressure 0.1 MPa - the ceramic membrane and 0.2 MPa – the polymer membrane at a temperature of 20°C. The effectiveness of the process had been assessed by various physical and chemical analyses (pH, turbidity, color, absorbance, TOC and phenol index. There was included the toxicological assessment (by applying as an indicator organism the bioluminescence bacteria Aliivibrio fischeri and microbiological assessment of tested samples. During filtration there was studied the hydraulic efficiency of membranes. Is was specified, that the efficiency of the process depends on the conditions of membrane filtration, wherein the better effects of the removal of organic pollutants had been noted in the case of polymer membrane than ceramic membrane. However, the polymer membrane, in the comparison to the ceramic membrane, was more susceptible to pore blocking, which caused the reduction of hydraulic efficiency. Regardless of what type of membrane the permeats were not toxic and did not contain microorganisms.

  16. Toluene in sewage and sludge in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrowiec, Bozena

    2014-01-01

    Toluene is a compound that often occurs in municipal wastewater ranging from detectable levels up to 237 μg/L. Before the year 2000, the presence of the aromatic hydrocarbons was assigned only to external sources. The Enhanced Biological Nutrients Removal Processes (EBNRP) work according to many different schemes and technologies. For high-efficiency biological denitrification and dephosphatation processes, the presence of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in sewage is required. VFAs are the main product of organic matter hydrolysis from sewage sludge. However, no attention has been given to other products of the process. It has been found that in parallel to VFA production, toluene formation occurred. The formation of toluene in municipal anaerobic sludge digestion processes was investigated. Experiments were performed on a laboratory scale using sludge from primary and secondary settling tanks of municipal treatment plants. The concentration of toluene in the digested sludge from primary settling tanks was found to be about 42,000 μg/L. The digested sludge supernatant liquor returned to the biological dephosphatation and denitrification processes for sewage enrichment can contain up to 16,500 μg/L of toluene.

  17. Pesticides and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garry, Vincent F.

    2004-01-01

    Prevention and control of damage to health, crops, and property by insects, fungi, and noxious weeds are the major goals of pesticide applications. As with use of any biologically active agent, pesticides have unwanted side-effects. In this review, we will examine the thesis that adverse pesticide effects are more likely to occur in children who are at special developmental and behavioral risk. Children's exposures to pesticides in the rural and urban settings and differences in their exposure patterns are discussed. The relative frequency of pesticide poisoning in children is examined. In this connection, most reported acute pesticide poisonings occur in children younger than age 5. The possible epidemiological relationships between parental pesticide use or exposure and the risk of adverse reproductive outcomes and childhood cancer are discussed. The level of consensus among these studies is examined. Current concerns regarding neurobehavioral toxicity and endocrine disruption in juxtaposition to the relative paucity of toxicant mechanism-based studies of children are explored

  18. NPDES Draft Permit for City of New Town Water Treatment Plant in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System draft permit number ND0031151, The City of New Town Water Treatment Plant is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility in Mountrail County, North Dakota.

  19. Prospective environmental risk assessment of mixtures in wastewater treatment plant effluents - Theoretical considerations and experimental verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coors, Anja; Vollmar, Pia; Sacher, Frank; Polleichtner, Christian; Hassold, Enken; Gildemeister, Daniela; Kühnen, Ute

    2018-04-14

    The aquatic environment is continually exposed to a complex mixture of chemicals, whereby effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are one key source. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether environmental risk assessments (ERAs) addressing individual substances are sufficiently protective for such coincidental mixtures. Based on a literature review of chemicals reported to occur in municipal WWTP effluents and mode-of-action considerations, four different types of mixtures were composed containing human pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and chemicals regulated under REACH. The experimentally determined chronic aquatic toxicity of these mixtures towards primary producers and the invertebrate Daphnia magna could be adequately predicted by the concept of concentration addition, with up to 5-fold overestimation and less than 3-fold underestimation of mixture toxicity. Effluents of a municipal WWTP had no impact on the predictability of mixture toxicity and showed no adverse effects on the test organisms. Predictive ERAs for the individual mixture components based on here derived predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) and median measured concentrations in WWTP effluents (MC eff ) indicated no unacceptable risk for any of the individual chemicals, while MC eff /PNEC summation indicated a possible risk for multi-component mixtures. However, a refined mixture assessment based on the sum of toxic units at species level indicated no unacceptable risks, and allowed for a safety margin of more than factor 10, not taking into account any dilution of WWTP effluents by surface waters. Individual substances, namely climbazole, fenofibric acid and fluoxetine, were dominating the risks of the investigated mixtures, while added risk due to the mixture was found to be low with the risk quotient being increased by less than factor 2. Yet, uncertainty remains regarding chronic mixture toxicity in fish, which was not included in the present study. The number and

  20. Feasibility analysis of a sewage sludge treatment by an irradiation plant in Mexico

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno, J; Colin, A; Tavera, L

    2002-01-01

    Technical and economic analyses of an irradiation plant for sewage sludge treatment determined that an appropriate place for the first sludge electron irradiator in Mexico would be the sewage water treatment plant located north of Toluca in the State of Mexico. This treatment plant is mainly used for domestic wastewater and produces an approximate volume of 70 ton d-] liquid sewage sludge. Considering a 50 k W power of a 10 MeV electron linear accelerator, an irradiation dose of S KGy and a treatment capacity of 346 tons per day, it is estimated that the treatment cost would be of $9.00 US dollars per ton. (Author)

  1. Promising pesticide results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2012-01-01

    wastewater. For example, DDT has been linked to diabetes and liver, pancreatic and breast cancer, and is a 'probable' carcinogen, according to the US Environmental Protection Agency.” DDT has a half-life of up to 30 years in soil, which means only half its toxicity is naturally depleted through chemical breakdown over a 30-year period. Arsenic, however, which was used in DDT pesticides, does not breakdown at all over time. Moreover, epidemiological studies suggest that DDT and DDE cause serious illness. “Perhaps more worrying is the finding that DDT and its breakdown products are transported from warmer to colder climates around the world by a process called global distillation, thereby concentrating in colder climates and accumulating in the food web, leading to long-term ecological damage,” said Barros. By reducing DDT in the environment, these findings have the potential to aid in the sustainable global management of legacy pesticide contamination. For example, Virotec notes there are some 347 former cattle dip sites inthe region of Kyogle Shire Council in northern NSW, 259 in Lismore Shire Council and a further 211 in Richmond Valley Shire Council. The number of sheep dip sites throughout NSW and Queensland, which are also contaminated with arsenic and DDT, are of a comparable scale. Barros went on to point out that while the treatment of arsenic in soil is relatively straightforward, irrespective of whether treated in situ or ex situ, the treatment of DDT in soil is highly problematic. “Most soil treatments designed to destroy organic compounds in soil involve the introduction of key bacterial agents, because lower sources of energy simply do not have the requisite power to breakdown the long-chain organic molecules. However, as DDT is a pesticide it tends to kill both indigenous and introduced bacteria before they can break down the DDT molecule, thereby eliminating the source of potential remediation,” said Barros. Another challenge relates to the stability

  2. Pesticide use knowledge and practices: A gender differences in Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atreya, Kishor

    2007-01-01

    It is important to understand gender difference on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices for identifying pesticide risks by gender and to recommend more gender-sensitive programs. However, very few studies have been conducted so far in Nepal. This study, thus, interviewed a total of 325 males and 109 females during 2005 to assess gender differences on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices. More than 50% females had never been to school and only <8% individuals were found trained in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Almost all males and females did not smoke, drink and eat during pesticides application and also believed that pesticides are harmful to human health, livestock, plant diversity and their environment. However, there were gender differences on household decision on pesticides to be used (p<0.001), care of wind direction during spraying (p=0.032), prior knowledge on safety measures (p=0.016), reading and understanding of pesticides labels (p<0.001), awareness of the labels (p<0.001) and protective covers. Almost all respondents were aware of negative impacts of pesticide use on human health and environment irrespective of gender; however, females were at higher risk due to lower level of pesticide use safety and awareness. It is strongly recommended to initiate gender-sensitive educational and awareness activities, especially on pesticide use practices and safety precautions

  3. A Course on Operational Considerations in Wastewater Treatment Plant Design. Instructor's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John W.; And Others

    This manual contains 17 instructional units (sequenced to correspond to parallel chapters in a student's manual) focusing on upgrading the design of wastewater plant facilities and serving as a reference source for establishing criteria for upgrading wastewater treatment plants. The manual also furnishes information for modifying plant design to…

  4. A Course on Operational Considerations in Wastewater Treatment Plant Design. Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stottler, Stag and Associates, San Antonio, TX.

    This manual was designed to furnish information for upgrading the design of wastewater treatment plant facilities and to serve as a resource for establishing criteria for upgrading these plants. The manual also furnishes information for modifying plant design to compensate for current organic and hydraulic overloads and/or to meet more stringent…

  5. Accelerated approach of discovering plant derived drug leads for treatment of TB

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available dedicated and comprehensive plant electronic database of a total of 566 plants that are reportedly used for the treatment of tuberculosis. The extracts of these plants are part of the CSIR database of extracts. TB drug lead research is ongoing, and active...

  6. Life cycle human health impacts of 875 pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    present a consistent framework for characterizing human toxicological impacts associated with pesticides applied to agricultural crops in the frame of life cycle impact assessment based on state-of-the-art data and methods. Methods We combine a dynamic multicrop plant uptake model designed for evaluating......-crop combinations of 10 orders of magnitude. Conclusions Our framework is operational for use in current life cycle impact assessment models, is made available for USEtox, and closes an important gap in the assessment of human exposure to pesticides. For ready use in life cycle assessment studies, we present...... pesticide-crop combination-specific characterization factors normalized to pesticide mass applied and provide default data for application times and loss due to post-harvest food processing. When using our data, we emphasize the need to consult current pesticide regulation, since each pesticide...

  7. Phase I: the pipeline-gas demonstration plant. Demonstration plant engineering and design. Volume 18. Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-05-01

    Contract No. EF-77-C-01-2542 between Conoco Inc. and the US Department of Energy provides for the design, construction, and operation of a demonstration plant capable of processing bituminous caking coals into clean pipeline quality gas. The project is currently in the design phase (Phase I). This phase is scheduled to be completed in June 1981. One of the major efforts of Phase I is the process and project engineering design of the Demonstration Plant. The design has been completed and is being reported in 24 volumes. This is Volume 18 which reports the design of Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment. The objective of the Waste Water Treatment system is to collect and treat all plant liquid effluent streams. The system is designed to permit recycle and reuse of the treated waste water. Plant Section 2700 is composed of primary, secondary, and tertiary waste water treatment methods plus an evaporation system which eliminates liquid discharge from the plant. The Waste Water Treatment Section is designed to produce 130 pounds per hour of sludge that is buried in a landfill on the plant site. The evaporated water is condensed and provides a portion of the make-up water to Plant Section 2400 - Cooling Water.

  8. Pesticidal and pest repellency activities of a plant derived triterpenoid 2α,3β,21β,23,28-penta hydroxyl 12-oleanene against Tribolium castaneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tribolium castaneum (Herbst is a major pest of stored grain-based products, and cause severe damage to cereal grains throughout the world. The present investigation was aimed to determine the pesticidal and pest repellent activities of 2α,3β,21β,23,28-penta hydroxyl 12-oleanene against T. castaneum. The compound 2α,3β,21β,23,28-penta hydroxyl 12-oleanene is a triterpenoid which was isolated from the roots of Laportea crenulata Gaud. Surface film technique was used for pesticidal screening, whereas, pest repellency property of the triterpenoid was determined by filter paper disc method. RESULTS: At 24 hours of exposure duration, significant mortality records (80% and 86% were observed at doses 0.88 and 1.77 mg/cm². No significant change in mortality records was observed when duration of exposure was increased up to 48 hours. The triterpenoid showed significant repellency activity at doses 0.47 and 0.94 mg/cm². CONCLUSION: These data suggest that the triterpenoid 2α,3β,21β,23,28-penta hydroxyl 12-oleanene possess both pesticidal and pest repellency activities against T. castaneum and can be used in controlling the pest of grain-based products.

  9. Operation and Maintenance Manual for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norm Stanley

    2011-02-01

    This Operation and Maintenance Manual lists operator and management responsibilities, permit standards, general operating procedures, maintenance requirements and monitoring methods for the Sewage Treatment Plant at the Central Facilities Area at the Idaho National Laboratory. The manual is required by the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000141-03) the sewage treatment plant.

