WorldWideScience

Sample records for treatment ii swine

  1. Quality of diets with fludized bed combustion residue treatment: II. Swine trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitsel, T.J.; Reid, R.L.; Stout, W.L.; Hern, J.L.; Bennett, O.L.

    Growing pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) were fed for an 8-wk period in two trials on diets produced on soils treated with fluidized bed combustion residue (FBCR) or limestone. Diets contained corn (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) mixtures with soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) meal, supplemented with vegetables, fruits, and meat. Pigs were fed ad libitum and effects of diet treatment on rate of gain, N balance, blood composition, and element composition of the carcass and organs were determined. The FBCR diet caused a decrease (P<0.05 in Trial 1, P <0.07 in Trial 2) in body weight gains of pigs, but increased (P<0.05) N retention in one trial. Blood composition was not influenced markedly by diet treatment, with small but significant differences in serum Ca, triglycerides, certain amino acids, and whole blood Pb concentrations; effects were not consistent between trials. Urinary As concentration was slightly higher for pigs on FBCR diets. Analysis of the carcass and organs of pigs slaughtered posttrial showed significant differences in element levels from those of pretrial animals, but differences in tissue mineral concentrations related to diet treatment were few and inconsistent. Element concentrations in the organs of pigs were within normal ranges. No explanation for the depression in weight gain of pigs fed FBCR-treated diets was found. Except for the weight response, results support data from other trials with laboratory animals showing no apparent adverse effects of FBCR application to soils on nutritive quality of foods. 24 refs., 1 fig., 10 tabs.

  2. Swine manure digestate treatment using electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia Mores

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anaerobic biodigestion is an appropriate alternative for the treatment of swine wastewater due to its biogas generation properties and the possibility of its application as a source of energy for heating or electricity. However, digestate can still contain high levels of turbidity, organic carbon and nutrients and must be correctly managed as a biofertilizer, or treated to avoid any impact on the environment. Considering this, electrocoagulation (EC shows promise as a technology because of its ease of handling and high efficiency in effluent remediation. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of EC in a batch system in the treatment of swine wastewater digestate. The wastewater used in the treatment was sampled from a 10 m3 biodigestor effluent (digestate located at Concórdia, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A batch-scale experiment was carried out to evaluate the following two variables: electrode distance (ED and voltage applied (V. The removal efficiency levels (% for the best operational condition (2 cm, 5 V after 30 min were: 97 %, 98 %, 77 % and 10 % for color, turbidity, total organic carbon (TOC and total nitrogen (TN, respectively. The EC batch system produced efficient results, underlining its promise as an alternative to be applied in the treatment of digestate.

  3. GnRHR-II knockdown swine have constitutively lower serum testosterone concentrations, impaired senstitivity to GnRH analogues and reduced semen quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The second mammalian GnRH isoform (GnRH-II) and its specific receptor (GnRHR-II) are abundantly produced within swine testes. GnRHR-II localizes to porcine Leydig cells and exogenous GnRH-II treatment robustly stimulates testosterone production in vivo, despite minimal secretion of luteinizing hormo...

  4. Problematic effects of antibiotics on anaerobic treatment of swine wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, D L; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Chang, S W; Nguyen, D D; Kumar, S Mathava; Du, B; Wei, Q; Wei, D

    2018-05-04

    Swine wastewaters with high levels of organic pollutants and antibiotics have become serious environmental concerns. Anaerobic technology is a feasible option for swine wastewater treatment due to its advantage in low costs and bioenergy production. However, antibiotics in swine wastewater have problematic effects on micro-organisms, and the stability and performance of anaerobic processes. Thus, this paper critically reviews impacts of antibiotics on pH, COD removal efficiencies, biogas and methane productions as well as the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the anaerobic processes. Meanwhile, impacts on the structure of bacteria and methanogens in anaerobic processes are also discussed comprehensively. Furthermore, to better understand the effect of antibiotics on anaerobic processes, detailed information about antimicrobial mechanisms of antibiotics and microbial functions in anaerobic processes is also summarized. Future research on deeper knowledge of the effect of antibiotics on anaerobic processes are suggested to reduce their adverse environmental impacts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficacy of Influenza Vaccination and Tamiflu? Treatment ? Comparative Studies with Eurasian Swine Influenza Viruses in Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Duerrwald, Ralf; Schlegel, Michael; Bauer, Katja; Vissiennon, Th?ophile; Wutzler, Peter; Schmidtke, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological developments demonstrated that gene segments of swine influenza A viruses can account for antigenic changes as well as reduced drug susceptibility of pandemic influenza A viruses. This raises questions about the efficacy of preventive measures against swine influenza A viruses. Here, the protective effect of vaccination was compared with that of prophylactic Tamiflu® treatment against two Eurasian swine influenza A viruses. 11-week-old pigs were infected by aerosol nebu...

  6. Anammox biofilm in activated sludge swine wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Ryu; Ishimoto, Chikako; Chikyu, Mikio; Aihara, Yoshito; Matsumoto, Toshimi; Uenishi, Hirohide; Yasuda, Tomoko; Fukumoto, Yasuyuki; Waki, Miyoko

    2017-01-01

    We investigated anammox with a focus on biofilm in 10 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that use activated sludge treatment of swine wastewater. In three plants, we found red biofilms in aeration tanks or final sedimentation tanks. The biofilm had higher anammox 16S rRNA gene copy numbers (up to 1.35 × 10 12 copies/g-VSS) and higher anammox activity (up to 295 μmoL/g-ignition loss/h) than suspended solids in the same tank. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Planctomycetes accounted for up to 17.7% of total reads in the biofilm. Most of them were related to Candidatus Brocadia or Ca. Jettenia. The highest copy number and the highest proportion of Planctomycetes were comparable to those of enriched anammox sludge. Thus, swine WWTPs that use activated sludge treatment can fortuitously acquire anammox biofilm. Thus, concentrated anammox can be detected by focusing on red biofilm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Integrated anaerobic/aerobic biological treatment for intensive swine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortone, Giuseppe

    2009-11-01

    Manure processing could help farmers to effectively manage nitrogen (N) surplus load. Many pig farms have to treat wastewater. Piggery wastewater treatment is a complex challenge, due to the high COD and N concentrations and low C/N ratio. Anaerobic digestion (AD) could be a convenient pre-treatment, particularly from the energetic view point and farm income, but this causes further reduction of C/N ratio and makes denitrification difficult. N removal can only be obtained integrating anaerobic/aerobic treatment by taking into account the best use of electron donors. Experiences gained in Italy during development of integrated biological treatment approaches for swine manure, from bench to full scale, are reported in this paper. Solid/liquid separation as pre-treatment of raw manure is an efficient strategy to facilitate liquid fraction treatment without significantly lowering C/N ratio. In Italy, two full scale SBRs showed excellent efficiency and reliability. Current renewable energy policy and incentives makes economically attractive the application of AD to the separated solid fraction using high solid anaerobic digester (HSAD) technology. Economic evaluation showed that energy production can reduce costs up to 60%, making sustainable the overall treatment.

  8. Efficacy of influenza vaccination and tamiflu® treatment--comparative studies with Eurasian Swine influenza viruses in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerrwald, Ralf; Schlegel, Michael; Bauer, Katja; Vissiennon, Théophile; Wutzler, Peter; Schmidtke, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological developments demonstrated that gene segments of swine influenza A viruses can account for antigenic changes as well as reduced drug susceptibility of pandemic influenza A viruses. This raises questions about the efficacy of preventive measures against swine influenza A viruses. Here, the protective effect of vaccination was compared with that of prophylactic Tamiflu® treatment against two Eurasian swine influenza A viruses. 11-week-old pigs were infected by aerosol nebulisation with high doses of influenza virus A/swine/Potsdam/15/1981 (H1N1/1981, heterologous challenge to H1N1 vaccine strain) and A/swine/Bakum/1832/2000 (H1N2/2000, homologous challenge to H1N2 vaccine strain) in two independent trials. In each trial (i) 10 pigs were vaccinated twice with a trivalent vaccine (RESPIPORC® FLU3; 28 and 7 days before infection), (ii) another 10 pigs received 150 mg/day of Tamiflu® for 5 days starting 12 h before infection, and (iii) 12 virus-infected pigs were left unvaccinated and untreated and served as controls. Both viruses replicated efficiently in porcine respiratory organs causing influenza with fever, dyspnoea, and pneumonia. Tamiflu® treatment as well as vaccination prevented clinical signs and significantly reduced virus shedding. Whereas after homologous challenge with H1N2/2000 no infectious virus in lung and hardly any lung inflammation were detected, the virus titre was not and the lung pathology was only partially reduced in H1N1/1981, heterologous challenged pigs. Tamiflu® application did not affect these study parameters. In conclusion, all tested preventive measures provided protection against disease. Vaccination additionally prevented virus replication and histopathological changes in the lung of homologous challenged pigs.

  9. Efficacy of influenza vaccination and tamiflu® treatment--comparative studies with Eurasian Swine influenza viruses in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Duerrwald

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiological developments demonstrated that gene segments of swine influenza A viruses can account for antigenic changes as well as reduced drug susceptibility of pandemic influenza A viruses. This raises questions about the efficacy of preventive measures against swine influenza A viruses. Here, the protective effect of vaccination was compared with that of prophylactic Tamiflu® treatment against two Eurasian swine influenza A viruses. 11-week-old pigs were infected by aerosol nebulisation with high doses of influenza virus A/swine/Potsdam/15/1981 (H1N1/1981, heterologous challenge to H1N1 vaccine strain and A/swine/Bakum/1832/2000 (H1N2/2000, homologous challenge to H1N2 vaccine strain in two independent trials. In each trial (i 10 pigs were vaccinated twice with a trivalent vaccine (RESPIPORC® FLU3; 28 and 7 days before infection, (ii another 10 pigs received 150 mg/day of Tamiflu® for 5 days starting 12 h before infection, and (iii 12 virus-infected pigs were left unvaccinated and untreated and served as controls. Both viruses replicated efficiently in porcine respiratory organs causing influenza with fever, dyspnoea, and pneumonia. Tamiflu® treatment as well as vaccination prevented clinical signs and significantly reduced virus shedding. Whereas after homologous challenge with H1N2/2000 no infectious virus in lung and hardly any lung inflammation were detected, the virus titre was not and the lung pathology was only partially reduced in H1N1/1981, heterologous challenged pigs. Tamiflu® application did not affect these study parameters. In conclusion, all tested preventive measures provided protection against disease. Vaccination additionally prevented virus replication and histopathological changes in the lung of homologous challenged pigs.

  10. Efficacy of Influenza Vaccination and Tamiflu® Treatment – Comparative Studies with Eurasian Swine Influenza Viruses in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerrwald, Ralf; Schlegel, Michael; Bauer, Katja; Vissiennon, Théophile; Wutzler, Peter; Schmidtke, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological developments demonstrated that gene segments of swine influenza A viruses can account for antigenic changes as well as reduced drug susceptibility of pandemic influenza A viruses. This raises questions about the efficacy of preventive measures against swine influenza A viruses. Here, the protective effect of vaccination was compared with that of prophylactic Tamiflu® treatment against two Eurasian swine influenza A viruses. 11-week-old pigs were infected by aerosol nebulisation with high doses of influenza virus A/swine/Potsdam/15/1981 (H1N1/1981, heterologous challenge to H1N1 vaccine strain) and A/swine/Bakum/1832/2000 (H1N2/2000, homologous challenge to H1N2 vaccine strain) in two independent trials. In each trial (i) 10 pigs were vaccinated twice with a trivalent vaccine (RESPIPORC® FLU3; 28 and 7 days before infection), (ii) another 10 pigs received 150 mg/day of Tamiflu® for 5 days starting 12 h before infection, and (iii) 12 virus-infected pigs were left unvaccinated and untreated and served as controls. Both viruses replicated efficiently in porcine respiratory organs causing influenza with fever, dyspnoea, and pneumonia. Tamiflu® treatment as well as vaccination prevented clinical signs and significantly reduced virus shedding. Whereas after homologous challenge with H1N2/2000 no infectious virus in lung and hardly any lung inflammation were detected, the virus titre was not and the lung pathology was only partially reduced in H1N1/1981, heterologous challenged pigs. Tamiflu® application did not affect these study parameters. In conclusion, all tested preventive measures provided protection against disease. Vaccination additionally prevented virus replication and histopathological changes in the lung of homologous challenged pigs. PMID:23630601

  11. SOILS AS NATURAL REACTORS FOR SWINE WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Bautista

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability of soils to mineralize organic matter depends on their individual characteristics; when waste waters are added to them their organic matter content (OM, cationic exchange capacity (CEC and percentage of clay (PC are altered. Pedotransfer functions (PTF enable certain processes to be determined from easily measured soil properties. The aims of this study were i to generate PTF to estimate the retention and mineralisation of dissolved organic matter (DOM present in swine wastewater (SWW based on measurements of OM, CEC and PC and ii to identify the soils most suited to acting as natural reactors for treating SWW, using multicriteria analysis. Samples were taken from ten soils (epipedons or superficial samples to measure the retention of dissolved organic matter (RDOM in 30 cm high soil columns, making three applications of SWW. In addition, an experiment was carried out in pots to measure the effect of SWW on soil carbon evolution (SCE and the potential anaerobic nitrogen mineralisation (PANM. Multiple regressions were made using soil OM (%, CEC (cmol+ kg-1 and PC (% as independent variables and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, SCE and PANM as dependent variables. The PFT found were RDOM = 41.5 + (2.8*CEC – (0.81*PC – (3.5*OM  r= 0.81; SCE =  542.3 + (20.1*OM + (4.6*CEC – (2.7*PC r= 0.96; PANM = -8.4 + (3.45*OM + (1.12*PC – (2.20*CEC r= 0.88. The most suitable soils for acting as natural reactors of SWW were the Luvisol LVct and an unclassified EPI-1. Â

  12. Advanced treatment of liquid swine manure using physico-chemical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelme-Ayala, Pamela [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); El-Din, Mohamed Gamal, E-mail: mgamalel-din@ualberta.ca [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Smith, Richard [Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Code, Kenneth R. [IOWC Technologies Inc., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Leonard, Jerry [Edmonton Waste Management Centre of Excellence, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2011-02-28

    Research highlights: {yields} Swine manure was treated by coagulation/flocculation followed by an oxidation step. {yields} This physicochemical treatment removed suspended solids, total organic carbon and nutrients. {yields} Complete total coliforms reduction was achieved in diluted swine manure samples. {yields} Levels of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, and carbon dioxide gases were reduced. {yields} Reduced sludge production was achieved at natural swine manure pH. - Abstract: In this study, liquid swine manure was treated by physico-chemical treatment, including coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation followed by an oxidation step as a polishing treatment at a bench-scale level. A superabsorbent polymer (SAP) and a mineral and salt formulation able to generate molecular iodine were used as coagulant and oxidant agents, respectively. The results indicated that SAP at a concentration of 1.25 g/L was able to reduce 32% of the initial total suspended solids (TSS) in experiments using supernatant at its natural pH. Following the SAP application, 82% of initial ammonia (NH{sub 3}), 78% of initial total organic carbon (TOC), and 93% of the total coliforms were reduced using 40 mg/L of free iodine. In experiments performed with diluted supernatant (five-fold dilution), it was found that SAP at a concentration of 0.5 g/L was capable of reducing 80% of the initial TSS in experiments at pH 11. A leaching study was conducted to assess the safety of sludge disposal. From the leaching tests using non-diluted supernatant, it was found that 24% of the chloride (Cl{sup -}) and 50% of the phosphate (PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}) ions retained in the sludge leached to the ultrapure water after 48 h. Potential contamination due to leaching of NH{sub 3}, nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup -}) and nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) was found to be statistically insignificant.

  13. Viability analysis of EMBRAPA's swine manure treatment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miele, Marcelo; Kunz, Airton; Seganfredo, Milton Antonio; Steinmetz, Ricardo [EMBRAPA Suinos e Aves, Concordia, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: mmiele@cnpsa.embrapa.br; Bortoli, Marcelo [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The swine manure treatment is based on several technologies, such as pond systems, composting, biodigesters, and compact process like the EMBRAPA's Swine Manure Treatment System. The last one can reach high quality effluent with reduced pollution, although it demands higher investment and costs. For this reason it is necessary to manage revenues with byproducts and carbon credit markets. The aim of this study was to present a viability analysis of EMBRAPA's swine manure treatment system considering its potential revenues facing higher costs. Using market prices and measured data from a prototype running in south Brazil, the study calculated costs, revenues, profit, net present value and internal rate return. It also estimated these indicators assuming scale economies. The results showed that the investment can pay its costs by its insertion in the carbon credit market and other revenues like the energy substitution. It also showed the importance to reach scale economies. (author)

  14. Carbon sequestration in surface flow constructed wetland after 12 years of swine wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constructed wetlands used for the treatment of swine wastewater may potentially sequester significant amounts of carbon. In past studies, we evaluated the treatment efficiency of wastewater in marsh-pond-marsh design wetland system. The functionality of this system was highly dependent on soil carbo...

  15. Aerobic treatment of swine manure to enhance anaerobic digestion and microalgal cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekoe, Dominic; Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Bo; Scott Todd, Matthew; Shahbazi, Abolghasem

    2018-02-01

    Aerobic treatment of swine manure was coupled with anaerobic digestion and microalgal cultivation. A 14-day aerobic treatment reduced the total solid content of swine manure by >15%. Ammonia and carbon dioxide were stripped by the air supplied, and this off-gas was further used to aerate the culture of Chlorella vulgaris. The microalgal growth rates in Bristol medium and the wastewater with the off-gas increased from 0.08 to 0.22 g/L/d and from 0.15 to 0.24 g/L/d, respectively. Meanwhile, the aerobically treated swine manure showed a higher methane yield during anaerobic digestion. The experimental results were used to establish a demonstration unit consisting of a 100 L composter, a 200 L anaerobic digester, a 60 L tubular photobioreactor, and a 300 L micro-open raceway pond.

  16. Treatment rates for injectable tiamulin and lincomycin as an estimate of morbidity in a swine herd with endemic swine dysentery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Krysia; Friendship, Robert; Brockoff, Egan; Greer, Amy; Poljak, Zvonimir

    2017-05-01

    Treatment can be used as an indirect measure of morbidity, and treatment records can be used to describe disease patterns in a population. The aim of this study was to describe the rates of treatments with tiamulin and lincomycin by the intramuscular route in cohorts of pigs affected by swine dysentery. Data from treatment records from 19 cohorts of a 1500-head grower-finisher barn were analyzed using Poisson regression to determine factors associated with rates of treatment. Serial interval and reproductive numbers were extracted. Treatment rates displayed marked seasonality. The mean serial interval was estimated at 17 d with variability among batches. In the early period of most cohorts, the effective reproductive number did not exceed 1, and the highest estimate was 2.15 (95% CI: 1.46, 3.20). The average days-to-first treatment was 4.8 which suggests that pigs could have been infected at time of entry. The information about possible sources of infection and likely seasonality should be considered when developing disease and infection control measures in affected barns.

  17. Evaluation of five antibiotic resistance genes in wastewater treatment systems of swine farms by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Chi-Wei; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Ji, Wen-Tsai; Hsu, Tsui-Kang; Kao, Po-Min; Hsu, Chun-Po; Shen, Shu-Min; Shen, Tzung-Yu; Wan, Terng-Jou; Huang, Yu-Li

    2014-10-15

    Antibiotics are widely used in livestock for infection treatment and growth promotion. Wastes from animal husbandry are a potential environmental source of antibiotic-insensitive pathogens, and the removal efficiency of the resistance genotypes in current wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is unknown. In this study, quantitative PCR was used for evaluating antibiotic resistance genes in wastewater treatment processes. Six wastewater treatment plants in different swine farms were included in this study, and five antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were tested for each treatment procedure. All of the tested ARGs including tetA, tetW, sulI, sulII, and blaTEM genes were detected in six swine farms with considerable amounts. The results showed that antibiotic resistance is prevalent in livestock farming. The ARG levels were varied by wastewater treatment procedure, frequently with the highest level at anaerobic treatment tank and lowest in the activated sludge unit and the effluents. After normalizing the ARG levels to 16S rRNA gene copies, the results showed that ARGs in WWTP units fluctuated partly with the quantity of bacteria. Regardless of its importance in biodegradation, the anaerobic procedure may facilitate bacterial growth thus increasing the sustainability of the antibiotic resistance genotypes. After comparing the copy numbers in influx and efflux samples, the mean removal efficiency of ARGs ranged between 33.30 and 97.56%. The results suggested that treatments in the WWTP could partially reduce the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and additional procedures such as sedimentation may not critically affect the removal efficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Performance of two swine manure treatment systems on chemical composition and on the reduction of pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viancelli, A; Kunz, A; Steinmetz, R L R; Kich, J D; Souza, C K; Canal, C W; Coldebella, A; Esteves, P A; Barardi, C R M

    2013-01-01

    Swine effluents must be correctly handled to avoid negative environmental impacts. In this study, the profiles of two swine manure treatment systems were evaluated: a solid-liquid separation step, followed by an anaerobic reactor, and an aerobic step (System 1); and a biodigester followed by serial lagoons (System 2). Both systems were described by the assessment of chemical, bacterial and viral parameters. The results showed that in System 1, there was reduction of chemicals (COD, phosphorus, total Kjeldhal nitrogen - TKN - and NH(3)), total coliforms and Escherichia coli; however, the same reduction was not observed for Salmonella sp. Viral particles were significantly reduced but not totally eliminated from the effluent. In System 2, there was a reduction of chemicals, bacteria and viruses with no detection of Salmonella sp., circovirus, parvovirus, and torque teno virus in the effluent. The chemical results indicate that the treated effluent can be reused for cleaning swine facilities. However, the microbiological results show a need of additional treatment to achieve a complete inactivation for cases when direct contact with animals is required. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Microbiome characterization of MFCs used for the treatment of swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilajeliu-Pons, Anna; Puig, Sebastià; Pous, Narcís; Salcedo-Dávila, Inmaculada; Bañeras, Lluís; Balaguer, Maria Dolors; Colprim, Jesús

    2015-05-15

    Conventional swine manure treatment is performed by anaerobic digestion, but nitrogen is not treated. Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) allow organic matter and nitrogen removal with concomitant electricity production. MFC microbiomes treating industrial wastewaters as swine manure have not been characterized. In this study, a multidisciplinary approach allowed microbiome relation with nutrient removal capacity and electricity production. Two different MFC configurations (C-1 and C-2) were used to treat swine manure. In C-1, the nitrification and denitrification processes took place in different compartments, while in C-2, simultaneous nitrification-denitrification occurred in the cathode. Clostridium disporicum and Geobacter sulfurreducens were identified in the anode compartments of both systems. C. disporicum was related to the degradation of complex organic matter compounds and G. sulfurreducens to electricity production. Different nitrifying bacteria populations were identified in both systems because of the different operational conditions. The highest microbial diversity was detected in cathode compartments of both configurations, including members of Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexiaceae and Proteobacteria. These communities allowed similar removal rates of organic matter (2.02-2.09 kg COD m(-3)d(-1)) and nitrogen (0.11-0.16 kg Nm(-3)d(-1)) in both systems. However, they differed in the generation of electric energy (20 and 2 mW m(-3) in C-1 and C-2, respectively). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Swine flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Sinha

    Full Text Available Summary: The recent outbreak of human infection with a novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1 virus is spreading rapidly through sustained human-to-human transmission in multiple countries. Human-to-human transmission occurs by inhalation of infectious droplets and droplet nuclei, and by direct contact, which is facilitated by air and land travel and social gatherings. The most frequently reported symptoms are fever, cough, myalgia, and sore throat. Detailed contact and travel histories and knowledge of viral activity in community are essential for prompt case detection by the health personnel. Real-time Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction analysis of throat swabs or lower respiratory samples is a sensitive means of diagnosis. Use of oral oseltamivir may be warranted for the treatment of severe illness. Keywords: Swine influenza, H1N1, Swine flu, Oseltamivir

  1. Spread of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli harboring integron via swine farm waste water treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Hyeong; Kim, Young-Ji; Binn-Kim; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2018-03-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that release treated wastewater into the environment have emerged as a major threat to public health. In this study, we investigated Escherichia coli load and antibiotic-resistance profiles across different treatment processes at a swine farm WWTP. The frequency of the detection of class 1 and 2 integrons, and their association with antibiotic resistance, were also analyzed. Samples were obtained at each of five sampling sites that represented each processing step within the WWTP. The largest decrease in E. coli load was observed during the anaerobic digestion step (from 4.86 to 2.89log CFU/mL). Isolates resistant to β-lactam antibiotics were efficiently removed after a series of treatment steps, whereas the proportions of isolates resistant to non-β-lactam antibiotics and multidrug-resistant strains were maintained across treatments. The occurrence of integron-positive strains was not significantly different at the various sampling sites (43.4-70%; p>0.05). Of the class 1 integron-positive isolates, 17.9% harbored the integron-associated gene cassettes aadA2, aadA12, aadA22, and dfrA15. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of a class 1 integron containing the aadA12 gene cassette from a swine farm and the presence of a class 1 integron containing dfrA15 in E. coli. This suggests that novel antibiotic-resistance gene cassette arrays could be generated in swine farm WWTPs. Moreover, 75% of integron-positive strains were categorized as multidrug resistant, whereas only 15.4% of integron-negative strains were multidrug resistant (pswine farm WWTPs in terms of the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria to the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Swine wastewater treatment using vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland planted with Napier grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantip Klomjek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the pollutant removal efficiencies in swine wastewater using a vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland (VSF CW planted with two species of Napier grass. The grass productivities were also cultivated and compared in order to provide information for species selection. Twelve treatment units were set up with the VSF CWs planted with Giant Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. King grass and Dwarf Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Mott. with 2 and 5 cm d−1 of hydraulic loading rates (HLR. Comparisons of removal efficiency and grass productivity were analyzed using Duncan's Multiple Range Test and t-test at the significant level 0.05. Both species of Napier grass performed more than 70% of removal efficiency of BOD and TKN. The VSF CW planted with Giant Napier grass at 5 cm d−1 HLR performed the highest BOD removal efficiency of 94 ± 1%, while the 2 cm d−1 HLR removed COD with efficiency of 64 ± 6%. The results also showed the effluent from all treatment units contained averages of BOD, COD, TSS, TKN and pH that followed Thailand's swine wastewater quality standard. Average fresh yields and dry yields were between 4.6 ± 0.4 to 15.2 ± 1.2 and 0.5 ± 0.1 to 2.2 ± 0.1 kg m−2, respectively. The dry yields obtained from four cutting cycles in five months of CW system operation were higher than the ones planted with a traditional method, but declined continuously after each cutting cycle. Both species of Napier grass indicated their suitability to be used in the VSF CW for swine wastewater treatment.

  3. External Resistances Applied to MFC Affect Core Microbiome and Swine Manure Treatment Efficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilajeliu-Pons, Anna; Bañeras, Lluis; Puig, Sebastià; Molognoni, Daniele; Vilà-Rovira, Albert; Hernández-del Amo, Elena; Balaguer, Maria D.; Colprim, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can be designed to combine water treatment with concomitant electricity production. Animal manure treatment has been poorly explored using MFCs, and its implementation at full-scale primarily relies on the bacterial distribution and activity within the treatment cell. This study reports the bacterial community changes at four positions within the anode of two almost identically operated MFCs fed swine manure. Changes in the microbiome structure are described according to the MFC fluid dynamics and the application of a maximum power point tracking system (MPPT) compared to a fixed resistance system (Ref-MFC). Both external resistance and cell hydrodynamics are thought to heavily influence MFC performance. The microbiome was characterised both quantitatively (qPCR) and qualitatively (454-pyrosequencing) by targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The diversity of the microbial community in the MFC biofilm was reduced and differed from the influent swine manure. The adopted electric condition (MPPT vs fixed resistance) was more relevant than the fluid dynamics in shaping the MFC microbiome. MPPT control positively affected bacterial abundance and promoted the selection of putatively exoelectrogenic bacteria in the MFC core microbiome (Sedimentibacter sp. and gammaproteobacteria). These differences in the microbiome may be responsible for the two-fold increase in power production achieved by the MPPT-MFC compared to the Ref-MFC. PMID:27701451

  4. Cost-effective treatment of swine wastes through recovery of energy and nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Adib; Aponte-Morales, Veronica; Wang, Meng; Dilbeck, Merrill; Lahav, Ori; Zhang, Qiong; Cunningham, Jeffrey A; Ergas, Sarina J

    2017-11-01

    Wastes from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are challenging to treat because they are high in organic matter and nutrients. Conventional swine waste treatment options in the U.S., such as uncovered anaerobic lagoons, result in poor effluent quality and greenhouse gas emissions, and implementation of advanced treatment introduces high costs. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to evaluate the performance and life cycle costs of an alternative system for treating swine CAFO waste, which recovers valuable energy (as biogas) and nutrients (N, P, K + ) as saleable fertilizers. The system uses in-vessel anaerobic digestion (AD) for methane production and solids stabilization, followed by struvite precipitation and ion exchange (IX) onto natural zeolites (chabazite or clinoptilolite) for nutrient recovery. An alternative approach that integrated struvite recovery and IX into a single reactor, termed STRIEX, was also investigated. Pilot- and bench-scale reactor experiments were used to evaluate the performance of each stage in the treatment train. Data from these studies were integrated into a life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) to assess the cost-effectiveness of various process alternatives. Significant improvement in water quality, high methane production, and high nutrient recovery (generally over 90%) were observed with both the AD-struvite-IX process and the AD-STRIEX process. The LCCA showed that the STRIEX system can provide considerable financial savings compared to conventional systems. AD, however, incurs high capital costs compared to conventional anaerobic lagoons and may require larger scales to become financially attractive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Occurrence of antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes in beef cattle storage ponds and swine treatment lagoons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yuping; Zhang, Chiqian; Parker, David B.; Snow, Daniel D.; Zhou, Zhi; Li, Xu

    2013-01-01

    Livestock manure treatment and storage structures are potential environmental sources of antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). In this study, the occurrence of antimicrobials and ARGs was investigated in the water and the sludge compartments of beef cattle storage ponds and swine lagoons. Analysis was focused on two families of antimicrobials (sulfonamide and tetracycline) and the corresponding ARGs (sul1, sul2, tetO, tetQ and tetX). Results showed that the pseudo-partitioning coefficients of tetracyclines were higher than those of sulfonamides, suggesting different distributions of these two classes of antimicrobials between water and sludge. The ARGs tested were detected in nearly all ponds and lagoons, with the highest relative abundance in sul2 at 6.3 × 10 −1 copies per 16S rRNA gene. A positive correlation was observed between total sul genes and total sulfonamides in water while the correlation was negative in sludge. No significant correlation was found between total tet genes and total tetracyclines in either water or sludge, but significant correlations were observed for certain individual tet genes. Ammonia concentrations strongly correlated with all ARGs except tetX. This study provided quantitative information on the occurrence of antimicrobials and ARGs in the liquid and solid compartments of typical manure treatment and storage structures. - Highlights: • Partitioning of antimicrobials between water and sludge is compound specific. • Antimicrobial resistance genes occurred in both water and sludge. • The ARG abundance varied more substantially in swine lagoons than in cattle ponds. • Correlations between ARGs and antimicrobials are system dependent

  6. Occurrence of antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes in beef cattle storage ponds and swine treatment lagoons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuping; Zhang, Chiqian [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE (United States); Parker, David B. [USDA Meat Animal Research Center, Clay Center, NE (United States); Snow, Daniel D. [Water Sciences Laboratory, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE (United States); Zhou, Zhi [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Li, Xu, E-mail: xuli@unl.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Livestock manure treatment and storage structures are potential environmental sources of antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). In this study, the occurrence of antimicrobials and ARGs was investigated in the water and the sludge compartments of beef cattle storage ponds and swine lagoons. Analysis was focused on two families of antimicrobials (sulfonamide and tetracycline) and the corresponding ARGs (sul1, sul2, tetO, tetQ and tetX). Results showed that the pseudo-partitioning coefficients of tetracyclines were higher than those of sulfonamides, suggesting different distributions of these two classes of antimicrobials between water and sludge. The ARGs tested were detected in nearly all ponds and lagoons, with the highest relative abundance in sul2 at 6.3 × 10{sup −1} copies per 16S rRNA gene. A positive correlation was observed between total sul genes and total sulfonamides in water while the correlation was negative in sludge. No significant correlation was found between total tet genes and total tetracyclines in either water or sludge, but significant correlations were observed for certain individual tet genes. Ammonia concentrations strongly correlated with all ARGs except tetX. This study provided quantitative information on the occurrence of antimicrobials and ARGs in the liquid and solid compartments of typical manure treatment and storage structures. - Highlights: • Partitioning of antimicrobials between water and sludge is compound specific. • Antimicrobial resistance genes occurred in both water and sludge. • The ARG abundance varied more substantially in swine lagoons than in cattle ponds. • Correlations between ARGs and antimicrobials are system dependent.

  7. Treatment with interferon-alpha delays disease in swine infected with a highly virulent CSFV strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is an economically significant, highly contagious swine disease. The etiological agent, CSF virus (CSFV), is an enveloped virus with a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome, classified as a member of the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae (Becher et al.,...

  8. Anaerobic treatment of apple waste with swine manure for biogas production: Batch and continuous operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafle, Gopi Krishna; Kim, Sang Hun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Apple waste (AW) was co-digested with swine manure (SM). ► Mixture of AW and SM produced a higher biogas yield than SM only. ► Mixture of AW and SM produced a higher biogas yield at 55 °C than at 36.5 °C. ► Modified Gompertz model best fitted to the substrates used. ► Positive synergetic effect up to 33% AW during continuous digestion. -- Abstract: This study evaluated the performance of anaerobic digesters using a mixture of apple waste (AW) and swine manure (SM). Tests were performed using both batch and continuous digesters. The batch test evaluated the gas potential, gas production rate of the AW and SM (Experiment I), and the effect of AW co-digestion with SM (33:67,% volatile solids (VSs) basis) (Experiment II) at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures. The first-order kinetic model and modified Gompertz model were also evaluated for methane yield. The continuous test evaluated the performance of a single stage completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with different mixture ratios of AW and SM at mesophilic temperature. The ultimate biogas and methane productivity of AW in terms of total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) was determined to be 510 and 252 mL/g TCOD added, respectively. The mixture of AW and SM improved the biogas yield by approximately 16% and 48% at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures, respectively, compared to the use of SM only, but no significant difference was found in the methane yield. The difference between the predicted and measured methane yield was higher with a first order kinetic model (4.6–18.1%) than with a modified Gompertz model (1.2–3.4%). When testing continuous digestion, the methane yield increased from 146 to 190 mL/g TCOD added when the AW content in the feed was increased from 25% to 33% (VS basis) at a constant organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.6 g VS/L/d and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 30 days. However, the total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) accumulation increased rapidly and the p

  9. Effects of thermal treatment on high solid anaerobic digestion of swine manure: Enhancement assessment and kinetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Hu, Yu-Ying; Wang, Shi-Feng; Cao, Zhi-Ping; Li, Huai-Zhi; Fu, Xin-Mei; Wang, Kai-Jun; Zuo, Jian-E

    2017-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD), which is a process for generating biogas, can be applied to the treatment of organic wastes. Owing to its smaller footprint, lower energy consumption, and less digestate, high solid anaerobic digestion (HSAD) has attracted increasing attention. However, its biogas production is poor. In order to improve biogas production and decrease energy consumption, an improved thermal treatment process was proposed. Raw swine manure (>20% solid content) without any dilution was thermally treated at 70±1°C for different retention times, and then its effect on HSAD was investigated via batch AD experiments at 8.9% solid content. Results showed that the main organic components of swine manure hydrolyzed significantly during the thermal treatment, and HSAD's methane production rate was improved by up to 39.5%. Analysis using two kinetic models confirmed that the treatment could increase biodegradable organics (especially the readily biodegradable organics) in swine manure rather than upgrading its hydrolysis rate. It is worth noting that the superimposed first-order kinetics model was firstly applied in AD, and was a good tool to reveal the AD kinetics mechanism of substrates with complex components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Vegetated treatment area (VTAs) efficiencies for E. coli and nutrient removal on small-scale swine operations

    OpenAIRE

    R. Daren Harmel; Rehanon Pampell; Terry Gentry; Doug R. Smith; Chad Hajda; Kevin Wagner; Patti K. Smith; Rick L. Haney; Kori D. Higgs

    2018-01-01

    As small-scale animal feeding operations work to manage their byproducts and avoid regulation, they need practical, cost-effective methods to reduce environmental impact. One such option is using vegetative treatment areas (VTAs) with perennial grasses to treat runoff; however, research is limited on VTA effectiveness as a waste management alternative for smaller operations. This study evaluated the efficiencies of VTAs in reducing bacteria and nutrient runoff from small-scale swine operation...

  11. Advanced treatment of swine wastewater using an agent synthesized from amorphous silica and hydrated lime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasuo; Hasegawa, Teruaki; Sugimoto, Kiyomi; Miura, Keiichi; Aketo, Tsuyoshi; Minowa, Nobutaka; Toda, Masaya; Kinoshita, Katsumi; Yamashita, Takahiro; Ogino, Akifumi

    2014-01-01

    Advanced treatment using an agent synthesized from amorphous silica and hydrated lime (M-CSH-lime) was developed and applied to swine wastewater treatment. Biologically treated wastewater and M-CSH-lime (approximately 6 w/v% slurry) were fed continuously into a column-shaped reactor from its bottom. Accumulated M-CSH-lime gradually formed a bed layer. The influent permeated this layer and contacted the M-CSH-lime, and the treatment reaction progressed. Treated liquid overflowing from the top of the reactor was neutralized with CO₂gas bubbling. The colour removal rate approximately exceeded 50% with M-CSH-lime addition rates of > 0.15 w/v%. The removal rate of PO(3⁻)(4) exceeded 80% with the addition of>0.03 w/v% of M-CSH-lime. The removal rates of coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli exceeded 99.9% with > 0.1 w/v%. Accumulated M-CSH-lime in the reactor was periodically withdrawn from the upper part of the bed layer. The content of citric-acid-soluble P₂O₅ in the recovered matter was>15% when the weight ratio of influent PO(3⁻)(4) -P to added M-CSH-lime was > 0.15. This content was comparable with commercial phosphorus fertilizer. The inhibitory effect of recovered M-CSH-lime on germination and growth of leafy vegetable komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis) was evaluated by an experiment using the Neubauer's pot. The recovered M-CSH-lime had no negative effect on germination and growth. These results suggest that advanced water treatment with M-CSH-lime was effective for simultaneous removal of colour, [Formula: see text] and coliform bacteria at an addition rate of 0.03-0.15 w/v%, and that the recovered M-CSH-lime would be suitable as phosphorus fertilizer.

  12. Performance of the macrophyte Lemna valdiviana in tertiary pig waste treatment and its contribution to the sustainability of swine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio R. Lapolli

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to contribute to the sustainability of swine production by evaluating usage of the aquatic macrophyte Lemna valdiviana in the tertiary treatment of pig waste. Five assays (1 to 5 in triplicate were conducted using swine effluent with different COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand concentrations: 400, 550, 700, 850 and 1,000mg.L-1, respectively. The trial lasted for 21 days and the evaluated variables were: (a pollutant removal efficiency, (b biomass production and (c plant protein content under the different detention times of 7, 14 and 21 days. In general, assays 1 and 2 (CODs of 400 and 550mg.L-1 presented the best removal efficiencies under a detention time of 21 days. Regarding the purpose of both nutrient removal and production of high protein biomass, assay 3 (COD of 700mg.L-1 showed the best results under 14 days’ detention time (36.81% crude protein. It was established that the use of duckweeds in the tertiary swine waste treatment was able to provide a sustainable alternative regarding its advantages such as effluent polishing, minimization of environmental impact, and production of high protein feed.

  13. Responses of microalgae Coelastrella sp. to stress of cupric ions in treatment of anaerobically digested swine wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Yang, William L; He, Huijun; Wu, Shaohua; Zhou, Qi; Yang, Chunping; Zeng, Guangming; Luo, Le; Lou, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Microalgae Coelastrella sp. could remove nutrients from anaerobically digested swine wastewater (ADSW) effectively, while its responses to the stress of Cu(II) were not well understood. In this paper, nutrients removal and growth of Coelastrella sp. were investigated at the presence of Cu(II) in ADSW. Results showed ammonium nitrogen concentration in ADSW decreased with culturing duration, while increased with an increased Cu(II) concentration. Total phosphorous concentration decreased with time, while did not drop in 4 days at Cu(II) concentration ≥1.0 mg/L. Microalgal growth was inhibited at all the Cu(II) concentrations, and ceased in about 6-8 days at Cu(II) concentration ≥1.0 mg/L. With an increased Cu(II) concentration, the contents of chlorophyll a and proteins decreased, those of malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase, and ratios of octadecanoic acid (C18:0), hexadecanoic acid (C16:0) and octadecenoic acid (C18:1) to fatty acids in Coelastrella sp. increased, while octadecatrienoic acid (C18:3) gradually disappeared. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Energy use in swine unit in the finishing system with waste treatment; Uso de energia em unidade suinicola em sistema de terminacao com tratamento de residuos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angonese, Andre Ricardo [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)], Email: aangonese@yahoo.com.br; Campos, Alessandro Torres [Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM ), Diamantina, PR (Brazil)], Email: atcampos3@yahoo.com.br

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the energy flux and energetic balance related to the swine production and the recycling of residues generated by the system for utilization as organic fertilizers. The experiment was carried out at Vale dos Ipes Farm, located in the city of Ouro Verde do Oeste, in the Western of Parana State. One finishing phase swine unity containing 600 animals was monitored from January to June 2005. The treatment system is composed by one steel digester with capacity for 50 m{sup 3}, one sedimentation tank, one algae tank and one bio fertilizer storage tank. The swine barn cleaning is performed by dry scratching on a daily basis. The generated residues flow by gravitation through ducts towards the digester. The duration of the hydraulic retention period was 12 days. In the calculation of energetic efficiency, the energetic component ration is the greatest energetic cost in production system of finishing phase swine, corresponding to 95% from the total direct energy. At the way out of the energy system, the energetic component of swine for slaughtering corresponds to 56.8%. The system fitted into the features of an industrial agroecosystem, importing the majority of the consumed energy in the productive process and exporting more than 56% of the production as swine for slaughtering, while the remaining is used in the property as fertilizer. (author)

  15. Dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes and their potential removal by on-farm treatment processes in nine swine feedlots in Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Weiwei; Wang, Jian; Pan, Xun; Qiang, Zhimin

    2017-01-01

    This work investigated the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) encoding resistance to sulfonamide and tetracycline antibiotics in nine swine feedlots located in Shandong Province of China, and examined their potential removal by various on-farm treatment processes. Results indicate that the target ARGs were widely distributed in swine wastes, with mean relative abundances ranging from 3.3 × 10 -5 (tetC) to 5.2 × 10 -1 (tetO) in swine manure and from 7.3 × 10 -3 (tetC) to 1.7 × 10 -1 (tetO) in swine wastewater. The mean relative ARG abundances ranged from 9.9 × 10 -5 (tetW) to 1.1 × 10 -2 (tetO) in soils and from 3.1 × 10 -4 (tetW) to 1.1 × 10 -2 (sul2) in receiving river sediments, indicating that the farmland application of swine manure compost and the discharge of swine wastewater promoted the dissemination of ARGs into adjacent environments. Microbial fermentation bed (MFB) could reduce the relative ARG abundances by 0-1.18 logs. However, septic tank, biogas digester and natural drying methods were relatively ineffective for ARG removal, and the relative abundances of some ARGs (i.e., tetC, tetG, sul1, and sul2) even increased by 0.74-3.90 logs in treated wastes. Bacterial diversity analysis indicates that the evolution of bacterial communities in the MFB played a crucial role in eliminating the ARGs. This study helps the effective assessment and management of ecological risks arising from ARGs in swine feedlots. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mathematical models of anaerobic digestion for the treatment of swine effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisa Stéfano Fagundes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pig breeding results in the production of large amounts of waste, which can cause serious environmental problems, when handled incorrectly. This study aimed at testing mathematical models to estimate the parameters of anaerobic biodigestion in biodigesters as a function of the composition of swine effluents with and without separation of the solid fraction and hydraulic retention times (HRT. Semi-continuous biodigesters fed with swine effluents with and without separation of the solid fraction and managed for 15, 22, 29 and 36 days of hydraulic retention were used. The potential of biogas and methane production, as well as the reduction of total solids, volatile solids and chemical oxygen demand, were assessed as a function of the effluents composition. HRT was the variable that most influenced the variation of the models, followed by the contents of total and volatile solids. Uni and multivariate models presented high confidence indices, being classified as “great” at predicting the potentials of biogas and methane production and “good” at predicting the reductions of total solids, volatile solids and chemical oxygen demand. The models obtained in this study can be used to reliably predict the parameters of the anaerobic biodigestion process of swine effluents in semi-continuous tubular biodigesters.

  17. Organoleptic changes in the bovine and swine fats following treatment with gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordanov, I.

    1976-01-01

    Studied were bovine and swine fats that had been treated with gamma-rays at the rates of 0.10 to 2.00 Mrad, in the presence of oxygen and in an atmosphere containing no oxygen as well as under storage conditions at 2 to 4 deg C, and -18 and up to -20 deg C, for 45 and 90 days, respectively. When doses of 0.25 Mrad were used no changes in the organoleptic properties were observed. Fats that were treated at the rate of more than 0.25 Mrad in the presence of oxygen assumed 'side' smell and taste. If irradiation was carried out in the absence of oxygen no such deviations from the normal taste and odor were noted - at rates of up to 0.70 Mrad for the swine fats, and at rates of more than 0.50 Mrad for the bovine fats. Destruction of the yellow pigment in the bovine fats was observed with doses higher than 0.70 Mrad. The changes in the organoleptic properties corresponded to the changes taking place with the peroxides, the water soluble fatty acids, and the epihydrinaldehyde. Changes in the organoleptic properties (odor and taste) in the bovine fats took place at lower doses of irradiation that in the swine fats. (author)

  18. Biofilm Attached Cultivation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa Is a Developed System for Swine Wastewater Treatment and Lipid Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Cheng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study showed the new potential of using soluble contents and heavy metals in swine wastewater as nutrient supplements for the algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa with biofilm attached method. Algae with biofilm attached cultivation grew well in unpasteurized wastewater reaching a biomass productivity of 5.03 g m−2 d−1, lipid content of 35.9% and lipid productivity of 1.80 g m−2 d−1. Chlorella grew in BG11 medium delivered lower values for each of the aforementioned parameters. The FAMEs compositions in the algae paste were mainly consisted of C16:0, C18:2, and C18:3. Algae removed NH4+–N, total phosphorus (TP, and COD by 75.9, 68.4, and 74.8%, respectively. Notably, Zn2+, Cu+, and Fe2+ were removed from wastewater with a ratio of 65.71, 53.64, and 58.89%, respectively. Biofilm attached cultivation of C. pyrenoidosa in swine wastewater containing heavy metals could accumulate considerable biomass and lipid, and the removal ratio of NH4+–N, TP, COD, and as well as heavy metal were high. Treatment of wastewater with biofilm attached cultivation showed an increasingly popular for the concentration of microalgae and environmental sustainability.

  19. Long-term effects of an intracavitary treatment with californium-252 on normal tissue. [Swine, /sup 226/Ra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M.F.; Beamer, J.L.; Mahony, T.D.; Cross, F.T.; Lund, J.E.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1976-01-01

    About one hundred fifty swine were exposed to either radium-226 or californium-252 sources in the uterine cervix to determine an RBE for both acute and long-term effects. That value for early changes in the tissues at risk in the treatment of cervical cancer was between 6.2 and 6.8. The incidence of complications increased with time after exposure, especially among animals treated with /sup 252/Cf. Analysis of rectal injury showed that ulceration occurred frequently within a year postexposure at doses between 1600 and 2400 rad calculated at 2 cm lateral to the source midline. Fat necrosis and smooth muscle atrophy, resulting in a local rectal stricture, were delayed changes observed in some animals. The lower ureter was the site for a greater frequency of complications than the GI tract. Ureteral stricture often occurred at doses of 1200 rad from /sup 252/Cf and 7000 rad from /sup 226/Ra. Observation of delayed effects in the uterine-cervix in animals held up to 4 years postexposure indicate that the RBE for /sup 252/Cf may be increased to a value as high as 18, while repair may have even decreased it to about 5.6 in the rectum. Fifty swine are still being observed for long-term effects after doses above 800 rad from /sup 252/Cf and 5000 rad from /sup 226/Ra.

  20. Biofilm Attached Cultivation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa Is a Developed System for Swine Wastewater Treatment and Lipid Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pengfei; Wang, Yuanzhu; Liu, Tianzhong; Liu, Defu

    2017-01-01

    This study showed the new potential of using soluble contents and heavy metals in swine wastewater as nutrient supplements for the algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa with biofilm attached method. Algae with biofilm attached cultivation grew well in unpasteurized wastewater reaching a biomass productivity of 5.03 g m−2 d−1, lipid content of 35.9% and lipid productivity of 1.80 g m−2 d−1. Chlorella grew in BG11 medium delivered lower values for each of the aforementioned parameters. The FAMEs compositions in the algae paste were mainly consisted of C16:0, C18:2, and C18:3. Algae removed NH4+–N, total phosphorus (TP), and COD by 75.9, 68.4, and 74.8%, respectively. Notably, Zn2+, Cu+, and Fe2+ were removed from wastewater with a ratio of 65.71, 53.64, and 58.89%, respectively. Biofilm attached cultivation of C. pyrenoidosa in swine wastewater containing heavy metals could accumulate considerable biomass and lipid, and the removal ratio of NH4+–N, TP, COD, and as well as heavy metal were high. Treatment of wastewater with biofilm attached cultivation showed an increasingly popular for the concentration of microalgae and environmental sustainability. PMID:28983302

  1. Modeling the effect of heat fluxes on ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from an anaerobic swine waste treatment lagoon using artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding factors that affect ammonia and nitrous emissions from anaerobic swine waste treatment lagoons or any animal waste receptacles is a necessary first step in deploying potential remediation options. In this study, we examined the various meteorological factors (i.e., air temperatures, s...

  2. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Language: English (US) Español ...

  3. [Impact of Thermal Treatment on Biogas Production by Anaerobic Digestion of High-solid-content Swine Manure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu-ying; Wu, Jing; Wang, Shi-feng; Cao, Zhi-ping; Wang, Kai-jun; Zuo, Jian-e

    2015-08-01

    Livestock manure is a kind of waste with high organic content and sanitation risk. In order to investigate the impact of thermal treatment on the anaerobic digestion of high-solid-content swine manure, 70 degrees C thermal treatment was conducted to treat raw manure (solid content 27.6%) without any dilution. The results indicated that thermal treatment could reduce the organic matters and improve the performance of anaerobic digestion. When the thermal treatment time was 1d, 2d, 3d, 4d, the VS removal rates were 15.1%, 15.5%, 17.8% and 20.0%, respectively. The methane production rates (CH4/VSadd) were 284.4, 296.3, 309.2 and 264.4 mL x g(-1), which was enhanced by 49.7%, 55.9%, 62.7% and 39.2%, respectively. The highest methane production rate occurred when the thermal treatment time was 3d. The thermal treatment had an efficient impact on promoting the performance of methane production rate with a suitable energy consumption. On the other hand, thermal treatment could act as pasteurization. This showed that thermal treatment would be of great practical importance.

  4. Vegetated treatment area (VTAs efficiencies for E. coli and nutrient removal on small-scale swine operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Daren Harmel

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available As small-scale animal feeding operations work to manage their byproducts and avoid regulation, they need practical, cost-effective methods to reduce environmental impact. One such option is using vegetative treatment areas (VTAs with perennial grasses to treat runoff; however, research is limited on VTA effectiveness as a waste management alternative for smaller operations. This study evaluated the efficiencies of VTAs in reducing bacteria and nutrient runoff from small-scale swine operations in three counties in Central Texas. Based on 4 yr of runoff data, the Bell and Brazos VTAs significantly reduced loads and concentrations of E. coli and nutrients (except NO3-N and had treatment efficiencies of 73–94%. Most notably, the Bell VTA reduced loads of E. coli, NH4-N, PO4-P, total N, and total P similar to that of the background (control. In spite of significant reductions, runoff from the Brazos VTA had higher concentrations and loads than the control site, especially following installation of concrete pens and increased pen washing, which produced standing water and increased E. coli and nutrient influx. The Robertson VTA produced fewer significant reductions and had lower treatment efficiencies (29–69%; however, E. coli and nutrient concentrations and loads leaving this VTA were much lower than observed at the Bell and Brazos County sites due to alternative solids management and enclosed pens. Based on these results and previous research, VTAs can be practical, effective waste management alternatives for reducing nutrient and bacteria losses from small-scale animal operations, but only if properly designed and managed. Keywords: Bacteria, Nutrients, Swine manure, Waste management, Water quality

  5. Bacterial community dynamics in surface flow constructed wetlands for the treatment of swine waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibekwe, A M; Ma, J; Murinda, Shelton; Reddy, G B

    2016-02-15

    Constructed wetlands are generally used for the removal of waste from contaminated water. In the swine production system, wastes are traditionally flushed into an anaerobic lagoon which is then sprayed on agricultural fields. However, continuous spraying of lagoon wastewater on fields can lead to high N and P accumulations in soil or lead to runoff which may contaminate surface or ground water with pathogens and nutrients. In this study, continuous marsh constructed wetland was used for the removal of contaminants from swine waste. Using pyrosequencing, we assessed bacterial composition within the wetland using principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) which showed that bacterial composition from manure influent and lagoon water were significantly different (P=0.001) from the storage pond to the final effluent. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that different bacterial populations were significantly impacted by ammonium--NH4 (P=0.035), phosphate--PO4(3-) (P=0.010), chemical oxygen demand--COD (P=0.0165), total solids--TS (P=0.030), and dissolved solids--DS (P=0.030) removal, with 54% of the removal rate explained by NH4+PO4(3-) according to a partial CCA. Our results showed that different bacterial groups were responsible for the composition of different wetland nutrients and decomposition process. This may be the major reason why most wetlands are very efficient in waste decomposition. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Real-time control of oxic phase using pH (mV)-time profile in swine wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ga, C.H.; Ra, C.S.

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of real-time control of the oxic phase using the pH (mV)-time profile in a sequencing batch reactor for swine wastewater treatment was evaluated, and the characteristics of the novel real-time control strategies were analyzed in two different concentrated wastewaters. The nitrogen break point (NBP) on the moving slope change (MSC) of the pH (mV) was designated as a real-time control point, and a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor (18 m 3 ) was designed to fulfill the objectives of the study. Successful real-time control using the developed control strategy was achieved despite the large variations in the influent strength and the loading rate per cycle. Indeed, complete and consistent removal of NH 4 -N (100% removal) was achieved. There was a strong positive correlation (r 2 = 0.9789) between the loading rate and soluble total organic carbon (TOCs) removal, and a loading rate of 100 g/m 3 /cycle was found to be optimum for TOCs removal. Experimental data showed that the real-time control strategy using the MSC of the pH (mV)-time profile could be utilized successfully for the removal of nitrogen from swine wastewater. Furthermore, the pH (mV) was a more reliable real-time control parameter than the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) for the control of the oxic phase. However, the nitrate knee point (NKP) appeared more consistently upon the completion of denitrification on the ORP-time profile than on the pH (mV)-time profile.

  7. Using full-scale duckweed ponds as the finish stage for swine waste treatment with a focus on organic matter degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohedano, R A; Costa, R H R; Hofmann, S M; Belli Filho, P

    2014-01-01

    The rapid increase in the number of swine has caused pronounced environmental impacts worldwide, especially on water resources. As an aggregate, smallholdings have an important role in South American pork production, contributing to the net diffusion of pollution. Thus, duckweed ponds have been successfully used for swine waste polishing, mainly for nutrient removal. Few studies have been carried out to assess organic matter degradation in duckweed ponds. Hence, the present study evaluated the efficiency of two full-scale duckweed ponds for organic matter reduction of swine waste on small pig farms. Duckweed ponds, in series, received the effluent after an anaerobic biodigester and storage pond, with a flow rate of 1 m(3) day(-1). After 1 year of monitoring, an improvement in effluent quality was observed, with a reduction in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD), respectively, of 94.8 and 96.7%, operating at a loading rate of approximately 27 kgBOD ha(-1) day(-1) and 131 kgCOD ha(-1) day(-1). Algae inhibition due to duckweed coverage was strongly observed in the pond effluent, where chlorophyll a and turbidity remained below 25 μg L(-1) and 10 NTU. Using the study conditions described herein, duckweed ponds were shown to be a suitable technology for swine waste treatment, contributing to the environmental sustainability of rural areas.

  8. Pre-digestion to enhance volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration as a carbon source for denitrification in treatment of liquid swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sarah Xiao; Chen, Lide; Zhu, Jun; Walquist, McKenzie; Christian, David

    2018-04-30

    Insufficient denitrification in biological treatment is often a result of the lack of a carbon source. In this study, use of the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) generated via pre-digestion as a carbon source to improve denitrification in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treatment of liquid swine manure was investigated. The pre-digestion of swine manure was realized by storing the manure in a sealed container in room temperature and samples were taken periodically from the container to determine the VFA levels. The results showed that after 14 days of pre-digestion, the VFA level in the digested liquid was increased by 200%. A polynomial relationship for the VFA level in the digested manure with the digestion time was observed with a correlation coefficient being 0.9748. Two identical SBRs were built and operated on 8-h cycles in parallel, with one fed with pre-digested and the other raw swine manure. There were five phases included in each cycle, i.e., anaerobic (90 min), anoxic (150 min), anoxic/anaerobic (90 min), anoxic/aerobic (120 min), and settle/decant (30 min), and the feeding was split to 600 mL/200 mL and performed at the beginning of and 240 min into the cycle. The SBR fed on pre-digested swine manure achieved successful denitrification with only 0.35 mg/L nitrate left in the effluent, compared to 15.9 mg/L found in the effluent of the other SBR. Nitrite was not detected in the effluent from both SBRs. The results also indicated that there was no negative impact of feeding SBRs with the pre-digested liquid swine manure for treatment on the removal of other constituents such as total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), suspended solids (SS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), and soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD). Therefore, anaerobic digestion as a pretreatment can be an effective way to condition liquid swine manure for SBR treatment to achieve sufficient nitrate removal.

  9. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  10. Mitigation of nitrous oxide (N2 O) emission from swine wastewater treatment in an aerobic bioreactor packed with carbon fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Takahiro; Yamamoto-Ikemoto, Ryoko; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Kawahara, Hirofumi; Ogino, Akifumi; Osada, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    Mitigation of nitrous oxide (N2 O) emission from swine wastewater treatment was demonstrated in an aerobic bioreactor packed with carbon fibers (CF reactor). The CF reactor had a demonstrated advantage in mitigating N2 O emission and avoiding NOx (NO3  + NO2 ) accumulation. The N2 O emission factor was 0.0003 g N2 O-N/gTN-load in the CF bioreactor compared to 0.03 gN2 O-N/gTN-load in an activated sludge reactor (AS reactor). N2 O and CH4 emissions from the CF reactor were 42 g-CO2 eq/m(3) /day, while those from the AS reactor were 725 g-CO2 eq/m(3) /day. The dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in the CF reactor removed an average of 156 mg/L of the NH4 -N, and accumulated an average of 14 mg/L of the NO3 -N. In contrast, the DIN in the AS reactor removed an average 144 mg/L of the NH4 -N and accumulated an average 183 mg/L of the NO3 -N. NO2 -N was almost undetectable in both reactors. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Treatment of swine wastewater in continuous activated sludge systems under different dissolved oxygen conditions: Reactor operation and evaluation using modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waki, Miyoko; Yasuda, Tomoko; Fukumoto, Yasuyuki; Béline, Fabrice; Magrí, Albert

    2018-02-01

    Swine wastewater was treated in two continuously aerated activated sludge (AS) systems at high (AS1: 1.7-2.6 mg/L) and low (AS2: 0.04-0.08 mg/L) dissolved oxygen (DO), and at three temperatures (10, 20, and 30 °C). Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) removal was >94.8%. Meanwhile, total nitrogen (N) removal was significantly higher in AS2, at 64, 89, and 88%, than in AS1, at 12, 24, and 46%, for 10, 20, and 30 °C, respectively. The experimental data were considered in a simulation study using an AS model for BOD and N removal, which also included nitrite, free ammonia, free nitrous acid, and temperature. Simulations at high-DO showed that ammonium was partly oxidized into nitrate but not removed, whereas at low-DO ammonium was removed mainly through the nitrite shortcut in simultaneous nitrification-denitrification. This study demonstrates that treatment at low-DO is an effective method for removing N, and modelling a helpful tool for its optimization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Monensin toxicosis in swine: potentiation by tiamulin administration and ameliorative effect of treatment with selenium and/or vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vleet, J F; Runnels, L J; Cook, J R; Scheidt, A B

    1987-10-01

    Modulation of acute monensin toxicosis in swine was evaluated in 2 studies. In study 1, 56 weanling male pigs were allotted to 14 groups of 4 each. Pigs in 7 groups were given tiamulin in the drinking water (to supply 7.7 mg/kg of body weight/day) for 3 days before and for 2 days after monensin administration. Monensin was given as a single oral dose (at 0, 7.5, 15, 25, 50, 75, or 100 mg/kg) to pigs in groups with or without tiamulin exposure. Prominent acute clinical signs of monensin toxicosis (hypermetria, hind limb ataxia, paresis, knuckling of hind limbs, and recumbency) developed by 2 to 6 hours after dosing in pigs given 15 or 25 mg of monensin/kg with tiamulin exposure, but not in pigs given the 15 or 25 mg of monensin/kg without tiamulin exposure. Also, the extent of monensin-induced skeletal muscle damage at 4 days after monensin dosing was enhanced in pigs given 7.5, 15, or 25 mg of monensin/kg and exposed to tiamulin. In study 2, 48 weanling male pigs were allotted to 8 groups of 6 each. Four groups of pigs were given 20 mg of monensin/kg orally, and 4 groups were given 100 mg of monensin/kg orally. For each monensin dose, a group was treated 24 hours before monensin administration with (i) selenium (Se)-vitamin E preparation, 0.25 mg of Se and 68 IU of d-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (vitamin E)/kg, IM; (ii) vitamin E only, 68 IU of d-alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg; (iii) Se only, 0.25 mg of Se/kg; or (iv) vehicle.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Spread of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD in Ontario (Canada swine herds: Part II. Matched case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Beth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD was associated with high mortality in swine populations worldwide. Studies performed in different regions identified spatial, temporal, and spatio-temporal trends as factors contributing to patterns of the disease spread. Patterns consistent with spatial trend and spatio-temporal clustering were already identified in this dataset. On the basis of these results, we have further investigated the nature of local spread in this report. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate risk factors for incidence cases of reported PCVAD. Results A time-matched case-control study was used as a study design approach, and conditional logistic regression as the analytical method. The main exposure of interest was local spread, which was defined as an unidentified mechanism of PCVAD spread between premises located within 3 kilometers of the Euclidean distance. Various modifications of variables indicative of local spread were also evaluated. The dataset contained 278 swine herds from Ontario originally sampled either from diagnostic laboratory submissions or directly from the target population. A PCVAD case was defined on the basis of the producer's recall. Existence of apparent local spread over the entire study period was confirmed (OR = 2.26, 95% CI: 1.06, 4.83, and was further identified to be time-varying in nature - herds experiencing outbreaks in the later part of the epidemic were more likely than control herds to be exposed to neighboring herds experiencing recent PCVAD outbreaks. More importantly, the pattern of local spread was driven by concurrent occurrence of PCVAD on premises under the same ownership (OREXACTwithin ownership = 25.6, 95% CI: 3.4, +inf; OREXACToutside ownership = 1.3, 95% CI: 0.45, 3.3. Other significant factors included PRRSv status of a herd (OREXACT = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.0, 3.9, after adjusting for geographical location by including the binary

  14. Farm-scale testing of soybean peroxidase and calcium peroxide for surficial swine manure treatment and mitigation of odorous VOCs, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Devin L.; Koziel, Jacek A.; Bruning, Kelsey; Parker, David B.

    2017-10-01

    The swine industry, regulatory agencies, and the public are interested in farm-tested methods for controlling gaseous emissions from swine barns. In earlier lab- and pilot-scale studies, a renewable catalyst consisting of soybean peroxidase (SBP) mixed with calcium peroxide (CaO2) was found to be effective in mitigating gaseous emissions from swine manure. Thus, a farm-scale experiment was conducted at the university's 178-pig, shallow-pit, mechanically-ventilated swine barn to evaluate SBP/CaO2 as a surficial manure pit additive under field conditions. The SBP was applied once at the beginning of the 42-day experiment at an application rate of 2.28 kg m-2 with 4.2% CaO2 added by weight. Gas samples were collected from the primary barn exhaust fans. As compared to the control, significant reductions in gaseous emissions were observed for ammonia (NH3, 21.7%), hydrogen sulfide (H2S, 79.7%), n-butyric acid (37.2%), valeric acid (47.7%), isovaleric acid (39.3%), indole (31.2%), and skatole (43.5%). Emissions of dimethyl disulfide/methanethiol (DMDS/MT) increased by 30.6%. Emissions of p-cresol were reduced by 14.4% but were not statistically significant. There were no significant changes to the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O). The total (material + labor) treatment cost was 2.62 per marketed pig, equivalent to 1.5% of the pig market price. The cost of CaO2 catalyst was ∼60% of materials cost. The cost of soybean hulls (SBP source) was 0.60 per marketed pig, i.e., only 40% of materials cost.

  15. Post-treatment of anaerobically digested swine slurry in algal-bacterial enclosed photo bioreactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, R.; Gonzalez, C.; Villaverde, S.; Garcia Encina, P.

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of livestock effluents is receiving an increasing attention in Europe due to the recent shift from extensive to intensive farming and to the high organic and nutrient concentration of these wastewaters. Despite constituting one of most cost-effective treatment technologies for the removal of the organic matter, the application of anaerobic processes to the treatment of livestock effluents is still limited by the poor nutrient removal efficiencies achieved, which usually requires a further post treatment (nitrification+denitrification or enhanced biological phosphorous removal). (Author)

  16. Swine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plain, Ronald L; Lawrence, John D

    2003-07-01

    The US swine industry is large and growing. The quantity of pork desired by consumers of US pork is growing at the rate of 1.5%/y. New production systems and new technology have enabled production per sow to grow at a rate of 4% annually in recent years. Consequently, the number of sows in the United States is declining. Because productivity growth is outpacing demand growth, the deflated price of hogs and pork is declining. Hog production and prices continue to exhibit strong seasonal and cyclic patterns. Pork production is usually lowest in the summer and highest in the fall. Production and prices tend to follow 4-year patterns. The US swine industry continues to evolve toward fewer and larger producers who rely on contracts for both hog production and marketing. In 2000, over half of the hogs marketed were from approximately 156 firms marketing more than 50,000 head annually. These producers finished 60% of their production in contract facilities. Over 90% of their marketings were under contract or were owned by a packer. These producers expressed a high level of satisfaction with hog production. Both they and their contract growers were satisfied with production contracts. These large producers were satisfied with their marketing contracts and planned to continue them in the future. The hog industry has changed a great deal in the last decade. There is little reason to believe this rapid rate of change will not continue. This swine industry is highly competitive and profit driven. Profit margins are too small to allow producers the luxury of ignoring new technology and innovative production systems. Consequently, hog production will continue its rapid evolution from traditional agriculture to typical industry.

