WorldWideScience

Sample records for treatment inducing methemoglobinemia

  1. Difference of the clinical course and outcome between dapsone-induced methemoglobinemia and other toxic-agent-induced methemoglobinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youn-Jung; Sohn, Chang Hwan; Ryoo, Seung Mok; Ahn, Shin; Seo, Dong Woo; Lee, Yoon-Seon; Lee, Jae Ho; Oh, Bum Jin; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Won Young

    2016-08-01

    Acquired methemoglobinemia is a potentially fatal condition that leads to tissue hypoxia. Although the clinical features of methemoglobinemia depend on the methemoglobin levels, the clinical course would differ depending on the causative agents. We attempted to clarify this issue by comparing the clinical course of methemoglobinemia caused by dapsone and that caused by other toxic agents. A retrospective case-control study was performed. All patients with methemoglobinemia and who were admitted to the emergency department (ED) of our hospital from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2014 were included. Of the 34 patients with methemoglobinemia, 15 ingested dapsone (14 with acute overdose and one with chronic therapeutic use) and 19 had been exposed to other toxic agents, such as sodium nitrites, indoxacarb, primaquine, and lidocaine. The clinical characteristics and the course of dapsone-induced and other toxic-agent-induced methemoglobinemia were compared. There was no significant difference in clinical presentation and methemoglobin level (38.5% vs. 35.0%, p = 0.456) upon their ED arrival between the two groups. However, the methemoglobin level after use of methylene blue and the total dose of methylene blue were higher in patients with dapsone-induced methemoglobinemia than in those with other agent-induced methemoglobinemia (11.9% vs. 1.7%, p = 0.001, 455 mg vs. 144 mg, p = 0.006). The majority of dapsone-induced methemoglobinemia (93.3%) required more than 72 h for normalization of the methemoglobin level, despite the use of methylene blue. Five of the study patients died due to multiorgan failure, and all of whom were inpatients with dapsone-induced methemoglobinemia. The clinical course of dapsone-induced methemoglobinemia was worse than that of other toxic-agent-induced methemoglobinemia despite no significant difference in their initial clinical presentation. Continuous treatment with serial monitoring of the serum methemoglobin is necessary

  2. Ranitidine treatment inducing methemoglobinemia in male Wistar rats Metemoglobinemia induzida pela ranitidina em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Roberto Malfará

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Drug idiosyncrasy is an adverse event of unknown etiology that occurs in a small fraction of people taking a drug. The histamine-2 (H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine causes idiosyncratic reactions in patients. To investigate the hypothesis that ranitidine could induce hematological toxic effects, the drug was administered intraperitoneally (ip to two of six groups of 200-220 g male Wistar rats (n=6. Group I received as single dose of saline solution (NaCl, 200 µL Group II received 200 µL of NaCl, ip, at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h, Group III (controls of the vehicle received as single dose of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, 200µL, ip, Group IV (controls of the vehicle received 200 µL of DMSO, ip, at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h, Group V received a single dose of 100 mg/kg of ranitidine in 200 µL of DMSO ip, Group VI received 50 mg/kg of ranitidine, in 200 µL of DMSO, ip, at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h. Erythrograms, leucograms were measured; percent methemoglobin content of the blood was analyzed spectophotometrically. Methemoglobinemia increased to a significant extent following ranitidine treatment, in both study groups. White blood cell and neutrophil counts showed a discrete reduction following either regime of treatment. A marginal mobilization of the neutrophil pool probably occured. Following the multiple dose regime, leukocyte counts increased, but their distribution maintenance profile remained the same. The administration of ranitidine to rats induces methemoglobinemia in the administered doses, suggesting that from a certain concentration and dosage scheme the substance can be methemeglobinemia inductor.A idiossincrasia a fármacos é um evento adverso de origem desconhecida, que acontece em poucas pessoas. É conhecido que a ranitidina, um antagonista de receptores H2, causa reações idiossincrásicas. Para investigar uma possível indução da ranitidina em relação a hemotoxicidade, o fármaco foi administrado intraperitonealmente (i.p. em dois de seis

  3. Zopiclone induced methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2014-05-01

    To characterize the risk of methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia following large overdoses of zopiclone, a cyclopyrrolone hypnotic-sedative and a racemic mixture of R-zopiclone and S-zopiclone (eszopiclone). This review included all reports of zopiclone induced methemoglobinemia, hemolytic anemia, and oxidative stress that had been published in medical journals or discussed in continuous medical education (CME) programs. These reports were identified by searching the Medline (1980 - December 9, 2013), China Journal Net (1994 - December 2013), and Google Scholar, using zopiclone, eszopiclone, methemoglobinemia, hemolytic anemia, and oxidative stress as the search terms. Six cases of methemoglobinemia, one case of methemoglobinemia, with concomitant hemolytic anemia, and one case of hemolytic anemia were identified. These complications occurred after large zopiclone overdoses (450 - 3,750, 1,125 - 1,500, and 375 - 750 mg, respectively, i.e., 60 - 500, 150 - 200, and 50 - 100 times the daily dose of 7.5 mg). The resulting methemoglobinemia could be severe (19.4 - 24.5%), while the hemolytic anemia was mild (Hb 9.0 - 9.6 g/dL). Molecular modelling analyses indicate that eszopiclone and its two metabolites will be kinetically labile. Their molecular surfaces have significant amounts of electron-deficient regions. All three compounds are expected to react with cellular nucleophiles, such as glutathione, causing its depletion and oxidative stress. After large overdoses, zopiclone, alone or together with its metabolites, most probably causes oxidative stress in erythrocytes to account for the methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia. Further studies are required to determine their incidence and the dose-related capacity of zopiclone and its metabolites in producing erythrocyte oxidative stress.

  4. Methemoglobinemia caused by dapsone overdose: Which treatment is best?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Toker

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Increase of methemoglobin level is named as methemoglobinemia characterized by functional anemia and tissue hypoxia. Methemoglobinemia can be congenital, but acquired form are more often caused by various drugs and toxins. Methylene blue is the most effective antidote for acquired methemoglobinemia. When methylene blue is not available, alternative treatments such as ascorbic acid and hyperbaric oxygen can be useful. In this paper we presented a case of methomoglobinemia due to dapsone overdose. Keywords: Dapsone overdose, Emergency medicine, Methemoglobinemia

  5. High-dose vitamin C management in dapsone-induced methemoglobinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sin-Youl; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Kang, Tae-Sin

    2014-06-01

    Methylene blue is the first-choice treatment of methemoglobinemia, but it is not readily available in most Korean emergency departments because of an import suspension. An 84-year-old woman with dapsone-induced massive methemoglobinemia visited our emergency department for unclear mentality and cyanosis. Because methylene blue was not available, we intravenously administrated vitamin C (VC) for symptomatic methemoglobinemia, although VC is not a universally accepted treatment. Vitamin C (10 g intravenously) administered 6 hourly successfully treated the dapsone-induced methemoglobinemia and did not adversely affect renal functions. Thus,we recommend that if methylene blue is unavailable, 6 hourly intravenous administrations of 10 g of VC should be considered for dapsone-induced methemoglobinemia.

  6. Drug-Induced Methemoglobinemia: a Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Zedan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drugs, including those used during diagnostic procedures, can have adverse effects and potentially serious side-effects, especially in complicated patients with significant comorbidity. Benzocaine is frequently used as an oropharyngeal anesthetic agent during bronchoscopy, transesophageal echocardiography, and upper GI endoscopy and can cause methemoglobinemia, a potentially life-threatening event if not diagnosed and treated quickly. Co-oximetry is the gold standard for the diagnosis of methemoglobinemia and can quantitate blood levels, which in turn correlate with the clinical presentation and the urgency for treatment. Methylene blue is the treatment of choice for methemoglobinemia. In this case report we discuss the pathophysiology, the clinical presentation, the diagnosis, and the treatment of benzocaine-induced methemoglobinemia.

  7. Dapsone-Induced Methemoglobinemia: A Dose Related Occurrence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbenshade, Adam J; Ho, Richard H.; Shintani, Ayumi; Zhao, Zhiguo; Smith, Lesley-Ann; Friedman, Debra L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Dapsone, used for Pneumocystis jiroveci (PCP) prophylaxis, is associated with increased risk of methemoglobinemia. Absence of cytochrome b5 reductase enzyme activity (CYB5RA) causes congenital methemoglobinemia, but its role in dapsone-associated methemoglobinemia is unknown. We sought to elucidate drug-related risk factors for dapsone-associated methemoglobinemia in pediatric oncology patients, including contribution of CYB5RA. Patients and Methods Among 167 pediatric patients treated for hematologic malignancies or aplastic anemia who received dapsone for PCP prophylaxis, demographic and dapsone treatment data were retrospectively collected. Drug-related risk factors were evaluated by Cox proportional hazards, and in a cross-sectional subgroup of 40 patients, CYB5RA was assessed. Results Methemoglobinemia (median methemoglobin level = 9.0% [3.5–22.4]) was documented in 32 patients (19.8%). There was a 73% risk reduction in methemoglobinemia with dosing ≥20% below the target dose 2mg/kg/day (HR = 0.27; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.09, 0.78; p=0.016), while methemoglobinemia risk was increased with dosing ≥20% above the target dose (HR = 6.25; 95% CI 2.45, 15.93; pdapsone. Conclusions Methemoglobinemia occurred in almost 20% of pediatric oncology patients receiving dapsone for PCP prophylaxis. Higher dapsone dosing is associated with increased risk. A cross-sectionally acquired CYB5RA level was not associated with methemoglobinemia risk. Studies are needed to define biologic correlates of methemoglobinemia and evaluate lower dapsone doses for PCP prophylaxis. PMID:21246536

  8. Dapsone-induced methemoglobinemia: a dose-related occurrence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbenshade, Adam J; Ho, Richard H; Shintani, Ayumi; Zhao, Zhiguo; Smith, Lesley-Ann; Friedman, Debra L

    2011-08-01

    Dapsone, used for Pneumocystis jiroveci (PCP) prophylaxis, is associated with increased risk of methemoglobinemia. Absence of cytochrome b5 reductase enzyme activity causes congenital methemoglobinemia, but its role in dapsone-associated methemoglobinemia is unknown. The authors sought to elucidate drug-related risk factors for dapsone-associated methemoglobinemia in pediatric oncology patients, including contribution of cytochrome b5 reductase enzyme activity. Among 167 pediatric patients treated for hematologic malignancies or aplastic anemia who received dapsone for PCP prophylaxis, demographic and dapsone treatment data were retrospectively collected. Drug-related risk factors were evaluated by Cox proportional hazards, and in a cross-sectional subgroup of 40 patients, cytochrome b5 reductase enzyme activity was assessed. Methemoglobinemia (median methemoglobin level = 9.0% [3.5-22.4]) was documented in 32 (19.8%) patients. There was a 73% risk reduction in methemoglobinemia with dosing ≥20% below the target dose of 2 mg/kg/d (hazard ratio [HR], 0.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09-0.78; P = .016), whereas methemoglobinemia risk was increased with dosing ≥20% above the target dose (HR, 6.25; 95% CI, 2.45-15.93; P dapsone. Methemoglobinemia occurred in almost 20% of pediatric oncology patients receiving dapsone for PCP prophylaxis. Higher dapsone dosing is associated with increased risk. A cross-sectionally acquired cytochrome b5 reductase enzyme activity level was not associated with methemoglobinemia risk. Studies are needed to define biologic correlates of methemoglobinemia and evaluate lower dapsone doses for PCP prophylaxis. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  9. Dapsone-induced methemoglobinemia: a primer for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, James A; Ziemba, Stamatina E; Ibrahim, Rami B

    2011-09-01

    To present a comprehensive review of dapsone-induced methemoglobinemia and its management. Literature retrieval was accessed through MEDLINE (1966-March 2011), Cochrane Library, and EMBASE, using the terms dapsone and methemoglobinemia. All case reports, small case series, and randomized controlled trials published in English were evaluated. Because of the absence of comprehensive updates on this topic since 1996, publications between 1997 and March 2011 were included in this review. Between 1997 and March 2011, the majority of publications describing methemoglobinemia associated with dapsone use reported this adverse effect at therapeutic doses. Excluding overdose situations, 18 described symptomatic dapsone-associated methemoglobinemia and clinical presentation ranging from cyanosis to dyspnea. In almost all of the accounts, patients had a concurrent event such as anemia or pneumonia, suggesting an interplay between these comorbidities and the onset of symptomatic methemoglobinemia. Delayed hemolytic anemia was seen in patients with high methemoglobin levels at presentation. Management in most cases consisted of administration of methylene blue. Overall, most reports described a successful outcome, and no mortality resulted from methemoglobinemia associated with therapeutic use. Clinicians should recognize methemoglobinemia as an adverse effect associated with dapsone use and the potential factors that precipitate it. They should also know how to promptly and effectively manage this event.

  10. Cost of Beauty; Prilocaine Induced Methemoglobinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif KILICLI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: Prilocaine induced methemoglobinemia is a rare entity. In the present paper, the authors aim to draw attention to the importance of this rare condition by reporting this case. A 30-year-old female presented to Emergency Department with headache, dispnea and cyanosis. The patient has a history of 1000–1200 mg of prilocaine subcutaneous injection for hair removal at a beauty center, 5 hours ago. Tension arterial: 130/73 mmHg, pulse: 103/minute, body temperature: 37 °C and respiratory rate: 20/minute. The patient had acral and perioral cyanosis. Methemoglobin was measured 14.1% in venous blood gas test. The patient treated with 3 gr ascorbic acid intravenously. The patient was discharged free of symptoms after 48 hours of observation. Emergency physician should consider methemoglobinemia in presentation of dispnea and cyanosis after injection of prilocaine. ÖZET: Prilokaine bağlı gelişen methemoglobinemi nadir görülen bir durumdur. Bu yazıda epilasyon öncesi kullanılan prilokaine sekonder gelişen methemoglobinemi olgusunu sunarak nadir görülen bu durumun önemine işaret etmek istiyoruz. Otuz yaşında kadın acil servise baş ağrısı, dispne ve siyanoz şikayetleri ile başvurdu. Hastaya beş saat öncesinde bir güzellik merkezinde epilasyon öncesinde yaklaşık 1000–1200 mg prilokain subkutan enjeksiyonu yapıldığı öğrenildi. Başvuruda kan basıncı 130/73 mmHg, nabız 103/dk, vücut ısısı 37 °C ve solunum sayısı 20/dk olarak kaydedilmişti. Hastanın akral siyanozu belirgindi. Venöz kan gazında methemoglobin düzeyi %14.1 olarak ölçüldü. Hastaya 3 g intravenöz askorbik asit uygulandı. Tedavi sonrası semptomları gerileyen ve komplikasyon geliştirmeyen hasta 48 saat sonra taburcu edildi. Acil servis doktorları, prilokain enjeksiyonu sonrası gelişen dispne ve siyanoz ayırıcı tanısında mutlaka methemoglobinemiyi akla getirmelidirler. Key words: Methemoglobinemia, prilocaine, cyanosis

  11. Methemoglobinemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be at risk for a blood disease called G6PD deficiency . They should not take this medicine. If you or your child has G6PD deficiency, always tell your provider before getting treatment. Ascorbic ...

  12. A case of Occupational Methemoglobinemia (MetHb: A Rare Entity and Unique Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvarna Patil

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Methemoglobinemia is acute emergency which have precise and effective treatment if instituted in time. Methemoglobinemia due to chemical exposure is a known entity. But it required a high index of suspicion to look for it in busy casualty. Treatment with methylene blue is safe and truly lifesaving if instituted in time. Here we are presenting a case of Occupational methemoglobinemia who was treated successfully.

  13. Identifying the Cause of the "Saturation Gap": Two Cases of Dapsone-induced Methemoglobinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Kenjiro; Ikeo, Satoshi; Takaiwa, Takuya; Ikeda, Satoshi; Nishiyama, Akihiro; Yokoyama, Toshihide; Ito, Akihiro; Tokioka, Fumiaki; Tanaka, Maki; Yoshioka, Hiroshige; Tachibana, Hiromasa; Arita, Machiko; Hashimoto, Toru; Ishida, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Diaphenylsulfone (DDS: Dapsone) is used for Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis, and methemoglobinemia has rarely been reported as a side effect of DDS. We herein report two cases of DDS-related methemoglobinemia in an 81-year-old man with organizing pneumonia and an 84-year-old woman with eosinophilic pneumonia under treatment with prednisolone. Both patients initially received trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for PCP prophylaxis and were switched to DDS due to side effects and subsequently exhibited a clinically unexplainable decrease in SpO2. Methemoglobinemia was diagnosed based on the findings of arterial blood gas analyses. In both cases, the methemoglobinemia improved after discontinuing DDS.

  14. Unusual complication of aluminum phosphide poisoning: Development of hemolysis and methemoglobinemia and its successful treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltaninejad, Kambiz; Nelson, Leiws S; Khodakarim, Nastaran; Dadvar, Zohreh; Shadnia, Shahin

    2011-04-01

    Methemoglobinemia and hemolysis are rare findings following phosphine poisoning. In this paper, a case of aluminum phosphide (AlP) poisoning complicated by methemoglobinemia and hemolysis with a successful treatment is reported. A 28-year-old male patient presented following intentional ingestion of an AlP tablet. In this case, hematuria, hemolysis and methemoglobinemia were significant events. A methemoglobin level of 46% was detected by CO-oximetry. The patient was treated with ascorbic acid and methylene blue and he also received supportive care. Two weeks after admission, the patient was discharged from the hospital. Hemolysis and methemoglobinemia may complicate the course of phosphine poisoning.

  15. A Case Report of Prilocaine-Induced Methemoglobinemia after Liposuction Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birdal Yildirim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prilocaine-induced methemoglobinemia is a rarely seen condition. In this paper, a case is presented with methemoglobinemia developed secondary to prilocaine use in a liposuction procedure, and the importance of this rarely seen condition is emphasized. A 20-year-old female patient presented with complaints of prostration, lassitude, shivering, shortness of breath, and cyanosis. It was learned that the patient underwent nearly 1000 mg prilocaine infiltration 8 hours priorly during a liposuction procedure. At admission, her blood pressure (130/80 mmHg, pulse rate (140 bpm, body temperature (36°C, and respiratory rate (40/min were recorded. The patient had marked acrocyanosis. The arterial blood gas methemoglobin level was measured as 40%. The patient received oxygen therapy with a mask and was administered vitamin C in normal saline (500 mg tid, N-acetylcysteine (300 mg tid, and 50 mg 10% methylene blue in the intensive care unit of the internal medicine department. Methemoglobin level dropped down to 2% after her treatment with methylene blue and she was clinically cured and discharged 2 days later. Emergency service physicians should remember to consider methemoglobinemia when making a differential diagnosis between dyspnea and cyanosis developing after prilocaine infiltration performed for liposuctions in the adult age group.

  16. Acute visual loss following dapsone-induced methemoglobinemia and hemolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanuschk, Delphine; Kozyreff, Alexandra; Tafzi, Naima; Tennstedt, Dominique; Hantson, Philippe; Saint-Marcoux, Franck

    2015-06-01

    While methemoglobinemia is a possible complication of chronic dapsone therapy or of acute overdose, serious adverse manifestations related to methemoglobin formation remain rare. We present an unusual case with severe ischemic retinal injury. A 30-year-old African woman presented with a sudden decrease of visual acuity secondary to retinal ischemia. She was chronically treated with dapsone (50 mg/day) for a dermatologic disease and denied any drug overdose. However, the determination of serum dapsone level on admission revealed a largely supratherapeutic concentration (20,044 μg/ml compared with 1-3.5 ± 0.5 μg/ml for therapeutic levels). The methemoglobin level at admission was 32% (sulfhemoglobin 1.2%), with hemoglobin level, 7.4 g/dl, schistocytes count, 2-5%, lactate dehydrogenase level, 580 IU/l, and haptoglobin level, dapsone, the severity of visual injury was associated with dapsone-induced methemoglobinemia and hemolysis, and perhaps also with some hematologic predisposing factors.

  17. Benzocaine-Induced Methemoglobinemia: A Condition of which all Endoscopists Should Be Aware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Armstrong

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Methemoglobinemia is a rare complication that can occur with the use of benzocaine-containing compounds. Two cases of methemoglobinemia are reported, and the pathophysiology and treatment of methemoglobinemia are reviewed. Both patients received topical 20% benzocaine spray before endoscopy. Immediately following the procedure, there was a reduction in O2 saturation assessed by pulse oximetry that was refractory to O2 therapy. Dramatic peripheral and central cyanosis developed. O2 saturation measured by pulse oximetry ranged from 83% to 87% on O2 by nasal prongs and 100% O2 by a nonrebreathing mask. Both patients were mildly confused and one patient complained of a significant headache. The diagnosis of methemoglobinemia was considered and arterial blood gas sampling was performed. In both patients, the arterial blood had a chocolate brown colour. A methemoglobin level of 48% and 18% was noted in patient 1 and patient 2, respectively. Both patients were treated with methylene blue, resulting in a significant improvement with gradual normalization of their O2 saturation within 10 min to 30 min. The use of benzocaine spray may not markedly alter the patient's perception of endoscopy and thus, the routine use of these agents should be questioned. If such agents are used, the physician must be aware of this association to prevent a delay in the diagnosis and management of this rare, but potentially lethal, condition.

  18. Successful treatment of methemoglobinemia in an elderly couple with severe cyanosis: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Ying-Fu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Methemoglobinemia should be considered in all cyanotic patients who remain unresponsive to oxygen therapy. Rapid diagnosis is very important in emergency cases. Here, we present the cases of two patients, a married couple, admitted to our hospital with methemoglobinemia after exposure to sodium nitrite. Case presentation Two patients, a married couple, presented with methemoglobinemia. The 72-year-old Taiwanese man and 68-year-old Taiwanese woman were referred to our hospital with dizziness and tachypnea. On examination, their mucous membranes were cyanotic, and their blood samples showed the classic ‘chocolate brown’ appearance. The man also reported having experienced twitching of his right arm for a few minutes before arrival at the hospital. The symptoms of both patients failed to improve in response to supplemental oxygen delivered via oxygen masks, although the arterial blood gas data of these patients were normal and their pulse oximetry showed oxyhemoglobin levels of approximately 85%. A carbon monoxide-oximeter showed that the man’s methemoglobin concentration was 48.3%, and the woman’s was 36.4%. Methylene blue (100mg was administered intravenously to both patients, and their symptoms improved dramatically. They were admitted to the intensive care unit and discharged three days later, without neurological sequelae. Conclusion Severe methemoglobinemia is a life-threatening condition and, if untreated, may result in death. Early diagnosis and appropriate antidotal treatment are crucial in treating this emergency situation.

  19. Dapsone induced methemoglobinemia in a patient with glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Julie G.; Kadia, Tapan; Brown, Latrondria; Juneja, Harinder S.; de Groot, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Primary brain tumor patients have multiple risk factors for Pneumocystis jiroveci and may require prophylaxis with TMP-SMZ or dapsone. Although dapsone is generally safe and efficacious, we present a case of a patient diagnosed with a brain stem glioblastoma who developed methemoglobinemia and haemolytic anemia after presenting with worsening confusion and cardiopulmonary system dysfunction. This case highlights one of the potentially severe complications associated with dapsone therapy. Although this illustrates an unusual toxicity of dapsone, a high index of suspicion should be given to high-risk patients due to ethnic heritage, anemia, or advanced age. Furthermore, given the toxicities of TMP-SMZ and dapsone, further work is needed to determine the threshold CD4+ count at which empiric prophylaxis should be initiated. PMID:19219404

  20. Dapsone-induced methemoglobinemia in renal transplant recipients: more prevalent than previously thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsides, N; Green, D; Middleton, R; New, D; Lamerton, E; Allen, J; Redshaw, J; Chadwick, P R; Subudhi, C P K; Wood, G

    2014-02-01

    After an outbreak of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in our nephrology unit, dapsone was used as the second-line chemoprophylactic agent. Dapsone is the most common cause of drug-induced methemoglobinemia (MHb). Its prevalence is poorly described in the renal transplant population. Because dapsone is excreted by the kidneys, we hypothesized that the rate of MHb in these patients would be higher than previously reported. We aimed to describe the demographics, risk factors, and presenting features of MHb in these renal transplant patients. Twenty-six transplant recipients commenced on dapsone for chemoprophylaxis against PCP from February to September 2011. All patients had normal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase levels before treatment. Characteristics of patients with MHb were compared with those of the rest of the cohort to determine potential risk factors. Twelve (46%) patients developed MHb (levels 6.4 ± 4.1%). Six (50%) of the patients with MHb were asymptomatic on presentation. Cases had a mean drop in hemoglobin of 19 ± 7%. MHb led to five admissions (median length of stay 5 days, range 1-10 days). MHb level showed a strong correlation with the length of stay (correlation coefficient 0.762, P = 0.002). This is the highest reported prevalence of MHb, to our knowledge, in patients receiving dapsone, and its use led to significant hospitalization in this population. This study raises concerns about the use of dapsone as chemoprophylaxis in renal transplant recipients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. L-arginine, a nitric oxide precursor, reduces dapsone-induced methemoglobinemia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Valadares de Moraes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Dapsone use is frequently associated to hematological side effects such as methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia, which are related to N-hydroxylation mediated by the P450 enzyme system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of L-arginine supplementation, a precursor for the synthesis of nitric oxide, as single or multiple dose regimens on dapsone-induced methemoglobinemia. Male Wistar rats were treated with L-arginine at 5, 15, 30, 60 and 180 mg/kg doses (p.o., gavage in single or multiple dose regimens 2 hours prior to dapsone administration (40 mg/kg, i.p.. The effect of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME was investigated by treatment with multiple doses of 30 mg/kg (p.o., gavage 2 hours before dapsone administration. Blood samples were collected 2 hours after dapsone administration. Erythrocytic methemoglobin levels were assayed by spectrophotometry. The results showed that multiple dose supplementations with 5 and 15 mg/kg L-arginine reduced dapsone-induced methemoglobin levels. This effect is mediated by nitric oxide formation, since the reduction in methemoglobin levels by L-arginine is blocked by simultaneous administration with L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor.O uso da dapsona é frequentemente associado a efeitos adversos hematológicos, como a metemoglobinemia e anemia hemolítica, ambos relacionados com a N-hidroxilação mediada pelo sistema P450. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a influência da suplementação de L-arginina, um precursor da síntese de óxido nítrico, administrado em regime de dose única ou múltipla na metemoglobinemia induzida pela dapsona. Ratos machos Wistar foram tratados com L-arginina (po, gavagem em dose única ou múltipla de 5, 15, 30, 60 e 180 mg/kg 2 horas antes da administração de dapsona (40 mg/kg, ip. O efeito do L-NAME, um inibidor de óxido nítrico sintase (NOS, foi avaliado através do tratamento com doses múltiplas de 30 mg/kg. Amostras de sangue

  2. [Association of benzocaine and paracetamol with neonatal-acquired methemoglobinemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepe-Zúñiga, José L; Aguilar-Gómez, Luis E; Godínez-Téllez, Noemí C

    Drug-induced acquired methemoglobinemia in the newborn is a rare event; however, when it develops, early diagnosis and proper treatment become paramount because it can evolve rapidly into a particularly serious disease causing permanent brain damage or death. We report a unique case of severe methemoglobinemia that developed in a newborn associated with a minimal application of a benzocaine healing cream to an anal surgical wound while on acetaminophen. In addition to benzocaine as the primary cause in this case, we raise the possibility that acetaminophen-a mild oxidant-increased the susceptibility of the patient to benzocaine, leading to severe clinical methemoglobinemia based on the known immaturity of the enzymatic systems involved in caines and acetaminophen clearance in the newborn. Treatment of methemoglobinemia is reviewed. Methemoglobinemia is a serious condition that can be easily induced by the use of oxidant medications in the newborn like local anesthetics. The possibility of unexpected drug to drug interactions, particularly between commonly used medications such as acetaminophen with other methemoglobin-causing agents, must always be kept in mind. Because of the possible deleterious consequences, mandatory labelling of caine-containing local anesthetic creams, gels and sprays with a warning for the likelihood of causing severe methemoglobinemia in children is recommended. Also, prohibiting their use in the newborn becomes mandatory. Copyright © 2015 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  3. Upward trend of dapsone-induced methemoglobinemia in renal transplant community
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Sohail Abdul; Ramachandran Nair, Lakshmi; Palabindala, Venkataraman; Craici, Iasmina

    2017-09-01

    Dapsone, a sulfone antibiotic, is used for prophylaxis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in patients with documented sulfa allergy. Acquired methemoglobinemia caused by dapsone is not uncommon in patients with normal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) levels. Discrepancy between oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) readings, a phenomenon known as "saturation gap," is noted with cases of methemoglobinemia. Although its prevalence in renal transplant patients is poorly described, there is evidence that its incidence is increasing. Here we describe a case series of 4 patients who were switched from trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) to dapsone and subsequently developed methemoglobinemia. Symptoms occur at varying methemoglobin levels and are more severe in patients with pre-existing coronary disease or chronic lung disease. Early recognition and cessation of dapsone is imperative, especially in renal transplant.
.

  4. Marked differences in drug-induced methemoglobinemia in sheep are not due to RBC glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, reduced glutathione, or methemoglobin reductase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.G.; Guertler, A.T.; Lagutchik, M.S.; Woodard, C.L.; Leonard, D.A.

    1993-05-13

    Benzocaine is a commonly used topical anesthetic that is structurally similar to current candidates for cyanide prophylaxis. Benzocaine induces profound methemoglobinemia in some sheep but not others. After topical benzocaine administration certain sheep respond to form MHb (elevated MHb 16-50% after a 56-280 mg dose, a 2-10 second spray with benzocine), while other phenotypically similar sheep fail to significantly form MHb (less than a 2% increase from baseline). Deficiencies in Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD), reduced glutathione (GSH), and MHb reductase increase the susceptibility to methemoglobinemia in man and animals. Sheep are used as a model for G-6-PD deficiency in man, and differences in this enzyme level could cause the variable response seen in these sheep. Similarly, differences in GSH and MHb reductase could be responsible for the observed differences in MHb formation.

  5. Potencialização do efeito metemoglobinizante da dapsona em ratos pela N-acetilcisteína Potentiation of dapsone induced methemoglobinemia by N-acetylcysteine in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Valadares de Moraes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Dapsona (DDS (4,4'diaminodifenilsulfona, fármaco de escolha para o tratamento da hanseníase, freqüentemente induz anemia hemolítica e metemoglobinemia. A N-hidroxilação, uma de suas principais vias de biotransformação, é constantemente relacionada com a metemoglobinemia observada com o uso do fármaco. Com o objetivo de prevenir a hemotoxicidade induzida pela DDS, N-acetilcisteína, fármaco precursor de glutationa, foi administrada em associação com DDS em ratos machos Wistar pesando 220-240 g. Os animais foram anestesiados e o sangue coletado da aorta para determinação da concentração plasmática de DDS por CLAE, determinação dos níveis de metemoglobina e de glutationa eritrocitária por espectrofotometria, e avaliação de parâmetros bioquímicos e hematológicos. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a N-acetilcisteína potenciou o efeito metemoglobinizante da dapsona devido ao aumento de sua concentração plasmática e conseqüente aumento da formação da N-hidroxilamina. Concluímos que as interações medicamentosas com a dapsona exigem estudos individualizados a fim de evitar os efeitos adversos do fármaco.Dapsone (DDS (4,4'diaminodiphenylsulfone, the drug of choice for the treatment of leprosy, frequently induces hemolytic anemia and methemoglobinemia. N-hydroxylation, one of the major pathways of biotransformation, has been constantly related to the methemoglobinemia after the use of the drug. In order to prevent the dapsone-induced hemotoxicity, N-acetylcysteine, a drug precursor of glutathione, was administered in combination with DDS to male Wistar rats, weighting 220-240 g. The animals were then anaesthetized and blood was collected from the aorta for determination of plasma DDS concentration by HPLC, determination of methemoglobinemia and glutathione by spectrophotometry, and for biochemical and hematological parameters. Our results showed that N-acetylcysteine enhanced dapsone-induced methemoglobinemia due to

  6. Methemoglobinemia in aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadnia, Shahin; Soltaninejad, Kambiz; Hassanian-Moghadam, Hossein; Sadeghi, Anahaita; Rahimzadeh, Hormat; Zamani, Nasim; Ghasemi-Toussi, Alireza; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2011-03-01

    Acute aluminum phosphide (AlP) poisoning is one of the most common causes of acute pesticide poisoning in Iran. Hydrogen phosphide or phosphine gas is produced following reaction of AlP with water even at ambient humidity. Methemoglobinemia is a rare finding following phosphine poisoning. In this paper, two cases of fatal AlP poisoning complicated by methemoglobinemia are reported. Two patients presented following suicidal ingestion of AlP tablets. In the Emergency Department (ED), they received gastric lavage with sodium bicarbonate and potassium permanganate. Both of them received supportive care. In each case, hematuria and hemolysis were significant events. The patients also showed a decrease in O(2) saturation in spite of high FIO(2). Methemoglobin levels of 40% and 30% were detected by co-oximetry. Neither patient responded to treatment (ascorbic acid in one case, methylene blue in the other). Both patients died due to systemic effects of phosphine poisoning. Hemolysis and methemoglobinemia may complicate the course of phosphine poisoning that seems resistant to methylene blue and ascorbic acid. Therefore, other treatments including hyperbaric oxygen therapy and exchange blood transfusion should be considered.

  7. Methemoglobinemia secondary to cleaning solution ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, L; Wolford, R W

    1996-01-01

    Methemoglobinemia is a rare cause of cyanosis in pediatric patients. A 16-month-old male presented to the Emergency Department cyanotic and short of breath after ingestion of a hair-care-equipment cleaning solution. After calling the salon and consulting Poisindex, the substance was found to be Mar-V-cide, containing 20% Hyamine 3500, 50% cationic detergents, 20% isopropyl alcohol, and 1% sodium nitrite, which caused the methemoglobinemia in this case. Initial pulse oximetry on room air was 72% and improved minimally with supplemented oxygen. The patient's methemoglobin level was 63%. Methylene blue was administered (2 mg/kg intravenously), and the patient rapidly improved. Nitrates occur in high concentrations in some food and water. Infants are particularly susceptible to chronic nitrate-induced methemoglobinemia because of their low stomach acid production, large numbers of nitrite-reducing bacteria, and the relatively easy oxidation of fetal hemoglobin. Acute nitrite toxicity results from industrial exposure, accidental ingestion (e.g., abuse of organic nitrites as an aphrodisiac, especially in the male homosexual population), and suicidal ingestion. Methemoglobinemia may occur in a number of drug or chemical ingestions, but a comprehensive review of the literature failed to identify a similar reported case.

  8. Congenital methemoglobinemia. Report of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zárate Aspiros Romeo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Methemoglobinemia is a condition in which there are high blood levels of methemoglobin. It may be congenital or acquired. The congenital form (which is rare is the result of a defect in the methemoglobin reductase enzyme, dependent of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced (NADPH; it is also caused by hemoglobinopathies. Congenital methemoglobinemia type 2 constitutes 10% of all cases and is usually fatal in early life. Its main feature is progressive neurological deterioration associa- ted with mental retardation, microcephaly, opisthotonos, athetotic movements, and generalized hypertonia. We report the case of a newborn with cyanosis from birth in whom perinatal hypoxia, pulmonary disease, heart failure and sepsis were ruled out, hence methemoglobin levels were requested, which led to the diagnosis of congenital methemoglobinemia based on a methemoglobin of 29.6%. Methemoglobin values were investigated in his 2 years old brother, who was cyanotic and showed progressive psychomotor retardation from birth; his methemoglobin was 30%. We concluded that both patients had type 2 hereditary methemoglobinemia in view of the severe neu- rological disorders of the older brother. Treatment with ascorbic acid was initiated in both siblings, resulting in the disappearance of cyanosis in the newborn.

  9. Methemoglobinemia in aluminium phosphide poisoning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, S B; Peshin, S S; Mitra, S

    2000-01-01

    Aluminium phosphide (AlP) a grain fumigant is the leading cause of intentional poisoning in North India. The mechanisms involved in toxicity are not known and there is no antidote till date. The present study was carried out to investigate the oxygen free radical generation, methemoglobinemia and effect of methylene blue treatment on survival time in rat model of AlP poisoning. AlP (50 mg/kg, intragastric) was administered in one group and the other group received AlP + Methylene Blue (MB) (0.1%, 1 mg/kg/5 min, i.v.). Malonyldialdehyde (MDA) and methemoglobin (MeHb) levels were measured at 10 and 30 min intervals. Blood MDA levels increased at 10 and 30 min after AlP exposure with simultaneous rise in MeHb levels suggesting methemoglobinemia could be due to increased oxygen free radical generation. Methylene blue caused a significant fall in both the parameters with prolongation of survival time. It is concluded that AlP causes methemoglobinemia responding to methylene blue treatment.

  10. Methemoglobinemia and dapsone levels in patients with leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luiz Fernandes Vieira

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the methemoglobinemia and correlate with dapsone levels in multibacillary leprosy patients under leprosy multi-drug therapy. Thirty patients with laboratory and clinical diagnosis of multibacillary leprosy were enrolled. Dapsone was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and methemoglobinemia by spectrophotometry. The mean dapsone concentrations in male was 1.42 g/mL and in female was 2.42 g/mL. The mean methemoglobin levels in male was 3.09 µg/mL; 191%, and in female was 2.84 ± 1.67%. No correlations were seen between dapsone levels and methemoglobin in male and female patients. Our results demonstrated that the dosage of dapsone in leprosy treatment does not promote a significant methemoglobinemia.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: methemoglobinemia, beta-globin type

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Methemoglobinemia, beta-globin type Methemoglobinemia, beta-globin type Printable PDF Open All Close All ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Methemoglobinemia, beta-globin type is a condition that affects the ...

  12. Severe methemoglobinemia caused by continuous lidocaine infusion in a term neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnhorst, Bettina; Hartmann, Hans; Lange, Matthias

    2017-05-01

    Neonates and young infants are especially prone to develop drug-induced methemoglobinemia. Therefore, lidocaine is not licensed as local anesthetic in children below the age of 3 months. However, its systemic use is advocated for neonatal seizures. Cardiac arrhythmia has been reported as sole major side effect. Here we report a case of severe methemoglobinemia caused by continuous infusion of lidocaine in a term neonate with neonatal seizures. The increase of methemoglobin up to 13.8% was accompanied by hypoxemia and cyanosis, necessitating additional inspired oxygen and CPAP ventilation. After stopping lidocaine infusion methemoglobin levels fell and the neonate could be weaned from ventilation. Neonates treated with lidocaine for seizures must be monitored for the occurrence of methemoglobinemia. Copyright © 2017 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Detecting Methemoglobinemia in Animals with a Drop of Blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni G Patton

    Full Text Available A major concern during pesticide development and use is the impact on non-target species, such as raptors or domestic cats and dogs. Sodium nitrite and para-aminopropiophenone (PAPP are two toxicants currently being studied for the control of invasive species, such as starlings and feral swine. When given to an animal these compounds oxidize hemoglobin, which renders it unable to carry oxygen resulting in methemoglobinemia. This study developed a method to estimate methemoglobin levels in mammals and birds by examining the efficacy of sodium nitrite to induce the conversion of hemoglobin to methemoglobin. Varying concentrations of sodium nitrite were added to aliquots of coyote, vole, feral swine, starling, and duck blood, collected from captive animals. The blood samples were analyzed spectrophotometrically to determine percent methemoglobin and digitally to determine red color values (RCV associated with different methemoglobin levels. The avian and mammalian blood reached 100% methemoglobin levels at 200 mM and 15 mM sodium nitrite, respectively. All animals had similar RCV for a given percent methemoglobin. In conclusion, this study developed a procedure to quickly determine methemoglobin levels in mammals and birds. Furthermore, percent methemoglobin can be estimated with one standard curve from any animal species and an image of a blood spot. The technique will be useful during field studies, in agricultural areas, or in a veterinarian's office for the rapid diagnosis of methemoglobinemia in non-target animals that have eaten toxicants/baits or baited animals.

  14. Methemoglobinemia associated with loxoscelism Meta-hemoglobinemia associada ao loxoscelismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando C. de O. Barreto

    1990-02-01

    Full Text Available In twenty five patients who presented the cutaneous form of loxoscelism, serum haptoglobin and lactic dehydrogenase, erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, methemoglobin, bilirubin and reticulocytes were investigated after bite. No hemolysis was detected but an increase in methemoglobin was found in 54% of the cases; in 7% it was between 1.1% and 2%, in 27% it ranged from 2.1% to 4%, and in 20% from 4.1% to 8%. Blood samples of a normal, blood group 0 individual and of a patient who exhibited methemoglobinemia after Loxosceles bite were incubated separately with antisera against Loxosceles gaucho, Crotalus terrificus, Bothrops jararaca, with Loxosceles gaucho venom and 0.3% phenol. No methemoglobin was found after 1, 4,8 and 15 days in both sets of samples. At the 25th day all the samples, including the controls, exhibited similar methemoglobin reductase decrease. The data suggest that the methemoglobinemia which occurs in 50% of the patients probably arises from in vivo venom metabolism, inasmuch as the crude venom does not induce methemoglobinemia.Vinte e cinco pacientes que apresentaram a forma cutânea do loxoscelismo foram estudados após a picada, determinando-se a glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase, glutationa redutase e glutationa peroxidase eritrocitárias, haptoglobina e latico desidrogenase séricas, bilirrubina, reticulócitos e meta-hemoglobina. Não foi observada hemólise aumentada, mas foi detectado aumento da meta-hemoglobina em 54% dos casos: em 7% entre 1,1% e 2%, em 27% variou de 2,1% a 4%, e em 20% de 4,1 a 8%. Amostras de sangue de um indivíduo normal do grupo 0 de uma paciente que exibiu meta-hemoglobina após picada por Loxosceles foram incubadas separadamente com anti-soros contra Loxosceles gancho, Crotalus terrificus e Bothrops jararaca, com veneno de Loxosceles gaucho e fenol a 3%, e não se detectou aumento de meta-hemoglobina depois de 1, 4, 8 e 15 dias em todas

  15. The Beef Jerky Blues: Methemoglobinemia From Home Cured Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Jillian L; Spoelhof, Rachel; Pallasch, Erin M; Mycyk, Mark B

    2016-09-30

    Methemoglobinemia can result from ingestion of nitrite- or nitrate-containing foods. Here, we report a case where an adolescent girl and her father developed clinically significant methemoglobinemia after ingestion of "homemade" beef jerky prepared with sodium nitrate salt purchased at a local grocery store. Both had palpitations, dyspnea, and visible mucosal cyanosis. The daughter had a methemoglobin level of 44.2% and the father's methemoglobin level was 34.2%. Prompt recognition of methemoglobinemia is important for initiating antidotal therapy with methylene blue.

  16. Transient methemoglobinemia in three neonates due to maternal pudendal anesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erol, S.; Celik, I.H.; Demirel, N.

    2017-01-01

    Methemoglobin (MetHb) is a form of hemoglobin which contains iron in ferric state. The delivery of oxygen to tissues is impaired and cellular hypoxia develops with an increase in MetHb levels. Methemoglobinemia is a rare but potentially lethal complication of local anesthetics. In this clinical brief, three cases of transient neonatal methemoglobinemia, caused by maternal pudendal anesthesia with prilocaine, are reported. (author)

  17. [Acquired methemoglobinemia: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benini, D; Vino, L; Fanos, V

    1998-01-01

    When an infant presents severe cyanosis which is not associated with respiratory distress, methaemoglobinemia should always be suspected. In children its main inducers are contaminated water or vegetable broths with high nitrate levels (especially spinach and carrots) used to prepare powdered formula or soups. Children affected with methaemoglobinemia have a peculiar lavender colour. Blood from the heel sticks is chocolate-brown and does not become pink when exposed to room air. Diagnosis can be confirmed by excluding other causes of cyanosis and by spectrophotometric analysis of blood for methaemoglobin. When methaemoglobin's levels reach 60% or more, the patient will collapse and become comatose and may die. Therapy with methylene blue results in prompt relief. In this article we report a case of methaemoglobinemia due to the administration of powdered formula mixed with vegetable broths to a newborn aged 16 days. Furthermore we will present a short review of literature regarding methaemoglobinemia caused by toxic agents over the last 10 years.

  18. Medical image of the week: methemoglobinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raschke RA

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 62-year-old man with a sternal infection post-coronary artery bypass grafting was transferred because of increasing oxygen requirements, decreased mental status and Candida paralopsis fungemia. He had been treated with multiple antibiotics including sulfonamides and had eventually undergone a tracheostomy. Cetacaine was used for complaints of a sore throat. Physical examination showed cyanotic lips and tongue (Figure 1A. Blood drawn was a chocolate brown color (Figure 2. His SpO2 was 88%, however, arterial blood gases showed his SaO2 was 100% and his PaO2 453 mmHg. Co-oximetry showed 26% methemoglobin. He was administered 0.2mL/kg of 1% solution of methylene blue and his cyanosis rapidly cleared (Figure 1B. Methemoglobinemia is a condition characterized by increased quantities of hemoglobin with iron oxidized to the ferric (Fe3+ form (1. Methemoglobin is useless as an oxygen carrier and thus causes a varying degree of cyanosis and hypoxia. It can be genetic but is usually caused …

  19. Methemoglobinemia in Young Patients With Hematologic Cancer or Aplastic Anemia Treated With Dapsone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-13

    Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Methemoglobinemia; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms; Nonmalignant Neoplasm

  20. Risk of acquired methemoglobinemia with different topical anesthetics during endoscopic procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallurupalli S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Srikanth Vallurupalli1, Shalini Manchanda21Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, IL, USA; 2Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care, and Occupational Medicine, Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USAIntroduction: Methemoglobinemia is a recognized complication of the use of topical anesthetic sprays. The true scope of the problem or the risk with different topical anesthetic sprays and endoscopic procedures is unknown.Methods: We retrospectively identified all cases of methemoglobinemia that occurred in a university affiliated community hospital from 2001 to 2007.Results: Eleven cases of methemoglobinemia were identified over the 6-year period. Nine (82% occurred with use of benzocaine spray during transesophageal echocardiography (TEE. Patients who developed methemoglobinemia secondary to the topical anesthetic spray compared to other causes were more likely to be older, have lower mean hemoglobin levels (10.5 ± 0.5 g/dL vs 11.3 ± 0.0 g/dL, and a higher mean methemoglobin concentration at diagnosis (40.8% ± 5.2% vs 24% ± 10%. However, only age reached statistical significance (P = 0.004.Conclusion: In a university-affiliated community hospital, topical anesthetic sprays account for most of the burden of methemoglobinemia. Benzocaine use in the context of TEE caused more methemoglobinemia compared to lidocaine and other endoscopic procedures. This observation supports previous data and findings deserve further study.Keywords: methemoglobinemia, benzocaine, lidocaine, transesophageal echocardiography, endoscopy

  1. Case Report of Methemoglobinemia in a Toddler Secondary to Topical Dapsone Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Danielle M; Bosse, George M; Sullivan, Janice

    2016-08-01

    Aczone gel 5% contains dapsone and is a commonly used topical dermatologic therapy for acne in adolescents and adults. We describe the first reported pediatric case of a previously healthy girl presenting with acute onset of methemoglobinemia after exposure to her sibling's Aczone gel. The patient was successfully treated with methylene blue initially and subsequently needed an additional dose for rebound methemoglobinemia. This case demonstrates the complications of systemic absorption of dapsone in the pediatric population resulting in clinically significant methemoglobinemia from a single topical application. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Acute methemoglobinemia associated with ochronotic valvular heart disease: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, C; Kondoh, H; Shintani, H

    2010-03-01

    We describe the first reported case of acute methemoglobinemia associated with ochronotic valvular heart disease. A 79-year-old man with ochronotic valvular heart disease experienced decreased urinary output starting 9 days after an operation. Thereafter, the patient's methemoglobin concentration acutely increased, indicating systemic cyanosis, while the arterial partial oxygen pressure (PaO (2)) was maintained at around 200 mmHg. In patients with ochronotic valvular heart disease, acute methemoglobinemia may occur, as in cases of renal failure or oliguresis.

  3. Risk of acquired methemoglobinemia with different topical anesthetics during endoscopic procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Vallurupalli, Srikanth; Manchanda, Shalini

    2011-01-01

    Srikanth Vallurupalli1, Shalini Manchanda21Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, IL, USA; 2Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care, and Occupational Medicine, Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USAIntroduction: Methemoglobinemia is a recognized complication of the use of topical anesthetic sprays. The true scope of the problem or the risk with different to...

  4. An Atypical Case of Methemoglobinemia due to Self-Administered Benzocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Nappe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired methemoglobinemia is an uncommon hemoglobinopathy that results from exposure to oxidizing agents, such as chemicals or medications. Although, as reported in the adult population, it happens most often due to prescribed medication or procedural anesthesia and not due to easily accessed over-the-counter medications, the authors will describe an otherwise healthy male adult with no known medical history and no prescribed medications, who presented to the emergency department reporting generalized weakness, shortness of breath, headache, dizziness, and pale gray skin. In addition, the patient reported that he also had a severe toothache for several days, which he had been self-treating with an over-the-counter oral benzocaine gel. Ultimately, the diagnosis of methemoglobinemia was made by clinical history, physical examination, and the appearance of chocolate-colored blood and arterial blood gas (ABG with cooximetry. After 2 mg/kg of intravenous methylene blue was administered, the patient had complete resolution of all signs and symptoms. This case illustrates that emergency physicians should be keenly aware of the potential of toxic hemoglobinopathy secondary to over-the-counter, nonprescribed medications. Discussion with patients regarding the dangers of inappropriate use of these medicines is imperative, as such warnings are typically not evident on product labels.

  5. Fluoride treatment in corticosteroid induced osteoporosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Rejou, F; Dumas, R; Belon, C; Meunier, P J; Edouard, C

    1986-01-01

    Severe osteoporosis with multiple vertebral fractures occurred in two girls receiving prolonged high dose corticosteroids for relapsing dermatomyositis. Sodium fluoride, supplemented with calcium and vitamin D, helped control secondary osteoporosis in one case and should be considered as part of the curative treatment of corticoid induced osteoporosis.

  6. In Vitro Protective Effect and Antioxidant Mechanism of Resveratrol Induced by Dapsone Hydroxylamine in Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Rosyana V; Malcher, Nívea S; Amado, Lílian L; Coleman, Michael D; Dos Santos, Danielle C; Borges, Rosivaldo Sa; Valente, Sebastião Aldo S; Valente, Vera C; Monteiro, Marta Chagas

    2015-01-01

    Dapsone (DDS) hydroxylamine metabolites cause oxidative stress- linked adverse effects in patients, such as methemoglobin formation and DNA damage. This study evaluated the ameliorating effect of the antioxidant resveratrol (RSV) on DDS hydroxylamine (DDS-NHOH) mediated toxicity in vitro using human erythrocytes and lymphocytes. The antioxidant mechanism was also studied using in-silico methods. In addition, RSV provided intracellular protection by inhibiting DNA damage in human lymphocytes induced by DDS-NHOH. However, whilst pretreatment with RSV (10-1000 μM significantly attenuated DDS-NHOH-induced methemoglobinemia, but it was not only significantly less effective than methylene blue (MET), but also post-treatment with RSV did not reverse methemoglobin formation, contrarily to that observed with MET. DDS-NHOH inhibited catalase (CAT) activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, but did not alter superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in erythrocytes. Pretreatment with RSV did not alter these antioxidant enzymes activities in erythrocytes treated with DDS-NHOH. Theoretical calculations using density functional theory methods showed that DDS-NHOH has a pro-oxidant effect, whereas RSV and MET have antioxidant effect on ROS. The effect on methemoglobinemia reversion for MET was significantly higher than that of RSV. These data suggest that the pretreatment with resveratrol may decrease heme-iron oxidation and DNA damage through reduction of ROS generated in cells during DDS therapy.

  7. In Vitro Protective Effect and Antioxidant Mechanism of Resveratrol Induced by Dapsone Hydroxylamine in Human Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosyana V Albuquerque

    Full Text Available Dapsone (DDS hydroxylamine metabolites cause oxidative stress- linked adverse effects in patients, such as methemoglobin formation and DNA damage. This study evaluated the ameliorating effect of the antioxidant resveratrol (RSV on DDS hydroxylamine (DDS-NHOH mediated toxicity in vitro using human erythrocytes and lymphocytes. The antioxidant mechanism was also studied using in-silico methods. In addition, RSV provided intracellular protection by inhibiting DNA damage in human lymphocytes induced by DDS-NHOH. However, whilst pretreatment with RSV (10-1000 μM significantly attenuated DDS-NHOH-induced methemoglobinemia, but it was not only significantly less effective than methylene blue (MET, but also post-treatment with RSV did not reverse methemoglobin formation, contrarily to that observed with MET. DDS-NHOH inhibited catalase (CAT activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, but did not alter superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in erythrocytes. Pretreatment with RSV did not alter these antioxidant enzymes activities in erythrocytes treated with DDS-NHOH. Theoretical calculations using density functional theory methods showed that DDS-NHOH has a pro-oxidant effect, whereas RSV and MET have antioxidant effect on ROS. The effect on methemoglobinemia reversion for MET was significantly higher than that of RSV. These data suggest that the pretreatment with resveratrol may decrease heme-iron oxidation and DNA damage through reduction of ROS generated in cells during DDS therapy.

  8. Sepsis-Induced Cardiomyopathy: Mechanisms and Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Cun Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a lethal syndrome with a high incidence and a weighty economy burden. The pathophysiology of sepsis includes inflammation, immune dysfunction, and dysfunction of coagulation, while sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy (SIC, defined as a global but reversible dysfunction of both sides of the heart induced by sepsis, plays a significant role in all of the aspects above in the pathogenesis of sepsis. The complex pathogenesis of SIC involves a combination of dysregulation of inflammatory mediators, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, disorder of calcium regulation, autonomic nervous system dysregulation, and endothelial dysfunction. The treatments for SIC include the signal pathway intervention, Chinese traditional medicine, and other specific therapy. Here, we reviewed the latest literatures on the mechanisms and treatments of SIC and hope to provide further insights to researchers and create a new road for the therapy of sepsis.

  9. Induced radioisotopes in a linac treatment hall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Carrillo, Héctor René; de Leon-Martinez, Héctor Asael; Rivera-Perez, Esteban; Luis Benites-Rengifo, Jorge; Gallego, Eduardo; Lorente, Alfredo

    2015-08-01

    When linacs operate above 8MV an undesirable neutron field is produced whose spectrum has three main components: the direct spectrum due to those neutrons leaking out from the linac head, the scattered spectrum due to neutrons produced in the head that collides with the nuclei in the head losing energy and the third spectrum due to room-return effect. The third category of spectrum has mainly epithermal and thermal neutrons being constant at any location in the treatment hall. These neutrons induce activation in the linac components, the concrete walls and in the patient body. Here the induced radioisotopes have been identified in concrete samples located in the hall and in one of the wedges. The identification has been carried out using a gamma-ray spectrometer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bioactivity of NANOZR Induced by Alkali Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Nishizaki

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, zirconia has been a recognized implant material in clinical dentistry. In the present study, we investigated the performance of an alkali-modified ceria-stabilized tetragonal ZrO2 polycrystalline ceramic-based nanostructured zirconia/alumina composite (NANOZR implant by assessing surface morphology and composition, wettability, bovine serum albumin adsorption rate, rat bone marrow (RBM cell attachment, and capacity for inducing bone differentiation. NANOZR surfaces without and with alkali treatment served as the control and test groups, respectively. RBM cells were seeded in a microplate with the implant and cultured in osteogenic differentiation medium, and their differentiation was evaluated by measuring alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, osteocalcin (OCN production, calcium deposition, and osteogenic gene expression. The alkali-treated NANOZR surface increased ALP activity, OCN production, calcium deposition, and osteogenesis-related gene expression in attached RBM cells. These data suggest that alkali treatment enhances the osteogenesis-inducing capacity of NANOZR implants and may therefore improve their biointegration into alveolar bone.

  11. Operative treatment of radiation-induced fistulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balslev, I.; Harling, H.

    1987-01-01

    Out of 136 patients with radiation-induced intestinal complications, 45 had fistulae. Twenty-eight patients had rectovaginal fistulae while the remainder had a total of 13 different types of fistulae. Thirty-seven patients were treated operatively and eight were treated conservatively. Thirty-three patients were submitted to operation for rectal fistulae. Of these, 28 were treated by defunctioning colostomy, three were treated by Hartmann's method and resection and primary anastomosis was carried out in two patients. In the course of the period of observation, 35% of the patients developed new radiation damage. The frequency in the basic material without fistulae was 21% (0.05< p<0.10). Following establishment of defunctioning colostomy on account of rectovaginal fistulae in 25 patients, eight patients developed new fistulae, Significantly more patients with fistulae died of recurrence as compared with patients with other lesions (p<0.01). Defunctioning colostomy in the treatment of rectal fistula is a reasonable form of treatment in elderly patients and in case of recurrence. Younger patients should be assessed in a special department in view of the possibility of a sphincter-preserving procedure following resection of the rectum and restorative anastomosis. (author)

  12. Operative treatment of radiation-induced fistulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balslev, I.; Harling, H.

    1987-01-01

    Out of 136 patients with radiation-induced intestinal complications, 45 had fistulae. Twenty-eight patients had rectovaginal fistulae while the remainder had a total of 13 different types of fistulae. Thirty-seven patients were treated operatively and eight were treated conservatively. Thirty-three patients were submitted to operation for rectal fistulae. Of these, 28 were treated by defunctioning colostomy, three were treated by Hartmann's method and resection and primary anastomosis was carried out in two patients. In the course of the period of observation, 35% of the patients developed new radiation damage. The frequency in the basic material without fistulae was 21% (0.05treatment of rectal fistula is a reasonable form of treatment in elderly patients and in case of recurrence. Younger patients should be assessed in a special department in view of the possibility of a sphincter-preserving procedure following resection of the rectum and restorative anastomosis. 11 refs.

  13. Brain iron accumulation in unexplained fetal and infant death victims with smoker mothers-The possible involvement of maternal methemoglobinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corna Melissa F

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron is involved in important vital functions as an essential component of the oxygen-transporting heme mechanism. In this study we aimed to evaluate whether oxidative metabolites from maternal cigarette smoke could affect iron homeostasis in the brain of victims of sudden unexplained fetal and infant death, maybe through the induction of maternal hemoglobin damage, such as in case of methemoglobinemia. Methods Histochemical investigations by Prussian blue reaction were made on brain nonheme ferric iron deposits, gaining detailed data on their localization in the brainstem and cerebellum of victims of sudden death and controls. The Gless and Marsland's modification of Bielschowsky's was used to identify neuronal cell bodies and neurofilaments. Results Our approach highlighted accumulations of blue granulations, indicative of iron positive reactions, in the brainstem and cerebellum of 33% of victims of sudden death and in none of the control group. The modified Bielschowsky's method confirmed that the cells with iron accumulations were neuronal cells. Conclusions We propose that the free iron deposition in the brain of sudden fetal and infant death victims could be a catabolic product of maternal methemoglobinemia, a biomarker of oxidative stress likely due to nicotine absorption.

  14. Treatment of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    d'Aldin, Gervais

    1999-01-01

    .... Guinea pigs are subjected to an acoustic trauma. The recovery of the noise-induced hearing loss is followed up to 14 days post exposure by electrocochleography and morphologic examination of the cochlea is performed...

  15. Treatment of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer, Vibeke; Sverrild, Asger; Porsbjerg, Celeste

    2013-01-01

    impairment of performance to severe bronchospasm and a large reduction in FEV1. Treatment of EIB varies from daily to less frequent therapy, depending on the level of activity. In this article, the authors evaluate the treatment possibilities before, during, and after exercise. They also review medications...

  16. Prevention and Treatment of Noise-Induced Tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Tinnitus PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Richard A. Altschuler CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Michigan REPORT DATE: 2014...3 Ju 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Prevention and Treatment of Noise-Induced Tinnitus 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...prevent or treat noise induced tinnitus . Our studies showed a military relevant small arms fire-like noise will induce tinnitus in approximately 33

  17. Islet-cell dysfunction induced by glucocorticoid treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Raalte, Daniël H; Kwa, Kelly A A; van Genugten, Renate E

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids impair glucose tolerance by inducing insulin resistance. We investigated the dose-dependent effects of glucocorticoid treatment on islet-cell function in healthy males and studied the role of the autonomic nervous system.......Glucocorticoids impair glucose tolerance by inducing insulin resistance. We investigated the dose-dependent effects of glucocorticoid treatment on islet-cell function in healthy males and studied the role of the autonomic nervous system....

  18. [Management and Treatment of Glucocorticoid-Induced Hyperglycemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Sílvia; Alves, Marta

    2016-09-01

    Glucocorticoids have been associated to several side effects, specially a diabetogenic action, the most common and representative effect. Glucocorticoid-induced hyperglycemia is a common medical condition, with general associated morbidity and mortality. It was performed a literature review about the management and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced hyperglycemia. Through numerous not quite fully understood mechanics, glucocorticoids promote hyperglycemia in non-diabetic patients and worsen diabetes control in diabetic individuals. Glucocorticoid-induced hyperglycemia presents key patterns, enhanced in the postprandial period and scheduled-dependent. Despite the existence of guidelines for hyperglycemia treatment in non-critic hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients, there are no guidelines respecting glucocorticoid-induced hyperglycemia. Nevertheless, it is known that glucocorticoid-induced hyperglycemia is complex and demanding, requiring a specific approach. Indeed, glucocorticoid-induced hyperglycemia treatment depends on the glucocorticoid used, its dose, frequency and schedule. Furthermore, the scheme of treatment previously used by diabetic individuals also influences the choice of the new scheme. The authors reviewed the glucocorticoid induced-hyperglycemia thematic and propose strategies to approach and treat glucocorticoid induced-hyperglycemia in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. This review is expected to be useful in different settings and crosswise to all medical specialties.

  19. [Medical prevention and treatment of radiation-induced pulmonary complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallard, A; Rancoule, C; Le Floch, H; Guy, J-B; Espenel, S; Le Péchoux, C; Deutsch, É; Magné, N; Chargari, C

    2017-08-01

    Radiation-induced lung injuries mainly include the (acute or sub-acute) radiation pneumonitis, the lung fibrosis and the bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP). The present review aims at describing the diagnostic process, the current physiopathological knowledge, and the available (non dosimetric) preventive and curative treatments. Radiation-induced lung injury is a diagnosis of exclusion, since clinical, radiological, or biological pathognomonic evidences do not exist. Investigations should necessarily include a thoracic high resolution CT-scan and lung function tests with a diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide. No treatment ever really showed efficacy to prevent acute radiation-induced lung injury, or to treat radiation-induced lung fibrosis. The most promising drugs in order to prevent radiation-induced lung injury are amifostine, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and pentoxifylline. Inhibitors of collagen synthesis are currently tested at a pre-clinical stage to limit the radiation-induced lung fibrosis. Regarding available treatments of radiation-induced pneumonitis, corticoids can be considered the cornerstone. However, no standardized program or guidelines concerning the initial dose and the gradual tapering have been scientifically established. Alternative treatments can be prescribed, based on clinical cases reporting on the efficacy of immunosuppressive drugs. Such data highlight the major role of the lung dosimetric protection in order to efficiently prevent radiation-induced lung injury. Copyright © 2017 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Radiation Induced Treatment of Organic Pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergun, E.; Öztürk, Ş.; Kantoğlu, Ö.

    2012-01-01

    In this period of the research, aerobic and anaerobic digestion, characterization of alkaloids present and radiolysis products formed after irradiation, under different conditions of ambient and additives, optimization of dose to achieve desired end characteristics for discharge of waste water were aimed. In this regard, unirradiated and irradiated wastewaters were subjected to aerobic and anaerobic digestions. Substrate removal efficiencies of unirradiated and irradiated wastewater with various initial COD values were determined with SBR aerobic digestion treatment method. On the other hand Fenton’s advanced oxidation treatment method was also applied for pre-treatment. BMP tests of anaerobic digestion were also completed. LC/MS studies were carried out on unirradiated and irradiated alkaloid standard solutions of morphine, codeine, thebaine, papaverine, and noscapine to determine the degradation mechanisms and byproducts. Dose optimization studies were completed and found to be a lower dose of 5 kGy rather than 40 kGy for ambient irradiation conditions. (author)

  1. Metabolic syndrome induced by anticancer treatment in childhood cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Won Chueh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of childhood cancer survivors is increasing as survival rates improve. However, complications after treatment have not received much attention, particularly metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome comprises central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance, and cancer survivors have higher risks of cardiovascular events compared with the general population. The mechanism by which cancer treatment induces metabolic syndrome is unclear. However, its pathophysiology can be categorized based on the cancer treatment type administered. Brain surgery or radiotherapy may induce metabolic syndrome by damaging the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, which may induce pituitary hormone deficiencies. Local therapy administered to particular endocrine organs directly damages the organs and causes hormone deficiencies, which induce obesity and dyslipidemia leading to metabolic syndrome. Chemotherapeutic agents interfere with cell generation and growth, damage the vascular endothelial cells, and increase the cardiovascular risk. Moreover, chemotherapeutic agents induce oxidative stress, which also induces metabolic syndrome. Physical inactivity caused by cancer treatment or the cancer itself, dietary restrictions, and the frequent use of antibiotics may also be risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Since childhood cancer survivors with metabolic syndrome have higher risks of cardiovascular events at an earlier age, early interventions should be considered. The optimal timing of interventions and drug use has not been established, but lifestyle modifications and exercise interventions that begin during cancer treatment might be beneficial and tailored education and interventions that account for individual patients' circumstances are needed. This review evaluates the recent literature that describes metabolic syndrome in cancer survivors, with a focus on its pathophysiology.

  2. Metabolic syndrome induced by anticancer treatment in childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueh, Hee Won; Yoo, Jae Ho

    2017-06-01

    The number of childhood cancer survivors is increasing as survival rates improve. However, complications after treatment have not received much attention, particularly metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome comprises central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance, and cancer survivors have higher risks of cardiovascular events compared with the general population. The mechanism by which cancer treatment induces metabolic syndrome is unclear. However, its pathophysiology can be categorized based on the cancer treatment type administered. Brain surgery or radiotherapy may induce metabolic syndrome by damaging the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, which may induce pituitary hormone deficiencies. Local therapy administered to particular endocrine organs directly damages the organs and causes hormone deficiencies, which induce obesity and dyslipidemia leading to metabolic syndrome. Chemotherapeutic agents interfere with cell generation and growth, damage the vascular endothelial cells, and increase the cardiovascular risk. Moreover, chemotherapeutic agents induce oxidative stress, which also induces metabolic syndrome. Physical inactivity caused by cancer treatment or the cancer itself, dietary restrictions, and the frequent use of antibiotics may also be risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Since childhood cancer survivors with metabolic syndrome have higher risks of cardiovascular events at an earlier age, early interventions should be considered. The optimal timing of interventions and drug use has not been established, but lifestyle modifications and exercise interventions that begin during cancer treatment might be beneficial and tailored education and interventions that account for individual patients' circumstances are needed. This review evaluates the recent literature that describes metabolic syndrome in cancer survivors, with a focus on its pathophysiology.

  3. Implications of treatment-induced mucosal barrier injury.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijlevens, N.M.A.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights recent developments in the pathophysiology of treatment-induced mucosal barrier injury, outlines the application of new diagnostic tools, focuses on risk factors and complications, and offers an up-to-date overview on treatment options. RECENT FINDINGS:

  4. Neuroleptic induced tardive dyskinesa in a patient on treatment for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this case, a thirty six year old patient on treatment for schizophrenia is described with severe tardive dyskinesia. The most likely cause is long term treatment with two highly potent typical antipsychotic medications. The patient was initially treated with Benzhexol, an anticholinergic agent with the potential to induce or ...

  5. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome : Improving outcome with lifestyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerink, M. D. N. L.; Nuver, J.; Lefrandt, J. D.; Vrieling, A. H.; Gietema, J. A.; Walenkamp, A. M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of long-term cancer survivors face important treatment related adverse effects. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome (CTIMetS) is an especially prevalent and harmful condition. The aetiology of CTIMetS likely differs from metabolic syndrome in the general population, but

  6. Surgical Treatment of Laser Induced Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-21

    conditions. A conjunctival peritomy was performed and the recti muscles secured with 4-0 silk sutures. A 27 gauge needle was placed through the sclera ...treatment of expev.Retina. 1989;9:1.7- .ine SL.etal. nrf *tiiiai vein occijsi 18 ;:29(sUPpI):55 4 Iactivator treatnm Fi ri Directs E ryRetinal D m g fei... sclera and choroid and into the bleb and fitted foam rubber cushion to stabilize it during withdrawing the needle to allow choroidal the procedure, which

  7. Treatment of radiation-induced vesicovaginal fistulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parm Ulhoei, B.; rosgaard, A.; Harling, H.

    1994-01-01

    The records of 23 patients with vesicovaginal fistulae (VVF) probably caused by irradiation treatment for cancer of the uterine cervix were analyzed. The median latency between irradiation and fistula formation was 17 years. Ten patients had histologically verified cancer recurrence besides a VVF. In addition, nine patients had a rectovaginal- and one an ileovaginal fistula. Twelve patients were treated primarily with ureteroileocutaneostomy a.m. Bricker. Six had bladder drainage, and four of these had ureteroileocutaneostomy performed at a later stage. Four patients initially underwent percutaneous nephrostomy. One patients had a unilateral ureteroileocutaneostomy performed. Eight patients are alive today (median observation time 2.5 years), and all of these had had ureteroileocutaneostomy performed. Three of these patients (39%) were completely relieved of symptoms while the rest occasionally experienced pain, vaginal discharge and bladder empyema. We conclude that ureteroilocutaneostomy a.m. Bricker is a satisfactory procedure for vesicovaginal fistulae because the socially incapacitating symptoms disappear or are considerably diminished. (au) (9 refs.)