  10. The effects of Niger State water treatment plant effluent on its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of water treatment plant effluent on its receiving river (Kaduna) was examined. Samples were collected from the effluents discharge from Chanchaga water treatment plant into upstream and down stream of the receiving river monthly for six month. Samples were analyzed in the laboratory for microbial counts and ...

  11. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. BRENT; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fecht, Karl R.; Lanigan, David C.; Reidel, Steve; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-02-28

    In 2006, DOE-ORP initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct Vs measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) confirmation of the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the corehole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt was also penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of movement and less than 15 feet of repeated section. Most of the

  12. Assessment of airborne virus contamination in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masclaux, Frédéric G; Hotz, Philipp; Gashi, Drita; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Oppliger, Anne

    2014-08-01

    Occupational exposure to bioaerosols in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and its consequence on workers' health are well documented. Most studies were devoted to enumerating and identifying cultivable bacteria and fungi, as well as measuring concentrations of airborne endotoxins, as these are the main health-related factors found in WWTP. Surprisingly, very few studies have investigated the presence and concentrations of airborne virus in WWTP. However, many enteric viruses are present in wastewater and, due to their small size, they should become aerosolized. Two in particular, the norovirus and the adenovirus, are extremely widespread and are the major causes of infectious gastrointestinal diseases reported around the world. The third one, hepatitis E virus, has an emerging status. This study׳s objectives were to detect and quantify the presence and concentrations of 3 different viruses (adenovirus, norovirus and the hepatitis E virus) in air samples from 31 WWTPs by using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) during two different seasons and two consecutive years. Adenovirus was present in 100% of summer WWTP samples and 97% of winter samples. The highest airborne concentration measured was 2.27 × 10(6) genome equivalent/m(3) and, on average, these were higher in summer than in winter. Norovirus was detected in only 3 of the 123 air samples, and the hepatitis E virus was not detected. Concentrations of potentially pathogenic viral particles in WWTP air are non-negligible and could partly explain the work-related gastrointestinal symptoms often reported in employees in this sector. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Radionuclide content of wastewater and solid waste from a low-level effluent treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Zalina Laili; Nik Marzukee Nik Ibrahim; Mat Bakar Mahusin

    2010-01-01

    A study on radioactivity levels of wastewater and solid waste from a Low-level Effluent Treatment Plant has been carried out. The measurement of radionuclide concentration was carried out using gamma spectrometry. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides were detected in solid radioactive waste recovered from the treatment plant. The presence of radionuclides in waste water varies depending on activities carried out in laboratories and facilities connected to the plant. (author)

  14. An evaluation of a water treatment plant with improved overall effectiveness as an objective

    OpenAIRE

    Homsi, Ibrahim J.

    1995-01-01

    The XYZ water Authority (Authority) supplies a population of approximately one million people with drinking water. This water is being produced by three water treatment plants and several independent well sites. The River water Treatment Plant (WTP), the Authority's largest and most modern of all three plants has been experiencing, over a period of ten years, severe and premature equipment failures which are causing process interruptions, production losses and high maintenance cost. These fai...

  15. Collection and treatment of reliability data for nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, B.

    1973-09-01

    This paper describes some of the results achieved with the Argus data bank at the Institution of Thermal Power Engineering at the Chalmers University of Technology. This data bank, or rather data collection system, has been established to cover nuclear activities the world over. The system comprises in essence a number of data files. The prime files are those containing the basic data on the various plants - plant size and type, country and NSSS supplier and an indication of plantstatus. Further files contain plant design data and parameters and all available information on construction as commissioning timetables. To cover the operation of plant two files have been established. One file, which is updated on a monthly basis, contains power production statistics. The other file contains failure data. In this file are recorded the time and duration of plant shutdown together with the primary reason (s) for this. (M.S.)

  16. Farms could slash pesticide use without losses, research reveals

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Study shows almost all farms could significantly cut chemical use while producing as much food, in a major challenge to the billion-dollar pesticide industry. Virtually all farms could significantly cut their pesticide use while still producing as much food, according to a major new study. The research also shows chemical treatments could be cut without affecting farm profits on over three-quarters of farms. The scientists said that many farmers wanted to reduce pesticide use, partly due to c...

  17. Plant-wide (BSM2) evaluation of reject water treatment with a SHARON-Anammox process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volcke, Eveline; Gernaey, Krist; Vrecko, Darko

    2006-01-01

    treatment plant, reject water treatment with a combined SHARON-Anammox process seems a promising option. The simulation results indicate that significant improvements of the effluent quality of the main wastewater treatment plant can be realized. An economic evaluation of the different scenarios......In wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) equipped with sludge digestion and dewatering systems, the reject water originating from these facilities contributes significantly to the nitrogen load of the activated sludge tanks, to which it is typically recycled. In this paper, the impact of reject water...

  18. Study on evaluation index system of operational performance of municipal wastewater treatment plants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoxin, Zhang; Jin, Huang; Ling, Lin; Yan, Li

    2018-05-01

    According to the undeveloped evaluation method for the operational performance of the municipal wastewater treatment plants, this paper analyzes the policies related to sewage treatment industry based on the investigation of the municipal wastewater treatment plants. The applicable evaluation method for the operational performance was proposed from environmental protection performance, resources and energy consumption, technical and economic performance, production management and main equipment, providing a reliable basis for scientific evaluation of the operation as well as improving the operational performance of municipal wastewater treatment plant.

  19. Greenhouse Gases Emissions from Wastewater Treatment Plants: Minimization, Treatment, and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Campos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The operation of wastewater treatment plants results in direct emissions, from the biological processes, of greenhouse gases (GHG such as carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, and nitrous oxide (N2O, as well as indirect emissions resulting from energy generation. In this study, three possible ways to reduce these emissions are discussed and analyzed: (1 minimization through the change of operational conditions, (2 treatment of the gaseous streams, and (3 prevention by applying new configurations and processes to remove both organic matter and pollutants. In current WWTPs, to modify the operational conditions of existing units reveals itself as possibly the most economical way to decrease N2O and CO2 emissions without deterioration of effluent quality. Nowadays the treatment of the gaseous streams containing the GHG seems to be a not suitable option due to the high capital costs of systems involved to capture and clean them. The change of WWTP configuration by using microalgae or partial nitritation-Anammox processes to remove ammonia from wastewater, instead of conventional nitrification-denitrification processes, can significantly reduce the GHG emissions and the energy consumed. However, the area required in the case of microalgae systems and the current lack of information about stability of partial nitritation-Anammox processes operating in the main stream of the WWTP are factors to be considered.

  20. Leachate Treatment from Sarimukti Landfill Using Ozone with Sludge from Water Treatment Plant as a Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudha Ramdhani Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Leachate is the liquid waste from anaerobic decomposition in a landfill. The ozonation process can be used for leachate treatment. Sludge from sedimentation in water treatment plant contains 5.96% of Al and 9.35% of Si which can affect of its cation exchange capacity and affects the active site in the catalyst. This study aims to determine the effectivity of sludge in the ozonation process to treat leachate. A 1,5 L semi-batch reactor containing 1 L sample was used in this experiment with the rate of oxygen supply was at 4 L/min taken from ambient air. Two groups of sludge weighing 1.5 grams, 3.0 grams and 4.5 grams were used and activate with physically and chemically activated. The best result was obtained by the physically activated sludge with mass of 4.5 gram O3-L-4,5 AF. The differences of removal efficiency between O3-L-4,5 AF with the control (O3 for turbidity were respectively 13.02% and 7.81%, for EC were 10.57% and 8.29%, for COD were 49.44% and 37.50%, and for residual ozone concentration at the end of contact time were 7.6 mg/L and 9.7 mg/L. It can be concluded that activaed sludge and ozonation can be used as a catalyst in leachate treatment.

  1. Assessment of Pesticide Residue Levels in Vegetables sold in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. kelechi

    substance in food for man or animals resulting from the use of ... kills or control various types of pest (plant or ... Pesticides applied to food crops in the .... Mean body weight ..... National Research Council. .... Pediatrics, 113 (4): 1030-1036.

  2. 40 CFR 170.235 - Posted pesticide safety information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides that may be on plants and soil, in irrigation water, or drifting from nearby applications. (ii... as at a decontamination site or an equipment storage site. (e) Accessibility. Handlers shall be...

  3. 40 CFR 170.135 - Posted pesticide safety information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... your body any pesticides that may be on plants and soil, in irrigation water, or drifting from nearby... congregate or pass by, such as at a decontamination site or an equipment storage site. (e) Accessibility...

  4. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of respiratory diseases. 1. Screening of 68 plants against gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, A; Alvarez, A V; Ovando, A E; Samayoa, B E

    1991-02-01

    Respiratory ailments are important causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Ethnobotanical surveys and literature reviews conducted in Guatemala during 1986-88 showed that 234 plants from 75 families, most of them of American origin, have been used for the treatment of respiratory ailments. Three Gram-positive bacteria causing respiratory infections (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes) were used to screen 68 of the most commonly used plants for activity. Twenty-eight of these (41.2%) inhibited the growth of one or more of the bacteria tested. Staphylococcus aureus was inhibited by 18 of the plant extracts, while 7 extracts were effective against Streptococcus pyogenes. Plants of American origin which exhibited antibacterial activity were: Gnaphalium viscosum, Lippia alba, Lippia dulcis, Physalis philadelphica, Satureja brownei, Solanum nigrescens and Tagetes lucida. These preliminary in vitro results provide scientific basis for the use of these plants against bacterial respiratory infections.

  5. Pesticide Worker Safety Cooperative Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The worker safety program cooperative agreements fund projects to educate pesticide applicators, handlers, and farmworkers on working safely with, and around, pesticides. Read about pesticide related grant opportunities and reports from previous grants.

  6. Models for Pesticide Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA considers the toxicity of the pesticide as well as the amount of pesticide to which a person or the environments may be exposed in risk assessment. Scientists use mathematical models to predict pesticide concentrations in exposure assessment.

  7. Evaluation of Five Treatment Plants for the Removal of Microcystins in Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Álvarez Cortiñas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Galicia there are supplies that collect water from reservoirs showing growth of cyanobacteria that could produce toxins. The drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs of these supplies should provide adequate treatment and be subjected to maintenance. WHO guidelines make recommendations on the most suitable treatments for removing microcystins. The Department of Health developed a protocol of action against these events jointly with water basin authorities. 4 reservoirs and five treatment plants were identified for this study. The treatments of the plants, the maintenance carried out at the DWTPs and the results for sestonic and dissolved toxins analyzed by the Public Health Laboratory of Galicia in the reservoirs near the point of collection, before the treatment plants and after them, during the 2013-2014 biennium were evaluated.

  8. Understanding Pesticide Risks: Toxicity and Formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Muntz, Helen; Miller, Rhonda; Alston, Diane

    2016-01-01

    This fact sheet provides information about pesticide risks to human health, primary means of pesticide exposure, standardized measures of pesticide toxicity, pesticide signal words and type of pesticide formulations.

  9. The effects of glyphosate and aminopyralid on an artifical plant communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA has responsibility for registration of pesticides under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). The potential adverse effects of pesticides to nontarget terrestrial plant communities are a concern that must be addressed in the pesticide regist...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1583 - What are the emission points and control requirements for an industrial POTW treatment plant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control requirements for an industrial POTW treatment plant? 63.1583 Section 63.1583 Protection of... Pollutants: Publicly Owned Treatment Works Industrial Potw Treatment Plant Description and Requirements § 63.1583 What are the emission points and control requirements for an industrial POTW treatment plant? (a...

  11. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. Brent; Fecht, Karl R.; Reidel, Stephen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-05-11

    In 2006, the U.S. Department of Energy initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct shear wave velocity (Vs) measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) geologic studies to confirm the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the core hole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member, and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt also was penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed, and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of

  12. Pilot plant for flue gas treatment - continuous operation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Tyminski, B.; Iller, E.; Zimek, Z.; Licki, J.; Radzio, B.

    1995-01-01

    Tests of continuous operation have been performed on pilot plant at EPS Kaweczyn in the wide range of SO 2 concentration (500-3000 ppm). The bag filter has been applied for aerosol separation. The high efficiencies of SO 2 and NO x removal, approximately 90% were obtained and influenced by such process parameters as: dose, gas temperature and ammonia stoichiometry. The main apparatus of the pilot plant (e.g. both accelerators) have proved their reliability in hard industrial conditions. (Author)

  13. Biotechnological aspects of plants metabolites in the treatment of ulcer: A new prospective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kishore Singh

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Ulcer is one of the most common diseases affecting throughout the world population. The allopathic treatment of ulcer adversely affects the health by causing harmful side effects. Currently, many herbal plants and secondary metabolites have been used for the ulcer treatment. In the present review, many herbal plants and their parts (root, rhizome, bark, leaves and fruits have been listed in the table are currently being used for ulcer treatment. These metabolites are responsible for ulcer-neutralization or anti-inflammatory properties. In silico study, plant metabolites showed interaction between protodioscin (secondary metabolites of Asparagus racemosus and interferon-γ (virulent factor of gastric ulcer during molecular docking. All the residues of interferon-γ exhibited hydrophobic interactions with plant metabolites. These interactions helps in understanding the plant secondary metabolites vis a vis will open a new door in the research field of new drug discovery and designing for the ulcer treatment.