  17. Non-Invasive Radiofrequency Field Treatment to Produce Hepatic Hyperthermia: Efficacy and Safety in Swine

    OpenAIRE

    ,; ,; ,; ,; ,; ,; ,; ,; ,

    2017-01-01

    The Kanzius non-invasive radio-frequency hyperthermia system (KNiRFH) has been investigated as a treatment option for hepatic hyperthermia cancer therapy. The treatment involves exposing the patient to an external high-power RF (13.56 MHz) electric field, whereby the propagating waves penetrate deep into the tumor causing targeted heating based on differential tissue dielectric properties. However, a comprehensive examination of the Kanzius system alongside any associated toxicities and its a...

  18. Treatment of swine manure: case studies in European’s N-surplus areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cruz García-González

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study, eight different manure treatment plants were monitored. The plants were four on-farm and four centralized treatment plants, all of them at full-scale level. Assessment includes a total of seven pre-treatment and process units as follows: mechanical separation, with and without coagulant and flocculant addition, pasteurization, nitrification-denitrification, anaerobic digestion, and composting. The plants are located in nutrient surplus areas of three European Member States (Spain, Italy and Denmark, the majority of these areas being Nitrate Vulnerable Zones (NVZ. Results presented herein are data collected over a six-month period and comprise performance data of the treatment plants, pathogen indicators (E.coli and Salmonella and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions data under two scenarios: 1 the baseline scenario and 2 the treatment plant scenario. The assessment includes GHG emissions of the storage facilities, transportation, and subsequent intermediate storage, electric consumption, electric production, composting, and land application. All treatment plants studied generated a significant reduction in GHG emissions (between 53 and 90 % in comparison to the baseline scenario. Organic matter and total solids (TS content in manure were also greatly reduced, with values ranging between 35-53 % of chemical oxygen demand (COD and, 24-61 % of TS for anaerobic digestion (AD treatment plants, 77-93 % COD and 70 % TS in the case of AD combined with nitrogen (N-removal unit plants. Nitrogen concentrations were also greatly reduced (between 65-85 % total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN and 68-83 % ammonium (NH4+-N in plants with N-removal units.

  19. Evaluation of tulathromycin for the treatment of pneumonia following experimental infection of swine with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvie, Jo; Morgan, Jeremy H; Nanjiani, Ian A; Sherington, John; Rowan, Tim G; Sunderland, Simon J

    2005-01-01

    Tulathromycin was evaluated in the treatment of pneumonia in weaned pigs inoculated intranasally with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Five days postchallenge, the pigs were randomized to treatment with a single IM administration of saline, a single IM administration of tulathromycin (2.5 mg/kg; day 0), or three IM administrations of enrofloxacin (5.0 mg/kg; days 0, 1, 2). Pigs were necropsied on day 12 or 13. Unchallenged controls remained healthy with no lung pathology. Compared with saline, coughing, mean lung lesion score, and proportional lung weight were significantly reduced and weight gain was significantly greater for tulathromycin-treated pigs (P pigs (P treatment of pneumonia following experimental infection with M. hyopneumoniae.

  20. Efficacy of antibiotic treatment and test-based culling strategies for eradicating brucellosis in commercial swine herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieste-Pérez, L.; Frankena, K.; Blasco, J.M.; Muñoz, P.M.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Swine brucellosis caused by Brucella suis biovar 2 is an emerging disease in continental Europe. Without effective vaccines being available, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommends the full depopulation of infected herds as the only strategy to eradicate B. suis outbreaks. Using data

  1. Efficacy of antibiotic treatment and test-based culling strategies for eradicating brucellosis in commercial swine herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieste-Pérez, L.; Frankena, K.; Blasco, J. M.; Muñoz, P. M.; De Jong, M. C M

    2016-01-01

    Swine brucellosis caused by Brucella suis biovar 2 is an emerging disease in continental Europe. Without effective vaccines being available, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommends the full depopulation of infected herds as the only strategy to eradicate B. suis outbreaks. Using data

  2. Borax and octabor treatment of stored swine manure to reduce sulfate reducing bacteria and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odorous gas emissions from stored swine manure are becoming serious environmental and health issues as the livestock industry becomes more specialized, concentrated, and industrialized. These nuisance gasses include hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia, and methane, which are produced as a result of ana...

  3. Renewable biocatalyst for swine manure treatment and mitigation of odorous VOCs, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comprehensive control of odors, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with swine production is a critical need. The objective of this paper is to review the use of soybean peroxidase (SBP) and peroxides as a manure additive to mitigate emissions of odor...

  4. Neural network analysis on the effect of heat fluxes on greenhouse gas emissions from anaerobic swine waste treatment lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we examined the various meteorological factors (i.e., air temperatures, solar radiation, and heat fluxes) that potentially affect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from swine waste lagoon. GHG concentrations (methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide) were monitored using a photoacous...

  5. Advanced treatment technique for swine wastewater using two agents: Thermally polymerized amorphous silica and hydrated lime for color and phosphorus removal and sulfur for nitrogen removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Teruaki; Kurose, Yohei; Tanaka, Yasuo

    2017-10-01

    The efficacy of advanced treatment of swine wastewater using thermally polymerized, modified amorphous silica and hydrated lime (M-CSH-lime) for color and phosphorus removal and sulfur for nitrogen removal was examined with a demonstration-scale treatment plant. The color removal rate was approximately 78% at M-CSH-lime addition rates of > 0.055 wt/v%. The PO43--P removal rate exceeded 99.9% with > 0.023 wt/v%. pH of the effluent from the M-CSH-lime reactor increased with the addition rate till a maximum value of 12.7, which was effective in disinfection. The recovered M-CSH-lime would be suitable as a phosphorus fertilizer because the total P 2 O 5 content was approximately 10%. The nitrogen oxide (NOx-N) removal rate by sulfur denitrification increased to approximately 80% when the NOx-N loading rate was around 0.1 kg-N/ton-S/day. It was suggested that the combination of the two processes would be effective in the advanced treatment of swine wastewater. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. Swine plasma immunoglobulins for prevention and treatment of post-weaning diarrhoea: Optimizing stability towards gut conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Chris Juul; Ballegaard, Anne-Sofie; Røjel, Nanna

    Brief description of research area: A common problem in swine production is diarrhoea in newly weaned piglets, and huge quantities of antibiotics go to treat post-weaning diarrhoeas in piglets. The use of antibiotics can lead to the development of multi- and fully resistant bacteria, which...... consequently pose a great threat to human health. Therefore, sustainable alternatives for treating post-weaning diarrhoea without using antibiotics are in demand. Swine that are old (and big) enough for slaughter have during their upbringing been challenges by many different pathogens and thus have developed...... know: It is possible to multimerise immunoglobulins, which results in an advantage when binding to their respective antigens in comparison to the non-multimerised immunoglobulins, but too high degree of multimerisation abates immunoglobulin reactivity. Unfortunately, a preliminary study showed...

  7. Seasonality distribution of the abundance and activity of nitrification and denitrification microorganisms in sediments of surface flow constructed wetlands planted with Myriophyllum elatinoides during swine wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Zhang, Miaomiao; Liu, Feng; Chen, Liang; Li, Yuyuan; Li, Yong; Xiao, Rulin; Wu, Jinshui

    2018-01-01

    Surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCWs) planted with Myriophyllum elatinoides for treatment of swine wastewater were examined to evaluate the effect of season, segment (site S1, S2, and S3), and treatment (100mgL -1 TN, T1; 300mgL -1 TN, T2; 500mgL -1 TN, T3) on the activity, and abundances of nitrifying and, denitrifying microorganisms, and on the abundance of sediment bacteria. The activity and abundances of nitrifiers, denitrifiers, and the abundance of bacteria were the highest in T3 samples, especially in S1 (Pswine wastewater treatment stimulate the growth of nitrifiers, denitrifiers and bacteria in sediments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Emissions of ammonia, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide from swine wastewater during and after acidification treatment: effect of pH, mixing and aeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Xiao-Rong; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    setup consisting of nine dynamic flux chambers. Three pH levels (pH = 6.0, pH = 5.8 and pH = 5.5), combined with short-term aeration and venting (with an inert gas) treatments were studied. Acidification reduced average NH(3) emissions from swine slurry stored after acidification treatment compared...... to emissions during storage of non-acidified slurry. The reduction were 50%, 62% and 77% when pH was reduce to 6.0, 5.8 and 5.5, respectively. However, it had no significant effect on average CO(2) and H(2)S emissions during storage of slurry after acidification. Aeration of the slurry for 30 min had no effect...

  9. Carpal tunnel syndrome - Part II (treatment,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Chammas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The treatments for non-deficit forms of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS are corticoid infiltration and/or a nighttime immobilization brace. Surgical treatment, which includes sectioning the retinaculum of the flexors (retinaculotomy, is indicated in cases of resistance to conservative treatment in deficit forms or, more frequently, in acute forms. In minimally invasive techniques (endoscopy and mini-open, and even though the learning curve is longer, it seems that functional recovery occurs earlier than in the classical surgery, but with identical long-term results. The choice depends on the surgeon, patient, severity, etiology and availability of material. The results are satisfactory in close to 90% of the cases. Recovery of strength requires four to six months after regression of the pain of pillar pain type. This surgery has the reputation of being benign and has a complication rate of 0.2–0.5%.

  10. Antimicrobial use in swine production and its effect on the swine gut microbiota and antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B; Chénier, Martin R

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobials have been used in swine production at subtherapeutic levels since the early 1950s to increase feed efficiency and promote growth. In North America, a number of antimicrobials are available for use in swine. However, the continuous administration of subtherapeutic, low concentrations of antimicrobials to pigs also provides selective pressure for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants. For this reason, subtherapeutic antimicrobial use in livestock remains a source of controversy and concern. The swine gut microbiota demonstrates a number of changes in response to antimicrobial administration depending on the dosage, duration of treatment, age of the pigs, and gut location that is sampled. Both culture-independent and -dependent studies have also shown that the swine gut microbiota contains a large number of antimicrobial resistance determinants even in the absence of antimicrobial exposure. Heavy metals, such as zinc and copper, which are often added at relatively high doses to swine feed, may also play a role in maintaining antimicrobial resistance and in the stability of the swine gut microbiota. This review focuses on the use of antimicrobials in swine production, with an emphasis on the North American regulatory context, and their effect on the swine gut microbiota and on antimicrobial resistance determinants in the gut microbiota.

  11. A retrospective study of Class II mixed-dentition treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Heesoo; Baumrind, Sheldon; Korn, Edward L; Dugoni, Steven; Boero, Roger; Aubert, Maryse; Boyd, Robert

    2017-01-01

    To consider the effectiveness of early treatment using one mixed-dentition approach to the correction of moderate and severe Class II malocclusions. Three groups of Class II subjects were included in this retrospective study: an early treatment (EarlyTx) group that first presented at age 7 to 9.5 years (n = 54), a late treatment (LateTx) group whose first orthodontic visit occurred between ages 12 and 15 (n = 58), and an untreated Class II (UnTx) group to assess the pretreatment comparability of the two treated groups (n = 51). Thirteen conventional cephalometric measurements were reported for each group and Class II molar severity was measured on the study casts of the EarlyTx and LateTx groups. Successful Class II correction was observed in approximately three quarters of both the EarlyTx group and the LateTx group at the end of treatment. EarlyTx patients had fewer permanent teeth extracted than did the LateTx patients (5.6% vs 37.9%, P < .001) and spent less time in full-bonded appliance therapy in the permanent dentition than did LateTx patients (1.7 ± 0.8 vs 2.6 ± 0.7years, P < .001). When supervision time is included, the EarlyTx group had longer total treatment time and averaged more visits than did the LateTx group (53.1 ± 18. 8 vs 33.7 ± 8.3, P < .0001). Fifty-five percent of the LateTx extraction cases involved removal of the maxillary first premolars only and were finished in a Class II molar relationship. EarlyTx comprehensive mixed-dentition treatment was an effective modality for early correction of Class II malocclusions.

  12. Pilot-scale testing of renewable biocatalyst for swine manure treatment and mitigation of odorous VOCs, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Devin L.; Koziel, Jacek A.; Bruning, Kelsey; Parker, David B.

    2017-02-01

    Comprehensive control of odors, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with swine production is a critical need. A pilot-scale experiment was conducted to evaluate surface-applied soybean peroxidase (SBP) and calcium peroxide (CaO2) as a manure additive to mitigate emissions of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) including dimethyl disulfide/methanethiol (DMDS/MT), dimethyl trisulfide, n-butyric acid, valeric acid, isovaleric acid, p-cresol, indole, and skatole. The secondary impact on emissions of NH3, H2S, and GHG was also measured. The SBP was tested at four treatments (2.28-45.7 kg/m2 manure) with CaO2 (4.2% by weight of SBP) over 137 days. Significant reductions in VOC emissions were observed: DMDS/MT (36.2%-84.7%), p-cresol (53.1%-89.5%), and skatole (63.2%-92.5%). There was a corresponding significant reduction in NH3 (14.6%-67.6%), and significant increases in the greenhouse gases CH4 (32.7%-232%) and CO2 (20.8%-124%). The remaining emissions (including N2O) were not statistically different. At a cost relative to 0.8% of a marketed hog it appears that SBP/CaO2 treatment could be a promising option at the lowest (2.28 kg/m2) treatment rate for reducing odorous gas and NH3 emissions at swine operations, and field-scale testing is warranted.

  13. Sinclair swine melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hook, R.R.; Berkelhammer, J.; Hamby, C.V.

    1986-01-01

    Sinclair(S-1) miniature swine spontaneously develop melanomas which have many biologic and histologic features in common with human superficial spreading melanoma. Host control of this neoplasm was indicated by the high incidence of spontaneous regression, a decrease in tumor development with age and a decrease in progressive growth of the tumor as age of tumor development increases. Immunologic mechanisms were implicated in host control by histologic observation of a mononuclear inflammatory infiltration of tumors which lead to depigmentation and fibrosis. In vitro immunologic studies revealed that leukocytes from melanoma swine were sensitized specifically to a tumor associated antigen like substance present in extracts of cutaneous melanomas and cultured swine melanoma cells and that melanoma swine leukocytes were cytotoxic for swine melanoma cells. Furthermore, these studies suggested the existence of a common cross reactive, melanoma associated antigen shared by human and swine melanomas. Antigenic analyses of swine melanomas with mouse monoclonal antibodies developed to a single swine melanoma cell culture and with rabbit antisera developed to pooled extracts of cutaneous melanomas demonstrated the presence of tumor associated antigens in swine melanoma cell culture and cutaneous melanomas. The failure of mouse monoclonal antibodies to detect antigens in cutaneous melanoma extracts and the failure of rabbit antisera to detect antigens in melanoma cell culture extracts suggested a differential in antigen expression between swine melanoma cells grown in vitro and in vivo

  14. Ocular Tuberculosis II: Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumru Önal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on the clinical importance of tuberculin skin tests (TST, interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs, chest computed tomography (CT and polymerase chain reaction have provided a new approach to diagnosing ocular tuberculosis (TBC. However, both TST and IGRAs cannot distinguish between latent TBC infection and active disease. Another corroborative test in the diagnosis of intraocular TBC is the evaluation of the lungs by either chest radiography or CT. Direct evidence for the diagnosis can be obtained by examination of smears and staining for acid-fast organisms, cultures of intraocular tissue/fluid for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and nucleic acid amplification analysis. In recent years, guidelines have been suggested for the diagnosis of intraocular TBC. The current treatment of intraocular TBC consists of use of four drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide taken for a long period of time (total 9-15 months. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2011; 41: 182-90

  15. The effect of the perfluorocarbon emulsion Oxycyte on platelet count and function in the treatment of decompression sickness in a swine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, William A; Senese, Angela L; Arnaud, Francoise G; Regis, David P; Auker, Charles R; Mahon, Richard T

    2016-09-01

    Decompression from elevated ambient pressure is associated with platelet activation and decreased platelet counts. Standard treatment for decompression sickness (DCS) is hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Intravenous perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsion is a nonrecompressive therapy being examined that improves mortality in animal models of DCS. However, PFC emulsions are associated with a decreased platelet count. We used a swine model of DCS to study the effect of PFC therapy on platelet count, function, and hemostasis. Castrated male swine (n = 50) were fitted with a vascular port, recovered, randomized, and compressed to 180 feet of sea water (fsw) for 31 min followed by decompression at 30 fsw/min. Animals were observed for DCS, administered 100% oxygen, and treated with either emulsified PFC Oxycyte (DCS-PFC) or isotonic saline (DCS-NS). Controls underwent the same procedures, but were not compressed (Sham-PFC and Sham-NS). Measurements of platelet count, thromboelastometry, and coagulation were obtained 1 h before compression and 1, 24, 48, 96, 168 and 192 h after treatment. No significant changes in normalized platelet counts were observed. Prothrombin time was elevated in DCS-PFC from 48 to 192 h compared with DCS-NS, and from 96 to 192 h compared with Sham-PFC. Normalized activated partial thromboplastin time was also elevated in DCS-PFC from 168 to 192 h compared with Sham-PFC. No bleeding events were noted. DCS treated with PFC (Oxycyte) does not impact platelet numbers, whole blood clotting by thromboelastometry, or clinical bleeding. Late changes in prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time associated with PFC use in both DCS therapy and controls warrant further investigation.

  16. Intravenous cobinamide versus hydroxocobalamin for acute treatment of severe cyanide poisoning in a swine (Sus scrofa) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Tanen, David A; Boudreau, Susan; Castaneda, Maria; Zarzabal, Lee A; Vargas, Toni; Boss, Gerry R

    2014-12-01

    Hydroxocobalamin is a Food and Drug Administration-approved antidote for cyanide poisoning. Cobinamide is a potential antidote that contains 2 cyanide-binding sites. To our knowledge, no study has directly compared hydroxocobalamin with cobinamide in a severe, cyanide-toxic large-animal model. Our objective is to compare the time to return of spontaneous breathing in swine with acute cyanide-induced apnea treated with intravenous hydroxocobalamin, intravenous cobinamide, or saline solution (control). Thirty-three swine (45 to 55 kg) were intubated, anesthetized, and instrumented (continuous mean arterial pressure and cardiac output monitoring). Anesthesia was adjusted to allow spontaneous breathing with FiO2 of 21% during the experiment. Cyanide was continuously infused intravenously until apnea occurred and lasted for 1 minute (time zero). Animals were then randomly assigned to receive intravenous hydroxocobalamin (65 mg/kg), cobinamide (12.5 mg/kg), or saline solution and monitored for 60 minutes. A sample size of 11 animals per group was selected according to obtaining a power of 80%, an α of .05, and an SD of 0.17 in mean time to detect a 20% difference in time to spontaneous breathing. We assessed differences in time to death among groups, using Kaplan-Meier estimation methods, and compared serum lactate, blood pH, cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, respiratory rate, and minute ventilation time curves with repeated-measures ANOVA. Baseline weights and vital signs were similar among groups. The time to apnea and cyanide dose required to achieve apnea were similar. At time zero, mean cyanide blood and lactate concentrations and reduction in mean arterial pressure from baseline were similar. In the saline solution group, 2 of 11 animals survived compared with 10 of 11 in the hydroxocobalamin and cobinamide groups (Pcyanide concentrations became undetectable at the end of the study in both antidote-treated groups, and no statistically significant differences

  17. Macrocyclic receptor showing extremely high Sr(II)/Ca(II) and Pb(II)/Ca(II) selectivities with potential application in chelation treatment of metal intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreirós-Martínez, Raquel; Esteban-Gómez, David; Tóth, Éva; de Blas, Andrés; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Rodríguez-Blas, Teresa

    2011-04-18

    Herein we report a detailed investigation of the complexation properties of the macrocyclic decadentate receptor N,N'-Bis[(6-carboxy-2-pyridil)methyl]-4,13-diaza-18-crown-6 (H(2)bp18c6) toward different divalent metal ions [Zn(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Sr(II), and Ca(II)] in aqueous solution. We have found that this ligand is especially suited for the complexation of large metal ions such as Sr(II) and Pb(II), which results in very high Pb(II)/Ca(II) and Pb(II)/Zn(II) selectivities (in fact, higher than those found for ligands widely used for the treatment of lead poisoning such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (edta)), as well as in the highest Sr(II)/Ca(II) selectivity reported so far. These results have been rationalized on the basis of the structure of the complexes. X-ray crystal diffraction, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, as well as theoretical calculations at the density functional theory (B3LYP) level have been performed. Our results indicate that for large metal ions such as Pb(II) and Sr(II) the most stable conformation is Δ(δλδ)(δλδ), while for Ca(II) our calculations predict the Δ(λδλ)(λδλ) form being the most stable one. The selectivity that bp18c6(2-) shows for Sr(II) over Ca(II) can be attributed to a better fit between the large Sr(II) ions and the relatively large crown fragment of the ligand. The X-ray crystal structure of the Pb(II) complex shows that the Δ(δλδ)(δλδ) conformation observed in solution is also maintained in the solid state. The Pb(II) ion is endocyclically coordinated, being directly bound to the 10 donor atoms of the ligand. The bond distances to the donor atoms of the pendant arms (2.55-2.60 Å) are substantially shorter than those between the metal ion and the donor atoms of the crown moiety (2.92-3.04 Å). This is a typical situation observed for the so-called hemidirected compounds, in which the Pb(II) lone pair is stereochemically active. The X-ray structures of the Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes show that

  18. Farm-scale testing of soybean peroxidase and calcium peroxide for surficial swine manure treatment and mitigation of odorous VOCs, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    The swine industry, regulatory agencies, and the public are interested in farm-tested methods for controlling gaseous emissions from swine barns. In earlier lab- and pilot-scale studies, a renewable catalyst consisting of soybean peroxidase (SBP) mixed with calcium peroxide was found to be effective...

  19. Class 1 Integrons and the Antiseptic Resistance Gene (qacEΔ1) in Municipal and Swine Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment Plants and Wastewater-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Min Tao; Chou, Chin Cheng

    2015-06-02

    Class 1 integrons are mobile gene elements (MGEs) containing qacEΔ1 that are resistant to quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) disinfectants. This study compared the abundances of class 1 integrons and antiseptic resistance genes in municipal (M) and swine slaughterhouse (S) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and investigated the presence of class 1 integrons and antiseptic resistance genes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from wastewater samples. The abundances of intI1 and qacEΔ1 genes in 96 wastewater samples were quantified using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time qPCR), and 113 MRSA isolates recovered from the wastewater samples were detected class 1 integrons and linked antiseptic resistance genes (qacEΔ1), and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for QAC antiseptics. The intI1 and qacEΔ1 genes were detected in all the wastewater samples, and they were more abundant in S-WWTP samples than in M-WWTP samples. A higher percentage of MRSA isolates carried qacEΔ1 in MRSA from swine wastewater samples (62.8%) than in municipal MRSA (3.7%). All the MRSA isolates showed high MICs for antiseptic agents. This study provides important evidence regarding the abundances of intI1 and qacEΔ1 genes in municipal and swine slaughterhouse wastewater, and antiseptic-resistant MRSA strains were detected in swine slaughterhouse wastewater.

  20. Class 1 Integrons and the Antiseptic Resistance Gene (qacEΔ1) in Municipal and Swine Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment Plants and Wastewater—Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Min Tao; Chou, Chin Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Class 1 integrons are mobile gene elements (MGEs) containing qacEΔ1 that are resistant to quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) disinfectants. This study compared the abundances of class 1 integrons and antiseptic resistance genes in municipal (M) and swine slaughterhouse (S) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and investigated the presence of class 1 integrons and antiseptic resistance genes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from wastewater samples. The abundances of intI1 and qacEΔ1 genes in 96 wastewater samples were quantified using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time qPCR), and 113 MRSA isolates recovered from the wastewater samples were detected class 1 integrons and linked antiseptic resistance genes (qacEΔ1), and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for QAC antiseptics. The intI1 and qacEΔ1 genes were detected in all the wastewater samples, and they were more abundant in S-WWTP samples than in M-WWTP samples. A higher percentage of MRSA isolates carried qacEΔ1 in MRSA from swine wastewater samples (62.8%) than in municipal MRSA (3.7%). All the MRSA isolates showed high MICs for antiseptic agents. This study provides important evidence regarding the abundances of intI1 and qacEΔ1 genes in municipal and swine slaughterhouse wastewater, and antiseptic-resistant MRSA strains were detected in swine slaughterhouse wastewater. PMID:26042365

  1. Epidemiology of swine trichinellosis in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Z.Q.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Swine trichinellosis has been reported in 26 provinces, autonomous regions or municipalities (P/A/M of China. The prevalence rate in swine varied from 0.12 % to 34.2 % in five P/A/M, from 0.01 % to 0.0001 % in other P/A/M. The seroepidemiological survey of swine trichinellosis was carried out by ELISA in seven P/A/M, the seroprevalence varied from 0.09 % to 29.63 %. The prevalence of Thchinella infection in pork sold at the market was from 0.29 % to 5.6 % in four provinces. The transmission of trichinellosis by garbage is the main features of epidemiology of swine trichinellosis in China. Rat is an important reservoir in the domestic cycle of trichinellosis. The prevalence rates of T. spiralis infection in rats were from 1.98 % to 15.06 % in six provinces or autonomous regions. The treatment-prophylaxis with forage contained albendazole has been applied to the control of swine trichinellosis in Nanyang area of Henan province, the prevalence of swine trichinellosis had decreased from 32.2 % before prophylaxis to 0.12 % after prophylaxis.

  2. Removal of nitrogen from anaerobically digested swine wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This result indicates that the sulfur-packed biofilter would be used as an efficient option for denitrification by autotrophic denitrifiers during swine wastewater treatment. Key words: Biological nitrogen removal, nitrification, denitrification, chemical oxygen demand (COD), intermittent aeration, sulfur-packed bed reactor, swine ...

  3. Molecular characterization of African swine fever virus in apparently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African swine fever (ASF) is a highly lethal and economically significant disease of domestic pigs in Uganda where outbreaks regularly occur. There is neither a vaccine nor treatment available for ASF control. Twenty two African swine fever virus (ASFV) genotypes (I - XXII) have been identified based on partial sequencing ...

  4. Characterizing ammonia emissions from swine farms in eastern North Carolina: part 2--potential environmentally superior technologies for waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Viney P; Arya, S Pal; Rumsey, Ian C; Kim, D-S; Bajwa, K; Arkinson, H L; Semunegus, H; Dickey, D A; Stefanski, L A; Todd, L; Mottus, K; Robarge, W P; Williams, C M

    2008-09-01

    The need for developing environmentally superior and sustainable solutions for managing the animal waste at commercial swine farms in eastern North Carolina has been recognized in recent years. Program OPEN (Odor, Pathogens, and Emissions of Nitrogen), funded by the North Carolina State University Animal and Poultry Waste Management Center (APWMC), was initiated and charged with the evaluation of potential environmentally superior technologies (ESTs) that have been developed and implemented at selected swine farms or facilities. The OPEN program has demonstrated the effectiveness of a new paradigm for policy-relevant environmental research related to North Carolina's animal waste management programs. This new paradigm is based on a commitment to improve scientific understanding associated with a wide array of environmental issues (i.e., issues related to the movement of N from animal waste into air, water, and soil media; the transmission of odor and odorants; disease-transmitting vectors; and airborne pathogens). The primary focus of this paper is on emissions of ammonia (NH3) from some potential ESTs that were being evaluated at full-scale swine facilities. During 2-week-long periods in two different seasons (warm and cold), NH3 fluxes from water-holding structures and NH3 emissions from animal houses or barns were measured at six potential EST sites: (1) Barham farm--in-ground ambient temperature anaerobic digester/energy recovery/greenhouse vegetable production system; (2) BOC #93 farm--upflow biofiltration system--EKOKAN; (3) Carrolls farm--aerobic blanket system--ISSUES-ABS; (4) Corbett #1 farm--solids separation/ gasification for energy and ash recovery centralized system--BEST; (5) Corbett #2 farm--solid separation/ reciprocating water technology--ReCip; and (6) Vestal farm--Recycling of Nutrient, Energy and Water System--ISSUES-RENEW. The ESTs were compared with similar measurements made at two conventional lagoon and spray technology (LST) farms (Moore

  5. Polycystic ovary syndrome: a review for dermatologists: Part II. Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzney, Elizabeth; Sheu, Johanna; Buzney, Catherine; Reynolds, Rachel V

    2014-11-01

    Dermatologists are in a key position to treat the manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The management of PCOS should be tailored to each woman's specific goals, reproductive interests, and particular constellation of symptoms. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is recommended. In part II of this continuing medical education article, we present the available safety and efficacy data regarding treatments for women with acne, hirsutism, and androgenetic alopecia. Therapies discussed include lifestyle modification, topical therapies, combined oral contraceptives, antiandrogen agents, and insulin-sensitizing drugs. Treatment recommendations are made based on the current available evidence. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Zero Nuisance Piggeries: long-term performance of MBR (membrane bioreactor) for dilute swine wastewater treatment using submerged membrane bioreactor in semi-industrial scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Nolwenn; Ochoa, Juan; Amrane, Abdeltif

    2009-04-01

    Effective aerobic/anoxic treatment of piggery manure wastewater was achieved in a real farm scale using a small piggery (72 pigs) with reuse of the treated water. The experimental procedure was followed for 9 months. Fresh manure (FM) is formed by daily flush on piggeries and biologically treated after centrifuge pre-treatment. For upgrade liquid/solid separation and pathogen retention in biological treatment, a membrane system was used with the aim of effluent reuse in flush. Despite an evolution of FM through time, centrifuge pre-treatment and bioreactor performances stayed at high level. An elimination of 86% of the suspended solids occurred through pre-treatment, and nitrogen and COD biological degradation remains at 90% all time long. Moreover, interestingly about half of the soluble part of phosphorus (20% of the global phosphorus content) was biologically removed via the recirculation between the anoxic and the aerobic tank which acted as an intermittent aerobic/anoxic sequence. A part of COD was proved not biodegradable and was accumulated via the reuse of the treated water for flushing purpose. This accumulation justifies washing of the biomass between two runs in purpose to enhance the treated water quality and also to meet the membrane tolerance. The membrane was proved reliable as far as the maintenance procedure was respected. Maintenance cleaning had to be operated as soon as the TransMembrane Pressure (TMP) achieved 50 mbar and curative washing was necessary if the TMP increased over 90 mbar or between 2 runs. The temperature was proved to influence both the bioactivity and the membrane fouling kinetic. Finally, it was demonstrated that the process was sustainable for long-term management of swine wastewater at semi-industrial scale.

  7. Vented versus unvented chest seals for treatment of pneumothorax and prevention of tension pneumothorax in a swine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirabadi, Bijan S; Terrazas, Irasema B; Koller, Alexandra; Allen, Paul B; Klemcke, Harold G; Convertino, Victor A; Dubick, Michael A; Gerhardt, Robert T; Blackbourne, Lorne H

    2013-07-01

    Unvented chest seals (CSs) are currently recommended for the management of penetrating thoracic injuries in the battlefield. Since no supporting data exist, we compared the efficacy of a preferred unvented with that of a vented CS in a novel swine model of pneumothorax (PTx). An open chest wound was created in the left thorax of spontaneously air-breathing anesthetized pigs (n = 8). A CS was applied over the injury, then tension PTx was induced by incremental air injections (0.2 L) into the pleural cavity via a cannula that was also used to measure intrapleural pressure (IP). Both CS were tested on each pig in series. Tidal volume (V(T)), respiratory rate, IP, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, central venous pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure, venous and peripheral oxygen saturations (SvO2, SpO2) were recorded. Tension PTx was defined as a mean IP equal to or greater than +1 mm Hg plus significant (20-30%) deviation in baseline levels of the previously mentioned parameters and confirmed by chest x-ray study. PaO2 and PaCo2 were also measured. PTx produced immediate breathing difficulty and significant rises in IP and pulmonary arterial pressure and falls in V(T), SpO2, and SvO2. Both CSs returned these parameters to near baseline within 5 minutes of application. After vented CS was applied, serial air injections up to 2 L resulted in no significant change in the previously mentioned parameters. After unvented CS application, progressive deterioration of all respiratory parameters and onset of tension PTx were observed in all subjects after approximately 1.4-L air injection. Both vented and unvented CSs provided immediate improvements in breathing and blood oxygenation in our model of penetrating thoracic trauma. However, in the presence of ongoing intrapleural air accumulation, the unvented CS led to tension PTx, hypoxemia, and possible respiratory arrest, while the vented CS prevented these outcomes.

  8. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of swine semen and... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.10 Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved...

  9. Treatment of skeletal class II in a growing patient using two-phase treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Neela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This case was submitted to the board under category II for the Indian Board of Orthodontics examination, November 2016. The summary of the treatment, various records, treatment progress, and critical appraisal are reprinted here with minimal editing and reformatting and hence that the presentation resembles the actual documents submitted to the board.

  10. Effect of Irradiated Yeast Fermented Cassava on Performance of Starter and Growing Swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khammeng, Terdsak; Sanchisuriya, Pitcharat; Nontaso, Ngarmnit; Piadang, Nattayana

    2006-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a supplementation of fermented cassava with Saccharomyces sp. KKU.1 on the swine diet. The fermented products were added in the rat in at 0, 3, 6, and 9%, respectively. Thirty-two (4 week-old) crossbreed swine (Large white x Land race x Duroc) were randomly allotted according to Completely Randomize Design in two periods. Four dietary treatments and four replications (1 male and 1 female) were tested in the starting swine. Four dietary treatments and two replications (2 male and 2 female) were tested in the growing swine. The swine were tested for 6 week (August 2006-September 2006) at the swine unit, Deparment of Animal Science, Khon Kaen University. The results revealed that the fermented cassava in the diet had no affect (P>0.05) on productive performance (growth rate and feed conversion ratio) of swine in both periods.

  11. Angiotensin II for the Treatment of Vasodilatory Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Ashish; English, Shane W; Wang, Xueyuan S; Ham, Kealy; Tumlin, James; Szerlip, Harold; Busse, Laurence W; Altaweel, Laith; Albertson, Timothy E; Mackey, Caleb; McCurdy, Michael T; Boldt, David W; Chock, Stefan; Young, Paul J; Krell, Kenneth; Wunderink, Richard G; Ostermann, Marlies; Murugan, Raghavan; Gong, Michelle N; Panwar, Rakshit; Hästbacka, Johanna; Favory, Raphael; Venkatesh, Balasubramanian; Thompson, B Taylor; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Jensen, Jeffrey; Kroll, Stew; Chawla, Lakhmir S; Tidmarsh, George F; Deane, Adam M

    2017-08-03

    Vasodilatory shock that does not respond to high-dose vasopressors is associated with high mortality. We investigated the effectiveness of angiotensin II for the treatment of patients with this condition. We randomly assigned patients with vasodilatory shock who were receiving more than 0.2 μg of norepinephrine per kilogram of body weight per minute or the equivalent dose of another vasopressor to receive infusions of either angiotensin II or placebo. The primary end point was a response with respect to mean arterial pressure at hour 3 after the start of infusion, with response defined as an increase from baseline of at least 10 mm Hg or an increase to at least 75 mm Hg, without an increase in the dose of background vasopressors. A total of 344 patients were assigned to one of the two regimens; 321 received a study intervention (163 received angiotensin II, and 158 received placebo) and were included in the analysis. The primary end point was reached by more patients in the angiotensin II group (114 of 163 patients, 69.9%) than in the placebo group (37 of 158 patients, 23.4%) (odds ratio, 7.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.76 to 13.3; Pthe mean improvement in the cardiovascular Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (scores range from 0 to 4, with higher scores indicating more severe dysfunction) was greater in the angiotensin II group than in the placebo group (-1.75 vs. -1.28, P=0.01). Serious adverse events were reported in 60.7% of the patients in the angiotensin II group and in 67.1% in the placebo group. Death by day 28 occurred in 75 of 163 patients (46%) in the angiotensin II group and in 85 of 158 patients (54%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.57 to 1.07; P=0.12). Angiotensin II effectively increased blood pressure in patients with vasodilatory shock that did not respond to high doses of conventional vasopressors. (Funded by La Jolla Pharmaceutical Company; ATHOS-3 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02338843 .).

  12. Treatment of swine liquid manure by aerobic microbes and subsequent formation of yeast biomass. Aerob mikrobielle Behandlung von Schweineguelle mit anschliessender Hefebiomassebildung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, P

    1985-02-05

    A practical, hygienically satisfactory process for microbial upgrading of swine liquid manures ensuring a fair yield is by aerobic-thermophilic process with subsequent addition of yeast. The execution of this involves considerable expenditure. A problem consists furthermore in the sensitivity of the auto-oxidation stage to antibiotics, which might constitute an obstacle to the only possible sphere of application of the process anyway, namely in large-scale animal breeding, because this is the very sphere where the use of drugs is as yet indispensable. Stabilization by sewage treatment process can be achieved by a disproportionate effort only because of an unfavourable composition of the material and, is moreover out of the question on account of the high content of valuable nutrients. Renewed feeding of the substrate treated with yeast as a hygienically safe feeding stuff constitutes a useful recycling procedure for parts of the constituents of liquid manure and might help to reduce the import of expensive protein. Non-polluting disposal and appropriate utilization of liquid manure are always complicated and expensive. At the same time no solution has as yet been found that is entirely satisfactory, and late damage can never be entirely excluded.

  13. Surgical Orthodontic Treatment of Severe Skeletal Class II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsulaimani, Fahad F.; Al-Sebaei, Maisa O.; Afify, Ahmed R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an adult Saudi male patient who presented with a severe skeletal class II deformity. The case was managed with a combination of presurgical orthodontic treatment followed by a double jaw orthognathic surgery and then another phase of orthodontic treatment for final occlusal detailing. Extraction of the four first premolars was done during the presurgical orthodontic phase of treatment to decompensate upper and lower incisors and to give room for surgical setback of the maxillary anterior segment. Double jaw surgery was performed: bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy for 8 mm mandibular advancement combined with three-piece Le Fort I maxillary osteotomy, 6 mm setback of the anterior segment, 8 mm impaction of the maxilla, and 5 mm advancement genioplasty. Although the anteroposterior discrepancy and the facial convexity were so severe, highly acceptable results were obtained, both esthetically as well as occlusally. PMID:23573428

  14. Treatment of periodontal abcess with Class II furcation involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Rahmah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of periodontal abscess with furcation involvement has its own challenges in achieving the success of periodontal treatment. Teeth with periodontal abscesses often indicate the presence of furcation involvement. Most periodontal abscess occurs in approximately 92.5% molar. Furcation involvement on tooth abscesses had a greater challenge to the success of periodontal therapy. A male patient aged 36 years came to the clinic with active periodontal disease. On examination, the teeth are sensitive to percussion and 2o mobility. There is 13 mm deep pockets around the roots of teeth. On radiographic examination, appears severe bone destruction in the root area and furcation. Oral hygiene status was fair. Patients had a history of systemic disease type II diabetes mellitus. The periodontal abscess with furcation involvement with systemic disease type II diabetes mellitus can be treated with open flap and debridement so it can achieve a better prognosis. Systemic disease do not become a hindrance in periodontal treatment as long as the disease is controlled. Prognosis of teeth with abscess depend on the nature and extent of bone loss. Chronic periodontal abscess has a slow progressive bone destruction.

  15. Water treatment in the EBR-II steam system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, M.A.; Hurst, H.

    1975-01-01

    Boiler-water treatment in the EBR-II steam system consists of demineralizing makeup water and using hydrazine to remove traces of oxygen and morpholine to adjust pH to 8.8-9.2. This treatment is called a ''zero-solids'' method, because the chemical agents and reaction products are either volatile or form water and do not contribute solids to the boiler water. A continuous blowdown is cooled, filtered, and deionized to remove impurities and maintain high purity of the water. If a cooling-water leak occurs, phosphate is added to control scaling, and the ''zero-solids'' eatment is suspended until the leak is repaired. Water streams are sampled at six points to control water purity. Examination of the steam drum and an evaporator show the metal surfaces to be in excellent condition with minimal corrosion. The EBR-II steam-generating plant has accumulated over 85,000 hours of in-service operation and has operated successfully for over ten years with the ''zero-solids'' treatment. (auth)

  16. Swine brucellosis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen SC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available SC Olsen, FM Tatum Infectious Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Ames, IA, USA Abstract: Brucella suis is a significant zoonotic species that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human-to-human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic livestock, preventing human infection is the primary reason for its emphasis in disease control programs. Although disease prevalence varies worldwide, in areas outside of Europe, swine brucellosis is predominantly caused by B. suis biovars 1 and 3. In Europe, swine are predominantly infected with biovar 2 which is much less pathogenic in humans. In many areas worldwide, feral or wild populations of swine are important reservoir hosts. Like other Brucella spp. in their natural host, B. suis has developed mechanisms to survive in an intracellular environment and evade immune detection. Limitations in sensitivity and specificity of current diagnostics require use at a herd level, rather for individual animals. There is currently no commercial vaccine approved for preventing brucellosis in swine. Although not feasible in all situations, whole-herd depopulation is the most effective regulatory mechanism to control swine brucellosis. Keywords: livestock, transmission, pathogenicity, vaccine, host, infection

  17. CRISPR-Cas9, a tool to efficiently increase the development of recombinant African swine fever viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    African swine fever is a contagious and often lethal disease for domestic pigs with a significant economic impact on the swine industry. The etiological agent, African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a highly structurally complex double stranded DNA virus. No effective vaccines or antiviral treatment ...

  18. Breast carcinoma conservative treatment. Stages I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    From 1981 to 1988, 265 patients with breast cancer stages I and II (UICC-1987), were evaluated after conservative treatment with quadrantectomy plus axillectomy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. After surgical treatment, the patients were submitted to radiation therapy in the breast. One hundred and fifty six (58,8%) patients were submitted to adjuvant chemotherapy. The median clinical follow-up period was 42.8 months with a minimum of 24 and a maximum of 99 months. Six (2,3%) patients presented local recurrence and 48 (18,1%) presented distant metastasis. After five years the total survival rate was 89,7% and the disease free survival rate was 75% in the same period. The study did not show significant differences among the clinical stages classified after surgery and the use of adjuvant chemotherapy did not influence the results of the many stages. (author). 194 refs, 33 figs, 6 tabs

  19. Current knowledge and treatment strategies for grade II gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Yoshitaka

    2013-01-01

    World Health Organization grade II gliomas (GIIGs) include diffuse astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, and oligoastrocytoma. GIIG is a malignant brain tumor for which the treatment outcome can still be improved. Review of previous clinical trials found the following: GIIG increased in size by 3-5 mm per year when observed or treated with surgery alone; after pathological diagnosis, the survival rate was increased by early aggressive tumor removal at an earlier stage compared to observation alone; although the prognosis after total tumor removal was significantly better than that after partial tumor removal, half of the patients relapsed within 5 years; comparing postoperative early radiotherapy (RT) and non-early RT after relapse, early RT prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) but did not affect overall survival (OS); local RT of 45 to 64.8 Gy did not impact PFS or OS; in patients with residual tumors, RT combined with chemotherapy (procarbazine plus lomustine plus vincristine) prolonged PFS compared with RT alone but did not affect OS; and poor prognostic factors included astrocytoma, non-total tumor removal, age ≥40 years, largest tumor diameter ≥4-6 cm, tumor crossing the midline, and neurological deficit. To improve treatment outcomes, surgery with functional brain mapping or intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging or chemoradiotherapy with temozolomide is important. In this review, current knowledge regarding GIIG is described and treatment strategies are explored. (author)

  20. Oral tumors in dogs and cats. II. Prognosis and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhaliwal, R.S.; Kitchell, B.E.; Marretta, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    Small size and rostral location generally are positive prognostic factors for all types of oral tumors.:Standard treatment modalities for oral tumors include surgery, radiation therapy, intralesional matrix cisplatin, photodynamic therapy, and chemotherapy, Investigational therapeutic regimens, such as immunotherapy and gene therapy are not:yet widely available to practicing veterinarians. Surgery and radiation therapy are the-treatments of-choice for oral tumors because these neoplasms are locally aggressive and rarely metastasize. The advent of radical,surgical techniques coupled: with the use of radiation therapy has dramatically: improved survival Fates for dogs with oral tumors. When considered for oral tumors, chemotherapy is always palliative therapy because a complete cure cannot be anticipated with chemotherapy alone. However, using concurrent chemotherapy (as a radiation Sensitizer) and radiation therapy is gaining a lot of interest in clinical research. Part I of this two-part presentation discussed clinical Signs,diagnosis, and histologic types of various oral tumors; Part II reviews prognosis and treatment

  1. Vegetated treatment area (VTAs) efficiences for E. coli and nutrient removal on small-scale swine operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    As small-scale animal feeding operations work to manage their byproducts and avoid regulation, they need practical, cost-effective methods to reduce environmental impact. One such option is using vegetative treatment areas (VTAs) with perennial grasses to treat runoff; however, research is limited ...

  2. Piloting the effectiveness of pig health education in combination with oxfendazole treatment on prevention and/or control of porcine cysticercosis, gastrointestinal parasites, African swine fever and ectoparasites in Angónia District, Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chilundo, Abel; Johansen, Maria Vang; Pondja, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    A community-based intervention combining health education (HE) and treatment of pigs for control of porcine cysticercosis (PC), gastrointestinal (GI) helminths, African swine fever (ASF) and external parasites was tested involving six villages of resource-poor smallholder pig farmers. Farmers...... and prevention of ASF and ectoparasites, there was no significant reduction in the sero-prevalence of ASF and the prevalence of ectoparasites throughout the two-year period. The reported ineffectiveness of the intervention in this study suggested that more research is needed to develop more effective methods...

  3. Intraosseous Hydroxocobalamin versus Intravenous Hydroxocobalamin Compared to Intraosseous Whole Blood or No Treatment for Hemorrhagic Shock in a Swine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-02

    3794 5. Purpose: To determine if hydroxocobalamin, a portable, safe and FDA approved drug, is effective in improving hemorrhagic shock 6...Results: Intravenous (IV) versus proximal tibial intraosseous ( IO ) hydroxocobalamin (HOC) compared to no treatment: Systolic blood pressure, the...primary outcome variable, was similar between the IV and IO HOC groups over time. This was significantly different from the non-treated group such

  4. Mass and Energy Balances of Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion Treating Swine Manure Mixed with Rice Straw

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Sheng; Zhang, Jining; Zou, Guoyan; Riya, Shohei; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of swine manure treatment by a proposed Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (DT-AD) system, we evaluated the methane yield of swine manure treated using a DT-AD method with rice straw under different C/N ratios and solid retention time (SRT) and calculated the mass and energy balances when the DT-AD system is used for swine manure treatment from a model farm with 1000 pigs and the digested residue is used for forage rice production. A traditional swine manure trea...

  5. Corticosteroid treatment ameliorates acute lung injury induced by 2009 swine origin influenza A (H1N1 virus in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenggang Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 2009 influenza pandemic affected people in almost all countries in the world, especially in younger age groups. During this time, the debate over whether to use corticosteroid treatment in severe influenza H1N1 infections patients resurfaced and was disputed by clinicians. There is an urgent need for a susceptible animal model of 2009 H1N1 infection that can be used to evaluate the pathogenesis and the therapeutic effect of corticosteroid treatment during infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We intranasally inoculated two groups of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice (using 4- or 6-to 8-week-old mice to compare the pathogenesis of several different H1N1 strains in mice of different ages. Based on the results, a very susceptible 4-week-old C57BL/6 mouse model of Beijing 501 strain of 2009 H1N1 virus infection was established, showing significantly elevated lung edema and cytokine levels compared to controls. Using our established animal model, the cytokine production profile and lung histology were assessed at different times post-infection, revealing increased lung lesions in a time-dependent manner. In additional,the mice were also treated with dexamethasone, which significantly improved survival rate and lung lesions in infected mice compared to those in control mice. Our data showed that corticosteroid treatment ameliorated acute lung injury induced by the 2009 A/H1N1 virus in mice and suggested that corticosteroids are valid drugs for treating 2009 A/H1N1 infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using the established, very susceptible 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1 mouse model, our studies indicate that corticosteroids are a potential therapeutic remedy that may address the increasing concerns over future 2009 A/H1N1 pandemics.

  6. Characterization of an acidification and equalization tank (AET operating as a primary treatment of swine liquid effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Motteran

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the potential of the acidification equalization tank (AET used as a primary treatment unit, treating the hog farming wastewater. The treatment system consisted of a degritter with a triangular-notch weir, for measuring the flow, a static sieve, and an acidification and equalization tank (AET, an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor, a settling tank, a greenhouse for fertirrigation and two infiltration ponds. The AET had a net capacity of 8,000 liters, internally covered with asphalt blanket, worked based on surface loading rates application. The unit operated continuously, with its flow varying from 0.1 to 10 L s-1. To determine the efficiency, the following parameters were measured: pH; COD; BOD; volatile and fixed solids; settleable solids; total, intermediate and partial alkalinity and total acidity. The COD removal varied from 5 to 20%. The average pH was 7.3 and the total, intermediate and partial alkalinity in the effluent, were 1919, 846, 1197 mg L-1, respectively. The total acidity in the effluent was 34 mg L-1. The influent and effluent total BOD and oil & grease concentrations were 3436 and 3443 mg L-1, and 415 and 668 mg L-1, respectively. It was found that the AET worked properly concerning the acidification, equalization and sedimentation processes, confirming low cost of implementation and easy operation, when compared to other traditional decanters.

  7. Swine Brucellosis: Current Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucella suis is a significant zoonosis that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human to human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic liv...

  8. Establishment of anammox process in sludge samples collected from swine wastewater treatment system Estabelecimento do processo anammox a partir de lodo de sistema de tratamento de efluente da suinocultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline G Casagrande

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The high load of nitrogen present in swine wastewater is one of the biggest management challenges of the activity. The Anammox process emerges as a good alternative for biological removal of nitrogen. This study aims to acclimate sludge collected from swine effluent treatment systems to establish the Anammox process. Two sludge samples were collected at Embrapa Swine and Poultry, Concordia - SC, Brazil, one from the bottom of an inactive anaerobic pond (inoculum A and another from an aeration tank (inoculum B. Both were acclimated until the depletion of NO3-N, being subsequently inoculated in two reactors (Reactor A - Inoculum A and Reactor B - Inoculum B. The Reactor A showed activity after 110 days of operation, while the Reactor B needed 170 days. The difference in the start-up time could be explained by the different environmental conditions to which each sludge was submitted. FISH and PCR analyses confirmed the presence of microorganisms with Anammox activity, demonstrating that the sludge of swine wastewater treatment systems is a good source of inoculum for the development of the Anammox process.A elevada carga de nitrogênio presente em efluentes da suinocultura é um dos maiores desafios de manejo da atividade. O processo Anammox surge como boa alternativa para a remoção biológica desse nutriente. Este trabalho teve como objetivo aclimatar diferentes amostras de lodos de sistemas de tratamento de efluentes da suinocultura com vistas ao estabelecimento do processo Anammox. Dois inóculos foram coletados na Embrapa Suínos e Aves, Concórdia - SC, um dos quais no fundo de uma lagoa anaeróbia inativa (Inóculo A e o outro, em um tanque de aeração (Inóculo B. Ambos foram aclimatados até cessar o consumo de N-NO3- e, posteriormente, inoculados em dois reatores (Reator A - Inóculo A e Reator B - Inóculo B. O Reator A apresentou atividade, após aproximadamente 110 dias de operação, enquanto o Reator B precisou de aproximadamente

  9. Tratamento de águas residuárias da suinocultura utilizando-se filtros orgânicos Treatment of swine wastewater using organic filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane dos Santos Brandão

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento primário da água residuária de suinocultura pode ser feito por filtragem; para isto, torna-se oportuno o estudo de materiais alternativos a serem utilizados como meio filtrante e, com este intuito, foram utilizados o bagaço de cana-de-açúcar, a casca de arroz, a casca de café, o fino de carvão vegetal, o sabugo de milho e a serragem de madeira, acondicionados em tubos de PVC de diâmetro de 100 mm, constituindo colunas de 500 mm de altura. O sistema de filtragem foi mantido sob escoamento permanente, com fluxo em meio saturado, e pequena ou nenhuma alteração foi detectada na concentração de N-total, Ca, Mg e Zn no efluente do filtro, enquanto que as concentrações de P-total, Na e K aumentaram no efluente obtido em filtros de casca de arroz, casca de café e sabugo de milho. Significativa redução na concentração de Cu foi constatada para todos os materiais utilizados como filtro, atingindo-se eficiência de remoção de até 43,6%. Eficiências de remoção superiores a 90% foram obtidas para sólidos sedimentáveis enquanto a remoção de sólidos totais ficou abaixo de 33,0%.The primary treatment of swine wastewater can be done by filtration. To this end, the study of alternative materials as a filter media is necessary. With this objective, rice husk, coffee straw, sugar-cane trash, triturated corncob, wood sawdust and fine vegetable coal were used as media, conditioned in PVC tubes of 100 mm in diameter and 500 mm in height. The filtering system was maintained under saturated flow conditions. Little or no change was detected in the concentration of N-total, Ca, Mg and Zn in the effluent of the filter, although the concentration of P-total and K increased in the effluents of the filters of rice husk, coffee straw, triturate corncob, reaching a maximum removal efficiency of 43.6%. Removal efficiencies of sedimentable solids higher than 90.0% were obtained in all materials employed as a filtration media, although

  10. Robust Protection against Highly Virulent Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Swine by Combination Treatment with Recombinant Adenoviruses Expressing Porcine Alpha and Gamma Interferons and Multiple Small Interfering RNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hyeon; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Kim, Se-Kyung; You, Su-Hwa; Kim, Taeseong; Tark, Dongseob; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Seo, Min-Goo; Kim, Byounghan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Because the currently available vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) provide no protection until 4 to 7 days postvaccination, the only alternative method to halt the spread of the FMD virus (FMDV) during outbreaks is the application of antiviral agents. Combination treatment strategies have been used to enhance the efficacy of antiviral agents, and such strategies may be advantageous in overcoming viral mechanisms of resistance to antiviral treatments. We have developed recombinant adenoviruses (Ads) for the simultaneous expression of porcine alpha and gamma interferons (Ad-porcine IFN-αγ) as well as 3 small interfering RNAs (Ad-3siRNA) targeting FMDV mRNAs encoding nonstructural proteins. The antiviral effects of Ad-porcine IFN-αγ and Ad-3siRNA expression were tested in combination in porcine cells, suckling mice, and swine. We observed enhanced antiviral effects in porcine cells and mice as well as robust protection against the highly pathogenic strain O/Andong/SKR/2010 and increased expression of cytokines in swine following combination treatment. In addition, we showed that combination treatment was effective against all serotypes of FMDV. Therefore, we suggest that the combined treatment with Ad-porcine IFN-αγ and Ad-3siRNA may offer fast-acting antiviral protection and be used with a vaccine during the period that the vaccine does not provide protection against FMD. IMPORTANCE The use of current foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines to induce rapid protection provides limited effectiveness because the protection does not become effective until a minimum of 4 days after vaccination. Therefore, during outbreaks antiviral agents remain the only available treatment to confer rapid protection and reduce the spread of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in livestock until vaccine-induced protective immunity can become effective. Interferons (IFNs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have been reported to be effective antiviral agents against

  11. Removal Characteristics of Nitrogen and Phosphorus and Their Land Application Rates During a Multi-level Treatment Process for Manure and Waste Water:An Example from Intensive Swine Farm in Water Network Region of Southern Jiangsu Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIN Hong-mei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The actual removal rates of nitrogen and phosphorus in animal manure and waste water during multi-level treatment process remain vague for large-scale farms. This limits its land application in water network regions of China. The aims of this study were:(1 to verify the removal characteristics of total nitrogen(TN and phosphorus(TP during a multi-level treatment process for swine manure and waste water, and(2 to calculate its land carrying capacity. An intensive swine farm in Southern Jiangsu, which possessed a typical manure and waste water treatment plant with two anaerobic digesters, three natural sediment ponds, and one aquatic plant ponds, was chosen to monitor for the four seasons during a whole year. The results showed that total productions of manure and urine were 4 086.9 t and 10 995.8 t, respectively, in 2016. The collection rate of manure was around 90.5%. The available TN and TP were 183.12 t and 148.97 t, respectively, for land application. The removal rates of TN and TP were less than 25.3% and 57.2% respectively, after secondary anaerobic digestion. The residual TN and TP in the digestates could be removed more than 80% by oxygen ponds treatments. Then the effluent was processed by aquatic plants, and the removal rates for TN and TP were more than 95%, which guaranteed the effluent to be up to the discharge standard. The multi-level processing technology could improve the land carrying capacity and reduce the manure and waste water treatment costs for the intensive animal farms, which were suitable for very intensive, economically developed and land resource limited regions.

  12. Production of bioenergy in anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) and sludge blanket (UASB) in the treatment os swine waste water; Producao de bioenergia em reatores anaerobios compartimentado (RAC) e de manta de lodo (UASB) no tratamento de efluentes de suinocultura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moterani, Fabricio; Pereira, Erlon Lopes; Campos, Claudio M.M. [Universidade Federal de Lavras (DEG/UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia], email: fabricio_moterani@yahoo.com.br

    2011-07-01

    The biogas is obtained in the processes of degradation of organic matter by the action of bacterial consortium in the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biogas production in anaerobic UASB and ABR in swine wastewater treatment. For this we used the theoretical estimated and actual production of biogas measured by anaerobic gasometers installed in the units. Methane was determined by gas chromatography (GC) and its theoretical output was 66 LCH4 kgSVT d{sup -1} and 11.9 LCH4 kgSVT d{sup -1} and 24.7 m{sup 3} d{sup -1} and 5.4 m{sup 3} d{sup -1} to ABR and UASB, respectively. Regarding the actual production of biogas in the reactor provided by the gas tank, found the values of 1,166.4 m{sup 3}; 0.1 m{sup 3}; 27.4 m{sup 3} and 12,598.5 m{sup 3} of biogas for compartments 1, 2 and 3 and ABR for the UASB reactor, respectively, totaling, production of 13,792.4 m{sup 3} in the units together, with an average of 113 m{sup 3} of biogas per day. But, it concludes with this research that the use of effluent from produce energy through biogas in swine farming is effective, which can be used in rural productive system itself. (author)

  13. Maxillary first molar extraction in Class II malocclusion : Follow-up studies on treatment effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos

    2015-01-01

    This PhD research investigated treatment effects of extraction of one and two maxillary first molars in Class II subdivision and Class II/1 malocclusion cases respectively from a longer time perspective. Private practice records were scrutinized to evaluate aspects of a treatment technique combining

  14. Bipolar Treatment: Are Bipolar I and Bipolar II Treated Differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The diagnosis and management of bipolar I and bipolar II disorders: Clinical practice update. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 2017;92:1532. Haynes PL, et al. Social rhythm therapies for mood disorders: An update. Current Psychiatry Reports. ...

  15. Physical examination of swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, B J; Hamilton, M; Masters, P G

    1992-07-01

    Swine may be examined to evaluate a disease state or a lowered economic performance or as a herd health consultation. As much of the examination as possible should be performed without handling the animal. A thorough history, evaluation of herd records, environmental examination, and herd examination should be performed prior to the evaluation of an individual animal. All necessary equipment should be available when starting the individual examination. The animals is then restrained and examined, and necessary samples are taken. Post-mortem examinations or slaughter house evaluations are a very frequent part of a health examination on swine. All samples taken should be in accordance with the standards of the laboratory that you use. You should work closely with the laboratory to obtain the best results. Physical examination of swine can be rewarding for the veterinarian as well as the producer. The most important aspect to remember is to have enough information and the proper equipment available to handle the animals for the minimal amount of time to gain the maximum benefits. Vietnamese pot-bellied pigs are similar to domestic swine in terms of their diseases and health but are dissimilar in management; pot-bellied pigs are frequently brought to the veterinarian for individual examinations. History is the most valuable part of the examination, followed by observation. Pot-bellied pigs prefer to be held securely with a hand under the chin and rump. The examination is conducted similarly to the examination of any companion animal. Chemical restraint often is necessary for sampling or minor surgical procedures. Owners should be consulted prior to the use of any restraint. This will help win their approval and confidence when working on their pets. While performing the physical examination, look at the pig's overall health as well as specific breed characteristics. Try to stay abreast of swine vaccination recommendations; you may be consulted in this regard. Most

  16. Clinical Benefits of Memantine Treatment for Alzheimer's Disease in the Okayama Memantine Study II (OMS II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzono, Kosuke; Yamashita, Toru; Ohta, Yasuyuki; Hishikawa, Nozomi; Koike, Makoto; Sato, Kota; Kono, Syoichiro; Deguchi, Kentaro; Nakano, Yumiko; Abe, Koji

    2015-01-01

    The clinical benefits of memantine, depending on the baseline cognitive and affective conditions in real world dementia clinics, have not been completely examined. We performed the "Okayama Memantine Study II (OMS II)" to retrospectively evaluate the clinical effects of memantine monotherapy (n = 38) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients using seven batteries to assess dementia at the baseline, at 3, 6, and 12 months. Additionally, we divided 163 AD patients treated with memantine into two subgroups depending on the baseline cognitive score of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE): the MMSE OMS II showed that memantine monotherapy improved BPSD until 12 months. The higher baseline cognitive subgroup (MMSE ≥15) and the worse baseline BPSD subgroup were expected to show better effects with memantine.

  17. Use of Antibiotics and Antimicrobial Resistance in Veterinary Medicine as Exemplified by the Swine Pathogen Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Maren; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Willenborg, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Use of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine is essential to control infectious diseases, thereby keeping animals healthy and animal products safe for the consumer. On the other hand, development and spread of antimicrobial resistance is of major concern for public health. Streptococcus (S.) suis reflects a typical bacterial pathogen in modern swine production due to its facultative pathogenic nature and wide spread in the pig population. Thus, in the present review we focus on certain current aspects and problems related to antimicrobial use and resistance in S. suis as a paradigm for a bacterial pathogen affecting swine husbandry worldwide. The review includes (i) general aspects of antimicrobial use and resistance in veterinary medicine with emphasis on swine, (ii) genetic resistance mechanisms of S. suis known to contribute to bacterial survival under antibiotic selection pressure, and (iii) possible other factors which may contribute to problems in antimicrobial therapy of S. suis infections, such as bacterial persister cell formation, biofilm production, and co-infections. The latter shows that we hardly understand the complexity of factors affecting the success of antimicrobial treatment of (porcine) infectious diseases and underlines the need for further research in this field.

  18. Seroprevalence of hepatitis E in swine abattoir workers.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disease poses economic ... III and IV infect both swine and humans; and are re- ... associated with transmission in swine abattoir workers in ..... tal evidence for cross-species infection by swine hepatitis ... A novel virus in swine is closely.

  19. MANAGEMENT PATIENT OF SWINE INFLUENZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endra Gunawan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is an acute respiratory diseases caused by various influenza virus which infect the upper and lower respiratory tract and often accompanied by systemic symptoms such as fever, headache and muscle pain. Influenza spreads through the air. Swine influenza comes from swine and can cause an outbreaks in pig flocks. Even this is a kind of a rare case but the swine influenza could be transmitted to human by direct contact with infected swine or through environment that already being contaminated by swine influenza virus. There are 3 types of swine influenza virus namely H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2. Type H1N1 swine-virus had been known since 1918. Avian influenza virus infection is transmitted from one person to another through secret containing virus. Virus is binded into the mucous cells of respiratory tract before it is finally infecting the cells itself. Management patients with H1N1 influenza is based on the complications and the risk. Besides, it is also need to consider the clinical criteria of the patient. Therapy medicamentosa is applied to the patients by giving an antiviral, antibiotics and symptomatic therapy. Prevention can be done by avoid contact with infected animal or environment, having antiviral prophylaxis and vaccination.

  20. Long-term evaluation of Class II subdivision treatment with unilateral maxillary first molar extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos; Pandis, Nikolaos; Booij, Johan Willem; Katsaros, Christos; Ren, Yijin

    Objective: To evaluate the long-term effects of asymmetrical maxillary first molar (M1) extraction in Class II subdivision treatment. Materials and Methods: Records of 20 Class II subdivision whites (7 boys, 13 girls; mean age, 13.0 years; SD, 1.7 years) consecutively treated with the Begg technique

  1. Eficiência energética de sistema de produção de suínos com tratamento dos resíduos em biodigestor Energy efficiency of swine production system with biodigestor waste treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André R. Angonese

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Visando avaliar a sustentabilidade em um sistema de produção de suínos em terminação, realizou-se estudo de eficiência energética, através do acompanhamento de um lote de 120 dias, em sistema comercial, em Ouro Verde do Oeste, PR. Quantificou-se o coeficiente energético de cada componente envolvido no processo de produção e tratamento dos resíduos, por meio de biodigestor (entradas e saídas e se determinaram as matrizes de consumo energético nas formas de ração, energia elétrica, mão-de-obra, equipamentos, instalações, produção de suínos vivos, produção de biofertilizante e de biogás. Os resultados indicaram que a atividade se enquadrou nas características de um agroecossistema industrial, altamente especializado, importando grande parte da energia consumida no processo de produção e destinado à exportação, com eficiência energética de 0,38 (Jsaída/Jentrada. Da energia direta de entrada, 95,3% correspondem a ração e 4,6% a leitões. Da energia de saída, 56,8% se referem a suínos para abate, 30,1% ao biofertilizante e 13% a biogás.Aiming to assess the sustainability of a terminating swine production system, an energy efficiency study was carried out through a 120 days animal lot in a commercial system at Ouro Verde do Oeste, in the State of Paraná, Brazil. The energy rate of each compound involved in the production process and waste treatment using a biodigestor (input and output was quantified. The matrixes of energy consumption were determined in the form of animal feeding, electrical energy, human labour, equipment, structures, alive swine production, biofertilizer production and biogas. The results indicated that the activity corresponded to an industrial agroecosystem, highly specialized, importing a great part of the energy consumed in the production process and applied to the exportation, with energy efficiency of 0.38 (Joutput/Jinput. In direct input energy, 95.3% correspond to animal feeding, 4

  2. A treatment method for Class II Division 1 patients with extraction of permanent maxillary first molars.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, J.W.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Katsaros, C.

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the years, various treatment modalities have been presented for the treatment of Class II Division 1 malocclusions. The goal of this paper is to present a treatment approach that involves the extraction of the maxillary first molars followed by use of fixed appliances with low-friction

  3. Control of African swine fever epidemics in industrialized swine populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Bøtner, Anette; Mortensen, Sten

    2016-01-01

    , it is important to explore strategies that can effectively control an epidemic of ASF. In this study, the epidemiological and economic effects of strategies to control the spread of ASF between domestic swine herds were examined using a published model (DTU-DADS-ASF). The control strategies were the basic EU...... and national strategy (Basic), the basic strategy plus pre-emptive depopulation of neighboring swine herds, and intensive surveillance of herds in the control zones, including testing live or dead animals. Virus spread via wild boar was not modelled. Under the basic control strategy, the median epidemic......African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable infectious disease with a high impact on swine health. The disease is endemic in certain regions in the Baltic countries and has spread to Poland constituting a risk of ASF spread toward Western Europe. Therefore, as part of contingency planning...

  4. Phase II cancer clinical trials for biomarker-guided treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sin-Ho

    2018-01-01

    The design and analysis of cancer clinical trials with biomarker depend on various factors, such as the phase of trials, the type of biomarker, whether the used biomarker is validated or not, and the study objectives. In this article, we demonstrate the design and analysis of two Phase II cancer clinical trials, one with a predictive biomarker and the other with an imaging prognostic biomarker. Statistical testing methods and their sample size calculation methods are presented for each trial. We assume that the primary endpoint of these trials is a time to event variable, but this concept can be used for any type of endpoint.