  8. Surface treatment for inducing nanotopography on titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, S.V. de; Ribeiro, A.A.; Oliveira, M.V. de

    2014-01-01

    The titanium implant surface plays extremely important role in the biological response. Therefore, the objective of this research was to study the titanium surface nanotopography modified by chemical treatment, in order to improve its bioactivity. Commercially pure titanium samples, ASTM F67 grade 2, were immersed in H 2 SO 4 /H 2 O 2 solution for 2 or 4 hours. The samples were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Scanning Confocal Optical Microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy. The results revealed nanostructured surfaces with TiO 2 layer, average roughness of 0.86 ± 0.06 μm and 1.07 ± 0.05 μm for 2 or 4 hours, respectively and nanopores with 18 ± 6.82 nm average diameter. (author)

  9. Omalizumab in the Treatment of Chronic Inducible Urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicharro, P; Rodríguez, P; de Argila, D

    2017-06-01

    Omalizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that inhibits immunoglobulin E. It has been approved for the treatment of severe asthma and chronic spontaneous urticaria refractory to other treatments. Its use in the management of chronic inducible urticaria (a type triggered by certain stimuli) is still considered off-label, although this use has been discussed in some consensus papers. This review brings together case reports and case series describing the use of omalizumab to treat chronic inducible urticaria. We analyze the most important aspects of the cases and the outcomes reported. The results seem to position omalizumab as a potentially effective, safe treatment alternative in some cases of chronic inducible urticaria. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Mechanism and treatment of sulfur mustard-induced cutaneous injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Tianyi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Skin is the fi rst organ exposed to sulfur mustard (SM. The mechanism of SM-induced cutaneous injury has not been fully clarifi ed so far, which is a major obstacle to the development of effective treatments for SM-induced injury. So far, there is no satisfactory therapy for acute symptoms and long-term complications. This review summarized recent researches on the mechanisms of SM-induced cutaneous injuries and the therapies for acute symptoms and long-term complications. Key words: Sulfur mustard; Injury mechanism; Therapy

  11. Induced polygenic variability using combination treatment of gamma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Induced mutation in plant improvement has been proven to be one of the alternative ways to generate new sources of genetic variation in blackgram. In this study, dry seeds of VBN 4 blackgram were treated with combination treatment of both gamma rays (400, 500 and 600 Gy) and ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) (50, ...

  12. Enamel structural changes induced by hydrochloric and phosphoric acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertacci, Angelica; Lucchese, Alessandra; Taddei, Paola; Gherlone, Enrico F; Chersoni, Stefano

    2014-12-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate enamel acid-induced structural changes after 2 different treatments, by means of Raman and infrared (IR) spectroscopy analyses, and to correlate these findings with permeability measured as fluid discharge from outer enamel. Two different treatments were investigated: 10 enamel slices were etched with 15% hydrochloric acid (HCl) for 120 seconds and 10 slices with 37% phosphoric acid gel (H3PO4) for 30 seconds, rinsed for 30 seconds and then air-dried for 20 seconds. Powders of enamel treated as previously described were produced. Replicas of enamel subjected to the same treatments were obtained to evaluate the presence of fluid droplets on enamel surface. Raman and IR spectroscopy showed that the treatment with both hydrochloric and phosphoric acids induced a decrease in the carbonate content of the enamel apatite. At the same time, both acids induced the formation of HPO42- ions. After H3PO4 treatment, the bands due to the organic component of enamel decreased in intensity, while they increased after HCl treatment. Replicas of H3PO4 treated enamel showed a strongly reduced permeability. Replicas of HCl 15% treated samples showed a maintained permeability. A decrease of the enamel organic component, as resulted after H3PO4 treatment, involves a decrease in enamel permeability, while the increase of the organic matter (achieved by HCl treatment) still maintains enamel permeability.The results suggested a correlation between organic matter and enamel permeability. Permeability was affected by etching technique and could be involved in marginal seal, gap and discoloration at the enamel interface, still causes of restoration failure.

  13. Ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis: current and emerging treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihler F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Friedrich Ihler, Martin CanisDepartment of Otorhinolaryngology, University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen, GermanyAbstract: Ragweed (Ambrosia spp. is an annually flowering plant whose pollen bears high allergenic potential. Ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis has long been seen as a major immunologic condition in Northern America with high exposure and sensitization rates in the general population. The invasive occurrence of ragweed (A. artemisiifolia poses an increasing challenge to public health in Europe and Asia as well. Possible explanations for its worldwide spread are climate change and urbanization, as well as pollen transport over long distances by globalized traffic and winds. Due to the increasing disease burden worldwide, and to the lack of a current and comprehensive overview, this study aims to review the current and emerging treatment options for ragweed-induced rhinoconjunctivitis. Sound clinical evidence is present for the symptomatic treatment of ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with oral third-generation H1-antihistamines and leukotriene antagonists. The topical application of glucocorticoids has also been efficient in randomized controlled clinical trials. Combined approaches employing multiple agents are common. The mainstay of causal treatment to date, especially in Northern America, is subcutaneous immunotherapy with the focus on the major allergen, Amb a 1. Beyond this, growing evidence from several geographical regions documents the benefit of sublingual immunotherapy. Future treatment options promise more specific symptomatic treatment and fewer side effects during causal therapy. Novel antihistamines for symptomatic treatment are aimed at the histamine H3-receptor. New adjuvants with toll-like receptor 4 activity or the application of the monoclonal anti-immunoglobulin E antibody, omalizumab, are supposed to enhance conventional immunotherapy. An approach targeting toll-like receptor 9 by

  14. Ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis: current and emerging treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihler, Friedrich; Canis, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Ragweed (Ambrosia spp.) is an annually flowering plant whose pollen bears high allergenic potential. Ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis has long been seen as a major immunologic condition in Northern America with high exposure and sensitization rates in the general population. The invasive occurrence of ragweed (A. artemisiifolia) poses an increasing challenge to public health in Europe and Asia as well. Possible explanations for its worldwide spread are climate change and urbanization, as well as pollen transport over long distances by globalized traffic and winds. Due to the increasing disease burden worldwide, and to the lack of a current and comprehensive overview, this study aims to review the current and emerging treatment options for ragweed-induced rhinoconjunctivitis. Sound clinical evidence is present for the symptomatic treatment of ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with oral third-generation H1-antihistamines and leukotriene antagonists. The topical application of glucocorticoids has also been efficient in randomized controlled clinical trials. Combined approaches employing multiple agents are common. The mainstay of causal treatment to date, especially in Northern America, is subcutaneous immunotherapy with the focus on the major allergen, Amb a 1. Beyond this, growing evidence from several geographical regions documents the benefit of sublingual immunotherapy. Future treatment options promise more specific symptomatic treatment and fewer side effects during causal therapy. Novel antihistamines for symptomatic treatment are aimed at the histamine H3-receptor. New adjuvants with toll-like receptor 4 activity or the application of the monoclonal anti-immunoglobulin E antibody, omalizumab, are supposed to enhance conventional immunotherapy. An approach targeting toll-like receptor 9 by synthetic cytosine phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides promises a new treatment paradigm that aims to modulate the immune response, but it has

  15. Supplier-induced demand for newborn treatment: evidence from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeoka, Hitoshi; Fushimi, Kiyohide

    2014-05-01

    We estimate the degree of supplier-induced demand for newborn treatment by exploiting changes in reimbursement arising from the introduction of the partial prospective payment system (PPS) in Japan. Under the partial PPS, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) utilization became relatively more profitable than other procedures, since it was excluded from prospective payments. We find that hospitals have responded to PPS adoption by increasing NICU utilization and by more frequently manipulating infants' reported birth weights which in large part determine their maximum allowable stay in the NICU. This induced demand substantially increases the reimbursements received by hospitals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome: Improving outcome with lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerink, N L; Nuver, J; Lefrandt, J D; Vrieling, A H; Gietema, J A; Walenkamp, A M E

    2016-12-01

    Increasing numbers of long-term cancer survivors face important treatment related adverse effects. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome (CTIMetS) is an especially prevalent and harmful condition. The aetiology of CTIMetS likely differs from metabolic syndrome in the general population, but effective treatment and prevention methods are probably similar. In this review, we summarize the potential mechanisms leading to the development of CTIMetS after various types of cancer treatment. Furthermore, we propose a safe and accessible method to treat or prevent CTIMetS through lifestyle change. In particular, we suggest that a lifestyle intervention and optimization of energy balance can prevent or mitigate the development of CTIMetS, which may contribute to optimal survivorship care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Keratoconus Progression Induced by In Vitro Fertilization Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Erdem; Yalinbas, Duygu; Aydin, Bahri; Bilgihan, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate patients with keratoconus who manifested progression after in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. Patients with keratoconus who received IVF treatment were included in this study. None of the patients became pregnant as a result of the IVF treatment. Progression of keratoconus was determined by changes in corrected distance visual acuity and/or topographic changes and subjective assessments. Three patients with keratoconus received IVF treatment and keratoconus progression was detected in all 6 eyes of the patients. The mean age of the patients was 32.3 ± 3.6 years (range: 28 to 36 years) and the mean follow-up duration was 15.6 ± 3.2 months (range: 12 to 18 months). The mean and the maximum keratometry values increased and corrected distance visual acuity decreased after 2.3 IVF treatments. Drugs used in IVF treatment increase estrogen levels, which may affect corneal biomechanics and induce progression of keratoconus. Corneal cross-linking treatment could be offered to minimize the risk of keratoconus progression before IVF treatment. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. [Symptoms and treatment of radiation-induced reactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowska, Anna; Idziak, Magdalena; Burdan, Franciszek; Mazurkiewicz, Maria

    2015-05-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the main methods of cancer treatment alone or in combination with chemotherapy. It is applied in about 60% of oncological patients. However, in spite of its clinical usefulness, radiotherapy is associated with a high risk of radiation-induced side effects, including dermatitis, enteritis, cystitis, pericarditis, pneumonia or depression, sexual function disorders, cardiomiopathy, coronary heart disease, anomalies of heart valves and development of second malignant tumor. The early diagnosis and proper treatment of radiation-induced side effects have a major impact on patients` quality of life and future prognosis. Radiation reactions can be categorized as acute or late, occurring before and after six months after radiotherapy. Among the most common acute reactions there were observed: skin rash, mucositis, nausea, vomiting, fever and radiation pneumonitis. Within reference to the late complications, we distinguish for instance fibrosis of organs, a radiation necrosis of bone, ulcers, fistulas, sexual dysfunction and the development of second malignant carcinomas. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  19. The Incidence and Risk of Inducing Hyperthyroidism Following Amiodarone Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Cozlea D L; Farcas D M; Keresztesi A A; Silivastru I; Cozlea L; Carașca E

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Amiodarone, a frequently used antiarrhythmic drug in cardiology, is very efficient in the treatment of ventricular and supraventricular tachiarrithmyas. The iodine content of amiodarone is 39%. Its chemical structure is similar to tyrosine. It is estimated that 1-23% of patients treated with amiodarone can develop hyperthyroidism. The purpose of this study is to assess and monitor the incidence of hyperthyroidism induced by amiodarone in patients admitted for various types of ca...

  20. Treatment-Induced Autophagy Associated with Tumor Dormancy and Relapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    frequently other steroid hormone receptors such as androgen receptor (102,259–275). Most of these chemicals also targeted growth factors and their...ATG12-/- MMC tumor cells where we might also expect that ADR treatment will results in sustained growth arrest/dormancy. ADR chemotherapy induces...Sevilla, Avda Manuel Siurot sn, 41013 Sevilla, Spain, 7Department of Biosciences and Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine

  1. Protective effect of chitosan treatment against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda Ozcelik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen (APAP is the most commonly reported toxic ingestion in the world. Severe liver injury resulting from overdose or chronic use of APAP remains a significant clinical problem. In recent years, the mechanisms underlying liver injury caused by APAP have become much better understood. We have studied the protective effect of chitosan supplementation against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity with respect to changes in the levels of total and lipid-bound sialic acid in the serum and in the liver tissue and changes in the activity of diagnostic marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and ceruloplasmin oxidase enzyme in normal and experimental groups of rats. During the experimental period, chitosan (200 mg/kg body weight per day was administered to APAP + chitosan-treated rats by oral gavage. Results showed that treatment with APAP induced a significant increase in the serum alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities, in total and lipid-bound sialic acids levels, and in the liver lipid peroxide content. The administration of chitosan significantly prevented APAP-induced alterations in the levels of diagnostic marker enzymes, total sialic acid, lipid-bound sialic acid, and malondialdehyde in the experimental groups of rats. Furthermore, chitosan administration increased the activity of ceruloplasmin oxidase. In conclusion, our results suggest that chitosan has a protective effect on APAP-induced hepatic injury in rats. The study sheds light on the therapeutic potential of chitosan in an APAP-induced hepatotoxicity model.

  2. Treatment of amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis resistant to conventional therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nišić Tanja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Amiodarone as an antiarrhythmic medication is necessary in the prevention and treatment of malignant ventricular arrhythmias, however, it can induce thyroid dysfunction. Thyroid dysfunction may be either hypothyroidism or thyrotoxicosis, however, 50% of patients who have used amiodarone are euthyroid. Case report: A 27-year-old female patient, hospitalized at the Clinic for Endocrinology due to type 2 amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis. The patient had previously received amiodarone for two years. At age 25, the patient was diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy (EF 25%, EDD/ESD 56-57/47 mm with mild Ebstein’s anomaly, WPW Sy and recorded episodes of non-sustained VT. In order to reduce the risk of sudden death and prevent malignant ventricular arrhythmias, ICD-VR was implanted and amiodarone was prescribed. Treatment with propylthiouracil (PTU and dexamethasone was initiated after thyrotoxicosis was diagnosed. Three weeks after the introduction of PTU, hepatotoxicity was registered, thus the medication was discontinued. Thyrozol, which regulates the hepatotoxicity parameters, was introduced. Sodium perchlorate and glucocorticoid (per os, IV and intrathyroidal therapy was introduced. The treatment had lasted for fifty days and laboratory signs of thyrotoxicosis were still present, which is why a total of eight plasmapheresis sessions were performed. Each plasmapheresis resulted in a significant decrease in FT4 and a slight decrease in FT3. After seventy two days of treatment, an optimal hormonal status of the thyroid gland was established and total thyroidectomy was performed. Conclusion: Patient was treated for amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT type 2, which was resistant to conventional therapy for a long period of time. Successful treatment was achieved by applying plasmapheresis although the effect of perchlorate and glucocorticoids application cannot be disregarded.

  3. Probenecid-treatment reduces demyelination induced by cuprizone feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainz, Nadine; Becker, Philipp; Rapp, Daniel; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Wonnenberg, Bodo; Beisswenger, Christoph; Tschernig, Thomas; Meier, Carola

    2017-11-01

    Recent experiments showed that a pannexin-1 inhibitor, probenecid, reduced clinical symptoms in the murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis when applied during the initial phase of neuronal inflammation. An inflammatory component is also present in a toxically induced inflammation and demyelination using cuprizone diet. Probenecid is a pannexin-1 antagonist and a probenecid therapy was investigated. Mice were fed for 10days with a cuprizone diet. In the following, the diet was continued but combined with a daily injection of a low dose of probenecid or solvent for 10days. Electron microscopy revealed demyelination in the optic nerve. The demyelination as measured by the axonal diameter was significantly reduced in the animals treated with 100mg per kg body weight probenecid. In comparison to controls, the number of leukocytes and lymphocytes in the peripheral blood was reduced in all cuprizone groups including the treatment group. In conclusion, early demyelination in the optic nerve was moderately reduced by 10days treatment with a low dose probenecid. This is a hint for the involvement of pannexin-1 modulated inflammation in cuprizone feeding induced toxic demyelination. Thus, probenecid is a candidate for the treatment of neuro-inflammation and multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Treatment of Radiation Induced Biological Changes by Bone Marrow Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Missiry, M.A.; Shehata, G.; Roushdy, H.M; Fayed, Th.A.

    1999-01-01

    Preventing the propagation of radiation induced oxidative damage has been a subject of considerable investigations. The ultimate goal of the present study is to use bone marrow cells to ameliorate or to treat the radiation sickness. Transplantation of bone marrow cell has shown promising results in the present experimental radiation treatment. In this report, suspension of bone marrow cells was injected into rats 12 h. after exposure to 4.5 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. Significant results were recorded on the successful control of the radiation induced disorders in a number of biochemical parameters including certain enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase and glutathione) and certain parameters related to kidney function including creatinine, urea as well as Atpase Activity in blood serum, urine and kidney tissue

  5. Ecstasy-Induced Caspase Expression Alters Following Ginger Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Soleimani Asl

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposure to 3-4, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA leads to cell death. Herein, we studied the protective effects of ginger on MDMA- induced apoptosis. Methods: 15 Sprague dawley male rats were administrated with 0, 10 mg/kg MDMA, or MDMA along with 100mg/kg ginger, IP for 7 days. Brains were removed to study the caspase 3, 8, and 9 expressions in the hippocampus by RT-PCR. Data was analyzed by SPSS 16 software using the one-way ANOVA test. Results: MDMA treatment resulted in a significant increase in caspase 3, 8, and 9 as compared to the sham group (p<0.001. Ginger administration however, appeared to significantly decrease the same (p<0.001. Discussion: Our findings suggest that ginger consumption may lead to the improvement of MDMA-induced neurotoxicity.

  6. New possibilities for the treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Baranova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO is the most common cause of secondary osteoporosis (OP and a main cause of drug-induced OP. Fractures of the skeleton are registered in 30–50% of patients who have taken oral glucocorticoids (GCs for a long time, during which the frac- tures develop with the use of any daily GC dose and with higher bone mineral density (BMD than in postmenopausal OP. In patients who have taken oral GCs long or in high daily doses, decrease of BMD and low bone tissue quality leading to fractures are largely associated with the reduction of bone formation. This gives proof to the administration of antiosteoporotic agents that enhance the formation of bone during its remodeling. Teriparatide, a recombinant human parathyroid hormone, enhances osteoblast function, decreases the apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteocytes, increases the differentiation of osteoblast precursors, and can prevent the negative effect of exogenous GCs on bone. According to clinical trials results, teriparatide treatment increases BMD and reduces the risk of vertebral fractures in patients who have taken oral GCs long. In accordance of the clinical recommendations for the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of GIO, which have been developed by the Russian Osteoporosis Association jointly with the Association of Rheumatologists of Russia and the Russian Respiratory Society, teriparatide is the drug of first choice for the treatment of GIO in men and women at high risk for fractures (with the history of fragility fractures or having high FRAX 10-year absolute fracture risk. Teriparatide may be prescribed in case of previous antiosteoporotic treatment failure (new fractures occurring during treatment and/or continuing to decrease BMD, as well as when other drugs to treat OP are intolerable or when there are contraindications to their use. 

  7. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Treatment of Inflammation-Induced Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Monica D; Miller, Sarah; Randall-Demllo, Sarron; Nurgali, Kulmira

    2016-11-01

    Cancer development is often associated with chronic inflammation. To date, research into inflammation-induced cancer has largely focused on chemokines, cytokines, and their downstream targets. These inflammatory mediators may promote tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, and facilitate angiogenesis. However, the exact mechanisms by which inflammation promotes neoplasia remain unclear. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by recurrent, idiopathic intestinal inflammation, the complications of which are potentially fatal. IBD incidence in Australia is 24.2 per 100,000 and its peak onset is in people aged 15 to 24 years. Symptoms include abdominal pain, cramps, bloody stool, and persistent diarrhoea or constipation and so seriously compromise quality of life. However, due to its unknown etiology, current treatment strategies combat the symptoms rather than the disease and are limited by inefficacy, toxicity, and adverse side-effects. IBD is also associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer, for which treatment options are similarly limited. In recent years, there has been much interest in the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However, whether MSCs suppress or promote tumor development is still contentious within the literature. Many studies indicate that MSCs exert anti-tumor effects and suppress tumor growth, whereas other studies report pro-tumor effects. Studies using MSCs as treatment for IBD have shown promising results in both animal models and human trials. However, as MSC treatment is still novel, the long-term risks remain unknown. This review aims to summarize the current literature on MSC treatment of inflammation-induced cancer, with a focus on colorectal cancer resulting from IBD.

  8. Emerging treatment strategies for trauma-induced coagulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, B; Fries, D

    2012-01-01

    Trauma-induced coagulopathy has a multifactorial aetiology. Coagulopathy is related to blood loss including consumption of clotting factors and platelets and haemodilution. Additionally hyperfibrinolysis, hypothermia, acidosis and metabolic changes affect the coagulation system. This is a review of pathophysiology and new treatment strategies for trauma-induced coagulopathy. Paradigms are actively changing and there is still a shortage of data. The aim of any haemostatic therapy is to control bleeding and minimize blood loss and transfusion requirements. Transfusion of allogeneic blood products as well as trauma-induced coagulopathy cause increased morbidity and mortality. Current opinion is based on present studies and results from small case series, combined with findings from experimental studies in animals, in vitro studies and expert opinions, as opposed to large, randomized, placebo-controlled studies. A summary of new and emerging strategies, including medical infusion and blood products, to beneficially manipulate the coagulation system in the critically injured patient is suggested. Future treatment of trauma-induced coagulopathy may be based on systemic antifibrinolytics, local haemostatics and individualized point-of-care-guided rational use of coagulation factor concentrates such as fibrinogen, prothrombin complex concentrate, recombinant factor VIIa and factor XIII. The authors speculate that timely and rational use of coagulation factor concentrates will be more efficacious and safer than ratio-driven use of transfusion packages of allogeneic blood products. Copyright © 2011 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2011 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Surgical Treatment of Levodopa-induced Dyskinesia in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Syam; Pisharady, Krishnakumar Kesava

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD) is essentially a trade-off between adequate relief of motor symptoms and prevention and control of motor complications, particularly levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). Progression of PD is paralleled by a progressive difficulty in achieving the balance. Functional neurosurgical procedures provide sustained relief of LID in carefully selected patients when further tailoring of medical therapy fails to achieve this goal. Though deep brain stimulation (DBS) has superseded lesioning surgeries, pallidotomy still has a role in those patients in whom DBS is not feasible for financial or other reasons.

  10. The Incidence and Risk of Inducing Hyperthyroidism Following Amiodarone Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cozlea D L

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Amiodarone, a frequently used antiarrhythmic drug in cardiology, is very efficient in the treatment of ventricular and supraventricular tachiarrithmyas. The iodine content of amiodarone is 39%. Its chemical structure is similar to tyrosine. It is estimated that 1-23% of patients treated with amiodarone can develop hyperthyroidism. The purpose of this study is to assess and monitor the incidence of hyperthyroidism induced by amiodarone in patients admitted for various types of cardiac dysrhythmias, considering that most of the patients included in the study came from an endemic goitre area.

  11. Analgesic treatment of ciguatoxin-induced cold allodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Katharina; Deuis, Jennifer R; Inserra, Marco C; Collins, Lindon S; Namer, Barbara; Cabot, Peter J; Reeh, Peter W; Lewis, Richard J; Vetter, Irina

    2013-10-01

    Ciguatera, the most common form of nonbacterial ichthyosarcotoxism, is caused by consumption of fish that have bioaccumulated the polyether sodium channel activator ciguatoxin. The neurological symptoms of ciguatera include distressing, often persistent sensory disturbances such as paraesthesias and the pathognomonic symptom of cold allodynia. We show that intracutaneous administration of ciguatoxin in humans elicits a pronounced axon-reflex flare and replicates cold allodynia. To identify compounds able to inhibit ciguatoxin-induced Nav responses, we developed a novel in vitro ciguatoxin assay using the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Pharmacological characterisation of this assay demonstrated a major contribution of Nav1.2 and Nav1.3, but not Nav1.7, to ciguatoxin-induced Ca2+ responses. Clinically available Nav inhibitors, as well as the Kv7 agonist flupirtine, inhibited tetrodotoxin-sensitive ciguatoxin-evoked responses. To establish their in vivo efficacy, we used a novel animal model of ciguatoxin-induced cold allodynia. However, differences in the efficacy of these compounds to reverse ciguatoxin-induced cold allodynia did not correlate with their potency to inhibit ciguatoxin-induced responses in SH-SY5Y cells or at heterologously expressed Nav1.3, Nav1.6, Nav1.7, or Nav1.8, indicating cold allodynia might be more complex than simple activation of Nav channels. These findings highlight the need for suitable animal models to guide the empiric choice of analgesics, and suggest that lamotrigine and flupirtine could be potentially useful for the treatment of ciguatera. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Acupuncture treatment of patients with radiation-induced xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blom, M.; Dawidson, I.; Johnson, G.; Angmar-Maansson, B.; Fernberg, J.-O.

    1996-01-01

    Xerostomia is a common and usually irreversible side effect in patients receiving radiation therapy (>50 Gy) for head and neck cancer. Of 38 patients with radiation-induced xerostomia, 20 in the experimental group were treated with classical acupuncture and 18 patients in the control group received superficial acupuncture as placebo. Within both groups the patients showed significantly increased salivary flow rates after the acupuncture treatment. In the experimental group 68% and in the control group 50% of the patients had increased salivary flow rates at the end of the observation period. Among those patients who had had all their salivary glands irradiated, 50% in both groups showed increased salivary flow rates (>20%) by the end of the observation period of 1 year. The study indicates that among the patients who had increased salivary flow rates already after the first 12 acupuncture sessions, the majority had high probability of continual improvement after the completion of acupuncture treatment. (Author)

  13. Acupuncture treatment of patients with radiation-induced xerostomia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, M.; Dawidson, I.; Johnson, G.; Angmar-Maansson, B. [Karolinska Inst., Huddinge (Sweden). Dept. of Cardiology; Fernberg, J.-O. [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of General Oncology

    1996-05-01

    Xerostomia is a common and usually irreversible side effect in patients receiving radiation therapy (>50 Gy) for head and neck cancer. Of 38 patients with radiation-induced xerostomia, 20 in the experimental group were treated with classical acupuncture and 18 patients in the control group received superficial acupuncture as placebo. Within both groups the patients showed significantly increased salivary flow rates after the acupuncture treatment. In the experimental group 68% and in the control group 50% of the patients had increased salivary flow rates at the end of the observation period. Among those patients who had had all their salivary glands irradiated, 50% in both groups showed increased salivary flow rates (>20%) by the end of the observation period of 1 year. The study indicates that among the patients who had increased salivary flow rates already after the first 12 acupuncture sessions, the majority had high probability of continual improvement after the completion of acupuncture treatment. (Author).

  14. Treatment of radiation- and chemotherapy-induced stomatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnel, S.B.; Blakeslee, D.B.; Oswald, S.G.; Barnes, M. (Fitzsimons Army Medical Center, Aurora, CO (USA))

    1990-04-01

    Severe stomatitis is a common problem encountered during either radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Most therapeutic regimens are empirical, with no scientific basis. The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of various topical solutions in the treatment of radiation- or chemotherapy-induced stomatitis. Eighteen patients were entered into a prospective double-blinded study to test several topical solutions: (1) viscous lidocaine with 1% cocaine; (2) dyclonine hydrochloride 1.0% (Dyclone); (3) kaolin-pectin solution, diphenhydramine plus saline (KBS); and (4) a placebo solution. Degree of pain relief, duration of relief, side effects, and palatability were evaluated. The results showed that Dyclone provided the most pain relief. Dyclone and viscous lidocaine with 1% cocaine provided the longest pain relief, which averaged 50 minutes This study provides objective data and defines useful guidelines for treatment of stomatitis.

  15. Supraglottoplasty as treatment of exercise induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlum, Camilla Slot; Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Godballe, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Breathing difficulties during exertion may be caused by exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO). The diagnosis depends on visualization of the larynx during exercise, i.e. by continuous laryngoscopic exercise (CLE) test. In case of severe supraglottic collapse and pronounced symptoms during...... or on very few patients. This study is the second larger-scale study that documents the positive effect of supraglottoplasty as treatment of EILO in terms of reduced respiratory symptoms and decreased laryngeal obstruction assessed by post-operative CLE test. We suggest that surgery is a well...... strenuous exertion, surgical treatment (supraglottoplasty) has been suggested. The aims of this study were to evaluate outcome and patient satisfaction after supraglottoplasty for EILO and to compare our results with previously reported data. During the period December 2010 to October 2013, 17 patients...

  16. Pilocarpine and carbacholine in treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensuu, H.; Bostroem, P.; Makkonen, T.

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-four patients with radiation-related xerostomia were treated with oral pilocarpine solution 6 mg t.i.d., and after a 4-week drug-free period 16 of these patients were treated with carbacholine 2 mg tablets t.i.d. Basal and stimulated whole saliva flow rates were measured before commencing the drug treatment, and after 1 and 12 weeks on treatment. On a subjective linear scale both pilocarpine (p=0.01) and carbacholine (p=0.02) improved mouth moistness. Only 2 of the 8 patients with no basal or stimulated saliva flow reported some subjective benefit from the drug treatment, whereas all 8 patients with less severe xerostomia improved (p=0.007). However, the salivary flow rates measured 12 h after the last drug dose did not improve with either drug. Both drugs were generally well tolerated. It is concluded that both drugs may be useful in the treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia among patients with residual salivary function. (author). 6 refs., tabs

  17. Rhabdomyolysis induced by antiepileptic drugs: characteristics, treatment and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Wang, Xuefeng; Zhou, Shengnian

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis syndrome refers to a variety of factors that affect the striated muscle cell membrane, the membrane channels and its energy supply. Most cases of rhabdomyolysis are due to direct trauma. However, infection, toxins, drugs, muscle ischemia, electrolyte imbalance, metabolic diseases, genetic diseases and abnormal body temperature can also lead to rhabdomyolysis. Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological diseases. The primary long-term treatment is antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), which may cause rhabdomyolysis. This article summarizes the characteristics, treatment methods and prognosis of patients with rhabdomyolysis that is induced by antiepileptic drugs. This review is based on PubMed, EMBASE and MEDLINE searches of the literature using the keywords "epilepsy", "antiepileptic drugs","status epilepticus","rhabdomyolysis", and "antiepileptic drugs and rhabdomyolysis syndrome" as well as extensive personal clinical experience with various antiepileptic drugs. Potential relationships between antiepileptic drugs and rhabdomyolysis are discussed. Worldwide, there are approximately 50 million epilepsy patients, most of whom are treated with drugs. Reports have indicated that the majority of antiepileptic drugs on the market can cause rhabdomyolysis. Although rhabdomyolysis induced by antiepileptic drugs is a rare condition with a low incidence, this condition has serious consequences and merits attention from clinicians.

  18. Methylnaltrexone in the treatment of opioid-induced constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld1, Kelly M Standifer21Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Oklahoma Center for Neuroscience, Department of Physiology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Oklahoma Center for Neuroscience, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USAAbstract: Constipation is a significant problem related to opioid medications used to manage pain. This review attempts to outline the latest findings related to the therapeutic usefulness of a μ opioid receptor antagonist, methylnaltrexone in the treatment of opioid-induced constipation. The review highlights methylnaltrexone bromide (RelistorTM; Progenics/Wyeth a quaternary derivative of naltrexone, which was recently approved in the United States, Europe and Canada. The Food and Drug Administration in the United States approved a subcutaneous injection for the treatment of opioid bowel dysfunction in patients with advanced illness who are receiving palliative care and when laxative therapy has been insufficient. Methylnaltrexone is a peripherally restricted, μ opioid receptor antagonist that accelerates oral–cecal transit in patients with opioidinduced constipation without reversing the analgesic effects of morphine or inducing symptoms of opioid withdrawal. An analysis of the mechanism of action and the potential benefits of using methylnaltrexone is based on data from published basic research and recent clinical studies.Keywords: methylnaltrexone, constipation, opioid

  19. Treatment of amiodarone induced hyperthyroidism with potassium perchlorate and methimazole during amiodarone treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Reichert, L. J.; de Rooy, H. A.

    1989-01-01

    To exploit the antiarrhythmic effect of amiodarone when patients develop the side effect of thyrotoxicosis three patients with hyperthyroidism induced by amiodarone were given simultaneously 1 g potassium perchlorate a day for 40 days and a starting dose of 40 mg methimazole a day while they continued to take amiodarone. As hyperthyroidism might have recurred after potassium perchlorate treatment was stopped the dose of methimazole was not reduced until biochemical hypothyroidism (raised thyr...

  20. Sucralfate for the treatment of radiation induced mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belka, C.; Hoffmann, W.; Paulsen, F.; Bamberg, M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy, a cornerstone in the management of head and neck cancer, pelvic cancer, and esophageal cancer is associated with a marked mucosal toxicity. Pain, malnutrition and diarrhea are the most prevalent clinical symptoms of radiation induced mucosal damage. Because there is no known way to obviate radiation mucositis all efforts to prevent aggravation and accelerate healing of mucosal changes are of great importance. Numerous agents including antimicrobials, local and systemic analgesics, antiinflammatory drugs, antidiarrheal drugs, in combination with intensive dietetic care are used to relieve symptoms. Recently coating agents like the polyaluminum-sucrose complex sucralfate were suggested for the prevention and treatment of mucosal reactions. Since sucralfate protects ulcerated epithelium by coating, liberates protective prostaglandins and increases the local availability of protective factors this drug might directly interact with the pathogenesis of mucositis. Patients and Method: The results of available studies are analysed and discussed. Results: The results of several studies indicate that sucralfate treatment especially during radiotherapy for pelvic cancer leads to a significant amelioration of clinical symptoms and morphological changes. An application of sucralfate during radiotherapy of head and neck cancer reveals only limited benefits in most studies performed. Conclusion: Nevertheless sucralfate is a save, cheap and active drug for the prevention and treatment of radiation mucositis especially in patients with pelvic irradiation. (orig.) [de

  1. Acute Poisoning with Dapsone and Olanzapine: Severe Methemoglobinemia and Coma with a Favourable Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliev, Yanko T; Zagorov, Marin Y; Grudeva-Popova, Janet G

    2015-01-01

    Dapsone is a drug commonly used in the treatment of leprosy. In Europe it is rarely prescribed, mostly for the treatment of skin diseases such as dermatitis herpetiformis. Poisoning with dapsone is rare and reports of such cases are of interest for toxicological practice. We describe the only acute dapsone poisoning in a caseload series of 21,000 intoxications treated in the Clinical Toxicology Clinic at St George University Hospital in Plovdiv, Bulgaria between 1999 and 2013. We report on a 36-year-old woman who attempted deliberate self-poisoning with an ingestion of approximately 4.5 g of dapsone and 0.3 g of olanzapine. On admission, the patient was in a state of severe intoxication and comatose. On admission to hospital 9 hours after the ingestion, the methemoglobin level was 51.7%. The patient recovered 8 days later. She received complex treatment including intubation, ventilation, repeated gastric lavage, hemodialysis, blood exchange transfusion and antidote treatment with methylene blue. She was discharged in good clinical condition with minimal organ damage such as mild toxic hepatitis.

  2. Gynecologic cancer treatment: risk factors for therapeutically induced neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messerschmidt, G.L.; Hoover, R.; Young, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Therapeutic intervention in a course of illness, while producing the desired result, also may have some adverse long-term effects on the patient. Second malignancies are one of the known complications of therapy. The treatments of gynecologic cancers by surgery, irradiation and chemotherapy have been associated with subsequent neoplasms. Care must be exercised in associating previous therapy and a subsequent malignancy. Naturally occurring second cancers must be separated from those which are iatrogenic. Associations in the literature have been made involving malignancies as a sequelae of prior gynecologic therapy. The use of normal skin from the thigh to fabricate an artificial vagina has resulted in more squamous cell carcinomas than expected. Alkylating agents used in the treatment of ovarian cancer and other diseases have been shown to lead to an increased risk of leukemia. Irradiation therapy, however, has not yet been shown to be related to leukemia in cervical cancer patients. The incidence of lymphoma and uterine, urinary bladder and colon carcinomas has been associated with prior irradiation for gynecologic disease. The literature regarding the therapeutically induced risk factors in gynecologic therapy is reviewed and areas of our knowledge that require more investigation are identified

  3. Phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth management with periodontal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgel, Bruno César de Vasconcelos; de Morais, Carlos Roberto Batista; da Rocha-Neto, Pedro Carlos; Dantas, Euler Maciel; Pinto, Leão Pereira; Costa, Antonio de Lisboa Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth (PIGO) is a common complication of the continuous use of medications. This paper presents a case of PIGO hindering oral function and compromising oral hygiene and aesthetics, which was treated with a combination of nonsurgical and surgical periodontal therapies. A 39-year-old male patient was referred for dental treatment with several complaints, especially upper and lower gingival overgrowth that hindered speech and swallowing. Generalized deep probing pockets and bone loss were detected. Diagnosis of gingival overgrowth associated with phenytoin and chronic periodontitis was established. The treatment plan consisted of conservative therapy with education on oral health, motivation and meticulous oral hygiene instruction in combination with scaling and root planing. During the revaluation period, a marked reduction in the clinical parameters was noted, particularly probing pocket depth reduction. Surgical therapy for removal of gingival overgrowth was also performed to achieve pocket reduction. Supportive periodontal therapy was proposed and the patient is currently under follow-up for 4 years. Management of PIGO may be obtained by the use of periodontal procedures combined with good oral hygiene and periodontal supportive care.

  4. Induced pluripotent stem cells and Parkinson's disease: modelling and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyun; Huang, Jinsha; Li, Jie; Liu, Ling; Han, Chao; Shen, Yan; Zhang, Guoxin; Jiang, Haiyang; Lin, Zhicheng; Xiong, Nian; Wang, Tao

    2016-02-01

    Many neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), are characterized by progressive neuronal loss in different regions of the central nervous system, contributing to brain dysfunction in the relevant patients. Stem cell therapy holds great promise for PD patients, including with foetal ventral mesencephalic cells, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Moreover, stem cells can be used to model neurodegenerative diseases in order to screen potential medication and explore their mechanisms of disease. However, related ethical issues, immunological rejection and lack of canonical grafting protocols limit common clinical use of stem cells. iPSCs, derived from reprogrammed somatic cells, provide new hope for cell replacement therapy. In this review, recent development in stem cell treatment for PD, using hiPSCs, as well as the potential value of hiPSCs in modelling for PD, have been summarized for application of iPSCs technology to clinical translation for PD treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Treatment of amiodarone induced hyperthyroidism with potassium perchlorate and methimazole during amiodarone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, L. J.; de Rooy, H. A.

    1989-01-01

    To exploit the antiarrhythmic effect of amiodarone when patients develop the side effect of thyrotoxicosis three patients with hyperthyroidism induced by amiodarone were given simultaneously 1 g potassium perchlorate a day for 40 days and a starting dose of 40 mg methimazole a day while they continued to take amiodarone. As hyperthyroidism might have recurred after potassium perchlorate treatment was stopped the dose of methimazole was not reduced until biochemical hypothyroidism (raised thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations) was achieved. The patients became euthyroid (free triiodothyronine concentration returned to normal values) in two to five weeks and hypothyroid in 10 to 14 weeks. One patient became euthyroid while taking 5 mg methimazole a day and 600 mg amiodarone weekly; the two others required substitution treatment with thyroxine sodium while taking 5 mg methimazole or 50 mg propylthiouracil (because of an allergic reaction to methimazole) and 2100 or 1400 mg amiodarone weekly. Hyperthyroidism induced by amiodarone may be treated with potassium perchlorate and methimazole given simultaneously while treatment with amiodarone is continued. PMID:2547467

  6. Treatment of radiation-induced normal tissue lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezvani, M.

    2003-01-01

    Normal tissue damage is the most important limiting factor in radiotherapy. It must be possible, at least theoretically, to eradicate a localised tumour if a large enough dose of radiation could be delivered to tumour, however, practically, there is always the danger of damaging normal tissues adjacent to the tumour. Factors such as the total radiation dose, overall treatment time, dose per fraction, dose-rate and the effects of changing the irradicated volume of the spinal cord have been examined in order to improve therapeutic ratio in radiotherapy. The majority of these studies have concentrated on optimizing dose fractionation schedules. Only recently have attempts been made to modify this effect by the administration of therapeutic agents after irradiation but before the development of the lesion. Despite this interest the problem still exists. At present there is no effective clinically applied treatment towards radiation-induced normal tissue injury, however, some symptoms for example swelling or pain during inflammatory phase may respond to corticosteroids. There are a number of agents, which have been used experimentally, some clinically, to alleviate radiation damage. The results of these studies are reviewed. A number of substances, generally named Biological Response Modifiers, with diverse mode of actions have been used in post irradiation modification of normal tissue reactions. The effect and mode of action of a number of these treatments are discussed. Classical radioprotectors, that are mainly thiol-containing substances such as Amifostine, are used for prophylaxis and should be administered before or at the time of irradiation. These substances have been deliberately excluded in this article

  7. Antituberculosis Drug-Induced Liver Injury with Autoimmune Features: Facing Diagnostic and Treatment Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Adriana Rangel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a case report of antituberculosis drug-induced liver injury that offered diagnostic challenges (namely, the possibility of drug-induced autoimmune hepatitis and treatment difficulties.

  8. Successful treatment of sodium oxalate induced urolithiasis with Helichrysum flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaran, Metin; Orhan, Nilüfer; Farahvash, Amirali; Ekin, Hasya Nazlı; Kocabıyık, Murat; Gönül, İpek Işık; Şen, İlker; Aslan, Mustafa

    2016-06-20

    Helichrysum (Asteraceae) flowers, known as "altın otu, yayla çiçeği, kudama çiçeği" , are widely used to remove kidney stones and for their diuretic properties in Turkey. To determine the curative effect of infusions prepared from capitulums of Helichrysum graveolens (M. Bieb.) Sweet (HG) and H. stoechas ssp. barellieri (Ten.) Nyman (HS) on sodium oxalate induced kidney stones. Infusions prepared from the capitulums of HG and HS were tested for their curative effect on calcium oxalate deposition induced by sodium oxalate (70mg/kg i.p.). Following the injection of sodium oxalate for 5 days, plant extracts were administered to rats at two different doses. Potassium citrate was used as positive control. Water intake, urine volume, body, liver and kidney weights were measured; biochemical and hematological analyses were conducted on urine and blood samples. Additionally, histopathological examinations were done on kidney samples. H. stoechas extract showed prominent effect at 156mg/kg dose (stone formation score: 0.33), whereas number of kidney stones was maximum in sodium oxalate group (stone formation score: 2.33). The reduction in the uric acid and oxalate levels of urine samples and the elevation in the urine citrate levels are significant and promising in extract groups. Some hematological, biochemical and enzymatic markers are also ameliorated by the extracts. This is the first report on the curative effect of immortal flowers. Our preliminary study indicated that Helichrysum extracts may be used for treatment of urolithiasis and Helichrysum extracts are an alternative therapy to potassium citrate for patients suffering from kidney stones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Methemoglobinemia and ascorbate deficiency in hemoglobin E β thalassemia: metabolic and clinical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Angela; Fisher, Christopher; Premawardhena, Anuja; Bandara, Dayananda; Perera, Ashok; Allen, Stephen; St Pierre, Timothy; Olivieri, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    During investigations of the phenotypic diversity of hemoglobin (Hb) E β thalassemia, a patient was encountered with persistently high levels of methemoglobin associated with a left-shift in the oxygen dissociation curve, profound ascorbate deficiency, and clinical features of scurvy; these abnormalities were corrected by treatment with vitamin C. Studies of erythropoietin production before and after treatment suggested that, as in an ascorbate-deficient murine model, the human hypoxia induction factor pathway is not totally dependent on ascorbate levels. A follow-up study of 45 patients with HbE β thalassemia showed that methemoglobin levels were significantly increased and that there was also a significant reduction in plasma ascorbate levels. Haptoglobin levels were significantly reduced, and the high frequency of the 2.2 haptoglobin genotype may place an additional pressure on ascorbate as a free-radical scavenger in this population. There was, in addition, a highly significant correlation between methemoglobin levels, splenectomy, and factors that modify the degree of globin-chain imbalance. Because methemoglobin levels are modified by several mechanisms and may play a role in both adaptation to anemia and vascular damage, there is a strong case for its further study in other forms of thalassemia and sickle-cell anemia, particularly when splenic function is defective. PMID:22885163

  10. Cerium oxide nanoparticle treatment ameliorates peritonitis-induced diaphragm dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asano S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Shinichi Asano,1,2 Ravikumar Arvapalli,1 Nandini DPK Manne,1,2 Mani Maheshwari,1,3 Bing Ma,1,2 Kevin M Rice,1 Vellaisamy Selvaraj,1,2 Eric R Blough1–3 1Center for Diagnostic Nanosystems, 2Department of Pharmacology, Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, School of Pharmacy, 3Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Toxicology, Joan C Edwards School of Medicine, Marshall University, Huntington, WV, USA Abstract: The severe inflammation observed during sepsis is thought to cause diaphragm dysfunction, which is associated with poor patient prognosis. Cerium oxide (CeO2 nanoparticles have been posited to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities suggesting that these particles may be of potential use for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. To investigate this possibility, Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: sham control, CeO2 nanoparticle treatment only (0.5 mg/kg iv, sepsis, and sepsis+CeO2 nanoparticles. Sepsis was induced by the introduction of cecal material (600 mg/kg directly into the peritoneal cavity. Nanoparticle treatment decreased sepsis-associated impairments in diaphragmatic contractile (Po function (sham: 25.6±1.6 N/cm2 vs CeO2: 23.4±0.8 N/cm2, vs Sep: 15.9±1.0 N/cm2 vs Sep+CeO2: 20.0±1.0 N/cm2, P<0.05. These improvements in diaphragm contractile function were accompanied by a normalization of protein translation signaling (Akt, FOXO-1, and 4EBP1, diminished proteolysis (caspase 8 and ubiquitin levels, and decreased inflammatory signaling (Stat3 and iNOS. Histological analysis suggested that nanoparticle treatment was associated with diminished sarcolemma damage and diminished inflammatory cell infiltration. These data indicate CeO2 nanoparticles may improve diaphragmatic function in the septic laboratory rat. Keywords: cerium oxide nanoparticles, anti-inflammatory, nitric oxide, diaphragm

  11. Radiation induced sarcoma after treatment of glioblastoma: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Victor Domingos Lisita; Anjos, Caroline Souza dos; Candido, Priscila Barile Marchi; Dias Junior, Antonio Soares; Santos, Evandro Airton Sordi dos; Godoy, Antonio Carlos Cavalcante; Saggioro, Fabiano P.; Carlotti Junior, Carlos Gilberto; Oliveira, Harley Francisco de; Peria, Fernanda Maris

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Glioblastoma multiform is the most lethal central nervous system neoplasm, with a median survival of around 13 months and the worst prognosis among all gliomas. The therapeutic approach of glioblastoma consists in neurosurgery with maximum possible resection of tumor volume, followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Radiotherapy reduces the risk of tumor recurrence through direct and indirect damage to tumor deoxyribonucleic acid. The long-term effects of radiation therapy include tissue necrosis, vasculopathy, and radiation-induced neoplasia. The most reported secondary intracranial malignant tumors include meningiomas, gliomas, and sarcomas. The latency period between skull radiotherapy and the appearance of radioinduced lesions varies in the literature from six months to 47 years, with an average of 18.7 years. Case report: The present report describes the appearance of high-grade spindle cell sarcoma after ten months in a patient who received glioblastoma treatment at Hospital das Clínicas of Ribeirão Preto of the University of São Paulo. Conclusion: The rarity of this association is probably due to the poor survival of patients with glioblastoma, thus limiting the time to development of secondary neoplasia

  12. Retrospective evaluation of adverse drug reactions induced by antihypertensive treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rende, Pierandrea; Paletta, Laura; Gallelli, Giuseppe; Raffaele, Gianluca; Natale, Vincenzo; Brissa, Nazareno; Costa, Cinzia; Gratteri, Santo; Giofrè, Chiara; Gallelli, Luca

    2013-01-01

    The use of cardiovascular drugs is related to the development of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in about 24% of the patients in the Cardiovascular Care Unit. Here, we evaluated the ADRs in patients treated with antihypertensive drugs. The study was conducted in two phases: In the first phase, we performed a retrospective study on clinical records of Clinical Divisions (i.e., Internal Medicine Operative Unit and Geriatric Operative Unit) from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2012. Moreover from January 1, 2013 to March 30, 2013 we performed a prospective study on the outpatients attending the Emergency Department (ED) of the Pugliese-Ciaccio Hospital of Catanzaro, by conducting patient interviews after their informed consent was obtained. The association between a drug and ADR was evaluated using the Naranjo scale. We recorded 72 ADRs in the Clinical Divisions and six in the ED, and these were more frequent in women. Using the Naranjo score, we showed a probable association in 92% of these reactions and a possible association in 8%. The most vulnerable age group involved in ADRs was that of the elderly patients. In conclusion, our results indicate that antihypertensive drugs may be able to induce the development of ADRs, particularly in elderly women receiving multiple drug treatment. Therefore, it is important to motivate the healthcare providers to understand their role and responsibility in the detection, management, documentation, and reporting of ADRs, as also all the essential activities for optimizing patient safety. PMID:24347982

  13. Pentoxifylline in the treatment of radiation-induced fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunieff, Paul; Augustine, Elizabeth; Hicks, Jeanne E; Cornelison, Terri L; Altemus, Rosemary M; Naydich, Boris G; Ding, Ivan; Huser, Amy K; Abraham, Edward H; Smith, Judith J; Coleman, Norman; Gerber, Lynn H

    2004-06-01

    Fibrotic sequelae remain the most important dose-limiting toxicity of radiation therapy to soft tissue. Functionally, this is reflected in loss of range of motion and muscle strength and the development of limb edema and pain. Tumor necrosis factor alpha and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), which are abnormally elevated in irradiated tissues, may mediate radiation fibrovascular injury. In an open label drug trial, we studied the effects of pentoxifylline (400 mg orally tid for 8 weeks) on 30 patients who displayed late, radiation-induced fibrosis at 1 to 29 years posttreatment (40 to 84 Gy). The primary outcome measurement was change in physical impairments thought to be secondary to radiation, including active and passive range of motion (AROM and PROM), muscle strength, limb edema, and pain. Plasma levels of cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha and FGF2) also were measured. Twenty-seven patients completed baseline and 8-week assessments, and 24 patients completed baseline, 8-week, and 16-week assessments. After 8 weeks of pentoxifylline intervention, 20 of 23 patients with impaired AROM and 19 of 22 with impaired PROM improved; 11 of 19 patients with muscle weakness showed improved motor strength; five of seven patients with edema had decreased limb girth; and nine of 20 patients had decreased pain. Pretreatment FGF2 levels dropped from an average of 44.9 pg/mL to 24.0 pg/mL after 8 weeks of treatment. Patients receiving pentoxifylline demonstrated improved AROM, PROM, and muscle strength and decreased limb edema and pain. Reversal of these delayed radiation effects was associated with a decrease in circulating FGF2.

  14. Biomarkers for the early detection of cancer treatment induced cardiotoxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulten, Ben

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, the role of several imaging and nonimaging markers for the detection of anthracycline-induced and trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity (respectively AIC and TIC) is evaluated. Especially, the pathophysiology of these processes and the interrelationship of the various markers are

  15. Importance of local skin treatments during radiotherapy for prevention and treatment of radio-induced epithelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chargari, C.; Fromantin, I.; Kirova, Y.M.; Chargari, C.

    2009-01-01

    Radio-epithelitis represents a common problem, for which treatments are characterized by a great heterogeneity. The present review of literature focuses on data referenced in Pub med/Medline and published in French/English. Despite a real preclinical rationale, aloe vera and trolamine failed to demonstrate any benefit in the prophylactic settings. In a prospective assessment phase III assessment, Calendula officinalis was shown to be superior to trolamine for the prevention of radio-epithelitis. In the curative settings, sucrafalte failed to demonstrate any benefit. The benefit of dermo-corticoids was suggested in terms of erythema and itching. Promising clinical results are available with hyaluronic acid (M.A. S065D and Ialugen) and silver leaf may reduce the intensity of cutaneous radio-induced side effects. Data from the literature are conflicting, making real the difficulty to adopt from clinical trials any proof-of-principle strategy. Considering these uncertainties, several strategies are allowed. New topics are under investigation. Present data from the literature highlight the need for further trials, in order to propose evidence-based treatments and to harmonize clinical practice. (authors)

  16. Cognitive-behavioral hypnotherapy in the treatment of irritable-bowel-syndrome-induced agoraphobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, William L

    2007-04-01

    There are a number of clinical reports and a body of research on the effectiveness of hypnotherapy in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Likewise, there exists research demonstrating the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in the treatment of IBS. However, there is little written about the integration of CBT and hypnotherapy in the treatment of IBS and a lack of clinical information about IBS-induced agoraphobia. This paper describes the etiology and treatment of IBS-induced agoraphobia. Cognitive, behavioral, and hypnotherapeutic techniques are integrated to provide an effective cognitive-behavioral hypnotherapy (CBH) treatment for IBS-induced agoraphobia. This CBH approach for treating IBS-induced agoraphobia is described and clinical data are reported.

  17. Quality control in radiotherapy treatment: Radiation induced myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Vicioso, E.; Ruiz-Cruces, R.

    2001-01-01

    Direct injury of the spinal cord has been reported many times, particularly in cases of overexposures with radiotherapy of neoplasm that occurred outside the Central Nervous System. Permanent damage to the spinal cord is the most feared complication of radiation therapy treatments and one of the relatively common causes of litigation for medical malpractice in the context of cancer treatment. We have learned from clinical experience, data from randomized trials and animal experimentation, the dose tolerance as well as the interfraction interval for hyperfractionation regimes. We are still lacking precious clinical information, in particular the dose tolerance in combined modality treatments that represent the vast majority of modern treatments. (author)

  18. Methamphetamine-induced psychosis: Clinical features, treatment modalities and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Clinical features correspond with other international findings. The currently employed model of sequential, non-integrated psychiatric and substance use treatment in this setting appears ineffective.

  19. Radiation-induced fibrosarcoma following treatment for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Y.G.; Reif, R.

    1977-01-01

    A patient with radiation-induced fibrosarcoma following mastectomy and postoperative radiation for bilateral breast carcinoma is described. Only six such cases have been reported in the literature. In this patient erosion of the axillary artery produced massive hemorrhage, and emergency transthoracic ligation of the subclavian artery caused gangrene of the extremity and empyema and sepsis. Interscapulothoracic amputation not only was life-saving but offered the patient a reasonable chance for long-term survival. Only aggressive surgical management can salvage a patient with radiation-induced sarcoma

  20. Lentinan treatment of Plasmodium yoelii-infected mice induces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-31

    Jan 31, 2012 ... Renaturation of triple helical polysaccharide lentinan in water-diluted dimethylsulfoxide solution. Carbohydr Res. 345(3): 419-424. Xu X, Zhang Y, Qu D, Jiang T, Li S (2011). Osthole induces G2/M arrest and apoptosis in lung cancer A549 cells by modulating. PI3K/Akt pathway. J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.

  1. Effect of Magnesium pre-treatment on Alloxan induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The role of vitamins and mineral supplementation in the prevention of diabetes mellitus is not well elucidated. Objective: The effect of prior administration of magnesium on alloxan induced diabetes was assessed in rats. Methods: 36 Male albino rats were used for this study. The animals were divided into 6 ...

  2. Treatment of amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism with potassium perchlorate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, E. W.; Prummel, M. F.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Nikkels, R. E.

    1993-01-01

    The antiarrhythmic drug, amiodarone, induces thyroid dysfunction, which is potentially dangerous in cardiac patients. After discontinuation of the drug it takes several months before euthyroidism is restored. The potent antithyroid drug, potassium perchlorate (KClO4), is used successfully to treat

  3. Minocycline treatment ameliorates interferon-alpha-induced neurogenic defects and depression-like behaviors in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Shun eZheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interferon-alpha (IFN-α is a proinflammatory cytokine that is widely used for the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis and malignancy, because of its immune-activating, antiviral, and antiproliferative properties. However, long-term IFN-α treatment frequently causes depression, which limits its clinical utility. The precise molecular and cellular mechanisms of IFN-α-induced depression are not currently understood. Neural stem cells (NSCs in the hippocampus continuously generate new neurons, and some evidence suggests that decreased neurogenesis plays a role in the neuropathology of depression. We previously reported that IFN-α treatment suppressed hippocampal neurogenesis and induced depression-like behaviors via its receptors in the brain in adult mice. However, it is unclear how systemic IFN-α administration induces IFN-α signaling in the hippocampus. In this study, we analyzed the role of microglia, immune cells in the brain, in mediating the IFN-α-induced neurogenic defects and depressive behaviors. In vitro studies demonstrated that IFN-α treatment induced the secretion of endogenous IFN-α from microglia, which suppressed NSC proliferation. In vivo treatment of adult mice with IFN-α for five weeks increased the production of proinflammatory cytokines, including IFN-α, and reduced neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Both effects were prevented by simultaneous treatment with minocycline, an inhibitor of microglial activation. Furthermore, minocycline treatment significantly suppressed IFN-α-induced depressive behaviors in mice. These results suggest that microglial activation plays a critical role in the development of IFN-α-induced depression, and that minocycline is a promising drug for the treatment of IFN-α-induced depression in patients, especially those who are low responders to conventional antidepressant treatments.

  4. Surgical treatment of 2 cases of irradiation induced constrictive pericarditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osawa, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Wataru; Yoshii, Shinpei [Yamanashi Medical Univ., Tamaho (Japan)] (and others)

    1999-11-01

    A 72-years-old man underwent radiation therapy (62 Gy) for esophageal carcinoma. Twelve months later, symptoms of heart failure such as syncope, cough and hepatomegaly manifested. On catheter study, a dip and plateau pattern of right ventricular pressure curve was evident. Pericardiectomy without extracorporeal circulation was performed. Operative findings and pathological results were compatible with radiation-induced constrictive pericarditis. He recovered from the heart failure, and has been doing well 3 months after the surgery. A 54-years-old man underwent thymectomy for malignant thymoma. He underwent a radiation therapy (52 Gy) postoperatively. After 12 months from the irradiation, syncope and dyspnea manifested. On catheter study, a dip and plateau pattern of right ventricular pressure curve was observed. Pericardiectomy with extracorporeal circulation was performed. He recovered from the heart failure after pericardiectomy, however he died of radiation-induced pneumonitis 6 months later. (author)

  5. Cannabidiol Treatment Ameliorates Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Amr A. Fouad; Waleed H. Albuali; Iyad Jresat

    2013-01-01

    The possible therapeutic effect of cannabidiol, the major non-psychotropic Cannabis constituent, was investigated against acute hepatotoxicity induced by a single oral dose of acetaminophen (500mg/kg) in mice. Cannabidiol (two intraperitoneal injections, 5mg/kg, each) was given 1 hour and 12 hours following acetaminophen administration. Acetaminophen administration caused significant elevations of serum alanine aminotransferase, and hepatic malondialdehyde, and nitric oxide levels, and a sign...

  6. Acute Rotavirus-Induced Diarrhea in Children: Clinical Picture, Diagnosis, Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Niankovskyi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the current aspects of epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical picture and treatment of acute rotavirus-induced diarrhea in children. There are presented the basic thesis of ESPGHAN consensus (2014 about acute diarrheas. There was analyzed the effectiveness of probiotic Subalin producing interferon for the treatment of acute rotavirus-induced diarrhea. It was demonstrated its effectiveness according to the literature review and own data.

  7. Effect of Bauhinia holophylla treatment in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    PINHEIRO, MARCELO S.; RODRIGUES, LUHARA S.; S. NETO, LEILA; MORAES-SOUZA, RAFAIANNE Q.; SOARES, THAIGRA S.; AMÉRICO, MADILEINE F.; CAMPOS, KLEBER E.; DAMASCENO, DÉBORA C.; VOLPATO, GUSTAVO T.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bauhinia holophylla, commonly known as “cow’s hoof”, is widely used in Brazilian folk medicine for the diabetes treatment. Therefore, the aim of this study was at evaluating the aqueous extract effect of Bauhinia holophylla leaves treatment on the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by Streptozotocin (40 mg/Kg) in female Wistar rats. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Bauhinia holophylla leaves was given to non-diabetic and diabetic rats at a dose of 400...

  8. High hydrostatic pressure treatment of porcine oocytes induces parthenogenetic activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Lin; Pribenszky, Csaba; Molnár, Miklós

    2010-01-01

    An innovative technique called high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment has recently been reported to improve the cryosurvival of gametes and embryos in certain mammalian species, including the mouse, pig, and cattle. In the present study the parthenogenetic activation (PA) of pig oocytes caused...... by HHP treatment was investigated in different holding media with or without Ca(2+). The efficiency of activation was tested at different pressure levels and media including T2 (HEPES-buffered TCM-199 containing 2% cattle serum), and mannitol-PVA fusion medium with (MPVA + Ca(2+)) or without Ca(2...

  9. Acrocyanosis from phenazopyridine-induced sulfhemoglobinemia mistaken for Raynaud phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermani, Tanaz A; Pislaru, Sorin V; Osborn, Thomas G

    2009-04-01

    Rheumatologists are often asked to evaluate patients with Raynaud phenomenon. Occasionally, an alternate explanation is revealed such as acrocyanosis. Methemoglobinemia and sulfhemoglobinemia are rare causes of cyanosis that can be medication-induced. Both are known complications of therapy with phenazopyridine. We report an unusual case of a 45-year-old woman in whom sulfhemoglobinemia from chronic therapy with phenazopyridine was misdiagnosed as due to Raynaud phenomenon and limited scleroderma. This case illustrates the importance of taking into account medication-related adverse events when evaluating patients with Raynaud-like phenomenon.

  10. Capecitabine treatment of HCT-15 colon cancer cells induces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iodide, Triton X-100, Tris-HCl and trypan blue were supplied by Sigma Chemical Co (St Louis,. MO, USA). ... achieved on 6-15 % SDS-PAGE and the proteins were subsequently transferred onto PVDF membranes. ... permeabilized by treatment with Triton-X 100. (0.3 %) in PBS for 1 h. The non-specific sites blocked with 2 ...

  11. Lentinan treatment of Plasmodium yoelii-infected mice induces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-31

    Jan 31, 2012 ... infected mice results in down-regulation of the Th1-type immune response, leading to death (Wu et al., 2007;. Amante et al., 2007). Thus, these cells help to promote the pathogenesis of malaria. Several treatments are commonly used to combat malaria; most often is quinine administration (Sahu et al.,.

  12. Hot water treatments delay cold-induced banana peel blackening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Promyou, S.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2008-01-01

    Banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) and cv. Namwa (Musa x paradisiaca, ABB Group) were immersed for 5, 10 and 15 min in water at 42 degrees C, or in water at 25 degrees C (control), and were then stored at 4 degrees C. Hot water treatment for 15

  13. Treatment Induced Autophagy Associated with Tumor Dormancy and Relapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The cells also demonstrated senescence, based on beta galactosidase staining (Figure 1C, lower panels). The induction of autophagy was confirmed...detection of autophagosomes (Panel C, upper portion) and beta galactosidase (β-gal) as a marker of senescence (panel C, lower portion). Induction...8  A. Control    ADR     IR   B. C.   Figure 5. Senescence induced in 4T1cells by Adriamycin and Radiation. Panel A shows beta galactosidase

  14. Drug-Induced Hypothermia as Beneficial Treatment before and after Cerebral Ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Flemming F; Hasseldam, Henrik; Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Hypothermia is still unproven as beneficial treatment in human stroke, although in animal models, conditioning the brain with hypothermia has induced tolerance to insults. Here, we delineate the feasibility of drug-induced mild hypothermia in reducing ischemic brain damage when...... conditioning before (preconditioning) and after (postconditioning) experimental stroke. Methods: Hypothermia was induced in rats with a bolus of 6 mg/kg talipexole followed by 20 h continuous talipexole infusion of 6 mg/kg in total. Controls received similar treatment with saline. The core body temperature...

  15. Speech-Language Pathology as a Primary Treatment for Exercise-Induced Laryngeal Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Monica; Litts, Juliana K; Nauman, Emily; Haines, Jemma

    2018-05-01

    Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction is a condition that restricts respiration during exercise via inappropriate glottic or supraglottic obstruction. The literature supports behavioral treatment provided by a speech-language pathologist as an effective means of treating exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction. Treatment includes educating the patient, training on relaxation, instruction on paced exercise, and use of various breathing techniques to optimize laryngeal aperture. Intervention for patients with exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction may be delivered by a speech-language pathologist, given their clinical skill of facilitating long-term behavioral change and expertise in the laryngeal mechanism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Treatment of a radiation-induced brachial plexopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Ichirou; Harashina, Takao; Inoue, Takeo; Ueda, Kouichi; Hatoko, Mituo; Shidara, Yukinobu; Ito, Yoshiyasu.

    1990-01-01

    A radiation-induced brachial plexopathy after a mastectomy causes severe pain and numbness, as well as motor and sensory disorders. Severe pain is often resistant to analgesic blocks, and in most instances, the effect of neurolysis is only temporary. We have treated two such patients with microsurgical neurolysis and then have covered the nerve by transferred muscles. In one case, the exposed brachial plexus was covered with a pedicled latissimus dorsi muscle flap, and in the other, with a free rectus abdominis muscle flap. Pain and numbness were markedly improved in these two patients soon after the surgery, and the improvement in the sensory function also was relatively satisfactory. In one case, the motor function also improved. These patients have had no recurrence of pain or numbness for 4 years and 2 months and 4 years and 7 months after surgery, respectively. Further, their sensory and motor disorders did not advance. Surgical indications for a radiation-induced brachial plexopathy remain controversial, since the operation does not always ensure a marked improvement in the sensory and motor functions. Further, the operation is ineffective for patients with advanced nerve degeneration. Taking these factors into consideration, the preoperative predication of beneficial effects from this surgery is difficult. Despite our limited experience, however, our surgical method has been thought to be effective because it achieves a marked improvement in the numbness and pain experienced in the arms, which are usually the patients' chief complaints. (author)

  17. Herbal Medicine as Inducers of Apoptosis in Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Safarzadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. Nowadays, cancer is considered as a human tragedy and one of the most prevalent diseases in the wide, and its mortality resulting from cancer is being increased. It seems necessary to identify new strategies to prevent and treat such a deadly disease. Control survival and death of cancerous cell are important strategies in the management and therapy of cancer. Anticancer agents should kill the cancerous cell with the minimal side effect on normal cells that is possible through the induction of apoptosis. Apoptosis is known as programmed cell death in both normal and damaged tissues. This process includes some morphologically changes in cells such as rapid condensation and budding of the cell, formation of membrane-enclosed apoptotic bodies with well-preserved organelles. Induction of apoptosis is one of the most important markers of cytotoxic antitumor agents. Some natural compounds including plants induce apoptotic pathways that are blocked in cancer cells through various mechanisms in cancer cells. Multiple surveys reported that people with cancer commonly use herbs or herbal products. Vinca Alkaloids, Texans, podo phyllotoxin, Camptothecins have been clinically used as Plant derived anticancer agents. The present review summarizes the literature published so far regarding herbal medicine used as inducers of apoptosis in cancer.

  18. Herbal medicine as inducers of apoptosis in cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarzadeh, Elham; Sandoghchian Shotorbani, Siamak; Baradaran, Behzad

    2014-10-01

    Cancer is uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. Nowadays, cancer is considered as a human tragedy and one of the most prevalent diseases in the wide, and its mortality resulting from cancer is being increased. It seems necessary to identify new strategies to prevent and treat such a deadly disease. Control survival and death of cancerous cell are important strategies in the management and therapy of cancer. Anticancer agents should kill the cancerous cell with the minimal side effect on normal cells that is possible through the induction of apoptosis. Apoptosis is known as programmed cell death in both normal and damaged tissues. This process includes some morphologically changes in cells such as rapid condensation and budding of the cell, formation of membrane-enclosed apoptotic bodies with well-preserved organelles. Induction of apoptosis is one of the most important markers of cytotoxic antitumor agents. Some natural compounds including plants induce apoptotic pathways that are blocked in cancer cells through various mechanisms in cancer cells. Multiple surveys reported that people with cancer commonly use herbs or herbal products. Vinca Alkaloids, Texans, podo phyllotoxin, Camptothecins have been clinically used as Plant derived anticancer agents. The present review summarizes the literature published so far regarding herbal medicine used as inducers of apoptosis in cancer.

  19. Genetic modification to induce CXCR2 overexpression in mesenchymal stem cells enhances treatment benefits in radiation-induced oral mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zongshan; Wang, Jiancheng; Huang, Qiting; Shi, Yue; Wei, Zhewei; Zhang, Xiaoran; Qiu, Yuan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Yi; Qin, Wei; Huang, Shuheng; Huang, Yinong; Liu, Xin; Xia, Kai; Zhang, Xinchun; Lin, Zhengmei

    2018-02-14

    Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects patient quality of life and reduces tolerance to cancer therapy. Unfortunately, traditional treatments are insufficient for the treatment of mucositis and might elicit severe side effects. Due to their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, the transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a potential therapeutic strategy for mucositis. However, systemically infused MSCs rarely reach inflamed sites, impacting their clinical efficacy. Previous studies have demonstrated that chemokine axes play an important role in MSC targeting. By systematically evaluating the expression patterns of chemokines in radiation/chemical-induced oral mucositis, we found that CXCL2 was highly expressed, whereas cultured MSCs negligibly express the CXCL2 receptor CXCR2. Thus, we explored the potential therapeutic benefits of the transplantation of CXCR 2 -overexpressing MSCs (MSCs CXCR2 ) for mucositis treatment. Indeed, MSCs CXCR2 exhibited enhanced targeting ability to the inflamed mucosa in radiation/chemical-induced oral mucositis mouse models. Furthermore, we found that MSC CXCR2 transplantation accelerated ulcer healing by suppressing the production of pro-inflammatory chemokines and radiogenic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Altogether, these findings indicate that CXCR2 overexpression in MSCs accelerates ulcer healing, providing new insights into cell-based therapy for radiation/chemical-induced oral mucositis.

  20. Impact of IL28B polymorphism on treatment induced viral clearance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of IL28B polymorphism on treatment induced viral clearance in HCV infected Egyptian patients. ... All patients were treated with PEG-IFN-α/ribavirin; and they were classified according to their response to treatment. Genotyping of IL28B rs12979860 was performed on peripheral blood DNA using polymerase chain ...