  14. The use of pesticides in Belgian illicit indoor cannabis plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuypers, Eva; Vanhove, Wouter; Gotink, Joachim; Bonneure, Arne; Van Damme, Patrick; Tytgat, Jan

    2017-08-01

    Cannabis (Cannabis spp.) use and cultivation continue to increase in many (European) countries. The illicit indoor cannabis plantations that supply Belgian and European cannabis markets create problems and concerns about health and safety of intervention staff, dismantling companies, the direct environment of cannabis plantations and, eventually, of cannabis users. Main risks may come from pesticide residues on plants, cultivation infrastructure and materials; left-over plant growth-promoting substances; mycotoxins from fungal pathogens on harvested plants; and/or high levels of cannabinoids in cannabis plant parts for consumption. In the present research, we report on pesticides found in illicit indoor cannabis plantations in Belgium. EN15662 QuEChERS extraction method and LC-MS/MS analysis were used to identify pesticides in indoor cannabis plantations and thus to evaluate the hazards associated with the use, cultivation and removal of cannabis plants in plantations as well as with dismantling activities in the cultivation rooms. We found pesticides in 64.3% of 72 cannabis plant samples and in 65.2% of 46 carbon filter cloth samples. Overall, 19 pesticides belonging to different chemical classes were identified. We found o-phenylphenol, bifenazate, cypermethrin, imidacloprid, propamocarb, propiconazole and tebuconazole, which is consistent with the commonly reported pesticides from literature. In only a few cases, pesticides found in bottles with a commercial label, were also identified in plant or stagnant water samples collected from the growth rooms where the bottles had been collected. We further revealed that, even though most pesticides have a low volatility, they could be detected from the carbon filters hanging at the ceiling of cultivation rooms. As a result, it is likely that pesticides also prevail in the plantation atmosphere during and after cultivation. The risk of inhaling the latter pesticides increases when plants sprayed with pesticides are

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from municipal wastewater treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parravicini, Vanessa; Svardal, Karl

    2016-04-01

    Operating wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) represent a source of greenhouse gases (GHG). Direct GHG emissions include emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) that can be biologically produced during wastewater and sewage sludge treatment. This is also highlighted in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2006) guidelines used for national GHG inventories. Indirect GHG emissions occur at WWTPs mainly by the consumption of electricity, fossil fuel for transportation and by the use of chemicals (e.g. coagulants). In this study, the impact of direct and indirect GHG emissions was quantified for two model WWTPs of 50.000 person equivalents (p.e.) using carbon footprint analyses. It was assumed that at one WWTP sewage sludge is digested anaerobically, at the other one it is aerobically stabilised in the activated sludge tank. The carbon footprint analyses were performed using literature emission factors. A new estimation model based on measurements at eight Austrian WWTPs was used for the assessment of N2O direct emissions (Parravicini et al., 2015). The results of the calculations show that, under the selected assumptions, the direct N2O emission from the activated sludge tank can dominate the carbon footprint of WWTP with a poor nitrogen removal efficiency. Through an improved operation of nitrogen removal several advantages can be gained: direct N2O emissions can be reduced, the energy demand for aeration can be decreased and a higher effluent quality can be achieved. Anaerobic digesters and anaerobic sludge storage tanks can become a relevant source of direct CH4 emissions. Minimising of CH4 losses from these sources improves the carbon footprint of the WWTP also increasing the energy yield achievable by combusting this renewable energy carrier in a combined heat and power unit. The estimated carbon footprint of the model WWTPs lies between 20 and 40 kg CO2e/p.e./a. This corresponds to 0.2 to 0.4% of the CO2e average emission caused yearly

  16. 76 FR 61587 - Prothioconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... class of pesticides. Although conazoles act similarly in plants (fungi) by inhibiting ergosterol... barley at 0.2 ppm; oats, rye, and wheat at 0.05 ppm each; in the fodder (dry) of cereal grains at 5 ppm..., including barley (0.35 ppm), wheat (0.07 ppm). Harmonization of the proposed tolerances with the existing...

  17. Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee (PPDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee, a permanent, broadly representative advisory committee, meets with EPA on a regular basis to discuss pesticide regulatory, policy, and program implementation issues.

  18. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Information System contains information concerning all pesticide products registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and...

  19. Technical analysis of advanced wastewater-treatment systems for coal-gasification plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-31

    This analysis of advanced wastewater treatment systems for coal gasification plants highlights the three coal gasification demonstration plants proposed by the US Department of Energy: The Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant, the Illinois Coal Gasification Group Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant, and the CONOCO Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Technical risks exist for coal gasification wastewater treatment systems, in general, and for the three DOE demonstration plants (as designed), in particular, because of key data gaps. The quantities and compositions of coal gasification wastewaters are not well known; the treatability of coal gasification wastewaters by various technologies has not been adequately studied; the dynamic interactions of sequential wastewater treatment processes and upstream wastewater sources has not been tested at demonstration scale. This report identifies key data gaps and recommends that demonstration-size and commercial-size plants be used for coal gasification wastewater treatment data base development. While certain advanced treatment technologies can benefit from additional bench-scale studies, bench-scale and pilot plant scale operations are not representative of commercial-size facility operation. It is recommended that coal gasification demonstration plants, and other commercial-size facilities that generate similar wastewaters, be used to test advanced wastewater treatment technologies during operation by using sidestreams or collected wastewater samples in addition to the plant's own primary treatment system. Advanced wastewater treatment processes are needed to degrade refractory organics and to concentrate and remove dissolved solids to allow for wastewater reuse. Further study of reverse osmosis, evaporation, electrodialysis, ozonation, activated carbon, and ultrafiltration should take place at bench-scale.

  20. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. An analysis of potential resistance of the phytophagous mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae to four botanical pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attia, S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Synthetic acaricides have been widely used to manage Tetranychus urticae. Due to the excessive use of biocide and the associated problems of pesticide resistance and environmental pollution, there is an increasing demand for sustainable, environmentally-friendly control methods. Among the current alternative strategies aimed at decreasing the pest populations, the pesticides based on plant extracts are currently one of the most promising methods. Essential oils with acaricidal properties have been categorized as green pesticides because they are biodegradable and predominantly non-toxic to vertebrates. Objectives. With an aim to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides, they represent a promising approach for eco-chemical control of mites. Method. The aim of the present work was to analyze the risk of resistance emergence of T. urticae to repeated treatments with four plant extracts: Deverra scoparia Coss. & Durieu (Araliales: Apiaceae, Hertia cheirifolia (L. Kuntze (Asterales: Ateraceae, Santolina africana Jord. & Fourr. (Asterales: Asteraceae essential oils and garlic distillate Allium sativum L. (Asparagales: Alliaceae after 20 generations. Results. Repeated treatments with S. africana essential oil during 20 generations did not provoke an emergence of resistance while a low development of resistance was observed with H. cheirifolia, A. sativum and D. scoparia extracts. Conclusions. The efficacy of these extracts against the two spotted spider mite and their low development of resistance make them a promising use for pest management.

  2. Global sensitivity analysis in wastewater treatment plant model applications: Prioritizing sources of uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist; Neumann, Marc B.

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates the usefulness of global sensitivity analysis in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) design to prioritize sources of uncertainty and quantify their impact on performance criteria. The study, which is performed with the Benchmark Simulation Model no. 1 plant design, complements...... insight into devising useful ways for reducing uncertainties in the plant performance. This information can help engineers design robust WWTP plants....... a previous paper on input uncertainty characterisation and propagation (Sin et al., 2009). A sampling-based sensitivity analysis is conducted to compute standardized regression coefficients. It was found that this method is able to decompose satisfactorily the variance of plant performance criteria (with R2...

  3. Six-year experiences in the operation of a low level liquid waste treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, S.-J.; Hwang, S.-L.; Tsai, C.-M.

    1980-01-01

    The operation of a low level liquid waste treatment plant is described. The plant is designed for the disposal of liquid waste produced primarily by a 40 MW Taiwan Research Reactor as well as a fuel fabrication plant for the CANDU type reactor and a radioisotopes production laboratory. The monthly volume treated is about 600-2500 ton of low level liquid waste. The activity levels are in the range of 10 -5 -10 -3 μCi/cm 3 . The continuous treatment system of the low level liquid waste treatment plant and the treatment data collected since 1973 are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of continuous and batch processes are compared. In the continuous process, the efficiency of sludge treatment, vermiculite ion exchange and the adsorption of peat are investigated for further improvement. (H.K.)

  4. The function of advanced treatment process in a drinking water treatment plant with organic matter-polluted source water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huirong; Zhang, Shuting; Zhang, Shenghua; Lin, Wenfang; Yu, Xin

    2017-04-01

    To understand the relationship between chemical and microbial treatment at each treatment step, as well as the relationship between microbial community structure in biofilms in biofilters and their ecological functions, a drinking water plant with severe organic matter-polluted source water was investigated. The bacterial community dynamics of two drinking water supply systems (traditional and advanced treatment processes) in this plant were studied from the source to the product water. Analysis by 454 pyrosequencing was conducted to characterize the bacterial diversity in each step of the treatment processes. The bacterial communities in these two treatment processes were highly diverse. Proteobacteria, which mainly consisted of beta-proteobacteria, was the dominant phylum. The two treatment processes used in the plant could effectively remove organic pollutants and microbial polution, especially the advanced treatment process. Significant differences in the detection of the major groups were observed in the product water samples in the treatment processes. The treatment processes, particularly the biological pretreatment and O 3 -biological activated carbon in the advanced treatment process, highly influenced the microbial community composition and the water quality. Some opportunistic pathogens were found in the water. Nitrogen-relative microorganisms found in the biofilm of filters may perform an important function on the microbial community composition and water quality improvement.

  5. Presence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in sewage treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopathy, Raj

    2017-09-01

    The presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes in rural sewage treatment plants are not well reported in the literature. The aim of the present study was to study the frequency occurrence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a rural sewage treatment plant. This study was conducted using raw sewage as well as treated sewage from a small town sewage treatment plant in rural southeast Louisiana of USA. Results showed the presence of MRSA consistently in both raw and treated sewage. The presence of mecA gene responsible for methicillin resistance was confirmed in the raw and treated sewage water samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Treatment with aquatic plants by a Bagdi tribal healer of Rajbari District, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsina Mukti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Tribal healers mainly use land plants in their medicinal formulations; use of aquatic plants has been scarcely reported. Aims: The aim of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey working with a Bagdi tribal healer of Rajbari District, Bangladesh. Settings and Design: The survey was carried out working with a Bagdi healer, who lived alone in the wetlands of Rajbari District and used primarily aquatic plants for treatment. Materials and Methods: Interview of the healer was carried out with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. Results: The Bagdi healer was observed to use seven different aquatic plant species coming from five plant families for treatment of ailments such as hemorrhoids, tonsillitis, heart disorders, burning sensations and pain in hands or legs, blurred vision, debility, sexual weakness in males, chronic dysentery, infertility in women, constipation, chronic leucorrhea, blackness and foul odor of menstrual blood, hair loss, graying of hair and to keep the head cool. One plant was used to treat what the healer mentioned as "evil eye", this refers to their belief in black-magic. Conclusions: This is the first reported instance of a Bagdi healer who primarily uses aquatic plants for treatment. Ethnomedicinal uses of a number of the plants used by the Bagdi healer have been reported for other places in India and Pakistan. Taken together, the various uses of the different plant species opens up scientific possibilities of new drug discoveries from the plants.