  5. Reassortant swine influenza viruses isolated in Japan contain genes from pandemic A(H1N1) 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanehira, Katsushi; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Uchida, Yuko; Hikono, Hirokazu; Saito, Takehiko

    2014-06-01

    In 2013, three reassortant swine influenza viruses (SIVs)-two H1N2 and one H3N2-were isolated from symptomatic pigs in Japan; each contained genes from the pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 virus and endemic SIVs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the two H1N2 viruses, A/swine/Gunma/1/2013 and A/swine/Ibaraki/1/2013, were reassortants that contain genes from the following three distinct lineages: (i) H1 and nucleoprotein (NP) genes derived from a classical swine H1 HA lineage uniquely circulating among Japanese SIVs; (ii) neuraminidase (NA) genes from human-like H1N2 swine viruses; and (iii) other genes from pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 viruses. The H3N2 virus, A/swine/Miyazaki/2/2013, comprised genes from two sources: (i) hemagglutinin (HA) and NA genes derived from human and human-like H3N2 swine viruses and (ii) other genes from pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 viruses. Phylogenetic analysis also indicated that each of the reassortants may have arisen independently in Japanese pigs. A/swine/Miyazaki/2/2013 were found to have strong antigenic reactivities with antisera generated for some seasonal human-lineage viruses isolated during or before 2003, whereas A/swine/Miyazaki/2/2013 reactivities with antisera against viruses isolated after 2004 were clearly weaker. In addition, antisera against some strains of seasonal human-lineage H1 viruses did not react with either A/swine/Gunma/1/2013 or A/swine/Ibaraki/1/2013. These findings indicate that emergence and spread of these reassortant SIVs is a potential public health risk. © 2014 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. EBR-II spent fuel treatment demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedict, R.W.; Henslee, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    For approximately 10 years, Argonne National Laboratory was developed a fast reactor fuel cycle based on dry processing. When the US fast reactor program was canceled in 1994, the fuel processing technology, called the electrometallurgical technique, was adapted for treating unstable spent nuclear fuel for disposal. While this technique, which involves electrorefining fuel in a molten salt bath, is being developed for several different fuel categories, its initial application is for sodium-bonded metallic spent fuel. In June 1996, the Department of Energy (DOE) approved a radiation demonstration program in which 100 spent driver assemblies and 25 spent blanket assemblies from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) will be treated over a three-year period. This demonstrated will provide data that address issues in the National Research Council's evaluation of the technology. The planned operations will neutralize the reactive component (elemental sodium) in the fuel and produce a low enriched uranium product, a ceramic waste and a metal waste. The fission products and transuranium elements, which accumulate in the electrorefining salt, will be stabilized in the glass-bonded ceramic waste form. The stainless steel cladding hulls, noble metal fission products, and insoluble residues from the process will be stabilized in a stainless steel/zirconium alloy. Upon completion of a successful demonstration and additional environmental evaluation, the current plans are to process the remainder of the DOE sodium bonded fuel

  7. Treatment of periodontal abcess with Class II furcation involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Rahmah; Arni Irawaty Djais

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of periodontal abscess with furcation involvement has its own challenges in achieving the success of periodontal treatment. Teeth with periodontal abscesses often indicate the presence of furcation involvement. Most periodontal abscess occurs in approximately 92.5% molar. Furcation involvement on tooth abscesses had a greater challenge to the success of periodontal therapy. A male patient aged 36 years came to the clinic with active periodontal disease. On examination, the teeth are...

  8. Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP), Volumes I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amelio, J.

    1994-01-01

    Site Treatment Plans (STP) are required for facilities at which the DOE generates or stores mixed waste. This Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP) the second step in a three-phase process, identifies the currently preferred options for treating mixed waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) or for developing treatment technologies where technologies do not exist or need modification. The DSTP reflects site-specific preferred options, developed with the state's input and based on existing available information. To the extent possible, the DSTP identifies specific treatment facilities for treating the mixed waste and proposes schedules. Where the selection of specific treatment facilities is not possible, schedules for alternative activities such as waste characterization and technology assessment are provided. All schedule and cost information presented is preliminary and is subject to change. The DSTP is comprised of two volumes: this Compliance Plan Volume and the Background Volume. This Compliance Plan Volume proposes overall schedules with target dates for achieving compliance with the land disposal restrictions (LDR) of RCRA and procedures for converting the target dates into milestones to be enforced under the Order. The more detailed discussion of the options contained in the Background Volume is provided for informational purposes only

  9. Occlusal stability of adult Class II Division 1 treatment with the Herbst appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Niko Christian; von Bremen, Julia; Ruf, Sabine

    2010-08-01

    During recent years, some articles have been published on Herbst appliance treatment in adult patients, an approach that has been shown to be most effective in Class II treatment in both early and late adulthood. However, no results on stability have yet been published. Our objective was to analyze the short-term occlusal stability of Herbst therapy in adults with Class II Division 1 malocclusions. The subjects comprised 26 adults with Class II Division 1 malocclusions exhibiting a Class II molar relationship > or =0.5 cusp bilaterally or > or =1.0 cusp unilaterally and an overjet of > or =4.0 mm. The average treatment time was 8.8 months (Herbst phase) plus 14.7 months (subsequent multi-bracket phase). Study casts from before and after treatment and after an average retention period of 32 months were analyzed. After retention, molar relationships were stable in 77.6% and canine relationships in 71.2% of the teeth. True relapses were found in 8.2% (molar relationships) and 1.9% (canine relationships) of the teeth. Overjet was stable in 92.3% and overbite in 96.0% of the patients; true relapse did not occur. Herbst treatment showed good occlusal stability 2.5 years after treatment in adults with Class II Division 1 malocclusions. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. General relativistic Boltzmann equation, II: Manifestly covariant treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debbasch, F.; van Leeuwen, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    In a preceding article we presented a general relativistic treatment of the derivation of the Boltzmann equation. The four-momenta occurring in this formalism were all on-shell four-momenta, verifying the mass-shell restriction p(2) = m(2)c(2). Due to this restriction, the resulting Boltzmann

  11. Early positron emission tomography response-adapted treatment in stage I and II hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    André, Marc P.E.; Girinsky, Théodore; Federico, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Patients who receive combined modality treatment for stage I and II Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) have an excellent outcome. Early response evaluation with positron emission tomography (PET) scan may improve selection of patients who need reduced or more intensive treatments. Methods We performed...

  12. Orthodontic treatment of nongrowing patient with class II division 2 malocclusion by Herbst appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Nenad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inheritance is most casual etiological factor of Class II division 2 malocclusion. This kind of malocclusion is very difficult for treatment specially in older patients. Case report. In the female patient, 20 years old, at the beginning of the treatment at the School of Dentistry in Belgrade, lateral cephalogram showed skeletal and dentoalveolar Class II division 2 malocclusion. She was in the Herbst treatment for 8 months and 12 months more with a fixed multibracket appliance. The measurements were performed on lateral cephalograms before and after the treatment: ii, is, mi, ms, Pg and ss. The distance from these points to occlusal perpendicular line (Olp were measured and compared from cephalogram before to cephalogram after the treatment. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ tomograms were compared from before and after the treatment by superimposition. Correction was found in molar and incisor relation, overjet and overbite. There were found sagital skeletal changes and soft tissue profile improvement. Conclusion. Herbst appliance is effective in the treatment of Class II malocclusions, even in adult patients. Dental and skeletal changes as a result of Herbst treatment could be good choice instead of camouflage orthodontics or surgical decision.

  13. Treatment of Class II Malocclusion by Nonextraction Therapy using Microimplants and Pendex Appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar S Alle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of Class II cases is always challenging. Treatment modalities involve growth modulation, expansion of the maxillary arch or extraction of premolars and retraction. The patient compliance is key factor in success of the treatment. In the present article a male patient with Class II malocclusion was treated using a Pendex appliance to simultaneously expand the upper arch and distalize the molars. The maxillary anteriors were retracted using microimplants. The results were satisfactory. This approach can be used in patients with mild skeletal discrepancy and with slight increase in the gingival display.

  14. Zeolites in poultry and swine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Félix Schneider

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Zeolites are minerals that have intriguing properties such as water absorption, ion adsorption and cation exchange capacity. There are approximately 80 species of natural zeolites recognized and hundreds of artificial zeolites, which have been researched in several fields. Due to their chemical characteristics, zeolites have great potential for use in animal production, especially in poultry and swine farms, as food additives, litter amendment and treatment of residues, with direct and indirect effects on performance, yield and quality of carcass, ambience of farm sheds and reduction of environmental pollution.

  15. Avaliação de desempenho de reator UASB no tratamento de águas residuárias de suinocultura Evaluation of performance of UASB reactor in swine wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano S. Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta o desenvolvimento e a avaliação de um sistema de tratamento de águas residuárias de suinocultura constituído de decantador e seguido de reator anaeróbio de manta de lodo (reator UASB, em escala real. O reator UASB foi construído de alvenaria e concreto armado. Coletaram-se amostras do esgoto bruto e do efluente do decantador e reator UASB, e se monitoraram os seguintes parâmetros: temperatura, pH, alcalinidade, ácidos voláteis totais (AVT, sólidos suspensos totais (SST, sólidos suspensos voláteis (SSV, demanda bioquímica de oxigênio (DBO e demanda química de oxigênio (DQO, de acordo com os métodos estabelecidos pelo Standard Methods (APHA, 1998. Os resultados médios de remoção total de DQO e de DBO foram de 93 e 92%, respectivamente. As concentrações médias de DQO, DBO e SST no efluente final foram de 0,8, 1,8 e 0,8 g L-1, respectivamente. A carga orgânica volumétrica (COV aplicada no reator UASB variou de 1,1 a 17,5 kg DQO m-3 d-1. O sistema decantador-reator UASB apresenta-se como alternativa promissora para o tratamento de águas residuárias de suinocultura.This research presents the development and evaluation of a system for treatment of swine wastewaters constituted by slat settler, followed by upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor, at full scale. The UASB reactor was completely made of masonry and reinforced concrete. The evaluation of the treatment system was carried out through samples collected in the influent and effluent from the settler and UASB reactor. The following parameters were analyzed: temperature, pH, alkalinity, total volatile acids (VFA, suspended solids (TSS, volatile suspended solids (VSS, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, according to the methods established by the Standard Methods (APHA, 1998. The mean results of COD and BOD removal were 93 and 92%, respectively. The mean concentrations of COD, BOD and TSS in the final effluent were

  16. PERICARDITIS: ETIOLOGY, CLASSIFICATION, CLINIC, DIAGNOSTICS, TREATMENT. PART II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Sugak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pericarditis maybe caused by different agents: viruses, bacteria, tuberculosis, and it may be autoimmune. All these types of diseases have similar clinical signs, but differ by prevalence, prognosis and medical tactics. Due to achievements of radial methods of visualization, molecular biology, and immunology, we have an opportunity to provide early specific diagnostics and etiological treatment of inflammatory diseases of pericardium. The second part of lecture presents main principles of differential diagnostics of specific types of pericarditis, gives characteristics of several often accruing types of disease, and describes treatment and tactics of management of patients with pericarditis.Key words: children, pericarditis.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(3:76-81

  17. Prosthetic treatment in dentinogenesis imperfecta type II: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Güven

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI or hereditary opalescent dentin is an autosomal dominant disorder affecting both primary and permanent dentition. Early diagnosis and treatment of DI is important for normal facial growth and esthetic continuity by preserving occlusion and tooth structure. It also provides psychological motivation by increasing the patient’s quality of life. Providing functional dentition in DI patients prevents loss of the vertical dimension, while enabling normal growth of the facial bones and jaw joint. CASE REPORT: A 20-year-old male with DI was referred to our clinic with chewing difficulty and esthetic and speech problems. His brother also had this disease. Oral examination showed the loss of many teeth and the absence of enamel on most of the remaining teeth, causing discoloration and exposing soft dentinal tissue with calcification disorder. Despite widespread attrition of the teeth, pulp chambers were not exposed. The tip of the lower jaw was prominent in the patient’s profile. Placing metal-ceramic fixed dentures in the lower jaw and an overdenture prosthesis in the upper jaw improved the patient’s psychological state as well as his function, phonation, and esthetics. CONCLUSION: This case report presents the intraoral findings in a patient with DI, including the histopathological findings, and the prosthetic treatment approach and the treatment outcome.

  18. Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Information on Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Virus Language: English (US) Español Recommend ...

  19. Characterization of IGF-II isoforms in binge eating disorder and its group psychological treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Tasca

    Full Text Available Binge eating disorder (BED affects 3.5% of the population and is characterized by binge eating for at least 2 days a week for 6 months. Treatment options include cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, and pharmacotherapy which are associated with varied success. Little is known about the biology of BED. Since there is evidence that the insulin like growth factor system is implicated in regulation of body weight, insulin sensitivity and feeding behavior, we speculated it may be involved in BED.A cross-sectional comparison was made between three groups of women: overweight with BED, overweight without BED and normal weight without BED. Women were assigned to Group Psychodynamic Interpersonal Psychotherapy. Blood was collected before therapy, at completion and at 6 months follow up for evaluation of IGF-II using Western blot.97 overweight women with BED contributed to the cross-sectional comparison. The two control groups comprised 53 overweight women without BED, and 50 age matched normal weight women without BED. Obese women had significantly lower Big IGF-II than normal weight women, p = .028; Overweight women with BED had higher Mature IGF-II than normal weight women, p<.05. Big IGF-II showed a significant decreasing slope from pre- to post- to six months post-group psychological treatment, unrelated to changes in BMI (p = .008.Levels of IGF-II isoforms differed significantly between overweight and normal weight women. Overweight women with BED display abnormal levels of circulating IGF-II isoforms. BED is characterized by elevated mature IGF-II, an isoform shown to carry significant bioactivity. This finding is not related to BMI or to changes in body weight. The results also provide preliminary evidence that BIG IGF-II is sensitive to change due to group psychological treatment. We suggest that abnormalities in IGF-II processing may be involved in the neurobiology of BED.

  20. The EBR-II spent fuel treatment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lineberry, M.J.; McFarlane, H.F.

    1995-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has refurbished and equipped an existing hot cell facility for demonstrating a high-temperature electrometallurgical process for treating spent nuclear fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-11. Two waste forms will be produced and qualified for geologic disposal of the fission and activation products. Relatively pure uranium will be separated for storage. Following additional development, transuranium elements will be blended into one of the high-level waste streams. The spent fuel treatment program will help assess the viability of electrometallurgical technology as a spent fuel management option

  1. Ulnar-sided wrist pain. II. Clinical imaging and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Atsuya; Souza, Felipe [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Vezeridis, Peter S.; Blazar, Philip [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Boston, MA (United States); Yoshioka, Hiroshi [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); University of California-Irvine, Department of Radiological Sciences, Irvine, CA (United States); UC Irvine Medical Center, Department of Radiological Sciences, Orange, CA (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Pain at the ulnar aspect of the wrist is a diagnostic challenge for hand surgeons and radiologists due to the small and complex anatomical structures involved. In this article, imaging modalities including radiography, arthrography, ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), CT arthrography, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and MR arthrography are compared with regard to differential diagnosis. Clinical imaging findings are reviewed for a more comprehensive understanding of this disorder. Treatments for the common diseases that cause the ulnar-sided wrist pain including extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendonitis, flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) tendonitis, pisotriquetral arthritis, triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) lesions, ulnar impaction, lunotriquetral (LT) instability, and distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability are reviewed. (orig.)

  2. ROLE OF DPP-IV INHIBITORS IN TREATMENT OF TYPE II DIABETES

    OpenAIRE

    Patel Kishan D; Patel Grishma M.

    2010-01-01

    Emerging as an epidemic of the 21st century type II diabetes has become a major health problem throughout the globe. Known treatments of type II diabetes mellitus have limitations such as weight gain and hypoglycaemias. A new perspective is the use of incretin hormones and incretin enhancers. Incretin mimetics are a new class of pharmacological agents with multiple antihyperglycemic actions that mimic the actions of incretin hormones such as glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1. DPP-4, a protease th...

  3. Stability of class II subdivision malocclusion treatment with 3 and 4 premolar extractions

    OpenAIRE

    Janson, Guilherme; Araki, Janine; Estelita, S?rgio; Camardella, Leonardo T

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare the occlusal stability of class II subdivision malocclusion treatment with 3 and 4 first premolar extractions. A sample of 156 dental casts from 52 patients with class II subdivision malocclusion was divided into two groups according to the extraction protocol. Group 1 comprised 24 patients treated with 3 premolar extractions and group 2 included 28 patients treated with 4 premolar extractions. Methods Peer assessment rating (PAR) indexes we...

  4. Odor from anaerobic digestion of swine slurry: influence of pH, temperature and organic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Ortiz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Farm slurry management from storage and/or treatment is the main source of odors from swine production, which are determined by factors such as operational variations (organic loading, cleaning of facilities and animal diet (pH or environmental conditions (temperature. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of pH, temperature and organic loading on odor generation during anaerobic digestion of swine slurry. The methodology employed batch experimental units under controlled pH (6.0, 6.5, 7.0 and 8.0 and temperature (20, 35 and 55 °C conditions. Additionally, an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB system was operated under two Organic Loading Rate (OLR conditions as Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD (Phase I: 0.4 g L-1 d-1 of COD, Phase II: 1.1 g L-1 d-1 of COD. Odor (batch and UASB reactor was evaluated by detection and recognition threshold as Dilution Threshold (D-T. Acidic conditions (pH 6.0 and thermophilic temperatures (55 °C increased odors (1,358 D-T and acidified the system (Intermediate/Total Alkalinity ratio (IT/TA: 0.85 in batch experiments. Increasing OLR on UASB reactor reduced odors from 6.3 to 9.6 D-T d-1 due to an increase in the production of biogas (0.4 to 0.6 g g-1 COD removed of biogas.

  5. African Swine Fever Virus, Siberia, Russia, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbasov, Denis; Titov, Ilya; Tsybanov, Sodnom; Gogin, Andrey; Malogolovkin, Alexander

    2018-04-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is arguably the most dangerous and emerging swine disease worldwide. ASF is a serious problem for the swine industry. The first case of ASF in Russia was reported in 2007. We report an outbreak of ASF in Siberia, Russia, in 2017.

  6. Skeletal and dental changes induced by bionator in early treatment of class II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Barnabé Raveli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to investigate the amount of skeletal and dentoalveolar changes after early treatment of Class II, Division 1 malocclusion with bionator appliance in prepubertal growing patients. Forty Class II patients were divided in two groups. Treated group consisted of 20 subjects treated consecutively with bionator. Mean age at the start of treatment (T0 was 9.1 years, while it was 10.6 years at the end of treatment (T1. Mean treatment time was 17.7 months. Pretreatment and post-treatment cephalometric records of treated group were evaluated and compared with a control group consisted of 20 patients with untreated Class II malocclusion. Intergroup comparisons were performed using Student’s t-tests and chi-square test with Yates’ correction at a significance level of 5 per cent. Bionator appliance was effective in generating differential growth between the jaws. Cephalometric skeletal measurements ANB, WITS, Lafh, Co-A and dental L6-Mp, U1.Pp, IsIi, OB, OJ showed statistically significantly different from the control. Bionator induced more dentoalveolar changes than skeletal during treatment in prepubertal stage.

  7. Treatment and post-treatment effects of functional therapy on the sagittal pharyngeal dimensions in Class II subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavoni, Chiara; Cretella Lombardo, Elisabetta; Franchi, Lorenzo; Lione, Roberta; Cozza, Paola

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the craniofacial changes induced by functional appliances with special regard to the oro and nasopharyngeal sagittal airway dimensions in subjects with dentoskeletal Class II malocclusions when compared with an untreated Class II control group immediately after therapy and at long-term observation. A group of 40 patients (21 females and 19 males) with Class II malocclusion treated consecutively either with a Bionator or an Activator followed by fixed appliances was compared with a matched control group of 31 subjects (16 females and 15 males) with untreated Class II malocclusion. The treated sample was evaluated at T1, start of treatment (mean age: 9.9 ± 1.4 years); T2, end of functional treatment and prior to fixed appliances (mean age: 11.9 ± 1.3 years); and T3, long-term observation at the end of growth (mean age: 18.2 ± 2.1 years). Statistical comparisons were performed with independent sample t tests at T1 (baseline characteristics) and for the T1-T2, T2-T3, and T1-T3 changes. During active treatment the treated group showed a significant increment in lower airway dimension (PNS-AD1), as well as a significant improvement in the upper airway dimension (PNS-AD2). A significant decrease in the upper adenoid size (AD2-H) was also found. In the longterm evaluation, a significant increase in both lower and upper airway thickness (PNS-AD1; PNS-AD2) and a significant decrease in the upper adenoid thickness were still present in the treated group. The treatment with functional appliances produced significant favorable changes during active treatment in the oro- and nasopharyngeal sagittal airway dimensions in dentoskeletal Class II subjects when compared with untreated controls, and these changes were stable in the long-term. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

  9. Feed quality in swine diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Branislav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper will demonstrate the quality of some feed used in swine diet. The emphasis will be on feed whose incorporation into mixes could result in unfavorable effects on production, health and economic production of swine. Data will be presented on maize and its possible negative effects, having in mind toxins. Soybean meal, or genetically modified soybean meal, will also be observed. The next feed which will be discussed will be soybean whey obtained by different procedures and the potential dangers of its use in swine diet rations. Sunflower meal, feed of animal origin, with emphasis on fish flour and meat-bone flour will also be covered in the work. A feed which has been attracting particular attention lately is yeast imported from Italy. Its quality characteristics will be discussed, the so-called non-protein nitrogen. Analyses of mineral feed will include sources of phosphorus, phosphates (monocalciumphosphate, dicalcium phosphate phytases and resolving the problem of phosphorus in swine rations. Finally, an inevitable segment are synthetic amino acids, especially lysine and its role in swine diet.

  10. Treatment with salvianolic acid B restores endothelial function in angiotensin II-induced hypertensive mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Wei Chih; Liu, Jian; Lau, Chi Wai; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Huang, Yu

    2017-07-15

    Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) is one of the most abundant phenolic acids derived from the root of Danshen with potent anti-oxidative properties. The present study examined the vasoprotective effect of Sal B in hypertensive mice induced by angiotensin II (Ang II). Sal B (25mg/kg/day) was administered via oral gavage for 11days to Ang II (1.2mg/kg/day)-infused C57BL/6J mice (8-10weeks old). The vascular reactivity (both endothelium-dependent relaxations and contractions) in mouse arteries was examined by wire myography. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), protein level and localization of angiotensin AT 1 receptors and the proteins involved in ROS formation were evaluated using dihydroethidium (DHE) fluorescence, lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, respectively. The changes of ROS generating proteins were also assessed in vitro in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to Ang II with and without co-treatment with Sal B (0.1-10nM). Oral administration of Sal B reversed the Ang II-induced elevation of arterial systolic blood pressure in mice, augmented the impaired endothelium-dependent relaxations and attenuated the exaggerated endothelium-dependent contractions in both aortas and renal arteries of Ang II-infused mice. In addition, Sal B treatment normalized the elevated levels of AT 1 receptors, NADPH oxidase subunits (NOx-2 and NOx-4) and nitrotyrosine in arteries of Ang II-infused mice or in Ang II-treated HUVECs. In summary, the present study provided additional evidence demonstrating that Sal B treatment for 11days reverses the impaired endothelial function and with a marked inhibition of AT 1 receptor-dependent vascular oxidative stress. This vasoprotective and anti-oxidative action of Sal B most likely contributes to the anti-hypertensive action of the plant-derived compound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Breast carcinoma conservative treatment. Stages I and II; Tratamento conservador do carcinoma mamario. Estadios I e II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti, C R

    1991-12-31

    From 1981 to 1988, 265 patients with breast cancer stages I and II (UICC-1987), were evaluated after conservative treatment with quadrantectomy plus axillectomy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. After surgical treatment, the patients were submitted to radiation therapy in the breast. One hundred and fifty six (58,8%) patients were submitted to adjuvant chemotherapy. The median clinical follow-up period was 42.8 months with a minimum of 24 and a maximum of 99 months. Six (2,3%) patients presented local recurrence and 48 (18,1%) presented distant metastasis. After five years the total survival rate was 89,7% and the disease free survival rate was 75% in the same period. The study did not show significant differences among the clinical stages classified after surgery and the use of adjuvant chemotherapy did not influence the results of the many stages. (author). 194 refs, 33 figs, 6 tabs.

  12. Breast carcinoma conservative treatment. Stages I and II; Tratamento conservador do carcinoma mamario. Estadios I e II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti, C.R.

    1990-12-31

    From 1981 to 1988, 265 patients with breast cancer stages I and II (UICC-1987), were evaluated after conservative treatment with quadrantectomy plus axillectomy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. After surgical treatment, the patients were submitted to radiation therapy in the breast. One hundred and fifty six (58,8%) patients were submitted to adjuvant chemotherapy. The median clinical follow-up period was 42.8 months with a minimum of 24 and a maximum of 99 months. Six (2,3%) patients presented local recurrence and 48 (18,1%) presented distant metastasis. After five years the total survival rate was 89,7% and the disease free survival rate was 75% in the same period. The study did not show significant differences among the clinical stages classified after surgery and the use of adjuvant chemotherapy did not influence the results of the many stages. (author). 194 refs, 33 figs, 6 tabs.

  13. Clinical effects of fixed functional Herbst appliance in the treatment of class II/1 malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Nenad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sagittal mandible deficiency is the most common cause of skeletal Class II malocclusion. Treatment objective is to stimulate sagittal mandible growth. Fixed functional Herbst appliance use is beneficial for shortening the time required for treatment and does not depend on patient compliance. Case outline. A 13-year-old girl was referred to the Clinic of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry in Belgrade following previous unsuccessful treatment of her skeletal Class II malocclusion using an activator. The patient's poor cooperation had led to failure of the treatment. Patient was subjected to the Herbst treatment for 6 months followed by fixed appliance for another 8 months. Lateral cephalograms before and after the treatment was performed. The remodelation of condylar and fossal articulation was assessed by superimposition of pre- and post-treatment temporomandibular joint tomograms. The promotion of oral hygiene and fluoride use was performed because orthodontic treatment carries a high caries risk and risk for periodontal disease. Skeletal and dental changes were observed after treatment (correction [Max+Mand]: molar relation 7 mm, overjet 8 mm, skeletal relation 5 mm, molars 2 mm, incisors 3 mm. Combination of Herbst and fixed appliances was effective in the treatment of dental and skeletal irregularities for a short period of time. Conclusion . In the retention period, 14 months after treatment, occlusal stability exists. Follow-up care in oral prevention is based on regular recalls at the dental office and supervision at home by the parents.

  14. Predictors of favorable soft tissue profile outcomes following Class II Twin-block treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Mah, Su-Jung; Kim, Tae-Woo; Kim, Su-Jung; Park, Ki-Ho; Kang, Yoon-Goo

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine cephalometric factors that help predict favorable soft-tissue profile outcomes following treatment with the Class II Twin-block appliance. Pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalograms of 45 patients treated with the Class II Twin-block appliance were retrospectively analyzed. Profile silhouettes were drawn from the cephalograms and evaluated by three orthodontists in order to determine the extent of improvement. Samples were divided into a favorable group (upper 30% of visual analogue scale [VAS] scores, n = 14) and an unfavorable group (lower 30% of VAS scores, n = 14). Skeletal and soft-tissue measurements were performed on the cephalograms and an intergroup comparison was conducted. An independent t -test revealed that the following pre-treatment values were lower in the favorable group compared to the unfavorable group: lower incisor to mandibular plane angle, lower incisor to pogonion distance, point A-nasion-point B angle, sella-nasion line (SN) to maxillary plane angle, SN to mandibular plane angle, gonial angle, and symphysis inclination. The favorable group had a larger incisor inclination to occlusal plane. Moreover, the favorable group showed larger post-treatment changes in gonial angle, B point projection, and pogonion projection than did the unfavorable group. Class II malocclusion patients with a low divergent skeletal pattern and reduced lower incisor protrusions are likely to show more improvement in soft-tissue profile outcomes following Class II Twin-block treatment.

  15. Clinical efficacy of terlipressin in treatment of type II hepatorenal syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DING Xiaohong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical efficacy of domestic terlipressin in the treatment of type II hepatorenal syndrome (HRS-II. MethodsA total of 25 HRS-II patients admitted to our hospital from November 2011 to June 2014 were recruited into the treatment group, and 28 HRS-II patients treated with dopamine before 2011 were recruited into the control group. Patients in the treatment group were randomly divided into two subgroups: one subgroup (n=12 was given terlipressin once every 8 h, and the other subgroup (n=13 was given terlipressin once every 12 h. Both groups received albumin (Alb infusion to expand the blood volume before treatment with terlipressin or dopamine, and the course of treatment was 7 days. The improvement in clinical symptoms, levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN, serum creatinine and electrolytes, urine volume, changes in liver function, and ascites disappearance in the two groups before and after treatment were compared. Comparison of categorical data between the two groups was made by χ2 test, and comparison of continuous data was made by t test. ResultsPatients in the control group showed no obvious symptom relief, but those in the treatment group had varying degrees of improvement in clinical symptoms. Neither group had significant changes in liver function and serum sodium level after treatment. The treatment group had significantly more patients whose ascites volume had decreased from large to medium than the control group (χ2=5.705, P<0.05. There was a slight but not significant decrease in the levels of BUN and serum creatinine in the control group after treatment with dopamine (all P>0.05, whereas the urine volume showed significant difference after the treatment (t=15.534, P<0.01. The treatment group showed significant differences in the levels of BUN and serum creatinine and urine volume after terlipressin treatment (t=11.535, 9.941, and 19.685, respectively; all P<0.01, and significant differences in

  16. Ni(II immobilization by bio-apatite materials: Appraisal of chemical, thermal and combined treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šljivić-Ivanović Marija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal bones are natural and rich source of calcium hydroxyapatite (HAP, which was found to be a good sorbent material for heavy metals and radionuclides. Various treatments can reduce the content of bone organic phase and improve sorption properties. In this study, sorption capacities of raw bovine bones (B and samples obtained by chemical treatment with NaOH (BNaOH, by heating at 400 oC (B400 and by combined chemical and thermal treatment (BNaOH+400, were compared, using Ni(II ions as sorbates. Maximum sorption capacities increased in the order BII sorption was found to be complex, with participation of both HAP and organic phase (when present. Sequential extraction analysis was applied for testing the stability of Ni(II ions sorbed by BNaOH+400. Majority of Ni(II was found in residual phase (65% at lower level of sorbent loading, while with the increase of sorbent saturation carbonate fraction became dominant (39 %. According to the results, BNaOH+400 can be utilized in water purification systems. As an apatite based material with low organic content and high efficiency for Ni(II sorption, it is also a good candidate for in-situ soil remediation, particularly at lower contamination levels. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43009

  17. Metabonomic study of the biochemical profiles of heterozygous myostatin knockout swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxiang XU,Dengke PAN,Jie ZHAO,Jianwu WANG,Xiaohong HE,Yuehui MA,Ning LI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Myostatin is a transforming growth factor-β family member that normally acts to limit skeletal muscle growth. Myostatin gene (MSTN knockout (KO mice show possible effects for the prevention or treatment of metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. We applied chromatography and mass spectrometry based metabonomics to assess system-wide metabolic response of heterozygous MSTN KO (MSTN+/- swine. Most of the metabolic data for MSTN+/- swine were similar to the data for wild type (WT control swine. There were, however, metabolic changes related to fatty acid metabolism, glucose utilization, lipid metabolism, as well as BCAA catabolism caused by monoallelic MSTN depletion.The statistical analyses suggested that: (1 most metabolic changes were not significant in MSTN+/- swine compared to WT swine; (2 only a few metabolic properties were significantly different between KO and WT swine, especially for lipid metabolism. Significantly, these minor changes were most evident in female KO swine and suggested differences in gender sensitivity to myostatin.

  18. Anaerobic digestion of chicken feather with swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yun; Massé, Daniel I; McAllister, Tim A; Beaulieu, Carole; Ungerfeld, Emilio

    2012-03-01

    Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of chicken feathers with swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge was assessed in two separate experiments. Ground feathers without any pre-treatment were added to 42-L digesters inoculated with swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge, representing 37% and 23% of total solids, respectively and incubated at 25°C in batch mode. Compared to the control without feather addition, total CH(4) production increased by 130% (Pswine manure and the slaughterhouse sludge digesters, respectively. Mixed liquor NH(4)N concentration increased (Pdigestion to 6.9 and 3.5 g/L at the end of digestion in the swine manure and the slaughterhouse sludge digesters, respectively. The fraction of proteolytic microorganisms increased (Pdigestion from 12.5% to 14.5% and 11.3% to 13.0% in the swine manure and the slaughterhouse sludge digesters with feather addition, respectively, but decreased in the controls. These results are reflective of feather digestion. Feather addition did not affect CH(4) yields of the swine manure digesters (P=0.082) and the slaughterhouse sludge digesters (P=0.21), indicating that feathers can be digested together with swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge without negatively affecting the digestion of swine manure and slaughterhouse sludge. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Zeolite and swine inoculum effect on poultry manure biomethanation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Fotidis, Ioannis; Zaganas, I.D.

    2013-01-01

    Poultry manure is an ammonia-rich substrate that inhibits methanogenesis, causing severe problems to the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, the effect of different natural zeolite concentrations on the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of poultry waste inoculated with well-digested swine...... manure was investigated. A significant increase in methane production was observed in treatments where zeolite was added, compared to the treatment without zeolite.Methane production in the treatment with 10 g dm-3 of natural zeolite was found to be 109.75% higher compared to the treatment without...... zeolite addition. The results appear to be influenced by the addition of zeolite, which reduces ammonia toxicity in anaerobic digestion and by the ammonia-tolerant swine inoculum....

  20. Zeolite and swine inoculum effect on poultry manure biomethanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougias, P. G.; Fotidis, I. A.; Zaganas, I. D.; Kotsopoulos, T. A.; Martzopoulos, G. G.

    2013-03-01

    Poultry manure is an ammonia-rich substrate that inhibits methanogenesis, causing severe problems to the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, the effect of different natural zeolite concentrations on the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of poultry waste inoculated with well-digested swine manure was investigated. A significant increase in methane production was observed in treatments where zeolite was added, compared to the treatment without zeolite.Methane production in the treatment with 10 g dm-3 of natural zeolite was found to be 109.75% higher compared to the treatment without zeolite addition. The results appear to be influenced by the addition of zeolite, which reduces ammonia toxicity in anaerobic digestion and by the ammonia-tolerant swine inoculum.

  1. Incisor root resorption in class II division 2 patients in relation to orthodontic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faxén Sepanian, Varro; Sonnesen, Liselotte

    2018-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The aims were 1. to analyse differences in the occurrence of orthodontic induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR) of the upper and lower incisors in Angle Class II division 2 patients, between patients treated with fixed appliance only (one-phase treatment group......-four subjects treated for Class II division 2 malocclusion were divided into two groups: 46 patients in the one-phase treatment group (28 girls, 18 boys, mean age 14.4) and 28 patients in the two-phase treatment group (18 girls, 10 boys, mean age 12.4) where 336 and 201 incisors were analysed respectively...... group showed significantly more OIIRR for lower central incisors (P = 0.002) compared to the two-phase treatment group. For the both groups combined, boys showed more OIIRR than girls (P = 0.002) and patients with agenesis showed more OIIRR than patients without agenesis (P = 0.019) for the lower...

  2. Role of Antioxidants in Horse Serum-mediated Vasculitis in Swine: Potential Relevance to Early Treatment in Mitigation of Coronary Arteritis in Kawasaki Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Saji; Lee, Wen-Chuan; Cherian, Kotturathu Mammen; Wu, Mei-Hwan; Lue, Hung-Chi

    2017-08-01

    Horse serum-induced immune complex coronary vasculitis in swine is the first experimental model to mimic most of the pictures of Kawasaki disease. Immune complex mechanism has been implicated as one of the possible mechanisms in the pathogenesis of vasculitis in Kawasaki disease. Antioxidants have a significant role in the reduction of cardiovascular diseases in both human and animal studies. We tried giving vitamins A, E, and C to treat immune complex vasculitis, in the hope of mitigating coronary vasculitis in Kawasaki disease. Our study group consisted of 30 pure bred male piglets of 2-3 months of age, and they were divided into test and control groups. The test (AEC) group (n = 20) received two doses of horse serum, 10 mL (0.65 g protein)/kg body weight at 5-day intervals, and oral vitamins A, E, and C once daily for 14 days. The control group (n = 10) was further divided into the saline group (n = 3) receiving two doses of normal saline and the horse serum group (n = 7) receiving two doses of horse serum at 5-day intervals. Piglets were observed for the rashes and coronary artery dimensions. Both the AEC and the control horse serum group developed rashes after horse serum infusions, but the AEC group developed significantly fewer rashes, and no rashes were seen in the saline group. The control horse serum group (mean ± standard deviation = 2.13 ± 0.72) showed significant coronary artery dilatation, whereas there was no significant dilatation in the AEC group (mean ± standard deviation = 0.81 ± 0.58) or the control saline group (p = 0.002). Serum sickness is a prototype of immune complex vasculitis, and the severity can be ameliorated with antioxidants. A trial of therapeutic dosages of vitamins A, E, and C in acute phase of Kawasaki disease, may be effective in mitigation of coronary artery lesion in addition to intravenous immunoglobulin and aspirin. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Treatment of Class II subdivision malocclusion with congenitally missing upper lateral incisors: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Siddharth Mehta; Ashima Valiathan; Arun Urala

    2014-01-01

    Orthodontic treatment for patients with unilateral or bilateral congenitally missing lateral incisor poses a challenge mainly with regard to treatment planning. The use of a diagnostic setup is one of the most important aids in the decision-making process. Two alternatives, orthodontic space closure or space opening for prosthetic replacement exist. The present case report shows use of the microimplant for unilateral upper molar distalization and space closure in a Class-II division 1 subdivi...

  4. Savannah River Site Approved Site Treatment Plan, 2001 Annual Update (Volumes I and II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, B.

    2001-04-30

    The Compliance Plan Volume (Volume I) identifies project activity scheduled milestones for achieving compliance with Land Disposal Restrictions. Information regarding the technical evaluation of treatment options for SRS mixed wastes is contained in the Background Volume (Volume II) and is provided for information.

  5. Segmental mastectomy and radiotherapy as treatment of stage II breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, S.L.; Chiminazzo Junior, H.; Schlupp, W.R.; Cunha, L.S.M. da

    1987-01-01

    The treatment of operable breast cancer with segmental mastectomy and radiotherapy has been described since decade 30. Many recent prospective and retrospective studies have shown the efficacy of this conservative management, particularly in stage I. There are still doubts in its use in stage II. (Author) [pt

  6. Cis-diamminedichloride platinum II (DDP) in the treatment of penile carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklaroff, R B; Yagoda, A

    1979-11-01

    Cis-diamminedichloride platinum II (DDP) was administered to eight patients with epidermoid carcinoma of the penis. Three of six adequately treated patients had an objective response: one patient achieved complete remission of 7 months duration and 2 patients had partial remissions of 8 and 2 months, respectively. DDP appears to be an active agent in the treatment of penile carcinoma.

  7. Treatment strategies for women with WHO group II anovulation: systematic review and network meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Rui; Kim, Bobae V.; van Wely, Madelon; Johnson, Neil P.; Costello, Michael F.; Zhang, Hanwang; Ng, Ernest Hung Yu; Legro, Richard S.; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Norman, Robert J.; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2017-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of alternative first line treatment options for women with WHO group II anovulation wishing to conceive. Systematic review and network meta-analysis. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, and Embase, up to 11 April 2016. Randomised controlled trials

  8. Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...

  9. Stability of class II subdivision malocclusion treatment with 3 and 4 premolar extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Guilherme; Araki, Janine; Estelita, Sérgio; Camardella, Leonardo T

    2014-12-30

    The purpose of this study was to compare the occlusal stability of class II subdivision malocclusion treatment with 3 and 4 first premolar extractions. A sample of 156 dental casts from 52 patients with class II subdivision malocclusion was divided into two groups according to the extraction protocol. Group 1 comprised 24 patients treated with 3 premolar extractions and group 2 included 28 patients treated with 4 premolar extractions. Peer assessment rating (PAR) indexes were measured on the dental casts obtained before (T1) and after treatment (T2) and at a mean of 6.9 years after the end of treatment (T3). The groups were matching regarding sex distribution, pretreatment, posttreatment and long-term posttreatment ages, and treatment and long-term posttreatment times. They were also comparable concerning the initial malocclusion severity and the occlusal results at the end of treatment. Stability evaluation was calculated by subtracting the posttreatment from the long-term posttreatment index values (T3 - T2). T tests were used to compare the amount and percentage of long-term posttreatment changes. There were no intergroup differences regarding the amount and percentage of long-term posttreatment changes. Treatment of class II subdivision malocclusion with 3 and 4 premolar extractions have a similar long-term posttreatment occlusal stability.

  10. 9 CFR 85.6 - Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be..., except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be infected with or exposed to pseudorabies. Pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered...

  11. Effect of anti-VEGF treatment on retinopathy of prematurity in Zone II Stage 3+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Mei Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the effect of intravitreal ranibizumab injection for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in Zone II Stage 3+. METHODS: Data was collected for ROP patients with Zone II Stage 3+ who received intravitreal ranibizumab injections between October 2014 and Janu­ary 2017 at the Department of Ophthalmology in our hospital. No prior laser or other intravitreal treatment was done. Prior to the intervention and at each follow-up visit, fundus examination was performed. Gestational age at birth, sex, birth weight, ROP zone, ROP stage, post menstrual age (PMA at treatment, and follow-up pe­riod were recorded. The final clinical status of the retina was evaluated for each patient. The primary outcome mea­sures included ROP recurrences requiring re-treatment, complete or incomplete peripheral vascularization. RESULTS: Eighty-six eyes of 46 premature infants with Zone II Stage 3+ ROP were enrolled in the study. The mean gestational age at birth was 28.18±1.67 (range: 25 to 33wk and the mean birth weight was 1070.57±226.85 (range: 720.00 to 1650.00 g. The mean PMA at treatment was 38.32±2.99 (range: 32.29 to 46.00wk. Seventy-one eyes (82.56% were treated success­fully with intravitreal ranibizumab as monotherapy. Fifteen eyes (17.44% developed recurrent disease. The mean interval between the treatment and retreatment was 5.96±3.22 (range: 1.86 to 11.71wk. All eyes vascularized into zone III at the end of the study and among them 62 eyes (72.09% achieved complete vascu­larization. CONCLUSION: Intravitreal ranibizumab injection is an effective treatment in Zone II Stage 3+ ROP patients. More patients with longer follow-up duration are necessary to confirm the safety and efficacy of this treatment.

  12. Study of Blood Leptin Levels before and After Treatment with Metformin in Diabetes Type Ii Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Didehdar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leptin is a fat tissue hormone that has 176 amino acids with a molecular weight of 16 KD . Leptin has effects on the hypothalamus and peripheral tissues resulting in decreased food absorption and increased energy consumption that finally reduces the body weight and BMI. The aim of this research was to investigate the blood levels of leptin before and after treatment with Metformin in type II diabetic patients. Methods: 25 type II diabetic patients without any previous drug treatment history were investigated. This study was a clinical trail before and after treatment with Metformin. Results: There was no particular difference in BMI, average body weight, fat mass and free fat mass before and after treatment. Similarly, the difference in concentration levels of blood glucose, cholesterol, tri-glycerides and LDL-cholesterol before and after treatment was not statistically significant. Also, there was no difference in the average concentration of leptin and insulin before and after treatment Conclusion: This result showed that although metformin decreased glucose and lipid levels during the treatment period, (1 month it did not have an effect on leptin, Insulin and other related factors during treatment.;

  13. Microbiome overview in swine lungs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Maboni Siqueira

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiologic agent of swine enzootic pneumonia. However other mycoplasma species and secondary bacteria are found as inhabitants of the swine respiratory tract, which can be also related to disease. In the present study we have performed a total DNA metagenomic analysis from the lungs of pigs kept in a field condition, with suggestive signals of enzootic pneumonia and without any infection signals to evaluate the bacteria variability of the lungs microbiota. Libraries from metagenomic DNA were prepared and sequenced using total DNA shotgun metagenomic pyrosequencing. The metagenomic distribution showed a great abundance of bacteria. The most common microbial families identified from pneumonic swine's lungs were Mycoplasmataceae, Flavobacteriaceae and Pasteurellaceae, whereas in the carrier swine's lungs the most common families were Mycoplasmataceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae and Flavobacteriaceae. Analysis of community composition in both samples confirmed the high prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae. Moreover, the carrier lungs had more diverse family population, which should be related to the lungs normal flora. In summary, we provide a wide view of the bacterial population from lungs with signals of enzootic pneumonia and lungs without signals of enzootic pneumonia in a field situation. These bacteria patterns provide information that may be important for the establishment of disease control measures and to give insights for further studies.

  14. Class II malocclusion treatment using high-pull headgear with a splint: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder B. Jacob

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the scientific evidence pertaining to the effectiveness of high-pull headgear in growing Class II subjects. METHODS: A literature survey was performed by electronic database search. The survey covered the period from January 1966 to December 2008 and used Medical Subject Headings (MeSH. Articles were initially selected based on their titles and abstracts; the full articles were then retrieved. The inclusion criteria included growing subjects between 8 to 15 years of age, Class II malocclusion treatment with high-pull headgear, and a control group with Class II malocclusion. References from selected articles were hand-searched for additional publications. Selected studies were evaluated methodologically. RESULTS: Four articles were selected; none were randomized controlled trials. All of the articles clearly formulated their objectives and used appropriate measures. The studies showed that high-pull headgear treatment improves skeletal and dental relationship, distal displacement of the maxilla, vertical eruption control and upper molars distalization. One of the studies showed a slight clockwise rotation of the palatal plane; the others showed no significant treatment effect. The mandible was not affected by the treatment. CONCLUSION: While there is still a lack of strong evidence demonstrating the effects of high-pull headgear with a splint, other studies indicate that the AP relations improve due to distalization of the maxilla and upper molars, with little or no treatment effects in the mandible. Greater attention to the design should be given to improve the quality of such trials.

  15. Efficacy of MTA and CEM Cement with Collagen Membranes for Treatment of Class II Furcation Defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Ollah Ghanbari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the efficacy of MTA and CEM cement in Class II furcation defects in human mandibular molars.Forty furcation defects were treated in 16 patients with chronic periodontitis. The clinical parameters of probing depth (PD, vertical and horizontal clinical attachment levels (VCAL and HCAL, open vertical and horizontal furcation depths (OVFD and OHFD, and gingival margin level (GML were measured at baseline and at 3- and 6-month (re-entry surgery postoperatively. Data were analyzed at a significance level of P<0.05.Use of MTA and CEM caused significant decreases in PD, VCAL, HCAL, OVFD and OHFD at re-entry, with no statistically significant differences between the two treatment options in soft and hard tissue parameters.Both treatment modalities caused significant gains in attachment levels and bone fills, proving efficacy for treatment of Class II furcation involvements.

  16. Production system dynamism and parasitic interac- tion of swine in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pasture and on swine with poor body condition compared to zero grazing, and on swine with ... Many countries practice different kinds of production approaches. ... farms with an average herd size of 29 swine were sampled by random sam-.

  17. [Improving the effectiveness of functional jaw orthopedics in Class II malocclusion by appropriate treatment timing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano

    2010-12-01

    Time can be considered the fourth dimension in dento-facial orthopedics. Treatment timing can play a significant role in the outcomes of treatment aimed to produce an orthopedic effect in the craniofacial structures. The results of methodologically-sound cephalometric studies of both the past and the recent history of orthodontics clearly indicate that optimal treatment timing for Class II skeletal disharmony with a functional appliance (e.g. twin block) is during or slightly after the peak in mandibular growth as revealed by a reliable biologic indicator of individual skeletal maturity such as the cervical vertebral maturation method. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2010.

  18. CRISPR-Cas9, a tool to efficiently increase the development of recombinant African swine fever viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borca, Manuel V; Holinka, Lauren G; Berggren, Keith A; Gladue, Douglas P

    2018-02-16

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a highly contagious disease called African swine fever. This disease is often lethal for domestic pigs, causing extensive losses for the swine industry. ASFV is a large and complex double stranded DNA virus. Currently there is no commercially available treatment or vaccine to prevent this devastating disease. Development of recombinant ASFV for producing live-attenuated vaccines or studying the involvement of specific genes in virus virulence has relied on the relatively rare event of homologous recombination in primary swine macrophages, causing difficulty to purify the recombinant virus from the wild-type parental ASFV. Here we present the use of the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing system as a more robust and efficient system to produce recombinant ASFVs. Using CRISPR-Cas9 a recombinant virus was efficiently developed by deleting the non-essential gene 8-DR from the genome of the highly virulent field strain Georgia07 using swine macrophages as cell substrate.

  19. Successful treatment of Class II malocclusion with bidental protrusion using standard edgewise prescription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ayaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report deals with the successful orthodontic treatment of a 14-year-old female patient having Class II malocclusion with bidental protrusion using standard edgewise prescription. She reported with forwardly placed upper front teeth and difficulty in closing lips. She had prognathic maxilla, retrognathic mandible, and full cusp Class II molar and canine relation bilaterally with overjet of 7 mm. She was in cervical vertebrae maturation indicator Stage IV. The case was treated by fixed extraction mechanotherapy. Interarch Class II mechanics was used to retract the upper incisor and to mesialize the lower molars. Simultaneously, Class I mechanics was used to upright lower incisors. Tip back bend, curve of Spee, and extra palatal root torque were incorporated in upper archwire to maintain molars in upright position and prevent extrusion and deepening of bite, respectively. There was satisfactory improvement in facial profile at the end of 24 months. After a follow-up of 6 months, occlusion was stable.

  20. Class II young adult treatment with Twin Force Bite corrector: 10-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Uslu-Akcam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most preferred compliance free fixed functional appliances in nongrowing patients is Twin Force Bite corrector (TFBC. The aim of this case report is to evaluate the effectiveness of TFBC in the treatment of an adult Class II case. A 16-year 1-month-old boy having skeletal and dental Class II relationship was selected. Roth 0.018 × 0.025 inch slots brackets were attached; a fixed lingual arch in the mandibular dental arch and a Nance appliance in the maxillary dental arch were used to increase anchorage. The TFBC therapy used for sagittal activation and stimulation of forward mandibular growth lasted for 3 months. The post-TFBC treatment lasted 6 months and the total treatment time was 9 months. Treatment of a young adult Class II malocclusion with TFBC resulted in a Class I molar occlusion, an ideal overjet, overbite, and incisor angulation in a short time and maintained in the 10-year follow-up.

  1. Treatment timing of MARA and fixed appliance therapy of Class II malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghislanzoni, Luis Tomas Huanca; Baccetti, Tiziano; Toll, Douglas; Defraia, Efisio; McNamara, James A; Franchi, Lorenzo

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of timing on Mandibular Anterior Repositioning Appliance (MARA) and fixed appliance treatment of Class II malocclusion in a prospective clinical trial. The treated sample consisted of 51 consecutively treated patients at prepubertal (n = 21), pubertal (n = 15), and postpubertal (n = 15) stages of development. Control groups for the three treated groups were generated from growth data of untreated Class II subjects. Lateral cephalograms were digitized and superimposed via cephalometric software at T1 (pre-treatment) and T2 (after comprehensive treatment). The T1-T2 changes in the treated groups were compared to those in their corresponding control groups with Mann-Whitney tests with Bonferroni correction. Mandibular elongation was greater at the pubertal stage (Co-Gn +2.6 mm, with respect to controls). Headgear effect on the maxilla was greater in the pre-peak sample (Co-A -1.9 mm, with respect to controls). Dentoalveolar compensations (proclination of lower incisors, extrusion and mesialization of lower molars, and reduction in the overbite) were significant in the pre-peak and post-peak groups. Optimal timing for Class II treatment with MARA appliance is at the pubertal growth spurt, with enhanced mandibular skeletal changes and minimal dentoalveolar compensations.

  2. Post-treatment occlusal changes in Class II division 2 subjects treated with the Herbst appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Niko; Ruf, Sabine

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to analyse and compare the post-treatment occlusal changes of Class II division 2 treatment with the Herbst appliance in early adolescent, late adolescent, and adult subjects. The subjects were 37 Class II division 2 patients (19 females and 18 males) treated at the Orthodontic Department, University of Giessen, Germany. All were in the late mixed or permanent dentition and exhibited a Class II molar relationship > or =0.5 cusp width (CW) bilaterally or > or =1.0 CW unilaterally, an overbite (OB) >3.0 mm, and two upper central incisors retroclined. The subjects were divided into three skeletal maturity groups based on evaluation of hand wrist radiographs: early adolescent (n = 10, stages MP3-E to MP3-FG at start of treatment, age range: 11.3-13.2 years), late adolescent (n = 14, stages MP3-G to MP3-I at start of treatment, age range: 14.1-16.4 years), and adult (n = 13, stages R-I to R-J at the start of treatment, age range: 16.3-25.6 years). Study casts from before treatment (T1), after Herbst-Tip-Edge-Multibracket appliance treatment (T2), and after an average retention time of 27 months (T3) were analysed. Statistical analysis was undertaken using t-tests for paired and unpaired samples. For the whole sample, the molar relationship at T3 was stable in 82.4 per cent, the canine relationship in 82.9 per cent, and OB in 75.7 per cent of the cases. In the different skeletal maturity groups, the stability of the molars, canines, and overbite was as follows: early adolescents: 95.0, 100.0, and 70.0 per cent, respectively; late adolescents: 92.9, 74.1, and 85.7 per cent, respectively; and adults 61.5, 80.8, 69.2 per cent, respectively. Occlusal correction of Class II division 2 malocclusions with Herbst treatment was relatively stable 2 years post-treatment. The outcome of treatment of adolescents was more stable than that of adults.

  3. Microbiota in fermented feed and swine gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Shi, Changyou; Zhang, Yu; Song, Deguang; Lu, Zeqing; Wang, Yizhen

    2018-04-01

    Development of alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) used in swine production requires a better understanding of their impacts on the gut microbiota. Supplementing fermented feed (FF) in swine diets as a novel nutritional strategy to reduce the use of AGP and feed price, can positively affect the porcine gut microbiota, thereby improving pig productivities. Previous studies have noted the potential effects of FF on the shift in benefit of the swine microbiota in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The positive influences of FF on swine gut microbiota may be due to the beneficial effects of both pre- and probiotics. Necessarily, some methods should be adopted to properly ferment and evaluate the feed and avoid undesired problems. In this mini-review, we mainly discuss the microbiota in both fermented feed and swine gut and how FF influences swine gut microbiota.

  4. Surgical treatment of class II malocclusion in the orthodontic boundaries: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Porto, Alessandra Nogueira; Valieri, Sidnei; Valieri, Matheus; Borges, Alvaro H; Mattos, Fernanda Zanol

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report a clinical case of treatment of Class II division I malocclusion with facial aesthetic impairment, whose therapeutic approach comprised the association of orthodontic treatment with orthognathic surgery. The treatment for the present case consisted of decompensation oflower incisors and extraction oftwo lower premolars, in order to obtain horizontal discrepancy allowing the surgery for mandibular advancement. At the end of treatment, we could clinically observe a Class I molar/canine relationship, normal overbite and overjet, presence of lip seal, type I facial profile with considerable aesthetic improvement. We can conclude that the ortho-surgical treatment is a therapeutic alternative providing the best prognosis in terms of aesthetic correction in patients with unpleasant facial profile.

  5. Relating DSM-5 section II and section III personality disorder diagnostic classification systems to treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Leslie C; Benson, Kathryn T

    2016-07-01

    Beginning with DSM-III, the inclusion of a "personality" axis was designed to encourage awareness of personality disorders and the treatment-related implications of individual differences, but since that time there is little accumulated evidence that the personality disorder categories provide substantial treatment-related guidance. The DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group sought to develop an Alternative Model for personality disorder, and this study examined whether this model is more closely related to clinicians' decision-making processes than the traditional categorical personality disorder diagnoses. A national sample of 337 clinicians provided complete personality disorder diagnostic information and several treatment-related clinical judgments about one of their patients. The dimensional concepts of the DSM-5 Alternative Model for personality disorders demonstrated stronger relationships than categorical DSM-IV/DSM-5 Section II diagnoses to 10 of 11 clinical judgments regarding differential treatment planning, optimal treatment intensity, and long-term prognosis. The constructs of the DSM-5 Alternative Model for personality disorders may provide more clinically useful information for treatment planning than the official categorical personality disorder diagnostic system retained in DSM-5 Section II. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hospital costs for treatment of acute heart failure: economic analysis of the REVIVE II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lissovoy, Greg; Fraeman, Kathy; Teerlink, John R; Mullahy, John; Salon, Jeff; Sterz, Raimund; Durtschi, Amy; Padley, Robert J

    2010-04-01

    Acute heart failure (AHF) is the leading cause of hospital admission among older Americans. The Randomized EValuation of Intravenous Levosimendan Efficacy (REVIVE II) trial compared patients randomly assigned to a single infusion of levosimendan (levo) or placebo (SOC), each in addition to local standard treatments for AHF. We report an economic analysis of REVIVE II from the hospital perspective. REVIVE II enrolled patients (N = 600) hospitalized for treatment of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) who remained dyspneic at rest despite treatment with intravenous diuretics. Case report forms documented index hospital treatment (drug administration, procedures, days of treatment by care unit), as well as subsequent hospital and emergency department admissions during follow-up ending 90 days from date of randomization. These data were used to impute cost of admission based on an econometric cost function derived from >100,000 ADHF hospital billing records selected per REVIVE II inclusion criteria. Index admission mean length of stay (LOS) was shorter for the levo group compared with standard of care (SOC) (7.03 vs 8.96 days, P = 0.008) although intensive care unit (ICU)/cardiac care unit (CCU) days were similar (levo 2.88, SOC 3.22, P = 0.63). Excluding cost for levo, predicted mean (median) cost for the index admission was levo US $13,590 (9,458), SOC $19,021 (10,692) with a difference of $5,431 (1,234) favoring levo (P = 0.04). During follow-up through end of study day 90, no significant differences were observed in numbers of hospital admissions (P = 0.67), inpatient days (P = 0.81) or emergency department visits (P = 0.41). Cost-effectiveness was performed with a REVIVE-II sub-set conforming to current labeling, which excluded patients with low baseline blood pressure. Assuming an average price for levo in countries where currently approved, there was better than 50% likelihood that levo was both cost-saving and improved survival. Likelihood that levo would

  7. Statin Treatment in Hypercholesterolemic Men Does Not Attenuate Angiotensin II-Induced Venoconstriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Christoph; Guenther, Kristina; Hermann, Cosima; Ferrario, Carlos M.; Schroeder, Christoph; Haufe, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Experimental studies suggested that statins attenuate vascular AT1 receptor responsiveness. Moreover, the augmented excessive pressor response to systemic angiotensin II infusions in hypercholesterolemic patients was normalized with statin treatment. In 12 hypercholesterolemic patients, we tested the hypothesis that statin treatment attenuates angiotensin II-mediated vasoconstriction in hand veins assessed by a linear variable differential transducer. Subjects ingested daily doses of either atorvastatin (40 mg) or positive control irbesartan (150 mg) for 30 days in a randomized and cross-over fashion. Ang II–induced venoconstriction at minute 4 averaged 59%±10% before and 28%±9% after irbesartan (mean ± SEM; Pblood pressure buffering reflexes. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00154024 PMID:25264877

  8. Effect of Oral Voriconazole on Fungal Keratitis in the Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial II (MUTT II): A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajna, N Venkatesh; Krishnan, Tiruvengada; Rajaraman, Revathi; Patel, Sushila; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Das, Manoranjan; Ray, Kathryn J; O'Brien, Kieran S; Oldenburg, Catherine E; McLeod, Stephen D; Zegans, Michael E; Porco, Travis C; Acharya, Nisha R; Lietman, Thomas M; Rose-Nussbaumer, Jennifer

    2016-12-01

    To compare oral voriconazole with placebo in addition to topical antifungals in the treatment of filamentous fungal keratitis. The Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial II (MUTT II), a multicenter, double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, was conducted in India and Nepal, with 2133 individuals screened for inclusion. Patients with smear-positive filamentous fungal ulcers and visual acuity of 20/400 (logMAR 1.3) or worse were randomized to receive oral voriconazole vs oral placebo; all participants received topical antifungal eyedrops. The study was conducted from May 24, 2010, to November 23, 2015. All trial end points were analyzed on an intent-to-treat basis. Study participants were randomized to receive oral voriconazole vs oral placebo; a voriconazole loading dose of 400 mg was administered twice daily for 24 hours, followed by a maintenance dose of 200 mg twice daily for 20 days, with dosing altered to weight based during the trial. All participants received topical voriconazole, 1%, and natamycin, 5%. The primary outcome of the trial was rate of corneal perforation or the need for therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty (TPK) within 3 months. Secondary outcomes included microbiologic cure at 6 days, rate of re-epithelialization, best-corrected visual acuity and infiltrate and/or scar size at 3 weeks and 3 months, and complication rates associated with voriconazole use. A total of 2133 patients in India and Nepal with smear-positive ulcers were screened; of the 787 who were eligible, 240 (30.5%) were enrolled. Of the 119 patients (49.6%) in the oral voriconazole treatment group, 65 were male (54.6%), and the median age was 54 years (interquartile range, 42-62 years). Overall, no difference in the rate of corneal perforation or the need for TPK was determined for oral voriconazole vs placebo (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.57-1.18; P = .29). In prespecified subgroup analyses comparing treatment effects among organism subgroups, there was some

  9. Treatment strategy for guided tissue regeneration in various class II furcation defect: Case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra Kumar Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal regeneration is a main aspect in the treatment of teeth affected by periodontitis. Periodontal regeneration in furcation areas is quite challenging, especially when it is in interproximal region. There are several techniques used alone or in combination considered to achieve periodontal regeneration, including the bone grafts or substitutes, guided tissue regeneration (GTR, root surface modification, and biological mediators. Many factors may account for variability in response to regenerative therapy in class II furcation. This case series describes the management of class II furcation defect in a mesial interproximal region of a maxillary tooth and other with a buccal class II furcation of mandibular tooth, with the help of surgical intervention including the GTR membrane and bone graft materials. This combined treatment resulted in healthy periodontium with a radiographic evidence of alveolar bone gain in both cases. This case series demonstrates that proper diagnosis, followed by removal of etiological factors and utilizing the combined treatment modalities will restore health and function of the tooth with the severe attachment loss.

  10. Treatment of Class II subdivision malocclusion with congenitally missing upper lateral incisors: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic treatment for patients with unilateral or bilateral congenitally missing lateral incisor poses a challenge mainly with regard to treatment planning. The use of a diagnostic setup is one of the most important aids in the decision-making process. Two alternatives, orthodontic space closure or space opening for prosthetic replacement exist. The present case report shows use of the microimplant for unilateral upper molar distalization and space closure in a Class-II division 1 subdivision malocclusion case with bilateral congenitally missing upper lateral incisors.

  11. MO-D-BRB-02: Pediatric Treatment Planning II: Applications of Proton Beams for Pediatric Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, C. [St. Jude Childrens Research Hospital (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Most Medical Physicists working in radiotherapy departments see few pediatric patients. This is because, fortunately, children get cancer at a rate nearly 100 times lower than adults. Children have not smoked, abused alcohol, or been exposed to environmental carcinogens for decades, and of course, have not fallen victim to the aging process. Children get very different cancers than adults. Breast or prostate cancers, typical in adults, are rarely seen in children but instead a variety of tumors occur in children that are rarely seen in adults; examples are germinomas, ependymomas and primitive neuroectodermal tumors, which require treatment of the child’s brain or neuroblastoma, requiring treatment in the abdomen. The treatment of children with cancer using radiation therapy is one of the most challenging planning and delivery problems facing the physicist. This is because bones, brain, breast tissue, and other organs are more sensitive to radiation in children than in adults. Because most therapy departments treat mostly adults, when the rare 8 year-old patient comes to the department for treatment, the physicist may not understand the clinical issues of his disease which drive the planning and delivery decisions. Additionally, children are more prone than adults to developing secondary cancers after radiation. For bilateral retinoblastoma for example, an irradiated child has a 40% chance of developing a second cancer by age 50. The dosimetric tradeoffs made during the planning process are complex and require careful consideration for children treated with radiotherapy. In the first presentation, an overview of childhood cancers and their corresponding treatment techniques will be given. These can be some of the most complex treatments that are delivered in the radiation therapy department. These cancers include leukemia treated with total body irradiation, medulloblastoma, treated with craniospinal irradiation plus a conformal boost to the posterior fossa

  12. Consensus Guidelines for the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis in Korea (Part II): Systemic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Eun; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Lew, Bark-Lynn; Lee, Kyung Ho; Hong, Seung Phil; Jang, Yong Hyun; Park, Kui Young; Seo, Seong Jun; Bae, Jung Min; Choi, Eung Ho; Suhr, Ki Beom; Lee, Seung Chul; Ko, Hyun Chang; Park, Young Lip; Son, Sang Wook; Seo, Young Jun; Lee, Yang Won; Cho, Sang Hyun; Park, Chun Wook; Roh, Joo Young

    2015-10-01

    Since the treatment guidelines for atopic dermatitis (AD) were issued by the Korean Atopic Dermatitis Association (KADA) work group in 2006, there have been further advances in the systemic treatment of AD. We aimed to establish updated evidence- and experience-based systemic treatment guidelines for Korean AD. We compiled a database of references from relevant systematic reviews and guidelines regarding the systemic management of AD, including antihistamines, antimicrobials, systemic immunomodulators, allergen-specific immunotherapy, phototherapy, adjunctive treatment, and complementary and alternative medicines. Evidence for each statement was graded and classified based on the strength of the recommendation. Thirty-nine council members of KADA participated in the three rounds of votes and expert consensus recommendations were established. The use of antihistamines is recommended to relieve pruritus and to prevent exacerbation due to scratching in AD patients. Infection should be controlled as needed and long-term medication should be avoided. For moderate to severe AD patients, concomitant active treatments with systemic immunomodulators are indicated. Cyclosporine is the first choice among systemic immunomodulators and others should be considered as second-line alternatives. Allergen-specific immunotherapy could be effective in AD patients with aeroallergen hypersensitivity. Phototherapy can be useful for moderate to severe AD patients and narrow-band ultraviolet B is the most effective option. Complementary and alternative medicines cannot be recommended for treating AD. We expect these recommendations to be a reference guide for physicians and AD patients in choosing the appropriate treatment to improve quality of life and decrease unnecessary social medical costs.

  13. Cephalometric effects of the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances in Class II malocclusion treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mayara Paim; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; Grec, Roberto Henrique da Costa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to cephalometrically assess the skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of Class II malocclusion treatment performed with the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances. The sample comprised 25 patients with Class II malocclusion treated with the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances, at a mean initial age of 12.90 years old. The mean time of the entire orthodontic treatment was 3.89 years. The distalization phase lasted for 0.85 years, after which the fixed appliance was used for 3.04 years. Cephalograms were used at initial (T1), post-distalization (T2) and final phases of treatment (T3). For intragroup comparison of the three phases evaluated, dependent ANOVA and Tukey tests were used. Jones Jig appliance did not interfere in the maxillary and mandibular component and did not change maxillomandibular relationship. Jones Jig appliance promoted distalization of first molars with anchorage loss, mesialization and significant extrusion of first and second premolars, as well as a significant increase in anterior face height at the end of treatment. The majority of adverse effects that occur during intraoral distalization are subsequently corrected during corrective mechanics. Buccal inclination and protrusion of mandibular incisors were identified. By the end of treatment, correction of overjet and overbite was observed. Jones Jig appliance promoted distalization of first molars with anchorage loss represented by significant mesial movement and extrusion of first and second premolars, in addition to a significant increase in anterior face height.