  1. Gamma radiation induced effects on slaughterhouse wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Rita; Cabo Verde, Sandra; Branco, Joaquim; Botelho, M. Luisa

    2008-01-01

    A preliminary study using gamma radiation on slaughterhouse wastewater samples was carried out. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS) results were obtained at a dose rate of 0.9 kGy h -1 . A decrease of COD, BOD and colour was observed after irradiation at high absorbed doses. The microbiological results, following irradiation in the same conditions, correlated with the BOD results. The results obtained highlight the potential of this technology for wastewater treatment

  2. Aripiprazole in the treatment of paliperidone-induced tardive dyskinesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Belvi Mangalwedhe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tardive dyskinesia (TD is a potentially serious and irreversible side effect of anti-psychotic medications. It is characterized by choreiform movements, or rhythmic abnormal involuntary movements of the face, mouth, tongue, trunk, and limbs. Although no reliable treatment for TD exists, atypical anti-psychotics are associated with a significantly lower incidence of TD than typical anti-psychotics. Recent reports suggest that atypical anti-psychotics may have a beneficial effect on TD remission. We present a case of severe oro-bucco-lingual TD, which was effectively managed with aripiprazole.

  3. Gamma radiation induced effects on slaughterhouse wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Rita [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, Apartado 21, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)], E-mail: ritamelo@itn.pt; Cabo Verde, Sandra [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, Apartado 21, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Branco, Joaquim [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, Apartado 21, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Botelho, M. Luisa [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, Apartado 21, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2008-01-15

    A preliminary study using gamma radiation on slaughterhouse wastewater samples was carried out. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS) results were obtained at a dose rate of 0.9 kGy h{sup -1}. A decrease of COD, BOD and colour was observed after irradiation at high absorbed doses. The microbiological results, following irradiation in the same conditions, correlated with the BOD results. The results obtained highlight the potential of this technology for wastewater treatment.

  4. Herbal medicines for the treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Shunsuke; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that Japanese herbal medicines, called Kampo, have beneficial effects on cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects. Rikkunshito ameliorates cisplatin-induced anorexia through an antagonistic effect on the 5-HT receptors and by increasing the serum ghrelin levels. Hangeshashinto improves irinotecan-induced diarrhea and chemotherapy-induced mucositis by inhibiting the activity of β-glucuronidase as well as the synthesis of prostaglandin E2. Goshajinkigan prevents oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity, possibly through suppressing functional alterations of the transient receptor potential channels. In this review, we will summarize the currently available literature regarding the clinical efficacy and potential mechanisms of Kampo medicines in the treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects.

  5. Surgical treatment of radiation induced injuries of the intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, E.H.; Symmonds, R.E.

    1981-12-01

    In the patient who has received high dose irradiation of the pelvis and abdomen, all abdominopelvic operations should be avoided, unless it is absolutely essential. Persisting obstruction, hemorrhage, intestinal perforation with peritonitis and with abscess and fistula formation are valid indications for surgical intervention. Ninety-three patients have been operated upon for these complications after irradiation. Some anastomotic dehiscence occurred in ten patients. Six operative deaths occurred. Of the 93 patients, 65 were managed by means of complete resection of the involved segment of intestine, followed by restoration of intestinal continuity by means of an end-to-end anastomosis. This is the treatment of choice when the involved area can be safely resected. In the absence of actual intestinal necrosis and when segments of strictured small intestine are adherent deep in the pelvis, and intestinal bypass procedure may represent the treatment of choice. This was accomplished in 20 patients, two of whom eventually required a second operation for resection of the bypassed segment of intestine.

  6. Surgical treatment of radiation induced injuries of the intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, E.H.; Symmonds, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    In the patient who has received high dose irradiation of the pelvis and abdomen, all abdominopelvic operations should be avoided, unless it is absolutely essential. Persisting obstruction, hemorrhage, intestinal perforation with peritonitis and with abscess and fistula formation are valid indications for surgical intervention. Ninety-three patients have been operated upon for these complications after irradiation. Some anastomotic dehiscence occurred in ten patients. Six operative deaths occurred. Of the 93 patients, 65 were managed by means of complete resection of the involved segment of intestine, followed by restoration of intestinal continuity by means of an end-to-end anastomosis. This is the treatment of choice when the involved area can be safely resected. In the absence of actual intestinal necrosis and when segments of strictured small intestine are adherent deep in the pelvis, and intestinal bypass procedure may represent the treatment of choice. This was accomplished in 20 patients, two of whom eventually required a second operation for resection of the bypassed segment of intestine

  7. Anabolic steroid-induced hypogonadism: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnema, Cyrus D; Lipshultz, Larry I; Crosnoe, Lindsey E; Kovac, Jason R; Kim, Edward D

    2014-05-01

    To develop an understanding of hypogonadal men with a history of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use and to outline recommendations for management. Review of published literature and expert opinions. Intended as a meta-analysis, but no quality studies met the inclusion criteria. Not applicable. Men seeking treatment for symptomatic hypogonadism who have used nonprescribed AAS. History and physical examination followed by medical intervention if necessary. Serum testosterone and gonadotropin levels, symptoms, and fertility restoration. Symptomatic hypogonadism is a potential consequence of AAS use and may depend on dose, duration, and type of AAS used. Complete endocrine and metabolic assessment should be conducted. Management strategies for anabolic steroid-associated hypogonadism (ASIH) include judicious use of testosterone replacement therapy, hCG, and selective estrogen receptor modulators. Although complications of AAS use are variable and patient specific, they can be successfully managed. Treatment of ASIH depends on the type and duration of AAS use. Specific details regarding a patient's AAS cycle are important in medical management. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Diagnosis and treatment of radiation-induced burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portas, Mercedes; Pomerane, Armando; Genovese, Jorge; Perez, Maria R.; Gisone, Pablo

    2002-01-01

    The utilization of radioactive sources in medicine, industry and research is associated with a probability of accidental overexposures to ionizing radiation, among which localized irradiation are the most frequent events. Moreover, between 5 and 8 % of the patients undergoing therapeutical irradiations could exhibit a higher individual radiosensitivity which could account for severe skin reactions. Localized overexposures may damage not only epidermis and dermis but also deeper connective tissue, vessels, muscles and even bones. Within the framework of a cooperation agreement between the Buenos Aires Burn Hospital and the National Board of Nuclear Regulation, a Radio pathology Committee has been established in 1997 with the purpose of carrying out a collaborative project concerning diagnosis and treatment of radiological burns. The present document particularly considers radiological burns form the point of view of their physiopathology, physical and biological dosimetry, diagnosis prognosis and treatment. It also includes basic concepts of radiation biology and radio pathology. It could be an useful tool for training medical practitioners and also a practical guidance for organizing medical response in accidental overexposures. (author)

  9. Treatment-induced mucositis: an old problem with new remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, R. P.

    1998-01-01

    Mucositis may be a painful, debilitating, dose-limiting side-effect of both chemotherapy and radiotherapy for which there is no widely accepted prophylaxis or effective treatment. The basis of management is pain relief, prevention of dehydration and adequate nutrition. When tested vigorously, most antiseptic mouthwashes and anti-ulcer agents are ineffective. Simple mechanical cleansing by saline is the most effective traditional measure. A variety of new agents are effective. Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) act outwith the haemopoeitic system and can reduce mucositis, but the best schedule, dosage and method of administration is not known or which is the best growth factor to prevent this side-effect. A placebo-controlled randomized trial of antibiotic pastilles has shown a significant reduction in mucositis and weight loss during radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Another method to reduce radiation effects in normal tissue is to stimulate cells to divide before radiotherapy by silver nitrate or interleukin 1. These methods may be particularly effective when given along with hyperfractionated radiation treatment such as CHART. PMID:9635851

  10. Stress-induced structural remodeling in hippocampus: Prevention by lithium treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Gwendolyn E.; Young, L. Trevor; Reagan, Lawrence P.; Chen, Biao; McEwen, Bruce S.

    2004-03-01

    Chronic restraint stress, psychosocial stress, as well as systemic or oral administration of the stress-hormone corticosterone induces a morphological reorganization in the rat hippocampus, in which adrenal steroids and excitatory amino acids mediate a reversible remodeling of apical dendrites on CA3 pyramidal cell neurons of the hippocampus. This stress-induced neuronal remodeling is accompanied also by behavioral changes, some of which can be prevented with selective antidepressant and anticonvulsive drug treatments. Lithium is an effective treatment for mood disorders and has neuroprotective effects, which may contribute to its therapeutic properties. Thus, we wanted to determine whether lithium treatment could prevent the effects of chronic stress on CA3 pyramidal cell neuroarchitecture and the associated molecular and behavioral measures. Chronic lithium treatment prevented the stress-induced decrease in dendritic length, as well as the stress-induced increase in glial glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) mRNA expression and the phosphorylation of cAMP-response element binding in the hippocampus. Lithium treatment, however, did not prevent stress effects on behavior in the open field or the plus-maze. These data demonstrate that chronic treatment with lithium can protect the hippocampus from potentially deleterious effects of chronic stress on glutamatergic activation, which may be relevant to its therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder.

  11. The prevention and treatment of radiotherapy induced nausea and vomiting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Zyl, A.J.

    1992-11-01

    Nausea and vomiting are side-effects that are associated with chemo- and radiotherapy. A single-blind study to compare the efficacy and safety of intravenous granisetron (G) with metoclopramide (M) plus dexamethasone (D) in the prophylaxis and control of nausea and emesis in patients undergoing hemi-body irradiation (HBI) was performed. G (3 mg) or M (20 mg) plus D (12 mg) were given intravenously, thirty minutes prior to the start of radiotherapy. Patients were monitored for nausea, vomiting and side-effects. Thirty-five patients were treated, 28 men and 7 women. A total of 21 (60%) patients did not vomit during the first 24 hours after the start of radiotherapy. Both G and M plus D offer safe and effective anti-emetic regimes for the prophylaxis and control of radiotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. However, granisetron was found to be more effective than metoclopramide plus dexamethasone in preventing nausea and vomiting. 101 refs., 40 tabs., 8 figs

  12. Tetracycline-induced renal failure after dental treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Craig S; McGarity, Gary J

    2009-01-01

    Tetracyclines are broad-spectrum antibiotics used by dental practitioners in the treatment of periodontal disease. They generally are safe in adults. However, caution is advised in patients who have pre-existing kidney disease. A 42-year-old woman with polycystic kidney disease received a prescription for tetracycline (250 milligrams, four times daily) after undergoing tooth extractions. She developed nausea, vomiting and diarrhea within days and end-stage renal disease within two weeks of taking the antibiotic. Hemodialysis was required to stabilize the patient's condition. Use of the Naranjo nomogram demonstrated an association between the two events. This case illustrates the importance of obtaining a thorough medical history and understanding potential adverse drug effects before prescribing a common antibiotic.

  13. Antiresorptive Treatment for Spaceflight Induced Bone Atrophy - Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Adrian; Matsumoto, toshio; Jones, Jeff; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Thomas; Shackelford, Linda C.; Smith, Scott M.; Evans, Harlan J.; Spector, Elisabeth R.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; hide

    2011-01-01

    Detailed measurements from the Mir and ISS long duration missions have documented losses in bone mineral density (BMD) from critical skeletal sub-regions. The most important BMD losses are from the femoral hip, averaging about -1.6%/mo integral to -2.3%/mo trabecular. Importantly these studies have documented the wide range in individual BMD loss from -0.5 to -5%/mo. Associated elevated urinary Ca increases the risk of renal stone formation during flight, a serious impact to mission success. To date, countermeasures have not been satisfactory. The purpose of this study is to determine if the combined effect of anti-resorptive drugs plus the standard in-flight exercise regimen will have a measurable effect on preventing space flight induced bone loss (mass and strength) and reducing renal stone risk. To date, 4 crewmembers have completed the flight portion of the protocol in which crewmembers take a 70-mg alendronate tablet once a week before and during flight, starting 17 days before launch. Compared to previous ISS crewmembers (n=14) not taking alendronate, DXA measurements of the spine, femur neck and total hip were significantly improved from -0.8 +/- 0.5%/mo to 1.0 +/- 1.1%/mo, -1.1 +/- 0.5%/mo to -0.2 +/- 0.3%/mo, -1.1 +/- 0.5%/mo to 0.04 +/- 0.3%/mo respectively. QCT-determined trabecular BMD of the femur neck, trochanter and total hip were significantly improved from -2.7 +/- 1.9%/mo to -0.2 +/- 0.8%/mo, -2.2 +/- 0.9%/mo to -0.3 +/- 1.9%/mo and -2.3 +/- 1.0%/mo to -0.2 +/- 1.8%/mo respectively. Significance was calculated from a one-tailed t test. Resorption markers were unchanged, in contrast to measurements from previous ISS crewmembers that showed typical increases of 50-100% above baseline. Urinary Ca showed no increase compared to baseline levels, also distinct from the elevated levels of 50% or greater in previous crews. While these results are encouraging, the current n (4) is small, and the large SDs indicate that, while the means are improved, there

  14. Inducible protein-10 as a predictive marker of antiviral hepatitis C treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neesgaard, Bastian; Ruhwald, Morten; Weis, Nina

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To investigate interferon-γ-inducible protein-10's (IP-10) potential to anticipate rapid (RVR)- and sustained virological responses (SVR) to chronic hepatitis C (CHC) treatment. METHODS: We included case series examining RVR or SVR in relation to 24 or 48 wk treatment for CHC, in patients...... treatment free for at least six months, with genotype 1 or 4, and in relation to 24 wk treatment for genotype 2 and 3, with pegylated interferon in combination with ribavirin. Patients had to have both a baseline IP-10 level as well as a hepatitis C virus (HCV)-RNA determination 4 wk after treatment...... initiation or 24 wk after end of treatment. Studies including patients with liver diseases other than CHC, human immunodeficiency virus-infection, treatment with immunosuppresents or cytostatica, alcohol dependency or active intravenous drug-use were excluded. We found 81 articles by searching the MEDLINE...

  15. Magnitude, impact, and management of respiration-induced target motion in radiotherapy treatment: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Yoganathan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumors in thoracic and upper abdomen regions such as lungs, liver, pancreas, esophagus, and breast move due to respiration. Respiration-induced motion introduces uncertainties in radiotherapy treatments of these sites and is regarded as a significant bottleneck in achieving highly conformal dose distributions. Recent developments in radiation therapy have resulted in (i motion-encompassing, (ii respiratory gating, and (iii tracking methods for adapting the radiation beam aperture to account for the respiration-induced target motion. The purpose of this review is to discuss the magnitude, impact, and management of respiration-induced tumor motion.

  16. A novel nine base deletion mutation in NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase gene in an Indian family with recessive congenital methemoglobinemia-type-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Warang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recessive hereditary methemoglobinemia (RCM associated with severe neurological abnormalities is a very rare disorder caused by NADH- cytochrome b5 reductase (cb5r deficiency (Type II. We report a case of 11 month old male child who had severe mental retardation, microcephaly and gross global developmental delay with methemoglobin level of 61.1%. The diagnosis of NADH-CYB5R3 deficiency was made by the demonstration of significantly reduced NADH-CYB5R3 activity in the patient and intermediate enzyme activity in both the parents. Mutation analysis of the CYB5R gene revealed a novel nine nucleotide deletion in exon 6 leading to the elimination of 3 amino acid residues (Lys173, Ser174 and Val 175. To confirm that this mutation was not an artifact, we performed PCR-RFLP analysis using the restriction enzyme Drd I. As the normal sequence has a restriction recognition site for Drd I which was eliminated by the deletion, a single band of 603-bp was seen in the presence of the homozygous mutation. Molecular modeling analysis showed a significant effect of these 3 amino acids deletion on the protein structure and stability leading to a severe clinical presentation. A novel homozygous 9 nucleotide deletion (p.K173–p.V175del3 is shown to be segregated with the disease in this family. Knowing the profile of mutations would allow us to offer prenatal diagnosis in families with severe neurological disorders associated with RCM — Type II.

  17. Development of a Gene Therapy Virus with a Glucocorticoid-Inducible MMP1 for the Treatment of Steroid Glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Spiga, Maria-Grazia; Borrás, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    A glucocorticoid-inducible adenovirus vector overproduces active MMP1 only in the presence of dexamethasone. The overexpression degrades collagen type I and sets up the vector as a candidate for gene therapy treatment of steroid-induced hypertension.

  18. Flavanone silibinin treatment attenuates nitrogen mustard-induced toxic effects in mouse skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Anil K.; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Inturi, Swetha; Kumar, Dileep [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Orlicky, David J. [Department of Pathology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Agarwal, Chapla [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); White, Carl W. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045USA (United States); Agarwal, Rajesh, E-mail: Rajesh.Agarwal@UCDenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Currently, there is no effective antidote to prevent skin injuries by sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM), which are vesicating agents with potential relevance to chemical warfare, terrorist attacks, or industrial/laboratory accidents. Our earlier report has demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of silibinin, a natural flavanone, in reversing monofunctional alkylating SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide-induced toxic effects in mouse skin. To translate this effect to a bifunctional alkylating vesicant, herein, efficacy studies were carried out with NM. Topical application of silibinin (1 or 2 mg) 30 min after NM exposure on the dorsal skin of male SKH-1 hairless mice significantly decreased NM-induced toxic lesions at 24, 72 or 120 h post-exposure. Specifically, silibinin treatment resulted in dose-dependent reduction of NM-induced increase in epidermal thickness, dead and denuded epidermis, parakeratosis and microvesication. Higher silibinin dose also caused a 79% and 51%reversal in NM-induced increases in myeloperoxidase activity and COX-2 levels, respectively. Furthermore, silibinin completely prevented NM-induced H2A.X phosphorylation, indicating reversal of DNA damage which could be an oxidative DNA damage as evidenced by high levels of 8-oxodG in NM-exposed mouse skin that was significantly reversed by silibinin. Together, these findings suggest that attenuation of NM-induced skin injury by silibinin is due to its effects on the pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation, vesication and oxidative stress. In conclusion, results presented here support the optimization of silibinin as an effective treatment of skin injury by vesicants. - Highlights: • Silibinin treatment attenuated nitrogen mustard (NM)-induced skin injury. • Silibinin affects pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation and vesication. • The efficacy of silibinin could also be associated with oxidative stress. • These results support testing and optimization of

  19. Flavanone silibinin treatment attenuates nitrogen mustard-induced toxic effects in mouse skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Anil K.; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Inturi, Swetha; Kumar, Dileep; Orlicky, David J.; Agarwal, Chapla; White, Carl W.; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is no effective antidote to prevent skin injuries by sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM), which are vesicating agents with potential relevance to chemical warfare, terrorist attacks, or industrial/laboratory accidents. Our earlier report has demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of silibinin, a natural flavanone, in reversing monofunctional alkylating SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide-induced toxic effects in mouse skin. To translate this effect to a bifunctional alkylating vesicant, herein, efficacy studies were carried out with NM. Topical application of silibinin (1 or 2 mg) 30 min after NM exposure on the dorsal skin of male SKH-1 hairless mice significantly decreased NM-induced toxic lesions at 24, 72 or 120 h post-exposure. Specifically, silibinin treatment resulted in dose-dependent reduction of NM-induced increase in epidermal thickness, dead and denuded epidermis, parakeratosis and microvesication. Higher silibinin dose also caused a 79% and 51%reversal in NM-induced increases in myeloperoxidase activity and COX-2 levels, respectively. Furthermore, silibinin completely prevented NM-induced H2A.X phosphorylation, indicating reversal of DNA damage which could be an oxidative DNA damage as evidenced by high levels of 8-oxodG in NM-exposed mouse skin that was significantly reversed by silibinin. Together, these findings suggest that attenuation of NM-induced skin injury by silibinin is due to its effects on the pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation, vesication and oxidative stress. In conclusion, results presented here support the optimization of silibinin as an effective treatment of skin injury by vesicants. - Highlights: • Silibinin treatment attenuated nitrogen mustard (NM)-induced skin injury. • Silibinin affects pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation and vesication. • The efficacy of silibinin could also be associated with oxidative stress. • These results support testing and optimization of

  20. Curcumin photodynamic effect in the treatment of the induced periodontitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoro, Letícia Helena; Ferro-Alves, Marcio Luiz; Longo, Mariéllen; Nuernberg, Marta Aparecida Alberton; Ferreira, Renata Pironato; Andreati, Adriele; Ervolino, Edilson; Duque, Cristiane; Garcia, Valdir Gouveia

    2017-11-01

    This study assessed the effect of curcumin as a photosensitizer in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) for the treatment of induced periodontitis in rats. Periodontitis was induced via a ligature around the mandibular first molar on the left side of 96 rats. The ligature was removed 7 days later, and the animals were randomized into four groups: NT, no local treatment; CUR, irrigation with curcumin solution (40 μM); LED, irradiation with a light-emitting diode (LED, InGaN, 465-485 nm, 200 mW/cm 2 , 60 s); and aPDT, irrigation with curcumin solution (40 μM) followed by irradiation with LED. Eight animals from each group were euthanized at 7, 15, and 30 days post-treatment. Treatments were assessed using alveolar bone loss (ABL) in the furcation region using histological, histometric, and immunohistochemical analyses. Rats treated with aPDT exhibited less ABL at 7 days compared to the NT group, moderate pattern immunolabeling for osteoprotegerin at 30 days, and a pattern of immunolabeling for RANKL from moderate to low. Treatments resulted in smaller numbers of TRAP-positive cells compared to the NT group. aPDT as monotherapy using curcumin as a photosensitizer and LED as the light source was effective in the treatment of induced periodontitis in rats.

  1. Fluctuations induced extinction and stochastic resonance effect in a model of tumor growth with periodic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dongxi; Xu Wei; Guo, Yongfeng; Xu Yong

    2011-01-01

    We investigate a stochastic model of tumor growth derived from the catalytic Michaelis-Menten reaction with positional and environmental fluctuations under subthreshold periodic treatment. Firstly, the influences of environmental fluctuations on the treatable stage are analyzed numerically. Applying the standard theory of stochastic resonance derived from the two-state approach, we derive the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) analytically, which is used to measure the stochastic resonance phenomenon. It is found that the weak environmental fluctuations could induce the extinction of tumor cells in the subthreshold periodic treatment. The positional stability is better in favor of the treatment of the tumor cells. Besides, the appropriate and feasible treatment intensity and the treatment cycle should be highlighted considered in the treatment of tumor cells.

  2. Fluoride in the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lems, W. F.; Jacobs, J. W. G.; Bijlsma, J. W. J.

    2000-01-01

    Since the use of fluoride has been shown to stimulate bone formation and since decreased bone formation is a key feature in the pathogenesis of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis (CIOP), fluoride is, at least theoretically, attractive for the prevention and treatment of CIOP. In postmenopausal

  3. Water flow induced transport of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells through soil columns as affected by inoculant treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekman, W.E.; Heijnen, C.E.; Trevors, J.T.; Elsas, van J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Water flow induced transport of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells through soil columns was measured as affected by the inoculant treatment. Bacterial cells were introduced into the topsoil of columns, either encapsulated in alginate beads of different types or mixed with bentonite clay in concentrations

  4. Role of Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists in the Treatment of Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philteos George S

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asthma is a very common disorder that still causes significant morbidity and mortality. A high percentage of individuals with asthma also experience exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB. This article reviews the current literature and updates the reader on the safety, efficacy, and clinical applications of leukotriene modifiers in the treatment of EIB.

  5. Corticosteroid-induced Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head: Detection, Diagnosis, and Treatment in Earlier Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hua Liu

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Clinicians should enhance their precaution awareness of corticosteroid-induced ONFH. For high-risk patients, regular follow-up is very important in the 1st year after high-dose prescription of corticosteroids. Patients with suspected ONFH should be referred to orthopedists for diagnosis and treatment in its earlier stage to preserve the joint.

  6. Acute nicotine treatment prevents REM sleep deprivation-induced learning and memory impairment in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleisa, A M; Helal, G; Alhaider, I A; Alzoubi, K H; Srivareerat, M; Tran, T T; Al-Rejaie, S S; Alkadhi, K A

    2011-08-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (SD) is implicated in impairment of spatial learning and memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). An increase in nicotine consumption among habitual smokers and initiation of tobacco use by nonsmokers was observed during SD. Although nicotine treatment was reported to attenuate the impairment of learning and memory and LTP associated with several mental disorders, the effect of nicotine on SD-induced learning and memory impairment has not been studied. Modified multiple platform paradigm was used to induce SD for 24 or 48 h during which rats were injected with saline or nicotine (1 mg kg(-1) s.c.) twice a day. In the radial arm water maze (RAWM) task, 24- or 48-h SD significantly impaired learning and short-term memory. In addition, extracellular recordings from CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) regions of the hippocampus in urethane anesthetized rats showed a significant impairment of LTP after 24- and 48-h SD. Treatment of normal rats with nicotine for 24 or 48 h did not enhance spatial learning and memory or affect magnitude of LTP in the CA1 and DG regions. However, concurrent, acute treatment of rats with nicotine significantly attenuated SD-induced impairment of learning and STM and prevented SD-induced impairment of LTP in the CA1 and DG regions. These results show that acute nicotine treatment prevented the deleterious effect of sleep loss on cognitive abilities and synaptic plasticity. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Treatment of angiotensin receptor blocker-induced angioedema: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassen, Ulrich; Bas, Murat; Hoffmann, Thomas K; Knopf, Andreas; Greve, Jens

    2015-07-01

    Angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been proposed as a replacement therapy after the occurrence of either an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor-induced angioedema or cough. However, recent studies indicate that angioedema is associated with elevated bradykinin levels in a small fraction of patients treated with angiotensin-II-receptor blockers, suggesting a common pathophysiological mechanism. To date, a standard treatment for angiotensin II receptor blocker-induced angioedema does not exist. We present a case series of patients admitted to our hospital due to angioedema induced by an angiotensin II receptor blocker. The patients were either treated with either icatibant (n = 3) or prednisolone-21-hydrogen succinate/clemastine (n = 5). Both patient groups were compared with an untreated patient cohort (n = 3). All patients were previously diagnosed with essential hypertonia. Icatibant was an effective therapy for angiotensin II receptor blocker-induced angioedema. Full symptom recovery was achieved after 5 to 7 hours, whereas symptom remission occurred within 27 to 52 and 24 to 54 hours in patients treated with Solu-Decortin prednisolone/clemastine and untreated patients, respectively. The recovery time for icatibant was similar to that described in previous studies regarding the therapeutic efficacy of icatibant for the treatment of hereditary angioedema and patients suffering from angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor-induced angioedema. Icatibant is a safe and effective substance for the treatment of angiotensin II receptor blocker-induced angioedema. Although the pathophysiology of angiotensin II receptor blocker-induced angioedema remains unclear, it appears to be associated with the bradykinin pathway. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. Rolapitant for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navari, Rudolph M

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting is a significant clinical issue which affects patient's quality of life and treatment decisions. Significant improvements in the control of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting have occurred in the past 15 years with the introduction of new antiemetic agents 5-HT3, receptor antagonists, neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonists, and olanzapine. Aprepitant was the first NK-1 receptor antagonist introduced (2003) for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in combination with a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist and dexamethasone. A second NK-1 receptor antagonist netupitant was approved for use in October 2014. Phase III clinical trials of an additional NK-1 receptor antagonist rolapitant have been completed, and the data have been submitted for regulatory approval. A description of rolapitant and its role in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting will be presented, along with a comparison of the other neurolinin-1 receptor antagonists aprepitant and netupitant.

  9. Evaluation of effectiveness of hydrolyzed dextran in treatment of dust-induced bronchitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slinchenko, N.Z.; Filipchenko, L.L.; Volkova, V.M.

    1986-05-01

    An experimental group and a control group identical in age, work experience, dust exposure and expression of disease were treated for dust-induced bronchitis. The control group received broncholytics, anti-inflammatory preparations and physiotherapy; the experimental group received same treatment plus 200 ml of rheopolyglucin, a 10% solution of dextran (water-soluble polysaccharide of glucose), twice a week for 2 to 3 weeks. In addition to general laboratory and clinical methods of investigation, cytologic analysis of sputum before and after treatment was carried out. Results of experiment are given in 3 tables showing: Dynamics of Allergic Signs after Treatment with Rheopolyglucin, Dynamics of Content of Eosinophils in Blood after Treatment, and Cytologic Characteristics of Mucus of Patients with Dust-Induced Bronchitis. Patients treated with rheopolyglucin improved more than control group in abatement of suppurative process in lungs, strengthening of specific cellular and humoral mechanisms of immune response at level of bronchopulmonary system, increased expulsion of mineral dust from lungs and significant reduction of allergic reaction. Results quantitated in tables prove advantages of adding rheopolyglucin to traditional therapy in treatment of dust-induced bronchitis. 19 refs.

  10. Repeated resveratrol treatment attenuates methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity and [3H]dopamine overflow in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dennis K; Oelrichs, Clark E; Sage, Andrew S; Sun, Grace Y; Simonyi, Agnes

    2013-10-25

    Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) has been investigated for its potential as a prophylactic against degenerative diseases. It is a sirtulin activator that has recently been shown to regulate dopaminergic systems that contribute to the behavioral effects of methamphetamine and cocaine. The present study examined the impact of resveratrol on stimulant neuropsychopharmacology in rodents. Acute resveratrol treatment (20-40mg/kg) was ineffective to alter methamphetamine (0.5mg/kg)-induced hyperactivity in mice. Rodents received resveratrol once-daily for seven days to determine the effect of repeated polyphenolic treatment. Repeated resveratrol treatment (1-20mg/kg) decreased methamphetamine (0.5mg/kg)-induced hyperactivity in mice. Methamphetamine's (0.1-60μM) efficacy to evoke [(3)H]overflow from rat striatal slices preloaded with [(3)H]dopamine was also attenuated by repeated resveratrol (1mg/kg) treatment. Repeated resveratrol treatment (10-20mg/kg) did not affect cocaine-induced hyperactivity in mice. Overall, these data suggest that resveratrol appears to have metaplastic and prophylactic activity to minimize the effects of methamphetamine to increase locomotor activity and evoke dopamine release. These data encourage future research to further investigate the relationship between polyphenolics and psychostimulant abuse and dependence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of oral cholecystographic agents in the treatment of amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, I J; Baber, K

    2001-10-01

    We describe here five cardiac patients with type II amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism who were treated prospectively with a combination of an oral cholecystographic agent (sodium ipodate, Oragrafin, or sodium iopanoate, Telepaque) and a thionamide (propylthiouracil or methimazole); amiodarone was discontinued in all patients. All patients improved substantially clinically within a few days of treatment and became euthyroid or hypothyroid in 15-31 wk when treatment was discontinued. Four of the five became hypothyroid and required long-term treatment with L-T(4); the remaining patient was euthyroid, but died from cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure at 29 wk, when he had been off oral cholecystographic agent and thionamide for 6 wk. We did not find any clinical or biochemical adverse effects of the treatment. Our study suggests that a combination of oral cholecystographic agent and thionamide is a safe and effective treatment of type II amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism. Data also suggest that hypothyroidism is a common end result of type II amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism.

  12. Stall Margin Improvement in a Centrifugal Compressor through Inducer Casing Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. N. K. Satish Koyyalamudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing trend of high stage pressure ratio with increased aerodynamic loading has led to reduction in stable operating range of centrifugal compressors with stall and surge initiating at relatively higher mass flow rates. The casing treatment technique of stall control is found to be effective in axial compressors, but very limited research work is published on the application of this technique in centrifugal compressors. Present research was aimed to investigate the effect of casing treatment on the performance and stall margin of a high speed, 4 : 1 pressure ratio centrifugal compressor through numerical simulations using ANSYS CFX software. Three casing treatment configurations were developed and incorporated in the shroud over the inducer of the impeller. The predicted performance of baseline compressor (without casing treatment was in good agreement with published experimental data. The compressor with different inducer casing treatment geometries showed varying levels of stall margin improvement, up to a maximum of 18%. While the peak efficiency of the compressor with casing treatment dropped by 0.8%–1% compared to the baseline compressor, the choke mass flow rate was improved by 9.5%, thus enhancing the total stable operating range. The inlet configuration of the casing treatment was found to play an important role in stall margin improvement.

  13. Effect of Bauhinia holophylla treatment in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Marcelo S; Rodrigues, Luhara S; S, Leila; Moraes-Souza, Rafaianne Q; Soares, Thaigra S; Américo, Madileine F; Campos, Kleber E; Damasceno, Débora C; Volpato, Gustavo T

    2017-01-01

    Bauhinia holophylla, commonly known as "cow's hoof", is widely used in Brazilian folk medicine for the diabetes treatment. Therefore, the aim of this study was at evaluating the aqueous extract effect of Bauhinia holophylla leaves treatment on the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by Streptozotocin (40 mg/Kg) in female Wistar rats. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Bauhinia holophylla leaves was given to non-diabetic and diabetic rats at a dose of 400 mg/kg during 21 days. On day 17 of treatment, the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test was performed to determine the area under the curve. At the end of the treatment, the animals were anesthetized and blood was collected for serum biochemical parameters analysis. After treatment with Bauhinia holophylla extract, non-diabetic and diabetic rats presented no glycemic changes. On the other hand, the plant treatment decreased body weight and increased ALT and AST activities. In conclusion, the treatment with aqueous extract of B. holophylla leaves given to diabetic rats presented no hypoglycemic effect in nondiabetic animals and no antidiabetic effect in diabetic animals with the doses studied. In addition, the diabetic animals treated with the B. holophylla extract showed inconvenient effects and its indiscriminate consumption requires particular carefulness.

  14. Effect of Bauhinia holophylla treatment in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELO S. PINHEIRO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bauhinia holophylla, commonly known as “cow’s hoof”, is widely used in Brazilian folk medicine for the diabetes treatment. Therefore, the aim of this study was at evaluating the aqueous extract effect of Bauhinia holophylla leaves treatment on the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by Streptozotocin (40 mg/Kg in female Wistar rats. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Bauhinia holophylla leaves was given to non-diabetic and diabetic rats at a dose of 400 mg/kg during 21 days. On day 17 of treatment, the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test was performed to determine the area under the curve. At the end of the treatment, the animals were anesthetized and blood was collected for serum biochemical parameters analysis. After treatment with Bauhinia holophylla extract, non-diabetic and diabetic rats presented no glycemic changes. On the other hand, the plant treatment decreased body weight and increased ALT and AST activities. In conclusion, the treatment with aqueous extract of B. holophylla leaves given to diabetic rats presented no hypoglycemic effect in nondiabetic animals and no antidiabetic effect in diabetic animals with the doses studied. In addition, the diabetic animals treated with the B. holophylla extract showed inconvenient effects and its indiscriminate consumption requires particular carefulness.

  15. Steroid-induced femoral head osteonecrosis in immune thrombocytopenia treatment with osteochondral autograft transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotopoulos, Vasileios Ch; Mouzopoulos, George; Floros, Themistoklis; Tzurbakis, Matthaios

    2015-09-01

    Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is a devastating complication of steroid administration and has rarely been observed in the treatment of immune thrombocytopenia. The treatment of osteochondral defects in advanced stages of avascular necrosis (AVN), characterized by collapse of the subchondral bone, remains an unsolved burden in orthopedic surgery. In this report, we present a case of a 19-year-old female that was admitted in the Emergency Department with walking disability and painful hip joint movement due to steroid-induced femoral head osteonecrosis. Two years before she was diagnosed with immune thrombocytopenia, for which she received pulse steroid therapy with high dose of dexamethasone and underwent a splenectomy. This case report is the first to describe the use of osteochondral autograft transplantation as a treatment of steroid-induced AVN of the femoral head due to immune thrombocytopenia at the age of 19 years with very good clinical and radiological results 3 years postoperatively.

  16. Opioid-induced Hallucinations: A Review of the Literature, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanesan, Eellan; Gitlin, Melvin C; Candiotti, Keith A

    2016-10-01

    Despite their association with multiple adverse effects, opioid prescription continues to increase. Opioid-induced hallucination is an uncommon yet significant adverse effect of opioid treatment. The practitioner may encounter patient reluctance to volunteer the occurrence of this phenomenon because of fears of being judged mentally unsound. The majority of the literature concerning opioid-induced hallucinations arises from treatment during end-of-life care and cancer pain. Because the rate of opioid prescriptions continues to increase in the population, the rate of opioid-associated hallucinations may also conceivably increase. With a forecasted increase in the patient-to-physician ratio, opioid therapy is predicted to be provided by practitioners of varying backgrounds and medical specialties. Hence, knowledge of the pharmacology and potential adverse effects of these agents is required. This review seeks to increase awareness of this potential complication through a discussion of the literature, potential mechanisms of action, diagnosis, and treatment strategies.

  17. Methemoglobinemia and Failure to Thrive as a Result of FPIES to Soy Formula with Resolution on Amino Acid Based Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a severe, non-lgE mediated gastrointestinal food allergy syndrome. Despite being a recognized entity...methemoglobin of 15.1 %. Later evaluation of the metabolic acidosis revealed normal urine electrolytes, stool pH of 6 and positive (3+) fecal...mediated Gastrointestinal Food Allergies in Children. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. 2017;28:6- 17. 3. Leonard SA, A Nowak-Wegrzyn. Food Protein

  18. Treatment of early pregnancy failure: does induced abortion training affect later practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Vanessa K; Harris, Lisa H; Bell, Jason D; Schulkin, Jay; Steinauer, Jodi; Zochowski, Melissa; Fendrick, A Mark

    2011-06-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between induced abortion training and views toward, and use of, office uterine evacuation and misoprostol in early pregnancy failure (EPF) care. We surveyed 308 obstetrician-gynecologists on their knowledge and attitudes toward treatment options for EPF and previous training in office-based uterine evacuation. Sixty-seven percent of respondents reported training in office uterine evacuation, and 20.3% reported induced abortion training. Induced abortion training was associated with strongly positive views toward both office-based uterine evacuation and misoprostol as treatment for EPF compared with those with office uterine evacuation training in other settings (odds ratio [OR], 2.64; P abortion training was associated with the use of office uterine evacuation for EPF treatment compared with those with office evacuation training in other settings (OR, 2.90; P = .004). Training experiences, especially induced abortion training, are associated with the use of office uterine evacuation for EPF. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fatigue hydraulic fracturing by cyclic reservoir treatment enhances permeability and reduces induced seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Arno; Yoon, Jeoung Seok; Stephansson, Ove; Heidbach, Oliver

    2013-11-01

    The occurrence of induced seismic events during hydraulic fracturing of reservoirs to enhance permeability is an unavoidable process. Due to the increased public concern with respect to the risks imposed by induced seismicity, however, the development of a soft stimulation method is needed creating higher permeability with less induced seismicity. We use a discrete element model of naturally fractured rock with pore fluid flow algorithm in order to analyse two scenarios of high-pressure fluid injection (hydraulic fracturing) at depth and associated induced seismicity. The ratio of pumped-in energy to released seismic energy is in agreement with field data. Our results suggest that cyclic reservoir treatment is a safer alternative to conventional hydraulic fracture stimulation as both, the total number of induced events as well as the occurrence of larger magnitude events are lowered. This work is motivated by results of laboratory triaxial indenter tests on granite rock samples where continuous loading leads to a wide fracture process zone while cyclic treatment with frequent starting and stopping of loading fatigues the rock, resulting in smaller damage volume and more persistent fracture growth.

  20. Cyclosporine A and palmitic acid treatment synergistically induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yi, E-mail: yi.luo@pfizer.com; Rana, Payal; Will, Yvonne

    2012-06-01

    Immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment can cause severe side effects. Patients taking immunosuppressant after organ transplantation often display hyperlipidemia and obesity. Elevated levels of free fatty acids have been linked to the etiology of metabolic syndromes, nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis. The contribution of free fatty acids to CsA-induced toxicity is not known. In this study we explored the effect of palmitic acid on CsA-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. CsA by itself at therapeutic exposure levels did not induce detectible cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Co-treatment of palmitic acid and CsA resulted in a dose dependent increase in cytotoxicity, suggesting that fatty acid could sensitize cells to CsA-induced cytotoxicity at the therapeutic doses of CsA. A synergized induction of caspase-3/7 activity was also observed, indicating that apoptosis may contribute to the cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that CsA reduced cellular oxygen consumption which was further exacerbated by palmitic acid, implicating that impaired mitochondrial respiration might be an underlying mechanism for the enhanced toxicity. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) attenuated palmitic acid and CsA induced toxicity, suggesting that JNK activation plays an important role in mediating the enhanced palmitic acid/CsA-induced toxicity. Our data suggest that elevated FFA levels, especially saturated FFA such as palmitic acid, may be predisposing factors for CsA toxicity, and patients with underlying diseases that would elevate free fatty acids may be susceptible to CsA-induced toxicity. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia/obesity resulting from immunosuppressive therapy may aggravate CsA-induced toxicity and worsen the outcome in transplant patients. -- Highlights: ► Palmitic acid and cyclosporine (CsA) synergistically increased cytotoxicity. ► The impairment of mitochondrial functions may contribute to the enhanced toxicity. ► Inhibition of JNK activity attenuated

  1. The neuroprotective effect of hyperbaric oxygen treatment on laser-induced retinal damage in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevskia-Dai, Victoria; Belokopytov, Mark; Dubinsky, Galina; Nachum, Gal; Avni, Isaac; Belkin, Michael; Rosner, Mordechai

    2005-04-01

    Retinal damage induced by mechanical trauma, ischemia or laser photocoagulation increases considerably by secondary degeneration processes. The spread of damage may be ameliorated by neuroprotection that is aimed at reducing the extent of the secondary degeneration and promote healing processes. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment consists of inspiration of oxygen at higher than one absolute atmospheric pressure. Improved neural function was observed in patients with acute brain trauma or ischemia treated with HBO. This study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) on laser induced retinal damage in a rat model. Standard argon laser lesions were created in 25 pigmented rats divided into three groups: Ten rats were treated immediately after the irradiation with HBO three times during the first 24 hr followed by 12 consecutive daily treatments. Five rats received a shorter treatment regimen of 10 consecutive HBO treatments. The control group (10 rats) underwent the laser damage with no additional treatment. The retinal lesions were evaluated 20 days after the injury. All outcome measures were improved by the longer HBO treatment (Ptreatment was less effective, showing an increase only in nuclei density at the central area of lesion (Pretinal damage in a rat model. In the range of HBO exposures studied, longer exposure provides more neuroprotection. These results encourage further evaluation of the potential therapeutic use of hyperbaric oxygen in diseases and injuries of the retina.

  2. Constraint-induced aphasia therapy versus intensive semantic treatment in fluent aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilssens, Ineke; Vandenborre, Dorien; van Dun, Kim; Verhoeven, Jo; Visch-Brink, Evy; Mariën, Peter

    2015-05-01

    The authors compared the effectiveness of 2 intensive therapy methods: Constraint-Induced Aphasia Therapy (CIAT; Pulvermüller et al., 2001) and semantic therapy (BOX; Visch-Brink & Bajema, 2001). Nine patients with chronic fluent aphasia participated in a therapy program to establish behavioral treatment outcomes. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups (CIAT or BOX). Intensive therapy significantly improved verbal communication. However, BOX treatment showed a more pronounced improvement on two communication-namely, a standardized assessment for verbal communication, the Amsterdam Nijmegen Everyday Language Test (Blomert, Koster, & Kean, 1995), and a subjective rating scale, the Communicative Effectiveness Index (Lomas et al., 1989). All participants significantly improved on one (or more) subtests of the Aachen Aphasia Test (Graetz, de Bleser, & Willmes, 1992), an impairment-focused assessment. There was a treatment-specific effect. BOX treatment had a significant effect on language comprehension and semantics, whereas CIAT treatment affected language production and phonology. The findings indicate that in patients with fluent aphasia, (a) intensive treatment has a significant effect on language and verbal communication, (b) intensive therapy results in selective treatment effects, and (c) an intensive semantic treatment shows a more striking mean improvement on verbal communication in comparison with communication-based CIAT treatment.

  3. Hypoxic treatment inhibits insulin-induced chondrogenesis of ATDC5 cells despite upregulation of DEC1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Li; Fink, Trine; Ebbesen, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Chondrogenesis occurs in vivo in a hypoxic environment, in which the hypoxia inducible factor 1, HIF-1, plays a regulatory role, possibly mediated through the transcription factor DEC1. We have analyzed the effect of hypoxia (1% oxygen) alone and in combination with insulin on the chondrogenic...... differentiation of the mouse embryonic stem cell line ATDC5. Hypoxic treatment alone induced early chondrogenesis as evidenced by enhanced expression of aggrecan and collagen II, whereas hypoxic incubation of insulin-treated cells delayed and suppressed insulin-mediated early chondrogenesis and almost completely...... blocked hypertrophic differentiation. Paradoxically, the transcriptional activation of DEC1 was invariably enhanced by the hypoxic exposure....

  4. Successful treatment of gemcitabine-induced acute interstitial pneumonia with imatinib mesylate: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenocchio, Elisabetta; Depetris, Ilaria; Campanella, Delia; Garetto, Lucia; Schianca, Fabrizio Carnevale; Galizia, Danilo; Grignani, Giovanni; Aglietta, Massimo; Leone, Francesco

    2016-10-12

    Gemcitabine is currently the standard chemotherapy for the adjuvant treatment of pancreatic cancer. This chemotherapeutic agent is generally well-tolerated, myelosuppression and gastrointestinal toxicity being common side effects. Nevertheless, gemcitabine-induced pulmonary toxicity has been rarely reported. Despite its low incidence, the spectrum of pulmonary injury is wide, including potentially fatal conditions. We report a case of acute interstitial pneumonia related to gemcitabine, completely solved with Imatinib Mesylate (IM). The patient was a 69-year-old man, who developed a hypoxemic respiratory distress during adjuvant treatment with gemcitabine for stage IIA pancreatic cancer. The nonspecific diffuse alveolar involvement found on computed tomography (CT), together with the negative tests for infectious aetiology and the continuing severe respiratory failure despite a long course of broad-spectrum therapy, suggested gemcitabine-induced acute pneumonia as the most likely diagnosis. Thus, after the failure of steroids and all other conventional therapies, the patient was treated with imatinib mesylate on the basis of its activity in the management of graft-versus-host-induced lung fibrosis. A follow-up CT scan of chest one month later showed complete resolution of pneumonia. Despite the low frequency of serious pulmonary toxicity, gemcitabine widespread use warns clinicians to consider this life-threatening toxicity. The favourable clinical outcome with IM treatment was remarkable, warranting additional study of IM in the treatment of lung fibrosis.

  5. Surface-nitriding treatment of steels using microwave-induced nitrogen plasma at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shigeo; Arai, Yuuki; Yamashita, Noboru; Kojyo, Atsushi; Kodama, Kenji; Ohtsu, Naofumi; Okamoto, Yukio; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki

    2012-01-01

    A rapid surface-nitriding system using microwave-induced nitrogen plasma at atmospheric pressure was developed for modifying iron and steel surfaces. Since the conventional plasma nitriding technique requires a low-pressure atmosphere in the treatment chamber, the population of excited nitrogen molecules in the plasma is limited. Accordingly, several hours are required for nitriding treatment. By contrast, the developed nitriding system can use atmospheric-pressure plasma through application of the Okamoto cavity for excitation of nitrogen plasma. The high population of excited nitrogen molecules induced by the atmospheric-pressure plasma allowed the formation of a nitriding layer that was several micrometers thick within 1 min and produced an expanded austenite iron phase with a high nitrogen concentration close to the solubility limit on the iron substrate. In addition, the nitriding treatment on high-chromium steel was performed by introducing a reducing gas such as NH 3 and H 2 into the treatment chamber. While the nitriding reaction did not proceed in a simple N 2 atmosphere due to surface oxidation, the surface reduction induced by the NH 3 or H 2 gas promoted the nitriding reaction at the surface. These nitriding phenomena characteristics of the atmospheric-pressure plasma are discussed in this paper based on the effects of the specimen temperature and plasma atmosphere on the thickness, the chemical states, and the nitride compounds of the nitrided layer as investigated by X-ray diffraction, glow-discharge optical emission spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  6. Methemoglobinemia hemotoxicity of some antimalarial 8-aminoquinoline analogues and their hydroxylated derivatives: density functional theory computation of ionization potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    The administration of primaquine (PQ), an essential drug for treatment and radical cure of malaria, can lead to methemoglobin formation and life-threatening hemolysis for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient patients. The ionization potential (IP, a quantitative measure of the ability to lose...

  7. Hyperoxic treatment induces mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition in a rat adenocarcinoma model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Moen

    Full Text Available Tumor hypoxia is relevant for tumor growth, metabolism and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT. We report that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO treatment induced mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET in a dimethyl-alpha-benzantracene induced mammary rat adenocarcinoma model, and the MET was associated with extensive coordinated gene expression changes and less aggressive tumors. One group of tumor bearing rats was exposed to HBO (2 bar, pO(2 = 2 bar, 4 exposures à 90 minutes, whereas the control group was housed under normal atmosphere (1 bar, pO(2 = 0.2 bar. Treatment effects were determined by assessment of tumor growth, tumor vascularisation, tumor cell proliferation, cell death, collagen fibrils and gene expression profile. Tumor growth was significantly reduced (approximately 16% after HBO treatment compared to day 1 levels, whereas control tumors increased almost 100% in volume. Significant decreases in tumor cell proliferation, tumor blood vessels and collagen fibrils, together with an increase in cell death, are consistent with tumor growth reduction and tumor stroma influence after hyperoxic treatment. Gene expression profiling showed that HBO induced MET. In conclusion, hyperoxia induced MET with coordinated expression of gene modules involved in cell junctions and attachments together with a shift towards non-tumorigenic metabolism. This leads to more differentiated and less aggressive tumors, and indicates that oxygen per se might be an important factor in the "switches" of EMT and MET in vivo. HBO treatment also attenuated tumor growth and changed tumor stroma, by targeting the vascular system, having anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects.

  8. Effects of vitamin C treatment on collar-induced intimal thickening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun MZ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mehmet Zuhuri Arun,1 Levent Üstünes,1 Gülnur Sevin,1 Erdener Özer2 1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey; 2Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Dokuz Eylül University, Izmir, Turkey Abstract: Vitamin C has efficient antioxidant properties and is involved in important physiological processes such as collagen synthesis. As such, vitamin C deficiency leads to serious complications, including vascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin C treatment on collar-induced intimal thickening. Rabbits were fed a normocholesterolemic diet and a non-occlusive silicon collar was placed around the left carotid artery for 3, 7, and 14 days. The rabbits were treated with or without vitamin C (150 mg/kg/day. Collar-induced intimal thickening became apparent at day 7. The effect of the collar on intimal thickening was more prominent at day 14. Vitamin C treatment significantly inhibited collar-induced intimal thickening at day 14. The placement of the collar around the carotid artery decreased maximum contractile responses against contractile agents (KCl, phenylephrine, 5-hydroxytryptamine. The effect of the collar on contractile responses was enhanced as days elapsed. Decreased contractile responses of collared carotid arteries normalized at day 14 in the vitamin C treatment group. Vitamin C treatment also restored sensitivity to phenylephrine. The collar also significantly decreased acetylcholine-induced relaxations at day 3 and day 7. Acetylcholine-induced relaxations normalized in collared-arteries in the placebo group at day 14. Vitamin C treatment significantly increased acetylcholine-induced relaxations of both normal and collared carotid arteries at day 14. MMP-9 expression increased in collared arteries at day 3 and day 7 but did not change at day 14. MMP-2 expression increased in collared arteries at day 14. However, vitamin C treatment reduced collar

  9. Hot Air Treatment Induces Disease Resistance through Activating the Phenylpropanoid Metabolism in Cherry Tomato Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yingying; Zhou, Dandan; Peng, Jing; Pan, Leiqing; Tu, Kang

    2017-09-13

    To explore the effects of hot air (HA, 38 °C for 12 h) treatment on the phenylpropanoid metabolism in cherry tomatoes, phenylpropanoid metabolite levels and the activities and expression of key enzymes were analyzed in HA-treated fruit. HA treatment enhanced phenylpropanoid metabolism, as evidenced by elevated levels of phenolics and flavonoids, higher activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and cinnamate-4-hydroxylase, and upregulated expression of LeCHS, LeCHI, LeF3H, and LeFLS. Levels of several phenylpropanoid metabolites were higher after HA treatment, including p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, isoquercitrin, quercetin, and rutin. These metabolic changes may be related to the reduced disease incidence and smaller lesion diameters observed in HA-treated fruit inoculated with Alternaria alternata (black mold) or Botrytis cinerea (gray mold). The results suggest that HA treatment induces disease resistance by activating the phenylpropanoid pathway in cherry tomato fruit.

  10. Clozapine Treatment of Olanzapine-induced Tardive Dyskinesia: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangroula, Dinesh; Virk, Inderpreet; Mohammad, Wali; Kahn, David A

    2017-01-01

    Tardive dyskinesias (TD) are serious, often irreversible side effects of dopamine blocking agents, most commonly first-generation antipsychotics. No definitive treatment exists, with different interventions showing inconsistent results. We report a case of TD presenting after 12 years of olanzapine therapy in a 66-year-old Hispanic male with paranoid schizophrenia. The TD symptoms were successfully treated within a few weeks by switching to clozapine. Two cases of olanzapine-induced TD treated with clozapine have previously been reported, but in those cases, the symptom onset was quicker, ranging from a few months to a few years after initiation of olanzapine therapy, and the treatment response was relatively slower. Clinicians should carefully monitor for symptoms of TD after prolonged treatment with olanzapine and other antipsychotics. If otherwise indicated for psychiatric treatment, clozapine can be considered a good choice for patients with TD in preventing or reversing the debilitating consequences of this condition.

  11. alpha(7) Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation prevents behavioral and molecular changes induced by repeated phencyclidine treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Christensen, Ditte Z; Hansen, Henrik H

    2009-01-01

    in a modified Y-maze test. Polymorphisms in the alpha(7) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) gene have been linked to schizophrenia. Here we demonstrate that acute administration of the selective alpha(7) nAChR partial agonist SSR180711 dose-dependently reversed the behavioral impairment induced by PCP......, and administration of the NMDA-antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) in rodents is a well validated model of such cognitive deficits. Here we show that repeated PCP treatment (10 mg/kg/day for 10 days) decreased the expression of parvalbumin and synaptophysin mRNA in the mouse PFC, which corresponds to changes seen....... Importantly, repeated co-administration of SSR180711 (3 mg/kg) with PCP prevented both the changes in parvalbumin, synaptophysin, and Arc mRNA expression in the PFC, and the behavioral impairment induced by PCP. These results are the first to demonstrate prevention of the deleterious effects induced...

  12. Treatment of radiation-induced hemorrhagic gastritis with prednisolone: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lan; Xie, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Yan; Wang, Yan-Hong; Chen, Yi; Ren, Zheng-Gang

    2012-12-28

    Radiation-induced gastritis is an infrequent cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. It is a serious complication arising from radiation therapy, and the standard treatment method has not been established. The initial injury is characteristically acute inflammation of gastric mucosa. We presented a 46-year-old male patient with hemorrhagic gastritis induced by external radiotherapy for metastatic retroperitoneal lymph node of hepatocellular carcinoma. The endoscopic examination showed diffuse edematous hyperemicmucosa with telangiectasias in the whole muscosa of the stomach and duodenal bulb. Multiple hemorrhagic patches with active oozing were found over the antrum. Anti-secretary therapy was initiated for hemostasis, but melena still occurred off and on. Finally, he was successfully treated by prednisolone therapy. We therefore strongly argue in favor of perdnisolone therapy to effectively treat patients with radiation-induced hemorrhagic gastritis.

  13. Locally Induced Adipose Tissue Browning by Microneedle Patch for Obesity Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuqi; Liu, Qiongming; Yu, Jicheng; Yu, Shuangjiang; Wang, Jinqiang; Qiang, Li; Gu, Zhen

    2017-09-26

    Obesity is one of the most serious public health problems in the 21st century that may lead to many comorbidities such as type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Current treatments toward obesity including diet, physical exercise, pharmacological therapy, as well as surgeries are always associated with low effectiveness or undesired systematical side effects. In order to enhance treatment efficiency with minimized side effects, we developed a transcutaneous browning agent patch to locally induce adipose tissue transformation. This microneedle-based patch can effectively deliver browning agents to the subcutaneous adipocytes in a sustained manner and switch on the "browning" at the targeted region. It is demonstrated that this patch reduces treated fat pad size, increases whole body energy expenditure, and improves type-2 diabetes in vivo in a diet-induced obesity mouse model.

  14. Preharvest L-arginine treatment induced postharvest disease resistance to Botrysis cinerea in tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yang; Sheng, Jiping; Zhao, Ruirui; Zhang, Jian; Lv, Shengnan; Liu, Lingyi; Shen, Lin

    2011-06-22

    L-arginine is the precursor of nitric oxide (NO). In order to examine the influence of L-arginine on tomato fruit resistance, preharvest green mature tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum cv. No. 4 Zhongshu) were treated with 0.5, 1, and 5 mM L-arginine. The reduced lesion size (in diameter) on fruit caused by Botrytis cinerea, as well as activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), Chitinase (CHI), β-1,3-glucanase (GLU), and polyphenoloxidase (PPO), was compared between L-arginine treated fruits and untreated fruits. We found that induced resistance increased and reached the highest level at 3-6 days after treatment. Endogenous NO concentrations were positively correlated with PAL, PPO, CHI, and GLU activities after treatment with Pearson coefficients of 0.71, 0.94, 0.97, and 0.87, respectively. These results indicate that arginine induces disease resistance via its effects on NO biosynthesis and defensive enzyme activity.

  15. Directed differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells into chondrogenic lineages for articular cartilage treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Lach

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, increases in the number of articular cartilage injuries caused by environmental factors or pathological conditions have led to a notable rise in the incidence of premature osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis, considered a disease of civilization, is the leading cause of disability. At present, standard methods for treating damaged articular cartilage, including autologous chondrocyte implantation or microfracture, are short-term solutions with important side effects. Emerging treatments include the use of induced pluripotent stem cells, a technique that could provide a new tool for treatment of joint damage. However, research in this area is still early, and no optimal protocol for transforming induced pluripotent stem cells into chondrocytes has yet been established. Developments in our understanding of cartilage developmental biology, together with the use of modern technologies in the field of tissue engineering, provide an opportunity to create a complete functional model of articular cartilage.

  16. Hyperbaric oxygen as sole treatment for severe radiation - induced haemorrhagic cystitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellis, Athanasios, E-mail: aedellis@gmail.com [Department of Surgery, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Aretaieion Academic Hospital, Athens (Greece); Papatsoris, Athanasios; Deliveliotis, Charalambos; Skolarikos, Andreas [Department of Urology, University of Athens, Sismanoglio General Hospital, Athens (Greece); Kalentzos, Vasileios [Department of Diving and Hyperbaric Oxygen, Naval and Veterans Hospital, Athens (Greece)

    2017-05-15

    Purpose: To examine the safety and efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen as the primary and sole treatment for severe radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis. Materials and methods: Hyperbaric oxygen was prospectively applied as primary treatment in 38 patients with severe radiation cystitis. Our primary endpoint was the incidence of complete and partial response to treatment, while the secondary endpoints included the duration of response, the correlation of treatment success-rate to the interval between the onset of haematuria and initiation of therapy, blood transfusion need and total radiation dose, the number of sessions to success, the avoidance of surgery and the overall survival. Results: All patients completed therapy without complications with a mean follow-up of 29.33 months. Median number of sessions needed was 33. Complete and partial response rate was 86.8% and 13.2%, respectively. All 33 patients with complete response received therapy within 6 months of the haematuria onset. One patient needed cystectomy, while 33 patients were alive at the end of follow-up. Conclusions: Our study suggests the early primary use of hyperbaric oxygen for radiation-induced severe cystitis as an effective and safe treatment option. (author)

  17. An alternative treatment in hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis in pregnancy: Plasmapheresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Altun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal influences during pregnancy can compromise otherwise controlled lipid levels in women with familial hypertriglyceridemia and predispose to pancreatitis leading to increased morbidity in both mother and fetus. Both cholesterol and triglyceride levels in serum increase progressively during pregnancy. The mainstay of treatment includes dietary restriction of fatty meal and lipid-lowering medications. Experiences with plasmapheresis are limited. We report two cases of hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis during pregnancy, which were successfully treated by plasmapheresis.

  18. Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide and Muscarinic Receptors: Supersensitivity Induced by Long-Term Atropine Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, Britta; Abens, Janis; Bartfai, Tamas

    1983-04-01

    Long-term treatment of rats with atropine induced large increases in the numbers of muscarinic receptors and receptors for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the salivary glands. Since receptors for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide coexist with muscarinic receptors on the same neurons in this preparation, the results suggest that a drug that alters the sensitivity of one receptor may also affect the sensitivity of the receptor for a costored transmitter and in this way contribute to the therapeutic or side effects of the drug.

  19. Treatment of Breakthrough and Refractory Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting

    OpenAIRE

    Navari, Rudolph M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant progress in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) with the introduction of new antiemetic agents, 30–50% of patients receiving moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC or HEC) and guideline directed prophylactic antiemetics develop breakthrough CINV. International guidelines recommend the treatment of breakthrough CINV with an agent from a drug class that was not used in the prophylactic antiemetic regimen and recommend using the breakt...

  20. Successful treatment of laser induced hypopigmentation with narrowband ultraviolet B targeted phototherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataram Mysore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Q-switched 1064 nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Qs 1064 nm Nd: YAG laser plays an important role in the treatment of pigmentary skin disorders, including tattoos. Although it has high efficacy and safety, adverse effect like hypopigmentation may occur causing anxiety to patients. We present a case report of Qs 1064 nm Nd: YAG laser induced hypopigmentation which was successfully treated with ultraviolet B targeted phototherapy, with rapid and satisfactory re-pigmentation.

  1. Intravesical hyaluronic acid treatment improves bacterial cystitis and reduces cystitis-induced hypercontractility in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız, Nurdan; Alpay, Harika; Tuğtepe, Halil; Özdemir Kumral, Zarife Nigar; Akakın, Dilek; İlki, Arzu; Şener, Göksel; Ç Yeğen, Berrak

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the effect of intravesical hyaluronic acid on Escherichia coli-induced cystitis and cystitis-induced hypercontractility in rats. Bacterial cystitis was induced in Wistar female rats by intravesical inoculation of E. coli. Isotonic saline was instilled in the control group (n = 6). The rats were either non-treated, treated with gentamycin (4 mg/kg, 5 days) or treated intravesically with hyaluronic acid (0.5 mL, 0.5%). On the eighth day, the bladder tissues were excised for histological examination, and the measurements of myeloperoxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Contraction/relaxation responses to carbachol, isoprotrenol and papaverine were studied. Tissue myeloperoxidase activity was increased, but superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were decreased in bacterial cystitis, while hyaluronic acid treatment reversed these changes. In the hyaluronic acid-treated group, healing of the uroepithelium was observed, while decreased inflammatory cell infiltration was obvious in gentamycin-treated group. E. coli-induced cystitis in all rats resulted in increased contraction responses to carbachol compared with controls (P hyaluronic acid, but not gentamycin, significantly (P hyaluronic acid, in addition to its supportive role in the healing of the epithelium, seems to lower the increased threshold for contraction and to reduce oxidative stress. These findings support a potential role for hyaluronic acid in the treatment of bacterial cystitis. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  2. Acupuncture as method of treatment and arresting progress of dust-induced bronchitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baburina, E.B.; Bykova, E.A.

    1983-10-01

    Acupuncture is an effective therapy for treatment of dust-induced bronchitis. It can be used independently or in combination with medicaments. Fifty men were divided into two groups of 20 and 30. One group was treated by acupuncture alone, the other with combined therapy. Acupuncture produced excellent results; combined treatment, good and satisfactory results. Since acupuncture reduced the possibility of complications, allergic reactions and side effects due to medication, it is an excellent means of preventing progress of dust-induced bronchitis. Patients experience 9 months remission of symptoms after treatment with acupuncture while medical therapy alone only relieves them for 1 to 1 1/2 months. Patients with chronic dust-induced bronchitis should receive a second course of acupuncture in 6 to 8 months to prevent recurrence of symptoms and progress of disease. Because of insufficient study of lasting effects of acupuncture, final conclusions about its effectiveness cannot be made, however, current evidence indicates it is a highly useful therapy. 6 references.

  3. Moxibustion for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced leukopenia: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tae-Young; Lee, Myeong Soo; Ernst, Edzard

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy of moxibustion as a treatment of chemotherapy-induced leukopenia. Twelve databases were searched from their inception through June 2014, without a language restriction. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were included if moxibustion was used as the sole treatment or as a part of a combination therapy with conventional drugs for leukopenia induced by chemotherapy. Cochrane criteria were used to assess the risk of bias. Six RCTs with a total of 681 patients met our inclusion criteria. All of the included RCTs were associated with a high risk of bias. The trials included patients with various types of cancer receiving ongoing chemotherapy or after chemotherapy. The results of two RCTs suggested the effectiveness of moxibustion combined with chemotherapy vs. chemotherapy alone. In four RCTs, moxibustion was more effective than conventional drug therapy. Six RCTs showed that moxibustion was more effective than various types of control interventions in increasing white blood cell counts. There is low level of evidence based on these six trials that demonstrates the superiority of moxibustion over drug therapies in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced leukopenia. However, the number of trials, the total sample size, and the methodological quality are too low to draw firm conclusions. Future RCTs appear to be warranted.

  4. Evaluation of N-acetylcysteine treatment in acute pancreatitis-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yubero, Sara; Ramudo, Laura; Manso, Manuel A; Collía, Francisco; De Dios, Isabel

    2012-07-01

    Pulmonary complications are frequent during acute pancreatitis (AP). We investigate the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on lung injury in mild and severe AP. ANIMALS AND TREATMENT: Mild and severe AP was induced in rats by bile-pancreatic duct obstruction (BPDO) and infusion of 3.5 % sodium taurocholate (NaTc) into the bile-pancreatic duct, respectively. NAC (50 mg/kg) was given 1 h before and 1 h after AP. Amylase activity was measured in plasma. Lungs were harvested for mRNA expression analysis of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC), P-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and histological examination. Hyperamylasemia was reduced by NAC in both AP models. NAC down-regulated MCP-1, CINC and P-selectin in BPDO- but not in NaTc-induced AP. Pulmonary insults did not vary in mild AP and were exacerbated in severe AP by NAC treatment. NAC reduced lung MPO activity in mild but not in severe AP. Although NAC treatment down-regulated inflammatory mediators in lungs during AP it did not prevent leukocyte infiltration, which could be responsible for maintaining the lung injury. As a result, NAC aggravated the lung damage in severe AP and failed to exert beneficial effects in the mild disease model.

  5. The prevention, detection and management of cancer treatment-induced cardiotoxicity: a meta-review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, Aaron; McCarthy, Alexandra L; Lawrence, Petra; Clark, Robyn A

    2015-01-01

    The benefits associated with some cancer treatments do not come without risk. A serious side effect of some common cancer treatments is cardiotoxicity. Increased recognition of the public health implications of cancer treatment-induced cardiotoxicity has resulted in a proliferation of systematic reviews in this field to guide practice. Quality appraisal of these reviews is likely to limit the influence of biased conclusions from systematic reviews that have used poor methodology related to clinical decision-making. The aim of this meta-review is to appraise and synthesise evidence from only high quality systematic reviews focused on the prevention, detection or management of cancer treatment-induced cardiotoxicity. Using Cochrane methodology, we searched databases, citations and hand-searched bibliographies. Two reviewers independently appraised reviews and extracted findings. A total of 18 high quality systematic reviews were subsequently analysed, 67 % (n = 12) of these comprised meta-analyses. One systematic review concluded that there is insufficient evidence regarding the utility of cardiac biomarkers for the detection of cardiotoxicity. The following strategies might reduce the risk of cardiotoxicity: 1) The concomitant administration of dexrazoxane with anthracylines; 2) The avoidance of anthracyclines where possible; 3) The continuous administration of anthracyclines (>6 h) rather than bolus dosing; and 4) The administration of anthracycline derivatives such as epirubicin or liposomal-encapsulated doxorubicin instead of doxorubicin. In terms of management, one review focused on medical interventions for treating anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity during or after treatment of childhood cancer. Neither intervention (enalapril and phosphocreatine) was associated with statistically significant improvement in ejection fraction or mortality. This review highlights the lack of high level evidence to guide clinical decision-making with respect to the detection

  6. Melatonin inhibits snake venom and antivenom induced oxidative stress and augments treatment efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rachana D; Katkar, Gajanan D; Sundaram, Mahalingam S; Swethakumar, Basavarajaiah; Girish, Kesturu S; Kemparaju, Kempaiah

    2017-05-01

    Snakebite is a neglected health hazard. Its patho-physiology has largely been focused on systemic and local toxicities; whereas, venom and antivenom induced oxidative stress has long been ignored. Antivenom therapy although neutralizes venom lethality and saves many lives, remains ineffective against oxidative stress. This prompted us to complement antivenom with an antioxidant molecule melatonin that would protect against oxidative stress and increase the efficacy of the existing snakebite therapy. Here we show that D. russelli and E. carinatus venoms induce strong oxidative stress that persists even after antivenom administration in mice model. Additionally, antivenoms also induce oxidative stress. Polyvalent antivenom induce more oxidative stress than monovalent antivenom. Strikingly, antivenom and melatonin together not only inhibit venom and antivenom induced oxidative stress but also significantly reduce the neutralizing antivenom dose. This study provides a therapeutic potential for enhancing the existing snakebite therapy. The combined treatment of antivenom+melatonin would prevent the upsurge of oxidative stress as well as minimize the antivenom load. Thus the investigation offers immense scope for physicians and toxinologists to reinvestigate, design new strategies and think beyond the conventional mode of antivenom therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Therapeutic use of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) for the treatment of radio-induced diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouiseddine, Moubarak

    2008-05-01

    Ionising radiation can induce toxic effects on body. They provoke physiological modifications of tissues and organs which can be lethal. Total body irradiation or local abdominal irradiation can induce serious complications. Intestine is the first tissue concerned by these side effects. Radiation induces malabsorption of the intestine and lost of it integrity. Radio-induced physiopathological effects on intestine could lead to distant effects on other tissues and organs such as liver. The actual treatments have a limited efficiency or are not adapted to gastrointestinal damages. Indeed, in this type of lesions, the heterogeneous systems which are concerned and the gravity of lesions complicates the medical care. Our purpose is to show that cell therapy using human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) constitutes resolution in this type of illness. The works which are presented in this thesis show that MSC are multi-potent and have heterogeneous expression of molecules. These cells are able to establish themselves in many organs and tissues after injection into irradiated body. Thus we have shown that MSC can prevent the small intestine from radio-induced damages. Indeed we demonstrate that through their actions on gut, MSC can indirectly restore hepatic integrity. (author)

  8. Syzygium jambolanum treatment improves survival in lethal sepsis induced in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaral Flávia MM

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The leaves and the fruits from Syzygium jambolanum DC.(Myrtaceae, a plant known in Brazil as sweet olive or 'jambolão', have been used by native people to treat infectious diseases, diabetes, and stomachache. Since the bactericidal activity of S. jambolanum has been confirmed in vitro, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the prophylactic treatment with S. jambolanum on the in vivo polymicrobial infection induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP in mice. Methods C57Bl/6 mice were treated by the subcutaneous route with a hydroalcoholic extract from fresh leaves of S. jambolanum (HCE. After 6 h, a bacterial infection was induced in the peritoneum using the lethal CLP model. The mice were killed 12 h after the CLP induction to evaluate the cellular influx and local and systemic inflammatory mediators' production. Some animals were maintained alive to evaluate the survival rate. Results The prophylactic HCE treatment increased the mice survival, the neutrophil migration to infectious site, the spreading ability and the hydrogen peroxide release, but decreased the serum TNF and nitrite. Despite the increased migration and activation of peritoneal cells the HCE treatment did not decrease the number of CFU. The HCE treatment induced a significant decrease on the bone marrow cells number but did not alter the cell number of the spleen and lymph node. Conclusion We conclude that the treatment with S. jambolanum has a potent prophylactic anti-septic effect that is not associated to a direct microbicidal effect but it is associated to a recruitment of activated neutrophils to the infectious site and to a diminished systemic inflammatory response.