  7. Medicinal plants in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Maliheh; Shams-Ardakani, Mohammadreza; Foroumadi, Alireza

    2015-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a small, spiral, Gram-negative bacillus that plays a role in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases ranging from asymptomatic gastritis to gastric cancer. Schedule compliance, antibiotic drug resistance, and side-effects of triple or quadruple therapy have led to research for novel candidates from plants. The purpose of this paper is to review the most potent medicinal plants of recently published literature with anti-H. pylori activity. For centuries, herbals have been used by traditional healers around the world to treat various gastrointestinal tract disorders such as dyspepsia, gastritis, and peptic ulcer disease. The mechanism of action by which these botanicals exert their therapeutic properties has not been completely and clearly elucidated. Anti-H. pylori properties may be one of the possible mechanisms by which gastroprotective herbs treat gastrointestinal tract disorders. Electronic databases such as PubMed, Google scholar, EBSCO, and local databases were explored for medicinal plants with anti-H. pylori properties between 1984 and 2013 using key words "medicinal plants" and "Helicobacter pylori" or "anti-Helicobacter pylori". A total of 43 medicinal plant species belonging to 27 families including Amaryllidaceae, Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae, Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Clusiaceae, Chancapiedra, Combretaceae, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Geraniaceae, Lamiaceae, Lauraceae, Lythraceae, Menispermaceae, Myristicaceae, Myrtaceae, Oleaceae, Papaveraceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, and Theaceae were studied as herbs with potent anti-H. pylori effects. Traditional folk medicinal use of some of these plants to treat gastric infections is substantiated by the antibacterial activity of their extracts against H. pylori.

  8. Delisting strategy for the Hanford Site 242-A Evaporator PUREX Plant Condensate Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    This document describes the strategy that the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office intends to use in preparing the delisting petition for the 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Condensate Treatment Facility. Because the 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Condensate Treatment Facility will not be operational until 1994, the delisting petition will be structured as an up-front petition based on the ''multiple waste treatment facility'' approach outline in the 1985 US Environmental Protection Agency's Petitions to Delist Hazardous Waste. The 242-A evaporator/PUREX Plant Condensate Treatment Facility effluent characterization data will not be available to support the delisting petition, because the delisting petition will be submitted to the US Environmental Protection Agency before start-up of the 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Condensate Treatment Facility. Therefore, the delisting petition will be based on data collected during the pilot plant testing for the 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Condensate Treatment Facility. This pilot plant testing will be conducted on synthetic waste. The composition of the synthetic waste will be based on: (1) constituents of regulatory concern, and (2) on process knowledge. The pilot plant testing will be performed to determine the removal efficiencies of the process equipment at concentrations greater than reasonably could be expected in the actual waste. This strategy document also describes the logic used to develop the synthetic waste, to develop the pilot plant testing program, and to prepare the delisting petition. This strategy document also described how full-scale operating data will be collected during initial operation of the 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Condensate Treatment Facility to verify information presented in the delisting petition

  9. Atmospheric cold plasma jet for plant disease treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianhui; Liu, Dongping; Zhou, Renwu; Song, Ying; Sun, Yue; Zhang, Qi; Niu, Jinhai; Fan, Hongyu; Yang, Si-ze

    2014-01-01

    This study shows that the atmospheric cold plasma jet is capable of curing the fungus-infected plant leaves and controlling the spread of infection as an attractive tool for plant disease management. The healing effect was significantly dependent on the size of the black spots infected with fungal cells and the leaf age. The leaves with the diameter of black spots of plasma-generated species passing through the microns-sized stomas in a leaf can weaken the function of the oil vacuoles and cell membrane of fungal cells, resulting in plasma-induced inactivation.

  10. Process of liquid radioactive waste treatment in nuclear power plant and development trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jiean; Wang Xin; Liu Dan; Zhu Laiye; Chen Bin

    2014-01-01

    The popular liquid radioactive waste treatment methods in nuclear power plants (NPP) are Chemical precipitation, evaporation, ion exchange, membrane treatment, chemical coagulation and activated carbon absorption and so on. 'Filter + activated carbon absorption (Chemical coagulation) + ion exchange' has a good prospect for development, as its simple process, high decontamination factor, low energy consumption and smaller secondary wastes. Also the process is used in Sanmen and Haiyang Projects. The severe incident in NPP set an even higher demand on liquid radioactive waste treatment. The new type treatment materials, optimization of the existed treatment, combination of treatment and the mobile treatment facility is the development trend in liquid radioactive waste treatment in NPP. (authors)

  11. Environmental impact assessment of decommissioning treatment about radioactive model plant waste ore storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bei Xinyu

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at decommissioning treatment project of radioactive model plant waste ore storage site, based on the detailed investigations of source terms and project description, systematic environmental impacts have been identified. The environmental impacts both during decommissioning treatment, radioactive waste transportation and after treatment are assessed. Some specific environmental protection measures are proposed so as to minimize the adverse environmental impacts. (author)

  12. Relationships between pesticides and organic carbon fractions in sediments of the Danshui River estuary and adjacent coastal areas of Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, C.-C.; Gong, G.-C.; Chen, H.-Y.; Hsieh, H.-L.; Santschi, Peter H.; Wade, Terry L.; Sericano, Jose L.

    2007-01-01

    In order to understand the fate of pesticides in marine environments, concentrations of pesticides and different carbonaceous fractions were determined for surface sediments in the Danshui River and nearby coastal areas of Taiwan. The major compounds detected were tetrachlorobenzene, HCHs, chlordane, aldrin, DDDs, DDEs and DDTs. Total concentrations of pesticides in the sediments ranged from not detectable to 23 ng g -1 , with the maximum value detected near the discharge point of the marine outfall from the Pali sewage treatment plant. These results confirm that pesticides persist in estuarine and nearby coastal environments of the Danshui River well after their ban. Concentrations of total pesticides significantly correlate with concentrations of total organic carbon and black carbon in these sediments, suggesting that total organic carbon and black carbon regulate the distribution of trace organic pollutants in fluvial and coastal marine sediments. - Total organic carbon and black carbon regulate the distribution of trace organic pollutants in sediments of the Danshui River estuary and adjacent coastal areas of Taiwan

  13. Simulation analysis of capacity and performance improvement in wastewater treatment plants: Case study of Alexandria eastern plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moursy, Aly; Sorour, Mohamed T.; Moustafa, Medhat; Elbarqi, Walid; Fayd, Mai; Elreedy, Ahmed

    2018-05-01

    This study concerns the upgrading of a real domestic wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) supported by simulation. The main aims of this work are to: (1) decide between two technologies to improve WWTP capacity and its nitrogen removal efficiency; membrane bioreactor (MBR) and integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS), and (2) perform a cost estimation analysis for the two proposed solutions. The model used was calibrated based on data from the existing WWTP, namely, Eastern plant and located in Alexandria, Egypt. The activated sludge model No. 1 (ASM1) was considered in the model analysis by GPS-X 7 software. Steady-state analysis revealed that high performances corresponded to high compliance with Egyptian standards were achieved by the two techniques; however, MBR was better. Nonetheless, the two systems showed poor nitrogen removal efficiency according to the current situation, which reveals that the plant needs a modification to add an anaerobic treatment unit before the aerobic zone.

  14. Fate of psychoactive compounds in wastewater treatment plant and the possibility of their degradation using aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackuľak, Tomáš; Mosný, Michal; Škubák, Jaroslav; Grabic, Roman; Birošová, Lucia

    2015-03-01

    In this study we analyzed and characterized 29 psychoactive remedies, illicit drugs and their metabolites in single stages of wastewater treatment plants in the capital city of Slovakia. Psychoactive compounds were present within all stages, and tramadol was detected at a very high concentration (706 ng/L). Significant decreases of codeine, THC-COOH, cocaine and buprenorphine concentration were observed in the biological stage. Consequently, we were interested in the possibility of alternative tertiary post-treatment of effluent water with the following aquatic plants: Cabomba caroliniana, Limnophila sessiliflora, Egeria najas and Iris pseudacorus. The most effective plant for tertiary cleansing was I. pseudacorus which demonstrated the best pharmaceutical removal capacity. After 48 h codeine and citalopram was removed with 87% efficiency. After 96 h were all analyzed compounds were eliminated with efficiencies above 58%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Nontarget effects of chemical pesticides and biological pesticide on rhizospheric microbial community structure and function in Vigna radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sunil; Gupta, Rashi; Kumari, Madhu; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-08-01

    Intensive agriculture has resulted in an indiscriminate use of pesticides, which demands in-depth analysis of their impact on indigenous rhizospheric microbial community structure and function. Hence, the objective of the present work was to study the impact of two chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and one biological pesticide (azadirachtin) at two dosages on the microbial community structure using cultivation-dependent approach and on rhizospheric bacterial communities involved in nitrogen cycle in Vigna radiata rhizosphere through cultivation-independent technique of real-time PCR. Cultivation-dependent study highlighted the adverse effects of both chemical pesticide and biopesticide on rhizospheric bacterial and fungal communities at different plant growth stages. Also, an adverse effect on number of genes and transcripts of nifH (nitrogen fixation); amoA (nitrification); and narG, nirK, and nirS (denitrification) was observed. The results from the present study highlighted two points, firstly that nontarget effects of pesticides are significantly detrimental to soil microflora, and despite being of biological origin, azadirachtin exerted negative impact on rhizospheric microbial community of V. radiata behaving similar to chemical pesticides. Hence, such nontarget effects of chemical pesticide and biopesticide in plants' rhizosphere, which bring out the larger picture in terms of their ecotoxicological effect, demand a proper risk assessment before application of pesticides as agricultural amendments.

  16. Control of Pesticides 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    comply with the label-claimed content. The tolerance of deviation from the label-claimed content of active ingredient is set by the Danish pesticide regulation. Three different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation have been included in the 2001 analytical chemical authority control: 1...

  17. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  18. National Pesticide Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How can I protect my pets when using pesticides around them? More FAQs FAQ Comics Video FAQs From NPIC: Fact Sheets Videos Web Apps Podcasts Outreach Materials NPIC Professional Resources Social Media: National Pesticide Information Center Tweets by NPICatOSU Please read our ...

  19. Food and Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA sets limits on how much of a pesticide may be used on food during growing and processing, and how much can remain on the food you buy. Learn about regulation of pesticides on food and how you can limit exposure.

  20. 40 CFR 170.230 - Pesticide safety training for handlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... enter the body. (iv) Signs and symptoms of common types of pesticide poisoning. (v) Emergency first aid for pesticide injuries or poisonings. (vi) How to obtain emergency medical care. (vii) Routine and.... (ix) Prevention, recognition, and first aid treatment of heat-related illness. (x) Safety requirements...

  1. Indicators to identify the source of pesticide contamination to groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorling, Lærke; Brüsch, Walter; Tuxen, Nina

    In Denmark groundwater is synonym with drinking water. The mainstream Danish political approach favors prevention and action at source over advanced treatments of polluted groundwater. The main pollutants are nitrate and pesticides. Pesticides in groundwater can originate from either diffuse or p...

  2. Multiple routes of pesticide exposure for honey bees living near agricultural fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian H Krupke

    Full Text Available Populations of honey bees and other pollinators have declined worldwide in recent years. A variety of stressors have been implicated as potential causes, including agricultural pesticides. Neonicotinoid insecticides, which are widely used and highly toxic to honey bees, have been found in previous analyses of honey bee pollen and comb material. However, the routes of exposure have remained largely undefined. We used LC/MS-MS to analyze samples of honey bees, pollen stored in the hive and several potential exposure routes associated with plantings of neonicotinoid treated maize. Our results demonstrate that bees are exposed to these compounds and several other agricultural pesticides in several ways throughout the foraging period. During spring, extremely high levels of clothianidin and thiamethoxam were found in planter exhaust material produced during the planting of treated maize seed. We also found neonicotinoids in the soil of each field we sampled, including unplanted fields. Plants visited by foraging bees (dandelions growing near these fields were found to contain neonicotinoids as well. This indicates deposition of neonicotinoids on the flowers, uptake by the root system, or both. Dead bees collected near hive entrances during the spring sampling period were found to contain clothianidin as well, although whether exposure was oral (consuming pollen or by contact (soil/planter dust is unclear. We also detected the insecticide clothianidin in pollen collected by bees and stored in the hive. When maize plants in our field reached anthesis, maize pollen from treated seed was found to contain clothianidin and other pesticides; and honey bees in our study readily collected maize pollen. These findings clarify some of the mechanisms by which honey bees may be exposed to agricultural pesticides throughout the growing season. These results have implications for a wide range of large-scale annual cropping systems that utilize neonicotinoid seed

  3. PESTICIDES: BENEFITS AND HAZARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Maksymiv

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are an integral part of modern life used to prevent growth of unwanted living  organisms. Despite the fact that scientific statements coming from many toxicological works provide indication on the low risk of the pesticides and their residues, the community especially last years is deeply concerned about massive application of pesticides in diverse fields. Therefore evaluation of hazard risks particularly in long term perspective is very important. In the fact there are at least two clearly different approaches for evaluation of pesticide using: the first one is defined as an objective or probabilistic risk assessment, while the second one is the potential economic and agriculture benefits. Therefore, in this review the author has considered scientifically based assessment of positive and negative effects of pesticide application and discusses possible approaches to find balance between them.