  14. In-feed antibiotic effects on the swine intestinal microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looft, Torey; Johnson, Timothy A.; Allen, Heather K.; Bayles, Darrell O.; Alt, David P.; Stedtfeld, Robert D.; Sul, Woo Jun; Stedtfeld, Tiffany M.; Chai, Benli; Cole, James R.; Hashsham, Syed A.; Tiedje, James M.; Stanton, Thad B.

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotics have been administered to agricultural animals for disease treatment, disease prevention, and growth promotion for over 50 y. The impact of such antibiotic use on the treatment of human diseases is hotly debated. We raised pigs in a highly controlled environment, with one portion of the littermates receiving a diet containing performance-enhancing antibiotics [chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, and penicillin (known as ASP250)] and the other portion receiving the same diet but without the antibiotics. We used phylogenetic, metagenomic, and quantitative PCR-based approaches to address the impact of antibiotics on the swine gut microbiota. Bacterial phylotypes shifted after 14 d of antibiotic treatment, with the medicated pigs showing an increase in Proteobacteria (1–11%) compared with nonmedicated pigs at the same time point. This shift was driven by an increase in Escherichia coli populations. Analysis of the metagenomes showed that microbial functional genes relating to energy production and conversion were increased in the antibiotic-fed pigs. The results also indicate that antibiotic resistance genes increased in abundance and diversity in the medicated swine microbiome despite a high background of resistance genes in nonmedicated swine. Some enriched genes, such as aminoglycoside O-phosphotransferases, confer resistance to antibiotics that were not administered in this study, demonstrating the potential for indirect selection of resistance to classes of antibiotics not fed. The collateral effects of feeding subtherapeutic doses of antibiotics to agricultural animals are apparent and must be considered in cost-benefit analyses. PMID:22307632

  15. Avaliação de sistema de tratamento de dejetos suínos instalado no estado de Santa Catarina The evaluation of swine waste treatment system installed in Santa Catarina state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iria S. Araújo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Os dejetos suínos contribuem de forma significativa em prol da degradação dos recursos naturais e para a diminuição da qualidade de vida na região sul do estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. O excesso de dejetos gerados pelo grande número dos suínos por unidade de área dificulta a solução do problema. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o comportamento de um sistema de tratamento de dejetos suínos, em série e em escala real, composto de unidades anaeróbias, unidades aeróbias e pós-tratamento. Os parâmetros analisados foram: DBO, DQO, PT, P-PO4, N-NH3, NTK, pH, clorofila a, biomassa algal, coliformes totais e coliformes fecais (Escherichia coli. O sistema mostrou que após um ano de funcionamento as eficiências de remoção foram satisfatórias para matéria orgânica e nutrientes, alcançando valores de 97% para DBO, 95% para DQO, 88% para N-NH3 e 74% para PT/P-PO4, mesmo com as variações de vazão e de carga orgânica aplicada. Entretanto, a remoção de coliformes fecais nas unidades aeróbias foi baixa, reduzindo somente 0,86 unidades log na lagoa facultativa aerada e 0,80 unidades log na lagoa de maturação.The swine manure contributes significantly to the degradation of natural resources and to decrease the quality of life in the southern state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The excess of manure produced by the large number of pigs per unit area hinders the solution of the problem. This study aimed to evaluate the behavior of a system developed to treat swine manure, in series and in real scale, composed of anaerobic units, aerobic units and post-treatment. The parameters analyzed were: BOD, COD, TP, PO4-P, NH3-N, TKN, pH, chlorophyll a, algal biomass, total coliforms and fecal coliforms (Escherichia coli. The system showed that, after one year of operation, the removal efficiencies were satisfactory for organic matter and nutrients, reaching values of 97% for BOD, 95% for COD, 88% for N-NH3 and 74% for PT/P-PO4, even

  16. Treatment of groundwater containing Mn(II), Fe(II), As(III) and Sb(III) by bioaugmented quartz-sand filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yaohui; Chang, Yangyang; Liang, Jinsong; Chen, Chen; Qu, Jiuhui

    2016-12-01

    High concentrations of iron (Fe(II)) and manganese (Mn(II)) often occur simultaneously in groundwater. Previously, we demonstrated that Fe(II) and Mn(II) could be oxidized to biogenic Fe-Mn oxides (BFMO) via aeration and microbial oxidation, and the formed BFMO could further oxidize and adsorb other pollutants (e.g., arsenic (As(III)) and antimony (Sb(III))). To apply this finding to groundwater remediation, we established four quartz-sand columns for treating groundwater containing Fe(II), Mn(II), As(III), and Sb(III). A Mn-oxidizing bacterium (Pseudomonas sp. QJX-1) was inoculated into two parallel bioaugmented columns. Long-term treatment (120 d) showed that bioaugmentation accelerated the formation of Fe-Mn oxides, resulting in an increase in As and Sb removal. The bioaugmented columns also exhibited higher overall treatment effect and anti-shock load capacity than that of the non-bioaugmented columns. To clarify the causal relationship between the microbial community and treatment effect, we compared the biomass of active bacteria (reverse-transcribed real-time PCR), bacterial community composition (Miseq 16S rRNA sequencing) and community function (metagenomic sequencing) between the bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented columns. Results indicated that the QJX1 strain grew steadily and attached onto the filter material surface in the bioaugmented columns. In general, the inoculated strain did not significantly alter the composition of the indigenous bacterial community, but did improve the relative abundances of xenobiotic metabolism genes and Mn oxidation gene. Thus, bioaugmentation intensified microbial degradation/utilization for the direct removal of pollutants and increased the formation of Fe-Mn oxides for the indirect removal of pollutants. Our study provides an alternative method for the treatment of groundwater containing high Fe(II), Mn(II) and As/Sb. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Antibody Repertoire Development in Swine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Butler, J. E.; Wertz, N.; Šinkora, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, FEB 17 (2017), s. 255-279 ISSN 2165-8102 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-02274S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09296S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : swine * pre-immune antibody repertoire * ileal Peyer's patches Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 4.708, year: 2016

  18. Bauhinia variegata (Caesalpiniaceae) leaf extract: An effective treatment option in type I and type II diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Yogesh A; Garud, Mayuresh S

    2016-10-01

    Among various metabolic disorders, diabetes mellitus is one of the most common disorder. Present study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of aqueous extract of Bauhinia variegata leaves (AE) in animal models of type I and type II diabetes. Type I diabetes was induced by streptozotocin at the dose of 55mg/kg (i.p.) in male Sprague Dawley rats while type II diabetes was induced by high fat diet and streptozotocin at the dose of 35mg/kg (i.p.). Diabetic animals were treated with AE at the dose of 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg. Glipizide (5mg/kg) was used as standard treatment drug. Treatment was given for 28days. Parameters evaluated were body weight, plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total proteins, albumin, creatinine and bun urea nitrogen. In type II diabetes, high density lipoprotein levels in plasma and plasma insulin level were also evaluated. Histopathological study of pancreases were carried out in type I study. AE showed significant decrease in plasma glucose significantly. AE was also found to decrease cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen level in both types of diabetes. AE did not show any significant effect on plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase. AE was found to increase the albumin and total protein levels. Histopathological study showed that AE decreases the necrotic changes in the pancreatic tissue. Aqueous extract of B. variegata leaves was found effective in treatment of both type I and type II diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Antibody levels to hepatitis E virus in North Carolina swine workers, non-swine workers, swine, and murids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Mark R; Correa, Maria T; Morrow, Morgan; Stebbins, Martha E; Seriwatana, Jitvimol; Webster, W David; Boak, Marshall B; Vaughn, David W

    2002-04-01

    In a cross-sectional serosurvey, eastern North Carolina swine workers (n = 165) were compared with non-swine workers (127) for the presence of antibodies to hepatitis E virus as measured by a quantitative immunoglobulin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Using a cutoff of 20 Walter Reed U/ml, swine-exposed subjects had a 4.5-fold higher antibody prevalence (10.9%) than unexposed subjects (2.4%). No evidence of past clinical hepatitis E or unexplained jaundice could be elicited. Swine (84) and mice (61), from farm sites in the same region as exposed subjects, were also tested. Antibody prevalence in swine (overall = 34.5%) varied widely (10.0-91.7%) according to site, but no antibody was detected in mice. Our data contribute to the accumulating evidence that hepatitis E may be a zoonosis and specifically to the concept of it as an occupational infection of livestock workers.

  20. Protocol: Transmission and prevention of influenza in Hutterites: Zoonotic transmission of influenza A: swine & swine workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loeb Mark

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among swine, reassortment of influenza virus genes from birds, pigs, and humans could generate influenza viruses with pandemic potential. Humans with acute infection might also be a source of infection for swine production units. This article describes the study design and methods being used to assess influenza A transmission between swine workers and pigs. We hypothesize that transmission of swine influenza viruses to humans, transmission of human influenza viruses to swine, and reassortment of human and swine influenza A viruses is occurring. The project is part of a Team Grant; all Team Grant studies include active surveillance for influenza among Hutterite swine farmers in Alberta, Canada. This project also includes non-Hutterite swine farms that are experiencing swine respiratory illness. Methods/Design Nurses conduct active surveillance for influenza-like-illness (ILI, visiting participating communally owned and operated Hutterite swine farms twice weekly. Nasopharyngeal swabs and acute and convalescent sera are obtained from persons with any two such symptoms. Swabs are tested for influenza A and B by a real time RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction at the Alberta Provincial Laboratory for Public Health (ProvLab. Test-positive participants are advised that they have influenza. The occurrence of test-positive swine workers triggers sampling (swabbing, acute and convalescent serology of the swine herd by veterinarians. Specimens obtained from swine are couriered to St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN for testing. Veterinarians and herd owners are notified if animal specimens are test-positive for influenza. If swine ILI occurs, veterinarians obtain samples from the pigs; test-positives from the animals trigger nurses to obtain specimens (swabbing, acute and convalescent serology from the swine workers. ProvLab cultures influenza virus from human specimens, freezes these cultures and

  1. Stability of Class II treatment with the Bionator followed by fixed appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisconi, Manoela Fávaro; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; Janson, Guilherme; Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore de; Santos, Patrícia Bittencourt Dutra dos

    2013-01-01

    This prospective study assessed the stability of Class II treatment with the Bionator, followed by fixed appliances, 10 years after treatment. The experimental group comprised 23 patients of both sexes (10 boys, 13 girls) at a mean initial age of 11.74 years (late mixed or early permanent dentitions), treated for a mean period of 3.55 years who were evaluated at three stages: initial (T1), final (T2) and long-term posttreatment (T3). A total of 69 lateral cephalograms were evaluated and 69 dental casts were measured using the PAR index. The difference between initial and final PAR indexes, the percentage of occlusal improvement obtained with therapy and the percentage of relapse were calculated, using the PAR index. The variables were compared by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey tests. The significant improvement in apical base relationship, the palatal inclination of the maxillary incisors and the labial inclination of the mandibular incisors, and the significant improvement in molar relationship and reduction of overjet and overbite, obtained with treatment, remained stable in the long-term posttreatment period. There was also significant improvement in the occlusal relationships which remained stable in the long-term posttreatment period. The percentage of occlusal improvement obtained was of 81.78% and the percentage of relapse was of 4.90%. Treatment of Class II division 1 malocclusions with the Bionator associated with fixed appliances showed to be stable in the long-term posttreatment period.

  2. Drug resistance pattern of M. tuberculosis in category II treatment failure pulmonary tuberculosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahmida Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the extent of drug resistance of M. tuberculosis (MTB isolated from category II treatment failure pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB patients. A total of 100 Ziehl-Neelsen (Z-N smear positive category II failure PTB patients were included in this study. Sputum culture was done in Lowenstein-Jensen (L-J media. Conventional proportion method on Lowenstein-Jensen (L-J media was used to determine the drug susceptibility of M. tuberculosis to isoniazid (INH, rifampicin (RMP, ofloxacin (OFX and kanamycin (KA. Out of 100 sputum samples, a total of 87 samples were positive by culture. Drug susceptibility test (DST revealed that 82 (94.25% isolates were resistant to one or more anti -TB drugs. Resistance to isoniazide (INH, rifampicin (RMP, ofloxacin (OFX and kanamycin (KA was 94.25%, 82.75%, 29.90% and 3.45% respectively. Among these isolates, 79.31% and 3.45% isolates were multi-drug resistant (MDR and extended drug resistant (XDR M. tuberculosis respectively. High rate of anti-tubercular drug resistance was observed among the category II treatment failure TB patients. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2013; 7(1: 9-11

  3. Comparative activity of some veterinary pharmaceutical products in swine dysentery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina, T. Romeo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the diseases that cause great damage in the pig breeding farms, Brachyspyra swine dysentery has a special importance because involve great losses both by growth failure and high mortality andsignificant costs to the prevention and control. The study was conducted in a swine farm in Timis County, where the disease was originally identified in autumn of year 2009. Cumulative adverse conditions have affected the rate of morbidity and mortality. Themost common clinical developments in the unit were usually acute and subacute. Research included: a comparative study of the effectiveness of tiamulin fumarate, hydrogenated and dimetridazole powder in sick acute and subacute forms in piglets, at the weaning period; the comparative study of efficiency in therapy of soluble tiamulin (the tiamulin fumarate-hydrogenated and of the injection of piglets effective and the study of growth indicators: average daily gain.Experiment IGroup I consisted in 15 piglets with an average weight per lot of 7.60 kg/head (batch weight: 114kg received p.o. dimetridazole insoluble powder (Romvac Bucharest, mixed in feed, for 5 days dose of 25 mg/kg.bw. During the observation, two mortalities were recorded, representing 13.33% of the treated lot. Other animals from the group were clinically cured, the signs of the disease gradually disappeared, and the temperature returned to normal enteric symptoms. The observation period after the 21 days of experiment, the batchweight was 114.2 kg, corresponding to growth registered 95.5 g/head/day.Group II, of 15 pigs with enteritis clinical signs, have had an average weight per lot of 7.48 kg/head, and he has undergone treatment with tiamulin product (Novartis Animal Health soluble granules, in drinking water. Treatments were performed for 5 consecutive days at a dose of 60 mg/liter of drinking water. In this group, diarrhea symptoms decreased and general status of the animals gradually improved, no mortality was recorded five days

  4. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate slaughter...

  5. Non-Surgical Breast-Conserving Treatment (KORTUC-BCT Using a New Radiosensitization Method (KORTUC II for Patients with Stage I or II Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Ogawa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to establish a non-surgical breast-conserving treatment (BCT using KORTUC II radiosensitization treatment. A new radiosensitizing agent containing 0.5% hydrogen peroxide and 0.83% sodium hyaluronate (a CD44 ligand has been developed for intra-tumoral injection into various tumors. This new method, named KORTUC II, was approved by our local ethics committee for the treatment of breast cancer and metastatic lymph nodes. A total of 72 early-stage breast cancer patients (stage 0, 1 patient; stage I, 23; stage II, 48 were enrolled in the KORTUC II trial after providing fully informed consent. The mean age of the patients was 59.7 years. A maximum of 6 mL (usually 3 mL for tumors of less than approximately 3 cm in diameter of the agent was injected into breast tumor tissue twice a week under ultrasonographic guidance. For radiotherapy, hypofraction radiotherapy was administered using a tangential fields approach including an ipsilateral axillary region and field-in-field method; the energy level was 4 MV, and the total radiation dose was 44 Gy administered as 2.75 Gy/fraction. An electron boost of 3 Gy was added three times. Treatment was well tolerated with minimal adverse effects in all 72 patients. No patients showed any significant complications other than mild dermatitis. A total of 24 patients under 75 years old with stage II breast cancer underwent induction chemotherapy (EC and/or taxane prior to KORTUC II treatment, and 58 patients with estrogen receptor-positive tumors also received hormonal therapy following KORTUC II. The mean duration of follow-up as of the end of September 2014 was 51.1 months, at which time 68 patients were alive without any distant metastases. Only one patient had local recurrence and died of cardiac failure at 6.5 years. Another one patient had bone metastases. For two of the 72 patients, follow-up ended after several months following KORTUC II treatment. In conclusion, non

  6. Orthodontic Protocol Using Mini-Implant for Class II Treatment in Patient with Special Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pedrin Carvalho Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving facial and dental appearance and social interaction are the main factors for special needs (SN patients to seek orthodontic treatment. The cooperation of SN patients and their parents is crucial for treatment success. Objective. To show through a case report the satisfactory results, both functional and esthetic, in patients with intellectual disability, congenital nystagmus, and severe scoliosis. Materials Used. Pendulum device with mini-implants as anchorage unit. Results. Improvement of facial and dental esthetics, correction of Class II malocclusion, and no root resorption shown in the radiographic follow-up. Conclusion. Knowing the limitations of SN patients, having a trained team, motivating and counting on the cooperation of parents and patients, and employing quick and low-cost orthodontic therapy have been shown to be the essential factors for treatment success.

  7. High Dose Oral Calcium Treatment in Patients with Vitamin D-dependent Rickets Type II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Vakili

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D-dependent rickets type II (VDDR2 is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in vitamin D receptor (VDR and leads to resistance to biological effects of calcitriol. Based on the type of mutation, this disease is resistant to calcitriol even at high doses of calcitriol and successful treatment of these patients requires hypocalcemic modification through administration of high doses of calcium and bypassing the intestinal defect in VDR signaling. In addition to the need for frequent hospitalization and high costs, intravenous administration of calcium is associated with complications and problems such as arrhythmia and sepsis, venous catheter infection and hypercalciuria. This study aims to report the positive treatment effects of high doses of oral calcium in 4 patients with vitamin D-dependent rickets type II. CASE REPORT: In this study, 4 patients with vitamin D-dependent rickets type II, diagnosed based on clinical and biochemical symptoms of rickets with alopecia, underwent therapy using high doses of oral calcium (300 mg/kg/day in pediatric endocrinology and metabolism center of Imam Reza hospital. After a short period, increased growth rate in height, strength and elasticity of muscles was observed in addition to biochemical improvements without serious side effects and even one patient started walking independently within the first week of therapy for the first time. Patients were regularly followed up in terms of height and weight, growth rate and biochemical factors including calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase every 3 months for one year. CONCLUSION: Regardless of the type of mutation in vitamin D receptor, it is suggested that a 3-6 months trial of high dose oral calcium be started in each patient with vitamin D-dependent rickets type II, particularly for patients whose disease was diagnosed at lower ages.

  8. Comparison of treatment outcome using two definitions of rapid cycling in subjects with bipolar II disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsterdam, Jay D; Lorenzo-Luaces, Lorenzo; DeRubeis, Robert J

    2017-02-01

    We examined differences in treatment outcome between Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Fourth Edition (DSM-IV)-defined rapid cycling and average lifetime-defined rapid cycling in subjects with bipolar II disorder. We hypothesized that, compared with the DSM-IV definition, the average lifetime definition of rapid cycling may better identify subjects with a history of more mood lability and a greater likelihood of hypomanic symptom induction during long-term treatment. Subjects ≥18 years old with a bipolar II major depressive episode (n=129) were categorized into DSM-IV- and average lifetime-defined rapid cycling and prospectively treated with either venlafaxine or lithium monotherapy for 12 weeks. Responders (n=59) received continuation monotherapy for six additional months. These exploratory analyses found moderate agreement between the two rapid-cycling definitions (κ=0.56). The lifetime definition captured subjects with more chronic courses of bipolar II depression, whereas the DSM-IV definition captured subjects with more acute symptoms of hypomania. There was no difference between rapid-cycling definitions with respect to the response to acute venlafaxine or lithium monotherapy. However, the lifetime definition was slightly superior to the DSM-IV definition in identifying subjects who went on to experience hypomanic symptoms during continuation therapy. Although sample sizes were limited, the findings suggest that the lifetime definition of rapid cycling may identify individuals with a chronic rapid-cycling course and may also be slightly superior to the DSM-IV definition in identifying individuals with hypomania during relapse-prevention therapy. These findings are preliminary in nature and need replication in larger, prospective, bipolar II studies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Influence of unilateral maxillary first molar extraction treatment on second and third molar inclination in Class II subdivision patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos; Pandis, Nikolaos; Booij, Johan Willem; Halazonetis, Demetrios J.; Katsaros, Christos; Ren, Yijin

    Objective: To assess the maxillary second molar (M2) and third molar (M3) inclination following orthodontic treatment of Class II subdivision malocclusion with unilateral maxillary first molar (M1) extraction. Materials and Methods: Panoramic radiographs of 21 Class II subdivision adolescents (eight

  10. The relative influence of secondary versus primary prevention using the national cholesterol education program adult treatment panel II guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldman, L; Coxson, P; Hunink, MGM; Goldman, PA; Tosteson, ANA; Mittleman, M; Williams, L; Weinstein, MC

    OBJECTIVES This study was undertaken to project the population-wide effect of full implementation of the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) II guidelines of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP). BACKGROUND The ATP II has proposed guidelines for cholesterol reduction, but the long-term

  11. Cephalometric effects of the use of 10-hour Force Theory for Class II treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marise de Castro Cabrera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the cephalometric effects promoted by the orthodontic treatment of Class II malocclusion patients with the use of the 10-Hour Force Theory, that consists in the use of fixed appliances with 8 hours a day using a cervical headgear appliance and 16 hours a day using Class II elastics, 8 hours on the first mandibular molar and 8 hours in the second mandibular molar. METHODS: Sample comprised 31 patients with mean initial age of 14.90 years, final mean age of 17.25 years and mean treatment time of 2.35 years. The lateral cephalograms in pre-treatment and post-treatment stages were evaluated. Evaluation of cephalometric changes between initial and final treatment phases was performed by paired t test. RESULTS: The cases treated with the 10-Hour Force Theory presented a slight restriction of anterior displacement of the maxilla, increase in the effective length of the mandible, significant improvement of the maxillomandibular relationship, significant increase in anterior lower face height, distal tipping of the maxillary premolar crowns, extrusion and distal tipping of the roots of maxillary molars, significant proclination and protrusion of mandibular incisors, significant extrusion and mesialization of mandibular molars, besides a significant correction of the molar relationship, overjet and overbite. CONCLUSION: The use of the 10-Hour Force Theory in treatment of Class II malocclusion provided satisfactory results.OBJETIVO: esse estudo objetivou avaliar os efeitos cefalométricos promovidos pelo tratamento ortodôntico de pacientes com má oclusão de Classe II com o uso da Teoria de Força das 10 Horas, que consiste no uso de aparelho ortodôntico fixo, 8 horas diárias de uso de aparelho extrabucal cervical e 16 horas de uso de elásticos de Classe II, sendo 8 horas com apoio no primeiro molar inferior e 8 horas com apoio no segundo molar inferior. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 31 pacientes, com idade m

  12. Austrian consensus on the definition and treatment of portal hypertension and its complications (Billroth II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck-Radosavljevic, Markus; Angermayr, Bernhard; Datz, Christian; Ferlitsch, Arnulf; Ferlitsch, Monika; Fuhrmann, Valentin; Häfner, Michael; Kramer, Ludwig; Maieron, Andreas; Payer, Berit; Reiberger, Thomas; Stauber, Rudolf; Steininger, Rudolf; Trauner, Michael; Thurnher, Siegfried; Ulbrich, Gregor; Vogel, Wolfgang; Zoller, Heinz; Graziadei, Ivo

    2013-04-01

    In November 2004, the Austrian Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (ÖGGH) held for the first time a consensus meeting on the definitions and treatment of portal hypertension and its complications in the Billroth-Haus in Vienna, Austria (Billroth I-Meeting). This meeting was preceded by a meeting of international experts on portal hypertension with some of the proponents of the Baveno consensus conferences (http://www.oeggh.at/videos.asp). The consensus itself is based on the Baveno III consensus with regard to portal hypertensive bleeding and the suggestions of the International Ascites Club regarding the treatment of ascites. Those statements were modified by new knowledge derived from the recent literature and also by the current practice of medicine as agreed upon by the participants of the consensus meeting. In October 2011, the ÖGGH organized the second consensus meeting on portal hypertension and its complications in Vienna (Billroth II-Meeting). The Billroth II-Guidelines on the definitions and treatment of portal hypertension and its complications take into account the developments of the last 7 years, including the Baveno-V update and several key publications.

  13. Phase II drugs currently being investigated for the treatment of hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udedibia, Emeka; Kaminetsky, Jed

    2014-12-01

    Hypogonadism is the most common endocrine disorder, which affects men of all age groups. Recent shifts in public awareness, increased screening and recognition of symptoms and updated diagnostic criteria have led to an increase in men diagnosed as hypogonadal, including middle-aged and older men who previously would have been considered eugonadal. The increase in testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) has paralleled an increase in advancements of treatment options. Although current therapies are highly efficacious for many men, there remains a need for newer therapies that are more cost-effective, preserve ease of use and administration, mitigate undesirable effects and closely mimic physiological levels of testosterone. In this review, the authors discuss current TRTs and therapies in development for the treatment of hypogonadism. The focus is on therapies under Phase II investigation or those who have recently completed Phase II study. With several new therapies in development, the authors expect advancements in achieving treatment benchmarks that meet the needs of the individual symptomatic hypogonadal male. Increased public awareness of hypogonadism and TRT has led to a welcomed expansion in the choice of TRT options. These include new delivery systems, formulations, routes of administration and non-testosterone modalities.

  14. A comprehensive review and update on the biologic treatment of adult noninfectious uveitis: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungmin; Bajwa, Asima; Freitas-Neto, Clovis A; Metzinger, Jamie Lynne; Wentworth, Bailey A; Foster, C Stephen

    2014-11-01

    Treatment of adult, noninfectious uveitis remains a major challenge for ophthalmologists around the world, especially in regard to recalcitrant cases. It is reported to comprise approximately 10% of preventable blindness in the USA. The cause of uveitis can be idiopathic or associated with infectious and systemic disorders. The era of biologic medical therapies provides new options for patients with otherwise treatment-resistant inflammatory eye disease. This two-part review gives a comprehensive overview of the existing medical treatment options for patients with adult, noninfectious uveitis, as well as important advances for the treatment ocular inflammation. Part I covers classic immunomodulation and latest information on corticosteroid therapy. In part II, emerging therapies are discussed, including biologic response modifiers, experimental treatments and ongoing clinical studies for uveitis. The hazard of chronic corticosteroid use in the treatment of adult, noninfectious uveitis is well documented. Corticosteroid-sparing therapies, which offer a very favorable risk-benefit profile when administered properly, should be substituted. Although nothing is currently approved for on-label use in this indication, many therapies, through either translation or novel basic science research, have the potential to fill the currently exposed gaps.

  15. Swine manure injection with low-disturbance applicator and cover crops reduce phosphorus losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovar, J L; Moorman, T B; Singer, J W; Cambardella, C A; Tomer, M D

    2011-01-01

    Injection of liquid swine manure disturbs surface soil so that runoff from treated lands can transport sediment and nutrients to surface waters. We determined the effect of two manure application methods on P fate in a corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production system, with and without a winter rye (Secale cereale L.)-oat (Avena sativa L.) cover crop. Treatments included: (i) no manure; (ii) knife injection; and (iii) low-disturbance injection, each with and without the cover crop. Simulated rainfall runoff was analyzed for dissolved reactive P (DRP) and total P (TP). Rainfall was applied 8 d after manure application (early November) and again in May after emergence of the corn crop. Manure application increased soil bioavailable P in the 20- to 30-cm layer following knife injection and in the 5- to 20-cm layer following low-disturbance injection. The low-disturbance system caused less damage to the cover crop, so that P uptake was more than threefold greater. Losses of DRP were greater in both fall and spring following low-disturbance injection; however, application method had no effect on TP loads in runoff in either season. The cover crop reduced fall TP losses from plots with manure applied by either method. In spring, DRP losses were significantly higher from plots with the recently killed cover crop, but TP losses were not affected. Low-disturbance injection of swine manure into a standing cover crop can minimize plant damage and P losses in surface runoff while providing optimum P availability to a subsequent agronomic crop.

  16. Class II malocclusion treatment using combined Twin Block and fixed orthodontic appliances – A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Anezi, Saud A.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of the Twin Block functional orthodontic appliances is mostly dento-alveolar with small skeletal effect. There are certain clinical indications where functional appliances can be used successfully in class II malocclusion e.g. in a growing patient. The use of these appliances is greatly dependent on the patient’s compliance and they simplify the fixed appliance phase. In this case, a 13-year old adolescent was treated with Twin Block appliance followed by fixed appliance to detail the occlusion. The design and treatment effects were demonstrated in this case report. PMID:24151413

  17. Treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma with carboplatin, liposomized doxorubicin, and gemcitabine: a phase II study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerdal, G.; Sundstrom, S.; Riska, H.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma has a poor prognosis and there is limited effect of treatment. The Nordic Mesothelioma groups decided in the year 2000 to investigate a combination of liposomized doxorubicin, carboplatin, and gemcitabine for this disease in a phase II study. METHODS: From...... January 2001, to December 2003, 173 evaluable patients with biopsy-verified malignant mesothelioma were included. Two patients were lost to follow-up, but all the others were followed for at least 4 years or until death. RESULTS: Toxicity was fairly low. There were 56 responses (32.4%), of which 2 were...

  18. Effects of the organic matter from swine wastewater on the adsorption and desorption of alachlor in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Bosco, Tatiane C; Sampaio, Silvio C; Coelho, Silvia R M; Cosmann, Natássia J; Smanhotto, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    The application of swine wastewater to the soil for agricultural purposes results in the addition of total and dissolved organic matter to the soil, which may interfere with the dynamics of pesticides in the soil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the application of total and dissolved organic matter from a biodigester and a treatment lagoon of swine wastewater in the adsorption and desorption of alachlor [2-chloro-2,6-diethyl-N(methoxymethyl acetamide)]. The assay was performed by the batch equilibrium method, and the results were fitted to the Freundlich model. The curve comparison test revealed a greater adsorption of alachlor in the soil treated with swine wastewater from the biodigester. The adsorption and desorption of alachlor increased in the soils where swine wastewater was added, and hysteresis was observed in all of the treatments. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  19. Perda de carga em filtros orgânicos utilizados no tratamento de água residuária de suinoculturas Head-loss evolution in organic filters for swine wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio T. de Matos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Com a realização deste trabalho, objetivou-se parametrizar a equação de evolução da perda de carga, para descrição do processo de filtração de água residuária da suinocultura. No preenchimento das colunas filtrantes, foram utilizados bagaço de cana-de-açúcar triturado, serragem de madeira e pergaminho de grãos de café. Dados de perda de carga em diferentes profundidades e tempos de operação dos filtros orgânicos foram coletados para ajuste das equações de perda de carga. Para as equações ajustadas, foram obtidos altos coeficientes de determinação, sendo que a significância dos coeficientes da regressão foi, na sua quase totalidade, de 1% de probabilidade, podendo ser utilizada na predição do comportamento dos filtros. As variáveis tempo de operação e profundidade das colunas filtrantes, constituídas pelos três materiais filtrantes, apresentaram comportamento quadrático na estimativa da perda de carga total. O tempo ideal de operação ininterrupta dos filtros, sem troca de material filtrante, foi de, aproximadamente, 1,5 h e, depois de corrido esse tempo, o material filtrante deverá ser substituído.This work was developed to adjust the equation of head-loss, describing the head-loss process with the depth and operation time of organic filter utilized in treatment of swine wastewater. Sugarcane bagasse, sawdust and coffee husk, by-products of agricultural and agro-industrial activities, were used to fill the filter columns. Data on head-loss in different depths with the time of organic filters operation were collected to analyze the head-loss evolution. In head-loss equations as function of depth and filter operation time high values were obtained for the coefficients of determination and the regression coefficients presented, in almost, significant at 1% probability, predicting the behavior of the filters, constituted of sawdust, sugarcane bagasse and coffee husk. The variables, operation time and the filter

  20. Tic-related obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): phenomenology and treatment outcome in the Pediatric OCD Treatment Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conelea, Christine A; Walther, Michael R; Freeman, Jennifer B; Garcia, Abbe M; Sapyta, Jeffrey; Khanna, Muniya; Franklin, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Prior research has shown that youth with co-occurring tic disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may differ from those with non-tic-related OCD in terms of clinical characteristics and treatment responsiveness. A broad definition of "tic-related" was used to examine whether children with tics in the Pediatric OCD Treatment Study II differed from those without tics in terms of demographic and phenomenological characteristics and acute treatment outcomes. Participants were 124 youth aged 7 to 17 years, inclusive, with a primary diagnosis of OCD who were partial responders to an adequate serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) trial. Participants were randomized to medication management, medication management plus instructions in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), or medication management plus full CBT. Tic status was based on the presence of motor and/or vocal tics on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale. Tics were identified in 53% of the sample. Those with tic-related OCD did not differ from those with non-tic-related OCD in terms of age, family history of tics, OCD severity, OCD-related impairment, or comorbidity. Those with tics responded equally in all treatment conditions. Tic-related OCD was very prevalent using a broad definition of tic status. Results suggest that youth with this broad definition of tic-related OCD do not have increased OCD severity or inference, higher comorbidity rates or severity, or worsened functioning, and support the use of CBT in this population. This highlights the importance of not making broad assumptions about OCD symptoms most likely to occur in an individual with comorbid tics. Clinical trial registration information-Treatment of Pediatric OCD for SRI Partial Responders; http://clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00074815. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Outcomes of different Class II treatments : Comparisons using the American Board of Orthodontics Model Grading System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinci Cansunar, Hatice; Uysal, Tancan

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of three different Class II treatment modalities followed by fixed orthodontic therapy, using the American Board of Orthodontics Model Grading System (ABO-MGS). As a retrospective study, files of patients treated at postgraduate orthodontic  clinics in different cities in Turkey was randomly selected. From 1684 posttreatment records, 669 patients were divided into three groups: 269 patients treated with extraction of two upper premolars, 198 patients treated with cervical headgear, and 202 patients treated with functional appliances. All the cases were evaluated by one researcher using ABO-MGS. The χ (2), Z test, and multivariate analysis of variance were used for statistical evaluation (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found among the groups in buccolingual inclination, overjet, occlusal relationship, and root angulation. However, there were significant differences in alignment, marginal ridge height, occlusal contact, interproximal contact measurements, and overall MGS average scores. The mean treatment time between the extraction and functional appliance groups was significantly different (p = 0.017). According to total ABO-MGS scores, headgear treatment had better results than functional appliances. The headgear group had better tooth alignment than the extraction group. Headgear treatment resulted in better occlusal contacts than the functional appliances and had lower average scores for interproximal contact measurements. Functional appliances had the worst average scores for marginal ridge height. Finally, the functional appliance group had the longest treatment times.

  2. Perfluorocarbon in Delayed Recompression with a Mixed Gender Swine Model of Decompression Sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, William A; Hall, Aaron A; Auker, Charles R; Mahon, Richard T

    2018-01-01

    Perfluorocarbons (PFC) are fluorinated hydrocarbons that dissolve gases to a much greater degree than plasma and hold promise in treating decompression sickness (DCS). The efficacy of PFC in a mixed gender model of DCS and safety in recompression therapy has not been previously explored. Swine (25 kg; N = 104; 51 male and 53 female) were randomized into normal saline solution (NSS) or PFC emulsion treatment groups and subjected to compression on air in a hyperbaric chamber at 200 fsw for 31 min. Then the animals were decompressed and observed for signs of DCS. Afterwards, they were treated with oxygen and either PFC (4 cc · kg-1) or NSS (4 cc · kg-1). Surviving animals were observed for 4 h, at which time they underwent recompression therapy using a standard Navy Treatment Table 6. After 24 h the animals were assessed and then euthanized. Survival rates were not significantly different between NSS (74.04%) and PFC (66.67%) treatment groups. All swine that received recompression treatment survived to the end of the study and no seizures were observed in either PFC or NSS animals. Within the saline treated swine group there were no significant differences in DCS survival between male (75.00%, N = 24) and female (73.08%, N = 26) swine. Within the PFC treated swine, survival of females (51.85%, N = 27) was significantly lower than males (81.48%, N = 27). In this large animal mixed gender efficacy study in DCS, PFC did not improve mortality or spinal cord injury, but appears safe during recompressive therapy. Gender differences in DCS treatment with PFC will need further study.Cronin WA, Hall AA, Auker CR, Mahon RT. Perfluorocarbon in delayed recompression with a mixed gender swine model of decompression sickness. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(1):14-18.

  3. Orthodontic Class II:1 treatment-efficiency and outcome quality of Herbst-multibracket appliance therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, N; Ruehl, J; Ruf, S

    2017-12-08

    The aim of this retrospective investigation was to assess the efficiency and outcome quality of Class II:1 treatment (Tx). The investigation is based on the evaluation of all Class II:1 patients that ever (1986-2014) started Tx with a Herbst appliance and subsequently a multibracket appliance (MBA) at the study center. Study casts from before Tx, after Herbst-MBA Tx, and (if available) after ≥ 24 months of retention were evaluated using the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) index, the Ahlgren scale, and standard occlusal variables. In total, 526 Class II:1 patients with a mean pre-Tx age of 14.4 years (range 9.8-44.4) had received Herbst-MBA Tx; 18 patients discontinued Tx before completion. For 240 patients, data from ≥ 24 months of retention were available. The pre-Tx PAR score of 32.4 ± 8.83 was reduced to 8.0 ± 4.51 during Tx. A slight increase to 8.8 ± 5.11 occurred during retention. The percentage of patients which could be assigned to the category "greatly improved" was 62% after Tx and 57% after retention; only 2-3% had to be assigned to the category "worse/no different." The outcome ratings according to the Ahlgren scale revealed 17% excellent, 35% good, 45% satisfactory, and 3% unsuccessful results. Class II:1 Tx using Herbst-MBA is an efficient approach in orthodontic care. During a mean active Tx period of 2 years, high-quality results can be obtained in the majority of patients. The present investigation is the first to investigate a large unselected cohort of consecutive Herbst-MBA patients to determine representative data on the efficiency and the outcome quality of this Tx approach.

  4. Treatment of plutonium contamined solid wastes by electrogenerated Ag(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saulze, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    A process for the treatment of plutonium contaminated solid wastes is designed. Two types of wastes have been studied; incineration ashes (COGEMA UP1) and sludges produced in the cryotreatment facility in Cadarache Center (France). The principle of the process is based on the rapid dissolution of PuO 2 (contained in the wastes) under the action of aggressive Ag(II) species, regenerated electrochemically. In the case of the treatment of incinerator ashes an electrochemical pretreatment is necessary if the chloride ion content of the ashes is high. The feasibility of the decontamination process has been proved for the two types of plutonium contaminated solid wastes at a pilot level; for example 1 Kg of ashes (or 0.75 Kg of sludges) has been treated in one experiment, and 97% (or 95%) of the total plutonium was dissolved at the end of the experiment. Industrial applications of this new process are underway [fr

  5. Ankistrodesmus gracilis (Chlorophyta fertilized in swine manure in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Sipaúba-Tavares

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to investigate the influence of swine manure media on the growth, total length, dry weight, and nutritional value of Ankistrodesmus gracilis microalgae. Two media were measured: “in natura” and biodigested. The growth rate peak for A. gracilis was highest with biodigester treatment (6.2 x 107 cells.mL-1 on the 5th day, at a volume of 2L. The highest percentage of lipids was verifi ed for “in natura” media. Protein was highest (p > 0.05 for the biodigested media at 2L. Biovolume, ash rate, and total length were different (p 0.05. Light demand was also different between media, with lesser intensity being required for biodigested media (13.5μE.cm-2.s-1. In fact, the biodigested media proved to be cheaper in terms of cost and benefit. Generally, the medium containing swine manure, both “in natura” and biodigested, showed better results in A. gracilis development, with water quality adequate for culture systems. Swine manure in both forms may also be used in high-density cultures in the laboratory.

  6. Stability of Class II treatment with the Bionator followed by fixed appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela Favaro FRANCISCONI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This prospective study assessed the stability of Class II treatment with the Bionator, followed by fixed appliances, 10 years after treatment. Material and Methods: The experimental group comprised 23 patients of both sexes (10 boys, 13 girls at a mean initial age of 11.74 years (late mixed or early permanent dentitions, treated for a mean period of 3.55 years who were evaluated at three stages: initial (T1, final (T2 and long-term posttreatment (T3. A total of 69 lateral cephalograms were evaluated and 69 dental casts were measured using the PAR index. The difference between initial and final PAR indexes, the percentage of occlusal improvement obtained with therapy and the percentage of relapse were calculated, using the PAR index. The variables were compared by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Tukey tests. Results: The significant improvement in apical base relationship, the palatal inclination of the maxillary incisors and the labial inclination of the mandibular incisors, and the significant improvement in molar relationship and reduction of overjet and overbite, obtained with treatment, remained stable in the long-term posttreatment period. There was also significant improvement in the occlusal relationships which remained stable in the long-term posttreatment period. The percentage of occlusal improvement obtained was of 81.78% and the percentage of relapse was of 4.90%. Conclusions: Treatment of Class II division 1 malocclusions with the Bionator associated with fixed appliances showed to be stable in the long-term posttreatment period.

  7. Removal of Total Coliforms, Thermotolerant Coliforms, and Helminth Eggs in Swine Production Wastewater Treated in Anaerobic and Aerobic Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacarias Sylvestre, Silvia Helena; Lux Hoppe, Estevam Guilherme; de Oliveira, Roberto Alves

    2014-01-01

    The present work evaluated the performance of two treatment systems in reducing indicators of biological contamination in swine production wastewater. System I consisted of two upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors, with 510 and 209 L in volume, being serially arranged. System II consisted of a UASB reactor, anaerobic filter, trickling filter, and decanter, being also organized in series, with volumes of 300, 190, 250, and 150 L, respectively. Hydraulic retention times (HRT) applied in the first UASB reactors were 40, 30, 20, and 11 h in systems I and II. The average removal efficiencies of total and thermotolerant coliforms in system I were 92.92% to 99.50% and 94.29% to 99.56%, respectively, and increased in system II to 99.45% to 99.91% and 99.52% to 99.93%, respectively. Average removal rates of helminth eggs in system I were 96.44% to 99.11%, reaching 100% as in system II. In reactor sludge, the counts of total and thermotolerant coliforms ranged between 105 and 109 MPN (100 mL)−1, while helminth eggs ranged from 0.86 to 9.27 eggs g−1 TS. PMID:24812560

  8. The treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease in menopausal women suffering from diabetes mellitus type II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semikina Т.М.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to develop criteria for the selection of optimal tactics of supporting treatment of nonerosive gastroesophageal reflux disease with proton pump inhibitors in menopausal women suffering from diabetes mellitus type II. Material and Methods. 186 patients aged 45-59 who suffer from gastroesophageal reflux disease have been followed up, 46 of which suffer from diabetes mellitus type II as well. The climacteric syndrome's morbidity has been assessed in accordance with the modified menopause index; the level of glycated hemoglobin has been measured by the Abbott analyzer produced in the USA. Results. It is established that irrespective of the supporting treatment, the gastroesophageal reflux disease remittance was shorter in direct proportion with increase of the HbA1c level and the value of the modified menopause index in menopausal women suffering from diabetes mellitus type II. Conclusion. When the climacteric syndrome was mild or moderate, taking 20 mg Omeprazole once a day and "on demand" has comparable results, therefore this group of women prefer the "on demand" regimen as it lowers the risk of osteoporosis progression and further bone fracture. Taking 20 mg Omeprazole once a day, every other day, and "on demand" allows the disease remittance to prolong for a year and longer in less than 30% of women suffering from severe climacteric syndrome and having HbA1c>9.0%; however, this number may grow up to 70% of women in case they follow medical advice and reduce their carbohydrate input to 11 carbohydrate units and less.

  9. Settling and survival profile of enteric pathogens in the swine effluent for water reuse purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongaro, G; Kunz, A; Magri, M E; Schissi, C D; Viancelli, A; Philippi, L S; Barardi, C R M

    2016-11-01

    The present study evaluated the pathogens persistence and settling profile in swine effluent. We determined the enteric pathogens settling characteristics, their survival and inactivation profile in swine effluent (for water reuse purpose) and in sludge (generated after aerobic treatment - during secondary settling process). The study was performed in laboratorial-scale and in full-scale (manure treatment plant). Enteric viruses and enteric bacteria were used as biomarkers. Results showed that these enteric pathogens were significantly reduced from swine effluent during secondary settling process, and enteric viruses removal was correlated with the suspended solids decantation. The design of secondary settlers can be adapted to improve pathogens removal, by diminishing the solids loading rate per area and time, ending in higher hydraulic retention times. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Metal waste forms from treatment of EBR-II spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, D. P.

    1998-01-01

    Demonstration of Argonne National Laboratory's electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel is currently being conducted on irradiated, metallic driver fuel and blanket fuel elements from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) in Idaho. The residual metallic material from the electrometallurgical treatment process is consolidated into an ingot, the metal waste form (MWF), by employing an induction furnace in a hot cell. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemical analyses have been performed on irradiated cladding hulls from the driver fuel, and on samples from the alloy ingots. This paper presents the microstructures of the radioactive ingots and compares them with observations on simulated waste forms prepared using non-irradiated material. These simulated waste forms have the baseline composition of stainless steel - 15 wt % zirconium (SS-15Zr). Additions of noble metal elements, which serve as surrogates for fission products, and actinides are made to that baseline composition. The partitioning of noble metal and actinide elements into alloy phases and the role of zirconium for incorporating these elements is discussed in this paper

  11. Uptake of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by microalgae in presence of colloidal organic matter from wastewater treatment plant effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worms, Isabelle A.M.; Traber, Jacqueline; Kistler, David; Sigg, Laura; Slaveykova, Vera I.

    2010-01-01

    The present study addresses the key issue of linking the chemical speciation to the uptake of priority pollutants Cd(II) and Pb(II) in the wastewater treatment plant effluents, with emphasis on the role of the colloidal organic matter (EfOM). Binding of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by EfOM was examined by an ion exchange technique and flow field-flow fractionation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in parallel to bioassays with green microalga Chlorella kesslerii in ultrafiltrate (<1 kDa) and colloidal isolates (1 kDa to 0.45 μm). The uptake of Cd by C. kesslerii was consistent with the speciation analysis and measured free metal ion concentrations, while Pb uptake was much greater than that expected from the speciation measurement. Better understanding of the differences in the effects of the EfOM on Cd(II) and Pb(II) uptake required to take into account the size dependence of metal binding by EfOM. - Colloids isolated from WWTP effluents decrease Cd uptake, but increase Pb uptake by microalga Chlorella kesslerii.

  12. Uptake of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by microalgae in presence of colloidal organic matter from wastewater treatment plant effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worms, Isabelle A.M. [Environmental Biophysical Chemistry, IIE-ENAC, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 2, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Traber, Jacqueline; Kistler, David; Sigg, Laura [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Slaveykova, Vera I., E-mail: vera.slaveykova@epfl.c [Environmental Biophysical Chemistry, IIE-ENAC, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 2, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2010-02-15

    The present study addresses the key issue of linking the chemical speciation to the uptake of priority pollutants Cd(II) and Pb(II) in the wastewater treatment plant effluents, with emphasis on the role of the colloidal organic matter (EfOM). Binding of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by EfOM was examined by an ion exchange technique and flow field-flow fractionation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in parallel to bioassays with green microalga Chlorella kesslerii in ultrafiltrate (<1 kDa) and colloidal isolates (1 kDa to 0.45 mum). The uptake of Cd by C. kesslerii was consistent with the speciation analysis and measured free metal ion concentrations, while Pb uptake was much greater than that expected from the speciation measurement. Better understanding of the differences in the effects of the EfOM on Cd(II) and Pb(II) uptake required to take into account the size dependence of metal binding by EfOM. - Colloids isolated from WWTP effluents decrease Cd uptake, but increase Pb uptake by microalga Chlorella kesslerii.

  13. Orthodontic treatment for prominent upper front teeth (Class II malocclusion) in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Klaus Bsl; Thiruvenkatachari, Badri; Harrison, Jayne E; O'Brien, Kevin D

    2018-03-13

    Prominent upper front teeth are a common problem affecting about a quarter of 12-year-old children in the UK. The condition develops when permanent teeth erupt. These teeth are more likely to be injured and their appearance can cause significant distress. Children are often referred to an orthodontist for treatment with dental braces to reduce the prominence of their teeth. If a child is referred at a young age, the orthodontist is faced with the dilemma of whether to treat the patient early or to wait and provide treatment in adolescence. To assess the effects of orthodontic treatment for prominent upper front teeth initiated when children are seven to 11 years old ('early treatment' in two phases) compared to in adolescence at around 12 to 16 years old ('late treatment' in one phase); to assess the effects of late treatment compared to no treatment; and to assess the effects of different types of orthodontic braces. Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 27 September 2017), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2017, Issue 8), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 27 September 2017), and Embase Ovid (1980 to 27 September 2017). The US National Institutes of Health Ongoing Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Randomised controlled trials of orthodontic treatments to correct prominent upper front teeth (Class II malocclusion) in children and adolescents. We included trials that compared early treatment in children (two-phase) with any type of orthodontic braces (removable, fixed, functional) or head-braces versus late treatment in adolescents (one-phase) with any type of orthodontic braces or head-braces, and trials that compared any

  14. Using minced horseradish roots and peroxides for the deodorization of swine manure: a pilot scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govere, Ephraim M; Tonegawa, Masami; Bruns, Mary Ann; Wheeler, Eileen F; Kephart, Kenneth B; Voigt, Jean W; Dec, Jerzy

    2007-04-01

    Enzymes that have proven to be capable of removing toxic compounds from water and soil may also be useful in the deodorization of animal manures. Considering that pork production in the US is a $40-billion industry with over half a million workers, odor control to protect air quality in the neighboring communities must be considered an essential part of managing livestock facilities. This pilot scale (20-120 L) study tested the use of minced horseradish (Armoracia rusticana L.) roots (1:10 roots to swine slurry ratio), with calcium peroxide (CaO(2) at 34 mM) or hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2) at 68 mM), to deodorize swine slurry taken from a 40,000-gallon storage pit at the Pennsylvania State University's Swine Center. Horseradish is known to contain large amounts of peroxidase, an enzyme that, in the presence of peroxides, can polymerize phenolic odorants and thus reduce the malodor. Twelve compounds commonly associated with malodor (seven volatile fatty acids or VFAs, three phenolic compounds and two indolic compounds) were used as odor indicators. Their concentration in swine slurry before and after treatment was determined by gas chromatography (GC) to assess the deodorization effect. The pilot scale testing demonstrated a complete removal of phenolic odorants (with a detection limit of 0.5 mg L(-1)) from the swine slurry, which was consistent with our previous laboratory experiments using 30-mL swine slurry samples. Horseradish could be recycled (reused) five times while retaining significant reduction in the concentration of phenolic odorants. In view of these findings, inexpensive plant materials, such as horseradish, represent a promising tool for eliminating phenolic odorants from swine slurry.

  15. The cholesterol system of the swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigueperse, Jocelyne

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize the dynamic system of adult female Large White swine. The content of this system and its relationships with both the external environment and between the different parts of the system were explained. The analysis of these results in terms of compared physiology showed that the structure of the cholesterol system was the same in man and in the swine. Consequently, the swine constitutes a good biological tool to study human cholesterol indirectly and to foresee the changes that might be induced in various physio-pathological cases. (author) [fr

  16. Induction of Robust Immune Responses in Swine by Using a Cocktail of Adenovirus-Vectored African Swine Fever Virus Antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhandwala, Shehnaz; Waghela, Suryakant D; Bray, Jocelyn; Martin, Cameron L; Sangewar, Neha; Charendoff, Chloe; Shetti, Rashmi; Ashley, Clay; Chen, Chang-Hsin; Berghman, Luc R; Mwangi, Duncan; Dominowski, Paul J; Foss, Dennis L; Rai, Sharath; Vora, Shaunak; Gabbert, Lindsay; Burrage, Thomas G; Brake, David; Neilan, John; Mwangi, Waithaka

    2016-11-01

    The African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a fatal hemorrhagic disease in domestic swine, and at present no treatment or vaccine is available. Natural and gene-deleted, live attenuated strains protect against closely related virulent strains; however, they are yet to be deployed and evaluated in the field to rule out chronic persistence and a potential for reversion to virulence. Previous studies suggest that antibodies play a role in protection, but induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) could be the key to complete protection. Hence, generation of an efficacious subunit vaccine depends on identification of CTL targets along with a suitable delivery method that will elicit effector CTLs capable of eliminating ASFV-infected host cells and confer long-term protection. To this end, we evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of an adenovirus-vectored ASFV (Ad-ASFV) multiantigen cocktail formulated in two different adjuvants and at two immunizing doses in swine. Immunization with the cocktail rapidly induced unprecedented ASFV antigen-specific antibody and cellular immune responses against all of the antigens. The robust antibody responses underwent rapid isotype switching within 1 week postpriming, steadily increased over a 2-month period, and underwent rapid recall upon boost. Importantly, the primed antibodies strongly recognized the parental ASFV (Georgia 2007/1) by indirect fluorescence antibody (IFA) assay and Western blotting. Significant antigen-specific gamma interferon-positive (IFN-γ + ) responses were detected postpriming and postboosting. Furthermore, this study is the first to demonstrate induction of ASFV antigen-specific CTL responses in commercial swine using Ad-ASFV multiantigens. The relevance of the induced immune responses in regard to protection needs to be evaluated in a challenge study. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Swine flu - A pandemic outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jini George

    Full Text Available Hippocrates had described influenza like outbreak in 412 B.C. and since then repeated influenza like epidemics and pandemics have been recorded in recent times. One of the greatest killers of all time was the pandemic of swine flu (Spanish flu of 1918-1919, when 230 million people died. Annual influenza epidemics are estimated to affect 5–15% of the global population, resulting in severe illness in 3–5 million patients causing 250,000–500,000 deaths worldwide. Severe illness and deaths occur mainly in the high-risk populations of infants, the elderly and chronically ill patients. The 2009 outbreak of swine flu is thought to be a mutation more specifically a reassortment of four known strains of influenza A virus subtype H1N1; one endemic in humans, one endemic in birds, and two endemic in pigs. WHO officially declared the outbreak to be a pandemic on June 11, 2009, but stressed that the new designation was a result of the global "spread of the virus," not its severity. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 472-474

  18. Synapsin II is involved in the molecular pathway of lithium treatment in bipolar disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Cruceanu

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder (BD is a debilitating psychiatric condition with a prevalence of 1-2% in the general population that is characterized by severe episodic shifts in mood ranging from depressive to manic episodes. One of the most common treatments is lithium (Li, with successful response in 30-60% of patients. Synapsin II (SYN2 is a neuronal phosphoprotein that we have previously identified as a possible candidate gene for the etiology of BD and/or response to Li treatment in a genome-wide linkage study focusing on BD patients characterized for excellent response to Li prophylaxis. In the present study we investigated the role of this gene in BD, particularly as it pertains to Li treatment. We investigated the effect of lithium treatment on the expression of SYN2 in lymphoblastoid cell lines from patients characterized as excellent Li-responders, non-responders, as well as non-psychiatric controls. Finally, we sought to determine if Li has a cell-type-specific effect on gene expression in neuronal-derived cell lines. In both in vitro models, we found SYN2 to be modulated by the presence of Li. By focusing on Li-responsive BD we have identified a potential mechanism for Li response in some patients.

  19. Adjunctive agomelatine therapy in the treatment of acute bipolar II depression: a preliminary open label study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fornaro M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Michele Fornaro,1 Michael J McCarthy,2,3 Domenico De Berardis,4 Concetta De Pasquale,1 Massimo Tabaton,5 Matteo Martino,6 Salvatore Colicchio,7 Carlo Ignazio Cattaneo,8 Emanuela D'Angelo,9 Pantaleo Fornaro61Department of Formative Sciences, University of Catania, Catania, Italy; 2Department of Psychiatry, Veteran's Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, 3University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA; 4Department of Mental Health, Psychiatric Service of Diagnosis and Treatment, "ASL 4", Teramo, Italy; 5Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, University of Genova, Genoa, Italy; 6Department of Neurosciences, Section of Psychiatry, University of Genova, Genoa, Italy; 7Unit of Sleep Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Catholic University, Rome, Italy; 8National Health System, "ASL 13", Novara, Italy; 9National Health System, "ASL 3", Genoa, ItalyPurpose: The circadian rhythm hypothesis of bipolar disorder (BD suggests a role for melatonin in regulating mood, thus extending the interest toward the melatonergic antidepressant agomelatine as well as type I (acute or II cases of bipolar depression.Patients and methods: Twenty-eight depressed BD-II patients received open label agomelatine (25 mg/bedtime for 6 consecutive weeks as an adjunct to treatment with lithium or valproate, followed by an optional treatment extension of 30 weeks. Measures included the Hamilton depression scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Clinical Global Impression Scale–Bipolar Version, Young Mania Rating Scale, and body mass index.Results: Intent to treat analysis results demonstrated that 18 of the 28 subjects (64% showed medication response after 6 weeks (primary study endpoint, while 24 of the 28 subjects (86% responded by 36 weeks. When examining primary mood stabilizer treatment, 12 of the 17 (70.6% valproate and six of the 11 (54.5% lithium patients responded by the first endpoint. At 36 weeks, 14 valproate treated (82.4% and 10 lithium

  20. Long-term effects of Class II orthodontic treatment on oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, N C; Saffar, M; Hudel, H; Evälahti, M; Heikinheimo, K; Rice, D P C; Ruf, S

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the long-term (≥15 years) benefit of orthodontic Class II treatment (Tx) on oral health (OH). All patients (Department of Orthodontics, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany) who underwent Class II correction (Herbst-multibracket Tx, end of active Tx ≥ 15 years ago) and agreed to participate in a recall (clinical examination, interview, impressions, and photographs) were included. Records after active Tx were used to assess the long-term OH effects. Data were compared to corresponding population-representative age-cohorts as well as to untreated Class I controls without orthodontic Tx need during adolescence. Of 152 treated Class II patients, 75 could be located and agreed to participate at 33.7 ± 3.0 years of age (pre-Tx age: 14.0 ± 2.7 years). The majority (70.8%) were fully satisfied with their teeth and with their masticatory system. The Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth Index (DMFT) was 7.1 ± 4.8 and, thus, almost identical to that of the untreated Class I controls (7.9 ± 3.6). In contrast, the DMFT in the population-representative age-cohort was 56% higher. The determined mean Community Periodontal Index (CPI) maximum score (1.6 ± 0.6) was also comparable to the untreated Class I controls (1.7 ± 0.9) but in the corresponding population-representative age-cohort it was 19-44% higher. The extent of lower incisor gingival recessions did not differ significantly between the treated Class II participants and the untreated Class I controls (0.1 ± 0.2 vs. 0.0 ± 0.1 mm). Patients with orthodontically treated severe Class II malocclusions had a lower risk for oral health impairment than the general population. The risk corresponded to that of untreated Class I controls (without orthodontic Tx need during adolescence).

  1. A randomized clinical multicentre trial comparing enamel matrix derivative and membrane treatment of buccal class II furcation involvement in mandibular molars. Part III: patient factors and treatment outcome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, T.; Richter, S; Meyle, J.; Gonzales, J.R.; Heinz, B.; Arjomand, M.; Sculean, A.; Reich, E.; Jepsen, K.J.; Jepsen, S.; Boedeker, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of effects of patient factors on the outcome of regenerative treatment of buccal mandibular class II furcation defects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty-one patients were recruited. In the intention-to-treat population 21 patients were allocated into the sequence left treatment with

  2. The Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study II: rationale, design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    March John S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents the rationale, design, and methods of the Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study II (POTS II, which investigates two different cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT augmentation approaches in children and adolescents who have experienced a partial response to pharmacotherapy with a serotonin reuptake inhibitor for OCD. The two CBT approaches test a "single doctor" versus "dual doctor" model of service delivery. A specific goal was to develop and test an easily disseminated protocol whereby child psychiatrists would provide instructions in core CBT procedures recommended for pediatric OCD (e.g., hierarchy development, in vivo exposure homework during routine medical management of OCD (I-CBT. The conventional "dual doctor" CBT protocol consists of 14 visits over 12 weeks involving: (1 psychoeducation, (2, cognitive training, (3 mapping OCD, and (4 exposure with response prevention (EX/RP. I-CBT is a 7-session version of CBT that does not include imaginal exposure or therapist-assisted EX/RP. In this study, we compared 12 weeks of medication management (MM provided by a study psychiatrist (MM only with two types of CBT augmentation: (1 the dual doctor model (MM+CBT; and (2 the single doctor model (MM+I-CBT. The design balanced elements of an efficacy study (e.g., random assignment, independent ratings with effectiveness research aims (e.g., differences in specific SRI medications, dosages, treatment providers. The study is wrapping up recruitment of 140 youth ages 7–17 with a primary diagnosis of OCD. Independent evaluators (IEs rated participants at weeks 0,4,8, and 12 during acute treatment and at 3,6, and 12 month follow-up visits. Trial registration NCT00074815

  3. 9 CFR 71.19 - Identification of swine in interstate commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... production system representative. In the event of oral notification, written confirmation shall be given as... within a swine production system. Swine moving within a swine production system to other than slaughter... identified in a valid swine production health plan for that swine production system. (2) The swine production...

  4. [Pre-surgical orthodontic treatment of skeletal class II patients with gingival smile corrected by anterior maxillary segmental osteotomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobing; Xiao, Liwei; Chen, Song; Chen, Yangxi

    2002-11-01

    To discuss the pre-surgical orthodontic treatment of skeletal class II patients with gingiva smile corrected by AMSO. We analyzed the clinical features of 20 skeletal class II patients treated by AMSO combined with Orthodontic treatment and evaluated the effects of AMSO by means of cephalometric analysis. After the AMSO treatment, ANB angle, the height of anterior maxilla, the protrusion of the upper anterior teeth, and the of A point had reduced significantly (P orthodontically to make arch relationship. Extract the upper bicuspid half a year before the surgery was recommended. When necessary, genioplasty could be performed.

  5. Myeloid leukemias and virally induced lymphomas in miniature inbred swine; development of a large animal tumor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAIMON eDURAN-STRUUCK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The lack of a large animal transplantable tumor model has limited the study of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of liquid cancers. Swine as a species provide a natural option based on their similarities with humans and their already extensive use in biomedical research. Specifically, the MGH miniature swine herd retains unique genetic characteristics that facilitate the study of hematopoietic cell and solid organ transplantation. Spontaneously arising liquid cancers in these swine, specifically myeloid leukemias and B cell lymphomas, closely resemble human malignancies. The ability to establish aggressive tumor cell lines in vitro from these naturally occurring malignancies makes a transplantable tumor model a close reality. Here, we discuss our experience with myeloid and lymphoid tumors in MHC characterized miniature swine and future approaches regarding the development of a large animal transplantable tumor model.

  6. IGF-II transgenic mice display increased aberrant colon crypt multiplicity and tumor volume after 1,2-dimethylhydrazine treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oesterle Doris

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In colorectal cancer insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II is frequently overexpressed. To evaluate, whether IGF-II affects different stages of tumorigenesis, we induced neoplastic alterations in the colon of wild-type and IGF-II transgenic mice using 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH. Aberrant crypt foci (ACF served as markers of early lesions in the colonic mucosa, whereas adenomas and carcinomas characterized the endpoints of tumor development. DMH-treatment led initially to significantly more ACF in IGF-II transgenic than in wild-type mice. This increase in ACF was especially prominent for those consisting of ≥three aberrant crypts (AC. Nevertheless, adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the colon, present after 34 weeks in both genetic groups, were not found at different frequency. Tumor volumes, however, were significantly higher in IGF-II transgenic mice and correlated with serum IGF-II levels. Immunohistochemical staining for markers of proliferation and apoptosis revealed increased cell proliferation rates in tumors of IGF-II transgenic mice without significant affection of apoptosis. Increased proliferation was accompanied by elevated localization of β-catenin in the cytosol and cell nuclei and reduced appearance at the inner plasma membrane. In conclusion, we provide evidence that IGF-II, via activation of the β-catenin signaling cascade, promotes growth of ACF and tumors without affecting tumor numbers.

  7. [Swine flu: epidemiology, diagnostics, treatment, and prophylaxis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisun, A Ia; Kuchmin, A N; Akimkin, V G; Korotchenko, S I; Nikitin, A E; Volzhanin, V M; Ogarkov, P I; Obukhov, Iu I

    2009-07-01

    Virus of piggy grippe is a virus of type A, which has greatly changed in it's antigenic structure. As a result, has appeared a new variant of germ (syb-type), in relation to which vaccines, used for period 2008-2009, are unsuccessful. Virus represents a real risk for life and health of millions of people. Experts of World Health Organization are sure, that eruption can lead to a global expansion of virus. To the group of high risk refer: children younger then 5 years old, full-growns of 50 years old and older, children and teen-agers (from 6 months to 18 years), treated for a long time by aspirin, gravidas, full-growns with several chronic diseases, persons in nursing homes, hospices, requiring a long-termed hipurgia, compulsory-duty servicemen. Latent period is from 1 to 7 days (2-3 days on the average). Accountancy of clinical data: acute beginning, hyperpyretic fever, predominance of damages of upper respiratory tracts. The article presents a detailed characteristic of therapeutic and prophylactic measures in the Army and NAVY.

  8. Treatment outcome for a sample of patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion treated at a regional hospital orthodontic department.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burden, D J

    1998-01-01

    This retrospective study assessed the outcome of orthodontic treatment of 264 patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion (overjet greater than 6 mm). The sample comprised patients who had completed their fixed appliance orthodontic treatment at a regional hospital orthodontic unit in the Republic of Ireland. The PAR Index (Peer Assessment Rating) was used to evaluate treatment outcome using before and after treatment study casts. The results revealed that treatment for this particular type of malocclusion was highly effective with a very few patients failing to benefit from their orthodontic treatment.

  9. Repurposing of Copper(II)-chelating Drugs for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Valeria; Milardi, Danilo; Di Natale, Giuseppe; Pappalardo, Giuseppe

    2018-02-12

    There is mounting urgency to find new drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. A large number of reviews have exhaustively described either the molecular or clinical aspects of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD). Conversely, reports outlining how known drugs in use for other diseases can also be effective as therapeutic agents in neurodegenerative diseases are less reported. This review focuses on the current uses of some copper(II) chelating molecules as potential drug candidates in neurodegeneration. Starting from the well-known harmful relationships existing between the dyshomeostasis and mis-management of metals and AD onset, we surveyed the experimental work reported in the literature, which deals with the repositioning of metal-chelating drugs in the field of neurodegenerative diseases. The reviewed papers were retrieved from common literature and their selection was limited to those describing the biomolecular aspects associated with neuroprotection. In particular, we emphasized the copper(II) coordination abilities of the selected drugs. Copper, together with zinc and iron, are known to play a key role in regulating neuronal functions. Changes in copper homeostasis are crucial for several neurodegenerative disorders. The studies included in this review may provide an overview on the current strategies aimed at repurposing copper (II) chelating drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Starting from the exemplary case of clioquinol repurposing, we discuss the challenge and the opportunities that repurposing of other metal-chelating drugs may provide (e.g. PBT-2, metformin and cyclodipeptides) in the treatment of neurodegenerative disease. In order to improve the success rate of drug repositioning, comprehensive studies on the molecular mechanism and therapeutic efficacy are still required. The present review upholds that drug repurposing makes significant advantages over drug discovery since

  10. Local Treatment of Unresectable Colorectal Liver Metastases: Results of a Randomized Phase II Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruers, Theo; Van Coevorden, Frits; Punt, Cornelis J A; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E N; Borel-Rinkes, Inne; Ledermann, Jonathan A; Poston, Graeme; Bechstein, Wolf; Lentz, Marie-Ange; Mauer, Murielle; Folprecht, Gunnar; Van Cutsem, Eric; Ducreux, Michel; Nordlinger, Bernard

    2017-09-01

    Tumor ablation is often employed for unresectable colorectal liver metastases. However, no survival benefit has ever been demonstrated in prospective randomized studies. Here, we investigate the long-term benefits of such an aggressive approach. In this randomized phase II trial, 119 patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastases (n  38%) was met. We now report on long-term OS results. All statistical tests were two-sided. The analyses were according to intention to treat. At a median follow up of 9.7 years, 92 of 119 (77.3%) patients had died: 39 of 60 (65.0%) in the combined modality arm and 53 of 59 (89.8%) in the systemic treatment arm. Almost all patients died of progressive disease (35 patients in the combined modality arm, 49 patients in the systemic treatment arm). There was a statistically significant difference in OS in favor of the combined modality arm (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.38 to 0.88, P = .01). Three-, five-, and eight-year OS were 56.9% (95% CI = 43.3% to 68.5%), 43.1% (95% CI = 30.3% to 55.3%), 35.9% (95% CI = 23.8% to 48.2%), respectively, in the combined modality arm and 55.2% (95% CI = 41.6% to 66.9%), 30.3% (95% CI = 19.0% to 42.4%), 8.9% (95% CI = 3.3% to 18.1%), respectively, in the systemic treatment arm. Median OS was 45.6 months (95% CI = 30.3 to 67.8 months) in the combined modality arm vs 40.5 months (95% CI = 27.5 to 47.7 months) in the systemic treatment arm. This phase II trial is the first randomized study demonstrating that aggressive local treatment can prolong OS in patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastases. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Swine slurry application and soil management on double-cropped oat/maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlo Adriano Bison Pinto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The swine production in southern Brazil is concentrated in small farms that use residues as a nutrient source for crops of economic interest. This study aimed to evaluate the use of swine slurry associated with tillage systems on double-cropped oat/maize. The experiment was carried out in the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 cropping seasons, in Taquaruçu do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a factorial scheme, with four replications. Treatments consisted of the interaction of four swine slurry doses (no swine slurry, 20 m3 ha-1, 40 m3 ha-1 and 80 m3 ha-1 and mineral fertilization, in three tillage systems (no-tillage, chiseling and chiseling + disking. The swine slurry application on doublecropped oat/maize increased the dry matter and grain yield. The 80 m3 ha-1 dose provided a response statistically similar to the mineral fertilization recommended for maize. The interaction between the 80 m3 ha-1 dose and the immediate incorporation of slurry into the soil reduced N losses by ammonia volatilization, promoting a significant increase in maize grain yield, when grown on a clayish soil.