  9. Corticosteroid-induced Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head: Detection, Diagnosis, and Treatment in Earlier Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Hua; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Sun, Wei; Li, Zi-Rong; Gao, Fu-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This review aimed to provide a current recommendation to multidisciplinary physicians for early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of corticosteroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) based on a comprehensive analysis of the clinical literature. Data Sources: For the purpose of collecting potentially eligible articles, we searched for articles in the PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, and CNKI databases up to February 2017, using the following key words: “corticosteroid”, “osteonecrosis of the femoral head”, “risk factors”, “diagnosis”, “prognosis”, and “treatment”. Study Selection: Articles on relationships between corticosteroid and ONFH were selected for this review. Articles on the diagnosis, prognosis, and intervention of earlier-stage ONFH were also reviewed. Results: The incidence of corticosteroid-induced ONFH was associated with high doses of corticosteroids, and underlying diseases in certain predisposed individuals mainly occurred in the first 3 months of corticosteroid prescription. The enhanced awareness and minimized exposure to the established risk factors and earlier definitive diagnosis are essential for the success of joint preservation. When following up patients with ONFH, treatment should be started if necessary. Surgical treatment yielded better results than conservative therapy in earlier-stage ONFH. The ideal purpose of earlier intervention and treatment is permanent preservation of the femoral head without physical restrictions in daily living. Conclusions: Clinicians should enhance their precaution awareness of corticosteroid-induced ONFH. For high-risk patients, regular follow-up is very important in the 1st year after high-dose prescription of corticosteroids. Patients with suspected ONFH should be referred to orthopedists for diagnosis and treatment in its earlier stage to preserve the joint. PMID:29067959

  10. The efficacy of Pistacia Terebinthus soap in the treatment of cetuximab-induced skin toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tastekin, Didem; Tambas, Makbule; Kilic, Kemal; Erturk, Kayhan; Arslan, Deniz

    2014-12-01

    This open-labeled phase II, efficacy-finding study evaluated the efficiency and safety of Pistacia terebinthus soap in metastatic colorectal cancer patients who developed cetuximab induced skin toxicity. Patients who received cetuximab plus chemotherapy and developed Grade 2 or 3 skin toxicity were treated twice daily with a soap made of oil extracted from Pistacia terebinthus. During treatment, no topical or oral antibiotics, corticosteroids or other moisturizers were used. Patients were examined 1 week later and their photographs were taken. Fifteen mCRC patients who developed skin toxicity while receiving first-line CTX in combination with chemotherapy were included into the study. Eight patients were male and the median age was 58 (25-70). Sixty percent of the patients (n:9) had Grade 3 skin toxicity. Complete response rates in patients with Grade 2 and Grade 3 skin toxicities were 100 and 33%, respectively. In the remaining patients with Grade 3 toxicity the skin toxicity regressed to Grade 1. The objective response rate was 100%, and no delay, dose reduction or discontinuation of CTX treatment due to skin toxicity was necessary. Skin toxicity reoccurred in all patients when patients stopped administering the soap and therefore they used it throughout the cetuximab treatment. Pistacia terebinthus soap seemed to be used safely and effectively in the treatment of skin toxicity induced by Cetuximab.

  11. Chronic caffeine treatment prevents sleep deprivation-induced impairment of cognitive function and synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaider, Ibrahim A; Aleisa, Abdulaziz M; Tran, Trinh T; Alzoubi, Karem H; Alkadhi, Karim A

    2010-04-01

    This study was undertaken to provide a detailed account of the effect of chronic treatment with a small dose of caffeine on the deleterious effects of sleep loss on brain function in rats. We investigated the effects of chronic (4 weeks) caffeine treatment (0.3 g/L in drinking water) on memory impairment in acutely (24 h) sleep-deprived adult male Wistar rats. Sleep deprivation was induced using the modified multiple platform model. The effects of caffeine on sleep deprivation-induced hippocampus-dependent learning and memory deficits were studied by 3 approaches: learning and memory performance in the radial arm water maze task, electrophysiological recording of early long-term potentiation (E-LTP) in area CA1 of the hippocampus, and levels of memory- and synaptic plasticity-related signaling molecules after E-LTP induction. The results showed that chronic caffeine treatment prevented impairment of hippocampus-dependent learning, shortterm memory and E-LTP of area CA1 in the sleep-deprived rats. In correlation, chronic caffeine treatment prevented sleep deprivation-associated decrease in the levels of phosphorylated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (P-CaMKII) during expression of E-LTP. The results suggest that long-term use of a low dose of caffeine prevents impairment of short-term memory and E-LTP in acutely sleep-deprived rats.

  12. The effectiveness of the treatment of severe exercise-induced asthma in schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Garas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bronchial asthma is one of the most common chronic multifactorial diseases of the lungs. At least 10–12 % of patients with bronchial asthma are suffering from a severe form of the disease. One aspect of inadequate severe asthma control is its phenotypic heterogeneity, interest of experts increases to the problem of exercise-induced asthma. The purpose of the study was to increase efficiency of treatment for severe exercise-induced asthma in schoolchildren based on the analysis of the attack dynamics and to achieve disease control according to main inflammatometric and spirometric indices. Materials and methods. We examined 46 children with severe persistent bronchial asthma, in particular, 15 schoolchildren suffering from severe exercise-induced asthma, the second clinical group (comparison one consisted of 31 children suffering from severe type of the disease, with no signs of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Basic therapy effectiveness was determined prospectively by assessing the disease control using AST-test with an interval of 3 months. The severity of bronchial obstruction syndrome in patients on admission to hospital during exacerbation was assessed by score scale. Airway hyperresponsiveness was evaluated according to the results of bronchoprovocation with histamine. Results. Children of I clinical group had more significant manifestations of bronchial obstruction during the week of inpatient treatment than the comparison group of patients, including significantly more severe manifestations of bronchial obstruction were verified on 1st and 7th day of hospitalization. Due to the analysis of basic therapy effectiveness, only a quarter of I clinical group patients and a larger part of schoolchildren in comparison group achieved the partial control after a 3-month course of anti-inflammatory treatment. Eosinophilic inflammation was observed in most children with severe exercise-induced asthma (60.1 % and in 47.2 % of

  13. The influence of nutrition (diet treatment in streptozotocin – induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrcheva-Nikolovska Radmila

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designated to evaluate the effect of special antidiabetic diet treatment upon oxidative stress parameters in the initial stages of the development of diabetes. Male Wistar strain rats were used as an experimental model, divided into five groups: group 1, control rats; group 2, antidiabetic diet group; group 3, rats with induced diabetes mellitus – diabetic control; group 4, rats with induced diabetes mellitus and diet food, and group 5, rats with induced diabetes mellitus and insulin treatment.A significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD and total glutathione (GSH activities were observed in the liver of diabetic rats when compared with control animals. There was simple evidence that elevation in glucose concentration depress natural antioxidant defense such as SOD and GSH. The observed decrease in SOD activity could result from inactivation by H2O2 or by glycation of the enzyme, which have been reported to occur in diabetes. The possible source of oxidative stress in diabetes includes shifts in redox balance resulting from altered carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, increased generation of reactive oxygen species, and decreased level of antioxidant defences such as GSH and SOD. The plasma level of aminotransferases (ALT, AST, creatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and urea were significantly increased after induction of diabetes, in all groups under treatment. In contrast, rats fed special diet food, have shown slight different, but not significant changes. The decrease in total protein and albumin fraction may be due to microproteinuria and albuminuria, which are important clinical markers of diabetic nephro­pathy, and­/or may be due to increased protein catabolism.The findings of the present study suggest that special diet formula useful for prevention of progressive hyperglycaemia in age induced diabetes in dogs, could not restore the imbalance of cellular defence mechanism provoked by streptozotocin.

  14. The standardization of acupuncture treatment for radiation-induced xerostomia: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling-Xin; Tian, Guang; He, Jing

    2016-07-01

    To assess the relative standardization of acupuncture protocols for radiation-induced xerostomia. A literature search was carried out up to November 10, 2012 in the databases PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE and China National Knowledge Infrastruction with the terms: radiation-induced xerostomia, acupuncture, acupuncture treatment, and acupuncture therapy. Five ancient Chinese classic acupuncture works were also reviewed with the keywords "dry mouth, thirst, dry tongue, dry eyes and dry lips" to search the effective acupuncture points for dry mouth-associated symptoms in ancient China. Twenty-two full-text articles relevant to acupuncture treatment for radiation-induced xerostomia were included and a total of 48 acupuncture points were searched in the 5 ancient Chinese classic acupuncture works, in which the most commonly used points were Chengjiang (CV24), Shuigou (GV 26), Duiduan (GV 27), Jinjin (EX-HN 12), and Yuye (EX-HN 13) on head and neck, Sanjian (LI 3), Shangyang (LI 1), Shaoshang (LU 11), Shaoze (SI 1), Xialian (LI 8) on hand, Fuliu (KI 7), Dazhong (KI 4), Zuqiaoyin (GB 44), Taichong (LR 3), Zhaohai (KI 6) on foot, Burong (ST 19), Zhangmen (LR 13), Tiantu (CV 22), Qimen (LR 14) on abdomen, Feishu (BL 13), Danshu (BL 19), Xiaochaogshu (BL 27), Ganshu (BL 18) on back, Shenmen (TF 4), Shen (CO10, Kidney), Yidan (CO11, Pancreas) and Pi (CO13, Spleen) on ear. There were considerable heterogeneities in the current acupuncture treatment protocols for radiation-induced xerostomia. Based on the results of the review and the personal perspectives, the authors provide a recommendation for manual acupuncture protocols in treating radiationinduced xerostomia patients with head and neck cancer.

  15. Acupuncture for treatment of hospital-induced constipation in children: a retrospective case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Eric Falk; Findeisen, Annette; Nowak, Andreas; Rüdiger, Mario; Usichenko, Taras Ivanovich

    2012-12-01

    Acupuncture is a promising option in the treatment of functional bowel disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptance of acupuncture for the treatment of hospital-induced constipation (HIC) in children. Bilateral stimulation of acupuncture point LI11 was applied in 10 children with HIC using fixed indwelling acupuncture needles (0.9 mm long) before considering starting conventional local constipation therapy with laxative suppositories. The clinical records were studied retrospectively for feasibility, acceptance and effectiveness of acupuncture. Acupuncture was feasible in all children and application of the indwelling needles was tolerated without fear. Side effects were not observed. After a median of 3 days of HIC, all children defaecated within 2 h after LI11 stimulation. No patient required conventional local constipation therapy. Acupuncture for the treatment of HIC is feasible and acceptable. Its effect should be verified in a randomised controlled trial.

  16. Blonanserin treatment in patients with methamphetamine-induced psychosis comorbid with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Kosuke; Makinodan, Manabu; Yamamuro, Kazuhiko; Takata, Tomoyo; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) use has recently been associated with high levels of psychiatric hospitalization and serious social dysfunction. MA use causes frequent psychotic symptoms, which can be treated with antipsychotics. However, people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are vulnerable to adverse effects resulting from treatment with antipsychotic medications. We report two cases of MA-induced psychosis (MAP) in patients with ID who were treated with the antipsychotic blonanserin. In both the cases presented, symptoms of psychosis were improved by switching medications from other antipsychotic drugs to blonanserin. Despite the presence of ID in these patients, no significant adverse effects, such as sedation, were detected after treatment with blonanserin. Blonanserin may be an effective and well-tolerated pharmacotherapeutical treatment for patients with MAP comorbid with ID. However, further work is necessary to validate this claim.

  17. Plasma exchange in the treatment of thyroid storm secondary to type II amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Zhu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Type II amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT is an uncommon cause of thyroid storm. Due to the rarity of the condition, little is known about the role of plasma exchange in the treatment of severe AIT. A 56-year-old male presented with thyroid storm 2months following cessation of amiodarone. Despite conventional treatment, his condition deteriorated. He underwent two cycles of plasma exchange, which successfully controlled the severe hyperthyroidism. The thyroid hormone levels continued to fall up to 10h following plasma exchange. He subsequently underwent emergency total thyroidectomy and the histology of thyroid gland confirmed type II AIT. Management of thyroid storm secondary to type II AIT can be challenging as patients may not respond to conventional treatments, and thyroid storm may be more harmful in AIT patients owing to the underlying cardiac disease. If used appropriately, plasma exchange can effectively reduce circulating hormones, to allow stabilisation of patients in preparation for emergency thyroidectomy.

  18. Clinical, biological, histological features and treatment of oral mucositis induced by radiation therapy: a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonan, Paulo Rogerio Ferreti; Lopes, Marcio Ajudarte; Almeida, Oslei Paes de; Alves, Fabio de Abreu

    2005-01-01

    The oral mucositis is a main side effect of radiotherapy on head and neck, initiating two weeks after the beginning of the treatment. It is characterized by sensation of local burning to intense pain, leading in several cases, to the interruption of the treatment. The purpose of this work is to review the main published studies that discuss the clinical, biological and histopathological features of oral mucositis induced by radiation therapy and to describe the main approaches recommended to prevent or to treat it. Although the clinical features of mucositis are intensively described in the literature, few studies address the histopathological alterations in oral mucositis and only recently, its biological processes have been investigated. The biological mechanisms involved in the radiation tissue damage have been only recently discussed and there is no consensus among treatment modalities. Yet, the progressive knowledge in the histopathology and biological characteristics of oral mucositis probably will lead to more effective in prevention and control strategies. (author)

  19. Fasting and meal-induced CCK and PP secretion following intragastric balloon treatment for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathus-Vliegen, Elisabeth M H; de Groot, Gerrit H

    2013-05-01

    Satiety is centrally and peripherally mediated by gastrointestinal peptides and the vagal nerve. We aimed to investigate whether intragastric balloon treatment affects satiety through effects on fasting and meal-stimulated cholecystokinin (CCK) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) secretion. Patients referred for obesity treatment were randomised to 13 weeks of sham treatment followed by 13 weeks of balloon treatment (group 1; sham/balloon) or to twice a 13-week period of balloon treatment (group 2; balloon/balloon). Blood samples were taken for fasting and meal-stimulated CCK and PP levels at the start (T0) and after 13 (T1) and 26 (T2) weeks. Patients filled out visual analogue scales (VAS) to assess satiety. Forty-two patients (35 females, body weight 125.1 kg, BMI 43.3 kg/m(2)) participated. In group 1, basal CCK levels decreased but meal-stimulated response remained unchanged after 13 weeks of sham treatment. In group 2, basal and meal-stimulated CCK levels decreased after 13 weeks of balloon treatment. At the end of the second 13-week period, when group 1 had their first balloon treatment, they duplicated the initial 13-week results of group 2, whereas group 2 continued their balloon treatment and reduced meal-stimulated CCK release. Both groups showed reduced meal-stimulated PP secretions at T1 and T2 compared to T0. Changes in diet composition and VAS scores were similar. Improvements in glucose homeostasis partly explained the PP results. The reduced CCK and PP secretion after balloon positioning was unexpected and may reflect delayed gastric emptying induced by the balloon. Improved glucose metabolism partly explained the reduced PP secretion. Satiety and weight loss were not adversely influenced by these hormonal changes.

  20. Effect of treatment with geraniol on ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zheng; Zhang, Xin-Guang; Wu, Jie; Xu, Wan-Chao; Li, Li-Qing; Liu, Fei; Yu, Jian-Er

    2016-06-01

    Asthma, a complex highly prevalent airway disease, is a major public health problem for which current treatment options are inadequate. To evaluate the antiasthma activity of geraniol and investigate its underlying molecular mechanisms. In a standard experimental asthma model, Balb/c mice were sensitized with ovalbumin, treated with geraniol (100 or 200 mg/kg) or a vehicle control, during ovalbumin challenge. Treatment of ovalbumin-sensitized/challenged mice with geraniol significantly decreased airway hyperresponsiveness to inhaled methacholine. Geraniol treatment reduced eotaxin levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and attenuated infiltration of eosinophils induced by ovalbumin. Geraniol treatment reduced TH2 cytokines (including interleukins 4, 5, and 13), increased TH1 cytokine interferon γ in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and reduced ovalbumin-specific IgE in serum. In addition, treatment of ovalbumin-sensitized/challenged mice with geraniol enhanced T-bet (TH1 response) messenger RNA expression and reduced GATA-3 (TH2 response) messenger RNA expression in lungs. Furthermore, treatment of ovalbumin -sensitized/challenged mice with geraniol further enhanced Nrf2 protein expression and activated Nrf2-directed antioxidant pathways, such as glutamate-cysteine ligase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione S-transferase, and enhanced formation of reduced glutathione and reduced formation of malondialdehyde in lungs. Geraniol attenuated important features of allergic asthma in mice, possibly through the modulation of TH1/TH2 balance and activation the of Nrf2/antioxidant response element pathway. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of Induced Mutation by Using Gamma Ray Treatment in Study Breeding for Orchid (Phalaenopsis) Varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do Khac Thinh; Nguyen Thanh Huyen; Pham Duc Tuan; Ngo Thi Bich

    2011-01-01

    Aim to breed new orchid varieties adapted to climate of Vietnam for domestic use and export, national orchid breeding program has been established for some years. In our study, application of induced mutation by using 60 Co. gamma ray treatment was set up to breed new varieties of Phalaenopsis orchid. Different dosages of 60 Co. gamma rays were 0, 20, 40, 60, 100 Gy doses with dose rate of 90 Gy/h. Three years after radiation treatment, result showed that the use of 60 Co. gamma rays for treatment had conspicuously influenced to growth, mutation frequencies in morphological and physiological traits of Phalaenopsis varieties. Survival rate and growth vigor of treated plants reduced while total variation ratio increased by higher doses. The useful variations were the highest in 20 Gy and next to 40 Gy radiation treatments. In this study, LD 50 dose in radiation treatment for Phalaenopsis orchid variety was at dose 40 Gy. Suitable doses in radiation treatment which made wide diversity for Phalaenopsis orchid was at doses 20-40 Gy. At present, selected Phalaenopsis lines are being conducted to research segregating mutated traits, mutation frequencies in inbred Phalaenopsis lines and multiplication of promising mutant lines. (author)

  2. Skeletal and dental changes induced by bionator in early treatment of class II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Barnabé Raveli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to investigate the amount of skeletal and dentoalveolar changes after early treatment of Class II, Division 1 malocclusion with bionator appliance in prepubertal growing patients. Forty Class II patients were divided in two groups. Treated group consisted of 20 subjects treated consecutively with bionator. Mean age at the start of treatment (T0 was 9.1 years, while it was 10.6 years at the end of treatment (T1. Mean treatment time was 17.7 months. Pretreatment and post-treatment cephalometric records of treated group were evaluated and compared with a control group consisted of 20 patients with untreated Class II malocclusion. Intergroup comparisons were performed using Student’s t-tests and chi-square test with Yates’ correction at a significance level of 5 per cent. Bionator appliance was effective in generating differential growth between the jaws. Cephalometric skeletal measurements ANB, WITS, Lafh, Co-A and dental L6-Mp, U1.Pp, IsIi, OB, OJ showed statistically significantly different from the control. Bionator induced more dentoalveolar changes than skeletal during treatment in prepubertal stage.

  3. Treatment of radiation-induced erectile dysfunction with low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Wai Chan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy is a new treatment in treating vasculogenic erectile dysfunction. We report a case of low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy used for treating radiation-induced erectile dysfunction. A 66-year-old gentleman with dyslipidemia and smoking presented with radiation-induced erectile dysfunction. Six sessions of low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy were administered. Pre-treatment IIEF- 5 score was 10 and post-treatment IIEF-5 score at one month was 19. Low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy has the potential to treat radiation-induced erectile dysfunction.

  4. Endoscopic variceal ligation-induced ulcer bleeding: What are the risk factors and treatment strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eunae; Jun, Chung Hwan; Cho, Sung Bum; Park, Chang Hwan; Kim, Hyun Soo; Choi, Sung Kyu; Rew, Jong Sun

    2017-06-01

    This study was aimed to determine the risk factors of endoscopic variceal ligation-(EVL) induced ulcer bleeding.The prevalence of EVL-induced ulcer bleeding is reported to be 3.6%. However, there are only limited reports of this serious complication, and the risk factors and the treatment methods are not well established.A total of 430 patients who had undergone EVL in Chonnam National University Hospital from January 2014 to October 2016 were studied. EVL was performed for prophylaxis or acute hemorrhage. The patients were classified into 2 groups: a bleeding group (n = 33) and a non-bleeding group (n = 397). The patients who had endoscopically confirmed EVL-induced ulcer bleeding were included in the bleeding group.EVL-induced ulcer bleeding occurred in 7.7% (n = 33) of the patients. In a multivariate analysis, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score >10 (odds ratio [OR]: 3.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10-10.64), concomitant GV F3 (OR: 14.1, 95% CI: 2.84-71.43), and detachment of o-ring bands on follow-up endoscopy (OR: 8.06, 95% CI: 2.55-25.64) were independent predictive factors of EVL-induced ulcer bleeding. Various endoscopic modalities were attempted for hemostasis (EVL in 8 cases [24.2%], endoscopic variceal obturation [EVO] with cyanoacrylate in 6 cases [18.2%], argon plasma coagulation [APC] in 1 case (3%), Sengstaken-Blakemore (SB) tube in 3 cases [9.1%]), and proton pump inhibitor therapy only in 15 cases (45.5%).MELD score >10, concomitant GV F3, and detachment of o-ring bands on follow-up endoscopy are risk factors for EVL-induced ulcer bleeding.

  5. Mediastinal Tracheostoma for Treatment of Tracheostenosis after Tracheostomy in a Patient with Mucopolysaccharidosis-Induced Tracheomalacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Chikaishi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Treatment of tracheostenosis after tracheostomy in pediatric patients is often difficult. Mucopolysaccharidosis is a lysosomal storage disease that may induce obstruction of the airways. Case Presentation. A 16-year-old male patient underwent long-term follow-up after postnatal diagnosis of type II mucopolysaccharidosis. At 11 years of age, tracheostomy was performed for mucopolysaccharidosis-induced laryngeal stenosis. One week prior to presentation, he was admitted to another hospital on an emergency basis for major dyspnea. He was diagnosed with tracheostenosis caused by granulation. The patient was then referred to our institution. The peripheral view of his airway was difficult because of mucopolysaccharidosis-induced tracheomalacia. For airway management, a mediastinal tracheostoma was created with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. To maintain the blood flow, the skin incision for the mediastinal tracheal hole was sharply cut without an electrotome. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was weaned from the ventilator on postoperative day 19. He was discharged 1.5 months postoperatively. Although he was referred to another institution because of respiratory failure caused by his primary disease 6 months postoperatively, his airway management remained successful for 1.5 years postoperatively. Conclusion. Mediastinal tracheostomy was useful for treatment of tracheostenosis caused by granulation tissue formation after a tracheostomy.

  6. [DRUG-INDUCED LUPUS CAUSED BY LONG TERM MINOCYCLINE TREATMENT FOR ACNE VULGARIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanai, Shunichiro; Sato, Takeo; Takeda, Koichi; Nagatani, Katsuya; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Minota, Seiji

    2015-09-01

    An 18-year-old Japanese girl had received oral minocycline 200mg daily for treatment of acne vulgaris since 16 years old. She had a fever three months before admission, followed by joint pains in her knees, elbows and several proximal interphalangeal joints one month before admission. She was referred to our hospital because of a high serum level of anti-DNA antibody. She had already discontinued oral minocycline five weeks before admission, because she missed her medication refilled. On admission, the arthralgia and fever spontaneously resolved, and there were no laboratory evidence of hypocomplementemia and cytopenia. She had neither erythema nor internal organ involvements. Because her symptoms subsided spontaneously after the cessation of minocycline, she was considered to have drug-induced lupus. Both the arthralgia and fever did not relapse, and anti-ds DNA antibody returned to normal during a follow-up period without treatment. There are few reports of drug-induced lupus caused by minocycline in Japan. This case highlights the importance of considering minocycline-induced lupus.

  7. Epoetin beta for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anemia: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galli L

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Luca Galli,1 Clara Ricci,2 Colin Gerard Egan2 1Oncology Unit 2, University Hospital of Pisa, Pisa, Italy; 2Primula Multimedia SRL, Pisa, Italy Abstract: Epoetin beta belongs to the class of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs that are currently available to treat anemic patients receiving chemotherapy. Chemotherapy-induced anemia affects a high percentage of cancer patients and, due to its negative effects on disease outcome and the patient’s quality of life, should be treated when first diagnosed. Initial trials with ESAs have shown efficacy in improving quality of life and reducing the need for blood transfusions in patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia. However, recent meta-analyses have provided conflicting data on the impact of ESAs on survival and tumor progression. Here we provide an overview of these recent data and review the role of epoetin beta in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anemia over the past 20 years. Keywords: epoetin beta, erythropoietin, chemotherapy, cancer, anemia, treatment

  8. Study on patient-induced radioactivity during proton treatment in hengjian proton medical facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingbiao; Wang, Qingbin; Liang, Tianjiao; Zhang, Gang; Ma, Yinglin; Chen, Yu; Ye, Rong; Liu, Qiongyao; Wang, Yufei; Wang, Huaibao

    2016-09-01

    At present, increasingly more proton medical facilities have been established globally for better curative effect and less side effect in tumor treatment. Compared with electron and photon, proton delivers more energy and dose at its end of range (Bragg peak), and has less lateral scattering for its much larger mass. However, proton is much easier to produce neutron and induced radioactivity, which makes radiation protection for proton accelerators more difficult than for electron accelerators. This study focuses on the problem of patient-induced radioactivity during proton treatment, which has been ignored for years. However, we confirmed it is a vital factor for radiation protection to both patient escort and positioning technician, by FLUKA's simulation and activation formula calculation of Hengjian Proton Medical Facility (HJPMF), whose energy ranges from 130 to 230MeV. Furthermore, new formulas for calculating the activity buildup process of periodic irradiation were derived and used to study the relationship between saturation degree and half-life of nuclides. Finally, suggestions are put forward to lessen the radiation hazard from patient-induced radioactivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Successful treatment of arthritis induced by checkpoint inhibitors with tocilizumab: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Taek; Tayar, Jean; Trinh, Van Anh; Suarez-Almazor, Maria; Garcia, Salvador; Hwu, Patrick; Johnson, Daniel Hartman; Uemura, Marc; Diab, Adi

    2017-12-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have significantly improved outcomes for patients with numerous cancers. However, these therapies are associated with immune-related adverse events (irAEs), which are inflammatory side effects potentially affecting any organ. Cases of ICI-induced inflammatory arthritis have also been reported. In general, mild irAEs are treated with corticosteroids, while tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα) inhibitors are reserved for refractory cases. However, prolonged use of TNFα inhibitor (TNFαi) can induce widespread, significant immunosuppression, which can negatively impact the antitumour efficacy of ICI therapy. Therefore, in clinical scenarios where patients develop severe immunotherapy-induced irAEs, an unmet need exists for alternative therapeutic strategies that are effective and without immune dampening effects. The anti-interleukin (IL)-6 receptor antibody, tocilizumab, is a biological agent Food and Drug Administration approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Here, we report on three patients who developed severe polyarthritis while receiving ICI therapy and were treated with tocilizumab. All three patients demonstrated significant clinical improvement; one patient maintained a durable antitumour response derived from checkpoint inhibition. These three cases suggest that anti-IL-6 receptor antibody may be an effective alternative to corticosteroids or TNFαi for the treatment of arthritis irAEs. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Chronic Melatonin Treatment Prevents Memory Impairment Induced by Chronic Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, Karem H; Mayyas, Fadia A; Khabour, Omar F; Bani Salama, Fatima M; Alhashimi, Farah H; Mhaidat, Nizar M

    2016-07-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) has been associated with memory impairment through induction of oxidative stress. Melatonin, which promotes the metabolism of many reactive oxygen species (ROS), has antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. In this study, the effect of melatonin on memory impairment induced by 4 weeks of SD was investigated using rat animal model. Animals were sleep deprived using modified multiple platform model. Melatonin was administered via oral gavage (100 mg/kg/day). Spatial learning and memory were assessed using the radial arm water maze (RAWM). Changes in oxidative stress biomarkers in the hippocampus following treatments were measured using ELISA procedure. The result revealed that SD impaired both short- and long-term memory (P memory impairment induced by SD. Furthermore, melatonin normalized SD-induced reduction in the hippocampus activity of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). In addition, melatonin enhanced the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione GSH/GSSG in sleep-deprived rats (P  0.05). In conclusion, SD induced memory impairment, which was prevented by melatonin. This was correlated with normalizing hippocampus antioxidant mechanisms during chronic SD.

  11. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for the treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Nyssa F; Xiao, Christopher; Sood, Amit J; Lovelace, Tiffany L; Nguyen, Shaun A; Sharma, Anand; Day, Terry A

    2015-07-01

    Radiation-induced xerostomia is one of the most common morbidities of radiation therapy in patients with head and neck cancer. However, in spite of its high rate of occurrence, there are few effective therapies available for its management. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen on the treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia and xerostomia-related quality of life. PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library were searched for retrospective or prospective trials assessing subjective xerostomia, objective xerostomia, or xerostomia-related quality of life. To be included, patients had to have received radiation therapy for head and neck cancer, but not hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT). The systematic review initially identified 293 potential articles. Seven studies, comprising 246 patients, qualified for inclusion. Of the included studies, 6 of 7 were prospective in nature, and 1 was a retrospective study; and 2 of the 7 were controlled studies. HBOT may have utility for treating radiation-induced xerostomia refractory to other therapies. Additionally, HBOT may induce long-term improvement in subjective assessments of xerostomia, whereas other therapies currently available only provide short-term relief. The strength of these conclusions is limited by the lack of randomized controlled clinical trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Chitosan treatment abrogates hypercholesterolemia-induced erythrocyte’s arginase activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamaleldin I. Harisa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of chitosan (CS against hypercholesterolemia (HC induced arginase activation and disruption of nitric oxide (NO biosynthesis using erythrocytes as cellular model. Human erythrocytes were isolated and classified into eight groups. Next, cells were treated with l-arginine (l-ARG, Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, CS or CS + l-ARG in the presence of normal plasma or cholesterol enriches plasma. Then, erythrocytes were incubated at 37 °C for 24 h. The present results revealed that, HC induced significant increase of cholesterol inclusion into erythrocytes membrane compared to control. Moreover, HC caused significant decrease in nitric oxide synthase (NOS activity similar to l-NAME; however, arginase activity and arginase/NOS ratio significantly increased compared to control. On contrast, treatment of HC with, l-arginine, CS or CS plus l-arginine prevents HC induced cholesterol loading into erythrocytes membrane, NOS inhibition and arginase activation. This study suggested that CS could be protective agent against HC induced disruption of erythrocyte’s oxidative status and arginase activation.

  13. Blonanserin treatment in patients with methamphetamine-induced psychosis comorbid with intellectual disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okazaki K

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kosuke Okazaki, Manabu Makinodan, Kazuhiko Yamamuro, Tomoyo Takata, Toshifumi Kishimoto Department of Psychiatry, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara, JapanObjective: Methamphetamine (MA use has recently been associated with high levels of psychiatric hospitalization and serious social dysfunction. MA use causes frequent psychotic symptoms, which can be treated with antipsychotics. However, people with intellectual disabilities (ID are vulnerable to adverse effects resulting from treatment with antipsychotic medications.Method: We report two cases of MA-induced psychosis (MAP in patients with ID who were treated with the antipsychotic blonanserin.Results: In both the cases presented, symptoms of psychosis were improved by switching medications from other antipsychotic drugs to blonanserin. Despite the presence of ID in these patients, no significant adverse effects, such as sedation, were detected after treatment with blonanserin.Conclusion: Blonanserin may be an effective and well-tolerated pharmacotherapeutical treatment for patients with MAP comorbid with ID. However, further work is necessary to validate this claim.Keywords: methamphetamine, methamphetamine-induced psychosis, intellectual disabilities, blonanserin

  14. Clozapine treatment for neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia, parkinsonism, and chronic akathisia in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, B; Mester, R; Abesgaus, J; Wittenberg, N; Adlersberg, S; Gonen, N; Weizman, A

    1997-07-01

    Previous studies on the use of clozapine in neuroleptic-resistant chronic schizophrenic patients have demonstrated positive effects on tardive dyskinesia but were less conclusive about chronic akathisia and parkinsonism. The aim of the present study was to investigate the short-term (18 weeks) efficacy of clozapine in neuroleptic-resistant chronic schizophrenic patients with coexisting tardive dyskinesia, chronic akathisia, and parkinsonism. Twenty chronic, neuroleptic-resistant schizophrenic patients with coexisting tardive dyskinesia, parkinsonism, and chronic akathisia were treated with clozapine. Assessment of tardive dyskinesia, parkinsonism, and chronic akathisia was made once weekly for 18 weeks with the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS), Simpson-Angus Rating Scale for Extrapyramidal Side Effects, and Barnes Rating Scale for Drug-Induced Akathisia (BAS). At the end of 18 weeks of clozapine treatment, improvement rates were 74% for tardive dyskinesia, 69% for parkinsonism, and 78% for chronic akathisia. A statistically significant reduction in the scores on the AIMS and Simpson-Angus Scale was achieved at Week 5 and on the BAS at Week 6 (p clozapine are effective for the treatment of neuroleptic-induced extrapyramidal syndromes in neuroleptic-resistant chronic schizophrenic patients. The relief of tardive dyskinesia, parkinsonism, and chronic akathisia in this group of patients occurs more rapidly than the reduction in psychotic symptoms. Disturbing, long-term extrapyramidal syndromes in chronic schizophrenic patients should be considered an indication for clozapine treatment.

  15. Health-Care Waste Treatment Technology Selection Using the Interval 2-Tuple Induced TOPSIS Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chao; You, Jian-Xin; Liu, Hu-Chen; Li, Ping

    2016-06-04

    Health-care waste (HCW) management is a major challenge for municipalities, particularly in the cities of developing nations. Selecting the best treatment technology for HCW can be regarded as a complex multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) issue involving a number of alternatives and multiple evaluation criteria. In addition, decision makers tend to express their personal assessments via multi-granularity linguistic term sets because of different backgrounds and knowledge, some of which may be imprecise, uncertain and incomplete. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to propose a new hybrid decision making approach combining interval 2-tuple induced distance operators with the technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS) for tackling HCW treatment technology selection problems with linguistic information. The proposed interval 2-tuple induced TOPSIS (ITI-TOPSIS) can not only model the uncertainty and diversity of the assessment information given by decision makers, but also reflect the complex attitudinal characters of decision makers and provide much more complete information for the selection of the optimum disposal alternative. Finally, an empirical example in Shanghai, China is provided to illustrate the proposed decision making method, and results show that the ITI-TOPSIS proposed in this paper can solve the problem of HCW treatment technology selection effectively.

  16. Role of Zinc Supplementation in the Treatment of Levetiracetam-Induced Hair Loss: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajiheh Aghamollaii

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cosmetic side effects are of important causes for non-compliance in patients on anti-epileptics. TE is among the most encountered cosmetic adverse effects. Method: This report presents three patients with seizure disorder who developed levetiracetam- induced TE. Levetiracetam was considered the best therapeutic option for the treatment of the presented patients and therefore, was not changed to other anti-epileptics. To manage TE, it was decided to add Zinc sulfate to the therapeutic levetiracetam regimen. Results:  All three patients reported improvement in their hair condition while their seizure was controlled. Significance: Levetiracetam has favorable safety and efficacy profiles. However; the hair loss caused by this medication is a major drawback. Zinc supplementation is suggested to be safe and cost effective when considering management of levetiracetam-induced TE.

  17. Induced radioisotopes inside the treatment hall with a Linac for radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon M, H. A. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aguascalientes, Av. Adolfo Lopez Mateos 1801 Ote., Fracc. Bona Gens, 20255 Aguascalientes (Mexico); Rivera P, E.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Gallego, E.; Lorente, A., E-mail: asa_15@hotmail.com [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, C. Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    When Linacs operate above 8 MV an undesirable neutron field is produced whose spectrum has three main components: the direct spectrum due to those neutrons leaking out from the Linac head, the scattered spectrum due to neutrons produced in the head that collides with the nuclei in the head losing energy and the third spectrum due to room-return effect; this last are mainly epithermal and thermal neutrons being constant at any location in the treatment hall. These neutrons induce activation mainly in the concrete walls and the Linac components. Here the induced radioisotopes have been identified in concrete samples located in the hall and in one of the wedges. The identification has been carried out using a gamma-ray spectrometer. (Author)

  18. Atypical and typical neuroleptic treatments induce distinct programs of transcription factor expression in the striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroi, N; Graybiel, A M

    1996-10-07

    Atypical and typical neuroleptics, when administered chronically, can bring about profound but contrasting changes in schizophrenic symptoms and motor activation and dramatically modulate brain neurochemistry. To explore the transcriptional events that might be involved in this neurochemical regulation, we used immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting to examine the expression patterns of two bZip transcription factors, c-Fos and FosB, in the striatum of rats treated acutely and chronically with neuroleptic drugs of different classes. Typical and atypical neuroleptic drugs produced contrasting regulatory effects on a FosB-like protein of ca. 36-39 kDa, the molecular weight of truncated FosB (delta FosB). Chronic treatments with two typical neuroleptics, haloperidol and metoclopramide, but not with the atypical neuroleptic clozapine, led to markedly enhanced FosB-like immunoreactivity in the caudoputamen. Further, c-Fos-like protein in the striatum, considered a marker for the induction of antipsychotic actions by neuroleptic treatments, was downregulated by chronic treatment with the two potent antipsychotic drugs tested, but not by chronic treatment with metoclopramide, which has low antipsychotic efficacy but induces extrapyramidal side effects. These results suggest that chronic treatments with neuroleptics having different effects on cognitive and motor behavior induce different long-term changes in transcription factor expression in the striatum. Nevertheless, we found that neuroleptics of both classes regulated transcription factor expression in overlapping populations of striatal neurons expressing enkephalin or DARPP-32. Contrasting patterns of transcriptional regulation in these neurons may thus contribute to the distinct neurochemical and behavioral effects that characterize neuroleptics of different classes.

  19. Prevention and treatment of respiratory consequences induced by sulfur mustard in Iranian casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Seyed M; Salamati, Payman; Harandi, Ali Amini; Ghanei, Mostafa

    2013-04-01

    About 100,000 Iranian have been exposed to chemical weapons during Iraq-Iran conflict (1980-88). After being spent of more than two decades, still about 30,000 of them are under follow-up treatment. The main aim of this study was to review various preventive and therapeutic methods for injured patients with sulfur mustard in different phases. For gathering information, we have used the electronic databases including Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, Irandoc sites. According to this search strategy, 104 published articles associated to respiratory problems and among them 50 articles related to prevention and treatment of respiratory problems were found and reviewed. There is not any curative treatment for sulfur mustard induced lung injuries, but some valuable experienced measures for prevention and palliative treatments are available. Some useful measures in acute phase include: Symptomatic management, oxygen supplementation, tracheostomy in laryngospasm, use of moist air, respiratory physical therapy, mucolytic agents and bronchodilators. In the chronic phases, these measures include: Periodic clinical examinations, administration of inhaled corticosteroids alone or with long-acting beta 2 agonists, use of antioxidants, magnesium ions, long term oxygen supplement, therapeutic bronchoscopy, laser therapy, and use of respiratory tract stents. Most treatments are symptomatic but using preventive points immediately after exposure could improve following outcomes.

  20. Prevention and treatment of respiratory consequences induced by sulfur mustard in Iranian casualties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed M Razavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: About 100,000 Iranian have been exposed to chemical weapons during Iraq-Iran conflict (1980-88. After being spent of more than two decades, still about 30,000 of them are under follow-up treatment. The main aim of this study was to review various preventive and therapeutic methods for injured patients with sulfur mustard in different phases. Methods: For gathering information, we have used the electronic databases including Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, Irandoc sites. According to this search strategy, 104 published articles associated to respiratory problems and among them 50 articles related to prevention and treatment of respiratory problems were found and reviewed. Results: There is not any curative treatment for sulfur mustard induced lung injuries, but some valuable experienced measures for prevention and palliative treatments are available. Some useful measures in acute phase include: Symptomatic management, oxygen supplementation, tracheostomy in laryngospasm, use of moist air, respiratory physical therapy, mucolytic agents and bronchodilators. In the chronic phases, these measures include: Periodic clinical examinations, administration of inhaled corticosteroids alone or with long-acting beta 2 agonists, use of antioxidants, magnesium ions, long term oxygen supplement, therapeutic bronchoscopy, laser therapy, and use of respiratory tract stents. Conclusions: Most treatments are symptomatic but using preventive points immediately after exposure could improve following outcomes.

  1. Antihypertensive treatment in spontaneously hypertensive rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka-Nakamura, M; Kishi, K; Miyazawa, A; Yagi, S; Sokabe, H

    1988-01-01

    Recent clinical reports have suggested that hypertension accelerates the progress of diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy, whereas antihypertensive treatments may retard them. Thus, the effect of antihypertensive treatment in diabetes mellitus with hypertension was evaluated in rats. A model of diabetes mellitus with hypertension has been developed in spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats by unilateral nephrectomy and streptozotocin (STZ, 30 mg/kg, i.v. treatment). The rats were treated with four antihypertensive drugs orally for 12 weeks thereafter. STZ treatment induced chronic hypeglycaemia (300-400 mg/dl), decreased body weight and heart rate, and caused vascular changes of ophthalmic fundi and cataracta. The kidney of these rats showed proliferative changes such as periarteritis nodosa, hyperplasia, or fibronecrosis of the arterioles, exudative changes, mesangial proliferation, or thickening of the basement membrane of the glomeruli. Enalapril (10 mg/kg per day) and remipril (Hoe 498) (1 mg/kg per day), converting enzyme inhibitors, or arotinolol (20 mg/kg per day), a beta-adrenoceptor blocking drug, decreased blood pressure, prevented the development of renal and ocular lesions, and tended to increase creatinine clearance. Nisoldipine (3 mg/kg per day), a calcium-entry blocking drug, tended to decrease blood glucose, and prevented the decrease of body weight and development of ocular lesions. In conclusion, antihypertensive treatments were effective in preventing the progress of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy, and renal insufficiency in this animal model.

  2. Induced sputum MMP-1, -3 & -8 concentrations during treatment of tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar A Ugarte-Gil

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB destroys lung tissues and this immunopathology is mediated in part by Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs. There are no data on the relationship between local tissue MMPs concentrations, anti-tuberculosis therapy and sputum conversion.Induced sputum was collected from 68 TB patients and 69 controls in a cross-sectional study. MMPs concentrations were measured by Luminex array, TIMP concentrations by ELISA and were correlated with a disease severity score (TBscore. 46 TB patients were then studied longitudinally at the 2nd, 8th week and end of treatment.Sputum MMP-1,-2,-3,-8,-9 and TIMP-1 and -2 concentrations are increased in TB. Elevated MMP-1 and -3 concentrations are independently associated with higher TB severity scores (p<0.05. MMP-1, -3 and -8 concentrations decreased rapidly during treatment (p<0.05 whilst there was a transient increase in TIMP-1/2 concentrations at week 2. MMP-2, -8 and -9 and TIMP-2 concentrations were higher at TB diagnosis in patients who remain sputum culture positive at 2 weeks and MMP-3, -8 and TIMP-1 concentrations were higher in these patients at 2nd week of TB treatment.MMPs are elevated in TB patients and associate with disease severity. This matrix-degrading phenotype resolves rapidly with treatment. The MMP profile at presentation correlates with a delayed treatment response.

  3. ٍEvaluating Baremoom Mouthwash Efficacy in Treatment of Chemotherapy-Induced Mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Akhavan Karbasi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis is regarded as a painful and discomforting chemotherapy complication , affecting patient’s quality of life and endurance to continue the treatment. Hence, treatment of mucositis is of great significance. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Baremoom mouthwash in treatment of chemotherapy-induced mucositis . Methods: This interventional double-blinded randomized clinical trial study was performed on 40 adult patients under chemotherapy in blood and oncology department of Shahid Sadouqhi hospital. The total of 40 patients were randomly divided into two groups: an experimental baremoom group and a control placebo group each containing 20 subjects. Baremoom mouthwash (30% extract, Soren Tektoos, Mashhad and placebo mouthwash ( Sterile water with allowable additives ,Soren Tektoos, Mashhad with same apparent properties were given to the patients (3 times a day for 7 days after mucositis detection. The patients were evaluated in regard with mucositis grade (0-4 WHO and wounds extension on 1th , 3th and 7th days after the study begining. In order to statistically analyze the collected data, Freidman, Mann–Whitney, and wilcoxon W tests were applied utilizing SPSS software (ver, 17. Results: On 3rd  and 7th  days, mean degree of wound extension and mucositis were demonstrated to be significantly different between the two groups. According to Friedman test, both experimental and control groups revealed a significant difference in regard with wound extension and mucositis grade within the three time periods. Conclusion: The study findings indicated that Baremoom mouthwash was more effective in chemotherapy- induced mucositis than placebo. Hence, this agent can be recommended as an appropriate medicine in order to eliminate mucositis symtoms and decrease oral ulcers.

  4. Kefir treatment ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senol, Altug; Isler, Mehmet; Sutcu, Recep; Akin, Mete; Cakir, Ebru; Ceyhan, Betul M; Kockar, M Cem

    2015-12-14

    To investigate the preventive effect of kefir on colitis induced with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in rats. Twenty-four male Wistar-albino rats were randomized into four groups: normal control, kefir-control, colitis, and kefir-colitis groups. Rats in the normal and kefir-control groups were administered tap water as drinking water for 14 d. Rats in the colitis and kefir-colitis groups were administered a 3% DSS solution as drinking water for 8-14 d to induce colitis. Rats in the kefir-control and kefir-colitis groups were administered 5 mL kefir once a day for 14 d while rats in the normal control and colitis group were administered an identical volume of the placebo (skim milk) using an orogastric feeding tube. Clinical colitis was evaluated with reference to the disease activity index (DAI), based on daily weight loss, stool consistency, and presence of bleeding in feces. Rats were sacrificed on the 15(th) day, blood specimens were collected, and colon tissues were rapidly removed. Levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-10, malondialdehyde, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were measured in colon tissue. The DAI was lower in the kefir-colitis group than in the colitis group (on the 3(rd) and 5(th) days of colitis induction; P kefir-control groups. The DAI was statistically higher only on the 6(th) day in the kefir-colitis group when compared to that in the normal control groups. Increased colon weight and decreased colon length were observed in colitis-induced rats. Mean colon length in the colitis group was significantly shorter than that of the kefir-control group. Kefir treatment significantly decreased histologic colitis scores (P kefir-control group (P Kefir treatment significantly reduced the DSS colitis-induced TNF-α increase (P kefir-colitis groups (P Kefir reduces the clinical DAI and histologic colitis scores in a DSS-induced colitis model, possibly via reduction of MPO, TNF-α, and iNOS levels.

  5. Pre-hospital treatment of bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Oropeza, Athamaica; Mikkelsen, Søren; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Mortz, Charlotte G

    2017-01-14

    Bee and wasp stings are among the most common triggers of anaphylaxis in adults representing around 20% of fatal anaphylaxis from any cause. Data of pre-hospital treatment of bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions are sparse. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions, the severity of the reactions and to correlate the pre-hospital treatment with the severity of the anaphylactic reaction. Retrospective and descriptive study based on data from the Mobile Emergency Care Units (MECUs) in the Region of Southern Denmark (2008 only for Odense and 2009-2014 for the whole region). Discharge summaries with diagnosis related to anaphylaxis according to the International Classification of Diseases 10 (ICD-10) were reviewed to identify bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions. The severity of the anaphylactic reaction was assessed according to Sampson's severity score and Mueller's severity score. Treatment was evaluated in relation to administration of adrenaline, glucocorticoids and antihistamine. We identified 273 cases (Odense 2008 n = 14 and Region of Southern Denmark 2009-2014 n = 259) of bee and wasp induced anaphylaxis. The Incidence Rate was estimated to 35.8 cases per 1,000,000 person year (95% CI 25.9-48.2) in the Region of Southern Denmark during 2009-2014. According to Sampson's severity score, 65% (n = 177) of the cases were graded as moderate to severe anaphylaxis (grade 3-5). Almost one third of cases could not be graded according to Mueller's severity score. Adrenaline was administrated in 54% (96/177) of cases with moderate to severe anaphylaxis according to Sampson's severity score, compared to 88% receiving intravenous glucocorticoids (p < 0.001) and 91% receiving intravenous antihistamines (p < 0.001). Even in severe anaphylaxis (grade 5) adrenaline was administered in only 80% of the cases. Treatment with adrenaline is not administered in accordance with international guidelines

  6. 3D numerical modeling of coupled phenomena in induced processes of heat treatment with malice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triwong Peeteenut

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a multi-method Malice package for three dimension coupled phenomena in induced processes of heat treatment by an algorithm weakly coupled with the Migen package integral method defining the electromagnetic model and the Flux-Expert package finite element method defining the thermal model. The integral method is well suited to inductive systems undergoing sinusoidal excitation at midrange or high frequency. The unknowns of both models are current density, scalar potential and temperature. Joule power in the electromagnetic model is generated by Eddy currents. It becomes the heat source in the thermal model.

  7. No effect of pirfenidone treatment in fulminant bleomycin-induced pneumonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Bendstrup

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bleomycin-induced pneumonitis (BIP is a serious and potentially fatal adverse effect of bleomycin. Currently, BIP is treated on an empirical basis with high dose steroid. Pirfenidone is a new antifibrotic drug, which has been proven beneficial in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and is able to inhibit or reverse BIP in animal models. Here, the first two cases of human BIP treated with pirfenidone in addition to steroid therapy are presented. Unfortunately, both patients died, which may be explained by the initiation of therapy at a late stage. Therefore, studies of early or prophylactic treatment with pirfenidone in relation to bleomycin-containing chemotherapy regimens are needed.

  8. Severe duodenal hemorrhage induced by Lugol's solution administered for thyroid crisis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Yasuda, Mutsuko; Furumoto, Youhei; Watanabe, Naoko; Horiuchi, Takao; Murayama, Minekazu; Kitamura, Mari; Kaneko, Shingo; Inoshita, Seiji; Maruyama, Yasuki; Suenaga, Matsuhiko; Fujita, Hiroshi; Fujiki, Kazuhiko; Yakushiji, Fumiatsu

    2010-01-01

    Lugol's solution is an iodinated agent used for treating thyroid crisis. It is primarily used in diagnostic tests for esophageal diseases. However, Lugol's solution can cause local mucosal injury and hemorrhage. We report, for the first time, a case of 34-year-old man who exhibited severe duodenal hemorrhage induced by Lugol's solution that was used to treat thyroid crisis. The quantity of Lugol's solution used for treating thyroid crisis is much higher than that used for mucosal disease investigation. Clinical practitioners should be aware of gastrointestinal hemorrhage when using Lugol's solution for the treatment of thyroid crisis.

  9. Chronic treatment with antipsychotics in rats as a model for antipsychotic-induced weight gain in human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouzet, B; Mow, T; Kreilgaard, Mads

    2003-01-01

    compounds in an animal model of weight gain. With the aim of evaluating whether the rat can be used as a model for antipsychotic-induced weight gain, we have investigated the effect of chronic treatment (3 weeks) with one antipsychotic drug inducing weight gain in clinic (olanzapine) and one antipsychotic...

  10. Pre-hospital treatment of bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz Oropeza, Athamaica; Mikkelsen, Søren; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    was assessed according to Sampson's severity score and Mueller's severity score. Treatment was evaluated in relation to administration of adrenaline, glucocorticoids and antihistamine. RESULTS: We identified 273 cases (Odense 2008 n = 14 and Region of Southern Denmark 2009-2014 n = 259) of bee and wasp induced...... could not be graded according to Mueller's severity score. Adrenaline was administrated in 54% (96/177) of cases with moderate to severe anaphylaxis according to Sampson's severity score, compared to 88% receiving intravenous glucocorticoids (p ... adrenaline was administered in only 80% of the cases. CONCLUSION: Treatment with adrenaline is not administered in accordance with international guidelines. However, making an assessment of the severity of the anaphylactic reaction is difficult...

  11. Two patients with daptomycin induced eosinophilic pneumonia with different presentations and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonas Raru

    Full Text Available We present two cases of daptomycin-induced eosinophilic pneumonia with characteristic chest x ray, CT scan and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL findings. It is not a commonly seen complication of Daptomycin but when it happens, it could cause a diagnostic and treatment dilemma. Patients could present acutely with hypoxic respiratory failure or a less dramatic chronic presentation is also possible. Our two patients presented with acute hypoxic respiratory failure and presentation resembles that of an infectious etiology. Diagnosis is confirmed by bronchoscopy with BAL in one of them and the other was treated empirically as the clinical and radiologic presentation was typical. Treatment includes removal of the offending agent, daptomycin. Corticosteroids are used if symptoms are severe and can result in rapid clinical improvement. There is no agreed upon dose and duration of steroids and we suggest a long taper of steroids for patients who present with severe symptoms and a short course steroid for patients with milder symptoms.

  12. Statin Treatment in Hypercholesterolemic Men Does Not Attenuate Angiotensin II-Induced Venoconstriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Christoph; Guenther, Kristina; Hermann, Cosima; Ferrario, Carlos M.; Schroeder, Christoph; Haufe, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Experimental studies suggested that statins attenuate vascular AT1 receptor responsiveness. Moreover, the augmented excessive pressor response to systemic angiotensin II infusions in hypercholesterolemic patients was normalized with statin treatment. In 12 hypercholesterolemic patients, we tested the hypothesis that statin treatment attenuates angiotensin II-mediated vasoconstriction in hand veins assessed by a linear variable differential transducer. Subjects ingested daily doses of either atorvastatin (40 mg) or positive control irbesartan (150 mg) for 30 days in a randomized and cross-over fashion. Ang II–induced venoconstriction at minute 4 averaged 59%±10% before and 28%±9% after irbesartan (mean ± SEM; Pblood pressure buffering reflexes. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00154024 PMID:25264877

  13. Subchronic apocynin treatment attenuates methamphetamine-induced dopamine release and hyperactivity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dennis K; Oelrichs, Clark E; Sun, Grace Y; Simonyi, Agnes

    2014-03-07

    The effects of methamphetamine are linked to stimulation of dopaminergic neurons, which can be accompanied by production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Apocynin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-acetophenone) is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-oxidase (NOX) inhibitor shown to mitigate oxidative stress in a number of models. The present study aimed at testing whether apocynin suppresses the dopamine-releasing and locomotor-activating properties of methamphetamine. (1) Apocynin (0.01-100μM) was applied to rat striatal slices preloaded with [(3)H]dopamine and its efficacy to evoke [(3)H]overflow and to alter methamphetamine (3μM)-evoked [(3)H]overflow was measured. (2) Groups of rats received apocynin (15 or 50mg/kg/day) or vehicle injection for seven consecutive days, and the efficacy and potency of methamphetamine to evoke [(3)H]overflow were determined. (3) Groups of apocynin-treated rats were administered methamphetamine (0.5 or 1mg/kg) or saline to determine the effect of apocynin on stimulant-induced hyperactivity. (1) Apocynin applied to striatal slices did not evoke [(3)H]overflow or alter methamphetamine-evoked [(3)H]overflow. (2) However, subchronic apocynin treatment significantly and dose-dependently decreased methamphetamine's potency and efficacy to evoke [(3)H]overflow. (3) Subchronic apocynin treatment also decreased the locomotor activity evoked by methamphetamine. Subchronic apocynin treatment diminished methamphetamine induced dopamine-release and its locomotor-activating properties. The pattern of results indicates that apocynin is more effective after repeated, rather than after acute, treatment. The findings also suggest that NOX inhibitors or agents suppressing oxidative stress may constitute a new area for research to understand how methamphetamine produces its deleterious and neurotoxic outcomes in the brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fractal analysis of the surgical treatment of ligature-induced peri-implantitis in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hak Kun; Kim, Jin Soo [School of Dentisity, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    To evaluate the effect of surgical treatment of ligature-induced peri-implantitis in dogs using fractal analysis. Also, the capabilities of fractal analysis as bone analysis techniques were compared with those of histomorphometric analysis. A total of 24 implants were inserted in 6 dogs. After a 3-months, experimental periimplantitis characterized by a bone loss of about 3 mm was established by inducing with wires. Surgical treatment involving flap procedure, debridement of implants surface with chlorhexidine and saline (group 1), guided bone regeneration (GBR) with absorbable collagen membrane and mineralized bone graft (group 2), and CO2 laser application with GBR (group 3) were performed. After animals were sacrificed in 8 and 16 weeks respectively, bone sections including implants were made. Fractal dimensions were calculated by box-counting method on the skeletonized images, made from each region of interest, including five screws at medial and distal aspects of implant, were selected. Statistically significant differences in the fractal dimensions between the group 1 (0.9340 {+-} 0.0126) and group 3 (0.9783 {+-} 0.0118) at 16 weeks were found (P<0.05). The fractal dimension was statistically significant different between 8 (0.9395 {+-} 0.0283) and 16 weeks in group 3 (P<0.05). These results were similar with the result of the evaluation of new bone formation in histomorphometric analysis. Treatment of experimental peri-implantitis by using CO2 laser with GBR is more useful than other treatments in the formation of new bone and also the tendency of fractal dimension to increase relative to healing time may be a useful means of evaluating.

  15. Prevention and treatment of radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis: a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Ieda Lessa de Souza; Camargo, Teresa Caldas

    2007-01-01

    The prevention and treatment of radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis have still not been fully defined. The current study thus involved a literature search aimed at identifying preventive and therapeutic measures in relation to oral mucositis in patients submitted to radiotherapy, analyzing the level of evidence in the selected studies, identifying which indications for prevention and treatment in the literature pertain to the field of nursing, and critically analyzing the results and their implications for nursing care. This was a systematic literature survey without a meta analysis, consulting the following databases: BIREME, Medline, CancerLit, Scirus, CAPES, Free medical journal, High wire press, SCIELO, and Medscape, from 2000 to 2005. According to observations, nursing care was capable of improving patient's quality of life, promoting education of patients, implementing and supervising oral care programs, and providing guidance on hygiene, prevention, and treatment of oral mucositis, including pain management. However, no Brazilian nursing publications were found on the subject. Research and publications focusing on nursing experience in the prevention and treatment of radiotherapy-related oral mucositis and the implications for patients and nurses are important to provide evidence-based nursing guidelines. (author)

  16. Microwave-induced titanate nanotubes and the corresponding behaviour after thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, H H; Lo, S L; Liou, Y H

    2007-01-01

    This study attempts to survey the influence of microwave irradiation on the characterizations of titanate nanotubes (TNTs) synthesized by microwave hydrothermal treatment (M-H treatment). Based on the performance of specific surface areas determined by the classic Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method (S BET ), TNTs synthesized at 130 deg. C for 1.5 h with and without 400 W irradiation presented S BET values of 256 and 76 m 2 g -1 , respectively. The result indicates that the formation kinetics of TNTs is significantly enhanced by M-H treatment. The microwave-induced TNTs are preferentially assigned for Na x H 2-x Ti 3 O 7 structure and the Na/H ratio appreciably increases with higher irradiation power. Regarding the behaviour of TNTs after thermal treatment, TNTs synthesized under 70 W presented anatase phase at 500 deg. C through rearrangement and restacking of [TiO 6 ]. Anatase-to-rutile transformation subsequently occurred at 700 deg. C. TNTs synthesized under 400 and 700 W presented a rod shape at 700 deg. C. The rod shape mainly comprise of Na 2 Ti 6 O 13 of which the (Ti 3 O 7 ) 2- layers with the topotactical connection proceed to form (Ti 6 O 13 ) 2- along the [110] direction during the thermal process

  17. Repeated Treatments with Ingenol Mebutate Prevents Progression of UV-Induced Photodamage in Hairless Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlendsson, Andrés Már; Thaysen-Petersen, Daniel; Bay, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    : UVR+IngMeb 6.00 vs. UVR+IngMeb+CP 3.00 p field-directed treatments with IngMeb prevent progression of cutaneous photodamage in hairless mice, while CP cannot be used to alleviate IngMeb-induced LSR. The findings suggest that IngMeb may potentially serve as a prophylactic...... skin responses (LSR). METHODS: Hairless mice (n = 60; 3 groups of 20 mice) were irradiated with solar simulated ultraviolet radiation (UVR) throughout the study. Five single treatments with IngMeb were given at 4-week intervals (Days 21, 49, 77, 105, and 133). Clobetasol propionate (CP) was applied...... once daily for 5 days prior to each IngMeb application, as well as 6 h and 1 day post treatment. One week after IngMeb treatment No. 1, 3, and 5 (Days 28, 84, and 140), biopsies from four mice in each group were collected for histological evaluation of UV-damage on a standardized UV-damage scale (0...

  18. Prevention of radiation-induced bacteraemia by post-treatment with OK-432 and aztreonam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurishita, A.; Ono, T. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine); Uchida, A. (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Radiation Biology Center)

    1993-03-01

    The effects of combined treatment with OK-432, an immunomodulator prepared from Streptococcus haemolyticus, and aztreonam, a monobactum antibiotic, in the prevention of radiation-induced bacteraemia and mortality were examined in ICR-MCH mice irradiated with 9.5 Gy. The organisms recovered from the irradiated mice were Streptococcus faecalis and Proteus mirabilis. Treatment with aztreonam reduced the incidence of mice infected with Proteus mirabilis (p<0.01), but it showed no efficacy on Streptococcus faecalis. OK-432 could reduce the frequency of bacteraemia attributed to both organisms (p<0.05). Combined treatment with OK-432 and aztreonam further decreased the incidence of bacteraemia by both organisms; no organisms were recovered at 14 days following irradiation. The survival rate at 30 days following irradiation was 80% in mice treated with OK-432 plus aztreonam and 55% with OK-432 alone, while it was 0% in the groups treated with aztreonam or saline alone. These results indicated that combined treatment with OK-432 and a suitable antibiotic such as aztreonam is more effective than OK-432 or aztreonam alone. (Author).

  19. Prevention of radiation-induced bacteraemia by post-treatment with OK-432 and aztreonam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurishita, A.; Ono, T.; Uchida, A.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of combined treatment with OK-432, an immunomodulator prepared from Streptococcus haemolyticus, and aztreonam, a monobactum antibiotic, in the prevention of radiation-induced bacteraemia and mortality were examined in ICR-MCH mice irradiated with 9.5 Gy. The organisms recovered from the irradiated mice were Streptococcus faecalis and Proteus mirabilis. Treatment with aztreonam reduced the incidence of mice infected with Proteus mirabilis (p<0.01), but it showed no efficacy on Streptococcus faecalis. OK-432 could reduce the frequency of bacteraemia attributed to both organisms (p<0.05). Combined treatment with OK-432 and aztreonam further decreased the incidence of bacteraemia by both organisms; no organisms were recovered at 14 days following irradiation. The survival rate at 30 days following irradiation was 80% in mice treated with OK-432 plus aztreonam and 55% with OK-432 alone, while it was 0% in the groups treated with aztreonam or saline alone. These results indicated that combined treatment with OK-432 and a suitable antibiotic such as aztreonam is more effective than OK-432 or aztreonam alone. (Author)

  20. Nasal obstructive disorders induce medical treatment failure in paediatric persistent allergic rhinitis (The NODPAR Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño-Sánchez, Franklin S; Valls-Mateus, Meritxell; Ruiz-Echevarría, Karen; Alobid, Isam; Cardenas-Escalante, Paulina; Jiménez-Feijoo, Rosa; Lozano-Blasco, Jaime; Giner-Muñoz, María T; Rodríguez-Jorge, Jesús; Haag, Oliver; Plaza-Martin, Ana M; Mullol, Joaquim

    2017-03-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the most common chronic disease among children. To characterize the disease, a modified classification of severity (m-ARIA) has recently been validated in AR children. When medical treatment fails, surgery for nasal obstructive disorders (NOD) may be a therapeutic option. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of NOD and their influence in medical treatment response among children with persistent AR (PER). In a prospective, real-life study, 130 paediatric PER patients (13.1 ± 2.8 years, females 31.5%, severe rhinitis 49%) referred from Allergy to ENT department were assessed for their response (R, responders; NR, non-responders) to medical treatment (intranasal steroids and antihistamines or antileukotrienes) by direct questioning and nasal symptom visual analogue scale, the presence of NOD (septal deformity, turbinate enlargement and adenoidal hyperplasia), comorbidities, nasal symptoms, rhinitis severity (modified ARIA criterion) and asthma control (International Consensus On Pediatric Asthma criterion). After 2 months of treatment, the NR group presented a higher prevalence of obstructive septal deformity and severe inferior turbinate enlargement when compared with the R group. Higher septal deformity and turbinate enlargement scores were strongly associated with treatment refractoriness. The prevalence of severe PER was also higher for the NR group. Higher asthma control scores were associated with the probability of treatment-induced improvement. In paediatric PER patients, medical therapy refractoriness was associated with NOD, mainly septal deformity and turbinate enlargement. In those patients, ENT examination will facilitate an early NOD diagnosis in order to indicate potential corrective surgery. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Highly selective vagotomy and gastrojejunostomy in the treatment of peptic ulcer induced gastric outlet obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovanović, Nebojša; Simić, Aleksandar; Skrobić, Ognjan; Kotarac, Milutin; Ivanović, Nenad

    2014-11-01

    The incidence of peptic ulcer-induced gastric outlet obstruction is constantly declining. The aim of this study was to present our results in the treatment of gastric outlet obstruction with highly selective vagotomy and gastrojejunostomy. This retrospective clinical study included 13 patients with peptic ulcer-induced gastric outlet obstruction operated with higly selective vagotomy and gastrojejunostomy. A 3-year follow-up was conducted including clinical interview and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy on 1 and 3 years after the surgery. The most common preoperative symptom was vomiting (in 92.3% of patients). The mean preoperative body mass index was 16.3 +/- 3.1 kg/m2, with 9 patients classified preoperatively as underweight. There were no intraoperative complications, nor mortality. At a 3-year follow-up there was no ulcer recurrence. Delayed gastric emptying was present in 1, bile reflux in 2, and erosive gastritis in 1 patient. Two patients suffered from mild "dumping" syndrome. Higly selective vagotomy combined with gastrojejunostomy is a safe and easily feasible surgical solution of gastric outlet obstruction induced by peptic ulcer. Good functional results and low rate of complications can be expected at a long-term follow-up.

  2. Physiological bases and treatment to the radiation-induced emetic reflex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulen Napoles, Barbara M.; Torres Babie, Priscilla; Ropero Toirac, Ramon de J.

    2002-01-01

    In the course of the specific oncologic treatment, there are frequent complications such as nausea and vomiting. The radiation-induced emetic reflex depends on various factors: primary site of radiation, administered dose, fractioning, irradiated volume, the sensory and psychic characteristics of the patient as well as the chemotherapy association. It is known that the afferent path to the so-called center of vomiting is determined by chemical mediators, protuberance receptors of the intracranial pressure and the unleashing chemoreceptor zone. In radiation-induced emesis, the exact mechanism is yet to be determined but it is known that radiation stimulates the production of chemical mediators and serotonin released by enterochromaffin cells that act upon the center of vomiting and vagal nucleus. Most of patients who are exposed to irradiation of their upper and middle hemibody as well as all the patients exposed to whole-body irradiation present with nausea and vomiting. The therapeutical anti-emetic recommendations are based on the neurochemical control of vomiting and the emetogenic effect of radiotherapy. 5HT3 receptor-antagonists are evaluated as effective agents in the control of radiation-induced emesis

  3. Modern strategy of diagnostics and treatment of NSAID-induced enteropathy in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipatova Т.Е.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to improve the efficiency of diagnosis and treatment of NSAID-induced enteropathy at elderly patients with chronic pain (osteoarthritis, dorsopathy. Material and Methods. 300 elderly with osteoarthritis or dorsopathies regularly (8 weeks or more receiving diclofenac at 75 mg per day were inspected. Clinical features, morphology, components of the diffuse endocrine system of the small intestine were studied. Results. It is defined, that at elderly patients with regular use of NSAIDs in 25% of cases postbulbar erosive duodenitis, in 75% of cases inflammatory and atrophic changes of the distal duodenum were diagnosed. Diagnosis of NSAID-induced enteropathy at elderly should include faecal calprotectin and morphology analysis of postbulbar area of the duodenum. Use meloxicam and sulfasalazine at older patients helps to eliminate or reduce intestinal dyspepsia, malabsorption, and intestinal inflammation on the results of faecal calprotectin and of histology of the small intestine. Conclusion. Elderly patients are at high-risk group for NSAID-induced enteropathy due to functional disturbances in the neuroendocrine system of the small intestine.