  4. Some biochemical reactions of strawberry plants to infection with Botrytis cinerea and salicylic acid treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Małolepsza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The reactions of strawberry plants to infection with B. cinerea and treatment with salicylic acid has been studied. Infection of leaves with B. cinerea resulted in early increases in active oxygen species generation, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities and phenolic compounds content. Some increases of the above reactions were noticed in plants treated with salicylic acid but not in the plants treated with SA and then later infected with B. cinerea.

  5. Wastewater treatment and reuse. Indian power plant turns sewage into process water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, S.; Schroedter, F.; Demmerle, C. [ERM Lahmeyer International, Neu-Isenburg (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Lahmeyer International provided consulting services for a private Indian investor of a 200 MW diesel engine power plant, in reviewing and controlling the EPC Contractor from Korea with regard to the treatment plant for dosmestic wastewater and the reverse osmosis plant for desalination. The wastewater treatment and subsequent water treatment for cooling water production comprised: mechanical treatment, biological treatment of domestic wastewater, lime softening, sand filtration, disinfection, micro-filtration, reverse osmosis. The services as Owner's Engineer included: (1) the review of the EPC Contractor's treatment concept, (2) the selection of internationally renowned manufacturer, (3) the review of the detailed design (including civil, mechanical, electrical and I and C work), and (4) onsite technical assistance to the Client during construction and commissioning phase. (orig.)

  6. Optimising Solar Photo catalytic Mineralization of Pesticides at Solar Pilot by Adding Inorganic Oxidising Species; Application to the Recycling of Pesticide Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, J.; Malato, S.; Fernandez, P.; Caceres, J.; Campos, A.; Carrion, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper focuses on optimising the use of additional oxidants in the photo catalytic degradation of a complex mixture of ten commercial pesticides. The CPC solar pilot plant used for the tests has 8.9 m 2 of collector surface and a total volume of 247 L. Same TOC quantities of each pesticide were added to achieve the desired initial TOC concentration in all the experiments (from 5 to 100 mg of TOC per litre). Experiments were performed with H 2 O 2 and S 2 OS 8 - 2, but only peroxydisulphate was chosen for optimisation, because better results have been obtained with it. In addition to the consumption of the oxidant under different experimental conditions, the effect of peroxydisulphate and TOC concentrations was also evaluated. The mechanism of peroxydisulphate action is discussed with these results. The effect of reusing water and catalysts has also been studied. The results obtained from these experiments have been used to decide the dimensions and operating conditions of a solar photo catalytic plant, the final objective of which is the treatment of rin sates produced by washing pesticide containers. (Author) 37 refs

  7. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Field Study Training Program. Volume I. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    This manual was prepared by experienced wastewater collection system workers to provide a home study course to develop new qualified workers and expand the abilities of existing workers. This volume is directed primarily towards entry-level operators and the operators of ponds, package plants, or small treatment plants. Ten chapters examine the…

  8. Mathematics for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators. Water and Wastewater Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Dakota Dept. of Environmental Protection, Pierre.

    This booklet is intended to aid the prospective waste treatment plant operator or drinking water plant operator in learning to solve mathematical problems, which is necessary for Class I certification. It deals with the basic mathematics which a Class I operator may require in accomplishing day-to-day tasks. The book also progresses into problems…

  9. Gas treatment processes for keeping the environment of nuclear plants free from gas-borne activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, H.

    1977-01-01

    The separation processes in gas treatment steps for the decontamination of circuit or offgas streams are described and their practicability is evaluated. Examples of the effectiveness of gas separation plants for keeping the environment within and without nuclear plants free from harmful gas-borne activity are presented. (orig.) [de

  10. Invasive alien plants used in the treatment of HIV/AIDS-related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: A total of 38 invasive alien plant species belonging to 23 families were recorded to be used in the treatment of HIV/AIDS related symptoms. The largest proportion of recorded invasive alien plants belonged to the family Asteraceae with 16%. Roots were the most frequently used parts constituting 35% followed ...

  11. Fate and behaviour of ZnO engineered nanoparticles in a simulated domestic wastewater treatment plant

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chaúquea, EFC

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) employ activated sludge processes to treat domestic wastewater using a consortium of bacteria essentially to degrade organic matter. However, bacteria activity is inhibited by toxic substances; thus, potentially...

  12. Sewage Treatment Plant Points, Tutuila AS, 2009, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Across the United States, municipal wastewater treatment plants receive and treat sewage and other wastewater collected from homes, businesses, and industries. These...

  13. Comparison of planted soil infiltration systems for treatment of log yard runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedmark, Asa; Scholz, Miklas; Aronsson, Par; Elowson, Torbjorn

    2010-07-01

    Treatment of log yard runoff is required to avoid contamination of receiving watercourses. The research aim was to assess if infiltration of log yard runoff through planted soil systems is successful and if different plant species affect the treatment performance at a field-scale experimental site in Sweden (2005 to 2007). Contaminated runoff from the log yard of a sawmill was infiltrated through soil planted with Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gärtner (common alder), Salix schwerinii X viminalis (willow variety "Gudrun"), Lolium perenne (L.) (rye grass), and Phalaris arundinacea (L.) (reed canary grass). The study concluded that there were no treatment differences when comparing the four different plants with each other, and there also were no differences between the tree and the grass species. Furthermore, the infiltration treatment was effective in reducing total organic carbon (55%) and total phosphorus (45%) concentrations in the runoff, even when the loads on the infiltration system increased from year to year.

  14. Evaluating Bioaerosol Emissions form in different parts of a Sanitary Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jahangiri

    2014-02-01

    .Conclusion: Wastewater treatment processes can contaminate the air surrounding the plant, particularly with bacteria bioaerosols. Therefore, it is necessary to control the emissions and protect the health of workers against risks arising from exposure to bioaerosols.

  15. The effects of Niger State water treatment plant effluent on its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... The effect of water treatment plant effluent on its receiving river (Kaduna) was examined. Samples were ... Agency (FEPA) limits for effluent discharge into surface water. .... municipal sewage, garbages, domestic and industrial.

  16. Wastewater Treatment Plants Approved by Hawaii DOH, Hawaii, 2017, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This feature class contains points indicating the centroid of the 189 TMKs in the state of Hawaii in which Hawaii DOH has approved a wastewater treatment plant,...

  17. Drinking water treatment plant costs and source water quality: An updated case study (2013-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed protection can play an important role in producing safe drinking water. However, many municipalities and drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) lack the information on the potential benefits of watershed protection as an approach to improving source water quality. This...

  18. NPDES Permit for Crow Municipal Rural & Industrial Pilot Water Treatment Plant in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit MT-0031827, the Crow Indian Tribe is authorized to discharge from the Crow Municipal Rural & Industrial (MR&I) Pilot Water Treatment Plant in Bighorn County, Montana to the Bighorn River.

  19. Comparative Life Cycle Assessment and Cost Analysis of Bath Wastewater Treatment Plant Upgrades - slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many municipalities are facing the call to increase nutrient removal performance of their wastewater treatment plants in order to limit the impacts of eutrophication on the receiving waterbodies. The associated upgrades often demand investment in new technologies and increases in...

  20. Notification: Hotline Complaint – Drinking Water Treatment Plant at the Fort Belknap Indian Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OA-FY13-0076, November 13, 2012. On March 22, 2012, the Office of Inspector General (OIG) received a hotline complaint on the construction of the Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) at the Fort Belknap Indian Community.

  1. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment and Cost Analysis of Bath, NY Wastewater Treatment Plant: Potential Upgrade Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many communities across the U.S. are required to upgrade wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) to meet increasingly stringent nutrient effluent standards. However, increased capital, energy and chemical requirements of upgrades create potential trade-offs between eutrophication pot...

  2. NPDES Permit for Mesa Verde National Park Water Treatment Plant in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit number CO-0034462, the United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service is authorized to discharge from the Mesa Verde National Park water treatment plant, in Montezuma County, Colo.

  3. Treatment of banana and potato plants with a new antifungal composition (European patent specification)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, J.; Rijn, van F.T.J.; Krieken, van der W.M.; Stevens, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    International publication number: WO 2009/077613 (25.06.2009 Gazette 2009/26) The present invention relates to the treatment of banana and potato plants with a composition containing natamycin and at least one phosphite containing compound

  4. A survey of plants used in treatment of hypertension and diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of plants used in treatment of hypertension and diabetes mellitus in Ilorin, Kwara State, ... Materials and methods: Interview was conducted among respondents using ... Keywords: Hypertension, Diabetes mellitus, Traditional medicine ...

  5. Site-Specific Seismic Site Response Model for the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohay, Alan C.; Reidel, Steve P.

    2005-02-24

    This interim report documents the collection of site-specific geologic and geophysical data characterizing the Waste Treatment Plant site and the modeling of the site-specific structure response to earthquake ground motions.

  6. Foaming in Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant LAW Evaporation Processes - FY01 Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calloway, T.B.

    2002-01-01

    The LAW evaporation processes currently being designed for the Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant are subject to foaming. Experimental simulant studies have been conducted in an effort to achieve an effective antifoam agent suitable to mitigate such foaming

  7. Assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluent on fish reproduction utilizing the adverse outcome pathway conceptual framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are a known contributor of chemical mixture inputs into the environment. Whole effluent testing guidelines were developed to screen these complex mixtures for acute toxicity. However, efficient and cost-effective approaches for screenin...

  8. Temporal Variation in the Estrogenicity of a Sewage Treatment Plant Effluent and its Biological Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes variations in the estrogenic potency of effluent from a "model" wastewater treatment plant in Duluth, MN, and explores the significance of these variations relative to sampling approaches for monitoring effluents and their toxicity to fish.

  9. Effect of exposure to wastewater treatment plant effluent on fathead minnow reproduction

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Adult fathead minnows were exposed to dilutions of a historically estrogenic wastewater treatment plant effluent in a 21-d reproduction study. This dataset is...

  10. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Facility Registry Service (FRS) Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This GIS dataset contains data on wastewater treatment plants, based on EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) and NPDES, along with Clean Watersheds Needs Survey...

  11. Somatic mutations in leafs of tobacco seedlings induced by ionizing radiation and pesticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, H. S.; Kim, J. K.; Song, H. S.; Lee, Y. I.

    2001-01-01

    Somatic mutations induced by the combined treatment of pesticide and ionizing radiation were analyzed in the leaves of tobacco seedlings. The pesticide (1,5 and 10 ppm of parathion) was sprayed directly onto the seedlings. The seedlings, with or without pretreatment of pesticide, were irradiated with 0.1 ∼10 Gy of gamma ray. The difference in the somatic mutation frequencies were not significant among groups treated with different concentration of pesticide. The somatic mutations in tobacco seedlings irradiated with gamma-ray showed a clear dose-response relationship in a range of 0.1 to 10 Gy. However, the combined treatment of pesticide and radiation did not cause any synergistic enhancement in the mutation frequencies. The highest efficiency in the induction of somatic mutations could be obtained by irradiating the seedlings with 5 Gy, 12 hours after 1 ppm of pesticide treatment, or 24 hours after 5 ppm of pesticide treatment

  12. 77 FR 12002 - Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest Site-Specific Invasive Plant Treatment Project and Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... Invasive Plant Treatment Project and Forest Plan Amendment Number 28 AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION... Forest. The current Forest-wide treatment approach pre-dates the Pacific Northwest Region Invasive Plant... interdisciplinary analysis: (1) Whether or not to authorize site- specific invasive plant treatments using...

  13. MBR pilot plant for textile wastewater treatment and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubello, C; Caffaz, S; Mangini, L; Santianni, D; Caretti, C

    2007-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out in order to evaluate the possibility of upgrading the conventional activated sludge WWTP of Seano (Prato, Italy) which treats municipal and textile wastewaters, by using membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology. The MBR pilot plant, set up within Seano WWTP, was fed with mixed municipal-industrial wastewaters during the first experimental period and with pure industrial wastewaters during the second. Performances and operation of the MBR were evaluated in terms of permeate characteristics and variability (COD, colour, surfactants, total N and P) and other operational parameters (sludge growth and observed yield). According to the experimental results the MBR permeate quality was always superior to the Seano WWTP one and it was suitable for industrial reuse in the textile district of the Prato area. Respirometric tests provided a modified IWA ASM1 model which fits very well the experimental data and can be used for the design and the monitoring of a full-scale MBR pilot plant.