  12. Codigestion of Taihu blue algae with swine manure for biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Hengfeng; Wang, Shouquan; Zhao, Mingxing; Huang, Zhenxing; Ren, Hongyan; Yan, Qun; Ruan, Wenquan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Codigestion of blue algae with swine manure has the highest CH 4 yield at ISR 2.0. • pH, TAN, N-NH 3 and VFAs confirmed the appropriate stability of the codigestion. • 35.44% VS reduction was achieved by codigestion of blue algae with swine manure. • Three key enzyme characteristics demonstrated the higher efficiencies of codigestion. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion (AD) of Taihu blue algae and its codigestion with swine manure was evaluated at different inoculum substrate ratios (ISRs) from 0.5 to 3.0. Results showed that codigestion of blue algae with swine manure led to the highest methane (CH 4 ) production of 212.7 mL g −1 VS at ISR 2.0, while digestion of blue algae inoculated with granular sludge brought out the optimized CH 4 production of 73.5 mL g −1 VS at ISR 3.0. The values of pH, total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), free ammonia nitrogen (N-NH 3 ) and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) showed no significant difference between the digestion and codigestion, confirming the appropriate stability of the two batch anaerobic processes. Closer examination of VS removal rates and key enzymes variation proved codigestion had higher efficiencies in biodegradation and methanation, which demonstrated that AD of blue algae with swine manure was a promising technology for both solid wastes treatment and renewable-energy production

  13. Voice tuning with new instruments for type II thyroplasty in the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanuki, Tetsuji; Yumoto, Eiji; Toya, Yutaka; Kumai, Yoshihiko

    2016-10-01

    Adductor spasmodic dysphonia is a rare voice disorder characterized by strained and strangled voice quality with intermittent phonatory breaks and adductory vocal fold spasms. Type II thyroplasty differs from previous treatments in that this surgery does not involve any surgical intervention into the laryngeal muscle, nerve or vocal folds. Type II thyroplasty intervenes in the thyroid cartilage, which is unrelated to the lesion. This procedure, conducted with the aim of achieving lateralization of the vocal folds, requires utmost surgical caution due to the extreme delicacy of the surgical site, critically sensitive adjustment, and difficult procedures to maintain the incised cartilages at a correct position. During surgery, the correct separation of the incised cartilage edges with voice monitoring is the most important factor determining surgical success and patient satisfaction. We designed new surgical instruments: a thyroid cartilage elevator for undermining the thyroid cartilage, and spacer devices to gauge width while performing voice monitoring. These devices were designed to prevent surgical complications, and to aid in selecting the optimal size of titanium bridges while temporally maintaining a separation during voice monitoring. We designed new surgical instruments, including a thyroid cartilage elevator and spacer devices. Precise surgical procedures and performing voice tuning during surgery with the optimal separation width of the thyroid cartilage are key points for surgical success. We introduce the technique of voice tuning using these surgical tools in order to achieve a better outcome with minimal surgical complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Treatment stability in patients with Class II malocclusion treated with 2 maxillary premolar extractions or without extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Guilherme; Camardella, Leonardo Tavares; Araki, Janine Della Valle; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto; Pinzan, Arnaldo

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the occlusal stability of Class II malocclusion treatment with and without extraction of 2 maxillary premolars. A sample of 59 records from patients with complete Class II malocclusion was used. This sample was divided into 2 groups with the following characteristics: group 1, comprising 29 patients treated without extractions, and group 2, comprising 30 patients treated with extraction of 2 maxillary premolars. Dental cast measurements were obtained before and after treatment and at a minimum of 2.4 years after treatment. The pretreatment, posttreatment, and postretention occlusal statuses were evaluated with the peer assesment rating index. The occlusal indexes at the postretention stage and the posttreatment changes and percentages of posttreatment changes were compared with t tests. The nonextraction and the 2 maxillary premolar extraction treatment protocols of complete Class II malocclusions had no statistically significant differences in occlusal stability. Finishing Class II malocclusion treatment with the molars in a Class II relationship has similar occlusal stability as finishing with the molars in a Class I relationship. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Treatment of plutonium contaminated ashes by electrogenerated Ag(II): a new, simple and efficient process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Saulze, J.L.; Bourges, J.; Lecomte, M.; Koehly, G.

    1990-01-01

    Incineration is a very attractive technique for managing plutonium contaminated solid wastes, allowing for large volume and mass reduction factors. After waste incineration, the plutonium is concentrated in the ashes and an efficient method must be designed for its recovery. To achieve this goal, a process based on the dissolution of plutonium in nitric solution under the agressive action of electrogenerated Ag(II) was developed. This process is very simple, requiring very few steps. Plutonium recovery yields up to 98% can be obtained and, in addition, the plutonium bearing solutions generated by the treatment can be processed by the PUREX technique for plutonium recovery. This process constitutes the basis for the development of industrial facilities: 1) a pilot facility is being built in MARCOULE (COGEMA, UP1 plant), to treat active ash in 1990; 2) an industrial facility will be built in the MELOX plant under construction at MARCOULE (COGEMA plant)

  16. Phase-II Clinical Validation of a Powered Exoskeleton for the Treatment of Elbow Spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crea, Simona; Cempini, Marco; Mazzoleni, Stefano; Carrozza, Maria Chiara; Posteraro, Federico; Vitiello, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Spasticity is a typical motor disorder in patients affected by stroke. Typically post-stroke rehabilitation consists of repetition of mobilization exercises on impaired limbs, aimed to reduce muscle hypertonia and mitigate spastic reflexes. It is currently strongly debated if the treatment's effectiveness improves with the timeliness of its adoption; in particular, starting intensive rehabilitation as close as possible to the stroke event may counteract the growth and postpone the onset of spasticity. In this paper we present a phase-II clinical validation of a robotic exoskeleton in treating subacute post-stroke patients. Methods: Seventeen post-stroke patients participated in 10 daily rehabilitation sessions using the NEUROExos Elbow Module exoskeleton, each one lasting 45 min: the exercises consisted of isokinetic passive mobilization of the elbow, with torque threshold to detect excessive user's resistance to the movement. We investigated the safety by reporting possible adverse events, such as mechanical, electrical or software failures of the device or injuries or pain experienced by the patient. As regards the efficacy , the Modified Ashworth Scale, was identified as primary outcome measure and the NEEM metrics describing elbow joint resistance to passive extension (i.e., maximum extension torque and zero-torque angle) as secondary outcomes. Results: During the entire duration of the treatments no failures or adverse events for the patients were reported. No statistically significant differences were found in the Modified Ashworth Scale scores, between pre-treatment and post-treatment and between post-treatment and follow-up sessions, indicating the absence of spasticity increase throughout (14 days) and after (3-4 months follow-up) the treatment. Exoskeleton metrics confirmed the absence of significant difference in between pre- and post-treatment data, whereas intra-session data highlighted significant differences in the secondary outcomes

  17. Phase-II Clinical Validation of a Powered Exoskeleton for the Treatment of Elbow Spasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Crea

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spasticity is a typical motor disorder in patients affected by stroke. Typically post-stroke rehabilitation consists of repetition of mobilization exercises on impaired limbs, aimed to reduce muscle hypertonia and mitigate spastic reflexes. It is currently strongly debated if the treatment's effectiveness improves with the timeliness of its adoption; in particular, starting intensive rehabilitation as close as possible to the stroke event may counteract the growth and postpone the onset of spasticity. In this paper we present a phase-II clinical validation of a robotic exoskeleton in treating subacute post-stroke patients.Methods: Seventeen post-stroke patients participated in 10 daily rehabilitation sessions using the NEUROExos Elbow Module exoskeleton, each one lasting 45 min: the exercises consisted of isokinetic passive mobilization of the elbow, with torque threshold to detect excessive user's resistance to the movement. We investigated the safety by reporting possible adverse events, such as mechanical, electrical or software failures of the device or injuries or pain experienced by the patient. As regards the efficacy, the Modified Ashworth Scale, was identified as primary outcome measure and the NEEM metrics describing elbow joint resistance to passive extension (i.e., maximum extension torque and zero-torque angle as secondary outcomes.Results: During the entire duration of the treatments no failures or adverse events for the patients were reported. No statistically significant differences were found in the Modified Ashworth Scale scores, between pre-treatment and post-treatment and between post-treatment and follow-up sessions, indicating the absence of spasticity increase throughout (14 days and after (3–4 months follow-up the treatment. Exoskeleton metrics confirmed the absence of significant difference in between pre- and post-treatment data, whereas intra-session data highlighted significant differences in the

  18. Treatment of type II and type III open tibia fractures in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, C S; Weiner, L S; Yang, E C

    1997-07-01

    To determine whether severe open tibial fractures in children behave like similar fractures in adults. A combined retrospective and prospective review evaluated treatment protocol for type II and type III open tibial fractures in children over a ten-year period from 1984 to 1993. Twenty-three fractures were studied in children aged 3.5 to 14.5 (18 boys and 5 girls). There were six type II, eight type IIIA, and nine type IIIB fractures. Type I fractures were not included. Seven fractures were comminuted with significant butterfly fragments or segmental patterns. Treatment consisted of adequate debridement of soft tissues, closure of dead space, and stabilization with external fixation. Bone debridement only included contaminated devitalized bone or devitalized bone without soft tissue coverage. Bone that could be covered despite periosteal stripping was preserved. Clinical and roentgenographic examinations were used to determine time to union. All fractures in this series healed between eight and twenty-six weeks. Wound coverage included two flaps, three skin grafts, and two delayed primary closures. No bone grafts were required. There were no deep infections, growth arrests, or malunions. Follow-up has ranged from six months to four years. Open tibia fractures in children differ from similar fractures in adults in the following ways: soft tissues have excellent healing capacity, devitalized bone that is not contaminated or exposed can be saved and will become incorporated, and external fixation can be maintained until the fracture has healed. Periosteum in young children can form bone even in the face of bone loss.

  19. [Therapeutic qualities of a lente preparation of swine insulins manufactured by Pharmachem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, D; Bozadzhieva, E; Pampulov, L; Penchev, I; Uzunova, B

    1977-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of swine insulin preparation Lente, "Pharmachim" production was studied in 50 diabetics. Its hypoglycemizing activitis compared with that of standardized insulin Lente--"Novo", extract of bovine pancreas. The Bulgarian preparation was found to be very similar to the preparation Lente-Novo in its pharma-codynamic properties and could successfully be used in the diabetes melitus treatment. Insulin Lente Pharmachim is presumed to have lower antigenicity as an extract of swine pancreas, which is actually its great advantage for the therapeutic practice.

  20. Feral Swine in the United States Have Been Exposed to both Avian and Swine Influenza A Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brigitte E; Sun, Hailiang; Carrel, Margaret; Cunningham, Fred L; Baroch, John A; Hanson-Dorr, Katie C; Young, Sean G; Schmit, Brandon; Nolting, Jacqueline M; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Lutman, Mark W; Pedersen, Kerri; Lager, Kelly; Bowman, Andrew S; Slemons, Richard D; Smith, David R; DeLiberto, Thomas; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2017-10-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) in swine can cause sporadic infections and pandemic outbreaks among humans, but how avian IAV emerges in swine is still unclear. Unlike domestic swine, feral swine are free ranging and have many opportunities for IAV exposure through contacts with various habitats and animals, including migratory waterfowl, a natural reservoir for IAVs. During the period from 2010 to 2013, 8,239 serum samples were collected from feral swine across 35 U.S. states and tested against 45 contemporary antigenic variants of avian, swine, and human IAVs; of these, 406 (4.9%) samples were IAV antibody positive. Among 294 serum samples selected for antigenic characterization, 271 cross-reacted with ≥1 tested virus, whereas the other 23 did not cross-react with any tested virus. Of the 271 IAV-positive samples, 236 cross-reacted with swine IAVs, 1 with avian IAVs, and 16 with avian and swine IAVs, indicating that feral swine had been exposed to both swine and avian IAVs but predominantly to swine IAVs. Our findings suggest that feral swine could potentially be infected with both avian and swine IAVs, generating novel IAVs by hosting and reassorting IAVs from wild birds and domestic swine and facilitating adaptation of avian IAVs to other hosts, including humans, before their spillover. Continued surveillance to monitor the distribution and antigenic diversities of IAVs in feral swine is necessary to increase our understanding of the natural history of IAVs. IMPORTANCE There are more than 5 million feral swine distributed across at least 35 states in the United States. In contrast to domestic swine, feral swine are free ranging and have unique opportunities for contact with wildlife, livestock, and their habitats. Our serological results indicate that feral swine in the United States have been exposed to influenza A viruses (IAVs) consistent with those found in both domestic swine and wild birds, with the predominant infections consisting of swine-adapted IAVs

  1. Application of Fe(II)/peroxymonosulfate for improving ultrafiltration membrane performance in surface water treatment: Comparison with coagulation and ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoxiang; Liang, Heng; Ding, An; Zhu, Xuewu; Tang, Xiaobin; Gan, Zhendong; Xing, Jiajian; Wu, Daoji; Li, Guibai

    2017-11-01

    Coagulation and ozonation have been widely used as pretreatments for ultrafiltration (UF) membrane in drinking water treatment. While beneficial, coagulation or ozonation alone is unable to both efficiently control membrane fouling and product water quality in many cases. Thus, in this study an emerging alternative of ferrous iron/peroxymonosulfate (Fe(II)/PMS), which can act as both an oxidant and a coagulant was employed prior to UF for treatment of natural surface water, and compared with conventional coagulation and ozonation. The results showed that the Fe(II)/PMS-UF system exhibited the best performance for dissolved organic carbon removal, likely due to the dual functions of coagulation and oxidation in the single process. The fluorescent and UV-absorbing organic components were more susceptible to ozonation than Fe(II)/PMS treatment. Fe(II)/PMS and ozonation pretreatments significantly increased the removal efficiency of atrazine, p-chloronitrobenzene and sulfamethazine by 12-76% and 50-94%, respectively, whereas coagulation exerted a minor influence. The Fe(II)/PMS pretreatment also showed the best performance for the reduction of both reversible and irreversible membrane fouling, and the performance was hardly affected by membrane pore size and surface hydrophobicity. In addition, the characterization of hydraulic irreversible organic foulants confirmed its effectiveness. These results demonstrate the potential advantages of applying Fe(II)/PMS as a pretreatment for UF to simultaneously control membrane fouling and improve the permeate quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Inactivation of Viruses and Bacteriophages as Models for Swine Hepatitis E Virus in Food Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmoth, Eva; Rovira, Jordi; Rajkovic, Andreja; Corcuera, Elena; Wilches Pérez, Diego; Dergel, Irene; Ottoson, Jakob R; Widén, Frederik

    2017-03-01

    Hepatitis E virus has been recognised as a food-borne virus hazard in pork products, due to its zoonotic properties. This risk can be reduced by adequate treatment of the food to inactivate food-borne viruses. We used a spectrum of viruses and bacteriophages to evaluate the effect of three food treatments: high pressure processing (HPP), lactic acid (LA) and intense light pulse (ILP) treatments. On swine liver at 400 MPa for 10 min, HPP gave log 10 reductions of ≥4.2, ≥5.0 and 3.4 for feline calicivirus (FCV) 2280, FCV wildtype (wt) and murine norovirus 1 (MNV 1), respectively. Escherichia coli coliphage ϕX174 displayed a lower reduction of 1.1, while Escherichia coli coliphage MS2 was unaffected. For ham at 600 MPa, the corresponding reductions were 4.1, 4.4, 2.9, 1.7 and 1.3 log 10 . LA treatment at 2.2 M gave log 10 reductions in the viral spectrum of 0.29-2.1 for swine liver and 0.87-3.1 for ham, with ϕX174 and MNV 1, respectively, as the most stable microorganisms. The ILP treatment gave log 10 reductions of 1.6-2.8 for swine liver, 0.97-2.2 for ham and 1.3-2.3 for sausage, at 15-60 J cm -2 , with MS2 as the most stable microorganism. The HPP treatment gave significantly (p virus reduction on swine liver than ham for the viruses at equivalent pressure/time combinations. For ILP treatment, reductions on swine liver were significantly (p virus contamination and in advice to food producers. Conservative model indicators for the pathogenic viruses could be suggested.

  3. Tratamento de águas residuárias de suinocultura em reator anaeróbio operado em batelada sequencial Treatment of swine wastewater in anaerobic sequencing batch reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Alves de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo avaliou-se o desempenho de um reator anaeróbio operado em batelada sequencial, em escala piloto, com volume total de 280 L, no tratamento de águas residuárias de suinocultura. As cargas orgânicas volumétricas aplicadas no reator foram de 4,42; 5,27; 9,33 e 11,79 g DQOtotal (L d-1. As eficiências médias de remoção de DQOtotal, sólidos suspensos totais (SST e sólidos suspensos voláteis (SSV variaram de 56 a 87%. O nitrogênio total Kjedahl (NTK, fósforo total (P-total e magnésio (Mg foram removidos com eficiências médias de 26 a 39%. As produções volumétricas de metano variaram de 0,50 a 0,64 L CH4 (L reator d-1 e não foram observadas diferenças significativas. As relações sólidos voláteis/sólidos totais (SV/ST do lodo de tal reator variaram de 0,74 a 0,58. As maiores concentrações médias de nutrientes no lodo do reator foram para o nitrogênio, fósforo, ferro e cálcio, com valores de 30.610 a 64.400, 1.590 a 9.870, 6.180 a 8.700 e 1.180 a 6.760 mg kg-1 base seca, respectivamente.In the present study, we evaluated an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor, in pilot scale and with a total volume of 280 L, for the treatment of swine wastewater. The organic loading rates applied in such reactor were 4.42; 5.27; 9.33 and 11.79 g CODtotal (L d-1. The average efficiencies of removal of CODtotal total solids suspension (TSS and volatile suspension solids (VSS varied from 56 to 87%. The nutrients total Kjedahl nitrogen (TKN, total phosphorus (total P and Mg were removed with average efficiencies from 26 to 39%. The volumetric methane productions varied from 0.50 to 0.64 L CH4 (L reactor d-1 and did not present significant differences. The VS/TS relations of the aforementioned reactor's sludge varied from 0.74 to 0.58. The highest mean concentrations of nutrients in the reactor sludge were those of nitrogen, phosphorus, iron and calcium, with values from 30.610 to 64.400, 1.590 to 9.870, 6.180 to 8.700 and 1.180 to 6

  4. Causes of death in swine in Jos Area of Plateau State | Osiyemi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ascariasis and cysticercosis were the main purnsitic diseases. Early treatment of sick swine and improved husbandry and management would have certainly reduced the losses which the pig producers had sustained in consequence of these conditions. Keywords: Pneumonia, Cysticercosis. Colibacillosis, Salmonellosis ...

  5. Mass and Energy Balances of Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion Treating Swine Manure Mixed with Rice Straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sheng; Zhang, Jining; Zou, Guoyan; Riya, Shohei; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of swine manure treatment by a proposed Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (DT-AD) system, we evaluated the methane yield of swine manure treated using a DT-AD method with rice straw under different C/N ratios and solid retention time (SRT) and calculated the mass and energy balances when the DT-AD system is used for swine manure treatment from a model farm with 1000 pigs and the digested residue is used for forage rice production. A traditional swine manure treatment Oxidation Ditch system was used as the study control. The results suggest that methane yield using the proposed DT-AD system increased with a higher C/N ratio and shorter SRT. Correspondently, for the DT-AD system running with SRT of 80 days, the net energy yields for all treatments were negative, due to low biogas production and high heat loss of digestion tank. However, the biogas yield increased when the SRT was shortened to 40 days, and the generated energy was greater than consumed energy when C/N ratio was 20 : 1 and 30 : 1. The results suggest that with the correct optimization of C/N ratio and SRT, the proposed DT-AD system, followed by using digestate for forage rice production, can attain energy self-sufficiency.

  6. A clinical evaluation of a bioresorbable membrane and porous hydroxyapatite in the treatment of human molar class II furcations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Gita Malathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ultimate goal of periodontal therapy is predictable regeneration of a functional attachment apparatus destroyed as a result of periodontitis. Reconstructive procedures have been used with varying success during the past decades to accomplish this goal. Aim: To evaluate whether the use of porous hydroxyapatite alone or a bioresorbable membrane alone would enhance the clinical results in the treatment of class II furcation defects in human lower molars. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients with chronic periodontitis, aged between 39 and 49 years, with a pair of similar bilateral class II furcation defects (classification of Hamp et al. in mandibular first molars were selected. A split-mouth design was incorporated and the selected 30 furcation defects were assigned to one of the two treatment groups, i.e., Group I treated with a bioresorbable membrane from bovine-derived collagen guided tissue regeneration membrane and Group II treated using porous hydroxyapatite bone graft material on the contralateral sides. Evaluation of clinical parameters, probing depths and attachment levels, and radiographs was done preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively. Results: Both the groups showed statistically significant mean reduction in probing depths and gain in clinical attachment levels and linear bone fill. Comparison between Group I and Group II showed insignificant difference. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, both the treatment modalities are beneficial for the treatment of human mandibular class II furcation defects.

  7. Oral salmon calcitonin induced suppression of urinary collagen type II degradation in postmenopausal women: a new potential treatment of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagger, Yu Z; Tankó, László B; Alexandersen, Peter; Karsdal, Morten A; Olson, Melvin; Mindeholm, Linda; Azria, Moïse; Christiansen, Claus

    2005-09-01

    To assess the efficacy of 3 months of oral salmon calcitonin (sCT) on cartilage degradation as estimated by the changes in the urinary excretion of C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type II (CTX-II), and to investigate whether the response of oral sCT to urinary CTX-II depends on the baseline level of cartilage turnover. This was a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical setting including 152 Danish postmenopausal women aged 55-85. The subjects received treatment with the different doses of sCT (0.15, 0.4, 1.0, or 2.5 mg) combined with Eligen technology-based carrier molecule (200 mg), or placebo for 3 months. The efficacy parameter was the changes in the 24-h excretion of urinary CTX-I/II corrected for creatinine excretion at month 3. sCT induced a significant dose-dependent decrease in 24-h urinary CTX-II excretion. Similar dose-dependent responses were found in 24-h urinary CTX-I. When stratifying the study population into tertiles of baseline urinary CTX-II, the present osteoarthritic symptoms and definite cases of osteoarthritis (OA) were significantly more frequent in women in the highest tertile of CTX-II (mean 391 +/- 18 ng/mmol). Women who received 1.0 mg of sCT and had the highest cartilage turnover presented the greatest decrease in urinary CTX-II after 3 months of treatment. In addition to its pronounced effect on bone resorption, this novel oral sCT formulation may also reduce cartilage degradation and thereby provide therapeutic benefit in terms of chondroprotection. Women with high cartilage turnover are more likely to benefit from oral sCT treatment.

  8. Advances in hepatitis E - II: Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, treatment and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Amit; Aggarwal, Rakesh

    2016-09-01

    Infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the commonest cause of acute hepatitis worldwide. This infection, with fecal-oral transmission, was previously thought to be limited to humans residing in developing countries with poor sanitation, spreading via contaminated drinking water. In recent years, our understanding of epidemiology and clinical spectrum of this infection have changed markedly. This article reviews the epidemiology, including routes of transmission, and clinical manifestations of HEV infection around the world. In addition, recent findings on transmission-associated HEV infection, extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis E and chronic infection with HEV, and treatment and prevention of this infection are discussed. Expert commentary: HEV infection has two distinct epidemiologic forms and clinical patterns of disease: (i) acute epidemic or sporadic hepatitis caused by fecal-oral (usually water-borne) transmission of genotype 1 and 2 HEV from a human reservoir in areas with poor hygiene and frequent water contamination, and (ii) infrequent sporadic hepatitis E caused by zoonotic infection, possibly from an animal source through ingestion of undercooked animal meal, of genotype 3 or 4 virus. In disease-endemic areas, pregnant women are at a particular risk of serious disease and high mortality. In less-endemic areas, chronic infection with HEV among immunosuppressed persons is observed. HEV can also be transmitted through Transfusion of blood and blood products. Ribivirin treatment is effective in chronic hepatitis E. Two efficacious vaccines have been tried in humans; one of these has received marketing approval in its country of origin.

  9. Mucopolysaccharidosis I, II, and VI: Brief review and guidelines for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugliani, Roberto; Federhen, Andressa; Rojas, Maria Verônica Muñoz; Vieira, Taiane; Artigalás, Osvaldo; Pinto, Louise Lapagesse; Azevedo, Ana Cecília; Acosta, Angelina; Bonfim, Carmen; Lourenço, Charles Marques; Kim, Chong Ae; Horovitz, Dafne; Bonfim, Denize; Norato, Denise; Marinho, Diane; Palhares, Durval; Santos, Emerson Santana; Ribeiro, Erlane; Valadares, Eugênia; Guarany, Fábio; de Lucca, Gisele Rosone; Pimentel, Helena; de Souza, Isabel Neves; Correa, Jordão; Fraga, José Carlos; Goes, José Eduardo; Cabral, José Maria; Simionato, José; Llerena, Juan; Jardim, Laura; Giuliani, Liane; da Silva, Luiz Carlos Santana; Santos, Mara L; Moreira, Maria Angela; Kerstenetzky, Marcelo; Ribeiro, Márcia; Ruas, Nicole; Barrios, Patricia; Aranda, Paulo; Honjo, Rachel; Boy, Raquel; Costa, Ronaldo; Souza, Carolina; Alcantara, Flavio F; Avilla, Silvio Gilberto A; Fagondes, Simone; Martins, Ana Maria

    2010-10-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are rare genetic diseases caused by the deficiency of one of the lysosomal enzymes involved in the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) breakdown pathway. This metabolic block leads to the accumulation of GAG in various organs and tissues of the affected patients, resulting in a multisystemic clinical picture, sometimes including cognitive impairment. Until the beginning of the XXI century, treatment was mainly supportive. Bone marrow transplantation improved the natural course of the disease in some types of MPS, but the morbidity and mortality restricted its use to selected cases. The identification of the genes involved, the new molecular biology tools and the availability of animal models made it possible to develop specific enzyme replacement therapies (ERT) for these diseases. At present, a great number of Brazilian medical centers from all regions of the country have experience with ERT for MPS I, II, and VI, acquired not only through patient treatment but also in clinical trials. Taking the three types of MPS together, over 200 patients have been treated with ERT in our country. This document summarizes the experience of the professionals involved, along with the data available in the international literature, bringing together and harmonizing the information available on the management of these severe and progressive diseases, thus disclosing new prospects for Brazilian patients affected by these conditions.

  10. Salter-Harris type II proximal humerus injuries: state-of-the-art treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdano, Michele Arcangelo; Pellegrini, Andrea; Lunini, Enricomaria; Porcellini, Giuseppe; Ceccarelli, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    Proximal epiphyseal injuries of the humerus represent a very low percentage of traumatic growth pathologies, 5 % of all fractures during childhood. In the literature, there have been only a limited number of clinical studies investigating these injuries, basically from an epidemiological point of view, focusing on the incidence of the different types of fractures. We report our experience of 6 young patients with Salter-Harris type II proximal humerus epiphyseal injuries adopting a minimally invasive surgical technique consisting of closed reduction and percutaneous fixation with Kirschner wires. At 2 years of follow-up, the results consisting in constant; disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand; simple shoulder test; and Visual Analogue Scale scores obtained have been excellent and all the patients come back to a normal life with sports practice and normal daily activities. The range of motion was completely restored without any deficit in abduction-adduction, flection-extension, or intra-extra rotation. No differences in anthropometric parameters were found with no case of malangulation, vascular, or neurological complications. Our data support with evidence how the close reduction internal fixation with K-wires treatment can give to the surgeons and the patients a better security about the correct fracture healing. Furthermore, with this article, we will provide a detailed review of the literature in order to define the state-of-the-art treatment to better face such a challenging skeletal injury.

  11. Mucopolysaccharidosis I, II, and VI: brief review and guidelines for treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Giugliani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS are rare genetic diseases caused by the deficiency of one of the lysosomal enzymes involved in the glycosaminoglycan (GAG breakdown pathway. This metabolic block leads to the accumulation of GAG in various organs and tissues of the affected patients, resulting in a multisystemic clinical picture, sometimes including cognitive impairment. Until the beginning of the XXI century, treatment was mainly supportive. Bone marrow transplantation improved the natural course of the disease in some types of MPS, but the morbidity and mortality restricted its use to selected cases. The identification of the genes involved, the new molecular biology tools and the availability of animal models made it possible to develop specific enzyme replacement therapies (ERT for these diseases. At present, a great number of Brazilian medical centers from all regions of the country have experience with ERT for MPS I, II, and VI, acquired not only through patient treatment but also in clinical trials. Taking the three types of MPS together, over 200 patients have been treated with ERT in our country. This document summarizes the experience of the professionals involved, along with the data available in the international literature, bringing together and harmonizing the information available on the management of these severe and progressive diseases, thus disclosing new prospects for Brazilian patients affected by these conditions.

  12. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Christopher D; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R

    2015-04-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI=0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI=1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI=1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48 hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Influenza D Virus Infection in Feral Swine Populations, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Lucas; Luo, Kaijian; Olivier, Alicia K; Cunningham, Fred L; Blackmon, Sherry; Hanson-Dorr, Katie; Sun, Hailiang; Baroch, John; Lutman, Mark W; Quade, Bianca; Epperson, William; Webby, Richard; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2018-06-01

    Influenza D virus (IDV) has been identified in domestic cattle, swine, camelid, and small ruminant populations across North America, Europe, Asia, South America, and Africa. Our study investigated seroprevalence and transmissibility of IDV in feral swine. During 2012-2013, we evaluated feral swine populations in 4 US states; of 256 swine tested, 57 (19.1%) were IDV seropositive. Among 96 archived influenza A virus-seropositive feral swine samples collected from 16 US states during 2010-2013, 41 (42.7%) were IDV seropositive. Infection studies demonstrated that IDV-inoculated feral swine shed virus 3-5 days postinoculation and seroconverted at 21 days postinoculation; 50% of in-contact naive feral swine shed virus, seroconverted, or both. Immunohistochemical staining showed viral antigen within epithelial cells of the respiratory tract, including trachea, soft palate, and lungs. Our findings suggest that feral swine might serve an important role in the ecology of IDV.

  14. 9 CFR 93.505 - Certificate for swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... certificate shall show that the entire region of origin is free of classical swine fever. (b) Swine from..., Equatorial Guinea, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, India...

  15. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum IGF-II, CRP levels after treatment in pediatric patients with broncho-pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Chuanbin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II), CRP levels after treatment in pediatric patients with bronchopneumonia. Methods: Serum IGF-II levels were measured with RIA and serum CRP levels with immune method both before and after treatment in 33 pediatric patients with bronchopneumonia and 35 controls. Results: Before treatment the serum levels of IGF-II, CRP were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Determination of serum IGF-II, CRP levels is clinically useful in the management of pediatric patients with bronchopneumonia. (authors)

  16. Pistas planas en el tratamiento de la clase II: Presentación de un caso Flat strips in the treatment of class II malocclusion.: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulenia Cruz Rivas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La maloclusión clase II división 1 es una de las anomalías que se presentan en las consultas de Ortodoncia con mayor frecuencia. Para solucionar esta problemática se han descrito diversos tratamientos. Se muestra un caso tratado mediante ortopedia funcional, específicamente con pistas planas de clase II, aparato funcional ideado por Pedro Planas , basado en la rehabilitación neuroclusal . Los resultados demuestran la efectividad de dicho aparato, pues se aprecian cambios a favor de la armonía esqueletal , la estética y la función, así como las modificaciones transversales que fueron alentadores. Dentro de los cambios esqueletales , se observó la apertura del eje facial y el aumento de la altura facial anteroinferior .Division 1 class II malocclusion is one of the abnormalities that are present in the Orthodontics offices more frequently. Different treatments have been described to solve this problem. A case treated by functional orthopedics, specifically with class II flat strips, an appliance created by Pedro Planas that is based on neuroocclusal rehabilitation, is reported. The results show the effectiveness of this appliance, since changes in favor of skeletal harmony, aesthetics and function are observed, and the transversal modifications are encouraging. The opening of the facial axis and the increase of the anteroinferior facial height are observed among the skeletal changes.

  17. New influenza A virus reassortments have been found in Danish swine in 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Trebbien, Ramona

    2012-01-01

    ” viruses which have been circulating in Danish pigs since it was found for the first time in 1981. ii) H1N2 reassortant viruses which comprise HA from “avian like” H1N1 and NA from swine H3N2. The reassortant H1N2 virus was discovered in Danish pig for the first time in 2003 and is now well established......In 2011 a passive surveillance for influenza A virus was conducted in Danish swine. Tested samples were clinical samples from affected pigs submitted to the Danish National Veterinary Institute for swine influenza virus detection. In total 713 samples from 276 herds were analysed and about 24......% of the samples were positive for swine influenza virus. All influenza positive samples were tested for the H1N1pdm09 virus by a real time RT-PCR assay specific for the pandemic HA gene and 26% of the samples were positive. Subtyping of 90 samples by sequencing revealed the presence of; i) H1N1 “avian like...

  18. Influence of Social Support on Treatment of Type II Diabetes in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zare Shahabadi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Social support can be defined as the interactive process through which emotional and instrumental support is obtained. Social support has been found to be a relevant factor in diabetes self-management. Diabetes refers to complex chronic metabolic conditions that are characterized by elevated levels of blood glucose if untreated. Diabetes is one of the biggest health care problems facing Yazd with regards to prevalence, cost, and the onus it places on patients and its high morbidity rates. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among social factors on the control and treatment of type II diabetes. Methods: The population under study included 4990 diabetes type II patients referring to Yazd Diabetes Research Center and a sample of 256 cases was selected by simple random sampling method through statistical society. This study was based on survey method and the instrument for collecting data was a questionnaire. Results: About 65.4% of the patients were women and 35.6 were men. The mean age of patients was 56 years. Significant correlations were found between perceived social support (r= 0.193, p= 0.001, positive reinforcing behaviors (r= 0.455, p= 0.000, and adherence to self-care activities. Misguided support behaviors did not show a significant correlation with adherence to self-care activities. A total of 25% of variance in self-care behavior can be explained by positive reinforcing behaviors and misguided support behaviors. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that by increasing the positive reinforcing behaviors and perceived social support and decreasing the misguided support behaviors, the diabetic patients can adhere better to self-care activities.

  19. Long-term skeletal and dental effects and treatment timing for functional appliances in Class II malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Lorenzo; Pavoni, Chiara; Faltin, Kurt; McNamara, James A; Cozza, Paola

    2013-03-01

    To analyze the long-term skeletal and dentoalveolar effects and to evaluate treatment timing of Class II treatment with functional appliances followed by fixed appliances. A group of 40 patients (22 females and 18 males) with Class II malocclusion consecutively treated either with a Bionator or an Activator followed by fixed appliances was compared with a control group of 20 subjects (9 females and 11 males) with untreated Class II malocclusion. Lateral cephalograms were available at the start of treatment (mean age 10 years), end of treatment with functional appliances (mean age 12 years), and long-term observation (mean age 18.6 years). The treated sample also was divided into two groups according to skeletal maturity. The early-treatment group was composed of 20 subjects (12 females and 8 males) treated before puberty, while the late-treatment group included 20 subjects (10 females and 10 males) treated at puberty. Statistical comparisons were performed with analysis of variance followed by Tukey's post hoc tests. Significant long-term mandibular changes (Co-Gn) in the treated group (3.6 mm over the controls) were associated with improvements in the skeletal sagittal intermaxillary relationship, overjet, and molar relationship (∼3.0-3.5 mm). Treatment during the pubertal peak was able to produce significantly greater increases in total mandibular length (4.3 mm) and mandibular ramus height (3.1 mm) associated with a significant advancement of the bony chin (3.9 mm) when compared with treatment before puberty. Treatment of Class II malocclusion with functional appliances appears to be more effective at puberty.

  20. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508 Section 93.508 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No litter...

  1. 9 CFR 93.521 - Declaration for swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Mexico 9 § 93.521 Declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two copies of...

  2. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine. (a...

  3. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a...

  4. Adjunctive Oral Voriconazole Treatment of Fusarium Keratitis: A Secondary Analysis From the Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajna, N Venkatesh; Krishnan, Tiruvengada; Rajaraman, Revathi; Patel, Sushila; Shah, Ranjeet; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Devi, Lumbini; Das, Manoranjan; Ray, Kathryn J; O'Brien, Kieran S; Oldenburg, Catherine E; McLeod, Stephen D; Zegans, Michael E; Acharya, Nisha R; Lietman, Thomas M; Rose-Nussbaumer, Jennifer

    2017-06-01

    Fusarium keratitis is common and often results in poor outcomes. No new treatments since natamycin have become available. To explore the role of adjuvant oral voriconazole on clinical outcomes in Fusarium keratitis. In this prespecified subgroup analysis of a multicenter, double-masked, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, 240 patients from the Aravind Eye Care System in India, the Lumbini Eye Hospital and Bharatpur Eye Hospital in Nepal, and the University of California, San Francisco, who had culture-positive fungal ulcer and baseline visual acuity of 20/400 or worse were randomized to receive oral voriconazole vs placebo. Enrollment started May 24, 2010, and the last patient study visit was November 23, 2015. All patients received topical voriconazole, 1%, and after the results of the Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial (MUTT) II became available, topical natamycin, 5%, was added for all patients. Data analysis was performed from September 2 to October 28, 2016. The primary outcome of the trial was the rate of corneal perforation or the need for therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty. Secondary outcomes included rate of reepithelialization, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity, and infiltrate or scar size at 3 months. Of the 240 study participants, 72 (30.4%) were culture positive for Fusarium species (41 [56.9%] male and 31 [43.1%] female; median [interquartile range] age, 50 [45-57] years). Of these, 33 (45.8%) were randomized to oral voriconazole and 39 (54.2%) to placebo. Fusarium ulcers randomized to oral voriconazole had a 0.43-fold decreased hazard of perforation or therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty compared with placebo after controlling for baseline infiltrate depth (95% CI, 0.22-fold to 0.84-fold; P = .01). Multiple linear regression revealed a 1.89-mm decreased infiltrate and/or scar size at 3 weeks (95% CI, -2.69 to -1.09 mm; P < .001) and a 0.83-mm decreased infiltrate and/or scar size at 3 months after correcting for baseline values

  5. Changes in soft tissue profile using functional appliances in the treatment of skeletal class II malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković Zorana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The effects of orthodontic treatment are considered to be successful if the facial harmony is achieved, while the structures of soft tissue profile are in harmony with skeletal structures of neurocranium and viscerocranium. In patients with skeletal distal bite caused by mandibular retrognathism, facial esthetics is disturbed often, in terms of pronounced convexity of the profile and change in the position and relationship of the lips. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of soft tissue profile changes in patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion treated with three different orthodontic appliances: Fränkel functional regulator type I (FR-I, Balters’ Bionator type I and Hotz appliance. Methods. The study included 60 patients diagnosed with skeletal Class II malocclusion caused by mandibular retrognathism, in the period of early mixed dentition. Each subgroup of 20 patients was treated with a variety of orthodontic appliances. On the lateral cephalogram, before and after treatment, the following parameters were analyzed: T angle, H angle, the height of the upper lip, the position of the upper and lower lip in relation to the esthetic line. Within the statistical analysis the mean, maximum, minimum, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, two-factor analysis of variance with repeated measures and the factor analysis of variance were calculated using ANOVA, Bonferroni test and Student’s t-test. Results. A significant decrease of angles T and H was noticed in the application of FR-I, from 21.60° to 17.15°, and from 16.45° to 13.40° (p<0.001. FR-I decreased the height of the upper lip from 26.15 mm to 25.85 mm, while Hotz appliance and Balters’ Bionator type I increased the height of the upper lip, thereby deteriorating esthetics of the patient. Conclusion. All used orthodontic appliances lead to changes in soft tissue profile in terms of improving facial esthetics, with the most distinctive

  6. EFFECT OF DIATOMEAOUS EARTH TREATMENT USING HYDROGEN CHLORIDE AND SULFURIC ACID ON KINETICS OF CADMIUM(II ADSORPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuryono Nuryono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, treatment of diatomaceous earth, Sangiran, Central Java using hydrogen chloride (HCl and sulfuric acid (H2SO4 on kinetics of Cd(II adsorption in aqueous solution has been carried out. The work was conducted by mixing an amount of grounded diatomaceous earth (200 mesh in size with HCl or H2SO4 solution in various concentrations for two hours at temperature range of 100 - 150oC. The mixture was then filtered and washed with water until the filtrate pH is approximately 7 and then the residue was dried for four hours at a temperature of 70oC. The product was used as an adsorbent to adsorb Cd(II in aqueous solution with various concentrations. The Cd(II adsorbed was determined by analyzing the rest of Cd(II in the solution using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The effect of treatment was evaluated from kinetic parameter of adsorption rate constant calculated based on the simple kinetic model. Results showed  that before equilibrium condition reached, adsorpstion of Cd(II occurred through two steps, i.e. a step tends to follow a reaction of irreversible first order  (step I followed by reaction of reversible first order (step II. Treatment with acids, either hydrogen chloride or sulfuric acid, decreased adsorption rate constant for the step I from 15.2/min to a range of 6.4 - 9.4/min.  However, increasing concentration of acid (in a range of concentration investigated did not give significant and constant change of adsorption rate constant. For step II process,  adsorption involved physical interaction with the sufficient low adsorption energy (in a range of 311.3 - 1001 J/mol.     Keywords: adsorption, cdmium, diatomaceous earth, kinetics.

  7. ACR Appropriateness Criteria for external beam radiation therapy treatment planning for clinically localized prostate cancer, part II of II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas G. Zaorsky, MD

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: External beam radiation is a key component of the curative management of T1 and T2 prostate cancer. By combining the most recent medical literature, these Appropriateness Criteria can aid clinicians in determining the appropriate treatment delivery and personalized approaches for individual patients.

  8. Double-blind trial of the efficacy of pentoxifylline vs thalidomide for the treatment of type II reaction in leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Sales

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Type II reaction in leprosy, or erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL, is often characterized by severe clinical symptoms together with nerve function impairment leading to permanent disabilities. Thalidomide has been shown to be a highly effective drug for the treatment of ENL. It is, however, contraindicated for women of childbearing age due to its teratogenicity. On the other hand, pentoxifylline, used to treat hypercoagulable states, is not teratogenic and, like thalidomide, can inhibit the synthesis of tumor necrosis factor-a and other cytokines. In the present randomized double-blind clinical study we compared the effectiveness of orally administered pentoxifylline vs thalidomide in treating type II reaction in 44 patients. Daily doses of 300 mg thalidomide or 1.2 g pentoxifylline were administered for 30 days to multibacillary leprosy patients undergoing type II reaction. Randomly chosen patients were included in the study before, during, and after specific multidrug therapy. Clinical evaluations were performed on the 1st, 7th, 14th, 21st, and 30th days of treatment and laboratory tests were carried out on the 1st and 30th days. As expected, overall, thalidomide proved to be more effective in the treatment of type II leprosy reaction. Nevertheless, continuous treatment with pentoxifylline was effective in relieving the clinical signs of ENL, especially limb edema and systemic symptoms, in 62.5% of the patients.

  9. Internal vacuum-assisted closure device in the swine model of severe liver injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everett Christopher B

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The authors present a novel approach to nonresectional therapy in major hepatic trauma utilizing intraabdominal perihepatic vacuum assisted closure (VAC therapy in the porcine model of Grade V liver injury. Methods A Grade V injury was created in the right lobe of the liver in a healthy pig. A Pringle maneuver was applied (4.5 minutes total clamp time and a vacuum assisted closure device was placed over the injured lobe and connected to suction. The device consisted of a perforated plastic bag placed over the liver, followed by a 15 cm by 15cm VAC sponge covered with a nonperforated plastic bag. The abdomen was closed temporarily. Blood loss, cardiopulmonary parameters and bladder pressures were measured over a one-hour period. The device was then removed and the animal was euthanized. Results Feasibility of device placement was demonstrated by maintenance of adequate vacuum suction pressures and seal. VAC placement presented no major technical challenges. Successful control of ongoing liver hemorrhage was achieved with the VAC. Total blood loss was 625 ml (20ml/kg. This corresponds to class II hemorrhagic shock in humans and compares favorably to previously reported estimated blood losses with similar grade liver injuries in the swine model. No post-injury cardiopulmonary compromise or elevated abdominal compartment pressures were encountered, while hepatic parenchymal perfusion was maintained. Conclusion These data demonstrate the feasibility and utility of a perihepatic negative pressure device for the treatment of hemorrhage from severe liver injury in the porcine model.

  10. Swine influenza virus: zoonotic potential and vaccination strategies for the control of avian and swine influenzas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Eileen; Janke, Bruce

    2008-02-15

    Influenza viruses are able to infect humans, swine, and avian species, and swine have long been considered a potential source of new influenza viruses that can infect humans. Swine have receptors to which both avian and mammalian influenza viruses bind, which increases the potential for viruses to exchange genetic sequences and produce new reassortant viruses in swine. A number of genetically diverse viruses are circulating in swine herds throughout the world and are a major cause of concern to the swine industry. Control of swine influenza is primarily through the vaccination of sows, to protect young pigs through maternally derived antibodies. However, influenza viruses continue to circulate in pigs after the decay of maternal antibodies, providing a continuing source of virus on a herd basis. Measures to control avian influenza in commercial poultry operations are dictated by the virulence of the virus. Detection of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus results in immediate elimination of the flock. Low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses are controlled through vaccination, which is done primarily in turkey flocks. Maintenance of the current HPAI virus-free status of poultry in the United States is through constant surveillance of poultry flocks. Although current influenza vaccines for poultry and swine are inactivated and adjuvanted, ongoing research into the development of newer vaccines, such as DNA, live-virus, or vectored vaccines, is being done. Control of influenza virus infection in poultry and swine is critical to the reduction of potential cross-species adaptation and spread of influenza viruses, which will minimize the risk of animals being the source of the next pandemic.

  11. Treatment of geographic atrophy with subconjunctival sirolimus: results of a phase I/II clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wai T; Dresner, Samuel; Forooghian, Farzin; Glaser, Tanya; Doss, Lauren; Zhou, Mei; Cunningham, Denise; Shimel, Katherine; Harrington, Molly; Hammel, Keri; Cukras, Catherine A; Ferris, Frederick L; Chew, Emily Y

    2013-04-26

    To investigate the safety and effects of subconjunctival sirolimus, an mTOR inhibitor and immunosuppressive agent, for the treatment of geographic atrophy (GA). The study was a single-center, open-label phase II trial, enrolling 11 participants with bilateral GA; eight participants completed 24 months of follow-up. Sirolimus (440 μg) was administered every 3 months as a subconjunctival injection in only one randomly assigned eye in each participant for 24 months. Fellow eyes served as untreated controls. The primary efficacy outcome measure was the change in the total GA area at 24 months. Secondary outcomes included changes in visual acuity, macular sensitivity, central retinal thickness, and total drusen area. The study drug was well tolerated with few symptoms and related adverse events. Study treatment in study eyes was not associated with structural or functional benefits relative to the control fellow eyes. At month 24, mean GA area increased by 54.5% and 39.7% in study and fellow eyes, respectively (P = 0.41), whereas mean visual acuity decreased by 21.0 letters and 3.0 letters in study and fellow eyes, respectively (P = 0.03). Substantial differences in mean changes in drusen area, central retinal thickness, and macular sensitivity were not detected for all analysis time points up to 24 months. Repeated subconjunctival sirolimus was well-tolerated in patients with GA, although no positive anatomic or functional effects were identified. Subconjunctival sirolimus may not be beneficial in the prevention of GA progression, and may potentially be associated with effects detrimental to visual acuity. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00766649.).

  12. Platinum(II)-gadolinium(III) complexes as potential single-molecular theranostic agents for cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhenzhu; Wang, Xiaoyong; Li, Tuanjie; Aime, Silvio; Sadler, Peter J; Guo, Zijian

    2014-11-24

    Theranostic agents are emerging multifunctional molecules capable of simultaneous therapy and diagnosis of diseases. We found that platinum(II)-gadolinium(III) complexes with the formula [{Pt(NH3)2Cl}2GdL](NO3)2 possess such properties. The Gd center is stable in solution and the cytoplasm, whereas the Pt centers undergo ligand substitution in cancer cells. The Pt units interact with DNA and significantly promote the cellular uptake of Gd complexes. The cytotoxicity of the Pt-Gd complexes is comparable to that of cisplatin at high concentrations (≥0.1 mM), and their proton relaxivity is higher than that of the commercial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent Gd-DTPA. T1-weighted MRI on B6 mice demonstrated that these complexes can reveal the accumulation of platinum drugs in vivo. Their cytotoxicity and imaging capabilities make the Pt-Gd complexes promising theranostic agents for cancer treatment. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Phase II drugs under clinical investigation for the treatment of chronic constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, Shilan; Didari, Tina; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2014-11-01

    Chronic constipation (CC) is a common gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorder that significantly impairs the quality of life in affected subjects. As almost half of the patients suffering from CC are not satisfied with currently available medicines, there is a need to develop new molecules with better effectiveness and tolerability. The authors include all experimental and clinical trials (up to Phase II) about new investigational drugs for the treatment of CC. The article identifies nine new agents: mitemcinal, TD-8954, YKP10811, itopride, RM-131, KWA-0711, elobixibat, velusetrag, and naronapride. All nine agents have shown prokinetic effects in different stages of the development. The mechanisms of new developing drugs include: the activation of 5-hydroxytryptamine type-4 (5-HT4), ghrelin and motilin receptors, antagonizing dopamine type-2 (D2) receptors, inhibition of ileal bile acid reabsorption and acetylcholine esterase, as well as water absorption from the GI tract. At this current point in time, new generations of 5-HT4 receptor agonists (velusetrag, noranopride and YKP10811) are hoped to progress, further in the future, due to better efficiency and safety. However, it is not possible to make a concise conclusion at this current time due to a lack of evidence. Further clinical trials with a longer duration and a larger sample size are warranted.

  14. Radiation treatment of glottic squamous cell carcinoma, Stage I and II: analysis of factors affecting prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franchin, Giovanni; Minatel, Emilio; Gobitti, Carlo; Talamini, Renato; Sartor, Giovanna; Caruso, Giuseppe; Grando, Giuseppe; Politi, Doriano; Gigante, Marco; Toffoli, Giuseppe; Trovo, Mauro G.; Barzan, Luigi

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: At least in some European Countries, there is still considerable controversy regarding the choice between surgery and radiotherapy for the treatment of patients with early laryngeal-glottic carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Two hundred and forty-six patients with laryngeal-glottic neoplasms, Stage I-II, were treated with radical radiotherapy. Before radiotherapy the patients were evaluated to determine the surgical procedure of choice. Either 66-68.4 Gy (33-38 fractions) or 63-65 Gy (28-29 fractions) of radiation therapy (RT) were administered. The overall disease free survival was determined for each subgroup of patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine significant prognostic variables. Results: Five- and 10-year overall survival rates were 83 and 72%, respectively. At a median follow-up of 6 years 204 patients are alive and disease free. No patient developed distant metastases. One patient died of a large local recurrence, 38 patients died of causes unrelated to their tumor, and 3 patients were lost to follow-up. The multivariate analysis confirmed that performance status (PS), macroscopic presentation of the lesion, and persistence of dysphonia after radiotherapy are significant prognostic factors. Conclusions: According to the multivariate analysis, the patients with PS >80 and with exophytic lesions are eligible for radical RT. The surgical procedure proposed for each patient was not found to be an independent prognostic factor

  15. Clinical practice guidelines for treatment of acne vulgaris: a critical appraisal using the AGREE II instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanclemente, Gloria; Acosta, Jorge-Luis; Tamayo, Maria-Eulalia; Bonfill, Xavier; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

    2014-04-01

    A significant number of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) about the treatment of acne vulgaris in adolescents and adults have been published worldwide. However, little is known about the quality of CPGs in this field. The aim of this study was to appraise the methodological quality of published acne vulgaris CPGs. We performed a systematic review of published CPGs on acne vulgaris therapy from July 2002 to July 2012. Three reviewers independently assessed each CPG using the AGREE II instrument. A standardized score was calculated for each of the six domains. Our search strategy identified 103 citations but just six met our inclusion criteria. Agreement among reviewers was very good: 0.981. The domains that scored better were: "scope and purpose" and "clarity and presentation". Those that scored worse were "stakeholder involvement", "rigor of development", and "applicability". The European and the Malaysian CPGs were the only recommended with no further modifications. In addition, the Mexican, Colombian and the United States guidelines were recommended with provisos, with lower scores regarding stakeholder involvement, rigor of development and applicability. Only two guidelines clearly reported outcome measures for evaluating efficacy or included quality of life outcomes. CPGs varied regarding the consideration of light/laser therapy or consideration of complementary/alternative medicines. None of them included cost considerations of drugs such as systemic isotretinoin. In conclusion, published acne vulgaris CPGs for acne therapy vary in quality with a clear need to improve their methodological rigor. This could be achieved with the adherence to current CPGs development standards.

  16. Treatment outcome, body image, and sexual functioning after orchiectomy and radiotherapy for Stage I-II testicular seminoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incrocci, Luca; Hop, Wim C.J.; Wijnmaalen, Arendjan; Slob, A. Koos

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Orchiectomy followed by infradiaphragmatic irradiation is the standard treatment for Stage I-II testicular seminoma in The Netherlands. Because body image and sexual functioning can be affected by treatment, a retrospective study was carried out to assess treatment outcome, body image, and changes in sexuality after orchiectomy and radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The medical charts of 166 patients with Stage I-II testicular seminoma were reviewed. A questionnaire on body image and current sexual functioning regarding the frequency and quality of erections, sexual activity, significance of sex, and changes in sexuality was sent to 157 patients (at a mean of 51 months after treatment). Results: Seventy-eight percent (n=123, mean age 42 years) completed the questionnaire. During irradiation, almost half of patients experienced nausea and 19% nausea and vomiting. Only 3 patients had disease relapse. After treatment, about 20% reported less interest and pleasure in sex and less sexual activity. Interest in sex, erectile difficulties, and satisfaction with sexual life did not differ from age-matched healthy controls. At the time of the survey, 17% of patients had erectile difficulties, a figure that was significantly higher than before treatment, but which correlated also with age. Twenty percent expressed concerns about fertility, and 52% found their body had changed after treatment. Cancer treatment had negatively influenced sexual life in 32% of the patients. Conclusions: Orchiectomy with radiotherapy is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for Stage I-II testicular seminoma. Treatment-induced changes in body image and concerns about fertility were detected, but the sexual problems encountered did not seem to differ from those of healthy controls, although baseline data are lacking

  17. Estimation of the transmission dynamics of African swine fever virus within a swine house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. P.; Larsen, T. S.; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2017-01-01

    The spread of African swine fever virus (ASFV) threatens to reach further parts of Europe. In countries with a large swine production, an outbreak of ASF may result in devastating economic consequences for the swine industry. Simulation models can assist decision makers setting up contingency plans......·00 (95% CI 0-1). Furthermore, we simulated the spread of ASFV within a pig house using a modified SEIR-model to establish the time from infection of one animal until ASFV is detected in the herd. Based on a chosen detection limit of 2·55% equivalent to 10 dead pigs out of 360, the disease would...

  18. Epidemiological relationship of human and swine Streptococcus suis isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarradas, C; Luque, I; de Andrés, D; Abdel-Aziz Shahein, Y E; Pons, P; González, F; Borge, C; Perea, A

    2001-06-01

    Two cases of meningitis due to Streptococcus suis in humans are reported here. A butcher and an abattoir worker were referred to a health centre in Castellón (Spain) with fever and symptoms of meningitis. After adequate treatment, a slight hipoacusia persisted as sequelae in both cases. Colonies of S. suis group R, serotype 2 and phenotype MRP+EF+ were isolated from cerebroespinal fluid. Epidemiological studies showed that both workers had in common the handling of pork meat of slaughtered healthy pigs from three closed farms. A study of the tonsils from apparently healthy, slaughtered pigs was carried out. A total of 234 tonsillar samples were obtained and 81 strains of S. suis were isolated from them. Serotype 2 appeared to be the most frequent (50.6%), and the analysis for phenotype showed a high percentage of tonsillar strains with the phenotype MRP+EF+ (35.9%). The humans and 28 tonsillar swine strains showed a similar profile (S. suis group R, serotype 2 and phenotype MRP+EF+). A total of 26 of the swine isolates were analysed by ribotyping using EcoRI. The human strains showed the same six-band hybridization pattern that shared five bands with the pattern most frequently shown by most of the tonsillar N. suis group R, serotype 2 and phenotype MRP+EF+ strains, differing only in the lightest, faintest band which was slightly less anodical in human (> or = 1.8 kb) than in swine (approximately 1.8 kb). From these results, both groups of strains, humans and porcine, showed differences; how can these differences in the pattern of ribotyping be explained if they should have the same origin? Is it possible that they have undergone an adaptation to the new host or perhaps the modification is due to other unknown causes? Further studies in this area are required in order to answer these questions.

  19. Bio-oss in Treatment of Furcation Class II Deffects and Comparison with Coronally Positioned Flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ak.Khoshkhoo Nejad

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Among periodontal defects, the furcation involvement represents one of the most chalenging scenarios due to the difficulty of achieving a predictable improvement regardless of the type of periodontal therapy. Moreover, the presence of furcation involvement has been demonstrated to considerably affect tooth prognosis. Thus, treatment of furcation defects is a challenge in clinical periodontics. The aim of periodontal treatment is not only to control infection but also to regenerate periodontal tissues lost as a consequence of periodontal disease.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare Bio-oss (Bo, an anorganic bovine bone Xenograft, in combination with coronally positioned flap to open flap debridment surgery with coronally positiond flap alone in human mandibular class II furcation defects.Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial and interventional study 24 furcations, which provided 12 pairs of similar periodontal defects were evaluated. Each defect was randomly assigned to treatment with Bio-Oss in combination coronally positioned flap or open flap debridment and coronally positioned flap alone. Following basic therapy, baseline measurements were recorded including probing depth (PDD, clinical attachment level (CAL,gingival recession (REC, keratinized gingiva (KG and closed horizontal probing depth(CHPD. After 6 months, all sites were re-entered and hard tissue measurements were recorded.Hard tissue measurements were performed during surgery to determine open horizontal probing depth (OHPD and open vertical probing depth (OVPD. The data was analyzed using t-test paired sample.Results: Vertical probing depth reduction of 3.17±1.32 mm and horizontal probing depth reduction of 4.42±1.02 mm were noted for the BO group, with 2.87±0.83 mm and 2.31±0.49 mm reductions, respectively, noted for CPF alone. Both surgical procedures resulted in statistically significant probing depth reduction and gain clinical

  20. Comparison of esthetic outcome after extraction or non-extraction orthodontic treatment in class II division 1 malocclusion patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneh Lata Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The extraction of premolars as a practical form of orthodontic therapy has been accepted for many years, but there remains a controversy regarding the effect of premolar extraction to improve esthetics as well as dentoskeletal relationship. The esthetic impact of the soft-tissue profile might play a major role in deciding on premolar extraction or non-extraction treatment, particularly in borderline patients. This cephalometric study was undertaken to compare the post-treatment soft-tissue profiles of successfully managed Class II, Division 1 malocclusions treated with either all first premolar extractions or treatment with a non-extraction therapy. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 100 post-pubertal female patients of Class II Division I malocclusion. Group 1, treated with four first premolar extractions, consisted of 50 female patients with a mean age of 14 years 1 month. Group 2, treated without extractions, consisted of 50 patients with a mean age of 13 years 5 months. Pre-treatment and post-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs were evaluated. The pre-treatment to post-treatment stage comparison and the intergroup comparison of the treatment changes were conducted between extraction and non-extraction groups of Class II malocclusion samples with t-tests. Results: The soft-tissue facial profiles of the extraction and non-extraction samples were the same following active treatment except for a more retruded lower lip and a more pronounced lower labial sulcus in those patients subjected to extraction. Conclusions: The extraction or non-extraction decision, if based on sound diagnostic criteria, seems to have no systematic detrimental effects on the facial profile.

  1. Stability of skeletal changes induced by growth modulation procedures in the treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashantha Govinakovi Shivamurthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Objective of this study, based on an evaluation of lateral cephalograms, was to evaluate the degree of skeletal changes produced by the various growth modulative procedures in the treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion and to characterize the stability of these changes in the years after treatment. Materials and Methods: Total of 40 patients with Class II malocclusion was divided into three groups according to appliance used, i.e. removable or fixed functional appliances (n = 10, combination of functional appliance with headgear (n = 10, and only headgear (n = 10. In addition, almost a matched control group (n = 10 also characterized by skeletal Class II pattern and were under observation, for more than 2 years was also selected. Lateral cephalograms of each patient were taken at the start of treatment (T1, at its completion (T2, and long-term posttreatment (T3. Results: This study showed significant improvement in maxillomandibular relationship in treated group compared to control group, and the changes remained stable in posttreatment phase. Restriction of maxillary growth was evident in headgear and combination groups whereas significant forward movement of the mandible was seen in functional group. Conclusion: Analysis of lateral cephalograms indicates that growth modulation therapy in angle Class II malocclusion brings about desired skeletal changes which remain relatively stable over a long-term period.

  2. Biological iron(II) oxidation as pre-treatment to limestone neutralisation of acid water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maree

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available at investigating the effect of surface area of the medium that supports bacterial growth on the rate of biological iron (II) oxidation. The study showed that the biological iron (II) oxidation rate is directly proportional to the square root of the medium specific...

  3. Treatment results of radiotherapy for medically inoperable stage I/II non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Wang Lvhua; Zhang Hongxing; Chen Dongfu; Xiao Zefen; Wang Mei; Feng Qinfu; Liang Jun; Zhou Zongmei; Ou Guangfei; Lv Jima; Yin Weibo

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To retrospectively analyze treatment results of radiotherapy for medically inoperable stage I/II non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: Between Jan. 2000 and Dec. 2005, fifty-eight such patients were enrolled into the database analysis, including 37 with clinical stage I and 21 with stage II disease. Fifty patients received radiotherapy alone and eight with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Forty- three patients were treated with 3-D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and 15 with conventional radiotherapy. Results: The 1-, 2- and 3-year overall survival rates were 85%, 54% and 30%, and the median survival time was 26.2 months for the whole group. The corresponding figures were 88%, 60%, 36% and 30.8 months for cancer-specific survival; 84%, 64%, 31% and 30.8 months for Stage I disease; 81%, 47%, 28% and 18.8 months for Stage II disease; 95%, 57%, 33% and 30.8 months for 3D-CRT group and 53%, 44%, 24% and 15.3 months for conventional radiotherapy group. By logrank test, tumor volume, pneumonitis of Grade II or higher and weight loss more than 5% showed statistically significant impact on overall survival. Tumor volume was the only independent prognostic factor in Cox multivariable regression. Pneumonitis and esophagitis of Grade II or higher were 16% and 2%, respectively. Age and lung function before treatment had a significant relationship with pneumonitis. Failure included the local recurrence (33%) and distant metastasis (21%). There was no difference between the treatment modalities and failure sites. Conclusions: For medically inoperable early stage non-small cell lung cancer patients, tumor volume is the most important prognostic factor for overall survival. The conformal radiotherapy marginally improves the survival. The age and pulmonary function are related to the incidence of treatment induced pneumonitis. (authors)

  4. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IGF-II, NO levels after treatment in pediatric patients with bronchial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Huajiang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum IGF-II and NO levels after treatment in pediatric patients with bronchial pneumonia. Methods: Serum IGF-II (with RIA) and NO (with Biochemical method) levels were measured in 38 pediatric patients with bronchial pneumonia both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, in the patients the serum IGF-II, and NO levels were significantly higher than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Serum IGF-II and NO levels changes could reflect the disease status of the patients as well as the progress of diseases. (authors)

  5. Phase II study of biweekly cetuximab in combination with irinotecan as second-line treatment in patients with platinum-resistant gastro-oesophageal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schønnemann, K R; Yilmaz, Mette Karen; Bjerregaard, J K

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this phase II trial was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of cetuximab and irinotecan as second-line treatment in patients with gastro-oesophageal adenocarcinoma.......The purpose of this phase II trial was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of cetuximab and irinotecan as second-line treatment in patients with gastro-oesophageal adenocarcinoma....