  4. Modafinil treatment prevents REM sleep deprivation-induced brain function impairment by increasing MMP-9 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bin; Peng, Hua; Zhao, Ying; Zhou, Hui; Zhao, Zhongxin

    2011-12-02

    Previous work showed that sleep deprivation (SD) impairs hippocampal-dependent cognitive function and synaptic plasticity, and a novel wake-promoting agent modafinil prevents SD-induced memory impairment in rat. However, the mechanisms by which modafinil prevented REM-SD-induced impairment of brain function remain poorly understood. In the present study, rats were sleep-deprived by using the modified multiple platform method and brain function was detected. The results showed that modafinil treatment prevented REM-SD-induced impairment of cognitive function. Modafinil significantly reduced the number of errors compared to placebo and upregulated synapsin I expression in the dorsal hippocampal CA3 region. A synaptic plasticity-related gene, MMP-9 expression was also upregulated in modafinil-treated rats. Importantly, downregulation of MMP-9 expression by special siRNA decreased synapsin I protein levels and synapse numbers. Therefore, we demonstrated that modafinil increased cognition function and synaptic plasticity, at least in part by increasing MMP-9 expression in REM-SD rats. 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Novel neurokinin-1 antagonists as antiemetics for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced emesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, G Kesava; Gralla, Richard J; Hesketh, Paul J

    2006-04-01

    Despite significant advances in supportive care in oncology, many patients with cancer still experience chemotherapy- induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Historically, there were only 3 neurotransmitter receptors (dopamine D2, cannabinoid- 1, and 5-hydroxytryptamine-3) that were the known targets for antiemetic therapy. Major advances in the management of chemotherapy-induced emesis were seen with the introduction of 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonists, which include palonosetron, ondansetron, tropisetron, dolasetron, and granisetron. However, recently, selective inhibitors of substance P have shown promising activity in the management of CINV in patients with cancer. Substance P mediates a number of biologic effects by binding to a specific neuroreceptor, neurokinin-1 (NK-1). Among the NK-1 receptor antagonists, aprepitant has been approved for the treatment of CINV. Currently, several other NK-1 receptor antagonists, including casopitant, vestipitant, netupitant, and SCH619734, are undergoing clinical evaluation for the prevention of CINV in patients with a variety of malignancies. The clinical potential of these novel NK-1 receptor antagonists and their respective ongoing clinical trials for the management of chemotherapy-induced emesis are discussed briefly herein.

  6. Highly selective vagotomy and gastrojejunostomy in the treatment of peptic ulcer induced gastric outlet obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Nebojša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The incidence of peptic ulcer-induced gastric outlet obstruction is constantly declining. The aim of this study was to present our results in the treatment of gastric outlet obstruction with highly selective vagotomy and gastrojejunostomy. Methods. This retrospective clinical study included 13 patients with peptic ulcer - induced gastric outlet obstruction operated with higly selective vagotomy and gastrojejunostomy. A 3-year follow-up was conducted including clinical interview and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy on 1 and 3 years after the surgery. Results. The most common preoperative symptom was vomiting (in 92.3% of patients. The mean preoperative body mass index was 16.3 ± 3.1 kg/m2, with 9 patients classified preoperatively as underweight. There were no intraoperative complications, nor mortality. At a 3-year follow-up there was no ulcer recurrence. Delayed gastric emptying was present in 1, bile reflux in 2, and erosive gastritis in 1 patient. Two patients suffered from mild “dumping” syndrome. Conclusion. Higly selective vagotomy combined with gastrojejunostomy is a safe and easily feasible surgical solution of gastric outlet obstruction induced by peptic ulcer. Good functional results and low rate of complications can be expected at a long-term follow-up.

  7. Monosodium glutamate neonatal treatment induces cardiovascular autonomic function changes in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signorá Peres Konrad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic function in a rodent obesity model induced by monosodium glutamate injections during the first seven days of life. METHOD: The animals were assigned to control (control, n = 10 and monosodium glutamate (monosodium glutamate, n = 13 groups. Thirty-three weeks after birth, arterial and venous catheters were implanted for arterial pressure measurements, drug administration, and blood sampling. Baroreflex sensitivity was evaluated according to the tachycardic and bradycardic responses induced by sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine infusion, respectively. Sympathetic and vagal effects were determined by administering methylatropine and propranolol. RESULTS: Body weight, Lee index, and epididymal white adipose tissue values were higher in the monosodium glutamate group in comparison to the control group. The monosodium glutamate-treated rats displayed insulin resistance, as shown by a reduced glucose/insulin index (-62.5%, an increased area under the curve of total insulin secretion during glucose overload (39.3%, and basal hyperinsulinemia. The mean arterial pressure values were higher in the monosodium glutamate rats, whereas heart rate variability (>7 times, bradycardic responses (>4 times, and vagal (~38% and sympathetic effects (~36% were reduced as compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that obesity induced by neonatal monosodium glutamate treatment impairs cardiac autonomic function and most likely contributes to increased arterial pressure and insulin resistance.

  8. Monosodium glutamate neonatal treatment induces cardiovascular autonomic function changes in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Signorá Peres; Farah, Vera; Rodrigues, Bruno; Wichi, Rogério Brandão; Machado, Ubiratan Fabres; Lopes, Heno Ferreira; D'Agord Schaan, Beatriz; De Angelis, Kátia; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic function in a rodent obesity model induced by monosodium glutamate injections during the first seven days of life. The animals were assigned to control (control, n = 10) and monosodium glutamate (monosodium glutamate, n = 13) groups. Thirty-three weeks after birth, arterial and venous catheters were implanted for arterial pressure measurements, drug administration, and blood sampling. Baroreflex sensitivity was evaluated according to the tachycardic and bradycardic responses induced by sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine infusion, respectively. Sympathetic and vagal effects were determined by administering methylatropine and propranolol. Body weight, Lee index, and epididymal white adipose tissue values were higher in the monosodium glutamate group in comparison to the control group. The monosodium glutamate-treated rats displayed insulin resistance, as shown by a reduced glucose/insulin index (-62.5%), an increased area under the curve of total insulin secretion during glucose overload (39.3%), and basal hyperinsulinemia. The mean arterial pressure values were higher in the monosodium glutamate rats, whereas heart rate variability (>7 times), bradycardic responses (>4 times), and vagal (~38%) and sympathetic effects (~36%) were reduced as compared to the control group. Our results suggest that obesity induced by neonatal monosodium glutamate treatment impairs cardiac autonomic function and most likely contributes to increased arterial pressure and insulin resistance.

  9. Effect of the treatment with Euterpe oleracea Mart. oil in rats with Triton-induced dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Souza, Belmira S Faria; Carvalho, Helison O; Ferreira, Irlon M; da Cunha, Edilson L; Barros, Albenise Santana; Taglialegna, Talisson; Carvalho, José C T

    2017-06-01

    Dyslipidemias are defined as changes in lipid metabolism that have abnormal concentrations of lipids or lipoproteins in the bloodstream. Chronic increase in triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c) levels are known as risk factors for the atherogenesis process as well as other cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The magnitude of the problems caused by dyslipidemias impels research by new agents that act in the prevention and control. Thus, products from the Amazonian biodiversity, such as Euterpe oleracea oil (OFEO), rich in unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), constitutes a study source for the treatment of alterations in lipid metabolism. The present study aims to investigate the effect of OFEO treatment in rats with Triton-induced dyslipidemia (Tyloxapol WR1339). The physicochemical and chromatographic results confirmed the chemical composition of OFEO with a predominance of UFAs (67.83%), with Oleic acid being the majority (54.32%). At Triton-induced dyslipidemia, the animals treated with OFEO and Simvastatin showed a significant reduction in total cholesterol levels, with values ​​of 121.7±29.5 (pdyslipidemia, acting as antihypercholesterolemic and antihypertriglyceridemic, thus possibly contributing as a preventive agent for CVDs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Seawater-drowning-induced acute lung injury: From molecular mechanisms to potential treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Faguang; Li, Congcong

    2017-06-01

    Drowning is a crucial public safety problem and is the third leading cause of accidental fatality, claiming ~372,000 lives annually, worldwide. In near-drowning patients, acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is one of the most common complications. Approximately 1/3 of near-drowning patients fulfill the criteria for ALI or ARDS. In the present article, the current literature of near-drowning, pathophysiologic changes and the molecular mechanisms of seawater-drowning-induced ALI and ARDS was reviewed. Seawater is three times more hyperosmolar than plasma, and following inhalation of seawater the hyperosmotic seawater may cause serious injury in the lung and alveoli. The perturbing effects of seawater may be primarily categorized into insufficiency of pulmonary surfactant, blood-air barrier disruption, formation of pulmonary edema, inflammation, oxidative stress, autophagy, apoptosis and various other hypertonic stimulation. Potential treatments for seawater-induced ALI/ARDS were also presented, in addition to suggestions for further studies. A total of nine therapeutic strategies had been tested and all had focused on modulating the over-activated immunoreactions. In conclusion, seawater drowning is a complex injury process and the exact mechanisms and potential treatments require further exploration.

  11. Gingival Enlargement Induced by Felodipine Resolves with a Conventional Periodontal Treatment and Drug Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Khzam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 47-year-old male who suffered from GE around his lower anterior teeth as soon as he started treatment with Felodipine 400 mg. We show that oral hygiene measures, antibiotics, and conventional periodontal treatment (scaling and root planing SRP were all not sufficient to resolve the drug induced GE, which will persist and/or recur provided that systemic effect of the offending medication is still present. The condition immediately resolved after switching to a different medication. The mechanism of GE is complex and not fully understood yet. It is mainly due to overexpression of a number of growth factors due to high concentrations of calcium ions (Ca2+. This affects fibroblasts proliferation and DNA synthesis and leads to a heavy chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate. Our case was managed according to the suggested protocols in previous case studies. The unique features in our case were the immediate onset of the adverse effect after starting the medication and the absence of any underlying medical condition apart from high blood pressure. Improving the oral hygiene together with SRP and cessation of the medication resolves drug induced GE.

  12. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors induced thyroid dysfunction: a review of its incidence, pathophysiology, clinical relevance, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadieh, Hala; Salti, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) belong to a new class of molecular multitargeted anticancer therapy which targets different growth factor receptors and hence attenuates cancer cell survival and growth. Since their introduction as adjunct treatment for renal cell carcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), a number of reports have demonstrated that TKI can induce thyroid dysfunction which was especially more common with sunitinib maleate. Many mechanisms with respect to this adverse effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been proposed including their induction of thyroiditis, capillary regression in the thyroid gland, antithyroid peroxidase antibody production, and their ability to decrease iodine uptake by the thyroid gland. Of interest is the observation that TKI-induced thyroid dysfunction may actually be protective as it was shown to improve overall survival, and it was suggested that it may have a prognostic value. Followup on thyroid function tests while patients are maintained on tyrosine kinase inhibitor is strongly recommended. When thyroid dysfunction occurs, appropriate treatment should be individualized depending on patients symptoms and thyroid stimulating hormone level.

  13. The Potency of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in Cartilage Regeneration and Osteoarthritis Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cormac; Mobasheri, Ali; Táncos, Zsuzsanna; Kobolák, Julianna; Dinnyés, András

    2017-12-22

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic disabling condition effecting the elderly, significantly impacting an individual patient's quality of life. Current treatment options for OA are focused on pain management and slowing degradation of cartilage. Some modern surgical techniques aimed at encouraging regeneration at defect sites have met with limited long-term success. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been viewed recently as a potential tool in OA repair due to their chondrogenic capacity. Several studies have shown success with regards to reducing patient's OA-related pain and discomfort but have been less successful in inducing chondrocyte regeneration. The heterogeneity of MSCs and their limited proliferation capacity also raises issues when developing an off-the-shelf treatment for OA. Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology, which allows for the easy production of cells capable of prolonged self-renewal and producing any somatic cell type, may overcome those limitations. Patient derived iPSCs can also be used to gain new insight into heredity-related OA. Efforts to generate chondrocytes from iPSCs through embryoid bodies or mesenchymal intermediate stages have struggled to produce with optimal functional characteristics. However, iPSCs potential to produce cells for future OA therapies has been supported by iPSC-derived teratomas, which have shown an ability to produce functional, stable articular cartilage. Other iPSCs-chondrogenic protocols are also improving by incorporating tissue engineering techniques to better mimic developmental conditions.

  14. Successful treatment of hyperthyroidism with amiodarone in a patient with propylthiouracil-induced acute hepatic failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusco, Francisca; González, Gilberto; Soto, Néstor; Arteaga, Eugenio

    2004-10-01

    Acute hepatic failure is a rare and potentially lethal complication of propylthiouracil (PTU) use for hyperthyroidism. We present a 20-year-old woman with Basedow-Graves' disease who developed PTU-induced fulminant hepatitis, which progressed to acute hepatic failure with grade III hepatic encephalopathy. Laboratory evaluation ruled out the most common causes of fulminant hepatitis. We treated her hyperthyroidism with amiodarone (average daily dose, 200 mg) for 3 weeks, achieving rapid and persistent euthyroidism, (triiodothyronine [T(3)] levels ranged between 64 and 109 ng/dL) without side effects. Amiodarone treatment did not abolish the thyroid radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU), allowing for subsequent treatment with radioactive iodine. The clinical course was favorable and the patient achieved full hepatic recovery 3 months after the hepatic failure was detected. After an extensive review of the literature, we believe that this is the first communication of the successful use of amiodarone to control hyperthyroidism in a patient with PTU-induced fulminant hepatitis.

  15. Doxepin for radiation therapy-induced mucositis pain in the treatment of oral cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritujith Jayakrishnan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy (RT, an integral part of the oncologic treatment for patients with head and neck cancer, can cause adverse side effects such as oral mucositis (OM. Pain from OM can impact a patient’s quality of life and interrupt RT treatment schedules, which decreases the probability for achieving cancer cure. Conventionally, RT-induced OM pain is treated with analgesics and/or mouthwash rinses. Doxepin, a traditional tricyclic antidepressant with analgesic and anesthetic properties when applied topically to the mucosa, has been shown to lower OM pain in multiple single-arm trials (Epstein et al. and more recently, in a placebo-controlled crossover study (Leenstra and Miller et al.. Currently, a placebo-controlled study (Sio and Miller et al. using doxepin for esophagitis pain caused by RT to the thorax is underway. Doxepin will also be further compared with magic mouthwash and a placebo solution in a three-arm trial (Miller and Sio et al. with head and neck cancer patients with OM pain caused by RT. Doxepin may represent a new standard for treating RT-induced OM pain in the future.

  16. Pathophysiology of visual disorders induced by phosphodiesterase inhibitors in the treatment of erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moschos MM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Marilita M Moschos, Eirini Nitoda 1st Department of Ophthalmology, Medical School, National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece Aim: The aim of this review was to summarize the ocular action of the most common phosphodiesterase (PDE inhibitors used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction and the subsequent visual disorders.Method: This is a literature review of several important articles focusing on the pathophysiology of visual disorders induced by PDE inhibitors.Results: PDE inhibitors have been associated with ocular side effects, including changes in color vision and light perception, blurred vision, transient alterations in electroretinogram (ERG, conjunctival hyperemia, ocular pain, and photophobia. Sildenafil and tadalafil may induce reversible increase in intraocular pressure and be involved in the development of nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy. Reversible idiopathic serous macular detachment, central serous chorioretinopathy, and ERG disturbances have been related to the significant impact of sildenafil and tadalafil on retinal perfusion.Discussion: So far, PDE inhibitors do not seem to cause permanent toxic effects on chorioretinal tissue and photoreceptors. However, physicians should write down any visual symptom observed during PDE treatment and refer the patients to ophthalmologists. Keywords: erectile dysfunction, pathophysiological mechanisms, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, PDE5, visual disorders

  17. Low-Density, Mechanical Compressible, Water-Induced Self-Recoverable Graphene Aerogels for Water Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shibing; Liu, Yue; Feng, Jiachun

    2017-07-12

    Graphene aerogels (GAs) have demonstrated great promise in water treatment, acting as separation and sorbent materials, because of their high porosity, large surface area, and high hydrophobicity. In this work, we have fabricated a new series of compressible, lightweight (3.3 mg cm -3 ) GAs through simple cross-linking of graphene oxide (GO) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with glutaraldehyde. It is found that the cross-linked GAs (xGAs) show an interesting water-induced self-recovery ability, which can recover to their original volume even under extremely high compression strain or after vacuum-/air drying. Importantly, the amphiphilicity of xGAs can be adjusted facilely by changing the feeding ratio of GO and PVA and it exhibits affinity from polar water to nonpolar organic liquids depended on its amphiphilicity. The hydrophobic xGAs with low feeding ratio of PVA and GO can be used as adsorbent for organic liquid, while the hydrophilic xGAs with high feeding ratio of PVA and GO can be used as the filter material to remove some water-soluble dye in the wastewater. Because of the convenience of our approach in adjusting the amphiphilicity by simply changing the PVA/GO ratio and excellent properties of the resulting xGAs, such as low density, compressive, and water-induced self-recovery, this work suggests a promising technique to prepare GAs-based materials for the water treatment in different environment with high recyclability and long life.

  18. Seawater-drowning-induced acute lung injury: From molecular mechanisms to potential treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Faguang; Li, Congcong

    2017-01-01

    Drowning is a crucial public safety problem and is the third leading cause of accidental fatality, claiming ~372,000 lives annually, worldwide. In near-drowning patients, acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is one of the most common complications. Approximately 1/3 of near-drowning patients fulfill the criteria for ALI or ARDS. In the present article, the current literature of near-drowning, pathophysiologic changes and the molecular mechanisms of seawater-drowning-induced ALI and ARDS was reviewed. Seawater is three times more hyperosmolar than plasma, and following inhalation of seawater the hyperosmotic seawater may cause serious injury in the lung and alveoli. The perturbing effects of seawater may be primarily categorized into insufficiency of pulmonary surfactant, blood-air barrier disruption, formation of pulmonary edema, inflammation, oxidative stress, autophagy, apoptosis and various other hypertonic stimulation. Potential treatments for seawater-induced ALI/ARDS were also presented, in addition to suggestions for further studies. A total of nine therapeutic strategies had been tested and all had focused on modulating the over-activated immunoreactions. In conclusion, seawater drowning is a complex injury process and the exact mechanisms and potential treatments require further exploration. PMID:28587319

  19. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Induced Thyroid Dysfunction: A Review of Its Incidence, Pathophysiology, Clinical Relevance, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Ahmadieh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI belong to a new class of molecular multitargeted anticancer therapy which targets different growth factor receptors and hence attenuates cancer cell survival and growth. Since their introduction as adjunct treatment for renal cell carcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST, a number of reports have demonstrated that TKI can induce thyroid dysfunction which was especially more common with sunitinib maleate. Many mechanisms with respect to this adverse effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been proposed including their induction of thyroiditis, capillary regression in the thyroid gland, antithyroid peroxidase antibody production, and their ability to decrease iodine uptake by the thyroid gland. Of interest is the observation that TKI-induced thyroid dysfunction may actually be protective as it was shown to improve overall survival, and it was suggested that it may have a prognostic value. Followup on thyroid function tests while patients are maintained on tyrosine kinase inhibitor is strongly recommended. When thyroid dysfunction occurs, appropriate treatment should be individualized depending on patients symptoms and thyroid stimulating hormone level.

  20. Trehalose treatment suppresses inflammation, oxidative stress, and vasospasm induced by experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echigo Ryosuke

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH frequently results in several complications, including cerebral vasospasm, associated with high mortality. Although cerebral vasospasm is a major cause of brain damages after SAH, other factors such as inflammatory responses and oxidative stress also contribute to high mortality after SAH. Trehalose is a non-reducing disaccharide in which two glucose units are linked by α,α-1,1-glycosidic bond, and has been shown to induce tolerance to a variety of stressors in numerous organisms. In the present study, we investigated the effect of trehalose on cerebral vasospasm, inflammatory responses, and oxidative stress induced by blood in vitro and in vivo. Methods Enzyme immunoassay for eicosanoids, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and endothelin-1, and western blotting analysis for cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and inhibitor of NF-κB were examined in macrophage-like cells treated with hemolysate. After treatment with hemolysate and hydrogen peroxide, the levels of lipid peroxide and amounts of arachidonic acid release were also analyzed. Three hours after the onset of experimental SAH, 18 Japanese White rabbits received an injection of saline, trehalose, or maltose into the cisterna magna. Angiographic and histological analyses of the basilar arteries were performed. In a separate study, the femoral arteries from 60 rats were exposed to fresh autologous blood. At 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 20 days after treatment, cryosections prepared from the femoral arteries were histologically analyzed. Results When cells were treated with hemolysate, trehalose inhibited the production of several inflammatory mediators and degradation of the inhibitor of NF-κB and also suppressed the lipid peroxidation, the reactive oxygen species-induced arachidonic acid release in vitro. In the rabbit model, trehalose produced an inhibitory effect on vasospasm after the onset of experimental SAH, while maltose had only

  1. Therapeutic strategies for the treatment of accidental radiation-induced hematopoietic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertho, J.M.; Frick, J.; Demarquay, C.; Prat, M.; Dudoignon, N.; Thierry, D.; Gourmelon, P. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN) DRPH/SRBE, LTCRA, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2006-07-01

    The hematopoietic syndrome induced by large field high dose accidental irradiation remains difficult to treat, mainly due to the heterogeneity of irradiation. As a result, there always remains an area of active hematopoiesis that was partly protected from irradiation. The choice of a therapeutic strategy thus must be based upon the estimate of radiation damage to the bone marrow. This can be achieved by the use of biological indicators of damage to specific organs. With this respect, we recently showed that the follow up of Flt3 ligand concentration in the blood allowed a direct evaluation of residual hematopoiesis soon after irradiation in animal models as well as in humans. Nevertheless, the possible therapeutic strategies available for the treatment of radiation-induced hematopoietic syndrome are limited to the choice between either stem cell transplantation or supportive care. Recently, the use of autologous cell therapy was proposed. The principle is to harvest the hematopoietic cells surviving to irradiation, to expand these cells in vitro and to re inject these cells to the patient. This is based upon the existence of a residual hematopoiesis and on the possibility to expand in vitro irradiated hematopoietic cells. Experimental work in a non human primate model of high-dose, heterogeneous irradiation showed that it was possible to harvest surviving hematopoietic cells after irradiation and to amplify these cells in vitro. However, the therapeutic efficiency of the reinjected cells was limited by the occurrence of a combined disease, implicating the lungs, the kidney and the liver, but also a severe vascular damage. Such a multiple organ disease syndrome induced by ionizing radiations was already observed in two radiation accidents, the Tokai MURA accident and the Neshvish accident. In an attempt to accelerate the hematopoietic recovery, we combined autologous cell therapy with G-CSF injections in the same model of heterogeneous irradiation with non human

  2. Decreased Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Contributes to Cardiac Dysfunction Induced by Chronic Doxorubicin Treatment in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenwijngaert, Sara; Swinnen, Melissa; Walravens, Ann-Sophie; Beerens, Manu; Gillijns, Hilde; Caluwé, Ellen; Tainsh, Robert E; Nathan, Daniel I; Allen, Kaitlin; Brouckaert, Peter; Bartunek, Jozef; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle; Bloch, Kenneth D; Bloch, Donald B; Janssens, Stefan P; Buys, Emmanuel S

    2017-02-01

    The use of doxorubicin, a potent chemotherapeutic agent, is limited by cardiotoxicity. We tested the hypothesis that decreased soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) enzyme activity contributes to the development of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Doxorubicin administration (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [IP]) reduced cardiac sGC activity in wild-type (WT) mice. To investigate whether decreased sGC activity contributes to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity, we studied mice with cardiomyocyte-specific deficiency of the sGC α1-subunit (mice with cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of exon 6 of the sGCα1 allele [sGCα1 -/-CM ]). After 12 weeks of doxorubicin administration (2 mg/kg/week IP), left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction was greater in sGCα1 -/-CM than WT mice. To further assess whether reduced sGC activity plays a pathogenic role in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity, we studied a mouse model in which decreased cardiac sGC activity was induced by cardiomyocyte-specific expression of a dominant negative sGCα1 mutant (DNsGCα1) upon doxycycline removal (Tet-off). After 8 weeks of doxorubicin administration, DNsGCα1 tg/+ , but not WT, mice displayed LV systolic dysfunction and dilatation. The difference in cardiac function and remodeling between DNsGCα1 tg/+ and WT mice was even more pronounced after 12 weeks of treatment. Further impairment of cardiac function was attenuated when DNsGCα1 gene expression was inhibited (beginning at 8 weeks of doxorubicin treatment) by administering doxycycline. Furthermore, doxorubicin-associated reactive oxygen species generation was higher in sGCα1-deficient than WT hearts. Innovation and Conclusion: These data demonstrate that a reduction in cardiac sGC activity worsens doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice and identify sGC as a potential therapeutic target. Various pharmacological sGC agonists are in clinical development or use and may represent a promising approach to limit doxorubicin-associated cardiotoxicity

  3. Radiation-induced bowel injury: the impact of radiotherapy on survivorship after treatment for gynaecological cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuku, S; Fragkos, C; McCormack, M; Forbes, A

    2013-09-17

    The number of women surviving cancer who live with symptoms of bowel toxicity affecting their quality of life continues to rise. In this retrospective study, we sought to describe and analyse the presenting clinical features in our cohort, and evaluate possible predictors of severity and chronicity in women with radiation-induced bowel injury after treatment for cervical and endometrial cancers. Review of records of 541 women treated within the North London Gynaecological Cancer Network between 2003 and 2010 with radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy for cervical and endometrial cancer identified 152 women who reported significant new bowel symptoms after pelvic radiation. Factor analysis showed that the 14 most common and important presenting symptoms could be 'clustered' into 3 groups with predictive significance for chronicity and severity of disease. Median follow-up for all patients was 60 months. Univariate analysis showed increasing age, smoking, extended field radiation, cervical cancer treatment and the need for surgical intervention to be significant predictors for severity of ongoing disease at last follow-up. On multivariate analysis, only age, cancer type (cervix) and symptom combinations/'cluster' of (bloating, flatulence, urgency, rectal bleeding and per-rectal mucus) were found to be significant predictors of disease severity. Fifteen (19%) women in the cervical cancer group had radiation-induced bowel injury requiring surgical intervention compared with five (6.7%) in the endometrial cancer group. Women with cervical cancer are younger and appear to suffer more severe symptoms of late bowel toxicity, whereas women treated for endometrial cancer suffer milder more chronic disease. The impact of radiation-induced bowel injury and the effect on cancer survivorship warrants further research into investigation of predictors of severe late toxicity. There is a need for prospective trials to aid early diagnosis, while identifying the underlying patho

  4. Prevalence of evaluation and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruse, Laura M; Valeriano, Joanne; Vasey, Frank B; Carter, John D

    2006-10-01

    Screening and treatment of glucocorticoid- induced osteoporosis in male patients is less than recommended despite available screening and therapies. We determined if men treated with long-term oral glucocorticoid therapy for any reason receive assessment and therapy for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. A retrospective computer-generated chart review was performed involving all men given prednisone from January 2002 through July 2002. There were 370 patients evaluated from the James A. Haley Veterans Affairs Hospital, Tampa, Florida, a large teaching hospital for the University of South Florida College of Medicine. Charts were reviewed for bone mineral density testing; dose, duration, and indication of glucocorticoid therapy; age of the patients as of January 2002;continuous or intermittent dosing; history of fracture; bone loss prevention medication use, including bisphosphonate, calcitonin, testosterone replacement therapy, calcium, and vitamin D; and the steroid-prescribing and screening practitioner's specialty and sex. Of the 370 men, 258 used 7.5 mg prednisone or more daily and 295 used glucocorticoids for more than 3 months. Of the 370 men, 163 had a bone mineral density test; 87 were treated with a bisphosphonate. Calcium and vitamin D were given to half of the patients. Of the patients with a normal T-score, 13 of 55 were treated with a bisphosphonate (24%) compared with 24 of 40 (60%) with an osteopenic score and 14 of 21 (67%) with osteoporosis. Of the 46 patients with no score available but indication that it had been ordered or otherwise addressed, 23 patients were treated empirically with a bisphosphonate. Rheumatology screened 75% of their patients, whereas primary care screened 30% of their patients. Bone mineral density testing was performed or ordered for less than half of the glucocorticoid-treated patients and less than one third were taking bisphosphonate therapy. Further intervention is needed to increase

  5. Chronic treatment with antipsychotics in rats as a model for antipsychotic-induced weight gain in human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouzet, B; Mow, T; Kreilgaard, Mads

    2003-01-01

    not inducing weight gain in clinic (haloperidol), on food and water intake and body weight gain in rats. We included both female and male rats in this study. To reduce spontaneous high food intake in rats, and to be able to evaluate the treatment effect on a potential increase of food intake or metabolic......Several clinical reports have demonstrated that most antipsychotics of the new generation, but not the typical antipsychotic haloperidol, induce weight gain in schizophrenic patients. Since weight gain induces serious health complications in humans, it is crucial to test upcoming antipsychotic...... compounds in an animal model of weight gain. With the aim of evaluating whether the rat can be used as a model for antipsychotic-induced weight gain, we have investigated the effect of chronic treatment (3 weeks) with one antipsychotic drug inducing weight gain in clinic (olanzapine) and one antipsychotic...

  6. Islet-cell dysfunction induced by glucocorticoid treatment: potential role for altered sympathovagal balance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Raalte, Daniël H; Kwa, Kelly A A; van Genugten, Renate E; Tushuizen, Maarten E; Holst, Jens J; Deacon, Carolyn F; Karemaker, John M; Heine, Robert J; Mari, Andrea; Diamant, Michaela

    2013-04-01

    Glucocorticoids impair glucose tolerance by inducing insulin resistance. We investigated the dose-dependent effects of glucocorticoid treatment on islet-cell function in healthy males and studied the role of the autonomic nervous system. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, dose-response intervention study was conducted in 32 healthy males (age: 21±2years; BMI: 21.9±1.7kg/m(2)). Participants were allocated to prednisolone 7.5mg once daily (n=12), prednisolone 30mg once daily (n=12), or placebo (n=8) for two weeks. Beta-cell function was measured by hyperglycemic clamp with arginine stimulation, glucagon levels were measured following a standardized meal test. We found that prednisolone treatment dose-dependently reduced C-peptide secretion following arginine stimulation on top of hyperglycemia (ASI-iAUCCP): -2.8 (-5.2;0.2) and -3.1 (-8.8; -1.0) nmolL(-1)min(-1) for prednisolone 7.5mg and prednisolone 30mg, respectively (P=0.035 vs. placebo). Fasting glucagon levels increased dose-dependently (vs. placebo; P=0.001), whereas postprandial glucagon levels were only increased by prednisolone 30mg. Changes in parasympathetic activity related with changes in fasting glucose levels (r=-0.407; P=0.03) and showed a trend towards correlation with fasting glucagon concentrations (r=-0.337; P=0.07). The change in sympathovagal balance was inversely related to ASI-iAUCCP (r=-0.365; P=0.05). We conclude that in addition to inducing insulin resistance, prednisolone treatment dose-dependently impaired islet-cell function. Altered sympathovagal balance may be related to these effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Neural plasticity and treatment-induced recovery of sentence processing in agrammatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cynthia K.; Ouden, Dirk-Bart den; Bonakdarpour, Borna; Garibaldi, Kyla; Parrish, Todd B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined patterns of neural activation associated with treatment-induced improvement of complex sentence production (and comprehension) in six individuals with stroke-induced agrammatic aphasia, taking into account possible alterations in blood flow often associated with stroke, including delayed time-to-peak of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) and hypoperfused tissue. Aphasic participants performed an auditory verification fMRI task, processing object cleft, subject cleft, and simple active sentences, prior to and following a course of Treatment of Underlying Forms (TUF; Thompson et al., 2003), a linguistically based approach for treating aphasic sentence deficits, which targeted object relative clause constructions. The patients also were scanned in a long-trials task to examine HRFs, to account for any local deviations resulting from stroke, and perfusion images were obtained to evaluate regions of hypoperfused tissue. Region-of-interest (ROI) analyses were conducted (bilaterally), modeling participant-specific local HRFs in left hemisphere areas activated by 12 healthy age-matched volunteers performing the same task, including the middle and inferior frontal gyri, precentral gyrus, middle and superior temporal gyri, and insula, and additional regions associated with complex syntactic processing, including the posterior perisylvian and superior parietal cortices. Results showed that, despite individual variation in activation differences from pre- to post-treatment scans in the aphasic participants, main-effects analyses revealed a general shift from left superior temporal activation to more posterior temporoparietal areas, bilaterally. Time-to-peak of these responses correlated negatively with blood flow, as measured with perfusion imaging. PMID:20603138

  8. Menses resumption after cancer treatment-induced amenorrhea occurs early or not at all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Melanie H; Mertens, Ann C; Spencer, Jessica B; Manatunga, Amita K; Howards, Penelope P

    2016-03-01

    To identify factors associated with cancer treatment-induced amenorrhea and time to return of menses. Population-based cohort study. Not applicable. Female cancer survivors who were diagnosed with cancer between the ages of 20 and 35 and were at least 2 years postdiagnosis at the time of recruitment (median = 7 years; interquartile range, 5-11). None. Amenorrhea (≥6 months without menses) and resumption of menses. After excluding women with hysterectomies before cancer diagnosis, 1,043 women were eligible for analysis. Amenorrhea occurred in 31.6% of women. Among women treated with chemotherapy (n = 596), older age at diagnosis (30-35 vs. 20-24 years: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30, 4.30) and nulligravidity (vs. gravid: aOR = 1.50; 95% CI, 1.02, 2.21) were risk factors for amenorrhea. Among amenorrheic women, menses resumed in most (70.0%), and resumption occurred within 2 years of treatment for 90.0% of women. Survivors of breast cancer were more likely to resume menses at times greater than 1 year compared with lymphoma and pelvic-area cancers. Women diagnosed at older ages, those exposed to chemotherapy, and those exposed to any radiation experienced longer times to return of menses. Women who were older at diagnosis were more likely to have irregular cycles when menses returned. Treatment-induced amenorrhea is common in cancer survivors, although most women resume menses within 2 years. However, once resumed, older women are more likely to have irregular cycles. Age at diagnosis and pregnancy history affect the risk of amenorrhea. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Treatment-Induced Neuroplasticity Following Intensive Speech Therapy and a Home Practice Program in Fifteen Cases of Chronic Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquie Kurland

    2015-04-01

    •\tActivity in R posSTG decreased over time for CORR pictures while increasing over time for TR/PR pictures Discussion Short-term intensive treatment followed by a home practice program can produce enduring language improvements that provide rich opportunities for investigating treatment-induced neuroplasticity in aphasia. Given the high degree of individual variability in lesion location/extent, and the resulting variability in aphasia type/severity, it makes sense to examine treatment-induced changes in neural activity patterns within subjects where ‘signature’ patterns of activity are remarkably reliable across time.

  10. Normalizing effect of heroin maintenance treatment on stress-induced brain connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, André; Walter, Marc; Gerber, Hana; Seifritz, Erich; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Lang, Undine E; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that a single maintenance dose of heroin attenuates psychophysiological stress responses in heroin-dependent patients, probably reflecting the effectiveness of heroin-assisted therapies for the treatment of severe heroin addiction. However, the underlying neural circuitry of these effects has not yet been investigated. Using a cross-over, double-blind, vehicle-controlled design, 22 heroin-dependent and heroin-maintained outpatients from the Centre of Substance Use Disorders at the University Hospital of Psychiatry in Basel were studied after heroin and placebo administration, while 17 healthy controls from the general population were included for placebo administration only. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to detect brain responses to fearful faces and dynamic causal modelling was applied to compute fear-induced modulation of connectivity within the emotional face network. Stress responses were assessed by hormone releases and subjective ratings. Relative to placebo, heroin acutely reduced the fear-induced modulation of connectivity from the left fusiform gyrus to the left amygdala and from the right amygdala to the right orbitofrontal cortex in dependent patients. Both of these amygdala-related connectivity strengths were significantly increased in patients after placebo treatment (acute withdrawal) compared to healthy controls, whose connectivity estimates did not differ from those of patients after heroin injection. Moreover, we found positive correlations between the left fusiform gyrus to amygdala connectivity and different stress responses, as well as between the right amygdala to orbitofrontal cortex connectivity and levels of craving. Our findings indicate that the increased amygdala-related connectivity during fearful face processing after the placebo treatment in heroin-dependent patients transiently normalizes after acute heroin maintenance treatment. Furthermore, this study suggests that the assessment of

  11. New insights into treatment of children with exercise-induced asthma symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach, Iwona; Sztafiska, Anna; Jerzyska, Joanna; Podlecka, Daniela; Majak, Pawe; Stelmach, Wodzimierz

    2016-11-01

    Exercise is one of the most common triggers of bronchoconstriction and affects up to 80% of children with asthma. The purpose of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to assess the effectiveness of treatment with ciclesonide 160 microgram, either alone, with a higher dose, with a leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA), or with a long-acting beta-agonist (LABA) in children with asthma with postexercise-induced symptoms. Eighty adolescents, ages 1218 years, with asthma and postexercise symptoms were enrolled. Children were treated in one of four treatment groups: ciclesonide 160 microgram daily dose (cic 160), ciclesonide 320 microgram daily dose (cic 320), ciclesonide 160 microgram daily dose combined with montelukast (cic + LTRA), or ciclesonide 160 microgram daily combined with formoterol (cic + LABA). The impact of treatment on clinical symptoms, maximum percentage decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second after intense exercise effort, fractional exhaled nitric oxide in exhaled breath, and the contribution of inflammatory mediators in exhaled breath condensate were assessed. In children with asthma and with postexercise symptoms, 8-week daily administration of ciclesonide 320 microgram, ciclesonide 160 microgram plus LABA, and ciclesonide 160 microgram alone decreased daytime symptoms; decrease in maximal fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 second reached the level of significance in the cic 320, cic + LABA, and cic + LTRA groups. A higher prevalence of positive responses to treatment after addition of an LTRA or LABA to ciclesonide 160 microgram for patients with exercise treadmill challengeinduced clinical symptoms only was revealed. Monotherapy with ciclesonide 320 microgram can be as effective as combined therapy in reducing exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. We revealed a higher prevalence of positive responses to treatment after the addition of LTRA or LABA to ciclesonide 160 microgram for patients with exercise treadmill

  12. The dietary fiber profile of fruit peels and functionality modifications induced by high hydrostatic pressure treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada-Ortigoza, Viridiana; García-Amezquita, Luis Eduardo; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O; Welti-Chanes, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and temperature on composition of non-conventional dietary fiber (DF) sources and functional properties were evaluated. Mango, orange, or prickly pear peels were processed at 600 MPa during 10 min at 22 ℃ and 55 ℃. Total (TDF), soluble (SDF), and insoluble (IDF) dietary fiber, water/oil holding, and retention capacity, solubility, swelling capacity, and bulk density were assayed. An increment in the SDF content was observed due to the effect of pressure with the greatest changes noticed in mango peel, increasing from 37.4% (control) to 45.7% (SDF/TDF) in the HHP-treated (55 ℃) sample. Constant values of TDF after the treatments suggest a conversion of IDF to SDF in mango (38.9%-40.5% dw) and orange (49.0%-50.8% dw) peels. The highest fiber solubility values were observed for mango peel ranging between 80.3% and 83.9%, but the highest increase, from 55.1% to 62.3%, due to treatment was displayed in orange peel processed at 22 ℃. A relationship between DF modifications induced by HHP treatment and changes in the functional properties of the materials was established. Application of HHP opens up the opportunity to modify non-conventional sources of DF and to obtain novel functional properties for different food applications.

  13. Prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in International and Italian scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Delle Sedie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis (OP and increased risk of fracture (Fx associated with chronic glucocorticoid treatment pushed panels of experts and scientific societies to produce recommendations for both prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced OP (GIO. Recently the American College of Rheumatology developed and/or endorsed their updated guidelines and recommendations for the prevention and treatment of GIO. In these recommendations the use of FRAX tool, for the 10-year probability of a major osteoporotic Fx, was integrated with other clinical risk factors to define low-, medium-, and high-risk patients. Updated approaches are delineated for post-menopausal women and men >50 years, pre-menopausal women not of childbearing potential, men 50 years, receiving >5 mg/day prednisone equivalent for >3 months; more recently teriparatide has also been included, only for those patients presenting ≥1 prevalent fragility Fx and receiving >5 mg/day prednisone equivalent for >12 months. Also zoledronic acid has been approved by Italian Agency of the Drug (AIFA, 30/08/10 for “… post-menopausal women and men chronically treated with GC ad high risk of Fx”, but the drug is dispensed exclusively at the hospital.

  14. Treatment of Breakthrough and Refractory Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navari, Rudolph M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant progress in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) with the introduction of new antiemetic agents, 30–50% of patients receiving moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC or HEC) and guideline directed prophylactic antiemetics develop breakthrough CINV. International guidelines recommend the treatment of breakthrough CINV with an agent from a drug class that was not used in the prophylactic antiemetic regimen and recommend using the breakthrough medication continuously rather than using it on an as needed basis. There have been very few studies on the treatment of breakthrough CINV. A recent double-blind, randomized, phase III study suggested that olanzapine may be an effective agent for the treatment of breakthrough CINV. Refractory CINV occurs when patients develop CINV during subsequent cycles of chemotherapy when antiemetic prophylaxis has not been successful in controlling CINV in earlier cycles. Patients who develop refractory CINV should be considered for a change in their prophylactic antiemetic regimen. If significant anxiety exists, a benzodiazepine may be added to the prophylactic regimen. If a refractory patient is receiving HEC, olanzapine may be added to the prophylactic regimen. If the patient is receiving MEC, olanzapine or an NK-1 receptor antagonist may be added to the prophylactic regimen. PMID:26421294

  15. Treatment of Breakthrough and Refractory Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolph M. Navari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant progress in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV with the introduction of new antiemetic agents, 30–50% of patients receiving moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC or HEC and guideline directed prophylactic antiemetics develop breakthrough CINV. International guidelines recommend the treatment of breakthrough CINV with an agent from a drug class that was not used in the prophylactic antiemetic regimen and recommend using the breakthrough medication continuously rather than using it on an as needed basis. There have been very few studies on the treatment of breakthrough CINV. A recent double-blind, randomized, phase III study suggested that olanzapine may be an effective agent for the treatment of breakthrough CINV. Refractory CINV occurs when patients develop CINV during subsequent cycles of chemotherapy when antiemetic prophylaxis has not been successful in controlling CINV in earlier cycles. Patients who develop refractory CINV should be considered for a change in their prophylactic antiemetic regimen. If significant anxiety exists, a benzodiazepine may be added to the prophylactic regimen. If a refractory patient is receiving HEC, olanzapine may be added to the prophylactic regimen. If the patient is receiving MEC, olanzapine or an NK-1 receptor antagonist may be added to the prophylactic regimen.

  16. The value of Nigella sativa in the treatment of experimentally induced rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoruk, O; Tatar, A; Keles, O N; Cakir, A

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Nigella sativa and cephalexin in the therapy of experimental bacterial rhinosinusitis. Bacterial rhinosinusitis was induced with Staphylococcus aureus. Rabbits were divided into five groups; control (n = 6), N. sativa 50 mg/ kg/d (n = 6), N. sativa 100 mg/kg/d (n = 6), N. sativa 200 mg/kg/d (n = 6), and cephalexin 20 mg/kg/d (n = 6) groups. N. sativa was given orally for 7 days. The same volume of normal saline (0.9% NaCl) was given as a vehicle to the control group for the same period. After treatment period, sinus mucosa samples were evaluated using stereological and histopathological methods. Half of the maxillary sinus mucosa samples were frozen at -800C for further analysis of NO levels. Pathology revealed a severe acute inflammatory process in rabbits treated with saline. Only mild inflammation was determined in cephalexin group, N. sativa 100 mg/kg/d and N. sativa 200 mg/kg/d groups. The level of NO increased in the saline group was significantly reduced in all treatment groups. N. sativa may prevent histopathological changes of rhinosinusitis via decreased NO levels in a dose dependent manner and can be used in the treatment of rhinosinusitis diseases. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale, Rome, Italy.

  17. Endovascular treatment of experimentally induced aneurysms in rabbits using stents: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hans, F.J.; Thiex, R.; Gilsbach, J.M.; Krings, T.; Moeller-Hartmann, W.; Dreeskamp, H.; Stein, K.P.; Meetz, A.; Thron, A.; Pfeffer, J.; Scherer, K.; Brunn, A.

    2003-01-01

    Although Guglielmi detachable coil (GDC) systems have been generally accepted for treatment of intracranial aneurysms, primary stenting of aneurysms using porous stents or implantation of coils after stent placement remains experimental. Testing of these new methods requires an animal model which imitates human aneurysms in size, configuration and neck morphology. We assessed in detail the technical requirements of and steps for transfemoral stent treatment of experimentally induced aneurysms at the top of the brachiocephalic trunk in rabbits. We created aneurysms in ten rabbits by distal ligation and intraluminal digestion of the right common carotid artery with elastase. We treated five animals with porous stents alone, and five with stents plus coiling via the meshes of the stent, which permitted dense packing of coils. No complications related to the procedures occurred. In all animals, even in those treated solely with porous stents, total occlusion of the aneurysm was achieved. Our animal model can be suitable for testing the biocompatibility and occlusion rate of new methods and devices for the treatment of experimental aneurysms. (orig.)

  18. [Radiation-induced lung damage--etiopathogenesis, clinical features, imaging findings and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasić, Ljiljana; Durdević, Predrag

    2012-01-01

    This review is related to the mechanism of development of radiation induced pneumonitis, its pathological, clinical and radiological features and therapy. The team treating cancer patients consists of radiation oncologists and oncologists, as well as general practitioners, pulmologists and radiologists for monitoring effects of therapy. Therefore, a different number of specialists should be familiar with the importance of diagnosis in order to avoid differential diagnostic error in relation to infection, relapse or metastasis, chemotherapeutic adverse effects. Factors that influence the development of radiation pneumonitis are numerous: (1) the volume of irradiated parenchyma (2) the absorbed dose, (3) the number of fractions which divided the absorbed dose. (4) the size ofindividual doses per fraction, (5) radiation dose rate (the radiotherapy output device). Acute radioneumonitis is characterized by dyspnea, cough, and, rarely fever and chest pain. The timely treatment of the symptoms makes it easier for patients and reduces the likelihood of developing pulmonary fibrosis. There are no specific markers in serum or sputum that would definitely indicate the development of acute pneumnonitis. Changes in lung radiography and computed tomography may suggest its development; however, extra diagnostics information sometime needs to be obtained from magnetic resonance images and positron emission tomography to make diagnosis and choose the treatment. The longer survival results from new modalities of treatment applied in cancer patients, and the prevention of adverse effects of radiation therapy is getting more important since longlasting toxicity affects the life quality.

  19. Liposomal internal viscosity affects the fate of membrane deformation induced by hypertonic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Kei; Yanagisawa, Miho

    2017-12-13

    Artificial lipid membranes have been utilized to understand the physical mechanisms of the deformation patterns of live cells. However, typical artificial membrane systems contain only dilute components compared to those in the cytoplasm of live cells. By using giant unilamellar liposomes containing dense protein solutions similar to those in live cells, we here reveal that viscosity derived from internal crowding affects the deformation patterns of lipid membranes. After hypertonic treatment, liposome deformation patterns transitioned from budding to tubing when the initial internal macromolecular concentrations were increased. Remarkably, instead of observing different transition concentrations between two species of macromolecules, the viscosity at the transition concentration was found to be similar. Further analyses clearly demonstrated that the internal viscosity affects the deformation patterns of lipid membranes induced by hypertonic treatment. These results indicate that the viscosity of the cytoplasm is a key factor in determining cell deformation, and suggest the association of a process involving dynamic instability, such as a viscous fingering phenomenon, during the determination of deformation patterns by hypertonic treatment.

  20. Treatment of Parturition-Induced Rupture of Pubic Symphysis after Spontaneous Vaginal Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gräf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Parturition-induced rupture of pubic symphysis is an uncommon but severe complication of delivery. Characteristic symptoms are an immediate onset of suprapubic and/or sacroiliac pain within the first 24 hours postpartum, often accompanied by an audible crack. Diagnosis can be confirmed by imaging including X-ray, Magnet Resonance Imaging (MRI, and ultrasound. However, there is no consensus on the optimal therapy. Conservative treatment is predominantly used. It has been reported that, in cases of extreme symphyseal rupture with pelvic instability or persisting pain after conservative therapy, operative treatment achieves a successful outcome. In this report, we present a case of a twenty-year-old primigravida who developed suprapubic pain after a nonoperative vaginal birth with shoulder dystocia. A rupture of pubic symphysis with a gap of 60 mm was confirmed by means of X-ray and MRI. Simultaneously, other pelvic joint injuries could be excluded. Operative treatment by an open reduction and internal plate fixation yielded excellent results.

  1. Radio-induced fibrosis of skin: contribution to its development and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vozenin-Brotons, Marie-Catherine

    1999-01-01

    Fibrosis of skin is frequently observed after therapeutic and accidental irradiations, and is characterized by the appearance of activated fibroblasts called myo-fibroblasts and the accumulation of extracellular matrix compounds. We postulated that radiation fibrosis could be considered as a chronic scar, where constant production of activating signals are emitted, whereas no negative feed back regulation occur. However, recent studies demonstrated that radiation-induced fibrosis could be treated using therapeutic agents like the superoxide dismutase. In order to better understand the mechanisms leading to skin fibrosis, we studied both the early reactions and the late fibrotic tissue induced by high radiation doses in normal skin. In particular, we investigated in the role of growth factors in these reactions. The synthesis of TGF-β1 was found to be increased, both the epidermis and the dermis, immediately after irradiation. This overexpression sustained during the development and the persistence phases of fibrosis, suggesting that the immediate cellular response induce a cascade of activation for genes and proteins which will result in the late effect of radiation in skin. Furthermore, these observations showed that the TGF-β1 could be a target for anti-fibrotic treatment. In order to test this hypothesis and to investigate further in the mechanisms leading to fibrosis regression after SOD treatment, we develop normal and fibrosis-like reconstructed skin models. These reconstructed skins were treated with liposomal and carrier-free Cu/Zn SOD, and examined for their effects on cell number, apoptosis and phenotypic differentiation. The results showed that SOD did not induce myo-fibroblast cell death or apoptosis whereas it significantly reduced TGF-β1 expression, thus demonstrating that SOD might be considered as a potent antagonist of the major fibro-genic growth factor. We also found that SOD significantly lowered the levels of the myo-fibroblast marker

  2. Combination Antibiotics as a Treatment for Chronic Chlamydia-Induced Reactive Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, JD; Espinoza, LR; Inman, RD; Sneed, KB; Ricca, LR; Vasey, FB; Valeriano, J; Stanich, JA; Oszust, C; Gerard, HC; Hudson, AP

    2010-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) and Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae (Cpn) are known triggers of reactive arthritis (ReA). These chlamydial species exist in a persistent metabolically active infection state in the synovium suggesting that persistent chlamydiae may be susceptible to antimicrobial agents. The goal of this study was to investigate whether a six-month course of combination antibiotics is an effective therapy for patients with chronic Chlamydia-induced ReA. Methods This study was a 9-month, double-blind, triple-dummy prospective trial assessing a 6-month course of combination antibiotics as a treatment for Chlamydia-induced ReA. Eligible patients were age 18 to 70 years, fulfilled the European Spondyloarthropathy Study Group (ESSG) Criteria, and had disease duration equal to or longer than 6 months. Subjects had to be polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive for Ct or Cpn in order to be randomized to therapy; randomization was performed in a 1:1:1 fashion. Treatment was for 6 months; the 3 groups included doxycycline 100mg twice daily and rifampin 300mg daily, azithromycin 500mg daily × 5 days then twice weekly and rifampin 300mg daily, or matching placebos. The primary efficacy endpoint was to assess the number of responders in the combination antibiotic group vs. placebo at month 6 compared to baseline. Responders were defined as those subjects who improved 20% or more in at least 4 of 6 variables without worsening in any one variable. Results 80 subjects were screened and 42 were randomized to treatment (27 to combination antibiotics and 15 to placebo). Subjects in each group had similar demographics and baseline characteristics. At month 6, 17/27 subjects (63%) randomized to combination antibiotics were responders compared to 3/15 (20%) on placebo (P-value = 0.01). Secondary efficacy endpoints showed similar results with significant improvement in the modified swollen joint count, tender joint count, physician global assessment (P

  3. Treatment with a JNK inhibitor increases, whereas treatment with a p38 inhibitor decreases, H2O2-induced calf pulmonary arterial endothelial cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Woo Hyun

    2017-08-01

    Oxidative stress induces apoptosis in endothelial cells (ECs). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) promote cell death by regulating the activity of various mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in ECs. The present study investigated the effects of MAPK inhibitors on cell survival and glutathione (GSH) levels upon H 2 O 2 treatment in calf pulmonary artery ECs (CPAECs). H 2 O 2 treatment inhibited the growth and induced the death of CPAECs, as well as causing GSH depletion and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). While treatment with the MEK or JNK inhibitor impaired the growth of H 2 O 2 -treated CPAECs, treatment with the p38 inhibitor attenuated this inhibition of growth. Additionally, JNK inhibitor treatment increased the proportion of sub-G 1 phase cells in H 2 O 2 -treated CPAECs and further decreased the MMP. However, treatment with a p38 inhibitor reversed the effects of H 2 O 2 treatment on cell growth and the MMP. Similarly, JNK inhibitor treatment further increased, whereas p38 inhibitor treatment decreased, the proportion of GSH-depleted cells in H 2 O 2 -treated CPAECs. Each of the MAPK inhibitors affected cell survival, and ROS or GSH levels differently in H 2 O 2 -untreated, control CPAECs. The data suggest that the exposure of CPAECs to H 2 O 2 caused the cell growth inhibition and cell death through GSH depletion. Furthermore, JNK inhibitor treatment further enhanced, whereas p38 inhibitors attenuated, these effects. Thus, the results of the present study suggest a specific protective role for the p38 inhibitor, and not the JNK inhibitor, against H 2 O 2 -induced cell growth inhibition and cell death.

  4. Low Dose Iron Treatments Induce a DNA Damage Response in Human Endothelial Cells within Minutes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês G Mollet

    Full Text Available Spontaneous reports from patients able to report vascular sequelae in real time, and recognition that serum non transferrin bound iron may reach or exceed 10μmol/L in the blood stream after iron tablets or infusions, led us to hypothesize that conventional iron treatments may provoke acute vascular injury. This prompted us to examine whether a phenotype could be observed in normal human endothelial cells treated with low dose iron.Confluent primary human endothelial cells (EC were treated with filter-sterilized iron (II citrate or fresh media for RNA sequencing and validation studies. RNA transcript profiles were evaluated using directional RNA sequencing with no pre-specification of target sequences. Alignments were counted for exons and junctions of the gene strand only, blinded to treatment types.Rapid changes in RNA transcript profiles were observed in endothelial cells treated with 10μmol/L iron (II citrate, compared to media-treated cells. Clustering for Gene Ontology (GO performed on all differentially expressed genes revealed significant differences in biological process terms between iron and media-treated EC, whereas 10 sets of an equivalent number of randomly selected genes from the respective EC gene datasets showed no significant differences in any GO terms. After 1 hour, differentially expressed genes clustered to vesicle mediated transport, protein catabolism, and cell cycle (Benjamini p = 0.0016, 0.0024 and 0.0032 respectively, and by 6 hours, to cellular response to DNA damage stimulus most significantly through DNA repair genes FANCG, BLM, and H2AFX. Comet assays demonstrated that 10μM iron treatment elicited DNA damage within 1 hour. This was accompanied by a brisk DNA damage response pulse, as ascertained by the development of DNA damage response (DDR foci, and p53 stabilization.These data suggest that low dose iron treatments are sufficient to modify the vascular endothelium, and induce a DNA damage response.

  5. Inositol Depletion Induced by Acute Treatment of the Bipolar Disorder Drug Valproate Increases Levels of Phytosphingosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Shyamalagauri; Russo, Sarah; Cowart, L Ashley; Greenberg, Miriam L

    2017-03-24

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe psychiatric illness affecting ∼1% of the world population. Valproate (VPA) and lithium, widely used for the treatment of BD, are not universally effective. These drugs have been shown to cause inositol depletion, but translating this observation to a specific therapeutic mechanism has been difficult, hampering the development of more effective therapies. We have shown previously in yeast that chronic VPA treatment induces the unfolded protein response due to increasing ceramide levels. To gain insight into the mechanisms activated during acute VPA treatment, we performed a genome-wide expression study in yeast treated with VPA for 30 min. We observed increased mRNA and protein levels of RSB1 , which encodes an exporter of long chain bases dihydrosphingosine (DHS) and phytosphingosine (PHS), and further saw that VPA increased sensitivity of an rsb1 Δ mutant to PHS, suggesting that VPA increases long chain base levels. Consistent with this, PHS levels were elevated in wild type and, to a greater extent, in rsb1 Δ cells. Expression of ORM genes (negative regulators of PHS synthesis) and of fatty acid elongase genes FEN1 and SUR4 were decreased, and expression of YOR1 (exporter of PHS-1P) and DPL1 (lyase that degrades DHS-1P and PHS-1P) was increased. These effects were more pronounced in medium lacking inositol, and were mirrored by inositol starvation of an ino1 Δ mutant. These findings provide a metabolic explanation as to how VPA-mediated inositol depletion causes increased synthesis of PHS and further support the therapeutic relevance of inositol depletion as a bipolar disorder treatment. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Inositol Depletion Induced by Acute Treatment of the Bipolar Disorder Drug Valproate Increases Levels of Phytosphingosine*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Shyamalagauri; Russo, Sarah; Cowart, L. Ashley; Greenberg, Miriam L.

    2017-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe psychiatric illness affecting ∼1% of the world population. Valproate (VPA) and lithium, widely used for the treatment of BD, are not universally effective. These drugs have been shown to cause inositol depletion, but translating this observation to a specific therapeutic mechanism has been difficult, hampering the development of more effective therapies. We have shown previously in yeast that chronic VPA treatment induces the unfolded protein response due to increasing ceramide levels. To gain insight into the mechanisms activated during acute VPA treatment, we performed a genome-wide expression study in yeast treated with VPA for 30 min. We observed increased mRNA and protein levels of RSB1, which encodes an exporter of long chain bases dihydrosphingosine (DHS) and phytosphingosine (PHS), and further saw that VPA increased sensitivity of an rsb1Δ mutant to PHS, suggesting that VPA increases long chain base levels. Consistent with this, PHS levels were elevated in wild type and, to a greater extent, in rsb1Δ cells. Expression of ORM genes (negative regulators of PHS synthesis) and of fatty acid elongase genes FEN1 and SUR4 were decreased, and expression of YOR1 (exporter of PHS-1P) and DPL1 (lyase that degrades DHS-1P and PHS-1P) was increased. These effects were more pronounced in medium lacking inositol, and were mirrored by inositol starvation of an ino1Δ mutant. These findings provide a metabolic explanation as to how VPA-mediated inositol depletion causes increased synthesis of PHS and further support the therapeutic relevance of inositol depletion as a bipolar disorder treatment. PMID:28100786

  7. Non-Invasive Radiofrequency-Induced Targeted Hyperthermia for the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Raoof

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeted biological therapies for hepatocellular cancer have shown minimal improvements in median survival. Multiple pathways to oncogenesis leading to rapid development of resistance to such therapies is a concern. Non-invasive radiofrequency field-induced targeted hyperthermia using nanoparticles is a radical departure from conventional modalities. In this paper we underscore the need for innovative strategies for the treatment of hepatocellular cancer, describe the central paradigm of targeted hyperthermia using non-invasive electromagnetic energy, review the process of characterization and modification of nanoparticles for the task, and summarize data from cell-based and animal-based models of hepatocellular cancer treated with non-invasive RF energy. Finally, future strategies and challenges in bringing this modality from bench to clinic are discussed.

  8. Rolapitant hydrochloride: prophylactic treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navari, R

    2016-08-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a significant clinical issue which affects patients' quality of life as well as treatment decisions. Significant improvements in the control of CINV have occurred in the past 15 years with the introduction of new antiemetic agents: 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonists and olanzapine. Aprepitant was the first NK1 receptor antagonist introduced (2003) for the prevention of CINV in combination with a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist and dexamethasone. Two additional NK1 receptor antagonists, netupitant and rolapitant, were approved by the FDA in 2014 and 2015, respectively. A description of rolapitant and its role in CINV will be presented, along with a comparison to the other NK1 receptor antagonists, aprepitant and netupitant. Copyright 2016 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  9. Treatment of Severe Acetaminophen–Induced Hepatocellular Injury with Prostaglandin E: Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Khatchatourian

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Drugs have long been recognized as culprits in hepatocellular injury. Acetaminophen is one example of a commonly used over-the-counter medication that can cause severe centrolobular hepatic necrosis when ingested in large quantities in suicide attempts or unintentional overdoses. Acetaminophen hepatotoxicity is mediated by a toxic reactive metabolite formed from the parent compound by the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system of the hepatocyte. Conventional treatment of acetaminophen-induced liver injury consists of supportive measures and prevention of further drug absorption. In addition, in patients with high serum acetaminophen concentrations, the severity of hepatic necrosis appears to diminish with the timely use of sulfhydryl compounds such as N-acetyl cysteine. Two patients in whom acetaminophen hepatotoxicity was successfully treated using prostaglandin E1 are described.

  10. Rivastigmine treatment for the prevention of electroconvulsive therapy-induced memory deficits in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryjer, Rafael; Ophir, Dana; Bar, Faina; Spivak, Baruch; Weizman, Abraham; Strous, Rael D

    2012-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective strategy in some treatment-resistant patients with schizophrenia. However, ECT is associated with cognitive adverse effects, most notably, memory loss. This study examined the effects of rivastigmine, a selective central nervous system acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, with benefits on cognition in Alzheimer disease, on memory performance in patients with schizophrenia treated with ECT. Thirty inpatients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision schizophrenia treated with ECT were coadministered rivastigmine (3-4.5 mg/d) or placebo in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (maximum period of 4 weeks). Over the ECT course, scores on the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment in subjects receiving placebo showed no significant change, whereas subjects receiving rivastigmine displayed decreased cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment scores, indicating cognitive improvement (P ECT and indicate possible beneficial effects of rivastigmine coadministration in minimizing some of these ECT-induced cognitive impairments.

  11. Nucleoli in large (giant bi- and multinucleate cells after apoptosis-inducing photodynamic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Smetana

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present experimental study was undertaken to provide information on nucleolar changes accompanying the apoptotic process in large or giant binucleate and multinucleate cells (LBMNCs. Such cells were present in a small but constant percentage in cultures of HL-60 cells. The apoptotic process was induced by photodynamic treatment (PDT by means of 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA as the precursor of the photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX and irradiation with broad spectrum blue light (BL. Nucleolar changes in LBMNCs were characterized by marked reduction or disappearance of silver stained particles representing AgNORs in nucleoli including the large ones. In addition, PDT also significantly reduced the number of nucleoli regardless of their size. These changes apparently reflected the decrease or cessation of nucleolar biosynthetic activities and resembled those which were previously observed in naturally maturing bone marrow megakaryocytes (Janoutová et al., 2001.

  12. Bilateral adrenal haemorrhage associated with heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia during treatment of Fournier gangrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Timothy Lee; Thangasamy, Isaac A; Reynolds, Jamie

    2014-10-14

    We present a case of bilateral adrenal haemorrhage (BAH) associated with heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia (HIT) in a 61-year-old man admitted to hospital for the treatment of Fournier's gangrene. He presented to hospital with scrotal swelling and fever, and developed spreading erythaema and a gangrenous scrotum. His scrotum was surgically debrided and intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics were administered. Unfractionated heparin was given postoperatively for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis. The patient deteriorated clinically 8-11 days postoperatively with delirium, chest pain and severe hypertension followed by hypotension and thrombocytopaenia. Abdominal CT scan revealed bilateral adrenal haemorrhage. Antibodies to the heparin-platelet factor 4 complex were present. HIT-associated BAH was diagnosed and heparin was discontinued. Intravenous bivalirudin and hydrocortisone were started, with rapid improvement in clinical status. BAH is a rare complication of HIT and should be considered in the postoperative patient with unexplained clinical deterioration. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  13. Stereotactic laser induced thermotherapy (LITT): a novel treatment for brain lesions regrowing after radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Reveron, Juan; Tomasiewicz, Hilarie C; Shetty, Anil; Amankulor, Nduka M; Chiang, Veronica L

    2013-07-01

    Since the inception of radiosurgery, the management of brain metastases has become a common problem for neurosurgeons. Although the use of stereotactic radiosurgery and/or whole brain radiation therapy serves to control the majority of disease burden, patients who survive longer than 6-8 months sometimes face the problem of symptomatic radiographically regrowing lesions with few treatment options. Here we investigate the feasibility of use of MRI-guided stereotactic laser induced thermotherapy (LITT) as a novel treatment option for these lesions. Six patients who had previously undergone gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastases were selected. All patients had an initial favorable response to radiosurgery but subsequently developed regrowth of at least one lesion associated with recurrent edema and progressive neurological symptoms requiring ongoing steroids for symptom control. All lesions were evaluated for craniotomy, but were deemed unresectable due to deep location or patient's comorbidities. Stereotactic biopsies were performed prior to the thermotherapy procedure in all cases. LITT was performed using the Visualase system and follow-up MRI imaging was used to determine treatment response. In all six patients biopsy results were negative for tumor and consistent with adverse radiation effects also known as radiation necrosis. Patients tolerated the procedure well and were discharged from the hospital within 48 h of the procedure. In 4/6 cases there was durable improvement of neurological symptoms until death. In all cases steroids were weaned off within 2 months. One patient died from systemic causes related to his cancer a month after the procedure. One patient had regrowth of the lesion 3 months after the procedure and required re-initiation of steroids and standard craniotomy for surgical resection. There were no complications directly related to the thermocoagulation procedure. Stereotactic laser induced thermotherapy is a feasible

  14. ROS production induced by BRAF inhibitor treatment rewires metabolic processes affecting cell growth of melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesi, Giulia; Walbrecq, Geoffroy; Zimmer, Andreas; Kreis, Stephanie; Haan, Claude

    2017-06-08

    Most melanoma patients with BRAF V600E positive tumors respond well to a combination of BRAF kinase and MEK inhibitors. However, some patients are intrinsically resistant while the majority of patients eventually develop drug resistance to the treatment. For patients insufficiently responding to BRAF and MEK inhibitors, there is an ongoing need for new treatment targets. Cellular metabolism is such a promising new target line: mutant BRAF V600E has been shown to affect the metabolism. Time course experiments and a series of western blots were performed in a panel of BRAF V600E and BRAF WT /NRAS mut human melanoma cells, which were incubated with BRAF and MEK1 kinase inhibitors. siRNA approaches were used to investigate the metabolic players involved. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by confocal microscopy and AZD7545, an inhibitor targeting PDKs (pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase) was tested. We show that inhibition of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway induces phosphorylation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase PDH-E1α subunit in BRAF V600E and in BRAF WT /NRAS mut harboring cells. Inhibition of BRAF, MEK1 and siRNA knock-down of ERK1/2 mediated phosphorylation of PDH. siRNA-mediated knock-down of all PDKs or the use of DCA (a pan-PDK inhibitor) abolished PDH-E1α phosphorylation. BRAF inhibitor treatment also induced the upregulation of ROS, concomitantly with the induction of PDH phosphorylation. Suppression of ROS by MitoQ suppressed PDH-E1α phosphorylation, strongly suggesting that ROS mediate the activation of PDKs. Interestingly, the inhibition of PDK1 with AZD7545 specifically suppressed growth of BRAF-mutant and BRAF inhibitor resistant melanoma cells. In BRAF V600E and BRAF WT /NRAS mut melanoma cells, the increased production of ROS upon inhibition of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway, is responsible for activating PDKs, which in turn phosphorylate and inactivate PDH. As part of a possible salvage pathway, the tricarboxylic acid cycle is inhibited leading to

  15. Minithyrotomy with radiofrequency-induced thermotherapy for the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Shaun C; Park, Andrea M; Chernock, Rebecca D; Paniello, Randal C

    2016-10-01

    A simple, safe and effective surgical alternative for treating adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) would appeal to many patients. This study evaluates a new option, using radiofrequency-induced thermotherapy (RFITT) of the thyroarytenoid muscle (TA) via the minithyrotomy approach to reduce the force of adduction. Fifteen dogs were used. In part 1, the optimal RFITT power settings, exposure time, probe location, and number of passes were determined. Part 2 compared laryngeal adductor pressures (LAPs) at baseline; immediately postintervention; and at 1, 3, or 6 months postintervention. Interventions included RFITT via the transcervical minithyrotomy approach (n = 15), transoral RFITT (n = 3), botulinum toxin (Botox) injection (n = 3), or no-intervention controls (n = 3). Postintervention induced phonation and histologic analyses were performed as well. In the minithyrotomy RFITT group, the mean LAP was 30.3% of baseline immediately posttreatment. At 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively, the mean LAPs were 24.9%, 44.8%, and 43.5%, respectively. Transoral RFITT reduced LAP to 56.6% of baseline immediately posttreatment, but returned to normal in the 1 and 3 month animals. The Botox injections dropped the LAP to 57% of baseline at 1 month, but returned to normal at 3 months. Mucosal waves, based on induced phonation stroboscopy, were present at the terminal date in all animals. Thirteen of 15 transcervical RFITT preparations (87%) showed no injury to the lamina propria, whereas 80% showed evidence of TA muscle atrophy and fibrosis. Minithyrotomy RFITT is a feasible technique that shows encouraging long-term results for the potential treatment of patients with ADSD. N/A. Laryngoscope, 126:2325-2329, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  16. Partial protection from organophosphate-induced cholinesterase inhibition by metyrapone treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Świercz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphates are cholinesterase (ChE inhibitors with worldwide use as insecticides. Stress response, evidenced by a dramatic and relatively long-lasting (several hours rise in the plasma glucocorticoid concentration is an integral element of the organophosphate (OP poisoning symptomatology. In rodents, corticosterone (CORT is the main glucocorticoid. There are several reports suggesting a relationship between the stressor-induced rise in CORT concentraion (the CORT response and the activity of the cerebral and peripheral ChE. Thus, it seems reasonable to presume that, in OP intoxication, the rise in plasma CORT concentration may somehow affect the magnitude of the OP-induced ChE inhibition. Metyrapone (MET [2-methyl-1,2-di(pyridin-3-ylpropan-1-one] blocks CORT synthesis by inhibiting steoid 11β-hydroxylase, thereby preventing the CORT response. Chlorfenvinphos (CVP [2-chloro-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl ethenyl diethyl phosphate] is an organophosphate insecticide still in use in some countries. Material and Methods: The purose of the present work was to compare the CVP-induced effects - the rise of the plasma CORT concentration and the reduction in ChE activity - in MET-treated and MET-untreated rats. Chlorfenvinphos was administered once at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg i.p. Metyrapone, at 100 mg/kg i.p., was administered five times, at 24-h intervals. The first MET dose was given two hours before CVP. Conclusion: The following was observed in the MET-treated rats: i no rise in plasma CORT concentration after the CVP administration, ii a reduced inhibition and a faster restitution of blood and brain ChE activities. The results suggest that MET treatment may confer significant protection against at least some effects of OP poisoning. The likely mechanism of the protective MET action has been discussed.