  14. AN OVERVIEW OF MUTAGENIC POTENTIAL OF PESTICIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Popescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a synthesis of mutagenic potential of a few pesticides. Cytotoxicity tests, using plant test systems in vivo, such as Allium cepa, are validated by the similar results performed in animal testing in vitro. Cytogenetic tests are usefulness for identifying and evaluating the damaging effects of pesticides present in various concentrations under different exposure times on living organisms. Mutagenic potential of different pesticides used can be detected cytologically by cellular inhibition (mitotic index and replication index are used as indicators of adequate cell proliferation, disruption in metaphase, induction of chromosomal aberrations, numerical and structural, ranging from chromosomal fragmentation to the disorganization of the mitotic spindle, and consequently of all subsequent dependent mitotic phases.

  15. Signals transmission via RF systems in a sewage treatment plant; Signaluebertragung via Funk im Klaerwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasas, Joerg [Phoenix Contact Electronics GmbH, Bad Pyrmont (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    The Niersverband is a municipal utility located at Viersen, Germany. It covers an area that is more or less identical with the catchment area of the Niers river and the Niers canal. There are 23 sewage treatment plants, rainwater retention basins and pumping stations transporting the collected water to the sewage treatment plants. For signal transmission between the stations, a Trusted Wireless system via Profibus-DP is used. (orig.)

  16. Analysis of energy consumption at the Rzeszów Wastewater Treatment Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Masłoń Adam

    2017-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plants can be classified as energy-intensive facilities, as they account for up to 35 percent of municipal energy consumption. Pumps and aeration systems consume a significant portion of energy within the wastewater plants in particular. The cost of energy consumption for wastewater treatment processes reaches up to 40% of the total operating cost. In case of the WWTPs with the activated sludge systems, about 50% of energy is used for aeration and mixing purposes. At WWTP...

  17. Wastewater treatment plant inspection program, fiscal year 2006 and 2007 data report

    OpenAIRE

    Greco, Stacie

    2008-01-01

    This data report includes the results from Alachua County Environmental Protection Department’s inspections of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) within Alachua County during the 2006 and 2007 fiscal years (October 2005 – September 2007). Groundwater monitoring data provided to the Florida Department of Environmental Protection Department by the WWTP operators is included for those treatment plants that are required to submit this information (PDF has 44 pages.)

  18. Treatment of operational experience of nuclear power plants in WANO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibanez, M.

    2013-01-01

    The article describes the activities associated to the Operating Experience Programme of the World Association of Nuclear Operators. The programme manages the event reports submitted by the nuclear power plants to the WANO database for the preparation by the Operating Experience Central Team of some documents like the significant Operating Experience Reports and Significant Event Reports that help the stations to avoid similar events. (Author)

  19. Treatment of Plants with Gaseous Ethylene and Gaseous Inhibitors of Ethylene Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark L; Kim, Joonyup; Wen, Chi-Kuang

    2017-01-01

    The gaseous nature of ethylene affects not only its role in plant biology but also how you treat plants with the hormone. In many ways, it simplifies the treatment problem. Other hormones have to be made up in solution and applied to some part of the plant hoping the hormone will be taken up into the plant and translocated throughout the plant at the desired concentration. Because all plant cells are connected by an intercellular gas space the ethylene concentration you treat with is relatively quickly reached throughout the plant. In some instances, like mature fruit, treatment with ethylene initiates autocatalytic synthesis of ethylene. However, in most experiments, the exogenous ethylene concentration is saturating, usually >1 μL L -1 , and the synthesis of additional ethylene is inconsequential. Also facilitating ethylene research compared with other hormones is that there are inhibitors of ethylene action 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene) and 2,5-NBD (2,5-norbornadiene) that are also gases wherein you can achieve nearly 100% inhibition of ethylene action quickly and with few side effects. Inhibitors for other plant hormones are applied as a solution and their transport and concentration at the desired site is not always known and difficult to measure. Here, our focus is on how to treat plants and plant parts with the ethylene gas and the gaseous inhibitors of ethylene action.

  20. Phytoremediation of organochlorine pesticides: Concept, method, and recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tanvi; Singh, Dileep K

    2017-09-02

    Rapid increase in industrialization of world economy in the past century has resulted in significantly high emission of anthropogenic chemicals in the ecosystem. The organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are a great risk to the global environment and endanger the human health due to their affinity for dispersion, transportation over long distances, and bioaccumulation in the food chain. Phytoremediation is a promising technology that aims to make use of plants and associated bacteria for the treatment of groundwater and soil polluted by these contaminants. Processes known to be involved in phytoremediation of OCPs include phytoaccumulation, rhizoremediation, and phytotransformation. Vegetation has been accounted to considerably amplify OCP elimination from soil, in contrast to non-planted soil, attributable to both, uptake within plant tissues and high microbial degradation of OCP within the root zone. Developing transgenic plants is a promising approach to enhance phytoremediation capabilities. Recent advances in the application of phytoremediation technique for OCPs, including uptake by plants and plant-microbe association in the rhizosphere for the enhanced degradation and mineralization of these pollutants, is presented in this review. Additionally, some attempts to improve this technique using transgenesis and role of certain enzymes are also discussed.

  1. Fate of artificial sweeteners through wastewater treatment plants and water treatment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaoli; Ren, Yuhang; Fu, Yingying; Gao, Xingsheng; Jiang, Cong; Wu, Gang; Ren, Hongqiang

    2018-01-01

    Five full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in China using typical biodegradation processes (SBR, oxidation ditch, A2/O) were selected to assess the removal of four popular artificial sweeteners (ASs). All four ASs (acesulfame (ACE), sucralose (SUC), cyclamate (CYC) and saccharin (SAC)) were detected, ranging from 0.43 to 27.34μg/L in the influent. Higher concentrations of ASs were measured in winter. ACE could be partly removed by 7.11–50.76% through biodegradation and especially through the denitrifying process. The A2/O process was the most efficient at biodegrading ASs. Adsorption (by granular activated carbon (GAC) and magnetic resin) and ultraviolet radiation-based advanced oxidation processes (UV/AOPs) were evaluated to remove ASs in laboratory-scale tests. The amounts of resin adsorbed were 3.33–18.51 times more than those of GAC except for SUC. The adsorption ability of resin decreased in the order of SAC > ACE > CYC > SUC in accordance with the pKa. Degradation of ASs followed pseudo-first-order kinetics in UV/H2O2 and UV/PDS. When applied to the secondary effluent, ASs could be degraded from 30.87 to 99.93% using UV/PDS in 30 minutes and UV/PDS was more efficient and economic. PMID:29293534

  2. Fate of artificial sweeteners through wastewater treatment plants and water treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaoli; Ren, Yuhang; Fu, Yingying; Gao, Xingsheng; Jiang, Cong; Wu, Gang; Ren, Hongqiang; Geng, Jinju

    2018-01-01

    Five full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in China using typical biodegradation processes (SBR, oxidation ditch, A2/O) were selected to assess the removal of four popular artificial sweeteners (ASs). All four ASs (acesulfame (ACE), sucralose (SUC), cyclamate (CYC) and saccharin (SAC)) were detected, ranging from 0.43 to 27.34μg/L in the influent. Higher concentrations of ASs were measured in winter. ACE could be partly removed by 7.11-50.76% through biodegradation and especially through the denitrifying process. The A2/O process was the most efficient at biodegrading ASs. Adsorption (by granular activated carbon (GAC) and magnetic resin) and ultraviolet radiation-based advanced oxidation processes (UV/AOPs) were evaluated to remove ASs in laboratory-scale tests. The amounts of resin adsorbed were 3.33-18.51 times more than those of GAC except for SUC. The adsorption ability of resin decreased in the order of SAC > ACE > CYC > SUC in accordance with the pKa. Degradation of ASs followed pseudo-first-order kinetics in UV/H2O2 and UV/PDS. When applied to the secondary effluent, ASs could be degraded from 30.87 to 99.93% using UV/PDS in 30 minutes and UV/PDS was more efficient and economic.

  3. Fate of artificial sweeteners through wastewater treatment plants and water treatment processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoli Li

    Full Text Available Five full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs in China using typical biodegradation processes (SBR, oxidation ditch, A2/O were selected to assess the removal of four popular artificial sweeteners (ASs. All four ASs (acesulfame (ACE, sucralose (SUC, cyclamate (CYC and saccharin (SAC were detected, ranging from 0.43 to 27.34μg/L in the influent. Higher concentrations of ASs were measured in winter. ACE could be partly removed by 7.11-50.76% through biodegradation and especially through the denitrifying process. The A2/O process was the most efficient at biodegrading ASs. Adsorption (by granular activated carbon (GAC and magnetic resin and ultraviolet radiation-based advanced oxidation processes (UV/AOPs were evaluated to remove ASs in laboratory-scale tests. The amounts of resin adsorbed were 3.33-18.51 times more than those of GAC except for SUC. The adsorption ability of resin decreased in the order of SAC > ACE > CYC > SUC in accordance with the pKa. Degradation of ASs followed pseudo-first-order kinetics in UV/H2O2 and UV/PDS. When applied to the secondary effluent, ASs could be degraded from 30.87 to 99.93% using UV/PDS in 30 minutes and UV/PDS was more efficient and economic.

  4. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. 3. Confirmation of activity against enterobacteria of 16 plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, A; Fletes, L; Aguilar, L; Ramirez, O; Figueroa, L; Taracena, A M; Samayoa, B

    1993-01-01

    Ethnobotanical surveys and literature review identified 408 plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The screening of 84 showed that 34 inhibit one or more enterobacteria; 16 of these were selected for further investigation. Extracts were obtained with three solvents of different polarity (n-hexane, acetone and alcohol) and the in vitro activity was demonstrated against enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Shigella flexneri. The activity of nine ethanolic extracts against enterobacteria, particularly Acalypha guatemalensis, Diphysa robinioides, Lippia dulcis, Psidium guajava and Spondias purpurea was confirmed. The plants with antibacterial activity are discussed.

  5. Quantitative assessment of energy and resource recovery in wastewater treatment plants based on plant-wide simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Arévalo, T; Lizarralde, I; Fdz-Polanco, F; Pérez-Elvira, S I; Garrido, J M; Puig, S; Poch, M; Grau, P; Ayesa, E

    2017-07-01

    The growing development of technologies and processes for resource treatment and recovery is offering endless possibilities for creating new plant-wide configurations or modifying existing ones. However, the configurations' complexity, the interrelation between technologies and the influent characteristics turn decision-making into a complex or unobvious process. In this frame, the Plant-Wide Modelling (PWM) library presented in this paper allows a thorough, comprehensive and refined analysis of different plant configurations that are basic aspects in decision-making from an energy and resource recovery perspective. In order to demonstrate the potential of the library and the need to run simulation analyses, this paper carries out a comparative analysis of WWTPs, from a techno-economic point of view. The selected layouts were (1) a conventional WWTP based on a modified version of the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2, (2) an upgraded or retrofitted WWTP, and (3) a new Wastewater Resource Recovery Facilities (WRRF) concept denominated as C/N/P decoupling WWTP. The study was based on a preliminary analysis of the organic matter and nutrient energy use and recovery options, a comprehensive mass and energy flux distribution analysis in each configuration in order to compare and identify areas for improvement, and a cost analysis of each plant for different influent COD/TN/TP ratios. Analysing the plants from a standpoint of resources and energy utilization, a low utilization of the energy content of the components could be observed in all configurations. In the conventional plant, the COD used to produce biogas was around 29%, the upgraded plant was around 36%, and 34% in the C/N/P decoupling WWTP. With regard to the self-sufficiency of plants, achieving self-sufficiency was not possible in the conventional plant, in the upgraded plant it depended on the influent C/N ratio, and in the C/N/P decoupling WWTP layout self-sufficiency was feasible for almost all influents

  6. Nuclear techniques in plant pathology 1. Plant disease control and physiology of parasitism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menten, J.O.M.; Ando, A.; Tulmann Neto, A.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear techniques are advantageously used in several areas of plant pathology. Among them are: induction of mutation for disease resistance, studies with pesticides, disease control through pathogen inactivation, induction of variability and stimulation in pathogens and natural enemies, studies of microorganism physiology and diseased plant physiology, effect of gamma radiation on pesticides, technology of pesticides application, etc. (Author) [pt

  7. Radioactive Waste Treatment and Conditioning Using Plasma Technology Pilot Plant: Testing and Commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafizi Salihuddin; Rohyiza Baan; Norasalwa Zakaria