  6. First experiences in treatment of low-grade glioma grade I and II with proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauswald, Henrik; Rieken, Stefan; Ecker, Swantje; Kessel, Kerstin A; Herfarth, Klaus; Debus, Jürgen; Combs, Stephanie E

    2012-01-01

    To retrospectively assess feasibility and toxicity of proton therapy in patients with low-grade glioma (WHO °I/II). Proton beam therapy only administered in 19 patients (median age 29 years; 9 female, 10 male) for low-grade glioma between 2010 and 2011 was reviewed. In 6 cases proton therapy was performed due to tumor progression after biopsy, in 8 cases each due to tumor progression after (partial-) resection, and in 5 cases due to tumor progression after chemotherapy. Median total dose applied was 54 GyE (range, 48,6-54 GyE) in single fractions of median 1.8 GyE. Median clinical target volume was 99 cc (range, 6–463 cc) and treated using median 2 beams (range, 1–2). Proton therapy was finished as planned in all cases. At end of proton therapy, 13 patients showed focal alopecia, 6 patients reported mild fatigue, one patient with temporal tumor localization concentration deficits and speech errors and one more patient deficits in short-term memory. Four patients did not report any side effects. During follow-up, one patient presented with pseudo-progression showing worsening of general condition and brain edema 1–2 months after last irradiation and restitution after 6 months. In the present MR imaging (median follow-up 5 months; range 0–22 months) 12 patients had stable disease, 2 (1) patients partial (complete) remission, one more patient pseudo-progression (differential diagnosis: tumor progression) 4 weeks after irradiation without having had further follow-up imaging so far, and one patient tumor progression approximately 9 months after irradiation. Regarding early side effects, mild alopecia was the predominant finding. The rate of alopecia seems to be due to large treatment volumes as well as the anatomical locations of the target volumes and might be avoided by using multiple beams and the gantry in the future. Further evaluations including neuropsychological testing are in preparation

  7. Evaluation of Class II treatment by cephalometric regional superpositions versus conventional measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstratiadis, Stella; Baumrind, Sheldon; Shofer, Frances; Jacobsson-Hunt, Ulla; Laster, Larry; Ghafari, Joseph

    2005-11-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate cephalometric changes in subjects with Class II Division 1 malocclusion who were treated with headgear (HG) or Fränkel function regulator (FR) and (2) to compare findings from regional superpositions of cephalometric structures with those from conventional cephalometric measurements. Cephalographs were taken at baseline, after 1 year, and after 2 years of 65 children enrolled in a prospective randomized clinical trial. The spatial location of the landmarks derived from regional superpositions was evaluated in a coordinate system oriented on natural head position. The superpositions included the best anatomic fit of the anterior cranial base, maxillary base, and mandibular structures. Both the HG and the FR were effective in correcting the distoclusion, and they generated enhanced differential growth between the jaws. Differences between cranial and maxillary superpositions regarding mandibular displacement (Point B, pogonion, gnathion, menton) were noted: the HG had a more horizontal vector on maxillary superposition that was also greater (.0001 < P < .05) than the horizontal displacement observed with the FR. This discrepancy appeared to be related to (1) the clockwise (backward) rotation of the palatal and mandibular planes observed with the HG; the palatal plane's rotation, which was transferred through the occlusion to the mandibular plane, was factored out on maxillary superposition; and (2) the interaction between the inclination of the maxillary incisors and the forward movement of the mandible during growth. Findings from superpositions agreed with conventional angular and linear measurements regarding the basic conclusions for the primary effects of HG and FR. However, the results suggest that inferences of mandibular displacement are more reliable from maxillary than cranial superposition when evaluating occlusal changes during treatment.

  8. Orbscan II anterior elevation changes following corneal collagen cross-linking treatment for keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Kyaw Lin; Aslanides, Ioannis M

    2009-08-01

    To analyze anterior corneal elevation changes on Orbscan II following corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) with riboflavin. This retrospective study included 8 patients (14 eyes) with keratoconus who underwent CXL, with a mean follow-up of 7 months (range: 5 to 10 months). Pre- and postoperative (at last clinic attendance) anterior elevation difference maps were examined for overall patterns of change. On preoperative maps, distances from maximum anterior elevation to pupil center and to topographic geometric center were compared between the two patterns identified. Pre- and postoperative topography, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), and refraction were also compared between the two patterns. Two patterns of anterior elevation change were visually identified: (1) paracentral steepening, no change, or flattening centrally; and (2) central steepening. The preoperative maps of eyes that manifested pattern 1 had shorter mean distances for maximum anterior elevation to pupil center (1.70 vs. 2.27 mm) and maximum anterior elevation to geometric center (1.45 vs. 1.99 mm) than those that resulted in pattern 2. Mean maximum topographic simulated keratometry decreased (P = .004) and mean irregularity indices at 3 mm (P =.03) and 5 mm (P =.04) were reduced postoperatively in pattern 1 eyes; all increased in pattern 2 eyes. Mean BSCVA improved postoperatively for both patterns. Mean preoperative myopia decreased in pattern 1 eyes by 0.44 diopters (D), whereas it increased for pattern 2 eyes by 1.83 D. Corneal shape change influenced by anisotropy of collagen distribution is a factor in the outcome of CXL treatment for keratoconus.

  9. Platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of Class II furcation defects: a histometrical study in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrícia Ferreira Suaid

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate the potential adjunctive benefits of platelet-rich plasma (PRP when used with guided-tissue regeneration (GTR and bioactive glass (BG in the treatment of Class II furcation lesions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Bilateral Class II furcation lesions were surgically created and allowed to become chronic in the mandibular third premolars of 9 dogs. The defects were randomly assigned to: A GTR+BG and B GTR+BG+PRP. Similar defects were created in the maxillary third premolars and received the same treatments after 45 days. Dogs were sacrificed 90 days after the first treatment. The histometric parameters evaluated were: connective tissue adaptation, new cementum, new bone, mineralized bone area, non-mineralized bone area, and residual BG particle area. RESULTS: Data analysis showed a superior length of new cementum and a greater mineralized bone area for group B in both periods (p<0.05. The non-mineralized bone area was greater in the control group (p<0.05 in both periods. CONCLUSION: Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that the use of PRP in the treatment of Class II furcation defects may enhance the amount of new cementum and provide a more mineralized bone in a shorter period of time.

  10. Changes of hyoid bone position following treatment of class II div1 malocclusion with Farmand functional appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassaei S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Unlike other bones of the head and neck, hyoid bone has no bony articulations. It is connected to mandible, cranium and pharynx through muscles and ligaments. During treatment with functional appliance in patients with class II div1 malocclusion, mandible is positioned in inferior and anterior direction. Regarding the relation between hyoid and mandibular bone, alterations of hyoid bone position can be a result of functional appliance therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of hyoid bone position following treatment with Farmand functional appliance in patients with class II div 1 malocclusion. Materials and Methods: In this before-after clinical trial, 28 patients with class II div 1 malocclusion which were under treatment with Farmand functional appliance for 11 months were selected. Facial growth in vertical, normal or horizontal direction was determined by cephalometric measurement. Data were analyzed with Paired-t test to compare the differences of mean values pre and post treatment. Variance analysis was used to compare the three growth patterns. P<0.05 was considered as the limit of significance. Results: Hyoid bone shifted significantly forward in horizontal dimension (P<0.01 and non-significantly upward in vertical dimension. There was no significant difference among the three studied groups with respect to hyoid bone position alterations in horizontal dimension but significant difference was observed between horizontal and vertical growth pattern in vertical dimension (P<0.05. There was significant correlation between decrease of ANB angle and forward movement of hyoid bone. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, treatment with Farmand functional appliance (Fa II leads to significant alterations in the position and anterior displacement of the hyoid bone.

  11. Proteomic analysis of swine serum following highly virulent classical swine fever virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Huan-cheng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classical swine fever virus (CSFV belongs to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. Virulent strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV cause severe disease in pigs characterized by immunosuppression, thrombocytopenia and disseminated intravascular coagulation, which causes significant economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Methods To reveal proteomic changes in swine serum during the acute stage of lethal CSFV infection, 5 of 10 pigs were inoculated with the virulent CSFV Shimen strain, the remainder serving as uninfected controls. A serum sample was taken at 3 days post-infection from each swine, at a stage when there were no clinical symptoms other than increased rectal temperatures (≥40°C. The samples were treated to remove serum albumin and immunoglobulin (IgG, and then subjected to two-dimension differential gel electrophoresis. Results Quantitative intensity analysis revealed 17 protein spots showing at least 1.5-fold quantitative alteration in expression. Ten spots were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF MS or LTQ MS. Expression of 4 proteins was increased and 6 decreased in CSFV-infected pigs. Functions of these proteins included blood coagulation, anti-inflammatory activity and angiogenesis. Conclusion These proteins with altered expression may have important implications in the pathogenesis of classical swine fever and provide a clue for identification of biomarkers for classical swine fever early diagnosis.

  12. Effect of Australian zeolite on methane production and ammonium removal during anaerobic digestion of swine manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijesinghe, D. Thushari N.; Dassanayake, Kithsiri B.; Scales, Peter J.

    2018-01-01

    acidogenesis due to the high N contents of swine manure considerably reduce CH4 yield. The reduction of N during anaerobic digestion by the addition of zeolite improves CH4 production and reduces potential environmental threats associated with ammonia (NH3) emissions from anaerobic digestion of swine manure....... The main objective of this study was to determine the optimum Australian zeolite dose that produces maximum NH4 + recovery at optimum CH4 production. In laboratory experiments, swine manure was treated with natural and sodium zeolites at 0, 10, 40, 70, 100 mg/L and digested anaerobically for 60 days....... Natural zeolite at a dose of 40 g/L resulted in the largest increase (29%) in total CH4 yield from swine manure compared to the nil zeolite treatments. The lag phase of digestion was decreased with increasing zeolite doses up to 100 g/L. Natural and sodium zeolites at a dose of 100 g/L reduced NH4 + by 50...

  13. Cultivation of microalgae Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis from biological treatment of swine wastewater Cultivo da microalga Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis a partir de tratamento biológico de efluente suíno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Mezzomo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The microalgae biomass production from swine wastewater is a possible solution for the environmental impact generated by wastewater discharge into water sources. The biomass can be added to fish feed, which can be used in the formulation of meat products. This work addresses the adaptation of the microalgae Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis in swine wastewater and the study of the best dilution of the wastewater for maximum biomass production and for removal of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, ammonia and phosphorous to the microalgae. The cultivation of Spirulina platensis, strain Paracas presented maximum cellular concentrations and maximum specific growth rates in the wastewater concentration of 5.0 and 8.5%. The highest COD removals occurred with 26.5 and 30.0% of wastewater in the medium. The maximum removal of total phosphorous (41.6%, was with 8.5% of wastewater, which is related to the microalgae growth. The results of Spirulina culture in the swine wastewater demonstrated the possibility of using these microalgae for the COD and phosphorous removal and for biomass production.A produção de biomassa de microalgas a partir de efluente suíno consiste em uma possível solução para o impacto ambiental gerado pela descarga de efluentes em fontes naturais. A biomassa produzida pode ser adicionada a rações de peixes, os quais podem ser utilizados na formulação de produtos cárneos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi a adaptação da microalga Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis em efluente suíno e o estudo da diluição ideal de efluente para obter a máxima produção de biomassa e remoção de Demanda Química de Oxigênio (DQO, amônia e fósforo do efluente pela microalga. O cultivo da Spirulina platensis, cepa Paracas apresentou máxima concentração celular e máxima taxa específica de crescimento em concentrações de efluente de 5,0 e 8,5%. As maiores remoções de DQO ocorreram com 26,5 e 30,0% de efluente no meio. A

  14. Effectiveness of comprehensive fixed appliance treatment used with the Forsus Fatigue Resistant Device in Class II patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Lorenzo; Alvetro, Lisa; Giuntini, Veronica; Masucci, Caterina; Defraia, Efisio; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2011-07-01

    To assess the dental, skeletal, and soft tissue effects of comprehensive fixed appliance treatment combined with the Forsus Fatigue Resistant Device (FRD) in Class II patients. Thirty-two Class II patients (mean age 12.7 ± 1.2 years) were treated consecutively with the FRD protocol and compared with a matched sample of 27 untreated Class II subjects (mean age 12.8 ± 1.3 years). Lateral cephalograms were taken before therapy and at the completion of comprehensive therapy. The mean duration of comprehensive treatment was 2.4 ± 0.4 years. Statistical comparisons were carried out with the Student's t-test (P < .05). The success rate was 87.5%. The FRD group showed a significant restraint in the sagittal skeletal position of the maxilla (also at the soft tissue level), a significant increase in mandibular length, and a significant improvement in maxillo-mandibular sagittal skeletal relationships. The treated group exhibited a significant reduction in overjet and a significant increase in molar relationship. The lower incisors were significantly proclined and intruded, while the lower first molars moved significantly in a mesial and vertical direction. The FRD protocol is effective in correcting Class II malocclusion with a combination of skeletal (mainly maxillary) and dentoalveolar (mainly mandibular) modifications.

  15. F/H Area Effluent Treatment Facility. Phase II. CAC basic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, W.W.; O'Leary, C.D.

    1984-01-01

    Project objectives and requirements are listed for both Phase I and II. Schedule is listed with startup targeted for 1989. Storage facilities will be provided for both chemical and radioactive effluents. 8 figs., 19 tabs

  16. Soviet and American Airwomen During World War II: A Comparison of Their Formation, Treatment and Dismissal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Myers, Beth

    2003-01-01

    .... World War II provides an interesting setting to study women and warfare because the belligerent countries mobilized millions of women for the war effort, both in civilian and military capacities...

  17. Pandemic swine influenza virus: Preparedness planning | Ojogba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The novel H1N1 influenza virus that emerged in humans in Mexico in early 2009 and transmitted efficiently in the human population with global spread was declared a pandemic strain. The introduction of different avian and human influenza virus genes into swine influenza viruses often result in viruses of increased fitness ...

  18. 75 FR 16641 - Swine Contract Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ...-AB06 Swine Contract Library AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA... Library (SCL). The statutory authority for the library lapsed on September 30, 2005. On October 5, 2006... maintenance of a library of marketing contracts offered by certain packers to producers for the purchase of...

  19. Alternative risk financing instruments for swine epidemics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2003-01-01

    Swine epidemics can have very large devastating financial consequences. Governments generally bear the direct losses, such as the value of destroyed animals. Consequential losses, such as the losses resulting from empty buildings and movement standstills, are completely borne by the farmers (and

  20. Computerized management support for swine breeding farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huirne, R.B.M.

    1990-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTION

    The investigations described in this thesis have been directed towards computerized management support for swine breeding farms, focused on sow productivity and profitability. The study is composed of three basic parts: (1) basic description and

  1. USMARC update on swine reproduction research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swine research at USMARC has continued to focus on meat quality, improvement of genomic resources and reproduction, specifically estrus traits, sow longevity and lifetime productivity. This report will focus on research in behavioral anestrus in gilts. Gilts that reach puberty at an earlier age are ...

  2. H1N1 influenza (Swine flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swine flu; H1N1 type A influenza ... The H1N1 virus is now considered a regular flu virus. It is one of the three viruses included in the regular (seasonal) flu vaccine . You cannot get H1N1 flu virus from ...

  3. 9 CFR 91.9 - Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine. 91.9 Section 91.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND HANDLING OF LIVESTOCK FOR...

  4. Functional design criteria for project W-252, phase II liquid effluent treatment and disposal. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatch, C.E.

    1995-05-01

    This document is the Functional Design Criteria for Project W-252. Project W-252 provides the scope to provide BAT/AKART (best available technology...) to 200 Liquid Effluent Phase II streams (B-Plant). This revision (Rev. 2) incorporates a major descoping of the project. The descoping was done to reflect a combination of budget cutting measures allowed by a less stringent regulatory posture toward the Phase II streams

  5. Stage I and II malt lymphoma: results of treatment with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, Richard W.; Gospodarowicz, Mary K.; Pintilie, Melania; Bezjak, Andrea; Wells, Woodrow; Hodgson, David C.; Crump, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a distinct disease with specific clinical and pathologic features that may affect diverse organs. We analyzed our recent experience with Stage I/II MALT lymphoma presenting in the stomach and other organs to assess the outcome following involved field radiation therapy (RT). Patients and Methods: Seventy patients with Stage IE (62) and IIE (8) disease were treated between 1989 and 1998. Patients with transformed MALT were excluded. The median age was 62 years (range, 24-83 years), M:F ratio 1:2.2. Presenting sites included stomach, 15; orbital adnexa, 19; salivary glands, 15; thyroid, 8; lung, 5; upper airways, 3 (nasopharynx, 2; larynx, 1); urinary bladder, 3; breast, 1; and rectum, 1. Staging included site-specific imaging, CT abdomen in 66 patients (94%) and bone marrow biopsy in 54 (77%). Sixty-two patients received radiation therapy: 52 received RT alone, 7 received chemotherapy and RT, and 3 received antibiotics followed by RT. Median RT dose was 30 Gy (range, 17.5-35 Gy). Most frequently used RT prescriptions were 25 Gy (26 patients--18 orbit, 6 stomach, and 2 salivary glands), 30 Gy (23 patients), and 35 Gy (8 patients). Five patients had complete surgical excision of lymphoma and no other treatment (stomach 1, salivary 2, lung 2), whereas 2 patients with gastric lymphoma received antibiotics only. One patient refused treatment and was excluded from the analysis of treatment outcome, leaving 69 patients with a median follow-up of 4.2 years (range, 0.3-11.4 years). Results: A complete response was achieved in 66/69 patients, and 3 patients had partial response (2 lung, 1 orbit). The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) was 76%, and the overall survival was 96%. No relapses were observed in patients with stomach and thyroid lymphoma. The 5-year DFS for these patients was 93%, in contrast to 69% for patients presenting in other sites (p 0.006). Among the 5 patients treated with surgery only, 2

  6. Three-dimensional dental arch changes of patients submitted to orthodontic-surgical treatment for correction of Class II malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Peixoto,Adriano Porto; Pinto,Ary dos Santos; Garib,Daniela Gamba; Gonçalves,João Roberto

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study assessed the three-dimensional changes in the dental arch of patients submitted to orthodontic-surgical treatment for correction of Class II malocclusions at three different periods. METHODS: Landmarks previously identified on upper and lower dental casts were digitized on a three-dimensional digitizer MicroScribe-3DX and stored in Excel worksheets in order to assess the width, length and depth of patient's dental arches. RESULTS: During orthodontic preparation, the m...

  7. Treatment of Class II Division 2 Malocclusion Using the Forsus Fatigue Resistance Device and 5-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi Atik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report presents the treatment of a 14-year-and-8-month-old boy with Class II division 2 mandibular retrusion, severe deep bite, and concave profile. The Forsus fatigue resistance device (FRD was effective in correcting both skeletal and dental parameters. At 5-year posttreatment follow-up, the teeth were well aligned and the occlusion was stable. FRD application with appropriate treatment time can result with prominent changes in the facial profile and dentition, and the outcomes can be maintained at the long-term follow-up periods.

  8. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum IGF-II, GM-CSF and TNF-α levels after treatment in children with acute nephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiaoyan; Zhou Hong; Xu Weiqin; Li Xinghua

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of determination of changes of serum IGF-II, GM-CSF and TNF- α levels after treatment in children with acute nephritis. Methods: Serum IGF-II, GM-CSF and TNF-α levels (with RIA) were measured in 31 pediatric patients with acute nephritis and 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum IGF-II, GM-CSF and TNF-α levels in the patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P< O.01). After treatment for 3 months, the serum IGF-II, GM-CSF and TNF-α levels, though markedly corrected, remained significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Determination of changes of serum IGF-II, GM-CSF and TNF-α contents after treatment might be of prognostic importance in pediatric patients with acute nephritis. (authors)

  9. Non-surgical breast-conservation treatment (KORTUC-BCT) using a new image-guided, enzyme-targeted, and breast cancer stem cell targeted radiosensitization treatment (KORTUC II) for patients with stage I or II breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Kubota, Kei; Tadokoro, Michiko

    2012-01-01

    Tumor tissue can be re-oxygenated by inactivating peroxidase/catalase in the tumor tissue through application of hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide in turn is then degraded to produce oxygen. In this way, low-LET (linear energy transfer) radioresistant tumors can be transformed into radiosensitive ones (Ogawa Y, et al: Int J Mol Med 12: 453-458, 845-850, 2003, Ogawa Y, et al: Int J Mol Med 14: 397-403, 2004, Kariya S, et al: Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 75: 449-454, 2009). The purpose of the present study was to establish a non-surgical breast-conservation treatment (KORTUC-BCT) by utilizing a novel Kochi Oxydol-Radiation Therapy for Unresectable Carcinomas, Type II (KORTUC II) radiosensitization treatment. KORTUC I was shown to remarkably enhance radiotherapeutic effects in various types of superficially exposed and locally advanced neoplasms (Ogawa Y, et al: Oncol Rep 19: 1389-1394, 2008). Based on clinical experiences using KORTUC I, a new radiosensitizing agent containing hydrogen peroxide and sodium hyaluronate has been developed for intra-tumoral injection in various tumors which are not superficially exposed. The agent is composed of 0.5% hydrogen peroxide and 0.83% sodium hyaluronate (CD44 molecule). Sodium hyaluronate mixed with hydrogen peroxide attaches to CD44-positive tumor cells, which are generally reported to be breast cancer stem cells. This new method, named KORTUC II, was approved by our local ethics committee for treatment of advanced skin cancer (including malignant melanoma), bone/soft tissue malignant neoplasm, breast cancer and metastatic lymph node. A total of 39 early stage breast cancer patients (stage I: 12 patients and stage II: 27) were enrolled in the KORTUC II trial upon fully informed consent. Mean age of the patients was 61.1 years old. All 39 patients were unable or unwilling to undergo surgery and therefore undertook non-surgical breast-conservation treatment (KORTUC-BCT) by KORTUC II. A maximum of 6 ml of the agent was

  10. Eugenol stimulates lactate accumulation yet inhibits volatile fatty acid production and eliminates coliform bacteria in cattle and swine waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varel, V H; Miller, D L

    2004-01-01

    To determine how eugenol affects fermentation parameters and faecal coliforms in cattle and swine waste slurries stored anaerobically. Waste slurries (faeces:urine:water, 50:35:15) were blended with and without additives and aliquoted to triplicate 1-l flasks. Faecal coliforms were eliminated in cattle and swine waste slurries within 1 or 2 days with additions of eugenol at 10.05 mm (0.15%) and 16.75 mm (0.25%). At these concentrations volatile fatty acids (VFA) were reduced ca 70 and 50% in cattle and swine waste, respectively, over 6-8 weeks. Additionally, in cattle waste, eugenol stimulated the accumulation of lactate (>180 mm) when compared with thymol treatment (20 mm lactate). In swine waste, lactate accumulation did not occur without additives; eugenol and thymol stimulated lactate accumulation to concentrations of 22 and 32 mm, respectively. Eugenol added to cattle waste may be more beneficial than thymol because not only does it effectively control faecal coliforms and odour (VFA production), it also stimulates lactate accumulation. This in turn, causes the pH to drop more rapidly, further inhibiting microbial activity and nutrient emissions. Plant essential oils have the potential to solve some of the environmental problems associated with consolidated animal feeding operations. Thymol and eugenol reduce fermentative activity, thus, have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and odour, and curtail transmission of pathogens in cattle and swine wastes.

  11. Radiation effects on vitamin A and β-carotene contents in bovine liver and swine pate de foie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taipina, Magda Sinigalia

    2001-01-01

    In this study, vitamin A and β-carotene contents and the percent of activity retention were analyzed in 3 kGy and 30 kGy 60 Co γ-irradiated samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate. Six different lots of liver samples weighing 100 g obtained at the meat market were employed. Irradiation was performed with liver samples initially frozen (-15 deg C). Similarly, six different lots of swine liver pate samples weighing about 100 - 125 g , at temperature of 7 deg C were irradiated. Pre-treatments and analysis methods were those described in Instituto Adolfo Lutz Norms for food analyses. Two and five- gram samples in duplicates for bovine liver and five gram-samples for swine liver pate were used. The results showed that there were no losses of either vitamin A or provitamin A activities in the samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate irradiated with a dose of 3 kGy (retention about 100%). On the other hand, for swine liver pate samples of vitamin A were maintained after irradiation with 30 kGy. (author)

  12. Reliable estimation of antimicrobial use and its evolution between 2010 and 2013 in French swine farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hémonic, Anne; Chauvin, Claire; Delzescaux, Didier; Verliat, Fabien; Corrégé, Isabelle

    2018-01-01

    There has been a strong implication of both the French swine industry and the national authorities on reducing the use of antimicrobials in swine production since 2010. The annual monitoring of antimicrobial sales by the French Veterinary Medicines Agency (Anses-ANMV) provides estimates but not detailed figures on actual on-farm usage of antimicrobials in swine production. In order to provide detailed information on the 2010 and 2013 antimicrobial use in the French swine industry, the methodology of cross-sectional retrospective study on a representative sample of at least 150 farms has been elected. The analysis of the collected data shows a strong and significant decrease in antimicrobial exposure of pigs between 2010 and 2013. Over three years, the average number of days of treatment significantly decreased by 29% in suckling piglets and by 19% in weaned piglets. In fattening pigs, the drop (- 29%) was not statistically significant. Only usage in sows did increase over that period (+ 17%, non-significant), which might be associated with the transition to group-housing of pregnant sows that took place at the time. Also, over that period, the use of third- and fourth generation cephalosporins in suckling piglets decreased by 89%, and by 82% in sows, which confirms that the voluntary moratorium on these classes of antimicrobials decided at the end of 2010 has been effectively implemented. The methodology of random sampling of farms appears as a precise and robust tool to monitor antimicrobial use within a production animal species, able to fulfil industry and national authorities' objectives and requirements to assess the outcome of concerted efforts on antimicrobial use reduction. It demonstrates that the use of antimicrobials decreased in the French swine industry between 2010 and 2013, including the classes considered as critical for human medicine.

  13. Mid-Term Outcomes of Endovascular Treatment for TASC-II D Femoropopliteal Occlusive Disease with Critical Limb Ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Blanco, Álvaro, E-mail: atorres658@yahoo.es; Edo-Fleta, Gemma; Gómez-Palonés, Francisco; Molina-Nácher, Vicente; Ortiz-Monzón, Eduardo [Hospital Universitario Dr. Peset, Department of Angiology, Endovascular and Vascular Surgery (Spain)

    2016-03-15

    PurposeThe purpose of the study was to assess the safety and midterm effectiveness of endovascular treatment in Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus II (TASC-II) D femoropopliteal occlusions in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI).MethodsPatients with CLI who underwent endovascular treatment for TASC-D de novo femoropopliteal occlusive disease between September 2008 and December 2013 were selected. Data included anatomic features, pre- and postprocedure ankle-brachial index, duplex ultrasound, and periprocedural complications. Sustained clinical improvement, limb salvage rate, freedom from target lesion revascularization (TLR), and freedom from target extremity revascularization (TER) were assessed by Kaplan–Meier estimation and predictors of restenosis/occlusion with Cox analysis.ResultsThirty-two patients underwent treatment of 35 TASC-D occlusions. Mean age was 76 ± 9. Mean lesion length was 23 ± 5 cm. Twenty-eight limbs (80 %) presented tissue loss. Seventeen limbs underwent treatment by stent, 13 by stent-graft, and 5 by angioplasty. Mean follow-up was 29 ± 20 months. Seven patients required major amputation and six patients died during follow-up. Eighteen endovascular and three surgical TLR procedures were performed due to restenosis or occlusion. Estimated freedom from TLR and TER rates at 2 years were 41 and 76 %, whereas estimated primary and secondary patency rates were 41 and 79 %, respectively.ConclusionsEndovascular treatment for TASC II D lesions is safe and offers satisfying outcomes. This patient subset would benefit from a minimally invasive approach. Follow-up is advisable due to a high rate of restenosis. Further follow-up is necessary to know the long-term efficacy of these procedures.

  14. Enamel matrix protein derivative plus synthetic bone substitute for the treatment of mandibular Class II furcation defects: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Lucas Araujo; Santamaria, Mauro; Casati, Marcio; Silverio, Karina; Nociti-Junior, Francisco; Sallum, Enilson

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study is to report on the treatment of mandibular Class II furcation defects with enamel matrix protein derivative (EMD) combined with a βTCP/HA (β-tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite) alloplastic material. Thirteen patients were selected. All patients were nonsmokers, systemically healthy, and diagnosed with chronic periodontitis; had not taken medications known to interfere with periodontal tissue health and healing; presented one Class II mandibular furcation defect with horizontal probing equal to or greater than 4 mm at buccal site. The clinical parameters evaluated were probing depth (PD), relative gingival margin position (RGMP), relative vertical clinical attachment level (RVCAL), and relative horizontal clinical attachment level (RHCAL). A paired Student t test was used to detect differences between the baseline and 6-month measurements, with the level of significance of .05. After 6 months, the treatment produced a statistically significant reduction in PD and a significant gain in RVCAL and RHCAL, but no observable change in RGMP. RVCAL ranged from 13.77 (± 1.31) at baseline to 12.15 (± 1.29) after 6 months, with a mean change of -1.62 ± 1.00 mm (P < .05). RHCAL ranged from 5.54 (± 0.75) to 2.92 (± 0.92), with a mean change of -2.62 ± 0.63 mm (P < .05). After 6 months, 76.92% of the patients improved their diagnosis to Class I furcation defects while 23.08% remained as Class II. The present study has shown that positive clinical results may be expected from the combined treatment of Class II furcation defects with EMD and βTCP/HA, especially considering the gain of horizontal attachment level. Despite this result, controlled clinical studies are needed to confirm our outcomes.

  15. Treatment outcome of bimaxillary surgery for asymmetric skeletal class II deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun-Fang; Liao, Yu-Fang; Chen, Yin-An; Chen, Yu-Ray

    2018-05-04

    Facial asymmetry is one of the main concerns in patients with a dentofacial deformity. The aims of the study were to (1) evaluate the changes in facial asymmetry after bimaxillary surgery for asymmetric skeletal class II deformity and (2) compare preoperative and postoperative facial asymmetry of class II patients with normal controls. The facial asymmetry was assessed for 30 adults (21 women and 9 men, mean age: 29.3 years) who consecutively underwent bimaxillary surgery for asymmetric skeletal class II deformity using cone-beam computed tomography before and at least 6 months after surgery. Thirty soft tissue and two dental landmarks were identified on each three-dimensional facial image, and the asymmetry index of each landmark was calculated. Results were compared with those of 30 normal control subjects (21 women and 9 men, mean age: 26.2 years) with skeletal class I structure. Six months after surgery, the asymmetric index of the lower face and total face decreased significantly (17.8 ± 29.4 and 16.6 ± 29.5 mm, respectively, both p class II patients had residual chin asymmetry. The postoperative total face asymmetric index was positively correlated with the preoperative asymmetric index (r = 0.37, p class II deformity resulted in a significant improvement in lower face asymmetry. However, approximately 50% of the patients still had residual chin asymmetry. The total face postoperative asymmetry was moderately related to the initial severity of asymmetry. These findings could help clinicians better understand orthognathic outcomes on different facial regions for patients with asymmetric class II deformity.

  16. Electromyographic evaluation in children orthodontically treated for skeletal Class II malocclusion: Comparison of two treatment techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortu, Eleonora; Pietropaoli, Davide; Adib, Fray; Masci, Chiara; Giannoni, Mario; Monaco, Annalisa

    2017-11-16

    Objective To compare the clinical efficacy of two techniques for fabricating a Bimler device by assessing the patient's surface electromyography (sEMG) activity at rest before treatment and six months after treatment. Methods Twenty-four patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were enrolled in the study; 12 formed the test group and wore a Bimler device fabricated with a Myoprint impression using neuromuscular orthodontic technique and 12 formed the control group and were treated by traditional orthodontic technique with a wax bite in protrusion. The "rest" sEMG of each patient was recorded prior to treatment and six months after treatment. Results The neuromuscular-designed Bimler device was more comfortable and provided better treatment results than the traditional Bimler device. Conclusion This study suggests that the patient group subjected to neuromuscular orthodontic treatment had a treatment outcome with more relaxed masticatory muscles and better function versus the traditional orthodontic treatment.

  17. Changes in oro-pharyngeal airway dimension after treatment with function appliance in class II skeletal pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, B.; Shaikh, A.; Fida, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Functional appliances have been used since many decades for the correction of mandibular retrognathism. Similar oral appliances are a treatment modality for patients with Obstructive sleep apnea. Hence, interception at the right age with these growth modification appliances might benefit a child from developing long term respiratory insufficiency. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to assess the short term effects of Twin block appliance (CTB) on pharyngeal airway size in subjects with skeletal Class II pattern in a sample of Pakistani population. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted from orthodontic records of 62 children (31 males, 31 females) with retrognathic mandibles using lateral cephalograms obtained at initial visit and after CTB treatment. Paired t-test was used to compare the pre-functional and post-functional treatment airway size. Independent sample t-test was used for comparison between the genders and statistical significance was kept at =0.05. Results: The upper airway width (p<0.001), nasopharyngeal depth (p=0.03) and upper airway thickness (p=0.008) was substantially improved after CTB treatment. Males showed a greater increase in upper airway width (p= 0.03) and nasopharyngeal depth (p=0.01) in comparison to the females. Conclusion: Functional appliance therapy can improve the narrow pharyngeal airway of growing children presenting with deficient mandibles having Class II skeletal pattern. (author)

  18. Intravitreal sirolimus for the treatment of geographic atrophy: results of a phase I/II clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrou, Philip A; Cunningham, Denise; Shimel, Katherine; Harrington, Molly; Hammel, Keri; Cukras, Catherine A; Ferris, Frederick L; Chew, Emily Y; Wong, Wai T

    2014-12-18

    To investigate the safety and effects of intravitreal sirolimus for the potential treatment of geographic atrophy (GA). The study was a single-center, open-label, phase I/II trial enrolling six participants with bilateral GA treated with intravitreal sirolimus in only one randomly assigned eye, with the fellow eye as control. The primary efficacy outcome measure was the change in total GA area from baseline on color fundus photography (CFP); secondary outcomes included changes in GA area on fundus autofluorescence (FAF), visual acuity, central retinal thickness (CRT), and macular sensitivity from baseline. Although no systemic adverse events were attributed to treatment, two of six participants had ocular adverse events that were possibly associated. The treated eye of one participant developed abnormal paralesional changes on FAF that were associated with accelerated retinal thinning. This accelerated retinal thinning was also seen in the treated eye of a second participant. Because of concern that these events were associated with treatment, treatment was suspended. Comparisons of treated and fellow eyes for change in visual acuity, change in GA area, and change in CRT showed no evidence of treatment benefit and generally favored the untreated fellow eye. While paralesional FAF changes and rapid retinal thinning observed are potentially part of the natural course of GA, they may possibly be related to treatment. No general evidence of anatomical or functional benefit was detected in treated eyes. Further data on intravitreal sirolimus for GA treatment will be available from a larger phase II trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01445548.). Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  19. Photosystem II solubilizes as a monomer by mild detergent treatment of unstacked thylakoid membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Jan P.; Germano, Marta; Roon, Henny van; Boekema, Egbert J.

    2002-01-01

    We studied the aggregation state of Photosystem II in stacked and unstacked thylakoid membranes from spinach after a quick andmild solubilization with the non-ionic detergent n-dodecyl-α,D-maltoside, followed by analysis by diode-array-assisted gel filtration chromatography and electron microscopy.

  20. Glutamate Carboxypeptidase II in Diagnosis and Treatment of Neurologic Disorders and Prostate Cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bařinka, Cyril; Rojas, C.; Slusher, B.; Pomper, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 6 (2012), s. 856-870 ISSN 0929-8673 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Glutamate carboxypeptidase II * X-ray crystallography * prostate-specific membrane antigen Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.070, year: 2012

  1. A phase II study of gemcitabine in the treatment of non small cell lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LeChevalier, T; Gottfried, M; Gatzemeier, U; Shepherd, F; Weynants, P; Cottier, B; Groen, HJM; Rosso, R; Mattson, K; CortesFunes, H; Tonato, M; Burkes, RL; Voi, M; Ponzio, A

    Gemcitabine is a novel pyrimidine nucleoside whose activity has been demonstrated on solid tumors. We report here the results of a multicentre phase II trial of gemcitabine in chemonaive patients with inoperable non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Gemcitabine was given weekly at a dose of 1,250

  2. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings of swine with spontaneous influenza A infection in Brazil, 2009-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane T.N. Watanabe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Swine influenza (SI is caused by the type A swine influenza virus (SIV. It is a highly contagious disease with a rapid course and recovery. The major clinical signs and symptoms are cough, fever, anorexia and poor performance. The disease has been associated with other co-infections in many countries, but not in Brazil, where, however, the first outbreak has been reported in 2011. The main aim of this study was to characterize the histological features in association with the immunohistochemical (IHC results for influenza A (IA, porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV in lung samples from 60 pigs submitted to Setor de Patologia Veterinária at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (SPV-UFRGS, Brazil, during 2009-2010. All of these lung samples had changes characterized by interstitial pneumonia with necrotizing bronchiolitis, never observed previously in the evaluation of swine lungs in our laboratory routine. Pigs in this study had showed clinical signs of a respiratory infection. Swine samples originated from Rio Grande do Sul 31 (52%, Santa Catarina 14 (23%, Paraná 11 (18%, and Mato Grosso do Sul 4 (7%. Positive anti-IA IHC labelling was observed in 45% of the cases, which were associated with necrotizing bronchiolitis, atelectasis, purulent bronchopneumonia and hyperemia. Moreover, type II pneumocyte hyperplasia, alveolar and bronchiolar polyp-like structures, bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT hyperplasia and pleuritis were the significant features in negative anti-IA IHC, which were also associated with chronic lesions. There were only two cases with positive anti-PCV2 IHC and none to PRRSV. Therefore, SIV was the predominant infectious agent in the lung samples studied. The viral antigen is often absent due to the rapid progress of SI, which may explain the negative IHC results for IA (55%; therefore, IHC should be performed at the beginning of the disease. This study

  3. The global antigenic diversity of swine influenza A viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Nicola S; Russell, Colin A; Langat, Pinky

    2016-01-01

    Swine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds coupled...... with geographic segregation of global swine populations. Much of this diversity is characterized genetically but the antigenic diversity of these viruses is poorly understood. Critically, the antigenic diversity shapes the risk profile of swine influenza viruses in terms of their epizootic and pandemic potential...

  4. [Relationship between HLA-DRB1 genotypes and efficacy of oral type II collagen treatment using chicken cartilage soup in rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Y; Takemura, S; Morimoto, T; Ogawa, R

    1997-02-01

    The correlation between the efficacy of type II collagen (C II) treatment of the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the existence of HLA-DRB 1 * 0405 allele was investigated in two groups of patients; the first group had HLA-DRB 1 * 0405 allele (the 0405 group) and the second had no such allele (the non-0405 group). Thirty-eight RA patients were given a chicken cartilage soup containing heat degenerated C II (the CII group) or a placebo soup (the placebo group) for three months. The 38 cases were composed of 11 cases in the 0405/C II group, 9 in the 0405/placebo group, 11 in the non-0405/C II group, 9 cases in the non-0405/placebo group. In the C II group, there was a significant increase in the anti-human C II IgA antibody serum titers (p = 0.003) and significant decrease in the anti-human C II IgG titer (p II and 0405/placebo groups (p of the swollen joints = 0.03, and p of the tender joints = 0.03), and between the 0405/C II and non-0405/C II groups (p = 0.006 and 0.01, respectively). We concluded that oral C II could have a therapeutic efficacy in RA patients with HLA-DRB 1 * 0405 allele.

  5. Evaluation of granular anaerobic ammonium oxidation process for the disposal of pre-treated swine manure

    OpenAIRE

    Shou-Qing Ni; Ning Yang

    2014-01-01

    With rising environmental concerns on potable water safety and eutrophication, increased media attention and tighter environmental regulations, managing animal waste in an environmentally responsible and economically feasible way can be a challenge. In this study, the possibility of using granular anammox process for ammonia removal from swine waste treatment water was investigated. A rapid decrease of NO2 −–N and NH4 +–N was observed during incubation with wastewater from an activated sludge...

  6. Effect of alkaline microwaving pretreatment on anaerobic digestion and biogas production of swine manure

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Yu; Yihuan Deng; Hongyu Liu; Chunping Yang; Bingwen Wu; Guangming Zeng; Li Lu; Fumitake Nishimura

    2017-01-01

    Microwave assisted with alkaline (MW-A) condition was applied in the pretreatment of swine manure, and the effect of the pretreatment on anaerobic treatment and biogas production was evaluated in this study. The two main microwaving (MW) parameters, microwaving power and reaction time, were optimized for the pretreatment. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the effect of alkaline microwaving process for manure pretreatment at various values of pH and energy input. Resul...

  7. 3-D conformal radiation therapy - Part II: Computer-controlled 3-D treatment delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedick, A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: This course will describe the use of computer-controlled treatment delivery techniques for treatment of patients with sophisticated conformal therapy. In particular, research and implementation issues related to clinical use of computer-controlled conformal radiation therapy (CCRT) techniques will be discussed. The possible/potential advantages of CCRT techniques will be highlighted using results from clinical 3-D planning studies. Materials and Methods: In recent years, 3-D treatment planning has been used to develop and implement 3-D conformal therapy treatment techniques, and studies based on these conformal treatments have begun to show the promise of conformal therapy. This work has been followed by the development of commercially-available multileaf collimator and computer control systems for treatment machines. Using these (and other) CCRT devices, various centers are beginning to clinically use complex computer-controlled treatments. Both research and clinical CCRT treatment techniques will be discussed in this presentation. General concepts and requirements for CCRT will be mentioned. Developmental and clinical experience with CCRT techniques from a number of centers will be utilized. Results: Treatment planning, treatment preparation and treatment delivery must be approached in an integrated fashion in order to clinically implement CCRT treatment techniques, and the entire process will be discussed. Various CCRT treatment methodologies will be reviewed from operational, dosimetric, and technical points of view. The discussion will concentrate on CCRT techniques which are likely to see rather wide dissemination over the next several years, including particularly the use of multileaf collimators (MLC), dynamic and segmental conformal therapy, conformal field shaping, and other related techniques. More advanced CCRT techniques, such as the use of individualized intensity modulation of beams or segments, and the use of computer

  8. Radiofrequency ablation combined with systemic treatment versus systemic treatment alone in patients with non-resectable colorectal liver metastases: a randomized EORTC Intergroup phase II study (EORTC 40004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruers, T; Punt, C; Van Coevorden, F; Pierie, J P E N; Borel-Rinkes, I; Ledermann, J A; Poston, G; Bechstein, W; Lentz, M A; Mauer, M; Van Cutsem, E; Lutz, M P; Nordlinger, B

    2012-10-01

    This study investigates the possible benefits of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in patients with non-resectable colorectal liver metastases. This phase II study, originally started as a phase III design, randomly assigned 119 patients with non-resectable colorectal liver metastases between systemic treatment (n = 59) or systemic treatment plus RFA ( ± resection) (n = 60). Primary objective was a 30-month overall survival (OS) rate >38% for the combined treatment group. The primary end point was met, 30-month OS rate was 61.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 48.2-73.9] for combined treatment. However, 30-month OS for systemic treatment was 57.6% (95% CI 44.1-70.4), higher than anticipated. Median OS was 45.3 for combined treatment and 40.5 months for systemic treatment (P = 0.22). PFS rate at 3 years for combined treatment was 27.6% compared with 10.6% for systemic treatment only (hazard ratio = 0.63, 95% CI 0.42-0.95, P = 0.025). Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 16.8 months (95% CI 11.7-22.1) and 9.9 months (95% CI 9.3-13.7), respectively. This is the first randomized study on the efficacy of RFA. The study met the primary end point on 30-month OS; however, the results in the control arm were in the same range. RFA plus systemic treatment resulted in significant longer PFS. At present, the ultimate effect of RFA on OS remains uncertain.

  9. Outcome for stage II and III rectal and colon cancer equally good after treatment improvement over three decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Joern; Joern, Fischer; Hellmich, Gunter; Gunter, Hellmich; Jackisch, Thomas; Thomas, Jackisch; Puffer, Erik; Erik, Puffer; Zimmer, Jörg; Jörg, Zimmer; Bleyl, Dorothea; Dorothea, Bleyl; Kittner, Thomas; Thomas, Kittner; Witzigmann, Helmut; Helmut, Witzigmann; Stelzner, Sigmar; Sigmar, Stelzner

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the outcome for stage II and III rectal cancer patients compared to stage II and III colonic cancer patients with regard to 5-year cause-specific survival (CSS), overall survival, and local and combined recurrence rates over time. This prospective cohort study identified 3,355 consecutive patients with adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum and treated in our colorectal unit between 1981 and 2011, for investigation. The study was restricted to International Union Against Cancer (UICC) stages II and III. Postoperative mortality and histological incomplete resection were excluded, which left 995 patients with colonic cancer and 726 patients with rectal cancer for further analysis. Five-year CSS rates improved for colonic cancer from 65.0% for patients treated between 1981 and 1986 to 88.1% for patients treated between 2007 and 2011. For rectal cancer patients, the respective 5-year CSS rates improved from 53.4% in the first observation period to 89.8% in the second one. The local recurrence rate for rectal cancer dropped from 34.2% in the years 1981-1986 to 2.1% in the years 2007-2011. In the last decade of observation, prognosis for rectal cancer was equal to that for colon cancer (CSS 88.6 vs. 86.7%, p = 0.409). Survival of patients with colon and rectal cancer has continued to improve over the last three decades. After major changes in treatment strategy including introduction of total mesorectal excision and neoadjuvant (radio)chemotherapy, prognosis for stage II and III rectal cancer is at least as good as for stage II and III colonic cancer.

  10. Two genotypes of H1N2 swine influenza viruses appeared among pigs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuantian; Zhu, Qiyun; Yang, Huanliang; Zhang, Xiumei; Qiao, Chuanling; Chen, Yan; Xin, Xiaoguang; Chen, Hualan

    2009-10-01

    H1N2 is one of the main subtypes of influenza, which circulates in swine all over the world. To investigate the prevalence and genetic of H1N2 in swine of China. Two H1N2 swine influenza viruses were isolated from Tianjin and Guangdong province of China in 2004 and 2006, respectively. The molecular evolution of eight gene segments was analyzed. A/Swine/Tianjin/1/2004 has low identity with A/Swine/Guangdong/2006; in the phylogenetic tree of PA gene, A/Swine/Guangdong/1/2006 and A/Swine/Guangxi/1/2006 along with the H1N2 swine isolates of North America formed a cluster; and A/Swine/Tianjin/2004 and A/Swine/Zhejiang/2004, along with the classical H1N1 swine isolates formed another cluster; except that NA gene of A/Swine/Tianjin/1/2004 fell into the cluster of the H3N2 human influenza virus, indicating the reassortment between H3N2 human and H1N1 swine influenza viruses. Two different genotypes of H1N2 appeared among pigs in China. A/swine/Guangdong/1/06 was probably from H1N2 swine influenza viruses of North America; while A/swine/Tianjin/1/04 maybe come from reassortments of classical H1N1 swine and H3N2 human viruses prevalent in North America.

  11. Effect of Organic Matter on Cr(VI Removal from Groundwaters by Fe(II Reductive Precipitation for Groundwater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gröhlich

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its toxicity, Cr(VI is undesirable in groundwater. Its chemical reduction to Cr(III species, followed by precipitation is the most widely practiced treatment technique for the removal of Cr(VI from polluted waters. The resulting Cr(III species present low solubility, is much less toxic, and can be subsequently removed either by precipitation, or by adsorption onto iron oxy-hydroxides and co-precipitation. The effects of several parameters, such as the pH value of water to be treated, the applied Fe(II dose, and the presence of appropriate mineral surfaces, are well investigated and understood. However, the impact of the presence of humic acids (HAs in this process has only been considered by rather few studies. The main aim of this study was to determine the effect of humic substances on Fe(II reductive precipitation of Cr(VI within a pH range relevant for drinking water treatment. Jar test experiments were performed, using artificial groundwater of defined composition and initial Cr(VI concentration 100 μg/L, ferrous sulphate dosages 0.25–2 mg Fe(II/L, and pH values 6.5–8. It was found that Cr(VI and total chromium (Cr(total can be reliably removed in the absence of HAs in the tested pH range with the addition of Fe(II dosage of 1 mg Fe(II/L. Further on, the results indicated that the reduction of Cr(VI is only slightly affected by the presence of HAs. However, increased residual total Cr concentrations were found at lower Fe(II dosages and/or higher pH values. Additionally, the removal of the Cr(III species formed during Cr(VI reduction was strongly inhibited by the presence of HAs under the examined experimental conditions, since residual concentrations higher than 60 μg/L were determined. The results of this study will have implications to the ongoing discussion of a new, stricter, European Union regulation limit, regarding the presence of total chromium in drinking water.

  12. [An overview on swine influenza viruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuai; Zhu, Wen-Fei; Shu, Yue-Long

    2013-05-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIVs) are respiratory pathogens of pigs. They cause both economic bur den in livestock-dependent industries and serious global public health concerns in humans. Because of their dual susceptibility to human and avian influenza viruses, pigs are recognized as intermediate hosts for genetic reassortment and interspecies transmission. Subtypes H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 circulate in swine populations around the world, with varied origin and genetic characteristics among different continents and regions. In this review, the role of pigs in evolution of influenza A viruses, the genetic evolution of SIVs and interspecies transmission of SIVs are described. Considering the possibility that pigs might produce novel influenza viruses causing more outbreaks and pandemics, routine epidemiological surveillance of influenza viruses in pig populations is highly recommended.

  13. Effect of antimicrobial compounds tylosin and chlortetracycline during batch anaerobic swine manure digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James J; Clay, Sharon A; Zhu, Zhenwei; Wong, Kwok L; Porath, Laura R; Spellman, Garth M

    2009-10-01

    Tylosin and chlortetracycline (CTC) are antimicrobial chemicals that are fed to >45% of the US swine herds at therapeutic and sub-therapeutic dosages to enhance growth rates and treat swine health problems. These compounds are poorly absorbed during digestion so that the bioactive compound or metabolites are excreted. This study investigated the degradation and stabilization of swine manure that contained no additives and compared the observed processes with those of manure containing either tylosin or CTC. The batch anaerobic incubation lasted 216 days. The breakdown of insoluble organic matter through anaerobic hydrolysis reactions was faster for manure containing CTC compared with tylosin or no-antimicrobial treatments. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation, including acetate, butyrate, and propionate, was greater for CTC-containing manure compared to tylosin and no-antimicrobial treatments. The relative abundance of two aceticlastic methanogens, Methanosaetaceae and Methanosarcinaceae spp., were less for CTC manure than manure with no-antimicrobial treatment. In addition, generation of methane and carbon dioxide was inhibited by 27.8% and 28.4%, respectively, due to the presence of CTC. Tylosin effects on manure degradation were limited, however the relative abundance of Methanosarcinaceae spp. was greater than found in the CTC or no-antimicrobial manures. These data suggest that acetate and other C-1 VFA compounds would be effectively utilized during methanogenesis in the presence of tylosin.

  14. Continuous anaerobic digestion of swine manure: ADM1-based modelling and effect of addition of swine manure fibers pretreated with aqueous ammonia soaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurado, E.; Antonopoulou, G.; Lyberatos, G.; Gavala, H.N.; Skiadas, I.V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) effect on methane yield: verification in continuously fed digesters. • AAS resulted in 98% increase of the methane yield of swine manure fibers in continuously fed digesters. • ADM1 was successfully adapted to simulating anaerobic digestion of swine manure. • Modification of hydrolysis kinetics was necessary for an adequate simulation of the digestion of AAS-treated fibers. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion of manure fibers presents challenges due to their low biodegradability. Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) has been tested as a simple method to disrupt the lignocellulose and increase the methane yield of manure fibers. In the present study, mesophilic anaerobic digestion of AAS pretreated manure fibers was performed in CSTR-type digesters, fed with swine manure and/or a mixture of swine manure and AAS pretreated manure fibers (at a total solids based ratio of 0.52 manure per 0.48 fibers). Two different simulations were performed. In the first place, the Anaerobic Digestion Model 1 (ADM1) was fitted to a manure-fed, CSTR-type digester and validated by simulating the performance of a second reactor digesting manure. It was shown that disintegration and hydrolysis of the solid matter of manure was such a slow process that the organic particulate matter did not significantly contribute to the methane production. In the second place, ADM1 was used to describe biogas production from the codigestion of manure and AAS pretreated manure fibers. The model predictions regarding biogas production and methane content were in good agreement with the experimental data. It was shown that, AAS treatment significantly increased the disintegration and hydrolysis rate of the carbohydrate compounds of the fibers. The effect of the addition of AAS treated fibers on the kinetics of the conversion of other key compounds such as volatile fatty acids was negligible.

  15. Simulating the epidemiological and economic effects of an African swine fever epidemic in industrialized swine populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Bøtner, Anette; Mortensen, Sten

    2016-01-01

    to simulate the spread of ASF virus between domestic swine herds exemplified by the Danish swine population. ASF was simulated to spread via animal movement, low- or medium-risk contacts and local spread. Each epidemic was initiated in a randomly selected herd – either in a nucleus herd, a sow herd......African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable infectious disease with a considerable impact on animal health and is currently one of the most important emerging diseases of domestic pigs. ASF was introduced into Georgia in 2007 and subsequently spread to the Russian Federation and several Eastern...... European countries. Consequently, there is a non-negligible risk of ASF spread towards Western Europe. Therefore it is important to develop tools to improve our understanding of the spread and control of ASF for contingency planning. A stochastic and dynamic spatial spread model (DTU-DADS) was adjusted...

  16. Modelling the Growth of Swine Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The spread of swine flu has been a cause of great concern globally. With no vaccine developed as yet, (at time of writing in July 2009) and given the fact that modern-day humans can travel speedily across the world, there are fears that this disease may spread out of control. The worst-case scenario would be one of unfettered exponential growth.…

  17. Degradation reaction of Diazo reactive black 5 dye with copper (II) sulfate catalyst in thermolysis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Yen-Yie; Wong, Yee-Shian; Ang, Tze-Zhang; Ong, Soon-An; Lutpi, Nabilah Aminah; Ho, Li-Ngee

    2018-03-01

    The theme of present research demonstrates performance of copper (II) sulfate (CuSO 4 ) as catalyst in thermolysis process to treat reactive black 5 (RB 5) dye. During thermolysis without presence of catalyst, heat was converted to thermal energy to break the enthalpy of chemical structure bonding and only 31.62% of color removal. With CuSO 4 support as auxiliary agent, the thermally cleaved molecular structure was further destabilized and reacted with CuSO 4 . Copper ions functioned to delocalize the coordination of π of the lone paired electron in azo bond, C=C bond of the sp 2 carbon to form C-C of the sp 3 amorphous carbon in benzene and naphthalene. Further, the radicals of unpaired electrons were stabilized and RB 5 was thermally decomposed to methyl group. Zeta potential measurement was carried out to analyze the mechanism of RB 5 degradation and measurement at 0 mV verified the critical chemical concentration (CCC) (0.7 g/L copper (II) sulfate), as the maximum 92.30% color removal. The presence of copper (II) sulfate catalyst has remarkably increase the RB 5 dye degradation as the degradation rate constant without catalyst, k 1 is 6.5224 whereas the degradation rate constant with catalyst, k 2 is 25.6810. This revealed the correlation of conversion of thermal energy from heat to break the chemical bond strength, subsequent fragmentation of RB 5 dye molecular mediated by copper (II) sulfate catalyst. The novel framework on thermolysis degradation of molecular structure of RB 5 with respect to the bond enthalpy and interfacial intermediates decomposition with catalyst reaction were determined.

  18. An evaluation on time status of functional orthopedic treatment in class II skeletal patients with cervical vertebrae maturation stage (CVMS index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalili Z.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Considerable response to functional orthopedic appliances treatment in class II skeletal patients occurs during pubertal growth spurt. Therefore, it seems necessary to investigate indices indicating mandibular growth pattern. It has been proved that analyzing cervical vertebral maturation stage is a more valid index than that of hand wrist. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the time status of functional orthopedic treatment in class II skeletal patients using CVMS index. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-inferential study, lateral cephalometric radiographs of 153 class II skeletal patients with mandibular deficiency, before treatment, were studied by an oral and maxillofacial radiologist using the index of cervical vertebral maturation stage (CVMS and were categorized in three phases: CVMS I (desirable phase of treatment, CVMS II (ideal phase, and CVMS III (undesirable phase of treatment. Results: Statistical analysis ranked the prevalence of treatment phases as: 41.8% in desirable phase (CVMS I, 28.1% in ideal phase (CVMA II and 30% in undesirable phase (CVMS III. No significant differences were found between the three phases using Chi-square analysis. Time status of functional orthopedic treatment was also evaluated based on age and sex. The results showed significant differences between two sexes (P=0.032. Conclusion: The present study suggests the analysis of CVMS index, along with clinical criteria, in the determination of an ideal time for functional orthopedic treatment to prevent patients’ exhaustion during treatment Period.

  19. Immunomodulatory effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in a swine hemi-facial allotransplantation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yur-Ren Kuo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this study, we investigated whether the infusion of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, combined with transient immunosuppressant treatment, could suppress allograft rejection and modulate T-cell regulation in a swine orthotopic hemi-facial composite tissue allotransplantation (CTA model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Outbred miniature swine underwent hemi-facial allotransplantation (day 0. Group-I (n = 5 consisted of untreated control animals. Group-II (n = 3 animals received MSCs alone (given on days -1, +1, +3, +7, +14, and +21. Group-III (n = 3 animals received CsA (days 0 to +28. Group-IV (n = 5 animals received CsA (days 0 to +28 and MSCs (days -1, +1, +3, +7, +14, and +21. The transplanted face tissue was observed daily for signs of rejection. Biopsies of donor tissues and recipient blood sample were obtained at specified predetermined times (per 2 weeks post-transplant or at the time of clinically evident rejection. Our results indicated that the MSC-CsA group had significantly prolonged allograft survival compared to the other groups (P<0.001. Histological examination of the MSC-CsA group displayed the lowest degree of rejection in alloskin and lymphoid gland tissues. TNF-α expression in circulating blood revealed significant suppression in the MSC and MSC-CsA treatment groups, as compared to that in controls. IHC staining showed CD45 and IL-6 expression were significantly decreased in MSC-CsA treatment groups compared to controls. The number of CD4+/CD25+ regulatory T-cells and IL-10 expressions in the circulating blood significantly increased in the MSC-CsA group compared to the other groups. IHC staining of alloskin tissue biopsies revealed a significant increase in the numbers of foxp3(+T-cells and TGF-β1 positive cells in the MSC-CsA group compared to the other groups. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that MSCs significantly prolong hemifacial CTA survival. Our data indicate the MSCs did not

  20. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IGF-II and NO levels after treatment in elderly patients with chronic bronchitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Tao

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum IGF-II and NO levels after treatment in elderly patients with chronic bronchitis. Methods: Serum IGF-II (with RIA) and NO (with Biochemical method) levels were measured in 42 elderly patients with chronic bronchitis both before and after treatment as well as in 30 controls. Results: Before treatment in the patients the serum IGF-II levels were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01), while the NO levels were significantly lower (P<0.01). After two weeks of treatment, the levels though dropped markedly, lemained higher than those in controls (P<0. 05). Conclusion: Serum IGF-II and NO levels changes could reflect the disease status as well as the progress of diseases. (authors)

  1. Clinical significance of changes of serum IGF-II, IL-2 and SOD levels after treatment in pediatric patients with bronchial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Hong; Hu Yan; Wei Guoyu; Huang Jufeng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of changes of serum IGF-II, IL-2 and SOD levels after treatment in pediatric patients with bronchial pneumonia. Methods: Serum IGF-II, IL-2 and SOD (with RIA) levels were measured in 33 pediatric patients with bronchial pneumonia both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, serum IGF-II levels in the patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Changes of serum IGF-II, IL-2 and SOD levels both before and after treatment could reflect the diseases status of the patients as well as the progress of diseases, and might be of prognostic importance in pediatric patients with bronchial pneumonia. (authors)

  2. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste, Part II: Selected mixed waste treatment project waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Chiang, J.M.; Hermes, W.H.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Richmond, A.A. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mayberry, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Frazier, G. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the formulation of surrogate waste packages, representing the major bulk constituent compositions for 12 waste stream classifications selected by the US DOE Mixed Waste Treatment Program. These waste groupings include: neutral aqueous wastes; aqueous halogenated organic liquids; ash; high organic content sludges; adsorbed aqueous and organic liquids; cement sludges, ashes, and solids; chloride; sulfate, and nitrate salts; organic matrix solids; heterogeneous debris; bulk combustibles; lab packs; and lead shapes. Insofar as possible, formulation of surrogate waste packages are referenced to authentic wastes in inventory within the DOE; however, the surrogate waste packages are intended to represent generic treatability group compositions. The intent is to specify a nonradiological synthetic mixture, with a minimal number of readily available components, that can be used to represent the significant challenges anticipated for treatment of the specified waste class. Performance testing and evaluation with use of a consistent series of surrogate wastes will provide a means for the initial assessment (and intercomparability) of candidate treatment technology applicability and performance. Originally the surrogate wastes were intended for use with emerging thermal treatment systems, but use may be extended to select nonthermal systems as well.

  3. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste, Part II: Selected mixed waste treatment project waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Chiang, J.M.; Hermes, W.H.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Richmond, A.A.; Mayberry, J.; Frazier, G.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the formulation of surrogate waste packages, representing the major bulk constituent compositions for 12 waste stream classifications selected by the US DOE Mixed Waste Treatment Program. These waste groupings include: neutral aqueous wastes; aqueous halogenated organic liquids; ash; high organic content sludges; adsorbed aqueous and organic liquids; cement sludges, ashes, and solids; chloride; sulfate, and nitrate salts; organic matrix solids; heterogeneous debris; bulk combustibles; lab packs; and lead shapes. Insofar as possible, formulation of surrogate waste packages are referenced to authentic wastes in inventory within the DOE; however, the surrogate waste packages are intended to represent generic treatability group compositions. The intent is to specify a nonradiological synthetic mixture, with a minimal number of readily available components, that can be used to represent the significant challenges anticipated for treatment of the specified waste class. Performance testing and evaluation with use of a consistent series of surrogate wastes will provide a means for the initial assessment (and intercomparability) of candidate treatment technology applicability and performance. Originally the surrogate wastes were intended for use with emerging thermal treatment systems, but use may be extended to select nonthermal systems as well

  4. History of Swine influenza viruses in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huachen; Webby, Richard; Lam, Tommy T Y; Smith, David K; Peiris, Joseph S M; Guan, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The pig is one of the main hosts of influenza A viruses and plays important roles in shaping the current influenza ecology. The occurrence of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus demonstrated that pigs could independently facilitate the genesis of a pandemic influenza strain. Genetic analyses revealed that this virus was derived by reassortment between at least two parent swine influenza viruses (SIV), from the northern American triple reassortant H1N2 (TR) and European avian-like H1N1 (EA) lineages. The movement of live pigs between different continents and subsequent virus establishment are preconditions for such a reassortment event to occur. Asia, especially China, has the largest human and pig populations in the world, and seems to be the only region frequently importing pigs from other continents. Virological surveillance revealed that not only classical swine H1N1 (CS), and human-origin H3N2 viruses circulated, but all of the EA, TR and their reassortant variants were introduced into and co-circulated in pigs in this region. Understanding the long-term evolution and history of SIV in Asia would provide insights into the emergence of influenza viruses with epidemic potential in swine and humans.

  5. A qualitative exploration of patient and family views and experiences of treatment decision-making in bipolar II disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Alana; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Sharpe, Louise; Laidsaar-Powell, Rebekah; Juraskova, Ilona

    2018-02-01

    Treatment decision-making in bipolar II disorder (BPII) is challenging, yet the decision support needs of patients and family remain unknown. To explore patient and family perspectives of treatment decision-making in BPII. Semistructured, qualitative interviews were conducted with 28 patients with BPII-diagnosis and 13 family members with experience in treatment decision-making in the outpatient setting. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically using framework methods. Participant demographics, clinical characteristics and preferences for patient decision-making involvement were assessed. Four inter-related themes emerged: (1) Attitudes and response to diagnosis and treatment; (2) Influences on decision-making; (3) The nature and flow of decision-making; (4) Decision support and challenges. Views differed according to patient involvement preferences, time since diagnosis and patients' current mood symptoms. This is the first known study to provide in-depth patient and family insights into the key factors influencing BPII treatment decision-making, and potential improvements and challenges to this process. Findings will inform the development of BPII treatment decision-making resources that better meet the informational and decision-support priorities of end users. This research was partly funded by a Postgraduate Research Grant awarded to the first author by the University of Sydney. No conflicts of interest declared.

  6. Impact of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea on the development of Class II hyperdivergent patients receiving orthodontic treatment: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tingting; Ngan, Peter; Hua, Fang; Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Shunquan; Zhang, Man; Xiong, Hui; He, Hong

    2018-05-22

    To conduct a pilot study to determine if the presence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) influences the orthodontic treatment outcome of Class II hyperdivergent patients receiving comprehensive orthodontic treatment. Patients between the ages of 12 and 14 who received orthodontic treatment at the Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, China, were included in this study. Patients were divided into two groups: the OSA group and the control group, based on the outcome of pretreatment polysomnography findings and lateral cephalometric radiograph examination. Patients in the control group were matched with the OSA group for age, sex, ethnicity, weight, and height. Cephalometric measurements were used to record the skeletal and dental changes from before to after treatment. Data were analyzed using the t-test. Twenty three OSA patients and 23 control patients were included. After comprehensive orthodontic treatment, the mandibular plane angle (SN-GoMe), articular angle (SArGo), sum of Jarabak angles (SUM) and the lower gonial angle (NGoMe) were found to increase significantly in the OSA group but remained unchanged or decreased slightly in the control group ( P orthodontic treatment outcome of these patients.

  7. Minocycline treatment attenuates non-Ang II[125I] CGP42112 binding in brainstem following nodose ganglionectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roulston, C.L.; Widdop, R.E.; Jarrott, B.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Non-Ang II [ 125 I]CGP42112 binding was revealed in rat dorsal motor nucleus (DMX), ambiguus nucleus (n.amb), and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), following unilateral nodose ganglionectomy (NGX). This upregulated binding may be due to activated microglia. Given that tetracyclines inhibit microglia activation, we examined the effect of minocycline treatment on [ 125 I]CGP42112 and [ 3 H] PK11195 binding (a know marker for activated microglia), following NGX using autoradiography. Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY)rats underwent NGX or sham operation (mexohexitione anaesthesia, 60mg/kg ip). Animals were given saline or minocycline (50 mg/kg ip)12 hours before surgery and twice daily after NGX (each 100mg/kg ip)for 3 days. Slide-mounted brainstem sections (14 μm) were prepared and incubated in the presence of either [ 125 I]CGP42112 (0.3nM) or [ 3 H]PK11195 (3nM) and apposed to film for 10 days. Specific binding was determined in adjacent sections co- incubated with unlabelled displacers. Non-Ang II [ 125 I]CGP42112 binding in DMX and n.amb was revealed on the denervated side in saline-treated rats (n=4), whereas this effect was reduced by ∼41 % and ∼ 54%, respectively, in minocycline-treated rats (n=4). Analogous experiments using [ 3 H] PK11195 showed upregulated binding on the denervated side in DMX (44 ± 4 %) and in n.amb (68 ± 3 %) of saline-treated rats (n=4), which was reduced by ∼ 45% with minocyline treatment in both nuclei (n=4). Minocycline also attenuated NGX-induced upregulated binding to both ligands in the NTS. Thus, these data suggest that non-Ang II[ 125 I]CGP42112 binds to activated microglia, indicated by reduced binding densities following treatment with minocycline. Copyright (2001) Australian Neuroscience Society

  8. Utility of specific biomarkers to assess safety of swine manure for biofertilizing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongaro, G; Viancelli, A; Magri, M E; Elmahdy, E M; Biesus, L L; Kich, J D; Kunz, A; Barardi, C R M

    2014-05-01

    Swine production is an important economic activity in Brazil, and there is interest in the development of clean production mechanisms to support sustainable agro-industrial activities. The biomass derived from swine manure has good potential to be used as a biofertilizer due to its high nutrient concentration. However, the land application of manure should be based on safety parameters such as the presence of pathogens that can potentially infect animals and people. This study was designed to assess the presence of porcine circovirus-2 (PCV2), porcine adenovirus (PAdV), rotavirus-A (RV-A) and Salmonella spp. in liquid manure, as well the infectivity of two genotypes of circovirus-2 (PCV2a and PCV2b) present in liquid manure. Three swine farms were evaluated: 1) a nursery production farm (manure analyzed before and after anaerobic biodigestion), 2) a grow-finish production farm (analyzed before and after anaerobic biodigestion), and 3) a second grow-finish production farm (raw manure-affluent). PCV2, PAdV and RV-A were present before and after anaerobic biodigestion (either affluent or effluent) at all farms. Salmonella spp. were detected at farm 1 (affluent and effluent) and farm 3 (raw manure-affluent) but not farm 2 (affluent and effluent). When the ability of the anaerobic biodigestion process to reduce viral concentration was evaluated, no significant reduction was observed (P>0.05). Both the PCV2a and PCV2b genotypes were detected, suggesting viral co-infection in swine production. The results revealed infectious PCV2 even after anaerobic biodigestion treatment. The presence of Salmonella spp. and enteric viruses, especially infectious PCV2, in the final effluent from the anaerobic biodigester system suggests that the process is inefficient for pathogen inactivation. Due to the prevalence and infectivity of PCV2 and considering the successful use of molecular methods coupled to cell culture for detecting infectious PCV2, we suggest that this virus can be used

  9. Justification of a dose of diuretics in antihypertensive treatment of patients with essential hypertension stage II-III

    OpenAIRE

    Plesh, I. A.; Boreyko, L. D.; Slyvka, N. O.; Kshanovska, G. I.