  17. Tempol treatment reduces anxiety-like behaviors induced by multiple anxiogenic drugs in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Patki

    Full Text Available We have published that pharmacological induction of oxidative stress (OS causes anxiety-like behavior in rats. Using animal models, we also have established that psychological stress induces OS and leads to anxiety-like behaviors. All evidence points towards the causal role of OS in anxiety-like behaviors. To fully ascertain the role of OS in anxiety-like behaviors, it is reasonable to test whether the pro-anxiety effects of anxiogenic drugs caffeine or N-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG-7142 can be mitigated using agents that minimize OS. In this study, osmotic pumps were either filled with antioxidant tempol or saline. The pumps were attached to the catheter leading to the brain cannula and inserted into the subcutaneous pocket in the back pocket of the rat. Continuous i.c.v. infusion of saline or tempol in the lateral ventricle of the brain (4.3 mmol/day was maintained for 1 week. Rats were intraperitoneally injected either with saline or an anxiogenic drug one at a time. Two hours later all groups were subjected to behavioral assessments. Anxiety-like behavior tests (open-field, light-dark and elevated plus maze suggested that tempol prevented anxiogenic drug-induced anxiety-like behavior in rats. Furthermore, anxiogenic drug-induced increase in stress examined via plasma corticosterone and increased oxidative stress levels assessed via plasma 8-isoprostane were prevented with tempol treatment. Protein carbonylation assay also suggested preventive effect of tempol in the prefrontal cortex brain region of rats. Antioxidant protein expression and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels indicate compromised antioxidant defense as well as an imbalance of inflammatory response.

  18. Tempol treatment reduces anxiety-like behaviors induced by multiple anxiogenic drugs in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patki, Gaurav; Salvi, Ankita; Liu, Hesong; Atrooz, Fatin; Alkadhi, Isam; Kelly, Matthew; Salim, Samina

    2015-01-01

    We have published that pharmacological induction of oxidative stress (OS) causes anxiety-like behavior in rats. Using animal models, we also have established that psychological stress induces OS and leads to anxiety-like behaviors. All evidence points towards the causal role of OS in anxiety-like behaviors. To fully ascertain the role of OS in anxiety-like behaviors, it is reasonable to test whether the pro-anxiety effects of anxiogenic drugs caffeine or N-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG-7142) can be mitigated using agents that minimize OS. In this study, osmotic pumps were either filled with antioxidant tempol or saline. The pumps were attached to the catheter leading to the brain cannula and inserted into the subcutaneous pocket in the back pocket of the rat. Continuous i.c.v. infusion of saline or tempol in the lateral ventricle of the brain (4.3 mmol/day) was maintained for 1 week. Rats were intraperitoneally injected either with saline or an anxiogenic drug one at a time. Two hours later all groups were subjected to behavioral assessments. Anxiety-like behavior tests (open-field, light-dark and elevated plus maze) suggested that tempol prevented anxiogenic drug-induced anxiety-like behavior in rats. Furthermore, anxiogenic drug-induced increase in stress examined via plasma corticosterone and increased oxidative stress levels assessed via plasma 8-isoprostane were prevented with tempol treatment. Protein carbonylation assay also suggested preventive effect of tempol in the prefrontal cortex brain region of rats. Antioxidant protein expression and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels indicate compromised antioxidant defense as well as an imbalance of inflammatory response.

  19. Periostin-Binding DNA Aptamer Treatment Ameliorates Peritoneal Dialysis-Induced Peritoneal Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Young Nam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Peritoneal fibrosis is a major complication in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients, which leads to dialysis discontinuation. Periostin, increased by transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 stimulation, induces the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM genes. Aberrant periostin expression has been demonstrated to be associated with PD-related peritoneal fibrosis. Therefore, the effect of periostin inhibition by an aptamer-based inhibitor on peritoneal fibrosis was evaluated. In vitro, TGF-β1 treatment upregulated periostin, fibronectin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, and Snail expression and reduced E-cadherin expression in human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs. Periostin small interfering RNA (siRNA treatment ameliorated the TGF-β1-induced periostin, fibronectin, α-SMA, and Snail expression and restored E-cadherin expression in HPMCs. Similarly, the periostin-binding DNA aptamer (PA also attenuated fibronectin, α-SMA, and Snail upregulation and E-cadherin downregulation in TGF-β1-stimulated HPMCs. In mice treated with PD solution for 4 weeks, the expression of periostin, fibronectin, α-SMA, and Snail was significantly increased in the peritoneum, whereas E-cadherin expression was significantly decreased. The thickness of the submesothelial layer and the intensity of Masson’s trichrome staining in the PD group were significantly increased compared to the untreated group. These changes were significantly abrogated by the intraperitoneal administration of PA. These findings suggest that PA can be a potential therapeutic strategy for peritoneal fibrosis in PD patients.

  20. Radiation-induced gastrointestinal toxicity. Pathophysiologie, approaches to treatment and prophylaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Classen, J.; Belka, C.; Paulsen, F.; Budach, W.; Hoffmann, W.; Bamberg, M.

    1998-01-01

    Background: Gastrointestinal toxicity is frequently observed during radiotherapy of malignancies in the abdomen and pelvis. The proposed pathophysiology of radiation enteritis is complex and a variety of different treatment strategies have been suggested for the management of acute radiation-induced diarrhea. Material and methods: Data are presented from an extensive review of the current literature. Results: Radiation-induced diarrhea results from a variety of different pathophysiological mechanisms including malabsorption of bile salts and lactose, imbalances in local bacterial flora and changes in the intestinal patterns of motility. Up to date acute radiation diarrhea is predominantly treated symptomatically using opioide derivates (loperamide) or adsorbants of bile salts such as smectite. Clinical trials have been performed using L. acidophilus, smectite or sucralfate for diarrhea prophylaxis with moderate reduction of acute symptoms. Conclusions: Further evaluation of strategies for diarrhea prophylaxis is warranted. Due to the complex nature of radiation enteritis a multimodal approach taking into account alterations in intestinal motility patterns, malabsorption of bile salts and an imbalance of mucosal bacterial flora may offer new perspectives. (orig.) [de

  1. Ameliorating effects of preadolescent aniracetam treatment on prenatal ethanol-induced impairment in AMPA receptor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayawardhane, Nayana; Shonesy, Brian C; Vaithianathan, Thirumalini; Pandiella, Noemi; Vaglenova, Julia; Breese, Charles R; Dityatev, Alexander; Suppiramaniam, Vishnu

    2008-01-01

    Ethanol-induced damage in the developing hippocampus may result in cognitive deficits such as those observed in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Cognitive deficits in FASD are partially mediated by alterations in glutamatergic synaptic transmission. Recently, we reported that synaptic transmission mediated by alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) is impaired following fetal ethanol exposure. This finding led us to develop a rational approach for the treatment of alcohol-related cognitive deficits using aniracetam, an allosteric AMPAR modulator. In the present study, 28 to 34-day-old rats exposed to ethanol in utero were treated with aniracetam, and subsequently exhibited persistent improvement in mEPSC amplitude, frequency, and decay time. Furthermore, these animals expressed positive changes in synaptic single channel properties, suggesting that aniracetam ameliorates prenatal ethanol-induced deficits through modifications at the single channel level. Specifically, single channel open probability, conductance, mean open and closed times, and the number and burst duration were positively affected. Our findings emphasize the utility of compounds which slow the rate of deactivation and desensitization of AMPARs such as aniracetam.

  2. Cadmium induces apoptosis in anterior pituitary cells that can be reversed by treatment with antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poliandri, Ariel H.B.; Cabilla, Jimena P.; Velardez, Miguel O.; Bodo, Cristian C.A.; Duvilanski, Beatriz H.

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd 2+ ) is an ubiquitous toxic metal that is involved in a variety of pathological conditions. Several reports indicate that Cd 2+ alters normal pituitary hormone secretion; however, little is known about the mechanisms that induce this misregulation. This paper reports the effect of Cd 2+ on anterior pituitary cell viability and its relation to prolactin secretion. Cd 2+ concentrations above 10 μM were found to be cytotoxic for pituitary cells. Morphological studies as well as DNA ladder fragmentation and caspase activation showed that Cd 2+ -treated cells undergo apoptosis. Even though several hours were needed to detect Cd 2+ -induced cytotoxicity, the effect of the metal became irreversible very quickly, requiring only 3 h of treatment. Prolactin release (measured at 48 h) was inhibited when the cells were exposed to Cd 2+ for 1 h, before any change in cell viability was observed. The antioxidants N-acetyl-cysteine and Trolox (a hydrosoluble derivative of vitamin E), but not ascorbic acid, reversed both Cd 2+ -mediated cytotoxicity and the inhibition of prolactin release, supporting the involvement of oxidative stress in the mechanism of Cd 2+ action. In summary, the present work demonstrates that Cd 2+ is cytotoxic for anterior pituitary cells, that this effect is due to an induction of apoptosis, and that it can be reversed by antioxidants

  3. Bevacizumab as a treatment option for radiation-induced cerebral necrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matuschek, Christiane; Boelke, Edwin; Budach, Wilfried [Univ. Hospital Duesseldorf (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Nawatny, Jens [Univ. Hospital Duesseldorf (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Hoffmann, Thomas K. [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Essen (Germany). Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology; Peiper, Matthias; Orth, Klaus [Hospital Essen-Sued, Essen (Germany). Dept. of Surgery; Gerber, Peter Arne [Univ. Hospital Duesseldorf (Germany). Dept. of Dermatology; Rusnak, Ethelyn [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States). Dept. of Anesthesiology; Lammering, Guido [Univ. Hospital Duesseldorf (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; MAASTRO Clinic, Maastricht (Netherlands). Radiation Oncology

    2011-02-15

    Radiation necrosis of normal CNS tissue represents one of the main risk factors of brain irradiation, occurring more frequently and earlier at higher total doses and higher doses per fraction. At present, it is believed that the necrosis results due to increasing capillary permeability caused by cytokine release leading to extracellular edema. This process is sustained by endothelial dysfunction, tissue hypoxia, and subsequent necrosis. Consequently, blocking the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) at an early stage could be an option to reduce the development of radiation necrosis by decreasing the vascular permeability. This might help to reverse the pathological mechanisms, improve the symptoms and prevent further progression. A patient with radiation-induced necrosis was treated with an anti-VEGF antibody (bevacizumab), in whom neurologic signs and symptoms improved in accordance with a decrease in T1-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery signals. Our case report together with the current literature suggests bevacizumab as a treatment option for patients with symptoms and radiological signs of cerebral necrosis induced by radiotherapy. (orig.)

  4. Thyroidectomy for the treatment of Graves’ thyrotoxicosis in thioamide-induced agranulocytosis and sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin L Knight

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A 51 year old man presented with sepsis in the setting of thioamide-induced agranulocytosis. Empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics was followed by directed narrow-spectrum antibiotics, and his neutrophil count recovered with support from granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF analogue transfusions. After a brief period of multi-modal therapy for nine days including potassium iodide (Lugol’s iodine, cholestyramine, propanolol and lithium to temper his persisting hyperthyroidism, a total thyroidectomy was performed while thyroid hormone levels remained at thyrotoxic levels. Postoperative recovery was uncomplicated and he was discharged home on thyroxine. There is limited available evidence to guide treatment in this unique cohort of patients who require prompt management to avert impending clinical deterioration. This case report summarises the successful emergent control of thyrotoxicosis in the setting of thioamide-induced agranulocytosis complicated by sepsis, and demonstrates the safe use of multi-modal pharmacological therapies in preparation for total thyroidectomy.

  5. Evaluation of potent phytomedicine for treatment of psoriasis using UV radiation induced psoriasis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Hemant K; Srivastava, Amit K; Srivastava, Rajnish; Ranawat, Mahendra S

    2016-12-01

    The aim of present study was to determine the effect of newly formulated gels and suspensions of extractive Phytoconstituents of Woodfordia fructicosa flowers and Gardenia gummifera leaves by using UV Radiation induced psoriasis in rats. Both plants are traditionally claimed to be useful in treatment of number of skin diseases. However, there are no established scientific reports for their potential in psoriasis. Formulated Gels and Suspensions of ethanolic extract of both plants were tested for acute dermal and oral toxicity study respectively. The results of acute dermal toxicity at concentration 1% w/w and oral toxicity at dose 1000mg/kg showed that the gels and suspensions were safe. Psoriasis was induced in Wistar rats by espousing 10% area of total body by UV radiations. Anti-psoriatic activity was performed by applying 0.1% gel and orally at a dose 100mg/kg body weight in rats. Severity Index, histological study and biochemical estimation were analyzed. The results of our studies showed that the test formulations (Gels and Suspensions) of both plant extracts exhibited potential effect in anti-psoriatic activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Histologic comparison of microscopic treatment zones induced by fractional lasers and radiofrequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Min-Kyung; Choi, Jeong Hwee; Ahn, Soo Beom; Lee, Mu Hyoung

    2014-12-01

    Fractional photothermolysis induces microscopic, localized thermal injury in the skin surrounded by undamaged viable tissue in order to promote wound healing. This study evaluated acute histologic changes following each single pass of various fractional lasers and radiofrequency (RF). Three male domestic swine were used. We used fractional Erbium:glass (Er:glass), Erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG), CO2 lasers, and fractional ablative microplasma RF. We analyzed features and average values of the diameter, depth, and vertical sectional areas treated with each kind of laser and RF. The microscopic treatment zone (MTZ) of fractional Er:glass resulted in separation of dermoepidermal junction with no ablative zone. Fractional Er:YAG provided the most superficial and broad MTZ with little thermal collateral damage. Fractional CO2 resulted in a narrow and deep "cone"-like MTZ. Fractional RF resulted in a superficial and broad "crater"-like MTZ. This study provides the first comparison of MTZs induced by various fractional lasers and RF. These data provide basic information on proper laser and RF options. We think that these findings could be a good reference for information about fractional laser-assisted drug delivery.

  7. Induced neural stem cells as a means of treatment in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Ah; Hong, Sunghoi

    2017-11-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease characterized by chorea, dementia, and depression caused by progressive nerve cell degeneration, which is triggered by expanded CAG repeats in the huntingtin (Htt) gene. Currently, there is no cure for this disease, nor is there an effective medicine available to delay or improve the physical, mental, and behavioral severities caused by it. Areas covered: In this review, the authors describe the use of induced neural stem cells (iNSCs) by direct conversion technology, which offers great advantages as a therapeutic cell type to treat HD. Expert opinion: Cell conversion of somatic cells into a desired stem cell type is one of the most promising treatments for HD because it could be facilitated for the generation of patient-specific neural stem cells. The induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have a powerful potential for differentiation into neurons, but they may cause teratoma formation due to an undifferentiated pluripotent stem cell after transplantation Therefore, direct conversion of somatic cells into iNSCs is a promising alternative technology in regenerative medicine and the iNSCs may be provided as a therapeutic cell source for Huntington's disease.

  8. A Novel Approach for the Treatment of Radiation-Induced Hemorrhagic Cystitis with the GreenLight™ XPS Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Roberto Martinez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:The treatment of pelvic malignancies with radiotherapy can develop severe sequelae, especially radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis. It is a progressive disease that can lead to the need for blood transfusion, hospitalizations, and surgical interventions. This tends to affect the quality of life of these patients, and management can at times be difficult. We have evaluated the GreenLight Xcelerated Performance System (XPS with TruCoag, although primarily used for management of benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH, for the treatment of radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis.Materials and Methods:After International Review Board (IRB approval, a retrospective chart review was performed in addition to a literature search. A series of four male patients, mean age of 81 years, with radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis secondary to radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies (3 prostate cancer, 1 rectal cancer were successfully treated with the GreenLight laser after unsuccessful treatment with current therapies described in the literature.Results:All four patients treated with the GreenLight laser had resolution of their hematuria after one treatment and were discharge from the hospital with clear urine.Conclusion:The GreenLight XPS laser shows promising results for the treatment of patients with radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis, and deserves further evaluation and validation, especially since there is limited data available in the literature regarding the use of this technology for the treatment of this devastating condition.

  9. Chronic ciguatoxin treatment induces synaptic scaling through voltage gated sodium channels in cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Víctor; Vale, Carmen; Rubiolo, Juan A; Roel, Maria; Hirama, Masahiro; Yamashita, Shuji; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Botana, Luís M

    2015-06-15

    Ciguatoxins are sodium channels activators that cause ciguatera, one of the most widespread nonbacterial forms of food poisoning, which presents with long-term neurological alterations. In central neurons, chronic perturbations in activity induce homeostatic synaptic mechanisms that adjust the strength of excitatory synapses and modulate glutamate receptor expression in order to stabilize the overall activity. Immediate early genes, such as Arc and Egr1, are induced in response to activity changes and underlie the trafficking of glutamate receptors during neuronal homeostasis. To better understand the long lasting neurological consequences of ciguatera, it is important to establish the role that chronic changes in activity produced by ciguatoxins represent to central neurons. Here, the effect of a 30 min exposure of 10-13 days in vitro (DIV) cortical neurons to the synthetic ciguatoxin CTX 3C on Arc and Egr1 expression was evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction approaches. Since the toxin increased the mRNA levels of both Arc and Egr1, the effect of CTX 3C in NaV channels, membrane potential, firing activity, miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs), and glutamate receptors expression in cortical neurons after a 24 h exposure was evaluated using electrophysiological and western blot approaches. The data presented here show that CTX 3C induced an upregulation of Arc and Egr1 that was prevented by previous coincubation of the neurons with the NaV channel blocker tetrodotoxin. In addition, chronic CTX 3C caused a concentration-dependent shift in the activation voltage of NaV channels to more negative potentials and produced membrane potential depolarization. Moreover, 24 h treatment of cortical neurons with 5 nM CTX 3C decreased neuronal firing and induced synaptic scaling mechanisms, as evidenced by a decrease in the amplitude of mEPSCs and downregulation in the protein level of glutamate receptors that was also prevented by tetrodotoxin

  10. Pharmacological treatments inhibiting levodopa-induced dyskinesias in MPTP-lesioned monkeys: brain glutamate biochemical correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eMorin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Antiglutamatergic drugs can relieve Parkinson’s disease (PD symptoms and decrease L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias (LID. This review reports relevant studies investigating glutamate receptor subtypes in relation to motor complications in PD patients and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP-lesioned monkeys. Antagonists of the ionotropic glutamate receptors, such as NMDA and AMPA receptors, display antidyskinetic activity in PD patients and animal models such as the MPTP monkey. Metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5 receptor antagonists were shown to reduce the severity of LID in PD patients as well as in already dyskinetic non-human primates and to prevent the development of LID in de novo treatments in non-human primates. An increase in striatal post-synaptic NMDA, AMPA and mGlu5 receptors is documented in PD patients and MPTP monkeys with LID. This increase can be prevented in MPTP monkeys with the addition of a specific glutamate receptor antagonist to the L-DOPA treatment and also with drugs of various pharmacological specificities suggesting multiple receptor interactions. This is yet to be well documented for presynaptic mGlu4 and mGlu2/3 and offers additional new promising avenues.

  11. Laser-induced fluorescence imaging for monitoring nitrogen fertilizing treatments of wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisel, Francine; Sowinska, Malgorzata; Khalili, Elisabeth; Eckert, Caroline; Miehe, Joseph-Albert; Lichtenthaler, Hartmut K.

    1997-07-01

    The laser-induced fluorescence imaging system allows the recording of spectrally selected fluorescence images of the whole leaves or plants which is better and in contrast to the so far applied spot spectrofluorometer measurements. The fluorescence images of leaves of winter wheat (Soissons variety, Alsace) have been recorded at the four characteristic emission bands (440, 520, 690 and 740 nm) with a high resolution imaging device consisting of a frequency triplet or doubled Nd:YAG source for 355 nm or 532 nm excitation and of an intensified and gated CCD digitized camera. The effect of four different nitrogen treatments (0, 100, 140 and 180 kg/ha) on the fluorescence parameters (intensities F440, F520, F690, F740 and ratios F440/F520, F440/F690, F440/F740 and F690/F740) obtained by image processing has been analyzed by statistical treatment, in a randomized blocks experiment. The measurements have been carried out on two leaf storeys weekly gathered during two months (May and June 1996). For 355 nm excitation, a significant decrease of the fluorescence ratios F440/F690 and F440/F740 was observed for increasing nitrogen concentration: the blue and green mean fluorescence intensities remained much the same, while the red and far-red chlorophyll fluorescence emissions were enhanced by the fertilization. The fluorescence results are in excellent correlation with the crop yields.

  12. The use of antioxidant agents for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy treatment in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Larissa F; Silva, Ana Maria F; Carvalho, Adriana A

    2017-10-01

    Antineoplastic drugs such as cisplatin, oxaliplatin, paclitaxel and vincristin are widely used in the treatment of several solid and blood tumours. However, the severity of peripheral neuropathy caused by these agents can affect the patient's quality of life. The major symptoms of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) involve: sensory loss, paresthesia, dysesthaesia, numbness, tingling, temperature sensitivity, allodynia and hyperalgesia, in a "stocking and glove" distribution. Why many different chemotherapeutic agents result in similar neuropathy profiles is unclear. Many drug classes such as antidepressants, anticonvulsants, antispastic agents and others have been used in clinical practice, but there is no scientific evidence to prove their effectiveness. But drugs as the antioxidant have shown a protective effect against free radical damage. In order to find out a successful treatment for CIPN, animal studies (ie pharmacological and mechanical tests and histopathological immunohistochemical analyses) have been developed to try to determinate the action of the antioxidant agents. This review provides an overview of the major antioxidant agents recently investigated to treat CIPN and the animal models used for this purpose. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Adaptive parotid gland hypertrophy induced by dietary treatment of GSE in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kaoru; Morikawa, Tomomi; Matsuo, Saori; Tamura, Kei; Takahashi, Miwa; Yoshida, Midori

    2014-08-01

    In a 13-week feeding toxicity study of grape skin extract (GSE) performed previously, 5.0% GSE showed diffuse hypertrophy and basophilia in rat parotid glands. To clarify whether the change in the parotid glands was an adverse effect of GSE, 6-week-old male F344 rats were fed a diet containing 5.0% GSE or were administered a dose corresponding to the dietary concentration via gavage for 4 weeks, and the treatment was stopped for 2 weeks. To ascertain the effect of astringency, other animals were fed a diet containing 5.0% tannic acid (TA) using the same protocol as the GSE feed group. Control groups were fed a basal diet or were administered sterilized distilled water by gavage. In the GSE and TA feed groups, diffuse severe hypertrophy and basophilia in the parotid glandular epithelial cells were observed. Macroscopic, microscopic, and ultrastructural characteristics consistent with cellular hypertrophy was less apparent after the recovery period in both feed groups. In contrast, no changes were observed in the parotid glands of the gavage GSE and control groups at week 4. Based on these findings of parotid hypertrophy without cytotoxicity, the data from this and previous studies suggest that hypertrophy of the parotid glands induced by feeding treatment with GSE is an adaptive non-adverse effect that is reversible upon removal of the sialotrophic agent. © 2013 by The Author(s).

  14. Stem cell therapy for the treatment of radiation-induced normal tissue damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapel, A.; Benderitter, M.; Gourmelon, P.; Lataillade, J.J.; Gorin, N.C.

    2013-01-01

    Radiotherapy may induce irreversible damage on healthy tissues surrounding the tumour. In Europe, per year, 1.5 million patients undergo external radiotherapy. Acute adverse effect concern 80% of patients. The late adverse effect of radiotherapy concern 5 to 10% of them, which could be life threatening. Eradication of these manifestations is crucial. The French Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) contribute to understand effect of radiation on healthy tissue. IRSN is strongly implicated in the field of regeneration of healthy tissue after radiotherapy or radiological accident and in the clinical use of cell therapy in the treatment of irradiated patients. Our first success in cell therapy was the correction of deficient hematopoiesis in two patients. The intravenous injection of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) has restored bone marrow micro-environment after total body irradiation necessary to sustain hematopoiesis. Cutaneous radiation reactions play an important role in radiation accidents, but also as a limitation in radiotherapy and radio-oncology. We have evidenced for the first time, the efficiency of MSC therapy in the context of acute cutaneous and muscle damage following irradiation in five patients. Concerning the medical management of gastrointestinal disorder after irradiation, we have demonstrated the promising approach of the MSC treatment. We have shown that MSC migrate to damaged tissues and restore gut functions after radiation damage. The evaluation of stem cell therapy combining different sources of adult stem cells is under investigation

  15. Targeting Hypoxia-Inducible Factors for the Treatment of Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Francesco; Fishbane, Steven; Block, Geoffrey A; Macdougall, Iain C

    2017-01-01

    Anemia, a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD), has previously been attributed primarily to decreased production of erythropoietin. More recently, it has become apparent that the etiology of anemia involves several other factors, most notably dysfunctional iron metabolism, mediated via increased hepcidin activity and reduced clearance. Current management of anemia in patients with advanced CKD is based on erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and iron supplementation, along with red blood cell transfusions when necessary; however, safety considerations associated with these therapies highlight the need to pursue alternative treatment options targeting other mechanisms such as hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) that act as central regulators of erythropoiesis by coordinating a series of graded hypoxic responses. This review discusses the discovery of the HIF pathway and its regulation via HIF prolyl hydroxylase enzymes in the context of erythropoiesis and iron metabolism. The rationale for targeting this pathway and the clinical development of HIF prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors are reviewed, with a commentary on the potential implications of this class of agents in CKD anemia management. Key Messages: Pharmacologic activation of the HIF pathway results in a transient pseudo-hypoxic state that stimulates erythropoiesis in CKD patients with anemia. Results from clinical studies of a number of HIF prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors are increasingly available and provide support for the continued evaluation of the risk-benefit ratio of this novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of anemia in CKD. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Short term doxycycline treatment induces sustained improvement in myocardial infarction border zone contractility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Kimberly; Takaba, Kiyoaki; Collins, Alexander; Faraji, Farshid; Wang, Guanying; Aguayo, Esteban; Ge, Liang; Saloner, David; Wallace, Arthur W; Baker, Anthony J; Lovett, David H; Ratcliffe, Mark B

    2018-01-01

    Decreased contractility in the non-ischemic border zone surrounding a MI is in part due to degradation of cardiomyocyte sarcomeric components by intracellular matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). We recently reported that MMP-2 levels were increased in the border zone after a MI and that treatment with doxycycline for two weeks after MI was associated with normalization of MMP-2 levels and improvement in ex-vivo contractile protein developed force in the myocardial border zone. The purpose of the current study was to determine if there is a sustained effect of short term treatment with doxycycline (Dox) on border zone function in a large animal model of antero-apical myocardial infarction (MI). Antero-apical MI was created in 14 sheep. Seven sheep received doxycycline 0.8 mg/kg/hr IV for two weeks. Cardiac MRI was performed two weeks before, and then two and six weeks after MI. Two sheep died prior to MRI at six weeks from surgical/anesthesia-related causes. The remaining 12 sheep completed the protocol. Doxycycline induced a sustained reduction in intracellular MMP-2 by Western blot (3649±643 MI+Dox vs 9236±114 MI relative intensity; p = 0.0009), an improvement in ex-vivo contractility (65.3±2.0 MI+Dox vs 39.7±0.8 MI mN/mm2; pborder zone six weeks after MI. These findings were associated with a reduction in intracellular MMP-2 activity.

  17. Complementary treatment of contact lens-induced corneal ulcer using honey: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majtanova, Nora; Vodrazkova, Erika; Kurilova, Veronika; Horniackova, Miroslava; Cernak, Martin; Cernak, Andrej; Majtan, Juraj

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to report the complementary use of honey for treatment of a contact lens-induced corneal ulcer. A 23-year-old contact lens user presented with a corneal ulcer in her left eye. She had visual acuity reduced to hand movement. There was a history of wearing contact lenses while swimming in a lake seven days before presentation. The cultures from corneal scrapings and contact lenses were positive for Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Pseudomonas spp. The treatment with topical levofloxacin and 25% (w/v) γ-irradiated honeydew honey solution was effective and the patient achieved final best corrected visual acuity of affected eye. In addition to positive clinical outcome, honeydew honey was shown to be highly effective in vitro against ocular isolates, in particular S. maltophilia. The minimal inhibitory concentrations for honeydew honey ranged from 5% to 10%. These results demonstrate that honey is a promising antibacterial agent in management of corneal ulcers. Moreover, honey exhibits anti-biofilm and anti-inflammatory properties, and thus becomes an interesting ophthalmologic agent. Copyright © 2014 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Early postnatal treatment with clomipramine induces female sexual behavior and estrous cycle impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Jiménez, Tania; Limón-Morales, Ofelia; Bonilla-Jaime, Herlinda

    2018-03-01

    Administration of clomipramine (CMI), a tricyclic antidepressant, in early stages of development in rats, is considered an animal model for the study of depression. This pharmacological manipulation has induced behavioral and physiological alterations, i.e., less pleasure-seeking behaviors, despair, hyperactivity, cognitive dysfunction, alterations in neurotransmitter systems and in HPA axis. These abnormalities in adult male rats are similar to the symptoms observed in major depressive disorders. One of the main pleasure-seeking behaviors affected in male rats treated with CMI is sexual behavior. However, to date, no effects of early postnatal CMI treatment have been reported on female reproductive cyclicity and sexual behavior. Therefore, we explored CMI administration in early life (8-21 PN) on the estrous cycle and sexual behavior of adult female rats. Compared to the rats in the early postnatal saline treatment (CTRL group), the CMI rats had fewer estrous cycles, fewer days in the estrous stage, and longer cycles during a 20-day period of vaginal cytology analysis. On the behavioral test, the CMI rats displayed fewer proceptive behaviors (hopping, darting) and had lower lordosis quotients. Also, they usually failed to display lordosis and only rarely manifested marginal or normal lordosis. In contrast, the CTRL rats tended to display normal lordosis. These results suggest that early postnatal CMI treatment caused long-term disruptions of the estrous cycle and female sexual behavior, perhaps by alteration in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes and in neuronal circuits involved in the regulation of the performance and motivational of sexual behavior as the noradrenergic and serotonergic systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. One-stage wound healing of fingertip injuries induced by treatment of artificial dermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Xianghong; Zhu, Haijun; Xue, Hang; Weng, Yuxiong; Chen, Jianghai

    2018-03-05

    Fingertip injuries are common in both adults and children. Many operative and non-operative management techniques have been reported to restore the function and cosmetic shape of fingertips after injuries. Although these methods may be used for different indications in clinical settings, few of them can treat all kinds of fingertip injuries. In addition, there is controversy as to whether the surgical approach or the conservative approach is the optimal management for fingertip injuries. Thirty-six fingers of 33 patients with fingertip injuries were included in the study. All wounds were treated with surgical debridement and artificial dermis coverage without further surgical treatment. Follow-up duration was 24.5 months on average. All injuries were categorised into four types - Allen's classification of fingertip injury type II, type III, type IV, and transverse amputations proximal to the lunula and close to the level of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint - and 28 of them had bone exposure. The defects of all fingers were restored in one stage within an average of 8 weeks. Although the length and width of the new fingertips were less than those of the contralateral fingertips, almost all patients were satisfied with the functional and cosmetic outcomes of their regenerated fingers. One-stage wound healing of fingertip injuries induced by artificial dermis treatment is an easy and effective approach to restoring defects after injury with excellent functional and cosmetic results. Nearly all kinds of fingertip injuries can be managed with this method without any further surgical treatment. Therefore, this is a good alternative for the management of fingertip injuries. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Improved functional assessment of osteoarthritic knee joint after chondrogenically induced cell treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ude, C C; Ng, M H; Chen, C H; Htwe, O; Amaramalar, N S; Hassan, S; Djordjevic, I; Rani, R A; Ahmad, J; Yahya, N M; Saim, A B; Idrus, R B Hj

    2015-08-01

    Our previous studies on osteoarthritis (OA) revealed positive outcome after chondrogenically induced cells treatment. Presently, the functional improvements of these treated OA knee joints were quantified followed by evaluation of the mechanical properties of the engineered cartilages. Baseline electromyogram (EMGs) were conducted at week 0 (pre-OA), on the locomotory muscles of nine un-castrated male sheep (Siamese long tail cross) divided into controls, adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs), before OA inductions. Subsequent recordings were performed at week 7 and week 31 which were post-OA and post-treatments. Afterwards, the compression tests of the regenerated cartilage were performed. Post-treatment EMG analysis revealed that the control sheep retained significant reductions in amplitudes at the right medial gluteus, vastus lateralis and bicep femoris, whereas BMSCs and ADSCs samples had no further significant reductions (P < 0.05). Grossly and histologically, the treated knee joints demonstrated the presence of regenerated neo cartilages evidenced by the fluorescence of PKH26 tracker. Based on the International Cartilage Repair Society scores (ICRS), they had significantly lower grades than the controls (P < 0.05). The compression moduli of the native cartilages and the engineered cartilages differed significantly at the tibia plateau, patella femoral groove and the patella; whereas at the medial femoral condyle, they had similar moduli of 0.69 MPa and 0.40-0.64 MPa respectively. Their compression strengths at all four regions were within ±10 MPa. The tissue engineered cartilages provided evidence of functional recoveries associated to the structural regenerations, and their mechanical properties were comparable with the native cartilage. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of early treatment with transcutaneous electrical diaphragmatic stimulation (TEDS on pulmonary inflammation induced by bleomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laisa A. Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Bleomycin (B is an antineoplastic drug that has pulmonary fibrosis as a side effect. There are few experimental studies about the effects of physical therapy treatment in this case. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study rat lungs treated with B and precocious intervention by transcutaneous electrical diaphragmatic stimulation (TEDS. METHOD : Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (n=5: a control group (C; a stimulated group (TEDS; a group treated with a single dose of B (intratracheally, 2.5 mg/kg (B; and a group treated with B and electric stimulation (B + TEDS. After the B instillation, the electrical stimulation was applied for 7 days, for a duration of 20 minutes. Lung fragments were histologically processed with hematoxylin and eosin (HE and 8-isoprostane-PGF2α (8-iso-PGF2α. The density of the alveolar area was determined by planimetry, the inflammatory profile was defined by the number of cells, and the level of oxidative stress in the pulmonary tissue was evaluated by 8-iso-PGF2α. For statistical analysis of the data, the Shapiro-Wilk test was used, followed by a one-way ANOVA with the post-hoc Bonferroni test (p≤0.05. RESULTS : The B group exhibited a significant reduction in the area density, and the acute treatment with B + TEDS prevented this reduction. There were increased numbers of fibroblasts, leukocytes, and macrophages in the B group, as well as increased lipid peroxidation, which was observed only in this group. CONCLUSION : B promoted a reduction in the alveolar density area, thereby inducing the inflammatory process and increasing the production of free radicals. These effects were minimized by the application of TEDS at the initial treatment stage.

  2. Treatment of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer with Erlotinib following Gefitinib-Induced Hepatotoxicity: Review of 8 Clinical Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihiro Yano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Gefitinib often induces liver damage. A few reports have described that the subsequent administration of erlotinib was associated with less hepatotoxicity, but the safety and efficacy of this treatment are still not fully investigated. Therefore, we evaluated retrospectively the patients with erlotinib following gefitinib-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods and Patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records between December 2007 and March 2010. The patients were evaluated including the following information: age, gender, histology of lung cancer, performance status, smoking status, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutation status, liver metastasis, viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver injury, clinical response, and hepatotoxicity due to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Results. We identified 8 patients with erlotinib following gefitinib-induced hepatotoxicity. All achieved disease control by gefitinib. Hepatotoxicity was grades 2 and 3 in 3 and 5 patients, respectively. The median duration of treatment with gefitinib was 112.5 days and the median time to gefitinib-induced hepatotoxicity was 51.5 days. The median duration of treatment with erlotinib was 171.5 days. Grade 1 and 2 erlotinib-induced hepatotoxicity was observed in 2 and 1 patient, respectively. Conclusions. Erlotinib administration with careful monitoring is thought to be a good alternative strategy for patients who respond well to gefitinib treatment but experience hepatotoxicity.

  3. Nature of chromosome gaps induced by alkylating agents and γ-rays as revealed by caffeine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, B.

    1981-01-01

    In the cells of primary roots of Crepis capillaris, post-treatment with caffeine increased the frequency of gaps and chromosomal aberrations induced by the alkylating agents ethyleneimine and N-nitroso-N-methylurethane and γ-rays. The increase in the frequency of gaps was considerably lower than that observed in chromosomal aberrations, this being more strongly expressed in the case fo the alkylating agents. The potentiating effect of caffeine on the γ-ray-induced chromosomal gaps was a little higher in S as compared in G 2 . These results lead to the conclusion that the alkylating agents and the γ-rays might induce 2 types of chromosomal gap. (orig.)

  4. Prolonged antibiotic treatment induces a diabetogenic intestinal microbiome that accelerates diabetes in NOD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kirsty; Godovannyi, Artem; Ma, Caixia; Zhang, YiQun; Ahmadi-Vand, Zahra; Dai, Chaunbin; Gorzelak, Monika A; Chan, YeeKwan; Chan, Justin M; Lochner, Arion; Dutz, Jan P; Vallance, Bruce A; Gibson, Deanna L

    2016-02-01

    Accumulating evidence supports that the intestinal microbiome is involved in Type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis through the gut-pancreas nexus. Our aim was to determine whether the intestinal microbiota in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model played a role in T1D through the gut. To examine the effect of the intestinal microbiota on T1D onset, we manipulated gut microbes by: (1) the fecal transplantation between non-obese diabetic (NOD) and resistant (NOR) mice and (2) the oral antibiotic and probiotic treatment of NOD mice. We monitored diabetes onset, quantified CD4+T cells in the Peyer's patches, profiled the microbiome and measured fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). The gut microbiota from NOD mice harbored more pathobionts and fewer beneficial microbes in comparison with NOR mice. Fecal transplantation of NOD microbes induced insulitis in NOR hosts suggesting that the NOD microbiome is diabetogenic. Moreover, antibiotic exposure accelerated diabetes onset in NOD mice accompanied by increased T-helper type 1 (Th1) and reduced Th17 cells in the intestinal lymphoid tissues. The diabetogenic microbiome was characterized by a metagenome altered in several metabolic gene clusters. Furthermore, diabetes susceptibility correlated with reduced fecal SCFAs. In an attempt to correct the diabetogenic microbiome, we administered VLS#3 probiotics to NOD mice but found that VSL#3 colonized the intestine poorly and did not delay diabetes. We conclude that NOD mice harbor gut microbes that induce diabetes and that their diabetogenic microbiome can be amplified early in life through antibiotic exposure. Protective microbes like VSL#3 are insufficient to overcome the effects of a diabetogenic microbiome.

  5. Post-treatment Effects of Erythropoietin and Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid on Recovery from Cisplatin-induced Acute Renal Failure in the Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Dong Won; Kwak, Ihm Soo; Lee, Soo Bong; Song, Sang Heon; Seong, Eun Young; Yang, Byeong Yun; Lee, Min Young; Sol, Mee Young

    2009-01-01

    5-Lipoxygenase inhibitor and human recombinant erythropoietin might accelerate renal recovery in cisplatin-induced acute renal failure rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups: 1) normal controls; 2) Cisplatin group-cisplatin induced acute renal failure (ARF) plus vehicle treatment; 3) Cisplatin+nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) group-cisplatin induced ARF plus 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor treatment; 4) Cisplatin+erythropoietin (EPO) group-cisplatin induced ARF plus erythrop...

  6. Mesenchymal stromal cell treatment prevents H9N2 avian influenza virus-induced acute lung injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Xu, Jun; Shi, Weiqing; Chen, Cheng; Shao, Yan; Zhu, Limei; Lu, Wei; Han, XiaoDong

    2016-10-28

    The avian influenza virus (AIV) can cross species barriers and expand its host range from birds to mammals, even humans. Avian influenza is characterized by pronounced activation of the proinflammatory cytokine cascade, which perpetuates the inflammatory response, leading to persistent systemic inflammatory response syndrome and pulmonary infection in animals and humans. There are currently no specific treatment strategies for avian influenza. We hypothesized that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) would have beneficial effects in the treatment of H9N2 AIV-induced acute lung injury in mice. Six- to 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice were infected intranasally with 1 × 10 4 MID 50 of A/HONG KONG/2108/2003 [H9N2 (HK)] H9N2 virus to induce acute lung injury. After 30 min, syngeneic MSCs were delivered through the caudal vein. Three days after infection, we measured the survival rate, lung weight, arterial blood gas, and cytokines in both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum, and assessed pathological changes to the lungs. MSC administration significantly palliated H9N2 AIV-induced pulmonary inflammation by reducing chemokines and proinflammatory cytokines levels, as well as reducing inflammatory cell recruit into the lungs. Thus, H9N2 AIV-induced lung injury was markedly alleviated in mice treated with MSCs. Lung histopathology and arterial blood gas analysis were improved in mice with H9N2 AIV-induced lung injury following MSC treatment. MSC treatment significantly reduces H9N2 AIV-induced acute lung injury in mice and is associated with reduced pulmonary inflammation. These results indicate a potential role for MSC therapy in the treatment of clinical avian influenza.

  7. An enriched environment reduces the stress level and locomotor activity induced by acute morphine treatment and by saline after chronic morphine treatment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia; Sun, Jinling; Xue, Zhaoxia; Li, Xinwang

    2014-06-18

    This study investigated the relationships among an enriched environment, stress levels, and drug addiction. Mice were divided randomly into four treatment groups (n=12 each): enriched environment without restraint stress (EN), standard environment without restraint stress (SN), enriched environment with restraint stress (ES), and standard environment with restraint stress (SS). Mice were reared in the respective environment for 45 days. Then, the ES and SS groups were subjected to restraint stress daily (2 h/day) for 14 days, whereas the EN and SN groups were not subjected to restraint stress during this stage. The stress levels of all mice were tested in the elevated plus maze immediately after exposure to restraint stress. After the 2-week stress testing period, mice were administered acute or chronic morphine (5 mg/kg) treatment for 7 days. Then, after a 7-day withdrawal period, the mice were injected with saline (1 ml/kg) or morphine (5 mg/kg) daily for 2 days to observe locomotor activity. The results indicated that the enriched environment reduced the stress and locomotor activity induced by acute morphine administration or saline after chronic morphine treatment. However, the enriched environment did not significantly inhibit locomotor activity induced by morphine challenge. In addition, the stress level did not mediate the effect of the enriched environment on drug-induced locomotor activity after acute or chronic morphine treatment.

  8. Successful treatment of tumor-induced osteomalacia due to an intracranial tumor by fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasova, Valentina D; Trepp-Carrasco, Alejandro G; Thompson, Robert; Recker, Robert R; Chong, William H; Collins, Michael T; Armas, Laura A G

    2013-11-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome, characterized by tumor secretion of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) causing hypophosphatemia due to renal phosphate wasting. TIO is usually caused by small, benign, difficult-to-localize, mesenchymal tumors. Although surgery with wide excision of tumor borders is considered the "gold standard" for definitive therapy, it can be associated with considerable morbidity depending on the location. To date, radiation therapy has not been considered as an effective treatment modality in TIO. A 67-year-old female presented with multiple nontraumatic fractures, progressive bone pain, and muscle weakness for 4 years. She was found to have biochemical evidence of urinary phosphate wasting with low serum phosphorus, low-normal serum calcium, normal 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and high serum FGF23 levels. TIO was diagnosed. Selective venous sampling for FGF23 confirmed that a 1.7-cm left frontal mass, radiographically similar to a meningioma, was the causative tumor. She declined surgery due to fear of complications and instead underwent fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for 6 weeks. In less than 4 years after radiation therapy, she was successfully weaned off phosphorus and calcitriol, starting from 2 g of oral phosphorus daily and 1 μg of calcitriol daily. Her symptoms have resolved, and she has not had any new fractures. Stereotactic radiotherapy was an effective treatment modality for TIO in our patient. Fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy represents an alternative to surgery for patients with TIO who are not surgical candidates or who decline surgery.

  9. Clinical features, course and treatment of methamphetamine-induced psychosis in psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrabi, Homa; Khalkhali, Mohammadrasoul; Hamidi, Azam; Ahmadi, Reza; Zavarmousavi, Maryam

    2016-02-25

    Over the past few years, methamphetamine-induced psychosis (MIP) has increased in Iran, accounting for a significant percentage of psychiatry hospital admissions. The present study was conducted with an aim to investigate clinical symptoms, and course and treatment methods of MIP inpatients in Shafa Psychiatry Hospital in northern Iran. Participants were 152 MIP inpatients. Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) subscales of suspiciousness, unusual thought content; hallucinations and hostility were used to measure psychiatric symptoms. Data regarding suicide and homicide and violence were also obtained through interviews with the inpatients and their family. Based on their lengths of recovery time, the inpatients were categorized into 3 clinical groups. These inpatients received their usual treatments and were monitored for their psychiatric symptoms and clinical course of illness. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. The most frequent psychiatric symptoms were violence (75.6 %), intimate partner violence (61.2 %), delusions of persecution (85.5 %), delusions of reference (38.5 %), delusions of grandiosity (32.9 %), delusions of infidelity (30.2 %), auditory hallucinations (51.3 %), visual hallucinations (18.4 %), suicidal thoughts (14.5 %), homicidal thoughts (3.9 %), suicide attempts (10.5 %) and homicide attempts (0.7 %). Recovery from psychotic symptoms in 31.6 % of the inpatients took more than one month. 46.1% of the inpatients were treated with Risperidone and 37.5 % with Olanzapine. Persecutory delusion and auditory hallucination were the most frequent persistent psychotic symptoms. 20.8 % of the inpatients with duration of psychosis more than one month were treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) along with antipsychotics. All forms of violence are highly frequent in MIP inpatients. Our finding agrees with many other studies suggesting that recovery from MIP can take more than a month. Initial promising findings were found regarding the

  10. Biogeochemical changes induced in uranium mining waste pile samples by uranyl nitrate treatments under anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, A; Merroun, M; Geipel, G; Reuther, H; Selenska-Pobell, S

    2009-06-01

    Response of the subsurface soil bacterial community of a uranium mining waste pile to treatments with uranyl nitrate over different periods of time was studied under anaerobic conditions. The fate of the added U(VI) without supplementation with electron donors was investigated as well. By using 16S rRNA gene retrieval, we demonstrated that incubation with uranyl nitrate for 4 weeks resulted in a strong reduction in and even disappearance of some of the most predominant bacterial groups of the original sample. Instead, a strong proliferation of denitrifying and uranium-resistant populations of Rahnella spp. from Gammaproteobacteria and of Firmicutes occurred. After longer incubations for 14 weeks with uranyl nitrate, bacterial diversity increased and populations intrinsic to the untreated samples such as Bacteroidetes and Deltaproteobacteria propagated and replaced the above-mentioned uranium-resistant groups. This indicated that U(VI) was immobilized. Mössbauer spectroscopic analysis revealed an increased Fe(III) reduction by increasing the incubation time from four to 14 weeks. This result signified that Fe(III) was used as an electron acceptor by the bacterial community established at the later stages of the treatment. X-ray absorption spectroscopic analysis demonstrated that no detectable amounts of U(VI) were reduced to U(IV) in the time frames of the performed experiments. The reason for this observation is possibly due to the low level of electron donors in the studied oligotrophic environment. Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopic analysis demonstrated that most of the added U(VI) was bound by organic or inorganic phosphate phases both of biotic origin.

  11. Chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis: effect of LED and laser phototherapy treatment protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Ana Carolina Carneiro; Campos, Luana; Brandão, Thaís Bianca; Cristófaro, Marcio; Eduardo, Fernanda de Paula; Luiz, Ana Claudia; Marques, Márcia Martins; Eduardo, Carlos de Paula; Simões, Alyne

    2014-02-01

    Over the last few decades, many studies have focused on the effect of lasers on the management of oral mucositis in oncologic patients treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. However, the effect of light-emitting diode (LED) has been poorly studied, and was not compared with that of laser phototherapy (LPT). For this reason, the aim of the present study was to clinically compare the effect of these two therapies on chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis (CIOM) and pain. Forty patients with CIOM were divided into two groups: G1, patients treated with LPT; G2, patients treated with LED. The treatment was administered during 10 consecutive days, with exception of weekends. LPT was applied using an InGaAlP laser (660 nm/40 mW/6.6 J cm-(2)/0.24 J per point/0.036 cm(2) of spot size). LED phototherapy was applied using 0.24 J per point/80 mW/630 nm/1 cm(2) of spot size. CIOM was assessed during each session in accordance to the World Health Organization (WHO) score. The patient self-assessed pain was scored on a visual analog scale (VAS). The mean VAS and WHO scores were significantly smaller in the LED group (p0.05). Moreover, in the group with severe mucositis (score III), there was a lower frequency of patients with complete healing and pain relief, with the exception of analgesia in G2, in which almost all patients were completely relieved from pain. These findings suggest that LED therapy is more effective than LPT in the treatment of COIM, with the parameters used in the present study.

  12. Use of coagulants in treatment of olive oil wastewater model solutions by induced air flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyssami, B; Kasaeian, A B

    2005-02-01

    Natural polyelectrolytes are suitable coagulants for the treatment of industrial and minicipal wastewaters because they are safe and have environmental benefits. Chitosan, a natural cationic polyelectrolyte, and other similar coagulants were used in the treatment of an olive oil water suspension as a model for the processing wastewater. The effect of chitosan, starch, alum and ferric chloride on the coagulation of oil droplets were determined by the jar test apparatus and turbidometric measurements. Olive oil emulsion samples were prepared by the use of surface active agents and other agents that could form stable oil water emulsions. The effect of parameters such as pH, ionic strength and optimum dosage of the coagulants were determined in the jar test experiments. Following the jar experiments, with the optimum concentration of the suitable coagulant, the emulsions were placed in an induced air flotation (IAF) cell to separate the coagulated oil droplets from solution. In the air flotation experiments, the effect of temperature, surfactant concentration and air flowrate were determined on the decrease of turbidity and COD of the emulsion samples. In the jar experiments, chitosan and alum used together at concentrations of 15 and 25 ppm, respectively, at pH 6 produced the lowest turbidity values. In the air flotation experiments, a concentration of 100 ppm of chitosan, an air flowrate of 3 l/min, aeration time of 45 s, temperature of 20 degrees C and pH 6 produced optimum levels. At optimum conditions of coagulation and flotation stages, the COD of the olive oil emulsion could be reduced by 95%.

  13. Trastuzumab interruption and treatment-induced cardiotoxicity in early HER2-positive breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Anthony F.; Yadav, Nandini U.; Lung, Betty Y.; Eaton, Anne A.; Thaler, Howard T.; Hudis, Clifford A.; Dang, Chau T.; Steingart, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Trastuzumab improves outcomes among patients with HER2-positive breast cancer but is associated with a risk of treatment-induced cardiotoxicity (TIC). It is unclear how frequently TIC leads to trastuzumab interruption outside of prospective trials, and how TIC is managed in clinical practice. Patients with HER2-postive breast cancer receiving adjuvant trastuzumab from 2005 to 2010 were identified (n = 608). We evaluated the incidence, risk factors, and management of trastuzumab interruption due to TIC. In total, 488 (80 %) patients were treated with anthracycline prior to trastuzumab. Trastuzumab was interrupted in 108 (18 %) patients. Cumulative trastuzumab dose was lower in the interrupted group (median 86 vs. 108 mg/kg, p<0.0001). The most common reason for interruption was TIC (66 of 108 patients): 20 had symptomatic heart failure and 46 had asymptomatic left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) decline. Patients with trastuzumab interruption for TIC were older (54 vs. 50 years, p = 0.014) with lower LVEF before anthracycline (63 vs. 67 %, p<0.0001) and trastuzumab (62 vs. 67 %, p<0.0001) therapy. Mean LVEF at baseline, TIC diagnosis, and follow-up after trastuzumab interruption was 63, 45, and 55 %, respectively. Thirty-three of 66 patients with TIC were re-challenged with trastuzumab, and five patients had recurrent LVEF decline. In clinical practice, trastuzumab interruption is common and most often due to TIC, with most patients receiving anthracycline prior to trastuzumab. Cardiac dysfunction improves after trastuzumab interruption but may not fully recover to baseline. Strategies to minimize cardiotoxicity and treatment interruption should be investigated to prevent persistent left ventricular dysfunction in affected patients. PMID:25552363

  14. Contrasting gene expression patterns induced by levodopa and pramipexole treatments in the rat model of Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taravini, Irene R.; Larramendy, Celia; Gomez, Gimena; Saborido, Mariano D.; Spaans, Floor; Fresno, Cristobal; Gonzalez, German A.; Fernandez, Elmer; Murer, Mario G.; Gershanik, Oscar S.

    Whether the treatment of Parkinson's disease has to be initiated with levodopa or a D2 agonist like pramipexole remains debatable. Levodopa is more potent against symptoms than D2 agonists, but D2 agonists are less prone to induce motor complications and may have neuroprotective effects. Although

  15. Chronic morphine treatment enhances sciatic nerve stimulation-induced immediate early gene expression in the rat dorsal horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojovic, Ognjen; Bramham, Clive R; Tjølsen, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is a property of neurons that can be induced by conditioning electrical stimulation (CS) of afferent fibers in the spinal cord. This is a widely studied property of spinal cord and hippocampal neurons. CS has been shown to trigger enhanced expression of immediate early gene proteins (IEGPs), with peak increases observed 2 hour post stimulation. Chronic morphine treatment has been shown to promoteinduce opioid-induced hyperalgesia, and also to increase CS-induced central sensitization in the dorsal horn. As IEGP expression may contribute to development of chronic pain states, we aimed to determine whether chronic morphine treatment affects the expression of IEGPs following sciatic nerve CS. Changes in expression of the IEGPs Arc, c-Fos or Zif268 were determined in cells of the lumbar dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Chronic Morphine pretreatment over 7 days led to a significant increase in the number of IEGP positive cells observed at both 2 h and 6 h after CS. The same pattern of immunoreactivity was obtained for all IEGPs, with peak increases occurring at 2 h post CS. In contrast, morphine treatment alone in sham operated animals had no effect on IEGP expression. We conclude that chronic morphine treatment enhances stimulus-induced expression of IEGPs in the lumbar dorsal horn. These data support the notion that morphine alters gene expression responses linked to nociceptive stimulation and plasticity.

  16. Severe bovine papillomatosis: detection of bovine papillomavirus in tumour tissue and efficacy of treatment using autogenous vaccine and parammunity inducer

    OpenAIRE

    Turk, Nenad; Župančić, Željko; Starešina, Vilim; Kovač, Snježana; Babić, Tomislav; Kreszinger, Mario; Ćurić, Stipica; Barbić, Ljubo; Milas, Zoran

    2005-01-01

    Two cases of severe bovine papillomatosis occurred in northwest Croatia during 2000 are described. Diagnosis was based on presented clinical signs, histopathological findings, and detection of the papillomavirus by transmission electron microscopy. Animals successfully recovered following treatment with the autogenous (non-purified) vaccine and a parammunity inducer. For the first time in Croatia we report the detection of papillomavirus by electron microscopy.

  17. [Solcoseryl--dental adherent paste in the treatment of acute radiation-induced inflammation of oral mucosa, gingivae and tongue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryst, L; Kowalik, S; Bartkowski, S; Henning, G

    1990-07-01

    On the basis of a study carried out in three teaching departments of maxillofacial surgery the effect was analysed of Solcoseryl dental adherent paste and Linomag in the treatment of acute radiation-induced stomatitis. Both drugs were effective but Solcoseryl was superior to the other drug since it accelerated healing by about 50% and formed a protecting dressing on the inflamed mucosa.

  18. Recently confirmed apoptosis-inducing lead compounds isolated from marine sponge of potential relevance in cancer treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Essack, Magbubah

    2011-09-20

    Despite intense efforts to develop non-cytotoxic anticancer treatments, effective agents are still not available. Therefore, novel apoptosis-inducing drug leads that may be developed into effective targeted cancer therapies are of interest to the cancer research community. Targeted cancer therapies affect specific aberrant apoptotic pathways that characterize different cancer types and, for this reason, it is a more desirable type of therapy than chemotherapy or radiotherapy, as it is less harmful to normal cells. In this regard, marine sponge derived metabolites that induce apoptosis continue to be a promising source of new drug leads for cancer treatments. A PubMed query from 01/01/2005 to 31/01/2011 combined with hand-curation of the retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 39 recently confirmed apoptosis-inducing anticancer lead compounds isolated from the marine sponge that are selectively discussed in this review. 2011 by the authors.

  19. Acute and chronic effects of treatment with mesenchymal stromal cells on LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation, emphysema and atherosclerosis development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Padmini S J Khedoe

    Full Text Available COPD is a pulmonary disorder often accompanied by cardiovascular disease (CVD, and current treatment of this comorbidity is suboptimal. Systemic inflammation in COPD triggered by smoke and microbial exposure is suggested to link COPD and CVD. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC possess anti-inflammatory capacities and MSC treatment is considered an attractive treatment option for various chronic inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we investigated the immunomodulatory properties of MSC in an acute and chronic model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammation, emphysema and atherosclerosis development in APOE*3-Leiden (E3L mice.Hyperlipidemic E3L mice were intranasally instilled with 10 μg LPS or vehicle twice in an acute 4-day study, or twice weekly during 20 weeks Western-type diet feeding in a chronic study. Mice received 0.5x106 MSC or vehicle intravenously twice after the first LPS instillation (acute study or in week 14, 16, 18 and 20 (chronic study. Inflammatory parameters were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL and lung tissue. Emphysema, pulmonary inflammation and atherosclerosis were assessed in the chronic study.In the acute study, intranasal LPS administration induced a marked systemic IL-6 response on day 3, which was inhibited after MSC treatment. Furthermore, MSC treatment reduced LPS-induced total cell count in BAL due to reduced neutrophil numbers. In the chronic study, LPS increased emphysema but did not aggravate atherosclerosis. Emphysema and atherosclerosis development were unaffected after MSC treatment.These data show that MSC inhibit LPS-induced pulmonary and systemic inflammation in the acute study, whereas MSC treatment had no effect on inflammation, emphysema and atherosclerosis development in the chronic study.

  20. Repeated electroconvulsive seizure treatment in rats reduces inducibility of early growth response genes and hyperactivity in response to cocaine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hong Geun; Kim, Se Hyun; Kim, Han Soo; Ahn, Yong Min; Kang, Ung Gu; Kim, Yong Sik

    2011-06-01

    Regulated expression of immediate early genes (IEGs) in the brain reflects neuronal activity in response to various stimuli and recruits specific gene programs involved in long-term neuronal modification and behavioral alterations. Repeated electroconvulsive seizure (ECS) treatment reduces the expression level of several IEGs, such as c-fos, which play important roles in psychostimulant-induced behavioral changes. In this study, we investigated the effects of repeated ECS treatment on the basal expression level of IEGs and its effects on cocaine-induced activation of IEGs and locomotor activity in rats. Repeated ECS treatment for 10days (E10×) reduced Egr1, Egr2, Egr3, and c-fos mRNA and protein levels in the rat frontal cortex at 24h after the last ECS treatment, and these changes were evident in the neuronal cells of the prefrontal cortex. In particular, downregulation of Egr1 and c-fos was evident until 5days after the last ECS treatment. Moreover, E10× pretreatment attenuated the cocaine-induced increase in Egr1, Egr2, and c-fos expression in the rat frontal cortex, whereas phosphorylation of ERK1/2, one of the representative upstream activators of these genes, increased significantly following cocaine treatment. Additionally, E10× pretreatment attenuated the increase in locomotor activity in response to a cocaine injection. In conclusion, repeated ECS treatment reduced the expression and inducibility of Egrs and c-fos, which could attenuate the response of the brain to psychostimulants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Acute and chronic effects of treatment with mesenchymal stromal cells on LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation, emphysema and atherosclerosis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedoe, P Padmini S J; de Kleijn, Stan; van Oeveren-Rietdijk, Annemarie M; Plomp, Jaap J; de Boer, Hetty C; van Pel, Melissa; Rensen, Patrick C N; Berbée, Jimmy F P; Hiemstra, Pieter S

    2017-01-01

    COPD is a pulmonary disorder often accompanied by cardiovascular disease (CVD), and current treatment of this comorbidity is suboptimal. Systemic inflammation in COPD triggered by smoke and microbial exposure is suggested to link COPD and CVD. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) possess anti-inflammatory capacities and MSC treatment is considered an attractive treatment option for various chronic inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we investigated the immunomodulatory properties of MSC in an acute and chronic model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation, emphysema and atherosclerosis development in APOE*3-Leiden (E3L) mice. Hyperlipidemic E3L mice were intranasally instilled with 10 μg LPS or vehicle twice in an acute 4-day study, or twice weekly during 20 weeks Western-type diet feeding in a chronic study. Mice received 0.5x106 MSC or vehicle intravenously twice after the first LPS instillation (acute study) or in week 14, 16, 18 and 20 (chronic study). Inflammatory parameters were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung tissue. Emphysema, pulmonary inflammation and atherosclerosis were assessed in the chronic study. In the acute study, intranasal LPS administration induced a marked systemic IL-6 response on day 3, which was inhibited after MSC treatment. Furthermore, MSC treatment reduced LPS-induced total cell count in BAL due to reduced neutrophil numbers. In the chronic study, LPS increased emphysema but did not aggravate atherosclerosis. Emphysema and atherosclerosis development were unaffected after MSC treatment. These data show that MSC inhibit LPS-induced pulmonary and systemic inflammation in the acute study, whereas MSC treatment had no effect on inflammation, emphysema and atherosclerosis development in the chronic study.

  2. Ionic membranes obtained by radiation - induced graft copolymerization, II-characterization and waste treatment. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.M.I.; Nowier, H.G.; Aly, H.F.; Abd El-Rehim, H.A.; Hegazy, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    Ionic membranes were prepared by radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid onto low density polyethylene films. To elucidate the possibility of practical use, a study was made for the characterization of the grafted and chemically treated mechanisms. The selectivity of such prepared membranes towards the chelation or absorption of different alkali metals was investigated, to find that the higher affinity was observed for K + , Na + and Li + ions compared to other alkali metals used. The metal uptake percent was determined using different techniques; flame photometer, and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The uptake of metal from its feed solution by the the grafted membrane increased as the degree of grating increased, i.e. it is directly proportional to the functional carboxylic acid groups in the graft copolymer. As a consequence, the electrical conductivity of metal feed solution decreased during such process of metal chelation by membrane. The higher the grafting degree of membrane, the lower the electrical conductivity of metal feed solutions observed. the changes in thermal properties of the membranes prepared were investigated and characterized using differential scanning calorimetry, (DSC), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The thermal stability of these membranes increased with degree of grafting due to the formation of cross linked network structure via hydrogen bonding. furthermore, such stability is enhanced for the alkali-treated membranes even at high elevated temperatures. The membranes prepared showed a great promise for possible use in some practical applications such as metal waste treatment. 3 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Preventive treatment of intrauterine device-induced menstrual blood loss with tranexamic acid in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, X; Gao, E S; Li, D; Zhang, M; Dou, L X; Yuan, W

    2007-01-01

    To investigate whether tranexamic acid (Transamin) therapy reduces the amount of menstrual blood loss (MBL) and occurrence of menorrhagia after intrauterine device (IUD) insertion. Some 175 Chinese women attending for IUD insertion were equally assigned into 2 Transamin groups (1,000 and 500 mg, twice daily) and a placebo group. Their MBL was recorded with a pictorial chart in 3 subsequent menstrual cycles after insertion, while the MBL of 64 patients, collecting used sanitary towels, was also measured by an alkaline hematin method. A significant decline in post-insertion MBL and occurrence of menorrhagia was found in the 2 Transamin groups compared with the placebo group (p<0.05), whereas the difference in the results from the pictorial chart score was not statistically significant between the 1 g group and placebo group. Transamin treatment with a generally recommended dosage can effectively reduce the amount of IUD-induced MBL and prevent menorrhagia in Chinese women. A lower dosage than recommended (50% of recommended dosage) may have a similar preventive effect.

  4. Clinical features and treatment of hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis during pregnancy: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chunlan; Liu, Jie; Lu, Yingying; Fan, Junjie; Wang, Xingpeng; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Zeng, Yue

    2016-12-01

    To analyze the features and treatment of hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis (HTGP) during pregnancy. A retrospective study of 21 pregnant women diagnosed with acute pancreatitis (AP) was performed. Patients were divided into acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP), HTGP, and idiopathic groups according to etiology. 95% of the patients were in the third trimester of gestation. The percentage of patients with HTGP was higher than that of ABP (48% vs.14%). The percentage of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in the HTGP group was higher than that in the ABP group (40.0% vs.0%). The Ranson scores for moderately severe acute pancreatitis (MSAP) and SAP in the HTGP group were significantly different (2.50 ± 0.58 vs.3.60 ± 0.89, P  0.05, respectively). In the HTGP group, there were five patients given plasma exchange therapy and five not. Plasmapheresis decreased the incidence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) from 100% to 28.6% and the TG level from 20.36 ± 7.41 mmol/L to 5.23 ± 3.62 mmol/L (P pregnancy with SIRS or multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). J. Clin. Apheresis 31:571-578, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Successful treatment of arrhythmia-induced cardiomyopathy in an infant with tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoki, Noriko; Inaba, Yuji; Matsuzaki, Satoshi; Akazawa, Yohei; Nishimura, Takafumi; Fukuyama, Tetsuhiro; Koike, Kenichi

    2016-01-25

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal-dominant tumor suppressor gene syndrome that is characterized by the development of distinctive benign tumors and malformations in multiple organ systems (N Eng J Med 355:1345-1356, 2006). Cardiac rhabdomyomas are intracavitary or intramural tumors observed in 50-70 % of infants with TSC but only cause serious clinical problems in a very small fraction of these patients (N Eng J Med 355:1345-1356, 2006; Pediatrics 118:1146-1151, 2006; Eur J Pediatr 153:155-7, 1994); most individuals have no clinical symptoms and their tumors spontaneously regress. However, despite being clinically silent, these lesions can provoke arrhythmias and heart failure (Pediatrics 118:1146-1151, 2006; Eur J Pediatr 153:155-7, 1994). We here report the clinical findings of an infant suffering from TSC complicated with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) after the regression of cardiac rhabdomyomas. Although his tumors improved spontaneously, tachycardia and irregular heart rate due to frequent premature ventricular and supraventricular contractions persisted from the newborn period and were refractory to several medications. His cardiomyopathy was suspected to have been induced by the tachycardia or arrhythmia. We found carvedilol therapy to be safe and highly effective in treating the cardiomyopathy. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of TSC with DCM after regression of cardiac tumors and its successful treatment. The patient's clinical course suggests that careful life-long disease management is important, even in TSC patients without apparent symptoms.

  6. Carbon induced selective regulation of cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts by ethylene treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Peng; Chen, Pei-Pei; Xie, Jinglin; Liu, Jin-Xun; Zhao, Huabo; Lin, Lili; Zhao, Bo; Su, Hai-Yan; Zhu, Qingjun; Li, Wei-Xue; Ma, Ding

    2017-04-28

    Various carbonaceous species were controllably deposited on Co/Al 2 O 3 catalysts using ethylene as carbon source during the activation process for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS). Atomic, polymeric and graphitic carbon were distinguished by Raman spectroscopy, thermoanalysis and temperature programmed hydrogenation. Significant changes occurred in both the catalytic activity and selectivity toward hydrocarbon products after ethylene treatment. The activity decreased along with an increase in CH 4 selectivity, at the expense of a remarkable decrease of heavy hydrocarbon production, resulting in enhanced selectivity for the gasoline fraction. In situ XPS experiments show the possible electron transfer from cobalt to carbon and the blockage of metallic cobalt sites, which is responsible for the deactivation of the catalyst. DFT calculations reveal that the activation barrier (E a ) of methane formation decreases by 0.61 eV on the carbon-absorbed Co(111) surface, whereas the E a of the CH + CH coupling reaction changes unnoticeably. Hydrogenation of CH x to methane becomes the preferable route among the elementary reactions on the Co(111) surface, leading to dramatic changes in the product distribution. Detailed coke-induced deactivation mechanisms of Co-based catalysts during FTS are discussed.

  7. Androgen Induces Adaptation to Oxidative Stress in Prostate Cancer: Implications for Treatment with Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehonathan H. Pinthus

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy is a standard treatment for prostate cancer (PC. The postulated mechanism of action for radiation therapy is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Adjuvant androgen deprivation (AD therapy has been shown to confer a survival advantage over radiation alone in high-risk localized PC. However, the mechanism of this interaction is unclear. We hypothesize that androgens modify the radioresponsiveness of PC through the regulation of cellular oxidative homeostasis. Using androgen receptor (AR+ 22rv1 and AR− PC3 human PC cell lines, we demonstrated that testosterone increased basal reactive oxygen species (bROS levels, resulting in dose-dependent activation of phospho-p38 and pAKT, increased expression of clusterin, catalase, manganese superoxide dismutase. Similar data were obtained in three human PC xenografts; WISH-PC14, WISH-PC23, CWR22, growing in testosterone-supplemented or castrated SCID mice. These effects were reversible through AD or through incubation with a reducing agent. Moreover, testosterone increased the activity of catalase, superoxide dismutases, glutathione reductase. Consequently, AD significantly facilitated the response of AR+ cells to oxidative stress challenge. Thus, testosterone induces a preset cellular adaptation to radiation through the generation of elevated bROS, which is modified by AD. These findings provide a rational for combined hormonal and radiation therapy for localized PC.