    2016-01-01

    Plasma pilot plant was commissioned for research and development program on radioactive waste treatment. The plant is equipped with a 50 kW direct current of non-transferred arc plasma torch which mounted vertically on top of the combustion chamber. The plant also consists of a dual function chamber, a water cooling system, a compress air supply system and a control system. This paper devoted the outcome after testing and commissioning of the plant. The problems arise was discussed in order to find the possible suggestion to overcome the issues. (author)

  8. Selection of diazotrophic bacteria isolated from wastewater treatment plant sludge at a poultry slaughterhouse for their effect on maize plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Avelino Rodriguez Lozada

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The economic and environmental costs of nitrogen fertilization have intensified the search for technologies that reduce mineral fertilization, for example atmospheric nitrogen-fixing (diazotrophic bacteria inoculation. In this context, the present study addressed the isolation and quantification of diazotrophic bacteria in the sludge from treated wastewater of a poultry slaughterhouse; a description of the bacteria, based on cell and colony morphology; and an assessment of growth and N content of maize plants in response to inoculation. Sixteen morphotypes of bacteria were isolated in six N-free culture media (JMV, JMVL, NFb, JNFb, LGI, and LGI-P. The bacteria stained gram-positive, with 10 rod- and six coccoid-shaped isolates. To evaluate the potential of bacteria to promote plant growth, maize seeds were inoculated. The experiment consisted of 17 treatments (control plus 16 bacterial isolates and was carried out in a completely randomized design with six replicates. The experimental units consisted of one pot containing two maize plants in a greenhouse. Forty-five days after planting, the variables plant height, leaf number, stem diameter, root and shoot fresh and dry weight, and N content were measured. The highest values were obtained with isolate UFV L-162, which produced 0.68 g total dry matter per plant and increased N content to 22.14 mg/plant, representing increments of 74 and 133%, respectively, compared with the control. Diazotrophs inhabit sludge from treated wastewater of poultry slaughterhouses and can potentially be used to stimulate plant development and enrich inoculants.

  9. Nanoparticles in Constanta-North Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaitescu, I. M.; Panaitescu, Fanel-Viorel L.; Panaitescu, Ileana-Irina F. V.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we describe the route of the nanoparticles in the WWTP and demonstrate how to use the simulation flow sensitivity analysis within STOATTM program to evaluate the effect of variation of the constant, "k" in the equation v= kCh settling on fixed concentration of nanoparticles in sewage water from a primary tank of physical-biological stage. Wastewater treatment facilities are designed to remove conventional pollutants from sanitary waste. Major processes of treatment includes: a) physical treatment-remove suspended large solids by settling or sedimentation and eliminate floating greases; b) biological treatment-degradation or consumption of the dissolved organic matter using the means of cultivated in activated sludge or the trickling filters; c) chemical treatment-remove other matters by the means of chemical addition or destroying pathogenic organisms through disinfection; d) advanced treatment- removing specific constituents using processes such as activated carbon, membrane separation, or ion exchange. Particular treatment processes are: a) sedimentation; b) coagulation and flocculation; c) activated sludge; d) sand filters; e) membrane separation; f) disinfection. Methods are: 1) using the STOATTM program with input and output data for primary tank and parameters of wastewater. 2) generating a data file for influent using a sinusoidal model and we accepted defaults STOATTM data. 3) After this, getting spreadsheet data for various characteristics of wastewater for 48 hours:flow, temperature, pH, volatile fatty acids, soluble BOD, COD inert soluble particulate BOD, COD inert particles, volatile solids, volatile solids, ammonia, nitrate and soluble organic nitrogen. Findings and Results:1.Graphics after 48 hour;. 2.Graphics for parameters - flow,temperature, pH/units hours; 3.Graphics of nanoparticles; 4. Graphics of others volatile and non-volatile solids; 5. Timeseries data and summary statistics. Biodegradation of nanoparticles is the breakdown of

  10. Characterization of livestock wastewater at various stages of wastewater treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting Teo Ming; Kim, Tak Hyun; Lee, Myun Joo

    2007-01-01

    A characterization study has been conducted at Gongju Livestock Wastewater Treatment Plant, Gongju, South Korea. It is owned and operated by the government with treatment capacity of 250 tons per day. Livestock wastewater was collected from individual farmer and treated at the treatment plant. The centralized livestock wastewater treatment plant has various treatment processes namely pre-treatment, anaerobic digestion, nitrification, de-nitrification , chemical treatment, sand filtration and ozonization. The livestock wastewater was characterized by high COD, SS, T-N and T-P with concentration of 20600 mg/l, 6933 mg/l, 2820 mg/l and 700 mg/ l, respectively. After the wastewater has undergone various treatment processes it was discharged to waterways with concentration of COD, SS, T-N and T-P at 105 mg/l, 73 mg/l, 2.1 mg/l and 9 mg/l, respectively. This is part of the study to investigate the potential of irradiation to be applied at the centralized livestock wastewater treatment plant. Although livestock wastewater can be potentially applied to crop as source of nutrients it also affect the water quality due to runoff and leaching. When the wastewater applied at the rates in excess of crop uptake rates, the excess wastewater could potentially enter surface and groundwater and polluted them. (author)

  11. Medicinal Plants Used for Treatment of Diarrhoeal Related Diseases in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizuneh Woldeab

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of relevant antidiarrhoeal medicinal plants based on the fundamental knowledge accumulated by indigenous people of Ethiopia. The review includes an inventory carried out on the phytochemical and pharmacological analysis of plant species used in the treatments of diarrhoeal diseases. This study is based on a review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, theses, proceedings, and reports. A total of 132 medicinal plants used by local people of Ethiopia are reported in the reviewed literature. Herbs (43.6% were the primary source of medicinal plants, followed by trees (27%. Some findings include the predominance of leaf material used (78%, as well as the frequent use of crushing of the plant parts (38% as a mode of preparation. This study demonstrates the importance of traditional medicines in the treatment of basic human ailments such as diarrhoeal diseases in Ethiopia. Baseline information gaps were observed in different regions of Ethiopia. Thus, documentation of the knowledge held by other regions of Ethiopia that have so far received less attention and urban ethnobotany is recommended for future ethnobotanical studies. In addition, phytochemical studies are recommended mainly on frequently utilized medicinal plants for treatment of diarrhoeal diseases which can serve as a basis for future investigation of modern drug development. Although societies in Ethiopia have long used medicinal plants for diarrhoeal diseases treatment, it is also a good practice to perform toxicological tests.

  12. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants administered for the treatment of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharvand-Ahmadi, Babak; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Tajeddini, Pegah; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Naghdi, Nasrollah

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is very high in human societies and their prevention and treatment are the most important priority in many countries. Hypertension makes an important contribution to the development of CVDs. This study aimed to collect the ethno-medicinal knowledge of the traditional healers of Shiraz on medicinal plants used in the treatment of hypertension. Ethno-medicinal data were collected from September 2012 to July 2013 through direct interview. Twenty-five healers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires and their traditional ethno-medicinal knowledge was recorded. Questionnaires were included apothecary personal information, plant local name, plant parts used, method of preparation, season of harvest and traditional use. Data collected from surveys and interviews were transferred to Microsoft Excel 2007 and analyzed. Analysis of data showed that, 27 medicinal plants from 22 families are used for the treatment of hypertension. The families with most antihypertensive species were Apiaceae (8%), Rosaceae (8%) and Papaveraceae (8%). The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (36%) followed by fruits (30%), aerial part (17%) and branches (7%). The most frequently used preparation method was decoction (95%). Borago officinalis (51.85%), Berberis vulgaris (51.58%) had the highest frequency of mention. The ethno-medicinal survey of medicinal plants recommended by traditional healers for the treatment of hypertension provides new areas of research on the antihypertensive effect of medicinal plants. In the case of safety and effectiveness, they can be refined and processed to produce natural drugs.

  13. Medicinal Plants Used for Treatment of Diarrhoeal Related Diseases in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldeab, Bizuneh; Regassa, Reta

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a review of relevant antidiarrhoeal medicinal plants based on the fundamental knowledge accumulated by indigenous people of Ethiopia. The review includes an inventory carried out on the phytochemical and pharmacological analysis of plant species used in the treatments of diarrhoeal diseases. This study is based on a review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, theses, proceedings, and reports. A total of 132 medicinal plants used by local people of Ethiopia are reported in the reviewed literature. Herbs (43.6%) were the primary source of medicinal plants, followed by trees (27%). Some findings include the predominance of leaf material used (78%), as well as the frequent use of crushing of the plant parts (38%) as a mode of preparation. This study demonstrates the importance of traditional medicines in the treatment of basic human ailments such as diarrhoeal diseases in Ethiopia. Baseline information gaps were observed in different regions of Ethiopia. Thus, documentation of the knowledge held by other regions of Ethiopia that have so far received less attention and urban ethnobotany is recommended for future ethnobotanical studies. In addition, phytochemical studies are recommended mainly on frequently utilized medicinal plants for treatment of diarrhoeal diseases which can serve as a basis for future investigation of modern drug development. Although societies in Ethiopia have long used medicinal plants for diarrhoeal diseases treatment, it is also a good practice to perform toxicological tests. PMID:29743923

  14. Kinetic studies on purification capability of channel flow type wastewater treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, S [Fukui Institute of Technology, Fukui (Japan); Furukawa, K; Kim, J [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1990-10-01

    In order to develop a wastewater treatment process of secondary effluent and a wastewater treatment process of a farm village, some experiments have been carried out using bench scale and full scale hydroponic type wastewater treatment plant. This wastewater treatment system mainly consists of water channels and hydroponic water tanks. The authors carried out of a kinetic study for purification capability of the water channels while assuring the growth of microorganism in the treatment scheme. It was shown experimentally that the channel flow type wastewater treatment plant had a high TOC removal capability regardless of the kind of contact material and treatment time. Activated sludge microorganism concentration in water channels was obtained by kinetic estimation from the measured effluent suspended solid concentration. Estimated amount of activated sludge in water channels comprised only 11.5-37.4 percent of the measured amounts of withdrawn sludge, indicating high photosynthesis production of algae in water channels. 8 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Electron beams for power plant flue gas treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    Among the processes in which fuel is used for energy generation coal burning plays leading role. On the other hand combustion of fossil fuels is the biggest source of air pollution. When burning fossil fuel pollutants such as particulate, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds and others are emitted. Air pollution caused by these pollutants not only acts directly on environment but by contamination of water and soil leads to their degradation. The advanced technology for simultaneous SO 2 , NO x and VOC removal is discussed in the paper. The technology is based on electron accelerators applications. Many new solutions have been introduced in the new pilot plants which have been operated at coal fired power stations. 98% SO 2 and up to 90% NO x removals were obtained at very moderate energy consumption (for de SO x ). Additional agricultural tests have proven full applicability of byproduct in pure form or as a blending stock for NPK fertilizers. Two full scale industrial plants are being built in China (640 kW accelerators) and Poland (1.2 MW accelerators). These will be the biggest radiation processing units using accelerator technology all over the world

  16. Electron Beam Treatment Plant for Textile Dyeing Wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Bumsoo; Kim, Yuri; Choi, Jangseung; Ahn, Sangjun

    2006-01-01

    High positive effect of electron-beam treatment involved into the process of wastewater purification is now well established. The most effective for the purpose seem to be combine methods including both electron beam and any conventional treatment stages, i.e., under conditions when some synergistic effects can take place. Daegu Dyeing Industrial Complex (DDIC) includes about hundred factories occupying the area of 600,000m 2 with 13,000 employees in total. The production requires high consumption of water (90,000m 3 /day), steam, and electric power, being characterized by large amount of highly colored industrial wastewater. Because of increase in productivity and increased assortment of dyes and other chemicals, substantial necessity appears in re-equipment of purification facilities by application of efficient methods of wastewater treatment

  17. Wastewater management in Khartoum Region Soba wastewater treatment plant (stabilization ponds)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, A. M. E.