    2017-01-01

    "Pressor natriuresis" coefficient in  ratio of daily urinary sodium excretion (ENadob) by means of  electrometric method using ionselective electrodes (SINO - 005) to average of median arterial pressure (MAPdob) a day  and character of circadian rhytm, by the method of daily monitoring of blood pressure (hardware «Solvaig») to optimize the dose of a diuretic in combined antihypertensive treatment was determened іn 65 patients with essential  hypertension (EH II-III stage and 26 control (normo...

  10. Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume II. A Field Study Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  11. Waste Water Management and Infectious Disease. Part II: Impact of Waste Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robert C.

    1975-01-01

    The ability of various treatment processes, such as oxidation ponds, chemical coagulation and filtration, and the soil mantle, to remove the agents of infectious disease found in waste water is discussed. The literature concerning the efficiency of removal of these organisms by various treatment processes is reviewed. (BT)

  12. Treatment with docetaxel and cisplatin in advanced adrenocortical carcinoma, a phase II study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urup, Thomas; Pawlak, W Z; Petersen, P M

    2013-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare disease with a poor response to chemotherapy. Cisplatin is the most widely investigated drug in the treatment of ACC and in vitro studies have indicated activity of taxanes. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of cisplatin...... combined with docetaxel as first-line treatment of advanced ACC....

  13. European clinical guidelines for Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. Part II: pharmacological treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roessner, Veit; Plessen, Kerstin J; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2011-01-01

    provide the first comprehensive overview of all reports on pharmacological treatment options for TS through a MEDLINE, PubMed, and EMBASE search for all studies that document the effect of pharmacological treatment of TS and other tic disorders between 1970 and November 2010. We present a summary...

  14. The use and abuse of attachment theory in clinical practice with maltreated children, part II: treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing debate about the role of attachment theory in the treatment of maltreated children. Many professional organizations have issued statements against physically restraining children as some attachment therapists promote; however, often lost in these debates is the fundamental issue of what attachment theory and research proposes as the appropriate form of treatment. Given that these attachment therapies are often directed toward maltreated children, it becomes critical for clinicians working with abused and neglected children to understand these issues and recognize unethical and dangerous treatments. This article provides a summary of the theoretical and empirical bases for the use of attachment theory in the treatment of maltreated school-age children, an examination of the ways questionable approaches to treatment have misinterpreted and misapplied attachment theory, and a conceptualization of attachment-based intervention grounded in current theory and research.

  15. [Autogenous platelet-rich plasma gel with acellular xenogeneic dermal matrix for treatment of deep II degree burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Tianzhi; Zhu, Jingmin; Hu, Wenbo; Zhang, Hua; Gao, Zhenhui; Wen, Xuehui; Zhou, Zhi; Lu, Gang; Liu, Jingjie; Li, Wen

    2010-06-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of autogenous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) gel with acellular xenogeneic dermal matrix in the treatment of deep II degree burns. From January 2007 to December 2009, 30 cases of deep II degree burns were treated. There were 19 males and 11 females with an average age of 42.5 years (range, 32-57 years). The burn area was 10% to 48% of total body surface area. The time from burn to hospitalization was 30 minutes to 8 hours. All patients were treated with tangential excision surgery, one side of the wounds were covered with autogenous PRP gel and acellular xenogeneic dermal matrix (PRP group), the other side of the wounds were covered with acellular xenogeneic dermal matrix only (control group). The healing rate, healing time, infection condition, and scar formation were observed. At 7 days after operation, the infection rate in PRP group (6.7%, 2/30) was significantly lower than that in control group (16.7%, 5/30, P deep II degree burns as well as alleviate the scar proliferation.

  16. Dentoskeletal and Soft Tissue Effects in the Treatment of Class II Malocclusion with Klammt's Elastic Open Activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamassu-Lemes, Sheila Marques; Fuziy, Acácio; Costa, André Luiz Ferreira; Carvalho, Paulo Eduardo Guedes; Nahás-Scocate, Ana Carla Raphaelli

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dentoskeletal and soft tissue effects resulting from treatment with Klammt's elastic open activator (EOA) functional orthopedic appliance in patients with Class II malocclusion characterized by mandibular deficiency. Teleradiographs were evaluated in the lateral aspect of the initial (T1) and final (T2) orthopedic phases for 16 patients with Class II, Division 1 malocclusion. The age range was from 9 to 11.2 years, with a mean age of 9.9 years. The cephalometric points were demarcated, and cephalometric measurements were obtained by the same investigator to avoid interobserver variability. The EOA promoted increased lower anterior facial height (LAFH), increased effective mandibular length, clockwise rotation of the mandible, retrusion and verticalization of the upper incisors, proclination and protrusion of the lower incisors, extrusion of the upper molars, mesial movement of the lower molars and anterior projection of the lower lip. Skeletal changes characterized by an increase in mandibular length and dentoalveolar changes with an emphasis on the verticalization and retrusion of the upper incisors, proclination of the lower incisors and mesial positioning of the lower molars were key to improving the occlusal relationship and esthetic facial factors. The EOA is well indicated in patients with Class II malocclusion due to mandibular deficiency with increased overbite, proclined upper incisors and verticalized lower incisors.

  17. Temporomandibular disorders in growing patients after treatment of class II and III malocclusion with orthopaedic appliances: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Silva, Antonio; Carnevali-Arellano, Romano; Venegas-Aguilera, Matías; Tobar-Reyes, Julio; Palomino-Montenegro, Hernán

    2018-05-01

    To determine if the use of orthopaedic appliances in growing patients applied to correct Class II and III malocclusion is related to the development of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). A systematic review was conducted between 1960 and July 2017, based on electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline, Scopus, EBSCOhost, Scielo, Lilacs and Bireme. Controlled clinical trials (CCTs) and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified. The articles were selected and analyzed by two authors independently. The quality of the evidence was determined according to the guidelines of the Cochrane Risk Bias Assessment Tool and the Cochrane Quality Study Guide. Seven articles were included, four CCTs and three RCTs. The studies were grouped according to malocclusion treatment in (a) class II appliances (n = 4) and (b) class III appliances (n = 3). The quality of evidence was low due to the high risk of bias, independent of the association reported. All studies concluded that the use of orthopaedic appliances would not contribute to the development of TMD. The quality of evidence available is insufficient to establish definitive conclusions, since the studies were very heterogeneous and presented a high risk of bias. However, it is suggested that the use of orthopaedic appliances to correct class II and III malocclusion in growing patients would not be considered as a risk factor for the development of TMD. High-quality RCTs are required to draw any definitive conclusions.

  18. Investigating design criteria to build a performing microbial fuel cell running on swine liquid manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.Y.; Hogue, R.; Dube, P.; Jeanne, T.; Levesque, A. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Theriault, R.; Kaliaguine, S. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that examined the bacterial and electro-chemical phenomena that takes place in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) operating on swine liquid manure as fuel. An MFC converts the available energy in a bioconvertible substrate directly into electricity while decreasing its chemical oxygen demand (COD). In this study, a first single chamber MFC operating on swine liquid manure was constructed based on a literature review. Various support media filling the anodic chamber were tested in an effort to optimize the surface area on which bacteria may develop according to the hypothesis that large bacteria concentration will improve energy production and reduce treatment time. Bacterial communities extracted from the selected support media were analyzed using molecular technologies such as DNA extraction, PCR amplification, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, cloning and sequencing. The analyses showed that only a few bacteria species coming from raw liquid manure were responsible for electrical activities.

  19. Removal of nutrients and veterinary antibiotics from swine wastewater by a constructed macrophyte floating bed system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Qiming; Hu, Lixia; Chen, Hancheng; Chang, Zhizhou; Zou, Huixian

    2010-12-01

    The potential of three varieties of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), Dryan, Tachimasari and Waseyutaka, to improve the water quality of swine wastewater was evaluated using a constructed macrophyte floating bed system. With respect to reductions in levels of nutrients, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and sulfonamide antimicrobials (SAs, including sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, and sulfamethoxazole), Dryan performed better than Tachimasari and Waseyutaka. For Dryan, total N was reduced by 84.0%, total P by 90.4%, COD by 83.4% and sulfonamide antimicrobials by 91.8-99.5%. Similar results were observed for Tachimasari and Waseyutaka. The results indicated that the treatment of swine wastewater using the constructed macrophyte floating bed system was effective in the removal of nutrients and veterinary antibiotics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Economic losses to Iberian swine production from forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan Ramon Molina Martinez; Miguel Herrera Machuca; Ricardo Zamora Diaz; Fancisco Rodriguez y Silva; Armando Gonzalez-Caban

    2011-01-01

    Most forestry property in Andalusia is privately held. One of the most important possibilities for economic development of rural areas is the use of pasture lands (dehesa in Spanish). During the spring–summer season, swine grazing takes advantage of grasses between the trees, and during winter (harsher times), they use Quercus tree fruit. Swine production has a direct...

  1. Population dynamics of swine influenza virus in finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeffen, W.L.A.

    2008-01-01

    Influenza virus infections in swine were first noticed in the US in 1918, during the human pandemic of the Spanish flu. In Europe, seroprevalences for the three most common swine influenza strains at the moment, H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2, range from 20-80% in finishing pigs at the end of the finishing

  2. 9 CFR 93.511 - Swine quarantine facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Privately operated quarantine facilities. The importer, or his or her agent, of swine subject to quarantine... of any import permit. The facilities occupied by swine should be kept clean and sanitary to the... described in paragraph (b) of this section. The importer, or his or her agent, shall request in writing such...

  3. Close Relationship of Ruminant Pestiviruses and Classical Swine Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postel, Alexander; Schmeiser, Stefanie; Oguzoglu, Tuba Cigdem; Indenbirken, Daniela; Alawi, Malik; Fischer, Nicole; Grundhoff, Adam

    2015-01-01

    To determine why serum from small ruminants infected with ruminant pestiviruses reacted positively to classical swine fever virus (CSFV)–specific diagnostic tests, we analyzed 2 pestiviruses from Turkey. They differed genetically and antigenically from known Pestivirus species and were closely related to CSFV. Cross-reactions would interfere with classical swine fever diagnosis in pigs. PMID:25811683

  4. Orthodontic camouflage versus orthodontic-orthognathic surgical treatment in class II malocclusion: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, R; Peleteiro, B; Paço, M; Pinho, T

    2018-04-01

    This systematic review was performed to compare dental, skeletal, and aesthetic outcomes between orthodontic camouflage and surgical-orthodontic treatment, in patients with a skeletal class II malocclusion and a retrognathic mandible who have already finished their growth period. A literature search was conducted, and a modified Downs and Black checklist was used to assess methodological quality. The meta-analysis was conducted using the DerSimonian-Laird random-effects method to obtain summary estimates of the standardized mean differences and corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Nine articles were included in the qualitative synthesis and seven in the meta-analysis. The difference between treatments was not statistically significant regarding SNA angle, linear measurement of the lower lip to Ricketts' aesthetic line, convexity of the skeletal profile, or the soft tissue profile excluding the nose. In contrast, surgical-orthodontic treatment was more effective with regard to ANB, SNB, and ML/NSL angles and the soft tissue profile including the nose. Different treatment effects on overjet and overbite were found according to the severity of the initial values. These results should be interpreted with caution, due to the limited number of studies included and because they were non-randomized clinical trials. Further studies with larger sample sizes and similar pre-treatment conditions are needed. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Therapeutic effects of various concentrations of lincomycin in drinking water on experimentally transmitted swine dysentery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, A H

    1978-07-01

    Three experimental studies were conducted in 232 growing pigs (8 to 12 weeks old) to evaluate the therapeutic effects of various concentrations of lincomycin in drinking water, against swine dysentery experimentally transmitted, by oral inoculation or by contact-commingling exposure. Four or 5 concentrations of lincomycin were used in each experiment (132, 66, 33, 16.5 or 0.0 mg/L of drinking water). Medication was initiated 7 to days after exposure and was continued for 6 to 10 days. Both methods of exposure were capable of transmitting the disease successfully. A more marked dose response was noticed in pigs inoculated orally than in pigs that were exposed by contact. All concentrations of lincomycin were effective for the treatment of swine dysentery by oral or by contact exposure. At the smaller concentration of 16.5 mg/L of drinking water, lincomycin was less effective for treating the disease than it was at greater concentrations. The suggested optimal concentration was 33 mg of lincomycin/L of drinking water for the treatment of swine dysentery.

  6. Evaluation of granular anaerobic ammonium oxidation process for the disposal of pre-treated swine manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Qing Ni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With rising environmental concerns on potable water safety and eutrophication, increased media attention and tighter environmental regulations, managing animal waste in an environmentally responsible and economically feasible way can be a challenge. In this study, the possibility of using granular anammox process for ammonia removal from swine waste treatment water was investigated. A rapid decrease of NO2−–N and NH4+–N was observed during incubation with wastewater from an activated sludge deodorization reactor and anaerobic digestion-partial oxidation treatment process treating swine manure and its corresponding control artificial wastewaters. Ammonium removal dropped from 98.0 ± 0.6% to 66.9 ± 2.7% and nearly absent when the organic load in the feeding increased from 232 mg COD/L to 1160 mg COD/L and 2320 mg COD/L. The presence of organic carbon had limited effect on nitrite and total nitrogen removal. At a COD to N ratio of 0.9, COD inhibitory organic load threshold concentration was 727 mg COD/L. Mass balance indicated that denitrifiers played an important role in nitrite, nitrate and organic carbon removal. These results demonstrated that anammox system had the potential to effectively treat swine manure that can achieve high nitrogen standards at reduced costs.

  7. Production of furfural from rice straw by microbial treatment. (II). Production of furfural from xylose by acid treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, W.S.; Yoo, I.S.; Kang, S.K.

    1984-01-01

    The reaction conditions and mechanism of furfural production from xylose by acid treatment were studied. The xylose was obtained from rice straw. Furfural yield at batch-isothermal conditions was a function of initial xylose concentration H2SO4 concentration, reaction temperature and reaction time. And when the initial xylose concentration was low, the results were consistent with those of Root's reaction mechanism. Maximum furfural yield was obtained under conditions of H2SO4 concentration 0.2N, initial xylose concentration 0.0067 M, temperature 200 degrees, and reaction time 10 min.

  8. Treatment of the hepatorenal syndrome and hyponatremia in cirrhosis - Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Flemming; Grønbæk, Henning; Hansen, Jesper Bach

    2012-01-01

    National guidelines for treatment of ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatorenal syndrome, and hyponatremia have been approved by the Danish Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Ascites develops in approximately 60% of patients with cirrhosis during a 10 year period...

  9. Efficacy of tiamulin as a growth promotant for growing swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, G L; Stahly, T S

    1985-01-01

    A study involving 244 pigs initially averaging 13 kg was conducted at two stations to evaluate tiamulin as a growth promotant for growing swine. In each experiment, four replicate pens of five (Exp. 1) or six (Exp. 2) pigs/pen were used to evaluate each treatment. In Exp. 1, pigs were fed 0, 11, 22 or 44 ppm tiamulin from 15 to 58 kg, then fed a nonmedicated control diet for the remainder of the experiment (to 95 kg). In Exp. 2, pigs were fed 0, 2.75, 5.5, 11 or 22 ppm tiamulin from 11 to 56 kg, followed by the nonmedicated control diet (to 95 kg). In each experiment, carbadox (55 ppm) was included as a positive control and was fed to an average weight of 35 kg, followed by the control diet. Averaged across all dietary levels, tiamulin resulted in a 14.1% improvement in gain and a 5.7% improvement in feed:gain ratio during the first 28 to 35 d of the experiment (to 30 kg). These improvements were slightly less than those resulting from the feeding of carbadox during the same period (21.5 and 6.9%, respectively). From 13 to 57 kg, pigs fed tiamulin gained 11.6% faster and 3.1% more efficiently than did controls. Over the entire experiment (13 to 95 kg), tiamulin-fed pigs gained 5.7% faster than did controls, even though the tiamulin was withdrawn at 57 kg body weight. Growth rate from 13 to 57 kg plateaued at the 11-ppm dietary level of tiamulin; whereas, feed:gain ratio plateaued at the 22-ppm level. The results indicate that tiamulin is an effective growth promotant for growing swine.

  10. Development and evaluation of porous dental implants in miniature swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagianes, M T; Westerman, R E; Rasmussen, J J; Lodmell, A M

    1976-01-01

    Organized bone ingrowth in endosteal porous implants fabricated from VMC titanium alloy and surgically implanted with a tight interference fit, securely anchored the implants in fresh and healed mandibular premolar sites of miniature swine. This bone-implant union retained its integrity under high as well as slight masticatory stresses up to one-year after implantation. Bone invasion of the alumina porcelain implants was impeded by the lack of adequate interconnecting porosity; when the porosity was increased, insufficient ceramic strength prohibited a tight initial bone-implant fit. As a consequence, inadequate initial implant stability resulted in a soft tissue encapsulation of the majority of the ceramic implants. Histological examination and mechanical testing results were similar for bone-ingrown implants exposed to different experimental stresses for 4, 5, 8, and 12 months. Bone ingrowth and interface shear strengths were also similar in the different VMC pore sizes and shapes investigated. The design of intraoral attachments appeared critical, at least in swine where no postoperative treatment was administered. Gingival inflammation and alveolar bone resorption caused by calculus were severe around truncated cone-shaped devices. Slender transgingival posts, occlusal caps, and crown restorations were less susceptible to calculus accumulation, resulting in a more satisfactory gingival and subgingival response. Excessive epithelial invagination was a problem only in implants with transgingival truncated cones. Good adherence of soft tissue to metal under the gingival mucosa prevented epithelial migration around implants with other transgingival devices. Alveolar bone resportion around the tops of bone-ingrown implants was minimal at the time intervals examined (up to one year); however, a definite conclusion should be delayed until longer-term implants under full occlusion are evaluated.

  11. Capping of the radicular exposed surface (part II). Surgical and not surgical treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Grados Pomarino, Sixto; Estrada, Andrew Alejandro; Maetahara Rubio, Denis Miguel; Guzmán Vera, Yanina Sara; Tello Barbarán, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The gingival recession treatment can be made surgical1y with a high predictability of success due to the great advance during the last ones of the mucogingival surgical techniques. The use of connective grafts in coverage of recessions has obtained high rates of success reason why these procedures are common within the modern periodontal surgical practice. Knowing that all patients do not accept the surgical treatment, many investigators have come studying the possibility of treating non-surg...

  12. Clinical and psychopathological features associated with treatment-emergent mania in bipolar-II depressed outpatients exposed to antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaro, Michele; Anastasia, Annalisa; Monaco, Francesco; Novello, Stefano; Fusco, Andrea; Iasevoli, Felice; De Berardis, Domenico; Veronese, Nicola; Solmi, Marco; de Bartolomeis, Andrea

    2018-07-01

    Treatment-emergent affective switch (TEAS), including treatment-emergent mania (TEM), carry significant burden in the clinical management of bipolar depression, whereas the use of antidepressants raises both efficacy, safety and tolerability concerns. The present study assesses the prevalence and clinical correlates of TEM in selected sample of Bipolar Disorder (BD) Type-II (BD-II) acute depression outpatients. Post-hoc analysis of the clinical and psychopathological features associated with TEM among 91 BD-II depressed outpatients exposed to antidepressants. Second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) (p = .005), lithium (≤ .001), cyclothymic/irritable/hyperthymic temperaments (p = ≤ .001; p = .001; p = .003, respectively), rapid-cycling (p = .005) and depressive mixed features (p = .003) differed between TEM + cases vs. TEM - controls. Upon multinomial logistic regression, the accounted psychopathological features correctly classified as much as 88.6% of TEM + cases (35/91 overall sample, or 38.46% of the sample), yet not statistically significantly [Exp(B) = .032; p = ns]. Specifically, lithium [B = - 2.385; p = .001], SGAs [B = - 2.354; p = .002] predicted lower rates of TEM + in contrast to the number of lifetime previous psychiatric hospitalizations [B = 2.380; p = .002], whereas mixed features did not [B = 1.267; p = ns]. Post-hoc analysis. Lack of systematic pharmacological history record; chance of recall bias and Berkson's biases. Permissive operational criterion for TEM. Relatively small sample size. Cyclothymic temperament and mixed depression discriminated TEM + between TEM - cases, although only lithium and the SGAs reliably predicted TEM +/- grouping. Larger-sampled/powered longitudinal replication studies are warranted to allow firm conclusions on the matter, ideally contributing to the identification of clear-cut sub-phenotypes of BD towards patient-tailored-pharmacotherapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychological problems associated with diagnosis and treatment of lymphomas. II: Prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlen, J; Maguire, P; Phillips, P; Crowther, D

    1987-10-17

    A prospective study of 120 patients newly diagnosed as having Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was conducted to determine the nature, extent, and timing of the psychiatric and social morbidity associated with the diagnosis and treatment. Patients were interviewed at diagnosis and two, six, and 12 months later by trained interviewers using standardised questionnaires. Psychiatric morbidity was greatest in the three months before treatment, but new episodes of anxiety and depression developed throughout the year of follow up. Altogether 39 patients suffered a depressive illness or anxiety state, or both, and a further 37 experienced borderline anxiety or depression, or both, during the 15 months of assessment. The most common adverse effects of treatment were hair loss, nausea, vomiting, sore mouth, and changes in perception of taste. Toxicity of treatment was associated with psychiatric morbidity. Conditioned responses to chemotherapy were experienced by 32 patients. Social morbidity was low, although difficulties in returning to work and to previous levels of leisure activity were noted. Although most patients were no longer receiving treatment and were free of disease at the one year follow up, 51 patients continued to complain of loss of energy, 24 of loss of libido, 38 of tiredness, 23 of irritability, 18 of poor concentration, and 23 of memory impairment. These results confirm our retrospective study and suggest that a high price is paid for long term survival by a substantial proportion of patients receiving treatment for Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  14. Metabolites from invasive pests inhibit mitochondrial complex II: A potential strategy for the treatment of human ovarian carcinoma?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra, E-mail: alessandra.ferramosca@unisalento.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche ed Ambientali, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Conte, Annalea; Guerra, Flora; Felline, Serena [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche ed Ambientali, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Rimoli, Maria Grazia [Dipartimento di Farmacia, Università di Napoli Federico II, Napoli (Italy); Mollo, Ernesto [Istituto di Chimica Biomolecolare, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pozzuoli (Italy); Zara, Vincenzo [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche ed Ambientali, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Terlizzi, Antonio [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche ed Ambientali, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Napoli (Italy)

    2016-05-13

    The red pigment caulerpin, a secondary metabolite from the marine invasive green algae Caulerpa cylindracea can be accumulated and transferred along the trophic chain, with detrimental consequences on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Despite increasing research efforts to understand how caulerpin modifies fish physiology, little is known on the effects of algal metabolites on mammalian cells. Here we report for the first time the mitochondrial targeting activity of both caulerpin, and its closely related derivative caulerpinic acid, by using as experimental model rat liver mitochondria, a system in which bioenergetics mechanisms are not altered. Mitochondrial function was tested by polarographic and spectrophotometric methods. Both compounds were found to selectively inhibit respiratory complex II activity, while complexes I, III, and IV remained functional. These results led us to hypothesize that both algal metabolites could be used as antitumor agents in cell lines with defects in mitochondrial complex I. Ovarian cancer cisplatin-resistant cells are a good example of cell lines with a defective complex I function on which these molecules seem to have a toxic effect on proliferation. This provided novel insight toward the potential use of metabolites from invasive Caulerpa species for the treatment of human ovarian carcinoma cisplatin-resistant cells. -- Highlights: •Novel insight toward the potential use of the algal metabolites for the treatment of human diseases. •Caulerpin and caulerpinic acid inhibit respiratory complex II activity. •Both algal metabolites could be used as antitumor agents in ovarian cancer cisplatin-resistant cells.

  15. Metabolites from invasive pests inhibit mitochondrial complex II: A potential strategy for the treatment of human ovarian carcinoma?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Guerra, Flora; Felline, Serena; Rimoli, Maria Grazia; Mollo, Ernesto; Zara, Vincenzo; Terlizzi, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The red pigment caulerpin, a secondary metabolite from the marine invasive green algae Caulerpa cylindracea can be accumulated and transferred along the trophic chain, with detrimental consequences on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Despite increasing research efforts to understand how caulerpin modifies fish physiology, little is known on the effects of algal metabolites on mammalian cells. Here we report for the first time the mitochondrial targeting activity of both caulerpin, and its closely related derivative caulerpinic acid, by using as experimental model rat liver mitochondria, a system in which bioenergetics mechanisms are not altered. Mitochondrial function was tested by polarographic and spectrophotometric methods. Both compounds were found to selectively inhibit respiratory complex II activity, while complexes I, III, and IV remained functional. These results led us to hypothesize that both algal metabolites could be used as antitumor agents in cell lines with defects in mitochondrial complex I. Ovarian cancer cisplatin-resistant cells are a good example of cell lines with a defective complex I function on which these molecules seem to have a toxic effect on proliferation. This provided novel insight toward the potential use of metabolites from invasive Caulerpa species for the treatment of human ovarian carcinoma cisplatin-resistant cells. -- Highlights: •Novel insight toward the potential use of the algal metabolites for the treatment of human diseases. •Caulerpin and caulerpinic acid inhibit respiratory complex II activity. •Both algal metabolites could be used as antitumor agents in ovarian cancer cisplatin-resistant cells.

  16. Use patterns, excretion masses and contamination profiles of antibiotics in a typical swine farm, south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li-Jun; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zhang, Rui-Quan; Liu, Shan; Lai, Hua-Jie; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Yang, Bin; Zhao, Jian-Liang

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to screen the occurrence of 50 antibiotics in a typical swine farm in southern China, which includes animal feeds, waste collection and treatment systems (lagoons and anaerobic digesters), and receiving environments (vegetable fields, streams, and private wells). Nine antibiotics were found in the feeds for different stages of the development of pigs in the swine farm, at concentrations ranging from 2.37 ± 0.16 ng g(-1) (sulfamethazine) to 61 500 ± 11 900 ng g(-1) (bacitracin). 11, 17 and 15 target compounds were detected in feces, flush water, and suspended particles in the swine farm, respectively. Based on the survey of feeds and animal waste from the farm, chlortetracycline, tetracycline, bacitracin and florfenicol in the feces, flush water and suspended particles mainly originated from the feeds, while most sulfonamides, including doxycycline, oxytetracycline, fluoroquinolones, macrolides and trimethoprim, were mainly from injection and other oral routes. The daily excretion masses of antibiotics per pig calculated based on animal waste had the following order: sows (48.3 mg per day per pig), piglets (18.9 mg per day per pig), growing pigs (7.01 mg per day per pig) and finishing pigs (1.47 mg per day per pig), indicating that the usage of antibiotics (type and dosage) and excretion masses are related to the growth stage of pigs. Chlortetracycline and bacitracin are the main contributors to the total excretion mass of antibiotics from pigs at different stages of development in the farm. The waste treatment system (lagoons and anaerobic digesters) was found to be ineffective in the elimination of antibiotics. The detection of some antibiotics in the surrounding environments of the farm (the well water, stream water and vegetable field soil) was a reflection of pollution from the swine farm.

  17. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum IGF-II, IL-6, IL-8 and hs-CRP levels after treatment in pediatric patients with bronchopneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guanghui; Chen Chuanbing; Wang Xianwu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum IGF-II, IL-6, IL-8 and hs-CRP levels after treatment in pediatric patients with bronchopneumonia. Methods: Serum IGF-II, IL-6, IL-8 (with RIA) and hs-CRP (with immunoturbidity method) levels were determined in 36 pediatric patients with bronchopneumonia both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, serum IGF-II, IL-6, IL-8 and hs-CRP levels in the patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Determination of serum IGF-II, IL-6, IL-8 and hs-CRP levels in pediatric patients with bronchopneumonia was important for diagnosis and outcome prediction. (authors)

  18. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum IGF-II, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α levels after treatment in children with bronchopneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yue

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum IGF-II, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α levels after treatment in children with bronchopneumonia. Methods: Serum IGF-II, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α levels with RIA were detected both before and after treatment in 33 patients with children bronchopneumonia as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, serum IGF-II, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in the controls (P 0.05). Conclusions: Serum IGF-II, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α could take part in the pathogenesis of children bronchopneumonia in various ways and determination of these levels was clinically important. (authors)

  19. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, association with cardiovascular disease and treatment (II). The treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brea, Ángel; Pintó, Xavier; Ascaso, Juan F; Blasco, Mariano; Díaz, Ángel; González-Santos, Pedro; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio; Mantilla, Teresa; Millán, Jesús; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    Disease nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises a series of histologically similar to those induced by alcohol consumption in people with very little or no liver damage same. The importance of NAFLD is its high prevalence in our Western societies, from the point of view liver in its progressive evolution from steatosis to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and liver cancer. During the last decade it has been observed that NAFLD leads to an increased cardiovascular risk with accelerated atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events, the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. This updated January 2016 revision consists of two parts. In this second part, the treatment of NAFLD and its influence on cardiovascular disease and drugs used in the control of cardiovascular risk factors showing a beneficial effect on the liver disease will be reviewed. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Behavioural therapy in the treatment of obesity (II): role of the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaulet, Marta; Pérez de Heredia, F

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is the consequence of an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, food intake being affected by multiple factors -psychological, social, work-related, etc. This revision discusses the role of diet in the behavioural treatment (BT) of obesity, which faces multiple approaches and focuses on patients' behaviour rather than their mere energy intake. Recent literature has been revised that deals with the health benefits of Mediterranean diet in order to assess its suitability for obesity treatment based on BT. BT helps patients to develop skills and techniques in order to adopt proper habits and attain their healthiest weight. Patients learn to establish realistic goals, both as regards weight and behaviour, and to evaluate their progress in modifying eating and exercising habits. The application of the Mediterranean diet in obesity treatment presents various advantages which are based on the principles of this diet -wide variety of food, high carbohydrate content, or high satiating capacity, which prevents specific hunger and ketogenesis-, and has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing body weight. BT based on the Mediterranean diet is a useful tool for obesity treatment. The Mediterranean diet provides the patients with a diet established on widely recognised nutritional benefits, suitable to their social and daily life, and that can be easily followed in the long term, according to the objectives of BT. For these reasons, Mediterranean diet-based BT helps to prolong both the treatment and maintenance periods and therefore contributes to a more stable weight loss.

  1. Sodium phenylbutyrate abrogates African swine fever virus replication by disrupting the virus-induced hypoacetylation status of histone H3K9/K14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouco, Gonçalo; Freitas, Ferdinando B; Martins, Carlos; Ferreira, Fernando

    2017-10-15

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a highly lethal disease in swine for which neither a vaccine nor treatment are available. Recently, a new class of drugs that inhibit histone deacetylases enzymes (HDACs) has received an increasing interest as antiviral agents. Considering studies by others showing that valproic acid, an HDAC inhibitor (HDACi), blocks the replication of enveloped viruses and that ASFV regulates the epigenetic status of the host cell by promoting heterochromatinization and recruitment of class I HDACs to viral cytoplasmic factories, the antiviral activity of four HDACi against ASFV was evaluated in this study. Results showed that the sodium phenylbutyrate fully abrogates the ASFV replication, whereas the valproic acid leads to a significant reduction of viral progeny at 48h post-infection (-73.9%, p=0.046), as the two pan-HDAC inhibitors tested (Trichostatin A: -82.2%, p=0.043; Vorinostat: 73.9%, p=0.043). Further evaluation showed that protective effects of NaPB are dose-dependent, interfering with the expression of late viral genes and reversing the ASFV-induced histone H3 lysine 9 and 14 (H3K9K14) hypoacetylation status, compatible to an open chromatin state and possibly enabling the expression of host genes non-beneficial to infection progression. Additionally, a synergic antiviral effect was detected when NaPB is combined with an ASFV-topoisomerase II poison (Enrofloxacin). Altogether, our results strongly suggest that cellular HDACs are involved in the establishment of ASFV infection and emphasize that further in vivo studies are needed to better understand the antiviral activity of HDAC inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Antibiotic residues in liquid manure from swine feedlot and their effects on nearby groundwater in regions of North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohua; Liu, Chong; Chen, Yongxing; Huang, Hongkun; Ren, Tianzhi

    2018-04-01

    A survey was conducted in regions of North China to better understand the effect of antibiotic residue pollution from swine feedlots to nearby groundwater environment. A total of nine experimental sites located in the regions of Beijing, Hebei, and Tianjin were selected to analyze the presence of residues of 11 most commonly used antibiotics, including tetracyclines (TCs), fluoroquinolones (FQNs), sulfonamides (SAs), macrolides, and fenicols, by using liquid chromatography spectrometry. The three most common antibiotics were TCs, FQNs, and SAs, with mean concentrations of 416.4, 228.8, and 442.4 μg L -1 in wastewater samples; 19.9, 11.8, and 0.3 μg L -1 in groundwater samples from swine feedlots; and 29.7, 14.0, and 0 μg L -1 in groundwater samples from villages. Ordination analysis revealed that the composition and distribution of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (AGRs) were similar in groundwater samples from swine feedlots and villages. FQNs and TCs occurred along the path from wastewater to groundwater at high concentrations and showed correlations with ARGs, with a strong correlation between FQN resistance gene (qnrA) copy number. FQN concentration was also found (P swine feedlots through wastewater could disseminate into surrounding groundwater environments together with ARG occurrence (i.e., qnrA, sulI, sulII, tetG, tetM, and tetO). Overall, this study suggests that the spread of veterinary antibiotics from swine feedlots to groundwater environments should be highly attended and controlled by restricting excess antibiotic usage or improving the technology of manure management.

  3. STEVENS–JOHNSON SYNDROME — TOXIC EPIDERMAL NECTROLYSIS IN CHILDREN. PART II. SYSTEM, LOCAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.F. Zhernosek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The second part of the article concerning Stevens–Johnson syndrome — toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS–TEN is devoted to the treatment of this disease. The modern approaches to the use of systemic agents — antibacterial, antiviral, analgesics and sedatives, and anticoagulants are discussed in detail. Regulations of the drugs use depending on the patient state and the etiology of SJS–TEN are marked out. The basic principles of the fluid therapy for rehydration and dehydration prevention are shown in the article. Particular attention is paid to the local therapy — treatment of mucous membranes and skin lesions.Key words: Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, children, antibiotic therapy, topical treatment.

  4. A retrospective cephalometric investigation of two fixed functional orthodontic appliances in class II treatment: Functional Mandibular Advancer vs. Herbst appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzinger, Gero Stefan Michael; Lisson, Jörg Alexander; Frye, Linda; Gross, Ulrich; Hourfar, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the study is to compare skeletal and dental changes in class II patients treated with fixed functional appliances (FFA) that pursue different biomechanical concepts: (1) FMA (Functional Mandibular Advancer) from first maxillary molar to first mandibular molar through inclined planes and (2) Herbst appliance from first maxillary molar to lower first bicuspid through a rod-and-tube mechanism. Forty-two equally distributed patients were treated with FMA (21) and Herbst appliance (21), following a single-step advancement protocol. Lateral cephalograms were available before treatment and immediately after removal of the FFA. The lateral cephalograms were analyzed with customized linear measurements. The actual therapeutic effect was then calculated through comparison with data from a growth survey. Additionally, the ratio of skeletal and dental contributions to molar and overjet correction for both FFA was calculated. Data was analyzed by means of one-sample Student's t tests and independent Student's t tests. Statistical significance was set at p appliance were found, intergroup comparisons showed no statistically significant differences. Almost all measurements resulted in comparable changes for both appliances. Statistically significant dental changes occurred with both appliances. Dentoalveolar contribution to the treatment effect was ≥70%, thus always resulting in ≤30% for skeletal alterations. FMA and Herbst appliance usage results in comparable skeletal and dental treatment effects despite different biomechanical approaches. Treatment leads to overjet and molar relationship correction that is mainly caused by significant dentoalveolar changes.

  5. Cl II Malocclusion Treatment, Using the Modified Twin Block Appliance Coordinated with Fixed Orthodontics in a Postmenarche Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Aminian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional appliances have been used for treatment of Class II patients for a long time. The main objective of therapy with functional appliances is to induce supplementary lengthening of the mandible by stimulating increased growth at the condylar cartilage. The Twin Block appliance is one of the most commonly used functional appliances. The aim of this paper is to present a case report of mandibular deficiency treatment with Twin Block appliance in a female patient whose sexual maturation (one and a half years after menarche and cervical vertebral maturation stage indicated the end of the growth peak. The treatment started with bonding 0.022 in MBT prescription brackets on the upper arch in order to align upper teeth and create a symmetric overjet. When reaching alignment, a modified Twin Block was given to the patient for 8 months. Final coordination was achieved with fixed appliances in both arches. At the end of the treatment, profile of the patient improved, crowding was relieved, and Cl I relationship with normal overjet and overbite was achieved.

  6. AR agonist and PPAR agonists a better treatment of type II diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metabolic syndrome consists of insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, obesity among other metabolic defects. Treatment of diabetes/obesity goes beyond glycaemic control. Effective management of diabetes involves the improvement of insulin sensitivity, regulation of body weight and improve-ment of lipid profile. However ...

  7. A "Family-Based" Approach to the Treatment of Obese Type II Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Rena R.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Assigned 49 obese diabetic patients with obese spouses (diabetic or nondiabetic) to an alone or together (with spouses) treatment condition of behavioral weight control program. Found no significant differences in weight losses of patients at posttreatment or one-year followup, but did find that women did better when treated with their spouses,…

  8. Treatment of Whiplash-Associated Disorders - Part II: Medical and Surgical Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Conlin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD is a term used to describe injury due to an acceleration-deceleration mechanism at the neck. In 1995, the Quebec Task Force published a report that contained evidence-based recommendations regarding the treatment of WAD based on studies completed before 1993 and consensus-based recommendations.

  9. Joint distraction in treatment of osteoarthritis (II): effects on cartilage in a canine model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Valburg, A. A.; van Roermund, P. M.; Marijnissen, A. C.; Wenting, M. J.; Verbout, A. J.; Lafeber, F. P.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    2000-01-01

    From a clinical point of view, joint distraction as a treatment for osteoarthritis (OA) of hip and ankle has been demonstrated to be very promising. Pain, joint mobility and functional ability, the most important factors for a patient with severe OA, all improved. Although radiographic joint space

  10. Questionnaire Survey on Asthma Management of Japanese Allergists II. Treatment methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuharu Tsukioka

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire on the treatment of asthma was sent to 586 physicians. They consisted of specialists authorized by the Japanese Society of Allergology and councillors of the society who were treating patients with bronchial asthma. Of the total of 306 (52% respondents, 241 replied to questions relating to adult asthma and 129 to questions relating to childhood asthma (including duplicate replies. For acute treatment, methods most commonly selected by physicians were, in increasing order of popularity, for adults: parenteral aminophylline, oxygen inhalation, parenteral steroids and parenteral adrenaline; for schoolchildren (6–16 years: parenteral aminophylline, inhaled β-stimulant, oxygen inhalation, inhaled β-stimulant + disodium cromoglycate (DSCG, parenteral steroids; and for infants (≤5 years: inhaled β-stimulant, parenteral aminophylline, oxygen inhalation, inhaled β-stimulant + DSCG and parenteral steroids. For maintenance treatment, methods most commonly selected by physicians were, in increasing order of popularity, for adults: oral administration of sustained-release theophylline, inhaled steroids and DSCG inhalation; for schoolchildren (6–16 years: DSCG inhalation, oral administration of sustained-release theophylline, oral administration of antiallergic agent preparation and (β-stimulant + DSCG inhalant; and for infants: DSCG inhalation, oral administration of sustained-release theophylline, oral administration of antiallergicagent preparation and β-stimulant + DSCG inhalant. The questionnaire results clearly showed that different drugs were selected for the treatment of asthma in adults, schoolchildren and infants.

  11. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Field Study Training Program. Volume II, Instructor's Guide. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    The objective of this instructor's guide is to help provide students with knowledge and skills for employment in the field of wastewater treatment. Included in each chapter outline are: (1) objectives, (2) instructional approach, (3) answers to the objective test in the student's text, and (4) an explanation of these answers. The material…

  12. Proposed site treatment plan (PSTP) Volumes I ampersand II ampersand reference document, Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmich, E.; Noller, D.K.; Wierzbicki, K.S.

    1995-01-01

    The Federal Facility Compliance Act requires the Department of Energy to undertake a national effort to develop Site Treatment Plans for each of its sites generating or storing mixed waste. Mixed waste contains both a hazardous waste subject to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and radioactive material subject to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. The Site Treatment Plan for the Savannah River Site proposes how SRS will treat mixed waste that is now stored on the site and mixed waste that Will be generated in the future. Also, the Site Treatment Plan identifies Savannah River Site mixed wastes that other Department of Energy facilities could treat and mixed waste from other facilities that the Savannah River Site could treat. The Site Treatment Plan has been approved by the State of South Carolina. The Department of Energy Will enter into a consent order with the State of South Carolina by October 6, 1995. The consent order will contain enforceable commitments to treat mixed waste

  13. Quantitative approach for the risk assessment of African swine fever and Classical swine fever introduction into the United States through legal imports of pigs and swine products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana María Herrera-Ibatá

    Full Text Available The US livestock safety strongly depends on its capacity to prevent the introduction of Transboundary Animal Diseases (TADs. Therefore, accurate and updated information on the location and origin of those potential TADs risks is essential, so preventive measures as market restrictions can be put on place. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the current risk of African swine fever (ASF and Classical swine fever (CSF introduction into the US through the legal importations of live pigs and swine products using a quantitative approach that could be later applied to other risks. Four quantitative stochastic risk assessment models were developed to estimate the monthly probabilities of ASF and CSF release into the US, and the exposure of susceptible populations (domestic and feral swine to these introductions at state level. The results suggest a low annual probability of either ASF or CSF introduction into the US, by any of the analyzed pathways (5.5*10-3. Being the probability of introduction through legal imports of live pigs (1.8*10-3 for ASF, and 2.5*10-3 for CSF higher than the risk of legally imported swine products (8.90*10-4 for ASF, and 1.56*10-3 for CSF. This could be caused due to the low probability of exposure associated with this type of commodity (products. The risk of feral pigs accessing to swine products discarded in landfills was slightly higher than the potential exposure of domestic pigs through swill feeding. The identification of the months at highest risk, the origin of the higher risk imports, and the location of the US states most vulnerable to those introductions (Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin for live swine and California, Florida and Texas for swine products, is valuable information that would help to design prevention, risk-mitigation and early-detection strategies that would help to minimize the catastrophic consequences of potential ASF/CSF introductions into the US.

  14. Regorafenib plus modified FOLFOX6 as first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer: A phase II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argilés, Guillem; Saunders, Mark P; Rivera, Fernando; Sobrero, Alberto; Benson, Al; Guillén Ponce, Carmen; Cascinu, Stefano; Van Cutsem, Eric; Macpherson, Iain R; Strumberg, Dirk; Köhne, Claus-Henning; Zalcberg, John; Wagner, Andrea; Luigi Garosi, Vittorio; Grunert, Julia; Tabernero, Josep; Ciardiello, Fortunato

    2015-05-01

    The oral multikinase inhibitor regorafenib improves overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) for which all standard treatments have failed. This study investigated regorafenib plus modified FOLFOX (mFOLFOX6) as first-line treatment of metastatic CRC. In this single-arm, open-label, multicentre, phase II study, patients received mFOLFOX6 on days 1 and 15, and regorafenib 160 mg orally once daily on days 4-10 and 18-24 of each 28-day cycle. The primary end-point was centrally assessed objective response rate (ORR). Secondary end-points included disease control rate (DCR), OS, progression-free survival (PFS) and safety. Median overall treatment duration with any study drug was 9.9 months (range 0.6-19.6); median treatment duration with regorafenib was 7.7 months (range 0.1-19.5); six patients remained on regorafenib for more than 1 year. Fifty-three patients received at least one dose of regorafenib. ORR was 43.9% (all partial responses); DCR was 85.4%; median OS was not reached; median PFS was 8.5months. Treatment-emergent adverse events were experienced by all patients but were manageable with dose modifications. Regorafenib+mFOLFOX6 as first-line treatment in patients with metastatic CRC did not improve ORR over historical controls. Regorafenib plus mFOLFOX6 did not appear to be associated with a markedly worse tolerability profile versus mFOLFOX6 alone. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. The utility of the combination of dextromethorphan and quinidine in the treatment of bipolar II and bipolar NOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Tammas Frederick; Lieberman, Daniel Z

    2014-01-01

    Dextromethorphan is an over-the-counter antitussive agent that may be a rapidly acting treatment for bipolar depression. Like ketamine, it is an NMDA receptor antagonist. We conducted a retrospective chart review of depressed patients with treatment resistant bipolar II or bipolar NOS disorder who were treated with the combination of dextromethorphan 20 mg and quinidine 10 mg (DMQ). One pill of DMQ taken once or twice a day was added to participants׳ drug regimen. No changes were made to the pre-existing drug regimen during the course of treatment with DMQ. The primary outcome measure was the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) score after 90 days of treatment. Seventy-seven participants met the inclusion criteria. All had been experiencing depressive symptoms for at least two years, and the mean number of failed medication trials was 21.2. The average CGI-I score at day 90 was 1.66 (1=slightly improved, 2=much improved). Some patients reported improvement within 1-2 days of starting DMQ. Nineteen patients discontinued treatment due to adverse effects, chiefly nausea. Because this was a retrospective chart review with no control group, conclusions about causation cannot be made. Nevertheless, the duration of depressive symptoms prior to starting DMQ makes spontaneous recovery less likely. DMQ, an NMDA antagonist, may be effective in the treatment of bipolar depression. Because its putative mechanism does not depend on the monoaminergic system, it may be appropriate for patients who have not responded to other medications. Unlike ketamine, DMQ does not require i.v. administration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Temporal succession of soil antibiotic resistance genes following application of swine, cattle and poultry manures spiked with or without antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yu-Jing; Hu, Hang-Wei; Gou, Min; Wang, Jun-Tao; Chen, Deli; He, Ji-Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Land application of animal manure is a common agricultural practice potentially leading to dispersal and propagation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in environmental settings. However, the fate of resistome in agro-ecosystems over time following application of different manure sources has never been compared systematically. Here, soil microcosm incubation was conducted to compare effects of poultry, cattle and swine manures spiked with or without the antibiotic tylosin on the temporal changes of soil ARGs. The high-throughput quantitative PCR detected a total of 185 unique ARGs, with Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin B resistance as the most frequently encountered ARG type. The diversity and abundance of ARGs significantly increased following application of manure and manure spiked with tylosin, with more pronounced effects observed in the swine and poultry manure treatments than in the cattle manure treatment. The level of antibiotic resistance gradually decreased over time in all manured soils but was still significantly higher in the soils treated with swine and poultry manures than in the untreated soils after 130 days’ incubation. Tylosin-amended soils consistently showed higher abundances of ARGs than soils treated with manure only, suggesting a strong selection pressure of antibiotic-spiked manure on soil ARGs. The relative abundance of ARGs had significantly positive correlations with integrase and transposase genes, indicative of horizontal transfer potential of ARGs in manure and tylosin treated soils. Our findings provide evidence that application of swine and poultry manures might enrich more soil ARGs than cattle manure, which necessitates the appropriate treatment of raw animal manures prior to land application to minimise the spread of environmental ARGs. - Highlights: • Application of poultry, swine, and cattle manure with or without tylosin increased the level of soil ARGs. • Poultry and swine manures had stronger selection pressure

  17. Irreversible Electroporation in a Swine Lung Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, Damian E.; Aswad, Bassam; Ng, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the safety and tissue effects of IRE in a swine lung model. Methods: This study was approved by the institutional animal care committee. Nine anesthetized domestic swine underwent 15 percutaneous irreversible electroporation (IRE) lesion creations (6 with bipolar and 3 with 3–4 monopolar electrodes) under fluoroscopic guidance and with pancuronium neuromuscular blockade and EKG gating. IRE electrodes were placed into the central and middle third of the right mid and lower lobes in all animals. Postprocedure PA and lateral chest radiographs were obtained to evaluate for pneumothorax. Three animals were sacrificed at 2 weeks and six at 4 weeks. Animals underwent high-resolution CT scanning and PA and lateral radiographs 1 h before sacrifice. The treated lungs were removed en bloc, perfused with formalin, and sectioned. Gross pathologic and microscopic changes after standard hematoxylin and eosin staining were analyzed within the areas of IRE lesion creation. Results: No significant adverse events were identified. CT showed focal areas of spiculated high density ranging in greatest diameter from 1.1–2.2 cm. On gross inspection of the sectioned lung, focal areas of tan discoloration and increased density were palpated in the areas of IRE. Histological analysis revealed focal areas of diffuse alveolar damage with fibrosis and inflammatory infiltration that respected the boundaries of the interlobular septae. No pathological difference could be discerned between the 2- and 4-week time points. The bronchioles and blood vessels within the areas of IRE were intact and did not show signs of tissue injury. Conclusion: IRE creates focal areas of diffuse alveolar damage without creating damage to the bronchioles or blood vessels. Short-term safety in a swine model appears to be satisfactory.

  18. Electrochemical treatment of Orange II dye solution-Use of aluminum sacrificial electrodes and floc characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollah, M. Yousuf A.; Gomes, Jewel A.G.; Das, Kamol K.; Cocke, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Electrocoagulation (EC) of Orange II dye in a flow through cell with aluminum as sacrificial electrodes was carried out under varying conditions of dye concentration, current density, flow rate, conductivity, and the initial pH of the solution in order to optimize the operating parameters for maximum benefits. Maximum removal efficiency of 94.5% was obtained at the following conditions: dye concentration = 10 ppm, current density = 160 A/m 2 , initial pH 6.5, conductance = 7.1 mS/cm, flow rate = 350 mL/min, and concentration of added NaCl = 4.0 g/L of dye solution. The EC-floc was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction techniques. The removal mechanism has been proposed that is in compliance with the Pourbaix diagram, solubility curve of aluminum oxides/hydroxides, and physico-chemical properties of the EC-floc.

  19. Electrochemical treatment of Orange II dye solution-Use of aluminum sacrificial electrodes and floc characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mollah, M. Yousuf A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh); Gomes, Jewel A.G., E-mail: jewel.gomes@lamar.edu [Dan F. Smith Department of Chemical Engineering, Lamar University, P.O. Box 10053, Beaumont, TX 77710 (United States); Das, Kamol K.; Cocke, David L. [Gill Chair of Chemical Engineering, Lamar University, P.O. Box 10053, Beaumont, TX 77710 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Electrocoagulation (EC) of Orange II dye in a flow through cell with aluminum as sacrificial electrodes was carried out under varying conditions of dye concentration, current density, flow rate, conductivity, and the initial pH of the solution in order to optimize the operating parameters for maximum benefits. Maximum removal efficiency of 94.5% was obtained at the following conditions: dye concentration = 10 ppm, current density = 160 A/m{sup 2}, initial pH 6.5, conductance = 7.1 mS/cm, flow rate = 350 mL/min, and concentration of added NaCl = 4.0 g/L of dye solution. The EC-floc was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction techniques. The removal mechanism has been proposed that is in compliance with the Pourbaix diagram, solubility curve of aluminum oxides/hydroxides, and physico-chemical properties of the EC-floc.

  20. Compositional changes in swine manure fibers treated with aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) resulting in increased methane potential

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado, Esperanza; Hansen, Mads A.T.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    AAS treatment is a very efficient method to increase the methane potential of manure fibers. The chemical composition and supramolecular structures of swine manure fibers before and after AAS treatment was investigated in this study. Composition analyses, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical surface composition by Attenuated Total Reflectance–Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR–FTIR) showed that no delignification of the lignocellulose took place during ...

  1. Compositional changes in swine manure fibers treated with aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) resulting in increased methane potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Hansen, Mads A.T.; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    2013-01-01

    and accessible during subsequent anaerobic digestion. This finding has confirmed earlier experimental results, showing that delignification was not necessarily the limiting factor during conversion of manure fibers into methane while cellulose accessibility during digestion seemed more crucial.......AAS treatment is a very efficient method to increase the methane potential of manure fibers. The chemical composition and supramolecular structures of swine manure fibers before and after AAS treatment was investigated in this study. Composition analyses, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning...

  2. Adjuvant radiotherapy and its role in the treatment of stage II lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, T.J.; Greenberger, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    Lung carcinoma remains an enormous clinical challenge for all health care personnel involved in the care of these patients. Those patients with unresected primary lung carcinoma are ultimately referred for radiation therapy in order to control local regional disease. It is important to recognize the great gains in longevity have not materialized with the addition of adjuvant therapy. However, a very real benefit in the quality of life for most patients with carcinoma of the lung can be achieved with the judicious and thoughtful application of sophisticated radiation therapy, for a small but significant portion of the population, a cure will result from this treatment. This chapter reviews the role of radiation therapy as an adjuvant to definitive surgical treatment

  3. Economic feasibility of biogas production in swine farms using time series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Luis Rockenbach

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to measure the economic feasibility and the time needed to return capital invested for the installation of a swine manure treatment system, these values originated the sale of carbon credits and/or of compensation of electric energy in swine farms, using the Box-Jenkins forecast models. It was found that the use of biogas is a viable option in a large scale with machines that operate daily for 10h or more, being the return period between 70 to 80 months. Time series analysis models are important to anticipate the series under study behavior, providing the swine breeder/investor means to reduce the financial investment risk as well as helping to decrease the production costs. Moreover, this process can be seen as another source of income and enable the breeder to be self-sufficient in the continuous supply of electric energy, which is very valuable nowadays considering that breeders are now increasingly using various technologies.

  4. Initial analysis of the Eucalyptus super clone fertilized with swine wastewater sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaino Paula Ribeiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The generation of waste has gradually increased due to the large swine production and with this comes the concern about the final destination of the product. This study aimed to analyze the initial behavior of Eucalyptus super clone (AEC 1528, fertilized with swine sludge and compared to chemical fertilizer. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 3 replications, with the volumes: 1.25, 2.5, 5 liters; 0 liters of sewage sludge and chemical fertilizer. The plants were irrigated with water from a well at the Rio Verde University, increasing the amount according to plant growth. After 120 days, we evaluated the height of the plants, stem diameter, relation between stem diameterand plantsheight, weight of the fresh matter, weight of the dry matter,root weight, leaf areaand mortality. There were significant differences in relation to plant height, the fresh matterweightand the dry matterweight. For the other characteristics there was no negative influence with the use of  different volumes of sewage sludge in eucalypts hybrid. It was observedthat, the application of biosolids (sludge from swine is an effective alternative fertilizer in eucalyptus plantations.

  5. Bacterial community analysis of swine manure treated with autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Il; Congeevaram, Shankar; Ki, Dong-Won; Oh, Byoung-Taek; Park, Joonhong

    2011-02-01

    Due to the environmental problems associated with disposal of livestock sludge, many stabilization studies emphasizing on the sludge volume reduction were performed. However, little is known about the microbial risk present in sludge and its stabilized products. This study microbiologically explored the effects of anaerobic lagoon fermentation (ALF) and autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) on pathogen-related risk of raw swine manure by using culture-independent 16S rDNA cloning and sequencing methods. In raw swine manure, clones closely related to pathogens such as Dialister pneumosintes, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Succinivibrioan dextrinosolvens, and Schineria sp. were detected. Meanwhile, in the mesophilic ALF-treated swine manure, bacterial community clones closely related to pathogens such as Schineria sp. and Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens were still detected. Interestingly, the ATAD treatment resulted in no detection of clones closely related to pathogens in the stabilized thermophilic bacterial community, with the predominance of novel Clostridia class populations. These findings support the superiority of ATAD in selectively reducing potential human and animal pathogens compared to ALF, which is a typical manure stabilization method used in livestock farms.

  6. Recent advances during the treatment of spent EBR-II fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, B.R.; Mariani, R.D.; Vaden, D.E.; Sherman, S.R.; Li, S.X.; Keiser, D.D. Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Several recent advances have been achieved for the electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. In anticipation of production operations at Argonne National Laboratory-West, development of both electrorefining and metal processing has been ongoing in the post-demonstration phase in order to further optimize the process. These development activities show considerable promise. This paper discusses the results of recent experiments as well as plans for future investigations

  7. Fit-for-purpose wastewater treatment: Testing to implementation of decision support tool (II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhipi-Shrestha, Gyan; Hewage, Kasun; Sadiq, Rehan

    2017-12-31

    This paper is the second in a series of two papers. In Paper I, a decision support tool (DST), FitWater, was developed for evaluating the potential of wastewater treatment (WWT) trains for various water reuse applications. In the present paper, the proposed DST has been tested and implemented. FitWater has been tested with several existing WWT plants in Canada and the USA, demonstrating FitWater's effectiveness in estimating life cycle cost (LCC), health risk, and energy use. FitWater has also been implemented in a newly planned neighbourhood in the Okanagan Valley (BC, Canada) by developing 12 alternative WWT trains for water reuse in lawn and public parks irrigation. The results show that FitWater can effectively rank WWT train alternatives based on LCC, health risk, amount of reclaimed water, energy use, and carbon emissions. Moreover, functions have been developed for the variation of unit annualized LCC and energy intensity per unit log removal of microorganisms in different treatment technologies with varying plant capacities. The functions have power relations, showing the economies of scale. FitWater can be applied to identify a cost-effective, risk-acceptable, and energy efficient wastewater treatment train with a plant capacity of 500m 3 /day or more. Furthermore, FitWater can be used to assess potential economic impacts of developing microbiologically stringent effluent standards. The capability of FitWater can be enhanced by including physio-chemical quality of wastewater, additional treatment technologies, and carbon emissions from wastewater decomposition processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Red coloration by heat treatment of the coprecipitate of cadmium sulfide and mercury(II) sulfide prepared from the nitrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Fujiya

    1979-01-01

    The effects of starting salts on the color, particle size and crystal structure of mercury-cadmium-sulfide pigments were investigated. The coprecipitate (N-S) of cadmium sulfide and mercury (II) sulfide was prepared by adding sodium sulfide solution to a mixed cadmium-mercury (II) nitrate solution. The coprecipitate (C-S) of cadmium sulfide and mercury (II) sulfide was also prepared from the mixed solution of their chlorides by the same method as described above. The coprecipitated products were heat-treated (calcination or hydrothermal treatment) at 350 0 C for 2 hours and subsequent changes in powder properties of both products were compared from each other. The powder properties of N-S, C-S and their heat-treated products were investigated by spectral reflectance, electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and specific surface area measurements. Sample (N-C) obtained by the calcination of N-S was brown, indicating no red coloration, but the calcined product (C-C) of C-S developed a red color. Cl - and hot water were found to be effective for the red color development of the pigment. The effectiveness was confirmed by calcining N-S in the presence of NaCl or by treating it hydrothermally. It was found that halides other than NaCl, (e.g., NH 4 Cl, KCl, KBr and KI), were also effective for the color development of the pigment. The red samples are solid solutions with a basically hexagonal CdS structure, and it appears that CdS takes up HgS without any apparent structural changes. The particle size of the red samples are larger than those of the non red samples. (author)

  9. The limitations and risks of transarterial Onyx injections in the treatment of grade I and II DAVFs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Xianli; Jiang Chuhan; Li Youxiang; Liu Lian; Liu Jie; Wu Zhongxue

    2011-01-01

    Background and objective: Embolization of grade III–V intracranial DAVFs using Onyx is feasible with promising results, indicating stability at the time of mid-term follow-up. This article is to evaluate the role of transarterial Onyx embolization in the treatment of grade I and II intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs), including its limitations and risks. Methods: We retrospectively studied consecutive 26 patients (8 women and 18 men) treated for an grade I and II intracranial DAVF since 2006 in whom a transarterial approach was attempted with Onyx-18 embolization. There were 18 transverse-sigmoid sinus, 4 cavernous sinus, 2 superior sagittal sinus, 1 inferior petrosal sinus and 1 intradiploic fistulas. Five fistulas were Type I, 8 were Type IIa, and 13 were Type IIa + b, according to the Cognard classification. The mean clinical follow-up period was 15.6 months. Results: Anatomic cure was proven in 13 patients (50%) and clinical cure was obtained in 17 cases (65.4%). These 13 cures were achieved after a single procedure. All these 13 patients underwent a follow-up angiography, which has confirmed the complete cure. Partial occlusion was obtained in 13 patients. Complications were as follows: 2 cardiac Onyx migration, 2 reflexive bradyarrythmia, 1 transient visual hallucination, 2 transient fifth nerve palsies and 1 permanent seventh nerve palsy in inferior petrosal sinus DAVF. Conclusions: Based on this experience, grade I and II intracranial DAVFs may be treated with transarterial Onyx embolization to reduce the shunted blood flow and to facilitate subsequent transvenous embolization or surgery.

  10. Removal of phosphonates from industrial wastewater with UV/FeII, Fenton and UV/Fenton treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rott, Eduard; Minke, Ralf; Bali, Ulusoy; Steinmetz, Heidrun

    2017-10-01

    Phosphonates are an important group of phosphorus-containing compounds due to their increasing industrial use and possible eutrophication potential. This study involves investigations into the methods UV/Fe II , Fenton and UV/Fenton for their removal from a pure water matrix and industrial wastewaters. It could be shown that the degradability of phosphonates by UV/Fe II (6 kWh/m 3 ) in pure water crucially depended on the pH and was higher the less phosphonate groups a phosphonate contains. The UV/Fe II method is recommended in particular for the treatment of concentrates with nitrogen-free phosphonates, only little turbidity and a low content of organic compounds. Using Fenton reagent, the degradation of polyphosphonates was relatively weak in a pure water matrix (Fenton method (6 kWh/m 3 ), those phosphonates with the smallest numbers of phosphonate groups were easier degraded as well at pH 3.5 in a pure water matrix (o-PO 4 3- formation rates of up to 80%). Despite an incomplete transformation of organically bound phosphorus to o-PO 4 3- with Fenton reagent in an organically highly polluted wastewater (max. 15%), an almost total removal of the total P occurred. The most efficient total P elimination rates were achieved in accordance with the following Fenton implementation: reaction → sludge separation (acidic) → neutralization of the supernatant → sludge separation (neutral). Accordingly, a neutralization directly after the reaction phase led to a lower total P removal extent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Microbial shifts in the swine nasal microbiota in response to parenteral antimicrobial administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeineldin, Mohamed; Aldridge, Brian; Blair, Benjamin; Kancer, Katherine; Lowe, James

    2018-05-24

    The continuous administration of antimicrobials in swine production has been widely criticized with the increase of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and dysbiosis of the beneficial microbial communities. While an increasing number of studies investigate the effects of antimicrobial administration on swine gastrointestinal microbiota biodiversity, the impact of their use on the composition and diversity of nasal microbial communities has not been widely explored. The objective of this study was to characterize the short-term impact of different parenteral antibiotics administration on the composition and diversity of nasal microbial communities in growing pigs. Five antimicrobial treatment groups, each consisting of four, eight-week old piglets, were administered one of the antimicrobials; Ceftiofur Crystalline free acid (CCFA), Ceftiofur hydrochloride (CHC), Tulathromycin (TUL), Oxytetracycline (OTC), and Procaine Penicillin G (PPG) at label dose and route. Individual deep nasal swabs were collected immediately before antimicrobial administration (control = day 0), and again on days 1, 3, 7, and 14 after dosing. The nasal microbiota across all the samples were dominated by Firmicutes, proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. While, the predominant bacterial genera were Moraxella, Clostridium and Streptococcus. Linear discriminant analysis, showed a pronounced, antimicrobial-dependent microbial shift in the composition of nasal microbiota and over time from day 0. By day 14, the nasal microbial compositions of the groups receiving CCFA and OTC had returned to a distribution that closely resembled that observed on day 0. In contrast, pigs that received CHC, TUL and PPG appeared to deviate away from the day 0 composition by day 14. Based on our results, it appears that the impact of parenteral antibiotics on the swine nasal microbiota is variable and has a considerable impact in modulating the nasal microbiota structure. Our results will aid in developing alternative

  12. Constitutive modeling of the passive inflation-extension behavior of the swine colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhavesh; Chen, Huan; Ahuja, Aashish; Krieger, Joshua F; Noblet, Jillian; Chambers, Sean; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2018-01-01

    In the present work, we propose the first structural constitutive model of the passive mechanical behavior of the swine colon that is validated against physiological inflation-extension tests, and accounts for residual strains. Sections from the spiral colon and the descending colon were considered to investigate potential regional variability. We found that the proposed constitutive model accurately captures the passive inflation-extension behavior of both regions of the swine colon (coefficient of determination R 2 =0.94±0.02). The model revealed that the circumferential muscle layer does not provide significant mechanical support under passive conditions and the circumferential load is actually carried by the submucosa layer. The stress analysis permitted by the model showed that the colon tissue can distend up to 30% radially without significant increase in the wall stresses suggesting a highly compliant behavior of the tissue. This is in-line with the requirement for the tissue to easily accommodate variable quantities of fecal matter. The analysis also showed that the descending colon is significantly more compliant than the spiral colon, which is relevant to the storage function of the descending colon. Histological analysis showed that the swine colon possesses a four-layer structure similar to the human colon, where the longitudinal muscle layer is organized into bands called taeniae, a typical feature of the human colon. The model and the estimated parameters can be used in a Finite Element framework to conduct simulations with realistic geometry of the swine colon. The resulting computational model will provide a foundation for virtual assessment of safe and effective devices for the treatment of colonic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of swine wastewater in oilseed radish crop: agronomic and environmental aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaisa Pegoraro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Swine effluent has been applied to soils to promote nutrient cycling and reduce the uncontrolled disposal of effluents into bodies of water. However, the use of these effluents on various crops has raised environmental and public health concerns. Oilseed radish crop (Raphanus sativus L. is a winter crop planted in no-tillage systems as a green fertilizer that also can be used for biodiesel, and it requires high levels of nutrients for its development. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the environmental and agronomic effects of the application of swine wastewater on oilseed radish. The experiment was conducted in a 0.162 ha area with the following treatments: unirrigated (rainfed, irrigated, and fertilized with swine wastewater (370 m3 ha-1 cycle-1. After each rainfall event, analyses were conducted for the main macro and micronutrients in the runoff and percolated material from drainage lysimeters. Changes in the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil were also analyzed, as were the agronomic and nutritional indices of the dry crop phytomass in full blooming stage. Application of swine wastewater at a level of 370 m3 ha-1 produces a crop with better agronomic quality. Over the long term, however, caution should be taken regarding the surface runoff of NO3-, P, K, Mn and total salts and the percolation of NO3-, Na and Cu. Moreover, the rainfall occurred one day after fertigation contributed to the increase of the levels of P, K, Na, Cu, Zn and Mn in the percolated material.