  8. Sesame mutant induced space flight treatment and analysis of polymorphism by AFLP molecular marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Haixia; Zhang Yanxin; Wang Linhai; Wei Wenliang; Li Donghua; Zhang Xiaoyan; Zhang Xiurong

    2011-01-01

    Seeds of two sesame varieties (Yuzhi 8 and H98) were carried by 'Shijian 8' satellite for space treatment. Variants is SP 2 and SP 1 were observed and the genetic diversity of mutation generation was analyzed using 30 pair of AFLP markers. The results showed that: (1) variants of leaf, plant height, plant characters, floral organs, capsule, fertility, pre-flowering date were observed in SP 2 and SP 3 of two varieties, variations frequency and variations type of two sesame varieties were significantly different, but only the small capsule variations and tall plant variations could be inherited from SP 2 to SP 3 generation; (2) AFLP analysis of primers randomly selected to analyze variant plants in SP 2 and SP 3 generation, showed that multiple sites in sesame genome were induced by space environment and mutation rate was high, while mutation rate was different in molecular level between varieties; (3) variation sites were diverse between different variations types, and mutation sites were also diverse between different plants of same mutation type, this result indicated that variation of sesame genome DNA could not been expressed totally; (4) The same mutant of botany characteristics and the same locus mutation of molecular level were both detected. (authors)

  9. Proteome Changes in Maize Embryo (Zea mays L) Induced by Ion Beam Implantation Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongliang; Tang, Jihua; Qin, Guangyong; Huo, Yuping; Tian, Shuangqi

    2009-08-01

    Low energy ion beam implantation was applied to the maize (Zea mays L) embryo proteome using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein profile analysis detected more than 1100 protein spots, 72 of which were determined to be expressed differently in the treated and control (not exposed to ion beam implantation) embryos. Of the 72 protein spots, 53 were up-regulated in the control and 19 were more abundantly expressed in the ion beam-treated embryos. The spots of up- or down-regulated proteins were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Among the identified proteins, 11 were up-regulated in the treated embryos. Four of these up-regulated proteins were antioxidant molecules, three were related to stress response, two to sugar metabolism and two were associated with heat shock response. Of the five proteins up-regulated in the control embryos, three were functionally related to carbohydrate metabolism; the functions of the remaining two proteins were unknown. The data collected during this study indicate that treatment of maize embryos with low energy ion beam implantation induces changes in stress tolerance enzymes/proteins, possibly as a result of alterations in metabolism.

  10. Herbal medicines for the treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects

    OpenAIRE

    Ohnishi, Shunsuke; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that Japanese herbal medicines, called Kampo, have beneficial effects on cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects. Rikkunshito ameliorates cisplatin-induced anorexia through an antagonistic effect on the 5-HT receptors and by increasing the serum ghrelin levels. Hangeshashinto improves irinotecan-induced diarrhea and chemotherapy-induced mucositis by inhibiting the activity of β-glucuronidase as well as the synthesis of prostaglandin E2. Goshajinkigan prevents o...

  11. Roxithromycin inhibits VEGF-induced human airway smooth muscle cell proliferation: Opportunities for the treatment of asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Qing-Mei; Jiang, Ping; Yang, Min; Qian, Xue-Jiao; Liu, Jiang-Bo; Kim, Sung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by reversible airway obstruction with persistent airway inflammation and airway remodelling, which is associated with increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass. Roxithromycin (RXM) has been widely used in asthma treatment; however, its mechanism of action is poorly understood. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated in inflammatory and airway blood vessel remodelling in patients with asthma, and shown to promote ASM cell proliferation. Here, we investigated the effect of RXM on VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation and attempted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of action. We tested the effect of RXM on proliferation and cell cycle progression, as well as on the expression of phospho-VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), phospho-Akt, and caveolin-1 in VEGF-stimulated ASM cells. RXM inhibited VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest. Additionally, VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation was suppressed by inhibiting the activity of ERK1/2, but not that of Akt. Furthermore, RXM treatment inhibits VEGF-induced activation of VEGFR2 and ERK and downregulation of caveolin-1 in a dose-dependent manner. RXM also inhibited TGF-β-induced VEGF secretion by ASM cells and BEAS-2B cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that RXM inhibits VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation by suppression of VEGFR2 and ERK1/2 activation and caveolin-1 down-regulation, which may be involved in airway remodelling. Further elucidation of the mechanisms underlying these observations should enable the development of treatments for smooth muscle hyperplasia-associated diseases of the airway such as asthma. - Highlights: • RXM inhibited VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest. • VEGF-induced cell proliferation was suppressed by inhibiting the activity of ERK1/2. • RXM inhibits activation of VEGFR2 and ERK and downregulation

  12. Roxithromycin inhibits VEGF-induced human airway smooth muscle cell proliferation: Opportunities for the treatment of asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Qing-Mei, E-mail: 34713316@qq.com [Department of Radiology, Tianjin Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Tianjin (China); Jiang, Ping, E-mail: jiangping@163.com [Department of Respiration, Tianjin First Central Hospital, Tianjin (China); Yang, Min, E-mail: YangMin@163.com [Department of Respiration, Tianjin First Central Hospital, Tianjin (China); Qian, Xue-Jiao, E-mail: qianxuejiao@163.com [Department of Respiration, Tianjin First Central Hospital, Tianjin (China); Liu, Jiang-Bo, E-mail: LJB1984@163.com [Department of Respiration, Tianjin First Central Hospital, Tianjin (China); Kim, Sung-Ho, E-mail: chenghao0726@hotmail.com [Department of Respiration, Tianjin First Central Hospital, Tianjin (China)

    2016-10-01

    Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by reversible airway obstruction with persistent airway inflammation and airway remodelling, which is associated with increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass. Roxithromycin (RXM) has been widely used in asthma treatment; however, its mechanism of action is poorly understood. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated in inflammatory and airway blood vessel remodelling in patients with asthma, and shown to promote ASM cell proliferation. Here, we investigated the effect of RXM on VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation and attempted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of action. We tested the effect of RXM on proliferation and cell cycle progression, as well as on the expression of phospho-VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), phospho-Akt, and caveolin-1 in VEGF-stimulated ASM cells. RXM inhibited VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest. Additionally, VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation was suppressed by inhibiting the activity of ERK1/2, but not that of Akt. Furthermore, RXM treatment inhibits VEGF-induced activation of VEGFR2 and ERK and downregulation of caveolin-1 in a dose-dependent manner. RXM also inhibited TGF-β-induced VEGF secretion by ASM cells and BEAS-2B cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that RXM inhibits VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation by suppression of VEGFR2 and ERK1/2 activation and caveolin-1 down-regulation, which may be involved in airway remodelling. Further elucidation of the mechanisms underlying these observations should enable the development of treatments for smooth muscle hyperplasia-associated diseases of the airway such as asthma. - Highlights: • RXM inhibited VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest. • VEGF-induced cell proliferation was suppressed by inhibiting the activity of ERK1/2. • RXM inhibits activation of VEGFR2 and ERK and downregulation

  13. Current treatment for venom-induced consumption coagulopathy resulting from snakebite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalana Maduwage

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Venomous snakebite is considered the single most important cause of human injury from venomous animals worldwide. Coagulopathy is one of the commonest important systemic clinical syndromes and can be complicated by serious and life-threatening haemorrhage. Venom-induced consumption coagulopathy (VICC is the commonest coagulopathy resulting from snakebite and occurs in envenoming by Viperid snakes, certain elapids, including Australian elapids, and a few Colubrid (rear fang snakes. Procoagulant toxins activate the clotting pathway, causing a broad range of factor deficiencies depending on the particular procoagulant toxin in the snake venom. Diagnosis and monitoring of coagulopathy is problematic, particularly in resource-poor countries where further research is required to develop more reliable, cheap clotting tests. MEDLINE and EMBASE up to September 2013 were searched to identify clinical studies of snake envenoming with VICC. The UniPort database was searched for coagulant snake toxins. Despite preclinical studies demonstrating antivenom binding toxins (efficacy, there was less evidence to support clinical effectiveness of antivenom for VICC. There were no placebo-controlled trials of antivenom for VICC. There were 25 randomised comparative trials of antivenom for VICC, which compared two different antivenoms (ten studies, three different antivenoms (four, two or three different doses or repeat doses of antivenom (five, heparin treatment and antivenom (five, and intravenous immunoglobulin treatment and antivenom (one. There were 13 studies that compared two groups in which there was no randomisation, including studies with historical controls. There have been numerous observational studies of antivenom in VICC but with no comparison group. Most of the controlled trials were small, did not use the same method for assessing coagulopathy, varied the dose of antivenom, and did not provide complete details of the study design (primary outcomes

  14. Treatment of solid nodules of the thyroid gland using laser-induced thermotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Shidlovskyi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Indications and contraindications, methods and technologies of implementation, increased efficiency and improved long-term results are the unresolved issues when using laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT in the treatment of solid thyroid nodules. Рurpose: to study the effect of LITT on parathyroid tissue and functional capacity of the thyroid gland, to determine the factors affecting the time of replacement by connective tissue and its volume; to develop indications to repeated thermotherapy. Materials and methods. Using the LITT we treated 272 patients with a nodular goiter with no signs of cystic degeneration. All patients — women aged 22 to 68 years. The size of nodules was within the range of 0.8 to 5.0 cm3. In terms of ultrasonic characteristics, in particular echoicity, the nodules were as follows: 46 — hypoechoic, 189 — isoechoic and 37 — hyperechoic. We used a diode laser Lakhta-Milon. LITT was performed on such parameters: the wave length 1060 nm, continuous operation, output power ranging from 2.5 to 3.2 W. LITT was controlled by ultrasound. Changes in the nodule, parathyroid tissue and gland function after LITT was determined on day 2, as well as 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the procedure. Results. An aseptic inflammation occurred on the second day after laser thermotherapy in nodules, and their size increased by 25–30 %. Later, in a certain period of the survey, the size of nodules decreased, rates of hormonal function did not change. Six months after the LITT, with nodule size up to 2 cm3, a complete replacement by connective tissue occurred in all cases of hypo- and isoechoic nodules and in 71 % — of hyperechoic, and with sizes from 2 to 5 cm3 — in 75 % of hypoechoic structures, 18 % of isoechoic, and there was no beneficial effect in hyperechoic nodules. If the treatment failed, repeated LITT was required, after which all patients had complete reduction of the nodule. Conclusions. In the

  15. Effectiveness of tibolone on hypoestrogenic symptoms induced by goserelin treatment in patients with endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, O; Yalcinoglu, A I; Kucuk, S; Uryan, I; Buhur, A; Burak, F

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of tibolone on hypoestrogenic vasomotor symptoms and bone parameters in patients treated with goserelin acetate. Prospective, randomized placebo controlled double-blind study. Human volunteers in a university-based fertility clinic. Twenty-nine women of mean age 29.2 +/- 4.8 years with mild to severe endometriosis undergoing 6 months of treatment with 3.6 mg goserelin acetate in an SC depot formulation were studied. The patients were allocated randomly to either 2.5 mg/d tibolone (n = 15) or an iron pill (n = 14) in a double-blinded fashion beginning in the third cycle. Frequency and severity of hot flushes, sweating, irritability, loss of libido, nervousness, and sleeplessness were assessed by the patients using 0 to 6 point scoring system and compared. Samples of urine were obtained for calcium and creatinine (Ca:Cr) ratios at the start of treatment and monthly there after. The vasomotor scoring for each symptom and Ca:Cr ratios before the treatment and at the end of 6th month were analyzed by parametric and nonparametric tests. The mean age, weight, vasomotor scores, pelvic scores, and urine Ca:Cr ratios were similar in both placebo and tibolone group (28.7 +/- 4.8 versus 27.6 +/- 6.3 years, 50.9 +/- 5.3 versus 53.1 +/- 7.1 kg, 4.7 +/- 1.1 versus 4.2 +/- 0.8, and 0.056 +/- 0.008 versus 0.059 +/- 0.006, respectively). The decreases in vasomotor scoring as regards to hot flushing, sweating, and other associated symptoms were statistically significant in tibolone group compared with placebo (10.4 +/- 1.6 versus 24.6 +/- 4.9). During the study significant reductions in urine Ca:Cr ratio was obtained in the tibolone patients compared with placebo (0.031 +/- 0.006 versus 0.0055 +/- 0.007). The incidence of side effects (weight change, vaginal bleeding) was low and did not differ from the placebo group. Considering the beneficial effects of tibolone on vasomotor symptoms and bone loss, our data suggest that this synthetic steroid

  16. Putrescine treatment reverses α-tocopherol-induced desynchronization of polyamine and retinoid metabolism during rat liver regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Sánchez-Sevilla

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pre-treatment with α-tocopherol inhibits progression of rat liver proliferation induced by partial hepatectomy (PH, by decreasing and/or desynchronizing cyclin D1 expression and activation into the nucleus, activation and nuclear translocation of STAT-1 and -3 proteins and altering retinoid metabolism. Interactions between retinoic acid and polyamines have been reported in the PH-induced rat liver regeneration. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of low dosage of α-tocopherol on PH-induced changes in polyamine metabolism. Methods This study evaluated the participation of polyamine synthesis and metabolism during α-tocopherol-induced inhibition of rat liver regeneration. In PH-rats (Wistar treated with α-tocopherol and putrescine, parameters indicative of cell proliferation, lipid peroxidation, ornithine decarboxylase expression (ODC, and polyamine levels, were determined. Results Pre-treatment with α-tocopherol to PH-animals exerted an antioxidant effect, shifting earlier the increased ODC activity and expression, temporally affecting polyamine synthesis and ornithine metabolism. Whereas administration of putrescine induced minor changes in PH-rats, the concomitant treatment actually counteracted most of adverse actions exerted by α-tocopherol on the remnant liver, restituting its proliferative potential, without changing its antioxidant effect. Putrescine administration to these rats was also associated with lower ODC expression and activity in the proliferating liver, but the temporally shifting in the amount of liver polyamines induced by α-tocopherol, was also “synchronized” by the putrescine administration. The latter is supported by the fact that a close relationship was observed between fluctuations of polyamines and retinoids. Conclusions Putrescine counteracted most adverse actions exerted by α-tocopherol on rat liver regeneration, restoring liver proliferative potential and restituting the decreased

  17. Putrescine treatment reverses α-tocopherol-induced desynchronization of polyamine and retinoid metabolism during rat liver regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sevilla, Lourdes; Mendieta-Condado, Edgar; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando

    2016-10-26

    The pre-treatment with α-tocopherol inhibits progression of rat liver proliferation induced by partial hepatectomy (PH), by decreasing and/or desynchronizing cyclin D1 expression and activation into the nucleus, activation and nuclear translocation of STAT-1 and -3 proteins and altering retinoid metabolism. Interactions between retinoic acid and polyamines have been reported in the PH-induced rat liver regeneration. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of low dosage of α-tocopherol on PH-induced changes in polyamine metabolism. This study evaluated the participation of polyamine synthesis and metabolism during α-tocopherol-induced inhibition of rat liver regeneration. In PH-rats (Wistar) treated with α-tocopherol and putrescine, parameters indicative of cell proliferation, lipid peroxidation, ornithine decarboxylase expression (ODC), and polyamine levels, were determined. Pre-treatment with α-tocopherol to PH-animals exerted an antioxidant effect, shifting earlier the increased ODC activity and expression, temporally affecting polyamine synthesis and ornithine metabolism. Whereas administration of putrescine induced minor changes in PH-rats, the concomitant treatment actually counteracted most of adverse actions exerted by α-tocopherol on the remnant liver, restituting its proliferative potential, without changing its antioxidant effect. Putrescine administration to these rats was also associated with lower ODC expression and activity in the proliferating liver, but the temporally shifting in the amount of liver polyamines induced by α-tocopherol, was also "synchronized" by the putrescine administration. The latter is supported by the fact that a close relationship was observed between fluctuations of polyamines and retinoids. Putrescine counteracted most adverse actions exerted by α-tocopherol on rat liver regeneration, restoring liver proliferative potential and restituting the decreased retinoid levels induced by α-tocopherol. Therefore interactions

  18. Osteochondral lesions of the ankle joint in professional soccer players: treatment with autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrabano, Victor; Barg, Alexej; Alattar, Abdulhameed; Wiewiorski, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Acute and recurrent ankle sprains and other trauma to the ankle joint are common injuries in soccer and can be accompanied by or result in osteochondral lesions of the ankle joint, majorly of the talus. Conservative treatment frequently fails. Several operative treatment techniques exist; however, the choice of the right procedure is difficult due to lack of literature with a high level of evidence. We present our treatment method for acute and chronic ankle osteochondral lesions with cystic formation approached by a new surgical technique combining bone plasty and a collagen matrix (autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis). Therapeutic, Level IV: Case series. © 2014 The Author(s).

  19. Chemotherapy-Induced and/or Radiation Therapy-Induced Oral Mucositis-Complicating the Treatment of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddireddy Umameshwar Rao Naidu

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The term mucositis is coined to describe the adverse effects of radiation and chemotherapy treatments. Mucositis is one of the most common adverse reactions encountered in radiation therapy for head and neck cancers, as well as in chemotherapy, in particular with drugs affecting DNA synthesis (Sphase-specific agents such as fluorouracil, methotrexate, and cytarabine. Mucositis may limit the patient's ability to tolerate chemotherapy or radiation therapy, and nutritional status is compromised. It may drastically affect cancer treatment as well as the patient's quality of life. The incidence and severity of mucositis will vary from patient to patient. It will also vary from treatment to treatment. It is estimated that there is 40% incidence of mucositis in patients treated with standard chemotherapy and this will not only increase with the number of treatment cycles but also with previous episodes. Similarly, patients who undergo bone marrow transplantation and who receive high doses of chemotherapy have a 76% chance of getting mucositis. Patients receiving radiation, in particular to head and neck cancers, have a 30% to 60% chance. The exact pathophysiology of development is not known, but it is thought to be divided into direct and indirect mucositis. Chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy will interfere with the normal turnover of epithelial, cells leading to mucosal injury; subsequently, it can also occur due to indirect invasion of Gram-negative bacteria and fungal species because most of the cancer drugs will cause changes in blood counts. With the advancement in cytology, a more precise mechanism has been established. With this understanding, we can select and target particular mediators responsible for the mucositis. Risk factors such as age, nutritional status, type of malignancy, and oral care during treatment will play important roles in the development of mucositis. Many treatment options are available to prevent and treat this

  20. Chronic pramipexole treatment induces compulsive behavior in rats with 6-OHDA lesions of the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardou, D; Reyrolle, L; Chassain, C; Durif, F

    2017-08-14

    Dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) reduces motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), but also induces impulsive-compulsive behavior (ICB) in up to 25% of PD patients. These non-motor side effects of DRT generally follow a gradual transition from impulsive to compulsive-like-i.e. repetitive, compelled, and non-pleasurable-behavior. Here, we investigated the effect of chronic pramipexole (PPX) treatment on the onset of compulsive-like behavior, measured via the post-training signal attenuation (PTSA) procedure, in rats with dopaminergic lesions. Accordingly, we aimed to mimic chronic DRT in a PD context, and obtain data on the brain regions that potentially sustain this type of compulsive behavior pattern in rats. We observed that the lesion or treatment alone did not induce compulsive lever pressing in rats. However, rats with lesions of the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area as well as with chronic PPX treatment developed strong compulsive lever-pressing behavior, as measured via PTSA. Furthermore, when chronic PPX treatment was discontinued before the PTSA test, the lesioned rats showed the same level of compulsive behavior as sham-operated rats. In fact, lesioned, treated, and compulsive-like rats showed significantly higher Fos expression in the orbitofrontal cortex and dorsal striatum. Thus, chronic PPX treatment in PD rats induced a strong compulsive-like behavior. Furthermore, Fos expression mapping suggests that the behavior was sustained via the activation of the orbitofrontal cortex and dorsal striatum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Subchronic treatment with antiepileptic drugs modifies pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in mice: Its correlation with benzodiazepine receptor binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Rocha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Luisa RochaPharmacobiology Department, Center for Research and Advanced Studies, Calz, Tenorios, MéxicoAbstract: Experiments using male CD1 mice were carried out to investigate the effects of subchronic (daily administration for 8 days pretreatments with drugs enhancing GABAergic transmission (diazepam, 10 mg/kg, ip; gabapentin, 100 mg/kg, po; or vigabatrin, 500 mg/kg, po on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ-induced seizures, 24 h after the last injection. Subchronic administration of diazepam reduced latencies to clonus, tonic extension and death induced by PTZ. Subchronic vigabatrin produced enhanced latency to the first clonus but faster occurrence of tonic extension and death induced by PTZ. Subchronic gabapentin did not modify PTZ-induced seizures. Autoradiography experiments revealed reduced benzodiazepine receptor binding in several brain areas after subchronic treatment with diazepam or gabapentin, whereas subchronic vigabatrin did not induce significant receptor changes. The present results indicate differential effects induced by the subchronic administration of diazepam, vigabatrin, and gabapentin on the susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizures, benzodiazepine receptor binding, or both.Keywords: diazepam, gabapentin, vigabatrin, pentylenetetrazol, benzodiazepine receptors

  2. Effective treatment of house dust mite-induced allergic rhinitis with 2 doses of the SQ HDM SLIT-tablet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demoly, Pascal; Emminger, Waltraud; Rehm, Dorte

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The SQ HDM SLIT-tablet (ALK) has been developed for treatment of house dust mite (HDM)-induced respiratory allergic disease. OBJECTIVE: This trial investigated the efficacy and safety of the SQ HDM SLIT-tablet in adults with moderate-to-severe HDM-induced allergic rhinitis (AR). METHODS......-HDM. The primary end point was the total combined rhinitis score (ie, the sum of rhinitis symptom and medication scores) during the efficacy assessment period (approximately the last 8 weeks of the treatment period). Key secondary end points were rhinitis symptoms, medication scores, quality of life...... effect was evident from 14 weeks of treatment onward. For all key secondary end points, efficacy was confirmed for 12 SQ-HDM, with statistically significant reductions of rhinitis symptoms and medication scores, improved quality of life, and a reduced combined rhinoconjunctivitis score in the efficacy...

  3. Ceftriaxone-induced immune hemolytic anemia as a life-threatening complication of antibiotic treatment of 'chronic Lyme disease'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wilde, Maarten; Speeckaert, Marijn; Callens, Rutger; Van Biesen, Wim

    2017-04-01

    'Chronic Lyme disease' is a controversial condition. As any hard evidence is lacking that unresolved systemic symptoms, following an appropriately diagnosed and treated Lyme disease, are related to a chronic infection with the tick-borne spirochaetes of the Borrelia genus, the term 'chronic Lyme disease' should be avoided and replaced by the term 'post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome.' The improper prescription of prolonged antibiotic treatments for these patients can have an impact on the community antimicrobial resistance and on the consumption of health care resources. Moreover, these treatments can be accompanied by severe complications. In this case report, we describe a life-threatening ceftriaxone-induced immune hemolytic anemia with an acute kidney injury (RIFLE-stadium F) due to a pigment-induced nephropathy in a 76-year-old woman, who was diagnosed with a so-called 'chronic Lyme disease.'

  4. Treatment with grass allergen peptides improves symptoms of grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Anne K; Frankish, Charles W; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Armstrong, Kristen; Steacy, Lisa; Larché, Mark; Hafner, Roderick P

    2017-08-01

    Synthetic peptide immunoregulatory epitopes are a new class of immunotherapy to treat allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). Grass allergen peptides, comprising 7 synthetic T-cell epitopes derived from Cyn d 1, Lol p 5, Dac g 5, Hol l 5, and Phl p 5, is investigated for treatment of grass pollen-induced ARC. We sought to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of intradermally administered grass allergen peptides. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated 3 regimens of grass allergen peptides versus placebo in patients with grass pollen-induced allergy (18-65 years). After a 4-day baseline challenge to rye grass in the environmental exposure unit (EEU), subjects were randomized to receive grass allergen peptides at 6 nmol at 2-week intervals for a total of 8 doses (8x6Q2W), grass allergen peptides at 12 nmol at 4-week intervals for a total of 4 doses (4x12Q4W), or grass allergen peptides at 12 nmol at 2-week intervals for a total of 8 doses (8x12Q2W) or placebo and treated before the grass pollen season. The primary efficacy end point was change from baseline in total rhinoconjunctivitis symptom score across days 2 to 4 of a 4-day posttreatment challenge (PTC) in the EEU after the grass pollen season. Secondary efficacy end points and safety were also assessed. Two hundred eighty-two subjects were randomized. Significantly greater improvement (reduction of total rhinoconjunctivitis symptom score from baseline to PTC) occurred across days 2 to 4 with grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W versus placebo (-5.4 vs -3.8, respectively; P = .0346). Greater improvement at PTC also occurred for grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W versus placebo (P = .0403) in patients with more symptomatic ARC. No safety signals were detected. Grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W significantly improved ARC symptoms after rye grass allergen challenge in an EEU with an acceptable safety profile. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

  5. KB-R7943 reduces 4-aminopyridine-induced epileptiform activity in adult rats after neuronal damage induced by neonatal monosodium glutamate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Ojeda, Mariana; Ureña-Guerrero, Monica E; Gutierrez-Barajas, Paola E; Cardenas-Castillo, Jazmin A; Camins, Antoni; Beas-Zarate, Carlos

    2017-05-09

    Neonatal monosodium glutamate (MSG) treatment triggers excitotoxicity and induces a degenerative process that affects several brain regions in a way that could lead to epileptogenesis. Na + /Ca 2+ exchangers (NCX1-3) are implicated in Ca 2+ brain homeostasis; normally, they extrude Ca 2+ to control cell inflammation, but after damage and in epilepsy, they introduce Ca 2+ by acting in the reverse mode, amplifying the damage. Changes in NCX3 expression in the hippocampus have been reported immediately after neonatal MSG treatment. In this study, the expression level of NCX1-3 in the entorhinal cortex (EC) and hippocampus (Hp); and the effects of blockade of NCXs on the seizures induced by 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) were analysed in adult rats after neonatal MSG treatment. KB-R7943 was applied as NCXs blocker, but is more selective to NCX3 in reverse mode. Neonatal MSG treatment was applied to newborn male rats at postnatal days (PD) 1, 3, 5, and 7 (4 g/kg of body weight, s.c.). Western blot analysis was performed on total protein extracts from the EC and Hp to estimate the expression level of NCX1-3 proteins in relative way to the expression of β-actin, as constitutive protein. Electrographic activity of the EC and Hp were acquired before and after intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of 4-AP (3 nmol) and KB-R7943 (62.5 pmol), alone or in combination. All experiments were performed at PD60. Behavioural alterations were also recorder. Neonatal MSG treatment significantly increased the expression of NCX3 protein in both studied regions, and NCX1 protein only in the EC. The 4-AP-induced epileptiform activity was significantly higher in MSG-treated rats than in controls, and KB-R7943 co-administered with 4-AP reduced the epileptiform activity in more prominent way in MSG-treated rats than in controls. The long-term effects of neonatal MSG treatment include increases on functional expression of NCXs (mainly of NCX3) in the EC and Hp, which seems to contribute to

  6. Drug-induced eosinophilic pneumonia in a patient with Crohn's disease: diagnosis and treatment using fraction of exhaled nitric oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jina Yeo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Oral 5-aminosalicylic acid agents (mesalazine and sulfasalazine and azathioprine are the mainstays of treatment for inflammatory bowel disease. Reports of pulmonary toxicity induced by oral 5-aminosalicylic acid agents or azathioprine in patients with inflammatory bowel disease are very rare; to date, only 38 cases have been reported worldwide. We, herein, report a case involving a 26-year-old man who was diagnosed with eosinophilic pneumonia after using mesalazine and azathioprine for the treatment of Crohn's disease and recovered after treatment. We also found that the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide level was elevated in this patient. After treatment, the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide level decreased and the symptoms improved. The present case shows that fraction of exhaled nitric oxide is related to the disease activity and treatment effectiveness of druginduced eosinophilic pneumonia.

  7. Treatment of silymarin, a plant flavonoid, prevents ultraviolet light-induced immune suppression and oxidative stress in mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyar, Santosh K

    2002-12-01

    It is well documented that ultraviolet (UV) light-induced immune suppression and oxidative stress play an important role in the induction of skin cancers. Earlier, we have shown that topical treatment of silymarin, a plant flavonoid from milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaertn.), to mouse skin prevents photocarcinogenesis, but the preventive mechanism of photocarcinogenesis in vivo animal system by silymarin is not well defined and understood. To define the mechanism of prevention, we employed immunostaining, analytical assays and ELISA which revealed that topical treatment of silymarin (1 mg/cm2 skin area) to C3H/HeN mice inhibits UVB (90 mJ/cm2)-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response to contact sensitizer dinitrofluorobenzene. Prevention of UVB-induced suppression of CHS by silymarin was found to be associated with the inhibition of infiltrating leukocytes, particularly CD11b+ cell type, and myeloperoxidase activity (50-71%). Silymarin treatment also resulted in significant reduction of UVB-induced immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-10 producing cells and its production (58-72%, pskin cancer risk human population and ii) development of sunscreen containing silymarin as an antioxidant (chemopreventive agent) or silymarin can be supplemented in skin care products.

  8. Chronic caffeine treatment attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induced by guinea pig spinal cord homogenates in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guo Qian; Chen, Yan Yan; Wang, Xin Shi; Wu, Sai Zhen; Yang, Hui Min; Xu, Hui Qin; He, Jin Cai; Wang, Xiao Tong; Chen, Jiang Fan; Zheng, Rong Yuan

    2010-01-14

    Dysfunction of adenosinergic systems has been implicated in the development of multiple sclerosis in humans and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in animals. Caffeine, a non-selective antagonist of adenosine receptors, has been shown to provide protection against myelin oligodendroglia glycoprotein (MOG)-induced EAE in mice. In this study, we showed that chronic caffeine similarly imparts neuroprotection against EAE induced in rats by guinea pig spinal cord homogenates (GPSCH). GPSCH-induced EAE is characterized by extensive tissue inflammation with a typical chronic disease course. We showed that caffeine decreases the incidence of EAE and attenuates EAE pathology at behavioral, histological (inflammatory cell infiltration and demyelination) and neurochemical (expression of inflammatory cytokines) levels. The attenuation of GPSCH-induced pathology by chronic caffeine treatment was observed at doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg and during both peak and recovery phases of EAE. Furthermore, it was showed that chronic treatment with caffeine up-regulated A1 receptor and TGF-beta mRNAs and suppressed interferon-gamma mRNA in EAE rats. Together with previous reports, our data demonstrates that chronic treatment with caffeine exerts a neuroprotective effect against EAE, possibly through an A(1) receptor-mediated shift from Th1 to Th2 cell function, and provides a neurobiological basis for epidemiological investigation into the possible relationship between caffeine consumption and development of multiple sclerosis in humans.

  9. Radiation-induced carotid stenosis: perioperative and late complications of surgical and endovascular treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini Massoni, Claudio; Gargiulo, Mauro; Pini, Rodolfo; Faggioli, Gianluca; Marcucci, Vittorio; Freyrie, Antonio; Vasuri, Francesco; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Stella, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    The surgical treatment of radio-induced carotid stenosis (RICS) is challenging and burdened with high risk of complications. Carotid stenting (CAS) may be a valid alternative, but better approach is still not defined. Two approaches have been assessed in this an observational monocentric study, focusing on perioperative and follow-up complications. From 2005 to 2013, data on patients treated for extracranial carotid stenosis with previous radiotherapy (RT) for head or neck tumor were prospectively collected according to the procedure performed (open repair [OR], endovascular stenting [CAS]). Patient demographics, clinical risk factors, organ of cancer origin, elapsed time from RT, duplex ultrasound (DUS) and clinical presentation of carotid stenosis were preoperatively gathered. Primary outcomes were technical success, 30-day mortality, transient ischemic attack (TIA)/stroke and myocardial infarction (MI). In OR group, laterocervical hematoma and cranial nerve injury were evaluated and, in CAS group, arterial access site complications were considered as well. Secondary outcomes were the mortality, TIA/stroke, restenosis and reintervention during follow-up. Fifteen RICS were treated in 12 patients (M/F=9/3; median age: 71 years, range: 51-80). OR was performed to treat 8 RICS in 5 patients (M/F=3/2; median age: 65, range: 50-76) and CAS to treat 7 RICS in 7 patients (M/F=6/1; median age: 75, range 59-80). In OR group, all patients were asymptomatic and all plaques were hypoechogenic at DUS with histological features of vulnerable plaque. Technical success was 100%. Thirty-day mortality was 12.5% (1 death for upper airways complication in patient with previous neck surgery). TIA/stroke and MI rate were 0% and cranial nerve injury 12.5%. In CAS group, carotid stenosis was symptomatic in 2(28.6%) cases, all plaques resulted hypoechogenic at DUS. Technical success was 100%. Thirty-day mortality was 0%. TIA occurred in 4 (57.1%) patients. No stroke, MI or access site

  10. Prophylaxis of radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in the palliative treatment of bone metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Kristopher; Nguyen, Janet; Presutti, Roseanna; DeAngelis, Carlo; Tsao, May; Danjoux, Cyril; Barnes, Elizabeth; Sahgal, Arjun; Holden, Lori; Jon, Florencia; Wong, Shun; Chow, Edward

    2012-08-01

    To document the incidence and timing of radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (RINV) in the treatment of bone metastases among patients receiving prophylaxis with a 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist. Patients receiving single (SF) or multiple fraction (MF) palliative radiotherapy (RT) of moderate or low emetogenic risk for bone metastases were prescribed prophylactic Ondansetron. The frequency and duration of prophylaxis and the use of rescue antiemetics were left to the discretion of the treating physicians. Patients documented episodes of nausea (N) and vomiting (V) in daily diaries before and during RT, and until 10 days following RT completion. Rates of complete prophylaxis (CP) for N&V, respectively (CP = no event and no rescue medication), were calculated for the acute phase (the period from the start of RT to the first day following RT completion inclusive) and the delayed phase (the second to tenth days following RT completion inclusive). Fifty-nine patients were enrolled, and 32 were evaluable. CP rates were as follows: moderate-risk SF group (n = 16), acute phase (CP for N = 56%, CP for V = 69%) and delayed phase (CP for N = 31%, CP for V = 44%); moderate-risk MF group (n = 7), acute phase (CP for N = 71%, CP for V = 57%) and delayed phase (CP for N = 43%, CP for V = 57%); low-risk SF group (n = 8), acute phase (CP for N = 50%, CP for V = 100%) and delayed phase (CP for N = 43%, CP for V = 57%); and low-risk MF group (n = 1), acute phase (CP for N = 100%, CP for V = 100%) and delayed phase (CP for N = 100%, CP for V = 100%). Despite prophylaxis, RINV was common among patients receiving palliative radiotherapy for bone metastases, especially during the delayed phase.

  11. Therapeutic Effect of Activated Carbon-Induced Constipation Mice with Lactobacillus fermentum Suo on Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huayi Suo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus fermentum Suo (LF-Suo on activated carbon-induced constipation in ICR (Institute of Cancer Research mice. ICR mice were orally administered with lactic acid bacteria for 9 days. Body weight, diet intake, drinking amount, defecation status, gastrointestinal transit and defecation time, and the serum levels of MTL (motilin, Gas (gastrin, ET (endothelin, SS (somatostatin, AChE (acetylcholinesterase, SP (substance P, VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide were used to evaluate the preventive effects of LF-Suo on constipation. Bisacodyl, a laxative drug, was used as a positive control. The normal, control, 100 mg/kg bisacodyl treatment, LB (Lactobacillus bulgaricus-, LF-Suo (L- and LF-Suo (H-treated mice showed the time to the first black stool defecation at 90, 218, 117, 180, 155 and 137 min, respectively. By the oral administration of LB-, LF-Suo (L, LF-Suo (H or bisacodyl (100 mg/kg, the gastrointestinal transit was reduced to 55.2%, 72.3%, 85.5% and 94.6%, respectively, of the transit in normal mice, respectively. In contrast to the control mice, the serum levels of MTL, Gas, ET, AChE, SP and VIP were significantly increased and the serum levels of SS were reduced in the mice treated with LF-Suo (p < 0.05. By the RT-PCR (reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and western blot assays, LF-Suo increased the c-Kit, SCF (stem cell factor, GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and decreased TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, NOS (nitric oxide synthase expressions of small intestine tissue in mice. These results demonstrate that lactic acid bacteria has preventive effects on mouse constipation and LF-Suo demonstrated the best functional activity.

  12. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Natural Killer Cells for Treatment of Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanson, David L; Bendzick, Laura; Pribyl, Lee; McCullar, Valarie; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Miller, Jeff S; Geller, Melissa A; Kaufman, Dan S

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells can provide effective immunotherapy for ovarian cancer. Here, we evaluated the ability of NK cells isolated from peripheral blood (PB) and NK cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) to mediate killing of ovarian cancer cells in a mouse xenograft model. A mouse xenograft model was used to evaluate the intraperitoneal delivery of three different NK cell populations: iPSC-derived NK cells, PB-NK cells that had been activated and expanded in long-term culture, and overnight activated PB-NK cells that were isolated through CD3/CD19 depletion of PB B and T cells. Bioluminescent imaging was used to monitor tumor burden of luciferase expressing tumor lines. Tumors were allowed to establish prior to administering NK cells via intraperitoneal injection. These studies demonstrate a single dose of any of the three NK cell populations significantly reduced tumor burden. When mice were given three doses of either iPSC-NK cells or expanded PB-NK cells, the median survival improved from 73 days in mice untreated to 98 and 97 days for treated mice, respectively. From these studies, we conclude iPSC-derived NK cells mediate antiovarian cancer killing at least as well as PB-NK cells, making these cells a viable resource for immunotherapy for ovarian cancer. Due to their ability to be easily differentiated into NK cells and their long-term expansion potential, iPSCs can be used to produce large numbers of well-defined NK cells that can be banked and used to treat a large number of patients including treatment with multiple doses if necessary. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.

  13. Chronic lead treatment accelerates photochemically induced platelet aggregation in cerebral microvessels of mice, in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Dhaheri, A.H. [Al Ain Hospital (United Arab Emirates); El-Sabban, F.; Fahim, M.A. [United Arab Emirates Univ., Al Ain (United Arab Emirates)

    1995-04-01

    Effects of two chronic treatment levels with lead on platelet aggregation in cerebral (pial) microcirculation of the mouse were investigated. Exposure to lead was made by subcutaneous injections for 7 days of lead acetate dissolved in 5% glucose solution, vehicle. Two doses of lead were used, a low dose of 0.1 mg/kg and a high dose of 1.0 mg/kg. Adult male mice were divided into three groups, 10 each; one group was injected with vehicle (control), another was injected with the low dose, and the third was injected with the high dose. Additional mice were used for the determination of hematological parameters and for the lead level in serum of the three groups. On the eighth day, platelet aggregation in pial microvessels of these groups of mice was carried out in vivo. Animals were anesthetized (urethane, 1-2 mg/g, ip), the trachea was intubated, and a craniotomy was performed. Platelet aggregation in pial microvessels was induced photochemically, by activation of circulating sodium fluorescein (0.1 mg/25 g, iv) with an intense mercury light. The time required for the first platelet aggregate to appear in pial arterioles was significantly shorter in the lead-treated mice than in control. This effect was in a dose-dependent manner; 113 {+-} 44 sec for low dose and 71 {+-} 18 sec for high dose vs 155 {+-} 25 sec for control, P < 0.02 and P < 0.001, respectively. Between the two lead-treated groups, the high dose significantly (P < 0.05) shortened the time to first aggregate. These data evidenced an increased susceptibility to cerebrovascular thrombosis as a result of exposure to lead. 26 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. The observational study on the graves disease recurrence after the replacement therapy of hypothyroid induced by 131I treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuting; Rui Donghong; Jin Gang

    2011-01-01

    This article used multi-factor revisiting observation method on the patients who had hypothyroid induced by 131 I treatment and then recurred hyperthyroid to find some relative factors, 18 cases of re-hyperthyroidism was compared with 30 cases without hyperthyroid recurrence. All of the patients were given thyroxine when they got hypothyroid after 131 I treatment. Through 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months following-up study, the levels of TGAb and TPOAb, clinical signs, mental state, living environment, strength of their labor, mood changes, daily habits, health were analyzed retrospectively. The t-test and χ 2 test were used to analyze the influencing factors. The results showed that the TGAb and TPOAb levels in hyperthyroid recurrence group had no statistic significance with patients without hyperthyroid recurrence group (P>0.05); 131 I dose and the age in two groups had not statistic significance (P>0.05). The thyroxine substitution treatment time and mood change in two groups had statistic significance (P>0.05). Through thyroxine substitution treatment, hyperthyroid may recur in the patients who have hypothyroid induced by 131 I treatment, which may be related with early thyroxine substitution treatment and big mood change. (authors)

  15. Effects of an acute cannabidiol treatment on cocaine self-administration and cue-induced cocaine seeking in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Ashraf; Gallant, Stephanie; Sedki, Firas; D'Cunha, Tracey; Shalev, Uri

    2017-01-01

    Cannabidiol is a non-psychoactive compound that is the second most abundant component of cannabis. It has been shown to have a potential therapeutic value for a wide range of disorders, including anxiety, psychosis, and depression. Recently, it was suggested that cannabidiol might be a potential treatment for heroin craving and relapse. Here we investigated the effects of an acute treatment with cannabidiol on cocaine self-administration and cue-induced cocaine seeking in rats. Rats were trained to press a lever to self-administer cocaine (0.5 mg/kg/infusion), first under a fixed interval 20 s (FI-20 s) and then under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement. Cocaine self-administration under a PR schedule of reinforcement was not attenuated by cannabidiol injections (5.0 mg/kg and 10.0 mg/kg; i.p.) when tested 30 min and 24 h after treatment. Cannabidiol treatment (5.0 mg/kg or 10.0 mg/kg) also did not attenuate cue-induced cocaine seeking in rats after a withdrawal period of 14 days. In contrast, treatment with cannabidiol (10.0 mg/kg; i.p.) resulted in a statistically significant anxiolytic effect in the elevated plus-maze. Our findings suggest that, under the conditions described here, an acute cannabidiol treatment has a minimal effect on a rat model of cocaine intake and relapse.

  16. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome Induced by Carbamazepine Treatment in a Patient Who Previously Had Carbamazepine Induced Pruritus - A Case Report -

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Hyun Min; Park, Yoo Jung; Kim, Young Hoon; Moon, Dong Eon

    2013-01-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a rare but life-threatening skin reaction disease and carbamazepine is one of its most common causes. We report a case of SJS secondary to carbamazepine in a patient with previous pruritus due to carbamazepine which was given for treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. We would like to caution all providers that carbamazepine readministration should be avoided in the patient with a previous history of SJS or adverse skin reaction. In addition, we strongly recommen...

  17. Cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist treatment induces glucagon release and shows an additive therapeutic effect with GLP-1 agonist in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kartikkumar Navinchandra; Joharapurkar, Amit Arvind; Patel, Vishal; Kshirsagar, Samadhan Govind; Bahekar, Rajesh; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Jain, Mukul R

    2014-12-01

    Cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor antagonists reduce body weight and improve insulin sensitivity. Preclinical data indicates that an acute dose of CB1 antagonist rimonabant causes an increase in blood glucose. A stable analog of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), exendin-4 improves glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreas, and reduces appetite through activation of GLP-1 receptors in the central nervous system and liver. We hypothesized that the insulin secretagogue effect of GLP-1 agonist exendin-4 may synergize with the insulin-sensitizing action of rimonabant. Intraperitoneal as well as intracerebroventricular administration of rimonabant increased serum glucose upon glucose challenge in overnight fasted, diet-induced obese C57 mice, with concomitant rise in serum glucagon levels. Exendin-4 reversed the acute hyperglycemia induced by rimonabant. The combination of exendin-4 and rimonabant showed an additive effect in the food intake, and sustained body weight reduction upon repeated dosing. The acute efficacy of both the compounds was additive for inducing nausea-like symptoms in conditioned aversion test in mice, whereas exendin-4 treatment antagonized the effect of rimonabant on forced swim test upon chronic dosing. Thus, the addition of exendin-4 to rimonabant produces greater reduction in food intake owing to increased aversion, but reduces the other central nervous system side effects of rimonabant. The hyperglucagonemia induced by rimonabant is partially responsible for enhancing the antiobesity effect of exendin-4.

  18. A survey on the effects of Azithromycin in the treatment of gingival overgrowth induced by Cyclosporin in renal transplant patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadkhoda Z.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Gingival overgrowth is a side effect commonly induced by Cyclosporin treatment. The effects of Azithromycin, a macrolidic antibiotic, has been focused on gingival enlargement treatment induced by cyclosporine in numerous articles. Purpose: The goal of the present study was to survey the effects of systemic Azithromycin in the treatment of gingival overgrowth induced by cyclosporine among renal transplant patients. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study, 18 renal transplant patients (6 females and 12 males with gingival overgrowth were studied. Samples were randomly divided into two groups: case group were treated by systemic Azithromycin and controls were treated by systemic placebo. Periodontal parameters including bleeding on probing (BOP, clinical crown length (CL, periodontal pocket depth (PPD, gingival overgrowth (GOI and stent-IDP (vertical distant between a stent or plate with teeth occlusal planes at least from three of the most anterior contact points to mesial papillae before treatment, two and six weeks after treatment were measured. To analyze the data, Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests were used. Results: Most of the measured indices, among case and control groups, were significantly improved, after two weeks (P<0.05. No statistically significant differences were found between two groups except for BOP index (P<0.05. In other words, more BOP improvement was observed in the case group after six weeks comparing to the control group. Conclusion: Considering the findings of this study, one can assume that the reported effects of Azithromycine on gingival overgrowth, induced by cyclosporine is somehow exaggerated and the effects attributed this medicine is probably inflammation reduction.

  19. Preclinical development of DNA vaccine candidates for the treatment of HPV16 induced malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, Koen

    2012-01-01

    High-risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) induced malignancies are an interesting target for immunotherapy as they invariably express the viral proteins E6 and E7 that allow specific recognition of tumor cells without the risk of inducing autoimmunity. This thesis describes the preclinical development

  20. Evaluating the dosimetric effect of treatment-induced changes in virally mediated head and neck cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Elizabeth [Radiation Oncology Department, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Owen, Rebecca [Radiation Oncology Department, Radiation Oncology Mater Centre, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Mengersen, Kerrie; Harden, Fiona [Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Porceddu, Sandro [Radiation Oncology Department, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

    2013-12-15

    Patients with virally mediated head and neck cancer (VMHNC) often present with advanced nodal disease that is highly radioresponsive as demonstrated by tumour and nodal regression during treatment. The resultant changes may impact on the planned dose distribution and so adversely affect the therapeutic ratio. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dosimetric effect of treatment-induced anatomical changes in VMHNC patients who had undergone a replan. Thirteen patients with virally mediated oropharyngeal or nasopharyngeal cancer who presented for definitive radiotherapy between 2005 and 2010 and who had a replan generated were investigated. The dosimetric effect of anatomical changes was quantified by comparing dose–volume histograms (DVH) of primary and nodal gross target volumes and organs at risk (OAR), including spinal cord and parotid glands, from the original plan and a comparison plan. Eleven three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) and two intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans were evaluated. Dose to the spinal cord and brainstem increased by 4.1% and 2.6%, respectively. Mean dose to the parotid glands also increased by 3.5%. In contrast, the dose received by 98% of the primary and nodal gross tumour volumes decreased by 0.15% and 0.3%, respectively, when comparing the initial treatment plan to the comparison plan. In this study, treatment-induced anatomical changes had the greatest impact on OAR dose with negligible effect on the dose to nodal gross tumour volumes. In the era of IMRT, accounting for treatment-induced anatomical changes is important as focus is placed on minimizing the acute and long-term side effects of treatment.

  1. Tenogenically induced allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of proximal suspensory ligament desmitis in a horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelie eVandenberghe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Suspensory ligament injuries are a common injury in sport horses, especially in competing dressage horses. Because of the poor healing of chronic recalcitrant tendon injuries, this represents a major problem in the rehabilitation of sport horses and often compromises the return to the initial performance level. Stem cells are considered as a novel treatment for different pathologies in horses and humans. Autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are well known for their use in the treatment of tendinopathies, however, recent studies report a safe use of allogeneic MSCs for different orthopaedic applications in horses. Moreover, it has been reported that predifferentiation of MSCs prior to injection might result in improved clinical outcomes. For all these reasons, the present case report describes the use of allogeneic tenogenically induced peripheral blood-derived MSCs for the treatment of a proximal suspensory ligament injury. During conservative management for 4 months, the horse demonstrated no improvement of a right front lameness with a Grade 2/5 on the AAEP scale and a clear hypo-echoic area detectable in 30% of the cross sectional area. From 4 weeks after treatment, the lameness reduced to an AAEP Grade 1/5 and a clear filling of the lesion could be noticed on ultrasound. At 12 weeks (T4 after the first injection, a second intralesional injection with allogeneic tenogenically induced MSCs and PRP was given and at 4 weeks after the second injection (T5, the horse trotted sound under all circumstances with a close to total fiber alignment. The horse went back to previous performance level at 32 weeks after the first regenerative therapy and is currently still doing so (i.e. 20 weeks later or 1 year after the first stem cell treatment.In conclusion, the present case report demonstrated a positive evolution of proximal suspensory ligament desmitis after treatment with allogeneic tenogenically induced MSCs.

  2. Combined Treatment with Hyaluronic Acid and Mesalamine Protects Rats from Inflammatory Bowel Disease Induced by Intracolonic Administration of Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Tung Chiu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Drugs such as mesalamine (5-ASA are currently recommended for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. To reduce the frequency of their administration and improve their therapeutic effect, this study investigated the adhesion efficacy, wound healing promotion, and decrease in inflammation in ulcers in the colonic tissue of rats with colitis after combined treatment with hyaluronic acid (HA and 5-ASA (IBD98-M. HA-fluoresceinamine (FL conjugates successfully adhered to the mucosal layer and were conjugated in the vascular tissue. In addition, macroscopic and microscopic observations indicated that colonic injuries reduced significantly after treatment with IBD98-M. Compared with PBS and 5-ASA treatment alone, treatment with IBD98-M more effectively reduced bowel inflammation and promoted colonic mucosal healing in TNBS-induced colitis. IBD98-M treatment also reduced myeloperoxidase activity and the expression levels of cyclooxygenase 2 and tumor necrosis factor-αin the colitis tissue. In conclusion, IBD98-M treatment strongly promoted wound healing in colonic injuries and significantly inhibited MPO activity in the inflamed colon tissue of rats. Combined treatment with HA and 5-ASA can accelerate wound healing and reduce inflammatory reaction in rat colitis.

  3. A review of guidelines and pharmacologic options for asthma treatment, with a focus on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Mikayla; Hawley, Heather; Barnes, Nicole; Saxena, Shailendra

    2013-09-01

    Asthma affects millions of individuals worldwide. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction is common in patients diagnosed with asthma, but may also occur in patients without chronic asthma. Patients with isolated exercise-induced bronchoconstriction may require pretreatment with inhaled short-acting β-agonists prior to exercise. Patients diagnosed with asthma can achieve good control of the symptoms of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction with appropriate treatment of underlying chronic asthma. Current guidelines suggest staging patients with asthma based on severity of symptoms and initiating therapy according to their stage. Pharmacotherapy for asthma management consists of both quick-relief medications (short-acting β-agonists) as well as maintenance, or long-term control, medications (inhaled corticosteroids, long-acting β-agonists, leukotriene receptor antagonists, cromolyn, and theophylline).

  4. Flow- and acetylcholine-induced dilation in small arteries from rats with renovascular hypertension - effect of tempol treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Frank Holden; Stankevicius, Edgaras; Hansen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    -treated animals, while only the relaxation was improved by the NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP). In conclusion renovascular hypertension selectively inhibits flow-induced NO-mediated vasodilatation, while EDHF-type vasodilatation remains unaffected, suggesting that high blood pressure leads...... blood pressure and tempol treatment. Simultaneous measurements of NO-concentration and relaxation were performed in isolated coronary arteries from the same animals. As compared to vehicle-treated rats, both acetylcholine-induced relaxation and NO-concentration increased in arteries from tempol......-induced dilatation remained normal. Measured by dihydroethidium staining there was an increased amount of superoxide in arteries from vehicle-treated rats, but not from tempol-treated rats. Expression by immunoblotting of endothelial NO synthase and the NAD(P)H oxidase subunit p47phox remained unaffected by high...

  5. Melatonin pre-treatment mitigates SHSY-5Y cells against oxaliplatin induced mitochondrial stress and apoptotic cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Waseem

    Full Text Available Oxaliplatin (Oxa treatment to SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells has been shown by previous studies to induce oxidative stress, which in turn modulates intracellular signaling cascades resulting in cell death. While this phenomenon of Oxa-induced neurotoxicity is known, the underlying mechanisms involved in this cell death cascade must be clarified. Moreover, there is still little known regarding the roles of neuronal mitochondria and cytosolic compartments in mediating Oxa-induced neurotoxicity. With a better grasp of the mechanisms driving neurotoxicity in Oxa-treated SH-SY5Y cells, we can then identify certain pathways to target in protecting against neurotoxic cell damage. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether one such agent, melatonin (Mel, could confer protection against Oxa-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Results from the present study found Oxa to significantly reduce SH-SY5Y cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Alternatively, we found Mel pre-treatment to SH-SY5Y cells to attenuate Oxa-induced toxicity, resulting in a markedly increased cell viability. Mel exerted its protective effects by regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS production and reducing superoxide radicals inside Oxa-exposed. In addition, we observed pre-treatment with Mel to rescue Oxa-treated cells by protecting mitochondria. As Oxa-treatment alone decreases mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm, resulting in an altered Bcl-2/Bax ratio and release of sequestered cytochrome c, so Mel was shown to inhibit these pathways. Mel was also found to inhibit proteolytic activation of caspase 3, inactivation of Poly (ADP Ribose polymerase, and DNA damage, thereby allowing SH-SY5Y cells to resist apoptotic cell death. Collectively, our results suggest a role for melatonin in reducing Oxa induced neurotoxicity. Further studies exploring melatonin's protective effects may prove successful in eliciting pathways to further alter the neurotoxic

  6. Impact of isoflupredone acetate treatment on clinical signs and weight gain in weanling heifers with experimentally induced Mannheimia haemolytica bronchopneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Joanne; Viel, Laurent; Caswell, Jeff L; Shewen, Patricia E; Buchanan-Smith, Jock G

    2011-12-01

    To characterize the impact of Mannheimia haemolytica infection on feed intake and weight gain in feedlot heifers and to evaluate the clinical efficacy of isoflupredone acetate administered in combination with oxytetracycline. 96 weanling heifers in a research feedlot facility. Bronchopneumonia was induced by intrabronchial infusion of M haemolytica. Control heifers underwent a sham procedure. Infected heifers were treated with oxytetracycline alone or in combination with isoflupredone acetate (OXY-ISO) or with nothing. Clinical variables were recorded daily for 7 days following disease induction, and feedlot performance indices were measured over a 12-week period. Infection caused a reduction in dry-matter intake and average daily gain (ADG) in heifers that received no treatment. Oxytetracycline treatment alone did not prevent reductions in feed intake and ADG during the first week after infection was induced, whereas OXY-ISO treatment did prevent these reductions. Treatment with OXY-ISO also resulted in faster clinical improvement. No significant differences were evident between the oxytetracycline and OXY-ISO groups with respect to dry-matter intake or ADG throughout the study period. Isoflupredone acetate appeared to be a useful clinical adjunct to treatment with oxytetracycline in cattle with acute M haemolytica bronchopneumonia.

  7. Late radiation-induced bowel syndromes, tobacco smoking, age at treatment and time since treatment - gynecological cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steineck, Gunnar; Sjöberg, Fei; Skokic, Viktor; Bull, Cecilia; Wilderäng, Ulrica; Alevronta, Eleftheria; Dunberger, Gail; Bergmark, Karin; Jörnsten, Rebecka

    2017-05-01

    It is unknown whether smoking; age at time of radiotherapy or time since radiotherapy influence the intensity of late radiation-induced bowel syndromes. We have previously identified 28 symptoms decreasing bowel health among 623 gynecological-cancer survivors (three to twelve years after radiotherapy) and 344 matched population-based controls. The 28 symptoms were grouped into five separate late bowel syndromes through factor analysis. Here, we related possible predictors of bowel health to syndrome intensity, by combining factor analysis weights and symptom frequency on a person-incidence scale. A strong (p bowel health among gynecological-cancer survivors. Furthermore, by understanding the mechanism for the decline in urgency-syndrome intensity over time, we may identify new strategies for prevention and alleviation.

  8. Effects of avocado/soybean unsaponifiables (ASU) on the treatment of ligature-induced periodontitis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Guilherme José Pimentel Lopes de; Paula, Luiz Guilherme Freitas de; Souza, João Antônio Chaves de; Spin-Neto, Rubens; Stavropoulos, Andreas; Marcantonio, Rosemary Adriana Chiérici

    2017-04-10

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of the avocado/soybean unsaponifiables (ASU) on the treatment of induced periodontitis in rats. Periodontitis was induced in 84 rats via ligature placement around the second upper molar, which was removed after 7 days, and scaling and root planning (SRP) was performed at this time. Subsequently, the rats were randomly allocated to four groups with 21 animals each: One SRP group in which saline solution was administered (SS), and three groups in which ASU was administered (0.6 g/kg/day), beginning either 7 days before the induction of periodontitis (SRP/ASU-7), on the day of periodontitis induction (SRP/ASU0), or on the day of treatment (SRP/ASU+7). ASU and SS were administered daily by gavage until the sacrifice of the animals (7, 15, and 30 days after SRP). The % bone in the furcation area was evaluated by histomorphometry and micro-CT. The expression of proteins (TRAP, RANKL, and alkaline phosphatase) and mRNA (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, RANKL, and alkaline phosphatase) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and qPCR. The SRP/ASU+7 group presented a higher percentage of bone fill in the furcation area and higher expression of alkaline phosphatase than in the SRP group (at 7 and 30 days, respectively). The SRP/ASU0 and SRP/ASU+7 groups presented lower expression levels of RANKL mRNA than the SRP and SRP/ASU-7 groups at 15 days. ASU administration on the day of the SRP treatment of the ligature-induced periodontitis promoted subtle beneficial effects on periodontal repair following the treatment of induced periodontitis within the experimental period of 7 days.

  9. A model of type 2 diabetes in the guinea pig using sequential diet-induced glucose intolerance and streptozotocin treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan K. Podell

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among noncommunicable diseases, and additional animal models that more closely replicate the pathogenesis of human type 2 diabetes are needed. The goal of this study was to develop a model of type 2 diabetes in guinea pigs, in which diet-induced glucose intolerance precedes β-cell cytotoxicity, two processes that are crucial to the development of human type 2 diabetes. Guinea pigs developed impaired glucose tolerance after 8 weeks of feeding on a high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet, as determined by oral glucose challenge. Diet-induced glucose intolerance was accompanied by β-cell hyperplasia, compensatory hyperinsulinemia, and dyslipidemia with hepatocellular steatosis. Streptozotocin (STZ treatment alone was ineffective at inducing diabetic hyperglycemia in guinea pigs, which failed to develop sustained glucose intolerance or fasting hyperglycemia and returned to euglycemia within 21 days after treatment. However, when high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet-fed guinea pigs were treated with STZ, glucose intolerance and fasting hyperglycemia persisted beyond 21 days post-STZ treatment. Guinea pigs with diet-induced glucose intolerance subsequently treated with STZ demonstrated an insulin-secretory capacity consistent with insulin-independent diabetes. This insulin-independent state was confirmed by response to oral antihyperglycemic drugs, metformin and glipizide, which resolved glucose intolerance and extended survival compared with guinea pigs with uncontrolled diabetes. In this study, we have developed a model of sequential glucose intolerance and β-cell loss, through high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet and extensive optimization of STZ treatment in the guinea pig, which closely resembles human type 2 diabetes. This model will prove useful in the study of insulin-independent diabetes pathogenesis with or without comorbidities, where the guinea pig serves as a relevant model species.

  10. Treatment and outcomes of tumor-induced osteomalacia associated with phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors: retrospective review of 12 patients

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo, Qing-yao; Wang, Hong; Li, Wei; Niu, Xiao-hui; Huang, Yan-hong; Chen, Jia; You, Yu-hua; Liu, Bao-yue; Cui, Ai-min; Deng, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Background Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by severe hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia. Nonspecific symptoms make the diagnosis elusive. In addition, locating the responsible tumor(s) is challenging. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical management and outcomes of TIO. Methods The clinical features, diagnostic procedures, treatment, and outcomes of 12 patients were reviewed retrospectively. Results The cohort comprised six men a...

  11. Temozolomide and oral VP-16 for children and young adults with recurrent or treatment-induced malignant gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korones, David N; Smith, Amy; Foreman, Nicholas; Bouffet, Eric

    2006-07-01

    Children and young adults with recurrent or treatment-induced malignant gliomas have limited responses to temozolomide or oral VP-16 when either is administered as a single agent. We postulated that a combination of these two drugs for patients with recurrent or treatment-induced malignant gliomas might result in better and more prolonged responses. A retrospective analysis was performed on patients treated with the combination of temozolomide and VP-16. Eleven patients with recurrent or treatment-induced malignant gliomas were treated with varying combinations of temozolomide (150-210 mg/m2/d for 5 days) and oral VP-16 (50 mg/m2/d for 4-12 days). Responses were assessed by MRI scan, and data on clinical course and toxicity were retrospectively obtained from the medical record. The median age of the 11 patients was 17 years (range 5-23 years). Diagnoses included recurrent brain stem glioma (2), recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma (2), and glioblastoma (7) (3 treatment-induced, 2 malignant transformations of lower grade tumors, 1 recurrence, and 1 second tumor arising 10 months after diagnosis of medulloblastoma). All 11 patients had received radiotherapy (including 4 who received craniospinal radiation), and 7 had prior chemotherapy. Nine patients were treated at first recurrence, two at second recurrence. One patient had a complete response (CR), six had partial responses (PR), and four had progressive disease (PD). The median progression-free survival for the seven responding patients was 6 months (range 4-15+ months). There was one grade 4 neutropenia, but no other grade 3 or 4 toxicities. These data suggest there is activity of temozolomide in combination with oral VP-16 for children and young adults with recurrent malignant gliomas. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Effects of fructose-induced metabolic syndrome on rat skeletal cells and tissue, and their responses to metformin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felice, Juan Ignacio; Schurman, León; McCarthy, Antonio Desmond; Sedlinsky, Claudia; Aguirre, José Ignacio; Cortizo, Ana María

    2017-04-01

    Deleterious effects of metabolic syndrome (MS) on bone are still controversial. In this study we evaluated the effects of a fructose-induced MS, and/or an oral treatment with metformin on the osteogenic potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), as well as on bone formation and architecture. 32 male 8week-old Wistar rats were assigned to four groups: control (C), control plus oral metformin (CM), rats receiving 10% fructose in drinking water (FRD), and FRD plus metformin (FRDM). Samples were collected to measure blood parameters, and to perform pQCT analysis and static and dynamic histomorphometry. MSC were isolated to determine their osteogenic potential. Metformin improved blood parameters in FRDM rats. pQCT and static and dynamic histomorphometry showed no significant differences in trabecular and cortical bone parameters among groups. FRD reduced TRAP expression and osteocyte density in trabecular bone and metformin only normalized osteocyte density. FRD decreased the osteogenic potential of MSC and metformin administration could revert some of these parameters. FRD-induced MS shows reduction in MSC osteogenic potential, in osteocyte density and in TRAP activity. Oral metformin treatment was able to prevent trabecular osteocyte loss and the reduction in extracellular mineralization induced by FRD-induced MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficacy of Boesenbergia rotunda Treatment against Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Cirrhosis in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzy M. Salama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Experimental research in hepatology has focused on developing traditional medicines into potential pharmacological solutions aimed at protecting liver from cirrhosis. Along the same line, this study investigated the effects of ethanol-based extract from a traditional medicine plant Boesenbergia rotunda (BR on liver cirrhosis. Methodology/Results. The BR extract was tested for toxicity on 3 groups of rats subjected to vehicle (10% Tween 20, 5 mL/kg and 2g/kg and 5g/kg doses of the extract, respectively. Next, experiments were conducted on a rat model of cirrhosis induced by thioacetamide injection. The rats were divided into five groups and, respectively, administered orally with 10% Tween-20 (5 mL/kg (normal control group, 10% Tween-20 (5 mL/kg (cirrhosis control group, 50 mg/kg of silymarin (reference control group, and 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of BR extract (experimental groups daily for 8 weeks. The rats in normal group were intraperitoneally injected with sterile distilled water (1 mL/kg 3 times/week, and those in the remaining groups were injected intraperitoneally with thioacetamide (200 mg/kg thrice weekly. At the end of the 8 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and samples were collected for comprehensive histopathological, coagulation profile and biochemical evaluations. Also, the antioxidant activity of the BR extract was determined and compared with that of silymarin. Data from the acute toxicity tests showed that the extract was safe to use. Histological analysis of the livers of the rats in cirrhosis control group revealed uniform coarse granules on their surfaces, hepatocytic necrosis, and lymphocytes infiltration. But, the surfaces morphologically looked much smoother and the cell damage was much lesser in those livers from the normal control, silymarin and BR-treated groups. In the high-dose BR treatment group, the livers of the rats exhibited nearly normal looking lobular architecture, minimal inflammation

  14. Passive adoptive transfer of antitumor immunity induced by laser-dye-immunoadjuvant treatment in a rat metastatic breast cancer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei R.; Liu, Hong; Singhal, Anil K.; Nordquist, Robert E.

    2000-06-01

    The ideal cancer treatment modalities should not only cause tumor regression and eradication but also induce a systemic anti-tumor immunity. This is essential for control of metastatic tumors and for long-term tumor resistance. Laser immunotherapy using a laser, a laser-absorbing dye and an immunoadjuvant has induced such a long-term immunity in treatment of a mammary metastatic tumor. The successfully treated rats established total resistance to multiple subsequent tumor challenges. For further mechanistic studies of the antitumor immunity induced by this novel treatment modality, passive adoptive transfer was performed using splenocytes as immune cells. The spleen cells harvested from successfully treated tumor-bearing rats provided 100% immunity in the naive recipients. The passively protected first cohort rats were immune to tumor challenge with an increased tumor dose; their splenocytes also prevented the establishment of tumor in the second cohort of naive recipient rats. This immunity transfer was accomplished without the usually required T-cell suppression in recipients.

  15. Novel Akt activator SC-79 is a potential treatment for alcohol-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Xuan; Tao, Shi-Cong; Xu, Zheng-Liang; Yin, Wen-Jing; Zhang, Yue-Lei; Yin, Jun-Hui; Gao, You-Shui; Zhang, Chang-Qing

    2017-05-09

    Alcohol is a leading risk factor for osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). We explored the molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced ONFH and investigated the protective effect of the novel Akt activator SC-79 against this disease. We found that ethanol inhibited expression of the osteogenic genes RUNX2 and OCN, downregulated osteogenic differentiation, impaired the recruitment of Akt to the plasma membrane, and suppressed Akt phosphorylation at Ser473, thereby inhibiting the Akt/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling pathway in bone mesenchymal stem cells. To assess SC-79's ability to counteract the inhibitory effect of ethanol on Akt-Ser73 phosphorylation, we performed micro-computerized tomography and immunofluorescent staining of osteopontin, osteocalcin and collagen type 1 in a rat model of alcohol-induced ONFH. We found that SC-79 injections inhibited alcohol-induced osteonecrosis. These results show that alcohol-induced ONFH is associated with suppression of p-Akt-Ser473 in the Akt/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling pathway in bone mesenchymal stem cells. We propose that SC-79 treatment to rescue Akt activation could be tested in the clinic as a potential therapeutic approach to preventing the development of alcohol-induced ONFH.

  16. Inlet Cover Treatment to Enhance Zero NPSH Inducer Operation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Zero net positive suction head (NPSH)-capable hydrogen pump inducers are a critical component needed to lower the cost and increase the effectiveness of Nuclear...

  17. Focused ultrasound treatment of abscesses induced by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Feasibility study in a mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieck, Birgit; Bates, David; Pichardo, Samuel; Curiel, Laura; Zhang, Kunyan; Escott, Nicholas; Mougenot, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To study the therapeutic effect of focused ultrasound on abscesses induced by methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MRSA is a major nosocomial pathogen where immunocompromised patients are prone to develop infections that are less and less responsive to regular treatments. Because of its capability to induce a rise of temperature at a very precise location, the use of focused ultrasound represents a considerable opportunity for therapy of localized MRSA-related infections. Methods: 50μl of MRSA strain USA400 bacteria suspension at a concentration of 1.32 ± 0.5 × 10 5 colony forming units (cfu)/μl was injected subcutaneously in the left flank of BALB/c mice. An abscess of 6 ± 2 mm in diameter formed after 48 h. A transducer operating at 3 MHz with a focal length of 50 mm and diameter of 32 mm was used to treat the abscess. The focal point was positioned 2 mm under the skin at the abscess center. Forty-eight hours after injection four ultrasound exposures of 9 s each were applied to each abscess under magnetic resonance imaging guidance. Each exposure was followed by a 1 min pause. These parameters were based on preliminary experiments to ensure repetitive accurate heating of the abscess. Real-time estimation of change of temperature was done using water-proton resonance frequency and a communication toolbox (matMRI) developed inhouse. Three experimental groups of animals each were tested: control, moderate temperature (MT), and high temperature (HT). MT and HT groups reached, respectively, 52.3 ± 5.1 and 63.8 ± 7.5 °C at the end of exposure. Effectiveness of the treatment was assessed by evaluating the bacteria amount of the treated abscess 1 and 4 days after treatment. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay evaluating the neutrophil amount was performed to assess the local neutrophil recruitment and the white blood cell count was used to evaluate the systemic inflammatory response after focused ultrasound treatment. Results: Macroscopic

  18. Fatal Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Induced by Carbamazepine Treatment in a Patient Who Previously had Carbamazepine-induced Stevens-Johnson Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Yen Huang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN is a rare but life-threatening skin disease that is most commonly drug-induced. It has recently been suggested that Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS belongs to the same group of skin disorders, although it has a lower mortality rate than TEN. We report the case of a 26-year-old male schizophrenic patient with a history of carbamazepine-induced SJS 5 years earlier. At the time of his current admission, he was admitted to our psychiatry department with acute agitation due to schizophrenia. However, the patient and his family denied history of drug allergy. After 3 days of carbamazepine treatment, the patient developed TEN (body surface area > 90%. He was transferred to the burn center, but despite appropriate treatment, including intravenous hydrocortisone 200 mg q6h and being covered with sterile biological material, he died. It is important to note that re-administration of a drug that previously caused SJS may lead to TEN, which has a very high mortality rate.