    2010-03-01

    Soba wastewater treatment plant will be replaced shortly by new plant based on activate sludge. This study was carried in order to evaluate: the design, physical, chemical and biological characteristics and the capacity of the plant. Outlet Effluents quality was compared with Sudan wastewater treatment standards. Samples analyses were carried by UNESCO CHAIR 2006 (Khartoum State). It was found that the result is not as: The designed and standard level especially for BOD, COD, TBC and TC. It was also found that BOD and COD of the effluents were not complying with adopted standards for treated wastewater to be discharged to the environment. The study reached the conclusions that plant is overloaded and the characteristics of the wastewater received is not as the design which affects the efficiency of the treatment process. (Author)

  18. Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris: A Review of Recent Evidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Hamid; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Shahinfard, Najmeh; Moradi Nafchi, Atefeh; Saberianpour, Shirin; Rafieian Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2015-11-01

    Acne vulgaris affects about 85% of teenagers and may continue to adulthood. There are about two million visits to physicians per year for teenagers and the direct cost of acne treatment in the US exceeds $1 billion per year. A wide variety of treatment regimens exist for acne vulgaris including benzoil peroxide, retinoids, isotretinoids, keratolytic soaps, alpha hydroxy acids, azelaic acid, salicilic acid as well as hormonal, anti-androgen or antiseborrheic treatments. However, none of these methods is free of side effects and their exact role in therapy is not clear. In this paper apart from presenting the possible causes of acne vulgaris and its available drugs, recently published papers about medicinal plants used in the treatment of acne vulgaris were reviewed. Consumption of alternative and complementary medicine, including medicinal plants, is increasing and is common amongst patients affected by acne and infectious skin diseases. Medicinal plants have a long history of use and have been shown to possess low side effects. These plants are a reliable source for preparation of new drugs. Many plants seem to have inhibitory effects on the growth of bacteria, fungi and viruses in vitro. However, there are a few clinical evidences about the effectiveness and safety of these plants in the treatment of acne and other skin infections.

  19. Neonicotinoid pesticide exposure impairs crop pollination services provided by bumblebees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Dara A.; Garratt, Michael P. D.; Wickens, Jennifer B.; Wickens, Victoria J.; Potts, Simon G.; Raine, Nigel E.

    2015-12-01

    Recent concern over global pollinator declines has led to considerable research on the effects of pesticides on bees. Although pesticides are typically not encountered at lethal levels in the field, there is growing evidence indicating that exposure to field-realistic levels can have sublethal effects on bees, affecting their foraging behaviour, homing ability and reproductive success. Bees are essential for the pollination of a wide variety of crops and the majority of wild flowering plants, but until now research on pesticide effects has been limited to direct effects on bees themselves and not on the pollination services they provide. Here we show the first evidence to our knowledge that pesticide exposure can reduce the pollination services bumblebees deliver to apples, a crop of global economic importance. Bumblebee colonies exposed to a neonicotinoid pesticide provided lower visitation rates to apple trees and collected pollen less often. Most importantly, these pesticide-exposed colonies produced apples containing fewer seeds, demonstrating a reduced delivery of pollination services. Our results also indicate that reduced pollination service delivery is not due to pesticide-induced changes in individual bee behaviour, but most likely due to effects at the colony level. These findings show that pesticide exposure can impair the ability of bees to provide pollination services, with important implications for both the sustained delivery of stable crop yields and the functioning of natural ecosystems.

  20. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in Plateau State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offiah, Nkechi V; Makama, Sunday; Elisha, Ishaku L; Makoshi, Micah S; Gotep, Jurbe G; Dawurung, Christiana J; Oladipo, Olusola O; Lohlum, Ann S; Shamaki, David

    2011-07-11

    The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has generated renewed interest in recent times, as herbal preparations are increasingly being used in both human and animal healthcare systems. Diarrhoea is one of the common clinical signs of gastrointestinal disorders caused by both infectious and non-infectious agents and an important livestock debilitating condition. Plateau State is rich in savannah and forest vegetations and home to a vast collection of plants upheld in folklore as having useful medicinal applications. There is however scarcity of documented information on the medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in the state, thus the need for this survey. Ten (10) out of 17 Local Government Areas (LGAs), spread across the three senatorial zones were selected. Farmers were interviewed using well structured, open-ended questionnaire and guided dialogue techniques between October and December 2010. Medicinal plants reported to be effective in diarrhoea management were collected using the guided field-walk method for identification and authentication. A total of 248 questionnaires were completed, out of which 207 respondents (83.47%) acknowledged the use of herbs in diarrhoea management, while 41 (16.53%) do not use herbs or apply other traditional methods in the treatment of diarrhoea in their animals. Medicinal plants cited as beneficial in the treatment of animal diarrhoea numbered 132, from which 57(43.18%) were scientifically identified and classified into 25 plant families with the families Fabaceae (21%) and Combretaceae (14.04%) having the highest occurrence. The plant parts mostly used in antidiarrhoeal herbal preparations are the leaves (43.86%) followed by the stem bark (29.82%). The herbal preparations are usually administered orally. Rural communities in Plateau State are a rich source of information on medicinal plants as revealed in this survey. There is need to scientifically ascertain the authenticity of the claimed

  1. Effect of seed treatment with low-potency laser in peppers plants (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Álvarez Fonseca,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seed treatment with low-potency laser radiation on some physiological parameters and yield of peppers plants, California Wonder variety, was studied. The seeds were irradiated with a laser He- Ne, 25 mW powers, at different exposure periods 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 seconds, using untreated seeds as controls. We evaluated plant height (mm, root length (mm, stem diameter (mm, polar average diameter (mm equatorial mean diameter (mm, mean fruit mass (g and yield per plant (kg.plant-1. The results showed a significant increase (p?0.001 in the indicators of plants height (50 %, root length (13 %, stem diameter (17 %, equatorial mean diameter (7 %, mean fruit mass (13 % and yield per plant (67 %, compared to control.

  2. Wastewater treatment plants as a source of microbial pathogens in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater treatment facilities have become sin quo non in ensuring the discharges of high quality wastewater effluents into receiving water bodies and consequence, a healthier environment. Due to massive worldwide increases in human population, water has been predicted to become one of the scarcest resources in ...

  3. Model-Based Control of Drinking-Water Treatment Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Schagen, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    The drinking water in the Netherlands is of high quality and the production cost is low. This is the result of extensive research in the past decades to innovate and optimise the treatment processes. The processes are monitored and operated by motivated and skilled operators and process

  4. Invasive alien plant species used for the treatment of various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The study revealed that Schinus molle L., Catharanthus roseus (L.), Datura stramonium L., Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw., Opuntia ficus- indica, Sambucus canadensis L., Ricinus communis L., Melia azedarch L., Argemone ochroleuca and Eriobotrya japonica are used for treatment of various diseases such as chest ...

  5. Handwriting on the power plant wall: flue gas treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troupe, J.S.

    1979-08-01

    This paper reviews the present state of flue gas treatment technology. Describes the operation of four basic types of devices used by electric utilities:- mechanical dust collectors, electrostatic precipitators, wet scrubbers and fabric filters. Considers their reliability and cost, and outlines possible future trends.

  6. Medicinal plants as alternative treatments for female sexual dysfunction: utopian vision or possible treatment in climacteric women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaro-Costa, Renata; Andersen, Monica L; Hachul, Helena; Tufik, Sergio

    2010-11-01

    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a complex and multifactorial condition. An increased incidence of FSD is especially associated with the decline of estrogen. Thus, menopause is a critical phase for FSD complaints. In this context, medicinal plants may be a therapeutic option. To identify and describe the popular and clinical uses of medicinal plants for FSD treatment in climacteric women. We highlighted the majority of the plants commonly involved with the female reproductive system including: Angelica sinensis, Cimicifuga racemosa, Ferula hermonis, Ginkgo biloba, Humulus lupulus, Lepidium meyenii, Tribulus terrestris, Trifolium pratense, and Vitex agnus-castus. This study is a narrative review of studies of plants that are possible alternative treatments for FSD. The species described have clinical and popular uses in different cultures as well as medical indications for female reproductive disturbances, mainly in climacteric women. We have also analyzed the evidence level of clinical studies. The main outcome assessed is the efficacy of plants in improving the symptoms of FSD. There is little evidence from the literature to recommend the use of medicinal plants when treating FSD. The majority of studies with a strong level of evidence are associated with the treatment of the vasomotor symptoms of menopause. Ferula hermonis, Angelica sinensis, and Gingko biloba may be suggested for arousal disorder studies. Cimicifuga racemosa, Trifolium pratense, and Vitex agnus-castus may be recommended for several FSD. Humulus lupulus and Tribulus terrestris may help with desire disorder studies. Lepidium meyenii should be studied further. Studies of these plants indicate that they may be useful as a possible alternative and/or complementary approach for studies aimed at the treatment of FSD. At this time, however, this review cannot recommend a plant that has a strong enough level of evidence for treatment of FSD. Thus, there is a need for clinical (double-blinded and

  7. Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this Process Development Plan is to summarize the objectives and plans for the technology development activities for an alternative path for disposition of the recycle stream that will be generated in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility (LAW Recycle). This plan covers the first phase of the development activities. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to recycle it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be concentrated by evaporation and returned to the LAW vitrification facility. Because this stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are also problematic for the glass waste form, they accumulate in the Recycle stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and reducing the halides in the Recycle is a key component of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, this stream does not have a proven disposition path, and resolving this gap becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and to develop a process that will remove radionuclides from this stream and allow its diversion to another disposition path, greatly decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The origin of this LAW Recycle stream will be from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover or precipitates of scrubbed components (e.g. carbonates). The soluble

  8. A dynamic modelling approach to evaluate GHG emissions from wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Arnell, Magnus; Amerlinck, Youri

    2012-01-01

    The widened scope for wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) to consider not only water quality and cost, but also greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate change calls for new tools to evaluate operational strategies/treatment technologies. The IWA Benchmark Simulation Model no. 2 (BSM2) has been ...

  9. A centralized hazardous waste treatment plant: the facilities of the ZVSMM at Schwabach as an example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amsoneit, Norbert [Zweckverband Sondermuell-Entsorgung Mittelfranken, Rednitzhembach (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    In this work a centralized hazardous waste treatment plant is described and its infra-structure is presented. Special emphasis is given to the handling of the residues produced and the different treatment processes at the final disposal. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume II. A Field Study Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  11. Development of a Water Treatment Plant Operation Manual Using an Algorithmic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counts, Cary A.

    This document describes the steps to be followed in the development of a prescription manual for training of water treatment plant operators. Suggestions on how to prepare both flow and narrative prescriptions are provided for a variety of water treatment systems, including: raw water, flocculation, rapid sand filter, caustic soda feed, alum feed,…

  12. Determination of the Fate of Dissolved Organic Nitrogen in the Three Wastewater Treatment Plants, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedyan, Mohammed; Al Harahsheh, Ahmed; Qnaisb, Esam

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to assess the composition of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) species, particularly dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), over the traditional wastewater treatment operations in three biological nutrient removal (BNR) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Jordan. It had been found that the DON percentage was up to 30% of TDN within…

  13. Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume I. A Field Study Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  14. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants. Volume 1. A Field Study Training Program. Third Edition. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    The purpose of this wastewater treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified wastewater treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  15. Water Treatment Plant Operation Volume 2. A Field Study Training Program. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  16. Effects of ecological restoration alternative treatments on nonnative plant species establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael T. Stoddard; Christopher M. McGlone; Peter Z. Fule

    2008-01-01

    Disturbances generated by forest restoration treatments have the potential for enhancing the establishment of nonnative species thereby impeding long-term native plant recovery. In a ponderosa pine forest next to the Fort Valley Experimental Forest, Arizona, we examined the establishment of nonnative species after three alternative treatments with different intensities...

  17. Exposure to Airborne Noroviruses and Other Bioaerosol Components at a Wastewater Treatment Plant in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrbrand, Katrine; Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Madsen, Anne Mette

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to bioaerosols associated with wastewater treatment processes may represent an occupational health risk for workers at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). A high frequency of acute symptoms in the gastrointestinal tract among the wastewater workers at a Danish WWTP has been reported. Th...

  18. A centralized hazardous waste treatment plant: the facilities of the ZVSMM at Schwabach as an example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amsoneit, Norbert [Zweckverband Sondermuell-Entsorgung Mittelfranken, Rednitzhembach (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    In this work a centralized hazardous waste treatment plant is described and its infra-structure is presented. Special emphasis is given to the handling of the residues produced and the different treatment processes at the final disposal. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Facilities for treatment of radioactive contaminated water in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    The standard applies to processes applied in facilities for treatment of radioactive contaminated water in nuclear power plants with LWR- and HTR-type reactors. It does not apply to the treatment of concentrates obtained in the decontamination of water. (orig.) [de

  20. A Review Of Traditional Plants Used In The Treatment Of Epilepsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five prescriptions used in the treatment of epilepsy amongst the Hausa/Fulani tribe of Northern Nigeria were collected from traditional healers. The five prescriptions containing eight plants were reviewed as in literature to ascertain scientific basis of their use in treatment of epilepsy. Securidaca longipedunculata (family ...