  14. Post-treatment resistance analysis of hepatitis C virus from phase II and III clinical trials of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyles, David; Dvory-Sobol, Hadas; Svarovskaia, Evguenia S; Doehle, Brian P; Martin, Ross; Afdhal, Nezam H; Kowdley, Kris V; Lawitz, Eric; Brainard, Diana M; Miller, Michael D; Mo, Hongmei; Gane, Edward J

    2017-04-01

    Ledipasvir/sofosbuvir combination treatment in phase III clinical trials resulted in sustained viral suppression in 94-99% of patients. This study characterized drug resistance in treatment failures, which may help to inform retreatment options. We performed NS5A and NS5B deep sequencing of hepatitis C virus (HCV) from patients infected with genotype (GT) 1 who participated in ledipasvir/sofosbuvir phase II and III clinical trials. Fifty-one of 2144 (2.4%) (42 GT1a and 9 GT1b) treated patients met the criteria for resistance analysis due to virologic failure following the end of treatment. The majority of patients with virologic failure (38 of 51; 74.5%) had detectable ledipasvir-specific resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) at the time of virologic failure (1% deep sequencing cut-off). The percent of patients with NS5A RASs at virologic failure were 37.5%, 66.7%, 94.7% and 100% in patients treated for 6, 8, 12 and 24weeks, respectively. The common substitutions detected at failure were Q30R/H, and/or Y93H/N in GT1a and Y93H in GT1b. At failure, 35.3% (18/51) of virologic failure patients' viruses had two or more NS5A RASs and the majority of patients harbored NS5A RASs conferring a 100-1000-fold (n=10) or >1000-fold (n=23) reduced susceptibility to ledipasvir. One patient in a phase II study with a known ledipasvir RAS at baseline (L31M) developed the S282T sofosbuvir (NS5B) RAS at failure. In GT1 HCV-infected patients treated with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir±ribavirin, virologic failure was rare. Ledipasvir resistance in NS5A was selected or enhanced in most patients with virologic failure, one of whom also developed resistance to sofosbuvir. Clinical studies have shown that combination treatment with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir efficiently cures most patients with genotype 1 hepatitis C infection. For the few patients failing treatment, we show that resistance to ledipasvir was observed in most patients, whereas resistance to sofosbuvir was less common. This has

  15. THERAPEUTIC EYELIDS HYGIENE IN THE ALGORITHMS OF PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF OCULAR SURFACE DISEASES. PART II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Trubilin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The second part of the article is focused on the issue of prevention and treatment of the most common clinical situations in which applicable therapeutic hygiene: seborrheic blepharitis; Staphylococcal blepharitis; Allergic blepharitis; barley and chalazion; prevention keratoconjunctival xerosis (during the preoperative and postoperative period, while wearing contact lenses, in computer vision syndrome, in remission after acute inflammation of the conjunctiva and cornea. There is an algorithm for the therapeutic care of eyelids and the basic mechanisms of action of this procedure. Until recently, the treatment of dry eye syndrome involves the use tearsubstitude therapy. Ten or fifteen years ago, 2–3 tearsubstitudes were presented at the domestic market. Currently, there are doses of different forms of artificial tears, while there are hundreds of them on the western pharmaceutical market. The rapid development in the search for new forms tearsubstitudes is not accident. This is due to the increasing number of patients suffering from disorders of the tear membrane stability, which achieves, according to different sources, up to 40–60% of the adult population. It should be noted that the primary cause of dry eye syndrome in 85–95% of patients is meibomian gland’s dysfunction, thus applying tearsubstitudes symptomatic therapy is treatment that does not solve the problem on the pathogenic level. For this reason, conducting therapeutic hygiene century (warm compresses + self-massage is an important component of the treatment of this group of patients. Objective evidence of relevance and effectiveness of therapeutic care age, in our opinion, is the rapid development of the pharmaceutical market in this area. There is a large number of new gels, lotions, wipes and other products for hygiene century every year. Clear algorithms that include therapeutic hygiene century (dates, the indications for the use of certain hygiene products is an actual

  16. Vacuum pyrolysis of swine manure : biochar production and characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, M. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Godbout, S.; Larouche, J.P.; Lemay, S.P.; Pelletier, F. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Solomatnikova, O. [Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Brar, S.K. [Inst. national de la recherche scientifique, eau, terre et environnement, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Quebec accounts for nearly 25 per cent of swine production in Canada. The issue of swine manure is addressed through land spreading and conversion into fertilizer. However, current regulations restrict the use of swine manure as fertilizer on most farmlands due to the problem of surplus phosphorus and nitrogen. Although many technologies exist to separate phosphorus and nitrogen from the organic-rich dry matter in swine manure, about 40 per cent of the treated waste matter must still be disposed in an environmentally sound manner. This study investigated the technical feasibility of pretreating the swine manure solids into biofuels on a farm-scale basis using vacuum pyrolysis process. A custom built stainless steel pressure vessel was used to carry out pyrolysis reaction of swine manure biomass at a temperature range between 200 to 600 degrees C under vacuum. The pyrolytic vapour was condensed in 2 glass condensers in series. The biochar was collected directly from the pyrolysis vessel following completion of the pyrolysis batch. The non condensable vapour and gases were considered as losses. Biochar, bio-oil, an aqueous phase and a gas mixture were the 4 products of the pyrolysis process. A thermogravimetric analysis of the swine manure samples was conducted before the pyrolysis tests. The study showed that 238 degrees C is the optimal pyrolysis temperature for biochar production.

  17. Effects of early activator treatment in patients with class II malocclusion evaluated by thin-plate spline analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, C J; Rübel, J; Starke, J; Conradt, C; Stellzig, P A; Komposch, P G

    2001-04-01

    The aim of the present longitudinal cephalometric study was to evaluate the dentofacial shape changes induced by activator treatment between 9.5 and 11.5 years in male Class II patients. For a rigorous morphometric analysis, a thin-plate spline analysis was performed to assess and visualize dental and skeletal craniofacial changes. Twenty male patients with a skeletal Class II malrelationship and increased overjet who had been treated at the University of Heidelberg with a modified Andresen-Häupl-type activator were compared with a control group of 15 untreated male subjects of the Belfast Growth Study. The shape changes for each group were visualized on thin-plate splines with one spline comprising all 13 landmarks to show all the craniofacial shape changes, including skeletal and dento-alveolar reactions, and a second spline based on 7 landmarks to visualize only the skeletal changes. In the activator group, the grid deformation of the total spline pointed to a strong activator-induced reduction of the overjet that was caused both by a tipping of the incisors and by a moderation of sagittal discrepancies, particularly a slight advancement of the mandible. In contrast with this, in the control group, only slight localized shape changes could be detected. Both in the 7- and 13-landmark configurations, the shape changes between the groups differed significantly at P thin-plate spline analysis turned out to be a useful morphometric supplement to conventional cephalometrics because the complex patterns of shape change could be suggestively visualized.

  18. Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy for comprehensive treatment of oligometastatic tumors (SABR-COMET): Study protocol for a randomized phase II trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palma, David A; Griffioen, GwendolynHMJ; Gaede, Stewart; Slotman, Ben; Senan, Suresh; Haasbeek, Cornelis J A; Rodrigues, George B; Dahele, Max; Lock, Michael; Yaremko, Brian; Olson, Robert; Liu, Mitchell; Panarotto, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) has emerged as a new treatment option for patients with oligometastatic disease. SABR delivers precise, high-dose, hypofractionated radiotherapy, and achieves excellent rates of local control. Survival outcomes for patients with oligometastatic disease treated with SABR appear promising, but conclusions are limited by patient selection, and the lack of adequate controls in most studies. The goal of this multicenter randomized phase II trial is to assess the impact of a comprehensive oligometastatic SABR treatment program on overall survival and quality of life in patients with up to 5 metastatic cancer lesions, compared to patients who receive standard of care treatment alone. After stratification by the number of metastases (1-3 vs. 4-5), patients will be randomized between Arm 1: current standard of care treatment, and Arm 2: standard of care treatment + SABR to all sites of known disease. Patients will be randomized in a 1:2 ratio to Arm 1:Arm 2, respectively. For patients receiving SABR, radiotherapy dose and fractionation depends on the site of metastasis and the proximity to critical normal structures. This study aims to accrue a total of 99 patients within four years. The primary endpoint is overall survival, and secondary endpoints include quality of life, toxicity, progression-free survival, lesion control rate, and number of cycles of further chemotherapy/systemic therapy. This study will provide an assessment of the impact of SABR on clinical outcomes and quality of life, to determine if long-term survival can be achieved for selected patients with oligometastatic disease, and will inform the design of a possible phase III study. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01446744

  19. Oral type II collagen in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. A six-month double blind placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzola, M; Antivalle, M; Sarzi-Puttini, P; Dell'Acqua, D; Panni, B; Caruso, I

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of oral chicken type II collagen (CII) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Sixty patients with clinically active RA of long duration (mean 7.2 +/- 5.5 years) were treated for 6 months with oral chicken CII at 0.25 mg/day (n = 31) or with placebo (n = 29) in a double-blind randomized study. The response rate to treatment of the collagen-treated group, based on the ACR 20% criteria, was higher than that of the control group but this difference was not statistically significant at any time. Intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis did not show statistically significant improvement in any of the several secondary outcome measures over the 6 months of the study in the collagen-treated patients in comparison with the placebo-treated group. However, in 2 collagen-treated patients we observed a clinical remission according to the criteria of the American Rheumatism Association. Our study seems to show that the oral treatment of RA patients with chicken CII is ineffective and results in only small and inconsistent benefits. Furthermore, our results raise the possibility that in a sub-group of patients oral collagen administration, usually considered devoid of harmful effects, may actually induce disease flares.

  20. Operative Treatment of Fifth Metatarsal Jones Fractures (Zones II and III) in the NBA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Martin; DeSandis, Bridget; Allen, Answorth; Levitsky, Matthew; O'Malley, Quinn; Williams, Riley

    2016-05-01

    Proximal fractures of the fifth metatarsal (zone II and III) are common in the elite athlete and can be difficult to treat because of a tendency toward delayed union, nonunion, or refracture. The purpose of this case series was to report our experience in treating 10 NBA players, determine the healing rate, return to play, refracture rate, and role of foot type in these athletes. The records of 10 professional basketball players were retrospectively reviewed. Seven athletes underwent standard percutaneous internal fixation with bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) whereas the other 3 had open bone grafting primarily in addition to fixation and BMAC. Radiographic features evaluated included fourth-fifth intermetatarsal, fifth metatarsal lateral deviation, calcaneal pitch, and metatarsus adductus angles. Radiographic healing was observed at an overall average of 7.5 weeks and return to play was 9.8 weeks. Three athletes experienced refractures. There were no significant differences in clinical features or radiographic measurements except that the refracture group had the highest metatatarsus adductus angles. Most athletes were pes planus and 9 of 10 had a bony prominence under the fifth metatarsal styloid. This is the largest published series of operatively treated professional basketball players who exemplify a specific patient population at high risk for fifth metatarsal fracture. These players were large and possessed a unique foot type that seemed to be associated with increased risk of fifth metatarsal fracture and refracture. This foot type had forefoot metatarsus adductus and a fifth metatarsal that was curved with a prominent base. We continue to use standard internal fixation with bone marrow aspirate but advocate additional prophylactic open bone grafting in patients with high fourth-to-fifth intermetatarsal, fifth metatarsal lateral deviation, and metatarsus adductus angles as well as prominent fifth metatarsal styloids in order to improve fracture

  1. Treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia with interleukin-2: a phase II study in 21 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vey, N; Blaise, D; Lafage, M; Olive, D; Viens, P; Baume, D; Camerlo, J; Stoppa, A M; Gabus, R; Brandely, M; Hercend, T; Maraninchi, D

    1999-03-01

    We designed a phase II study to assess the activity of recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Study population included 11 patients in the chronic phase of CML (6 in hematologic remission and 5 with active disease), 6 patients in the accelerated phase, and 4 in blastic phase of CML. Patients received three 5-day cycles administrated every other week. rIL-2 was given as intravenous bolus infusions of 8 x 10(6) IU/m2 three times a day during cycle 1 and twice a day during cycles 2 and 3. Response to rIL-2 was assessed on day 45. No hematologic response was achieved in the patients with evaluable disease. One patient in hematologic remission with rIL-2 achieved a major response (from 72% to 9% Ph+ metaphases), and two patients had some degree of reduction of Ph+ metaphases. Responses were short-lived (< 6 months), but two of these three patients achieved a new cytogenetic response with interferon given post-rIL-2. A significant immune activation was achieved with rIL-2 including a marked increase in CD3+/CD25+ cells, CD56+ cells, and in natural killer/lymphokine activated killer cell cytotoxic activity. These results confirm preclinical studies, which showed that IL-2 has antileukemic activity in CML. However, the responses observed were short lived and restricted to a subgroup of patients with low disease burden. This invites further studies testing its impact in situations of minimal disease or in combination with other cytokines.

  2. Influence of mycotoxin zearalenone on the swine reproductive failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanov-Radulović Jasna Z.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive failure in swine is often a difficult diagnostic problem. If diagnoses of infectious disease or management related problems are not obtained, feed quality and safety may be questioned. Mycotoxins are often present in swine feed in the amount that can have detrimental impact on production and reproduction. Problems are expressed only as alterations of the reproductive cycle, reduced feed intake, slow growth or impaired feed efficiency. In Serbia, generally speaking, high concentrations of mycotoxins were noticed, especially mycotoxin zearalenone. High presence of zearalenone in swine feed is probably due to climatic influence and should be monitored constantly. This paper includes field observations regarding the influence of moldy feed containing mycotoxin zearalenone on the occurrence of the reproductive failure in swine breeding categories (sows, gilts and boars. The material for this research was obtained from four swine farms where certain reproductive disorders and health problems in breeding animals were detected. Depending on the specificity of each evaluated case and available material, the applied research methods included: anamnestic and clinical evaluation, pathomorphological examination, standard laboratory testing for detection of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and microbiological feed testing, in order to examine the presence of fungi and mycotoxins by applying the method of thin layer chromatography. On the basis of the obtained results, it could be concluded that mycotoxin zearalenone was detected in all examined feed samples. The presence of mycotoxin in feed was directly related to the reproductive failures in the examined swine categories (vulvovaginitis, endometritis, rebreeding, infertility. Swine reproduction represents the base for intensive swine production. The presence of mycotoxins in swine feed have influence on the reproduction and health status of pigs and under certain conditions may significantly

  3. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma - Part II: Management of primary extranodal lymphomas, generalized disease and salvage treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gospodarowicz, Mary K.; Sutcliffe, Simon B.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: To review the approach to the diagnosis, classification, assessment, treatment and continuing management of patients with primary extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and the management of generalized disease with the emphasis on the current role of salvage treatment with high dose chemotherapy and stem cell/bone marrow support strategies. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma may involve any part of the body. Many lymphomas, such as MALT, angiocentric T-cell, etc., commonly present in extranodal sites. Lymphomas presenting in the GI tract, and head and neck, are most common with the single most common site being the stomach. Gastric lymphoma is associated with Helicobacter pylorii and is most common in areas endemic for Helicobacter pylorii infection. Recent advances in the understanding of the etiology of gastric MALT, thyroid, and intestinal lymphomas present new opportunities for the application of novel therapeutic approaches e.g. antibiotic therapy for Helicobacter pylori and early stage IPSID. Lymphomas presenting in the orbit, thyroid, breast, bone, extradural and skin are of interest because of the importance of expert RT in securing local control. Primary brain lymphomas present a particular challenge to the radiation oncologist. Although localized, primary brain lymphomas are extremely difficult to control. Rare sites of extranodal lymphoma include testis, female genital tract, and lung. Extranodal lymphomas are often localized and cure with RT or CMT is possible. They represent a assorted group of diseases with diverse presentations, prognosis, sensitivity to RT and expected outcome. They are of particular importance to radiation oncologists as they require special attention to patterns of spread and treatment planning. The principles of management of primary extranodal lymphoma, however, follow those applicable to localized nodal presentations. Although primary extranodal lymphomas are highly curable, a proportion of patients will fail with disseminated

  4. Final waste management programmatic environmental impact statement for managing treatment, storage, and disposl of radioactive and hazardous waste. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Final Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) examines the potential environmental and cost impacts of strategic management alternatives for managing five types of radioactive and hazardous wastes that have resulted and will continue to result from nuclear defense and research activities at a variety of sites around the United States. The five waste types are low-level mixed waste, low-level waste, transuranic waste, high-level waste, and hazardous waste. The WM PEIS provides information on the impacts of various siting alternatives which the Department of Energy (DOE) will use to decide at which sites to locate additional treatment, storage, and disposal capacity for each waste type.Volume II is an integral part of the Office of Environmental Management''s (EM''s) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS), which portrays the impacts of EM''s waste management activities at each of the 17 major DOE sites evaluated in the WM PEIS

  5. Combination vinblastine, prednisolone and toceranib phosphate for treatment of grade II and III mast cell tumours in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jaime A; Thomson, Maurine; O'Connell, Kathleen; Wyatt, Ken

    2018-05-24

    This retrospective study evaluates the progression-free interval and survival outcomes of 40 canine (Canis familiaris) patients with Patnaik grade II and III mast cell tumours treated with combination vinblastine, prednisolone and toceranib phosphate from 2011 to 2015. Patients were subdivided into three groups; patients who received neoadjuvant therapy for poorly operable lesions, patients who received adjuvant therapy following surgical resection and patients being palliated for gross metastatic disease. Median survival time (MST) for the neoadjuvant group was not reached. Median survival time for the remaining groups was 893 days and 218 days, respectively. This combination demonstrated response in 90% (26/29) patients with measurable disease. The predominant side effects related to this chemotherapy combination were gastrointestinal in origin. Further prospective studies are required to further validate the efficacy of this treatment protocol. © 2018 The Authors Veterinary Medicine and Science Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. MO-D-BRF-01: Pediatric Treatment Planning II: The PENTEC Report On Normal Tissue Complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constine, L; Hodgson, D; Bentzen, S

    2014-01-01

    With advances in multimodality therapy, childhood cancer cure rates approach 80%. However, both radiotherapy and chemotherapy may cause debilitating or even fatal ‘late effects’ that are critical to understand, mitigate, or prevent. QUANTEC identified the uncertainties relating to side-effects of adult treatments, but this is more complicated for children in whom a mosaic of tissues develops at different rates and temporal sequences. Childhood cancer survivors have long life expectancy and may develop treatmentinduced secondary cancers and severe organ/tissue injury decades after treatment. Collaborative long-term observational studies and clinical research programs for survivors of pediatric and adolescent cancer provide some dose-response data for follow-up periods exceeding 40 years. Data analysis is challenging due to the influence of both therapeutic and developmental variables. PENTEC is a group of radiation oncologists, pediatric oncologists, subsepcialty physicians, medical physicists, biomathematic modelers/statisticians, and epidemiologists charged with conducting a critical synthesis of existing literature aiming to: critically analyze radiation dose-volume effects on normal tissue tolerances as a function of age/development in pediatric cancer patients in order to inform treatment planning and improve outcomes for survivors; describe relevant physics issues specific to pediatric radiotherapy; propose dose-volumeoutcome reporting standards to improve the knowledge base to inform future treatment guidelines. PENTEC has developed guidelines for systematic literature reviews, data extraction tolls and data analysis. This education session will discuss:1. Special considerations for normal tissue radiation response of children/adolescents, e.g. the interplay between development and radiotherapy effects.2. Epidemiology of organ/tissue injuries and secondary cancers.3. Exploration of dose-response differences between children and adults4. Methodology for

  7. MO-D-BRF-01: Pediatric Treatment Planning II: The PENTEC Report On Normal Tissue Complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constine, L; Hodgson, D; Bentzen, S [University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2014-06-15

    With advances in multimodality therapy, childhood cancer cure rates approach 80%. However, both radiotherapy and chemotherapy may cause debilitating or even fatal ‘late effects’ that are critical to understand, mitigate, or prevent. QUANTEC identified the uncertainties relating to side-effects of adult treatments, but this is more complicated for children in whom a mosaic of tissues develops at different rates and temporal sequences. Childhood cancer survivors have long life expectancy and may develop treatmentinduced secondary cancers and severe organ/tissue injury decades after treatment. Collaborative long-term observational studies and clinical research programs for survivors of pediatric and adolescent cancer provide some dose-response data for follow-up periods exceeding 40 years. Data analysis is challenging due to the influence of both therapeutic and developmental variables. PENTEC is a group of radiation oncologists, pediatric oncologists, subsepcialty physicians, medical physicists, biomathematic modelers/statisticians, and epidemiologists charged with conducting a critical synthesis of existing literature aiming to: critically analyze radiation dose-volume effects on normal tissue tolerances as a function of age/development in pediatric cancer patients in order to inform treatment planning and improve outcomes for survivors; describe relevant physics issues specific to pediatric radiotherapy; propose dose-volumeoutcome reporting standards to improve the knowledge base to inform future treatment guidelines. PENTEC has developed guidelines for systematic literature reviews, data extraction tolls and data analysis. This education session will discuss:1. Special considerations for normal tissue radiation response of children/adolescents, e.g. the interplay between development and radiotherapy effects.2. Epidemiology of organ/tissue injuries and secondary cancers.3. Exploration of dose-response differences between children and adults4. Methodology for

  8. Two-phase treatment of class II malocclusion in young growing patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U S Krishna Nayak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of functional jaw orthopedics, at the correct time during growth, can ultimately result in malocclusion patients achieving a broad beautiful smile, an excellent functional occlusion, a full face with a beautiful jaw line and lateral profile. Following is a case report of a young growing individual with mandibular retrognathia. Treatment was planned in two stages with the use of twin block during the first phase for correction of skeletal malocclusion and forward positioning of the mandible, followed by the second phase of fixed pre-adjusted edgewise orthodontic appliance for camouflaging the remaining skeletal discrepancy and achieving a stable harmonious occlusion.

  9. Isolation of an indigenous Chlorella vulgaris from swine wastewater and characterization of its nutrient removal ability in undiluted sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yangmin; He, Yongjin; Ji, Xiaowei; Li, Shaofeng; Chen, Ling; Zhou, Youcai; Wang, Mingzi; Chen, Bilian

    2017-11-01

    Bio-treatment of wastewater mediated by microalgae is considered as a promising solution. This work aimed to isolate an indigenous microalgal strain (named MBFJNU-1) from swine wastewater effluent and identify as Chlorella vulgaris. After 12days, the removal efficiencies of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in undiluted swine slurry were 90.51% and 91.54%, respectively. Stress tolerance in response to wastewater was verified by cultivating in artificial wastewater containing different levels of chemical oxygen demand (COD), TN and TP. MBFJNU-1 could grow well in undiluted swine slurry and artificial wastewater containing 30,000mg/L COD or 2000mg/L TN. Furthermore, global nuclear DNA methylation (5-mC) of MBFJNU-1 was employed to explore the possible mechanism in response to wastewater stress. The results showed that the level of 5-mC was inversely proportional to the growth of MBFJNU-1 in different diluted swine slurry, helping to understand 5-mC variation in response to stress environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of water repellent treatments applied to stones used in andalusian cathedrals. II. Salt crystallization test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villegas Sánchez, R.

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available In a previous paper we have studied the changes that have ocurred in the properties related to water access and movement in the stone after the application of water repellent treatments. In this work we compare the weathering resistance of treated and untreated samples by means of sodium sulphate crystallization test. After finishing the test (75 cycles properties related to water have been measured again to know if the treatments have undergone any kind of deterioration and lose their water repellent characteristics.

    En un artículo anterior se han evaluado los cambios producidos en las propiedades relacionadas con el acceso y movimiento de agua en la piedra como consecuencia de la aplicación de tratamientos de hidrofugación. En este trabajo se compara la resistencia a la alteración producida por sales de las probetas tratadas y sin tratar, sometiéndolas al ensayo de cristalización de sulfato sódico. Tras finalizar el ensayo (75 ciclos se han medido nuevamente las propiedades relacionadas con el agua, con objeto de comprobar si los tratamientos han sufrido alguna alteración y si mantienen sus características hidrófugas.

  11. Classical Swine Fever—An Updated Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, Sandra; Staubach, Christoph; Henke, Julia; Carlson, Jolene; Beer, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) remains one of the most important transboundary viral diseases of swine worldwide. The causative agent is CSF virus, a small, enveloped RNA virus of the genus Pestivirus. Based on partial sequences, three genotypes can be distinguished that do not, however, directly correlate with virulence. Depending on both virus and host factors, a wide range of clinical syndromes can be observed and thus, laboratory confirmation is mandatory. To this means, both direct and indirect methods are utilized with an increasing degree of commercialization. Both infections in domestic pigs and wild boar are of great relevance; and wild boars are a reservoir host transmitting the virus sporadically also to pig farms. Control strategies for epidemic outbreaks in free countries are mainly based on classical intervention measures; i.e., quarantine and strict culling of affected herds. In these countries, vaccination is only an emergency option. However, live vaccines are used for controlling the disease in endemically infected regions in Asia, Eastern Europe, the Americas, and some African countries. Here, we will provide a concise, updated review on virus properties, clinical signs and pathology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and immune responses, diagnosis and vaccination possibilities. PMID:28430168

  12. Classical Swine Fever-An Updated Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, Sandra; Staubach, Christoph; Henke, Julia; Carlson, Jolene; Beer, Martin

    2017-04-21

    Classical swine fever (CSF) remains one of the most important transboundary viral diseases of swine worldwide. The causative agent is CSF virus, a small, enveloped RNA virus of the genus Pestivirus. Based on partial sequences, three genotypes can be distinguished that do not, however, directly correlate with virulence. Depending on both virus and host factors, a wide range of clinical syndromes can be observed and thus, laboratory confirmation is mandatory. To this means, both direct and indirect methods are utilized with an increasing degree of commercialization. Both infections in domestic pigs and wild boar are of great relevance; and wild boars are a reservoir host transmitting the virus sporadically also to pig farms. Control strategies for epidemic outbreaks in free countries are mainly based on classical intervention measures; i.e., quarantine and strict culling of affected herds. In these countries, vaccination is only an emergency option. However, live vaccines are used for controlling the disease in endemically infected regions in Asia, Eastern Europe, the Americas, and some African countries. Here, we will provide a concise, updated review on virus properties, clinical signs and pathology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and immune responses, diagnosis and vaccination possibilities.

  13. Analysis of DNA methylation in various swine tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Yang

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is known to play an important role in regulating gene expression during biological development and tissue differentiation in eukaryotes. In this study, we used the fluorescence-labeled methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (F-MSAP method to assess the extent and pattern of cytosine methylation in muscle, heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney and stomach from the swine strain Laiwu, and we also examined specific methylation patterns in the seven tissues. In total, 96,371 fragments, each representing a recognition site cleaved by either or both EcoRI + HpaII and EcoRI + MspI, the HpaII and MspI are isoschizomeric enzymes, were amplified using 16 pairs of selective primers. A total of 50,094 sites were found to be methylated at cytosines in seven tissues. The incidence of DNA methylation was approximately 53.99% in muscle, 51.24% in the heart, 50.18% in the liver, 53.31% in the spleen, 51.97% in the lung, 51.15% in the kidney and 53.39% in the stomach, as revealed by the incidence of differential digestion. Additionally, differences in DNA methylation levels imply that such variations may be related to specific gene expression during tissue differentiation, growth and development. Three types of bands were generated in the F-MSAP profile, the total numbers of these three types of bands in the seven tissues were 46,277, 24,801 and 25,293, respectively.In addition, different methylation patterns were observed in seven tissues from pig, and almost all of the methylation patterns detected by F-MSAP could be confirmed by Southern analysis using the isolated amplified fragments as probes. The results clearly demonstrated that the F-MSAP technique can be adapted for use in large-scale DNA methylation detection in the pig genome.

  14. A Phase I/II Protocol Using 252Cf for the Treatment of Cervical Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anita Mahajan; Mark J. Rivard; Evelyn R. Nunez; David E. Wazer

    2000-01-01

    For this clinical study, external photon beam irradiation will be given in a standard fashion with intravenous cisplatinum (CDDP) every week as a radiosensitizing agent. We will incorporate 252 Cf as the brachytherapy source replacing 192 Ir, theoretically improving patient outcomes with its lack of cell cycle and oxygen dependence, and a therapeutic ratio possibly greater than unity. Local tumor control and control of systemic disease are potentially feasible using 252 Cf to initially debulk and destroy local bulky tumor with CDDP and X rays to enhance treatment efficacy and treat minimal microscopic and distant micrometastases. The initial 22 Cf dose will be 1 Gy per weekly fraction with 0.25-Gy increments toward a 2.5-Gy limit. Patients will be stratified according to their stage, toxicities and outcomes will be monitored closely, and the study will be halted if undo morbidities are noted

  15. Patient-reported outcomes in post-traumatic stress disorder Part II: Focus on pharmacological treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be associated with long-lasting psychological suffering, distressing psychosocial disability, markedly reduced health-related quality of life, and increased morbidity and mortality in a subgroup of individuals in the aftermath of serious traumatic events. Both etiopathogenesis and treatment modalities of PTSD are best conceptualized within a biopsychosotial model. Pharmacotherapy may lay claim to a major role in the multimodal treatment approaches. Here we outline two different pharmacotherapeutic trends that aim to modify the encoding, consolidation, and rehearsal of traumatic memory in order to reduce the risk of PTSD immediately after trauma exposure on the one hand, and that endeavor to treat the clinical state of PTSD on the other. The theoretical rationales of both pharmacological strategies are the complex neurobiological underpinnings that characterize traumatic memory organization and clinical PTSD. Meanwhile, promising data from randomized controlled trials have been obtained for both approaches. Empirical evidence may inform clinicians in their clinical efforts for this special group of patients. The efficacy of several classes of drugs that have been investigated within a context of research should be evaluated critically and still have to stand the test of effectiveness in daily clinical practice. From a patient perspective, empirical results may serve as a psychoeducative guideline to what pharmacotherapeutic approaches may realistically achieve, what their risks and benefits are, and what their limits are in contributing to reducing the often major chronic suffering caused by serious traumatic events. Ethical issues have to be considered, particularly in the context of pharmacological strategies projected to prevent PTSD in the aftermath of traumatic exposure. PMID:25152660

  16. An improved fast and elitist multi-objective genetic algorithm-ANSGA-II for multi-objective optimization of inverse radiotherapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Ruifen; Li Guoli; Song Gang; Zhao Pan; Lin Hui; Wu Aidong; Huang Chenyu; Wu Yican

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To provide a fast and effective multi-objective optimization algorithm for inverse radiotherapy treatment planning system. Methods: Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-NSGA-II is a representative of multi-objective evolutionary optimization algorithms and excels the others. The paper produces ANSGA-II that makes use of advantage of NSGA-II, and uses adaptive crossover and mutation to improve its flexibility; according the character of inverse radiotherapy treatment planning, the paper uses the pre-known knowledge to generate individuals of every generation in the course of optimization, which enhances the convergent speed and improves efficiency. Results: The example of optimizing average dose of a sheet of CT, including PTV, OAR, NT, proves the algorithm could find satisfied solutions in several minutes. Conclusions: The algorithm could provide clinic inverse radiotherapy treatment planning system with selection of optimization algorithms. (authors)

  17. Evaluating the Measurement Properties of the Self-Assessment of Treatment Version II, Follow-Up Version, in Patients with Painful Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floortje van Nooten

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Self-Assessment of Treatment version II (SAT II measures treatment-related improvements in pain and impacts and impressions of treatment in neuropathic pain patients. The measure has baseline and follow-up versions. This study assesses the measurement properties of the SAT II. Methods. Data from 369 painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (PDPN patients from a phase III trial assessing capsaicin 8% patch (Qutenza® efficacy and safety were used in these analyses. Reliability, convergent validity, known-groups validity, and responsiveness (using the Brief Pain Inventory-Diabetic Neuropathy [BPI-DN] and Patient Global Impression of Change [PGIC] analyses were conducted, and minimally important differences (MID were estimated. Results. Exploratory factor analysis supported a one-factor solution for the six impact items. The SAT II has good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.96 and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients: 0.62–0.88. Assessment of convergent validity showed moderate to strong correlations with change in other study endpoints. Scores varied significantly by level of pain intensity and sleep interference (p<0.05 defined by the BPI-DN. Responsiveness was shown based on the PGIC. MID estimates ranged from 1.2 to 2.4 (pain improvement and 1.0 to 2.0 (impact scores. Conclusions. The SAT II is a reliable and valid measure for assessing treatment improvement in PDPN patients.

  18. Assessment of the changes in quality of life of patients with class II and III deformities during and after orthodontic-surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baherimoghaddam, T; Tabrizi, R; Naseri, N; Pouzesh, A; Oshagh, M; Torkan, S

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to assess and compare the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of patients with class II and III deformities during and after orthodontic-surgical treatment. Thirty class III and 28 class II patients were evaluated at baseline (T0), just prior to surgery (T1), at 6 months after surgery (T2), and at 12 months after debonding (T3). OHRQoL was assessed using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). Friedman two-way analysis of variance and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test were performed to compare the relative changes in OHRQoL during treatment. Significant changes in the overall OHIP-14 scores were observed during and after orthodontic-surgical treatment in both groups. During the pre-surgical stage, psychological discomfort and psychological disability decreased in class III patients, and class II patients experienced a significant deterioration in psychological discomfort during the same period. Six months after surgery, patients in both groups showed improvements in psychological discomfort, social disability, and handicap. Physical disability and functional limitation showed further improvement at 12 months after debonding in class II patients. This study reaffirms that orthodontic-surgical treatment has a significant effect on the OHRQoL of class III and class II patients. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ionic membranes obtained by radiation - induced graft copolymerization, II-characterization and waste treatment. Vol. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, A M.I.; Nowier, H G; Aly, H F [National Center for Radiation and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, (Egypt); Abd El-Rehim, H A; Hegazy, E A [Hot Laboratories Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Ionic membranes were prepared by radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid onto low density polyethylene films. To elucidate the possibility of practical use, a study was made for the characterization of the grafted and chemically treated mechanisms. The selectivity of such prepared membranes towards the chelation or absorption of different alkali metals was investigated, to find that the higher affinity was observed for K{sup +}, Na{sup +} and Li{sup +} ions compared to other alkali metals used. The metal uptake percent was determined using different techniques; flame photometer, and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The uptake of metal from its feed solution by the the grafted membrane increased as the degree of grating increased, i.e. it is directly proportional to the functional carboxylic acid groups in the graft copolymer. As a consequence, the electrical conductivity of metal feed solution decreased during such process of metal chelation by membrane. The higher the grafting degree of membrane, the lower the electrical conductivity of metal feed solutions observed. the changes in thermal properties of the membranes prepared were investigated and characterized using differential scanning calorimetry, (DSC), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The thermal stability of these membranes increased with degree of grafting due to the formation of cross linked network structure via hydrogen bonding. furthermore, such stability is enhanced for the alkali-treated membranes even at high elevated temperatures. The membranes prepared showed a great promise for possible use in some practical applications such as metal waste treatment. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Ionic membranes obtained by radiation - induced graft copolymerization, II-characterization and waste treatment. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.M.I.; Nowier, H.G.; Aly, H.F.; Abd El-Rehim, H.A.; Hegazy, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    Ionic membranes were prepared by radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid onto low density polyethylene films. To elucidate the possibility of practical use, a study was made for the characterization of the grafted and chemically treated mechanisms. The selectivity of such prepared membranes towards the chelation or absorption of different alkali metals was investigated, to find that the higher affinity was observed for K + , Na + and Li + ions compared to other alkali metals used. The metal uptake percent was determined using different techniques; flame photometer, and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The uptake of metal from its feed solution by the the grafted membrane increased as the degree of grating increased, i.e. it is directly proportional to the functional carboxylic acid groups in the graft copolymer. As a consequence, the electrical conductivity of metal feed solution decreased during such process of metal chelation by membrane. The higher the grafting degree of membrane, the lower the electrical conductivity of metal feed solutions observed. the changes in thermal properties of the membranes prepared were investigated and characterized using differential scanning calorimetry, (DSC), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The thermal stability of these membranes increased with degree of grafting due to the formation of cross linked network structure via hydrogen bonding. furthermore, such stability is enhanced for the alkali-treated membranes even at high elevated temperatures. The membranes prepared showed a great promise for possible use in some practical applications such as metal waste treatment. 3 figs., 5 tabs

  1. Treatment of nonneovascular idiopathic macular telangiectasia type 2 with intravitreal ranibizumab: results of a phase II clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, Brian C; Koo, Euna; Cukras, Catherine; Meyerle, Catherine B; Chew, Emily Y; Wong, Wai T

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the safety and preliminary efficacy of intravitreal ranibizumab for nonneovascular idiopathic macular telangiectasia Type 2. Single-center, open-label Phase II clinical trial enrolling five participants with bilateral nonneovascular idiopathic macular telangiectasia Type 2. Intravitreal ranibizumab (0.5 mg) was administered every 4 weeks in the study eye for 12 months with the contralateral eye observed. Outcome measures included changes in best-corrected visual acuity, area of late-phase leakage on fluorescein angiography, and retinal thickness on optical coherence tomography. The study treatment was well tolerated and associated with few adverse events. Change in best-corrected visual acuity at 12 months was not significantly different between treated study eyes (0.0 ± 7.5 letters) and control fellow eyes (+2.2 ± 1.9 letters). However, decreases in the area of late-phase fluorescein angiography leakage (-33 ± 20% for study eyes, +1 ± 8% for fellow eyes) and in optical coherence tomography central subfield retinal thickness (-11.7 ± 7.0% for study eyes and -2.9 ± 3.5% for fellow eyes) were greater in study eyes compared with fellow eyes. Despite significant anatomical responses to treatment, functional improvement in visual acuity was not detected. Intravitreal ranibizumab administered monthly over a time course of 12 months is unlikely to provide a general and significant benefit to patients with nonneovascular idiopathic macular telangiectasia Type 2.

  2. Treatment of Non-neovascular Idiopathic Macular Telangiectasia Type 2 with Intravitreal Ranibizumab: Results of a Phase II Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, Brian C.; Koo, Euna; Cukras, Catherine; Meyerle, Catherine B.; Chew, Emily Y.; Wong, Wai T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the safety and preliminary efficacy of intravitreal ranibizumab for non-neovascular idiopathic macular telangiectasia, type 2 (IMT2). Methods Single-center, open-label phase II clinical trial enrolling 5 participants with bilateral non-neovascular IMT2. Intravitreal ranibizumab (0.5mg) was administered every 4 weeks in the study eye for 12 months with the contralateral eye observed. Outcome measures included changes in: best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), area of late-phase leakage on fluorescein angiography (FA), and retinal thickness on optical coherence tomography (OCT). Results The study treatment was well-tolerated and associated with few adverse events. Change in BCVA at 12 months was not significantly different between treated study eyes (0.0±7.5 letters) and control fellow eyes (+2.2±1.9 letters). However, decreases in the area of late-phase FA leakage (−33±20% for study eyes, +1±8% for fellow eyes) and in OCT central subfield retinal thickness (−11.7±7.0% for study eyes and −2.9±3.5% for fellow eyes) were greater in study eyes compared to fellow eyes. Conclusions Despite significant anatomical responses to treatment, functional improvement in visual acuity was not detected. Intravitreal ranibizumab administered monthly over a time course of 12 months is unlikely to provide a general and significant benefit to patients with non-neovascular IMT2. PMID:22266930

  3. Efficacy and safety of bevacizumab for the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review of phase II trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Fang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a common cancer associated with a poor prognosis. Bevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds vascular endothelial growth factor, a mediator of tumor angiogenesis. Bevacizumab is currently under investigation as treatment for HCC. We performed a systematic review of the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab for the treatment of advanced HCC. METHODS: PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar were searched using the terms "bevacizumab AND hepatocellular carcinoma AND (advanced OR unresectable". Phase II trials of bevacizumab for the treatment of advanced HCC were included. Outcomes of interest included progression-free and overall survival (PFS and OS, tumor response, and toxicities. RESULTS: A total of 26 records were identified. Of these, 18 were excluded. Hence, eight trials involving 300 patients were included. Bevacizumab was given as monotherapy (n = 1 trial or in combination with erlotinib (n = 4 trials, capecitabine (n = 1 trial, capecitabine+oxaliplatin (n = 1 trial, or gemcitabine+oxaliplatin (n = 1 trial. Most trials (five of eight reported median PFS and OS between 5.3 months and 9.0 months and 5.9 and 13.7 months, respectively. The disease control rate was consistent in five of eight trials, ranging from 51.1% to 76.9%. The response and partial response rates ranged from 0 to 23.7%, but were around 20% in four trials. Only one patient had a complete response. Frequently reported Grade 3/4 toxicities were increased aspartate transaminase/alanine transaminase (13%, fatigue (12%, hypertension (10%, diarrhea (8%, and neutropenia (5%. Thirty patients experienced gastrointestinal bleeding (grade 1/2 = 18, grade 3/4 = 12, typically due to esophageal varices. CONCLUSIONS: Bevacizumab shows promise as an effective and tolerable treatment for advanced HCC. The reported efficacy of bevacizumab appears to compare favorably with that of sorafenib, the only currently

  4. Tratamento de águas residuárias de suinocultura em reator UASB e filtro anaeróbio em série seguidos de filtro biológico percolador Treatment of swine wastewater in UASB reactor and anaerobic filter in series followed of trickling filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Maria Duda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de um reator anaeróbio de fluxo ascendente com manta de lodo (UASB seguido de um filtro anaeróbio, instalados em série, com volume total de 300 L e 190 L, respectivamente, no tratamento de águas residuárias de suinocultura. As cargas orgânicas volumétricas aplicadas no reator UASB foram de 12,4;15,5; 23,2 e 26,3 g DQOtotal (L d-1. Para o pós-tratamento do efluente do sistema anaeróbio em dois estágios utilizou-se um filtro biológico percolador com volume total de 250 L. O meio suporte utilizado nos filtros anaeróbio e biológico percolador foi composto por anéis de bambu. No sistema de tratamento anaeróbio e de pós-tratamento foram observadas eficiências médias de remoção de demanda química de oxigênio total (DQOtotal, sólidos suspensos totais (SST, nitrogênio total (NT, fósforo total (P-total, Cu e Zn de até 98, 99, 78, 84, 99 e 98%, respectivamente.The performance of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB followed by the anaerobic filter, installed in series, was evaluated for the treatment of swine wastewater. The total volume of UASB and anaerobic filter were of 300 L and 190 L, respectively. The organic load rate applied on the reactor UASB were of 12.4, 15.5, 23.2 and 26.3 g total COD (L d-1. For the post-treatment of effluent the anaerobic system was used a trickling filter with total volume of 250 L. The supports used in the anaerobic filter and trickling filter were composed by bamboo rings. The efficiencies of removal the chemical oxygen demand, total solids suspended, nitrogen, total phosphorus, Cu and Zn were of up to 98, 99, 78, 84, 99 and 98%, respectively, for the anaerobic and aerobic treatment system.

  5. The Romanian Swine Market in the EU Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius STANCIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pork is a traditional food product for Romania, representing more than half of the annual meat consumption per capita. Swine farming is an activity mainly at full time households, ensuring subsistence, representing a source for commercial exchanges, ensuring workforce stability in the rural areas. The Romanian pork production has presented a slightly fluctuating evolution in recent years. The paper proposes a review of the domestic production, consumption, origin and price of swine sold in the Romanian market. The comunity competitive conditions, the export limitation and food crisis (horse meat scandal, spoiled meat scandal, swine fever or swine flu affected domestic production and exports. Data used in this paper represent statistical information provided by specialized national, European or global institutions, information presented in the media, journals, food industry treatises/dissertations or official information submitted by the Ministry of Agriculture.

  6. 78 FR 27937 - Environmental Impact Statement; Feral Swine Damage Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ....m., Monday through Friday, except holidays. To be sure someone is there to help you, please call..., U.S. Virgin Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands, and American Samoa. Feral swine can inflict...

  7. Nutrient removal from swine lagoon effluent by duckweed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, B.A.; Cheng, J.; Classen, J.; Stomp, A.M.

    2000-04-01

    Three duckweed geographic isolates were grown on varying concentrations of swine lagoon effluent in a greenhouse to determine their ability to remove nutrients from the effluent. Duckweed biomass was harvested every other day over a 12-day period. Duckweed biomass production, nutrient loss from the swine lagoon effluent, and nutrient content of duckweed biomass were used to identify effluent concentrations/geographic isolate combinations that are effective in terms of nutrient utilization from swine lagoon effluent and production of healthy duckweed biomass. When Lemna minor geographic isolate 8627 was grown on 50% swine lagoon effluent, respective losses of TKN, NH{sub 3}-N, TP, OPO{sub 4}-P, TOC, K, Cu, and Zn were 83, 100, 49, 31, 68, 21, 28 and 67%.

  8. Controlled Cortical Impact in Swine: Pathophysiology and Biomechanics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manley, Geoffrey T; Rosenthal, Guy; Lam, Maggie; Morabito, Diane; Yan, Donghong; Derugin, Nikita; Bollen, Andrew; Knudson, M. M; Panter, S. S

    2005-01-01

    ...), and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) were collected for 10 hours after injury. Following injury, ICP and HR increased above baseline values in all swine with a more pronounced elevation in animals impacted to a depth of depression of 12 mm...

  9. Kinetics of Methane Production from Swine Manure and Buffalo Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chen; Cao, Weixing; Liu, Ronghou

    2015-10-01

    The degradation kinetics of swine and buffalo manure for methane production was investigated. Six kinetic models were employed to describe the corresponding experimental data. These models were evaluated by two statistical measurements, which were root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) and Akaike's information criterion (AIC). The results showed that the logistic and Fitzhugh models could predict the experimental data very well for the digestion of swine and buffalo manure, respectively. The predicted methane yield potential for swine and buffalo manure was 487.9 and 340.4 mL CH4/g volatile solid (VS), respectively, which was close to experimental values, when the digestion temperature was 36 ± 1 °C in the biochemical methane potential assays. Besides, the rate constant revealed that swine manure had a much faster methane production rate than buffalo manure.

  10. A universal treatment of X-ray and neutron diffraction in crystals. II. Extinction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Huachen

    1997-01-01

    For pt.I see ibid., p.484-92, 1997. Based on the formalism for calculating the integrated reflection power ratio of a plane mosaic crystal by using three dimensionless parameters exact and universal expressions for the secondary-extinction factors in X-ray and neutron crystallography are developed that can be applied to reflections of all possible values of extinction factor, reflection symmetry and the absorption-to-scattering cross-section ratio of the crystal. The representation by three parameters gives a clear and definite physical meaning to the concept of extinction. The theory has been extended to treat the extinction of a spherical crystal, and the striking difference in the evaluated secondary-extinction factor between the equivalent single-plate and the exact method in the spherical-crystal treatment under θ B = 0 is explained. As a demonstration of the feasibility of using these expressions, the diffraction data for LiF and MgO crystal plates measured by Lawrence [Acta Cryst. (1972), A28, 400-404; (1973), A29, 208-210] are reanalyzed by this method. All the reflections including the strongest ones (Y o down to 0.026) are reanalyzed simultaneously with single-valued particle size and mosaic spread as fitting parameters and allowing for primary extinction if necessary. The results (R factor = 0.014 and 0.053 for LiF and MgO, respectively) are unprecedentedly good. Furthermore, in disagreement with Lawrence, the extinction of LiF is found to be of secondary type and in the case of MgO both primary and secondary extinction should be considered. The analysis also shows that the formula Y ∝ Y p Y s is valid only for very weak extinctions and that the Hamilton-Darwin equations are valid in a range much broader than previously anticipated. (orig.)

  11. Clinical Holistic Medicine: The Case Story of Anna. II. Patient Diary as a Tool in Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sören Ventegodt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of extreme childhood sexual and violent abuse, a 22-year-old young woman, Anna, healed during holistic existential therapy. New and highly confrontational therapeutic tools were developed and used to help this patient (like acceptance through touch and acupressure through the vagina. Her vulva and introitus were scarred from repeated brutal rape, as was the interior of her mouth. During therapy, these scars were gently contacted and the negative emotional contents released. The healing was in accordance with the advanced holistic medical toolbox that uses (1 love, (2 trust, (3 holding, and (4 helping the patient to process and integrate old traumas.The case story clearly revealed the philosophical adjustments that Anna made during treatment in response to the severe childhood abuse. These adjustments are demonstrated by her diary, where sentences contain both the feelings and thoughts of the painful present (the gestalt at the time of the abuse, thus containing the essence of the traumas, making the repression of the painful emotions possible through the change in the patient’s philosophical perspective. Anna's case gives a unique insight into the process of traumatization (pathogenesis and the process of healing (salutogenesis. At the end of the healing, Anna reconnected her existence to the outer world in a deep existential, suicidal crisis and faced her choice of life or death. She decided to live and, in this process, assumed existential responsibility, which made her able to step out of her mental disease. The advanced holistic toolbox seems to help patients heal even from the worst childhood abuse. In spite of the depth of the existential crisis, holistic existential therapy seems to support existential responsibility well and thus safe for the patients.

  12. PRODUCTION, MANAGEMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENT SYMPOSIUM: Measurement and mitigation of reactive nitrogen species from swine and poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, W; Capelari, M

    2017-05-01

    Reactive nitrogen (Nr) species include oxides of nitrogen [N; nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide and nitrous oxide (NO)], anions (nitrate and nitrite), and amine derivatives [ammonia (NH), ammonium salts and urea]. Of the different Nr species, air emissions from swine and poultry facilities are predominantly NH followed by NO. Excreta emissions are NH, ammonium ions, and urea with trace amounts of nitrate and nitrite. Farm systems and practices that handle manure as a wet product without pH modification favor almost exclusive NH production. Systems and practices associated with dry manure handling and bedded systems emit more NH than NO. Results from a turkey grow-out study estimated that just under 1% of consumed N was emitted as NO from housing, compared with just under 11% emitted as NH. Despite generally less NO emissions from animal housing compared with crop field emissions, NO emissions from housing are often greater than estimated. Lagoon systems emit more NO than either slurry or deep pit swine systems. Deep pit swine buildings emit only one-third the NO that is emitted from deep bedded swine systems. Laying hen, broiler chicken, and turkey buildings emit over 4 times as much NO as swine housing, on a weight-adjusted basis. Critical control points for mitigation center on: 1) reducing the amount of N excreted and, therefore, excreted N available for loss to air or water during housing, manure storage, or following land application of manures; 2) capturing excreted N to prevent release of N-containing compounds to air, water, or soil resources; or 3) conversion or treatment of N-containing compounds to non-reactive N gas.

  13. Enhancement of radiation response of SqII mouse tumors by combined treatment with misonidazole, vidarabine, and ACNU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, Hideo; Akita, Yuzo; Kosaka, Noboru; Majima, Hideyuki; Suzuki, Norio.

    1987-01-01

    It is well known that misonidazole (Miso.) is a hypoxic cell sensitizer, vidarabine (Ara-A) is a PLD repair inhibitor, and ACNU is an anticancer drug derivative of nitrosourea. The effect of combined use of these drugs and radiation was studied. SqII tumor, an anaplastic squamous cell carcinoma was transplanted to the right thighs of WHT male mice. At 9 days after transplantation, the tumors of about 600 mm 3 were treated by several protocols. After the treatment, tumor growth curves were drawn and the time required to reach twice the initial volume of the treatment was determined. The results were as follows. The combination of 3 agents, Miso., Ara-A, and radiation was the most effective, followed by that of Miso., ACNU, and radiation, which was better than another combination of Miso. and radiation. The effect of Ara-A, ACNU and radiation was inferior to Miso. and radiation. The effect of Miso., Ara-A and ACNU was further inferior to radiation alone. The combination of 4 agents, Miso., Ara-A, ACNU and radiation was effective in the same degree or slightly inferior to Miso., Ara-A and radiation. On the other hand, effect of combined treatment with drugs and radiation without Miso. was not so remarkable on this mouse tumor, in other words, Miso. played the most important role among these 3 drugs. This study showed that the combination of Miso., Ara-A and radiation was the most effective among these tested and may be useful for the clinical control of cancer. Furthermore, this combination did not include anticancer drugs which cause bone marrow suppression and intestinal disorders. (author)

  14. Enhancement of radiation response of SqII mouse tumors by combined treatment with misonidazole, vidarabine, and ACNU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asakura, Hideo; Akita, Yuzo; Kosaka, Noboru; Majima, Hideyuki; Suzuki, Norio

    1987-01-01

    It is well known that misonidazole (Miso.) is a hypoxic cell sensitizer, vidarabine (Ara-A) is a PLD repair inhibitor, and ACNU is an anticancer drug derivative of nitrosourea. The effect of combined use of these drugs and radiation was studied. SqII tumor, an anaplastic squamous cell carcinoma was transplanted to the right thighs of WHT male mice. At 9 days after transplantation, the tumors of about 600 mm/sup 3/ were treated by several protocols. After the treatment, tumor growth curves were drawn and the time required to reach twice the initial volume of the treatment was determined. The results were as follows. The combination of 3 agents, Miso., Ara-A, and radiation was the most effective, followed by that of Miso., ACNU, and radiation, which was better than another combination of Miso. and radiation. The effect of Ara-A, ACNU and radiation was inferior to Miso. and radiation. The effect of Miso., Ara-A and ACNU was further inferior to radiation alone. The combination of 4 agents, Miso., Ara-A, ACNU and radiation was effective in the same degree or slightly inferior to Miso., Ara-A and radiation. On the other hand, effect of combined treatment with drugs and radiation without Miso. was not so remarkable on this mouse tumor, in other words, Miso. played the most important role among these 3 drugs. This study showed that the combination of Miso., Ara-A and radiation was the most effective among these tested and may be useful for the clinical control of cancer. Furthermore, this combination did not include anticancer drugs which cause bone marrow suppression and intestinal disorders.

  15. Comparison of 2 comprehensive Class II treatment protocols including the bonded Herbst and headgear appliances: a double-blind study of consecutively treated patients at puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; Stahl, Franka

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this clinical trial was to compare the effects of 2 protocols for single-phase comprehensive treatment of Class II Division 1 malocclusion (bonded Herbst followed by fixed appliances [BH + FA] vs headgear followed by fixed appliances and Class II elastics [HG + FA]) at the pubertal growth spurt. Fifty-six Class II patients were enrolled in the trial and allocated by personal choice to 2 practices, where they underwent 1 of 2 treatment protocols (28 patients were treated consecutively with BH + FA, and 28 patients were treated consecutively with HG + FA). All patients started treatment at puberty (cervical stage [CS] 3 or CS 4) and completed treatment after puberty (CS 5 or CS 6). Lateral cephalograms were taken before therapy and 6 months after the end of comprehensive therapy, with an average interval of 28 months. Longitudinal observations of a matched group of 28 subjects with untreated Class II malocclusions were compared with the 2 treated groups. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post-hoc tests was used for statistical comparisons. Discriminant analysis was applied to identify preferential candidates for the BH + FA protocol on the basis of profile changes (advancement of the soft tissues of the chin). The success rate (full occlusal correction of the malocclusion after treatment) was 92.8% in both treatment groups. The BH + FA group showed a significant increase in mandibular protrusion. The increase in effective mandibular length (Co-Gn) was significantly greater in both treatment groups when compared with natural growth changes in the Class II controls. Significantly greater improvement in sagittal maxillomandibular relationships was found in the BH + FA group. Retrusion of maxillary incisors and mesial movement of mandibular molars were significant in the HG + FA group. The BH + FA group showed significantly greater forward movements of soft-tissue B-point and pogonion compared with both the HG + FA and the control groups. Two pretreatment

  16. Pre-treatment processes of Azolla filiculoides to remove Pb(II), Cd(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) from aqueous solution in the batch and fixed-bed reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Morteza; Rakhshaee, Roohan; Ganji, Masuod Taghi

    2005-12-09

    Intact and treated biomass can remove heavy metals from water and wastewater. This study examined the ability of the activated, semi-intact and inactivated Azolla filiculoides (a small water fern) to remove Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Ni(2+) and Zn(2+) from the aqueous solution. The maximum uptake capacities of these metal ions using the activated Azolla filiculoides by NaOH at pH 10.5 +/- 0.2 and then CaCl(2)/MgCl(2)/NaCl with total concentration of 2 M (2:1:1 mole ratio) in the separate batch reactors were obtained about 271, 111, 71 and 60 mg/g (dry Azolla), respectively. The obtained capacities of maximum adsorption for these kinds of the pre-treated Azolla in the fixed-bed reactors (N(o)) were also very close to the values obtained for the batch reactors (Q(max)). On the other hand, it was shown that HCl, CH(3)OH, C(2)H(5)OH, FeCl(2), SrCl(2), BaCl(2) and AlCl(3) in the pre-treatment processes decreased the ability of Azolla to remove the heavy metals in comparison to the semi-intact Azolla, considerably. The kinetic studies showed that the heavy metals uptake by the activated Azolla was done more rapid than those for the semi-intact Azolla.

  17. Treatment of melasma with low fluence, large spot size, 1064-nm Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser for the treatment of melasma in Fitzpatrick skin types II-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alia S; Hussain, Mussarat; Goldberg, David J

    2011-12-01

    Melasma is a common condition affecting over six million American women. Treatment of dermal or combined melasma is difficult and does not respond well to conventional topical therapies. Various light sources have been used recently in the treatment of melasma including fractionated ablative and non-ablative lasers as well as intense pulse light. We report the use of low fluence, large spot size Q-switched, Nd:Yag laser for the treatment of melasma in skin types II-IV.

  18. Interdisciplinary treatment for a compensated Class II partially edentulous malocclusion: Orthodontic creation of a posterior implant site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Grace; Chang, Chris; Roberts, W Eugene

    2018-03-01

    A 36-year-old woman with good periodontal health sought treatment for a compensated Class II partially edentulous malocclusion associated with a steep mandibular plane (SN-MP, 45°), 9 missing teeth, a 3-mm midline discrepancy, and compromised posterior occlusal function. She had multiple carious lesions, a failing fixed prostheses in the mandibular right quadrant replacing the right first molar, and a severely atrophic edentulous ridge in the area around the mandibular left first and second molars. After restoration of the caries, the mandibular left third molar served as anchorage to correct the mandibular arch crowding. The mandibular left second premolar was retracted with a light force of 2 oz (about 28.3 cN) on the buccal and lingual surfaces to create an implant site between the premolars. Modest lateral root resorption was noted on the distal surface of the mandibular left second premolar after about 7 mm of distal translation in 7 months. Six months later, implants were placed in the mandibular left and right quadrants; the spaces were retained with the fixed appliance for 5 months and a removable retainer for 1 month. Poor cooperation resulted in relapse of the mandibular left second premolar back into the implant site, and it was necessary to reopen the space. When the mandibular left fixture was uncovered, a 3-mm deep osseous defect on the distobuccal surface was found; it was an area of relatively immature bundle bone, because the distal aspect of the space was reopened after the relapse. Subsequent bone grafting resulted in good osseous support of the implant-supported prosthesis. The relatively thin band of attached gingiva on the implant at the mandibular right first molar healed with a recessed contour that was susceptible to food impaction. A free gingival graft restored soft tissue form and function. This severe malocclusion with a discrepancy index value of 28 was treated to an excellent outcome in 38 months of interdisciplinary treatment

  19. Phase II trial of neoadjuvant pemetrexed plus cisplatin followed by surgery and radiation in the treatment of pleural mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federico, Rea; Matteo, Ceccarelli; Gbenga, Kazeem; Paolo, Marchi; Francesco, Facciolo; Adolfo, Favaretto; Giuseppe, Marulli; Lorenzo, Spaggiari; Martino, DePas Tommaso; Anna, Ceribelli; Adriano, Paccagnella; Gino, Crivellari; Francesca, Russo

    2013-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an aggressive tumor that has a poor prognosis and is resistant to unimodal approaches. Multimodal treatment has provided encouraging results. Phase II, open-label study of the combination of chemotherapy (pemetrexed 500 mg/m 2 +cisplatin 75 mg/m 2 IV every 21 days × 3 cycles), followed by surgery (en-bloc extrapleural pneumonectomy, 3–8 weeks after chemotherapy) and hemithoracic radiation (total radiation beam 54 Gy, received 4–8 weeks post-surgery). The primary endpoint was event-free survival, defined as the time from enrollment to time of first observation of disease progression, death due to any cause, or early treatment discontinuation. Fifty-four treatment-naïve patients with T1-3 N0-2 malignant pleural mesothelioma were enrolled, 52 (96.3%) completed chemotherapy, 45 (83.3%) underwent surgery, 22 (40.7%) completed the whole treatment including 90-day post-radiation follow-up. The median event-free survival was 6.9 months (95%CI: 5.0-10.5), median overall survival was 15.5 months (95%CI 11.0-NA) while median time-to-tumor response was 4.8 months (95%CI: 2.5-8.0). Eighteen (33.3%) and 13 (24.1%) patients were still event-free after 1 and 2 years, respectively. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events were nausea (63.0%), anemia (51.9%) and hypertension (42.6%). Following two cardiopulmonary radiation-related deaths the protocol was amended (21 [38.9%] patients were already enrolled in the study): the total radiation beam was reduced from 54 Gy to 50.4 Gy and a more accurate selection of patients was recommended. The combination of pemetrexed plus cisplatin followed by surgery and hemithoracic radiation is feasible and has a manageable toxicity profile in carefully selected patients. It may be worthy of further investigation. Clinicaltrial.com registrationID #NCT00087698

  20. Occlusal stability in Class II, Division 1, deep bite cases followed up for many years after orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, E

    1998-12-01

    This case report analyzes long-term occlusal stability that can be achieved in Class II, Division 1, deep bite cases with active treatment finished during the period of maxillomandibular growth. The analysis was designed to identify occlusal features common to two cases at the end of active treatment and to study how the occlusion changed with growth and jaw movement to achieve stability. The following occlusal features were shared by the two cases at the end of active treatment: (1) AB plane and axes of the maxillary and mandibular posterior teeth were perpendicular to functional occlusal plane; (2) the axis of the lower incisor was almost perpendicular to DC-L1i line; (3) the anterior occlusion was overcorrected to or near an edge-to-edge relationship. Items 1 and 2 remained unchanged throughout the follow-up periods, regardless of growth status, and the overjet and overbite increased during maxillomandibular growth after treatment. During the period of mandibular growth alone, after the end of retention, the axes of maxillary incisors tipped labially; as a result, F line became parallel to CDM line by the end of growth. The labial tipping of maxillary incisors brought the lower incisal edge into contact with or extremely near the inflection point (Bp).1 By the end of growth, the tangent of Bp became parallel to or coincident with DC-L1i line and perpendicular to the axis of the lower incisor, and the DC-L1i lines at various times posttreatment were almost parallel to each other in the two cases. Overjet increased as the maxillary incisors tipped labially, providing proper protrusive and retrusive paths for mandibular guidance. The angle between the functional occlusal plane and CDM line stayed almost the same as at the end of active treatment in the two cases, suggesting a possible change in the angle of eminence in harmony with the functional occlusal plane. These factors apparently contributed to the long-term occlusal stability in the two cases.

  1. Doppler-guided hemorrhoidal artery ligation (DG-HAL): a safe treatment of II-III degree hemorrhoids for all patients. Could it be potentially also good prophylaxis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, A; Torino, G

    2010-06-01

    Doppler-guided hemorrhoidal artery ligation (HAL Doppler) is an innovative hemorrhoid treatment mainly utilised for II-III degree where bleeding is a predominant symptom. This procedure aims at dearterialization of the internal hemorrhoidal plexus by ligation of the terminal branches of the superior rectal artery detected using a special proctoscope and ultrasound system; the procedure is performed entirely above the dentate line, so it is genuinely painless. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety and invasivity of HAL Doppler technique to treat II and III degree hemorrhoids. The authors treated 148 patients, from May 2002 to December 2007, principally affected by II-III degree hemorrhoids characterized by bleeding and pain at evacuation. These patients were examined in a retrospective observational study of 128 patients, 86% of the group. Follow-up varied from 5 up to 72 months with an average observation time of 36.5 months. Success was registered in 90% of patients affected by II-III degree hemorrhoids and the absence of major complications (hemorrhage, incontinence, stenosis, perforation, sepsis). The authors suggest the safety, efficacy and low invasity of HAL Doppler for treatment of II-III degree hemorrhoids, which also found in the literature, and highlight its use in treating patients with unhealthy conditions which are a contraindication to the usual surgical treatments. Moreover, they suppose the use of HAL Doppler in low degree hemorrhoids as a therapeutic and also prophylactic rule of advanced degree.

  2. Swine-origin influenza A (H3N2) virus infection in two children--Indiana and Pennsylvania, July-August 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    Influenza A viruses are endemic in many animal species, including humans, swine, and wild birds, and sporadic cases of transmission of influenza A viruses between humans and animals do occur, including human infections with avian-origin influenza A viruses (i.e., H5N1 and H7N7) and swine-origin influenza A viruses (i.e., H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2). Genetic analysis can distinguish animal origin influenza viruses from the seasonal human influenza viruses that circulate widely and cause annual epidemics. This report describes two cases of febrile respiratory illness caused by swine-origin influenza A (H3N2) viruses identified on August 19 and August 26, 2011, and the current investigations. No epidemiologic link between the two cases has been identified, and although investigations are ongoing, no additional confirmed human infections with this virus have been detected. These viruses are similar to eight other swine-origin influenza A (H3N2) viruses identified from previous human infections over the past 2 years, but are unique in that one of the eight gene segments (matrix [M] gene) is from the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus. The acquisition of the M gene in these two swine-origin influenza A (H3N2) viruses indicates that they are "reassortants" because they contain genes of the swine-origin influenza A (H3N2) virus circulating in North American pigs since 1998 and the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus that might have been transmitted to pigs from humans during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. However, reassortments of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus with other swine influenza A viruses have been reported previously in swine. Clinicians who suspect influenza virus infection in humans with recent exposure to swine should obtain a nasopharyngeal swab from the patient for timely diagnosis at a state public health laboratory and consider empiric neuraminidase inhibitor antiviral treatment to quickly limit potential human transmission.

  3. Genetic parameters in a Swine Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Popa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of the variance-covariance components is a very important step in animal breeding because these components are necessary for: estimation of the genetic parameters, prediction of the breeding value and design of animal breeding programs. The estimation of genetic parameters is the first step in the development of a swine breeding program, using artificial insemination. Various procedures exist for estimation of heritability. There are three major procedures used for estimating heritability: analysis of variance (ANOVA, parents-offspring regression and restricted maximum likelihood (REML. By using ANOVA methodology or regression method it is possible to obtain aberrant values of genetic parameters (negative or over unit value of heritability coefficient, for example which can not be interpreting because is out of biological limits.

  4. Effective and Efficient Herbst Appliance Therapy for Skeletal Class II Malocclusion Patient with a Low Degree of Collaboration with the Orthodontic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souki, Bernardo Quiroga; Bastos, Barbra Duque Costa; Araujo, Luana Fialho Ferro; Moyses-Braga, Wagner Fernando; Pantuzo, Mariele Garcia; Cheib, Paula Loureiro

    2015-01-01

    The current concept for effective and efficient treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion prescribes that interceptive approach should be delivered during the pubertal growth stage. However, psychosocial issues and a greater risk of dental trauma are also factors that should be addressed when considering early Class II therapy. This paper reports a case of a patient that sought orthodontic treatment due to aesthetic discomfort with the incisors' protrusion. Two previous treatments failed because patient's collaboration with removable appliances was inadequate. Given his history of no collaboration and because the patient was in the prepubertal stage, it was decided to try a different approach in the third attempt of treatment. Traumatic injury protective devices were used during the prepubertal stage and followed by Herbst appliance and fixed multibrackets therapy during the pubertal stage, resulting in an adequate outcome and long-term stability.

  5. Avaliação in vitro da eficiência de inóculos no tratamento anaeróbio de efluentes líquidos de suinocultura Efficiency of seeding material in anaerobic treatment of swine liquid waste: an in vitro trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Rodrigues

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de inóculos (tratamentos na degradaç