  19. Vinorelbine Potently Induces Placental Cell Death, Does Not Harm Fertility and is a Potential Treatment for Ectopic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne Hastie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic pregnancies complicate 1–2 pregnancies and are a leading cause of maternal death. An effective oral drug therapy that replaces surgery might make its treatment safer, cheaper, simpler and therefore more widely accessible. The only current medical treatment offered to women is intramuscular methotrexate, but this only reliably resolves smaller ectopic pregnancies. As such, many ectopic pregnancies require surgical excision. We show that vinorelbine, an orally available chemotherapeutic agent, potently induced placental cell death but did not harm fertility in mice. Vinorelbine was 100–1000 times more potent than methotrexate in inducing placental cell death in vitro, and more potent than combination methotrexate and gefitinib (another proposed treatment for ectopic pregnancy being evaluated in phase III trials. Mechanistically, it caused microtubule condensation, blocked mitosis and activated the apoptosis cascade in placental cells. Vinorelbine was more efficacious than methotrexate ± gefitinib in reducing the volume of placental cell tumors xenografted subcutaneously in SCID mice. Mice exposed to vinorelbine and allowed to breed, following a four week washout period, displayed normal fertility, however long-term fertility was not assessed. Human Fallopian tubes treated with vinorelbine did not exhibit up-regulation of apoptosis molecules. Our findings show that placental cells appear sensitive to vinorelbine and it has potential as a tablet-only approach to treat ectopic pregnancy. Keywords: Ectopic pregnancy, Vinorelbine, Methotrexate, Placenta, Treatment

  20. Growth of novel ceramic layers on metals via chemical and heat treatments for inducing various biological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi eKokubo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present authors’ systematic studies on growth of novel ceramic layers on Ti metal and its alloys by chemical and heat treatments for inducing bone-bonding bioactivity and some other biological functions are reviewed. Ti metal formed an apatite on its surface in a simulated body fluid (SBF, when heat-treated after exposure to strong acid solutions to form rutile surface layer, or to strong alkali solutions to form sodium titanate surface layer. Both types of Ti metal tightly bonded to the living bone.The alkali and heat treatment was applied to the surface Ti metal of an artificial hip joint and successfully used in the clinic since 2007. The acid and heat treatments was applied to porous Ti metal to induce osteoconductivity as well as osteoinductivity. The resulting product was successfully used in clinical trials for spinal fusion devices. For the Ti-based alloys, the alkali and heat treatment was a little modified to form calcium titanate surface layer. Bone-growth promoting Mg, Sr, and Zn ions as well as the antibacterial Ag ion were successfully incorporated into the calcium titanate layer.

  1. Interferon-free treatment for hepatitis C virus infection induces normalization of extrahepatic type I interferon signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Pil Soo; Lee, Eun Byul; Park, Dong Jun; Lozada, Angelo; Jang, Jeong Won; Bae, Si Hyun; Choi, Jong Young; Yoon, Seung Kew

    2018-03-12

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replicates in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), leading to the production of type I interferons (IFNs). It is well known that the gene expression profile of PBMC is similar to that of the liver. The present study explored the dynamic gene expression profile of PBMCs collected from HCV-infected patients undergoing direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy. A prospective cohort comprising 27 patients under DAA therapy was formed. Expression level of IFN-β and its downstream interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) was measured in PBMCs before and after DAA treatment. Furthermore, immunoblotting was performed to identify the signaling molecules involved in the expression of ISGs. The pretreatment expression level of interferon-induced protein 44 (IFI44) and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10) correlated with the pretreatment expression level of IFN-β. After DAA treatment, a significant decrease in the expression levels of IFN-β, IFI44, and CXCL10 was observed in the PBMCs. Furthermore, the pretreatment expression level of IFN-β and ISGs correlated with the level of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) phosphorylation, and DAA treatment abrogated STAT1 phosphorylation. Pretreatment activation of IFN-β response is rapidly normalized after DAA treatment. The present study suggests that the decreased type I IFN response by the clearance of HCV might contribute to DAA-induced alleviation of extrahepatic manifestation of chronic HCV infection.

  2. Chronic β2-adrenoceptor agonist treatment alters muscle proteome and functional adaptations induced by high intensity training in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostrup, Morten; Onslev, Johan; Jacobson, Glenn A; Wilson, Richard; Bangsbo, Jens

    2018-01-15

    While several studies have investigated the effects of exercise training in human skeletal muscle and the chronic effect of β 2 -agonist treatment in rodent muscle, their effects on muscle proteome signature with related functional measures in humans are still incompletely understood. Herein we show that daily β 2 -agonist treatment attenuates training-induced enhancements in exercise performance and maximal oxygen consumption, and alters muscle proteome signature and phenotype in trained young men. Daily β 2 -agonist treatment abolished several of the training-induced enhancements in muscle oxidative capacity and caused a repression of muscle metabolic pathways; furthermore, β 2 -agonist treatment induced a slow-to-fast twitch muscle phenotype transition. The present study indicates that chronic β 2 -agonist treatment confounds the positive effect of high intensity training on exercise performance and oxidative capacity, which is of interest for the large proportion of persons using inhaled β 2 -agonists on a daily basis, including athletes. Although the effects of training have been studied for decades, data on muscle proteome signature remodelling induced by high intensity training in relation to functional changes in humans remains incomplete. Likewise, β 2 -agonists are frequently used to counteract exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, but the effects β 2 -agonist treatment on muscle remodelling and adaptations to training are unknown. In a placebo-controlled parallel study, we randomly assigned 21 trained men to 4 weeks of high intensity training with (HIT+β 2 A) or without (HIT) daily inhalation of β 2 -agonist (terbutaline, 4 mg dose -1 ). Of 486 proteins identified by mass-spectrometry proteomics of muscle biopsies sampled before and after the intervention, 32 and 85 were changing (false discovery rate (FDR) ≤5%) with the intervention in HIT and HIT+β 2 A, respectively. Proteome signature changes were different in HIT and HIT+β 2 A (P

  3. Preventing olanzapine-induced weight gain using betahistine: a study in a rat model with chronic olanzapine treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiamei Lian

    Full Text Available Olanzapine is the one of first line antipsychotic drug for schizophrenia and other serious mental illness. However, it is associated with troublesome metabolic side-effects, particularly body weight gain and obesity. The antagonistic affinity to histamine H1 receptors (H1R of antipsychotic drugs has been identified as one of the main contributors to weight gain/obesity side-effects. Our previous study showed that a short term (2 weeks combination treatment of betahistine (an H1R agonist and H3R antagonist and olanzapine (O+B reduced (-45% body weight gain induced by olanzapine in drug-naïve rats. A key issue is that clinical patients suffering with schizophrenia, bipolar disease and other mental disorders often face chronic, even life-time, antipsychotic treatment, in which they have often had previous antipsychotic exposure. Therefore, we investigated the effects of chronic O+B co-treatment in controlling body weight in female rats with chronic and repeated exposure of olanzapine. The results showed that co-administration of olanzapine (3 mg/kg, t.i.d. and betahistine (9.6 mg/kg, t.i.d. significantly reduced (-51.4% weight gain induced by olanzapine. Co-treatment of O+B also led to a decrease in feeding efficiency, liver and fat mass. Consistently, the olanzapine-only treatment increased hypothalamic H1R protein levels, as well as hypothalamic pAMPKα, AMPKα and NPY protein levels, while reducing the hypothalamic POMC, and UCP1 and PGC-1α protein levels in brown adipose tissue (BAT. The olanzapine induced changes in hypothalamic H1R, pAMPKα, BAT UCP1 and PGC-1α could be reversed by co-treatment of O+B. These results supported further clinical trials to test the effectiveness of co-treatment of O+B for controlling weight gain/obesity side-effects in schizophrenia with chronic antipsychotic treatment.

  4. Repeated treatments with ingenol mebutate for prophylaxis of UV-induced squamous cell carcinoma in hairless mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlendsson, Andrés M; Thaysen-Petersen, Daniel; Bay, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: The incidence of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) is increasing, and effective chemopreventative strategies are needed. We hypothesized that repeated treatments with ingenol mebutate (IngMeb) would postpone development of SCC in hairless mice, and that application of a corticost......BACKGROUND AND AIM: The incidence of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) is increasing, and effective chemopreventative strategies are needed. We hypothesized that repeated treatments with ingenol mebutate (IngMeb) would postpone development of SCC in hairless mice, and that application...... of a corticosteroid would reduce IngMeb-induced local skin responses (LSRs) without affecting tumor postponement. METHODS: Hairless mice (n=150; 6 groups á 25 mice) were irradiated with solar simulated ultraviolet radiation (UVR) until SCC developed. During UV-irradiation and before tumor development, five single......)=0.257, pfield-directed treatments...

  5. Complications of MRSA Treatment: Linezolid-induced Myelosuppression Presenting with Pancytopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Gorchynski, Julie A; Rose, Jeri K

    2008-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections have grown to epidemic proportions in the United States. With the development of increasing drug resistance of MRSA to traditional antimicrobials, there has been a search for a more effective antibiotic treatment. Linezolid is one of the most effective oral medications used for outpatient treatment of MRSA infections. We present a case of pancytopenia after outpatient treatment with linezolid. Myelosuppression is a rare but serious...

  6. Prolonged release oxycodone and naloxone treatment counteracts opioid-induced constipation in patients with severe pain compared to previous analgesic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans-Klein, Gineke; Van Op den Bosch, Joeri; van Megen, Yvonne; Prenen, Hans; Huygen, Frank; Mancini, Isabelle

    2017-12-01

    Treatment with prolonged-release oxycodone/naloxone (PR OXN) has been shown to improve opioid induced constipation (OIC) in constipated patients. This publication reports on a real-life observational study investigating the efficacy of PR OXN with regard to bowel function in patients switching to PR OXN from WHO step 1, step 2 and step 3 opioids. Patients with chronic pain experiencing insufficient pain relief and/or unacceptable side effects were switched to PR OXN and monitored in this observational study with respect to efficacy regarding bowel function and efficacy regarding pain relief in comparison with previous analgesic therapy. A patient was considered a responder with respect to efficacy if this assessment was "slightly better", "better" or "much better" compared with previous therapy. Bowel function index, pain intensity, quality of life, laxative medication use, and safety analgesic were also evaluated. A total of 1338 patients (mean [SD] age 64.3 [14.9], 63% female) were observed for 43 [3-166] days (median [range]) during treatment with PR OXN. Overall response rate regarding bowel function efficacy was 82.5%. Patients with symptoms of constipation at study entry obtained a clinically relevant improvement of the bowel function index (BFI) within the first 2 weeks of PR OXN treatment. Non-constipated patients at study entry maintained normal bowel function despite switching to treatment with the opioid PR OXN. In conclusion, treatment with PR OXN results in a significant and clinically relevant improvement of bowel function. During the observation of the treatment with PR OXN patients reported an improvement of quality of life (QoL). More interestingly, non-constipated patients maintained a normal bowel function, showing prevention of constipation despite the use of an opioid.

  7. Acute ivabradine treatment reduces heart rate without increasing atrial fibrillation inducibility irrespective of underlying vagal activity in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Kazunori; Inagaki, Masashi; Zheng, Can; Kawada, Toru; Li, Meihua; Fukumitsu, Masafumi; Sugimachi, Masaru

    2017-04-01

    Ivabradine, a bradycardic agent, has been shown to stably reduce patient's heart rate (HR) in the setting of acute cardiac care. However, an association between atrial fibrillation (AF) risk and acute ivabradine treatment remains a controversial clinical issue, and has not been thoroughly investigated. Bradycardia and abnormal atrial refractoriness induced by ivabradine treatment may enhance vulnerability to AF induction, especially when vagal nerve is concurrently activated. We aimed to experimentally investigate the effects of acute ivabradine treatment with/without concurrent vagal activation on AF inducibility. In 16 anesthetized dogs, cervical vagal nerves were prepared for electrical stimulation (VS). AF induction rate (AFIR) was determined by atrial burst pacing. HR, atrial action potential duration (APD), atrial effective refractory period (ERP), and AFIR were obtained consecutively at baseline, during delivery of VS (VS alone), after intravenous injection of ivabradine 0.5 mg/kg (n = 8, ivabradine group) or saline (n = 8, saline group), and again during VS delivery (drug+VS). In the ivabradine group, ivabradine alone significantly lowered HR compared to baseline, while ivabradine+VS significantly lowered HR compared to VS alone. Contrary to expectations, there were no significant differences in trends of APD, temporal dispersion of APD, ERP, and AFIR between ivabradine and saline groups. Irrespective of whether ivabradine or saline was injected, VS significantly shortened APD and ERP, and increased AFIR. Interestingly, although bradycardia in response to ivabradine injection was more intense than that to VS alone, AFIR was significantly lower after ivabradine injection than during VS alone. We conclude that, despite its intense bradycardic effect, acute ivabradine treatment does not increase AF inducibility irrespective of underlying vagal activity. This study may constitute support for the safety of using ivabradine in the setting of acute cardiac

  8. Pre-treatment with cardamonin protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats: Impact on NOX-1, inflammation and apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Naga, Reem N., E-mail: reemelnaga@hotmail.com

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin is an effective anti-cancer drug; however, its clinical use is usually associated with nephrotoxicity as a dose-limiting side effect. Several molecular mechanisms have been found to be involved in this nephrotoxicity such as oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to explore the potential nephroprotective effect of cardamonin, a flavone found in Alpinia plant, in a rat model of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. The possible mechanisms underlying this nephroprotective effect were investigated. Cardamonin was given at two different doses; 10 and 30 mg/kg orally for two weeks, starting one week before giving a single nephrotoxic dose of cisplatin (7 mg/kg). Acute nephrtoxicity was evident by significantly increased blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels. Also, cisplatin increased lipid peroxidation and depleted reduced glutathione level and superoxide dismutase. Additionally, cisplatin showed a marked pro-inflammatory response as evidenced by significant increase in tissue levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, NF-kB, iNOS, ICAM-1 and MCP-1. Pre-treatment with cardamonin significantly attenuated the nephrotoxic effects, oxidative stress and inflammation induced by cisplatin, in a dose-dependent manner. Also, cardamonin decreased caspase-3 expression and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio as compared to cisplatin group. Besides, cradamonin reversed cisplatin-induced decrease in EGF. Furthermore, up-regulation of NOX-1 was found to be involved in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and its expression was significantly reduced by cardamonin. Histopathological examination further confirmed the nephroprotective effect of cardamonin. Moreover, pre-treatment with subtoxic concentration of cardamonin has significantly enhanced cisplatin cytotoxic activity in four different human cancer cell lines; hela, hepG2, PC3 and HCT116 cancer cell lines. In conclusion, these findings suggest that cardamonin improves therapeutic index of cisplatin and that NOX-1 is

  9. Pre-treatment with cardamonin protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats: Impact on NOX-1, inflammation and apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naga, Reem N.

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin is an effective anti-cancer drug; however, its clinical use is usually associated with nephrotoxicity as a dose-limiting side effect. Several molecular mechanisms have been found to be involved in this nephrotoxicity such as oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to explore the potential nephroprotective effect of cardamonin, a flavone found in Alpinia plant, in a rat model of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. The possible mechanisms underlying this nephroprotective effect were investigated. Cardamonin was given at two different doses; 10 and 30 mg/kg orally for two weeks, starting one week before giving a single nephrotoxic dose of cisplatin (7 mg/kg). Acute nephrtoxicity was evident by significantly increased blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels. Also, cisplatin increased lipid peroxidation and depleted reduced glutathione level and superoxide dismutase. Additionally, cisplatin showed a marked pro-inflammatory response as evidenced by significant increase in tissue levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, NF-kB, iNOS, ICAM-1 and MCP-1. Pre-treatment with cardamonin significantly attenuated the nephrotoxic effects, oxidative stress and inflammation induced by cisplatin, in a dose-dependent manner. Also, cardamonin decreased caspase-3 expression and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio as compared to cisplatin group. Besides, cradamonin reversed cisplatin-induced decrease in EGF. Furthermore, up-regulation of NOX-1 was found to be involved in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and its expression was significantly reduced by cardamonin. Histopathological examination further confirmed the nephroprotective effect of cardamonin. Moreover, pre-treatment with subtoxic concentration of cardamonin has significantly enhanced cisplatin cytotoxic activity in four different human cancer cell lines; hela, hepG2, PC3 and HCT116 cancer cell lines. In conclusion, these findings suggest that cardamonin improves therapeutic index of cisplatin and that NOX-1 is

  10. Novel Tissue Protective Agents for the Treatment of Acute Radiation-induced BMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    patients. Large scale clinical studies involving higher doses of ESAs administered as treatment for anemia or to improve quality of life have shown...thrombopoiesis and platelet reactivity in extremely low birth weight infants undergoing erythropoietin therapy for treatment of anaemia of prematurity

  11. Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis in Growing Mice Is Not Prevented by Simultaneous Intermittent PTH Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postnov, A.; de Schutter, T.; Sijbers, J.; Karperien, Hermanus Bernardus Johannes; de Clerck, N.

    2009-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are widely used in medicine for treatment of chronic diseases. Especially in children, prolonged treatment causes growth retardation and early onset of osteoporosis. Human parathyroid hormone (PTH) has an anabolic effect on bone when administrated intermittently. The aim of the

  12. Is addition of sodium fluoride to cyclical etidronate beneficial in the treatment of corticosteroid induced osteoporosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lems, W. F.; Jacobs, J. W.; Bijlsma, J. W.; van Veen, G. J.; Houben, H. H.; Haanen, H. C.; Gerrits, M. I.; van Rijn, H. J.

    1997-01-01

    To investigate whether administration of sodium fluoride (NaF) in addition to cyclical etidronate has a positive effect on bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with established osteoporosis during continued treatment with corticosteroids. 47 patients who were receiving treatment with

  13. Metformin in prevention and treatment of antipsychotic induced weight gain: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Varuni Asanka; Suraweera, Chathurie; Ratnatunga, Suhashini S; Dayabandara, Madhubashinee; Wanniarachchi, Nimali; Hanwella, Raveen

    2016-10-03

    Most antipsychotics are associated with weight gain and other metabolic complications. Several randomized trials have shown metformin to be effective, but this still hasn't been included in clinical guidelines on managing antipsychotic induced weight gain. All double blind placebo controlled trials assessing the efficacy of metformin in the treatment of antipsychotic induced weight gain were included. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and MEDLINE were searched for the period January 2000-December 2015. Meta-analysis was carried out using the random effects model. Meta analysis of 12 published studies with a total of 743 patients found that in patients treated with antipsychotics, metformin treatment resulted in significantly better anthropometric and metabolic parameters than placebo. The mean change in weight was -3.27 kg (95 % CI -4.66 to -1.89) (Z = 4.64, p resistance index [-1.49 (95 % CI -2.40 to -0.59)] but not fasting blood sugar [-2.48 mg/dl (95 % CI -5.54 to 0.57]. This meta-analysis confirms that metformin is effective in treating antipsychotic induced weight gain in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

  14. Development of Therapeutics That Induce Mitochondrial Biogenesis for the Treatment of Acute and Chronic Degenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Robert B; Beeson, Craig C; Schnellmann, Rick G

    2016-12-08

    Mitochondria have various roles in cellular metabolism and homeostasis. Because mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with many acute and chronic degenerative diseases, mitochondrial biogenesis (MB) is a therapeutic target for treating such diseases. Here, we review the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in acute and chronic degenerative diseases and the cellular signaling pathways by which MB is induced. We then review existing work describing the development and application of drugs that induce MB in vitro and in vivo. In particular, we discuss natural products and modulators of transcription factors, kinases, cyclic nucleotides, and G protein-coupled receptors.

  15. Anticonvulsant treatment of sarin-induced seizures with nasal midazolam: An electrographic, behavioral, and histological study in freely moving rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilat, E.; Kadar, T.; Levy, A.; Rabinovitz, I.; Cohen, G.; Kapon, Y.; Sahar, R.; Brandeis, R.

    2005-01-01

    Centrally mediated seizures and convulsions are common consequences of exposure to organophosphates (OPs). These seizures rapidly progress to status epilepticus (SE) and contribute to profound brain injury. Effective management of these seizures is critical for minimization of brain damage. Nasal application of midazolam (1.5 mg/kg) after 5 min of sarin-induced electrographic seizure activity (EGSA) ameliorated EGSA and convulsive behavior (238 ± 90 s). Identical treatment after 30 min was not sufficient to ameliorate ECoG paradoxical activity and convulsive behavior. Nasal midazolam (1.5 mg/kg), together with scopolamine (1 mg/kg, im) after 5 min of EGSA, exerted a powerful and rapid anticonvulsant effect (53 ± 10 s). Delaying the same treatment to 30 min of EGSA leads to attenuation of paroxysmal ECoG activity in all cases but total cessation of paroxysmal activity was not observed in most animals tested. Cognitive tests utilizing the Morris Water Maze demonstrated that nasal midazolam alone or together with scopolamine (im), administered after 5 min of convulsions, abolished the effect of sarin on learning. Both these treatments, when given after 30 min of convulsions, only decreased the sarin-induced learning impairments. Whereas rats which were not subject to the anticonvulsant agents did not show any memory for the platform location, both treatments (at 5 min as well as at 30 min) completely abolished the memory deficits. Both treatments equally blocked the impairment of reversal learning when given at 5 min. However, when administered after 30 min, midazolam alone reversed the impairments in reversal learning, while midazolam with scopolamine did not. Rats exposed to sarin and treated with the therapeutic regimen with the exclusion of midazolam exhibited severe brain lesions that encountered the hippocampus, pyriform cortex, and thalamus. Nasal midazolam at 5 min prevented brain damage, while delaying the midazolam treatment to 30 min of EGSA resulted in

  16. EVALUATION OF SOME ANTIOXIDANTS TREATMENT ON KIDNEY FUNCTION AND LIPID PEROXIDATION STATUS IN HYPERTENSIVE RATS INDUCED WITH L-NAME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MATTA, T.F.

    2008-01-01

    Hypertension, the disease known as the s ilent killer , is a common problem facing peoples today with million new cases being diagnosed each year. Although a great amount of money is spent annually for the treatment and detection of this disease and its complications, current conventional treatment have done little to reduce the number of patients with hypertension. Research has found a variety of alternative therapies to be successful in reducing high blood pressure including diet, exercise, stress management, supplements and herbs.In this study, the changes in some selected biochemical blood variables, which are thought to represent risk factors coincident with hypertension and kidney function, were compared between a group of normotensive male albino rats and other group suffered from hypertension induced artificially by N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Also, this study investigated the effects of daily administration of some antioxidants nutrients for two weeks namely carnitine, coenzyme Q 1 0 , garlic oil and their mixture on the same variables in order to show to what extent these nutrients are valid to control the levels of these variables without any deleterious effects after treatment. Fifty mg of coenzyme Q 10 and 50 mg of carnitine were daily injected intraperitoneally for two weeks in two groups of hypertensive rats while 200 mg/kg b.wt was given to another group of hypertensive rats by oral intubation. A combination of all the above mentioned nutrients was given to the fourth group. Another hypertensive group was left without any treatment and served as a recovery group. Fasting blood samples were drawn and kidney tissues were taken at the terminal of treatments.The obtained results revealed that induced hypertension caused significant (P<0.05) increase of thiobarbeturic acid reactive substances (TBARs), malondialdehyde (MAD), parathormone (PTH), renin, blood urea, creatinine, phosphorus, sodium and potassium while glutathione (GSH), calcium

  17. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment induces blood flow recovery through vascular remodeling in high-fat diet induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lamei; Yan, Kai; Yang, Yan; Chen, Ni; Li, Yongjie; Deng, Xin; Wang, Liqun; Liu, Yan; Mu, Lin; Li, Rong; Luo, Mao; Ren, Meiping; Wu, Jianbo

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) leads to the development of microvascular diseases and is associated with impaired angiogenesis. The presence of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) can block PDGF-BB dependent regulation of neovascularization and vessel normalization. We tested the hypothesis that the inhibition of VEGF improves blood flow in a mouse hindlimb ischemia model produced by femoral artery ligation. In this study, we examined the effect of bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against VEGF-A, on blood perfusion and angiogenesis after hindlimb ischemia. We showed that bevacizumab induces functional blood flow in high fat chow (HFC)-fed diabetic mice. Treatment with bevacizumab increased the expression of platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) in ischemic muscle, and led to vascular normalization. It also blocked vascular leakage by improving the recruitment of pericytes associated with nascent blood vessels, but it did not affect capillary formation. Furthermore, treatment with an anti-PDGF drug significantly inhibited blood flow perfusion in diabetic mice treated with bevacizumab. These results indicate that bevacizumab improves blood flow recovery through the induction of PDGF-BB in a diabetic mouse hindlimb ischemia model, and that vessel normalization may represent a useful strategy for the prevention and treatment of diabetic peripheral arterial disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Current and prospective sights in mechanism of deoxynivalenol-induced emesis for future scientific study and clinical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liangkai; Peng, Zhao; Nüssler, Andreas K; Liu, Liegang; Yang, Wei

    2017-07-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), one of trichothecene mycotoxins produced by the fungus Fusarium, is commonly detected in cereal foods and in secondary food production across the world. Lower concentrations of DON induce a dose-related feed refusal (anorexia), whereas it acts as a potent emetic agent at higher levels. DON-induced emesis in humans and livestock can be observed and recorded in both undeveloped and developed regions such as Lixian, Guide and Huangzhong in China and Illinois in the USA. Some studies with different animal models (pigs and minks) suggested that DON could change expressions of 5-hydroxytryptamine, peptide YY, neuropeptide Y2 receptor and nucleobindin-2/nesfatin-1 in plasma and different areas of the brain. Some selective antagonist of 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptors can inhibit DON-induced emetic response. Otherwise, the Ca 2+ homeostasis and MAPK pathway could be potential directions in future studies. Dolasetron, dantrolene and JNJ-31020028 can be used in clinical treatment but they have potential toxic effects. (-)Epicatechin, ginger phytochemicals and isoflavone can be tested in in vitro and in vivo for their usage as food additives for reducing the emesis. The present review summarizes and discusses some information from previous and recent prominent publications with the aim to provide some comprehensive and helpful data for understanding the mechanism of DON-induced emesis. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Indirubin Treatment of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Mastitis in a Mouse Model and Activity in Mouse Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jin-Lun; Liu, Yu-Hui; Peng, Yong-Chong; Ge, Pan; He, Chen-Fei; Liu, Chang; Chen, Ying-Yu; Guo, Ai-Zhen; Hu, Chang-Min

    2017-01-01

    Indirubin is a Chinese medicine extracted from indigo and known to be effective for treating chronic myelogenous leukemia, neoplasia, and inflammatory disease. This study evaluated the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of indirubin in a lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced mouse mastitis model. The indirubin mechanism and targets were evaluated in vitro in mouse mammary epithelial cells. In the mouse model, indirubin significantly attenuated the severity of inflammatory lesions, edema, inflammatory hyperemia, milk stasis and local tissue necrosis, and neutrophil infiltration. Indirubin significantly decreased myeloperoxidase activity and downregulated the production of tumor necrosis factor- α , interleukin-1 β (IL-1 β ), and IL-6 caused by LPS. In vitro, indirubin inhibited LPS-stimulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner. It also downregulated LPS-induced toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression and inhibited phosphorylation of LPS-induced nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF- κ B) P65 protein and inhibitor of kappa B. In addition to its effect on the NF- κ B signaling pathway, indirubin suppressed the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling by inhibiting phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), P38, and c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). Indirubin improved LPS-induced mouse mastitis by suppressing TLR4 and downstream NF- κ B and MAPK pathway inflammatory signals and might be a potential treatment of mastitis and other inflammatory diseases.

  20. Assessment of thermal treatment via irrigation of external ear to reduce cisplatin-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spankovich, Christopher; Lobarinas, Edward; Ding, Dalian; Salvi, Richard; Le Prell, Colleen G

    2016-02-01

    Systemic and local changes in body temperature can have a profound effect on traumatic injuries including those to the inner ear. Therefore, we investigated the effects of acutely increasing or decreasing the temperature of the external ear canal on cisplatin-induced hearing loss. The external auditory canals of male guinea pigs were acutely irrigated with warm (44 °C), euthermic (37 °C), or cool (30 °C) water and subsequently injected with cisplatin (12 mg/kg, i.p.). Hearing was assessed by the auditory brainstem response and cochleograms were prepared to determine loss of hair cells. Ear canal irrigation with warm water potentiated cisplatin-induced hearing loss and outer hair cell loss whereas cool ear canal irrigation showed significant protection from cisplatin-induced hearing loss and outer hair cell loss. These results suggest that non-invasive cool water ear canal irrigation may be highly effective clinical procedure for protecting against cisplatin-induced hearing loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Apoptosis Induced by Piroxicam plus Cisplatin Combined Treatment Is Triggered by p21 in Mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Alfonso; Piccolo, Maria Teresa; Boccellino, Maria Rosaria; Donizetti, Aldo; Cardillo, Irene; La Porta, Raffaele; Quagliuolo, Lucio; Spugnini, Enrico P.; Cordero, Francesca; Citro, Gennaro; Menegozzo, Massimo; Calogero, Raffaele A.; Crispi, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    Background Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare, highly aggressive tumor, associated to asbestos exposure. To date no chemotherapy regimen for MM has proven to be definitively curative, and new therapies for MM treatment need to be developed. We have previously shown in vivo that piroxicam/cisplatin combined treatment in MM, specifically acts on cell cycle regulation triggering apoptosis, with survival increase. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed, at molecular level, the apoptotic increase caused by piroxicam/cisplatin treatment in MM cell lines. By means of genome wide analyses, we analyzed transcriptional gene deregulation both after the single piroxicam or cisplatin and the combined treatment. Here we show that apoptotic increase following combined treatment is mediated by p21, since apoptotic increase in piroxicam/cisplatin combined treatment is abolished upon p21 silencing. Conclusions/Significance Piroxicam/cisplatin combined treatment determines an apoptosis increase in MM cells, which is dependent on the p21 expression. The results provided suggest that piroxicam/cisplatin combination might be tested in clinical settings in tumor specimens that express p21. PMID:21858171

  2. Apoptosis induced by piroxicam plus cisplatin combined treatment is triggered by p21 in mesothelioma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Baldi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malignant mesothelioma (MM is a rare, highly aggressive tumor, associated to asbestos exposure. To date no chemotherapy regimen for MM has proven to be definitively curative, and new therapies for MM treatment need to be developed. We have previously shown in vivo that piroxicam/cisplatin combined treatment in MM, specifically acts on cell cycle regulation triggering apoptosis, with survival increase. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed, at molecular level, the apoptotic increase caused by piroxicam/cisplatin treatment in MM cell lines. By means of genome wide analyses, we analyzed transcriptional gene deregulation both after the single piroxicam or cisplatin and the combined treatment. Here we show that apoptotic increase following combined treatment is mediated by p21, since apoptotic increase in piroxicam/cisplatin combined treatment is abolished upon p21 silencing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Piroxicam/cisplatin combined treatment determines an apoptosis increase in MM cells, which is dependent on the p21 expression. The results provided suggest that piroxicam/cisplatin combination might be tested in clinical settings in tumor specimens that express p21.

  3. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell for the Study and Treatment of Sickle Cell Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Cunha Junqueira Reis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell anemia (SCA is a monogenic disease of high mortality, affecting millions of people worldwide. There is no broad, effective, and safe definitive treatment for SCA, so the palliative treatments are the most used. The establishment of an in vitro model allows better understanding of how the disease occurs, besides allowing the development of more effective tests and treatments. In this context, iPSC technology is a powerful tool for basic research and disease modeling, and a promise for finding and screening more effective and safe drugs, besides the possibility of use in regenerative medicine. This work obtained a model for study and treatment of SCA using iPSC. Then, episomal vectors were used for reprogramming peripheral blood mononuclear cells to obtain integration-free iPSC. Cells were collected from patients treated with hydroxyurea and without treatment. The iPSCP Bscd lines were characterized for pluripotent and differentiation potential. The iPSC lines were differentiated into HSC, so that we obtained a dynamic and efficient protocol of CD34+CD45+ cells production. We offer a valuable tool for a better understanding of how SCA occurs, in addition to making possible the development of more effective drugs and treatments and providing better understanding of widely used treatments, such as hydroxyurea.

  4. Vinorelbine Potently Induces Placental Cell Death, Does Not Harm Fertility and is a Potential Treatment for Ectopic Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Roxanne; Lim, Elgene; Sluka, Pavel; Campbell, Lisa; Horne, Andrew W; Ellett, Lenore; Hannan, Natalie J; Brownfoot, Fiona; Kaitu'u-Lino, Tu'uhevaha J; Tong, Stephen

    2018-03-01

    Ectopic pregnancies complicate 1-2 pregnancies and are a leading cause of maternal death. An effective oral drug therapy that replaces surgery might make its treatment safer, cheaper, simpler and therefore more widely accessible. The only current medical treatment offered to women is intramuscular methotrexate, but this only reliably resolves smaller ectopic pregnancies. As such, many ectopic pregnancies require surgical excision. We show that vinorelbine, an orally available chemotherapeutic agent, potently induced placental cell death but did not harm fertility in mice. Vinorelbine was 100-1000 times more potent than methotrexate in inducing placental cell death in vitro, and more potent than combination methotrexate and gefitinib (another proposed treatment for ectopic pregnancy being evaluated in phase III trials). Mechanistically, it caused microtubule condensation, blocked mitosis and activated the apoptosis cascade in placental cells. Vinorelbine was more efficacious than methotrexate±gefitinib in reducing the volume of placental cell tumors xenografted subcutaneously in SCID mice. Mice exposed to vinorelbine and allowed to breed, following a four week washout period, displayed normal fertility, however long-term fertility was not assessed. Human Fallopian tubes treated with vinorelbine did not exhibit up-regulation of apoptosis molecules. Our findings show that placental cells appear sensitive to vinorelbine and it has potential as a tablet-only approach to treat ectopic pregnancy. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Hepatoprotective agent tethered isoniazid for the treatment of drug-induced hepatotoxicity: Synthesis, biochemical and histopathological evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charan Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the protective effect of isoniazid–curcumin conjugate (INH–CRM in INH-induced hepatic injury by biochemical analysis and histology examination of liver in Wistar rats. The biochemical analysis included determination of the levels of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides (TG, albumin content, and lipid peroxidation (MDA. INH–CRM administration resulted in a significant decrease in plasma cholesterol, TG, and MDA levels in the liver tissue homogenate with an elevation in albumin level indicating its hepatoprotective activity. Histology of the liver further confirmed the reduction in hepatic injury. The hepatoprotective with INH–CRM can be attributed to the antioxidant activity of curcumin. The conjugate probably stabilizes the curcumin molecule, preventing its presystemic metabolism thereby enhancing its bioavailability and therefore, its hepatoprotective activity. Thus, the novel INH–CRM has the potential to alleviate INH-induced liver toxicity in antitubercular treatment.

  6. Successful antibiotic treatment of Pseudomonas stutzeri-induced peritonitis without peritoneal dialysis catheter removal in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Wook Park

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas stutzeri is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile, single polar-flagellated, soil bacterium that was first isolated from human spinal fluid and is widely distributed in the environment. It was isolated as an uncommon opportunistic pathogen from humans, and a few cases of P. stutzeri-induced peritonitis have been reported in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD. Catheter removal with antibiotic treatment is generally recommended because peritonitis by Pseudomonas species is commonly associated with catheter-related infection. Here, we describe the first case of P. stutzeri-induced peritonitis in an 82-year-old woman in Korea. She had received two antipseudomonal antibiotics, an aminoglycoside (isepamicin, Yuhan corporation, Seoul, Korea and a fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin, and was successfully treated without removal of the CAPD catheter.

  7. Foliar treatments with Gaultheria procumbens essential oil induce defence responses and resistance against a fungal pathogen in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eVergnes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil from Gaultheria procumbens is mainly composed of methylsalicylate (>96%, a compound which can be metabolized in plant tissues to salicylic acid, a phytohormone inducing plant immunity against microbial pathogens. The potential use of G. procumbens essential oil as a biocontrol agent was evaluated on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression of a selection of defence genes was detected 1, 6 and 24 hours after essential oil treatment (0.1 ml/L using a high-throughput qPCR-based microfluidic technology. Control treatments included methyl jasmonate and a commercialized salicylic acid analog, benzo(1,2,3-thiadiazole-7carbothiolic acid (BTH. Strong induction of defence markers known to be regulated by the salicylic acid pathway was observed after the treatment with G. procumbens essential oil. Treatment induced the accumulation of total salicylic acid in the wild -type Arabidopsis line Col-0 and analysis of the Arabidopsis line sid2, mutated in a salicylic acid biosynthetic gene, revealed that approximately 30% of methylsalicylate sprayed on the leaves penetrated inside plant tissues and was demethylated by endogenous esterases. Induction of plant resistance by G. procumbens essential oil was tested following inoculation with a GFP-expressing strain of the Arabidopsis fungal pathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum. Flurorescence measurement of infected tissues revealed that treatments led to a strong reduction (60% of pathogen development and that the efficacy of the G. procumbens essential oil was similar to the commercial product BION®. Together, these results show that the G. procubens essential oil is a natural source of methylsalicylate which can be formulated to develop new biocontrol products.

  8. Photoinhibition-like damage to the photosynthetic apparatus in plant leaves induced by submergence treatment in the dark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingli Fan

    Full Text Available Submergence is a common type of environmental stress for plants. It hampers survival and decreases crop yield, mainly by inhibiting plant photosynthesis. The inhibition of photosynthesis and photochemical efficiency by submergence is primarily due to leaf senescence and excess excitation energy, caused by signals from hypoxic roots and inhibition of gas exchange, respectively. However, the influence of mere leaf-submergence on the photosynthetic apparatus is currently unknown. Therefore, we studied the photosynthetic apparatus in detached leaves from four plant species under dark-submergence treatment (DST, without influence from roots and light. Results showed that the donor and acceptor sides, the reaction center of photosystem II (PSII and photosystem I (PSI in leaves were significantly damaged after 36 h of DST. This is a photoinhibition-like phenomenon similar to the photoinhibition induced by high light, as further indicated by the degradation of PsaA and D1, the core proteins of PSI and PSII. In contrast to previous research, the chlorophyll content remained unchanged and the H2O2 concentration did not increase in the leaves, implying that the damage to the photosynthetic apparatus was not caused by senescence or over-accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. DST-induced damage to the photosynthetic apparatus was aggravated by increasing treatment temperature. This type of damage also occurred in the anaerobic environment (N2 without water, and could be eliminated or restored by supplying air to the water during or after DST. Our results demonstrate that DST-induced damage was caused by the hypoxic environment. The mechanism by which DST induces the photoinhibition-like damage is discussed below.

  9. The Effect of Sorafenib, Tadalafil and Macitentan Treatments on Thyroxin-Induced Hemodynamic Changes and Cardiac Abnormalities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy S Saad

    Full Text Available Multikinase inhibitors (e.g. Sorafenib, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (e.g. Tadalafil, and endothelin-1 receptor blockers (e.g. Macitentan exert influential protection in a variety of animal models of cardiomyopathy; however, their effects on thyroxin-induced cardiomyopathy have never been investigated. The goal of the present study was to assess the functional impact of these drugs on thyroxin-induced hemodynamic changes, cardiac hypertrophy and associated altered responses of the contractile myocardium both in-vivo at the whole heart level and ex-vivo at the cardiac tissue level. Control and thyroxin (500 μg/kg/day-treated mice with or without 2-week treatments of sorafenib (10 mg/kg/day; I.P, tadalafil (1 mg/kg/day; I.P or 4 mg/kg/day; oral, macitentan (30 and 100 mg/kg/day; oral, and their vehicles were studied. Blood pressure, echocardiography and electrocardiogram were non-invasively evaluated, followed by ex-vivo assessments of isolated multicellular cardiac preparations. Thyroxin increased blood pressure, resulted in cardiac hypertrophy and left ventricular dysfunction in-vivo. Also, it caused contractile abnormalities in right ventricular papillary muscles ex-vivo. None of the drug treatments were able to significantly attenuate theses hemodynamic changes or cardiac abnormalities in thyroxin-treated mice. We show here for the first time that multikinase (raf1/b, VEGFR, PDGFR, phosphodiesterase-5, and endothelin-1 pathways have no major role in thyroxin-induced hemodynamic changes and cardiac abnormalities. In particular, our data show that the involvement of endothelin-1 pathway in thyroxine-induced cardiac hypertrophy/dysfunction seems to be model-dependent and should be carefully interpreted.

  10. pH induced polychromatic UV treatment for the removal of a mixture of SMX, OTC and CIP from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avisar, D., E-mail: droravi@post.tau.ac.il [Hydro-chemistry Laboratory, Geography and the Environment, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Lester, Y. [Hydro-chemistry Laboratory, Geography and the Environment, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); School of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Mamane, H. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2010-03-15

    Water and wastewater effluents contain a vast range of chemicals in mixtures that have different chemical structures and characteristics. This study presents a treatment technology for the removal of mixtures of antibiotic residues (sulfamethoxazole (SMX), oxtetracycline (OTC) and ciprofloxacin (CIP)) from contaminated water. The treatment combines pH modification of the water to an optimal value, followed by a photolytic treatment using direct polychromatic ultraviolet (UV) irradiation by medium pressure UV lamp. The pH adjustment of the treated water leads to structural modifications of the pollutant's molecule thus may enhance direct photolysis by UV light. Results showed that an increase of water pH from 5 to 7 leads to a decrease in degradation rate of SMX and an increase in degradation rate of OTC and CIP, when studied separately and not in a mixture. Thus, the optimal pH values for UV photodegradation in a mixture, involve initial photolysis at pH 5 and then gradually changing the pH from 5 to 7 during the UV exposure. For example, this resulted in 99% degradation of SMX at pH 5 and enhanced degradation of OTC and CIP from 54% and 26% to 91% and 96% respectively when pH was increased from 5 to 7. Thus the pH induced photolytic treatment has a potential in improving treatment of antibiotics in mixtures.

  11. pH induced polychromatic UV treatment for the removal of a mixture of SMX, OTC and CIP from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avisar, D.; Lester, Y.; Mamane, H.

    2010-01-01

    Water and wastewater effluents contain a vast range of chemicals in mixtures that have different chemical structures and characteristics. This study presents a treatment technology for the removal of mixtures of antibiotic residues (sulfamethoxazole (SMX), oxtetracycline (OTC) and ciprofloxacin (CIP)) from contaminated water. The treatment combines pH modification of the water to an optimal value, followed by a photolytic treatment using direct polychromatic ultraviolet (UV) irradiation by medium pressure UV lamp. The pH adjustment of the treated water leads to structural modifications of the pollutant's molecule thus may enhance direct photolysis by UV light. Results showed that an increase of water pH from 5 to 7 leads to a decrease in degradation rate of SMX and an increase in degradation rate of OTC and CIP, when studied separately and not in a mixture. Thus, the optimal pH values for UV photodegradation in a mixture, involve initial photolysis at pH 5 and then gradually changing the pH from 5 to 7 during the UV exposure. For example, this resulted in 99% degradation of SMX at pH 5 and enhanced degradation of OTC and CIP from 54% and 26% to 91% and 96% respectively when pH was increased from 5 to 7. Thus the pH induced photolytic treatment has a potential in improving treatment of antibiotics in mixtures.

  12. Relaxation-induced anxiety: Effects of peak and trajectories of change on treatment outcome for generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Michelle G; Lafreniere, Lucas S; Jacobson, Nicholas C

    2016-11-18

    Evidence is mixed regarding whether relaxation-induced anxiety (RIA) impedes relaxation training (RT) efficacy. Unlike past studies that averaged RIA across sessions, we examined peak RIA, change in RIA level across sessions, and timing of peak RIA with outcome. This was a secondary analysis of Borkovec, Newman, Pincus, and Lytle [2002. A component analysis of cognitive-behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety disorder and the role of interpersonal problems. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 288-298. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.70.2.288 ]. Forty-one GAD participants were assigned randomly to CBT (n = 22) or BT (n = 19). Both treatments contained RT and RIA ratings within 13/14 sessions. Analyses used generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs), which accounted for longitudinal nonindependence and examined nonlinear trajectories of change. All participants improved significantly regardless of RIA. "Change trajectory of RIA level did not predict outcome". Instead, lower peak RIA predicted fewer GAD symptoms at post-treatment and greater likelihood to continue to improve during follow-up. Also, timing of peak was important. Whereas lower peak early in therapy did not predict outcome, lower peak during the last third of treatment did. Peak RIA's effect was neither accounted for by baseline symptom severity, treatment condition, comorbidity, nor by preceding or concurrent anxiety symptom change. People with consistently low peak RIA and/or who fully habituate to RIA by the end of therapy respond optimally to relaxation-based treatments.

  13. Fasting and meal-induced CCK and PP secretion following intragastric balloon treatment for obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathus-Vliegen, Elisabeth M. H.; de Groot, Gerrit H.

    2013-01-01

    Satiety is centrally and peripherally mediated by gastrointestinal peptides and the vagal nerve. We aimed to investigate whether intragastric balloon treatment affects satiety through effects on fasting and meal-stimulated cholecystokinin (CCK) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) secretion. Patients

  14. Short course dexamethasone treatment following injury inhibits bleomycin induced fibrosis in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. Dik (Willem); R.J. McAnulty; M.A. Versnel (Marjan); B.A. Naber (Brigitta); L.J.I. Zimmermann (Luc); G.J. Laurent; S.E. Mutsaers (Steven)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Corticosteroids are routinely used in patients with pulmonary fibrosis. The timing for initiation of treatment is likely to be crucial for corticosteroids to exert an antifibrotic effect. Experimental studies in animals have examined the effect of

  15. Chronic systemic treatment with epidermal growth factor induces hypergastrinaemia in Goettingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter-Jensen, Lars; Juhl, C O; Rehfeld, J F

    1995-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is an inhibitor of gastric acid secretion. The impact of chronic systemic treatment with EGF on intragastric pH and serum gastrin concentrations has not been investigated previously.......Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is an inhibitor of gastric acid secretion. The impact of chronic systemic treatment with EGF on intragastric pH and serum gastrin concentrations has not been investigated previously....

  16. In vivo treatment with a MHC class I-restricted blocking peptide can prevent virus-induced autoimmune diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Herrath, M G; Coon, B; Lewicki, H; Mazarguil, H; Gairin, J E; Oldstone, M B

    1998-11-01

    We tested the in vivo potential of a MHC class I-restricted blocking peptide to sufficiently lower an anti-viral CTL response for preventing virus-induced CTL-mediated autoimmune diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)) in vivo without affecting systemic viral clearance. By designing and screening several peptides with high binding affinities to MHC class I H-2Db for best efficiency in blocking killing of target cells by lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and other viral CTL, we identified the peptide for this study. In vitro, it selectively lowered CTL killing restricted to the Db allele, which correlated directly with the affinity of the respective epitopes. Expression of the blocking peptide in the target cell lowered recognition of all Db-restricted LCMV epitopes. In addition, in vitro expansion of LCMV memory CTL was prevented, resulting in decreased IFN-gamma secretion. In vivo, a 2-wk treatment with this peptide lowered the LCMV Db-restricted CTL response by over threefold without affecting viral clearance. However, the CTL reduction by the peptide treatment was sufficient to prevent LCMV-induced IDDM in rat insulin promoter-LCMV-glycoprotein transgenic mice. Following LCMV infection, these mice develop IDDM, which depends on Db-restricted anti-self (viral) CTL. Precursor numbers of splenic LCMV-CTL in peptide-treated mice were reduced, but their cytokine profile was not altered, indicating that the peptide did not induce regulatory cells. Further, non-LCMV-CTL recognizing the blocking peptide secreted IFN-gamma and did not protect from IDDM. This study demonstrates that in vivo treatment with a MHC class I blocking peptide can prevent autoimmune disease by directly affecting expansion of autoreactive CTL.

  17. Co- and Post-Treatment with Lysine Protects Primary Fish Enterocytes against Cu-Induced Oxidative Damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Yin Li

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was primarily to explore the protective activity pathways of lysine against oxidative damage in fish in vivo and in enterocytes in vitro. First, grass carp were fed diets containing six graded levels of lysine (7.1-19.6 g kg-1 diet for 56 days. Second, the enterocytes were treated with different concentrations of lysine (0-300 mg/L in media prior to (pre-treatment, along with (co-treatment or following (post-treatment with 6 mg/L of Cu for 24 h. The results indicated that lysine improved grass carp growth performance. Meanwhile, lysine ameliorated lipid and protein oxidation by elevating the gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathioneperoxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and reductase (GR, and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 mRNA levels in fish intestine. The in vitro studies showed that co- and post-treatment with lysine conferred significant protection against Cu-induced oxidative damage in fish primary enterocytes as measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT OD values, along with alkaline phosphatase (ALP and lactate dehydrogenase activities, and the depletion of protein carbonyl (PC, malondialdehyde (MDA and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine contents. Moreover, lysine co-treatment decreased the activities and mRNA level of cellular SOD, GPx, GST and GR compared with the Cu-only exposed group. Gene expression of the signalling molecule Nrf2 showed the same pattern as that of SOD activity, whereas Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1b (Keap1b followed the opposite trend, indicating that co-treatment with lysine induced antioxidant enzymes that protected against oxidative stress through Nrf2 pathway. In addition, post-treatment with lysine increased proteasomal activity and blocked the Cu-stimulated increase in mRNA levels of GST and associated catalase (CAT and GST activities (P<0.01 and P<0.001. GR activity and gene

  18. Prolonged treatment with DNMT inhibitors induces distinct effects in promoters and gene-bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Fung Wong

    Full Text Available Treatment with the demethylating drugs 5-azacytidine (AZA and decitabine (DAC is now recognised as an effective therapy for patients with Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS, a range of disorders arising in clones of hematopoietic progenitor cells. A variety of cell models have been used to study the effect of these drugs on the methylation of promoter regions of tumour suppressor genes, with recent efforts focusing on the ability of these drugs to inhibit DNA methylation at low doses. However, it is still not clear how nano-molar drug treatment exerts its effects on the methylome. In this study, we have characterised changes in DNA methylation caused by prolonged low-dose treatment in a leukemic cell model (SKM-1, and present a genome-wide analysis of the effects of AZA and DAC. At nano-molar dosages, a one-month continuous treatment halved the total number of hypermethylated probes in leukemic cells and our analysis identified 803 candidate regions with significant demethylation after treatment. Demethylated regions were enriched in promoter sequences whereas gene-body CGIs were more resistant to the demethylation process. CGI methylation in promoters was strongly correlated with gene expression but this correlation was lost after treatment. Our results indicate that CGI demethylation occurs preferentially at promoters, but that it is not generally sufficient to modify expression patterns, and emphasises the roles of other means of maintaining cell state.

  19. Current and future therapies for the treatment of histamine-induced angioedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Christine; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2017-02-01

    Angioedema, a sudden, self-limited swelling of localized areas of any part of the body that may or may not be associated with urticaria, is thought to be the result of a mast-cell mediated process versus a bradykinin etiology. Understanding the mechanism is key in determining the proper treatment. Areas Covered: Clinical presentation of varying angioedema types may be similar; however, the appropriate treatment algorithm is dependent upon clinicians' knowledge of the underlying pathophysiology and classification of angioedema. Literature review of recent guidelines, available medications, and alternative therapies was completed to provide an overview of options. There are no formal guidelines for treatment of acute or chronic histamine-mediated angioedema, and therefore, algorithms for the treatment of acute and chronic urticaria should be followed until such information becomes available. Differentiating histamine-mediated versus bradykinin mediated angioedema is essential, as treatments and treatment responses are quite different. Further research is needed to better understand idiopathic angioedema that is unresponsive to H1/H2 antagonists, LTMAs, or medications designed to treat bradykinin-mediated angioedema.

  20. Treatment with anti-NAP monoclonal antibody reduces disease severity in murine model of novel angiogenic protein-induced or ovalbumin-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataraj, N B; Krishnamurthy, J; Salimath, B P

    2013-02-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a polyarticular inflammatory, angiogenic disease. Synovial angiogenesis contributes to inflammation in RA. In this study we have developed an arthritic model in rats using a novel angiogenic protein (NAP), isolated from human synovial fluid of RA patients. We produced anti-NAP monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and investigated the therapeutic efficacy of the same in adjuvant-induced or NAP-induced arthritis as a model of human RA. The treatment of arthritic rats with anti-NAP mAbs resulted in effective amelioration of paw oedema, radiological arthritic characteristics, serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and NAP, compared to that of untreated arthritic animals. Further, profiling of angiogenic markers such as synovial microvessel density, angiogenesis, CD31, VEGF and fms-like tyrosine kinase (Flt1) by immunohistochemistry both in arthritic and anti-NAP mAb-treated animals revealed the efficacy of mAb as an anti-angiogenic functional antibody. Therefore, NAP may be an attractive target to design anti-angiogenic and anti-arthritic therapies to control the pathogenesis of arthritis. © 2012 British Society for Immunology.

  1. Influence of pre- and post-treatment with caffeine on UV-induced effects in Oedogonium gunnii Wittr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Sudha; Sarma, Y.S.R.K.

    1981-01-01

    Zoospores and mature filaments of O.gunnii were treated with 0.05 and 0.25% of caffeine 2 hr prior and immediately after exposure to UV. While the caffeine treatment given 2 hr prior to UV-exposure lowered the percentage of chromosomal aberrations, the same concentrations of caffeine, when employed immediately after UV-exposure, resulted in an increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations. Caffeine appears to act as protective as well as potentiating agent in relation to UV-induced effects both with respect to survival of zoospores and chromosomal aberrations in mature filaments. (author)

  2. Acupuncture for radiation or combined treatment induced edema in arms and legs of breast and cervical cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardychev, M.S.; Guseva, L.I.; Zubova, N.D.

    1988-01-01

    Acupuncture was carried out in 141 sufferers from delayed radiation injuries to skin and soft tissues. 122 patients (86%) revealed clinical manifestations of edema of varying gravity in arms and legs, while 19 (14%) suffered radiation-induced neufritis or plexitis unaccompanied by edema. Radionuclide and rheographic studies as well as evaluation of hemostatic function showed acupuncture to be an effective treatment for edema and pain. it also improved lymph flow, rheovasographic indexes and normalized hemostasis. The best results were obtained in cases of stage 1-2 edema

  3. Placebo-controlled phase II study of vitamin K3 cream for the treatment of cetuximab-induced rash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jesper Grau; Kaalund, Inger; Clemmensen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    the effect of a vitamin K3 cream on cetuximab-induced rash. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty patients were included in this double-blinded placebo-controlled trial. Patients receiving cetuximab 500 mg/m(2) every second week plus chemotherapy for metastatic cancer were included. In each patient, vitamin K3 cream...... stained for EGFR and pEGFR. RESULTS: Application of vitamin K3 cream twice daily during treatment with cetuximab did not reduce the number of papulopustular eruptions, and this was independent of the use of systemic tetracycline. No significant changes in the staining of EGFR or pEGFR were observed...

  4. Modifications of roughness and wettability properties of metals induced by femtosecond laser treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizi-Bandoki, P.; Benayoun, S.; Valette, S.; Beaugiraud, B.; Audouard, E.

    2011-01-01

    Topographic and wetting properties of AISI 316L stainless steel and Ti-6Al-V alloys were modified via linearly polarized femtosecond laser pulse irradiation. In order to induce a gradual evolution of the surface topography and wettability, four samples of each alloy were irradiated with different number of pulses. From the topographic point of view, a multi-scale morphology made of nano- and micro-periodic ripples was induced. The increase in the number of pulses led to the appearance of a third scale structure of waviness that is due to the laser scanning. The wettability of alloys was changed from a hydrophilic behavior to a hydrophobic one without lowering surface energies by chemical coatings. The apparent contact angle (CA) increased with increasing the number of pulses. A rise of about 50 deg. of the apparent CA of the Ti-6Al-V was noticed.

  5. TNP-ATP is Beneficial for Treatment of Neonatal Hypoxia-Induced Hypomyelination and Cognitive Decline

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Jie; Huang, Yilong; Li, Xia; Li, Longjun; Yang, Ting; Huang, Lixuan; Yang, Ling; Jiang, Hong; Li, Hongchun; Li, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Our previous study together with other investigations have reported that neonatal hypoxia or ischemia induces long-term cognitive impairment, at least in part through brain inflammation and hypomyelination. However, the detailed mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we used a rodent model of neonatal hypoxia by subjecting postnatal day 0 (P0) rat pups to systemic hypoxia (3.5 h). We found that neonatal hypoxia increased the glutamate content and initiated inflammatory responses at 4 h an...

  6. Radiation-induced lung damage: Etiopathogenesis, clinical features, imaging findings and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Vasić Ljiljana; Đurđević Predrag

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. This review is related to the mechanism of development of radiation induced pneumonitis, its pathological, clinical and radiological features and therapy. The team treating cancer patients consists of radiation oncologists and oncologists, as well as general practitioners, pulmologists and radiologists for monitoring effects of therapy. Therefore, a different number of specialists should be familiar with the importance of diagnosis in order to avoid differential diagnostic...

  7. Assessment and Treatment of Blast-Induced Auditory and Vestibular Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Hearing loss and balance disorders are widespread among OIF/OEF veterans as a result of blast...key military medical issue. The debilitating consequences of acute blast-induced auditory and vestibular disorders (e.g. hearing loss, tinnitus, and...persisted over several months (Fig. 1). Compared to sham controls at 28 days post exposure, significantly elevated ABR thresholds and decreased wave

  8. New treatments on the horizon for chemoradiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhlmann, Christina H; Herrstedt, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Antiemetic prophylaxis for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, and the development of new antiemetic drugs are expanding areas of research. However, studies of antiemetic prophylaxis in chemoradiotherapy have not been prioritised, and little is known about th...... with palonosetron and dexamethasone. Even with this three-drug combination nausea is a significant problem and the effect of multi-receptor targeting antiemetics such as olanzapine and amisulpride should be explored in this setting....

  9. Differential gene expression and lipid metabolism in fatty liver induced by acute ethanol treatment in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Huquan; Kim, Mingoo; Kim, Ju-Han; Kong, Gu; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Yoon, Byung-IL; Lee, Mi-Ock; Lee, Byung-Hoon

    2007-01-01

    Ethanol induces cumulative liver damage including steatosis, steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. The aim of this study is to investigate the global intrahepatic gene expression profile in the mouse liver treated with ethanol. A single oral dose of 0.5 or 5 g/kg ethanol was administered to male ICR mice, and liver samples were obtained after 6, 24 and 72 h. Histopathological evaluation showed typical fatty livers in the high-dose group at 24 h. Microarray analysis identified 28 genes as being ethanol responsive (two-way ANOVA; p < 0.05), after adjustment by the Benjamini-Hochberg multiple testing correction; these genes displayed ≥ 2-fold induction or repression. The expression of genes that are known to be involved in fatty acid synthesis was examined. The transcript for lipogenic transcription factor, sterol regulatory element (SRE)-binding factor 1 (Srebf1), was upregulated by acute ethanol exposure. Of the genes known to contain SRE or SRE-like sequences and to be regulated by SRE-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), those encoding malic enzyme (Mod1), ATP-citrate lyase (Acly), fatty acid synthase (Fasn) and stearyl-CoA desaturase (Scd1) were induced by ethanol. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed the changes in the expression levels of the selected genes. The change in the Srebf1 mRNA level correlates well with that of the SREBP1 protein expression as well as its binding to the promoters of the target genes. The present study identifies differentially expressed genes that can be applied to the biomarkers for alcohol-binge-induced fatty liver. These results support the hypothesis by which ethanol-induced steatosis in mice is mediated by the fatty acid synthetic pathway regulated by SREBP1

  10. Multidisciplinary approach to treatment of radiation-induced chest wall sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, H Volkan; Gandolfi, Brad M; Williams, Judson B; D'Amico, Thomas A; Zenn, Michael R

    2016-08-01

    Radiation-induced sarcoma (RIS) is a rare complication following therapeutic external irradiation for lung cancer patients. Patients with RIS may develop recurrence or metastasis of the previous disease and also at high risk for early chest wall complications following operation, which requires close follow-up and multidisciplinary approach. We present a challenging case of RIS with a multidisciplinary teamwork in the decision-making and successful management.

  11. The role of stem cells in the prevention and treatment of radiation?induced xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Nevens, Daan; Nuyts, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Xerostomia is an important complication following radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer. Current treatment approaches are insufficient and can only temporarily relieve symptoms. New insights into the physiopathology of radiation?induced xerostomia might help us in this regard. This review discusses the current knowledge of salivary gland stem cells in radiation?induced xerostomia and their value in the prevention and treatment of this complication. Salivary gland stem cell trans...

  12. Early Treatment of radiation-Induced Heart Damage in Rats by Caffeic acid phenethyl Ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, S.S.; Mansour, H. H.

    2012-12-01

    The study designed to determine the therapeutic effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) in minimising radiation-induced injuries in rats. Rats were exposed to 7 Gy γ-rays, 30 minutes later; rats were injected with CAPE (10μmol/ kg body, i.p.) for 7 consecutive days. Rats were sacrificed at 8 and 15 days after starting the experiment. Gamma-irradiation induced significant increase in malonaldehyde (MDA) level and xanthine oxidase (XO) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities, and significant decrease in total nitrate/nitrate (NO (x)) level and glutathione peroxidise (Gpx), superoxide dismutase (SOD)and catalase (CAT) activities in heart tissue and augmented activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and aspartate transaminase (AST) in serum. Irradiated rats early treated with CAPE showed significant decrease in MDA, XO and ADA and significant increase in group. Cardiac enzymes were restored. Conclusion, CAPE could exhibits curable effect on gamma irradiation-induced cardiac-oxidative impairment in rats. (Author)

  13. Long-term treatment with royal jelly improves bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, Hamid Reza; Hemmati, Ali Asghar; Ghafourian, Mehri; Arzi, Ardeshir; Rezaie, Anahita; Javad-Moosavi, Seyed Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the anti-fibrotic potential of royal jelly (RJ) powder against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. The rats were given RJ orally (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg per day) for 7 consecutive days before the administration of single intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (BLM) at 7.5 IU/kg. RJ doses were continued for 21 days after BLM exposure. Fibrotic changes in the lungs were studied by cell count and analysis of cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), histopathological examination, and assaying oxidative stress biomarkers in lung tissue. The results showed that BLM administration significantly increased the fibrotic changes, collagen content, and levels of malondialdehyde and decreased total thiol and glutathione peroxidase antioxidant contents in the rats' lung tissue. An increase in the level of cell counts and pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokines such as TNF-α and TGF-β in BALF was observed. Also, it significantly decreased IFN-γ, an anti-fibrotic cytokine, in BALF. However, RJ (50 and 100 mg/kg) reversed all of these biochemical indices as well as histopathological alterations induced by BLM. The present study demonstrates that RJ, by its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, attenuates oxidative damage and fibrosis induced by BLM.

  14. Treatment of hypertension and renal injury induced by the angiogenesis inhibitor sunitinib: preclinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankhorst, Stephanie; Kappers, Mariëtte H W; van Esch, Joep H M; Smedts, Frank M M; Sleijfer, Stefan; Mathijssen, Ron H J; Baelde, Hans J; Danser, A H Jan; van den Meiracker, Anton H

    2014-12-01

    Common adverse effects of angiogenesis inhibition are hypertension and renal injury. To determine the most optimal way to prevent these adverse effects and to explore their interdependency, the following drugs were investigated in unrestrained Wistar Kyoto rats exposed to the angiogenesis inhibitor sunitinib: the dual endothelin receptor antagonist macitentan; the calcium channel blocker amlodipine; the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril; and the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor sildenafil. Mean arterial pressure was monitored telemetrically. After 8 days, rats were euthanized and blood samples and kidneys were collected. In addition, 24-hour urine samples were collected. After sunitinib start, mean arterial pressure increased rapidly by ≈30 mm Hg. Coadministration of macitentan or amlodipine largely prevented this rise, whereas captopril or sildenafil did not. Macitentan, captopril, and sildenafil diminished the sunitinib-induced proteinuria and endothelinuria and glomerular intraepithelial protein deposition, whereas amlodipine did not. Changes in proteinuria and endothelinuria were unrelated. We conclude that in our experimental model, dual endothelin receptor antagonism and calcium channel blockade are suitable to prevent angiogenesis inhibition-induced hypertension, whereas dual endothelin receptor antagonism, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibition can prevent angiogenesis inhibition-induced proteinuria. Moreover, the variable response of hypertension and renal injury to different antihypertensive agents suggests that these side effects are, at least in part, unrelated. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Effects of PPAR-γ agonist treatment on LPS-induced mastitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingfeng, Ding; Xiaodong, Ming; Yue, Liu; Taikui, Piao; Lei, Xiao; Ming, Liu

    2014-12-01

    PPAR-γ, a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, plays an important role in lipid metabolism and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the preventive effects of synthetic PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis in rats. The mouse model of mastitis was induced by the injection of LPS through the duct of the mammary gland. Rosiglitazone was injected 1 h before the induction of LPS intraperitoneally. The results showed that rosiglitazone attenuated the infiltration of inflammatory cells, the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), and the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, Western blotting showed that rosiglitazone inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB-α and NF-κB p65. These results indicated that rosiglitazone has a protective effect on mastitis, and the anti-inflammatory mechanism of rosiglitazone on LPS-induced mastitis in rats may be due to its ability to inhibit NF-κB signaling pathways. PPAR-γ may be a potential therapeutic target against mastitis.

  16. [Analogies between "fraction P" with immunosuppressive properties in pregnant females and a protein fraction induced by estradiol treatment in the amphibian Salamandra salamandra L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badet, M T

    1980-12-08

    A "fraction P" analogue possessing immunosuppressive properties during pregnancy in the Salamandra, can be induced by treating males and females with oestradiol. Both fractions possess the same physiochemical characteristics, and equally react against a Rabbit immune serum anti "fraction P" of pregnant Salamandra. But the proteic fraction induced by hormonal treatment does immunosuppressive properties.

  17. New approach to carbon monoxide poisoning treatment by laser-induced photodissociation of carboxyhemoglobin of cutaneous blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimov, Mustafo M.; Asimov, Rustam M.; Gisbrecht, Alexander

    2005-04-01

    A new approach to carbon monoxide poisoning treatment based on laser-induced photodissociation of the carboxyhemoglobin is proposed. Using the simple model of laser tissue interaction the action spectra of laser radiation on carboxyhemoglobin of cutaneous blood vessels has been calculated. The results of the calculatoins indicate that there is a relatively narrow spectral range in the visible region where one could effectively irradiate carboxyhemoglobin through the tissue not in a deep distances. In the case of deeper penetration, the action spectra of laser radiation shifts toward the longer wavelength region. Despite the similarity of the carboxyhemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin action spectra, the significant difference in quantum yields of photodissociation makes possible to develop an effective method of carbon monoxide poisoning treatment.

  18. Glycopyrrolate-induced craniofacial compensatory hyperhidrosis successfully treated with oxybutynin: report of a novel adverse effect and subsequent successful treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Megan E; Fischer, Ryan; Liu, Deede

    2016-10-15

    Hyperhidrosis, or abnormally increased sweating, is a condition that may have a primary or secondary cause. Usually medication- induced secondary hyperhidrosis manifests with generalized, rather than focal sweating. We report a 32-year-old woman with a history of palmoplantar hyperhidrosis for 15 years who presented for treatment and was prescribed oral glycopyrrolate. One month later, the palmoplantar hyperhidrosis had resolved, but she developed new persistent craniofacial sweating. After an unsuccessful trial of clonidine, oxybutynin resolved the craniofacial hyperhidrosis. To our knowledge, this is the first case of compensatory hyperhidrosis secondary to glycopyrrolate reported in the literature. The case highlights the importance of reviewing medication changes that correlate with new onset or changing hyperhidrosis. It also demonstrates a rare drug adverse effect with successful treatment.

  19. Role of p53 in Anticancer Drug Treatment- and Radiation-Induced Injury in Normal Small Intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Shi

    2012-01-01

    In the human gastrointestinal tract, the functional mucosa of the small intestine has the highest capacity for absorption of nutrients and rapid proliferation rates, making it vulnerable to chemoradiotherapy. Recent understanding of the protective role of p53-mediated cell cycle arrest in the small intestinal mucosa has led researchers to explore new avenues to mitigate mucosal injury during cancer treatment. A traditional p53 inhibitor and two other molecules that exhibit strong protective effects on normal small intestinal epithelium during anticancer drug treatment and radiation therapy are introduced in this work. The objective of this review was to update current knowledge regarding potential mechanisms and targets that inhibit the side effects induced by chemoradiotherapy

  20. Evaluation of effect of 3D video glasses on perceived pain and unpleasantness induced by restorative dental treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Bo; Svensson, Peter; Wenzel, Ann

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies on modulation of anxiety, pain and unpleasantness have documented a positive effect of video glasses (I-Glasses(TM), Virtual i-O(TM), Seattle, USA) on the perceived pain and unpleasantness under different laboratory and clinical conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate...... whether distraction induced by video glasses also had an effect on the perceived intensity of pain and unpleasantness during dental treatment. Pain and unpleasantness was evoked by the preparation (drilling) of a minor dental cavity (class I). Twenty-three patients (17 female and six male, age range 20......-49 years) with a need for an occlusal dental restoration in two homologous teeth participated in the study, In this split-mouth design, the patient received the dental treatment wearing 3D video glasses and without video glasses (control situation) in a randomized order. The tooth cavities were prepared...